May 1930 –
Volume XVI – Number 5
Masonic Research Society
in the Civil
At the Triennial Convention of the General
held in St. Louis, September, 1868, a banquet was held in the new
Masonic Hall on
Tuesday evening, the 15th with 320 guests present. During the program
there were many loud calls for Albert Pike, who finally arose, amid a
applause, and delivered an impassioned speech about the record of the
the Civil War. His address was doubly significant; first, in view of
the fact that
he had himself been an officer in the Confederate Army, and secondly
that his being
called upon was a gesture of friendship as between the North and the
it is a matter for just pride that our Fraternity was the first in the
heal over the wounds of that internecine strife.
Companions! Have you ever realized until now,
as you do now realize it, the true meaning of that word, Companion? We
think that, while we call a Master Mason Brother, we only call a Royal
Companion, which simply means one associated with us, perhaps for the
day, in the
day's work; from whom we separate at night without a care whether we
shall see him
on the next day or not, or into whatever paths fortune may take us on
the next morning.
Is that the meaning that Masonry attaches to the meaning of the word
If that is the meaning, if that has been the meaning that you and I,
and the rest
of us, have heretofore given to the word Companion, it seems to me that
in this glorious assemblage, the Royal Arch Masons from all the States
of this great Union, must have learned that there is a different
meaning to the
word Companion from that which we have heretofore attached to it.
When she whom we love, when she whom we loved
youth placed her little hand in ours, and at the altar, in the presence
of the minister
of God, pledged her faith to us that she would love, honor and obey us
all our life,
she became our companion through the thorny ways of life. When out in
desert, through which now the steamhorse is carrying the blessings of
to the extreme West, thirty odd years ago, when I clasped hands with a
on that prairie, when my life was in his hand and his life in my hand,
and we were
there together, hand in hand and heart to heart, depending on one
alone in the world, he was my companion, as Masons should be companions
to one another
in the dark days of trouble. Ah! shame upon the Mason, shame upon the
could go away from such an assemblage as this, and carry in his heart
feeling of malice or ill will to any worthy and true Mason in the
world. Shame upon
the man who, after coming here and seeing these intelligent faces,
these faces that
will put to shame the Legislatures of two thirds of the States of the
seeing these faces, that would put to shame two thirds of the
Parliament of England
and of the Congress of the United States; shame upon the man who
here, in this hall, are assembled the representatives of the States of
Union of States, that not long ago were disbanded by the convulsions of
during which the bonds of the Masonic Fraternity were not weakened,
thank God, and
seeing us met here again as Brothers; not coldly welcomed, when we have
hands with you here, on your own soil, west of the Mississippi; not
as some of us feared, perhaps, that we might be; but when in every
we meet a smile of glad welcome and rejoicing as we once more clasp
shame on the man who can carry away from this assemblage one single
that should not belong to a pure Masonic heart. God pity the man who
will not here
lay on the altar of Masonry every feeling of rivalry, every feeling of
every feeling of ill-will in his heart toward his Brother Mason; no
rite you believe, at what altar of Freemasonry you worship, Freemasonry
is one faith,
one great religion, one great common altar, around which all men of all
and all languages can assemble; in which there can be no rivalry,
except a noble
emulation of rites, orders, and degrees, which can best work and best
In the Name of All humanity!
My brethren, how can I return you my thanks?
return them in my own name, because you have so highly honored me as to
me again and again to address you? No. I know the compliment was not
paid to me
alone. I know it was but an expression of the Masonic love and regard
that you of the Northern States feel toward the brethren whom you think
the late civil war, but toward whom you maintained, through that war,
of charity, Masonic kindness, love and affection, that become Masons to
toward one another in the convulsions of civil war. Shall I thank you
in the name
of my State? Shall I thank you in the name of Tennessee? Shall I thank
you in the
name of the whole South? No thanks that the South could return to you,
if the South
had authorized me to speak on behalf of the whole body of Masons in the
my single tongue, could adequately express the thanks you deserve for
you have shown on this occasion. I return you the thanks of universal
I return to you ‒ and this nation ought to return to you ‒ thanks for
the great lesson, that brethren of a common country, with the same
in their veins, may fight a desperate and bloody war for years; may
lives breast to breast, in supporting that which they believed to be
right ‒ a portion
supporting the rights of States as they understood them, and the other
the glorious old flag ‒ the stars and stripes; that through it all,
thank God, Masonry
has furnished an example of charity and toleration, that shall teach
the men of
the South to respect the men of the North for fighting for what they
be right, and shall also teach the men of the North to respect the men
of the South
for fighting for what they believed to be right in regard to their
At any rate, whether they have that charity or
whether they believe they were honest or not ‒ they shall at least have
to forgive their Brother, though he offend against them ninety and nine
thank God, my brethren, that the news of this great assemblage will go
whole world; that it will not, as it ought not, be confined here in our
but that the cry shall go over the whole world, to the honor of
Masonry, that after
a long and bloody and devastating civil war ‒ when, having come away
our ruined homes and impoverished communities among a people who were
over us, we have come here and trusted to your magnanimity, because it
is the loser
that can afford to be magnanimous more than the winner. And that we
have been met
with open arms, with no coldness or reservation, as Masons ought to
meet; and if
there was a latent, lurking, hidden ill-feeling, in the bosoms of any
of us, that
right here now we should all take the oath, and I propose to you to
take it ‒ that
we swear that we will bury all feelings here under the altar of
Masonry; that we
here sacrifice upon the altar of Masonry all feelings of ill-will,
rivalry, and ambition, within Masonry and without; and, moreover, that
we will hereafter,
by our lives, conversations, or teachings, make Masonry a great power
in this world;
that we will show mankind that we have intellect, learning, power and
make Masonry a great power for the benefit of the human race; and
Masonry will never
be true to her mission till we all join hands ‒ heart to heart and hand
‒ around the altar of Masonry, with a determination that Masonry shall
some time, worthy of her pretensions; no longer a pretender to that
which is good,
but that she shall be an apostle of peace, good- will, and charity, and
The Real Cagliostro
His Memorial to
By Bro Cyrus Field Willard
(Concluded from April)
WOULD anyone believe
that innocence could be reduced to such a degree of misfortune that a
prise de corps would be regarded as a favor from Heaven?
Such was my situation.
After five months captivity, when I received legal notice of this
decree, the bailiff
appeared to me as an Angel from Heaven who had descended into my prison
to me the liberty to see a lawyer, and the right to vindicate myself.
The decree was dated
December 15th and it was declared to me on January 30th, and the same
day I submitted
to an examination. I believe that it would but imperfectly fulfill the
have made to the public to show myself as I am did I not put before
a document which will give a clear idea of my character, my innocence
and the nature
of the accusation brought against me. [Note This has been written from
my memory is good and I can assure the reader that there is no
the Count De
January 30, 1786.
Question. What is your
Answer. 37 to 38 years
Q. Your name?
Q. The place of
A. I cannot assert
whether I was born at Malta or Medinah: I have always been with a tutor
me that my birth was noble, that I lost my father and mother at the age
Q. How long have
you been in Paris?
A. I arrived
here January 30, 1785.
Q. When you arrived
here in what neighborhood did you live?
A. At the
in a furnished hotel, where I remained twenty days more or less
Q. When you arrived
had you the money necessary to set up a house?
A. Most assuredly:
I brought with me all that I might need in order to take a house.
Q. Where did you
take this house?
A. In the rue
St. Claude, near the Boulevard.
Q. Who took this
house, you or the Prince?
A. I requested
M. de Carbonnieres to go over this contract, never having made one
before in any
part of the world. It is for this reason that I begged M. de
Carbonnieres to make
the necessary arrangements and bargaining, for the house as well as for
the carriages, etc., etc. From time to time I furnished him the money
to pay for these different matters and for which he gave me afterwards
Q. Who has provided
for your livelihood?
A. Always myself
and for everything.
Q. But the Prince
went to eat with you?
A. Although he
came to my house, it was none the less at my expense that this was
however, when he came to dine and brought with him friends or
protégées, he ordered
that they bring from his house one or two dishes. But nevertheless, in
that, I did not fail to reimburse my cook every evening for any outlay
Q. Did you see
the Prince immediately on your arrival?
A. No, not until
two or three days later.
Q. What did he
say to you when you saw him for the first time?
A. He persuaded
me to remain at Paris and not travel any more.
Q. Did the Prince
come every day to dine with you?
A. In the beginning
he came but rarely to dinner, but since then he came three or four
times a week.
Q. Have you known
a lady called la Motte?
the first time I saw her she told me that I had seen her in men's
clothes at the
foot of my stairway at Strasburg; that she had asked me news of the
Boulainvilliers; that I had answered her that she was at Saverne and
she had departed
the same day to join her.
Q. Have you seen
her since in the house of the Prince?
A. Most certainly.
Q. Was she with
one of her nieces?
Q. But you have
made a performance with the niece?
A. Permit me
to relate to you the facts: (See the narrative on page 23 and following
Q. They say that
you put a crucifix on the neck of the girl and ribbons of black, green,
other colors, with an apron having a fringe of silver, and that you
made the said
girl swear on her knees?
A. That is false.
I only recollect that the Prince added some ribbons to the attire of
the girl in
order to please her. I believe that I also found in my pocket an apron
Masonry, but I am not sure that it was used on the girl. I would defer
to the memory
of the Prince whether or not it was used and what he says will be the
Q. Did you put
a sword, I do not know how, on the girl?
A. I do not know
any such thing, but having my sword at my side I may have taken it off.
Q. And with regard
to the oath?
A. That is false.
I have already told you why I did all that I have done on that occasion.
Q. Is it true
that after the second performance and the girl having withdrawn, you
the Prince and Madame de la Motte into another room, in the middle of
a poniard, crosses of St. Andrew, a sword, crucifixes, crosses of
Agnus Dei, and besides these, lighted candles, to the number of thirty,
great light; that you made Madame la Motte take an oath, declaring that
it was necessary
that she swear she would tell nothing to any person of what she would
you said then to the Prince: "Well, Prince, take that which you know";
that the Prince opened his secretary, from which he took an oval box of
filled with unmounted diamonds; that you added: "Pay attention, Prince,
is another one of them which you know"; that in fact the Prince took it
said to Madame de la Motte, "Well, Madame, I am giving you six thousand
and these diamonds which you will give to your husband and tell him to
voyage to London quietly in order to sell them or have them mounted,
and he is not
to return until he has executed all that?"
A. That is false;
false and very false; and I have the proofs to the contrary.
Q. What proofs
can you produce?
A. First, every
time that this magnetism was produced, it was M. de Carbonnieres who
room, and, after the second performance was finished, he brought in a
person whom I do not wish to name. But the Prince will tell you who he
was, as I
do not care to call a man respectable for such a folly. Prince Louis
and both these
persons will say truly that there was in that room neither poniard nor
candles, and the servants will bear witness whether the room was more
Q. Is it true
that you have said, or made the Prince believe, that he would be raised
up to the
Ministry of the King?
A. That is false.
I have always advised him to leave Paris and withdraw to Saverne,
because he would
be able to do much more good there and live more tranquilly.
Q. Is it true
that you have said, or made the Prince believe, that your wife was the
friend and confidant of the Queen, and maintained a daily
correspondence with the
A. Parbleu! This
is too hard to swallow. If the Prince said that, with all the respect I
I can only say that it is a deception false in character.
Q. M. the Reporter
showed me then a little note and asked me: "Are you acquainted with
yes or no?"
A. I do not know
what this note is, and I am not acquainted with the handwriting. My
wife and I have
never been at Versailles, we never have had the honor to know the
Queen, and we
never have left Paris since we came here. Besides that, as my wife does
how to write, how could all this be possible? [Note: It often happens
that the Roman
ladies, even the best brought up, do not know how to write. It is a
take in order to avoid love intrigues.]
Q. Has the Prince
ever given diamonds to you or to your wife?
A. Never have
I known of any other thing than this: When I was at Strasburg I had a
knob of a cane, containing a repeating watch, surrounded with diamonds.
I made a
present of it to the Prince. He wished to offer me some other jewels in
but I refused them, having always had more pleasure in giving than in
It is true that every time my wife's birthday came around, the Prince
made her some
small present, but I believe that all these consisted of was this: in a
in a circle around my portrait which was in pearls, the Prince caused
them to be
replaced with small diamonds, and a little watch with its chain in
of which there were five a little larger than the others. As to the
rest of my diamonds
they are known in all the foreign courts of Europe, where I have been.
is easy to obtain. I am at the Bastille, my wife is there likewise, as
well as all
my fortune. You have only to examine and convince yourself of the truth.
Q. But you make
expenditures; you give a great deal and take nothing, you pay
everybody; then what
do you do in order to obtain money?
A. That question
has no relation to the matter in action, but I am willing to satisfy
you. What matters
it to know whether I am the son of a monarch or the son of a poor man,
and why I
travel without wishing to make myself known? What matters it to know
how I act in
order to procure money for myself? As long as I respect Religion and
the Laws, as
long as I pay everybody, as long as I do good only and never evil, the
you ask me becomes needless and is not at all suitable. You should know
that I have
always taken pleasure in not satisfying the vulgar curiosity on that
point, in spite
of all they have said about me when they circulated the story that I
was the anti-Christ,
the Wandering Jew, the man of 1400 years, the Unknown Philosopher, and
all the horrible things that the malice of the wicked could invent. I
to avow to you, however, that which I have never disclosed to anyone.
the resources are these: that immediately I go into a country, I have a
who furnishes me with all that I need, and who is reimbursed for it
For example in France I have Sarrasin of Basle, who would give me all
if I wished it; even as at Lyons M. Sancostar would do likewise. But I
begged these gentlemen not to say that they were my bankers. I have
resources in various things which are known to me.
Q. Did the Prince
show you a note with the signature, Marie Antoinette de France?
A. I believe
that 15 or 20 days before being arrested he showed me the note of which
Q. What did you
say about it?
A. I said that
I could not believe any other thing than that Madame la Motte was a
cheat and was
deceiving the Prince. Indeed I have always told the Prince to beware of
that she was a vile wicked woman, but the Prince never wanted to
believe me. I have
always thought the note was a forgery.
Q. Look at this
note and tell me if it is the same?
A. M. the Reporter
showed me then a note on which I saw the name of Marie Antoinette de
having noticed that it was covered with figures, I replied: "I am not
to testify that this is the same, because there are figures on it which
I have not
Q. You may know
that these figures were made by us.
A. That is all
the same to me. I say that I am not able in my conscience to certify
that this is
the same. Besides that, I examined it too little before, since it was
that did not concern me and so it was of little consequence to me to
it was real or a forgery.
Q. Is it true
that before entering the Bastille you wished to buy a house for one
fifty thousand francs?
A. That is false.
I remember one day, while having my hair dressed by my wigmaker, some
to me about a summerhouse that a company of my friends wished to buy
and I said
that I would like to take it for myself. But I held this talk as only
in the air
and without any purpose. The persons who wished to buy this house were
M. de Bondy
and others. [Note The Examination was closed after I recalled this last
and M. the Reporter did not believe that it was necessary to add it to
after I had made myself known that I would answer those things which
in the injurious charges which the Countess de la Motte permitted
herself to make.
This task will be as fatiguing to me as it will be tedious to the
I shall fulfill this duty scrupulously while begging the readers who
know me and
those who are ready to appreciate me, not to give themselves the
trouble to read
this part of my defense.
That Part of
the Memorial of the Countess De La Motte Which
Concerns the Count De Cagliostro.
Extract from the Memorial:
The Countess de la
Motte thus begins in her exordium, page 3:
is introduced one of those persons whom the ignorant vulgar call
an Empiric, Dreamer on the Philosophical Stone, False Prophet in the
Sects in which
he says he is educated, Profaner of the only true worship, and called
Count de Cagliostro. Yes, depository on the part of M. de Rohan of the
Necklace, Cagliostro has cut it up in pieces in order to increase by it
treasure (I) of an unheard-of fortune."
one might say of the style which reigns in the defense of the Countess
de la Motte,
it has at least one great advantage of including a great many insults
in a very
small space. However, it is not my intention to set myself up as a
censor of the
grammatical part of her memorial. I would have passed over in silence
slight observation if, satisfied with wounding the language, the
Countess de la
Motte had respected in her writings the public, decency and truth.
Let us then pass on
to the insults.
"Empiric in the
art of human cures."
I remember having heard
this word often in the mouth of certain persons; but I have never been
able to know
exactly what it meant? If they wish by this to designate a man who
a Doctor yet has a knowledge of Medicine, who goes to see the sick and
pay for his visits; who cures the poor as well as the rich and receives
no one; then in that case I confess it and have the honor to be an
Alchemist or not, the
qualification of "low" becomes only those who beg and crawl. Everyone
knows whether the Count de Cagliostro has ever asked favors or board
"Dreamer on the
Whatever may be my
opinion on the Philosopher's Stone. I have kept silence and the Public
been troubled with my reveries.
I have not always been
so. If M. the Cardinal de Rohan had believed me he would not have
trusted the Countess
de la Motte and we would not be where we are now.
"Profaner of the
only true Worship."
This is more serious.
I have always respected Religion. I deliver my life and exterior
conduct to the
inquisition of the law; as to my inner life, God alone can demand an
"Styled by himself
Count de Cagliostro."
I have borne the name
of Cagliostro throughout all Europe. As to the quality of Count one can
the education I have received and by the respect that has been shown me
by the Mufti
Salshaym, the Sherif of Mecca, the Grand Master Pinto, the Pope
XIII] and the greater part of the sovereigns of Europe whether it is
a disguise than a title.
the splendid Necklace."
I have never been the
depository of the splendid Necklace. I have never ever seen it.
cut it up in order to increase by it the occult treasure of an
If my fortune is so
surprising, if I am the possessor of an "occult treasure" I have no
then to cut up a necklace in order to enrich myself.
When a man is rich
enough and great enough, to be able to scorn the favors of sovereigns
all his life
and refuse constantly gifts that the common run of mankind can receive
themselves, he does not tarnish the glory of a life without reproach in
He does not descend suddenly from the magnificence of a Prince to
to which man can be led only by an excess of misconduct and dissipation.
The Countess de la Motte continues:
to conceal his theft, Cagliostro commanded M. de Rohan by the power he
over him, to cause to be sold and to have mounted small portions of the
at Paris by the Countess de la Motte, and to cause to be mounted and
sold in England
more considerable portions of them by her husband.
The intention of the
Countess de la Motte has been in this story, which is void of all
turn into ridicule M. the Cardinal de Rohan by representing him not as
but as a slave so submissive to my will that when I command him to
become an accomplice
in a theft, of which the profit would have been entirely mine, he does
to obey me.
Such an assertion which
combines at the same time extravagance and indecency does not merit a
It may however become
valuable in this lawsuit, inasmuch as it contains a formal avowal that
a part of
the diamonds coming from the necklace had been sold in France by the
la Motte, and that another part had been also sold in England.
