April 1930 –
Volume XVI – Number 4
Masonic Research Society
Table of Contents
Bro. H.V. Voorhis
seems to be a decided interest in Rosicrucianism
springing up among Masonic students. The mystery of the Rosy Cross, as
it is more
generally known, is apparently becoming more mysterious. (The terms
and Brother of the Rosy Cross are in reality synonymous, but the first
intimates a reference to the "Order" itself, while the second connotes
a relationship to the Rose Croix, now the Eighteenth Degree of the
of Masonry.) This revival of interest manifests itself every few years
zest and is caused, usually, by a new investigator appearing upon the
new (or at least more) facts; combined also with a certain activity
within the modern
I have perused several important writings
containing opinions on the existing complex and conflicting data
related to this
obscure subject. These show, to my own satisfaction at least, that the
Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry has a common spiritual descent, a common
and at one time, during the early years of the two movements, had a
mere mention of the word "Rosicrucian"
in occult circles immediately produces an atmosphere of awe.
Individuals who are
the soundest logicians in every other branch of research, almost
begin to float on air, and, for the most part, enjoy it, as soon as
is broached. As Arthur Edward Waite has said: Perhaps there has never
been a realm
of inquiry which has been colonized to such an extent by fools and
knaves of speculation.
If there has been one other, it is that which adjoins with no
‒ I mean Emblematic Freemasonry.
reason for this condition is not difficult
to see. It is a condition of mind, resulting from the perusal of the
on the subject by the great students who have written so deeply and
on not only the subject of Rosicrucianism itself, but also on the
and, in a few instances, the women involved in the manifold workings of
Order of the Rosy Cross."
would almost seem that every person of note
as an occult scholar from the year 1500 to 1800 (and possibly further)
in some manner connected with the "Order." Independent schools of or
to Rosicrucianism have developed an individual literature portion to
‒ thus complicating the development of a system rather than clarifying
The great spiritual
symbolism which has come down to us through several houses of
tradition, is not,
I think, communicated in a plenary sense by any one school; it is
rather the harmony
sentence once written in the thirteenth century
by that unsurpassed thinker, Roger Bacon, can be applied very
pertinently to Rosicrucianism.
The subjects in question
are weighty and unusual, they stand in need of the grace and favor
accorded to human
frailty … for I am speaking of the sophistical authorities of the
men who are authorities in an equivocal sense, even as the eye carved
in stone or
painted on canvas has the name but not the quality of an eye.
eminent English Mystic, Waite, already quoted,
is always life, and for this reason antiquity per se is not a test of
would be no Hidden Mystery of the Rosy Cross if it had not suffered
adjusting a change of venture to a new heart of motive. I think,
indeed, that it
has died many times and has been as often reborn, even a little "nearer
the heart's desire."
whose Book of Constitutions was first
published in 1723 [Lib 1723], gives a source for
Masonic origins of which many subsequent writers have availed
themselves down to
the present day. The representations made by these good brethren of
do not bear critical analysis in some respects, in spite of the fact
that we do
not question their motives nor the sincerity of their beliefs. One
the origin of Freemasonry has to do with its beginnings in the Garden
of Eden, for
Adam, our first Parent,
created after the Image of God, the Great Architect of the Universe,
must have had
the Liberal Sciences, particularly Geometry, written on his Heart; for
the Fall, we find the Principles of it in the Hearts of his Offspring,
in process of time, have drawn forth into a convenient Method of
observing the Laws of Proportion taken from Mechanism: So that as the
Arts gave occasion to the Learned to reduce the Elements of Geometry
this noble Science thus reduc'd, is the Foundation of all those Arts
of Masonry and Architecture), and the rule by which they are conducted
etc., etc., etc.
the dedication of The Constitution, J. T.
Desaguliers, Deputy Grand Master, takes pains to say that he needed not
his Grace of Montagu, to whom it was addressed,
… what pains our
learned AUTHOR has taken in compiling and digesting this Book from the
and how accurately he has compar'd and made everything agreeable to
Chronology, so as to render these NEW CONSTITUTIONS a just and exact
MASONRY from the Beginning of the World to Your Grace's MASTERSHIP.
views of Anderson, and those of later writers
who followed him blindly, or elaborated upon the beauteous concepts of
are no longer accepted. In fact we are hard put to prove our existence
the Norman Conquest, and it is not until we reach the year 1390 A. D.
that we first
find documentary evidence ‒ the Regius Poem [Lib 1390],
also known as the Halliwell MS., now preserved in the British Museum. A
few of these
early Old Charges are the only definite evidence we have.
however, has numerous documents
relating to its activities, and especially during the two centuries
prior to the
year 1717, when speculative Freemasonry established this date as the
stone of a new dispensation. If we accepted the evidence offered by
the Rosicrucian Order can be traced back to King Thothmes III, B.C.
let us put aside this speculation as to very ancient origins and
with the later history.
cannot be refuted that, in the century prior
to the formation of the premier Grand Lodge of England, many eminent
men were practicing
Rosicrucianism, not only in England but also in Germany, France,
Holland and possibly
word "Rosicrucian" first appears
in print in 1614, and shortly thereafter the so-called Order first took
a permanent organization through a man known as Christian Rosenkreutz
of birth appears to have been about 1378, although his Fama [Lib 1615]
and Confessio [Lib 1652]
did not attract attention until two hundred and fifty years later upon
is no exact period of commencement of
the Rosicrucians as an Order, as there is in Freemasonry. Every well
recognizes the date 1717. There can be no misunderstanding that at that
first Grand Lodge of Masons appeared. The best we can say about
that Rosy Cross literature appeared in German and Latin between 1614
and 1616 ‒
affirming that a secret and mysterious Order had existed in Germany for
centuries. These writings marked the entrance of Rosicrucianism into
of contemporaneous criticism and attack.
acquaint those interested with this branch
of learning, Thomas De Quincy, in 1824, wrote a work entitled
Inquiry into the Origin of the Rosicrucians and the Freemasons [Lib*].
served as an excellent introduction to the subject, it was, to quote
A mere transcript
from an exploded German savant, whose facts are tortured in the
interest of a somewhat
first serious treatment of the subject in
English, from an historical standpoint, was Hargrave Jennings' The
Their Rites and Mysteries [Lib 1907],
1870. It had
gone into many editions and is still a so-called textbook on
two-volume edition of 1887 is considered the most desirable.
treatment has been superseded by the Real
History of the Rosicrucians [Lib 1887],
Arthur Edward Waite and by another work written many years afterward on
from the pen of the same author (really his magnum opus), The
Brotherhood of the
Rosy Cross [Lib*], 1924. This book is a most exhaustive treatise,
the treatment of the material whereof this so-called "Order" is built.
is at least one excellent work in another
language [Lib*] by Fr. Wittemans, D.L., covering the history of the
‒ but, so far, it is not available in English.
America a writer, whose work on this subject
in connection with Freemasonry has been taken seriously, is Brother
Grand Historian, of the Grand Lodge of New York State. A small pamphlet
from the proceedings of the Grand Lodge of New York, 1918, written by
gives data purporting proof of a Rosicrucian derivation of Freemasonry.
the recent work of Manly P. Hall, the subject
of Rosicrucianism is taken up by the author in the chapter headed "The
of the Rosy Cross," [Lib 1928]
of four postulates. The material has been carefully selected from a
very wide range
of works and excellently arranged.
first appeared in Germany (in
the City of Cassel) in the latter part of the sixteenth century and
came into public
light, as already mentioned, in 1614. After arousing a great deal of
that country for about ten years, the mysteries of the Rosy Cross died
because of the departure of several of the Rosicrucian adepts to India
struggle for "thought freedom" was shifted to the Netherlands, where it
had been going on slowly for a quarter of a century. Persons of the
of society met in palatial structures under the Rosicrucian banner at
and The Hague in 1622. Some of these persons ran afoul of the law of
the land and
were hauled into court on various charges.
this time, according to Wittemans, Frederic
Henry, Stadtholder, who leaned toward the occult, and who no doubt saw
on the wall," shifted his protection from Rosicrucianism to Freemasonry
France there was no Rosicrucian activity
until about 1623, when, after a first public announcement, the
embroiled in arguments with the Jesuit Fathers. Descartes and Abbe de
about the only two flaming spots of French Rosicrucianism of this
period and, as
they have not the slightest connection with Freemasonry, we turn our
Rosicrucianism in England, Wittemans
The efforts of the
Rosicrucians to erect a new spiritual temple of humanity, which failed
the Netherlands and France, were destined to be crowned with success in
In the latter country the free development of human thought was not
orthodoxy and, there, resulted in a spiritual movement that afterward
in Freemasonry, the universal temple of wisdom and fraternity.
between 1614 and 1620, according to
Waite, Robert Fludd, an English philosopher, physician, chemist,
mathematician and astrologer, having been influenced by Maier became a
to Rosicrucian thought.
at once began writing on the subject and
there appeared in 1616 his Apologia, a defense of Rosicrucianism. This
by a dozen or more other works on Rosicrucianism over a period of some
There are some (Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, for instance) who believe that
Fludd was the
first English Magus of the Brotherhood. At any rate, Fludd, together
with Lord Verulam,
better known as Francis Bacon, formed an English Rosicrucian Society in
though secretly, played the principal role.
was 57 years old when Elias Ashmole, the
famous English astrologer, was born and of whom we have positive proof
of his being
"made a Freemason" at Warrington in 1646. Bacon, however, died in 1626
at the age of 65 years, without, so far as we have any positive
evidence, ever having
been "made a Freemason."
is believed by many to have been the real
author of the works attributed to Shakespeare and to have superintended
translation of the Bible. He was the author of many works of a
His only connection with our story, however, is in relation to certain
advanced by various writers that Freemasonry was either partially or
by him. To such Waite says:
The attempt to explain
Freemasonry ‒ Emblematical, Speculative and Figurative ‒ as a new birth
of the Order of the Rosy Cross has passed into desuetude, and yet there
‒ for it manifests now and again sporadically ‒ a certain unsatisfied
if the last word still remained to be said. So also is there a feeling
that in some
way, occult and unproven, a shaping influence was exercised by Francis
Verulam, on the first beginnings of the Masonic Order. I do not suppose
word has been said on this subject either, but it is clear to my mind
that it must
be one of negation This thesis was started by Nicolai, in an appendix
on the origin
of Freemasonry attached to an Essay on the Knights Templar. The
foundation is Bacon's
unfinished romance The New Atlantis, written late in life and published
view is not taken by either Fr. Wittemans
or the Rev. F. de P. Castells of England. Bro. Castells, who is engaged
on works concerning the origin of the Masonic degrees, supports, with
and amplifications, the views of Mrs. Henry Pott as advanced in her
and His Secret Society [Lib 1891].
He [Bacon] ranks
first among those who made Freemasonry heir to the Rosicrucian
philosophy, at the
time when the Masonic body underwent a reformation in the XVIIth
P. Hall contributes this information:
Johann Valentin Andreae
is generally reputed to be the author of the Confessio. It is a
however, whether Andreae did not permit his name to be used as a
pseudonym by Sir
Francis Bacon. Apropos of this subject are two extremely significant
occurring in the introduction to that remarkable potpourri The Anatomy
volume first appeared in 1621 from
the pen of Democritus Junior, who was afterward identified as Robert
in turn, was a suspected intimate of Sir Francis Bacon. One reference
that at the time of publishing The Anatomy of Melancholy in 1621 the
the Fraternity of R. C. was still alive. This statement ‒ concealed
recognition by its textual involvement ‒ has escaped the notice of most
of Rosicrucianism. In the same work there also appears a short footnote
import. It contains merely the words: "Joh. Valent. Andreas, Lord
This single line definitely relates Johann Valentin Andreae to Sir
who was Lord Verulam, and by its punctuation intimates that they are
one and the
Robert Macoy, the well-known Masonic writer,
believed that Andreae was the true founder of Rosicrucianism, so,
reasoning of Mr. Hall, indications appear that Bacon was responsible
for even more
than is generally suspected in the launching of our project. Further
along similar lines are found in Godfrey Higgins' Anacalypsis [Lib
and in the writings of the late Frank C. Higgins.
matter which view one considers correct,
it is most certainly a fact that Bacon lived at a time in which the
minds of the
forefathers of organized Masonry had their setting ‒ a time in which it
that English Rosicrucianism waned and Freemasonry assumed its outward
role and continued
on ‒ and, according to Bro. Castells, soon worked out its role.
go into this matter further would entail
a complete review of Waite's, Castells', Mrs. Pott's and Fr. Wittemans'
say nothing of those quoted in this article. One must refer the reader
to the writings
of these individuals if interested in obtaining the latest views
book, as indicated, is, unfortunately, not yet available in English.
Rosicrucian connection with Freemasonry
was considered in Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 2076, of London, in a
by Dr. Wynn Westcott in 1894 (4) [Lib 1894].
Conder, Jr., Waite, Van der Gon, Alting,
Raemaekers, Mrs. Pott and Castells all agree that Bacon and
had something to do with Freemasonry just prior to its "revival" of
But so many opinions have been expressed on various phases of the
subject that to
cite any here would be burdensome reading.
Wittemans estimates that over twenty thousand
books and articles have been written on Bacon's alleged authorship of
plays. It would be natural to suppose that there would also be an
on the Baconian theory of Masonic origin. Just the reverse however, is
there is a distinct school of the Bacon-Masonic origin theorists, it is
by but few writers, and their contentions have received but meagre
writers endeavor to prove that the Rosicrucians
used many symbols traceable to ancient Masonry. This department of our
even more confusing, especially to minds not trained in symbology, but
be denied by anyone familiar with the "teachings" of both “fraternities
" that many similarities do exist. Basing their judgment on things
De Quincy and Buhle believed that Freemasonry was Rosicrucianism
modified by those
who introduced it from Germany into England.
of changes in ritual after the formation
of the premier Grand Lodge, before which time Freemasonry and
supposedly closely allied, and the organization of the present or
societies, which appear to lack descent from the original "Order,"
differences have broadened.
recent work of Bro. Castells (5) has again
brought these questions to the fore among Masonic students. Coupled
with the fact
that the Rose Croix Degree has been drawn into the discussion, we have
of the English and American societies working under the banner and the
name of Rosicrucianism,
so that the present period promises some interesting research into
is defined as "a beautiful
system of morality, veiled in allegory and illustrated with symbols …
Truth is its
center. It is founded on the purest principles of Morality, Brotherly
Love and Charity,"
which Rosicrucians "have aimed to produce, in the crucible of spiritual
the perfect Man, who loves God above all, on whose heart the Christ has
and who has become a pillar of love and wisdom among his fellowmen,"
one "system" leaves off and
the other begins cannot be precisely defined ‒ like a mixture of water
no one can tell by vision which is more in quantity. Rosicrucianism and
it seems, were once entwined. Since that time each has perceptibly
changed in both
spirit and matter. If they were definitely separated once, much more
must be known
to determine their points of separation. Even now their forms are not
The teaching of each "system" is not a clear and defined thing.
of either school fail to present a positive agreement in aims or
objects ‒ and even
less, the students of both.
writer has not set down the above in a disparaging
sense, but just the reverse. He has read many works on both subjects
and feels that
studies of this nature are far more important than the grinding out of
"joining Masons." In fact, he feels that works such as Fr. Wittemans,
are permanently valuable and hopes that this publication will be
the English language in the near future, so that it may take its proper
the work of Waite, Castells, Hall and others cited above. It is by far
thorough and comprehensive work of its kind that has come to my
attention and makes
an excellent companion volume to Waite's The Brotherhood of the Rosy
value, particularly to Masonic students, as well as to students of the
lies in the great clarification it makes of the subject it covers.
The Fama Fraternitatis, which is believed to
have been written in the
year 1610, but which apparently did not appear in print until 1614,
earlier edition is suspected by some authorities. Manly P. Hall, An
Outline of Masonic, Hermetic, Qabbalistic, Rosicrucian and Symbolic
See the notes on the Latin pamphlet by Henrieus
Neuhusius, 1618, in Waite's
Occult Sciences [Lib 1891],
1891, p. 210.
Certain data in the work cited concern an
ancient Masonic lodge in Amsterdam
of great antiquity, have a bearing on this subject, and may bring out
light on Freemasonry in the Netherlands.
"The Rosicrucians, Their History and Aims, with
reference to the
alleged connection between Rosicrucians and Freemasonry," A. Q. C. vol.
p. 37. [Lib 1894]
The works by the Rev. F. de P Castells referred
to are his Antiquity
on the Holy Royal Arch [Lib*], 1927; the Origin of the Masonic Degrees
and The Historical Analysis of the Holy Royal Arch Ritual, 1929 [Lib 1929].
