March 1930 –
Volume XVI – Number 3
The National Masonic Research Society
Bro. Robert C.
OUR estimable Grand Secretary, Bro. D.
R. Cheney, receives many communications
and pamphlets in
several different foreign languages. Not being adept in them, he has for some years past enlisted the writer's assistance to translate important matters.
summer he informed the writer that he had heard of some trouble in the Grand Lodge in
Egypt, and asked for examination and report of
what was in a copy of its 1928 proceedings, which he
furnished. This pamphlet turned out to
be partly in Syrian and partly in French. A brief report was furnished to
the Grand Secretary for his files. Discovering the name of our Grand Secretary mentioned in Syrian, because he had sent them his photograph, a copy of
his name was sent to
him. He said it looked easy but was hard to write, so he gave up using it
Believing that something about Egyptian Masonry and their dissension might interest others, this article has been prepared. The proceedings mentioned contain much detail of the unfortunate events. Therefore only a summary of this will be given and a little space taken in addition to tell of
the splendid humanitarian work carried on by that Grand Lodge.
Sometime in 1900 or
1901, Abd el Meguid Youne was Grand Secretary of the National Grand Lodge of
Egypt. During that time Prince Mohammed Aly, brother of
the ex-khedive, was initiated but held no office. Youne and some colleagues conspired with the Prince virtually to
capture the Grand Lodge, and to amend its constitution or by-laws to allow the election of the Prince as Grand Master. Youne and the Prince were both well known in foreign jurisdictions. The official signature of the former was very familiar.
In 1901 an
attempt was made to carry out their plans. This brought a
strong reproof from Idris Ragheb, then Grand Master, who obtained from the Prince a letter dated April 6,
1901, written on
Grand Lodge stationery, signed by
Mohammed Aly and endorsed by
Idris as witness. Therein the Prince acknowledged fidelity to his Masonic obligations, and promised obedience to the laws and rules of the National Grand Lodge, which he thereby also recognized. A photo print of this letter is published, showing the original signatures.
Evidently Youne and his fellow conspirators were not done. They wanted the prestige of the Prince, and the latter's conceit was so
flattered that he
was willing to join them and become a
party to these iniquitous schemes. Thus the disturbances were continued until 1922, when the Prince was in
In the summer of 1922 some brethren who were not in good standing, and lodges suspended for cause, combined to petition for a change of the laws in order to
make the Prince eligible as
Grand Master. It
appears a Grand Master was to be elected later, and this was the time when they proposed to act. The Prince agreed to
be a candidate. He had never been warden or master, not even what they term an "active member" of a
lodge, and according to the constitution was ineligible.
Ragheb was again Grand Master that year. After a perusal, he
issued a decree denying the petition, and cited laws forbidding its allowance. The dissident group then sought to arrange matters by making the Prince an active member of Lodge "The Nile." The Grand Master responded by giving that lodge a certain time to rescind its irregular action. It refused to
do so and its charter was suspended, and some members of
other lodges who were involved in promoting the action were also suspended. The Prince was disciplined on
the ground of his ignorance of Masonic law, and that he
was supposed to have acted in good faith.
The suspended members organized to go
to the Grand Lodge meeting of September 28, 1922, to carry out their schemes. They appeared in
force, invaded the Grand Master's office and demanded their reinstatement. To restore quiet he said those qualified as
delegates could take part in the work. After inquiry from the chair as to whether all present were lawfully there, he
began the session. Immediately a
demand was made to change the laws to
allow the candidacy of the Prince. The Grand Master ruled it
out of order and refused any debate. The revolting group persisted in discussion and caused a tumult and confusion. To
safeguard the dignity of Masonry, the Grand Master was obliged to close the Grand Lodge, which was done in form, the election being postponed to a later date to be
announced. The officers then left the room.
Thereupon an assistant deputy Grand Master, Taha Ibrahim, seized the gavel and caused those present to
proceed with the election. The Prince was declared elected Grand Master by acclamation.
The following day Grand Master Idris Ragheb and brethren went to the temple in the morning, as was customary, but the rebellious group, assisted by profane, roughly refused them admittance. On October 3
the Grand Lodge met again and re-elected Idris Ragheb, and elected other officers, including Mohammed Rifaat as
Grand Secretary, who is still in
that office. Since then, however, Sayed Aly has been elected Grand Master and was in office when the proceedings were published.
took the records, seals and archives and used them to send out communications
the name of the schismatic party, under the name of the Grand Lodge. They took possession of
furniture and personal property, which they were later forced to return by
Mohammed also had the audacity to
pretend to be Sovereign Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite. This brought forth a
decree on March 20, 1925, from Mohammed Heddaya, the real Sovereign Grand Commander, suspending the Prince and depriving him of
all his rights and privileges. It would appear that he is
still suspended and persona non grata.
The conduct of
Youne, and the lack of
information, has caused confusion in foreign jurisdictions.
The Grand Lodge of Montana in 1927 returned to the rightful Egyptian Grand Lodge the appointment certificate of a Grand Representative.
Later learning of the mistake, an apology was made, accompanied by
a request that the certificate be returned to
them. This shows the result brought about by
such unfortunate troubles, which are not to be overcome for years.
All through this lengthy period the Grand Lodge not only had to
deal with the fraud and misrepresentations of Youne and his associates, in deceiving well-disposed persons in Egypt, and seriously interfering with domestic Masonic activities, but it
was continually annoyed by these acts carried on in
foreign jurisdictions. In
June, 1926, they took advantage of the visit in Egypt of
Bro. John Er. Cowles, Sovereign Grand Commander of
the Southern Jurisdiction, A. & A. S. R.
They appealed to
him to make a careful investigation of official documents. This he
did and delivered to them a certificate stating that he found the regular and recognized Grand Lodge is the one of which Ferik Sayed Aly was then the Grand Master. This was deposited in its archives, and later an article relating this was published in The New Age.
In spite of
these exasperating occurrences, the Grand Lodge shows it is
not revengeful. It
states in the 1928 proceedings, forgetting the evils caused by the dissidents, it has charitably opened its doors. More than once has it
offered them its hand in
the hope Masonry would pardon them upon repenting. In recalling to
the sheep-fold these misguided brothers, the Grand Lodge would rejoice in their presence, regretfully broken since their departure. This noble sentiment rings clear and true. The Grand Officers are men of high reputation and occupy responsible government and civil positions.
Now what has this harassed Grand Body done for humanity? The National Grand Lodge of
Egypt has founded an orphanage. Poor lads from seven to twelve are accepted, regardless of their religion. They receive school instruction and are taught trades. There are illustrations showing the boys in
comfortable surroundings, being instructed in carpentry, chairmaking, weaving rugs, printing, etc. It
is intended to use land about the buildings for a course in agriculture. One illustration shows a
real lively band in uniform and with modern instruments, led by
their adult instructor. King Fuad I gave this orphanage a liberal donation and is
friendly to Masonry, although probably not a member of the Order.
The Grand Lodge has also taken great interest in
education. It has a strong desire to eliminate ignorance in its native country. Promoting this object they founded and carry on
the "Wadinnil" primary school. They found a demand for secondary or advanced grades, of which many children were deprived in the state schools for lack of accommodation.
They met this need by organizing a secondary school. Boys and girls are admitted in
both schools and the illustrations show a contented and happy lot of teachers and pupils.
Masonry is doing its duty for little brothers and sisters in
Egypt, just as we aim to do in
our great and powerful country. It proves that Masonry is universal, knows but one Supreme Architect, and recognizes no political boundaries in its good works. When the true and noble realm of
the brotherhood of
man is recognized, a clear vision discovers there no battleships, no
poison gases. That vision believes in
what an Italian proverb says, “with the dawn of every day, a happiness." Let that be the unceasing work inherited from the Tyrian Grand Master, whose monument our real masters never have been forgotten -
never shall forget.
preparing the preceding article the writer's attention is directed to the 1929 Foreign Correspondence Report of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut, covering Egypt for 1927. It is
only fair to my readers that the claims of the opposition be stated. The only present source available is that mentioned, the writer not having the original proceedings in
Mohammed Aly appears as Grand Master of the schismatic body, and in his address of 1927 states that their foreign affairs are "marvelously good." Grand Officers of New York visited them. Following this are statistics relating to what they label "The National Grand Lodge of Egypt." There are seventy-five lodges, working in Greek, Arab, Hebrew, French and English, "approximately
6,000 members." It is
asserted that the Grand Lodge, of
which M.W. Bro. His Highness Prince Mohammed Aly is Grand Master, is the lawful continuation of the National Grand Lodge of Egypt, of
which M.W.Bro. Idris Bey Ragheb was Grand Master for thirty-five years. The schism dates from 1922, when a
majority, wanting a
change, elected the Prince by a
large vote. Idris left with a minority, and under this aged leader they continued to function under the official title. The courts decided against this organization in "several actions" which were instituted. In 1924-25, ninety-eight old members "returned" to
this organization. It
is recognized by
forty-five Grand Jurisdictions,
among them England, Ireland, Scotland and "several" Canadian, Australian and United States Grand Lodges. Mohammed Aly and Younis are Grand Master and Grand Secretary.
The account of
the meeting Sept. 28, 1922, is recited as
above, except it
is said that there was a dispute about constitutional
qualifications for Grand Master, and the Grand Treasurer asked that it
be submitted to vote. Idris, refusing this, vacated the chair "for a moment," returned, disposed of a
few matters, left with his Deputy Grand Master and seventeen members, taking home with him, "so it
is reported, " the great seal and important registers of the Grand Lodge.
election took place and the Prince was declared elected by overwhelming vote. Idris formed his own organization and used the Scottish Rite to defeat his opponents, which prevented healing of
The Connecticut writer remarks in his review as follows:
It is regretted that a small fraction of members endeavor to function as schismatic Grand Lodge, headed by
a deposed Grand Master. There is some surface evidence that they are encouraged by
certain U.S. Scottish Rite influences. This has caused inadvertent errors on
the part of some U.S. Grand Secretaries, the writer among them, who wrongly listed in 1928 proceedings Mohammed Rifaat as
Grand Secretary. The legitimate Grand Secretary is Abdul Meguid Younis. Prince Mohammed Aly continues as
The present writer regrets that he
has not access to the original 1927 text that the good Connecticut brother reviewed, also that this brother did not have the 1928 answer of the other body hereinbefore reviewed. It might have altered his judicial opinion of
who are the legitimate Egyptian Grand officers, and also as to
Scottish Rite interference.
It is appropriate, however, to mention a few other things for the better guidance of
American Freemasonry. The 1928 proceedings evidently try to answer the accusations with great length and care. The exact text of parts of the constitution involved is set out.
29. No brother can be
elected Grand Master if he is
not an active and contributing member of a
constituent lodge of
the National Grand Lodge of
Egypt, and unless he has filled the office of Grand Warden.
The amendment petitioned for was:
A prince of
the royal family having the degree of Master may be elected Grand Master, setting aside the conditions required by Art. 29
The "aged" Grand Master directed attention to other articles, which forbade receiving any proposition contrary to the fundamental principles of Freemasonry. That the petition modifying Art. 29
was solely in favor of
a member of the royal family, and manifestly opposed to the principle of equality, a basis of
our Order. That the decree of the Grand Master was legal on this fact.
Furthermore he sets out Art. 49, that all amendments must be submitted to
the Permanent Committee one month before meeting of the Grand Lodge which is to consider them. That statutes cannot be altered except by a
majority of not less than three-fourths of the members of the Grand Lodge. Also that no proposition for amendment can be considered unless in writing, signed and supported by
one- third of the members present at the Grand Lodge. The petitioners ignored the Permanent (i.e. Standing) Committee. The Grand Lodge had 408 members, the petition had 110, a
protest had 144.
In 1928 we
find that Taha Ibrahim is
member of a standing committee, having evidently regretted his part in
that disorderly proceeding. "Al Nil" Lodge, No. 243, is
on the list and appears in good standing again.
Aly, Grand Master, is a
Division General, and Secretary to the Minister of War and Marine; other Grand Lodge Officers hold notable positions under the government, and are evidently dignified and respected citizens.
The roster shows actual names and addresses of 103 lodges and officers. There are 71
Arab, 11 French, 9 Greek, 6 Italian, 4
Armenian, 1 Russian, 1 Turkish.
In the disorderly meeting, a Bro. Bryant was a
leader of the petitioners. No
English lodge is
on this list, and the Prince's organization seems to have them. It leads to
a suspicion of some political quarrel having brought on the strife. This may have led to recognition by English Grand Lodges. How, ever that may be, Idris appears to
have presented a
very strong ease on both facts and law, in favor of
the lodge he represents.
In the foreign section they name a number of
U.S. Grand Lodges, a large number of European and South American, New Zealand, the Scottish Rite Northern and Southern of
U. S. and of Canada, as all recognizing that body.
The Prince's body does not seem to show any Masonic charity work, or any answer whatever to the constitutional questions distinctly involved in proper upholding of that organization. It is
certainly not clear how the constitution was amended to
make the Prince lawful Grand Master. There is
no assertion on his part that the text stated by Idris, or the amending petition are incorrectly quoted. Nor any explanation by him how the constitution was law fully changed to qualify him a Grand Master. No explanation or denial of
his letter is referred to. The Grand Lodges of America would do well to
call for complete translation of
the Egyptian constitution, and a
complete statement, with proper exhibits, in
behalf of the Prince, as
to changes which make him Grand Master or
his organization legal.
It should be
kept in mind his body claims to continue from the admittedly legal one, of
which Idris was Grand Master, therefore the succession must be proved to be legal Grand Lodges would then be in
better position judicially to decide which is the lawful body in Egypt than to have the Prince, or
some Prince's ghost writer, settle it
The 1927 report of the Prince Aly organization gives seventy five lodges as adhering to it. The Annuaire published by
the International Masonic Association, lists seventy-seven. These are grouped by localities, and apparently retain their original numbers. The lowest number is
37, and the highest is
278. Al Nil, No 243, mentioned in the article, appears on
this list so that it
has evidently returned to the allegiance of the other Grand Lodge since this list was compiled.
evident that the group headed by Prince Aly has had a
"better press" than its rival. The Annuaire has no
information to offer about the latter except the names of the Grand Master his Deputy, and the Grand Treasurer and the Grand Secretary. It
offers no opinion as to
the rights and wrongs of
Broken Men of
the Great War
G. Coop, Missouri
is almost a general rule that knowledge of
the man is the force that gives life to his cause. For this reason we here give a brief account of the author of this article, in spite of
his reluctance to
allow us to do so.
Coop was rejected as medically unfit for Service soon after war broke out, and in 1918 was appointed to the U. S. Public Health Service and stationed in the training camps. He
was Assistant Superintendent
of the Health Department at Camp Kearney, and at
the San Diego Naval Training Station, in 1917, and in 1918 was assisting the Draft Board at
Fort Worth. In 1919 he
entered the Service of the American Red Cross, and was engaged in demobilization
and hospital work. In
1923 he was sent to
St. Louis to act as
Liaison Representative of
the American Red Cross at
the Veterans' Bureau, and he continued in this position till the end of 1928. A
growing dissatisfaction with the functioning of
the Veterans' Bureau led him to
resign, and to undertake the voluntary and unremunerated task of assisting those veterans who had equitable and well-founded claims, but whose applications had been rejected on
technicalities. In this work he has had marked success so far as
he has been able to
go, and he has, incidentally, also succeeded in
very seriously disturbing and annoying the executives of the Bureau; for it
seems as if it may become necessary to
consider the merits of a
case as well as the comfortable, well-worn precedents and technicalities of
the department, and, worst of all, that the beautiful webs of red tape that have been spun may have to be
Something of the condition of affairs may be gathered from the article, restrained as it is, and the author will be only too glad to
give further information to anyone interested. And his information is not generalities or impressions, but cases, with all the documents.
addition it may be mentioned that Bro. Coop is a First Lieutenant of the Medical Administration Reserve, and is also a member of
the Sojourners' Club.
the casual reader of THE BUILDER may note that mention is
frequently made of
Masons who have served their country, either during the World War or in other conflicts in which the United States has been engaged from time to
time. The pages of history are replete with outstanding Masons who served their country faithfully and well.
The World War has passed, but its hideous aftermath has not, and I bespeak space in your valuable publication for a
few words concerning what might be termed the "Forgotten Legion," for such there are, even although they may be somewhat unknown to the general public.
The United States Veterans' Bureau is
the Federal organization charged with the responsibility
furnishing relief to
the veterans who became, or
have become, disabled in the service of their country, and whose disabilities may be
justly considered as
"due to service."
The laws under which this Bureau functions are generous in their intent, in fact it
is doubtful if any country in the world has provided such liberal benefits in
recognition of their disabled veterans as
obtains in these United States.
But unfortunately there is a phase of the administration of the law which is defeating its basic purpose, and, so long as it continues, will bring much dissatisfaction,
suffering and privation, all of
which are entirely unnecessary.
To attempt to
condense this very vital matter in
a few words is a
difficult undertaking, for it is most complex and has numerous ramifications that would lead to
My object is
to stress a few of
the main points; based upon eleven years' practical experience on the draft board, in
the camps, during demobilization, in
hospital work, and six years endeavoring to straighten out some of the more complicated claims of the disabled veterans. What I
have to say may be
conveniently submitted under three headings, CAUSE, EFFECT, CURE, but before these are discussed it is
necessary that we
know that a problem does exist, and in
what that problem consists.
"Figures may lie and liars may figure," so that I
shall not discuss dry statistics, but will content myself with making but one statement, and then endeavor to show conditions as they really are.
A recent official Veterans' Bureau report shows that nearly 900,000 claims have been filed for compensation, and out of that number 436,000 have been denied.
Allowing for "Gold Bricks," "Compensation Hunters" and claims that may be fairly classed as questionable, a
very liberal estimate (even from the standpoint of
the Bureau) would be, that 94 per cent of these disallowed claims are without merit. In my
opinion such a percentage is
grotesquely fantastic, but we will, for the sake of
argument, give the Bureau the benefit of the doubt. Now eliminating all of this 94
per cent it may be
observed that there yet remains over 26,000 disabled veterans who have been denied compensation.
It is my
positive belief, based upon a very extensive personal study of the question, that there are over 25,000 veterans who are seriously disabled, whose disabilities are undoubtedly due to their service, but who are receiving no compensation from the Veterans' Bureau.
discussing the three main headings I
desire to make one or
two statements that will tend to
render my personal conclusions more readily comprehensible.
In my estimation the majority of
the disabled U. S. veterans of the World War are receiving more compensation than almost any other veterans who participated in that disastrous conflict.
Of these there is a substantial number who are receiving compensation which the public might fairly question as
to whether their disabilities had any connection with their war service; there is abundant explanation for this statement, but space will not permit its discussion.
but not least, there are far too many seriously disabled veterans whose disabilities are undoubtedly due to
their service, but who are not only denied compensation, but they and their dependents are in actual want.
The reasons for this outrageous condition follow:
It would take far too long to attempt to
give all of the causes that have led up to the present deplorable state of affairs. In
my judgment they appear in
about the following order of
importance: lack of
preparedness to handle such a huge undertaking; the inability of medical science to assign the precise extent of
the disability of
a man in any particular case, the exact cause of it, and the absolute extent to which he is disabled; the very questionable possibility of medical and legal minds to state that any given disability is a certain per cent disabling, which is particularly true in the difficult field of
mental diseases; salaries, and opportunities for advancement inadequate to
attract the best members of
the medical profession, or to
keep them upon the Medical Staff of the Veterans' Bureau; and last, the proven fact that constant and dogmatic denying of legitimate claims by means of
absurd technicalities, which forces more and more liberal legislation, yet which, paradoxical as it may seem, nevertheless leaves thousands uncared for.
Dissatisfaction, injustice, suicides, death (from lack of
attention), and an
untold amount of
unnecessary suffering and privation among the disabled veterans and their dependents, and a constant burden upon local philanthropic agencies that cannot always be carried with any degree of satisfaction to
the veteran or to the organizations which are endeavoring to supply has need. And as a result, constant, widespread and thoroughly justified criticism of the Veterans' Bureau.
In order to
illustrate the injustice in some of
the decisions of
the Veterans' Bureau (and it must be remembered that the writer has complete information on
many other claims fully as
meritorious and appealing) the following case is submitted: The name used is
fictitious in order that the family of this deceased veteran may be
saved embarrassment, authority in writing has been secured to
utilize this case merely to
assist in placing before the public a concrete example of what may be found in many communities of the United States.
A normal boy prior to being inducted into the Army, fond of
outdoor sports, stood well in his studies, and won a scholarship in
the State Agricultural college prior to service. Following the steps of
his father and his elder brothers, he had sought the light of Freemasonry as
soon as his age permitted.
the Army September 5, 1917, served in the Infantry, was overseas, participated in several of the major engagements and his outfit suffered very heavy losses; he
was wounded in action and finally discharged, May 12, 1919, with character "Excellent."
The story of
the suffering of
this boy from the day he was discharged until the day he committed suicide, March 5, 1924 (his mind having become affected due to his experience overseas, with little or no treatment and with no
subsequent financial relief), reflects anything but credit on the Veterans' Bureau.
The denial of
this claim was apparently based upon a diagnosis given at one hospital a thousand miles away from his home, where he was unknown, and where he
was a patient for only a few days.
At this hospital he was considered a constitutional
psychopath. After reading the report of the doctor who examined him, it is
amazing that such a diagnosis could have been given on the meager information at
the disposal of the Medical Officer in charge of his case.
Competent physicians who knew him intimately, both before and after his discharge, and likewise prior to
and subsequent to
his admittance, in
July, 1923, to the hospital above noted, all agree that this diagnosis was absolutely incorrect.
Bolland came from a highly respected family. He
was one of three brothers (all Masons) who served their country faithfully and well, and although he
was greatly needed at home at the time, no complaint was made by either the father (a
Mason himself, and at that time over 55 years of age) or
by the son, when the call came for the last one of his boys to go.
