– Volume XVI – Number 1
Masonic Research Society
History of American Life
Bro. Erick McKinley Eriksson,
most people, with the exception of
the professional historians themselves, fail to realize the tremendous
have taken place in the field of history in the last fifty or sixty
that time there has evolved what is known as "The New History" in which
a place is found for economic, social, and cultural developments, as
well as for
the affairs of politics and religion.
The old style
history was concerned chiefly with the activities of governments or
with the questions
of religion. Great men received all the attention; no consideration was
the doings of the common people. American history, for instance,
started with the
chronicle of colonial political developments, treated the fight for
America almost entirely as a political question, and followed with the
treatment of the causes of the revolution and of the revolution itself.
adoption of the Constitution, history became the story of successive
treatment has been altered beyond recognition. Any history that
pretends to give
the treatment of the development of the United States includes more or
of an economic, social, and cultural character. If it did not, it would
a chance in the market.
content of history has been changing the method of the historian has
also been revolutionized.
Scientific method has been applied with the result that we have more
than previously. The inductive method of reasoning is employed, a
toward the sources is displayed and, when possible, foot-notes and
notes are used to indicate the sources of information.
feature in the new history is that it is co- operative and monographic.
is meant that one person seldom attempts to cover single-handed a large
or phase, of history, but on the contrary, several co-operate to
produce a work
covering the whole field of interest. The product of the pen of each is
study complete in itself and yet fitting in with the other volumes in
the set. This
co-ordination is made possible through the supervision of the editors
Two of the best known co-operative monographic works are The American
History [Lib 1904 (28 Volumes – See Bibliography)] and The Chronicles of
America. [Lib (50 Volumes – See Bibliography)]
example of a work produced by the modern method is A History of
American Life, [Lib*]
now being produced by the Macmillan Company under the joint editorship
M. Schlesinger and Dixon Ryan Fox. Both are well qualified for their
work, the former
being Professor of American History in Harvard University; the latter,
of History in Columbia University. Each has made for himself an
in the field of American history.
It is intended
to have twelve volumes in the set, tracing, according to the
evolution of civilization in the United States." So far five volumes
from the press, and it is with these that the present article is
Four of these
volumes were published in 1927. Of these the first to be considered is
Wertenbaker's The First Americans [Lib*]. This covers the period from
settlement in 1607 until 1690. Professor Wertenbaker does not concern
the traditional viewpoints. He is not interested in colonial charters
developments. Such chapter titles as "Land And Labor In The Tobacco
"A Transplanted Church," "The Invisible World," "The Practice
Of Physic," "The Beginnings Of An Intellectual Life," "Planter
And Puritan At Play," indicate the content of this book.
the most interesting chapters are those dealing with colonial religion.
still believes that the first New England settlers came to establish
they will be disillusioned by reading this volume. Speaking of these
Wertenbaker says [pp. 87, 90] that "their minds were fired chiefly with
hope of establishing a Bible commonwealth, sealed against error from
protected from schism from within… Obviously toleration had no part in
such a plan.
It is a singular perversion of history which attributes ideals to the
in this great migration that they themselves would have been the first
We read how
attempts were made to purge Massachusetts of heretics through exiling
and Roger Williams. Even the mild Quakers suffered harsh penalties in
for daring to propagate their doctrines there. Several Quakers were
to death. By their extreme measures the clergy alienated support so
that by the
close of the seventeenth century, as Professor Wertenbaker points out
"The experiment of a Bible commonwealth had definitely failed."
the author vividly presents the difficulties confronting the clergy.
settlements, the lack of roads and other physical difficulties made
neglect of religious activities. The support of the clergy was
inadequate and their
tenure was often insecure. These conditions made it difficult to secure
kind of ministers. It was common to find among the clergy such vices
[p. 129] as
"cursing, swearing, drunkenness or fighting," yet there were many good
and earnest ministers in the colony.
goes into considerable detail concerning the beliefs of the colonists
in magic and
witchcraft. The chapter on "The Invisible World" gives an excellent
of the witchcraft craze which resulted in numerous executions
culminating in the
Salem episode near the end of the seventeenth century which was not
brought to a
close until twenty people had been executed, eight more had been
sentenced to death,
fifty additional had confessed themselves to be witches, one hundred
and fifty more
were in prison, and two hundred others were under accusation. If such
to reflect on the intelligence of our colonial ancestors, it should be
as is done in this chapter, that conditions in Europe at the same time
worse than in America. In the chapter "The Practice Of Physic" we find
a very fascinating account of the practice of medicine during the
period under consideration.
"The chief cause of error," according to Prof. Wertenbaker [pp. 164,
"was the belief, widely accepted for many centuries, that disease is
by diabolic influence." The few doctors were sadly lacking as a rule in
medical knowledge as it might have been possible to secure. Bleeding
was a favorite
treatment. There was a gross ignorance of sanitation and hygiene which
made it very
difficult to control the various epidemics. What was evidently a
of the time for the cure of small-pox, poison, and other maladies is
quoted by Professor
Wertenbaker as follows [p. 167]:
"In the month of March take
toads as many
as you will alive, putt them in an earthen pott, so that it may be half
it with a broad tyle or iron plate; then overwhelme the pott so that
may be uppermost; putt charcoals round about it.... Sett it on fire and
burn and extinguish of itself; when it is cold take out the toades, and
in an Iron
mortar pound them very well.... Moderate the dose according to the
strength of the
indicate the general character of this very fascinating volume.
has performed his task exceedingly well, and the reader will find it
put this book aside until it has been completed. A feature of this
book, as well
as all volumes in the set, is the illustrations which have been
provided by the
editors. Twelve plates have been provided, some of which contain six
Instead of merely having a list of these illustrations, elaborate
have been included.
in the Colonies.
dealing with the colonial period is James Truslow Adams' Provincial
which ostensibly takes up the story where Prof. Wertenbaker leaves off,
it on to 1763. The first chapter, entitled, “The Structure Of Society,"
with the various racial elements which came to America in the colonial
influence of each of these elements is weighed and conditions of land
discussed, as are such matters as law, relations of church and state,
and the political
structure of the colonies.
next deals with “The Economic Basis" which he says was fundamentally
An excellent description of colonial agriculture is given, including an
of the implements used and the products secured. Trade also receives
especially the fur trade. The few ventures in manufacturing are dealt
with, as is
the ship-building industry. – Fishing is noted as an important
industry, while merchandising
also comes in for consideration.
have always prided themselves in the lack in this country of social
those that prevail in Europe. Yet Mr. Adams points out [p. 56] that
very beginning of settlement there had been marked social distinctions
colonists.” Mr. Adams gives considerable space to such things as the
food and beverages, and amusements of the aristocrats.
with the aristocrats was "the common man," which class included [p. 85]
"the smaller merchants, shopkeepers, farmers, planters, artisans,
pioneers, fishermen, free day-laborers, indented servants and slaves."
chapter is devoted to these various groups.
life is dealt with at length. That there was some literary activity in
made clear, but because of the scattered population it was very
difficult for an
author "to find a public." Attempts to promote education are dealt
but it is clear that educational facilities were very meager.
this book also devotes many pages. The growth of denominations is
pointed out. By
1700 there were nine Baptist churches in New England, which was
that the control of the old theocracy there had broken down. From Mr.
it would appear that the moral standards of our colonial ancestors were
highest. Perhaps it would be safe to say that the people of these "good
times" were no better than the people of the twentieth century who are
to be afflicted with great moral laxity.
is dealt with under the title of “New Blood." Other chapters are "The
Changing South," and “The Commercialization of the North.” There is an
chapter on "The Growth of the Colonial Culture." An interesting feature
described by Mr. Adams was the formation of the numerous social clubs
those prevalent in Europe. In this connection Mr. Adams has a paragraph
on the introduction
of Freemasonry into America. Says the author [pp. 262, 263], "By the
of the [eighteenth] century, a Mason traveling through America instead
a lonely stranger would have found himself among an organized band of
in the principal town of every one of the colonies with the exception
of North Carolina."
in transportation, together with the increasing population made
the second quarter of the eighteenth century, a considerable
development of the
periodical press. One of the most important of the new journals was
Pennsylvania Gazette, started in 1729.
manifested a considerable interest in science, all of which is well
told by Mr.
Adams. There was some progress in painting but, says Mr. Adams [p.
and the drama showed a more noteworthy advance than did painting.”
Music seems to
have flourished in the middle and southern colonies more than in New
of the period was a great revival of religious enthusiasm which took
form in which
was known as "The Great Awakening.” The prime promoter of this great
movement was George Whitefield who made several preaching tours through
beginning in 1739. Mr. Adams credited Whitefield with being largely
for the beginning of the humanitarian group in the colonies, for he
an orphanage in 1740 in which there were soon several hundred children.
closes his volume with a chapter entitled "The Mid-Century," in which
he sums up the results of the wars with the French, and then deals with
existing on the eve of the American Revolution. The increased interest
establishment of new periodicals, scientific experiment, the activity
the theatre and painting, the establishment of new colleges, including
Princeton, Dartmouth, and Columbia, are some of the matters dealt with
in this interesting
contains fifteen plates supplied by the editors, illustrating such
as "Life on the Soil," "Southern Mansions," "The Great
Awakening," and “Typical Public Buildings, 1690-1763." It is a worthy
companion to that by Professor Wertenbaker and the two together will
give the reader
many new viewpoints on the colonial period.
Beginning of Democracy
One of the
most interesting periods of American history is covered by Carl Russell
Rise of the Common Man. [Lib*]
heading, "New Winds" Professor Fish tells of the new influences which
came to dominate American life with the accession of Andrew Jackson to
and which continued to be the dominating influences for a score of
years. As he
points out [p. 2], it was a "period of most assertive patriotism." An
interesting observation is the statement [p. 3] "that it was at this
Americans became hustlers. The 'quick lunch' was introduced, and
ate in a hurry." Optimism was another characteristic of the period. To
Americans of the time [p. 6] "the keynote of the Constitution was
for the individual." It was a period in which the "passion for
was probably stronger than in any other period in our history.
a period in which political organizations were definitely formed, and
with this development of political organization were [p. 39] "the
the aristocracy of office-holding." In this connection the author cites
development of the anti-Masonic movement. Says Mr. Fish [p. 40]:
significance of the movement was that it correctly expressed the fear
of this generation for secret organization, and that however its adroit
may have taken advantage of their supporters, they did secure for them
may be well questioned. Certainly the main object of the movement was
to do away
with secret societies, and especially the Masonic Fraternity. In this
movement was a dismal failure. It might be further observed that Mr.
have made some comments on Anti-Masonry as a religious movement. He
treats it, however,
merely from the political viewpoint.
It is interesting
to note that in dealing with the civil service under Jackson, Mr. Fish
did not find
it necessary to cite any other authority than himself. He might have
the false impression that Jackson created havoc among the Federal
but he chooses to "stand pat" on the old doctrine that Jackson
the spoils system into national politics. As a matter of fact, not over
of the office-holders were removed in the first year and a half of
and certainly not more than one-fifth during his eight years in office.
say that Jefferson introduced the spoils system into national politics?
of removals was at least as great as Jackson's. In dealing with the
in Washington, Mr. Fish is very vague and hazy. He seems to have no
of the significance of these party organs than he had a quarter of a
when he produced his Civil Service and the Patronage.
One may well
ask Mr. Fish where he got his information [p. 46] that "Van Buren was
as vice-president contrary to the wish of a majority of the Democrats
There are other points in this book which might be criticized, but
would tend to create the impression that Mr. Fish's work was unreliable
and of little
value. This is not the impression which this reviewer wishes to convey.
of defects, The Rise of the Common Man is a fascinating account of the
years which it covers. We read of life on the farm and on the
plantation; we see
with the author the development of the transportation system through
of roads and canals, and then railroads. We see the gradual
improvements in the
railroads, such as better engines and cars and the introduction of the
and the sleeping ear. It was a period of experimentation in which the
problems of railroads were mastered, making possible the great
developments of the
future. Industry, invention and trade receive attention, as does the
immigration. Many interesting observations are made by the author in
"Manners And Morals." The development of newspapers, especially cheap
penny papers, are dealt with, and the appearance of the newsboys on the
receives comment. The spread of the theatre and the rise of the circus
receive a chapter, while another chapter is devoted to "The Religious
in which the growth of various sects is treated. Not only did the
spread rapidly, but such liberal denominations as the Unitarians
enjoyed a new prosperity.
Mormonism and other -isms flourished.
the period in which the fight for free public tax supported education
and won. Mr. Fish treats this fight under the title "Education For The
"Art, Science, And Literature" heads a long chapter, which is fitting
in view of the fact that this was the golden age in American
literature. It was
the period in which such writers flourished as Edgar Allan Poe, William
Nathanial Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson, James Russell Powell, James
Whittier, and a host of others. The last four chapters are entitled
And Slavery," "Manifest Destiny," "The End Of An Era,"
and "The Balance Sheet."
In this volume
the editors have inserted eighteen plates, including numerous
Allan Nevins has produced in The Emergence of Modern America [Lib*] one
of the most
outstanding volumes in this set. In it, the author has covered the same
two other recent writers. D. C. Seitz brought out for popular
a volume entitled The Mauve Decade [Lib*], while a few months ago there
from the facile pen of Claude Bowers a book entitled The Tragic Era
[Lib 1929]. Mr. Bowers writes, as he has
done, in a strong partisan vein. His purpose is to point out all the
of the Republicans and to show how the Democrats were misused during
In other words, his viewpoint is primarily political.
also be observed that E.P. Oberholtzer has covered the period
exhaustively in the
first three volumes of his History of the United States Since the Civil
War. [Lib 1917; Vol
5 not found)]
feature of Prof. Nevins' book is his demonstrated ability to treat his
becoming enmeshed in the political squabbles attending reconstruction.
he has been able to write his book without mentioning Thaddeus Stevens
Sumner, the chief Radical Republican leaders.
opens with a chapter entitled "The Darkest Days In The South." The
destruction wrought by the war, the activities of bandits, and the
presence of Federal
troops imposed great handicaps on the Southerners. Heavy taxes,
and bad crops made the situation in the South desperate for a time
attention is given to the Negro and development of educational
them, such as Howard University in Washington, Fisk Institute at
passage of time progress was made in working out a "sound economic
labor." It was a real revolution for the South to change from a slave
to a wage system. By 1869, to quote the author [p. 23]: "the dark skies
the South showed a roseate gleam of dawn." The evils of carpet-bag
are also dealt with in this chapter.
then has a long chapter on "The Industrial Boom In The North." This
merely deals with the beginnings of the great economic revolution which
the Civil War and extended to about the decade of the nineties and
which was destined
to affect every phase of American life. Here we read of a great
revolution in manufacturing,
typified by the development of the steel industry, the meat packing
oil industry and the ready-made clothing industry. The improvement in
are described, and the westward movement of manufacturing is made
institutions," says Prof. Nevins [p. 47], "responded to the buoyant
of the time like vegetation to a tropical sun.” The building of
railroads is dramatically
described, the Union Pacific being used as a classical example. The
of then existing lines into through lines is described [p. 63] as "Not
important than the new railway construction.” It was this period that
saw the emergence
of some of the great present-day railroad systems, such as the New York
the Pennsylvania, the Baltimore and Ohio, the Chicago and Northwestern,
Island, and the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy. The decline of water
the result of railroad competition is mentioned.
industrial boom was accompanied by a rise of organized labor, the
through organization, to deal with the great problems which confronted
the title of "Urban Life And Routes of Travel" Mr. Nevins tells of the
remarkable improvements in the cities. He emphasizes the lack of
illustrating his point by description of the Chicago and Boston fires.
shock produced throughout the country by these conflagrations," to
Nevins [p. 85], "caused a powerful movement in favor of fire-resistant
and laws were passed which forced the question of safety upon the
attention of architects
and builders." The influence of the telegraph, the free mail carrying
the typewriter and the telephone are stressed. A description of society
in the cities
is not neglected.
title of "The Taming Of The West" the author describes the conquest of
the Western Indians and the pushing in of population to take up the
free land offered
by the government under the Homestead Act, or to buy up the land
offered by railroads
at a cheap price. Agriculture and stock-raising of the West, with the
cowboys, are interestingly described. Mining is not neglected. The
the farmer is treated under the title, "The Revolt Of The Farmer." The
corruption of the period, featured by the Tweed Ring, is excellently
the chapter entitled "The Moral Collapse In Government And Business."
not permit a more detailed resume of this very interesting book. It
to say that every phase of American life is dealt with, sports as well
are given due consideration. "Humanitarian Striving," receives a long
chapter. The book closes with an account of the "Recovery In South And
and with a chapter entitled “Embattled Industry" which stresses the
of the decade of the seventies. Fifteen plates are included in this
various things described in the book.
recently published volume in this set is Herbert Ingram Priestley's The
the White Man [Lib*].