John Hus: Reformer and Martyr
Bro. T. M. Matejovsky
A Foreword By Bro. J. S. Roucek
readers will recall the interesting articles
contributed by Bro. Roucek last year upon the subject of Czecho-Slovak
and we are now further indebted to him for communicating to us this
paper on the
great Bohemian religions leader and reformer. Written in Prague, it was
year before Shakespear Lodge in England, and the Lodge La République in
As it plunges a little abruptly into the theme for readers unacquainted
history of Europe in the medieval period, Bro. Roucek has written a
Bro Roucek is now Professor of Social Science at the Centenary Junior
following article by Bro. Matejovsky on
John Hus is written primarily from the Masonic viewpoint. As such it
has been delivered
as a lecture in English and French lodges. Because my articles in THE
been concerned with the development of Bohemian Masonry, I should like
a few words of introduction, in order to make it easier for the reader
what Hus represents to us, from the viewpoint of the development of
which we, as Masons, stand and fight for. Somewhere on the road toward
of Masonic perfection, John Hus stands in the shadow of Middle Ages, as
a rock around
which the waves of human passions roused by religious convictions are
he is a rock which is also a milestone, probably one of the greatest,
the rough and difficult road from moral subjugation to spiritual
English literature does not concern itself
very much with this figure, any more than it does with the history of
Notice, please, that our best histories of this continent always
emphasize the limit
of their treatment, as, for example, "The History of Western Europe,"
as if the history of Central Europe was not connected, and very
with the formation of Western Europe, and thus also of the United
States. We find
mention of Hus here and there, but the evaluation of this great
personality is always
limited to a few lines, which really mean nothing. The most popular of
university textbooks, for example, dismisses Hus with the following:
While his (Wycliff's)
followers, appear to have yielded pretty readily to the persecution
which soon overtook
them, his doctrines were spread abroad in Bohemia by another ardent
Huss, who was destined to give the Church a great deal of trouble.
present age of extreme nationalism recognizes
that the foundation of our patriotic and nationalistic feeling lies in
memories of a certain people, based mostly on heroic figures connected
past. From this limited definition our historians come to a conclusion
nationalist movement started at the period of the French Revolution and
in the World War. To fulfill it, our nation entered the World War, and
it in his phrase, the "Self-determination of small nations.” But we
that the Czechoslovaks have been trying to live their nationalistic
life ever since
the times of John Hus, the fifteenth century, as is demonstrated in the
of the illustrations shows the monument
of John Hus in the Old Town Square at Prague. It is a symbol of that
for which the
Czechoslovaks fought, the memorial of the hero who represents today the
Czechoslovak national life. That country "over there" is not yet
with the "debunking" now so popular among the intelligentsia of
and so Hus still represents the ideal for which President Masaryk, Dr.
and the Czechoslovak legionnaires fought during the World War! Love of
of freedom, of righteousness, of integrity in Church and State. The
same ideal is
alive in the hearts of all Czechs, at home and abroad, and they are
strong in the United States, who see realized in him the loftiest
duty, patriotism and spiritual freedom.
has no parallel known to history. Let us
not depreciate the heroes of other nations, which can present many
in their history. But Hus was a spiritual pioneer to a very marked
degree, and his
stand for truth, which he sealed at the stake, constitutes an era in
history. Where else can the duty of a Christian man be more
up than in the famous saying: " Seek the Truth, Listen to the Truth,
the Truth, Love the Truth, Speak the Truth, Hold the Truth, Defend the
Death"? I dare to challenge any brother Mason whether he knows of any
Masonic ideal. Hus perished in the angry flames of Catholic fury in
1415. But he
stands for the defense of the truth, he passed on the torch that has
revolt against ecclesiastical despotism, the struggle for spiritual
is so eminently the ideal of Freemasonry.
me call attention to an incident in the
life of John Hus which is connected most intimately with our Masonic
Council of Constance accused him of heresy. He answered: "I am ready
to retract anything that shall be proved to me to Scriptures."
this conviction Hus died. Such a thing had
never been known before, for any man to refuse unconditional obedience
to the Pope
or Council. Hus was, at that moment, the first in the Middle Ages to
refuse to obey
an authority till then supreme. And reason and conscience won. This is
why he is
called the torch which threw light into mediaeval darkness. But the
smoke of the
fire which burned his body drifted over foreign countries, and a very
after his death Hussites made their appearance in Germany, in Holland,
and even in England.
the Bohemians took up as an inheritance
from John Hus the fight for truth, respect for personal conviction,
loyalty to freedom
and a love of fraternity.
such a busy man as Mussolini can busy himself
to publish a book on John Hus in this country (it appeared last year),
then, I believe,
that we too can afford a little of our time to the consideration of the
has been said that Jan Hus was a forerunner
of the Reformation, but at the same time it has been pointed out that
he is regarded
as belonging to the Middle Ages. The Roman Catholic Church is anxious
that Hus died believing Catholic and that therefore the free-thinkers
have no right
to regard him as one of their spiritual fathers.
the question arises as to whether the Freemasons
should pay heed to Hus and whether any Masonic principles can be found
in his teaching.
It is undeniable that Hus cannot be dismissed as being a man of the
because he lived in the years 1369 to 1415. Indeed, it was not so long
Monsignore Marmaggi, the Papal Nuncio, left Prague and his post
precisely on account
of Hus, BECAUSE he desired to do his best to prevent the Czechoslovak
from taking part officially in the celebrations which are annually held
on July 6th, the anniversary of the day when Hus was burnt at the stake
If in our days a diplomatic representative leaves his post ‒ an
occurrence in diplomacy ‒ on account of Jan Hus, is it fitting to
assert that the
questions concerning him are out of date, and that there are more
with which we should occupy ourselves? The desire of the Roman Church
is that no
mention should be made of him; this means that the questions of Hus and
of the results
of his doctrine is still pregnant with significance for the thought of
individual and is still a painful question for the Curia.
us answer three questions: What does Hus
mean to the Czech nation? What does Hus mean to Europe? What does Hus
mean to the
What Does Hus Mean To The Czech Nation?
regards the first question, let us admit
that there is no generally accepted view on Hus, even amongst the
Czechs. The majority
of them, however, recognize his unique character and speak of him as
one of the
great men produced by their nation. The minority ‒ the Clerical circles
regard him as a great national figure, but consider him as the cause of
which befell the Czech nation, as the cause of the long wars that
many monuments of art in Bohemia and brought about great bloodshed
the Czech nation nearly perished." The Clericals describe him as a man
destroyed respect for authority by reason of his disobedience to Church
and thereby brought his nation to within an ace of complete ruin.
majority of the Czechs, however, are definite
followers of Hus. Amongst these, two groups may be distinguished. One
him in the first place as the creator of the modern Czech language, and
in the second,
as the successful defender of Czech national rights in the University
and the awakener of Czech national consciousness; the radicals amongst
of Hus point out that the Hussite movement prepared the way for the
of the peasants from the oppression of the feudal magnates and see in
him a forerunner
of modern democracy and modern Socialism.
addition to this, the second group sees in
Hus a great awakener of men's consciences, a great forerunner of the
movement which teaches universal brotherhood and the duty to seek above
human being in every individual.
of these groups looks for the scholar
and the theologian in Hus, they are concerned above all for the
moralist, the reformer
and the pioneer. They place his personal merits above his endeavors as
have set ourselves three questions, and it
is evident from the first question that if we solve it satisfactorily
obtain the answers to the remaining two questions.
is necessary to give a short account of Hus'
life. We know little of his origin. The name Hus was really a
but we do not know its true origin. The particular opinions regarding
Hus are so
divergent that we need not be surprised by the fact that two years ago
Pekar declared that Hus was not born in southern Bohemia, far from
Prague, in the
little town of Husinec, as has been generally accepted during the
previous 500 years,
but in the village of Husinec which is situated two hours' journey to
of Prague. Let us note in passing that this assertion has remained
Hus, therefore, obtained his name from his birthplace, a small town in
was a student at the University of Prague
and had an unhappy time in his youth; in Prague he often was without
enough to eat.
In accordance with the views of that time, he became a priest. He was
in his studies, he obtained the degree of the university, and became
and later rector, of the university. He was not therefore an ordinary
nor even an insignificant scholar. His education was of the French
type, for the
University of Prague was established upon the model of the University
of Paris in
the year 1348. Its founder, Charles, King of Bohemia, was of French
origin on his
father's side; his father, John of Luxemburg, having married the last
the old Czech dynasty of the Premyslids, who had reigned in Bohemia for
up to 1306. In addition to this, Charles had been brought up in France,
and at the
time when he ascended the Bohemian throne he was no longer able to
and was obliged to learn his mother's language once more. Having a
he desired that his nation ‒ he wrote this expressly in the foundation
should likewise make use of the best learning of the day. We mention
this in order
to show that Franco-Czech relations are not of recent date.
Czechs had studied in Paris before Charles,
and all of them were eminent both as scholars and as moralists. Hus
be considered as a flower of a branch of Czech culture that had been
a shoot of French origin. It was at the end of the 13th century that
the Czech first
came into contact with the French; Czech historians prove that the
who were of French origin, had settled in the very district where Hus
Thus Hus continued the old traditions which had been brought to Bohemia
called forth in the Czech nation a certain kind of regionalism, the
features of which are found by some sociologists to be still existent
Czechs whose homes are situated in the neighborhood of his birthplace.
consist in a serious view of life, a profound sense of genuine
religion, a zealous
democratic spirit, and a readiness to defend the truth, when
ascertained, to the
Hus' letters we know that in his youth
he liked comfort and soft clothing. What is the explanation for the
fact that this
man of lowly parentage suddenly became the spiritual leader of the
was an eloquent preacher, and owing to his
abilities in this direction the archbishop appointed him preacher to
assemblies, at which he, with the consent of the archbishop, admonished
to live purer lives, and not to set the people a bad example. At that
time the Church
was very wealthy and consequently attracted into its ranks many men who
fit to become priests.
the Papal commissioner arrived in Prague
to sell indulgences, Hus opposed him and thus came into conflict with
of the University professors, who were of German nationality. Charles,
of the University, had divided the professional staff into four
Czech, German, Polish and Magyar. The Czech professors were in the
nearly all the Czechs were members of a progressive minority. After
Hus and his friends succeeded in inducing King Vaclav to recognize the
of the Czech nation, and the conservative foreigners thus found
themselves in the
to the mediaeval structure of society,
the religious services held in the churches were not conducted in
Czech; the common
people, whose language was Czech, could not pray in church, and Czech
to be sung in the churchyard.
number of influential citizens built in Prague
a church to which they gave the name of "Bethlem" and obtained
for sermons to be delivered in this church in Czech, so that the common
sing hymns and pray there in their own language. Hus was the second
the Bethlem church; he sacrificed his career at the University to the
needs of the
Hus had delivered a sermon he used to
write with a piece of coal the main points of his discourse on the wall
of the church.
This was a great novelty, and he aroused a considerable opposition by
it, and also
because he wrote tracts in Czech. He was not the first to do this;
before him a
Czech landowner, Thomas of Stitny, had written in Czech on spiritual
had likewise been reproached by the scholars of the University for
The theologians found fault with Hus for profaning theology. In our
days one can
find in Protestant churches many Scriptural inscriptions which speak to
even when the minister is silent; Hus was the first of whom we have
record who sought
in this way to win the congregation over to his views.
had still a further connection with Western
Europe. His friend Jerome, an eloquent and gifted orator, who had
the whole of Europe, brought with him to Prague from England the works
The reasoning of this forerunner of the Reformation interested Hus, and
archbishop, who up till then had been his friend and protector, turned
and ordered Wycliffe's books to be burned, Hus opposed him and began to
doctrine. When he did not desist from his arguments, Prague was placed
interdict, and this meant the expulsion of Hus from Prague.
an insignificant preacher and agitator
of unknown origin became the leader of the nation.
departed from Prague for the Czech countryside
and there he preached sermons which had not been delivered in the
preached on pilgrimages, on marriages, under a limetree, between the
said a contemporary chronicler. His sermons were of an entirely new
may be said that he preached practical Christianity, for he did not
deal with theological
problems, nor did he lay any stress on dogma.
Hus, up to this time a favorite at
the royal Court, upheld the natural rights of the Czech element at the
this does not signify a manifestation of Chauvinism, or of a desire for
emoluments. He remained a poor man, and as regards the rest, he
preached and wrote:
"I prefer a good German to a bad Czech," and in another place he wrote:
"Accursed is the man who abandons truth for a piece of bread."
is a well-known fact that at that time the
Church was in a very bad condition; it was the period of Pope John
XXIII, who was
accused of having been a pirate on the high seas. Hence Hus appealed to
of Constance against the sentence of excommunication passed on him by
And when he discovered that the Council of Constance held the same view
as the Pope,
he appealed to reason.
the journey to Constance Hus obtained a
letter of safe conduct from the Emperor Siegmund, brother of the King
Today we know from the documents of the Council of Constance that his
fate was sealed
before ever he arrived in Constance. Even if he had submitted and had
his views, he was to have been incarcerated until death in a monastery
on the Rhine. Hus' defense and examination before the Council of
Constance was really
only a game with loaded dice. He was imprisoned immediately on his
arrival in Constance,
and he was never to be released. He was never to return to Bohemia. A
at the stake on July 6th, 1415, was merely the last act in the tragedy
of his living
death in the monastery prison.
did Hus die a violent death when a large
number of other zealous men who proclaimed the need for Church reforms
like ordinary men, in freedom? Why were not Erasmus, Luther and Calvin
to die a martyr's death?
we know; for history has instructed us.
Hus died a martyr's death because he did not keep secret the fact that
not only the Church, and the dignitaries of the Church, but also the
of the State, to be the cause of the corruption in the Church and in
regarded Emperor Siegmund as the chief offender. Hence it was in vain
that he made
an appeal to human reason, and to the Scriptures. Hus placed himself in
to the theocracy of Church and the absolutism of the State, and
therefore he was
doomed. Luther upheld feudal views, and therefore the Elector supported
the Council of Worms. Calvin became a ruler, and therefore he did not
die. Hus was
in advance of Europe, and being isolated, died at the stake.
Hussites, who comprised nearly the whole
of the Czech nation, chose the chalice as the emblem for their banners,
they were known as Kalisnici; that is, "men of the chalice." However it
was not a question merely of this symbol. Five years after the death of
Czech nation assembled without arms to consider the methods to adopt
for the defense
of their convictions. It was not until the announcement was made that a
army was to invade Bohemia and that the entire nation, with the
exception of young
children, was to be exterminated, that the national leaders asked the
of Prague whether it was permissible for Christians to take up arms in
their religious convictions. The University decided that in this and
it was a question not only of the right but also of the duty to defend
beliefs. The reply of the University was incorporated in four
principles known as
the Articles of Prague.
The first Hussite principle was:
The Word of God may be preached by all persons authorized so to do,
The Lord's Supper shall be administered
to all persons, whether priests or laity, in the form both of Bread and
Grievous offenses of all persons,
not only of the laity but also of priests, shall be dealt with by the
Seeing that great possessions and
the powers of ruling princes have drawn the attention of priests from
matters, the priests shall be deprived of this power and the bishops
shall not be
allowed to act in the capacity of temporal lords.
articles must be understood from the point
of view of their consequences. The first article signifies freedom of
religious conviction, which corresponds to the present-day freedom of
and the right of presenting petitions. The second article signifies the
of society and the abolition of theocratic order. Laicization was
the third article, which demanded the democratization of the judicial
of the administration. This article signifies also the abolition of
The secularization of property, which was proclaimed for moral reasons,
the separation of the Church from the State.
Hussite Wars, which began in 1420, five
years after the death of Hus, were of a defensive character, and their
above all the establishment of peace and quietness; as we see from one
of the three
Hussite songs that have been preserved. The Hussite Wars were waged in
the new democracy which was coming into being, and of the new social
fifteen years the Czech nation defended itself and upheld its views. It
did so not
by reason of its military and numerical predominance, but because at
that time it
surpassed its rivals and adversaries in education. At this period the
occupied a leading position in European education. This is not the
a Czech nationalist, and still less of a Czech Chauvinist, but of a
Bezold, who wrote:
not only defended their opinions, but also taught the rest of Europe,
their neighbors the Germans, a lesson in religious, political and
The chalice was the symbol of the new social order.
was not a question merely of the new orthography
of the Czech language (it was Hus who devised this new orthography) but
stimulation of interest in spiritual matters amongst the masses of the
Hus was the first national teacher of the Czech people. Before his time
was exclusively in the possession of the nobility, and to a certain
extent, of the
wealthy burgher class. Owing to Hus, "Czech women had more learning
a Church dignitary in Rome," wrote Pope Pius II, Eneas Silvius. It was
a question merely of administrative measures, when, owing to the
influence of Hus,
the statutes of the University of Prague were altered in the year 1409,
but of interesting
the entire nation in the development of its one source of education. In
of this widespread interest in spiritual questions ordinary folk among
held open air meetings in order to discuss matters which hitherto had
for the clergy and the nobility. The great assemblies of the Hussites
the first attempt in Europe to establish a parliament without class
defended his right to expound the Scriptures
and the doctrines of Wycliffe not because he was a Czech but because he
be instructed by a world assembly; he brought his dispute before the
bar of public
opinion, and interested the whole of Europe of that time, on the
question of the
rights of conscience. When the young Frenchman Ernest Denis, late
professor of the
Sorbonne, presented his dissertation, in the year 1873, on John Hus,
in it some of his political opinions, his teacher remarked: "Do you
you would have been burned for these opinions, exactly like John Hus,
if you had
spoken in this way at his time?" The talented young scientist,
French spirit, answered: "I know; but I know as well, that if Huss had
lived, I would be burned for these opinions at the present time."
answer contains as well the answer for
the second question, which I placed at the beginning of this lecture.
to the second question, what signifies Hus for Europe? is briefly, Hus
was the pioneer
of liberty, of conscience and of modern democracy.
he appealed to the human reason, against
the council at Constance, further so he appealed to the human right for
without exception. This is the reason why the Freemasons in
place to Hus among the spiritual fathers of Freemasonry.
you ask me if any of the Czechoslovak lodges
bears the name of John Hus, I must answer negatively. The oldest Czech
was established two days before the end of the world war, received the
Amos Komensky." This happened because the fourteen brothers who formed
first Masonic lodge before the war was yet ended agreed in this, that
no one else
could be more suitably chosen; so that this name would be placed on the
Czech Freemasonry. Because already, one hundred years earlier, it had
of Komensky that he was the real father of modern Freemasonry.
man who said this was not a Czech, but a
German, a professor of the university at Jena, near Weimar, the
of our great brother Goethe, and of the Masonic student and author,
hundred years ago, the majority of the Czechoslovak
nation slept still, not only in material obscurity but in spiritual
slavery as well.
Therefore the tenth Czech lodge adopted the motto: Veritas vincit, this
the motto of Hussites.
signifies a great regenerative movement,
the beginning of Czech renaissance in the fifteenth century. He
signifies as well
the beginning of the new movement, of the new renaissance of the Czech
the last century.
hundred years ago there came to Prague from
Moravia, Francis Palacky, who became the great historian of the
Palacky for the first time treated of the life of Hus in Czech history,
his name against clerical adversaries. It is a fact that it was the
work of Palacky
through which the national aspirations of the Czechoslovak people were
Then years after the death of Palacky (who died a private scientist)
to the university in Prague the young professor Thomas Garrigue Masaryk.
latter was first designated as professor
of philosophy, but soon after he began to occupy himself with the
synthesis of problems,
to which he gave the title "The Czech Question."
part of these studies is a book which has
the title John Huss. Masaryk not only discussed the teaching of Hus as
of history, written by Palacky, but deduced the consequences of his
signify the regeneration of the Czech nation in the sense of Hus. The
the transmutation is not finished yet, the struggle which Masaryk
the political liberty in the year 1915, was begun in Geneva on the day
of Hus, the
6th of July.
was done wittingly and purposely. The Czechoslovak
legionnaires, who fought for the political independence of their
country, have done
so under the ensign of the Hussite chalice. During the last year of the
of the Czechoslovak regiments in Siberia received the name "Master John
regiment," and continues to bear this name today.
can be said, that Hus awakened the Czechoslovak
nation three times: The first time in the 15th century, the second time
at the beginning
of the 19th, and for the third time at the beginning of the 20th
century. Led by
the example of Hus, Palacky and Masaryk both insisted that the
should be so educated that they might deserve to stand among the most
of Western Europe, and to fight after the example of Hus for true
liberty, and that
Europe ought to consider the "Czech Question" as a part of the problem
of European democracy. In this spirit the statesmen of Czechoslovakia
Papal nuncio, Marmaggi, three years ago in Prague. Thus, have I
endeavored to explain
why the Czech Masons reverence and follow Jan Hus.
Clubs of the A. E. F. In The World War
Bro. Charles F. Irwin, Associate Editor
some years I have been deeply interested
in the collection of data upon this subject. The effort has been
by the seeming loss of interest upon the part of the men who were
creating and fostering the Clubs during the War. This may be accounted
for to a
degree by the stern necessity of recovering a professional and business
upon return to civilian life.
of the many Clubs that carried on the light
of Masonry during the strenuous days of the struggle there are some
that have been
chronicled through the unselfish interest of members who gave, largely
out of their
own resources, the money to have printed booklets or pamphlets
recording the origin
and activities of their respective Masonic organizations. It has been
our good fortune
to receive copies of many of these pamphlet histories and from them to
put in a
consecutive form the series upon which we now enter.
we have had the added good fortune
to become the depository of a number of the original minute books and
rolls of some of these Clubs, and in the nature of the case the
histories we shall
display in the series of articles here begun will have an added value
several instances the Clubs so nearly approximated
to lodges that we hesitated for some time over the advisability of
stories among our previous series that ran in THE BUILDER during the
past two years.