The following excerpts are taken from a letter received by the writer while employed as
Liaison Representative of
the American Red Cross at
the Veterans' Bureau, and as soon as it was received immediate steps were taken to
try and secure treatment and compensation. The letter, however, came too late; the boy had blown his head off with a shotgun before any decision was secured from the Bureau officials:
Dear Sir: Have you any aid for a
disabled ex-service soldier … having to
work handicapped by
other troubles in
the way of injuries and worrying…, I suffered another attack of
nerves … life has been one continual round of misery …
not able to work, I
have lost sleep so that I am in
a daze. Everybody seems far away… For God's sake get me
into a place where I
can get cured. I have lost my nerve and can't tell anyone just how I feel. I
would rather be dead than be under the high nervous strain I am now… If I don't get relief before many days it
will be all off. One more disappointed man will be gone, so far I
have lost in my fight for Government aid. It is driving me to insanity…
letter was written in February, 1924, treatment was denied by the Veterans' Bureau (this will be found in the official records) and he
committed suicide March 5, 1924.
this case was being discussed with one of
the Bureau physicians, a medical member of the Bureau Rating Board came up and informed us that the boy had committed suicide at
Bureau doctor was asked if he
knew him, and stated that he did, very well. He was asked to make a statement for the Bureau files, and excerpts from this doctor's statement, sworn to before a notary public are as follows:
… known … claimant all his life …
family physician for a number of
years … had a splendid opportunity to observe this boy prior to his enlistment … mentally he
was an ordinary, average boy. I at no
time noticed any symptoms of
a mental sub-normality or any psychic reaction. During the summer of
1919, shortly after discharge he was in my office a number of
times. All conversations were of
a rambling and disconnected nature …, mentally he
was an entirely different individual from that of
the boy he was before his enlistment… My
impression of this contact with the claimant was that he was not mentally responsible and that he was insane… I am
very strongly of
the opinion that the diagnosis of constitutional
psychopathic state made in
examination of July 19, 1923, at
… hospital does this claimant a very great injustice. It is
my opinion that this claimant has been suffering from some type of psychosis since discharge.
In addition two other doctors who had examined him since discharge, one who had him under observation within thirty days after his return from the Army, both gave definite symptoms and diagnoses of
a form of insanity.
200, of the World War Veterans' Act of
1924, in part, provides:
ex-service man who is shown to
have or, if deceased, to
have had, prior to January 1, 1925, neuropsychiatric disease … developing a 10 per centum degree of
disability or more … shall be
presumed to have acquired his disability in such Service…
You will recall that three physicians pronounced him insane almost from date of discharge, and that he committed suicide March 5,
is no question of any misconduct disease in
this ease and the Bureau has been given ample opportunity to
know the facts, these have repeatedly been brought to their attention, in addition the Director of the Bureau has been fully advised several times regarding this particular case and it is now six years since the boy committed suicide and the claim still remains disallowed to date (Feb. 14, 1930).
It is amazing that the Director of the Veterans' Bureau would permit the incidents surrounding this distressing case to be published, when he had it readily within his power to
make a correction of this miscarriage of justice; if such had been done, this story would not have been published.
is but another illustration of
many that the writer has thoroughly investigated.
is surely difficult if not frankly dangerous ground; and those who are not thoroughly familiar with this subject should hesitate before advocating a
cure, for much damage may be done unless careful thought has been given; and any "cure" that may be suggested must be based upon abundant actual experience with all that complicates the problem as a
whole and in particular.
A little medical knowledge is a
dangerous thing if
used without advice of competent medical men, so, to the uninformed, a little Veterans' Bureau knowledge may do more harm than good.
is a constant stream of
bills being presented to Congress, either entirely new, or yet further liberalizing the present laws covering relief for disabled veterans, and the cost is running into enormous sums. A
great deal of the proposed new legislation will simply make a
bad matter worse, and the current and ultimate cost will be
One of the suggestions I would urge is to
endeavor to get your Senator or Representative
take up this case as
presented, name and compensation number will be sent to
him upon request; or if
he prefers, one within his own district that illustrates the injustices that are now so common, make a direct issue of the claim, follow it through at the Veterans' Bureau and demand punishment of those responsible for the decision.
is one bill recently presented by Representative
Robert G. Simmons, Nebraska (H. R. 9112), which is now being considered by
the Committee on
World War Veterans Legislation, which I am inclined to think will go far towards correcting the injustices now so prevalent, it is suggested that the reader secure a copy of this bill and endeavor to
have his representative
in Congress vote in its favor. I do
not believe it is a
"cure all," but it will at
least give some measure of
relief to those who are now uncompensated and will, I predict, force the Veterans' Bureau to review thoroughly many denied claims, which they will rectify before they allow them to be presented to this "Reviewing Board" provided for in the bill, which while it
is a part of the Veterans' Bureau, will operate under a
separate law, and will have full power to make decisions based on
good judgment and equity, and will not be hampered by the fantastic technicalities
that are such a fetish with the present administrators
of the Veterans ' Bureau rules and regulations.
The Director of
the Veterans' Bureau, Gen. Frank T.
Hines, has the power, if
he elects to use it, to allow relief to thousands of
disabled veterans who are now uncompensated; repeated efforts have been made by
many organizations and prominent individuals (with but scant success), to get him to insist that his own orders, and oft repeated wishes, are carried out with unvarying consistency.
In closing I
would like to mention that delayed action, if
persisted in, can be fully as
fatal as an adverse decision, and the numerous needless delays, and their results, instances of which the writer can furnish in abundant measure, will prove this statement beyond the question of a
Cagliostro His Memorial to the French Parliament
By Bro. Cyrus
me as I write lies a little pamphlet, four and a
quarter inches wide and six and three-quarters
is nearly one hundred and forty-four years old.
It bears the date of 1786, and though no
place of publication is given, it was evidently printed at Paris. It was picked up at an
auction sale in London by
the agents of that well-known Mason and bibliophile, the late R.P. Bower. His collection of old and rare books was acquired by the library of the Grand Lodge of
Iowa in 1882, this pamphlet among them. By
the kindness of the Librarian, Bro. C. C.
Hunt, the present writer was permitted to borrow it and translate it.
It contains 80
pages, which are roughly cut and somewhat yellowed by age, though in the main it is remarkably well preserved. It
has been bound into a
cover to protect the original paper covers. Inside this outer cover is the book-plate of Theodore S.
Parvin, the founder of the Iowa Masonic Library, and its first Librarian. This has the legend "Founded in 1844," and the motto, Vita sine litteris Mors est. "Life without books (letters) is
On the outside of the original paper cover is
a short title, which is
rendered into English as follows:
Count De Cagliostro
de Cagliostro asks only for tranquility and safety: Hospitality assures him these." Extract from a
letter written by
the Count de Vergennes, minister of Foreign Affairs, to M. Gerard, Judge of Strasburg, March 13, 1783.
this comes the title page, which runs to
greater length, but repeats much of
the short title. It is
MEMORIAL FOR THE COUNT CAGLIOSTRO Accused
THE ATTORNEY GENERAL Accuser
In the presence of M. the Cardinal de Rohan, the Countess de
la Motte and other Co-Defenders.
"M. de Cagliostro asks only for Tranquility and Safety. Hospitality assures him these." Extract from a
letter written by
the Count de Vergennes, Minister of Foreign Affairs, to M. Gerard, Judge of Strasburg, March 13, 1783.
At the foot of the page is the date, 1786. No place of publication is
given as was noted above, but from a
reference in the text of
the petition it appears that it was printed at Paris.
has recently been a revival of interest in
Cagliostro, in part stimulated by the misleading, inaccurate and salacious work by
von Guenther [Lib German 1781],
translation of which has recently been widely sold in
this country. The original work appeared in Germany at
the same time as the mad attacks on
Freemasonry made by
the quondam Chief of Staff of the Kaiser's armies, General Ludendorff. Von Guenther shows himself so willing to misrepresent and malign Masonry in
his work that we can hardly avoid the suspicion that he
was actuated by similar motives as Ludendorff, and that it may be regarded as
part of the great push, on a worldwide front, that is
now being made against the Fraternity by its enemies.
A quotation from the work of
Dr. Marc Haven, Le Maître Inconnu; Cagliostro [Lib*], “a historical and critical study," which was published in
Paris in 1910, will be
in order here, as it
exposes the source and inspiration of the continuous attacks that have been made on
Cagliostro, which in
itself is a most curious phenomenon. Why should a man who never injured anyone, or did any harm, be pursued through the centuries with such malignity? For it must be remembered that in spite of
the torrents of abuse and accusation that have been poured upon him not one single instance of
actual wrong doing has ever been alleged, excepting the famous affair of the necklace, with which his Memorial deals, and in which even his enemies have been forced to
admit his complete innocence.
Returning to what Dr. Haven has to
say, it will be recalled that Cagliostro went to Italy in
1789 and was arrested by
the Inquisition in
Rome, by which he was condemned as a
Freemason, heretic and sorcerer. In defense of its action, or as a
further attack on
Freemasonry, the Inquisition caused to be
written, and published, a Life of Joseph Balsamo. It is the work to which Dr. Haven refers.
the Holy Office (the Inquisition) which at the time of his capture, knowing that it held in
him one of the open or secret heads of Freemasonry, wished to make a
double stroke -
to tarnish forever the memory of this representative of liberal ideas which were then boiling in so
many minds, and on the other hand to
cause to fall on the entire Order any discredit thrown on
the Grand Master of Egyptian Freemasonry.
The "Life of
Joseph Balsamo, [Lib 1791]"
published by the direction of the Holy office as
an apology for its inquisitorial action, is a
masterpiece of hate and hypocrisy; the libels of Saehi and Morande and of Madame de
la Motte pale beside the address of its prosecutor, and yet these three persons have not been sparing of Cagliostro.
But perfected by
the Holy Office the work takes on a
greater amplitude. All that they could gather of the most scandalous nature from the above named authors are found therein, mined to what the Inquisition was able to wring out, by promises or
by torture, from Cagliostro and his wife, that was compromising.
Add to that, all that the Italian priests in
1791 (when this alleged Life was published), when frightened by the French Revolution, were able to invent against Freemasonry in
general and against the founder of a mystic rite in particular, and one will have some idea of the violence of this libel. The skillfulness with which the writer, by playing on
his words, confounds, designedly, religion and Catholicism, atheism and heterodoxy, liberalism and skepticism, is
such that the reader is
led insensibly to
follow him and accept his conclusions, if he
is not cautious and does not discover the ruse.
It is this work, which was translated into other languages, and published in different countries practically at the same time as
it appeared in Rome, that has served a
basis for practically every notice of Cagliostro that has since appeared. By saying he
was Balsamo it was possible to saddle Cagliostro with the criminal deeds of the former. But since the fresh investigation of the subject by W. H.
K. Trowbridge, in
Miseries and Mysteries of a Master of Magic [Lib 1910],
it is fairly well established that this identification is
an impossible one, and that the Holy Office must have known that it was. Dr. Haven, too, shows that Balsamo, was a dark, ugly man, with a
crushed and flattened nose. Cagliostro was fair, with a fresh colored face and a
clear complexion. His appearance was agreeable and even handsome. The sculptor Houdon, who came to
America to make the well-known statue of Washington, made a bust of Cagliostro, which shows him to
have had a slightly aquiline nose. Dr. Haven reproduces a number of portraits and cites other evidence to show that Cagliostro and Balsamo were two different men, who did not even superficially resemble each other.
In the usual accounts of his life are to
be found references to his own statement, and sometimes brief quotations or a condensed resume of it
are given. From these the reader naturally gains the idea that the whole story is preposterous. Indeed the Encyclopedia Britannica is doubly unfair, for it says that in the affair of the necklace “Cagliostro escaped conviction by the matchless impudence of
his defense," but that "he was imprisoned for other reasons in the Bastille." The French Parliament was hardly a body to
acquit anyone of
a serious crime with implications of high politics, because of the impudence of the accused, whether matchless or not. Nor was there any other reason for his imprisonment in
the Bastille except the accusation that he was a party to
the theft of the necklace, and as soon as his innocence was discovered he
was released. That the Countess de
la Motte was really implicated in the famous fraud, the Affair of the Necklace, is certain. That the accusations against the Cardinal de
Rohan and Cagliostro were desperate attempts to shift the blame elsewhere is equally certain. In modern criminal parlance, they were to be "framed."
having gained ones impressions of what Cagliostro was and did, from such accounts as these, it is like coming to a
totally different climate to read his own account. Extraordinary as his story is, incredible as
it may be judged, it
is at least consistent. But it will be
better to leave it to
each reader to form his own opinion for himself.
The memorial proper begins on the fifth page of
the pamphlet, and is headed thus:
PETITION TO THE PARLIAMENT IN CHAMBERS ASSEMBLED
the Attorney-General the 24th February, 1786.
To Serve as an Addition to the Memorial Distributed the 18th of the same month:
TO OUR LORDS OF PARLIAMENT
Implores Alexander, Count de Cagliostro, in
his own Name and as
Husband and Exercising the Rights of Seraphina Feliciani, His Wife.
that he has every reason to hope that the first Senate of France will not reject the Petition of a
Foreigner who asks for the liberty of his Wife, who is dying in the dungeons of the Bastille.
The Petitioner and his Wife have been arrested by
orders of the King, and taken to the Bastille, August 22, 1785.
have learned that a few days after their being taken away, the Court, on
the information of
one of the gentlemen, was occupied with the fate of the prisoners, and that the Assembly had been continued to
an early date.
The Grand Chamber assembled and having since been made acquainted with the details of the offense when the administrative warrants [lettres de cachet] were issued, the Court has not taken up the continued deliberations on this subject.
The Count de
Cagliostro implores it
to be kind enough to
take into consideration as soon as possible the alarming circumstances in
which he finds himself.
The Petitioner asks nothing for himself. Decreed under arrest, he will wait in chains the moment when Justice, at last undeceived, will render a
brilliant testimony to
But his wife is neither decreed against nor accused; she has not, they say, even been called to
testify, and yet she has been confined for six months in
the Bastille without the Petitioner being able to
obtain permission to
when it is no longer possible for those who surround him to conceal from him the condition of this unfortunate wife and the danger which threatens her life, the Petitioner is penetrated with the most profound affliction and seeks shelter with confidence in the hearts of the magistrates and beseeches them in the name of the Sovereign Judge to
be kind enough not to
betray her and to convey to the feet of the Throne his respectful protest.
The Parliament is
not only the dispenser of
the supreme Justice of the King; if it
is by it that the will of the legislator is manifested to the People, it is also by it that the groans of
the people come to the ear of the Sovereign.
The Petitioner asks that Parliament will today be kind enough to use in her favor the most beautiful of its rights ‒ the right to enlighten authority and lighten oppression.
The Petitioner and his wife, it
is true, are both foreigners. But since when was it forbidden to oppressed foreigners to make their groaning voices heard in the Courts of Justice?
All Europe has its open eyes on this famous law suit, at
whose beginning my
wife and I were taken to the Bastille. The slightest circumstance becomes fuel for the universal curiosity. The Parliament knows of the innocence and the imprisonment of the Countess de la Cagliostro, and the Petitioner has informed it
publicly of the illness which threatens her life. Will it allow her to perish without being able to receive the help of the medicinal art exercised by her husband? And if it
be true that the latter has had the happiness to snatch from the arms of Death a
thousand Frenchmen, will he be condemned to suffer his poor unfortunate wife to perish near him without being able to give her either attention or consolation?
The Petitioner has tried every means without avail to
make known to the Dispensers of Power the frightful situation in
which he now finds himself. He thought that the Memorial which he caused to
be distributed some days ago, which carried in it
the unanswerable proofs of his innocence and that of
his wife, would bring at
least the liberty of the latter. Vain hope! The public voice is for him, and yet his wife is dying in the Bastille without his being permitted to receive her last breath, or to attempt some means whereby he might restore her to life.
The only resource which now remains to the Petitioner is in the justice and generosity of the Magistrates. Informed as they are of all the circumstances of
this Trial, they can testify to the innocence of the Countess de Cagliostro. Should the Petitioner fear refusal when the only favor he
asks is that the Truth be made to
reach the feet of the Throne?
The Lady la
Tour, sister of the Count de la Motte, who was detained for several months at the Bastille, has just been set at liberty. Is she any more innocent than the Countess de
Cagliostro or should the latter have less right to
the kindness and justice of
the King because she is
a foreigner, and because she is my wife?
Far from us
be such an idea, for the sentiments which animate His Majesty are known to
all Europe. They are particularly so known to
the Petitioner for they are recorded in the three letters written in
his name in 1783 by
M. the Keeper of the Seals, by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister of War. It is on
the faith of this Royal Protection and of
the promised hospitality that the Petitioner came to
live in France with the intention to here end his days.
Persecuted, arrested and calumniated, he has not despaired of Justice and is persuaded that the French magistrates will not act contrary to
the desires of a foreigner who, without complaining of the error which fetters his liberty, limits his wishes to the liberty of his wife.
Do they fear on the part of the Countess de Cagliostro troublesome proceedings, vain solicitations and powerless tears? Ah, well. Let the gates of
the Bastille be closed on
her, but let at least her unhappy husband have the sad satisfaction of giving her relief, and if that is
of no avail, then that of closing her eyes in death.
THIS BEING CONSIDERED, MY LORDS,
May it please you to
give permission to
the Petitioner to
put the lady, Countess de
Cagliostro, his wife, under the protection and safeguard of
the Court and to order in consequence that the Court will interpose its good offices with His Majesty to the effect of obtaining the revocation of
the lettre-de-cachet by
virtue of which the said Countess de Cagliostro is detained in
the prison of the Bastille, with the permission for her to
come to see the Petitioner when the state of her health will permit; and you will do
(Signed) THE COUNT DE CAGLIOSTRO, M. THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL, M. THILORIER, Barrister. BRAZEN. Solicitor.
I have fulfilled everywhere the duties of a citizen; everywhere I have respected religion, the laws and the government. Such is
my life history.
for the past six years with an intellectual, generous and hospitable people, I thought I had found my adopted country. I congratulated myself in advance on
the good I could do
to my new fellow citizens.
a flash of lightning the illusion has been destroyed and I
have been thrown headlong into the dungeons of
the Bastille. My
wife, the most amiable and virtuous of women, has been drawn into the same abyss. Thick walls and multiplied bolts separated her from me; she groans and I cannot hear her.
I question my
jailers; they are silent. Perhaps, alas, she no longer exists. A feeble and suffering creature, how will she able to live six months in
a place where men have need of all their strength, all their courage and all their resignation to fight against despair. But I
am entertaining the reader with my
troubles and forget I am
ordered to vindicate myself.
I am decreed prise de corps (1). What crime have I committed? of what am
I accused? Who is my
accuser? Are there any witnesses testifying against me, I do not know. They do
not even give me any knowledge of the complaint on which this decree was rendered, and yet they want me
to vindicate myself How ward off the blows struck by an
invisible power? They answer that the criminal laws wish it thus. I
hold my peace, and bow myself, with groans, before a law so harsh and alarming for accused innocence.
I can only suspect the kind of offense of which I
am accused. If I am
wrong, then I will have fought creatures of
the imagination and shall have spoken, at least, in
favor of Truth, and put the sound part of the Public in a state to understand the libels circulated against an unfortunate man, when he is
a prisoner in chains and threatened with the double sword of
Justice and regal authority.
of the Case
It appears certain that Messrs. Bohmer and Bassanges have delivered to M.
the Cardinal de Rohan, a
necklace of diamonds of the value of 1,600,000 francs;
It is also equally certain that M. the Cardinal de Rohan announced to the jewelers that he was only the negotiator of this purchase, that the real buyer was the Queen and that he showed them a writing to
this effect which contained the conditions of the sale and in
the margin of which were the words " good ‒ good ‒ approved ‒
Marie Antoinette de
The Queen has declared that she has never given any orders for the purchase of
the necklace, that she never approved any condition of
purchase and that she has not received the necklace.
exists then an assured body of offense. What is this offense?
sense and my counsellors tell me that this is not a
real forgery. No
one has sought to imitate the writing of
the Queen, and the signature which deluded Bohmer and Bassanges is
not even the one the Queen is in
the habit of using.
is it then? It is
a supposition of
a signature, imagined in order to deceive the jewelers and engage them to deliver, on credit, jewels of great value, which they otherwise might not have delivered, if they had known that it was intended for someone other than the Queen.
is the penalty for this offense? For the abuse of a
sacred name? I do not know and have no interest in
knowing. In this affair I
confine myself to
asking justice for myself and forgiveness for the guilty. Resigned innocence has the right to
express itself thus.
But who is
the guilty one?
Did the Cardinal de Rohan know that the signature was false? Did he know that the Queen had given no orders for buying the necklace? Did he
know that the necklace would not be delivered to the Queen, after all? Has he not been the innocent author of a deceit of which he
was the first victim? Did he not believe, was he not obliged to believe, that he had been chosen as
the negotiator of
a transaction pleasing to the Queen and that Her Majesty wished to
envelope it with the shadows of secrecy for some time?
Involved, I do not know how, in
such great interests, I shall not deny on
this occasion the title of friend to men who have conferred it
on me at some other time and which I have perhaps deserved. I shall, however, defend my
own innocence without taking sides. Slandered in the strangest manner by a
woman to whom I have never done any wrong, I utter the most sincere wish that she may be able to vindicate herself. I shall be
happy if Justice finds no
guilty one to punish in
M. the Cardinal de Rohan has claimed that he
was deceived by the Countess de la Motte. The latter, before there was any decree, hastened to
have a memorial appear in
which she accused me of
swindle, sorcery, and theft, and particularly of having conceived and executed this project in order to ruin the Cardinal de Rohan and take possession of the necklace of which I
was the depositary, in order to enlarge with it the occult treasure of an
in a few words are the accusations inserted in the examination of the prosecutor which caused my
wife and myself to be
taken to the dungeons of
the Bastille, and which she has repeated sine in
a memorial, imagined at leisure and printed with atrocious details which caused a decree of prise de
corps to issue against me.
I am obliged to do
so, I shall answer these charges, which under other circumstances I
would scorn to notice.
But first I
believe that I should describe myself as I
really am. It is time that people should know who is
the Count de Cagliostro about whom there have been circulated so
many extravagant stories. As long as
it was permitted for me
to live as an obscure man, I constantly refused to satisfy public curiosity. Today, when I am
in chains and when the law demands an
account of my actions, I
shall speak, and will say with frankness what I know of
myself. Perhaps the story of my
life will not be the least important evidence in this vindication.