In this volume
Professor Priestley deals with the Spanish, French, and Dutch elements
life, beginning with the discoveries by Columbus, and carrying through
to the time
when the United States acquired the Mexican cession in 1848. The volume
a chapter entitled "The Western Impulse” in which various expeditions
Spaniards are described. As Professor Priestley points out [p. 29],
Christians brought with them the cross and the sword, it is true, but
brought all they had in practical civilization." In other words, while
Spaniards were exploiters in the new world, they did confer some
benefits on the
people they conquered.
Spanish Advance" is then described, showing how the Spaniards spread
they conquered additional territory. The importance of missionaries in
this advance is stressed. Attention is given to the methods of
governing the Spanish
colonies. Next comes the description of the "Pioneers of New Mexico and
in which we read of the exploitation of the Indians in New Mexico by
governor, Mendizabal, who was finally brought to task and died in a
the portion of the chapter dealing with Florida, there is an excellent
of San Augustin (Saint Augustine).
In the chapter
entitled "Economic Life In New Spain" we read of the ruthless
of the plebeian class. The mining industry is interestingly described.
was very important in New Spain and it is also well described in this
was considerable cattle raising and some manufacturing.
We read in
the chapter, "The Wards of The Spaniards," how the Spanish bestowed as
their "most unselfish gift" their religion on the Indians, and we
read [p. 108] that … second among his [the Spaniard's] settled ideals
was his officially
Sanctioned program of encouraging the fusion of Spanish and Indian
blood. To create
in the Indies an entirely new society by amalgamating the races under a
faith was the spiritual vision of the Catholic Monarchs.
Priestley says [p. 109], "A corollary of these two ideas was that of
preservation of the red man for the double purpose of evangelizing and
him." The Spanish mission is praised by Professor Priestley [p. 123] as
most effective and widespread of the social agencies."
Colonial Life And Letters" is next taken up. Here we note the efforts
Spanish rulers to preserve orthodoxy by censuring "books of false
in good Catholic fashion. Yet there was considerable reading on the
part of the
Spanish colonists as is shown by the statement [p. 146] that "Some
were engaged in the business of book-selling during the first century
City alone." There was some scientific study carried on, while a few
as producers of literature. Schools were established and the University
was started in 1551, but, as the author observes [p; 159], most of the
conducted for Spanish boys." It is certainly apparent that the
never much concerned with the education of the people whom they had
summing up the merits and demerits of Spanish occupation in America,"
Professor Priestley [p. 208] "it may be said, given the defects of the
and the handicaps of the field of operation, the result was better than
are devoted to the French, one entitles "The Builders of The French
another "French Homes In The Wilderness," and the third "The Men
Of The Middle Border." Professor Priestley attributes [pp. 214, 215]
acquisition of the American empires largely "to the religious impulse
adventuresome Jesuits and to the race-amalgamation ideal exemplified in
risen class of coureurs de bois,
sought the untrammeled and exhilarating life of the forest fur trade."
closes with two chapters entitled "Life Among the Dutch and Swedes" and
"Our Dutch Heritage." There are eighteen plates in this volume,
some very interesting illustrations.
of these five volumes have done their work well. They have succeeded in
an interesting account of American life during the periods to which
the; have been
assigned. If the remaining seven volumes in the set are as good as
published, it requires no prophet to predict that this History of
will become one of the most widely read sets of history yet produced.
are suitable alike to the scholar and to the person who reads for
pleasure. No better suggestion could be made for spending a few of the
evenings than to secure and read these volume that have been here
New Facts about the
Baal's Bridge Square
Bro J. Hugo Tatsch, Associate
story communicated by Bro. Crossle, of Dublin, Ireland, in the
December, 1929, issue
of THE BUILDER is one holding much fascination for the antiquarians of
It appealed especially to me because I have in my possession some
relating thereto, this having come into my possession during the winter
when I purchased an old Masonic volume which had been advertised in
England as a
scrapbook containing letters from prominent Masons of the last century,
several from William James Hughan, the eminent English Masonic
historian. The book
turned out to be the By-Laws of the Provincial Grand Lodge of the North
Ridtngs of Yorkshire, printed at Kingston-upon-Hull, 1868, and formerly
of Bro. John Pearson Bell, M. D., Deputy Provincial Grand Master. In
fact, it was
his working copy, for it also contains numerous annotations in his
and addenda to his Short History of the Provincial Grand Lodge which
of the work. I shall not dwell upon the other valuable letters I found
in the volume;
let it suffice to say that Bro. Bell was interested in the Old Brass
Square of Limerick,
and had in the book not only a photograph of Bro. James Pain, the
the Square in 1830, but also several letters from him, as well as a
Bro. Fred W. Flurnell. A reproduction of the photographs accompany this
and extracts from the letters as they illustrate the story.
item in the series of notes is a cutting from the Limerick Southern
and Tipperary Advertiser, issue of Saturday, September 25, 1869. On the
a memorandum in Bro. Bell's handwriting, "Sent a sketch of this Square
letter to Editor a few days before this article [appeared]. J.P.B."
* * *
We have received
from a worthy Brother, a facsimile sketch, of a very antique brass
under the foundation stone of the Old Baal's Bridge, in this city, with
"I will strive to live with
love and care,
"Upon the level, by the square."
Pain, architect and engineer, of this city, contracted in the year
1830, to re-build
Baal's Bridge on taking down the old one, the period of erection of
which is unknown
though noticed in the records in 1558 at the proclamation of Queen
Pain discovered under the foundation stone at the Englishtown side,
this old brass
plate much eaten away. The shape, size, and formation of the engraving
on both sides
were easily traced. There are two holes in each square for the purpose
to the collar, and a representation of a heart in both angles. The year
engraved on one of the squares, the most illegible character is the
figure 3, which
might be 5, but history proves it must have been before 1558.
Brother who has favored us with the above interesting sketch, has had
it in his
possession for the last 20 years.]
to the Square are given in other notes added to the cutting, thus:
Memo. Dec. 3rd, 1870. Up to
this time no information
of the above Square has been obtained. Wrote this day &
enclosed sketch of Square
to the W. Master, Limerick Lodge of Freemasons, Limerick.
letter to Limerick brought a reply dated December 10, 1870, from George
P. M., Worshipful Master of Lodge 73, Limerick, and P. K., Royal Arch
which he conveys the information that Bro. James Pain was alive and
well, for he is an old & worthy Brother, now nearly 80 yrs of
age." A letter
of Bro. Pain's was enclosed, and the information was given that "I made
my business to see Mr. Furnell alluded to in Mr. Pain's letter and he
look through his late uncle's relics to find the Brass Square, but said
saw it and I expect it will be difficult to search it up."
from Bro. Pain forwarded by Bro. Bassett reads:
Limerick, Dec. 6, 1870.
and Bro. Bassett:
to your favor of yesterday's date with the sketch of the Old Brass
I beg to say I have a perfect recollection of the Square being found
and given to
me by the workmen ‒ and I think I gave the Square to the late Brother
who I recollect thought much of it. It may possibly be found among his
I think it would be well if you inquired of the late Bro. Michael
if the Square has been since met with. I regret the matter has never
been brought to my recollection and am sorry I cannot speak more about
Sir and Bro.,
G. W. Bassett. Esq
the beginning of a correspondence which lasted for several years. Bro.
to Bro. Pain at once, and received this reply:
Limerick, Dec. 17, 1870.
I beg to
return you thanks for your kind letter of the 13th inst and its
which I am obliged. With respect to the brass square, it was found as
my removing old Baal's Bridge at Limerick previous to my erecting the
I have no perfect recollection of the distich on it, but perfectly
with the late Br. M. Furnell (who was the Provincial Master for North
the difficulty of making out the date, he … much value for it, and 2nd,
it was he
thought the oldest document of the Craft he had ever seen. Mr. Bassett
has not received
any additional information from M. Furnell's nephew. When I next meet
him I will
have some talk with him on the subject and will let you know if I hear
of it ‒ since I gave it to his uncle. I am thank God in perfect health
at 88, but
a little weak in the frame from an illness I suffered three years ago
weakness I lost my speech and could not even write my name. Please let
this be an
excuse for the improper formation of my note.
I beg to
subscribe myself, Dear Sir and Brother,
J. P. Bell, Esq.
dated January 4, 1871, written by Bro. Pain speaks interestingly of his
in Lodge No. 13, "to whom the late Bro. Furnell and myself were and are
companions. I have not seen his nephew since … but will do so and
endeavor to get
some additional intelligence of the Brass Square. We have belonging to
13 an Old
Chest crammed with Papers and other stuff, I have … to be carefully
see if I can find aught related to it; as the late Brother Michael
Furnell was for
many years Grand Master of the Province of Munster."
letter brings good news. It was written January 15 or 18, 1871, and
Bro. Pain had visited lodge the day before, and there met Bro. Michael
apparently a son of the late Provincial Grand Master to whom the Square
given by Bro. Pain in 1830. While he remembered the article perfectly,
he did not
know what had become of it, but referred Bro. Pain to his cousin,
of Castle Connell in the County of Limerick. The letter goes on to say:
But on yesterday evening, the
two cousins, together,
called on me. Mr. Frederick Furnell said he has the Square and he had
it from his
uncle, the late Michael Furnell. He also said that he would, in a day
or so, write
to you fully about it.
Some of the
correspondence is apparently missing; but in a letter of February 8,
Fred W. Furnell acknowledges one of January 19th from Bro. Bell, and
says in part:
I enclose a rough uncorrected
sketch of Ball's
Bridge, compiled from Lenihan's History of Limerick. The date of the
Square is undoubtedly
1517. How it got imbedded in the masonry of this old bridge no one can
tell. I can
only account for it by supposing that at some period after 1517 or
about that time
that that portion of the Bridge was being repaired or rebuilt and some
put it in the place where it was found. I shall send you a copy of a
sketch of Ball's
Bridge taken just before Messrs. Paine commenced taking it down as soon
as I can.
letter and subsequent correspondence indicate that Bro. Bell supplied
with information about Freemasonry in earlier centuries. Reference is
made to some
tracing boards of Knight Templar interest, and also to a search for
on the stones of a nearby cathedral founded in 1194; but none had been
to that time. Apparently the copies of the tracing boards were made for
James Hughan, as they were sent for his acceptance.
with Bro. Furnell ceased; at any rate, there are no more letters from
the Square. However, there are some more from Bro. Pain, which become
difficult to read, because of the good old brother's advancing years ‒
far beyond the allotted three score and ten. One such letter gives us a
there are no more letters from the Furnells ‒ there is a reference in
1873 to "the
unfortunate death of Bro Doctor Furnell." Through it the Square came
of Captain Michael Furnell, also a member of Lodge No. 13. He brought
it to the
Lodge, "by whom it has been glazed and placed in the Lodge as an
of the Order, for which we have certainly to thank you," concluded Bro.
letter from Bro. Pain is dated August 1, 1875. Bro. Bell was still
his search for information, having written again to Bro. George W.
Bassett. He sent
his son to see Bro. Pain, who apparently had the subject of the Old
to his heart. He gives further details:
I now write to you to account
in the best way
I can how the Furnells became acquainted with the Old Square. I was
the foundations of the Old Bridge, overseeing some laborers I had on
the work. One
of the laborers came to me: "See, Sir, what we have found among the
of the Bridge we are taking up." I took it from him and kept it for
I then showed it to the late M. Furnell. He was then P. Gr. Master of
of North Munster. He was much pleased with it, and spoke of it as a
thing He asked me for it and I gave it to him. At his death it was left
to his nephew,
Doctor Furnell, with whom you have a correspondence respecting it. The
shortly after unfortunately drowned. The Square then fell into the
hands of his
cousin, Capt. Furnell, a member of the Lodge. … His wife presented the
to Lodge 13, of which the Rev. Anderson Ware was Wor. Master. I have
in company with the Lodge Tyler seen the Old Square, neatly framed and
a compliment of Mr. Furnell. … The date of it is J5J7 or 5557. The
of it is so disfigured that we cannot tell what it is.
the article published last month will recall that there is question as
to the date,
being either 1507 or 1517. The newspaper cutting quoted has 1317,
greatest illegibility to the figure “3,” rather than to the third
figure as has
been done by others. No doubt the date is 1517, for both the first and
look alike, that is to say, like the letter "J." having a loop at the
bottom. None of the brethren mentioned in this correspondence ever
wrote of the
third figure as "0" ‒ all were agreed that it is a figure "1."
James Hughan took more than a passing interest in the Old Square, as is
by his action in sending a brief item about it to the "Freemason" of
in which it appeared January 3, 1874. There is a memorandum to that
effect in Bro.
Bell's scrapbook, with the additional statement that "Not long before
date I had shown the sketch and correspondence to Bro. Hughan, when I
saw him in
is made in Bro. Crossle's article to the sketch of the Bridge. He is
right in his
surmise that it was made by some member of the Pain family, as Bro.
in his last letter, says: "This engraving [referring to the one in
Lodge, accompanying the Square] is from a sketch of my Brother's, the
late G. R.
Pain, made by him a few days before I removed them [the stones] to
build the present
Bridge of a single arch."
a conflict in the two statements by Brother Pain as to who presented
to the Lodge, but this is a detail of no great importance. The main
thing is that
the Square has been preserved. His statement in 1875 that he gave the
Bro. Michael Furnell at the time it was found is at variance with the
letter to the "Freemason's Quarterly Magazine" in 1842, where he
a sketch of "a very antique brass square presented to me this day by
Pain, Provincial Grand Architect."
A word about
Brothers Furnell and Pain. The former is well known to collectors of
because he had four variants of an attractive design, altered as the
on through his advancement in Freemasonry. The whole story is told in
page 130, a work produced by the collaboration of Bro. Winward Prescott
present writer in 1928. Briefly, Bro. Furnell was born in 1794, and
served as Deputy
Lieutenant High Sheriff and Magistrate of the County of Clare. He was
Grand Master of North Munster, 1842, and Sovereign Grand Inspector
A. A. S. R.
history is told by Bro. Henry F. Berry in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum,
1905, page 19
James Pain, a distinguished
architect, was born
at Isleworth in 1779. He and his brother, George R. Pain, entered into
subsequently settling in Ireland, where James resided in Limerick and
Cork. They designed and built a number of churches and glebe houses.
Castle, the magnificent seat of the Earls of Kingston, was the largest
of their designs. They were also architects of Cork Courthouse and the
both very striking erections, and of Dromoland Castle, the seat of Lord
James Pain died in Limerick 13th December, 1877, in his 98th year, and
in the cathedral church of St. Mary in that city.
To this can
be added that Bro. Pain was evidently made a Mason September 7, 1813,
to a notation on the back of the photograph in my possession, which was
Bro. Bell during the exchange of correspondence quoted herein.