They, however, will find their place in this series.
view of the fact that it is our intention
to present the results of these studies in book form at some time in
it will be of great assistance to us in covering the field adequately
if the former
members of Masonic Clubs during the War would kindly assist us by
especially by the supply of any written information they may possess.
The loan of
booklets, histories of particular Clubs, together with the loan of
other records, souvenirs or mementos connected with the life of such
the purpose of having cuts made to illustrate these articles, will be
us as a most fraternal consideration. It will be convenient if those
able and willing
to assist in this way would send the material to the author of this
we undertake, upon the completion of our use of the loaned material, to
safely to those who so kindly permitted us to use it.
number of Clubs both at home and in Europe
was so large that it will be necessary for us to compress the story of
most of them
and probably to publish more than one at a time. Frankly, there are a
number that are to us but names and locations. This list will be
submitted to our
readers as the series develops with the hope that some of their
histories may come
to us for use in our studies.
is as a labor of love we enter into this
work, and we trust that from it may arise a new department of Masonic
of valuable and permanent additions to the history of the Craft. Let us
the memories of these spontaneous Masonic activities of the Great War
to be thrown
into the rubbish heap, to leave only myths and vague traditions to be
to the coming generations. Let us contribute our portion of known
so that around the present studies may grow a body of genuine
to instruct and guide the Craft should emergencies arise of a like
in the future.
of the anomalies of the history of Masonry
during the World War is this, that the names of the brethren who were
organizers and promoters of our Clubs during the War have in many cases
oblivion, while brethren who were apparently not identified with the
Clubs are now exceedingly active in fostering Masonic groups during
Why is this so? Why have the war-time brethren permitted themselves to
be thus shelved?
anomaly is this, that the bulk of the
members and leaders in the war-time Clubs were enlisted men.
were few and far between as active Masonic workers. Today this is
men who have held or who now hold commissions from the government are
Masonic Club leaders, while men who were enlisted soldiers have
to have any close connection with Club leadership.
illustration of this is seen in the conferring
upon our war-time General Pershing the honor of the 33rd degree of
Masonry, and yet I have endeavored vainly to discover a single Lodge or
the A.E.F. which was honored by the presence of the General during the
is not at all intended to reflect on our wartime leader of the forces,
to illustrate how the bodies here at home have overlooked their
confer upon the brethren who bore the light of the Craft in dark days
their services deserved. It would be a most pleasing task for those who
the wartime Masonic leadership among the Craftsmen in the A.E.F. to
such serious consideration a host of names of Masons who did so much to
and strengthen the courage and velour of our Craftsmen abroad.
American Masonic Club of Nevers, France.
Club receives our first consideration due
to the fact that it comes first on the official register of Masonic
the World War. It was not the pioneer in Club life, yet its history is
a most interesting
was the scene of much of the activities
connected with the furnishing and refurnishing of motor transport
during the war.
At this post were located some of the largest motor assembly and repair
its personnel therefore were to be found
men of a high degree of education and skill. And naturally among such a
Americans the Craft would find a considerable representation. Upon the
the Club are to be found men of the universities and colleges as well
as men from
the factories and technical trades.
years ago it was my good fortune to establish
contact with Dr. Edgar Butler of Minden, Ida., who served the Club as
Bro. Butler is a successful dentist, and from his well-tested interest
in the Craft
during the War we are assured he is just as effective in his
professional and fraternal
activities today. Dr. Butler recognized the value of our researches
Masonry and sent to us the original records and membership roll of the
preserve with similar relics in a collected form and place, for future
use by the
Craft. What we have to say about this Club comes then from official
may be regarded as authentic. In addition to the valuable record
furnished us by
Bro. Butler, we were fortunate enough to establish a most delightful
Frank A. Starr of Richmond, Va., who served the Club most efficiently
as its secretary
during the War. We shall therefore have occasion to refer to his data
as we go along.
American Masonic Club of Nevers, France,
OFFICE OF THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF
April 17, 1919.
Captain Frank is, Starr, Sec .,
Club of Nevers,
General Pershing has received your letter of April 10th, requesting his
of honorary membership in the Masonic Club of Nevers, and directs me to
that it is with pleasure that he accepts same.
in April, 1918, and ran continuously
until May or June of 1919, when possession of their Club rooms was
the ten members still remaining in Nevers. Only four or five members
were left at
this Post by that time. The requirement for Club membership was proof
that the Entered
Apprentice Degree had been conferred on the applicant in a regular
Lodge of Free
Masons. A nominal fee for membership was charged. The meetings were of
type, and programs of a most pleasing nature were prepared and
there were musical programs, and generally refreshments were served.
consisted of chocolate, doughnuts, cakes and fruit. Music was furnished
by the Engineers'
same characteristic that will appear in
other Clubs was the custom here, namely short talks on Masonry by
brethren. One of the especially interesting things about this Club was,
refreshments were left over after the Club had been regaled, the local
who were usually standing outside listening to the music, would be
invited in to
dispose of the surplus.
programs seemed to have been greatly enjoyed
by the members, and furnished them with topics for conversation upon
No distinction in rank was permitted to mar the harmony of these
all met upon the level and were glad of the opportunity.
Club rooms remained open all day. Usually
someone was in charge to look after visitors. A generous supply of
and papers were on hand, together with writing materials for the use of
the fees and other financial resources
a tidy sum was left in the hands of the treasurer. From this fund
service was rendered
to needy and worthy Masons and thereby was performed a most worthy
member of the Club, a Major-Chaplain (whose
name, sad to say, is not on record), was in the habit of holding
in a small church in Nevers each Sunday. It was the sole Protestant
Church in the
city, and it was having a hard struggle to maintain an existence. This
the attention of the Masonic Club, at the suggestion of a member,
the Club disbanded, the funds remaining were voted to be given to this
the purpose of having memorial windows of stained glass placed in the
the memory of American Masons who served in France. A committee was
make a thorough investigation, consisting of Bros. Butler and Starr.
went to Paris, placed the memorial sum on deposit to be paid to the
firm after the
work had been done. These windows were not installed till after the
returned home, and so the kindly memorials they gave to our Protestant
Nevers were never seen by those who made them possible.
the movement looking toward the windows
was on, it was suggested that the Club put on an entertainment and
raise their gift
to generous proportions. The idea was adopted and to commemorate the
aprons were made for distribution to friends and Masonic patrons. These
out of thin white leather, and were three inches wide and two and a
in depth. Upon the flap was printed, FIRST AMERICAN MASONIC CLUB,
and on the body of the apron, “NEVERS, FRANCE, FIRST ANNIVERSARY, APRIL
LT. EDGAR BUTLER, PRES.
entertainment was a huge success. The aprons
were auctioned off to the highest bidders. This occasioned great
was productive of a substantial sum. When the plungers had had their
price came down, and the residue of the stock was disposed of at the
price of five
officers of the Club forwarded one of these
small aprons to General Pershing together with a membership card in
A reply was returned to them expressing appreciation for the gift.
the report of the Overseas Masonic Mission,
page 175, we read:
April 14th (1919), Bro. Lay visited Nevers
and the American Masonic Club at that place. He learned that the Club
a fund of over 5,000 francs for the placing of art glass windows in the
Chapel at Nevers, as a memorial to the American Masons in the A. E. F.,
the regular meeting of the Club on April 15th.
page 179 of the same report is the following:
fund raised by the American Masonic Club
at Nevers for stained glass memorial windows in the Protestant Chapel
was turned over to the Mission. The glass was ordered and under its
supervision was installed.
the papers read before this Club was one
by Bro. Charles E. Smith, Y. M. C. A. Secretary, Camp Stevenson,
France. Its title
is as follows: "Points of Interest concerning the French Masonic Lodge
Lodge Rooms of the Grand Orient of France Located at No. 36, rue de
Nevers (Nievre), France." In this paper are some data of sufficient
the Masonic student to warrant reproducing it here.
first point of interest is the inscription
on a plate on the exterior of the building, which, literally
translated, is: CHAMBER
OF THE DUCOY or NEVERIANS, 1405-1789; CREATED BY PHILIP OF BURGUNDY.
(STATE) PRISON, 1789-1862. INITIATIVE SYNDICATE OF NEVERS, 1862-1912.
this building to the rear is a room which
was used for Masonic purposes. Suspended from the ceiling a short
the station of the Venerable Master is the letter "G." The room was
used as a Chapel for the Counts, and later for the prisoners. It has
been the Masonic
Lodge Room since 1884. Descending to the basement you enter what proved
to be the
cell or dungeon which was at one time a room of torture. Hinges with
which were used to chain prisoners to the wall, when the building was
used as a
prison house, are still intact. On the ceiling are inscriptions freely
If curiosity has
brought you here, pass on.
If you fear to have your faults revealed, you will fare ill with us.
If you are capable of deceit, tremble; someone will find you out.
If you care for distinction among men, pass on; they are not known here
to the French and other continental
rituals, the candidate is first introduced into the Chamber of
Reflection, and the
above sentences are usually inscribed prominently on the walls, to give
to the aspirant's meditations. He has also to write answers to several
and to give briefly his ideas about the fraternity and the motives that
him to seek initiation.
old dungeon of this historic building was
obviously well adapted for this peculiar and impressive part of the
Lodge was organized in or about 1789.
following notice referring to the Club appeared
in the New York Herald, Paris Edition, in 1918:
Lodge at Nevers, France,
January 8, 1918.
publish the following notice in your
Lost and Found column:
Masonic identification tag, belonging
to Bro George N Neill, member of Pittsburgh Lodge, No. 221. Bro. Neill
tag by corresponding with Capt. Frank A. Starr, Secretary, Masonic
Capt., Commanding 118th Co., T. C.,
Secretary, Masonic Club, Nevers, France.
1929 I communicated with the Secretary of
the above Lodge to discover whether or not Bro. Neill had ever
recovered his tag.
reply from the secretary of the Lodge informed
me that Bro. Neill was no longer a member of the Lodge and his present
not known. I am sure we would all be very glad to learn what became of
and of Bro. Neill.
rosters display the signatures of 295 members.
Several pages of another register book torn from it are found among the
without designation. One hundred and seventy-six names are found
thereon. They are
not duplicates of the first list. Should they prove to be additional
this same Club then its total membership must be placed at 471.
However, there was
another Club at Nevers for a time, the "Consistory Masonic Club of
and this may prove to be its membership list.
in all, the brethren stationed at Nevers
proved themselves active and united in a common zeal for the Craft and
of beneficence and mercy. They cared for the sick and unfortunate of
the Craft upon
call and are one of the links in the golden chain which is lengthening
year by year
through all lands and among all races.
Starr tells us of an interesting testimony
which I wish to pass on to the Craft at large. He says in a letter to
me dated February
Commander of Military Police in Nevers,
who attended our meetings regularly, often stated that in all his
disorderly, drunken or rough soldiers, at no time, to his knowledge,
was one of
them a Mason.
highest credit should go to Bros. Butler
and Starr for their willingness to assist these scattered relics of
Club at Nevers, France.
The Real Cagliostro - His Memorial to the
Bro. Cyrus Field Willard, California
the 19th of September, 1780, I arrived at
Strasburg. A few days after my arrival, having been recognized by the
I saw myself forced to accede to the solicitations of the City and of
all the Nobility
of Alsace, and to dedicate my talents in medicine to the service of the
I can cite among the acquaintances I have made in this city, M. the
Marshal de Contades,
the Marquis de la Salle, the Baron de Frasilande, the Baron de l'Or,
the Baron Vorminser,
the Baron de Diederik, Madame the Princess Christine and many others.
those who have known me at Strasburg know
what have been my acts and work there. If I have been slandered in
the newspapers and some fair authors have rendered me justice. Let me
to quote some passages from a book printed in 1783, having for its
on Switzerland." The estimable author of these letters expresses
in Vol. 1, page 5, and following pages:
singular and astonishing man is admirable
by his conduct and by his vast learning. His countenance announces
and expresses genius, while his eyes of fire read to the depths of
arrived from Russia about seven or eight
months ago, and appears willing to settle in this city at least for
some time. No
one knows from whence he came, who he is, or where he goes. Liked,
respected by the governors of the place and the principal people of the
is adored by the poor and the common people, and hated and slandered by
people (doctors), Receiving neither money nor presents from those whom
he has cured,
he passes his life in visiting the sick, and above all the poor, while
with remedies which he distributes free to them, and helping them with
so that they may have food.
eats very little and mainly the pastry of
Italy. He never goes to bed and sleeps only two or three hours, sitting
up in an
armchair, and in fact is always ready to fly to help the unfortunates,
what hour it may be, having no other pleasure than that of assisting
incredible man maintains a state much more
astonishing, for he pays for everything in advance, and no one knows
where he derives
his revenues nor who furnishes the money.
will understand, Madame, that they have
made violent jests at his expense; he is the anti-Christ at least; he
is five or
six hundred years old; he possesses the philosopher's stone and the
In short he is one of those intelligences whom the Creator sometimes
sends on earth
clad in a mortal envelope.
that is so, it is certainly an intelligence
worthy of respect. I have seen very few souls as compassionate as his,
nor a heart
as good and tender. No one has more wit or learning than he has; he
knows all the
languages of Europe and of Asia and his eloquence astonishes and
carries away even
those who speak the least good of him. I say nothing of his marvelous
would be necessary for that while all the newspapers will tell you of
should know that of more than fifteen thousand sick persons whom he has
his most furious enemies can reproach him with only three deaths, in
he had no more part than I have.
me, Madame, if I stay a few moments more
on this remarkable man. I have just come from his assembly room. How
you would cherish
this worthy mortal if you had seen him, as I have, run from poor person
person, dress their disgusting wounds, alleviate their pain, console
them with hope,
dispense to them remedies free, overwhelm them with favors; in short,
heap on them
gifts without any other purpose than that of helping suffering humanity
and to enjoy
the inestimable pleasure of being on earth the image of the beneficent
to yourself, Madame, an immense hall,
filled with these unhappy creatures, nearly all deprived of any help
towards Heaven their feeble hands which they could scarcely raise to
charity of the Count.
listens to one after another, forgets not
one of their words, goes out for some moments and returns soon loaded
with a multitude
of remedies which he freely dispenses to each of these unfortunates,
to them what they told him of their illness and assuring them that they
be cured if they faithfully execute his orders. But the remedies alone
be sufficient: they must have bread to acquire the strength to support
of them have the means to procure it for themselves so the purse of the
shared among them and it would seem that it is inexhaustible.
more happy to give than to receive from
them, his joy is manifested by his tenderness. These unhappy ones,
gratitude, with love and respect, prostrate themselves at his feet,
knees, call him their Savior, their Father and their God. The good man
to pity, tears flow from his eyes; he wishes to hide them but he has
not the power
to do so. He weeps and the assembly melts in tears, delicious tears
which are the
luxury of the heart and of which the charms cannot be expressed unless
one has been
happy enough to shed similar ones.
is but a very feeble sketch of the enchanting
spectacle I have just enjoyed.
testimony which this author renders to the
truth has nothing exaggerated in it.
can question the curates of the parishes;
they will tell of the good I have done for the poor of their district.
One can question
the corps of artillery and the different regiments which were then in
Strasburg; they will tell of the numbers of soldiers I have cured. They
the apothecary with whom I dealt; he will tell of the quantity of
medicine I have
had him make for the poor people and which I paid him for each day in
They can question the innkeepers; they will tell whether the inns and
hotels would suffice for the great concourse of strangers whom I
attracted to Strasburg.
One can question the jailers; they will tell how I have conducted
the poor prisoners and the number of them I have had set free.
the chiefs of the city, let the magistrates,
let the entire public say if ever I have caused any scandal and whether
in my actions
they have found one single thing contrary to the laws, to good morals
or to religion.
during my stay in France I have offended
a single person, let him stand forth and bear testimony against me.
is not intended to glorify myself. I have
done good because I felt I ought to do it. But, after all, what benefit
have I received
for the services I have rendered the French nation? In the bitterness
of my heart
shall I say it: libels, lampoons and the Bastille!
nearly a year I was at Strasburg when one
evening on returning home, I had the agreeable surprise of finding
there the Chevalier
d'Aquino. (Note: The reader is asked to remember that it was the Knight
d'Aquino, whose acquaintance I had made at Malta and who accompanied me
on my first
travels in Europe. He had learned from the newspapers of my being in
had made the voyage there expressly in order to see me and renew the
ties of our
Chevalier d'Aquino had seen the chiefs of
the city and was able to tell them what he knew of my stay at Malta,
and the distinction
with which the Grand Master Pinto had treated me.
after my arrival in France, M. the Cardinal
de Rohan had sent the Baron de Millinens, his master of the hounds, to
tell me that
he wished to know me. As long as it was only a matter of curiosity as
with the Prince, I refused to gratify it. But soon after when he sent
to tell me
that he had an attack of asthma and wished to consult me, I went in
haste to his
episcopal palace. When I gave him my opinion as to his malady, he
and begged me to come to see him from time to time.
the course of 1781, M. the Cardinal did me
the honor to come to my house in order to consult me on the illness of
the Prince de Soubise. He was attacked with gangrene and I had had the
to cure of the same malady the secretary of the Marquis de la Salle
after he had
been abandoned by all the doctors. I asked some questions of M. the
the illness of the Prince, but he interrupted me by earnestly praying
me to accompany
him to Paris. He put so much courtesy and politeness into his
it was impossible for me to refuse him. I departed with him, leaving
with my surgeon
and my friends the necessary orders so that my sick people and the poor
suffer in my absence.
we arrived at Paris, M. the Cardinal wished
to take me right to the Prince de Soubise, but I refused, telling him
that my intention
was to avoid all causes of altercation with the Faculty [of Medicine]
and that I
wished to see the Prince only after the doctors had declared his case
the Cardinal was kind enough to agree to
this and came back to me to say that the Faculty had declared he was
better. I declared
to him then that I would not go to see the Prince as I did not wish to
glory of a cure which was not due to my own work (1).
public having been informed of my arrival,
there came so many people to see and consult me that I was occupied
every day, during
the thirteen days I remained in Paris, in seeing the sick, from five
the morning until nearly midnight.
dealt with an apothecary, but gave away at
my own expense a great deal more medicine than he sold. I call all
persons who have
had recourse to me as witnesses to this fact. If there is one single
one of them
who can say that they have ever made me accept the smallest sum of
money, or presents,
then I will consent to being refused any kind of confidence.