Count De Cagliostro
I do not know the place where I was born nor the parents who gave me birth. Different circumstances in my
life have aroused in me
doubts and suspicions which the reader may share. But I repeat that all my
researches in this respect have resulted only in giving me, it is
true, great but vague and uncertain ideas as
to my birth.
I passed the first part of
my childhood in the city of Medinah, in
Arabia. I was educated there under the name of Acharat, a
name which I kept in
my travels in Asia and Africa. I lived in the palace of the Mufti Salahaym (2).
I remember perfectly that I had around me four persons, a tutor aged from 55
to 60 years, named Althotas, and three servants, one white, who served me as
valet, and two blacks, of
whom one or other was with me day and night.
My tutor always told me that I was left an orphan at
the age of three months, and that my
parents were noble and Christians, but he kept the most absolute secrecy as to
their name and the place of my birth. Some words spoken at random have made me suspect that I was born at Malta, but this is
a matter which it has always been impossible to verify.
Althotas, whose name it
is impossible for me to pronounce without emotion, had for me the care and affection of a father. It was a
pleasure for him to cultivate the tendencies for the sciences which I showed. I
can say that he possessed them all, from the most abstract to that of
ornaments of dress. Botany, physics and medicine were those in which I made the most progress.
It was he
who taught me to adore God, to love and serve my
neighbor, and to
respect religion and the law in
I wore the Mahometan dress as
he did, but the True Religion was impressed on our hearts, although we professed Mahometanism in appearance.
The Mufti came to see me
often; he treated me with kindness and appeared to have a
great deal of esteem for my tutor.
The latter taught me most of
the languages of
the East. He spoke to
me often of the pyramids of Egypt and of their immense subterranean chambers excavated by the ancient Egyptians, in order to contain and protect against the ravages of time the precious deposit of human knowledge.
I attained my twelfth year the desire to
travel and see for myself the marvels with which he entertained me took possession of me to
such an extent that Medinah and the sports of my boyhood lost all charm in my eyes.
One day Althotas announced to me
that at last we were going to leave Medinah and begin our travels. He
caused a caravan to be
prepared, and we
departed after taking leave of the Mufti, who was pleased to testify to us his regrets in the most courteous manner.
We arrived at
Mecca and alighted at the palace of the Sherif (3). They made me dress in clothing more magnificent than any which I had worn up to
that time. On the third day after my
arrival, my tutor presented me
to this sovereign, who gave me the most tender caresses. At
the sight of this Prince, an inexpressible emotion took possession of
me and my eyes were filled with the sweetest tears I
have ever shed in all my life. I
was witness to the effect he made to
retain his own composure. The moment was one of the events of my existence which it is
impossible for me
to recall without the most vivid emotions.
I remained three years at Mecca. Not a day passed that I
was not admitted to the Sherif and each day saw his attachment increase and my gratitude also. Often I surprised him with his eyes fixed on
me, then raising them toward Heaven with all the marks of
pity and emotion. I turned from him, pensive and devoured with a fruitless curiosity. I did not dare to question my tutor, who reprimanded me with severity as if
I could not without offense seek to know the authors of
my being and the place of my birth.
At night I
sometimes talked with the negro who slept in my
apartment, but in
vain I tried to pierce his secrecy. If
I spoke of my parents he would become deaf to all the questions I
might ask him. One night when I pressed him harder than usual, he told me that if
I ever left Mecca I
was menaced with the greatest of misfortunes, and above all I
should beware of
the city of Trebizond (4).
My desire for travel prevailed over his gloomy forebodings. I was weary of the regular life I led at the Court of the Sherif.
One day I
saw him enter the apartment I occupied. My
astonishment was extreme at receiving such a favor. He
clasped me in his arms with more tenderness than he had ever shown, recommended to me that I should never cease to adore the Eternal One and assured me
that in serving Him faithfully I would finish by being happy and would know my fate. Then he said, bathing my face with his tears: "Adieu, unfortunate child of
words and the tone in
which he pronounced them will remain eternally engraved in my memory. It was the last time I
was able to enjoy his presence. A caravan expressly prepared for me was waiting for us; I
departed and left Mecca, to
return no more.
I began my
travels with Egypt, and visited the famous pyramids, which are to
the eyes of superficial observers only enormous masses of marble and granite. I made the acquaintance of
the heads of the different Temples, who were kind enough to
introduce me into places where ordinary travelers never penetrated. Later I
traveled through the principal kingdoms of
Africa and Asia, during the course of three years.
is not the place to
give the public knowledge of
the different observations that I made in my travels and the truly extraordinary adventures that happened to me. I believe that this part of
my story should be put off to a
more favorable moment.
The necessity for my vindication being the only thing which should now occupy my mind, I shall speak only of my
travels in Europe and shall name the persons who have known me there, and it will be
easy for those whom my
fate may interest to verify the greater part of the facts I am going to relate.
I arrived in
1766 at the Island of
Rhodes, with my tutor and the three servants who had been with me since my childhood. There I embarked on
a French vessel which set sail for Malta.
In spite of
the rule that requires vessels coming from the East to wait in quarantine for forty days, I
obtained permission to
land at the end of
two days at Malta. Grand Master Pinto gave me, as well as my tutor, lodgings in his palace, and I
recall that the apartment I
occupied was near his laboratory.
The first thing that the Grand Master did was to invite the Chevalier d 'Aquino, of the illustrious house of the Princess of Caramaniea, to be kind enough to accompany me everywhere and to do the honors of the island for me. I assumed then for the first time, with the European dress, the name of Count de Cagliostro, and was not a
little surprised to
see Althotas invested with the habit of an
ecclesiastic and decorated with the Cross of Malta.
The Chevalier d'Aquino had me make the acquaintance of
all the Grand Crosses of
the Order of the Knights of Malta. I
even remember to
have dined with M. the Bailiff de Rohan, today the Grand Master. I was then far from foreseeing that twenty years later I
would be arrested and taken to the Bastille for having been honored with the friendship of a
Prince of the same name.
I have every reason to believe that the Grand Master was informed as to my
origin. He spoke to me
several times of
the Sherif of Mecca and Trebizond, but never wished to talk plainly on this subject. Nevertheless he
always treated me
with the greatest respect and offered me the most rapid advancement in the order of Knights of
Malta in case I should decide to take the vows. But my desire to
travel and the influence which inclined me to
practice medicine made me refuse offers so generous and honorable.
It was in
Malta that I had the misfortune to lose my best friend, my master, the wisest and most enlightened of mortals, the venerable Althotas. Some moments before his death he
grasped me by the hand and said, in
a voice nearly extinct: “My son, always have before your eyes the fear of
God and love of your neighbor; you will very soon learn the truth of
all I have taught you."
The island where I had lost the friend who had long held the place of
Father to me now became an insufferable place of abode. I
asked permission of
the Grand Master to leave it and travel through Europe. He
consented to this with reluctance, and made me
promise that I would return to Malta someday. The Chevalier d'Aquino was kind enough to take charge of accompanying me
in my travels and supplying all my wants. In fact I
departed with him. We visited at
first Sicily, where the Knight procured me the acquaintanceship
of the nobility of the country. From that place we visited different islands of the Italian archipelago and after looking over the Mediterranean again, we landed at
Naples, the native country of
the Chevalier d'Aquino. His affairs requiring some individual journeys, I departed alone for Rome with letters of credit on Sir Bellonne, a banker of
I resolved to
preserve the most perfect incognito after arriving in
this capital of the Christian world. One day when I was shut up at
my home, occupied in perfecting myself in the Italian language, my
valet announced the visit of the secretary of Cardinal Orsini. This secretary was charged with the duty of
asking me to go and see His Eminence, and in fact I went there at once. The Cardinal showed me
all the courtesies imaginable, invited me several times to dine at
his house and made me
acquainted with most of the Cardinals and Roman Princes; notably the Cardinal of York (5) and the Cardinal Ganganelli, Pope since May, 1769, under the name of
Rezzonieo (6) then occupied the chair of St. Peter, and having expressed a desire to
know me, I had the honor several times to be admitted to private conferences with His Holiness.
I was then in my twenty-second year. Chance procured me the acquaintance of a young unmarried lady of
quality, named Serafina Felichiani. She was scarcely emerged from childhood; her budding charms kindled in
my heart a passion that sixteen years of
married life have only tended to strengthen. It
is this poor unfortunate creature, whom neither her virtues nor her innocence nor her condition as foreigner was able to
save from the harshness of
a captivity as cruel as
it was undeserved, who is
neither the time nor the inclination to write volumes, I will not enter into the details of
the travels I have made in all the kingdoms of Europe, but will content myself to cite persons by whom I have been known. The greater part of them are still living. I can proudly invoke their testimony. Let them say if ever I
have committed a
single act unworthy of a
man of honor: let them say if I
have ever solicited a single favor of them; if ever I
have begged the protection of
the sovereigns who have been curious to know me; let them say finally if in
all places and at all times I have done any other thing than cure the sick without pay and assist the poor.
The persons whom I have known more particularly are:
In Spain the Duke of Albe, his son, the Duke de Veseard, the Count de
Prelata, the Duke de Medina Coeli, the Count de Riglas, kinsman of the Count d'Aranda, ambassador of
His Catholic Majesty near the Court of France. In Portugal: The Count of San Vincenti, by whom I was presented at Court. My
banker at Lisbon was named Anselmo la Cruce.
At London: The Nobility and the People.
In Holland: The Duke of Brunswick, to whom I
have had the honor of
In Courland: The reigning Duke and Duchess.
All the Courts of Germany.
At St. Petersburg: The Prince Potemkin, M. Narisoin, General Galacin, the General of the Cossacks, the General Medicino and the Chevalier de Cerberon, charge d'affairs for France.
In Poland: The Countess Comceska, the Count Gevuski, the Princess who is
now the Princess of Nassau, etc.
I will also say that it
has happened to me at
times to travel under different titles. I was called successively the Count Harat, the Count Fenix, the Marquis D'Anna. But the name under which I am
most generally known in Europe is
that of the Count de
- Under the French law of
the old regime the king, and his ministers, could arbitrarily arrest and imprison anyone, without a regular information or accusation of any offense. The authority for such proceeding was called a lettre de
cachet, and its execution was often a sort of
legal kidnapping. It
was a power naturally Subject to great abuse. Prise de corps, literally "take of body," may be taken as roughly equivalent to "prisoner" in
the text. It is almost verbally the same as habeas corpus, "thou shalt have the body," but the use of
the terms is diametrically different. In one ease it was the authorities who took the body of
the prisoner and held it
at their pleasure, in the other it was the prisoner's friends who could demand it, unless he
were properly indicted and convicted in
a court of justice. The whole contrast of
English and old French law is summed up
in these two phrases.
- Mufti, is
the title of a semi-religious
official in Mohammedan countries. He corresponds to some degree to a Doctor of Canon Law, he is the repository of the law, which the Cadis or judges were bound to
administer. The Mufti of the sacred city of Medinah is a very important person indeed.
- The Sherif is the hereditary prince or ruler of Mecca. He
is the head of a
family or clan, the Sherifs, which claims descent from Mahomet through the line of
Hasan, the son of Ali, the fourth of
- Trebizond is
a city on the southeast shore of the Black Sea. It
was originally a
Greek colony. It
is important as a center for the converging trade routes from Central Asia and the Far East.
- The Cardinal of York was the brother of
Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender, whose alleged influence on the development of the hauts grades and Chivalric Orders of Masonry has been so
- Clement XIII, who died of
poison in 1169.
(To be continued)
of Lodge No. 50, Dumfries
By Bro. James J.
LOCKE WEEMS is chiefly distinguished as the author of the first biography of Washington, a book that ran through twenty editions in the author's lifetime and which eventually reached over eighty. [Lib 1877]
His Life of
Washington, says Dean, "grew by additions and embellishments, from a pamphlet of
eighty pages to a volume of two hundred pages.” The original pamphlet was issued in 1800, about three months after the passing of
Washington. The now famous cherry tree episode did not appear until the fifth edition of
the work was put out, which was in
the year 1808, and at
a time when men were still most reticent about their connection with Masonry, the title page of
each successive edition carried the legend: "of Lodge No. 50, Dumfries." After 1808 this was changed to: "formerly rector of Mount Vernon parish."
In addition to
his Life of Washington, Weems was the author of the earliest biographies of Franklin, Penn and General Francis Marion. He
also wrote many tracts about gambling, drunkenness, dueling and a variety of similar subjects. Before 1902, Ford said of him:
No man whose writings have passed through some two hundred editions, or
of whose productions, some two hundred and fifty thousand copies have been sold deserves complete neglect. Such literary attempts merit a place in
the archaeology of
literature if nowhere else. No history of the American people or their literature can be
complete without noticing the man and his work.
He was born in 1759 at
Marshes Seat, Herring Bay, Anne Arundel County, Maryland, and was the youngest of the nineteen children of David Weems. Of his early childhood nothing is known. During the years 1770 to 1775 he
attended, and graduated from, Kent County School at Chestertown, Maryland. The Rev. Wm. Smith, who was married to
Weems’ cousin, Rebecca Moore, began acting as rector at
Chestertown in 1779 and took over the proprietorship of
this school, which in 1782 he developed into Washington College.
1777 to 1779 Weems studied medicine and surgery at Edinburgh, Scotland, but there is
no record of his having received a degree. There is also no current record of his activities during the Revolution, and in his later writings no
references occur to
his life during these dramatic years. During the years 1780-1784 he
was again in England, this time to study for the ministry. He was admitted to the priesthood, September 12, 1784, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, and returned home, honored as one of
the first Americans ordained as
an Episcopal minister without taking the oath of
allegiance to the British crown.
He filled several charges, but his liberalism made him unpopular, and about 1790 he began his active career as a traveling book-agent. He established a connection with Mathew Carey, the famous Philadelphia publisher, and of this Kellock writes:
The Episcopal clergyman and the Irish Roman Catholic publisher struck up
a solid business friendship from the start, and Weems went forth on the roads with a good Stock of volumes bearing Carey's imprint. Their business associations continued, with one or two intervals, for nearly a
third of a century.
The next thirty-six years of his life he spent traveling the almost impassible roads in
his old Jersey wagon, and, at Masonic gatherings,
courthouse steps, in
wayside inn or cottage kitchen, he preached the gospel, entertained with a story, played his fiddle and sold books ‒
occasionally a Bible, a prayer book, a hymn book, but generally books of his own writing.
his letters to Mathew Carey, published in Mason Locke Weems, His Works and Ways, there are two Masonic references:
Trenton, December 25, 1801. Hope to vend some tomorrow at Masonic meeting 16 miles from this.
Trenton, February 19, 1802. Tomorrow set off for Newtown to be
ready to utter the Masonic Oration. God grant I may sell some Bibles, etc., etc. From Newtown I propose to
dash strait away for Lancaster.
In July, 1795, Weems married Fanny Ewall, a daughter of Colonel Jesse Ewall of Dumfries, Virginia. After his marriage he made his home in
that town and a few years later, probably after the death of Colonel Ewall, he moved to
"Belle Air,” the Ewall mansion in
the hill country five miles back of Dumfries. This three-story house of English brick is still standing.
Dumfries, a Potomac River town and port, was founded by
Scotch merchants engaged in the tobacco trade, who named it after the home town of
Robert Burns. It
was the first town founded in Prince William County, its charter dating back to
1749. Ten years later it
became the county seat and before long boasted a public warehouse, busy shops, and even a theatre. Then came the Revolution, and most of the Scotch traders returned to
the old country, and the tobacco trade was diverted to Alexandria, a more convenient and central port for the back country. The county seat was not removed until 1822, but long before that, Dumfries had but a shadow of its former glory. On the Board of Trustees or City Council, which was given in the instrument of incorporation, we
find such men as Richard Henry Lee, a
signer of the Declaration of
Independence, and Colonel Henry Lee, the father of Light Horse Harry and the grandfather of
Robert E. Lee.
Weems was at home he
occasionally rode over from Dumfries and held services in
Pohick Church in
which, years before, George Washington had worshipped and served as a
vestryman of Truro Parish. After the Revolution this parish had no
regular rector. Washington at this time attended Christ Church at Alexandria. Weems saw the value of identifying his name with Pohick Church, and Hart states that:
Upon this slender connection he
based the title which he
later assumed of
"formerly rector of
Mount Vernon parish." Bishop Meade in his "Churches, Ministers and Families of Old Virginia," declares that "to suppose him to
have been a kind of
private chaplain to
such a man as Washington … is the greatest of incongruities."
states, however, that Weems:
… knew Washington personally, corresponded with him, and in company with their common friend, Dr. Craik, stayed at least once with him at
Mount Vernon, and he was intimate with the Reverend Lee Massey who was Washington's rector and associate for many years.
Reference is made by
Sidney Hayden in
his Washington and His Masonic Compeers [Lib 1869],
tract by Weems, published in
1799, which he states was the last written correspondence
with Washington in which Masonic allusions were made. Weems' letter to
Washington, asking permission to dedicate the pamphlet to him and Washington's reply are given in
full. Weems' letter closes as
On the square of Justice and on the scale of Love, I remain honored general, your sincere friend, and Masonic brother. M L.Weems.
Washington's reply granting permission simply ends:
With respect, your obed't servant. G. Washington.
The tract when published was entitled:
The Philanthropist, or Political Peace-Maker between all honest men of both parties. With the recommendation
George Washington in
his own handwriting, by M.
L. Seems, Lodge No. 50, Dumfries.
A letter from Bro. Chas. H.
Callahan, P. G. M., Grand Lodge of Virginia and author of
Washington, the Man and the Mason, states:
"In reference to Lodge No. 50, will say that this was organized in 1795 with Colonel George Deneale as first Worshipful Master. Deneale afterwards moved to
Alexandria and became prominent in Masonic and public affairs. As Colonel of
Alexandria militia, he
commanded the troops at Washington's funeral, was on the committee to arrange for that ceremony and afterwards as
Clerk of the Court recorded Washington's will. At
this time (1799) he was Junior Warden of
No. 22 of this city (Alexandria) and succeeded Dr. Dick as
Worshipful Master, serving for thirteen years. Somewhere in my
papers I have the names of all the officers of Dumfries' Lodge which went out of existence and surrendered its charter in 1846. Strange to say, as a boy living in Dumfries, I personally knew the last three stationed officers; they were Colonel Basil Brawner, prominent citizen of Prince William County, in which Dumfries is located, although at that time not a
resident of the town, living about three miles outside; Messrs. William and Robert Merehant, who were respectively Senior and Junior Warden. A mark master's jewel in
possession of a
son of Mr. Robert Merchant shows that the capitulary degrees were also conferred there, but as this was prior to
the organization of
our Grand Chapter, they were undoubtedly conferred in
the Blue Lodge as was the case elsewhere.
"The meager returns of this old Lodge, which are on file in our Grand Lodge Library, indicate the Colonial importance of Dumfries which today is only a scattered village of perhaps one hundred and fifty inhabitants. The Lodge, according to these records, was held, respectively, "over the bank, in Mr. Williams' ordinary, which, by the way, is still standing, next in the printing office, in
the Academy building, and finally in the Masonic Temple.
in conclusion, say that Weem's name is frequently mentioned as being present at the meetings and in all human probability and indeed it is
an established fact in this town he wrote his 'Biography of Washington,' containing the childhood stories of the General. It may be of interest to you to
know that I visited 'Bellaire' for the first time about three weeks ago and it is a
pathetic fact that this quaint celebrity, who will ever remain among the noted evangelists of
our country, with his good wife, lies buried in the little cemetery close by
the mansion without a marker to designate the spot. Here, too, lies buried John Ballentine, the Carnegie of the Revolutionary period, who superintended the deepening of
the waterways of
the upper Potomac for Washington and his Potomac Company. Ballentine also married a Miss Ewall.
"The whole country is redolent with the story of early Colonial life and it
is indeed a pathetic fact that much of
this is beyond redemption."
died in 1825 at Beaufort, S. C., where his remains were first interred. Later they were removed to the family cemetery at "Belle Air." On one of the pews of old Pohick Church is a
small tablet to Weems. This is his only memorial, but if
his works were to be
utterly forgotten, the evidence of his existence would still be found in
the legendary history of the nation, for his story of Washington and the cherry tree is perhaps the most widely known folk-tale in any tongue.
Cannot Tell a Lie [Lib*]; by Richard Dean, The Mentor, Feb. 1928. Mason Locke Weems, His Work and Ways [Lib*]; by Paul Leicester Ford and Emily Ellsworth Ford Skeel. Vol. I,
II, III. Privately printed, 1929.
Parson Weems of the Cherry Tree [Lib 1928]
by Harold Kellock, 1928. Review in The Master Mason, Vol. V,
p. 564, 1928.
Masonic Associations of Old Christ Church; by C.
Herbert Reese. The Master Mason, Vol. II, p. 599, 1926. Rev. William Smith acted as
Grand Chaplain and preached the sermon on December 28, 1778, on the occasion of the Masonic celebration of
Washington's visit to
Washington and his Masonic Compeers [Lib 1869];
by Sidney Hayden. Pages 191-193.
Parson Weems [Lib 1911],
a Biographical and Critical Study; by Lawrence C.
American Historical Liars [Lib*]; by
Albert Bushnell Hart, Harpers. Vol. CXXXI, p. 726; 1915.
Education vs. Masonic
Bro. Warren B. Smith
their graves have gone;
is past, their triumph won
trials wait the race
in their honored place,
A moral warfare with the crime
And folly of an evil time.
THESE lines were written by
John Greenleaf Whittier [Lib 1902]
at a time when the issue of Negro slavery was last becoming the leading factor in the irreconcilable conflict that was to plunge our country into the throes of
the great Civil War. Yet, we, of today, must look far for a clearer statement of the present-day conditions which are daily becoming more and more intolerable.