We find in the Memorial
of the Countess de la Motte, on page 23, the following expressions:
Here are the vast plans
of Cagliostro which though veiled at first are developed by the
progress and an issue equally murderous for the Cardinal and the Lady
de la Motte.
The development of
which the Countess de la Motte here speaks, these vast plans which are
veiled, and which are developed afterwards by beginnings, some
progresses, and an
issue, imply at least an entire year dedicated to intrigue before I
making myself master of the Necklace. But how can this supposition be
with the fact?
I came to Paris in
1783 for the first time, but I remained here only thirteen days,
occupied from morning
till night in treating the sick. It was certainly not then that I could
with intrigue. Let us see if it is not possible that I may have mixed
in it on my
The complaint returned
by the Attorney-General makes known the fact that the negotiations
relative to the
Necklace were made at the end of January, 1785. It shows also that the
put their acceptance at the foot of the proposition presented by the
that the Necklace was delivered in the morning of the first of
February. I arrived
at Paris (and the fact is easy to verify) on January 30, 1785, at nine
Everything was then
consummated at the time of my arrival excepting the delivery of the
took place thirty-six hours later.
I was at Lyons during
the negotiations; and I was at Bordeaux at the time of the appearance
of the false
Queen in the thicket of Trianon.
Would I then come to
Paris expressly to gather the fruit of an intrigue that another than
Yet I am decreed under
arrest and the dungeons of the Bastille re-echo for the past six months
groans and those of my unfortunate wife. And still the cries of
have not yet been able to reach the ears of the most just of Kings. But
let us continue
with this libel.
The Countess de la
Motte after having pretended to have proved the necessity of arresting
me and treating
me as a swindler and an ethereal being, etc., expresses herself thus:
he answer to the first article of his examination. His name, his
surname, his titles,
he the Count, the woman attached to his fortunes, the Countess de
It was not enough,
then, for the lawyer of the Countess de la Motte to calumniate and
insult me. He
attacks me in the most easily affected part of my being. He seeks to
vilify my wife.
I could have pardoned everything personal to myself, but my wife? What
has she done
to him? What has she done to the Countess de la Motte? How can a man
who has a public
character permit himself to abuse it by steeping in bitterness the
heart of an innocent
and virtuous woman, who is adverse in no sense to his party, against
whom he has
neither complaint nor decree and whom he can reproach with nothing
except the misfortune
of having linked her fate with mine?
As to the proofs of
the celebration of our marriage, which they claim the right to demand,
myself, if it is necessary, to make them public when I shall recover
of my papers.
The Countess de la
Motte dares to say that one of my servants boasts of having been for
150 years in
my employ; that sometimes I assume to be 300 years old and at other
times I boast
of having assisted at the wedding of Canaan. It is for that reason, in
parody the miraculous transformation of that unnatural element that I
the idea of multiplying the necklace after cutting it up into a hundred
then delivering it entire, so they say, to an august Queen.
That I am sometimes
a Portuguese Jew, sometimes a Greek, and sometimes an Egyptian from
from whence I have brought allegories and sorceries into Europe. That I
am one of
those extravagant Rose-Croix who possess the art of conversing with the
I treat the poor for nothing in order that I may sell immortality to
the rich for
some price. That my society is composed of visionaries of all classes.
by letting it be understood that I have committed various wrong acts in
courts of Europe, and that some of these are within the knowledge of
The reader may depend
on it that I shall not answer in detail all this torrent of insults and
I have already said
that I have been educated as the son of Christian parents. I have never
been a Jew
nor Mahometan. These two religions leave certain ineffaceable marks on
The truth of what I
say can be proved and rather than leave a shadow of a doubt in this
respect I will
submit myself to an examination more shameful for those who require it
him who suffers it. Moreover I desire that the Countess de la Motte
to particularize the deeds that she ascribes to me. Let her without
fear say who
is the rich person to whom I have sold immortality. Let her be kind
enough to cite
one of those high deeds which have made me known in all the Courts of
all I defy her to declare what are the evil deeds she ascribes to me
and which are
within the knowledge of Madame Bohmer.
If the Countess de
la Motte is content to speak of me in vague insulting phrases and to
omissions when so speaking, and does not answer these formal
challenges, I declare
to her, once for all, that I shall be pleased to make to all her
omissions and all
her insults, past, present and future, a very laconic response which is
and energetic, and which the author of the "Provincials" made formerly
in a like case, to a powerful society, a response which politeness
forbids me to
put in French but which the lawyer of the Countess de la Motte can
explain to her
and which is, Mentiris imp entissine. [Thou liest most shamelessly.]
The Lady de la Motte
relates afterwards, in her own fashion, the story of the magnetism
her niece, that is to say, by adding to it many circumstances contrary
to the truth
and making them enter into this story of the Necklace with an
awkwardness and air
of improbability which she does not even take pains to disguise. She
puts in the
mouth of the Cardinal de Rohan, an Academician and man of the Court,
a meanness so repugnant that the worst of footmen would blush to have
She hears behind a screen the sound of the kisses which a good angel
and her niece
give each other reciprocally. On a table, she says, were heaped objects
to excite terror. These were crossed swords, ribbons of different
of different Orders, a poniard and a carafe of extremely clear water.
As the limit of horror
she says: "This somber spectacle was illuminated by an astonishing
As a sequel to all this bizarre apparatus I make the Countess de la
to keep the secret, and then I order the Prince to go and find a great
He opens it and the Prince gives the commission to the Countess de la
Motte to sell,
and cause her husband to sell, a certain quantity of diamonds.
One must believe either
that the Countess de la Motte has lost her mind entirely or else she
has great confidence
in the credulity of her judges, to hope that she may get out of this
affair by circulating
such absurd stories.
I have already given
an account on page 40 of my memorial and the following pages, of how it
and the honest motive which induced me to lend myself to this comedy.
M. the Prince
of Luxemburg (2) and M. de Carbonnieres can testify if there is need of
it as to
the truth of my answer as given in my examination. "On the first or
of August," she says, "M., the Cardinal, showed the Countess de la
a little note which he folded from top and bottom so as to let her read
only. The Lady de la Motte read (this deserves attention), 'I send by
Countess,' and as a continuation a number of figures which the Lady de
was not able to add up. She read again: 'In order to quiet these
I would be sorry if they were in difficulties. 'On reading this M. de
'Has she deceived me, this little Countess? But that is impossible, I
de Cagliostro too well.' There is no ambiguity here, for the Countess
de la Motte
was present and to whom he truly might have said: 'Have you deceived
me? But I know
Madame de Cagliostro too well '."
Always fables and never
proofs nor even probability. What does Countess de la Motte wish to say
equivocal language? To whom was this letter addressed? She does not
speak of the
address; by whom was it written? By my wife? But she does not know how
as I have already said. By me? I never write in French, and very rarely
By M. the Cardinal de Rohan? If so, why would he read to the Countess
de la Motte
only a part of the letter and carefully hide from her the remainder?
Why this exclamation
on reading three or four words from a letter written by him? What is
of which he suspects my wife for a moment? Why in speaking of her does
he name her
at one time with familiarity as "the little Countess" and the next time
with respect as "Madame de Cagliostro?"
It is clearly seen
that in this part of the memorial of the Countess de la Motte, she has
implicate my wife in an affair of which she never had the slightest
order to lay on me all the blows at once.
The Countess de la
Motte thus terminates her long diatribe:
must learn by a new education that while the enlightened Tribunals have
a long time now condemned men to capital punishment for sorcery,
properly so called,
yet the same Tribunals are keeping in store judgments when the sorcery
with witchcraft, with thefts and swindlings, and above all when they
by scholars and in schools.
Thus the Countess de
la Motte regrets not to be in that happy time when an accusation of
have brought me to the stake. Then she represents me as instructing
sorcery and giving them lessons in theft and swindling. Who are the men
to come and listen to the lessons of such a master? It is certainly not
in my society
that she will find them. It is not necessary, I think, to name here the
who have done me the honor to visit my house; but I can say with truth
is not one of them whom, the man the most delicate and most finical in
relations, would not be honored to know.
I am persuaded, moreover,
that the Countess de la Motte has done me all the evil she did, less
of me than with the purpose of exonerating herself. Whatever has been
I pardon her, as much as is in me, for the bitter tears she had made me
her not think that this is an affected moderation on my part. From the
the dungeons where she caused me to be dragged I invoke for her the
the Law. If at last when my innocence and that of my wife shall be
most just of Kings shall think that he owes some indemnity to an
who settled in France only on the faith of his royal word, and that of
and the rights of nations, the only satisfaction I shall ask is that
will be kind enough to accord at my prayer, a pardon and liberty to the
Countess de la Motte. This pardon, if I obtain it, cannot injure
guilty may be the Countess de la Motte, she has been punished enough.
From my own
bitter experience the world can believe there is no crime, no matter
but six months in the Bastille will expiate it.
You have read, judges
and citizens. Such is the man who was known at Strasburg, at Bordeaux,
Paris, under the name of the Count de Cagliostro. I have written this
the Law; and it will satisfy all other sentiments save that of vain
Will you say that this
is not enough? Will you insist to know more particularly the country,
the motives and resources of this unknown? What matters it to you,
country is for you the first place in your empire, where I submitted
to your laws. My name is that which I have made honored among you, my
God; and my resources are my own secret.
When, in order to relieve
the sick or feed the poor I shall ask to be admitted into your doctors'
or into your benevolent societies, then you may question me; but to do,
in the name
of God, all the good that I am able to do is a right which requires
nor country, proofs nor bail-bonds. (3)
Frenchmen, are you
only inquisitive? You read these frivolous pamphlets where malice and
pleased to pour ridicule and infamy on a friend of man.
Do you not wish on
the contrary to be good and just? Do not question him but listen and
love him who
has always respected Kings because they are in the hands of God,
they protect them, religion because it is the law, and law because it
is the complement
of religion; and finally, men because they are His children like
Once more, do not question
him further but listen and love him who came among you to do good, who
himself to be attacked, in patience, and defended himself with
(Signed) THE COUNT
la Motte spelled tresor, treasure, as thresor. Cagliostro makes fun of
de Montgomery-Luxembourg was Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Orient.
It is very
difficult to render into English the force and eloquence of this
passage in the
helped to tear down the Bastille three years later.
Freemasonry of the English
Bro. J. Hugo Tatsch,
Review Of Sir
IT is a safe venture to predict that no book by
Masonic writer has been awaited with so much interest, or will receive
such a hearty
reception, as English-Speaking Masonry
[Lib*]. Its author, R.W.Bro. Sir Alfred Robbins, P.G.W., President,
Board of General
Purposes, United Grand Lodge of England, is better known in the United
many an American Grand Master; his name has been a familiar one to the
many years. His never to be forgotten journey to the United States, in
he visited ten American Grand Lodges ‒ an itinerary in which Iowa was
of its internationally known Grand Lodge Library ‒ lingers in the
memory of those
who know what an outstanding event it was, and has been deeply etched
in the hearts
of the Craftsmen who were privileged to hear and meet him. Not only was
an important one from the standpoint of Freemasonry, but it was also of
as an expression of the cordiality and good will existing between the
American people. This is indicated by the meeting which took place at
House between Calvin Coolidge, then President of the United States, and
Robbins. As I look back upon this meeting, it is not inappropriate to
a reference to Lady Robbins, whose personal charm and graciousness is
and who contributed in no small way to the success of the mission of
English-Speaking freemasonry comes to our
a singularly appropriate time, for as Brother Robbins says in the
of his book, the year 1930 marks "the bicentenary of the Craft's
into the United States." He also pays a graceful tribute to the
by saying that "American Masons have never failed to own what is due to
parent Grand Lodge to which they owed their birth and infant nurture…
Masonry, indeed, whether acting under independent jurisdiction or
the sovereignty of the United Grand Lodge of England, has kept its
and held its banner high for over two centuries."
The undertaking of such a book as Brother
so ably prepared is a difficult task, one which no one is better
qualified to judge
than himself. Brother Robbins modestly disclaims any marked
qualifications for his
task; in speaking of the historian who would essay the task, he says:
not least of all his qualifications should be a portion of literary
ability as will
cause his endeavor to interest as well as enlighten his readers." Those
read the new book will soon realize that the volume is interesting as
well as informative,
and is a book that is pleasingly different from the usual
presentations. The author
avoids a difficult situation very skilfully and tactfully by saying:
friends, and especially some in the United States, who have assisted
him with facts
and hints, he is sincerely grateful; but he finds it impossible to
quote every source
of information, whether oral, written, or in print." He protects
responsibility for inevitable errors by saying that he has had to rely
documents by quotations which have been extracted from the writings of
"It is the lot of every first writer of a comprehensive h story," he
"to receive a multitude of corrections or suggestions on points of
Such errors as may be found in the new book are insignificant, and in
no way affect
the worth of the undertaking and the splendid panorama it unrolls
before the fascinated
The purpose of the book is most concisely told
The book is an endeavor fairly to set before
in Freemasonry, whether or not from the inside, the inner meaning and
of a world-spread Fraternity. Nothing is revealed a Mason should
is told is what all may know. It mainly deals with English-speaking
which covers that of England, Ireland, Scotland, the British Dominions
the United States, and a number of Lodges in South America, thus
three-quarters of the Masonry of the world.
The scope of the work is best told by the table
- What is Freemasonry?
- Masonic Origin and Growth.
- The Grand Lodge Era Begins.
- Grand Lodge Develops.
- Grand Lodge Divides.
- United Grand Lodge.
- Success and Semi-Schism.
- English Masonry Extends.
- The Rising Tide.
- Early Twentieth-Century English
- The Great War and After.
- England's Grand Lodge and Its
- The Grand Lodge of Ireland.
- The Grand Lodge of Scotland.
- English-Speaking Masonry in the
- United States Masonry Before
- American Masonic Independence
- Fruits of
- English Masonry in Canada.
- Its Work in the Eastern
- A League of Masons.
Chapter I opens with a definition and a
which will instantly find a place with the other great definitions and
that have been made:
Freemasonry can be
defined as an organized system of morality, derived from divine wisdom
experience, which, for preservation from outer assault and inner decay,
in allegory and illustrated by symbol. The influence of divine
inspiration is with
it throughout. Every English Masonic Lodge is dedicated to God and His
Each candidate for membership declares his belief in the Supreme Being.
from on High is sought step by step. Keeping strictly aloof from all
and political divisions, it demands from its members, whatever their
or creed, a recognition of the Eternal and of the Light which comes
loyalty to their country and obedience to its laws, with strict regard
for the rights
and liberties of their fellow-men.
Coming from such an eminent authority, one
can be accepted as ex-cathedra, when considering the position he holds
in the Mother
Grand Lodge, this quotation should effectively silence the enemies and
of Freemasonry. The entire chapter is an inspirational presentation,
worthy to be
placed in the hands of each Mason as a chart by which he is to progress
the Fraternity, and to reflect honor upon himself and the Craft in his
Like all real scholars of the Craft, Brother
flouts the claims of prehistoric origins, and distinguishes clearly
tradition and fact in the opening paragraphs of Chapter II. He says
Freemasonry, like Churches and States, can stand on its own merits, and
false bolstering of its strength. Of late years an assiduous and
of Masonic students, has arisen in England, Ireland, the United States,
determined on a thorough Search for truth. This School, pursuing the
the higher criticism, has sought proof for all assertions, and has
as the English Church does the Apoerypha ‒ to be employed for example
of life and
instruction of manners. The result, while ridding Masonry of many
and fabulous pretensions, has been to strengthen its hold on serious
showing that its evolution has been natural and its development sure,
and this because
it rests on foundations of precept and practice which nothing can shake.
As an active member and Past Master of the
Coronati Lodge No. 2076, nothing short of such a declaration is to be
The succeeding chapters, treating of English
history, are unique in their treatment of the subject. The reader is
not bored by
the presentation of dry statistical data, nor by a chronological
recital of events
which has a soporific effect. On the contrary, the pages are alive with
facts, and carry the reader along in a manner which shows that
Freemasonry is not
a thing separate and apart from the period in which it finds itself.
portrays underlying causes which expressed themselves in effects that
to only those who try to study Freemasonry as an isolated specimen
beneath a powerful
microscope. The Fraternity invariably eludes such attempts; the student
know the Craft as it really is must make a different approach.
Some peculiar situations develop in the book.
is on page eighty-five, where we read of Francis, second Earl of Moira,
Master of Masons, fighting in the American Revolution and opposing our
Bunker Hill ‒ where Joseph Warren, Provincial Grand Master, fell in
country. Later the valiant British soldier distinguishes himself
further at Brooklyn
and White Plains, as well as at Camden and in "the last flicker of
success" at Hobkink's Hill. Such extracts not only reveal Masonic
to us in America, but their presentation illustrates the proverbial
of our overseas cousins, to whom defeat in contests of skill is nothing
about, but to be borne with a smile and unbroken spirit.
Another sidelight of the book, one which will
to the students of the Craft, is the reference to the Duke of Sussex
aiding in the
formation of a Masonic library for the Grand Lodge of England. This
not so widely known as some others, is to be housed in the magnificent
Temple now under construction at London ‒ an undertaking which R. W.
Bro. Sir Alfred
Robbins has supported and promoted in a degree not as well known in
America as it
American Masonic students are fairly well
the history of the English Craft up to the time of the Union of 1813;
but we are
not so well informed on what occurred after that memorable event.
makes up for this deficiency in his book; and he tells us some
about the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) becoming a Mason.
Very few of
us have access to the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of England for the
1868-1875; there are some interesting things to be read between the
lines of English
Masonic history relative to the Prince's Freemasonry, the visit of the
Earl de Grey
and Ripon, Grand Master, to the United States, and the change of Grand
de Grey and Ripon became a convert to Roman Catholicism. The story is
a dynamic force that is very apparent when one considers the religious
background of the period, especially in Continental Europe. The break
with the Grand
Orient of France is told by Brother Robbins ‒ having to do with the new
of what Freemasonry was, and with the banishment of the Bible from the
of French lodges.
The part that English-speaking Masonry played
events of 1914-18 is not overlooked. Upon the outbreak of the World War
the ties which existed between the Craft on both sides of the Atlantic
At Grand Lodge in 1914, a message was read from the Grand Lodge of
"your oldest child in the Western Hemisphere," expressing not only deep
concern for the English brethren and their dependents who were
suffering in body
and estate, but offering all the Masonic succor within their power,
citizenship in a neutral nation. Similar expressions came from other
special recognition was given to them in 1917, when the bi-centenary
of the founding of the Grand Lodge of England made such action
Twenty-eight American Masons, representing sixteen Jurisdictions of the
from Massachusetts and New York through Iowa and Michigan to Colorado
were present at the Bi-Centenary Celebration June 24, 1917.