Louis (de Rohan) took me back to Saverne,
gave me many thanks and begged me to come to see him as often as
possible. I returned
to Strasburg immediately, where I recommenced my customary work.
good that I did brought me in return various
kinds of libels and lampoons, in which I was treated as anti-Christ,
Jew, Man of Fourteen Hundred Years, etc.
become tired of so many injuries and
insults, I made the resolution to leave Strasburg. But various letters
Ministers of the King had the kindness to write regarding myself,
caused me to change
is important in this trial, I believe, to
put beneath the eyes of the Judges and of the public these
those in so much more honorable stations than myself, since I have not
them directly or indirectly. Some are as follows:
of a letter written by the Count de Vergennes,
Minister of Foreign Affairs, to M. Gerard, Pretor (Judge) of Strasburg.
Versailles, March 13, 1783.
I am not personally
acquainted with M. the Count de Cagliostro, but all reports, during the
has resided at Strasburg, are so favorable to him that humanity
requires that he
find there respect and tranquility. His quality of foreigner and the
good in which
he excels so constantly and which he does so persistently, are vouchers
me to recommend him to you and to the town-council over which you
preside. M. de
Cagliostro asks only tranquility and safety; hospitality assures him
your natural disposition, I am persuaded that you will be eager to make
them and such other pleasures as it is possible for him to procure.
I have the honor
to be, Monsieur, your very humble and very obedient servant. (Signed)
of the letter of M. the Marquis DE MIROMENIL,
Keeper of the Seals, to M. Gerard, Pretor of Strasburg. Dated at
The Count de Cagliostro
has employed himself with zeal since he has been at Strasburg in
poor and unfortunate and I have knowledge of several actions of this
were full of humanity and which deserve that you accord him a special
I recommend to you therefore to procure for him, in all that concerns
you and the
town-council over which you preside, that protection and all the
a Foreigner should enjoy in the dominions of the King, especially when
himself useful there.
of the letter written by the Marquis de
SEGUR to M. the Marquis DE LA SALLE. Under date of March 15, 1783.
The good conduct,
Monsieur, that has been assured me that the Count de Cagliostro has
at Strasburg, the estimable use that he has made of his learning and
that city, and the multiplied proofs of humanity that he has given to
attacked by various maladies who have had recourse to him, warrant that
shall have the protection of the Government. The King charges you to
see that he
be not disturbed at Strasburg when he may judge it fitting to return
also that he may experience in that city the attentions which the
services he renders
to the unfortunate ought to procure for him.
(Signed) SEGUR (2).
tranquility which these ministerial letters
secured for me was not of long duration. But it was on these letters
and the orders
of the King that I was pleased to consider France as the end of my
I believe that two years later the sacred rights of hospitality, so
and so nobly expressed in the letters written in the name of the King,
invoked in vain by my unhappy wife and myself?
been persecuted by one class of men for
a long time and these attacks beginning again, I decided to leave
resolved to expose myself no longer to the malicious attacks of this
(3) I was in this humor when I received a letter from the Chevalier
which he informed me he was dangerously ill. I left Strasburg
immediately, but in
spite of all the haste I was able to make I arrived at Naples only in
time to receive
the last sigh of my unfortunate friend.
few days after my arrival I was recognized
by the Ambassador of Sardinia and several other persons. Seeing that I
again persecuted for taking up medicine once more, I made the
resolution to go to
England, and traversed the southern part of France with this purpose in
at Bordeaux on the 8th of November, 1783.
at the theatre in that city I was recognized
by an officer of cavalry, who hastened to inform the town-council who I
Chevalier Roland, one of their number, had the courtesy to come in the
name of his
fellow-members to offer my wife and myself a place in their box at any
we might like to come to the theatre.
town-council and the public having given
me the most distinguished reception and solicited me most earnestly to
myself, as at Strasburg, to the service of the sick, I allowed myself
to be persuaded,
and began to give consultations and distribute remedies and sums of
money to the
poor. The crowds of people became so great that I was obliged to ask
for soldiers to maintain order in my house.
was at Bordeaux that I had the honor of making
the acquaintance of M. the Marshal de Mouchi, M. the Count de Fumel, M.
de Hamel and other persons worthy of trust, who will testify as to the
which I conducted myself in that city.
same kind of persecution which had made
me leave Strasburg followed me to Bordeaux, and from that city I took
after eleven months' residence, for Lyons, where I arrived during the
of October, 1784. But I remained only three months in the latter city,
left for Paris, where I arrived January 30, 1785. At first I stopped in
one of the
furnished hotels in the Palais-Royal district, and a little later I
went to live
in a house in the Rue St. Claude, near the Boulevard.
first care was to declare to all the persons
I knew, that my intention was to live quietly and that I did not wish
myself any more with medicine. I have kept my word and have refused
solicitations which have been made to me in this respect.
Louis (de Rohan) has done me the honor
to come to see me from time to time. I remember that one day he
proposed to me that
I make the acquaintance of a lady called Valois de la Motte, and it was
said the Cardinal de Rohan to me, "is plunged in the most profound
because someone has predicted to her that she would die in her
It would be one of the greatest pleasures to me if I were able to
succeed in disabusing
her of this idea and restore calm to her imagination. Madame sees the
and you would do me a great favor, if she should ask your opinion, if
say to her that the Queen will be happily delivered of a Prince."
consented willingly to what M. the Cardinal
asked of me, since in obliging him I found myself indirectly exercising
influence on the health of the Queen.
next day to the hotel of the Cardinal
I found there the Countess de la Motte, who, after saying many civil
things to me,
spoke to me thus:
"I know at Versailles
a person of great distinction to whom someone has predicted, as well as
lady, that both of them would die in confinement. One of them is
already dead and
the other is waiting with the greatest anxiety the time when she is to
If you are able to know, truly, what is to happen or if you believe it
to be informed on it, I will go to Versailles tomorrow to make a report
to the person
interested on it. This person," she added, "is the Queen."
answered the Countess de la Motte that all
such predictions were follies and she should say to this person,
moreover, to recommend
herself to the Eternal, that her first confinements had been fortunate
one would be so likewise.
Countess de la Motte was not content with
this reply; she persisted in trying to obtain from me something more
remembered then the promise made to the Prince
de Rohan, took a very grave tone and said to the Countess de la Motte
in the most
serious manner possible:
know that I have some knowledge of medicinal physics; and I possess
some on Animal
Magnetism. My opinion is that an innocent person can work in such a
case with more
power than any other. Thus if you wish to know the truth, begin by
securing an innocent
Countess answered: "Since you have
need of an innocent person, I have a Niece who is exceedingly so. I
will bring her
here tomorrow." I imagined that this innocent Niece was a child of five
six years and was very much astonished on finding the next day at the
hotel of the
Prince that it was a young lady of fourteen or fifteen years, taller
said the Countess to me, "is
the innocent one of whom I have spoken to you." I had need to compose
not to burst out laughing. But after all I succeeded in holding in and
said to the
young lady, Mademoiselle de la Tour:
is it indeed true that you are innocent?" She replied with more
frankness, "Yes, sir."
Mademoiselle, I am going in an instant
to know if you are; so recommend yourself to God and to your innocence.
behind that screen, close your eyes and wish to yourself the thing you
to see. If you are innocent you will see what you wish to see, but if
you are not
innocent you will see nothing."
de la Tour placed herself behind the screen
and I remained outside with the Prince, who was standing by the side of
not in ecstasy as Mlle. de la Tour has claimed, but with his hand on
his mouth in
order not to trouble our grave ceremonies with an indiscreet laugh.
de la Tour being then behind the screen,
I began to make some magnetic passes which lasted for some moments and
then I said
one stroke on the ground with your
innocent feet and tell me if you see anything?"
see nothing," she said to me.
Mademoiselle," said I to her,
and giving a hard blow to the screen, "you are not innocent then."
these words the Demoiselle de la Tour, stung
by this remark, exclaimed "That she saw the Queen."
saw then that the innocent niece had been
instructed by the aunt, who was not so innocent either. Wishing to see
in what manner
she would further play the role, I asked her to give me a description
of the phantom
that she saw. She answered that the lady was enceinte, that she was
clad all in
white, and she detailed her features, which were precisely those of the
this lady," I said to her, "if
she will be happily delivered?"
replied that the lady nodded her head and
said that she would be delivered without any vexatious consequences.
command you," I said to her finally,
"to kiss respectfully the hand of this Lady." The innocent one kissed
her own hand and came out from behind the screen, well content to have
us as to the matter of her innocence.
aunt and the niece ate some sweetmeats,
drank some lemonade and withdrew by a private stairway, a quarter of an
The Prince saw me home and thanked me for what I had been kind enough
to do in order
to oblige him. Thus was finished a comedy as innocent in itself as it
in its motive.
or four days later, being at the house
of M. the Cardinal, and the Countess de la Motte being there, they
begged me to
renew the same sport with a little boy of five or six years, and I
I ought not to refuse them this slight satisfaction. Little did I
imagine that a
social joke would be denounced to the Public Prosecutor later as an act
a profanation, and a sacrilege on the mysteries of Christianity.
Prince having caused me to become acquainted
with the Countess de la Motte, asked me what I thought of her. I have
the opinion that I was somewhat of a judge of physiognomy, and so I
replied to the
Prince that I regarded the Countess de la Motte as a cheat and a
schemer. The Prince
interrupted me, saying that she was an honest woman but in dire
distress from poverty.
I observed that if it were true, as she had told him that she was the
of the Queen, she would soon enjoy better fortune and she would not
need to have
recourse to any other protection.
Prince and I remained each in his own opinion.
He left a short time afterwards for Saverne, where he made a stay of a
six weeks. On his return he came to see me at my house more often than
saw that he was uneasy, pensive and distrait. I respected his secrecy,
time that the question of the Countess de la Motte came up, I said to
him with my
woman is deceiving you."
fifteen days before he was arrested he
said to me:
dear Count, I am commencing to believe
that you are right and that Madame Valois is a cheat." Then he related
for the first time, the story of the Diamond Necklace, and made me
aware of the
suspicions that he had formed and of the fear that he had that the
not in fact been delivered to the Queen, all of which made me persist
ever in my first opinion.
next day after this conversation, the Prince
told me that the Count and Countess de la Motte had sought shelter with
him on account
of the fear they had as to the consequences of this affair and they had
to give them letters of recommendation for England or for the
neighborhood of the
Prince asked my opinion and I told him there
was only one course to take and that was to deliver this woman to the
then go and relate all the facts to the King or his Ministers. The
and said that the goodness and generosity of his heart was opposed to
that ease," I replied, "you
have no other recourse than God. He must do the rest and I hope He may."
the Cardinal de Rohan, not being willing
to give the Count and Countess de la Motte the letters of
recommendation that they
wished, they departed for Burgundy, and I have not heard anyone speak
of them since
August 15th I learned, as did all Paris,
that M. the Cardinal de Rohan had been arrested. Some persons warned me
I was a friend of the Cardinal I might be arrested also. Convinced of
my own innocence,
I replied that I was resigned and would wait patiently in my house the
will of God
and that of the Government.
August 22d, at half past seven in the morning,
a Commissaire, an exempt [under officer] and eight men of the police
came to my
house. The plundering began in my presence. They forced me to open my
and writing desks; and elixirs, balsams and precious liqueurs all
became the booty
of the Bailiffs who were entrusted with the duty of escorting me.
begged the Commissaire, M. Chenon, junior,
to permit me to use my carriage, but he had the inhumanity to refuse me
relief. They dragged me away on foot, with the greatest exposure,
half-way to the
Bastille, when a hackney coach approaching, I obtained the favor of
to get into it. The terrible drawbridge was lowered and I saw myself a
wife suffered the same fate. Here I stop,
shuddering, and will conceal what I have suffered. I will spare the
the reader by refraining from depicting a picture equally painful and
I shall permit myself only one word, and Heaven is my witness that this
the expression of the truth. If anyone would give me the choice between
pain of execution and six months in the Bastille I would say without
"Lead me to the scaffold."
Later on the Prince was given up by his
doctors, and his case declared
hopeless. Cagliostro then took charge and under his ministrations the
a complete recovery
The Marquis de Segur was at that time Minister
The well-known Baron de Gleichen, in his book,
Souvenirs says that it
was the members of the medical profession almost exclusively who
carried on this
persecution of libel and slander against Cagliostro. They did not like
people of diseases which had proved insusceptible to their science, and
they objected to his doing it gratuitously.
Red-Tape, Technicalities and Delay in the U. S.
Bro. Leonard G. Coop, Missouri
the March issue of "The Builder,"
under the caption "The Broken Men of the Great War," a short summary
given on matters pertaining to the Veterans Bureau and the disabled
with a typical and concrete case (Joseph G. Bolland).
the benefit of the reader who did not see
the article above noted a brief digest of the claim may be in order,
then be followed with the subsequent happenings in this particular case
to illustrate Veteran Bureau methods and stupidity.
Bolland (name is fictitious to save the
family embarrassment) was a normal boy prior to service, he served his
and well, official records show that he was wounded in action.
was treated by competent physicians from
almost the day he was discharged for a mental condition which was
from his experiences overseas.
of the doctors who treated him, who had
been the family physician for many years prior to the World War, gives
medical evidence (in affidavit form) which shows a serious mental
practically from the day the veteran left the service; this physician
formerly employed by the Veterans Bureau, and made the affidavit while
of the Rating Board in 1924.
doctors, practicing in the community where
this veteran resided and who treated him at different times, have all
Bureau the same testimony, the only dissenting opinion in his entire
folder is the
statement of one doctor who saw him for but a short time in 1923 at a
he knew nothing about the boy's history, and from the report in his
apparently made a diagnosis largely upon what the veteran himself told
at that time he was suffering from a mental disorder.
being discharged from this hospital, where
he was a patient but a few days, he repeatedly tried to secure
treatment from the
Veterans Bureau, and finally wrote a letter to the writer of this
he could not go on without treatment, and that he intended to end his
he could get some relief. Treatment was denied by the Bureau; and in
he blew his head off with a shotgun, his last letter being a pitiful
veteran's folder was then sent to Washington
and efforts were made to secure compensation for his estate, but to no
Bureau going so far as to say in their decision of June 25, 1924:
in the file does not show presence of a compensable rating ‒ cause of
Shot Wound in head by own hand ‒ not due to service."
case lay dormant for five years when the
writer again took it up and induced the aged father to permit another
clear his son's name from the stigma that had been placed upon him by
in 1923, who gave the diagnosis of constitutional psychopathic inferior.
boy's pre-war history is so much at variance
with such a diagnosis that the Bureau physician who knew him well both
after service makes a very positive statement, which is on file,
Bureau has been given every opportunity
to make investigation of this case, the Director has been written to
and the whole claim was carefully discussed with the Director's special
representative, who called on the writer last January.
letters, much publicity, and efforts
of prominent people have been made to have the Bureau correct such an
the only result has been a letter dated Feb. 8, 1930, from Mr. H. H.
of Awards of the Veterans Bureau in Washington, which states in part:
"… the evidence
in file ‒ has been carefully reviewed and it is now held that the cause
of the death
of your son is DIRECTLY DUE TO AND PROXIMATELY the result of mental
disability was held as incurred in service"
Milks then goes on to explain, by devious
and complicated methods peculiar to the Bureau, that no compensation
can be paid
to the estate.
question is asked Mr. Milks, that if this
disabled veteran died from a disability contracted in the service, and
his claim in 1920, and there is no misconduct complication, why was he
rated under the laws in existence at the time of his death? Surely
their own physician's
statement, who was intimately familiar with this boy's entire history
proves beyond the question of a doubt, that the veteran did suffer from
mental condition from the day of his discharge from the army.
a sort of sop to the parents and also to
have something to show the public that the Bureau was trying to be
they offer the parents the princely sum of $20 per month dependency
the loss of their son.
has been refused by the bereaved parents,
for they hold such an offer as an insult.
Masonic family at present has from the
Veterans Bureau, as its contribution to the memory of one who did his
and finally died (the primary cause of his death occurring in the
service of his
country ) only the stigma of an official diagnosis of constitutional
will be quite interesting to see the final
outcome of this distressing case when suit, now pending for insurance
is brought to trial in the Federal Court.
substantial proportion of the Bureau's handling
of claims is an outrage on the generous and sympathetic American
people. I quote
the words of one of the Bureau's own executives:
negligence constitutes a crying miscarriage of justice and will subject
to ridicule and contempt by all thinking people...."
would be difficult, if not well-nigh impossible,
to bring this doctor who gave the diagnosis in 1923 to account, but it
be held impossible to hold strictly accountable every official in the
from the Director down, who has been responsible for subsequent
decisions and ratings
up to date in this most pathetic case.
is precisely such inexcusable carelessness
(putting it charitably) or official maladministration of a trust (to
put it accurately)
which offsets the many good things that the Bureau has accomplished,
and which brings
the organization into ill-repute throughout the country.
next illustrative case, which is here presented,
is that of a nephew of a prominent Illinois Mason, and is particularly
as the veteran is still living, though with but little to live for.
name is Wm. J. Shackelford, and in addition
to his many other disabilities, he is now blind, and quite sensitive
his condition to become public property.
is, and has been, in a hospital at one of
the Soldiers Homes, and even the Bureau has considered him as
and totally disabled" since March 26, 1927.
only consented to allow his case to be used
after much persuasion, and with the promise that his present location
Veterans Bureau has cause to know this case
full well, for a large number of prominent persons in different parts
of the country
have voiced vigorous protests against the almost criminal delay, and
accorded this blind, and otherwise disabled, veteran who had an
in the Air Service.
brief review of his claim, taken from official
records (unless otherwise so stated) is as follows:
Enlisted in the Air
Service August 9, 1918, in practically perfect physical and mental
He had formerly been
employed by Mr. Glenn H. Curtiss when the airplane business was yet in
and if this article happens to be read by Mr. Curtiss he may remember
man who was with him when his first seaplane was launched in San Diego,
Mr. Shackelford was
hospitalized three times for the "flu," during service in 1918 and also
In June, 1919, his
right leg was severely injured in an airplane accident. The official
that he was in the hospital for 35 days for this injury.
December, 1919, he
was again severely injured in an airplane crash, right leg broken,
on face and head, also internal injuries.
above are all of official record, with exception
of an adequate record of the internal injuries, and undoubtedly his
and his present condition abundantly indicate that he suffered such
eyes commenced to give him trouble after
the airplane crash, and competent eye specialists claim that his head
have been, and very probably were, the primary cause of his present
consulted a physician soon after discharge
regarding the condition of his eyes, but the doctor has since died and
no records available, although the son, who is a lifelong friend of the
and also a physician himself, distinctly remembers his father advising
that he should go to an eye specialist. This statement is on file with
Such evidence of course is irrelevant, immaterial, and absolutely of no
in the eyes of the Bureau; and judging from the remarks that the writer
hundreds of times in similar cases, it certainly will be sneered at in
Office of the Bureau in Washington.
veteran who had an unusual amount of pluck,
had an aversion to asking aid of anyone; he endeavored to make his way
after being discharged from the Air Service. But after honest and
had to give up entirely, and when his funds were exhausted he applied
to the Bureau, and filed a claim in 1926.
Shackelford served two enlistments in the
Air Service. Character marked as "Excellent" on both of his discharges.