In the discussion of Masonic Education or of
Masonic Apathy or, again, of any combination of the two, it is
impossible to evade the association of
Masonic with civic obligation. The Mason who is
apathetic is quite likely to
be an apathetic citizen; the Mason who is
true to his full Masonic heritage is certain to be a
good citizen. Therefore, whether I quote Masonic authority or
civic philosophy it
is, for the present purpose, one and the same thing.
sometimes a comfort to realize that such problems and conditions as
those afflicting us
do not differ from, in
fact they are quite largely identical with, the experiences of another day and generation. In 1868, John Ruskin, in a
speech before the Royal College of
Science at Dublin, expressed himself as follows:
those among us who have lived long enough to form some just estimate of
the rate of the changes which are, hour by hour, in
accelerating catastrophe, manifesting themselves in the laws, the arts and the creeds of men, it
seems to me that now at least, if
never at any former time, the thoughts of
the true nature of our life, and its powers and responsibilities,
should present themselves with absolute sadness and sternness.
Ruskin was particularly interested in
the arts. We are particularly interested in Masonry. But could you draw a closer parallel, in a
sober statement of
your convictions? Does Ruskin overstate the case of our present situation? Listen to this quotation from an anti- Masonic paper issued in 1828:
age has its wonders ‒
and every time its turn. Posterity looks back, up the current of departed years, amazed that her ancestors were so
weak and unwise. Such a
speculative retrospect, a
hundred years hence, will afford a
curious sight, if
any should step onto the promontory of time and view the deserted temples where Masonry once was…
The animus behind this prophecy does not here concern us, but does the fact of Masonic membership statistics and the attendance record in
your lodge during 1928 startle you, when you read this prophecy of a hundred years ago?
much of introduction, let us
consider briefly two elements of strength with which our great Fraternity is
blessed beyond any other similar organization. These two great assets are, first, Historical Background,
and second, Essential Principles.
historical review of
Masonry, three general themes present as
many similar, and at the same time radically different, theories. It is
beside the present purpose to
argue for the greater authenticity of one or
the other view. Parenthetically, the three theories in
mind are the so-called Comacine Theory; that theory which holds that from time immemorial all men who have endeavored to
follow the high principles for which we now stand in essence have been Masons; the incontrovertible historical sequence of Modern Masonry. The first-named is briefly summarized here for the simple reason that it affords a
more striking illustration of the fact that Masonry has a deep-rooted background. The following summary is from Bro Ravenscroft:
Centuries before Christ and the founding of Rome, a
race of Hametic descent spread along the Mediterranean shores, and afterward became known in
Syria and Asia Minor as
Hittites; in Greece as Pelasgoi, and in Italy as Etruscans.
Hittites were engaged in building the Temple of Jerusalem, the fame of
which spread far and wide.
The Romans learned their arts of
building, decoration, pottery, etc., from the Etruscans, who were the same race as the Hittites, and carried with them some, at
least, of their traditions.
In Rome there developed Collegia of
artificers and, in
early Christian days, these had traditions of King Solomon.
At the downfall of Rome, the Guild of Artificers left and settled in the district of Como, holding as their center the island of
Thence they spread their influence over all of Western Europe, and even to the English shores.
They merged into the great Masonic Guilds of the Middle Ages.
As these Guilds died out, their forms and ceremonies were preserved to
a great extent in our Masonic Lodges ‒
at any rate, under those of the English and American constitutions.
So much, to suggest the vast background of
Masonry, the main point at
issue being merely to show that more recently organized fraternal or
service organizations could not go so
far, except through the intermediate experience of Masonry. As to essential principles, no adequate treatment of so
large a topic could be
considered within the limits of our present discussion. But to conform to
our general theory of background, your attention is
called to the practical identity between the old English and our present American Charges.
By the Charge of 1723:
obliged, by his Tenure, to
obey the moral law; and if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist nor an
irreligious Libertine. But though in ancient times Masons were charged in every country to be
of the religion of that country or nation, whatever it was, yet it is
now thought more expedient only to oblige them to that religion in which all men agree, leaving their particular Opinions to themselves, that is, to be
Good men and True, or
men of Honor and Honesty, by whatever Denomination or Persuasion they may be distinguished, whereby Masonry becomes the Center of
Union and the Means of
Conciliating true Friendship among persons that must have remained at a perpetual distance.
But besides obeying the moral law, the old-time Mason was to
be constantly observant of his civic duties. The Charge continues:
a citizen of the world, I am
next to enjoin you to
be exemplary in the discharge of your civil duties, by never proposing, or at
all countenancing, any act that may have a tendency to subvert the peace and good order of society; by paying due obedience to the laws of any state which may for a time become the place of your residence, or afford you its protection; and, above all, by
never losing sight of the allegiance due to
the sovereign of
your native land; ever remembering that nature has implanted in your breast a sacred, indissoluble attachment to
that country from which you derived your birth and infant nature.
In recent numbers of THE BUILDER have appeared discussions under the following heads: Where Are we Drifting? The Length of
the Cable Tow; Catching Them Young; Are You a True and Royal Builder? Underlying these is a
question that is
pertinent to all comment, editorial and otherwise, on
the difficulties under which Masonic Lodges are not laboring. I frame it
thus: To Whom Are These Questions Addressed? And you can but answer: To the individual Mason. While that is true, it needs somewhat of elaboration.
the duty of a Worshipful Master? There used to be a
favorite treatise on
The Whole Duty of Man. What if this question be: What Is the Whole Duty of a
Worshipful Master? It
is much more suggestive.
Eighty years ago, a certain Church of England clergyman, Dr. George Oliver, amid his other multifarious literary labors, spent a
good share of his time in writing letters to various lodges and Masons, and I should like to quote him here on this matter of the duty of the Master:
peculiar appropriation of the SQUARE [is] to the Master of a
private lodge… In
operative Masonry [it is] used to
adjust all irregular corners and bring rude matter into due form, … while to
the Speculative Mason it conveys a
corresponding lesson of
duty, teaching him that by a
course of judicious training the Worshipful Master reduces into due form the rude matter which exists in
the mind of a candidate for initiation; and thus, being modelled on the true principles of genuine Masonry, it becomes like the polished corners of the Temple. And by
virtue of this jewel, which sparkles on his breast, he is
enabled to cause all animosities … to subside, that order and good fellowship should be perfect and complete. The Master of a lodge is therefore bound to set his brethren an example of Morality and Justice, which form the true interpretation
of the Significant Jewel by which he is distinguished.
There speaks the old English Mason. Now listen to the comment, or, better, the interpretation
of one of our great modern leaders, Bro. Robert I. Clegg, in his paper before the Conference of Masonic Librarians and Educators at
Milwaukee last year:
a candidate has received the Master Mason degree he has but partaken of ritualistic display. He has been shown the ground plan. He
has been given the tools with which to
complete the erection of a
Temple for which he has previously laid the Symbolical first stone and later erected a Symbolical superstructure
thereon. But, after all, this building must sooner or
later be completed. It hardly seems reasonable to
everlastingly pass the problem to future ages.
this may well be added the comment of
the Grand Lodge of Iowa:
Masonry consists in the teachings which lie hidden behind the letter of the ritual and not in
the mere ritual itself.
How many times have you heard the ritual given in such manner as clearly to demonstrate that the Master, himself, had no idea at all of
Worshipful Master! This whole problem is primarily up
to you! But, Masonic Brethren, who chooses your Worshipful Master? So
often we are met with the excuse (is it really worthy the name?) of
inability. There is
no Master Mason whose native capacity is so
limited as to prevent him from attending lodge. Also, there is
no one thing in a
Master's experience which heartens him so
much as a good attendance, as there is, conversely, no experience that disheartens him as does non-attendance.
And a second point for you fearful ones to
consider: Did you ever pause to
consider the handicap under which your Master works when his attention is diverted from the main issue in hand by
the necessity of
overseeing a multitude of minor details which you could just as
well attend to as not?
Said Lavater, an XVIIIth century philosopher:
you ask me which is
the real, hereditary sin of
human nature, do
you imagine I shall answer pride, or luxury, or ambition, or
egotism? No; I shall say indolence will conquer all the rest.
At the very opening of
this address, it
was shown that not to
our day alone are confined difficulties. The same Dr. Oliver, whose exposition on the Square has been quoted, wrote, in
is a universal complaint, and tends to
the deterioration of
Freemasonry in public opinion, that amongst the numerous initiations which take place annually, so few should be prolific in bringing forth the genuine fruits of the Order…
And, further, he gives the reason:
is because … they are not fully imbued with the poetry and philosophy of the Order, but prefer the dull, prosaic workings of common life, or entertain mistaken views of its nature and design.
Apathy! APATHY! APATHY!
intense apathy in all of
us is the first great mystery of life. It stands in
the way of every perception, every virtue. There is no making ourselves feel enough astonishment at it. That the occupations or pastimes of
life should have no motive is understandable;
but that life itself should have no
motive, that we neither care to find out what it may lead to, nor to guard against its being forever taken away from us ‒ here is a mystery indeed.
On the authority of the Grand Master of
problem that now confronts the Craft is to
instill new interest and create higher ideals. Education of its members is one of
the basic principles of the Order. So long as we confine our activities to
conference of degrees and so long as we confine the knowledge to
be acquired from the Order to the exemplification of the ritual, and rehearsal of
the lectures, our members are sure to lose interest. Every lodge should have a program in which the history and teachings of the Order should play a
large part, interspersed with the discussion of such secular subjects as
might be deemed expedient…
Yes, every lodge should have a program; and here again, I
quote from Bro. Clegg:
We must connect in
a continuous way the activities of every lodge with that of
the Grand Lodge.
We must provide a
regular process of
sustained interest to
maintain the brethren at a
constant rate of
speed in their studies.
We must supply at
specified dates, with the briefest practicable intervals between them, the necessary information in the form of instructive material.
We must furnish instructors who have a
distinct capacity for that leadership which inspires growth and fruitfulness, the laudable ambition to excel for the good of all.
Fine! Fine! I can hear a lot of
you think this, even though you do not express your thoughts aloud, but where get these men? My answer is: From your own membership?
Yes, you do have them.
No better authority can be
sought than Emerson. His short essays have always remained unsurpassed. Listen to what he
says regarding eloquence:
emergency which has convened the meeting is usually of more importance than anything the debaters have in
their minds, and therefore becomes imperative to them… BUT if one of them have anything of commanding necessity in his heart, how speedily he will find vent for it, and with the applause of the assembly.
in any public assembly, him who has the facts, and will state them, people will listen to, though he
is otherwise ignorant, though he
is hoarse and ungraceful, though he stutters and screams.
The next question, naturally, is
as to the subject-matter to
be used. Past Grand Master Frank Moses, of
experiences teach us that fundamental truths and precepts of Masonry with liberal quotation or
paraphrase of the familiar words heard so often in
lodge, and apt illustration to
amplify and interpret them for practical application in
our daily lives, are most appreciated.
As introductory to his little volume Era, of
the Protestant Reformation, Seebohm quotes:
CIVILIZATION means not simply advance in
population, wealth, luxury … but far more, viz.: ADVANCE IN THE ART OF LIVING TOGETHER IN CIVIL SOCIETY.
The following pronouncement was made by the Grand Lodge of California:
do not think that the Masonic Lodge is performing all its functions unless it includes in
its work enlightenment on our origin, history and traditions.
Under this head we would also include education on the great questions of the day which are vital to our country. This does not mean that a lodge should assume a definite position, or resolve for or against any course of
action as regards particular questions.
our daily life and in
our clubs we can discuss these matters without strife, it certainly seems that we
should be able to do
so when within a tiled lodge.
In line with this suggestion is the comment of Dr. Lodge, of Detroit, Chairman of the Speakers' Bureau Work in
you get a dozen or
fifty people from all over your state to
consider "the Mason in his community and in his government" … does that not mean the community itself is going to
have a little better citizen in him than before? Doesn't it
mean that his government is
going to have a little more independent Subject than it had before? Doesn't it
mean the audience who heard these talks of
the Mason in his community and in his government are going to have new sidelights on Masonry and are going to take away something that will raise their standard of citizenship?
Here, again, for the man who insists he
cannot talk; and, again, quoting Bro. Clegg:
is one insistent can …
and there are many such … for Masonic endeavor. What shall it profit a
Freemason if he vote not? Nothing is plainer than that the stay-away-from-the-polls-person is the weak link in our body politic.
To induce every brother to
vote, and that he encourage all other citizens to do likewise, is our manifest and imperative duty.
We may quite properly enlarge upon the necessity of a Freemason using his franchise though we do
not intrude upon his control of that privilege.
To return, for a moment, to the individual.
If you are going to
have any interest, you must do it ‒
not by lodges ‒ but by individuals. Do
you know the whole Scheme of Masonry is
addressed to the individual? Nowhere in our ritual, in the matter of our Symbolic degrees, will you find anything addressed to the brothers. Everything is addressed in the singular: "Brother."
The first, second and third degrees must be
conferred upon one candidate alone. It
is a Symbolical fact that all great changes that come in
life are encountered by us
alone… WE MUST, in Masonry, attempt to awaken the INTEREST OF
A most apt illustration in
our national history will emphasize this imperative need. After the American colonies had declared their independence, it
was necessary to
formulate some machinery of government. The attempt was made under the so-called ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION.
This government failed lamentably and for very good reason. Its attempt to rule through the medium of
the various individual colonies was similar to any projected plan for international administration.
There was no one to put your finger on.
Only when national citizenship was provided and the federal Government could reach directly to
the individual citizen was success attained.
This paper opened with Ruskin; he appeared in
its midst; it is perhaps only a fair balancing proposition to
introduce him again at the close.
He was quoted as realizing the distressing situation and again as
finding its cause in widespread apathy. His solution puts the recovery back upon the individual, as is
clearly shown in
his stocktaking of
saw that both my own failure, and such success in petty things as in
its poor triumph, seemed to
me worse than failure, came from the want of sufficient earnest effort to understand the whole law and meaning of
existence, and to
bring it to noble and due end; as, on the other hand, I saw more and more clearly that all enduring success in
the arts, or in any other occupation, had come from the ruling of lower purposes not by
a conviction of their nothingness but by a
solemn faith in the advancing power of human nature, or in
the promise, however dimly apprehended, that the mortal part of it
would one day be swallowed up in immortality.
not merely an ornamental institution. Our fraternity was planted to bear fruit. THE MASONIC FRATERNITY MUST JUSTIFY ITSELF AS A
CONSTRUCTIVE POWER in
this constructive age. “The days are upon us when institutions such as
ours MUST STAND FOR SOMETHING or stand ASIDE," says the Grand Lodge of Saskatchewan, and I will conclude with a
final quotation from Bro. Clegg:
the impress be upon the belief that lodges exist only to
get members or upon the conviction that members shall get Freemasonry?
If the latter, what will YOU DO for the furtherance of
Masonic Education in
your lodge and in the circle of your influence?
of Albany Sovereign Consistory
of the Royal Secret
By Bro. Isaac
Henry Vrooman, Jr., New York
(Concluded From February)
is now a long break in the record. The Anti-Masonic wave was at its height and there was little or
no activity in the Masonic Bodies of Albany. There are records of meetings of
Ineffable and Sublime Grand Lodge of
Perfection and of
Grand Council of
Princes of Jerusalem between 1841 and 1846; and a list of
the officers of these bodies appears in the Albany City Directory for the years 1846-1851, inclusive. Among the officers of
the Lodge of Perfection were:
P. M. Eq. Giles F. Yates, G. Chancellor.
P. Eq. Killian H. Van Rensselaer, M. F.
M. Em. G.
The Supreme Council was also quiet and was reorganized in April, 1845. At that time Ill. J. J.
J. Gourgas, M. P. Sov. Gr. Commander, said:
Our worthy Brother Giles Fonda Yates, of Schenectady, a Sovereign Grand Inspector General of
the thirty-third degree, duly acknowledged as
such, and a member of
this jurisdiction since the fifth day of July, 1828, having been my
aid and assistant in our present reorganization,
constitutionally entitled to
the second office in this Grand and Supreme Council. I do
hereby declare, acknowledge and proclaim him to be our Ill. In. Lieut. Gr. Commander. You will therefore receive and acknowledge him as such in
all future occasions. (1)
At a meeting of the Supreme Council on June 5, 1845, "Unanimous approval and consent having been given to the bringing forward and ultimate initiation to this highest degree and membership of this Grand and Supreme Council of thirty-third degree, of our worthy Bro. Archibald Bull, of Troy, Prince of Jerusalem, Grand Master of
the General Grand Encampment of
Knights Templars of
the United States of America, and Killian H.
Van Rensselaer, of
New York City, a Prince of Jerusalem, it
was unanimously agreed upon to initiate them at the earliest opportunity." (Ill. Bro. Bull received the 33d on
June 17, 1845, and Ill. Bro. Van Rensselaer received the 33d on June 20, 1845, when they took their seats as Active Members of the Supreme Council.)
the fact that these Brethren are designated as
Princes of Jerusalem, it would appear that no
higher degrees were conferred in Albany at that time.
On July 16, 1845, the Supreme Council ordered:
soon as practicable, it will be advisable to
open, organize and establish at the Capital or chief town or city in each of
the fourteen states forming this our Northern district and jurisdiction, an
Ineffable Lodge of
the Grand Elect Perfect and Sublime Masons, 14d, under the government of a Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem, 16d, a Chapter of
Sovereign Princes of
Rose +, 18d, forming a
part of, or attached to, a particular or
private Consistory of
the Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret, 30d, 31d, 32d …
No one is to be
proposed for initiation from the 17d to the 32d, both inclusive, unless he be
at least thirty years of
age and a present or
past Grand Officer of the Grand Ineffable Lodge or Grand Council of Princes of
Jerusalem… The Consistory may of its own authority initiate from the 19d, Grand Pontiff, to
the 29d, Knight of St. Andrew, both inclusive. But as to
the 30d, K-H. or Knight of the White and Black Eagle, 31d, Grand Inquisitor Commander, or the 32d, Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret, a Special delegation or dispensation for each candidate has to be
granted and issued direct from the Grand and Supreme Council of
33d, on a written application, signed and sealed by the five first Grand Officers of the applying Sublime Consistory, specifying place, names, day and year of
birth, religion, profession, residence and Masonic qualifications
and standing of the candidates.
On October 1,
1845, among the returns received were those from "Grand Council Princes of Jerusalem, held at Albany, N.
Y., and also their Ineffable and Sublime Grand Lodge of Perfection, sitting in the same East, twenty-ninth September, 1845." This is the only mention of these bodies for many years; there being nothing more in
the Supreme Council Proceedings until, at the Annual Session of the Sovereign Grand Consistory, S. P. R.
S., 32d, held in connection with the Annual Meeting of the Supreme Council, 33d, May 15, 1867, the following delegates were present from the four Albany Bodies: Cornelius Glen, 32d, Robert H.
Waterman, 32d, Townsend Fondey, 32d, Henry Lansing, 32d, Frederiek G. Tucker, 32d, Henry B. Whitman, 32d.
On May 16th, the Supreme Council visited the Sov. Gr. Consistory and Ill. Killian H.
Van Rensselaer, M.
P. Sov. Gr. Commander, delivered his Annual Address, in the course of which he
One hundred years have passed since Henry A. Francken, one of the Illustrious Deputies of
Stephen A. Morin, established a
Grand Lodge of Perfection and Grand Council of
Princes of Jerusalem in Albany, in the State of New York. By virtue of
his Patent, as Deputy, he
conferred the degrees of Sovereign Prince of Rose Croix of H.R.D.M. Knight of K H.
Sublime Prince of
the Royal Secret, and Sovereign Inspector-General of the Thirty-third Degree upon Worthy Intelligent Masons of high standing in the State.
I have re-organized the old Grand Lodge of Perfection and Council of
Princes of Jerusalem at Albany, in the State of New York, originally organized in
1767, and I have upon application of Illustrious Brothers Cornelius Glenn, Thomas D. Newcomb, Jefferson Peterman, Robert H. Waterman, and other worthy Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret, granted them Dispensations to
open and hold in the city of Albany a Chapter of
Rose Cross, and Consistory of
Sub. Pr. Royal Secret. The Bodies were duly organized by me; the officers elected, installed, and fully qualified for the work in their respective Bodies. The Supreme Council, and this Sovereign Grand Consistory, may rest assured that these oldest Bodies of
the Rite in the United States, under their present able and zealous officers, will fully maintain their high standing and usefulness, and add to the increase of the Rite in the State (3).
afternoon in the Consistory, the Committee on Dispensations and Charters submitted its report, which was accepted and its recommendations
adopted. Among these recommendations was,
approval of the revival by
dispensation of Sov. Grand Commander of
Ineffable and Sublime Grand Lodge of
Perfection, founded at
Albany, N. Y., by Henry Andrew Francken, Dep. of Stephen Morin, on 20th of
December, 1767, also Grand Council of
Princes of Jerusalem, founded as
above. Also approval of Dispensation reviving Rose Croix Chapter, and Albany Sovereign Consistory, each of which were established of date of 16th November, 1824.
We recommend that charters be issued to said revived Council Chapter, and Consistory, and as
memorial of their date of
establishment, the said dates to be
inscribed respectively on
said charters ‒
the same to be held until recovery of
the original charters ‒ which are now not in possession of
said bodies. (4)
In the Supreme Council, on May 17th, it was ordered "that charters granted by this Supreme Council before the union, be
issued by the officers of
this Council (5)." And "That the officers of
the Supreme Council are authorized and instructed to
sign and deliver all charters as of the dates when the same were voted (6)." "The records of the Sov. Grand Consistory were read and approved; and it was ordered that charters be granted as
recommended by that Body (7)."
The Council, Chapter, and Consistory at
Albany, N. Y., still possess the Charters granted on this occasion, each of which bears an endorsement similar to the following:
The original Charter of the Albany Sovereign Consistory S.
P. of R. S., having been lost, or
detained from the body to which it lawfully belongs, the within Charter is issued in
lieu, to have the full force and authority as the Ancient original.
(Signed): Nath. B.
Shurtleff. 33d Sec. Gen. H. E.
The Lodge of
Perfection has only its Warrant, signed by Henry Andrew Francken.
The 1867 Charter of Albany Sovereign Consistory is here reproduced and reads as follows:
AD UNIVERSI TERRANUM ORBIS SUMMI ARCHITECTI GLORIAM
ORDO AB CHAO. 33d. DEUS MEUMQUE JUS.
the Grand Orient of the Supreme Council of
the Most Puissant Sovereign Grand Inspectors-General of the Thirty-third and last degree of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite of Free Masonry for the Northern Masonic jurisdiction of the United States of America, under the C.