Sticklers for the doctrine of physical
outworn heritage from operative days and of no importance today, will
for thought in the following quotation from Brother Robbins' text.
Speaking of difficulties
which needed adjustment he says:
They included such
alterations in procedure as to permit the entrance into Lodges of
as well as those of commissioned or non-commissioned rank, and to
provide for the
admission of candidates who, being in all other respects fit and proper
to be made Masons, were able, even though blind or maimed, to explain
the working of the Craft.
With the story of the Grand Lodge told from its
to present times, Brother Robbins carries on the account with a chapter
of its work. The vast amount of work done requires funds; there is an
of approximately $500,000. England has a custom which we in America
each Master Mason is given a parchment diploma of membership, for which
a slight fee ‒ five shillings, I believe. Such documentary evidence is
which has many unexpected uses. There are also direct levies upon the
for Masonic charity; what a protest there would be in the United States
procedure were followed here! The entire levy upon London brethren goes
central fund; in the case of brethren in the Provinces, half goes to
the Grand Lodge
and the other half to the Provincial Grand Lodge; overseas brethren are
upon for contributions. There is also an assessment for the Building
Fund, and voluntary
contributions are expected for the Million Memorial Fund, for which
has been raised. With a membership about a sixth of that we enjoy in
States, the English brethren have raised nearly $5,000,000 for their
while we in America, with three million Masons, have not yet succeeded
half of that amount for the George Washington Masonic National
the reason lies in the fact that Freemasonry in England is primarily
that of the
Craft and Royal Arch; the English Fraternity is not burdened with
orders or "side shows."
A perusal of a list of countries in which
is at work would be an excellent lesson in geography ‒ Bermuda,
Bulawayo, Cape Coast
Castle, Coomassie, Cyprus, Funchal (Portugal's Autonomous Region of Madeira), Fiji, Mashonaland
region in northern
Madeira, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Zanzibar ‒ to mention a few
"They are rallying points for Britons," says our gifted author, "and
in them men of the same race and tongue come together for common
social, and persona], fraternal and friendly alike. There is no social
other than Freemasonry which covers so wide a field, or does so much to
touch between Britons and their fellows in the far parts of the world."
The story of Freemasonry in Ireland and
also told in a graphic manner, and the contributions these two
made to the development of Freemasonry during two centuries are not
full chapter is given to each Grand Lodge.
The chapters devoted to American Freemasonry
read with particular interest. We all like to see how others regard us.
Robbins is no superficial observer; he says well, "A Masonic visitor to
Americas, both North and South, has to avoid judgments formed on first
just as should all in the reverse direction."
Opening with mention of his visit to the United
in 1924, already alluded to in an earlier paragraph, Brother Robbins
On his return [from the visit], he reported
the Grand Master to Grand Lodge that, in regard to such differences as
visible between the system of Grand Lodge and Private Lodge government
in the United
States and the English Jurisdictions ‒ differences, it is ever to be
in degree but not in doctrine ‒ national characteristic and local
always and most steadily have to be borne in mind. A marked divergence
psychology accounts for the one difference which to the Englishman is
and that is that what English Masons present to the mind's eye is in
to the bodily vision. It is impossible openly to say more; but the
manner in which
the English Masonic working has developed across the Atlantic, must
Brethren who desire to know what are the differences in practice, and
how and why
they arose. When an enquiry of this kind is undertaken, it must be with
recognition that American Masonry is very largely descended from the
from military Lodges working under Irish Masonic influences. And it
must not be
forgotten that, when the time was considered to have come at the Union
for a simplified
assimilation of the two "workings," Britain and the United States were
engaged in a four years' war, which left very rankling feelings behind.
American Freemasons had been likely to adopt the simplified method in
nothing was less probable in the first quarter of the nineteenth
century than a
following of English example.
The study suggested would have fully to realize
temperamental and psychological differences between the English and the
peoples ‒ differences more easily observed than accounted for. There
which directly touch American Lodges alone, and those which directly
English Lodges; but, at the most, they are non-essential. It is always
to be remembered
that the forty-nine American Grand Jurisdictions are independent of
having no central authority, acting on their own regulations and by
their own methods
of government within their several boundaries. As a consequence, the
of the various Grand Lodges, the method of selection of the several
and even the term of service of these high officers, vary greatly with
just as does the working of the Private or Subordinate Lodges.
Brother Robbins pays just tribute to M. W. Bro.
M. Johnson, Past Grand Master of Massachusetts, 1914-16, in designating
him as a
"painstaking, patient and accurate chronicler," and quotes from his
The Beginnings of Freemasonry in America, regarding the introduction of
in the American Colonies. An entire chapter is given to "United States
Before Independence," with two others following in which the story of
Freemasonry is ably epitomized. The story is carried down to the
present, with mention
made of Massachusetts constituting lodges in China, Canal Zone and
Chile, and New
York doing likewise in the Near East and in Finland. He closes with a
to the George Washington Masonic National Memorial, saying:
By this superb erection
American Masons will specially commemorate the First President who took
to the Constitution on a Masonic Bible, and whose Chair, occupied by
him while Master,
is regarded by American Masons with the same reverence as the Germans
give to the
Master's gavel used by Frederick the Great as head of the senior Lodge
which compose the Grand National Mother Lodge of the Three Globes, most
of the traditional three Old Prussian Grand Lodges with headquarters in
and having its home on ground given by Frederick himself.
Our near neighbor, Canada, has also had the
of Masonic influence in its history; the story is told in a chapter
devoted to the
Dominion. In early days, there were close relationships between the
on the Atlantic, and the student of Colonial Freemasonry cannot
disregard this fact.
Later years saw the same fraternal relationships continue as the Craft
the course of empire to the west; today the brethren of Washington and
fronting on the Pacific, cross the invisible boundary line and unite in
of our ancient and honorable Fraternity.
The final chapter is a practical recommendation
still closer union between English-speaking Masons. The basis is stated
in a short
sentence: "Reverent recognition of the Eternal, resolute renouncement
political ‒ these are the foundation and corner stones of the Masonic
Bro. Robbins presents an ideal we all can cherish; I will close with
his own words:
Bound to each other by ties or common origin,
ideals, and never broken friendship, English-speaking Freemasonry all
through could render inestimable service, not only to the Brotherhood
but to mankind,
by more intimacy of association, elevation of idea, and intensity of
aim. The task
is worthy the devotion of all, and English-speaking Masons in every
arise to so supreme an occasion. Then even the War which provoked these
will have had its compensations. Out of the eater will have come forth
out of the strong will have come forth sweetness. The far flung
have given place to the faring Brother-line; and severe though the
labor the reward
will be sure.
Did A Grateful Republic
Bro. Leonard G. Coop,
FOR the benefit of those who did not read my
in the March and April issues of THE BUILDER, a very brief digest of
is here given. They touched upon the treatment (or more accurately the
lack of it)
afforded some of the really disabled veterans of the World War by the
may be instructive.
In the March issue the case of a Mason who
suicide in 1924 was related, in which the Bureau admits that:
“… the cause of death
was directly due to and proximately the result of mental disease which
was held as incurred in service. …"
Although the merits of this most distressing
been repeatedly brought to the attention of the Bureau, and in
particular to the
Director individually, and in addition discussed in detail last January
L.B. Foster, the personal representative of the Director, the Bureau
to grant either compensation or insurance benefits in this case.
He filed his claim in February, 1920, and
suicide in March, 1924.
Quoting from the World War Veterans Act
diseases, we find, under Title 11, Section 200:
"… that an ex-service
man who is shown to have or, if deceased, to have had, prior to January
neuropsychiatric diseases ‒ developing a 10 per centum degree of
disability or more
‒ shall be presumed to have acquired his disability in such service. …"
Medical evidence in this veteran's folder at
should prove to any fair-minded individual, or group of men, that he
from a severe mental condition practically from the day that he was
It is understood that Gen. Frank T. Hines,
of the Veterans Bureau, is a Mason and belongs to Temple-Noyes Lodge,
No. 32, Washington,
D. C., and for a Mason to permit such rank injustice to another Mason
unbelievable. Masons most emphatically should not receive more
those who are non-Masons, but does not the denial of even common
justice to a brother
Mason emphasize and aggravate the shame of such misuse of what is
It is freely granted that as a rule it is a
impossibility for the Director to review all individual claims; anyone
Bureau matters will readily realize this. But this particular case was
his personal attention, not once, but repeatedly, and was, in addition,
with his personal representative, so that there seems to be no possible
such outrageous injustice.
If this claim were an isolated one there might
conceivable excuse conceded him, but it is not isolated. The writer has
complete records of many more that are fully as distressing and equally
There was no question of any misconduct disease
claim; and when the full history is known to any fair-minded man he
will be amazed
that such injustice would be tolerated (if not actually authorized),
by one Mason toward another; he is now dead and no longer able to
defend his rights.
The story of the totally disabled blind veteran
J. Shackelford) which appeared in the April issue, was but another
of what is going on widely throughout the country, and again it must be
it lies largely within the hands of the Director of the Veterans Bureau
such things, if he chooses, and when he chooses.
Mr. Shackelford crashed, from 900 feet, in an
during service, and there is abundant official record concerning his
outside of one small check for back compensation, mailed to him last
month, he has
never received any compensation nor any insurance benefits, and is not
(at the time
this article is written, April 20, 1930) receiving anything from the
This case is an illustration of multiplied
and concentrated rigidity; it is one of the worst cases that has come
to the attention
of the writer, and that is saying quite a good deal.
If space would permit, it would be interesting
a full copy of what the Regional Office Rating Board of the Bureau in
had to say about this particular claim in 1928. This Board saw him
times, and were able to confer with the doctors who had made the
all those at the Central Office who are responsible for the unjust and
have never seen nor talked to the veteran.
A few excerpts from the St. Louis Board's
dated November 2, 1928, will be illuminating. This report first gives a
of injuries in the service as disclosed by official records, then of
in hospitals, and finally the relationship between those injuries and
received in an automobile accident in 1927.
The Bureau's own consulting eye specialist, a
of national reputation, closes his exhaustive study of the case
relative to the
injuries to the veteran's eyes by stating:
"… it may be assumed
that his airplane crash in 1919 was the etiological factor in the optic
… his present loss of vision even if aggravated by the automobile
accident of 1927
may be properly ascribed to the airplane crash while in active service
The Rating Board's decision continues:
"… this Board
has made a very careful and painstaking study of all disabilities … it
us that one thing stands out and that is that this veteran
disabilities on his whole right side as well as his head and eye from
crash ‒ to make a decision that all of his disabilities existing at the
time are wholly attributable to the automobile accident is, in our
opinion, to shut
our eyes to the real facts in the case… Dr. 'X' is consulting
specialist in this
office and is considered an authority on eye … diseases. Much reliance
placed by this Board upon the statement and conclusion of Dr. 'X'…"
This Rating Board then allowed him service
on eye, fracture of leg, crushing of knee, and multiple facial scars,
their report by stating:
"… the granting
of service connection for the above disabilities is an exercise of our
as to what we believe to be the facts ‒ and reflects the intention and
Yet in spite of this decision the veteran is
nothing at the present time from the Veterans Bureau, due to the
and highly intelligent attitude of those in authority in the Central
Office in Washington.
To express the feelings induced by contact with
victims of such injustice in any adequate manner, would probably seem
to those without
such knowledge, intemperate and exaggerated ‒ it will be better to let
make his own comments.
Ordinary publicity is ignored by the Veterans
and not until some Senator or Representative demands the names of those
made an iniquitous decision, and then insists on their punishment, may
be expected to change its hide-bound, red-tape entangled methods of
We have heard much over the radio, and through
forms of publicity, as to the enormous sums being spent for the relief
of the veterans,
and apparently there is much opposition in Congress, at the present
time, to bills
that would add many more millions to the present staggering costs.
If the proposed new legislation becomes a law,
is here seriously raised: What possible good will be accomplished if
and his bureaucratic advisors continue to flaunt their power in the
faces of the
lawmakers and of the citizens in the manner illustrated in the two
in the foregoing paragraphs?
What will undoubtedly happen, as has repeatedly
in the past, is that new laws, or the liberalization of old laws, will
Bureau to take care of some of the cases now denied under their
while it at the same time opens more widely the gates to thousands of
present disabilities are in no way connected with their service.
There is every reason to believe that it will
continue to be the policy of the Bureau to deny as many claims as
I this regardless of merit.
The present laws are liberal in their intent
clearly designed to cover a large majority of the very claims that are
denied, but so long as such men as the director has chosen, either on
initiative, or by being forced to make decisions in accord with the
wishes, continue to disregard the existing laws, which are the wishes
of the people,
as enunciated by Congress, just so long will we have injustice and
consequent deaths and suicides. And the Veterans Bureau will continue
to be held
in just contempt by all those who know anything of the actual facts.
A word regarding the employee of the Bureau at
various Regional Offices. There are, and have been many times when
Boards would have given justice, if they had so dared, but they must
policies and precedents as laid down by authorities in Washington;
they lose their positions if they did not.
The following is a verbatim report of the
which was held between the writer and the medical member of one of the
Rating Boards in connection with a case which will soon be tried in a
for insurance benefits.
It was such a palpable miscarriage of justice
special protest was made against the decision which had been rendered,
doctor was asked how he could possibly give such a decision in the
light of the
evidence in this disabled veteran's case. His reply was:
came from the Central Office while you were away and picked out a few
our Rating Board could not see any way out of giving compensation and
jumped all over us and intimated if we could not discover a way to deny
connection to appeal the ease on some minor technicality, and they
would take care
of it as they had had more experience in this line."
If space would permit, a great many more
be cited indicating to what extreme lengths the Veterans Bureau will go
the law, quite possibly in pursuit of a policy they erroneously believe
to be in
the interests of economy, but which in the final analysis will but cost
millions of dollars more, and this because new laws will be passed to
correct the very conditions now created and maintained by long-time
A few words at this time, with an illustrative
in connection with this Government Insurance, of which we hear so much,
and of the
wonderful benefits (?) that are to be derived by veterans taking out
insurance in preference to that offered by the old line private
Apparently compensation is considered by the
Bureau as a gift to the disabled veterans; in reality it should be
thought of as
an obligation. Suit in court cannot be brought for payment of
compensation, at least
there is hardly any possibility of winning any suit that might be
Government Insurance is a contract, it is something that was purchased
for by the veteran, by no flight of imagination may it be held as a
gift. Yet thousands
are finding out, to their dismay and sorrow, and disgust, that it is
bring suit in a Federal Court to force the Bureau to pay them that to
are entitled, because they have paid for it.
To anyone who has followed any number of these
it is plain to be seen that the disabled veteran is very decidedly at a
when it comes to a trial in a Federal Court; it would take too long to
statement in this article, but it can be proved beyond the peradventure
of a doubt,
and as a matter of fact is probably readily comprehensible to thinking
For many disabled veterans, government
quite probably the only insurance that he can now secure; and in this
instance the government has been liberal in permitting the disabled
veteran to acquire
or reinstate a prior policy. However, the collecting of benefits on
(even after it has been issued, and after he has paid premiums for a
number of years)
is quite another story. In other words, if insurance has been granted,
and the veteran
dies, having carefully kept up his premium payments, then his
beneficiary may not
have quite so much trouble in collecting. This, however, is by no means
in fact in one case that I have in mind the veteran died within three
discharge, with his policy still in force, and the beneficiary has not
paid, but she has been forced to start suit for her rights.
The main difficulty that the veteran is likely
is, if, and when, he becomes permanently and totally disabled. It is
against justice that has caused the large majority of the thousands of
over the United States, to be filed.
The writer can cite several cases where outside
companies have been paying permanent and total benefits for years to
happened to have been insured in private companies. But these same men
compelled to sue the Federal Government for benefits from their
although the government claims to be liberal in their decisions in
disabled veterans. This, in reality, has not been demonstrated to be a
Bro. Caspar W. Bruns, 32d, of St. Louis, Mo.,
pictures appear with this article, took out government insurance in
and since then has paid his premiums regularly. He is now suffering
tuberculosis, moderately advanced, active; pulmonary laryngitis,
disease, and also arthritis of the spine.
Quoting from the Bureau's own decision dated
"In view of the
fact that this veteran has been hospitalized for a period of one year
and the recommendation
of the hospital authorities that he will not reach a condition of
arrest by further
hospitalization, he has been rated as allowed temporary total
disability from Sept.,
1928, to Sept. 1, 1931, in accordance with the terms of Section 202
In effect this means that the Bureau's own
have decided that he has been totally disabled since Sept., 1927, and
to be totally disabled until Sept., 1931, a period of four years
without a break.
It would be interesting to place this case
disinterested reputable life insurance company to see whether they
would have denied
the man the benefits of the insurance he had bought and paid for, when
he is in
the condition that is shown by the Bureau's own hospital report.
Demand was made for payments of insurance
February, 1928. The director denied his request June 27, 1929. Suit was
3, 1929. On November 5, 1929, the Government asked for another 60 days
to answer his petition. January 6, 1930, the government filed a
demurrer on an absurd
technicality. The case has been set for trial for May 22, 1930, and if
he is lucky,
the suit will be tried on that date.
It is needless to mention that this veteran
up his insurance premiums during all this time, and as he is utterly
unable to work,
these premiums must be taken from the small amount of compensation he
For two years and three months he has been
secure that to which he is justly entitled and may have to wait yet
before it is finally settled.
Thus you have a concrete illustration of
ideas and methods when you purchase government insurance; it is
something to think
over very carefully, very critically.
It might be well for veterans who are now in
condition, and who are now considering government insurance, to
before making their final decision; for Bro. Bruns is but one of many
that are having
There are thousands of suits already filed
government, and undoubtedly more will follow. Do you desire to have the
and worry over a suit in a Federal Court if you too become permanently
disabled, or do you wish to have the thought constantly in your mind
dependent upon you may have to wait for years and years before they
ever, get the benefits for which you paid?
The Government has almost unlimited strength
this is unquestioned, but government officials may use that enormous
power to try
to make it impossible for you and your loved ones to secure that which
After much observation and experience in these
suits, the statement is made, that, where the suit is based on the
the old War Term Insurance (carried during service) the Veterans Bureau
secretly hopes and trusts that you will die before your case comes to
know full well how difficult it is for a deceased veteran's dependents
to win a
suit when the veteran himself is not there to tell the truth, the whole
nothing but the truth, about himself.
Disabled veterans are now dying at the rate of
(according to a recent statement made by the Veterans' Bureau).
The attorneys for the Bureau well understand
they can secure continuance after continuance of suits, the law of
strongly operate in the Bureau's favor before the suits do come to be
as strongly operate against the veteran's.
To think that many of these boys, who in the
hour of need sacrificed everything, are now compelled to die knowing
that they have
not received even that which the law specifically provides they shall
for which they fully paid, due to an intentional and premeditated delay
on the part of those who are government paid to do this work in their
delay that it is hard to avoid stigmatizing in the harshest terms, but
certainly morally indefensible.