W. Baird: Sailor,
Man and Mason
Bro. Paul. B. Elcan,
Washington, D. C.
this article by permission of the New Age and the author, Bro. Elcan;
and we asked
this for a special reason. The subject of the article is a brother who
years was a regular contributor to THE BUILDER; one whose articles were
contribution to one aspect of the history of Masonry in America. It
must not be
supposed that such a faithful helper has gone entirely without
Bro. H. L. Haywood, as long ago as 1922, wrote a biographical sketch
to Bro Baird. But eight years is quite a while, and there is a new
BUILDER readers, hence this new article will not be out of place.
and Mason, these three titles are used in their fullest meaning when
George W. Baird, who has ever borne the attributes expected of one so
the capital of the United States, was little more than a village on
April 22, 1843,
when he was born, and education was a luxury that was not to be had by
Young Baird soon exhausted the possibilities of the public and private
and at the age of thirteen was apprenticed to a printer. The life of a
"devil" was not appealing, and shortly afterward he turned from the
of the art of Gutenberg to become a disciple of Fulton, and apprenticed
to a machinist. Here the real ability and desires of the boy found full
was soon an excellent draughtsman and a freehand sketcher of unusual
fame was more than local, and his extraordinary faculty as a detailer
designs made his work much sought after.
in his 'teens the call of the Civil War was heard, and he was appointed
assistant engineer in the volunteer navy then being assembled to
blockade the Southern
Coasts. This was on September 19, 1862, and acting in this capacity he
the Mississippi, the Calhoun, and Pensacola in the West Gulf Blockading
and saw action on twenty-three occasions. As soon as age permitted, he
regular navy, where his knowledge of mechanics brought him promotions
that, in 1866, he was second assistant engineer of the U.S.S. Shamrock.
of this vessel took her to Europe, and it is worthy of note that this
was on a vessel of typical Irish name and in a country where Masonry is
when the degrees of the Craft were conferred upon him. This was in
No. 4, of Lisbon, Portugal. Brother Baird was initiated July 23, 1867;
30, and raised July 30.
distance round the world found him at Mare Island, Calif., in 1869, and
with Naval Lodge, No. 87, of Vallejo, Calif., in 1870. Naval service
does not permit
active participation in fraternal orders, and Brother Baird secured his
at odd times, but the lessons inculcated in Portugal were not forgotten
actions of this brother have exemplified the best traditions of the
Few of us
living today realize what a great change came over the entire Navy
during the last
half of the nineteenth century, when the wooden sailing war vessels
into floating fortresses of steel that now protect our interests.
took a very prominent part in this transition, one of his feats being
of incandescent lighting in the U.S.S. Albatross, the first vessel in
to be so equipped. The Albatross was built under the supervision of
and was intended solely for use in deep-sea exploring, and many were
that he perfected to expedite and simplify these researches. With the
the breech-loading cannon it was necessary to revise the methods of
in the Naval Gun Factory in Washington and, as a member of the board,
assisted in making this the model of modern shops in every manner.
As an authority
on scientific subjects he has attained first rank. The following are a
few of his
writings: Absorption of Gases by Water and the Organic Matter Contained
An Improved Distilling Apparatus for Steamships; Pneumatic Steering
Gear; The Flagship
Trenton; Ventilation of Ships, and Flight of the Flying Fish, of which
French Academy, said: "It remained for an American naval officer to
mathematics the weight of this fish." Brother Baird is also a
on some of the earlier heroes of the American Navy and his book, The
Father of the
American Navy, is especially enlightening and interesting.
Brother Baird to Washington, and he transferred his Masonic
affiliations to Hope
Lodge No. 20, in 1875, where his attention and diligence in Masonic
work were recognized
and he was soon placed in line, being elected Worshipful Master in
Royal Arch Chapter, No. 2, received him as a Companion in 1882, and he
showed ability and served as High Priest in 1890. A staunch Christian,
of Templarism appealed to him and, in 1891, he was made a Knight
Templar in Washington
Commandery No. 1.
thorough knowledge of mechanical equipment caused him to be appointed
of the State, War, and Navy Building, one of the largest structures in
at that time. It was while holding this assignment that he was honored
by a post
which he graced in such a manner as to be an example to his successors,
Grand Master of the District of Columbia Grand Lodge in 1896.
He was promoted
to the rank of Chief Engineer in 1892 and was transferred into the line
of the Navy
with the rank of Commander in 1899, where he served as Commander and
later as Captain.
In 1905 he was retired with the rank of Rear Admiral. In January of
1922 he was
appointed a member of Perry's Victory Memorial Commission as a further
mark of distinction.
Masonic journey in the Scottish Rite started in Portugal in 1867, where
the first fourteen degrees, and was continued via the Rose Croix in
he became a Knight of Kadosh in Robert de Bruce Council, a member of
Consistory, and reached his highest elevation in 1906, when the Ancient
Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, gave him the
As his rise
in Masonry was the well-deserved reward of a faithful worker, so it was
in the service
of his country when, after more than forty years, the government said
to him, "Well
done, thou good and faithful servant," and retired him with the rank of
Admiral, although he continued on active duty until January, 1906. Not
remain inactive when he still had the vigor of a sailor, he turned his
civil betterment and was president of the Board of Education of the
Columbia for several years.
is what may be called a "born Mason," as it was traditional in his
that the males be entitled to wear the lambskin. His father,
grandfather, and three
uncles on the paternal side and every man for eleven generations back
on the maternal
side were members of the Craft. Age has not caused him to relinquish
any of the
duties of Masonry, and his position as Chairman (since 1900) of the
Correspondence of the Grand Lodge is held with pleasure to himself and
to the Fraternity. There is none to gainsay that he has earned a place
in the first
rank and his comments in Grand Lodge proceedings merit and receive
Notes on Masonry
in the Civil War
Bro. Frank P. Strickland,
of the differences of opinion among the Grand Lodges of the United
States in regard
to Army Lodges and military Masonry in general at the time of the Civil
be very interesting as showing that very much the same problems
appeared then and
were met in much the same haphazard way as Bro. Irwin has depicted as
in the last war.
an Institution which, although it thrives in times of peace, yet has
an appeal for military men; and many of those who have served it best
warriors. Along with their battle-flags, soldiers have carried the
Square and Compass
into many distant lands and diffused the teachings of the Institution
to the uttermost
parts of the earth.
were members of the lodges which united to form the Grand Lodge of
England at the
organization of Speculative Masonry in 1717; and the names of soldiers
the rosters of countless lodges since that time. Shortly after this
purely military lodges came into existence. The first of these, of
which there is
any definite record, was organized at Gibraltar in 1728, by the Duke of
‒ the first foreign lodge chartered by the Grand Lodge of England. The
of many other such lodges soon followed.
period of the later American colonial wars many of the regiments sent
Great Britain contained these military lodges. Known variously as
"army," "movable," or "traveling," lodges, they were
destined to play an important part in the development of American
Art had been introduced into the American colonies sometime after the
in 1717, but its growth had not been rapid. The population of the
colonies was scanty
and widely scattered, means of communication were difficult, and the
be overcome were great; as a result the Institution could do barely
more than exist.
Consequently, there was little intercourse among the brethren and their
cohesion were vague. But in the campaigns in which the colonists were
with the British regulars, the colonial brethren had an opportunity of
their Masonic education through contact with the regimental lodges
from the cradle land of Masonry. The knowledge which they thus received
on to their brethren and so generated a new spirit in them.
Furthermore, there were
many colonists who received their first lessons in the Craft, and
learned to practice
its mystic rites in these army lodges; and they also became torch
bearers of Masonry.
Thus the colonial Masons, quickly appreciating the value of the
teachings of brotherhood
and unity as exemplified by soldier Masons far from home, became
in a chain of education and encouragement stretching from these army
lodges to the
outlying brethren, and even to places where the light of Masonry did
not, as yet,
shine. Through their activities their brethren were inspired to seek
their neighbors, to draw together toward a common end.
Masonic apostles not only taught their brethren and fellows the
necessity of pulling
together, which was so signally exemplified later at Bunker Hill and
they also originated and organized that spirit of cohesion, that unity
which is so strong a characteristic of American Masonry today. The
story of the
extraordinary services rendered the American Institution by the
of the Revolutionary War is too well known to be inserted here. Masonry
owes a great debt to the obscure colonial Craftsmen, who, upon their
in army lodges, laid well the foundation stones not only of the
Republic, but of
the Order as well.
advanced and expanded in the period of nationality, Masonry kept pace
with it; at
the beginning of the Civil War the Institution had become a mighty
with set forms of procedure and long established customs. One of its
and long held beliefs was the doctrine that but one Grand Lodge could
authority in a state or territory; that it could not assume
jurisdiction of lodges
in another political unit. This doctrine, virtually unknown in Europe,
almost the status of an American landmark, and was jealously guarded.
when Grand Bodies, upon the outbreak of the Civil War, became swamped
for authority to form army lodges at the front, many Grand Lodges,
fearing an infringement
of the doctrine of Grand Lodge sovereignty, unhesitatingly refused such
others, influenced, no doubt, by patriotism and memories of the
in the past by army lodges, as unhesitatingly issued authority for such
a similar conflict of ideas in the matter of removing the time limits
in the ease of soldier applicants. As a result, there developed a
division of policy
which caused considerable confusion in the American Masonic
Institution. The line
of division between the two ideas was not always a fixed one, as may be
a study of conditions year by year, for, in several cases, Grand Lodges
their belief and went over to the other side.
Beginning of the Civil
year of the war found the Grand Bodies struggling with the problem
which was suddenly
thrust at them, and attempting to discover means of solving it. It was
a time of
confusion, uncertainty and tangling of cross currents of opinion; but
first Grand Bodies to come to a decision was that of Indiana, which, at
Communication, May 27, 1861, authorized the formation of army lodges in
Seventh, Eighth and Twelfth Regiments of Indiana Volunteers.
1862 began with the blunt announcement of Deputy Grand Master Francis
the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of Michigan, January 8,
that he had
refused to grant dispensations for military lodges " for
and other reasons (1).'' Similar refusals came from Texas and New
upon the subject of petitioners who desired to take the degrees out of
Master Alvin B. Alden, of Wisconsin, said (2):
The fact that such applicants
had neglected to
make their application until they were about to be placed in positions
danger did not furnish conclusive evidence to my mind that they were
by unworthy motives in offering themselves as candidates for masonry.
having neglected to take the proper steps to become Masons prior to
are alone chargeable with such neglect, and have no right to complain
necessary safeguards which we have deemed proper to throw around our
were not set aside for their benefit.
argument against these dispensations touched upon the fact that when a
for admission into Masonry he justly expects, if admitted, to receive
all the rights,
benefits and instruction appertaining thereto, and the lodge, in
the fee, is bound to confer these privileges; but if there is not time
the lodge cannot properly confer such privileges and the candidate,
the degrees, cannot prove himself a Mason, and, consequently, cannot
which he sought.
year Grand Master Jacob Saqui, of Kansas, had refused to authorize army
to grant dispensations for conferring the degrees out of time upon
he did not believe a sufficient emergency existed. The Grand Lodge of
refused authority for such lodges, although, during the recess
following the Annual
Communication, five military lodges were authorized.
Grand Master James R. Bagley, of Oregon, had granted several
dispensations for conferring
degrees out of time, he regretted his action, as he found that, in most
favors were either for men who, after being initiated, had neglected to
work and desired such dispensations to save time and trouble, or were
for men who
had lived a long time in the jurisdiction of a lodge without caring
Masonry to apply for the degrees until they were about to be placed in
of danger and thought that Masonry might help them.
As the conflict
continued during its second year, Indiana added twenty more army lodges
to its roster.
Its example was followed by other Grand Bodies. The Grand Master of
went out of his lawful jurisdiction to authorize an army lodge in the
Volunteers, an act which aroused the ire of Grand Master J.Q.A.
Fellows, at the
Annual Communication of Louisiana, February 10, 1862 (3).
Charles F. Stansbury, of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia,
invaded another jurisdiction, for he reported, at a semi-annual
6,1862, that he had authorized a military lodge in the Fifty-ninth New
He had also granted authority to confer certain degrees out of time, a
to which he we; opposed (4).
Some of the
objections to army lodges may be summed up in the words of the
Committee on Correspondence
of the Grand Lodge of Kansas. Commenting upon the action of the Grand
Lodge of New
York in authorizing military lodges in three regiments from that state,
regard the organization of the Masons of a regiment into a lodge for
social or Masonic
improvement as proper enough; this would be a pleasing relief from the
duties of camp life; but we are opposed to granting them full powers to
degrees of Masonry.
lodges may have been very proper at the time of the Revolution. But in
opinion Masonry is too popular now; too many are seeking and obtaining
through unworthy motives. If permanent lodges, who have all the
facilities for obtaining
a correct knowledge of the applicant, fail many times in their
endeavors to select
none but the really good and worthy, what could we expect of a lodge in
of a community where each is a stranger to the other, except for the
few weeks they
may have been together as a regiment? We do not mean to infer that
there are not
plenty of persons in the various regiments now in the field who would
make the very
best of Masons, but we cannot see the propriety of sending lodges to
hunt them out
hours of 1862 saw the senior Grand Lodge of America throwing the weight
of its prestige
into the scales on the side of the soldier Mason. In the Proceedings of
Lodge of Massachusetts for the year ending December 30, 1862, Grand
D. Coolidge reported:
For this state of war there is
nor is there precedent for such an influx into the Institution from the
those, who from the circumstances of the case, must be made at sight,
alone of the Grand Master ‒ as I am taught by a strict examination of
landmarks, and the best counsel of the wise and prudent whom we all
revere. I have
met this pressure readily and earnestly, for it has been made by those
impulses have led them forth to battle for their country; to stand for
you and me
and bare their breasts to the bullet aimed at the nation's heart, and I
find it in my own, to refuse any aid, comfort or protection which I
might be instrumental
in throwing around them (6).
He had, accordingly,
authorized a subordinate lodge to waive the time limit between degrees
to the extent
that, in five consecutive hours, the petitions of one hundred and
candidates were received, balloted upon, and all the degrees conferred.
dealing in the Mysteries aroused a storm of disapproval, not only in
but also in other Grand Jurisdictions. Grand Secretary O'Sullivan, of
expressed his objection in strong language:
And so, without more ado, the
Grand Master issues
his dispensation, setting aside all the requirements of the
Constitution of his
Grand Lodge, which he covenanted to support, by which one hundred and
were proposed, balloted for, initiated, passed and raised ‒ "all within
consecutive hours", we deny, utterly deny, the existence of any
this wholesale manufacture of Masons. It does not exist. Not the most
Grand Master England has produced, even when royalty was to be made,
such authority. It has remained for the oldest Grand Lodge in America,
a front rank for her Masonic talent and respectability, to set an
others will not be slow to imitate; setting aside the Constitution,
usage ‒ everything which appeared like a barrier is swept away, and the
goes forth that one hundred and thirteen men may be entered, passed and
five consecutive hours, in spite of law, covenants, usage or common
sense. We imagine
the Grand Master quoting the words of the great cardinal, "The pen is
than the sword." But we are told with the utmost complacency that they
nearly all officers. We care not if they were all brigadiers. It does
the case a whit (7).
illustration of the confusion into which Masonry was thrown by the
eruption of the
Civil War occurred on February 12, 1862, when the Grand Lodge of the
Columbia authorized the formation of a lodge in the city of Alexandria,
in the jurisdiction
of the Grand Lodge of Virginia. It was set forth that there were no
in that city at that time, that no charters or other property of lodges
working there could be found, that the Masons there had been cut off
from all Masonic
privileges, and that, finally, the Grand Lodge of Virginia had
forbidden those working
in its jurisdiction to recognize, or hold Masonic intercourse with
Masons who adhered
to the Union. The Masons of the District of Columbia felt that
Virginia, in withdrawing
recognition of loyal brethren, had waived its rights to them; that they
be considered as living in masonically vacant territory, the property
of the first
jurisdiction securing them. The District of Columbia therefore felt no
in taking them. To show that no attempt was being made to encroach upon
of Virginia, it was ruled that
… should these unhappy National
composed, and Virginia assume her former place in this great and
her Grand Lodge will be restored to her authority over all lodges
within her geographical
limits. The temporary warrant will be resigned to her, and her right of
acknowledged by the fraternity here and everywhere (8).
there was some abuse of this dispensation, for Grand Master Moore, of
complained, January 11, 1865, that this lodge was conferring degrees
upon men from
all parts of the country (9). Upon the return of Virginia to the Union,
was returned to her Grand Lodge.
of Vicksburg and Gettysburg found many Grand Bodies still standing
to the idea of military Masonry. Among the Grand Lodges which believed
was no place in the Order for the army lodge, and that, in war, as in
should take their regular course, were those of Vermont, Maine,
Minnesota and Washington Territory. At the Annual Communication of the
of Ohio, October 20, 1863, there was some opposition, among the
members, to the
practice of the Grand Master in authorizing the conferring of the
degrees out of
time; doubt was even expressed as to his right to do so. Chairman
Thrall, of the
Committee on Correspondence, set forth the belief that
landmarks operate with equal force, as well upon the Grand Master
in all the plentitude of authority, as upon the youngest Entered
Apprentice of the
lodge. It is the business of the Grand Master to look to the
enforcement of the
laws, and not to dispense with their observance, or grant indulgences
of Grand Master Jacob Saqui, at the Annual Communication, October 21,
up the sentiments of Kansas:
I have had a number of
applications from subordinate
lodges for authority to elect a candidate and confer the degrees at the
and I have invariably refused to grant any dispensations for such a
I do not believe that the established usages of the fraternity ought to
be set aside
except on very particular occasions and I hold that a Grand Master is
in granting such a dispensation unless on satisfactory proof that the
be benefitted thereby, and not merely an applicant accommodated. The
laws of Masonry
should be suspended for the convenience of no human being. There are
lodges in every
town and village of every State in the Union, and no man can say that
he had not
an opportunity to seek admission into the Order. Whoever, then,
neglected to avail
himself of the privilege until he discovered that Masonry would be
not be guided to the sanctum sanctorum by a dispensation; besides, work
in such a hurried manner as the application for a dispensation
is a discredit to the lodge and an injustice to the initiate (11).