C. of the Zenith, near the B., B., which answers to
42d 21' 22" N.L, 5d
59' 18" E., L. Meridian of Washington,
To all Most Puissant Sovereign Grand Inspectors-General of the Thirty-third and last Degree, and to
all Illustrious and Most Valiant Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret, Knights of K ‒
H. Illustrious Princes and Knights, Grand Elect, Perfect and Sublime Free Masons of all Degrees, Ancient and Modern, of Free Masonry, over the surface of the Two Hemispheres, to whom these presents may come:
YE, that we, the undersigned, M. P. Sovereign Grand Inspectors-General for the Northern Jurisdiction of the United States of America, lawfully and constitutionally
established at our Grand East, in
the City of Boston and State of Massachusetts, duly assembled and congregated in Supreme Council of the Thirty-third Degree of
the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite, this eleventh day of the Hebrew Month called Ijar, A M. 5627, which corresponds to
the sixteenth day of May, A.
D., 1867, of the Christian Era, having witnessed the fervor, zeal and constancy to
our Valiant and Illustrious Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret,
Cornelius Glen, 32d, Townsend Fondey, 32d, Robert Henry Waterman, 32d, Peter Wendell 32d Richard L. Van Denburgh, 32d, Henry Lansing, 32d, David Newcomb, 32d, Samuel Goodman 32d, each of them Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret of
the Thirty-second Degree, and knowing them to have been lawfully obligated, and reposing confidence in
their Masonic Knowledge, Prudence and Fidelity, do, by these presents, constitute and establish, with their future legal associates and successors, into a regular Sovereign Consistory of S.
P. R. S., under the title of
giving and granting unto them full power and authority to convene, as such Sovereign Consistory, within the City of Albany, in the State of New York, to elect and install their Officers, to work in
the several Degrees of Grand Pontiff, Grand Master of All Symbolic Lodges, Noachite or
Prussian Knight, Knight of the Royal Axe or Prince of Libanus, Chief of the Tabernacle, Prince of the Tabernacle, Knight of
the Brazen Serpent, Prince of
Mercy, Commander of
the Temple, Knight of the Sun or Prince Adept, Knight of
St. Andrew, Knight of Kadosch, Grand Inspector Inquisitor Commander, and Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret, of
the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite, and confer the same upon such Brothers as are lawfully and constitutionally
qualified to receive them.
And the said Sublime Princes shall administer for us, and in our name, to each brother admitted to
any of the degrees conferred therein, an Obligation of Fealty and Allegiance to our Supreme Council aforesaid, and Submission to
And the aforesaid Sovereign Consistory shall each year, at
our Annual Convocation, return to
us a true list of
all its Officers and Members, Specifying the name, place of nativity, age, residence, profession, religion and highest Degree received with the date of
reception of each newly admitted Prince and transmit to us the Fees for Registry, Reception, and Annual Dues, required by
In Default Thereof, this Charter may be suspended by
the M. P. Sov. Grand Commander, or revoked by our Supreme Council.
And we do
hereby require the said constituted Princes to keep a
regular Record of
their Proceedings and work for our inspection.
And we do
hereby declare the Precedence of said Consistory to commence from the Eleventh day of the Hebrew Month called Ijar, A. M., 5627, answering to
the Sixteenth day of May, A.
D. 1867, hereby ratifying and confirming all Constitutional Acts heretofore done by said Illustrious Princes.
IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, we, Sovereign Grand Inspectors-General and Active Members of the Supreme Council of
the Thirty-third Degree, above named, sitting in the said City of Boston, and duly established in said Northern Masonic Jurisdiction the fifth day of
August, A. D. 1813, do
hereby grant unto the above named Brethren this Special Warrant, and do now Subscribe our names, and cause to be
affixed the Great Seal of
our Council, in the Chamber of Council, this Eleventh day of
the Hebrew month caned Ijar, A. M., 5627, corresponding to the Sixteenth day of
May, in the year of
our Lord eighteen hundred and sixty-seven.
VAN RENSSELAER, 33d, M. P. Sov. Grand
A. B. Thompson, 33d, Ill. Grand Treas. Gen. H.
E. David Burnham Tracy, 33d, III Grand Master of Ceremonies. Herman Ely, 33d, III. Grand Marshall. Joseph D. Evans, 33d, III Deputy for State of New York. NATH. B.
SHUBTLEFF, III. Grand Secretary Gen. H.
E.Josiah H. Drummond, 33d, P.
Sov. Lieut. Grand Commander. H.
A. Johnson, 33d, III. Grand Minister of State. Benjamin Dean, 33d, III. Grand Capt. of the Guard Chas. W. Moore. 33d. Ill. Grand Standard Bearer NOTE ON MARGIN. ‒
The original Charter of the Albany Sovereign Consistory, S. P. of
R. S. having been lost or detained from the body to
which it lawfully belongs, the within Charter is
issued in lieu thereof to
have the full force and authority as the ancient original
(Attest), NATH'L B. SHURTLEFF, 33d Sec. Glen. H. P:. [L. S.]
reorganization occurred in
1866, most of the Princes named in the Charter having received their Scottish Rite Degrees in February of that year. Several Brethren received their degrees in
April, 1866, and in May, 1867; the membership at the time of the granting of the Charter being about thirty-eight.
In 1866, the Supreme Council which met in New York City and of which Ill. Simon W. Robinson, 33d, was Sov. Gr. Commander, issued charters to a
Lodge of Perfection, a Council of Princes of
Jerusalem, a Chapter of Rose Croix, and a
Consistory, S.P.R.S., to
be held in Albany, the title of each of them being DeWitt Clinton. In
1870, the members of these Bodies affiliated with the older Bodies and many of
them became prominent in its affairs.
Cornelius Glen, 32d, was Commander-in-Chief
from the reorganization
until December 27, 1867, when Ill. Robert Henry Waterman, 32d, was elected to
that office. The list of
Commanders-in-Chief since the reorganization is as
Membership at close of
Cornelius Glen, 32d
1866 ‒ Dec. 27, 1867
Robert Henry Waterman, 33d
1867 ‒ Dec. 27, 1873
Townsend Fondey, 33d
1873 ‒ Dec. 27, 1879
Herman Henry Russ, 33d
1879 ‒ Dec. 27, 1882
John Boyd Thacher, 33d
1882 ‒ Dec. 27, 1885
William Edgar Fitch, 33d
1885 ‒ Dec. 27, 1894
John Franklin Shafer, 33d
1894 ‒ July 4, 1900
Charles Humphrey Armatage, 33d
1900 ‒ Dec. 22, 1903
Arthur MacArthur, 33d
1903 ‒ Dec. 27, 1906
Thomas Henry Dumary, 33d
1906 ‒ May 27, 1909
Robert Benoni Stiles, 33d
1909 ‒ May 23, 1912
Edward Byron Cantine, 33d
1912 ‒ May 27, 1916
Marshall Freeman Hemingway, 33d
1915 ‒ May 23, 1918
William Stormont Hackett, 33d
1918 ‒ May 26, 1921
Joseph McKay, 33d
1921 ‒ May 23, 1924
William Henry Butler, 33d
1924 ‒ May 26, 1927
James Argyle Smith, 33d
1927 ‒ Oct. 25 1928
Frederick Wilhelm Gebhard, 33d
The growth of
the Consistory was at first slow, but it has been steady and on June 30, 1929, there were 3,278 names on
the roll of members.
An indorsement on Ill. Bro. Yates 33
Diploma indicates that he was appointed on June 15, 1844.
Reprint of Proceedings of
the Supreme Council, 1867, page 37.
Ibid., page 39.
Ib., page 43.
Ib., page 17
Ib., page 20.
lb., page 23.
Editor in Charge
IN the first minute book of
the Grand Lodge of England, under date of
June 5, 1730, is copied a "Deputation" to
Daniel Cox, Esq., as Provincial Grand Master of
the "Provinces of
New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania in America."
The record has been a bone of contention between the brethren of
Pennsylvania and Massachusetts,
the former claiming that the authority given to Cox (or Coxe) was not only valid but was also effective. The latter claiming that it
was voided by non-use and neglect, and that the first institution of a Freemasonry that was "regular" (blessed word!) followed upon another deputation, to
Henry Price, in April, 1733, of which there is no record in the Grand Lodge minutes ‒
though this omission neither invalidated its authority at
the time nor makes its actuality doubtful now.
The situation is
not lacking in a humorous element. Centennials are usually greatly in
favor, Bi-centennials even more so. Is
this wonderful opportunity to be foregone on account of
what the delightful Pyecroft, who holds the center of the stage in a number of Kipling's most amusing stories, might have called, "narsty professional spite"? If
1930 were chosen, then Massachusetts would feel that a distinct prestige would be given to Pennsylvania's claims. Pennsylvania cannot move because Massachusetts may refuse to play. New York and New Jersey probably feel that the situation is delicate. While the junior Grand Lodges feel that it would be presumption and lèse-majesté on their part to make any suggestions. Let us hasten to
say that all this is
spun from our own transcendental
super-consciousness, and has no relation to
any real facts in any real world so
far as we know.
But observe the ludicrous and baffling absurdity of the thing. The year 1930 passes, and two successive years, and we come to 1933. At
once the same situation reappears, the roles of
the two protagonists (a more kindly word than antagonist) being reversed, a kind of
change of polarity, the electric tension being just as high.
It is absurd, because it is
indisputable that there were Masons in
America in 1730, and without doubt many years previously. But we
not only have the Deputation to Daniel Cox, which as we
suggested (like a
dove with an olive branch) more than a
year ago ‒ in December, 1928, to be
precise ‒ was the first official mention in
the Grand Lodge records of
the American colonies, and which proves by implication that there must at least have been Masons in
those three mentioned by name. While the witness of Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette is practical proof that some of them had formed lodges in
the latter "Province." It certainly seemed that this might have been made the basis of a diplomatic formula by which a two hundredth anniversary of Masonry in America could have been celebrated this year without giving any advantage to either of
the contestants for priority in "regular" Masonry.
for whatever reason, the suggestion, like the good seed of the Sower in the Parable, fell on
hard and stony ground, and the birds of
the air, or something, came and carried it
away. Anyway it does not seem to have even sprouted, let alone borne any fruit.
in another hundred years the question will have been settled, and the brethren who still survive may see a Tri-centennial. Or will they see a repetition of the present impasse?
But it does seem too bad that we can't have it now. A hundred years is rather long to wait, especially when there is
no certainty that it would come off even then. Perhaps the best thing might be to get up a quiet little celebration of
is a beautiful word for what a once well-known author described as "The Greatest Thing in the World." But it
is a word that has been so sadly mistreated and abused that to many people it has no other signification than cold unfeeling giving of alms, to get rid of a mendicant, or the mechanical administration of relief by professional and professionalized social workers. The cause of
this degradation is
fairly clear. There is a constant tendency among all mankind to that kind of hypocrisy known as euphemism, the denoting of
unpleasant things by
general terms, the giving of noble names to mean and contemptible things in order to
conceal their meanness. And, of course, as soon as
any particular euphemism becomes a general usage, it takes on all the associations of the lower, and indirect meaning.
In very many cases this is
a real impoverishment
of the language; in this case it is
particularly so, for there is no
other word to take the place of Charity in its true and proper significance. In the Bible, and in the Masonic ritual, it
is equivalent to
the Latin caritas, from which it is derived, and the Greek agape, for which it stands in
the beautiful thirteenth chapter of the first Epistle to
the Corinthians. Agape might be translated by "love," but this is a
word that needs to be
guarded on account of its intimate associations with the natural attraction between the sexes. "Brotherly love and friendship" covers the meaning very well, or "Love of
the Neighbor" as
Swedenborg put it. But we should not lightly give up a word that means all this, one, too, that is part of the language of the book revered by American Masons as the Greatest Light, and that is also enshrined in our formularies. Rather we
should insist on
using it in its proper sense, as we
do other terms that are no longer in
common use; and see to
it that our initiates understand what is intended.
this introduction, we
are going to raise the question as to
what is properly to be
understood by "Masonic Charity," and how and in what ways it should find expression, and what effect its practice should have in the lives of Masons. The adjective "Masonic" in
this connection might be taken in
several different ways. It might be
a limiting description, a Charity exercised between Masons which is restrained and restricted from going any further. That this is
the proper meaning is incredible, but there is
always the danger that insensibly, and with confusion thought, it may come practically to
denote this. Living ideas and ideals and inspirations are constantly being congealed and crystallized into rigid formulas as they come in contact with the self-seeking activity and the self-indulgent
sloth of the world, and this is as true of Masonry as
it is of religion.
In truth the great virtues cannot be limited, and retain their virtue. Justice is justice, whether exemplified by
a Mason or by anyone else. So also is Truth, and equally so is
Charity. The only proper meaning that qualifying them as Masonic can have, is to
assert that they should mark the Mason, and should be patent in his life and conduct; with the extension of
meaning, or corollary, that as
they distinguish each individual Mason, so
should they be a characteristic
of the Fraternity as a whole.
it is in this sense that Masonic Charity has been always and everywhere understood in the past, is a matter of record; for from the time that modern Speculative Masonry first began to spread throughout the world we
find in every country, not only individual acts of Charity and benevolence; but collective ones also. That is, Masonic lodges have always considered it part of
their proper function to undertake to aid and assist the unfortunate and needy in
such ways as the local situation seemed to
demand. Certain things especially have always appealed to Masons, the cure of
the impoverished sick, and the education of destitute children. In other words, the founding and support of hospitals and schools.
It might be
well, in view of certain tendencies, too manifest among us at
the present time, for someone to collect a
series of typical examples, fully documented, illustrating and enforcing the above statements. The chief difficulty of preparing such a presentation would probably prove to be the choice of material from an embarrassing abundance. However, when we come to
more recent years among ourselves, there is a
change. This change seems to
be part of a particular manifestation of a
general shift of
relationship between lodges and Grand Lodges. It is summed up and characterized by the term "subordinate," which is
commonly used in
conjunction with "lodge" in contra-distinction
the Grand Lodge, a term that is peculiar to America, and which seems to
mark a progressive loss of
old rights, and of an
original independence, which though limited was once very real. The causes of
this gradual transformation
are complex and somewhat obscure, but this much may be fairly confidently asserted; so
far as the new subordinate lodges have lost their original powers, they first ceased to exercise them before they were taken away.
In regard to
Charity, however, and works of benevolence, this modern trend is particularly unfortunate. A Masonry without good works is
on the way to becoming a dry and barren tree. Yet we have so
long lost sight of the original ideals of
the Craft that this seems an absurd thing to say. And besides, what of
all the wonderful benevolent institutions, the homes and orphanages and relief funds that have been built up? True indeed. These are highly praiseworthy, but they are limited. We are frequently told that Freemasonry is not a benefit society, which is also perfectly true in
a technical sense. But essentially it has come to be not so very different. In a benefit society a member receives certain definite payments under definite conditions. If he
has paid the necessary contributions,
he receives, for example, so much a week when he is ill, regardless of his situation. Whether he
is a wealthy business man, or a day laborer, the payment is the same. In the Masonic Fraternity the brother in need is
assisted according to
his need ‒ at least that is the theory. In consequence it costs a
great deal less; but at
bottom all internal Masonic benevolence is with difficulty to be distinguished from a loosely organized insurance.
To say this is not to
decry it. It is indeed a great thing. It is in
these intimate Fraternal ties and friendships that the lesson of the wider and unlimited Charity may be learned. It is once more, what was said two thousand years ago, "these ought ye to
have done, and not to
leave the other undone." It
is the indrawing tendency that is to be
deprecated, the forbidding of lodges to
engage as lodges in purely disinterested Charitable work, if they so
choose. To say that lodge funds are trust funds, is merely an attempt to
give a reason that sounds well for a
prohibition that at
bottom is a manifestation of
corporate selfishness. The income of a
lodge is in no proper sense a trust fund. A lodge levies dues on
its members in order to
have money to pay its expenses. What those expenses shall be
is the business of the lodge itself. It
may spend money on banquets, on entertainments,
furnishings and regalia, even on books to form a
library, but in too many places it is
not allowed to take any active interest in
any external charitable or social work. That is
the one thing that is
forbidden. The one thing that is
finally and fundamentally worthwhile.
It might almost seem it is
only as a member of
an organization in
which there is admittedly nothing intrinsically Masonic that the individual Mason can cooperate with his brethren in
a purely charitable work in
which there is not the least shadow of
self-interest. But why should this be? Why should Masons as Masons be
forbidden so to work for the good of
others? Is it because most of them "love to have it
so?" Have the exhortations "to do
good to all" and to
extend our Charity to all mankind, come to
be meaningless forms of words that have to be
repeated, but which have no significance? It is hard to say. That there is in
the ranks of the Fraternity a vast reservoir of potential willingness to aid in
works of true Charity is
beyond doubt, but there seems to
be no way of drawing it out. Perhaps work along these lines would have a wider appeal and would more thoroughly reawaken interest than anything else could. It might at least be
does Alpina describe the following choice item from a Swiss clerical journal, Le Pays:
"The baleful influence of the role that Freemasonry plays in the United States is
well known. The rapid extension of this evil-working sect is one proof more of
the decadence into which American society has been dragged by its materialism. Without doubt the lodge is regarded by the majority of the initiates as a co-operative arrangement for their material advancement, a
means of bettering their position. The secret chiefs at least work it to their own advantage, and they act in
a way to influence their followers against the interests of religion, and especially the Catholic religion, which is the only power that effectively resists them."
A Review of
Masonry the World Over
The Library of
the Grand Lodge of New York has been presented with a
number of MSS. of considerable rarity and value. The most interesting would seem to
be (from a notice in
the New York Masonic Outlook) a receipt given by a French Master Mason, Je. Estienne Gaudin, dated 1414. The seal attached has on
it the square and compasses. This is one of the oldest, possibly the oldest, existing example of
this device. It would be
interesting to know whether these instruments are arranged in
the now familiar way, or
whether they are grouped with other Masonic implements, as was common in Mediaeval Masonic seals, and still is in European Masonic devices.
Manuscript A Printed Book.
It will be
remembered that in
November last we
mentioned a report that was being circulated that an old Masonic Manuscript had been discovered in a
Wisconsin farm, and also that we
ventured on some guesses as
to its nature, assuming that it was a
manuscript. Since then Bro. Shepherd has obtained definite information from Bro. M.O. Gray of Portage, Wis., that the manuscript is a
copy of one of the many "Freemason's Pocket Companions" that were published in the eighteenth century, the first of which came out in
Gray sent a copy of
the title page, from which it appears that this particular work was published in
Edinburgh in 1761, by Ruddiman, Auld and Company, and that it
contains "The Origin, Progress and Present State of that Ancient Fraternity; the Institution of the Grand Lodge of
Scotland" and so
on. Mention is also made of an Appendix containing among other things the "Act of the Associate Synod against the Freemasons with an
Impartial Examination of
some of our bibliographical experts can inform us
whether this particular work is
especially rare or
valuable. Judging by
the date alone the probability is that it
is not. How, in the report of its discovery, it came to be described as a manuscript is a curious question, but it
shows once more the need for caution in
accepting such reports, and also that the time to
investigate them is
when they first appear. Negative as this information is, it may prevent some student at a future date being led into a needless quest for something that never existed.
As readers of
THE BUILDER will remember, the Grand Lodge of
Wisconsin amended its Constitution at the Annual Communication in
June last year. This is
eight months ago. The February issue of the Palmer Templegram informs us that:
"While very liberal publicity has been given this new privilege in
many monthly publications of various Lodges in Wisconsin, results have not become very evident. As a matter of fact, we
know of no instance so
far where anyone has applied for dual or
plural membership with the one exception of our own Lodge, which very recently elected to
membership her first "dual" member. It
is a peculiar coincidence that the Palmer Templegram, is about the only Wisconsin State Lodge publication which, previous to this time, gave no
publicity to the subject of
plural or dual membership.
probably little doubt that the Masonic-educational facilities at the disposition of "Palmer" members will be the principal reason why members of other Lodges may want to affiliate with us, retaining at
the same time membership in
the Lodge where they received their Masonic degrees. There is no
doubt whatever about this being the only reason in
the first Instance on our records.
"The right of visitation is, of course, not interfered with in
any way by the new privilege of plural membership in Wisconsin. The unrestricted expression of fraternal hospitality to all regular Masons, no matter when or how often they visit with us, always has been and will continue to
be one of the outstanding characteristics of Henry L. Palmer Lodge No. 301, F.
& A. M."
The unusual character of the Henry L. Palmer Lodge may enable it
to take the place of
a Lodge of Research, but we still live in hope that elsewhere in Wisconsin a group of
studiously inclined Masons may form a
Research Lodge, by
taking advantage of
the possibility of
retaining their primary membership in their original lodges.
In the January number of The Master Mason of
Washington D. C., there is an
interesting article by
Bro. Pad F. Ela (who evidently knows what he is talking about, on the technical side), in
which is discussed the possible losses in our symbolic system due to the complete divorce of Speculative and Operative Masonry. There is no
doubt whatever that the Masonic ritual in all countries has developed with very little regard to the realities of the stonecutter's and builder's craft. Though gaps in
one system are in some cases filled in
others. Bro. Ela, for instance, wonders why the chisel was ignored ‒ it is
not in other countries, and it very possibly dropped out of
the first degree in America because of its prominence in that of Mark Master.
Ela also mentions the "broached thurnel." It is
curious how long it takes for the results of Masonic scholarship to become generally known. As long ago as 1916 the late Bro. Dring quite conclusively elucidated the mystery. Urnel, or Ornal, was the name of a kind of stone, imported from France, that was in great request by Mediaeval Masons. "Broached" means worked with a
broach, or pointed tool; "broached Urnal" meant simply a piece of
urnal roughly worked, preparatory to being finished. It became "broached thurnel," or
"broached dornal" by
that kind of mispronunciation called "prothesis," the carrying of a final consonant of one word to an
initial vowel of
the succeeding one the mysterious object, that has given rise to so
many truly amazing speculations, is
simply an old traditional technical term for the prototype of our "rough ashlar."
The Masonic Tribune in a recent issue mentions a
"Research Class" conducted by Dr. S.