Personally the writer would much rather earn
working as a day laborer than receive the pay of the Veterans Bureau,
with its easy
hours and substantial vacations, if thereby he would be compelled to be
cause of denying some of the claims with which he is fully acquainted,
and for which
he has been working for years.
Right at this moment there is a disabled
is unquestionably permanently and totally disabled, who has paid for
insurance up to date, and he tells me that he now has nothing to live
and that the only way in which he can force the government to grant his
benefits will be by committing suicide. His case has been in court for
and the delays have well-nigh broken his morale. It will not be at all
if this boy does precisely what he states that he intends to do.
Solemn promises have been made by me to some of
pathetic veterans while on their death-beds, that I would fight for the
their dependents and loved ones; and so long as I have health and
strength and am
financially able to do so, I shall continue to fight the callous
unnecessary red tape, the delay and personal indifference, that abounds
in the Veterans
Bureau; particularly the individuals who compose the appeal groups, and
authority in the Central Office in Washington.
The time is fast coming when the old pension
will be revived, it seems to be the most probable solution, and if I am
much mistaken the director of the Bureau knows this full well.
Meantime Director Gen. Frank T. Hines has it in
power to cause thousands of cases to be properly rated if he so
he has it in his power to cause meritorious claims to be denied.
WHICH SHALL IT BE!
The author hopes that every reader interested
administration in behalf of the deserving disabled ex-service man will
time to write a letter of protest to his Senator or to his
Representative; and that
he will also pass this magazine on to others interested in justice.
Clubs of the A.E.F.
in the Great War
Bro. Charles F. Irwin,
Hill Masonic Club
ONE of the finest organizations within our
Army was the Engineer Corps. And among its diverse branches were the
Of this number we find the 13th Engineers scattered all over France
work in the way of building and operating the American system of
Railways and associating
with the Allied forces in handling their railroad problems.
The personnel that constituted this branch
consisted of highly trained men in the railroad business of our country
every section of our land. Some of the biggest American Systems have to
an unusual percentage of their employees enrolled on their Honor Flags.
you can still discover in their important Depots in the large cities
the huge red
banners with the white stars upon them, indicating that these business
have long memories about the deeds their men and women performed during
that confronted our nation.
The 13th Engineers consisted of men drawn from
of the country, with Chicago men representing quite a large percentage.
account of this Club which came to me years ago from several
we learn that the Club was born in England. The Regiment was in Camp at
in that kingdom, when on August 8, 1917, a group of their members, who
met and formed their Club. To this Club they gave the name "Heather
from the adjacent hills covered with the beautiful heather of the
At that time they selected as their officers
‒ Lieut. George S. Case, Auburn
Park Lodge, No. 789, Chicago.
‒ Capt. Thos. P. Horton, Frontier
Lodge, No. 45, La Crosse, Wis.
‒ Sergt. Maj. J. F. Hays, Owensboro
Lodge, No. 30.
Treasurer ‒ Private Frank Girdiner,
Wellington Lodge, No. 160.
Secretary ‒ Sergt. A.
G. Wyant, Geary Lodge, No. 139.
I have learned that Vice-President Horton and
Wyant are deceased.
From a letter mailed to the Club at Blois and
Postal Sector 215,
15 May, 1918
Pvt. Waldo E. Oettinger Secy.
Masonic Club, F. &A.M.
AP0 726, AEF
In a recent army issue of the army edition of
York Herald, my attention was called to the announcement of the
existence of your
There was also a Masonic Club formed in our
having been in existence Since August 8, 1917. The organization took
place on one
of the Heather Hills surrounding Bordon Camp, England. There the club
present name of the "Heather Hill Masonic Club." We have banded
together to extend brotherly love of our fraternity, helping the needy
for our dead so far as possible.
In the name of our club, as Secretary, I extend
most hearty congratulations, wishing you success and offering you any
and co-operation that we are in a position to give.
Fraternally, G. M. KING, Secretary,
Co. D, 13th Ang. (Ry.)
U. S. Army.
we come upon evidences of a change in officers
the Club, Brother King replacing Brother Wyant as Secretary.
When the Club was organized a number of
formed and among them was one which they called the "Preparation
consisting of Bros. G. H. King and J. A. Elliott. We do not know for
sure just what
the duties of this Committee were, but our-own intimate knowledge of
some of the
ceremonies developed in many of the overseas clubs leads us to suspect
husky Engineers were abreast of the same. If so, then the way of their
was most strenuous and the sands most hot.
From a copy of the menu and program of one of
banquets which was sent to me by Bro. Sam. E. Ferguson, of Olathe,
Kan., I take
the following: The second of the accompanying illustrations reproduces
page of the card.
Cakes Chocolate Doughnuts
Music of the 13th Engineers'
THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER
Bro. Col. N L. Howard
History or the Club:
Bro. F. G. Taylor
Bro Lt. Col. C. L. Whiting
Bro. Maj. W. C. Arn
Bro. Maj. E. Schultz
Addresses and Presentations of Jewels by
Bro. Lieut. S. S. McConnell
Closing Music: AMERICA
These references to individual brothers rescue
oblivion a very few of the roster of this Club. We are hoping that some
of this Club will read this sketch and mail in to us a copy of the
so that we may type it and file it with other rosters we are
accumulating of various
Masonic Clubs in the A.
The last page of the card is devoted to a brief
of the Club history. For the benefit of our membership who are
material we give it here in full.
of the Club
The Heather Hill Club was founded by a small
Masons on August 8, 1917, in Bordon Camp, England. Led by Bro. Perry,
one of the
most congenial members of the A.F. & A.M. we ever met, we
climbed to the top
of a high hill overlooking our camp and the surrounding country, which
is the Historical
Thereafter, being led in prayer by Bro. Perry,
the Blue Canopy of Heaven and the Ever Watchful Eye of the Supreme
Ruler of the
Universe, sentinels were posted and a Lodge of Masons was duly opened.
After due deliberation this Club was formed
to the great quantity of both Scottish and English heather growing on
the beautiful Scottish Heather was adopted as our Emblem and from it
the Club received
The Club has grown from a membership of
that time to some three hundred at present. We have held our meetings
greatest difficulties ‒ in the open, under the ground, and often under
and air raids from our common enemy called the Central Powers.
Never for a moment have we forgotten those
taught us in our early lessons, never tiring and always extending a
to the needy.
Herbert Clark, Printer, 338 rue St. Honore,
There are a few stray indications as to the
covered by this migrant Club indicating the duty which carried their
one end of the battlefront to the other and far back into the
intermediate and rear
sections of our A. E.
In the Report of the Overseas Mission (p. 175)
upon this: "Proceeding on April 6th (1919) to Nimes, he (one of the
investigated that leave area from a Masonic point of view and
determined that it
would close so shortly thereafter as to require no service from the
to Marseilles that afternoon, he conferred with Brothers Charles M.
A.C. Gilbert, and other brethren regarding the "American Masonic Club"
at Marseilles. The following day he attended a meeting of the A.M.C. at
held in conjunction with the "Heather Hill Masonic Club" of the 13th
(which was about to return home), at the Macaroni Factory in Camp
Marseilles, and addressed about 400 brothers."
Another reference to this regiment indicates
returned to Chicago intact and was demobilized.
Turning to the minutes of the "Masonic Club, A.
P. O. 726," we come upon this paragraph:
"Feb. 5, 1919, a pamphlet was submitted for examination by a brother
describing Heather Hill Masonic Club of the 13th Engineers, who carry a
charter (?) granted from the Grand Jurisdiction of North Dakota; having
organization on the high hill back of Wennall Downs Camp, Winchester,
the lodge, there formed, by sentries and administering Masonic Rites."
When I came into possession of this reference I
immediately to Grand Secretary W.L. Stoekwell, at Fargo, N. Dak (Oct.
asking his verification of this story. In reply he informed me that
there was a
mistake, since North Dakota had issued but one dispensation for a Field
that was to the 165th Infantry.
I can conceive of no other explanation than
may have been the Banquet folder above referred to and quoted by me. It
noticed that the brethren "opened a Lodge." Now we can understand what
happened. The brethren having all proved themselves by showing
in home Lodges informally constituted themselves a "Lodge" in the same
manner as did the brethren on the Cunarder in August of 1917, and
the "Saxonia Lodge, No. 1, somewhere at Sea." And as did the brethren
in the Punitive Expedition into Mexico, 1916, who styled themselves the
Madre Lodge, Sin Numero."
I have attempted, for a number of years, to
to letters I have written to various former members of this Club whose
and locations were known to me. None has ever been returned to me nor
have any replies
It is chiefly through the information from
E. Ferguson that it has been possible to furnish the information
contained in this
sketch. He says:
… my entire family
was engaged. Two boys, Aviators, and a daughter, a Nurse, with wife and
the home fires burning.
We do not know how the menu card came into Bro.
hands. We wrote him for further information but he failed to reply to
There is scarcely a doubt but some one of our
will prove to have been a member of this Club. If so, we urge upon you
to send to
us your account of your Club as you remember it, especially telling the
parts of England and France and possibly Germany, in which your Club
Also, if you have a copy of Brother Taylor's "History of the Club,"
he read at the January Banquet, we would appreciate the loan of the
same that a
copy may be made for our research files.
Also, if any of the brothers (whose names are
in this sketch) comes upon his name, we trust he will communicate with
us so that
we may add to the file further information concerning this Club's
history for future
Masonic Club of Le Mans, France
IN my series of "American Masonic Lodges in the
World War," I published in the April, 1929, issue of THE BUILDER, the
of Sea and Field Lodge, No. 3, Le Mans. This was a Field Lodge under
of the Grand Lodge of New York. The history of that Lodge was
with the Masonic Club which constitutes the study of this series as
I have been quite fortunate in establishing for
years a brotherly relationship to W. Bro. Harry B. Mook of New York
City, who was
the active originator of the Club and Lodge at Le Mans, and to him must
go the major
credit for the preservation of its records.
From letters and from magazine and newspaper
of the Club, I have also obtained material upon which this paper is
a letter to me from W. Bro. Mook, dated Nov. 2, 1928, I quote the
Several months previous
to the entry of Masonry into France, a number of Y.M.C.A. Secretaries
organized the American Masonic Club and honored me with the Presidency.
house was situated at 45 rue Chanzy, quite a pretentious building as
you will see
by the photograph. The American Officers and Doughboys joined in large
the same roof, making the undertaking a financial and social success.
Here we billeted
both Officers and Doughboys under the same roof; here they met upon a
A request to the Commanding Officers of the different camps always
Bands, and Jazz Orchestras from the various Units. The female element
by girls from the Y.M.C.A., Red Cross, and English W.A.A.Cs.
Here we had weekly and semi-weekly dances. The
was a Source of enjoyment to all. It was no uncommon sight to see a
an officer's partner and dance with her.
Now let us return to the location of this Club.
was from the beginning one of the largest and most active areas of
in France during the war. It is situated in Brittany on the direct
Brest, Tours, Paris, St. Nazaire. Through it passed the major part of
Forces and within its bounds hundreds of thousands of our troops found
more or less extended location.
Subsequent to the Armistice Le Mans became what
known as the "Neck of the Bottle." And at its height of activity held
over 300,000 troops at one time. Over 2,000,000 passed through Le Mans.
All welfare organizations centered their
in this area. The one doing the largest work was the Y.M.C.A. The
this organization proved to be to an unusually large number members of
Consequently there sprang up in the Le Mans area the clubs in which
meet and hold social intercourse.
From an article entitled “American Masonry in
contributed by R.W.Bro. Mook, to the Detroit Masonic News, for January,
gives the following account of the inception of the Club:
In March, 1919, one
of the Y.M.C.A. Secretaries asked me if I thought there were any Masons
"Y" headquarters as it would be a good idea to form a Masonic party and
give an evening's entertainment to the Sanitary Corps of the 91st
Coast), every member of which, from the Colonel down, was a Mason. They
50 kilometers from Le Mans. This division hailed from California we had
Secretaries around the "Y" Headquarters where we placed a notice on the
Bulletin Board, inviting such of them as were Masons to meet in my
office that evening.
Thirty responded. The American Masonic Club was organized and I was
honored by being
elected their President. Accompanied by "Y" girl entertainers, we
to Seton (a short distance beyond Le Fertie Benard) where the Sanitary
encamped, and a place that you might call a "theatre." We gave them the
entertainment, with plenty of "eats" and "smokes." The boys
declared it was the best evening that they had spent during their two
years in France.
I wish to interpose
here that the story of this California Corps is very fascinating and
will be related
later in this series. I am in possession of material furnished to me by
Officers of the Corps itself.
Bro. Mook goes on to say:
Upon our return to
town, it was decided that we continue as an organization. I obtained a
the house at 45 rue Chanzy, complied with military courtesy by gaining
of our Commanding General, with the hearty endorsement of his Chief of
of whom were Masons), who bade me "go to it."
From April 1st to August 1st, the Club became
of our Masonic Brethren, both officers and enlisted men, in the A. E.
F. This club
and other ones furnished the place where the officers and men could
meet upon a
common level. Both thoroughly enjoyed it. The Engineer Corps strung
in our 100 feet of garden I had permission to call upon the regimental
the different camps. Every Wednesday and Saturday nights we gave a
dance, with the
bands in the garden and jazz bands in the parlors, which were spacious
and had hardwood
Coors. "Y" girls, Red Cross nurses, English girls, Jewish Welfare
all joined, with plenty to eat and smoke. The boys had the time of
and in many cases it was with regret that they left for home. They took
in the place because it was theirs. They paid five francs (less than
In an article in the American Legion Monthly,
in 1929, a former "Y" girl, in giving her experiences in France during
the war, informs us of having danced at Le Mans with Gene Tunney, who
did not prove
as expert a dancer as he did later as a boxer. She remarks that her
feet were in
bad condition after the end of their dance. I do not know that this
dance was in
the Masonic Club but it may have been.
Bro. Mook informs us that:
They were billeted
in the club, both officers and men, who held the place in such respect
one ever crossed the portals under the influence of liquor. And so were
happy months for them and for me.
On August 1, 1919, the curtain dropped on our
activities in the Le Mans region. The boys had all left for home, so we
tents and crept away. I returned on the Northern Pacific.
Having myself returned on the Northern Pacific
same trip I had the pleasure of making personal contact with R. W. Bro.
found him to possess a very winsome personality. To his untiring
efforts much of
the Masonic success in the Le Mans area is to be accredited.
Turning to the "Report of the Overseas Mission"
we discover, on page 173, the following:
After a conference
at Paris, with Bro. Harry B. Mook, Regional Financial Director of the
in that area, we determined to aid and sustain an American Masonic Club
district. This Club was established with Brother Mook as President,
building at 45 rue Chanzy, the rent of which the Mission furnished, and
approximated 900, besides which it served a very large number of men,
that area, or temporarily therein. On April 9, 1919, Brothers Moore,
Lay and Goodrich
visited Le Mans, and addressed large gatherings of brethren, besides
other important Masonic work.
It is from this source then that we learn that
Mans Masonic activity was made possible on a large scale through the
furnished by the "Overseas Masonic Mission," which was composed of a
of Prominent New York Masons, sent to France by a number of the Grand
our country, and bearing with them a large sum of money secured from
Grand Lodges. Thus the brethren who did not get to France during the
feel that they were personally identified in a fine piece of work. This
Mission aided many of the Masonic Clubs in the later days of our
location in France
in 1919, parts of which story appeared in various articles of my series
in THE BUILDER
last year. The full story of this Mission will be retold in this
In a letter to me, at another time, Bro. Mook
We had a roster of
over 1000. Life membership was bought for five francs. The Grand Lodge
from the Grand Lodge, State of New York, furnished the funds that
helped to get
started, but in the main the Club was self-supporting.
I have come upon the following in the Masonic
an undated number, which, from internal evidence, must have been issued
1919 or early 1920. It is a report by Bro. Mook upon his return to New
York on August
Never was heard an angry tone. All was peace
Three large connecting rooms with hardwood, polished floors and a
foyer. And all this belonged to the soldier. Did he not pay his five
francs to become
a life member? And what he paid for he thoroughly enjoyed. I was Uncle
Daddy to the finest bunch of boys the sun ever shone on. So were spent
months for them and me.
Some years ago I received a very kindly letter
Dr. T.M. Shortley, who resides at Tidioute, Penn., in which he enclosed
copy of his membership card in the Le Mans Club, which is here given
for my reader's
THORNTON M. SHORTLEY is a member of THE
CLUB of LE MANS, FRANCE and has paid his admission fee. A. E. TAYLOR,
The only trace we have as yet secured as to the
of this Club are as follows:
President ‒ Harry B. Mook, New York. Secretary
W. Ross, Kentucky. Treasurer ‒ A. E. Taylor.
The fund of money remaining after the close of
Club was left on deposit in France to await the rise in exchange rates.
voted that the History of the Club should be written by Brother Mook
and be paid
for from this fund. I have as yet no knowledge as to whether or not
has completed this work but am waiting, with considerable interest, the
his story in complete form, with roster attached, shall appear. It will
very valuable official document in the accumulating records of our
activity during the World War. This Club appears on our official
Register of Overseas
Masonic Clubs as No. 5.
May I again ask all those who have any
these Army Clubs to write to me.
Humber Installed Masters
Bro. J. G. Wallis, England
This interesting account of one of the most
and active research lodges in England may serve to show how the Past
a group of lodges can serve the Craft, making available their knowledge
There is no reason whatever why there should not be a Past Masters
lodge in every
city in those American Jurisdictions which allow dual or plural
where this is not permitted, Past Masters Associations with the same
take their place. One other prominent research body in England is not a
Manchester Association for Masonic Research, and there is also the more
formed Merseyside Association. While the membership in these two bodies
to Master Masons, there is no reason why there should not be Past
for the same purpose.
Bro. Wallis is one of the few surviving
the Hall Installed Masters lodge, and almost the oldest member. He has
its faithful Secretary for many years, and also as editor of its
THE Humber Installed Masters Lodge No. 2494,
on the premises of the Humber Lodge No. 57, Anne Street, Hull,
Yorkshire, was consecrated
on February 2, 1894 ‒ being founded for the promotion of Freemasonry in
archaeological, and philosophical characters; to provide a special
Lodge as a bond
of union for Worshipful Brethren who have passed the chair; to
lectures and discussions for the improvement of the Brethren in Hull
and generally to endeavor to raise the standard of Masonry, and to
support the principles
of the Craft in their highest sense.
Previous to the formation of the Lodge, a Lodge
for Installed Masters was formed in 1882 ‒ W. Bro. Dr. Bell in the
chair ‒ when
the objects of the Lodge were defined, and a code of By-Laws adopted.