He passed an examination for a commission, and was commended by Brig.
now suffers from the after-effects of the
following injuries, which are directly or indirectly due to injuries or
contracted in the service "in line of duty": right knee crushed, right
leg broken, internal injuries, left arm broken, six ribs fractured,
frequent severe headaches, entirely blind in right eye, practically no
left eye. After a great amount of effort on the part of friends who
in him, his claim was finally allowed at one of the Bureau Regional
1929, THREE YEARS AFTER HE HAD FILED HIS CLAIM.
to Bureau procedure it was necessary that
his folder be then sent to the Board of Appeals in Chicago, Ill., later
it was forwarded
to the Central Office of the Bureau in Washington for further review,
where it has
been ever since. IT IS NOW 15 MONTHS SINCE THE REGIONAL OFFICE MADE A
EXHAUSTIVE STUDY OF THE CASE AND GRANTED COMPENSATION, AND YET NO FINAL
HAS BEEN MADE BY THE BUREAU IN WASHINGTON UP TO DATE OF WRITING THIS
any final decision has been made, it is unknown
to the writer, and it is known that the veteran has not received any
us look for a moment as to what has happened
to the veteran during the past 15 months; this of course does not enter
calculations, for those responsible for the delay are steadily
receiving good salaries,
enjoy easy hours, have their day and a half off each week, besides
30 days annual vacation; also sick leave, etc., etc.
without funds he was forced to return
to a Soldiers' Home, a little later he was transferred to a Veterans
for treatment, where he was a patient for about seven months.
condition being chronic, with little or
no hope for recovery, he was discharged from this Bureau Hospital and
to the Soldiers' Home for domiciliary care.
had only been there a short time when he
was sent for another examination to the Mayo Clinic; after this
examination he was
returned to the Home, where he has been in the Hospital ward ever since.
this veteran had had unusual intelligence
and marked staying powers, the numerous examinations to which he has
since 1927 would have undermined his resistance to such an extent, that
he had had no disabilities, the psychologic effort of being repeatedly
he was disabled might well have brought on something that is quite
familiar to all
neuro-psychiatric specialists, namely, hypochondriasis.
idea of the examinations to which he has
submitted since Dec., 1927, may be gained from the following brief
resume; it does
not comprise all, but will be sufficient to indicate, even to the lay
this veteran has been examined beyond all reason. He now revolts at any
can blame him?
19, 1927 ‒ Special eye examination
at Bureau Clinic. Diagnosis at that time "Optic atrophy ‒ nothing can
to relieve this man's condition."
1928 ‒ General examination at Soldiers'
1928 ‒ Special X-ray studies at Soldiers'
17, 1928 ‒ Special eye examination by
outside specialist. This physician inadvertently stated that he had a
optic atrophy." This will be referred to later
23, 1928 ‒ Exhaustive study of eyes
by the Bureau consulting eye specialist, a physician of national
23, 1928 ‒ Complete X-ray studies by
an outside specialist.
24, 1928 ‒ Complete and thorough general
examination by an outside physician of standing and repute.
29, 1928 ‒ Special eye examination at
a nationally known clinic.
30, 1928 ‒ Special chest examination
by a Board of three Bureau physicians.
1928 ‒ Examination by nerve specialist
of the Bureau.
1928 ‒ Complete X-ray studies by the
1928 ‒ Special orthopedic examination
by Bureau specialist
1928 ‒ General physical examination
by the Bureau.
‒ Complete physical and mental examination,
including X-ray laboratory, general, orthopedic, etc., at a Bureau
the veteran was a patient for seven months.
1929 ‒ Special and general examination
at a nationally known clinic.
1929 ‒ Examination at a Soldiers' Home.
list, with others not mentioned, will indicate
that he has been very nearly "examined to death," and when the Bureau
desired yet another one recently relative to his scars, he rebelled, as
information was already in his folder, the special examination made for
was most exhaustive as the writer can testify to (himself being present
was made), it covered the length, width, and position of every scar.
is quite likely that the Bureau will deny,
or further delay, their decision on this claim because of the veteran's
to submit to more examinations. As a matter of fact he has come to the
examinations only upset him, and he believes that further co-operation
is practically no disagreement between
any of the doctors, Bureau or otherwise, in their diagnosis of this
blind veteran, furthermore there is no question of any misconduct
recent letter from the Bureau, which again
denies compensation or service connection on his eye disability, gives
for denial as being the fact that the outside eye specialist on October
stated in his conclusions that the veteran had a "beginning optic
This is so absurd and far-fetched as to be ludicrous, were it not so
the veteran himself.
argument set forth by the Bureau has been
answered by this doctor (whose statement had been made the basis for
in no uncertain terms, and any school boy with but a high school
have readily seen that the one word detrimental to the claim, out of
scores of pages
in his folder, that is, the word "beginning" in the phrase "beginning
optic atrophy," referred to previously, was clearly a clerical error,
not borne out by this doctor's findings in this same report. As, for
is said later ‒ "DISABILITY AT THE PRESENT TIME IS 95% ‒ HISTORY WOULD
TRAUMATIC ATROPHY OF OPTIC NERVE ‒” (This was an examination for eyes
the plain intent and meaning of this doctor's report was nullified by
use of the word “beginning.”
to absurd technicalities such as is thus
shown above (as well as others) and constant procrastination by the
intended by a grateful republic, nor by law) Mr. Shackelford HAS WAITED
AND UP TO DATE OF WRITING THIS ARTICLE HAS NEVER RECEIVED ANY
COMPENSATION OR ANY
foregoing case has been discussed in some
detail. However, a little reflection will indicate what the feelings of
and embittered man must be, who has been forced to put up with such
and who even now is in a hospital, dependent upon the charity of his
even small personal necessities.
this case has been given at some
length to illustrate the necessity for a very decided change in the
the Bureau, and its methods, particularly in the central office in
writer can cite a large number of instances,
which have been thoroughly investigated, to show that there is
imperative need for
a drastic, nation-wide protest from all ax-service men and all others
in those who made the Armistice possible.
is wondered what good purpose will be served
by adding a further plethora of new laws for veterans' relief when
in existence are flaunted in the face of the people and the lawmakers
of the country,
as illustrated by the Bolland and Shackelford cases as shown in this
and the previous
suggestion for a "cure" was mentioned
in my article in the March issue of THE BUILDER, and it is still
the method indicated might be used to good advantage, make an issue of
claims, and see that those responsible for such decisions are punished,
one or two
cases thoroughly investigated, with definite action, will, in my
opinion, do much
to correct the conditions complained of.
of the proposed bills, relating to veterans'
relief was discussed in the last issue of THE BUILDER, and it is again
that the reader send for a copy of H. R. 9112, presented by
G. Simmons of Nebraska, for it is believed that this is constructive
which if faithfully carried out will bring about changes for the
benefit of all
Meekren, Editor in Charge
Clubs in the A.E.F.
this issue we begin a new series of articles
by Bro. Charles E. Irwin, who himself served overseas as a Chaplain.
with the various Clubs of Masons formed by and for members of the Craft
in the American
Expeditionary Forces in the World War. Naturally there were many more
of these than
there were of Army Lodges, for they could be formed spontaneously
without any authorization
from a Grand Lodge or Grand Master. For this reason the task of
about them has been much more arduous, and the difficulties in some
ways much greater.
Bro. Irwin knows of the existence of a good many of which he knows
than the name. Very likely there are yet others of which no rumor has
come to him.
He has collected material relating to some forty, and of these it is
give an account of twenty or so in the succeeding months. These will
typical, and those with the most interesting features will be chosen.
But it is
desirable that as complete records as possible may be made, and to this
of our readers who has any information to give, or who knows of any
who had anything to do with an Army Club of this kind, is urged to
us. In a few years more it will be too late in many cases.
material, documents, photographs, relics
of one kind and another that Bro. Irwin has been gathering for a good
is to form a permanent collection. It will be handed over to some
organization as a whole ‒ probably to one of the larger Masonic
libraries ‒ and
will be at the disposal of those interested in the Masonic aspects of
of the Great War in perpetuity. This is peculiarly a case where the
"Do it now," should be followed.
articles by Bro. Coop in the March issue
of THE BUILDER, judging by the letters we have received since it
appeared, has roused
a really remarkable amount of interest. Some samples of these letters
will be found
in the Correspondence Columns. It would seem that the men who suffered
in the War
have not been forgotten by the public at large, and that there is an
to any hint that some of them, for whatever cause, are being denied the
that it was the intention of the nation they should receive.
it should not be necessary to do so, it
may be as well to say here that THE BUILDER takes no responsibility
Bro. Coop’s statements. That rests entirely on his own shoulders. And
also we shall
be very glad to afford space to anyone who wishes to controvert what he
There are always two sides to every question. However, we certainly
should not have
given Bro. Coop a hearing had we not been assured of his
responsibility. We are
convinced that he is working disinterestedly for a group of disabled
have been denied, on technicalities, the assistance that was morally
and in particular for a number of individual cases. After trying to
help them through
the regular official channels and having become convinced that by these
would ever be accomplished, he resigned his position in order to be
to use other methods, one of which is publicity.
us say that the sort of thing that Bro.
Coop is seeking in some measure to remedy is not peculiar to the United
or to the present decade. It happens, and has happened, wherever relief
of the sick,
wounded and destitute is organized on a large scale. It happens
the organization is created by the State. Government departments tend
to develop forms and procedure to an undue extent, and the power of
in officials tends continuously to be limited by precedents. The same
kind of thing
exactly has happened in other countries in regard to the treatment of
There must, of course, be rules and regulations, and these cannot be so
framed that they will not, if rigidly applied, work injustice in some
some in who should not be aided and denying others who should be. There
be someone, and there usually is someone, in theory, with discretion to
technicalities in these hard cases.
officials must not be wholly blamed for
the "official attitude." They are usually good, kindly, decent citizens
in their private lives. But they are so constantly meeting the
fictitious and fraudulent
claims of the parasitic class, which, like the poor, we have always
with us, that
in self-defense they adopt an attitude of suspicion toward all claims.
are subject to political pressure always. An economy campaign, for
result in the chiefs of the Bureau being told to curtail expenditures
as much as
possible. How could they otherwise do so except by making it harder for
to get their cases allowed?
the War a certain prison camp in Germany
was used for convalescent wounded prisoners discharged from hospitals.
led to there being a very large percentage of men unfit for work. In
executive in Berlin, observing this high percentage, sent orders to the
officer in the camp, that he had altogether too many sick. He took the
a medical inspection, and passed everyone indiscriminately as fit for
manual labor. The theory being that whether they were or not, they
would not appear
on paper as in the disabled categories. One man without a foot was so
was carried into a hospital that night and was dead before morning.
This is an exaggerated
example of the kind of thing that may happen anywhere, at any time,
human adjustments are interfered with by outside influences with
aims in view.
actually are the facts in the present case
we do not know, and do not presume to guess. But it is common
experience in all
countries, because it is so human, that government departments tend
always to become
autonomous, despotic, and in the eyes of their officials, ends in
which the functions they are supposed to fill come to be regarded as
the Veterans' Bureau has developed along
these lines it is no cause for surprise, however much it may call for
The number of proposed changes in and additions to the law creating the
are now being considered in Congress proves that there is some ground
and we are inclined to think that Bro. Coop is right in believing that
well make matters worse. What really seems to be called for is a
entirely free from political pressure of any kind, to take care of the
Such a body was found necessary in Canada, where similar conditions
has been the means of affording relief to many who were technically
whose claims were morally justified.
* * *
first thought of those with any regard at
all to the proprieties of their mother tongue is that this word is a
and that it may be as well that it should be attached to a peculiarly
exhibition of cowardice and that thing and name be dropped into the
of oblivion. Unfortunately the word insists on floating like a cork,
and a by-product
of the war has become an additional horror of the peace.
regard to cowardice, in itself it is a thing
to be pitied rather than despised. There is a small percentage of
people, a few
men and some women, who simply are unable to understand fear, that is
fear of physical
danger. They are like fighting cocks or bull terriers, or other
But the great majority of people are naturally and inescapably afraid
in the face
of danger, and the great majority of them again are quite capable of
that fear, provided some adequate motive exists. In fact both the
coward and fearless
are in the nature of pathological cases, they are abnormal. Naturally,
considering the history of the race, the one is despised and the other
honor and worship due to heroes.
kind of cowardice, however, that did fill
all normal people with disgust, was that of the man who robed himself
in the virtues
of the conscientious objector, and whose chief motive was not so much
but his desire to be allowed to stay at home and make financial hay
while the war-time
sun was shining. With the customary confusions of thought fostered and
by using one word for several things, the obloquy rightly attached to
was carried over to people who rather deserved honor because they would
There were many such men, who were prepared to face risk of death, and
it, and who suffered greatly, materially and morally, for their
was easy in war time to think them pigheaded and mistaken, it was still
cover them with abuse and believe them hypocrites and cowards, but it
possible in peace time to do them justice.
as elsewhere we need clear thinking, the
effort to do justice to those against whom we are prejudiced; "to
every man his just due without distinction" as we are taught, and to
for the truth even if we are fearful it may not fit in with some of our
Very difficult of course, most difficult indeed, yet nevertheless the
duty of every
Mason in such measure as he may.
are in the habit of considering ourselves
and our country as civilized, and as one of a number of countries in
the world in
the same category, in contra-distinction to peoples, races and tribes
whom we class
as uncivilized, barbarous or savage. But what exactly do we mean by
derivation it distinguishes, not race from race, but the town dweller
from the rustic.
Thus it implies not only material, but mental differences, and possibly
as well ‒ in the widest sense of the word moral. Civilization includes,
luxurious conveniences and other physical amenities with which our
is so richly endowed, but also, and really far more essentially, the
the saver fare, and intelligence which makes the material advantages
in a sense worthwhile. It would take us too far afield to discuss the
all fully here, but the things that distinguish the really civilized
collectively, social justice, security of property and person, and
ability to meet and deal with other people politely (another word
signifying a characteristic
of the citizen or townsman) without needless friction, quarreling and
and with it scope for the development of personal inclinations and
more civilized a people is the greater the degree of personal liberty,
moral, there will be, within the bounds of the conventions and
only purpose is to make it possible for numbers of people to go about
without interfering with the rights of others to do the same.
point of all this is that though the nations
of the world we call civilized are such, to some extent, in their
they are no more than barbarian, at the very best, in their relations
as state to
state. That this condition of affairs is disguised to a very large
extent does not
make it any less real. The barbarian ideas of aggression, of plunder,
of utter selfishness,
exist in full force, though veiled under the politeness, and perhaps
of the individuals who represent the different countries in their
one another. The crude ideas that the gain of others must be our loss,
the only way we can increase our wealth is to take away that of others
in full force in almost everyone's mind. The most intelligent of us
utter fallacy in individual affairs, but few consider it in the
relations of collective
it is that nations, as individuals
in all barbarous cultures, go armed to the teeth and feel insecure
unless they have
their weapons at hand. It is almost within the memory of those living
men bore arms as part of their dress. And men do not wear swords or
for nothing. But is it not possible, that just as individuals have
learned to disregard
the "point of honor," and to laugh at the trifles that once demanded of
every man, who would not be thought lacking in courage, to fight, that
of men who have learned to live without deadly weapons among
as such, learn to do without them collectively.
is easy to dub everyone who thinks that this
is not beyond the wit and wisdom of mankind to accomplish, a
and thereby damn him as a traitor, a coward and a bolshevist, but it is
But whether fair or not those who clamor for "adequate protection" in
every country are unwise. Security based on military preparation has
a bruised reed, a support apt to pierce the hand of him who leans upon
it. If the
history of the world teaches any plain lesson it is this. Rights of
parallel to rights of individuals, they are either limited by the
rights of others
or they inevitably clash. For one nation to seek a position of absolute
in this way means that no other nation is secure. It means this
inexorably. We may
be satisfied of the purity and benevolence of our own intentions, but
we doubt those
of others. Can we in common sense, to speak nothing of justice, ask
them to put
an implicit faith in their neighbor that we refuse to ours?
* * *
another page will be found a letter from
a correspondent about a chain letter that has come under his notice. We
him that discussing the subject will probably have little effect, for
are moved to pass the thing on either through fear of the misfortunes
to all who break the chain, or in hope of the good luck that is
promised those who
duly carry out the magical rite ‒ for it is a magic charm or
incantation ‒ are naturally
those who never read any Masonic books or periodicals, and are probably
aware that there are any such.
it is the same letter or not we do not
know, but in the last ten years or so something of the sort has been
here and there, almost continuously, and probably most of the Masonic
the country have at one time or another ridiculed or condemned those
who help to
perpetuate this chain of superstition. It is obvious that such a thing
may go on
forever, as long as the right kind of soil remains for its seeds to
grow in. Just
as a single plant louse on a rose bush may gender millions of
descendants in a few
days, under favorable circumstances, so this letter business may flare
it comes into the right milieu. While, on the other hand, it is as hard
entirely as a weed that runs underground.
who permit themselves to be affected by
its promises and threats never make any arithmetical calculations on
it. We do not
vouch for the absolute accuracy of the number, but if the chain were
without any break for ten removes, or generations, of letter writers,
were no duplications, there would be 4,486,684,401 written in the last
the eighty seventh remove, which is the number of the series of' the
was sent to us, the figures would be staggeringly astronomical.
the motives of' those who follow the instructions
thrust upon them are superstitious is certain. There can be no other.
It is a vague
fear of bad luck on the one hand, and the hope of good fortune on the
the fear is in most eases the stronger motive.
it were a request that the recipient should
send nine cents toward some altruistic object, and ask nine others to
cents each, and get nine more to do likewise, and so on, it would fall
would die in the first or second stage ‒ and yet how much money might
this way, say for tubercular relief, did people obey chain instructions
in a good
cause. It is the personal fear or hope which keeps the thing going.
this raises a question. Chain prayers and
the like have been passing from hand to hand in the profane world for
No one can say how old they may be in some form or other. They may go
back to ancient
Babylonia for all we know. But would Masons be found to do it in any
but America? We doubt it. From what we know of the character of the
Masonry of other
countries, and the intellectual standards required of candidates, we
doubt it very
it not rather symptomatic, a minor symptom
undoubtedly, but nevertheless pointing in the same direction as others?
is supposed to be a dispenser of light, initiation is professedly a
path of illumination.
Moral, intellectual and spiritual illumination. What kind of light have
received who write chain letters for fear of bad luck if they do not?
ever susceptible of real initiation at all? In any ease the fault is
than that of the organization as a whole. Which means that all, in some
must shoulder part of the responsibility.
Review of Masonry the World Over
Old Folks Homes.
to a recent report of the United States
Bureau of Labor and Statistics, the Oddfellows have forty-seven Old
in this country. The Freemasons have thirty-eight, while the Knights of
come third in order with twelve. These three societies together have 87
of such institutions.
* * *
Question of Investigation.
a report to the Grand Lodge of California,
Bro. Jesse M. Whited, Associate Editor of THE BUILDER, discusses
of the process of investigating applicants. He notes a tendency to lay
all the blame
for the admission of unworthy individuals upon the Investigating
at the same time these committees are not impressed with the
nature of their function, or the grave responsibility laid upon them.