V. Hoopman, under the auspices apparently, of Thomas M. Reed Lodge, No. 225, of
Seattle. There are fifty members in
the class, and members of
other lodges are invited to
attend. The proceedings seem to
consist, in the main, of
addresses by qualified brethren. The "Philosophy of Masonry" was the subject of one recently given, and a
sketch of the author of
the Spirit of Masonry, William Hutchinson, was the subject of another.
Fraternity in Mexico.
A Mexican brother, a member of
the Valle de Mexico, recently sent a letter addressed to the Craft In the jurisdiction of Iowa, expressing a hope that Mexican Masonry, properly so denominated, might be more generally recognized by
American Grand Lodges, and giving reasons to show that this ought to
One source of
confusion has been the existence of
the York Grand Lodge of
Mexico, which has something the same position in the country as that of the so-called "National" Grand Lodge of France. They are each Masonic organizations,
perfectly legitimate and regular according to the usages and ideas of
Latin Masonry (which is indifferent, in
general, to territorial limits of
jurisdiction), but of
a distinctly alien character, having been in the one case formed, in the main, by Masons from the United States residing in Mexico, and in the other by English Masons domiciled in
American Grand Lodges almost instinctively assume that where two Masonic organizations exist in
the same territory one must be irregular. But this in effect is to demand that American law shall govern the whole world. However the confusion exists, and first one and then the other of these bodies is recognized, and many Grand Lodges refuse to
recognize either, being unable to decide that the claims of the one are better than the other.
Body Aids Amendment Fight".
It would seem that not only do our enemies accuse us of
political aims and designs, but our friends seem to
be under the same impression. Under the above heading the following item was given some prominence in
the current issue of a
periodical devoted to
the defense of Protestantism.
"The December issue of
the New Age Magazine, official organ of the Supreme Council, Thirty-third Degree, of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of
Freemasonry, Southern Jurisdiction, carried an article in support of
the proposed Constitutional
eliminate alien representation
"The highest of
all Masonic 'bodies [italics ours] also carried the article in its semi-monthly news bulletin…"
It is difficult indeed for those on the outside to understand. Sometimes some things give rise to wonder if, after all, they do misunderstand.
The Cable Tow for December last touches upon this subject editorially, presenting a vigorous defense against certain critics of the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands, both official, in the Fraternal Correspondence
reports of various other Grand Lodges, and unofficial, in the Masonic Press.
The Grand Lodge of the Philippines issued an order in 1927 forbidding smoking during the ceremonies of opening and closing the lodge, and while the lodge was engaged in degree work; which by
implication made it
permissible for the brethren to smoke while transacting its business, listening to
lectures and so on.
The editor of
The Cable Tow points out that the habit of smoking in
the Philippines is
a universal one, and that there are no
prohibitions upon it
anywhere, such as
in street cars, theatres, government offices, and that an absolute prohibition in regard to
the lodge would be singular and resented as
a tyrannical Imposition.
is of course no reason why Masons should do a thing because it is
customary in the community; but on the other hand there is
no reason why they should be singular in
matters that do not affect Masonic obligation and are innocent or
indifferent in themselves. "When in Rome, do as Rome does." It was a Saint and a Doctor of
the early Church who propounded that rule. And for those to
whom smoking a cigarette in
lodge seems a kind of
sacrilege, it might be well to
recall that our brethren in
the 18th century not only smoked, but drank liquors of great potency in the lodge. They do
not seem to have been the worse Masons for it.
The Cable Tow of Manila recently published a translation of some articles in a Japanese newspaper, which resulted from an investigation into this alarming barbarian institution. Some of it is
very amusing. The titles of officers and so on, have been rendered first into Japanese by the "investigator by the best equivalents possible, and then these have been turned back into English literally, with astonishing effect. Thus in a
description of what is apparently intended for one of
the two British District Grand Lodges, we learn that the officers are a Manager and Sub-manager of
the General Hall, the Grand Superintendent of the Upper Class, the Low Superintendent,
the Archbishop ‒ down to a Grand Constable and a
Man in Charge of General Jobs.
though It sounds funny in
English, represents probably as good a
rendering of Grand and Deputy Grand Master, Senior and Junior Grand Wardens, Grand Chaplain and so on
as the Japanese language affords, but when we
are told that the Russian Revolution is said to have begun with the Freemasons, and that the Soviets have "Adopted the system of
the Freemason from 1 to 10" and that "the headquarters of the Freemason are in
Moscow," we may well open our eyes.
It is also said that "it is a destructive Jewish movement and a peril to
the state," and this perhaps gives us a clue. The Japanese investigator has been reading some of Ludendorff's productions!
Loyal Order of
Moose in England.
A brief note was made in
these columns last August of "an American Importation" into England. This was amplified in October under the heading of "Quasi-Masonic Organizations in England." Since then we have received still more definite information from a most authoritative source. As we
suggested as being probable, there were special reasons for the action taken by the United Grand Lodge of England in
this matter. We are also inclined to think that outside observers of English methods and English character would find their general judgments verified in this instance. So far as
we can gather from the new information at
hand the prohibition stated in
general terms as
applying to any organization with initiatory rites and vows of secrecy is really aimed at the objectionable practices of one organization. It would seem that not only was this "fraternal society" introduced into England, but also the high pressure sales methods of organizing along with it. We
have found these sufficiently objectionable in their own natural habitat ‒
there is little wonder that our English brethren do not like them. In short, "Moose" organizers in
England have been playing exactly the same trick that was used by Klan organizers in certain states, which led in
most cases to vigorous action being taken by
Grand Masters and Grand Lodges. Specifically, it was the pretense of some connection between the order and Freemasonry, and the use of the names of Masons who had been induced to join as
a means of influencing non-Masons to come in. Under analogous circumstances our Grand Lodges have taken even stronger and more definite action. However, the fact remains that the phrase "quasi-Masonic" does not mean the same thing In England as it does In America. It
is another instance of divergent usage in our common English speech.
We still continue to receive accounts from various widely separated quarters of
an intensive campaign in the Irish Free State, not only against Freemasonry, but against Freemasons. A certain Roman Catholic periodical published in Dublin has been publishing lists of the names and addresses of Freemasons and their respective lodges. While no reason seems to be
given for doing this, it
is taken by everyone to
be a tacit invitation for good Romanists to
boycott these named individuals. The lists include professional men, merchants and so
However, a correspondent on
the spot informs us that while there is
a good deal of this sort of thing, it does not seem to have had much effect. One thing gives rise to questioning, considering the extremely private nature of
lodge membership lists in the British Isles: how are these lists obtained?
We have received the first issue of Les Annales Maçonniques Universelles.
As the title indicates, it
is to be devoted especially to the interests of Universal Masonry, or the Universality of Masonry. We
gather that, though there is
no direct connection, it will serve as a
kind of unofficial or free-lance supporter of the aims of the International League of
Freemasons (Universala Framasona Liga). Among the contents of this first number is
an article on British Masonry by Bro. Dudley Wright; another on
the Masonry of Holland –
this is one of the papers read at
the Congress of the League held last year at Amsterdam; another on the recent action of the National Grand Lodge of German Freemasons (Grosse Landesloge der Freimaurer von Deutschland) in declaring itself a narrowly national and Christian organization, and still another on the declaration of the bases of Masonic Recognition put out by
the United Grand Lodge of
England. In regard to these some friendly and sympathetic but rather searching questions are asked.
The editor of
this new magazine is Bro. Edouard Plantagenet, the author of several very interesting and suggestive books, one of which has already been reviewed in The BUILDER last June (Causeries Initiatiques pour le
Travail en Loge d'Apprenti). Directed by a brother so highly qualified, Les Annales should have a useful and prosperous future before it.
In an article, published in L'Acacia, Dr. Camille Savoire, head of the Grand College of
Rites of the Grand Orient of France, urges the formation of
libraries in every lodge, or
group of lodges, under that obedience. The Grand Orient has a
library, and a wonderful collection of 18th century manuscripts, but as
Dr. Savoire points out the cost of sending books from this collection, besides their depreciation and the need for duplicates, makes it of
little use to the provincial lodges.
He suggests a
special subscription by, the members of
the lodges to cover the expenses, also that those received into the lodges, or
advanced, might be
asked to mark their appreciation of the honor by donating a
book to the library. No
matter how small the sum annually spent, if
the effort is continuous, any lodge will in
the course of time become possessed of a
a number of different sources we have learned that a great "International Congress of
Anti-Masons" is to
be held in Vienna next month, March 14
being the date set. Preparations have been going on for some time to make it in every way a success; and it is
said, though not on the best authority, that the Pope has given it his blessing. That it
will have Papal approval goes without saying.
The delegates will come chiefly from Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czecho-Slovakia,
Yugoslavia, Italy, and, of course, Austria. It is
probable also that the anti-Masons of
Switzerland and France, who are very militant just now, will be represented. The delegates will be both lay and clerical, and a number of
high dignitaries of
the church are expected to
honor the assembly by their presence.
Mr. John Bond, the Italian correspondent of The Fellowship Forum, who is
usually very well informed, states that Mussolini has "accepted a protectorate over the Congress" (whatever that may mean) and also that one of
its principal objects is to recommend the adoption in
other countries of
similar laws against Masonry as
are now in force in
Italy. However, our European exchanges and correspondents
do not confirm this.
Ludendorff, the wildest anti-Mason of them all, will be
represented is doubtful, for he is
not only an anti-Mason and an anti-Semite, but he is now also a devout worshipper of the good old virile gods of the ancient Teutons, Wodin, Thor and Freya and the rest of them, and this eccentricity will doubtless debar him from attending. Besides he couples the Jesuits with the Jews as the secret directors of
To the observer who has kept in mind the sequence of events during the last decade it is
obvious that there is a
very definite, well organized, world-wide campaign against Freemasonry now in progress.
against Italian Freemasons.
We have previously mentioned the deportation of Prof. Meoni, and the well-known publicist, U. Bacci, but the following notice from a
Masonic periodical in
Holland, quoted by
L'Acacia, gives some further details which exhibit this action as what it
really is, a manifestation of
pure cruelty and spite.
"Once more two prominent Italian Masons have been condemned to
banishment. These victims, whom we cannot sufficiently pity, are Professor Meoni and Bro. Ulisse Bacci.
"The first was at
one time the editor in
chief of the well-known democratic journal, Il Messagero. This connection was naturally terminated when the periodical passed into the hands of the Fascists. Since then he
has found it exceedingly difficult to find any professional work of
the same character. In no
case has he committed any act disloyal to
the Government. In
regard to Bro. Ulisse Bacci, he was for many years Grand Secretary of the Grand Orient of
Italy. After the dissolution of
the Order he retired from active life, and has since lived quietly in his modest home, receiving no visitors, and observing in his correspondence (which in
any case was censored) the most extreme prudence.
"What was their crime? Nothing; there was not even any complaint against them, they were not tried, they had no opportunity to
offer any defense. By an
"administrative order" they were deported. Three unhappy exiles had managed to escape from the Island of Lipari, the abode assigned to
the exiles. It was necessary to fill the empty places, and the choice for this purpose fell upon the two brothers mentioned above. Meoni is more than fifty years old, and Bacci is ninety!
"Blessed be the iron hand, the new 'I am the State!'
"In our impotence we
can do nothing but express our profound and fraternal sympathy for these two victims of reprisals."
League and American Fascism
month the formal disbanding of
the Fascist League was noted in these columns. This event has received a good deal of comment in the press, both Masonic and profane. In the latter the general attitude is that now it is
all at an end, and may be forgotten. But in a
number of quarters our own doubt is echoed ‒ what is
to be the sequel? Will some other organization, such as the Italian Historical Society, which exists purely for the purpose of Fascist propaganda, take over its functions, or some more hidden machinery? It will be
interesting to see what happens.
Masonic Lodges in Roumania.
time ago there were reports of violent manifestations of hostility to
Masons in Roumania. In one circumstantial story it
was said that a band of "students" and others, burst into a lodge room, and "held up" the members at
the point of revolvers. That they then went through the records and documents, abstracting some and destroying others; ending up
by wrecking the furniture and fittings of the lodge.
The Grand Orient of Romania has in an official circular, dated January 1st of this year, stated that these reports were exaggerated, and that the "attacks" were no more than hostile demonstrations
the part of excited youths stirred up by
"certain obscure agitators," who are "universally disapproved." Further, that serious public opinion in Romania condemns such manifestations,
and the authorities recognize the rights and law-abiding character of
the Fraternity and are prepared to
protect it against any such violent and illegal attacks as had been reported.
Masonry in Denmark
In the Morgenbladet, of Copenhagen, a
Mr. Henry Heimann has published a number of
articles under the heading, "False Freemasonry in Copenhagen."
In them the writer brands the newly created lodge "Pythagoras" as clandestine. Several members of
this "Lodge" have instituted suit against it, which brought some interesting information to light about this fraudulent organization, Those who joined this lodge were told that it
was a legal and regular body and that they would be
recognized everywhere as
Masons, only to find out later that they could not be
permitted in any regular lodge. Mr. Heimann furthermore shows that "Den Danske Stor Orient" and "Stor Orienten for Denmark og
Norden" are not regular lodges, and further asserts that the Masonic paper Frimurer-Tidende
pure swindle, and the organ of
irregular lodges. He
also claims that the newly established "Storlogen of
Denmark" is likewise a fraud. He
finally says that there are only two places in Denmark where those wishing to
become Masons can present their petitions, namely; in lodges under the Grosse Danische Landesloge, or
else in the Humanitarian Lodges under the Grand Lodge of Hamburg; all the others are fraudulent. Mr. Heimann says in
conclusion: "The Grand Lodge of Denmark is an illicit child of human vanity! It is
a clandestine order! It is a
The further outcome of all this may be interesting, for the courts have taken charge of the case.
The books reviewed, in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of the N.M.R.S. at the prices given, which include postage, except when otherwise stated. These prices are subject (as a
matter of precaution) to change without notice; though occasion for this will very seldom arise. It may happen, where books are privately printed, that there is
no supply available, but some indication of this will be given in the review. The Book Department is equipped to
procure any books in print on any subject, and will make inquiries for second-hand works and books out of print.
John Paul Jones:
Man of Action
By Phillips Russell [Lib*]. Published by
Brentano's. Cloth, illustrated, index, 312 pages. Price, $5.00 net.
is the sort of book the Masonic reviewer takes to with a warm feeling, for not only are there Masonic references, but by
the grace of an understanding indexer, we find these listed. Many a book which should appeal to
a Masonic reader fails to
find purchasers because an ignorant or
a prejudiced indexer omitted reference to Freemasonry when doing his work. A worse offender, however, is the author who fails to mention his subject's Masonic connections and activities; to
such I have paid my
compliments in previous reviews in these pages.
Jones is a character of
history concerning whom much still remains to be learned. Biographers who take him for a
subject must needs be careful, for they are apt to have critical and more competent historians take issue with them. Albert Bushnell Hart tendered his respects in no uncertain terms to one such a few years ago, when he classed a
John Paul Jones biographer among American historical liars. Strong language, but he had the facts.
as I should like to
stress Jones' activities as a whole, I content myself with the Craft references. He was made a Mason at Kirkcudbright, Scotland, in 1770. Later, he met Dr. John K. Read, of Virginia, whose name is better known to Masonic students as the author of the Virginia Ahiman Rezon, first published at
Richmond in 1790, but which edition was so
faulty that it was entirely destroyed; hence the first one available to collectors is
that of 1791, the corrected reissue.
spent much time in France, and it was a simple matter to come into touch with the Masons of the period. I differ with the author when he mentions Anthony Wayne and Thomas Paine as
Freemasons (page 118), for we have no evidence concerning Wayne, and we
know that Thomas Paine was not a Mason. The Thomas Paine who signed the by-laws of St. Andrews' Lodge in
Boston was not the Thomas Paine of greater fame. It is
also evident that an uncritical work was used for getting information concerning the ladies of the French court who were said to have been "franc-maçonnes."
Such so-called female Freemasonry as existed was the Adoptive Rite of the eighteenth century, and was no more Freemasonry as we know it than is
the Eastern Star of today. An interesting but entirely unreliable story is told about the formation of
the first female Masons' lodge; let it be
said in the author's behalf, that he does not vouch for its historical accuracy. A flair for newspaper color, rather than service to
Freemasonry, was no
doubt responsible for the inclusion of
the tale in this book. Subsequently the author defines the Masonic association of ladies as an adoptive lodge, when writing of the "Masonic ship" which Buell says was purchased by such an
association of ladies of Marie Antoinette's court.
A constructive reference to the Craft appears on page 272, worth quoting:
But the French Freemasonry of
that day had but little in common with the club-like form developed in America or with the conservative type known to England and Scotland. It was socially radical, politically liberal, free-thinking,
and permeated with the rationalism and skepticism preached in the prolific volumes of
Voltaire, fellow member of Thomas Paine [not a Mason, as already pointed out] and Benjamin Franklin in the Lodge of the Nine Sisters. In
consequence the tradition that Freemasonry is
subversive of governments was set up
on continental Europe, and this explains why to this day it is
suspected and banned by certain rulers and dictators.
The story of
the continental opposition to Freemasonry of
that period has been told in THE BUILDER (August, 1926, page 233). It should not be overlooked by the critical student.
Freemasons are especially interested in the life of Jones because he was also the founder of
the American Navy, claims for John Barry to
the contrary notwithstanding.
As pointed out by Rear Admiral W. W.
Phelps, U. S. N., in
an article published in the New York "Herald Tribune," September 28, 1929, Barry not only ran from the enemy but his ship was captured and converted into a vessel which preyed upon American commerce. Jones, on the other hand, "went into close action against superior British forces and stepped from his own defeated, burning, sinking ship to capture his adversary on his adversary's own deck." Russell tells the story graphically in
Chapter XXI, "The Battle in
Paul Jones: Man of Action is a book that any Mason will enjoy, not only for the Craft references, but for the story as a whole.
Freemasonry and Kindred Sciences
New Edition. By
Albert G. Mackey; Revised and enlarged by Robert I. Clegg. Published by the Masonic History Co. Two volumes, imitation leather. Introduction, profusely illustrated, 1155 pages (numbered consecutively).
([Lib 1914] could not find later than 1914 Edition two volumes in one – Searchable)
fast download, easy read, no
graphics, no Hebrew/Greek/etc.
full text searchable)
THE first edition of the Encyclopedia came out, we
believe, in 1874, and was an enlargement of
the earlier Lexicon of Freemasonry, which was first published in 1845, followed by a
second edition in
1851, a third in 1855 and so on
to the thirteenth in 1869. The first edition of the Encyclopedia was in a
single volume like the Lexicon, but naturally a good deal larger. It
was a work that met with success as
it were by necessity, it
became an indispensable work of
reference. Whatever defects it may have had there was nothing else in
the English language to compete with it. There were, it is
true, other works such as
Dr. Oliver's Dictionary of Symbolical Masonry [Lib 1853]
and Mackenzie's Royal Masonic Cyclopedia [Lib*] in
England, and Macoy's Cyclopedia and Dictionary of Freemasonry [Lib 1870],
in America, but these works were not in
the same class, they were of the same type as Mackey's Lexicon, although they were very useful in their day, and within their relatively limited scope.
The Encyclopedia was reprinted many times, until it was at last felt that some revision was necessary, and this was done by two English Masonic scholars, William J. Hughan and Edward L. Hawkins. This revision consisted mainly of the insertion of such new material as
had come to light subsequent to the time of Mackey's writing, but a very great deal of
the old edition was reproduced verbatim. In fact, one objection that fairly lay against this revision was that it was on the whole so close to
the former, and the additions and changes so
inconspicuously marked as
such, that the Inquirer could easily fall into the error of
ascribing to Mackey what was due to the revisers. In general this was a
matter of little consequence, but students who were preparing articles or
papers, and wished to cite Mackey himself were sometimes at a
loss, unless they could consult one of the earlier editions. In
the present edition there does not seem to
be so much danger of
this, as though a very great deal, especially in the briefer paragraphs, appears to
be reproduced without change from Mackey's original work, yet there is so
much new material, and so
many additional headings, that only the very inexpert or
unwary brother will be led to
ascribe to Mackey facts that were not known to him or
opinions he did not hold.
It is very difficult to review an Encyclopedia, and the present notice does not pretend to do so. We hope to
get several competent students to
consider it from different standpoints and it will undoubtedly take some time before this can be done. In the meantime our readers are now advised of
the publication of
this new edition, and, if
their purses can stand it, should certainly obtain it for themselves.
Clegg, who has been working at this arduous task for a
good many years, needs no
introduction to readers of THE BUILDER. He is acknowledged to be one of the foremost Masonic scholars in
America, and is also perhaps the one who of all is
most widely known, not only as a student, but as a
Mason. His reputation will go
far, by itself alone, to
recommend his work to the Craft.
The Gentle Savage
By David Karsner. Published by Brentano's, New York. Cloth, 12 mo., illustrated, bibliography, 395 pages. $3.50, net. [Lib 1929]
the past year it has been my privilege to review a
number of books for these pages. Some have been sketched hurriedly; others have been examined more carefully; but this one I have read from cover to
cover. It really had to
be done in order to
ascertain if there were anything Masonic in it, for the book is another publisher's atrocity, because it
lacks an index. All experienced writers know that a book should have an index if it is
to be more than a
volume for idle reading. It
may be tiresome to readers of these reviews to have me
harp constantly on
this subject of indexes for books; but the time is long past when the shortcomings of a
volume must be slighted in
order to emphasize the good points. And let it be said that this book is worthwhile, although it is to
be regretted that it has been launched without the essential index.
My interest in
Jackson goes back to school days, when the sole history textbook used was one which had a
line engraving in
the margin, showing Jackson being beaten with a
sword by a British officer. How our blood boiled, and how we hated the red-coats! And how we chortled when we read of
Packenham's defeat at
New Orleans by Jackson ‒
that meant more to us
than the winning of the fight. Both events have now lost their importance in
terms of childhood interpretation, for they have given way to an
understanding of the deeper things involved. A knowledge of
such larger aspects has been brought to me
through personal association and collaboration with another contributor to
THE BUILDER, Bro. Erik McKinley Eriksson, Ph.D., now of Los Angeles, who has made the study of
Jackson and his career his particular bent. With what results will be shown further on in this review.