Many meetings were subsequently held, and the
and sympathetic co-operation of prominent Masons obtained, including
holding high rank in various districts who promised lectures, and were
assistance. At a later date it was considered desirable to obtain an
status, and on October 6, 1893, it was resolved to apply to the Grand
Lodge of England
for a Warrant of Constitution for a Lodge to be named the Humber
Lodge; this was accordingly carried into effect, and necessary
‒ the new warrant was obtained and is dated 14th December. A. It.
5893 A. D.
1893, at London, by Command of H.R.H. the M.W. Grand Master, and
Signed: Mount Edgcumbe, D. G. M. E. Letchworth, G. S.
The first W. Master of the newly consecrated
Bro. M. C. Peck, a Brother known all over the province of Yorkshire as
a most zealous
and enthusiastic Mason. Poor over 40 years he was Prov. G. Secretary in
of N. & E. Yorks, and a Past G. M. Bearer, Eng. He was a most
a model Secretary and a profound reader of anything pertaining to
in the literary and Archaeological aspect of the Craft, and the Editor
of the appendix
to "Mackey's Lexicon of Freemasonry" brought out in 1883. In his death
Masonry lost one who did much to raise the caliber of the intellectual
side of our Order. In a roll of Past Masters for over thirty-six years,
it is invidious
to select any for special reference, the list being one that any Lodge
feel proud of. During the Great War, when Hull suffered so dreadfully
raids, and it was difficult to keep Lodges working, the Lodge was
to the Deputy Prov. G. Master, Bro. Miles J. Staplyton, for occupying
during those trying years of 1918-19. Other Worshipful Masters have
Civic Chair as Lord Mayors of the important City of Hull. Others have
leading positions in the medical, legal, architectural, and allied
We must, however, mention our late Bro. G. L. Shackles. The name of
well known on both sides of the Atlantic. Past Master of his Mother
Lodge, No. 1511
Hornsea, P.M. of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, and Master of this Lodge
in 1896, he
was one of our most zealous and active members. He was also a leading
on Masonic medals and jewels, and possessed the largest collection in
In an address, Bro. J. H. Payne, P. M., said:
the passing of our Worshipful Brother Shackles, Freemasonry has
sustained an irreparable
loss, while this Lodge ‒ of which our late Brother was one of the
Founders and the
oldest member ‒ deplores the death of one of whom vie justly proud.
"Brother Shackles was a distinguished ornament
of the profession to which some of us have the honor to belong, and his
knew and appreciated his worth. I saw him almost daily for many years,
and as I
think of him I am reminded of the words of that eccentric American
genius ‒ the
poet, Walt Whitman ‒ who, when dying, was heard to murmur, 'I love God
and little children.' There could be no moral or spiritual bankruptcy
for such a
"In the days that are to come we shall in
look back again down that great Corridor of Time, wherein the lights
have fallen upon us, for after all only a few brief moments, for we
spend our years
as a tale that is told. As we look back down that Corridor, with its
haunting memories, recalling some of those friends with whom we have
talked ‒ and as we think of George Lawrence Shackles, the truth of an
will once more be borne home to us ‒ it is this: “The memory of the
just is blessed.'"
Glancing down the list of Past Masters, we
with the greatest pleasure many of its names ‒ Bro. W. N. Cheesman, an
of the British Society for the advancement of Science, an author of
for this Society, an authority on "Masons' Marks" and a beautiful
of our ritual. Bro. Corris, "our silver-tongued orator." Bro. J. Wright
Mason, Medical Officer of Health for Hull for forty-four years, and an
in forensic medicine at the Universities of Edinburgh and Aberdeen.
is gladness in remembrance," gladness in thinking of the work many did,
only for the elevation and general welfare of the craft, but comforting
relieving the distressed, and alleviating the aggregate of misery and
During its history, the Image has had visits
of the leading authors and lecturers on Masonic subjects, including
Pros. W. J.
Hughan, R. F. Gould, G. W. Speth, T. Inane, J. T. Thorp, and others.
At intervals of four or five years the
of the Lodge are published, Vol. VIII being issued in February, 1930.
are in great request by Masonic students, the first seven being out of
J. G. Wallis, P. Asst. G. St. B. Eng., who has been Secretary of the
1912, and acted as Editor to all Volumes from the third, can supply a
The Lodge celebrated its Installation on
last, when Bro. T. T. Field was installed as W. Master, and the evening
interesting by a presentation of a silver Tea and Coffee Set to the
Asst. Sec. Bro.
R. Witty, the presentation being made by the Dep. P.G. Master. Bro.
The Lodge is in a most prosperous condition,
financially and numerically, having the largest number on its roll
since its formation.
That the Lodge has fulfilled in a large measure
aims and objects of its founders is evident from the improvement
rendered in the
ritual among the various local Lodges in the neighborhood, the greater
shown in the literary and historical side of our order, and the
readiness of so
many of its members to assist in arranging the syllabus of lectures
Meekren, Editor in
WE request all our readers and correspondents
that the offices of the Research Society have been removed to 105 South
St. Louis, Mo. May we especially ask the editors of our exchanges to
see that the
change is made in their mailing lists as soon as possible.
* * *
Conference at Philadelphia
AT the Third Informal Conference of Masonic
and Educators held a year ago at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, it was
‒ for, these Conferences being informal, nothing can be definitely
decided as to
the future ‒ that Pennsylvania should call the next one. The hope that
might be continued has been fulfilled, and the Committee on Library of
Lodge of Pennsylvania has invited those prominent in Masonic
Educational and Library
work to attend the Fourth Informal Conference at Philadelphia, May 8,
9, and 10.
This year the program as arranged deals more
work and less with Libraries than was the case in the preceding years.
Prof. C.S. Plumb, Bro. C.C. Hunt, Bro. Silas H.
and Bro. W. L. Boyden, whose names are probably almost household words
of THE BUILDER, are to read papers. Among others on the program, are
Bro. H. V.
B. Voorhis, who has contributed some useful articles to THE Builder
J. Austin Evans, President of the Society for Masonic Research of
and M. W. Bro. Frank S. Moses, who is in charge of the educational work
of the Grand
Lodge of Iowa. THE BUILDER will be represented by our associate editor,
Bro. William Dick, Librarian and Curator of the
of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, will preside, and Dr. Arthur
Mather, Grand Secretary
of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, is to reply to the address of greeting
of the Grand Senior Warden of Pennsylvania, Bro. Otto R. Heiligman.
These gatherings have in the previous years
of much good. They have aroused interest, and have stimulated those who
them. There is every prospect of the present Conference being up to the
of those held previously, and perhaps even setting a new record. This
last is not
at all improbable, for those who have attended all of the former
to agree that each was better than the one before.
In the June number we expect to give a full
of the proceedings, as was done last year.
* * *
The Future of
IN the April number of the Masonic World, Bro.
Morcombe, the editor, has an arresting article under the title
at the Crossroads." It is one that should have the widest publicity,
spite of the assertions by those who love to prophesy smooth things,
there is a
crisis in the affairs of the Craft.
The keynote of the article is given in the
in which Bro. Morcombe quotes a Past Grand Master of California:
I expect that Masonry
will continue to exist for a long period of time ‒ forever, as the
goes. But I am not so sure that it will hold its present high place in
of men …
This recalls a dictum of Albert Pike, in
a state of affairs somewhat similar to that with which we are now
faced, which existed
some years after the Civil War. He said that "Masonry, by its nature
to be exclusive, had become popular."
We all know the really extraordinary influx
Fraternity that began just after the World War, and which reached its
peak in 1921,
in which year very nearly three hundred thousand men became members.
in THE BUILDER just a year ago entitled "Where Are We Drifting?" may be
recalled. In the second of the charts there given the curves of gains
indicated that in a year or two they would meet. This forecast has been
In some Grand Lodges the year 1929 has actually shown a net loss of
others are at a standstill.
This condition is not peculiar to the Masonic
It is known, and Bro. Morcombe in his article gives the figures, that
organizations are faced with the same conditions, and even more
intensely. And not
only fraternal societies, but clubs and churches are feeling the pinch
interest and loss of members.
Statistics of membership give a somewhat
test of an institution's condition. Members there must be, obviously,
knowing the quality little of value can be deduced from the quantity.
in the past attained a high reputation in the world, but this
reputation was not
in the least founded on the number of men who were Masons, but on their
It was because in every community it was observed that many of the best
men most respected, the men most trusted, were of the Craft, that
the reputation it has enjoyed. And reputation cannot long survive the
which give rise to it.
It is obvious, because it is common human
as soon as any state or condition is highly esteemed in the community
be a greatly increased desire to attain to it. In proportion as a
society is highly
esteemed, and membership in it is regarded as a distinction, so will
increase of those who desire to join it for the benefits it will bring
In other words, the more an institution prospers the greater the number
who seek to attach themselves to it. The condition is inevitable, human
what it is.
It is those who give who make an institution,
it is a society, a church, or a nation. It is those who take without
reduce it to weakness. The parasites can hardly be wholly eliminated,
but when their
number grows to be too great the organization, or organism, is
sickly, and may even die.
We in America have been bitten by the lust for
for numbers, for wealth. Freemasonry has in every country and in every
in its own way the external environment. Some things it yields to,
others it opposes,
but whichever it be, it would not so act but for the existing
conditions. The things
that are accepted as a matter of course in the environment inevitably
those which are resisted. That we should be gratified by increase in
is natural, and such increase is not in itself evil so long as the
level of qualification
is maintained. But to maintain the standard means that increase in
be set on one side as an aim. It is not something to be sought for, but
if it comes,
it must come of itself.
It is an undoubted fact that it has become
too easy for men to enter our lodges. The standard has been lowered;
in theory any brother may undertake the task of raising it through the
in reality he is helpless. In most lodges it would be impossible, even
devote his whole time to it, for a brother personally to satisfy
himself of the
qualifications of every applicant. Besides even those who feel the
keenly are necessarily affected by the actual conditions. They
inevitably feel that
it is hard to reject a man who is no whit worse than many who are
already in the
lodge. The effect is cumulative, and increases in geometrical
proportion. And while
it may be true that candidates should not be accepted for negative
there appears nothing overt against their being received, but that
be something positive, something in their life and character that fits
initiation, yet it is most difficult to act on this principle, for it
has come to
such a pass that most Masons actively resent the rejection of any
have presented to the lodge and regard it as a personal injury. For one
or even a group, to attempt to act in this way would mean in most cases
of the harmony of the lodge. It is a choice of evils.
These obvious conditions, that all thinking
deplore, do not stand alone, they are all really symptoms, by-products
of the way
in which the Craft in America has developed, incidents of its
evolution. It is this
that makes it so difficult to find a remedy. Most expedients that are
not touch the deep-seated root of the evil. Perhaps there is now no
cure but the
operation of natural laws. If the present tendencies continue, the
lose its prestige, many will drop out, fewer will seek to join, and
may be, a fresh start can be made.
Yet we can hardly be satisfied to wait for this
which may end in death rather than cure. We must strive as we can to
There are thousands of Masons who are Masons in fact as well as in
name, and could
they work unitedly much might be accomplished. Much more is being
a matter of fact than we know, even as Elijah learned there were men in
had not bent the knee to Baal. The problem is gradually being realized,
Lodges are now actively trying to do something to meet it. The first
to realize that the body is sick, the next to diagnose the disease.
After that there
may be some hope of a cure if the right treatment can be found.
* * *
HAS Freemasonry any specific objects? According
people it has ‒ very definite ones. Among them we may note the
destruction of all
religion and overturning of every government, the establishment of a
state of anarchy
and the downfall of civilization and the final triumph of the powers of
the kingdom of Satan. For further details, General Ludendorff, Leo
Taxil, Col. Gustav
Wolf, Mrs. Nesta Webster and many others may be referred to. But
setting aside the
assertions of our friends the enemy, who may or may not believe what
they say, has
Masonry any objective aim or purpose as a reason for its existence?
One of our contemporaries has raised the
has answered it by saying that "Freemasonry has always existed for its
sake" and that a man "becomes a Mason in order to be a Mason."
While it is perfectly true that the Fraternity
not exist for the purpose of furthering any specific cause, whether
or charitable, yet is it, as an institution, entirely self-centered? It
was not instituted, nor do men become Masons, in order to further the
cause of universal
education in a particular country, or universal peace between all
nations or any
such aim or purpose; but is it true that it has no interest in the
welfare of humanity
That universal benevolence is a characteristic of every true Mason has
understood; that a society of men individually benevolent may not
collectively is paradoxical indeed.
Let us recall a question that most American
Do you seriously declare
… that you are prompted to solicit the privilege of Masonry by … a
of being serviceable to your fellow creatures?
Consider too the old charge at the closing of
After rehearsing the duties and obligations Masons specifically owe to
it is said:
These generous principles
are to extend farther. Every human being has a claim upon your kind
good unto all."
… by liberal benevolence
and diffusive charity; by constancy and fidelity in your friendships,
the beneficial and happy effects of this ancient and honorable
In the instructions given to the Apprentice it
that the tenets of a Mason's profession are brotherly love, relief and
we are told that:
By the exercise of
brotherly love, we are taught to regard the whole human species as one
high and low, the rich and poor, who as, created by one Almighty
Parent, and inhabitants
of the same planet, are to aid, support and protect each other …
This statement is remarkable in that it is said
it is by the exercise of brotherly love that we come to know these
Under the head of relief it is said:
To relieve the distressed
is a duty incumbent upon all men, but particularly on Masons, who are
by an indissoluble chain of sincere affections. To soothe the unhappy;
with their misfortunes; to compassionate their miseries and to restore
their troubled minds, is the great aim we have in view.
It is highly probable that many who hear these
assume without much thought that they apply only within the limits of
But this was not the original intention. This passage in our Monitors
in Preston's Illustrations of Masonry in a context which shows
conclusively it was
intended as of universal application. Preston says:
The bounds of the greatest
nation or the most extensive empire cannot circumscribe the generosity
of a liberal
mind… A mutual chain of dependence subsists throughout the animal
of the human species are, therefore, proper objects for the exercise of
The next section to that in which this appears.
"The Discernment displayed by Masons in the choice of objects of
and it contains some very excellent remarks on the subject of the
relief of the
poor and needy and it is concluded thus:
From this view of the
advantages which result from the practice and profession of Masonry,
and impartial mind must acknowledge its utility and importance to the
surely, if the picture here drawn be just, it must be no trifling
any government to have under its jurisdiction a society of men, who
are, not only
true patriots and loyal subjects, but the patrons of science and the
This was the conception of Masonry that was
the intellectual leaders of the Craft when our ritual was still in a
and there could be collected a multitude of instances to show that it
and put into practice. Not perfectly, not universally, yet there is no
it was held to be a proper activity for Masons, both individually and
The idea that Masonic lodges should be restricted to self-centered
objects is of
quite recent appearance, and the positive prohibition of external
to be found only in the United States, and fortunately, not yet in very
A study of the ritual will show, once the
is appreciated in its full meaning and in all its implications, that a
and obligation is first to those to whom he is bound by natural ties,
those to whom he is bound by the voluntary ties of the Fraternity, the
duty to whom
includes also all who are united by natural ties to each member, that
is those who
are dependent on him; and finally to all mankind.
What anyone can do to help others is limited,
very limited. But the limits are set, or should be set, only by
and not by a self-centered view. Priority of claims comes properly into
when claims clash. That we are unable to aid a brother because of some
obstacle is no reason why we should not help our neighbor whose need is
at our door.
No man lives to himself alone, and the same is
of institutions. To become self-centered is the beginning of moral
‒ and on that road finally lies dissolution and death. It was said once
shall it profit a man if he gain the whole world and lose his own
shall it profit the Craft if it counts its adherents by millions, and
wealth and power, if it has forgotten the law of its being? It may be
the average Mason has never thought much of these things, and it may
not be his
fault, but it is a condition that should not be acquiesced in, or
regarded as normal
and proper. Though in truth the problem of amending it seems almost
those who see it had best begin by looking for what needs to be
reformed in themselves.
For it is in the practice of moral and social virtues that we learn.
Review of Masonry the World Over
of Los Angeles.
In the current number of Freemasonry
and Eastern Star is a brief report of the Los Angeles Masonic
Library Association. Bro. John W. Crawford was elected President, and
Bro. T. S.
Southwick, who has long been librarian, was elected, or reelected,
He reported that the demands on the library
than ever before. The library is at the service of all Masons and their
It is not official, but is supported voluntarily by the LOB Angeles
Lodges. It shows
what may be done in any center of population by intelligent and
Bro. Southwick also announced that a number of
of cut-of-print books had been made advantageously, and that many
donations of books
had been received.
Incidentally we may note that Bro. E. P. Ramsay
has any connection with Freemasonry and Eastern Star. His retirement
from its editorship
will be a real loss lo the Masonic journalism of the United States.
Bro. William C. Rapp, editor of the Chicago
Chronicler, has made some pertinent remarks on the above subject in a
of his journal. He believes in the wisdom of requiring candidates to
learn the "Lecture"
or catechism of each degree before he is advanced to a higher one, and
that the efficacy of this method of imparting instruction is
demonstrated by the
fact "that most Masons are more completely informed concerning matters
upon by the catechism than in other aspects of the Masonic system."
It might be observed incidentally, that if so
is required of our candidates is of proved value, it might be well that
lectures be learned instead of merely the first sections. For as a
matter of fact
there is nothing in our esoteric system that is not comprehended in
Bro. Rapp mentions also a suggestion made some
ago by M. W. Bro. Hohy, when Grand Master of Ohio, that additional
be asked, for example, on Masonic duties and privileges, and on the
the Constitution of the Grand Lodge and the by-laws of the Lodge. In
Rapp suggests (hardly seriously, though the matter is serious enough)
questions touching the false impressions so many people have of the
belonging to the Fraternity. This is certainly a point that needs
All would-be petitioners should receive some authoritative information
the real nature of the Masonic institution, and what is expected of
It is possible that this might go a long way toward solving the problem
Education in Georgia.
From the Masonic Messenger for March we learn
following circular letter has been sent to the lodges in Georgia,
signed by M. W.
Bro. Raymond Daniel, the Chairman of the Board. The circular reads as
You will see from the Proceedings of the Grand
of Georgia of 1929 that Grand Lodge not only endorsed the Educational
in 1929, but made further plans for its enlargement by creating a BOARD
MASONIC EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES, the purpose of which is to assist in
and programs for Lodges, County and District Conventions. Details are
May I fraternally request that you name from
members of your Lodge a Committee on Masonic Education, whose duty it
shall be to
arrange meetings for pleasure and benefit in your Lodge during the year.
May I also ask that you appoint a Masonic Home
to bring about a greater interest in our Home and children. This being
year of their organization, the Masonic Home is to celebrate its silver
plans for which will soon be ready. The Masonic Home Committee can also
be of great
service in furthering the interest of the Masonic Messenger.