Whited suggests additional machinery, a
standing committee through which all applications must pass. In some
has been done, officially or unofficially. In one Canadian lodge all
unofficially and privately considered by the Past Masters; there is no
regulation concerning this, it is merely a custom. If the Master and
approve, the petition is then presented to the lodge, and goes through
process. But the official investigating committees never report
no application has been blackballed for many years.
is necessary, if the Craft is
to hold to its high standards, but it is a matter of convenience how
is done. It seems certain from psychological reasons, and the
conclusion is supported
by experience, that duplication of machinery means the practical
atrophy of one
part or the other. Such a special committee as Bro. Whited proposes, or
informal investigation as just described, will generally be followed by
to the regular committee of investigation becoming a pure formality.
The only real
cure is to arouse the members of the lodge to their personal and
and this should begin, as Bro. Whited says, with the presenting of
Younger members of the lodge might well be discouraged from exercising
in this regard for a year or two. Or at least, to talk the matter over
Master or other senior members before acting. This would give an
impress upon the young brother his personal responsibility to the lodge
and to the
Craft as a whole, when he proposes a profane to become a Mason.
Universal League of Freemasons.
annual Congress of the Universal League
of Freemasons is to meet at Geneva this year. August 21st is the date
set, and it
will last for four days. An interesting program is promised.
Masonic Signs among the Arabs.
Oklahoma Mason has the following item:
interesting story of how by use of Masonic
signs his paternal grandfather was saved from being killed by Arabs
been wrecked on the Arabian coast is told by Gilbert Hart, of this
city, a member
of Phoenix Lodge of Namaqualand, No. 2082, O'okiep, South Africa. The
elder Capt. Gilbert Hart was in command
of a whaler cruising the Indian Ocean sometime in the fifties or
a tropical hurricane his ship was wrecked on the Arabian coast, a
with practically no shelter from the elements or wild beasts. The crew
wiped out in the wreck, and were entirely helpless against a party of
came upon them and captured the few things they had salvaged from the
Arabs were intent upon killing every man of the whites, but the Captain
as a last
resort gave the Masonic sign of distress. Immediately slaughter was
Americans were treated as friends and taken with the greatest care to
port, Aden, where they embarked for America.
suppose, when Bro. Gilbert Hart is said to
be of "this city," that McAlester, Okla., where the Oklahoma Mason is
published, is the one intended. It would be interesting to know more of
adventure. Such stories are frequently published, and republished, but
only in one
instance have we been able to get first hand evidence of anything of
Specifically we should like to know whether Bro. Hart received the
from his grandfather, or indirectly through other members of his
family. Every successive
stage in the transmission of evidence greatly increases the chances of
and unconscious exaggeration of some points and suppression of others,
any conscious desire to heighten the effect, or to tell an interesting
Educational Programs in Georgia Lodges.
Board of General Masonic Educational Activities
of the Grand Lodge of Georgia, of which R. W. Bro. Raymund Daniel is
urging the reappointment of Educational Committees in each lodge. A
is being prepared with a view to the preparation of plans of
lodges in such matters.
what extent the previous work has proved
successful is not indicated. It is a very difficult task everywhere to
mass of the brethren out of the rut of bad habits and the
have become stereotyped. Masonry is not the continual repetition of
An uninstructed Mason, whatever degrees he may have "taken," is still
at the threshold of his apprenticeship.
of the United Grand Lodge of England.
will seem strange to American Masons, to
whom Grand Lodge dues are taken as part of the eternal order of nature,
that the Grand Lodge of England has no other source of income than the
Warrants, Certificates, Registrations and so on. The large sums of
for what our English brethren speak of as "the Institutions" are
separate from Grand Lodge funds proper. It is a matter for wonder that
Lodge has been able to function so long and so efficiently under an
which has not been materially modified since the earliest days of the
system of organization.
is expected that proposals will be made to
increase the fees materially and to collect an annual per capita tax
from the lodges.
One shilling (twenty-five cents) has been suggested, which, while it
small will bring in a very considerable sum for administrative purposes.
A Significant Omission.
London Freemason gives the following interesting
excerpt from the by-laws of Collagen Lodge, No. 4733, which it says is
the best spirit of the Craft." Collagen Lodge is a new lodge, having
the Founders desire to preserve this
Lodge in luster and dignity, to cultivate and practice the Royal
Science of Freemasonry
with the zeal of those who fervently believe that it is founded on the
of piety and virtue, they have reasonable hope that the Brethren will
work diligently and harmoniously together to further the best and
of Freemasonry, and therefore they have omitted any mention of
or penal laws, being persuaded that all such enactments are unnecessary
Brethren of the Collagen Lodge."
* * *
Salvation Army and Secret Societies.
may be remembered by some of our readers
that four years ago an order was issued by the head of the Salvation
any officers of the Army to join a secret society. No organization was
it was fairly clear from the phraseology of the edict that Freemasonry
intended, and it was so interpreted, both by officers of the Army and
a sequel to this we learn, from the London
Masonic News, that an "incident" occurred at Chatham in Kent, in
last. It seems that General Higgins, the present head Or the Salvation
an "official" visit to Chatham, and the use of the hall of the town
was granted for the proceedings. But those in charge advertised that
Bro. H. F. Whyman, would act as chairman, and that he would be
supported by the
Mayor of the adjoining town of Gillingham, and the Mayor of the City of
who also happen to be Masons.
was done without the knowledge or consent
of the three brethren mentioned, a sufficiently discourteous thing in
Whyman, as soon as the matter came to his
attention, definitely refused to be present. He said that as a
Freemason of forty-eight
years standing, in a community in which there lived more than three
of the Craft, he did not feel he could officially welcome the head of
which had so poor an opinion of the Craft. In his attitude the other
grounds especially given in the Army order
above referred to were that "officers" were obligated to give their
time, thought, energy and emotion to the object of saving souls, and
in a Fraternal society, while possibly innocent in itself, was a
the one object to which officers had devoted their lives.
* * *
Masonic Work in Hamburg
the Hamburger Logenblatt we learn
that the citizens have approved a bill
providing for a loan of 1,880,000 ReichsMarks to the five Masonic
lodges in the
city, for the enlargement of the Masonic Hospital in Hamburg. Today the
has seventy-five beds if all are used. Room for 152 more beds will now
The X-ray department, operating rooms, confinement department, a
sunbath and dwellings
for janitors are to be newly rebuilt. The bathrooms and the heating
plant are to
be enlarged and brought up to date. Not having the money for these
the five lodges asked the city for the support which was granted. The
4 per cent and is to be redeemed with 2 1/2 per cent premium, beginning
Senate of Hamburg states that it is in the
interest of the state to increase the number of beds in private
hospitals in order
to relieve hospitals operated by the state. It would seem that
as yet little influence in Hamburg.
Sidelights on the Italian Situation.
De Broederkelen publishes a communication from Bro. Gonsalves,
a Netherlands Freemason
resident in the South of France, where he is in close touch with
The following paragraphs are of especial interest.
the occasion of the marriage of his son the
king of Italy granted an amnesty to prisoners, but limited to major
who had been condemned by a "special tribunal" did not benefit by this
amnesty. And the "constitutional" king of Italy leaves the great hero
of the World War to die in prison, the Brother Luigi Capello,
ex-general in chief
of the III Army Corps …
Pope is not willing to have a monument to
the wife of Garibaldi erected in Rome. This does not astonish us. The
to the tradition of intolerance, which is the basis of Vatican politics…
the Piedmonese Alps the Foresters still exist,
and form a Protestant sect, which has features of especial interest to
In spite of interdiction of il Duce, Mussolini, they continue to use
language to speak and write between themselves. Their journal l’Echo
issued its last number January 14, being suppressed by the Dictator.
Foresters were persecuted in the year 1200,
and were obliged to seek a refuge in the Alps, but they have never
give up their language or their convictions…
these "Foresters" anything to
do with the origin, real or imagined, of the Carbonari?
the South Australian Freemason for February
last, is an address by the Rev. John Baptist Reeves, O. P., explaining
Catholics Stay Out of Freemasonry." From internal indications it might
that the address was given in England, but this is not certain. Mr.
Reeves is very
temperate, almost friendly, in his language, which makes a curious
the following paragraph:
All English Masonic
Lodges by law, if not always by sympathy, are united to the Grand
is professedly and bitterly anti-Catholic. If English Masonry has
become too indifferent
to Catholicism to carry on the war to which, by its origin, it is
ours] Is that any reason why the church should treat it as though it
were not Masonry
at all? Should she encourage Catholics to enlist in a corps which,
from its first fervor, is still part of a world-wide army whose
would hardly have seemed possible that so
much misinformation could have been crowded into so few sentences. It
is a greatly
enlarged edition of the famous definition of a crab. There is not a
in it that is not the diametrical opposite of the truth, there is not
that is not false and misleading. Yet Mr. Reeves is evidently speaking
good faith, and is, we feel sure, quite innocent of any intention to be
He goes on to remark:
If English Masons
as a body would formally declare that they were radically different
and historic Masonry [again the italics are ours] the Catholic Church
to regard them differently. She would begin to regard them as no longer
So would Masons themselves the world over.
italics are still ours. Could anything more
absurdly wrong-end-to have been imagined? The tail wagging the dog, the
the hammer, the baby begetting its father are alone in the same class.
Masonry is British Masonry. Historic Masonry, as an institution, has
neutral, or rather indifferent to, religion. Anglo-Saxon Masonry has
formally and informally on every possible occasion, and through every
in season and out of season, that it has severed all connection with
as it holds to have departed from the "original plan." What more it
have done is very hard to see. Finally there is no Masonic
Anglo Saxon or European, whether of a Grand Lodge or of a Grand Orient,
much as mentions any church; nor is there anything in any Masonic
in any country which obligates Masons to oppose anyone or anything, or
to obey anyone
‒ beyond the narrow limits of the internal economy of the lodge itself.
just such subordination as must exist in every society, club,
corporation, or any
group of people that is not merely a crowd or a mob. A Mason is obliged
the moral law, but this surely cannot be what is intended.
Mystic Shrine and World Peace.
Leo V. Youngworth, who is Imperial Potentate
of the "Ancient Arabic Order" of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine in
America, recently said in an address:
"There are 600,000
Shriners in North America, and if they could be mobilized as a militant
creating a sentiment for world peace, a real task will have been
he said. "Right must ultimately triumph and since peace is right, peace
triumph. The intelligence of the peoples of the earth must be poured
into the channels
of peace and harmony and thus war will vanish."
is strange that it should be from the playground
of American Masonry that the idealistic movements have their origin,
and find an
environment favorable to their growth.
books reviewed in these pages can be procured
through the Book Department of the N.M.R.S. at the prices given, which
except when otherwise stated. These prices are subject (as a matter of
to change without notice; though occasion for this will very seldom
arise. It may
happen, where books are privately printed, that there is no supply
some indication of this will be given in the review. The Book
Department is equipped
to procure any books in print on any subject, and will make inquiries
works and books out of print.
By Thomas Boyd. Published by Charles
Scribner's Son. Cloth, illustrated, bibliography, index, 351 pages.
WAYNE: is one of the Revolutionary characters
who is believed to have been a Mason, but concerning whom we have no
to this effect. All I have been able to ascertain about him from a
is limited to some references, for which I am indebted to my intimate
colleague, Bro. Wm. L. Boyden, Librarian of the Supreme Council, 33d,
S.J., Washington, D.C. He informs me that Wayne is referred to as
by McClenahan in his History of Freemasonry in New York, Vol. 2, page
61, and Vol.
3, pages 528-29, and that the Grand Lodge of New York dedicated the
his grave in 1857.
book before me has all the good external
qualities one associates with books published by Scribner's. They are
with the story that the author tells. Wayne was emotional and
by the impending rebellion, he takes a place upon invitation of
on the Colonial Committee of Safety, and leaves his young wife and
son to answer the call to public service. Martial blood in his veins
did not permit
him to sit in conferences; he did attend to his duties there, it is
true, but he
was also busy raising a regiment in Chester County, Pennsylvania. He
colonel, and before long was facing the British Army in Canada.
Promotion to brigadier-general
followed in due course, though he was deprived of a major-generalship
by a less
deserving officer being advanced to that grade ‒ a story not uncommon
in the annals
of the service. Had not the brave Arnold met a similar fate? But Wayne
loyal, while Arnold's treason became a by-word.
career in the Revolutionary Army is
too well known to be repeated here ‒ Brandywine, Monmouth, Stony Point
are so closely associated with his name that any school boy can tell
The story ends with Wayne's entry (1782) into Charleston, S.C., so hard
heels of the evacuating British troops that they complained, "You come
fast for us … you come too fast." Wayne relinquished his commission the
summer and returned to civilian pursuits, becoming a member of the
of the Pennsylvania Legislature. Here he encountered a situation that
has a modern
ring to it:
perplexing condition was the attitude
of the smaller politicians, the people who had risen during the war,
officers of the disbanded army. Throughout the conflict many of the
and others had feared the revolution, if successful, would end in
under its generals. And now they were equally jealous of the Society of
the organization in which the officers of the war planned to perpetuate
gained upon the field.
gift of a plantation from the grateful people
of Georgia took several years of close attention. He borrowed heavily,
in the hopes
that his slaves and the rice crop would enable him to rehabilitate
close friend, General Nathaniel Greene, a Georgia neighbor, died from
while endeavoring to further his agricultural interests. Wayne became a
of Georgia in 1788, giving up his Pennsylvania citizenship, which had
nothing. He became Congressman from Georgia in 1791, defeating General
the previous incumbent of the office, only to lose it because
friends developed into frauds, causing the House to reject Wayne ‒ but
with no dishonor
upon him ‒ as not duly elected.
disappointed and downcast, a door opened
for his abilities. Indian troubles in the Northwest, accompanied by the
Harmar and St. Clair, brought the appointment of Wayne as major-general
of the army. The experiences of the period, involving the vicious
pacifism and unpreparedness, hold lessons very applicable in the
present hour of
rising communism, bolshevism and all the ills that follow in their wake.
campaigns of Wayne in the Northwest brought
peace. He was the White Captain who never slept, the soldier who
outwitted the Indians
at every turn and who administered stinging defeat at the Battle of
so recently commemorated by a special postage stamp. Returning to
a treaty of peace with the Indians, he was feted, wined and dined. The
treaty with England sent him back to the border after some months to
take over the
frontier forts and posts. A return journey to the federal seat of
oppose preposterous charges filed by a subordinate, Wilkinson, hastened
to be his final illness; Wayne died at Presque Isle, in Lake Erie,
such as Wayne's, fraught as his was with
struggles, rebuffs, hardships, disappointments, yet ultimate triumph
an inspiration to those of us who are the heirs of what our forefathers
us in character, nationalism and high ideals. They strengthen us in our
depression, and carry us on in the face of the forces which would
destroy our nation. The foes within are no longer native Indians, but
vipers whom we have taken to our breasts, and who repay us for a
liberty and freedom
denied them in their own lands by trying to inject the doctrines of
kindred evils into our social and economic system.
* * *
Ney; Before and After Execution.
Compiled by J. Edward Smoot, M. D. Published
by the Queen City Printing Co., Charlotte, N. C. Cloth, table of
illustrated, index to documents, xii and 460 pages. Price $5.00 net.
generations ago almost everyone in the United
States was familiar with at least the names of Napoleon's marshals.
Lives of Napoleon
and histories of his campaigns were still eagerly read by boys, and the
the aid given by royalist France to the revolting American Colonies
still cast a
glamour over the constant wars waged by the First consul, who made
But today there may be some question in the minds of readers, if not
just who Michel
Ney was, at least what happened to him. A reference to a standard
inform the inquirer, that Ney rose from the ranks to become one of
trusted generals. That he was the real hero of the fatal Moscow
campaign. That after
Napoleon's abdication in 1814, he was reconciled to the restored
but when Napoleon returned from Elba he went over to his old master,
with the troops
under his command ‒ an act, technically at least, of treason; for
which, after the
final defeat at Waterloo, and with the second return of Louis XVII, he
before the Chamber of Peers and condemned to death. It is further
on December 7, 1815, he was shot in the Luxembourg Gardens.
while it would seem that this has all been
implicitly accepted in Europe from that time to this as a final
statement of facts,
it appears that in America, in North Carolina particularly, there have
rumors that the execution was a piece of stage work, that the actors
a role, that Ney only pretended to be dead, and that a few days later
he was on
a ship bound for America in company with two other men, General
and Pasqual Lueiani, the latter a cousin of Napoleon's mother. That the
came to America is certain, and the descendants of Lueiani are still
returning to Europe in 1823, was drowned when the ship he was in was
the coast of Ireland.
Smoot is not the first to write on the subject.
The Rev. James A. Weston wrote a book, now very scarce, Historic Doubts
as to the
Execution of Marshal Ney [Lib 1895].
Just when this
was published does not appear, though Dr. Smoot makes very copious
it. But at least, from these extracts, it appears that there was a
that Ney lived for many years in North Carolina and finally died there.
Smoot believes that he has definitely proved
that this tradition was based on fact. As to that the present writer
would not care
to say more than that he has presented a very strong ease. It might
have been made
even stronger, or rather, more effective, by a different arrangement of
There is much that seems rather irrelevant to the main issue, though
in itself; which was probably the reason for inserting it.
the first chapters should recount the life
and career of Marshal Ney is natural and proper. The author's
prejudices in favor
of France and Napoleon are obvious, and also natural. But there is
to these questions, and to the historical student some of the comments
either irritating or amusing, according to his disposition. Two points
be noticed. According to the authorities followed bar Dr. Smoot,
France one judges in this ease, the rupture after the Peace of Amiens,
was all England's
fault, "in demanding Malta, which," as he puts it, "according to
the signed treaty, had been returned to the Knights of St. John, its
Now this is no place to go into an exceedingly complex historical
a few points may be recalled. It was Napoleon himself who had taken the
the Knights, the English had taken it from him. England was perfectly
restore it to the Order of St. John, if the Order was permitted to be
to maintain its sovereignty and independence, but objected to French
in disguise. The English government of the moment was a peculiarly
stupid one in a period when English governments were distinguished for
under a rather stupid king, and there is no doubt that Napoleon
jockeyed the British
ministers into a false position.
second point is the description of Sir John
Moore's brilliant and daring strategy in the Peninsula campaign in
1808. Once again
Dr. Smoot may be excused, because very few historians, even yet, do
justice to it,
although it has been cited in military textbooks, almost as a stock
the havoc a small force can do if it can cut the line of communications
of its opponents.