Hughes set a new style in biographical writing in his treatment of Washington, which aroused so much condemnation in certain quarters; but just as the placing of one of
Maeterlinck's books on
the Index Expurgtorias increased its sale, so the adverse comment on
Hughes' book helped move the stock. No matter how we feel personally on the subject, it is
evident that the humanizing of
our national heroes has brought them closer home to us, and it is such treatment of Jackson by Mr. Karsner which gives us
a more kindly feeling toward Old Hickory, whose life was a
constant battle with every one about him ‒ save his Rachel, to
whom he was always a
kind, considerate, affectionate and indulgent husband and lover.
Two things impress one as he
opens the book. First, the author sketches a
background from which we learn of
Jackson's Scotch ‒
Irish ancestry. Through it we understand the forces which ran through his veins, and how the heritage from his pioneer ancestors enabled him to
fight and master the forces of nature and mankind in the backwoods of Tennessee as he made his way westward. Jackson's ancestors came from Carrickfergus,
the north or Ireland ‒
a town and a locality that has always been predominantly Protestant and Masonic.
one is impressed by the fascinating and vivid literary style of
the book. It is largely written in a
present tense, so
that one imagines he is
actually experiencing the things related. Coupled with the recital of present affairs is a reference to association events which developed In
the future, this serving to
lead one on and whetting our appreciation of
the entire work. To illustrate by quoting a
"Andy Jackson's feelings at
this moment are divided between his grief over the death of
his mother and two brothers and his own pitiable condition, which he is competent to realize is
desperate enough. He
is borne down by the fact that he
is an orphan, and made so by the Revolution. The conditions are desperate in
the extreme, but in later years these same circumstances will operate in his favor, for they will be used with telling effects in
three Presidential campaigns, and in two of them he
shall be triumphant."
As we read this life of, Jackson, and contrast it with the impression derived from the diaries of
Jackson's later contemporaries,
such as John Quincy Adams and James K. Polk (reviews of which will appear in
these pages later) we have a keener appreciation of what a
land of opportunity our country has always been. Karsner tells us
that Jackson indulged in all modes of sportive feats "gambling, drinking a little, horse racing and cock fighting," but he
also presents the other side of
the story in depicting the spirit of the times, without which no true estimate of the man Jackson can be
made. "It was all a new and wild country in which Andrew grew up, but the boys that watched and had a part in
the business of pushing civilization westward through the wilderness were not less nor more fun-making and mischievous than are the youngsters today." This balance of values pervades the entire book, and gives us a keener appreciation of the author's capable presentation. The book is
also marked with precise details, such as the critical reader desires, yet which do
not detract from the appreciation of the book which a casual reader is compelled to grant it
because of its human interest appeal.
Jackson's battle with elemental forces gave him a broad contempt for shams and veneers. It would seem that he
had little use for the orthodox clergy of
his day ‒ and as
we remember the bitter fight against Freemasonry by
the Protestant ministers of 1826-40, especially in the backwoods, we can sympathize with Jackson. While in the Tennessee Legislature, he seconded a motion forbidding clergymen from holding seats in that august body. Yet listen further:
supports the clause that provides that no one shall be received as a witness who denies the existence of God, or disbelieves in
"a state of
future rewards and punishments." In this clause, Tennessee is
laying the cornerstone for the temple of fundamentalism that will serve as a refuge for theological dogma, and a challenge to science and commonsense in a
serio-comic tableau in
which William Jennings Bryan and Clarence Darrow will be
the principle opposing actors in a
theme of whether or not it is decent and Christian to
teach the theory of evolution in Tennessee's schools and colleges after 1925. That episode will be known as the "Dayton Trial."
The volume is
also a bit ironical in
spots, but this adds to
the interest of the treatment as a whole. One is constantly on the alert for other witticisms like it. To-wit:
Francis Scott Key has been watching the bombardment throughout the night, and it inspires him to write "The Star Spangled Banner." The United States at least gets a song out of the War of 1812. From another of
its wars, in 1917, it
will get Prohibition.
The War of 1812 also had its pacifists. Among them was Daniel Webster, who called upon President Madison to stop it. Jackson heard of it, and said that if
he were commanding the army of the East, he "would hang every rascal at
that convention," referring to the Hartford Convention of 1814. Webster had previously successfully opposed the Conscription Bill then in Congress. This was very close to sedition; but we have men and women of
the same ilk in the country today, who would strip us
defenseless and open our shores to
the riff-raff of
Europe, whose countrymen are already here, waving the red flag of Communism in the streets of New York and other centers. Unfortunately, from the Masonic reader's standpoint, the author tells nothing about Jackson as a Freemason. The only Masonic flavor encountered is
a quotation. Jackson has been approached for food by a starving soldier of his command during the Indian campaigns. "It has always been a rule with me never to
turn away a hungry man when it was in my power to relieve him, and I will most cheerfully divide with you what I have." Whereupon he gives him three of six acorns which represented the food Jackson had. My reason for designating this as Masonic is
obvious to the Craft.
Mr. Karsner might have told us
that Jackson was a member of Harmony Lodge No. 1 of
Tennessee as early as 1800 and that he
served as Grand Master of
Tennessee, having taken office for a
year beginning October 7, 1822. He
attended a number of lodges other than his own; he contributed funds for Masonic purposes; in 1825, he introduced our Brother, the Marquis de Lafayette to
the Grand Lodge of Tennessee when the famous Frenchman visited Nashville; while President of
the United States, he aided in laying the cornerstone of a
monument to Mary, the mother of Washington, with Masonic ceremonies. It
can also be said that Wilkins Tannehill, Past Grand Master of
Tennessee, dedicated his Masonic Manual of
Freemasonry Illustrated (Nashville, 1824) [Lib 1883]
General Andrew Jackson, Grand Master of
Masons in the State of
Tennessee, "as a
testimony of respect for his public and private character." Still other facts can be
ascertained from Bro. Wm. L. Boyden's book, Masonic Presidents, Vice-Presidents and Signers [Lib*].
Jackson's whole life holds interest for the Masonic reader. It
cannot be covered at length in a review, but briefly, he
relieved the western settlements from the Indian menace and cleared out the British opposition by his defeat of the English forces at New Orleans even though the battle was unnecessary, having been fought several weeks after a treaty of peace had been made in
Europe. Neither of
the opposing forces knew of
it until after the battle. Jackson made things warm for the Spanish, and also the administration, in
Florida, when he
invaded that territory and attacked the Spanish at
Pensacola. He had no time for weasel words; his motto was, "Say it with cannons." His constantly increasing popularity with the home community sent him to the Senate, only to
have him resign in disgust. He had as
much use for that body as Will Rogers has today. But his distaste for public life did not prevent his friends from grooming him for the Presidency, and succeeding in getting him not only one but two terms. Strangest of all, among his most ardent supporters ‒
as John Quincy Adams, the virulent Anti-Mason, shows in his Diary ‒ were the Anti-Masons themselves, in
spite of the fact that Jackson was an
I do not profess to be
a historian, but I do
take issue with the author in his repetition of the old canard that Jackson turned out public office holders by
the thousands. "In the first month of his rule he ousts more office holders than had occurred in
all of the previous administrations
combined. In the first year two thousand civil employees lose their jobs which are promptly filled by Jackson's partisans." [Page 308]. Bro. Erik McKinley Eriksson, previously mentioned, covered the subject in a most thorough manner in
a paper, The Federal Civil Service under President Jackson, which was read before the 19th annual convention of the Mississippi Valley Historical Society, Springfield, May 7,
1926, and published in the "Mississippi Valley Historical Review," Vol. XIII, No. 4, March, 1927. A statistical table, not published in the "Review," but in a brochure privately printed, shows that 919 office-holders
were removed out of a list of 10,093. A
comparison of this record with that made by previous Presidents will show that the proportion was about the same as that of Jefferson's administration, and that the principles governing the removals were not as violent as
had been portrayed by historians who have failed to make firsthand researches of the records. Bro. Eriksson's work has caused the historians of
the Jackson administration
to revise their statement in
this respect at least.
Karsner, the author of Andrew Jackson: The Gentle Savage, was born in Baltimore in
1889, and started writing as
a mere lad. For the past twenty years he has been in newspaper work; he has two other biographies and a volume of
portraits of contemporary men to
his credit. Jackson always fascinated Karsner "from the time I first saw his portrait on a five dollar bill. When I could really afford to be
sportive with a
five-spot, I invested it in
a Jackson book." To all those who can be sportive with $3.50, I recommend that they buy this book, if
for no other reason than its human interest appeal. Incidentally, it
will restore knowledge of bygone history which has an important bearing upon our consideration of present day politics. This the reader will ascertain for himself upon going through its pages.
the Minorities System under the League of Nations
By Joseph S. Rouček. With an Introduction by
Charles Hodges. Published by the Orbis Publishing Co., Prague. Stiff paper, table of contents, 122 pages.
who are pessimistic in regard to the efforts made since the end of the World War to
establish peace on
a solid and permanent basis are very fond of repeating the formulas "human nature does not change," and "there have always been wars and there always will be." The latter, as would appear in the light of the best information, is
not true. War, as the term is properly understood, requires a
certain stage in
social organization as
a necessary condition before it
becomes possible. And there seems no
good reason why mankind should always remain on
that level of civilization where war is normal. As always in
sociological matters, the thinking of most people (if thinking it can be
called) is dreadfully confused.
human nature does not change materially may be
true; that it does not change rapidly is
very certain; but habits, manners, customs and social organizations do change, and relatively to the history of the race often change a great deal in a very short time. A
large part of such changes are due to
a blind following of lines of least resistance, but much is
also due, far more than might be imagined, to the thought of great men, mostly to philosophers and religious teachers. Such thought is
always regarded by
those who first hear it
as fantastic and visionary, or
else revolutionary and subversive of all morals and good order. But a
later generation takes the same doctrine as the common postulate of their thought. Thus it
is with that rather ill-defined conception of the sovereign state. It
is quite a modern idea in reality, and is founded very largely on the social philosophy of
the eighteenth century. It was a
development or corollary of the theory of the Social Contract. Man, it
was argued, was naturally free and independent. He
decided, for reasons of convenience, company and safety, to live in
community, and so
entered into a contract with his fellows, by
which he gave up part of his freedom, and submitted himself to leaders and rulers. In a
sense there is a good deal in this, in spite of
the naive picture of savage unsocial human beings making a formal agreement of a
highly civilized type. It was, however, too simple an
explanation, although it
does express the logical implications of social organization. A man living solitary on a
desert island is
his own law. Give him a companion, and at once some mutual arrangement must be arrived at, in which is
the germ of a social unit, a family, a tribe, a
people, or a nation.
The philosophy of
the Social Contract, having settled the status of
the individual within the state, had to consider the relation of the states. By analogy these were considered to be like individual men, free and independent; and, like men, that they had to
arrive at some kind of
modus vivendi between themselves. Strange as
it may seem, the next step was by
no means shirked. It was considered that reason dictated (it was the Age of
Reason we may remember) that sovereign states should proceed to do
what sovereign individuals were supposed to
have done in a remote past, that is, to give up
some of their natural rights and privileges in
order that they might live together in peace and harmony. Incidentally the Freemasons of
the period were very enthusiastic about this, and believed that Masonry was to be
an active means by which this desired end was to be
The idea of
the sovereign state was accepted; but statesmen, who are necessarily opportunist and "practical", did not go further. Though a hundred years is not a
long time after all for new ideas to
take root and come to
fruition. The League of Nations may be regarded historically as an attempt to take the step advocated by
the eighteenth century philosophers.
much as the representatives of
the victorious allies have been criticized, they did make a real attempt to reach such a settlement as
would obviate as
much as possible the perpetuation of grievances and the sowing of
the seeds of future strife.
that the result fell far short of ideal perfection, it remains a moot question whether it was not as workable a compromise as
was possible under the conditions. For these conditions included the state of mind of
the peoples of the various countries concerned as
well as the external facts. And in particular the attempt was made to avoid the artificial inclusion of people of
one race in a state mainly of another. The restoration, as
a nation, of the Polish race was an
act of justice, even if
the motives for so doing were not unmixed. In human affairs, while motives are not unimportant, it
is the thing done that chiefly counts.
Everyone who has the least knowledge of
the intermingling of
races in Central Europe can see the difficulty of the problem posed, even if
they have not wholly realized its bewildering perplexity. Pre-war Germany, Russia, and Austria were full of minorities, and all of
them with grievances and hates born of repressions, and often enough of oppressions, too. These had had little publicity, however, under the pre-war autocratic governments, and only the well informed in foreign affairs knew even of their existence. To leave things as they had been was impossible, but to change them was certain to create the possibility of a
new set of grievances. Thus the allies were faced with the problem of doing justice to majorities, and at the same time of
protecting minorities, and it is with the machinery that has been worked out to accomplish the latter purpose that Bro. Rouček's work deals. It
suffers, in readability, from the fact that it
is a thesis for a
doctor's degree in
philosophy; it is
doubtful if the academic requirements of such a
work can be satisfactorily combined with, those of
literature, though the author has overcome the difficulties to
a remarkable extent, more especially considering that he
is not using his mother tongue.
The working out of the treaties embodying the peace settlements were at
bottom practical, but they were based on precedents so
far as possible, and the assumptions of what is known as
"International Law," which is in reality a queer mixture of custom, precedent and theory.
The new states, and the old ones, such as
Romania and Serbia, which received accessions of territory, argued that as
they were "sovereign" they should not be treated differently from the "great powers" among the allies. This was countered in
effect by the argument that as they were being created by
these very treaties they could not properly object to requirements which were posed as
conditions of their establishment. Fundamentally,
the reason was a
practical one. Almost every country in
the world, with the possible exception of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, contains minorities, and have or have had minority problems. But in regard to these there was an actual status which in
most cases it was better to leave alone. The whole problem was sufficiently complex as it was. Still the new states (created out of old nations) did have a
show of justice in their claim. However, they had to take the place of
the dog on whom the new diet was to be tried. And again, practically, the new grievances of newly established minorities, were much more likely to
cause trouble than old ones. The Germans in Poland, who had been induced to settle there as part of the policy of "Germanization,"
actively prosecuted by the Prussian government for years, would find it hard to
sink from the status of
a dominant race to a
minority subject to
people they had considered their inferiors. And the proximity of their own people across the frontier would not help matters. Some kind of
safety valve, even if only a
temporary one, had to be arranged if the hopes and aspirations of
the world for a stable peace were to
The treaties left the procedure to
be devised later, and that has been the work of the League of Nations. It has been one of its most successful activities, and because of
its very success has been one of the least heard of
and the least known; and it may be
that in time all such problems will come, when necessary, before the League. For it has been shown that a
real approximation to
justice and equity can be
attained, and while this may at
the time please neither party, in the long run it stands. As Bro. Rouček says:
The protection of minorities is
one of the most delicate tasks of the League, and one for which it
deserves vast credit. In fact it
receives hardly any credit at all and a good deal of undeserved criticism. There is
no flourishing of
trumpets when the grievance of a
minority is redressed. The matter fades quietly out and we hear no more of
are a good many misprints and errors in
spelling in the book, though it is perhaps not quite fair to criticize it
in this regard, for the spelling of the English language is
notoriously difficult, and perhaps the proofreaders in Prague, where the work was published, are rather to be praised for the measure of accuracy they succeeded in attaining.
* * *
Eugen Lennhoff. Published by
the Amalthea-Verlag, Vienna. Profusely illustrated, 107 pages.
AMERICAN Masons will find it difficult to
realize that the writing and publishing of a
book on Freemasonry, intended for a general public, in continental Europe, means in reality much more than just a book; it is an
achievement. Bro. Lennhoff gives facts, based upon unquestionable evidence; there is no
dreaming or contemplation,
no misplaced eloquence, no merely rhetorical phraseology, but facts and nothing else. He draws them from his thorough and wide knowledge of the subject, and constructs a systematic, organic synthetic edifice, comprising under its roof everything connected with Masonry as it
is now in being, and with the history of its evolutionary growth.
The author aims at describing Masonry as it is, and as it
works in the world today. He constructs for this a broad, unshakable, historical foundation. Nothing is touched up, nothing is
concealed. No mysterious reserves leave open even the smallest chink in the walls he raises, against which our adversaries may break their heads, unless they choose, rather, to enter unhurt through the door of enlightenment and instruction that is
so widely opened by the author.
The book is
written for everybody; it is
dedicated to everyone willing to
be informed about the aims and actions of
Masonry, and this includes Masons themselves, that is, those who desire to enlarge and deepen their knowledge. Thus the circle of readers has been widened to
an indefinite extent, which goes far toward explaining the success of the work, of which a second edition has been found necessary.
The chapters dealing with the murder of the Austrian Crown Prince at
Serajevo are of the greatest interest. Though it
may be that in America Masons do not fully realize the connection But the enemies of Masonry in Europe have freely and persistently attributed this crime to the machinations of the Fraternity, charging it with the deliberate intention of setting the world on fire by this deed, and in effect with responsibility for the outbreak of
the World War.
chapters of great interest are those dealing with the suppression of
Masonry in Hungary and in
Italy. The latter includes the infamous proceedings against General Capello. These cruel and unjust proceedings are illuminated by the torch of historical truth, and corroborated by
the production of
unpublished documents and correspondence.
One part of
the book is devoted to
the adversaries of
Masonry. Bro. Lennhoff disdains to be
aggressive; he simply lays bare their actions; saying nothing in the way of counter-attack, nor even of measures of defense. A
fine and subtle policy in
a way, as the publication itself of the book is the best defense. The work may be
summed up in saying that it is probably unique, in that there is no
other heretofore published which contains everything, in one single volume, that is
important and worth knowing about present-day Freemasonry as it
exists throughout the world.
Formation (Sepher Yetzirah)
By Knut Stenring, with an
Introduction by Arthur Edward Waite. Published by Rider and Son, London. Cloth, Chart, tables and diagrams; 66 pages. Price 6 shillings net.
is a word for word rendering of the Hebrew of the original, so the translator informs us. This will assist those students of
the Kabbalah who have no
knowledge of the language to
guard against the interpretative renderings of
earlier versions. The Book of Formation is very short. In the present work the text fills eleven pages. Bro. Waite's Introduction will for many readers be a
most important part of the book.
Exemplification of Brotherly Love.
A good many "Blurbs" are uttered by Masonic speakers and written into Masonic essays, to
the effect that if men could all gather about a Masonic altar, the problems of the world would be solved in the spirit of brotherly love. Labor and capital would agree, wars would be averted and the peace of the world remain unbroken. Would that it were so! If even a tithe of
these results accrued, Masonry would be
hailed as one of the vital forces in
But what historians, save those writing purely Masonic treatises, have attributed to
Masonry any considerable influence in
world affairs? Indeed it is so
negligible or intangible as to be
hardly mentioned. And a few concrete instances of "how these brethren love one another" may be seen in
the duel between the Brothers Hamilton and Burr, the hatred between Brothers Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay, the assaults on
the character of
Bro. Andrew Johnson by brethren of the dominant party in Congress and so on. And in controversies on Masonic topics, how "the fur flies." The writer has just been delving into the Scottish Rite controversies and claims of
the various rivals which were carried into Blue Lodges and other bodies, wrecked friendship, usurped powers and exhausted all the Billingsgate in the calendar in abusing, denouncing and expelling one another, yet all were Master Masons.
No! Brethren: Masons are human and our institution has still much to
be attained, ere we are at ease in
Zion. "Let us
meet and let us labor, though the labor be severe", but let us make no idle claims for rhetorical purposes or to make the vulgar stare.
A. K., Iowa.
May I be
permitted to offer some comment upon one or
two points in the interesting and valuable article by Bro. Fead in the February number of THE BUILDER? In doing this I wish to make it
as clear as possible that I do not question the learned brother's presentment of
Michigan Masonic Law, nor do I
question that Michigan law is fairly representative
of American Masonic law. I
take the statements made by
Judge Fead as an opening to emphasize how the whole spirit of Masonic law in America has imperceptibly changed, and is still changing in the rulings of Grand Masters and Committees on
Jurisprudence, from what it was a
hundred years ago.
in itself is not necessarily alarming, and certainly with altered external conditions there must be internal readjustments,
but after reading the article in
question it has struck me
more forcibly than ever that the spirit and tendency of Masonic Jurisprudence is different to
what it once was. It
might be said broadly that from embodying the idea of Fraternity our rules and regulations are now based on the idea of contract, or perhaps it
would be more correct to
say that they are well on the way from one to
THE BUILDER has several times expressed a somewhat similar opinion, and in
especial, I heartily agree with the editorial article in the August number last year, entitled "Masons at
Law." Bro. Fead holds by the dictum that Masonry is not a
debt collecting agency, but he goes further, much further, when he says that the lodge is not the place "for the settlement of private piques and quarrels." This illustrates what I meant when I said above that the trend is from Fraternity to Contract. As
long as members (brothers in
name only) keep within the letter of the law, whether Masonic or of the State, all is
well, nothing can be done, no
matter what ill-feeling, dislike, jealousy, or hate may exist between them. Masons a hundred years ago seem to have thought very differently. They seem to have held to the strange and foolish doctrine that the preservation of harmony and brotherly love and friendship was the very first concern of the lodge, and that this required the investigation of any quarrel or disagreement between any of
its members, and the seeking of ways to
heal the breach. And if
either or both of the parties to the quarrel refused to
accept the good offices of
the lodge, and obstinately refused to be reconciled, it was taken as a matter of course that such a brother should be excluded from the lodge till he became of a better mind. Would the Master of a
lodge today be upheld, in
any jurisdiction of
the United States, it he
excluded a brother who refused to be reconciled with another with whom he had quarreled? I doubt it. Yet in
theory it is still his duty to do
The legal element has entered too much into our procedure. We are now much less concerned with realities than we are with forms, which is precisely in
what legalism consists. But Fraternity cannot thrive in such an atmosphere.
Consider the two lists given by Bro. Fead, of the things that have been adjudged as
offenses against Masonic law, and of
those which it has been decided are not. In the first category appears Non-payment of Dues, in
the second Non-payment of Debts. Now contrary to
the "Sacred Doctrine" of which you spoke so feelingly, I would hold that here is
a plain inconsistency.