The two Lodge committees mentioned above are
that were a part of the educational program of 1929. Won't you be so
good as to
advise me of the membership of the two committees as soon as you have
From time to time it will be the pleasure of
to endeavor to be of assistance to you by bringing certain details to
May I assure you of my fraternal love and
co-operate with your Lodge for the advancement of Masonry.
Our contemporary also states that a
being prepared by which it is hoped to obtain information that may
guide the Board
in making its plans and enable it to render assistance where it is
needed in the
most effective way.
So many Grand Lodges are now experimenting with
that it seems as if there should be some sort of clearing house for the
of information on methods and results. It is not in accord with common
attempt things that have been tried elsewhere without finding out how
worked. Though there sometimes appears to be a tendency to undervalue
of other jurisdictions.
State of the Craft.
According to M. W. Bro. J. J. Phoenix, in his
to the Grand Lodge of North Carolina at its last Annual Communication,
facing a critical situation throughout the country, as well as
specifically in North
Carolina He stated the chief factors of the problem as he saw them in
interest in meetings and complaint of high cost of Masonry.
for non-payment of dues.
methods of subordinate lodge finances and inability to meet Grand Lodge
He went on to say:
I earnestly believe
these conditions will continue unless this and other Grand Bodies make
for the Grand Master to maintain close supervision over the subordinate
… No official successfully represents the Grand Master. The subordinate
will not accept a substitute for the Grand Master. The Grand Master
should be adequately
financed so that he could devote considerable time to the Grand Lodge
his term of office. Frequent visits should be made to the weaker
and every district meeting taken advantage of. It is in district
meetings that best
results are observed. Here the interchange of ideas and discussion of
in renewed interest in Masonic conditions. I have been impressed with
submitted for discussion and the general desire for more light.
The statement that no one can successfully
the Grand Master sounds somewhat curious. Most jurisdictions find that
Masters and District Deputies are able to take the Grand Master's place
good advantage. There is little doubt, however, that the conditions he
do exist, and it is probable that the Fraternity in the United States
as a whole
it in for the period of depression that thinking brethren have long
Qualifications of Candidates.
As is well known there are very considerable
in the regard given to the supposed landmark that a candidate must be
perfect. Outside of the United States little attention is given to this
even within this country practice varies from an almost fanatical
the letter to the liberal interpretation that if a man is able to
comply with the
requirements of the ceremonies, and could give the traditional proofs
of his membership
in the Fraternity, he may be accepted.
The Square believes that "thinking Masons"
are coming to believe that the "landmark in reference to physical
should be changed, to permit "the initiation of one who has been
by dispensation. It justly remarks:
There are many excellent
men in the world who, because of some slight physical defect, are
receiving the privileges of Masonry. Many of them would be a credit to
They would be infinitely better than some of the moral cripples that
must be on the watch to prevent entering the tyled limits of the lodge.
And it goes on to add that "Freemasonry must
more and more liberal in its views," and that it is only a question of
before the change is made.
One thing in regard to this subject must have
to many "thinking Masons." Why should the letter of the old operative
law that required an apprentice "to be able of body" or "whole of
his limbs as a man ought to be," a perfectly proper requirement for
Masons, be continued in the Speculative Fraternity? The lodge, the
and everything else that was objective, has been transformed into a
system, except this one thing. To be consistent we should interpret
this old requirement
as symbolical of moral and spiritual fitness. On the whole it would
seem that this
clinging to the rigid literal interpretation of the old rule is really
Research in New Zealand.
The last part of the Transactions of the
Past Masters' Lodge, No. 130, New Zealand, to come to hand contains the
address of W. Bro. Courtney Mills Suckling, on his installation as
Master of the
lodge for the present year. The following paragraphs on the origin and
work of this
lodge ale of sufficient general interest to reproduce in full:
of this Lodge had two special objects in view, viz., perfection in
ritual work and
Masonic research and mutual instruction. The former was early quietly
I hope we shad not again venture upon ritual exemplifications, and the
time is all
too short to properly carry out our other design, yet the need is
great, and no
ordinary Craft Lodge appears to be able to do much more than a little
talk (or perhaps argument is the more correct term) in their meetings
"Our late Grand
Master has brought before the Craft the urgent necessity for further
for the newly raised M. M., and looking back upon my own experience, I
that he has touched upon one of the great weaknesses of our Order.
"Our Lodge has
been striving now for over a quarter of a century to supply information
to the Master Mason, which he is generally unable to obtain elsewhere,
we have labored under many difficulties (finance being one), a measure
has undoubtedly been obtained.
"Still, I regret
to have to say that we are not yet receiving that full support from our
which I think we may be fairly entitled to claim. It is but a rare
a Master or I.P.M. to seek admission to our ranks, and yet what a field
adventure and work is presented to such.
"There is, I understand,
no other similar organization in the world that can claim such an
and, avoiding as it does all subjects of political and religious
enables men of all ranks to meet upon a common level. Never was there a
need for a true spirit of fraternity amongst all men and a spreading of
amongst peoples of all nations and creeds."
It is curious with what general indifference
aspects of Masonry are regarded everywhere in the English speaking
The reasons for this widespread state of affairs seem to call for
This is a subject that some enterprising brother seeking a new field of
might well take up.
of Past Masters.
In one of the lodges in Wisconsin a Past
has recently been formed, as we learn from the Masonic Tidings of
organizations are not uncommon in other countries, but they do not seem
to be frequently
met with in the United States. The objects of the new Association above
to are thus set out:
We believe that such
an association can be of service to the lodge in various ways, viz.:
officers in the ritual and floor work. I propose this year to delegate
of the younger Past Masters to be present at the visit of the Grand
one to make mental notes of corrections made in one particular office,
to follow this up at some near future date with the officers of the
Past Master watching the work of his particular officer and correcting
We also believe that through the association we
pick out a more efficient team each year for our Past Masters' night
than it would
be possible for the Master to do, which has been the practice in the
Elsewhere such organizations, though
instruction in the letter of the ritual, conceive that their greatest
field of usefulness
is in encouraging the study of Masonry in general, which really seems a
occupation for Past Masters; because, after all, learning the ritual by
only the rudimentary stage of Masonic knowledge.
Of Massachusetts And Britain Confer.
The Grand Master of Massachusetts, M. W. Bro.
W. Dean, has recently been in England, and from an interview with him
in the London Freemason, we learn that an important conference took
him and Grand Officers of the Grand Lodge of England, Scotland and
Ireland on their
respective policies in regard to China, where each of the four Grand
lodges under their jurisdiction. According to American theories of
China is open territory, there being no Grand Lodge in existence there,
are District Grand Lodges in the Far East under the different British
M. W. Pro. Dean also expressed himself as being
of the British system of many lodges with small membership rather than
lodges of which so many exist in this country.
Fascism in America.
In January we noted the widely advertised
of the Fascist League in the face of a threatened inquiry by Congress,
and it was
suggested that it would not be surprising if some new organization were
take its place.
We learn, though not from the daily newspapers,
such an organization has been formed, under the name of the "Great
of Lictors." At its head we understand is a man who was very active in
Fascist League, and who is said to be closely connected with the
Fascismo of Italy.
A New English
In a recent number of the London Freemason
rather amusing story of an enthusiastic ritualist. For the benefit of
it may be as well to explain that in England there is no official
Each lodge is autonomous in this matter within certain not too sharply
There are a number of "workings," as our English brethren style them,
which have a considerable vogue, while many older lodges jealously
guard their own
This brother was visiting a lodge and noted
features of the work that were new to him, and afterward he inquired of
of the lodge to what school they pertained. Was it Emulation working?
Logic? Oxford? And to each the answer was negative. "Then what was it?"
asked the earnest inquirer, and the reply was "Intuition."
Perhaps a little more room for intuition, on
of qualified brethren, might be a good thing in America.
Mark Masons Temple In London.
In England Mark Masonry is an entirely separate
from the Royal Arch. A Master Mason may proceed directly to the latter,
Master is a side degree. The Grand Lodge of Mark Masons has hitherto
from the United Grand Lodge, but these had to be relinquished to make
way for the
magnificent Peace Memorial Temple that is being erected by the English
The Mark Grand Lodge has, however, secured a
the other side of Great Queen Street, opposite to its old premises, and
been approved for the erection of a temple of their own. Lord Aldenham,
Master, stated at the last Quarterly Meeting of the Grand Mark Lodge
that the Provincial
Grand Masters, and the Masters of London Mark Lodges have promised full
of the project and pledged themselves to assist the "New Premises Fund"
in every way possible.
Lecture for 1930.
The lecturer chosen for this year was W. Bro.
Cart de Lafontaine, whose name will be remembered by some of our
readers as the
author of several articles in THE BUILDER in past years. The lecture
was given at
a meeting of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 2076, held in the Albert Hall,
March 7. The Pro-Grand Master, Lord Amthill, was present.
According to the London Freemason, Bro.
away from whatever tradition exists in dealing with the origin of the
with the life of Preston." His subject was the Seven Liberal Arts and
which were apparently treated objectively as well as in connection with
It is curious, though it has so often happened
to endowed foundations, that Preston's purpose has been entirely
ignored in the
recent revival of the Lecture. His intention was to perpetuate and
peculiar system of catechisms he had compiled. Now no one is entirely
what they were, while the Prestonian Lecturer may select any subject he
that is connected with Masonry.
Education in the
In his address to the Grand Lodge of the
Islands at its last Annual Communication, M. W. Bro. Seldon W. O'Brien,
Grand Master, had something to say upon the pressing subject of Masonic
The Cabletow, Manila, published this part of the address in full, from
take it with due acknowledgments. The editor of the Cabletow remarks
that if the
program outlined by Bro. O'Brien is carried through in the proper
manner that the
Craft will reap incalculable benefit from it. One of the greatest
American Masonry has to deal with is the lack of continuity in any
plans owing to the constant changes in the executive officers of the
This affects both the Lodges and the Grand Lodges. Under existing
continuity can only be attained by putting such activities in the hands
committees or boards. But this is really only a makeshift after all. We
Bro. O'Brien's successor in office will carry out the plans here
To my way of thinking, one of the greatest
that confronts Masonry in the Philippines today is the education of its
in the history and philosophy Of Freemasonry. The ideals and principles
great institution, which we would implant in the hearts of our brethren
them apply in their daily lives are expressed by symbolism. If we hope
ever to weave
and build into the character of our members the steadying and balancing
of those purifying principles and tenets, and thereby ennoble and
lives? they must know and comprehend the true meaning of those symbols.
In the ceremonies
of our initiation, we do not attempt to do more than to indicate the
Masonic knowledge, to lay the foundation for the Masonic edifice. The
left to pursue the journey or complete the structure for himself
with his brethren of the Lodge and by reading and reflection. The
of our initiatory ceremonies, if correctly and impressively conducted,
with a proper
understanding of their meaning, is that the new member is impressed
with the seriousness
and high purpose of the Order. He leaves the Lodge Room fired with
eager to forward its noble objects. He is inspired by a glimpse of the
meaning of the words of the ritual. But, as the weeks and months pass
by, he receives
little or no encouragement in his pursuit of knowledge; his enthusiasm
his keen interest wanes, and he finally drops into the easy rut of
fraternal inertia. It is from this lethargic attitude that so many of
of our Lodges need to be aroused. There is need for re-inspection, a
of enthusiasm, a reconstruction to the principles of Masonry, on the
part of many
hundreds of our membership. Among them, there must be a revival of the
spirit. I believe that the surest way, although slow and tedious, to
this is through a definite and concrete program of education in the
Considerable thought has been given to this
in the hope that I might be able to offer you some practical
suggestions. It would
seem that the only feasible way for the members of the Craft to obtain
which they ought to have of what Masonry is, its history, its
philosophy, and its
symbolism, is through their own well-directed individual efforts. They
must be caused
to educate themselves in the possibilities of the Order, inspired by
of what others are doing, what can be done, and what must be done to
we believe to be the noble purposes of the Fraternity. In order to
bring this about,
there must be created a self-consciousness on the part of the leading
the Order that education is essentially necessary to the welfare of
and, along with that, some practical method must be developed to bring
to the membership
the knowledge which they should have. This I conceive to be a proper
the Grand Lodge. The officers of the subordinate Lodges must be not
only good ritualists,
but wide readers and keen students of the inner meaning of the
they perform, so that they may sot the Craft at work under good and
and create in them a renewed interest for further light in Masonry. If
to possess these qualifications, the most important requisite is that
they be provided
with the best Masonic literature in order to enable them to take the
has come from highly authenticated sources and remake It into a form
which the average
member of the Lodge can understand and which will give him some
enthusiasm for the
organization of which he is a part. With these ideas in mind I would
as a basis of our future Masonic educational program, the following:
present Special Committee on Masonic Study and Research be abolished,
and that there
be created in its stead a permanent Committee on Masonic Education to
cooperate with the officers of the subordinate Lodges in devising and
practical plan for the education and enlightenment of our Masonic
the lines herein suggested.
Committee make every effort to encourage and stimulate Masonic research
on the part of the officers and members of the subordinate Lodges, and
purpose, to prepare and furnish to them suitable courses of study on
with information as to where the literature on the various topics
may be found, in order to facilitate their studies.
That a general
Masonic library be established in Manila and maintained by the Grand
a suitable and convenient reading room, under the supervision of the
on Masonic Education, with an ample appropriation for that purpose and
that an effort
be made to obtain the co-operation and support of our constituent
Lodges and the
York Rite and Scottish Rite Bodies of Manila at least to the extent of
the use of
their present libraries in this worthy object.
relation to the general library and under the super" vision of the same
there be established what is known as "Travelling Libraries" for the
and benefit of our provincial brethren, who will not be able to avail
of the books in the general library.
subordinate Lodges be urged to purchase and place in the hands of each
of its candidates
a copy of the presentation edition of M. W. Brother Oliver Day Street's
of the Three Degrees" [Lib 1924]. The set consists of three
volumes ‒ one for each
degree ‒ and the volume pertaining to each degree should be presented
to the candidate
when he is learning the lecture of that degree.
the purpose interest in this educational program, a Prize Essay Contest
each year under the supervision of the Past Grand Masters of this
to that of the Scottish Rite Bodies in 1925, with suitable prizes to be
to the winners of first and second places in the contest.
Education in Idaho
We are indebted to the Idaho Freemasonry for
report of the Education Committee of Idaho, which was presented by its
Bro. Curtis F. Pike (who is also Grand Secretary) at the last annual
of the Grand Lodge. It seems to be of sufficient general interest to
The problems of our Idaho lodges today are
from those of a generation ago. Within the memory of men not yet old
were much simpler. Men in those days had leisure evenings, and the
lodge room afforded
them a place to spend a pleasant hour. Homes were much more isolated
and roads were
of the pioneer type. Having little else to do in the evening, they
to lodge, where besides disposing of their Masonic obligations they met
spirits and talked over the problems of the day with the neighbors.
Then came the automobile, good roads, moving
radio, and many other modern forms of attraction and the old days
passed away never
to return. Men are no longer troubled with idle evenings. There are so
to do and so many places to go that there are not evenings enough in
In order to attend lodge now they must forego
pleasure or business engagement. It is more interesting to turn on the
listen to the varied and attractive programs that are offered, or to
step into the
car and speed away on a drive to the neighboring town.
Men no longer need to go to lodge for a
who go now must do so for a more substantial reason. It must be more
loyalty to the lodge, love of Masonic principles and teachings, or
because of a
deeper faith in the fundamentals of the fraternity. These are new
it can readily be seen that the problem of lodge attendance assumes
However, there was probably never a time when
influence of Masonry was needed more than at the present. Under the
standards of modern life it seems all the more necessary that the
of correct living as taught by the Masonic fraternity should be kept
before our members. The subject of Masonic education assumes more
than otherwise as other conditions change.
The Educational Committee has nothing of a
or unusual nature to report. The cause of education does not lend
itself to the
dramatic. Education is a growth, and growth is seldom rapid or
dramatic. It has
been a year of painstaking work along lines followed for several years
chairman of the committee and the nine district deputies have followed
up the work
mapped out in previous years. We are pleased to be able to report that
has been made and that the fraternity generally is in a fairly
We have written a number of circular letters to
lodges giving suggestions and instructions on educational matters. Our
no form of ceremony for the reception of the Grand Master and other
officers. Consequently there was always much confusion and
dissimilarity in the
way it was done in different lodges, and often embarrassment to the
Master and other
officers. To remedy this condition we prepared a leaflet setting forth
form. This was approved by the Grand Master and furnished to the
lodges. The results
were noticeable and very beneficial… Having seen it in operation,
however, we are
of the opinion that still further improvement is possible.
To assist the lodges in building up their lodge
as well as to give individual readers and students the proper
information we prepared
a short book catalog of a few of the leading and most worthwhile
Masonic books to
be had at the present time, giving the list of books and a brief
each, the price of each, names of publishers, etc. I note as we go
about among the
lodges that they are taking advantage of the information furnished and
and reading more than was formerly the case. A small Masonic library is
if educational work is to be carried on.
We have written many letters giving suggestions
lodge officers and committees. We have spent more time in the field
than has been
done in any one year before. We have corresponded with educational
other states and secured their plans. We have not as yet prepared any
for their own lodges, but suggestions have been furnished leaving the
work to the initiative of each local committees or Master. We have felt
work for this committee is to stimulate a desire for "Masonic Light"
to direct the work in general, leaving details of method to local
Quite a number of lodges have formed themselves
study clubs. Special meetings are called once a month at which matters
knowledge are presented for instruction. These study programs are
helpful. Young Masons are taught the meaning of Freemasonry and their
been aroused. Masters often find these educational programs of
assistance in adding
to the life and interest of the lodge, helping to maintain attendance
as well as
enlightening the members and giving them a more intelligent
understanding of what
the Masonic life should be.
In almost every community there are men capable
giving instructive talks on Masonic subjects. We would strongly urge
and educational committees to take advantage of this situation, and
men to prepare themselves on certain selected subjects and present them
to the lodge.
During the past year the Grand Master and I have listened to many
that could with profit be passed around among the lodges in the
a member prepares himself on his subject and gives a valuable
presentation, it is
a waste of talent to drop the matter without passing it to neighboring
Great progress has been made within the past
throughout Masonic circles everywhere toward preparing materials for
Many of the large Grand Lodges have committees preparing leaflets and
and complete courses of study. More Masonic books have been written
during the past
fifteen years than in all the years before ‒ books of a high type of
Material is to be had in great abundance from various sources. It is
our hope that
another year the Committee may be able to systematize the work somewhat
has been done in the past, by furnishing a more definite and detailed
that the committees may more nearly follow the same course.
After several years' service on the Committee
thoroughly convinced of the advisability and necessity of continuing
work of this
nature. It remains the greatest problem facing the fraternity.
Last year $500 were appropriated for the use of
committee, including not to exceed $200 for office assistance. $315.36
expended for traveling expenses; $150 for office assistance; and $17.25
or a total of $482.61 ‒ leaving an unexpended balance of $17.39.