On the other
hand, Indiana and New York continued to increase their collections of
Illinois authorized the formation of six, and New Hampshire of three
In Iowa a large number of dispensations to confer degrees out of time
had been granted, as was also the ease in Rhode Island; but Grand
Master Ariel Ballou,
of the latter Grand Lodge, did not approve of the matter as he thought
motives of the applicants were mercenary.
Lodge of Michigan, which, in the previous year, had been flatly opposed
Masonry, now executed an "about face," and authorized the removal of
time limit between degrees in the ease of soldier applicants about to
the front ‒ an act which drew the fire of the Committee on
Correspondence of Kansas:
Now this may seem all right and
proper to some,
but we must confess we can't see the propriety under the circumstances,
than at any previous time. We are quite willing at all times to confer
favors upon those who are fighting our country's battles; but to
the degrees of Masonry upon a person, because he is about to leave for
seat of war," we consider an injury to the person as well as to the
Many of the persons, too, receiving the degrees in this manner are
persons who have
lived for years within the sound of the gavel, and have never once
thought of joining
a lodge, until suddenly, as they are about to leave for the seat of
war, they remember
that they have long entertained a favorable opinion of the ancient and
Order, and almost demand an immediate admission. Ostensibly, they are
a sincere desire to be serviceable to their fellow man, but we fear
is too often their real incentive to action; and fortunate will it be
for us, if
there are not many now receiving the degrees, whom we shall soon wish
had not been
By the end
of the year Massachusetts had eleven army lodges under charter, and was
with petitions for admission. Grand Master William Parkman had
continued the practice,
established by his predecessors, of dispensing with the time limit
in the ease of soldiers, but he did so with misgiving, and thought the
ought to be stopped.
So we can
see that, even in those Grand Bodies which freely favored the military
a doubt was beginning to develop as to the wisdom of the proceeding.
Lodges Change Their
As the war
progressed and its fourth year opened and the evils of military Masonry
appear, those Grand Lodges which had held aloof from the soldier Mason
course justified. Kansas, Missouri, Minnesota and other Grand Bodies,
not been swayed by the importunities of the army applicants, pursued
the even tenor
of their way, unruffled as yet by the complications which were shortly
On the other hand, however, among those Grand Bodies which had
upon the military Mason, that element of doubt concerning the wisdom of
which, in 1863, had crept into their deliberations, now assumed, in
proportions and influenced many of them to take steps to curtail the
flow of favors.
New York completely abandoned its place in the ranks of the "liberals,"
so to speak, and took its place in the column of the "conservatives."
At its Annual Communication, in 1864, Grand Master Clinton F. Paige
he did not regard army lodges with favor, and, considering the manner
in which those
already authorized had functioned, he had decided that the objections
the advantages; as a result of which he had refused authority for any
lodges, and had also declined to grant any dispensations for conferring
out of time. He believed, with regard to army lodges, that
Aside from the question of
is an unsurmountable objection in my mind, in the fact, that when the
to which such lodge is attached removes beyond the limits of our own
State, an infringement
of the jurisdictional rights of other Grand Lodges is inevitable and
Alvin P. Hyde, of Connecticut, refused to grant any dispensations
unless the act
received the unanimous consent of the local lodge requesting the
even then he thought it bad practice. The Grand Lodge of Maine sought
the flow of privileges by setting a price of three dollars for each
to hurry candidates through the degrees. Even in Kansas, where the
the dispensation had never been abused, Grand Master Saqui thought a
fee of twenty-five
dollars ought to be charged for such authority; the Grand Lodge,
that the privilege had never been overworked, tabled the suggestion.
Alvin B. Alden, attributing the rapid increase of the Order in
Wisconsin to carelessness
upon the part of the subordinate lodges, suggested, as a remedy for the
through act," an increase in fees, and an edict prohibiting the
of degrees in less than the statutory time. He was opposed to army
lodges, and still
further opposed to their making Masons of men from jurisdictions other
one granting them authority. He called attention to complaints of
regarding citizens of Wisconsin who had returned from the army claiming
received the degrees in military lodges, some of these complaints
referring to persons
who had previously petitioned and been rejected before leaving home,
to those whose moral and social standing were such that it would have
to have applied at home. His Grand Lodge ruled that a candidate could
not be advanced
within twenty days after receiving a preceding degree, and then only
a creditable examination. It also demanded that Grand Lodges
lodges should limit the authority of the latter to persons outside the
Parkman, of Massachusetts, still viewing with alarm the continued
influx of new
material, made an effort to slow up the flow of candidates by insisting
petition be received at a stated communication of a lodge; but even
with this restriction,
he had granted one hundred and fifty-six dispensations during the year.
He did not
think the material thus gathered into the fold was of any considerable
few such persons became contributing members, while most of them took
Masonry they had thus acquired into the army, where it was quickly
Leverett B. Englesby, of Vermont, thought that the practice of
in encouraging the speedy advancement of candidates ought to be stopped.
Thomas Sparrow, of Ohio, now rose to inquire:
Has this rapid increase of
the tie of brotherhood, which is the foundation and cap stone, cement
of this ancient fraternity? Has it made us more industrious in
furnishing the corn
of nourishment to the hungry, the wine of refreshment to the sick, or
the oil of
joy to the afflicted? Has it sharpened the glorious strife of excelling
in all the qualifications which should characterize our profession as
this vast enlargement of the edifice added to its strength or symmetry?
interior been made to correspond in harmony and beauty with the
magnitude and splendor
of its external appearance?
It has been
well said: "They mistake the nature of the Masonic Institution, who
its strength by its numbers, or measure its prosperity by the length of
of its initiates. These are not the standards by which either the one
or the other
is to be determined. Its strength is in its principle, and its
prosperity in the
character of its members (14).
He also went
on to say:
It should be understood by the
officers and members
of subordinate lodges ‒ once and for all ‒ that lodges are created for
of Masons, and not for the accommodation of candidates; that there are
of emergency in this jurisdiction, and that no lodge has the power to
that every petition must take its regular course (15).
He was strenuously
opposed to military lodges because of their total disregard for the
prescribed for their government. His Grand Lodge supported him to the
repealing the regulations, adopted in 1861, authorizing military lodges
troops, and instructing subordinate lodges to repeal any sections of
authorizing eases of emergency.
continued to shower its favors upon army candidates, Grand Master J.
having granted authority to waive the time limit in one hundred and
cases. At the Annual Communication, January 13, 1864, his Grand Lodge,
was considerably wrought up by the action of Grand Master Thomas
Saddler, of Kentucky,
who had authorized the conferring of degrees out of time upon a number
of the Eleventh Michigan Regiment ‒ properly the material of the Grand
Michigan. Brother Saddler, it appeared, had granted this authority upon
of Colonel S. B. Brown, regimental commander, who was also Deputy Grand
Michigan; in addition, the Master, both Wardens and eleven members of
Lodge, No. 9, of St. Clair, Michigan, had recommended the petition.
And so, as
the evils of military Masonry became plainly manifest and evident,
began to look with dismay and chagrin upon the havoc that had been, and
wrought, and to cast about for means of checking it and of repairing
that was resulting. The future looked black and foreboding. In the
words of Grand
Master Thomas Hayward, of Florida, to his subordinates:
war is ended, and the blessings of peace are again our happy lot, you
much to do in your different lodges to correct the vices and
generally follow a year or more in camp (16).
Aftermath of the War
As the fires
of the great Civil War burned out, the confusion of Masonry continued,
among Grand Bodies definitely turned against the army Mason. Instead of
brotherly greeting formerly extended him in many Grand Lodges he now
mistrust and suspicion. In Michigan, stronghold of army Masonry since
now developed outspoken opposition to the institution, and Grand Master
refused a large number of dispensations requested for soldiers. He even
far as to regard as clandestine Masons a number of Michigan soldiers,
home on furlough,
who claimed to have been made in an army lodge in Mississippi working
jurisdiction of Indiana, for the reason that Indiana could not
authorize a lodge
to work in the jurisdiction of another Grand Lodge, nor to make Masons
belonging to the jurisdiction of Michigan.
a strong supporter of military Masonry from the beginning of the war,
to doubt the expediency of the army lodge, especially as other Grand
making complaints similar to that of Michigan in regard to the
activities of Indiana's
military offspring; while in Maine, requests for dispensations favoring
ceased, the subordinate lodges having no desire to pay the fee of three
fixed the previous year, for such favors. Grand Master William S.
New Jersey, insisted that all petitions take their regular course,
to anyone. But although the pendulum was now swinging away from the
yet that fact did not dispose of them. They existed, and in large
apparently, had to be done with them. But what? Were they to be
recognized as regular
Masons and taken into the fold? Or were they to be permanently classed
- Review, Proc.
Mich., 1862, in Proc. Kans., 1862, p.
- Review, Proc.
Wis., 1862, in Proc. Kans., 1863, p. 406.
- Review, Proc.
La., 1862, in Proc. Kans., 1862, p. 317.
- Review, Proc.
D. of C., 1862, in Proc. Kans., 1863,
- Review, Proc.
N. Y., 1862, in Proc. Kans., 1862, pp.
- Review, Proc.
Mass., 1862, in Proc. Kans., 1863, p.
- Review, Proc.
Mass., 1862, in Proc. Kans., 1863, p.
- Review, Proc.
D. of C., 1862, in Proc. Kans., 1863,
- Review, Proc.
Mich., 1865, in Proc. Kans., 1865, p.
- Review, Proc.
Ohio, 1863, in Proc. Kans., 1864, p. 477.
- Address, G. M.
Jacob Saqui, in Proc. Kans., 1863, p.
- Review, Proc.
Mich., 1863, in Proc. Kans., 1863, p.
- Review, Proc.
N. Y., 1864, in Proc. Kans., 1864, p.
- Review, Proc.
Ohio, 1864, in Proc. Kans., 1865, p. 555.
- Ibid .
Fla., 1864, in Proc. Kans., 1866, p. 87.
Christopher Wren: Architect
Bro. G. C. Kirby
was read before the Toronto Society for Masonic Study and Research, and
is now presented
to the wider circle of members of the National Masonic Research Society
the good offices of Bro. N. W. J. Haydon, Associate Editor of THE
BUILDER and also
Secretary of the Toronto body.
Bro. William B. Bragdon contributed a short article on the same
subject, which will
be found in the November number of THE BUILDER for that year. Bro.
inclined to believe that Wren was very probably connected with the
not discuss the late R. F. Gould's arguments against this. These will
be found in
the twelfth chapter of his history. Gould's authority naturally carries
weight, but while we may agree that he has quite demolished the
Wren was a Grand Master of the Craft, he is not so convincing in
denying that Wren
could have been a speculative or honorary member. At least the
to intrigue us.
A STUDY of
the lives of prominent men in the 17th century may afford clues to the
of Freemasonry in a very interesting period. The subject of the present
is Sir Christopher Wren, the great English architect.
He was born
at East Knoyle, near Tisbury in Wiltshire, on October 20, 1632. His
father was also
named Christopher. He was a clergyman of the Established Church, and at
of his son's birth was the Incumbent of the parish of East Knoyle. A
Wren, was at the time Dean of Windsor. Later, when he was preferred to
the see of
Ely, Christopher Wren, senior, was made Dean of Windsor in his stead,
and was also
appointed as Chaplain to Charles I. His wife was Mary Cox of Fonthill
died when her son was only two years old. The elder Christopher lived
son was twenty-six years old. Both he and his brother, the Bishop of
much under the Parliamentary regime on account of their loyalty to the
was eleven years old he was instructed in mathematics by the famous
William Holder, who had married his father's sister, Susan Wren. At the
age of nine
he was sent to Westminster School, where he remained until he was
he was under the tuition of the famous Dr. Busby. Between leaving
school and going
to college he became assistant to Dr. Scarborough, and studied anatomy.
In 1649 he
went to Oxford, entering Wadham College as a Gentleman-Commoner. Here
he was under
John Wilkins, afterwards Bishop of Chester, graduating as B.A. on March
and as M.A. on December 11, 1653. He was elected a Fellow of All Souls
stayed there until 1657, when he was appointed to the Chair of
Astronomy at Gresham
College, London. On February 5, 1660, he was elected Professor of
Astronomy at Oxford,
and in 1661 he graduated D.C.L. at Oxford, and L.L.D. at Cambridge.
From this it
will be seen that he was an extremely clever young man. He seemed
capable of everything;
at one time he prepared drawings of insects, microscopically enlarged,
II. He also invented a horse-drawn seeding machine to plant seeds after
and harrowing. Another of his efforts was an illustration showing the
construction of solar and lunar eclipses, and most remarkable of all,
with the transfusion of blood from one animal to another.
a prominent part in the formation of the Royal Society, and after the
his approval on December 5, 1660, the drafting of the preamble of the
entrusted to him. He was a constant attendant at the Royal Society
more than twenty years, and it was only the pressure of his
that prevented him attending in later years. In 1666 he invented an
simple form of Level, "for taking the horizon every way in a circle, "
the main principle of which was a bowl having the lip accurately turned
with a ball and socket joint, so that when a drop of quicksilver was
the center, the lip should lie level in every direction. He had found
of some such instrument in his surveying and building work. A report on
of the Royal Society in 1667 by Bishop Spratt specially commends Wren
It speaks of his work on the "doctrines of motion," caused by globulous
bodies meeting each other, such as billiard balls, etc. This report
his having devised a clock to be annexed to a weather cock, so that the
by the traces of a pencil on paper might certainly conclude what winds
in his absence. Dr. Spratt further adds: "Wren has invented many ways
astronomical observations more accurate and easy."
as a natural philosopher Wren was overshadowed by the genius of Newton,
as an English
architect he stands above his competitors. In some particulars, Inigo
have surpassed him, but if a comprehensive view is taken, the first
place must be
adjudged to Wren. The relative merits of Sir Christopher Wren and Inigo
well be the subject of further discussion our Research Society. The
information receive of his applying himself professionally to
architecture is his
accepting in his twenty-ninth year, the invitation from Charles II to
as Surveyor-General to His Majesty's works, though nominally as
Assistant Sir John
Denham. The two earliest original works we hear of are the chapel of
Cambridge, built at the expense of his uncle, Matthew Wren, and the
at Oxford. The interior of Pembroke Chapel was very simple, but of good
proportions. It exhibits a lack of familiarity with architectural
detail, not surprising
for a young man's first attempt. When in 1665, ordinary business in
London and other
parts of England were interrupted by the Great Plague, Wren went to
Paris for six
months, and studied Sieur de Cambray's "Parallel,” and other French
an architectural nature. Up to the time of the fire of London, his
work had not taken his entire time, and he was able to attend to his
pursuits to a considerable extent.
fire of London raged from September 2nd to September 8th, 1666, and the
of this fire can be found in Pepys' Diary [Lib 9 Volumes see
This account is given in an appendix
at the end of this paper.
embers of the great fire had cooled, Wren as virtual Surveyor-General,
it was his duty to prepare a scheme for the rebuilding of the City. On
12th, he laid before the King a sketch plan of his design for the
London. A copy of this plan, after he made some additions, can be seen
All Souls College, Oxford. Unfortunately, the plan was too magnificent
for the money
available, and was never carried out. Doing the next best thing, he
enough in rebuilding a Cathedral, more than fifty Parish Churches,
the Companies' Halls, the Customs House, and several private houses and
works. For his architectural work on St. Paul's Cathedral, and the
the stipend he asked for was 300 pounds per year. After Denham's death
1669, he was appointed Surveyor-General of the Royal Works.