As one military writer has tersely put it, Sir John Moore with thirty
disorganized completely, and in reality defeated, so far as the ends of
were concerned, an army of three hundred thousand, commanded by
However mad the adventure seemed to the world at large, Napoleon was
under no misapprehensions
as to Moore's object or of his success.
this is entirely aside from the main theme
of the book. We must now come to America, where in 1816 there appeared
a man who
called himself Peter Stuart Ney, who after 1819 engaged in the
occupation or profession
of teaching country schools, for the most part in the western counties
Carolina, up to 1846, when he died, rather suddenly it would seem, of
complaint, and was buried in the churchyard of what is known as the
this mysterious individual certain facts
may be accepted without question. He was a French refugee, he had been
and not only a soldier, but an officer of high rank, and one whose many
to long service in the European wars. And he was accustomed to mingle
in the highest
and most cultivated society. All these things were obvious even to
addition to this, his height, physique, complexion,
color of hair and eyes were all consistent with his being Marshal Ney,
and he was
also a splendid horseman and a most skillful fencer, for both of which
Peter Stuart Ney was very reticent about
his past life, but he seems to have let fall now and then, to those he
various hints as to who he was, and occasionally when, as it appears he
was in the last years of his life, under the influence of liquor, he
made some direct
categorical assertions that he was Marshal Ney. And on his deathbed he
by respectable witnesses to have replied to a requests that he reveal
of his identity by saying, "I am Marshal Ney of France."
is very certain that the friends of Peter
Ney believed him to be the Marshal, and for that matter people
he had lived for any length of time. Dr. Smoot, born and brought up in
inherited the tradition, and naturally his treatment of the evidence is
an advocate. This has had some disadvantages, for it has caused him to
full discussion of the bearings and implications of the evidence he has
as well as to ignore almost completely possible objections and counter
Practically the only one mentioned is that based on the scholastic
of Peter Ney. The latter knew at least sufficient of mathematics and of
and Greek languages to ground his pupils in their rudiments. While on
hand it is asserted that Marshal Ney, whose father was a cooper, and of
origin, and who left School before he was fifteen, was practically an
man. Dr. Smoot's reply to this is on the whole acceptable, though it is
that those who have raised this objection have exaggerated both the
lack of education
of the Marshal, and the erudition of Peter. And between 1783 or
Michel Ney left school, and 1819 when Peter Ney began to teach school,
a considerable gap. Whatever his schooling, Michel Ney must have had an
mind, and to such ordinary rules do not apply.
between the two men stands the execution.
Marshal Ney was certainly tried for treason against the Bourbons,
condemned to death
and shot. It is very hard to believe that this was all a make-believe.
was in a sense a public one, though the place and the hour at which it
were not those which had been given out. However so much dodging of
this amounted to could be explained by the feet that popular feeling
it. Here especially one must find fault with the presentation of the
case. The accounts
of how this affair was stage-managed ‒ if it was so managed ‒ are
through the book. Where we would naturally expect to find all the
together in a connected narrative, with some attempt to fill the gaps
and to discount
difficulties, there are only a few allusions, and a general assumption.
the Marshal's life up to the execution, the author proceeds in Chapter
xi to defend
his hero's patriotism, and then in the next proceeds to the alleged
flight to America.
This inadvertence may be due to the fact that the execution is the part
of the story
most deeply wrapped in mystery, but for that very reason it called for
for it is the gap that must be bridged to connect Peter Ney with the
on we get more details, in the depositions
of various witnesses and in the quotations from Weston's work. Roughly
is that a squad of Ney's own men were assigned to shoot him. That when
he gave the
word to fire he dropped, while the men aimed high, or else that their
loaded with blank. In one account he is said to have been provided with
of red fluid to simulate blood. It is also hinted that the Masonic
the Duke of Wellington had some part in the affair. Whether there is
any proof of
Ney's Masonic status outside of this assertion is not known to the
but it is not in itself at all improbable that he was a Mason. The Duke
was certainly one; that is, he had been initiated in Ireland as a very
But he had so little interest in the Craft that in later life he seems
to have entirely
forgotten all about it. In any ease it is not likely that in his
position he would
have wanted to know anything about such a plot, even though he may have
and willing unofficially that the evasion should be carried out. One
is that it could not have been arranged without the knowledge and
a considerable number of people. And it would be most remarkable that
none of them
should ever, in later years, when it was quite safe, have let the
secret out. Yet
apparently nothing ever emerged in France, it is said that when the
in the cemetery of Pere la Chaise was opened nothing was found but an
reader must make his own judgment, but the
tale is a most interesting one whether true or not. It is a pity, a
very great pity,
that Dr. Smoot could not have had the assistance or collaboration of
had served an apprenticeship to the trade of bookmaking, for it is on
one side a
trade, as Robert Louis Stevenson always insisted. With better technical
of the material, and in the present vogue of biography, the work might
have been made a "best seller." But the author has devoted much time
labor to the difficult task of collecting evidence, much of which in a
would have been irrevocably lost, and in doing this he has performed a
service to those interested in a most intriguing historical problem.
* * *
Michel Vaucaire [Lib 1929]
translated from the French bay Margaret Reed.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Co. Cloth, Illustrated, index, 197 pages.
and more the attention of North Americans
has been directed to our neighboring South American republics.
Merchants and bankers
found this necessary when desirable accounts were laid in their laps as
of the European upheaval brought about by the World War. The efforts of
John J. Pershing toward the settlement of the Tacna and Arica dispute
and the visits
of President-elect Herbert Hoover and Lindbergh also contributed their
a Masonic standpoint, we have had our thoughts directed to South
America by the
official visit to that continent by R. W. Bro. Sir Alfred Robbins,
of the Board of General Purposes, United Grand Lodge of Ancient Free
Masons of England, of which we shall learn more when his book, English
Masonry, appears this winter.
books on Simon Bolivar, the Liberator
of South America, have appeared this year. The first I have had the
reading is the Houghton-Mifflin publication by Michel Vaucaire, whose
work the translator,
Margaret Reed, has very faithfully presented in English. The imprint of
on a book is a hall mark of merit, and is assurance that the volume
The present work is no exception to this statement.
reader will soon realize that the book is
not written by a native of the United States; it has the verve, flair
of a Continental European. The volume starts out with a dash and vigor
that is maintained
throughout the entire book; there is no background sketched in by which
unfamiliar with South American history can orient himself. Yet perhaps
this is as
it should be, for the subject of the work was such an unusual and
himself that the conventional method of biographical treatment would
not do justice
to the man. A gibe at the United States ‒ of which more later ‒ adds to
that he knew more of Bolivar in particular and South America in
one should like to verify the assertions and representations of the
author by reference
to other sources. Be that as it may, the book is worth reading, even
though we may
have some doubts in our minds on certain phases of treatment given.
attention was attracted to the Vaucaire work
because I knew that Bolivar was a brother of the Craft, as was also
patriot of Latin America. Contrary to what seems to be the accepted
biographers of great men, Vaucaire actually mentions Bolivar's Masonic
The passage is worth quoting, not only for the single feat it presents,
as an illustration of the author's style:
One afternoon, when
he had gone into his cabin to arrange the many things which he had
Europe, Bolivar came across his Freemason’s diploma. He unrolled the
sheet, which showed a curtain hanging in an antique temple. It bore the
symbols, level, trowel, square, compass, the three points and the
mallet, also crouching
sphinxes. Bolivar recalled his introduction to the Lodge at Cadiz,
whither he had
been drawn by curiosity rather than conviction. He had taken oath to
accept no legitimate
government in his country save one elected by the free vote of the
people, and to
strive with all his might to establish a republican system.
He laughed over the
Masonic ceremonies in which he had taken part, and where he had met too
and not enough fanatics. In Paris he had been raised to Master. Take it
this association, with its childish airs of mystery, might yet have a
use. He replaced the certificate at the bottom of a trunk and thought
no more about
This was about the
year 1806, just prior to Bolivar's arrival at Boston, en route to his
of Venezuela. He had visited Rome during the winter, where he refused
to kneel and
kiss the slipper of Pope Pius VII, who smiled placidly. Bolivar's
also shown in one of his later proclamations, wherein he declared:
is a Christian country; it is therefore necessary to convoke an
to pronounce on the free practice of the Faith and on all religious
exploits of Bolivar cannot be told in a
few words; it is little wonder that it takes thirty-two volumes to
embrace the documents
which he wrote in his short life. Married at nineteen, he was bereft at
though devoted to the memory of his Teresa, his life was filled with
one of his mistresses forsaking her English husband, James Thorne, to
the Liberator into the field, and to remain with him to his death; an
yet a brilliant military tactician; a Dictator by wish of the people,
he was also
devoted to the concept of a government by the people. Yet note this
fact ‒ one in
which many a Mason feels inclined to concur when considering the antics
Lodges in executive session ‒ unduly influenced by zealots blind to
their own worship of crossed t's and dotted i's ‒ Bolivar "knew that an
democracy was much more dangerous than the worst despotism." He favored
of' educated men, for he had learned from his experiences in the field
how a people
suddenly freed from oppression are unaccustomed to power.
was active from 1810 to 1822 in the
struggle for South American independence from Spain. He not only freed
his own country,
Venezuela, but also New Granada (Columbia), Chile, Peru, Ecuador and
Bolivia ‒ though
it must not be forgotten that Jose de San Martin inaugurated the
campaign for Chilean
and Peruvian independence. Bolivar established schools, hospitals and
newspapers and journals. Yet later he found it advisable, we are told,
"all Masonic lodges, veritable hotbeds of conspiracy. Secret societies
forbidden. The universities, which were becoming centers of opposition,
Bolivar revised the list of studies and excluded every branch that
feather-headed young people, give rise to ideas harmful to the
were replaced by the history of the Catholic religion, and additional
Latin and Canon Law." It makes one wonder what kind of Freemasonry was
in South America in those days.
is tempted to relate some of the terrible
experiences which were encountered by the patriots in their struggle
as we read of the horrible atrocities, we feel thankful that the
history of the
Thirteen Colonies is free from such strife and hatreds. Anglo-Saxon
could never have consented to the blood-curdling horrors which Bolivar
and also perpetrated. Quartering, hanging, burning, flaying and similar
are mild when compared to some of the things the author relates. To set
in this review would be impossible, the book should be read to get the
it suffice to say that whole towns were wiped out, and buildings and
worshippers were massacred in the presence of the Holy Sacrament;
put to cold steel, as powder and bullets were scarce; all patriots over
ordered killed when captured. Liberty was secured at a terrible price.
June, 1826, Bolivar summoned the American
republics to a Congress to be held at the Isthmus of Panama. Commenting
the author says:
The United States
would consent to be present only if Bolivar would renounce his projects
and Porto Rico, which the Washington Government did not wish to see
republics, but preferred to seize from Spain at a later date. Neither
United States hear any talk of the abolition of slavery; she wished to
distance from these states, the rebels of yesterday.
The conference was
a lamentable failure.
At Washington the
papers spread a hundred lies about Bolivar's intentions. Plots were
Mexico hatched under the influence of the United States. There was a
in South America that this first-born republic, which sought to have
younger ones, was, on the contrary, only trying to encourage discord
and to foment
difficulties so as to intervene at the appropriate moment.
quotation is included for whatever it may
be worth. It has a value to us because it is the viewpoint of a
European; but more
so, it reflects the spirit which animates similar utterances that have
come to our
ears in recent times. It gives pause for serious thought.
Bolivar has been well termed the George
Washington of South America. With the irony that is so commonly a part
of a great
man's life, the Liberator was both honored and despicably used by those
served the most. Today, with a century behind him for reflection, the
republics cannot honor Bolivar too much. Truly, indeed, the story of
his life has
much of interest for us; it holds both admonition and inspiration.
* * *
Humanitarian and Reform Activities of
the American Quakers.
Lester M. Jones, With an Introduction by Rufus M. Jones.
by the Macmillan Co. Table of Contents, illustrated bibliography, xx
and 226 pages,
IN ACTION," written as a doctorate
thesis, is a sketch of the reaction of American Quakerism to the impact
of the World
War and of its resultant activity in Europe and the United States. The
of the conflict in 1914 came as a greater shock to the Friends than to
section of the community as a result of their peculiar tenets.
to the settlement of disputes by armed force, American Friends appear
to have accepted
the comfortable view, so lucidly expressed by Norman Angell in the
and so widely held during the early years of the twentieth century,
that the ramifications
of modern industry and commerce had rendered war between the great
and to have relaxed their insistence upon the principle of peace to
such an extent
that they were becoming "just one more Protestant sect" with little or
nothing to distinguish them from other Protestant bodies. From this
state of lethargy
they were aroused by the challenge of the war to a revival of their
religious life and a reconsideration of the attitude to the world at
might best reveal and commend to others their view of human
relationships, and especially
of the unchristian character of the decision of disputes by resort to
This reconsideration of their position led the Quakers "to supplement
traditional attitudes to the problem of war and other conflict groups,
often negative and passive, by positive and constructive efforts to get
at the underlying
causes of war and to destroy the seeds of conflict in economic, racial,
relations before they have a chance to germinate." These positive and
efforts are, as the title indicates, the subject of Dr. Jones' thesis.
they studied the question in the light of
the great conflagration it became clear to the Friends that the real
cause of war
was the spirit of self-seeking and mutual animosity in which
individuals and groups
approached their various problems. The positive and constructive effort
Quakers sought must therefore be to give an example of the conduct of
in a spirit of service and brotherly love which might, by its contrast
visible results of the war spirit, commend the better way to the heart
of war-smitten humanity. Accordingly in April 1917, coincidently with
of the United States into the struggle and the feverish war preparation
therefrom, a small group of Friends met, appropriately, in
Philadelphia, and adopting
as their motto "in time of war prepare for peace," began to organize a
service of healing.
while the war still raged the Friends undertook
to assist in the work of reconstruction in the devastated areas of
in getting the land under cultivation and restocking the farms with a
view to increasing
the food supply. But it was in the post-war period that their real
Then they were able to extend their activities to Germany, Austria,
Russia, and to prove that they were ready, not merely to assist their
allies, but to regard all who needed help as their brethren, regardless
religious, or political distinctions. In Germany their chief service
was the supplementary
feeding of the children to counteract the disastrous influence of
restricted diet, with the consequent prevalence of tubercular trouble.
they rendered aid to children under school age, to the professional and
classes on whom the war and currency inflation had pressed most
heavily, and to
agricultural settlers, and organized the fight against tuberculosis. In
chief activity was connected with the re-settlement of the returning
their re-establishment on the land. In Russia the Friends again
refugee problem and rendered most devoted and efficient aid in coping
and famine. Everywhere they sought, not merely to bring help to the
needy, but to
reveal the feet that they were actuated not by sentimental or
alone, still less by partisan motives, but by the basic principles of
when their work in Europe was concluded,
the Friends turned their attention to conditions in their own country,
as Tennyson realized and pointed out in Maud [Lib 1855],
that a state of nominal peace may be in reality one of veiled but even
and soul-destroying conflict in the social and economic spheres. A
fourteen, the Social Order Committee, was selected and divided into
groups to study
the most obvious and pressing problems of American life. These groups
were to investigate
the Women's Problems, the Farmers', Educators', Property, and Business
and the list of topics indicates the range and thoroughness of the
On the findings of this committee the Friends will seek to base a
positive and constructive
program to give effect to their principles; and already a beginning has
in the extension of relief to the women and children of the West
districts and in the business life of the Friends themselves.
reading the book one is inclined at first
to feel that the author has not made the most of his subject; that the
is too restricted and restrained, the barest outline of facts and
given for the various fields of activity and the human element, the
the several actors in the story, omitted; while the style, though
clear, is lacking
in literary grace and charm. Reflection, however, will modify this
the title of the book is Quakers In Action, the real subject is that of
OF QUAKERISM in action, and as Rufus Jones points out in the
sympathetic reader … will catch many hints of the informing spirit and
that the book contains the story of this new philanthropy." It is,
fitting that in a book dealing with such a subject the human element
should be avoided
and literary graces eschewed, that the new spirit of the Society of
be expressed through the plainest of Yeas and Nays.
a freakish humor it might appear a quaint
commentary on Quaker principles that this new spirit and new
among the Friends should be the direct outcome of war. That the Quakers
aroused from a state of apathy and a comfortable acquiescence in life
as it was
by the impact of the European conflict might seem to lend weight to the
view of war as a healing medicine employed by God to refresh the jaded
renew the failing idealism resulting from long-continued peace. But
though they may flash momentarily across the reader's mind, will not
survive a sympathetic
study of the volume. The United States suffered comparatively little
from the war,
it is on the other side of the Atlantic that its effects may be gauged,
pictures of war affected Europe given by Dr. Jones is not one of a
and a renewed idealism but of stunted diseased childhood, of dull
apathy under a
burden of evils that has crushed and not arouse the life of the spirit.
as survived the long strain of the war had perforce to be devoted to
bare subsistence, and the urgent need for reconstruction tended to
considerations as the dominant idea in life. The spiritual and ideal
the contributions of the advocates of peace not of the proponents of
Dr. Jones points out, the actual achievements
of the Friends, though of very considerable magnitude in themselves,
small in comparison with the need and the other efforts to relieve that
is the motive that actuated those achievements that is great and
ideas by which the Friends were inspired were not new in themselves.
They were drawn
from the Scriptures, and were set forth centuries before the Christian
era in Buddhist
parables like the story of Dighavu and such of the Buddhist maxims
the Dhammapada as the 5th, that "hatred does not cease by hatred at any
hatred ceases by love," and the 223rd "Let one overcome anger by love,
let him overcome evil by good. Let him overcome the greedy by
liberality, the liar
by truth." What the Friends did was to make these ideas effective
range of their activity, and offer to Europe and the United States the
of men and women basing their actions upon the principles of service
love. History works slowly, and the effect of this vision of the
Quakers In Action
may not be visible for generations, but one cannot lay down the volume
their doings so simply and unaffectedly without the feeling that a
has been liberated upon the world.
* * *
the Amateur Opera Company
Ralph H. Korn. Published By Karl Fischer, Inc.
Cloth, table of contents, illustrated,
76 pages. Price, $1.50 net.
is a companion and continuing handbook
to How to Organize the Amateur Band and Orchestra, which was reviewed
in THE BUILDER
for June last year. The author is an enthusiast, though his enthusiasm
feet firmly on the ground. One might say that his text is the saying
Wagner, addressed in the first place to his own people: "If you want an
of your own you can have your own art," but which Mr. Korn thinks is
applicable to America. And why should it not be? In Wagner's day music
and especially operatic music, was Italian, just as American music is
Whether the parallel would work out to the end lies hidden in the
of the future, but it is at least reasonable to suppose it might.
author insists that all art is based on
and receives its impulse from the interest and love of the amateur.
Much as professionals
of all kinds may consciously or unconsciously look down on the amateur,
the latter's support and patronage in mass the professional would be
and livelihood. But the contention goes further. It is the amateur who
pioneering, who breaks the ground, who lays the foundations, and from
the first professionals come.
book is written in a similar vein to the
former one, in intimate, familiar style, with humorous comments and
all the whole complex business of organizing orchestra, chorus, ballet
and the rest
are fully, if briefly, covered. For those who love real music, and who
to see a school of American composers come into existence, and an
opera made general throughout the country, the book may be recommended.
they have not themselves the faintest idea of starting anything
themselves, it will
give them a new view of possibilities, and this in turn may lead more
or less indirectly
to a bringing of the desired state of affairs to pass. Americans are
people in the world, and on the whole know least how and on what to
wealth. While art, whether musical, pictorial or plastic, is not
antidote to materialism, yet it is a refinement of life, it does open
of interest and enjoyment, and it may be made to serve the highest
was the opinion of the ancient Greeks,
and it may be we have to learn from them here as in so many other
Lodges in Copenhagen.