We desire to further supplement our report by
on several representatives of lodges to report informally to the Grand
the problems and success of their work in their lodges in presenting
Curtis F. Pike,
Chairman of Committee.
Prague Summer School
We have been requested to publish the following
regarding this school, which, while having no special Masonic
the fact that we are informed that many of those connected with its
are members of the Craft, notably Eduard Benes, Minister for Foreign
Roucek, several of whose articles have recently appeared in THE
BUILDER, is to be
one of the lecturers.
The invitation to American tourists to attend
is given by the American Educational Committee. The objects of the
school are thus
The aim of these courses,
both of which have the same programme of lectures, is to give an
outline of Central
European, particularly Czechoslovak, civilization for those
who wish to gain a clear knowledge of the actual civilization of
Thousands of tourists travel through Prague,
of Czechoslovakia, during the summer months from Germany to the south,
of visitors go to Carlsbad (Karlovy Vary), Marienbad (Mariansko Laxno),
(Joachimstal), Plstany, and other famous spas and watering-places of
Guides and handbooks give them a certain amount of information
regarding the civilization
of the country, but ignorance of the Czech and German languages hinder
comprehending the spiritual life of Central Europe, and especially
Combine your journey to Prague, or your stay in Carlsbad (or even
Jachymov) with attendance of the lectures given by experts, and the
by English-speaking guides to the castles and charming medieval towns
Any of our readers who expect to be travelling
this summer might be well advised to obtain further information about
which may be done by writing to Clarence A. Manning, Columbia
University, 61 East
25th St., New York.
The books reviewed in these pages can be
the Book Department of the N.M.R.S. at the prices given, which include
except when otherwise stated. These prices are subject (as a matter of
to change without notice; though occasion for this will very seldom
arise. It may
happen, where books are privately printed, that there is no supply
some indication of this will be given in the review. The Book
Department is equipped
to procure any books in print on and subject, and will make inquiries
works and books out of print.
[Lib*] by Ray V. Denslow. Published by the
Association of Missouri, 1929, 92 pages. Index.
THIS little publication is a collection of
woven together by the author. The story covers the history of "Franklin
Lodge, No. 7," at Old Franklin, Missouri, between 1822 and 1832. The
will be of interest to historically minded Masons, and to the American
of social conditions of the frontier. At the time of its organization
was the most westerly of Lodges in the United States, and among the
names on its
roster may be found those of the leading citizens of a century ago. The
evidently many troubles. The prohibitionist will point with interest to
that the evil of strong drink found its way into the Lodge and was one
of the causes,
together with its accompanying trials, of the downfall of the Lodge
These dramatic incidents suggest a comparison
their and our present-day Masonic doctrines. The Lodge felt that any
business disagreement needed the intervention of the Lodge. We try to
and polities" out of our Lodges.
* * *
Der Bibliothek Der Loge Minerva Zu Den Drei Palmen,
Karl Markert. Part 1
Germany. Rm2.75 ($0.70).
[Lib*] THE American Mason who does not have
with the Craft in Great Britain and continental Europe by means of
various research lodges and associations, correspondence with overseas
or as a reader of foreign periodicals, misses many of the delights
holds for its students. His views cannot help but be more or less
his knowledge of Freemasonry is restricted to his own Jurisdiction, or
his own country.
It may come as a surprise to such a Mason to learn that the craft in
functions in ways different than his own, and that there is a past and
to the Fraternity which can only be understood by a knowledge of its
A brief introduction to the bibliography of
appeared in The BUILDER for August, 1923, pages 250-51, in which the
Bibliographie der freimaurerischen Literatur was reviewed; another
account of the
same work, with the story of the Beyer and Quint supplements, was given
in the Iowa
Grand Lodge Bulletin, January, 1928, pages 435-37 Both are from the
pen. Each review gives the essential facts regarding the principal
we have nothing in the English language which approaches the
productions in number of items, wealth of description and detailed
The two best American lists are the Catalogue of the Masonic Library …
to Samuel C. Lawrence [Boston, 1891], and the 1873 and 1884 catalogues
of the Iowa
Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. The Grand Lodge of Iowa in 1925
a Parvin Memorial Catalogue of the Iowa Masonic Library, but no funds
until 1929 for this purpose ‒ and then only an amount quite
insufficient for the
work in hand. Let it be said, however, that the plan is to make an
yearly until the funds are sufficient to produce the catalogue; but
than the mere title and author of a book is given, the long awaited
have no such worth as the European catalogues already published, or in
It is devoutly to be wished that at least the great rarities which the
Library possesses will be described in minute detail, such as can be
done in most
capable fashion by the skilled and experienced assistant librarian now
the direction of Bro. C.C. Hunt, Grand Secretary and Librarian. My own
in that great Library from 1925 to 1929 give me a most intimate
knowledge of the
treasures to be found there.
With this lengthy introduction ‒ which I feel
because the present review covers only one out of twelve parts to be
the next two years or so ‒ we can examine Part I in detail. The pages
of a good sized volume; they measure 11 x 7 1/2, and Part I has
There is a frontispiece depicting an interior view of the lodge
library, with books
neatly arranged in closed cases. Subscribers to these parts (I state
this for the
benefit of the half-dozen leading American Masonic libraries which have
for the catalogue upon my earnest recommendation) may rest assured that
be a title page and an introduction to the volume when all parts are
Sixteen pages of the catalogue are devoted to
alone ‒ and at the very outset the author states that only a portion of
is listed. Bro. Markert whets one's appetite in the very first
sentence, in which
he tells us that among the treasures are manuscripts from the period of
of Strict Observance, as well as the diaries of Baron von Hund and
owned by Bro. Johann Georg Eck. Von Hund needs no introduction to the
Freemasonry and the older rites; Eck (1746-1808) was an associate of
Von Hund and
the sixteenth Master of the Lodge Zu Den Drei
Palmen, Leipzig. The diaries and the Eck material are to be
in the future. Libraries and students take note!
To Eck goes the credit for making the first
of the Lodge; there is a manuscript with 476 titles listed, compiled in
follow ‒ circa 1810, 1839 and 1838-1900. Biographies, histories,
and lyric poetry, occult and mystical papers ‒ these are just a few of
included in the manuscript collection.
Part B opens with encyclopedias and
who fondly imagined that the Mackey Lexicon (1842) or his Encyclopedia
the first books of the kind will be surprised to know that Lenning
wrote a three-volume
work as early as 1822; its modern successor is the famous Allgemeines Handbuch der Freimaurerei
[Leipzig, 1900-01]. I do not find
Mackey listed, but Waite's two-volume encyclopedia appears, as does
Ask Me, Brother!
Tschoudy's L’Etoile flamboyante
1766) is the oldest
reference work listed; there are many reissues known to the student.
The second section of Part B treats of
Here is where the bookworm can revel! Bro. Silas Shepherd's fine list
of 1923 appears,
but what treasures of the eighteenth century and the early nineteenth
we find included!
One could write a whole article on them alone. A familiar item is the
catalogue of Pythagoras Lodge No. 1, Brooklyn, N.Y., 10 and 146 pages,
Periodicals are numerous. One observes that the
lacks Vol. 32 of Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, and Vols. 4, 6, 7 and 9 of
Does any reader of this review wish to donate these missing volumes to
Library? Another treasure is a goodly run of The American Freemason,
edited by the redoubtable Joseph E. Morcombe. Ah, that was a fearless
– and one really representative of the best the American Craft has to
its worth was recognized by too few, and it went the way of all
struggling without endowment.
Sometimes Masonic bibliophiles wonder where the
old treasures go. To begin with, here are two rarefies from England ‒
The Free Mason's
Pocket Companion, (Smith's) editions of 1736 and 1738. The catalogue
the 1736 is the "eldest Pocket-companion," but there was one earlier,
published in 1735. There are German translations of the Pocket
Companion of 1738
and 1740 at Leipzig.
American Masonic libraries which regard lodge
lists, etc., of no account can take a lesson from the Leipzig library,
preserved, in 235 thick volumes, rosters of lodges on the exchange
from 1870 to 1930. What a fertile field for the researcher who seeks an
the question, was So-and-So a Freemason? If we had taken the precaution
the printed lists, etc., of our early American lodges, we might be able
a few more notable Americans as members of the Fraternity.
Pages 40 to 64 contain titles of Grand Lodge
local lodge histories, serial works, chrestomathies, addresses, and
books on general
The compiler, Bro. Karl Markert, is to be
upon his capable production. He has set a high standard for those who
out similar works. The part before me is ample assurance that the
of the catalogue will be sought after by libraries and collectors. The
subscription are RM 2.75 for each part, equivalent to about seventy
can be placed with Markert and Petters, Publishers, Leipzig, C-1,
desiring the catalogue must agree to purchase the entire work, which is
to cover twelve parts.
* * *
of John Quincy Adams
Edited by Allan Nevins [Lib 1874-77; 12 Volumes –
Published by Longmans, (Green and Co. Cloth, preface,
table of contents, introduction, index, 585 pages.
NO other diary, it is claimed, has touched
life at so many points, or extended over so great a period ‒ 1794-1845
‒ as that
of John Quincy Adams. The complete diary first appeared as a
but it has been out of print for fifty years, and thus the
republication of its
more outstanding passages will be welcomed by those of present
with the details of a life so greatly devoted to public service. Born
in 1767, Adams
was only a lad when in 1778 he accompanied his father to France on a
Launched on a diplomatic career of his own, he saw service for his
country in Russia,
Prussia, Holland, Sweden, France and Great Britain. Later he became a
Senator from Massachusetts, then Secretary of State for eight years,
President of the United States, being the only son of a President to
hold the same
exalted office as his father.
One is tempted to touch upon the details of
life as he develops certain aspects in his own observations. Couched in
and effective language, written in a simplicity of verbiage and style,
the rigid Puritanism which we are so prone to consider an unfailing New
characteristic, the diary entries grip one, and give us an intimate
the man and his thoughts. We all have our heroes in American history,
and we also
have individuals for whom we hold scant regard. Others leave no
was one such in my younger days. In later life, however, I felt averse
because of his unreasonable opposition to Freemasonry; yet I confess
that this dislike
has been tempered by my admiration for the man's better qualities, his
of purpose and his accomplishments.
As in my previous reviews of biographies
Masonic appeal because the subjects were members of the Fraternity, or
a part in Freemasonry's development, comments must be limited to the
Masonic interest. Let it be stated and emphasized that John Quincy
Adams, like his
father, John Adams, was not a Freemason. Both names loom up in Craft
father, because he wrote a letter to the Masons of Massachusetts in
which he stated
that he was not a Freemason, but that he held the Fraternity in esteem
in connection with the anti-Masonic developments of 1798 and 1799); the
writer of the Diary under review, because he took a still more
pronounced part in
Masonic developments in later years. He became one of the most bitter
and most virulent
opponents the American Fraternity has ever had. Bro. Erik McKinley
the story in his "John Quincy Adams: Anti-Masonic Letter Writer,"
published in The Iowa Grand Lodge Bulletin, March, 1926, which article
forms a chapter
of The Morgan Affair and Anti-Masonry, written by him and the reviewer,
awaits publication in book form. Briefly, Adams admits in a letter
written in 1832
that he had little knowledge of Freemasonry until the "murder of
and had been only "an occasional witness of its childish pageantry and
mock solemnity of its processions."
The editor of the present Diary omits the first
reference penned by Adams, but it appeared October 25, 1827, in which
a letter received from A. H. Tracy, and to which he authorized a reply
am not, and never was, a Freemason." Additional sentences under the
show that he accepted the current Anti-Masonic propaganda without
displayed a credulity which should have been foreign to an experienced
like himself. Yet there are enough Anti-Masonic references in the new
to warrant the purchase of the book by the serious Masonic student and
libraries. Andrew Jackson, Past Grand Master of Tennessee when he was
is referred to in no complimentary terms, when appointments "are
upon the vilest purveyors of slander during the electioneering
campaign, and an
excessive disproportion of places is given to editors of foulest
presses. Very reputable
appointments have been made." These appointments, and their corollaries
removals (which I touched upon in the review of Andrew Jackson: The
in THE BUILDER for ....... ......), are mentioned frequently by Adams.
Benton is referred to as "a liar of magnitude beyond the reach of
I cannot mention all of the Anti-Masonic
but one or two are worthy of emphasis. Under date of February 28, 1834,
Mr. Edward Everett
brought me a letter from Caleb Cushing, a Royal Arch Mason, and member
of the Massachusetts
legislature, to Mr. Webster. This gentleman had written to enquire what
reason of their delay upon the resolutions respecting the distress and
deposits and re-charter of the Bank of the United States.
Cushing answers, bitterly complaining that all
by the Anti-Masons, who upon all occasions vote with the Jackson party,
if I could not do something to heal this breach. I said that I had done
in my power, and if anything had been done to conciliate the
Anti-Masons they would
have met every advance in the same spirit.
Truly a strange state of affairs ‒ the
the Masonic President!
A month later this interesting record appears,
At seven in the evening
I attended the meeting of the Anti-Masonic members of the House of
The occasion of the meeting was the presence of' Mr. Granger, of New
York, in the
city; and he was present at the meeting. Nothing special was proposed,
but Mr. Granger
was requested to give a statement of the condition of Anti-Masonry in
of New York, and especially in that part of it where he resides. He
said that in
all the western counties of New York Masonry was extinct; the lodges
were all abandoned, and almost all of them formally dissolved; that the
Anti-Masonry had consequently subsided ‒ there was no adversary left to
with, and as a distinctive party there could scarcely be said to be any
left. If the Freemasons should attempt to revive their institutions in
he had no doubt the Anti-Masonic spirit would instantly revive with as
and ardor as it had ever manifested.
Freemasonry did revive in due course of time,
steadily in spite of the opposition which lurked for many years in
of the country. As is known to students of Masonic history,
longest in the western part of Pennsylvania; hence the following entry
17, 1836, is of interest to us:
I was writing an answer
to a letter from Thaddeus Stevens, a member of the Pennsylvania
which he asked my opinion of General William H. Harrison's
is the great Anti-Masonic leader in Pennsylvania at this time; he is
also a partisan
of Mr. Webster succession to the Presidency. He had a correspondence
upon Masonry, and was not satisfied with his answers.
The Masonic reader, who will go through the
Masonic references, will stop often and long upon other passages, for
they are interest
compelling in their subject and treatment. They shed light on many
phases of American
history, and bring out as commonplaces of the time a number of topics
destined to become important in the story of the American nation.
An occasional footnote throughout the book
certain entries to the delectation of the reader, making him wish there
But I suspect the editor omitted many that he had prepared, for if he
to such an indulgence, tempting as it must have been in view of the
made, one probably could not have found the text of the Dorm because of
notes. The Diary is such an excellent cross section of American history
that a commentary upon it would necessarily be a most voluminous work,
beyond the scope of the editor's purpose.
I know I voice the sentiment of others who have
the book that the reader will return to the volume again and again
because of the
fascination it holds for brethren interested in the story of the
and that of the American nation.
* * *
Social Destiny, in
the Light of Science
Charles A. Ellwood, Ph.D.,
[Lib*] Published by the Cokesbury Press,
Penn. 219 pages. Price, $2.15.
IN no period of the man's history has there
much progress in practically all lines of scientific research and
in the last past hundred years or so. Whether it be biology, zoology,
physics, geology, or archaeology, science has affected our modes of
living and our
ideas. Whether it has made life more miserable or pleasurable to the
is very hard to say. One of the greatest difficulties in estimating
culture or civilization
is the fact that we always credit it with the good qualities common to
Furthermore, it is only natural that we are very much satisfied with it
it so clearly works. But it must be remembered that every civilization
has worked; to say that it works is the only other way of saying that
it is here.
We patted ourselves on our back until the World
brought us a sudden and unpleasant realization that something was wrong
system of ours. When it was all over, we realized that the world had a
headache, from the effects of which it has not yet recovered. The
lies in the feet that we are very slow in opening our mind and in
opinions and theories in accordance with the observed facts. The
us this marvelous scientific civilization. He outstripped the rest of
in the power, vigor and keenness of his thought. He is able to set
aside his prejudices,
open his mind, and make a nice bonfire out of the rubbish that cannot
be used any
more. Mr. Ford, for example, changed his "flivver" overnight, so to
and substituted his methods and the factory system with machinery
standing the test
of the time. However, we cling religiously to our idea" concerning
Hence, there has developed a tremendous gap
"science" and so-called "social science." Men are interested
today in material culture and pecuniary gain. It is only natural,
such men also object to the social scientist who dares to examine our
and who discovers defects in contemporary economic and social
institutions. It takes
a certain amount of courage to do so, because such a social physician
strongest groups of our civilization, which are also the pillars of our
Whether or not anyone wants to admit that we
headache, there have appeared recently numerous scholars and men of
who try to diagnose the ailment. Whether they can prescribe some kind
or other cure-all is questionable. But even the most casual inquiry
with the names of those who see the working of civilization in
retrospect and ask
whether all this is worth the trouble, and, if it is, what does trouble
popularity of Dr. Beard's work, Whither Mankind, suggests that his
effect is supported
by other classes of thinkers. R. B. Fosdick's brilliant addresses and
brought him a certain amount of popularity. We all know the following
Ghandi, Tagore, Hu Shih, Ferrero, Croce, Spengler, Keyserling,
Barnes, Belloe, Shaw, Inge, Trotzky, etc.
It is true that some of these authors
their gloomy conclusions and made money by lecturing on the topic to
women's clubs, and other American audiences, who simply "eat up" the
of visiting foreign lecturers. But they performed one service for us at
called our attention to the problem which is being attacked by some
American scholars at home. Bro. Ellwood belongs to that group.
Bro. Ellwood's book is undoubtedly one of the
contributions to the subject that has yet appeared. The more so because
training and profession did not hinder his writing in a style which is
readable and enjoyable. The author's name is known to us as one of the
The occasion for this work was the invitation
Faculty of the Vanderbilt University School of Religion to Dr. Charles
to deliver the Cole Lectures for 1929.
The author became known outside academic
a generation ago, when he challenged the facile optimism prevailing at
He has now reversed his attitude and in a time of widespread pessimism
with this book. He treats the whole field of human endeavor in a
of generalizations, and pays special attention to the fields concerning
in their relation to physical science. He is mainly concerned with the
Government and democracy as well as with the future of education and
The whole book is permeated with Masonic
Anybody acquainted with our Masonic problems, whether a member or not,
that the lectures were delivered by a scholar as well as by a Mason.
Note the following
In the sense of tested knowledge, science may
to light in the physical world. It illuminates all objects and shows
the path of
safety as well as dangers. It enables us, therefore, to descry
While it cannot furnish us with motives, it may modify our motives. It
indicate to us possible consequences, and so in part reveal the future.
therefore, reveal to us responsibilities and become a basis for our
faith and hopes
as well as for our fears.