St. Paul's Cathedral, the old building damaged by the fire was in a
condition, and Wren had previously made several reports on the same.
After the fire,
in July, 1668, some partial repair work on the Cathedral collapsed when
at Oxford, and it was then decided to build a new Cathedral. In 1670,
assigned a portion of the coal tax, namely, 4 1/2d. per caldron
annually for the
rebuilding of the famous edifice.
that money would be forthcoming, Wren devoted himself to forming a
of the occasion. In 1672 he was knighted, and in 1673 he submitted his
to the King, who greatly approved it. However, it was not easy sailing
clerical opposition was brought to bear against the plan, on account of
different from the usual Cathedral shape. The Duke of York sided with
and insisted on many side chapels. The idea being to make the building
suited for Roman Catholic services. Finally both parties were satisfied
and a number
of chapels were included, most of which are now in use.
years after the commencement of the work, it was so far advanced that
area could be opened for services. Nineteen years later Wren was
its superintendence, and the Cathedral was reported as finished, as no
was in the main essentials. Meanwhile, about 1680, he had been much
engaged in the
restoration in and around Temple Bar which had also been damaged by the
of Wren's best works, the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, was completed in
in 1684 he was appointed Comptroller of Works at Windsor Castle. He
then went into
politics and was returned as Member for Plympton on April 20, 1685, in
first Parliament. He was also chosen as Member for Windsor in March,
1689, in William
and Mary's first Parliament, but the return was declared void and he
his seat in the House.
Of the fifty-two
churches in and around London that he designed, two of the best still
far as I am aware, namely, Saint Mary-at-Hill and Saint Clement Danes.
work showed very great skill in adapting buildings to irregular sites.
In 1698 he
was appointed Surveyor to Westminster Abbey and carried out very
to that great fabric. He held this appointment until his death.
appointed by the Stuarts to the office of Surveyor-General, Wren
retained the Royal
Favor unclouded through the reigns of William and Mary, and Queen Anne,
the accession of the Hanoverian family in 1714, the jealousies which
his high position
had created were able to prevail against him. He was superseded as
in 1718, by William Benson. He possibly felt the blow coming, as he had
almost complete retirement since 1708, a date which I would like you to
He had married twice, first in December, 1669, Faith, the daughter of
Sir John Coghill,
and secondly, Jane, the daughter of Lord FitzWilliam, in 1676.
1723, he contracted a severe chill, and he died on February 25, 1723,
in his ninety-first
year. He was buried on March 5th, in St. Paul's Cathedral, under the
of the Choir, near the East end.
dealt with the life of this illustrious man from a biographical
standpoint, we will
now consider whether or not he belonged to the ancient and honorable
of Constitutions, published in 1738, says that Wren was a freemason and
Master of the Fraternity. As the title of "Grand Master" is popularly
supposed to have started with the Grand Lodge of 1717, and as we know
was in almost complete retirement in 1717, grave doubts have been cast
as to whether
Wren was ever a freemason, much less a Grand Master.
R. F. Gould, in his history of Freemasonry [Lib 1904], disputes the statement made
the Book of Constitutions of 1738, that Wren was a Freemason and a
Nobody doubted the facts until 1887, when Gould devoted many pages to
It may seem
bold to take issue with such an eminent authority as our late brother
great writers have been known to make mistakes before, and we hope to
he was mistaken in this matter. The term "We" in the foregoing
is somewhat extravagant, and like that famous Trans-Atlantic flier,
his aeroplane, by "We" I refer to myself and the authorities from whom
was responsible for the Book of Constitutions of 1738, which credited
Wren as being a Freemason and a Grand Master, we should remember the
- Anderson was the official
writer for the Grand Lodge of 1717.
- Whilst there are some obvious
errors in Anderson's works, his eminent position
entitles him to some respect.
- Anderson was in close touch
with the prominent brethren who brought the Grand
Lodge into being.
- He had before him, when he
prepared his Book of Constitutions, nearly all
the papers available dealing with Masonic history.
- He had the assistance of Geo.
Payne, Dr. Desaguliers, and other famous men
familiar with history of the previous thirty years.
- Notwithstanding the fact that
some documents used by Anderson in compiling
his history, have become lost, there remains auxiliary evidence for the
- The editions of the Books of
Constitutions of 1723 [Lib 1723]
and 1738 [Lib 1738],
were approved of and adopted
the Grand Lodge.
argument against Sir Christopher Wren being a Freemason, is that the
appears in the second Book of Constitutions, dated 1738, while the
of 1723 makes no mention of it. One answer to this is that the omission
which it is being assumed that everyone knows, is a common occurrence
of all kinds. But another, and weightier one, is that in the earlier
seems to be chiefly concerned with the progress of architecture, while
he says of Wren is inconsistent with his having known that he was a
reason why Wren was not definitely said to be a Mason in the first Book
of 1723, was that for many years prior to that he had suffered the
many young and even middle-aged fellow architects, who were jealous of
monopoly of the principal architectural commissions. As previously
the age of eighty-six years he was dismissed from the
not for inability, but simply because he was an appointee of the
Stuarts and the
Hanoverians were in power. One can readily imagine the stories that
among the Operative Masons and the artisans who had labored with him so
and about Old St. Paul's Churchyard, when it became known that he had
lost the royal
of St. Paul's Cathedral was completed in 1710, and a slump in the
followed, which gradually became worse and worse. Wren could do nothing
his old workmen, as no money was forthcoming for building work. Even
the money taken
out of the tax on coal had ceased. The slackness in the building trade
had a good deal to do with the demand for a supreme body, afterwards
known as a
Grand Lodge; for in my opinion, the thought lying back in the minds of
for a supreme body, was work and food, rather than mere speculative
know that what we are pleased to call Speculative Masonry, did exist at
as I shall hereafter prove, but it was not the main thing in the minds
of the members
of the lodges at the time. Thus arose the movement whereby four out of
lodges existing took it upon themselves to organize the supreme body
known as Grand Lodge. The first Book of Constitutions was already
printed on January
17, 1723, and it was on sale when Sir Christopher Wren died
thirty-eight days later.
described the organization of a Grand Lodge as a "revival of the
of London," and elsewhere states that King Charles II was a
of the craftsmen because he founded the present St. Paul's Cathedral
that ingenious Architect, Sir Christopher Wren." There is a strong
here that Wren was one of the Craft.
the statement that Wren was a Grand Master, we find that Anderson
mentioned it in
1738. On February 24, 1738, the Grand Lodge chose a Committee to revise
of Constitutions of 1723, and on March 31st, 1738, Anderson was
requested to "print
the names of all the Grand Masters that could be collected."
of a diplomat, Anderson did not elaborate on the events which led up to
of the four lodges and the formation of Grand Lodge, but he has this
in his Book of Constitutions of 1738: "Sir Christopher Wren, continued
Master until 1708, when his neglect of the office caused the Lodges to
be more and
more disused." Please remember that this statement appeared in the list
Grand Masters, and was approved of by Grand Lodge before being printed.
We will now
give Anderson a rest, and examine evidence from other sources showing
that Sir Christopher
Wren was a freemason.
An old London
newspaper, the Postboy, in its second issue after Wren's death,
announced that he
was to be interred on March 5th, and described him as "that worthy
The Postboy was evidently a newspaper largely read by Freemasons
because at that
time it carried an advertisement that the newly published Book of
was on sale. It is very improbable that a newspaper read in Masonic
make a mistake by calling Wren a freemason, if he were not one.
evidence of Wren being a Freemason is found in a note made by a
and antiquary, John Aubrey, in 1690, in his work on the Natural History
The original MS. is now in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and there is
copy, made by Aubrey himself, at Burlington House. This copy was made
at the request
of the Royal Society. The statement referred to is as follows:
Mdm, this day [May the 18th
being Monday] [after
Rogation Sunday] is a great convention at St. Paul's Church of the
the Free [Accepted] Masons: Where Sir Christopher Wren is to be adopted
and Sir Henry Goodrie of ye Tower, and divers others. There have been
were of this sodalitie.
Sr. William Dugdale told me
many years since,
that about Henry the third's time, the Pope gave a Bull or diploma
a Company of Italian Architects [Freemasons] to travels up and downe
all over Europe
to build Churches. From those are derived the Fraternity of Free-Masons
They are known to one another
by certayn Signes
& [Marks] and Watch-words, it continues to this day. They have
in severall Counties for their reception: and when any of them fall
the brotherhood is to relieve him &c.
The manner of their Adoption is
and with an Oath of Secrecy.
In the earlier
MS. this is an interpolated note on the backs of two of the sheets; in
copy it has been incorporated into the text. In its earlier form the
note had itself
been revised. Mdm., is an abbreviation for Meridiem, "at mid-day." The
words in italics placed between square brackets have been written in
which preceded them. The word "Free" was crossed out, "Accepted"
taking its place. The word Marks was also crossed out. The other
apparently as alternatives. All this correcting was done unmistakably
known of how Aubrey came to be told of the coming "Convention," but the
Sir William Dugdale whom he mentions had a daughter who was the wife of
of whom we know for a certainty that he was a member of the Craft, from
entries in his diary. Now if Wren was known to have taken part in the
of 1690, the notion of his being a Freemason could not have been
imagined by the
editor or reporters of the Postboy in 1723, nor by Anderson in 1738.
The worth of
Aubrey's memoranda surely lies in the fact that it was written without
to 1844, this information lay undisturbed in a forgotten manuscript
County of Wiltshire ‒ we may recall that Wren had been born in
Wiltshire ‒ and it
was by an accident that the late Mr. Halliwell made its discovery. It
that the Royal Society members were not enthused about the History of
or the information would not have lain neglected so long.
source of information showing that Wren was a Freemason comes from
of Masonry [Lib 1829]. The chief objection brought
was that in each edition of his History he generally gave some
Whilst this, of course, looks like romancing, it was really due to his
to show in his history every scrap of information that he picked up as
1775 [Lib 1775] edition of the Illustrations
of Masonry, he
says: "Wren presided over the old lodge of St. Paul's during the
the Cathedral." In his 1792 edition he says that the mallet used in
the foundation stone of St. Paul 's was a gift of Sir Christopher Wren
and that "during his presidency he presented to the lodge three
of the lodges which joined together in organizing the Grand Lodge of
1717 was Lodge
No. 1, the lodge of Antiquity, formerly called Old St. Paul's. The
there was an interesting relic and very highly prized. The candlesticks
Sir Christopher Wren were of great value as proving that there
certainly was some
speculative Masonry prior to 1717. Preston also says that "according to
records of the lodge of Antiquity" in 1663 and after, Wren "attended
meetings of the lodge," and also that Wren patronized the said lodge
eighteen years," by which he may have meant that he was Worshipful
or some equivalent officer.
Let us consider
for a moment what Aubrey meant when he said in 1690 that Wren was to be
a Brother." Preston and Anderson said, Wren was a principal officer of
Fraternity since 1663. These two authorities unite in making Wren Grand
1685 when he was fifty-three years old. Therefore what could Aubrey
have meant when
he said Wren was to be "adopted" in 1690? This word "Adopted"
could not have meant "Initiated." As Aubrey was not a Mason, he would
scarcely know the difference between "initiating" and "installing."
It is clear that some Masonic function took place in 1690 and Wren took
part in it.
points out that in 1690 the old St. Paul's Lodge became a Stated lodge
an Occasional lodge, and in my opinion the event mentioned by Aubrey
was the big
day when the change took effect.
one of the Fraternity's greatest enemies, in his book Masonry Dissected
[Lib 1730], published in 1730, makes
"No constituted Lodges or Quarterly Communications were heard of till
when lords, dukes, lawyers and shopkeepers and other inferior
not excepted, were admitted into this mystery or no mystery." I have to
for quoting Samuel Prichard, but the date he mentions is confirmatory
Aubrey's mention of the convention in 1690 is correct. It would seem,
that the "adoption" of Wren at that convention was nothing more or less
than his re-election as grand Master, whilst "Sir Henry Goodric of ye
and divers others," were probably the officers appointed and invested
for the reselection of a Grand Master can be found in the ease of Inigo
Master, so to speak, of the Old St. Paul's Lodge, which met at the
Goose and Gridiron
Tavern in St. Paul 's Churchyard. According to the Nicholas Stone MS.,
had once combined the two offices of Surveyor-General and President of
Fraternity, ceasing to hold the latter title in 1618, but subsequently
there was published The Compleat Freemason, or Multa Paucis for Lovers
[Lib 1764] The following is an extract
from that work:
In 1710, in the eighth year of
the reign of Queen
Anne, our Worthy Grand Master Wren, who had drawn the design of St.
the honour to see it finished in a magnificent taste, and to celebrate,
Fraternity, the Capestone of so noble and large a Temple.
Christopher Wren, in his book Parentalia [Lib
wrote as follows:
or last stone on the top of the lantern, was laid by the hand of the
son, Christopher Wren, deputed by his Father, in the presence of that
artificer, Mr. Strong, his Son, and other Free and Accepted Masons,
in the execution of the work.
As Sir Christopher
was then seventy-eight years of age, he was unable to ascend to the
at the top of the lantern above the cupola of St. Paul's.
F. de P. Castells, to whom I am indebted for much information, informs
us that in
1917 or thereabouts he had seen, among the records of the Lodge of
of a meeting held on June 3, 1723, [Lib 1925] which read as follows:
The set of mahogany
candlesticks presented to
this Lodge by its Worthy Old Master, Sir Christopher Wren, ordered to
deposited in a wooden case lin'd with cloth to be Immediately purchased
for this particular minute was that Wren had died about three months
and they were anxious to carefully keep these symbolic gifts from so
eminent a man.
piece of evidence is the crowning proof that Wren was a Freemason, and
that the Lodge Minutes which I have just read can be examined by anyone
are further assured that these Minutes were never examined by the late
and had he examined them his famous statement, made in 1887, that Sir
Wren was not a Freemason, would probably have never been issued.
(Account of the
Fire of London from Pepys' Diary)
Some of our
maids sitting up last night, to get things ready against our feast
today, Jane caned
us up about three in the morning to tell us of a great fire that was in
So I rose and slipped on my night gown and went to her window and
thought it to
be on the back side of Market Lane, but being unused to such fires as
I thought it far enough, and so went to bed again and to sleep. About
again to dress myself and there looked out at the window, and saw the
fire not so
much as it was, and further off. So to my closet to set things to
yesterday's cleaning. By and by Jane comes and tells me that she hears
300 houses have been burned down tonight by the fire we saw, and that
it is now
burning down all Fish Street, by London Bridge.
So I made
myself ready presently, and walked to the Tower; and there got up upon
one of the
high places, Sir J. Robinson's little son going up to me; and there I
did see the
houses at that end of the bridge all on fire, and an infinite great
fire on this
and the other side the end of the bridge; which, among other people,
me for poor little Mitchell and our Sarah on the bridge. So down, with
full of trouble, to the Lieutenant of the Tower, who tells me that it
morning in the king's baker's house in Pudding-Lane, and that it hath
St. Magnus's Church and most part of Fish Street already.