From The Nordiske Frimurer-Tidende.
the kind assistance of a Danish Brother
the Editor has from time to time tried to account for the connections
of the various
illegal so-called Masonic Lodges and Grand Lodges which have from time
to time appeared
in Denmark, partly with some success, inasmuch as our Danish Brother
times found it necessary to present charges through the N.F.T. But it
has not always
been very easy. There has been a buzzing of elaborate foreign names,
when they were needed to show the genuineness of these Masonic
societies; it has
not been clear to the Editor whether it could be shown that they had
chartered by Italy, Switzerland, France, England or the United States.
So far as
can be remembered, all these countries have at least been named. One
nevertheless certain; not one of the sources could lay claim to be
Editor has received from a Danish Brother
some copies of the Danish newspaper, Morgenbladet, wherein one, Mr. A.
over his name and under the heading, "Spurious Freemasons in
has written a whole series of' articles about Freemasons. This
newspaper heads the
articles with a caption of its own, "Morgenbladet exposes a large
in the city. It is founded on spurious charters." The author informs us
in Denmark there is also a branch of the international organization,
Humain" (or Universal Co-Masonry) but his criticism is not directed
this association, which admits both men and women, for they honestly
and truly admit
that they are not recognized by any regular Masonic organization. But
orders he does not handle with silk gloves. Space does not permit any
report here, but the author mentions among other things that the
Lodge" and its charters are purely and simply frauds. In its organ ‒ it
its own, Frimurer-Tidende ‒ this [Grand] Lodge explains the genuineness
of its charters much as follows: It grants full Sewers to create a
Council" of 33d of the old and ancient Scottish Rite in Denmark ‒
both to the Cerneau system as well as to the system of Morin, in
addition to several
other Masonic Rites and Systems. All this authority, contrary to all
is given to one individual person (who appends the high-sounding term
i.e., Holy, to his good northern name Hansen). The best thing about the
its title: "Grande Oriente Italiano degli Antichi ed Accettatis Liberi
Zenith di Roma." But Italian Freemasonry did not recognize it. The
is furthermore in possession of a patent from a not entirely unknown
Theodore Reutz, who, on his part, had it from the rather doubtful
Master," Harry Leymour [Seymour?], and also from a defunct organization
Spain. But the Danish Grand Master is not satisfied with this. He is
of the following "Patents" and "Rites": Order of' Asiatic Brethren;
Knights of the Light in Denmark, 8th degree; Ordo Templis Orientes;
Lucis Hermetica; The Martinist Order; den Korbralistiske Orden
of Rosenhuset; Order of the Knights of the True Light, 7th degree; Ordo
Crucis, 9th degree; Societas Alchemica in Denmark (7); Grand Lodge of
the Rite of
Lindenborg, 6th degree; Den gamle Illuminatorden (?) 12th degree. These
orders together form the "Danish Grand Lodge," says the author. This is
considerable, thinks he, and it is not surprising that Mr.
the right to wear angel wings and to glide on the rainbow."
whole thing is a curiosity; but it is a
crime that people should be fooled into paying big fees to join this
this will have to be enough. The Order threatens
the rather outspoken author with prosecution. If the threat is carried
there may be occasion to speak more about these events. The author is
said not to
be a Freemason, but he pays due respect to the two rightful
institutions, the Danish
Grand Lodge, and the three Humanitarian lodges working under the
Hamburg Grand Lodge.
Question Box and Correspondence
Problem of the Disabled Veteran
believe the needy soldiers of the recent war
will be greatly benefited by such articles as the one appearing in THE
March issue, entitled "The Broken Men of the Great War."
it asking too much to request further information
on government aid to our veterans?
C. L., Missouri.
* * *
me to express my appreciation of the
article captioned "The Broken Men of the Great War" in the March issue
of THE BUILDER.
believe that such articles will help to obviate
the reproach implied in the phrase, "Lest We Forget."
we have further articles on our crippled
* * *
carefully perused the article on "The
Broken Men of the Great War," I believe the article worthy of much
and well worthwhile. Different persons who had read the article stated
were to be congratulated for giving space and services to the cause and
in hoping that we may hear more on the same subject.
* * *
March number of THE BUILDER is exceptionally
fine. I appreciated the article of Bro. Coop on disabled veterans for
he is only
touching the rim of one of the darkest pictures following the war.
in the U.S.V.B., due to the employment of second-rate physicians, is
true, and bureaucracy,
due to politics, has de-humanized the Bureau. Every claimant is
regarded as a "panhandler"
as soon as his feet cross the threshold. The aim seems to be, make it
impossible as you can for any claim to pass. It is the "pound of flesh"
the other articles maintain the high standard
of THE BUILDER.
F. J., Pennsylvania.
* * *
Origin of the Odd Fellows
a recent discussion about fraternal organizations
and their borrowing from the Masonic Fraternity, it was stated by one
the Odd Fellows were founded as a result of a split in a Masonic lodge
England, about the beginning of last century. I questioned this, and
asked his authority.
He said he had seen it so stated in a Masonic magazine. I seem to have
that there was something about this in THE BUILDER a few years ago, and
was there said that the Odd Fellows were first organized in London
about the year
1740. Can you tell me anything about this?
W. W., Illinois.
The question was asked as to the origin of
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in THE BUILDER for 1923, page 319.
It is there
stated that "the first lodge of Odd Fellows was Loyal Aristarchus, No.
in London, organized in 1746," and goes on to mention the tradition or
that the Odd Fellows were organized "by a number of disgruntled London
in 1730 or 1740, largely for convivial purposes." The Manchester Unity,
which did come into being at "about the beginning of last century,"
did have much to do with the later expansion of Odd Fellowship, and
there is perhaps
some excuse for its being regarded as the origin of the various orders
today. A recent paper read by Pro. Col. F. M. Rickard in Quatuor
confirms the earliest record of the Odd Fellows organization as being
dated in 1745,
and mentions the tradition about the "disgruntled London Masons." The
author seems to be of the opinion that at first the Odd Fellows were
independent clubs, without any central organization. Whether these
clubs had any
common bond, of usages, ceremonial and the like, as the independent
had before the adoption of the Grand Lodge system, there is no way of
it is very possible. It is also very probable that the first of these
the first existing record. Finally, Bro. Richard is apparently inclined
that Odd Fellowship had an independent root in the past in the various
and guilds for mutual help in sickness and ill-fortune that undoubtedly
in previous centuries.
* * *
THE BUILDER for November, 1929, I note under
the leading "Forced Charity" an editorial article in which you mention
that a correspondent asserts "that a large percentage of the funds [for
English Masonic Charitable Institutions] are brought forth by social
by lodge officers upon those who do not seem to be inclined to
contribute as liberally
as they should."
writer of the article does not, I am glad
to say, agree with this statement and I can assure you in a long and
as a Charity Representative and as one who has mixed freely with
brethren in all
parts of England, I have never heard any brother complain of being
to give to any of our institutions or other charities.
If there is any undue pressure upon American
Masons for financial contributions it is not for charitable purposes,
but to pay
for magnificent and luxurious temples. Masons are builders, naturally,
Masons are presumed to be properly more interested in a "house not made
hands ‒ “
* * *
in the Civil War.
addition to the information given in the
March number of THE BUILDER, I should like to submit the following
taken from the
History of Freemasonry in Ohio from 1791, by John G. Reeves, 33d Grand
of Ohio, page 154 of volume 3:
Winchester there was a regular Lodge
of Masons, Hiram Lodge, No. 21, officered by Confederate Soldiers or
parole, to whom the desire of Major McKinley was communicated. His
received, he was elected, and on May 1, 1865, the degree of E. A. was
upon him by J.B.T. Reed, a Confederate Chaplain, who was Master of the
on the following evenings the F.C. and M.M. degrees were conferred upon
his return home Major McKinley took
a dimit from Hiram, No. 21, and affiliated with Canton Lodge, No. 60,
and when Eagle Lodge, No. 60, Canton, Ohio, was organized, he became
one of its
charter members, and continued his membership therein until his death."
on page 153: "On application of Eagle
Lodge, No. 431, of' Canton, of which Bro. William McKinley was a
the name of the Lodge was changed to William McKinley Lodge, No. 431."
* * *
am enclosing a copy of a ridiculous chain
letter that has appeared in our locality recently. This is one of three
within two weeks. It is amazing to think of the foolishness and
those who "fall" for this kind of thing. What a dreadful waste of time
and energy it is. Would an editorial on the subject do any good?
P. H., Ohio.
The letter contains a brief prayer which
is well enough in itself, though a little indefinite. It is said to be
"compliance with a Masonic request." It is added that "It is said
by Masons in the ancient times that all who did not pass the prayer
would be in
danger of misfortune," and the recipient is exhorted: "Do not break the
In a kind of postscript, it is said the chain
was begun by "an American Colonel in the army of France and must go
round the world without a break." It has been "translated in all
Each recipient must send his nine copies within twenty-four hours. One
of the name of Dubellich Love owes his fortune to following these
A Mr. Dealsyde of Victoria “obtained the first prize in the National
the same means, while we are warned by the fate of Franciscus Montle
"did not take this seriously," and, sad to relate, "his firm was
ruined nine days after receipt of the present letter."
Last of all follows a list of names of those
who have passed it on, beginning with one Lean (the American Colonel of
of France?) and ending with McCausland, who signs the present exemplar.
of these are good Anglo-Saxon surnames. There are some German ones, a
some that might be Italian or Spanish, and a number of extraordinary
which are probably misspelled. There are eighty-seven in all. It is
perhaps a waste
of space to describe this amazing document at so much length, but as a
of Masonic folklore, if it may be so termed, it seems to have some
claim to be recorded.
* * *
of the Albany Sovereign Consistory
the "Historical Sketch of Albany Sovereign
Consistory," by Bro. Isaac Henry Vrooman, Jr., which appeared in THE
last month appears the following statement:
Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem was
established at the same time, but unfortunately there are no early
enclose a brief sketch taken from the Masonic
Mirror, Boston, May 5,1827, the original of which is in my possession,
to provide a new link in the history of this interesting subject. It
will be noted
that the Mirror took it from the Albany? Masonic Record.
The account of the establishment of this
Council mentioned by our esteemed correspondent is as follows:
Copied, verbatim from the Masonic Mirror,
Boston, May 5, 1827.
(From the Albany Masonic Record)
Unitas Concordia Fratrum.
LUX EX TENEBRIS.
The Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem
which forms the subject of this notice, was originally established by
emanating from Thr. III. Br. Henry Andrew Francken, D. G. Inspector
who received his high powers from Thr. III. Br. Stephen Morin,
appointed the 27th
Aug. 1761 Inspector General over all lodges &c. &c. in
the new world, by
the G. Consistory of S. Princes of the R. S. convened at Paris at which
the King of Prussia by his deputy Chaillon de Johnville. The authority
of this G.
Council has been duly recognized by the Supreme Council of the 33rd,
the United States of America.
This G. Council is now in a flourishing
owing principally to the exertions of Thr. III. Brs. Giles F. Yates and
They held their annual convention at the
G. East in the City of Albany, on the 8th day of the 11th month Shevat
of Feb. 1827). Bro. G. F. Yates declined a reappointment as G. Sov. The
of officers then took place and the result was as follows:
John W. Bay M. D. of Albany, Esq. M. G. Sov
James M. Allen, M. D. of Skaneateles, Onondaga County, E. Sub. G. Sov.
John G. Van Deusen of Palatine, Montgomery County, M. En. G. Warden.
D. F. Lawton, of Saratoga Springs, En. G. Counsellor.
Giles F. Yates, A. M. of the city of Schenectady, III. G. Chancellor.
Rev. Nathan N. Whiting, A. M. of Ballston, Saratoga County, III. G.
Eli Savage, of New Hartford, Oneida County, III. G. Recorder.
Nathaniel Calkins, of New Hartford, Oneida County, III. G. M. Finances.
Alinos Matthews, of Mayfield Montgomery County, III. G. M. Ceremonies.
Samuel H. Drake, of Saratoga Springs, III. G. Herald.
Loris Putnam, of Saratoga Springs, III. G. Pursuivant.
Collins Odell, of Mayfield, Montgomery County, III. G. Guard.
At this convention there was a full
of the five Lodges of Perfection under the jurisdiction of this G.
Warrants passed the seal of said Council for the creation of a new
Lodge of Perfection
at Clarkson, county of Monroe, and for another at Amber, county of
the former III. Brn. Simon B. Jewett, Esq. of Clarkson, county of
Mather, Esq of Gaines, Orleans county, and Gen. Jacob Gould of
Rochester, and Samuel
B. Bradley, M.D. of Greece, Monroe country were appointed officers; and
David S. Van Rensselaer, Killin H. Van Rensselaer, and Samuel Selkrig,
Amber, County of Onondaga, were appointed officers of the latter.
A system of "Mandates and Decrees"
for government of this G. Council, and of the Lodges and Councils under
was unanimously adopted.
Virtus junxit more non separabit.
* * *
Decline of the West
the January number of THE BUILDER is a review
of Oswald Spengler's great book, The Decline of the West [Lib 1926],
signed by E.E.B.,
and I cannot refrain from offering
some reflections upon his estimation and criticism of the work because
shows that the writer is a person of a quite exceptional education and
of scientific importance. I feel entitled therefore to regard his
attitude as one
corresponding to the views of the highly intellectual part of the
and seeing that not even a man of E.E.B.'s lofty conception is able yet
properly the consequences of the Great War, I must try to rectify his
in a few lines, and before the very same public.
does not see the "Decline"
only, but in literal translation of his title the "Destruction," of
the occident; and in fact he deals with the "destruction" of
European, civilization. In order to understand the trend of his
thought, it is necessary
to know, what lucky America did not know, and consequently did not care
it left the Central Powers a prey to the political, economic and
of individuals and nations; and this fundamental point is the
feet that Germany and Austria, with their bodies and brains, formed a
Asiatic unculture, and brought European culture in general as well as
in its detailed
results, to those Asiatic peoples, which only geographically, but most
not ethnographically or culturally, belonged to the circle of European
and which still do not belong to it. This wall has been torn down by
the war and
by the treaties of peace.
am learning from my American friends, and
from the reading of your authors, that America is beginning to remember
people are Europeans, and that consequently her spiritual and cultural
fate is tied
to ours. There are two classes of Americans able to understand Spengler
those who acknowledge themselves to be of this European race threatened
to the roots of its civilization by the powers of Asiatic un-culture
let loose upon
Europe; and those who come over to live in Germany or Austria long
enough to see
how fearfully hard we and our children are fighting daily and hourly,
and in every
smallest detail of daily life, against the destruction of our
then you will see that the struggle is not at all limited to a sort of
or to the differences between South-Germans and Prussians. We fight for
civilization, and I write these few lines with the intention to point
out the following
conclusion: Masonry is an important part of civilization, and so we
are fighting against the destruction of culture. It is a fight, in
is much more involved than she is aware of!
This letter, from a country which in some
ways has suffered the most severely from the after effects of the war,
will be of
interest to all who read the review of Spengler's great work that our
refers to. The point of view is well worth considering.
* * *
in Egypt: A Correction.
was a word omitted in my article on "Freemasonry
in Egypt" last month, which changed the sense of an important sentence
This was on the first page (p. 66), second column, at the end of the
The sentence should have read "The Prince was not disciplined on
his ignorance of Masonic law, etc." His name did not appear at all in
of the brethren suspended, and so on. On page 67, in the last line of
paragraph of the second column, a wholly unnecessary and gratuitous
was somehow inserted, which makes nonsense of the concluding sentence.
We regret these two errors. The first was
a mistake in the copy and the second was overlooked in the proof
A Poem of
Reg90 / auth. Regius Manuscript. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1390. - p. 70. -
Anacalypse Vol 1
Hig36AC1 / auth. Higgins Godfrey. - London : Longman, Rees, Orme,
Brown, Green, and Longman, 1836. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 901. - 53.2 MB.
Anacalypse Vol 2
Hig36AC2 / auth. Higgins Godfrey. - London : Longman, Rees, Orme,
Brown, Green, and Longman, 1836. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 537. - 33.2 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 007 - 1894
Ars94 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. - 83.6 MB.
Bolivar the Liberator
Vau29 / auth. Vaucaire Michel. - New York : Houghton Mifflin Co., 1929.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 231. - 13.4 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And23 / auth. Anderson James. - London : William Hunter, 1723. -
Fac-Simile by Jno. W. Leonard & Co., New York, 1855 : Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 119. - 6.0 MB.
Fama Fraternitatis, oder,
Entdeckung der Brüderschafft des löblichen Ordens dess Rosen Creutzes :
beneben der Confession, oder, Bekantnus derselben Fraternitet, an alle
Gelehrte und Häupter in Europa geschrieben
And15 / auth. Andreä
Johann V. - Danzig : Andream Hunefeldt, 1615. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 146. -
7.6 MB - Non Searchable old Gothic Font.
Francis Bacon and His Secret
Pot91 / auth. Pott Mrs Henry. - London : Sampson Loe, Marston &
Co., 1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 419. - 21.6 MB.
Historical Analysis of the Holy
Royal Arch Ritual
Cas29 / auth. Castells Francis de P.. - London : A. Lewis, 1929. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 96. - 0.2 MB.
Historical Doubts about
Wes95 / auth. Weston James A. - New York : Thomas Whittacker, 1895. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 376. - 20.4 MB.
Maud and Other Poems
Ten55 / auth. Tennyson Alfred. - London : Edward Moxon, 1855. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 170. - 4.8 MB.
Quakers in Action
Jon29 / auth. Jones Lester M. - New York : The MacMillan Co., 1929. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 269. - 10.3 MB.
Real History of the Rosicrucians
Wai87 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : George Redway, 1887. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 456. - 18.1 MB.
The Anatomy of Melancholy
Bur54 / auth. Burton Robert. - Longon : William Tegg, 1854. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 747. - 78.9 MB.
The Decline of the West
Spe26 / auth. Spengler Oswald A G. - New York : Alfred A Knopf, 1926. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 981. - 37.7 MB.
The fame and confession of the
Fraternity of R.C., commonly, of the Rosie Cross : with a praeface
annexed thereto, and a short declaration of their physicall work.
Vau52 / auth. Vaughan Thomas and Rosencreutz Christian. - London :
Printed by J. M. for Giles Calvert, 1652. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 139. - 7.1
MB - Partially Searchable.
The Occult Sciences
Wai91 / auth. Waite Arthur E. - London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner
& Co Ltd, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 297. - 13.1 MB.
The Rosicrucians - Their Rites
Jen07 / auth. Jennings Hargrave. - London : George Routledge &
Sons, Ltd, 1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 494. - 22.7 MB.
The Secret Teachings of All Ages
Hal28 / auth. Hall Manly P. - San Francisco : H. S. Crocker Co., 1928.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 727. - 17.5 MB - Proofed and Formatted by rhm.