Translate the statement into Masonic
you will find one of the foundations of our Masonic teachings.
The thesis on which Bro. Ellwood builds his
be found, in general, in my previous discussion. To be more specific,
let me quote
Our civilization is imperiled today simply
is ill-balanced. Our spiritual culture lags so far behind our material
its development that we have no adequate control over the latter.
The thesis itself is that of the other writers
field, especially of Beard, Fosdick and H. E. Barnes. From that point
of view, Bro.
Ellwood's treatment cannot be regarded as wholly original. It is
that he gives ample references to all necessary authorities, and often
the thread where his predecessors have dropped it. His special
contribution is his
discussion of the place of religion in the future development of our
It is evident that he avoids taking into his consideration other
cultures, and limits his survey to those that are Christian. Foreign
find fault with him in that respect. The more so because his assumption
the Christian civilization is of higher order than all others. Thus he
can be accused
of identifying social sciences with Christianity. "The building of a
civilization will be, equally with the saving of individual souls, the
the Church.” To challenge this statement would mean to go into the
field of comparative
religions and to get on dangerous ground.
The reader is amazed at the accurate
sweeping the book. It breathes an optimism probably much needed in the
However, Just as his optimism is the main point of the strength, it is
chief point of weakness in Bro. Ellwood's treatment of his subject. To
one must state that it is an optimism founded in the future, rather
than on the
present state of affairs. In other words, Bro. Ellwood always looks on
with bright-colored glasses, without attempting to excuse the points of
of the present.
But the weaknesses of our social structure are
the weaknesses of Bro. Ellwood's treatment. His amazing power of
nearly prevents one from grasping particulars ‒ but when one does,
there are numerous
statements with which one can quarrel. I must admit, very frankly, that
he is very
hard to pin down. I might also say that such weak points are nearly
by "if" and "should." This system, of course, proves again my
point of contention that he is first of all an optimist, and, secondly,
if at all,
a diagnostician of the actual facts. For example, we find, on page 120:
should be regarded as a virtue only in so far as it leads to unselfish
not simply of one's own state, but of all humanity." (The italics are
I should like to congratulate Bro. Ellwood on this statement. But I
dare him to
propound it in a Fourth of July oration, or discuss it before some of
organizations, who even go so far as to print a blacklist of the type
who make statements such as this.
I simply could not digest this noble statement
"Democracies … for their own protection are forced to support systems
but they are not supposed to dictate what opinions shall be taught in
and again in proportion as they do so they lose their character as
Again the italics are mine. If we apply our individual American cases,
then we evidently
lose entirely the character of democracy – according to Bro. Ellwood.
school and freedom of teaching are … necessary for a democracy." But
the cases of the Tennessee "Monkey Trial," "Big Bill" Thompson
of Chicago, recent troubles in the University of Missouri, etc., etc.
… encourage every individual to think and judge for himself, and they
the whole cultural process." There is a whole school of scholars who
libraries opposing this thesis. Let me mention such problems as the
of the majority," or the decisions of democracies made by sentiment or
instead of by reason and real interest. Even such friends of democracy
as Lord Bryce,
H. J. Laski, G. L. Dickinson, W. Lippmann, and others, emphasize that
it is the
ignorance and apathy of those to whom the ultimate power is confined in
Or let us remind ourselves that if "… war is the mother of autocracy,"
how is it possible that we fought for "democracy" and out of that
struggle came more established democracies in Central Europe than we
Internationalism ‒ on the basis of Christianity
the final goal of our education, according to Bro. Ellwood. The
reviewer is in perfect
accord with the writer. But objection again must be made to the
"if patriotism is taught in our schools, it must be taught critically,
will foment rather than allay political passions and prejudices."
I should like to mention my experiences as a teacher in American
enumerate numerous instances where I was refused a simple consideration
of a teaching
position because I could not show the qualification of 100-percentism,
am an American citizen, and would define patriotism as Bro. Ellwood.
Bro. Ellwood seems to have sharpened his razor
dealing with Russia. Let me quote "Russia officially sanctions … a
sex relations lower than any sanctioned by the lowest African tribe."
first place, does Bro. Ellwood know what are the sex relations of the
tribe? What is the lowest African tribe? He seems to be confusing
relations with marriage. Assuming, however, that he means the Russian
we might ask, how he considers this inferior to our American system,
certain classes of our people to have six or seven divorces ‒ legal
divorces ‒ and
which awards sometimes even one million dollars to the divorcee?
But, after all, all these objections lose much
value when we realize that Bro. Ellwood is careful to put any such
the realm of possibility, in the future. Hence, we may disregard them,
that the book is truly remarkable. It is a pity that a majority of the
which is so admired by Bro. Ellwood, will not read his book, though it
wide publicity. It would be interesting to learn how many copies of
work will be absorbed by our democracy. That would be probably the best
Bro. Ellwood's optimism. But, whether his optimism is justified or not,
is a real contribution to our inquiry as to what kind of road we are
whether we can improve it and smooth out some spots in this troublesome
Universal Masonic League.
INCREASING interest accompanies the
the annual meeting of the League, which is to be held this year at
August 21 to 24. Since the Congress held at Amsterdam last year a
number of national
and local groups have been organized and many new members from all
parts of the
world have joined, hence a gathering is foreseen far exceeding in
number any of
our previous Congresses.
The program will be interesting and varied. The
Meeting will be divided into two sections in order to facilitate
broader and full
discussions. Administrative questions will be disposed of in the
so that a whole afternoon will be kept free for an ample discussion of
Masonic topics, and Special Committees will deliberate as well. Our
Defense will form the main subject, and Special Groups for the Youth
the advancement of Peace and for Masonic Publishing (Journalists and
furnish important debating material.
The Congress will open on August 21, with
the Acting Committee and the General Board. On this day and the
the members of the League will have opportunity to attend to the
Congress of the
The Solemn Opening of the Congress will take
Victoria Hall on August 22 by the Chairman, Bro. Doctor von Bury, the
of the Swiss National Group, and will be immediately followed by the
of the general assembly. The special groups and committees will take up
In the morning of August 23, sessions of the
Groups will be held, and these will be followed by those of the General
and at noon by the second part of the General Assembly. The afternoon
will be reserved for a five o'clock tea with the ladies and an
excursion on the
Lake Leman by special steamers.
In the morning of August 24, one of the Geneva
will hold a Festival Communication in honor of the Congress, and a
banquet for all
its members will close the proceeding.
The Organizing Committee is presided over by
For all information about the Congress,
etc., brethren should apply to Central Bureau of the Central Masonic
Eugen Lennhoff, Managing Director, Vienna (Austria), I., Kohlmarkt 5,
Central Bureau will also furnish any other information desired about
and will receive applications for membership, as only members of the
entitled to participate in the Congress.
The Universal Masonic League particularly
it should be understood that its principles, actions and aims in no way
with the authority or sphere of action of Grand Lodges. It is an
organization composed of Master Masons.
What the League is working for is individual
and mutual understanding, and the establishment of personal friendships
Masons from all over the world, with the view of practically forming
Embracing the Globe.”
Question Box and Correspondence
The Problem of
the Disabled Veteran
I have read with great interest the article by
Leonard G. Coop, entitled "The Broken Men of the Great War," which
in the March issue of THE BUILDER.
Please accept my congratulations and my
for publishing this very illuminating article.
Brother Coop was formerly a resident of San
it has been my pleasure to know him intimately for many years and to
have a knowledge
of his activities in connection with the Red Cross and Veterans' Bureau
Brother Coop has always been a man of highest
and one in whom every confidence and trust could be imposed, and I am
that his statements in respect to the Veterans' Bureau and the problems
of the Disabled
Veterans are exactly as he knows them to be. I hope you will find it
give Brother Coop consideration in your future issues, as I feel that
the work which
he is doing should have the backing and support of every right thinking
May I thank you again for Brother Coop's
express the hope that he may have the continued support of your
C. H. H., California.
* * *
Just recently I read an article in the official
of the National Masonic Research Society concerning the disabled
believe such articles are very worthwhile, and that the public should
through articles similar to this, as to the actual conditions of
disabled men of
the World War. Far too many people think a generous government is
caring for its
disabled adequately. The situation is certainly full of many
The article by Leonard G. Coop in the March
good. Hope there will be more articles in coming issues, helping to
in the disabled men of the War.
Being disabled myself, and compensated, I am
that everything possible be done to help those who are not compensated,
you to know that I was pleased to read the clear cut case set forth in
L. E. F., Nebraska.
* * *
DuPont Chapter, No. 78, National Sojourners,
favor upon the publicity you are giving to the relief of World War
the article, "The Broken Men of the Great War," written by Brother
G. Coop in the March number of THE BUILDER. I have also expressed my
on such publicity in a personal letter mailed to you today. Apparently
has the facts, and it is good for the brothers of the great Masonic
know of the condition that exists.
VICTOR E. DEVETREAUX,
Second Lieut., Eng. Res., Secretary, DuPont Chapter, No. 78.
In the personal letter above referred to, Bro.
expressed himself, in part, as follows:
"I sincerely believe that such article, based
facts that Bro. Coop must have in his possession, can only do good. Now
after the war, it is time that our great government give full and
to the men who gave their all that this Nation might live. There should
articles of this nature published, in my opinion, by men who have the
* * *
Just finished reading a copy of your magazine
especially interested in the article by Bro. Leonard G. Coop, of
Broken Men of the Great War."
You are to be commended on this, as everybody
that the public should know about the treatment the ex-soldiers are
Mr. and Mrs.
* * *
The article by Bro. L.G. Coop in the March,
of THE BUILDER is a clear and concise statement of facts which the
are ignorant of.
The writer knows Bro. Coop personally and also
of a number of eases where Bro. Coop has aided a deserving ex-service
man who has
been denied aid by the Veterans' Bureau through red tape or some petty
of Veteran Bureau law.
I feel safe in saying that sixty per cent of
men of this country are ignorant of the benefits due them. The writer
by Bro. Coop in the past and knows that his efforts are untiring when
ease is brought to his attention.
I believe that more of these articles will give
to the Craft and be of benefit to a "forgotten legion."
‒ L. C. D., Missouri.
* * *
H or Triple Tau?
Will you please give me the meaning of "Templum
Hierosolymae," which is, I am told, Dunkerley's explanation of the
Cross (being "T" over "H" according to him).
Also, can you recommend to me a book treating
various emblems, hieroglyphic designs or characters, foreign language
initials, etc., having or claimed to have, any connection with Masonry,
is well illustrated. I am a Royal Arch Mason, Scottish Rite Mason and a
so that anything that is written from the viewpoint of any of those
be particularly desirable.
H. C. A., Minnesota.
"Templum Hierosolymae" is the Latin form of
Temple of Jerusalem. In Latin "Hi" is roughly equivalent to sound to
"J" and, of course, our word Temple is simply the Latin "Templum"
with a change of the ending. There is little doubt that the monogram
originally referred to the Temple of' Jerusalem and was only later
given a mystical
interpretation. We are afraid that there is no such book as you desire
yet in existence.
The only thing that would partly cover your need would be Mackey's
We understand that a new edition has just been published and possibly
be even better than the old. However, you will find a great deal of
along these lines in any one of the different editions.
* * *
A discussion has arisen as to the proper
of a certain word occurring in our ritual and I am referring the
question to you.
I refer to the word meaning to conceal or hide and which, I believe, is
spelled "here" though Mackey ‒ in the one volume edition of the
‒ spells it "hale." From this author I would infer that the word should
be pronounced as though spelled "Hale" or "hail" and until recently
I have always heard it so pronounced. However, Webster's International
and also the Standard Dictionary, give the pronunciation as though it
"heel." The Little Masonic Dictionary by Boyden contained in the Dollar
Masonic Library confuses the question by uniting the three words
"hale" and "here" and stating that they are "used in two
senses ‒ 1. To conceal or hide. 2. To regularize an improperly made
Mason or Masonic
body." By thus grouping them I assume that the author intended to imply
they were all pronounced alike. However, he spoils it all by inserting
definition which does not apply to any of the three spellings but
rather to the
word "heal", pronounced "heel," meaning to cure.
I realize that so far as its ritual is
is more or less of a law unto itself and it can pronounce a word
as it sees fit dictionaries to the contrary notwithstanding.
I seem to have a hazy recollection that you
gave a discussion
of this word in THE BUILDER at one time, but I have been unable to
locate the article.
I shall appreciate any help you can give me in
matter either by reference to THE BUILDER article or by letter or if
through the Question Box.
There seems no doubt that in early American
this word was pronounced "hail" or "hale," and whenever it was
written was almost invariably spelled as in the first example. It is
though more conjectural, that it came to be generally understood to be
"hail" in the sense of greeting, or calling to anyone.
There are, in reality, an unusual number of
words variously spelled hail, hale, haill, halle, heill, heal, and
of the possible letters. Of those still in common use are, hale in the
well; heal, to cure; heel, part of the foot; hail, frozen rain; hail,
to call or
greet. Less common, but by no means obsolete is hale, to drag, draw, or
last is really only a variant spelling and pronunciation. Also there is
term, "heel," to careen, or turn over, spoken of a vessel. And to this
may be added the gardener's technical term, "to heel in," i.e., to
the roots of plants temporarily with earth.
Some of these are derivable from the same root.
greeting, Hail, was originally "be hale" or whole, or well. And heal,
to cure, is also the same word ultimately.
The word retained in the Masonic ritual is
the Anglo Saxon helan, to conceal, and that again is supposed to come
from an Indo-European
(Aryan) root kel, from which the Latin "conceal" itself is derived by
another line of descent.
Vowel sounds in English are very uncertain, and
is no doubt that two hundred years ago educated people in England
words with a long "a" that now have a long "e" sound. Conceal
was consayl (probably), tea was tay. In fact, pronunciations supposed
now to be
Irish brogue were once good English ‒ when the Irish learned them.
It would thus seem that our word might quite
be pronounced as it used to be, hale or hail. Only in this case,
demand that we say also, "concayl" and "revail," so that there
is no need to quarrel with those, who, to mark its derivation and
to spell it "hole," and to pronounce it according to modern usage. As
long as the meaning is made clear (and whichever way it is pronounced
it needs explanation
for the average candidate) there seems to be no question of principle
There is no absolute right and wrong in pronunciation. It is a matter
which is always changing. Masonry has retained in its formulas many old
words and phrases, which should be carefully preserved, as marks of its
and which every "Intender" of candidates should be prepared to explain.
To consult any good dictionary will remove most difficulties, in regard
unusual words, and for the residue Murray's New English Dictionary may
It is to be found in most reference libraries.
* * *
Some months ago I saw a notice in THE BUILDER
book by John Bond, entitled Mussolini: The Wild Man of Europe [Lib*],
I have since purchased and read.
The events in Italy, as related, concerning
seem almost unbelievable. I have talked to a number of Masons about it
all feel as I do. I would, therefore, appreciate it very much if you
me who John Bond is, whether he was in a position to get information at
whether the statements in the chapter on Masonry are true, and how
reliable is the
book generally. Any information you can give me on these points will be
Mr. Bond is the correspondent in Italy of the
Forum. Further than this we have no information concerning him. As
there is no doubt
that this connection will lay his work open to suspicion in the minds
of many of
our readers, we may say that the substance of his communications to
and differentiated from his comments and presentation, have been borne
other sources of information in all cases where we have been able to
Speaking generally, the account given by Mr.
the career of Mussolini and the rise of Fascism is much the same as
that of many
other independent observers. And in regard to the suppression of
and the persecution of Masons, there is nothing exaggerated or untrue.
as the relation may seem it is, if anything, an understatement of the
article translated from the Freimaurer Zeitung of Vienna, which
appeared in THE
BUILDER for August and September of 1927 may be referred to in this
* * *
of Opening the Lodge.
Why are the ss. of all the first degrees given
opening of the M. M. lodge?
A. K., Indiana.
This is a difficult question to answer for a
of reasons, some of which are obvious enough. No answer, in any case,
can be more
than conjectural in the present state of our knowledge.
Originally, so far as our information goes, a
was regarded as a lodge of Masons, and not a lodge of Masons of some
degree; every grade was supposed to be represented. The first thing
done was "to
constitute" the lodge. In this special sense the expression has long
in America, although it is still retained in English rituals. The
is there spoken of as "constituting the lodge," is, however, still
in America, even though the term has fallen into disuse, and with this,
to a large
extent, the realization also of its being a distinct part of the whole
This "constituting" had as its culmination the salutation common to all
Masons as such, what in our present terminology is called the s. Of an
E. A., so
termed because it is given in the first degree.
All the business of the craft was transacted in
lodge thus constituted and opened, with the exception only of such
matters as pertained
specifically to a higher degree. When such matters required attention,
and ceremonies were in order. In the Masonry of the British Empire this
spoken of as "raising the lodge" to a higher degree. The converse
is "lowering" it. In these additional ceremonies the form of
is not repeated, as it is in this country, for in this respect the
rituals of other
countries are much closer to the older usage. An important part of
ceremonies was the salutation proper to the degree to which the lodge
It follows that when a M. M. lodge was opened, all these salutations
had been given,
and were also given again in reverse order before the lodge was closed.
As we find,
generally speaking, that in the development of Masonic ceremonial there
is a powerful
tendency always at work to retain as much as possible of old usage in
arrangement, even if its position and emphasis is quite changed, we may
it was at work here also, and, though in America we now constitute the
open directly in the third degree, we still as a survival of the past,
salutations of all three degrees.
Another explanation is possible. The procedure
interpreted as a symbolic reminder that all present have progressively
the three stages, are possessed of their particular secrets and are
bound by their
specific obligations. And, though this is probably only a secondary
it may have had considerable effect in the retention and preservation
of the custom.
* * *
Some time ago I wrote you asking for
to the history and meaning of the shape of our present Masonic apron. I
a letter in reply which would contain one or two paragraphs concerning
You may imagine how pleased and how surprised I
when I received the bundle of clipped articles about this matter. That
I wish to take this opportunity to thank you for sending me such full
upon this subject. I read every word of it. I am more or less a tyro in
scholarship, but I hope that I may learn more and more as the years
I have told several brother Masons here about
service which I have received from you. I also stress the value of THE
Such work as you are doing should prosper, especially among intelligent
are awake to the wonderful visions of Masonry which Masonic scholars
have left us.
St. C.V., South Dakota
The May, 1930 issue appears to be the last publication of THE BUILDER,
unless there are further volumes unbeknown to us. If indeed there are
more, we would
be most pleased to learn of it.
MSA suddenly stopped publication is not immediately apparent. There
were no indications such was in the future. Perhaps the Stock Market
crash of 1929
and the ensuing depression played a part. Should any information come
we will gladly share it with our readers.
John Quincy Adams Vol 01
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Memoirs of John Quincy Adams
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