So I went
down to the water side and there got a boat, and through the bridge,
and there saw
a lamentable fire. Poor Mitchell's house, as far as the Old Swan,
that way, and the fire running further, that in a very little time, it
got as far
as the Steele-yard, while I was there. Everybody endeavoring to remove
and flinging into the river, or bringing them into lighters that lay
off, poor people
staying in their houses as long as till the very fire touched them, and
into boats, or clambering from one pair of stairs, by the waterside, to
And then among other things, the poor pigeons, I perceive, were loath
to leave their
houses, but hovered about the windows and balconys, till they burnt
and fell down.
and in an hour's time seen the fire rage every way; and nobody, to my
to quench it, but to remove their goods, and leave all to the fire, and
it get as far as the Steele-yard, and the wind, mighty high, and
driving it into
the city; and everything, after so long a drought, proving combustible,
very stones of the churches; and among other things, the poor steeple
by which pretty
Mrs. ____ lives, and whereof my old schoolfellow Elborough is parson,
in the very top, and there burned till it fell down; I to Whitehall,
with a gentleman
with me, who desired to go off from the Tower, to see the fire, in my
there up to the King's closet in the Chapel, where people came about
me, and I did
give them an account dismayed them all, and word was carried into the
So I was
called for, and did tell the King and Duke of York what I saw; and that
Majesty did command houses to be pulled down, nothing could stop the
seemed much troubled and the King commanded me to go to my Lord Mayor
and command him to spare no houses, but to pull down before the fire in
of York bid me tell him, that if he would have any more soldiers, he
so did my Lord Arlington afterwards, as a great Secret. Here meeting
Cocke, I in his coach, which he lent me, and Creed with me to Paul's;
walked along Watling Street, as well as I could, every creature coming
with goods to save, and, here and there, Sick people carried away in
good goods carried in carts and on backs. At last met my Lord Mayor in
like a man spent, with a handkerchief about his neck. To the King's
cried, like a fainting woman, "Lord, What can I do? I am spent; people
not obey me. I have been pulling down houses; but the fire overtakes us
we can do it." That he needed no more soldiers; and that, for himself,
go and refresh himself, having been up all night.
So he left
me, and I him, and walked home; seeing people all almost distracted and
of means used to quench the fire.
In the year
1851, the Most Excellent Grand High Priest, George Giddings, in his
address to the
Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Connecticut, made the following
if it were apposite eighty years ago, seems equally so now:
"But, Companions, in our
our rejoicings, it may be well for us to remember that the hour of
frequently the hour of danger. The fairest flower frequently produces
poison. Elated by success, we too often become careless and neglectful
of the means
by which success was acquired, and by which alone its continuance can
To this Source may be mainly attributed most of the adverse
circumstances to which
our institution has from time to time been subjected. The doors of our
Chapters have sometimes swung too easily upon their hinges. The Tyler
has been too
often found sleeping at his post. We are apt to forget, Companions,
that the strength
of every society, more especially this of ours, lies in the character
not in the number of its members. Let this truth be inscribed in
over the High Priest's Sanctuary in every Chapter in our land, and all
will be well.
Meekren, Editor in
LOUIS BLOCK. Iowa
ROBERT I. CLEGG, Illinois
GILBERT W. DAYNES, England
RAY V. DENSLOW, Missouri
GEORGE H. DERN, Utah
N.W.J. HAYDON, Canada
R.V. HARRIS, Canada
C.C HUNT, Iowa
CHARLES F. IRWIN, Pennsylvania
A.L. KRESS, Pennsylvania
F.H. LlTTLEFIELD, Missouri
JOSEPH E. MORCOMBE, California
ARTHUR C. PARKER, New York
J. HUGO TATSCH, Iowa
JESSE M. WHTED, California
E. E. THIEMEYER, Missouri
DAVID E.W. WILLIAMSON, Nevada
number we begin a new Masonic year and a new volume. It is not easy to
the course of either. We wish our members all good fortune and
happiness in the
months to come, and we hope to be able to keep THE BUILDER up to its
is, as may be said once again, the chief link between the members of
as well as taking the place of the Proceedings published by other
bodies. It has been a constant source of regret to the editor ever
since he first
had charge of the work, that some way of establishing more intimate
our members, or some of them, could not be found. The possibility of
branches has been suggested in a number of cases where it seemed that
it might be
practicable to do this. One or two tentative attempts have been made to
such branches, but so far without definite results. We believe,
however, that such
a plan would establish our work in a way otherwise impossible. There is
that the personal contact is of enormous value; indeed, without it that
but essential thing, esprit de corps, is practically unattainable. So
far as we
can see there is no reason why in every large center of population
not be a local branch of the Society. If any member feels stirred to
try and form
one we are prepared to help him with draft plans, constitutions, and so
the project has been so far worked out. Perhaps the realization of this
be one of the events of the coming year.
For the Builder
itself we can promise some interesting and useful articles. Bro Irwin
his work on Masonry in the War by a new series on the various Masonic
putting on record, before it is too late, a practically exhaustive
account of all
Masonic activities in the American Expeditionary Forces both at home
Bro. R. V.
Harris has promised another article on Masonic Heraldry, an interesting
which has never been very fully treated hitherto. Bro. D. E. W.
to have an article on the name or title Hiram Abiff, and the possible
channel by which it came into the legend of the third degree. There are
better fitted than Bro. Williamson to elucidate this particular
which he has devoted much time and labor.
been under consideration for a number of years the republication of the
of Rob Morris, but it was one of those things that might be done at any
so has always been crowded out. Perhaps this year it will be done as it
in with a new series of articles by Bros. Kress and Meekren on the
History of the
Masonic Ritual in America. Rob Morris wrote an apologia for the
the guise of an autobiography, and the Conservator movement is one of
known yet most momentous influences on the American type of ritual as
articles that may be expected, though we hardly care to promise that
they will appear,
is one on the underground existence of Masonry in Russia after its
the Government more than a hundred years ago.
also be some articles on the Scottish Rite. First there will be a
of the Albany Sovereign Consistory, Sublime Princess' of the Royal
contains much little known information about some of the outstanding
Masons of New York State a hundred years ago. This is the work of Bro
Isaac H. Vrooman.
In addition Bro. Kenderdine is preparing a series of articles on the
of the Rite in this country, which will not be approached from any
of view. Bro. Kenderdine proposes to treat the subject objectively, and
as may be possible to a trained and judicial mind.
We have other
articles under consideration, but as yet insufficiently developed to
make it worthwhile
to say anything about them.
* * *
Masonic Education Movement.
If we look
back over the course of events in the American Masonic world for the
years, or even the last ten years, one of the most outstanding features
to be the emergence of Masonic Education as an object of official
concern and policy.
Scarcely a volume of Grand Lodge Proceedings now comes out but has
report on the subject. The individual Mason as a rule does not know
much of what
is being done outside his own jurisdiction, if indeed he knows anything
of what is being done within it. On the other hand those who are
whether officially or otherwise, are apt to miss the forest because
they are so
intent upon the trees in their own vicinity.
been a great variety in the methods adopted, and still greater
differences in regard
to estimate of results. It has been remarked, by several different
there is a curious relation between the character of the reports and
of the machinery adopted. Where there are paid officials charged with
work in the various lodges, there one is apt to find most glowing
reports of the
efficacy of the work and the value of the results. Where it is
undertaken by unpaid
voluntary workers the reports are often pessimistic in the extreme.
This is really
not curious at all, it is most natural and human, aside from the fact
may be objective reasons for the difference. The paid worker is able to
and to come in contact with the brethren he is working for. And because
it is his
avocation his methods receive some kind of standardization and the key
fairly low. Besides, he sees the lodges at their best, as a rule ‒
there is generally
an extra-large crowd to receive the official visitor ‒ he is listened
to with attention,
sees only the enthusiasm he may have aroused, and goes on to repeat the
worker is in quite a different position and so sees things differently.
As a rule,
even if he has Grand Lodge recognition and official standing, he is
unable to travel
and has to do most of his work by correspondence. He has the far harder
trying to get people to help themselves. The efforts generally flicker
for a while and then die suddenly like a burnt out candle. Then too,
worker is usually something of a student himself, and he must be an
he would never undertake the task, and as a result he is inclined to
much elementary, kindergarten work has to be done before any advanced
into consideration there is a tendency now observable, here and there,
to stop and
take stock, to ask what it is really all about, and why and how? In
short, the official
Masonic Education Programs have run up against human nature ‒ or rather
nature. They have put in some kind of water supply, they have caught
the horse and
haltered him and have led him to the trough ‒ and he won't drink. The
that in reaction the whole effort may be abandoned. After all, if your
drink today you can fairly safely count on his drinking tomorrow, so
is no sense in destroying the watering trough.
This is why
an attempt to survey the whole subject and get it in some kind of
necessary. The causes for the recent interest in "Education" are by no
means clear. That Masonry was instructive has always been taken for
it was also taken for granted that all that was necessary was embodied
in the rituals,
and that attendance at the regular work of the lodge was sufficient for
Masonic education. American Grand Lodges have, since 1850 or
great interest in ritual minutiae, much of it of trifling importance,
and have expended
more ingenuity and effort in aiming at a rigid and somewhat monotonous
than has been devoted to maintaining its spirit, and in seeing that it
understandable or understood. And there are still many jurisdictions
merely means teaching the ritual so efficiently that the pupils may
recite it with
the faultless accuracy of a gramophone.
Now we do
not wish to be understood as saying this care is misplaced, though
those who know
anything of the evolution of the ritual know that it has been
in every jurisdiction from what it was seventy-five years ago, and that
of two hundred years ago would be hardly recognizable to the average
And for everyone who knows this there are a dozen who know that the
rituals of different
jurisdictions, and still more of different countries, vary almost as
widely at the
present day. And to all who are aware of these facts the pains taken to
the ipsissima verba of one particular recension must appear in a
to that in which the matter is seen generally by Grand Lecturers and
Nevertheless at the worst, this preoccupation with the preservation of
formula is only an exaggeration of a necessary requirement, a one-sided
in which the letter has become everything and the spirit left in the
For the word is nothing without its meaning, and though the ritual is
the starting point of true Masonic education, it is its significance
that is the
essential thing ‒ the form is not an end in itself, a magical
ex opere operato, but ultimately only a means to an end that is other
who served in the old Russian army as a surgeon (and being a Pole he
critical of everything Russian) once told the present writer how after
war the army authorities decided, among other things, that the Russian
education. Doubtless he did, but the method adopted was rather crude.
something like this happened: Orders were sent to Commanding Officers
regimental schools. The (commanding Officers "passed the buck" to their
company officers. These again told their non-commissioned officers to
get the men
together and teach them. The writer's informant attended one of the
of curiosity. The instructor had been assigned as his subject, "The
The gist of his lecture was this. "I am to teach you all about the
Do you know what the telegraph is? No? Well I will tell you, the
telegraph is the
telegraph. This is what you have to learn." And he made them recite in
"The telegraph is ‒ the telegraph." And that was that. It may sound
but it is probably perfectly true, for the Russian soldier was armed
and munitioned in very much the same way.
Now far be
it from us to suggest that anything like this has ever occurred in
to educate the American Mason, and yet, one has a sneaking idea that
there has been
a remote resemblance in the methods adopted, to this extent at least,
that the idea
that education was needed outran knowledge of what to teach and how to
In other words, the thing went off at half cock, and no definite aim
taken, nothing in particular was hit. Needless to say there are some
still the indictment holds good, we fear, in too many cases.
necessity in an educational movement is the selection and training of
In theory the Master is the instructor of his lodge; in practice he is,
as a rule,
utterly untrained in everything but the bare letter of the ritual; nor
has he any
chance to improve himself by experience, because by the time he has
begun to learn
something (if he has it in him) his term ends, and another untrained
man is put
in his place. After all, this is not so very different from the Russian
Now the lodge
is the traditional organ by which Masonry functions, and Masons should
in the lodge. We have the machinery, but it has so long been disused,
and is so
rusty, that instead of putting it in operation again we have been
trying all kinds
of makeshift substitutes, which if they work would probably lead to
conflicts and overlapping of function and authority. Where to start is
a most complex
and difficult problem, far more so than has generally been realized.
As a contribution
to its solution we will make a few suggestions. The first question is
quite definitely what is the proper scope of Masonic education,
The second how to ensure trained teachers. That done, it is probable
that the only
difficulties left will prove to be really matters of detail only.
step is to distinguish clearly between teaching and research. This has
been done, obvious as it may appear. Every Grand Lodge ought to foster
as much as possible, but it should not undertake it. Committees on
not be Research Committees, even if composed of Masonic students. The
is often a very poor teacher. His function is to provide the teacher
with such information
as he needs. Every Grand Lodge should have an adequate working library,
with a trained
librarian in charge. There are few Grand Lodges which could not afford
is no need for the librarian to be a man and a Mason. A trained woman
could do the
work quite competently; for the purpose of such a library is to make it
for such brethren who are interested to get access to the books they
need. But we
doubt if the establishment of a library is the first step. There are
much more elementary
things to be done first.
research aside as a thing by itself, a matter for the individual
mainly, but in
which the individual may be profitably assisted; let us turn to our
What is it that should be taught, not to some, but to every Mason? What
is it that
corresponds to a common school training, that is elementary, well
that should be universally known. The ritual here gives us a plain
answer. It is
light, illumination. But perhaps this is only another case of "the
is the telegraph," somewhat disguised. Yet there is a recognized
meaning assigned to light and illumination, even a common everyday one,
from any special Masonic symbolism. And while it is true that many have
(and some have found) a mystical illumination in the initiation, yet it
that this is only for a select few There is a plain meaning, within the
every initiate. It is simple and obvious and necessary, and like so
and obvious things is frequently overlooked, and like many necessary
ones is often
forgotten or not realized.
is this: The candidate is introduced into a new circle, a fraternity,
as an integral
part of it, and to him is shown in form and symbol his social
obligations in the light (it is difficult to avoid the term) of this
fact. The elements
of the new situation are not new, but the situation as a whole is new.
are merely new applications of moral precepts already known, but they
are new applications
to him. He may have imagined what they would be, but now he is to
realize, to actualize
them. To put it more generally, the first thing is to make him think ‒
out his new relationships, and that is the fundamental purpose of the
presented and explained to him, trite and obvious as all this may seem.
else they may mean they mean this first.
And the second
thing is to put all this into practice ‒ which is a matter of living
and is outside
the lodge. This is, or should be, Masonic work, spiritual building. In
Masonic primary education which should be universal is summed up in the
phrase, "good and wholesome instruction for their labor." But all this
is in the ritual ‒ of course it is; only it is too often not extracted
ritual. Suppose a teacher recited the alphabet to a child on its first
day in school,
and then said, "Now go and read what you like," it would seem somewhat
more insane than even the education of the Russian soldier; yet this is
lodge practice in effect. The teachers have learned to say the alphabet
more. Not being able to read themselves they cannot well teach others.
are the teachers to be taught? Let us keep close to the actual
many excellent plans would be possible, but any general movement
must be commenced, in the average lodge, with the average officers.
There is the
dead weight of insufficient knowledge, and there are a host of totally
conceptions to be overcome. The difficulties are so great that any
be only tentative, but we are going to offer one that may seem rather
it is quite in line with modern developments. The lodges have been in
more and more shorn of their original rights, liberties and
Grand Lodges, so that a new interference, one which might turn the
back in the direction of the old ways, could not be objected to in
there is already in many jurisdictions analogous legislation respecting
raised Master Masons. The suggestion is, that to qualify for office, a
be obliged to pass an elementary examination in certain fundamental
the suggestion in more detail and to make it more tangible, let us
no one could be appointed a Deacon in the lodge who did not have
some competent authority. This would practically ensure that every
have this minimum qualification. And these are the subjects we would
a written paper on a number of questions that would require knowledge
of the Constitution
and Code of the jurisdiction and, perhaps, the more recent decisions of
It is to be elementary, it is not to train Masonic lawyers. It is to
make the potential
Masters of lodges realize where to look for this information, and how
to find it
and apply it.
examination would be on the ritual. Not repeating it, the present
serve for that, but understanding it. Again it must be elementary.
to the meaning of unusual or obsolete words, of obscure phrases, with
that a good dictionary would clear up most of the difficulties. This is
work, but elementary research if one likes. The questions to be
answered with the
aid of any reference books needed, but honestly by the individual
examination would be more advanced, and would necessitate some real
The questions could be taken from almost any series of reports on
appeals. Present a number of hypothetical cases, of offenses against
quarrels and disputes, and ask what the parties ought to have done had
as Masons should.
nothing to prevent such requirements being made of those who have
ambitions to "go
through the chairs." It would be no hardship on the potential officers.
is in their power to instruct themselves, it needs no new machinery to
A man who cannot extract the information he needs from a code or a
think out the practical application of Masonic obligations to daily
life, is not
fit to be Master of a lodge. All that would be needed is the
establishment of the
examining and certifying authority. The examining could all be done by
from the central board, or it might be a feature of district meetings.
is hardly worthwhile to try and work out now. The main thing is to
grasp the strategic
points of the situation.