The non-payment is the essential thing in each case, and it
must be taken under the same conditions in
each case. It is not an offense anywhere, I believe, to
not pay one's dues when unable to do
so, neither can it be
in the case of any other debt. Inability is an excuse, even in the eyes of the law, since imprisonment for debt has been abolished. Therefore we must assume that it is
the non-payment of
debts (excepting only dues) when perfectly able to pay them, that is
held to be not an
offense in the eyes of
Masonic law. Or if this is not what is intended, then in the sacred name of legalism it should be
But that this is the meaning seems to be
made certain by some other matters that are listed as not being offenses in
the eyes of Masonry, such as failure to
pay a note that a
brother has endorsed, and bringing a suit at
law against a brother without giving him any warning. What it
means is evidently that Masonic duties and obligations are whittled down, and restricted till they hardly mean anything at all. We are to
understand that in
all affairs of business a
man has no right whatever to expect different treatment from a
brother Mason than from any one else. He must follow the rule of worldly wisdom in all his dealings, whether with Masons or with outsiders, caveat emptor; he must be
just as suspicious and cautious in dealing with a Mason as
with other men with whom he has no
How these rulings can be made compatible with the obligations of a
Master Mason, or
with the famous Five Points of Fellowship, I
do not quite see, but I suppose these are to be
regarded as curious and obsolete forms that have somehow survived, but which now have no meaning and no weight.
W. B., California.
the Civil War
Although not an Ohio Mason, I am
very pleased to answer the inquiry of Bro. Vail of Pennsylvania in the Question Box of February, regarding Wm. McKinley.
Wm. L. Boyden in his Presidents, Vice-Presidents
and Signers, on page 18 states, that Win. McKinley was raised in Winchester Hiram Lodge, No. 21, at Winchester, Va., on May 3, 1865, and affiliated with Canton Lodge No. 60
at Canton, Ohio, on August 21, 1867. Charter member of Eagle Lodge, No. 431, Canton, Ohio. This lodge was afterwards named William McKinley Lodge.
Regarding Major General George Gurdon Meade, the Hero of Antietam and Mexican War, inquiry made in
the Question Box of the January issue, I
can state that in my
research work of
three years in Masonic Biographies of great men, I have met with the General's name a great many times, but never saw his name mentioned as
a brother of the Craft.
"Proceedings of the Supreme Council, A. and A. S. R., Northern Jurisdiction of
1897," page 177, states that Dr. Anthony Eugene Stocker, 33d during the Civil War was appointed on General Meade's staff, serving in many battles. At the battle of Turkey Bend a ball struck and severely wounded the General. As
he fell, Dr. Stocker placed him on his horse and carried him to a
place of safety. Ever after that, General Meade credited Dr. Stocker with having saved his life. Had the General been a Mason, the word "Brother" would have preceded his name in the above obituary record of Dr. Stocker.
I will be
pleased at any time to
give you affiliations of great men who were Masons, beginning with our earliest American history and down to the present date, of those I have been able to secure.
‒ Herman Bauling, California.
An interesting book for booklovers and Freemasons is The Ordinal of Alchemy [Lib*] by Thomas Norton of Bristol, which is a facsimile reproduction by the Replika process from the Theatricum Chemicum Britannicum by that celebrated Mason, Elias Ashmole, (published in
1652) who also added some notes to this old book thus preserved by him from oblivion.
Norton wrote his book is
not definitely known although dates have been given ranging from 1428 to
One of the earliest mentions of
the words "Free Masons" is
to be found in his book on page 7, where he
says, speaking of
"But wonder it is that Wevers deale with such warks Free Masons and Tanners with poore Parish Clerks."
Reproduced nearly or about 200 years later by Elias Ashmole, himself an alchemist and Freemason, it
causes one to sit up
and take notice.
F. WILLARD, California.
In the November, 1928, number of
THE BUILDER there was published a short article written by myself relative to an
experience which I
heard Bro. Robert Morris relate in 1882, which he had when some Arab Freemasons initiated him into their form of
the Order in their tent which was located in the desert not far from the walls of
Jerusalem when he
was making a pilgrimage to
the Holy Land.
In my article I gave as
full a description of that most interesting ceremony as I thought my obligation would permit in public print. But I
have fully related the details of the ceremony in open lodge, much to the satisfaction of the listening brethren. In
that article I stated that I intended to
write another letter relative to Freemasonry among the North American Indians, and I will endeavor to do so
at this time.
In the year 1874, 1 had the pleasure of
meeting the Hon. A. B.
Meacham while he
was on a lecture tour in New England. At that time he was preparing his book Wigwam and Warpath [Lib 1875],
which related to
the Indian affairs. The book was published a
short time afterwards. Bro. Meacham could speak several Indian dialects fluently. He told me
that he was one of
the three "Peace Commissioners" sent by the United States Government to
treat with "Capt. Jack" and other Modoc Indians in the "Lava Beds" of California, where the Indians were hiding, in
April, 1873. The other two Commissioners, Gen. Canby and Dr. Thomas, were treacherously assassinated and Bro. Meacham was seriously wounded and left for dead by the Indians, but he
Meacham told me that he
had served as Superintendent of
Indian Affairs in
the Northwestern Territory under the United States Government. He
also said that at one time he was the first white man to step a foot into some of the Indian villages in
that part of the country. He also told me that the Indians initiated him into a secret order, and from the similarity of
their signs, tokens, ceremony, etc., he was satisfied that at some remote period that their order and our Freemasonry were derived from the same source.
He also told me another most interesting fact. He
said the Indians had another order, very secret and sacred. Its translated name was "The Dreamers," and "no person with a drop of
white blood in his body could be permitted to join." He
had no idea of the nature of this occult and esoteric order. Perhaps some of our brethren who are well versed in Indian lore may have a clue. The subject is of
I remember Bro. Meacham as a
large, fine looking gentleman, of
pleasing manner, a
good talker, and his lecture was well delivered and full of
information relative to
Indian affairs. His book is also very interesting and instructive.
years after that time I
became acquainted with his nephew, who told me that his uncle had passed on to
the "Celestial Lodge above."
‒ A.O. ROBINSON, Florida.
Jackson: A Correction
reference to the review of
Polk: The Diary of a
President [Lib 1952],
published on page 62
of the February issue of
THE BUILDER, it would seem that some alteration occurred in my
copy which makes the statements regarding Houston and Jackson, at the end of the fourth paragraph, erroneous ones. Houston presided over the convention at which the Grand Lodge of
Texas ‒ not Tennessee ‒
was formed. Jackson was not the first Grand Master of Tennessee, as the Grand Lodge was formed in 1813, and Jackson was not elected Grand Master until October 7,
HUGO TATSCH, New York.
THE BUILDER for February contains a
review of Polk, the Diary of a President [Lib 1952].
I have read this with the interest a
Tennessee Mason naturally feels in the subject, but it
contains certain mistakes which should be
The review says that General Sam Houston, afterwards first President of the Republic of Texas, "presided over the convention at which the Grand Lodge of Tennessee was formed, at which Jackson was elected as first Grand Master" ‒ meaning General Andrew Jackson, our seventh President.
is now "Tennessee" was, of
course, originally the western part of
the State of North Carolina. The Grand Lodge of North Carolina, chartered, as its records read (the matter is not free from doubt) by Scotland, held jurisdiction over the Lodges in Tennessee until 1813, undisputed, except for a
rather disagreeable episode involving certain charters granted by the Grand Lodge of
Kentucky. In fact between the years 1803 and 1812 the North Carolina Body was styled "The Grand Lodge of North Carolina and Tennessee." In December, 1811, at a convention held in Knoxville, the Tennessee Lodges prepared an address to the Grand Lodge of North Carolina and Tennessee "soliciting its assent to the establishment of a Grand Lodge in this State." Of this convention the Rev. Stevens Brooks, of
Greenville Lodge No. 3, was Chairman, with John A.
Rogers, of Overton Lodge No. 5, Secretary. In
October, 1813, the Grand Master of
the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, the added title of "Tennessee" having been dropped, directed the Lodges in
Tennessee to assemble in Knoxville on December 27, 1813, "to constitute a Grand Lodge." This was done, and Thomas Claiborne, of Cumberland Lodge No. 8, Nashville, elected Grand Master, with George Wilson as Deputy Grand Master, John Hall, Senior Grand Warden, and Abraham K.
Shaifer, Junior Grand Warden.
Sam Houston is
not of record as attending either of these conventions, nor could he have done so. Born in
1793, in 1811 he was only eighteen years of age and in 1813 still a minor.
The first mention of Andrew Jackson in the proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee is October 7,
1822, as a visitor. His election as Grand Master took place at that Communication, and he became not first but sixth in the line. Sam Houston was not present in 1822.
In this review Col. Thomas H.
Benton is named as a
Tennessean. Certainly the State should be
proud to claim him, but its title is
meager. Thomas H.
Benton was born in North Carolina in 1782. He came to
Tennessee in 1799. In 1809 he served one term as State Senator, but in
1816 removed to Missouri. In
1821 he was elected United States Senator from Missouri, and continued in office until 1851, his distinguished public service being in that capacity.
‒ CHARLES BARHAM, P. G.
By G. G. COULTON. One of the most interesting and useful works ever written about Mediaeval Architecture and the Masons who created it. For those who wish to understand the relationship of
monks and ecclesiastics to the Craftsmen who worked for them it
is essential. Much of what is
said is all the more valuable because the author is not a Mason, and so has no
bias or prejudice in favor of traditional opinions. Cloth, table of
contents, illustrated, 26
plates, appendix, index xxii and 622 pages. $9.65
As Man to
Man [Lib*] By CONDE B.
PALLEN. This book constitutes a
series of definitions of the dogmas and principles of the Roman Catholic Church explained in a discursive manner by the editor of the Catholic Encyclopaedia.
Cloth, table of contents, 302 pages. $2.65
The Best Letters of Thomas Jefferson [Lib*] Edited by
J. G. DE ROULHAC HAMILTON. Letters on every subject by this early President. Interesting and entertaining as
well as educational. Cloth, index, table of contents, 299 pages, $2.65
Mystery and Bible Meaning [Lib 1931]
By T. TROWARD. An interpretation
the Bible from an unorthodox but deeply religious standpoint. Cloth, table of contents, 323 pages. $2.15
and Growth of the Grand Lodge of England [Lib*] By GILBERT W. DAYNES. A
concise but comprehensive account of
the Grand Lodge system in
England from 1717 to the present time. Well written and based on authoritative sources. It is an
indispensable work for every student of
the history of Freemasonry. Cloth, 264 pages. $2.15
By JOHANNES VON GUENTHER. A
rather sensational novel based on the usually accepted accounts of the life of Cagliostro. The Masonic connections of
the mysterious adventurer are elaborated, though the author has rather curious ideas about Masonic Lodges and their organization. As fiction, with a vague background of fact, the work will interest many readers. Cloth, table of contents, illustrated, 445 pages. $3.65
Up The Road
By IRVING BACHELLER. This prominent Mason tells the story of his youth. $3.65
and West of Jordan [Lib*] By ALBERT FIELD GILMORE. The author states his book is based on
his experiences during a visit to
Palestine, Syria and Egypt two years ago. There are very rapid changes and developments going on in what used to be
thought of as the changeless East. How far these changes are more than superficial remains to be
seen. But, for those who cannot go to
see for themselves, the impressions of travelers are the main source of information. The chapter on the prospects of industrial development is especially interesting. Cloth, table of contents, illustrated by 15 plates, index, xii and 191 pages. $3.15
Franklin, The First Civilized American
BY PHILLIPS RUSSELL. This prominent American Mason in
a new biography. Much hitherto unpublished material is
contained in its pages. Cloth. Illustrated, table of
contents, index, 326 pages. $5.25
The Thirteen Colonies
By J. HUGO TATSCH. This is undoubtedly the outstanding work on
early American Masonry. The author has a clear, straightforward
style, and he
is thoroughly at
home in his subject. His work contains a
considerable amount of
original research on
his own part, as well as the gatherings of other scholars in the same field. Red cloth, introduction, illustrated index, 245 pages. $3.15
Lore of the Time of the Crusades
By JOHN KIRTLAND WRIGHT. The Knight Templar who is interested in
the antecedents of
his Order will find many valuable sidelights in
this exposition of
ideas of geography current at
the time of the Crusades. It is very curious and interesting in itself. Cloth, table of contents, illustrated, bibliography, index, 150 pages. $5.25
By LEWIS BROWNE. In a
series of some eighty "animated maps," conceived and drawn with artistry and imagination, accompanied by a running narrative in swift and lucid prose, the author recounts the entire drama from Abraham to
St. Paul in terms of
space as well as of
time. At a glance the reader learns not only when but where and just how the great Bible events occurred. Geography and history are so wedded that the scriptural narrative suddenly becomes as real and enthralling as a
contemporary adventure. Cloth. $2.65
BY WM. M. STUART. A
collection of interesting and exciting tales in which the Masonic motive is
skilfully woven. Cloth, 264 pages. $2.15
work)]Translated by W. H.
JOHNSTON and L. G. STRUTHERS, with an introductory preface by Viscount Haldane. It is
to be feared that most students of philosophy who do not know German have only read about Hegel; never a
wholly satisfactory way of finding out what an author really said. Logic is usually taken either as a
method, or a discussion of
the basis of reasoning. Hegel seems to have given it almost the content of
Metaphysics. This is
the first complete translation that has been published in English, though the work has been discussed and quoted for more than a hundred years. Cloth, two volumes, Analytical table of contents, table of categories, list of English works on Hegel, 404 and 407 pages. $10.35
BY H, L. HAYWOOD and J. E. CRAIG. This is possibly the best introduction to the history of the Craft that has yet been written. The authors are thoroughly conversant with their subject, familiar with the latest results of historical research. They write without bias or prejudice and, above all, clearly and readably. The whole subject is covered, from the misty regions of Masonic pre-history down to the present day. Cloth. $3.20
By A. E. WAITE. "A study of the Secret Tradition in
Israel," critical and interpretative. The author avoids the Scylla of credulity and the Charybdis of
scepticism. The work will be indispensable to those who want to know what the Kabbalah really was, and how to estimate it and its value to humanity. Cloth, analytical table of contents, illustrated, index, 636 pages. $7.75
By JAMIESON B. HURRY, M.
A., M. D. This is
a story of a man who was Prime Minister of a
King of Egypt, his chief architect and also a magician and physician. He became later regarded as
the God of Medicine in
Egypt. A very intimate investigation into ancient Egyptian life. Cloth, illustrated, index, 118 pages. $2.65
of France 1793
By MEADE MINNIGERODE. The subject of this book is Citizen Genet and his relations with Jefferson. The sources are private papers of the Citizen which have been handed down in his family until the present day. The book is interesting reading and contains much hitherto unpublished material. Cloth, illustrated, table of contents, index, bibliography, 447 pages. $5.25
Jesus of Nazareth
By DR. JOSEPH KLAUSNER, translated from the original Hebrew by HERBERT DANBY, D. D.
The best treatment of the subject we have seen ‒ scholarly and impartial. Cloth, table of contents, Index. $4.75
By JOHN SIMPSON PENMAN. The author has sought to correct the rather one-sided view of Lafayette's life and efforts. A
very young man when he
aided in the American War of Independence, he
played a great part in
the struggle for liberty in
France, both at the time of the Revolution, and later In
the Revolution of
1830. The author may perhaps be excused for not mentioning Lafayette's Masonic connection as
he has not undertaken a
complete biography. In
spite of this omission the work is a
valuable addition to
our knowledge of
this noble partisan of freedom. Table of contents, illustrated with 21
plates, bibliography, index, 362 pages. $5.20
By P. W. GEORGE. A
series of Masonic stories by
this well-known writer. The lessons taught are important to
every Mason. Cloth, table of
contents, illustrated, 256 pages. $2.15
in a Pageant [Lib*] By
Wm. ALLEN WHITE. Mr. White has known personally all the Presidents of the United States from Harrison to Coolidge, and he gives in
this book a biographical character study of each, as well as
of some of their friends and enemies, and of certain contemporary statesmen. Illustrated, cloth. Price, $5.25
Presidents, Vice-Presidents And Signers
By Wm. L. BOYDEN. An
authentic and scholarly work on this oft misrepresented subject. Cloth, index, 71
in the Formation of Our Government [Lib*] By
PHILIP A. ROTH. For the American Mason this little work will be of the greatest interest, and is besides arranged to serve as
a work of reference in
regard to the questions constantly cropping up as
to the connection of men famous in American history with the Craft. It is
profusely illustrated, and most conveniently arranged, for reading and for reference. Cloth, table of contents, indices, 187 pages. $2.65
By Roy E. WHITNEY. Principles are formulated in
"Morality in the Making," to serve as the basis of a technique for effecting moral changes in ourselves and others. Its aim is to
secure converts to
this policy of looking at
morality in the making so
that it may be better understood and especially that it may be more effectively directed in everyday life. Cloth. Price, $1.65
Wild Man of Europe
By JOHN BOND. The author asserts that his sketch of the career of the Italian dictator has been written disinterestedly, without fear or
favor; that he has had no special consideration, nor any injury, from the Fascist regime, and that the purpose of
his work is to enable ordinary Americans to
learn the real facts in
the maze of distortions of
the truth found in the propaganda of paid apologists, and the rancor of victims of the regime. However, there Is
little doubt that Mr. Bond's sympathies lie with the latter ‒
and perhaps it is hardly matter for wonder. Cloth, table of
contents, illustrated, 206 pages. $2.65
Compiled by CLAIRE C. WARD. A bit of
philosophy from Albert Pike for every day in the year. Cloth, 77
By ROY WOOD SELLARS. The adjustment of religion and science in
modern life. This book will clear up many misunderstandings.
Giants in Contrast
By CHESLA C. SHERLOCK. Short biographies of eight prominent Americans, four of whom were Masons. Cloth, table of contents, illustrated, 330 pages. $3.15
By J.S. WARD, M.S., P.M., etc. A book of Masonic short stories supporting the theory advanced by
one of the most colorful of Masonic students Cloth, 238 pages. $4.00
and New England
By GEORGE LYMAN KITTREDGE. An
exhaustive study of
witchcraft among the English people. The author disagrees equally with recent writers who believe in
the objective reality of witchcraft and demonism, and those who consider it
to have been an organized secret religion. He
corrects a number of erroneous, but widely accepted opinions; among them that James I
was responsible for a recrudescence of
the persecution of
witches. The real facts seem to be that he discouraged it
as much as he was able. The notes, which take up
nearly one-third of
the volume, will be most valuable to the student seeking for first hand materials on the subject, Table of contents, notes, Index, 641 pages. $6.25
Department NATIONAL MASONIC RESEARCH SOCIETY, 1627 Locust Street, St. Louis, Mo.
Dictionary of Symbolical Masonry
Oli53 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1853. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 408. - 12.0 MB.
A History of Freemasonry
Hay35 / auth. Haywood Harry L. - Pictou : ronigo, 1935. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 100. - 0.9 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One with Graphics.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac142 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - Unknown : Unknown, 1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 2132. - 7.2 MB - No Graphics - Digital Text only.
Andrew Jackson, The Gentle
Kar29 / auth. Karsner David. - New York : Brentanos, 1929. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 421. - 17.5 MB.
Bible Mystery and Bible Meaning
Tro31 / auth. Troward Thomas. - New York : Robert M McBride & Co, 1931. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 328. - 10.4 MB.
Cagliostro - Miseries and
Mysteries of a Master of Magic
Tro10 / auth. Trowbridge William R H. - London : Chapman and Hall, 1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 364. - 16.5 MB.
General History, Cyclopedia
& Dictionary of Freemasonry
Mac701 / auth. Macoy Robert. - New York : Masonic Publishing Co., 1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 683. - 24.8 MB.
Imhotep the Vizier and
Physician of King Zoser
Hur26 / auth. Hurry Jamieson B. - Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1926. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 143. - 14.7 MB.
Leben und Thaten des Joseph Balsamo
Gue81 / auth. Guenther Johannes von. - Zurich : Orell, Gessner, Fussli & Co., 1781. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 214. - 12.0 MB - German .
Masonic Text-Book of Tennessee
Tan83 / auth. Tannehill Wilkins. - Nashville : GL of Tennessee, 1883. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 365. - 18.1 MB.
Parson Weems A Biographical and
Wro11 / auth. Wroth Lawrence C. - Baltimore : The Eichelberger Book Company, 1911. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 111. - 3.4 MB.
Parson Weems of the Cherry Tree
Kel28 / auth. Kellock Harold. - New York : Century Co., 1928. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 226. - 11.6 MB.
Whi02 / auth. Whittier John G. - New York : Thomas Y. Crowell & Company, 1902. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 389. - 24.1 MB.
Polk, The Diary of a President
Nev52 / auth. Nevins Allan. - London : Longmans, Green & Co., 1952. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 444. - 25.4 MB.
The Book of Formation or Sepher
Jos23 / auth. Joseph Rabbi Akiba Ben / trans. Stenring Knut. - Berwick : Ibis Press, 1923. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 89. - 28.3 MB.
The Geographical Lore of the
Time of the Crusades
Wri25 / auth. Wright John K. - New York : American Geographic Society, 1925. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 588. - 24.3 MB.
The Life of General George
Wee77 / auth. Weems Mason L. - Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1877. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 256. - 8.8 MB.
The Life of Joseph Balsamo
Vat91 / auth. Vatican. - London : C. and C. Kearsley, 1791. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 209. - 8.9 MB.
The Logic of Hegel
Heg74 / auth. Hegel Georg W F. - Oxford : Clarandon Press, 1874. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 519. - 16.4 MB.
Washington and His Masonic
Hay69 / auth. Hayden Sidney. - New York : Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing Co., 1869. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 416. - 21.5 MB.
Wigwam and War-Path
Mea75 / auth. Meacham Alfred B. - Boston : John P. Dale and Company, 1875. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 715. - 40.9 MB.
Wissenschaft der Logik
Heg12 / auth. Hegel Georg W F. - Nurnberg : Johan Leonard Schrag, 1812. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 391. - 18.4 MB - German - Not Searchable - Gothic Font.