It is clear
that were all Masters of lodges made to realize that there was much
more to their
office than merely repeating the formulas of the ritual, some advance
automatically follow. The questions asked by newly admitted brethren
would be answered
instead of being evaded; questioning indeed would be encouraged. It
would not be
"highbrow stuff," it would be as well within the powers of the farmer
and mechanic as of the lawyer and clergyman. True, many of our members
bored by it, and think much of it sermonizing. But probably they either
themselves, or else they should not be in the lodge at all. If it led
to the latter
element getting out, the Craft would be benefitted thereby.
as we see it, is the proper scope of Masonic education. In this, Grand
a plain right and duty to act. It is nothing new, it is only trying to
we have to great extent lost. Beyond this it is probable that a Grand
not go, at least, not as now constituted. "Higher education," as we may
call it, is for the individual and for unofficial organizations of
quite free from special and local orthodoxies. The search for truth,
for new facts,
must be free if it is to be successful. Among such agencies stands the
Society. But as we have said, Grand Lodges should help the individual
means of libraries, and wherever dual membership is permitted, Research
well be encouraged. All this, however, is relatively non-essential; it
is the primary
education, implied by Masonic ritual and symbolism, which should be
made a reality;
and once the problem is seen in its true bearings Masonic authorities
seek some way to recover the effectiveness of the lodge in its teaching
* * *
Loving Cup on Pilgrimage
WE have had
"Traveling Bibles" and "Traveling Triangles," which aroused
interest in the day of their wanderings, but the brethren of Evans
Lodge, No. 624
of Evanston, Illinois, have initiated a project, that is perhaps more
symbolically as it is more ambitious in conception. It was given by a
of Evans Lodge, who modestly uses the lodge as a veil to screen his
the occasion of the raising of his son as a Master Mason. The cup is to
by traveling Masons from one lodge to another, toward the East. Thus it
to be carried around the world, and it is suggested (perhaps the
symbolism is father
to the estimate) that it will take seven years to complete its journey
returns, from the West, to Evanston.
bound booklet was privately printed and distributed to the members of
as a souvenir on the "Fathers and Sons" night, held on September 7,
This too, is anonymous, and we suspect that it may have been compiled
by the brother
who gave the cup. It is entitled "The Glorious Mystery" and contains an
account of the Legend of the Holy Grail, which aside from everything
else is a very
interesting resume of the subject.
comes the following description of the cup itself:
The "Cup of Brotherly Love"
to Evans Lodge No. 524, Evanston, Illinois, on September 7th, 1929, A,
is a marvelous example of artistic handiwork.
of sterling silver, it is heavily over-laid with yellow gold.
of the Craft carefully designed and executed the engravings, which are
elaborate and intricate, and which include many interesting features.
At the base
of the goblet are found the lily-work, net-work and pomegranates so
outer lip are inscribed the twelve zodiacal signs, each within its own
and which together make up the great Celestial Circle.
circle of All-seeing Eyes above, and a ring of emblems, including the
Compass, below, complete a Grand Circle of three.
this Grand Ring are a trinity of rings, or circles, forming an upper
the space above the lily-work, in which may be found many familiar
together with other figures of ancient use and meaning, handed down to
us from time
lip of the cup and completely encircling it, is engraved in old
the command, "Drink you from this cup of brotherly love." With this
included as a "ring," the piece becomes a "7-ringed cup" such
as those of the Legends were encircled.
in deepest appreciation of the spiritual values in Freemasonry, made of
metals in which have been wrought the most beautiful designs by highly
presented to the brethren as an earthly symbol of lofty ideals
impossible of expression
in mere words, dedicated to the mothers of all men, and consecrated to
forever of brotherly love and affection between all men, but more
brethren in Freemasonry, may this cup ever remind us of our duties to
God, our country,
our families, our neighbors and ourselves.
cup will be carried a book in which a record will be made in each lodge
it, the date and details of its coming, and of its being sent on, with
or reflections that the members of the Lodge may wish to make. There is
also a letter,
addressed to the Craft, which has been translated into French, Spanish,
German, Swedish, Dutch and Italian. The letter is as follows:
TO THE GLORY OF THE GRAND
ARCHITECT OF THE UNIVERSE:
To All and Every our Most
Worshipful, Right Worshipful,
Worshipful and Loving Brethren of the Most Ancient and Honorable
Society of Free
and Accepted Masons throughout the World to whom this message may come
Know you that upon the Raising
of his son to
The Sublime Degree, a Brother has given to the Lodge this marvelously
of Gold and Silver;
Receive from us this Cup,
to the Mothers of all Men and Consecrated forever to Brotherly Love and
between all Mankind, but more especially our Brethren in Freemasonry;
Drink you, all our Brethren,
from this Cup in
acceptance of the Fraternal Wishes for your Health, Prosperity and
of all whose lips have touched its brim;
Inscribe upon its golden
surface as you choose,
your Name, Time and Place in the endless Circle of Travel, and write
upon a Page
in the Book such Message as you consider appropriate, Posting to us by
news of your actions;
Hand on to our Brethren toward
the East, Where
and Whom as you may Desire, this Symbol of the Glorious and Mystic Tie,
Safe Conduct by the Hand of a true and trusted Brother, that it may
the Whole World and Return to us within Seven years, bearing Witness to
of our Beloved Fraternity;
Blessed be all you who shall
Welcome this Cup
of Brotherly Love and Expedite its Travels in Foreign Countries, and
may your Names
he forever Honored among Masons.
With our Brotherly Love and
The Brethren of Evans Lodge No. 524,
Ancient Free and Accepted Masons,
Evanston, Illinois, U. S. A.
IN THE YEAR OF LIGHT FIVE
THOUSAND NINE HUNDRED
AND TWENTY NINE.
– A Review of Masonry the World Over
Peace Movement in the
we may otherwise think of the "playground" of, Masonry, it has won
and respect for American Masonry by its hospitals for crippled children
‒ one of
the most truly Masonic charities, in the proper sense of that abused
has ever been undertaken. Now it is giving Masonry in North America a
The meeting of the Imperial Council to be held in Toronto in June of
this year is
to undertake a "drive for World Peace." The Shrine has its own methods,
which evidently suit its votaries, and we sincerely hope they "put it
and get the peace problem in the minds of the rank and file of American
* * *
State Of Masonry
In the larger
and wealthier jurisdictions everything appears prosperous, though even
reaction is beginning to tell. In other places the situation is already
if we may judge from various indications. For example, R. W. Bro. John
of North Carolina does not mince matters at all. He describes lodges
that have not
met for twelve months, lodge rooms in disorder, books scattered or lost
unpaid. He lays this in part to negligence on the part of Grand
Officers, but doubtless
this is not the whole cause; and this negligence may itself be part of
quarters we hear of suggestions for mergers of lodges, which again
all is not well. The advocates of consolidation say, that a country
member can drive
thirty or forty miles to a neighboring city more easily and quickly
than his grandfather
could five miles to the village. Which is true. But is the
standardizing of the
large lodge the right line to take? It is undoubtedly along the line of
and wholly in conformity with the tendencies of' modern American
Masonry; yet most
thinking brethren are inclined to believe that the large lodge,
as it may be, is a curse and a blight spiritually. What is a lodge for?
If it is
only a degree mill, plus a club, then the large lodge is obviously the
it is, or should be, something else, then such mergers may merely make
more difficult to return to a better way.
enough, a brother writing in the Master Mason under the pseudonym of
very forcibly presents the evils of the average large city lodge, and
with a half serious description of a lodge he would like to found with
a few like-minded
brethren. One that would reduce its expenses to a minimum; that would
not work more
than one degree at a time, nor permit its membership to increase above
limit. Lodges of less than a hundred members could flourish if the
knew more of what Masonry really is.
* * *
the Third Degree
authorities of Oregon have also had before them that vexed question of
how to get
the average Master Mason to qualify himself "to travel and work as
That this should be a problem is most likely a symptom only and not
itself the disease.
It is probable that if an instructor was appointed and everyone took it
that the newly raised brother was going to learn what he should know,
that in ninety-nine
cases out of a hundred he would. However in Oregon, as elsewhere,
been proposed. The Committee on Jurisprudence had before it a proposed
to the Code, which required that the brother receiving the degree of
must pass an "examination on the lecture thereon" in open lodge within
six months, and that on failure to do so “the brother shall become
suspended until such time as he shall have proved his proficiency.”
(in our opinion very wisely) refused to recommend this proposal, the
lying in the automatic suspension. No one should be denied Masonic
by the regular and deliberate act of the lodge, on cause shown.
It is very
probable that this general remissness in regard to instruction in the
has been due to the fact that there is no definite occasion (except
created by law) for the Master Mason to prove his knowledge. The
and the Fellowcraft are examined as preliminary to advancement. There
is no such
natural and obvious occasion for examination in the third degree. It is
in theory a Master Mason must be examined when entering the Royal Arch
or the Scottish Rite, but in these bodies this has long since been the
of form, and besides such examination is irrelevant to the lodge We
make a suggestion
for what it is worth. It would be a return in part to ancient usage, in
with an American innovation. The latter is the rule that only a Master
be a member of a chartered lodge, the former is the old rule that
degrees did not ipso facto confer membership in the lodge. Let the
Master remain an unattached Mason till he has passed his examination,
and make that
the occasion of his formal reception as a member of the lodge. But the
we expect, is more direct personal interest in the newly admitted
brethren on the
part of the officers and members of the lodge.
* * *
Annual Meeting of the
Masonic Service Association
In The Master Mason
for December is a report
of the annual meeting of the Association held in Chicago on November 19
1929. Upon this the Masonic Chronicler makes the following comment:
"The Masonic Service
Association has never
sought publicity, and in fact it has been exceedingly difficult to get
from its officials as to what was being done. The account in the Master
and Rhode Island answered the roll call a year ago, but apparently had
present this year. To balance the number, Delaware and New Mexico, not
in 1928, are listed this year. This indicates representation from
Lodges in each year, which may be the total membership of the
Association, and may
not. Nothing is said about resignations or the acquisition of new
is made to a resume of the year's activities, submitted by the
but this was apparently not deemed of sufficient importance to be
included in the
Master Mason's account. The fiscal or financial report is entirely
committee on audit and finance found no fault with the reports which
but not a word is mentioned auto the amount of money received or
the year, the source from which it was received or for what purpose it
was made in the membership fees required of member Grand Lodges. They
all pay a flat assessment of $250 a year, plus two cents per capita,
with the proviso
that in no case shall a Grand Lodge be called upon to pay more than
Foulds, Jr., Past Grand Master of New Jersey, who had served as
chairman of the
executive commission for the last five years, was unable to act longer
and was succeeded
by George R. Sturges, Grand Master of Connecticut. No successor to
Andrew L. Randell,
executive secretary during almost the entire life of the Association,
“We had understood
last year that Bro. Frank L. Simpson was to have taken the position as
Secretary of the Association, but for some reason this does not seem to
effective. Bro. Andrew L. Randell tendered his resignation at the
meeting in 1928,
which was accepted. All that the present report tells us that the
* * *
Considers Dual Membership
At the seventy-ninth
Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of Oregon held last June, the
M. W. Bro. R. W. Davis, devoted a part of his address to this subject.
that the Oregon code specifically forbade dual membership, he suggested
the wisdom of this prohibition was a matter of opinion, yet it was his
it militated against the good of the Craft. It is estimated that there
in Oregon five thousand Masons holding membership elsewhere who do not
wish to sever
their relationship with their mother lodge, and that to permit dual
enable them to actively participate in Masonic work. He added that "the
of registration is a minor point and can be worked out." This is
for from what has been said about this one might think that it was an
insoluble problem to avoid confusion of records.
committee was appointed to consider this part of the address and
considered it very
fully. Bro. L W. Matthews, the Chairman, advancing an ingenious theory
for the rise of this peculiarly American restriction on the freedom of
Mason. The committee reported itself as against plural membership but
in favor of
dual membership, and amendments to the Code were proposed to effect
do not make any specific distinction between dual membership in and out
of the state,
but presumably imply that an Oregon Mason can belong to two Oregon
if a Mason whose original membership is in another state, the Grand
to be informed, and pass on the question whether the other state
permits dual membership.
We are very
glad to see Oregon joining the more liberal minded of American
the doing away with needless restrictions on Masonic liberty.
* * *
League in the U.
daily press we learn that the Fascist League, which has sought to bind
in this country to the Fascist regime in Italy, regardless of their
or even of their American birth, has been disbanded. Count Ignazio di
a statement prepared for the public, claims that the League existed
only to enlighten
the American public regarding the ideals of Fascism, which task having
the machinery was of no further use and could be scrapped. This is a
to swallow, even by those who have no other information than has been
the newspapers. The League undertook propaganda naturally, but its main
to maintain a hold on Italians in this country in the interests of the
And it is most probable that it is rather the growing uneasiness at the
of such an organization that has been manifested lately that is the
for abandoning the organization, which undoubtedly has been subsidized
from Italy. We may fully expect, though, that other and less obtrusive
be sought to prosecute the end in view.
* * *
Threat of Terrorism
will undoubtedly have seen the recent newspaper reports of the
directed against Mr. Putnam of the well-known publishing house. Putnams
the book Bro. Nitti has written, describing life "in exile" as a
prisoner under the Fascist regime. Of course these threats, whether
or not, can only be the work of ignorant and half-baked adherents of
cause, but even so, they may perhaps be taken as illustrating its
affecting ignorant and violent men. All the same we hardly think the
would fell any regret if by any means the book were suppressed.
* * *
Arch Masonry in Nova
proceedings of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Nova Scotia we
at the Sixtieth Annual Grand Convocation, held at Sydney, N. S., last
June, M. E.
Comp. R. V. Harris, who is Grand Historian of the Grand Lodge of Nova
an associate editor of THE BUILDER offered the following notable motion:
In addition to the fees payable
Grand Chapter under Section 1 hereof each Subordinate Chapter shall pay
Chapter the sum of fifty cents per annum for every Companion registered
as a member
of said Chapter on the 31st day of March in each year, such sum to be
by the Board of General Purposes for the purpose of assisting in the
blind children, under such regulations as the Board may approve.
Notwithstanding the provisions
subsection (a) hereof any Chapter may apply a sum from the amount
assessed on such
Chapter under the provisions of subsection (a) and not exceeding
per annum, for community or social, welfare, service or benefit,
or bursaries, or other purpose as may be approved by the Board of
we judge, was sympathetically received, but naturally there would be
fears and hesitations
among some of the Companions, if not opposition, at the presentation of
such a proposal.
An amendment was moved as follows:
That any action in regard to
motion be postponed
for twelve months, and in meantime the Grand High Priest and Grand
be requested, during their visitations, to present matter fully to
carried, with the effect, we presume, that the motion will reappear on
of the next Grand Convocation in 1930.
hope that this noble and truly Masonic project will be endorsed by the
Masons of Nova Scotia, and that the motion will be carried next year,
and Nova Scotia
may set an example to the whole continent. But in any case, whether
passed or not,
the proposal and its reception, is a cutting comment on the recently
that is rapidly spreading in the United States, that Masonic Funds are
to be spent
only for "Masonic Purposes," understood in the most limited sense, and
that lodges must be restrained from aiding or assisting with
contributions any charitable
undertaking or social cause outside the narrow definition of what is
* * *
A brief article
on Mother Kilwinning is going the rounds of the American Masonic press,
to which will undoubtedly give the impression to many readers that this
lodge is unique in the fact that it has no charter or warrant.
this respect, nor in that of having held the position of a
nor in her immemorial antiquity, is she unique, though this epithet is
due her as
having all three of these distinctions in conjunction with being also
originating center of various orders and "high grades" ‒ an
by the way, that she has always most vigorously repudiated.
two existing lodges on the roll of the United Grand Lodge Or England,
of the four which formed the first Grand Lodge in London in 1717, or
have no warrants, but work by virtue of time immemorial constitution.
Antiquity No. 2, and Royal Somerset House and Inverness No. 4.
more than a hundred lodges in Scotland when the Grand Lodge of that
organized in 1736, the great majority of which were either of "time
constitution, self-constituted by "inherent right," or chartered by
"mother lodge" ‒ most of such charters being granted by Kilwinning. Of
all these thirty-three were represented at the assembly or convention
at which the
Grand Lodge was instituted, and William St. Clair (or Sinclair) of
information, but by inference from the works of Murray Lyon and Gould,
that the lodges that were in existence before the Grand Lodge was
formed were given
"charters of confirmation," documents acknowledging their ancient
and statutes. Whether Mary’s Chapel and Kilwinning did or did not
receive, or accept
such charters there is nothing in the standard works to show. It would
be a fraternal
act if some informed brother in Scotland would enlighten us upon the
of affairs in regard to this.
* * *
of Lodges in England.
example of the case with which misunderstandings can arise, we may cite
misapprehension that several of our European contemporaries have fallen
time ago it was officially stated in England that an application for
could not be acted upon at the communication at which it was received.
it was merely a restatement of the regulations regarding this matter,
but our brethren
on the continent seem to have understood it as a new rule, and have
impression) very naturally expressed themselves as surprised at the
laxity of investigation,
or lack of it, in English Masonry. We can assure our European readers
are thoroughly investigated in England, and the official pronouncement
the misunderstanding arose was undoubtedly in reality a reprimand and a
which in the guise of a general admonition was directed to the action
of some lodge
which was showing a disposition towards laxity in regard to the law in
in practice, the severity and thoroughness with which the character of
in every respect is investigated in European countries makes American
rather lax in comparison, even though our machinery and intentions are
reviewed in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of
at the prices given, which include postage, except when otherwise
prices are subject (as a matter of precaution) to change without
occasion for this will very seldom arise. It may happen, where books
printed, that there is no supply available, but some indication of this
given in the review. The Book Department is equipped to procure any
books in print
on any subject, and will make inquiries for second-hand works and books
out of print.
by Arthur M. Schlesinger and Dixon Ryan Fox. Published by the Macmillan
I, THE COMING OF THE WHITE MAN: 1492-1848, By Herbert Ingram Priestly,
xx and 411
pages, Vol. II, THE FIRST AMERICANS: 1607-1690; By Thomas Jefferson
xx and 358 pages, Vol. III, PROVINCIAL SOCIETY: 1690-1763; By James
Evil and 374 pages, Vol. VI, THE RISE OF THE COMMON MAN: 1830-1850; By
Fish; xix and 391 pages; Vol. VIII, THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN AMERICA:
By Allan Nevins, xvi and 446 pages Cloth, price each volume, $4.00 net.
the parts so far issued of this ambitious joint attempt to cover the
America. Each volume is the work of a specialist in the particular
aspect of American
History treated. Being done by scientific historians, the work may well
to supersede all previous American Histories, and is undoubtedly one
that no American
library worthy of the name, whether public or private, can afford to be
A detailed review of the volumes that have thus appeared will be found
on an earlier
* * *
in the Thirteen
J. Hugo Tatsch. Published by the Macoy Publishing Company. Red cloth.
illustrated index. 245 pages Price $3.15.
who have been following the writings of Bro. Tatsch in the many Masonic
to which he contributes, will greet this book, which has been published
delay, with open arms. I consider it his best volume, because he has
done much original
research, as is indicated by the announcement of five new discoveries
in the Introduction.
Though he modestly disclaims any pioneer effort, those familiar with
of literature treating of American Masonic origins will gladly give him
what he designates a compilation only. He has been generous in the
of assistance in getting facts; the roll of names listed in the
a formidable array of giants in the Masonic field. Not content with
American writers, European authorities have been consulted too to bring
which further testifies to his thoroughness. Prior to Bro. Tatsch's
army duty last March, I visited him at the Iowa Masonic Library in
and saw the voluminous files of correspondence, notes and material
which he had
gathered over a three-year period for the preparation of his book.
valuable contributions is the record of a German lodge which worked in
Army. Not only has he obtained the list of names of the Hessian
officers who were
lodge officers and members, but also a copy of the actual ritual used.
the ritual is not given in the book; but it has been located and a copy
to those interested. Tantalizing rumors of a German lodge in America
Tatsch to institute inquiries in Germany, with the happy results as
given in his
opens with a review of the unauthenticated accounts of Freemasonry in
so confuse the novice. These improbabilities are grouped or classified
so that easy reference can be made to the individual cases. He treats
the Le Plongeon
claims for Maya origins with more courtesy and consideration than they
Though, in mentioning the books in which such claims can be found, he
scientific publications which are far more convincing leaving it to the
to form his own conclusions by consulting the original works. Still it
from his own treatment of the subject that he has little faith in the
claims that have been made by the self-styled "archaeologists" of
apocryphal accounts dismissed, the story of the Craft is set against a
which the social and economic life of the Colonies is sketched. It
reader for the strictly historical accounts which follow under the
each of the Thirteen Colonies ‒ in which Vermont is given a place in
objects to the thoughtless orators who would read Freemasonry into
was said and done in the Revolutionary period. It is such passages
which lift his
book above the commonplace treatment, for he does not hesitate to
inject some original
thought into his work:
what we used to read, it would seem that our colonial forefathers were
of the great future before the American nation, and never did anything
cause us to think that they were anything less than supermen. This
thought has been
carried to a ridiculous extreme by Masonic orators, who would have one
every act was prefaced by the question, is this in accordance with
and precepts? They profess to see Masonry, as such, written into all
they maintain that practically all of our colonial and revolutionary
members of the Craft. Such of our patriots who were Masons may have
unconsciously by Craft ideals; but to intimate that they were
by the actual thought is to accuse them of an uncalled for
provincialism. It is
such intimations that have kept capable historians from considering the
Fraternity at all when studying the movements which were a part and
parcel of colonial
Yet the author
does not deny that Freemasonry exerted a moral force, for he says:
reputation which Freemasons of all ages have enjoyed is proof of the
worth of the
institution, for the prestige of the Craft is only the sum total of
by its individual members. Friendship, morality and brotherly love have
fostered where Freemasons foregathered. The story of the Craft in
is passed on books of history by those engaged in similar works. A
reading of the
chapters is at once convincing that the material has been ably
necessarily much condensed, in order to hold the volume down to a
the essential facts are presented, so that anyone wishing to pursue the
in minute detail can get the story from the books cited in the copious
at the end of each chapter. These notes are of particular value because
together, under one heading, the worthwhile books from which the larger
be made. They form in themselves a bibliography of Colonial Masonic
each chapter in detail is impractical. The Pennsylvania and New Jersey
contain much information about Daniel Cone that has not hitherto
appeared in book
form, although published in magazine articles, fully credited in the
Massachusetts had two Grand Lodges for a time; the story is carried
down to the
period when the two united and contributed to the literature of
Freemasonry by the
publication of the 1792 and 1798 CONSTITUTIONS, about the printing of
Tatsch had a separate article in the Iowa Grand Lodge Bulletin [March,
"Isaiah Thomas: Printer, Patriot and Freemason."
of Freemasonry in Vermont is especially interesting because of Canadian
which prevailed at one time. Bro. Tatsch cites the History of
Freemasonry in Quebec
in which many of the details are found. Under New York is reported a
French Lodge, the charter of which Ossian Lang, Grand Historian of the
of New York, located in Nova Scotia. Freemasonry in the Carolinas
which fascinate the student and indicate that there is yet much to be
about the early lodges. Roman Catholic persecution of Masons in
under English warrants, is also related.
has so much to present that the author gives two chapters to that
one of which concerns itself entirely with the history of Norfolk Lodge
No. 1. It
is evident from the treatment given, and the supplemental matter
one Virginia brother, at least, did not agree with the conclusions of
but the latter has left the door open for the inclusion of anything new
be adduced, and which may serve to upset the concepts as based upon the
far ascertained. This critical but fair treatment is typical of Bro.
as a whole, as he takes nothing for granted and sifts the evidence
anything, he leans rather heavily to the writers of the Gould and
and does not give too serious consideration to fables and fancies, but
them as such.
One is not
surprised to find a long chapter devoted to military lodges of the
chapter, as well as the others, indicates that restraint was necessary
to keep them from becoming books in themselves. Considerable space is
given to American
Union Lodge, whose records, fortunately, are extant.
separate facts are brought out in the book. For instance, General John
was elected Grand Master of New Hampshire without having served as
Master of a Lodge;
but he was not installed until he had in the meantime been elected and
as Master of St. John's Lodge. It is shown that the Grand Lodge of New
formed by a group of individuals, and not by a group of lodges. The
a New Jersey Mason, can attest the excellent presentation of the facts
his own Grand Jurisdiction, with which he is naturally very familiar.
Lodge of Tennessee is mentioned as having come into existence by a
warrant or charter
from the Grand Lodge of North Carolina ‒ a situation unique in the
annals of American
Freemasonry. The book presents accounts of Masters Lodges, which met in
for the purpose of conferring the Master Mason degree only, for it was
about the middle of the eighteenth century that the three degrees were
in spite of the excellent work he has produced, is apparently not
with the volume, for in an Epilogue he speaks of his "meagre" treatment
of the story as a whole. No matter what he thinks, it is evident that
he has prepared
a readable and instructive volume, and has succeeded in reaching the
Mason," in spite of his reference in Chapter IV to Bro. Robert Freke
as "the Thucydides of Masonic history" which we feel sure is just a bit
"beyond the pale" for the "average Mason," seeing Thucydides
ceased to exist 401 B. C.! Bro. Tatsch thus describes his work:
"What I have brought together
for the 'Average Mason,' whose number is legion, and whose support of
combined with that of three million and more of his brethren in the
enables the Craft to function as effectively as it does. He is not
the technical details of origins, jurisprudence and practices which
specialist; what he seeks is a presentation which will give him a
of the Fraternity as a whole. This is what I have attempted to do with
Masonry in this volume, and it is with sincere regret that phases were
really belong to the full treatment of the American Craft in colonial
is precisely what he has done.
* * *
Believe In Man
Judge Leon McCord. Published by Harper Brothers. Cloth, 137 pp. Price,
CITY is a crossroads for good folk of all kinds ‒ through its gates
pass men and
women from every corner of our country, and also from the lands across
The fratres calami – brothers of the pen – are especially to be found,
or later they come to this city of literary agents and publishers, and
writers have no difficulty in making their way to the exclusive
Some, in fact, are invited; among such is the author of I Believe in
Man ‒ Brother
Leon McCord of Alabama. Through a happy courtesy on the part of
Harper's, I was
not only told of Brother McCord's visit but was also privileged to
enjoy an hour's
visit with him in my own office. Hence my brief comment on his book is
based upon a perusal of it, but also upon a knowledge of his work as
told in many
an incident, tragic and comic, that he related during his
is a judge of the Circuit Court at Montgomery, Alabama. For many years
before him in review the offenders against the laws of his state. Not
merely pass judgment and to sentence, reprieve or dismiss those
appearing at the
bar of justice, he has delved into the lives of criminals in an effort
to find underlying
causes for crime. What he has learned is reflected in his book; the
short but striking. They make one think. Each one is a jewel that needs
other than the sympathetic spirit which the reader inevitably brings to
after reading but a single page.
Let it be
said that the book is not a recital of morbid stories or tales of
it holds the reflections which come upon a thoughtful man as he ponders
experiences of the long line of offenders who have passed in review
years of public service. Brother McCord has transmuted the sordid
details into gems
of practical wisdom; he has presented them in the form of short talks
conviction, and inspire his listeners and readers to better effort.
believes not only in man, but also in the youth of our country. It is
after reading so much of a condemnatory nature in current publications,
a man in a position of authority write thus:
generation of America is a challenge to you. They are yet sweet and
clean, and have
aspirations and hopes that soar as high as the morning star. They
road information; hot blood calls for speed, and they are soon on the
the road. The sharp curves, the pitfalls, and the unbridged streams are
on your road map in red. You can make of that road a better and safer
way for these
children. If you hold in your heart the love of mankind; if the world
sees in you
an example of the Golden Rule; if the children have come to love and
if they have come face to face with the Master because of you, then you
bridges across the chasms of avarice, greed, and hate, and the children
of the nation
will find the roadway open to a nobler and better life.
It is this
Masonic spirit of restoration and new construction that permeates the
pages of I
Believe in Man. I know of no better book of present times which one can
enjoyment and profit; brethren who wish to find suggestions and
short talks before luncheon clubs, church gatherings and lodges, will
do well to
purchase this volume.
* * *
Decline of the West
[Lib 1926]. By Oswald Spengler.
translation, with notes by C. F. Atkinson. Cloth, prefaces, table of
and 440 pages, price $4.50 net.
are to be tasted," says Bacon, "others to be swallowed, and some few to
be chewed and digested.
some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not
some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention." It is in
last category, as a book to be chewed and digested, that the great Lord
would without a doubt, have placed Oswald Spengler's Decline of the
West. And to
endowed with a good knowledge of the German language to boot, for
are formulated in German speech, and even in translation are redolent
of the original
tongue, the thorough mastication of the Decline of the West will be a
and profitable occupation. Few, however, are so encyclopedically
equipped, and for
most the book will be one to be tasted; to be skimmed where the
of the argument requires a specialized knowledge, and read with
attention when the
general ideas are being enunciated or the particular technique is at
command. Such a skimming or tasting is, perhaps, the best line of as
clearly the general ideas which the separate arguments are intended to
and which are well worth attention.
has come, according to Spengler, when the old historical philosophies
and the old
methods of historical study should be abandoned, and replaced by new.
are written from a West-European point of view, and regard the past as
leading up to our present condition, thus falsifying the real character
or Babylonian history by regarding it as a mere prelude to classical,
histories as those of India and China which are not related to western
and falling into the ancient, mediaeval, and modern division, which
meaningless and barren:
to all these arbitrary and narrow schemes, derived from tradition or
into which history is forced, I put forward the natural, the
form of the historical process which lies deep in the essence of that
reveals itself only to an eye perfectly free from Repossessions. ‒ In
mankind is habitually, and rightly, reckoned as One of the organisms of
surface ‒ Only bring analogy to bear on this (the historical) aspect as
on the rest,
letting the world of human cultures intimately and unreservedly work
upon the imagination
instead of forcing it into-a ready-made scheme. Let the words youth,
decay ‒ be taken at last as objective descriptions of organic states.
the classical culture as a self-contained phenomenon embodying and
classical soul, put it beside the Egyptian, the Indian, the Babylonian,
and the Western, and determine for each of these higher individuals
what is typical
in their surgings and what is necessary in the riot of incidents. And
then at last
will unfold itself the picture of world-history that is natural to us,
men of the
West, and to us alone.
Spengler proceeds to describe:
A boundless mass of human
Being, flowing in a
stream without banks, up-stream a dark past wherein our time-sense
loses all powers
of definition ‒ ; down-stream, a future even so dark and timeless ‒
such is the
ground-work of the Faustian [Western] picture of human history. Over
of the water passes the endless uniform wave-train of the generations,
‒ but over
this surface, too, the great Cultures accomplish their majestic
appear suddenly, swell in splendid lines, flatten again and vanish, and
of the waters is once more a sleeping waste.
historical method for the Western or Faustian soul is, therefore, to
examine the various cultures as separate organisms, to study them, as
Nature physiognomically. Such a physiognomic view will reveal the fact
culture is the product of a definite and special soul, of a special way
at life and the world. Classical culture, for example, was the product
of the "Apollinian'"
an a-historic, soul, living in the present, whose prime-symbol was the
individual body, and whose vision was bounded by the visible horizon;
the outward manifestation of the "Faustian" soul, whose prime-symbol is
cure and limitless space. Every aspect of a culture, its mathematic,
its plastic and musical art, will be determined by the character of
soul ‒ or "possible." The spatially limited Apollinian will produce
geometry, the classic temple, and sculpture in the round; the unbounded
will give birth to the modern form of mathematic, the Gothic cathedral
striving upward to the infinite, and a particular type of oil-painting
The cultural manifestation of each underlying soul will, accordingly,
have a limit.
When the possible expression of that particular soul in science and art
accomplished, the culture must inevitably harden, decline, and die.
idea of Destiny replaces that of Causality as the great historical
some deep inward compulsion the culture must rise along pre-determined
Although particular events and movements [incidents] might have
than actually occurred, the main course of development and the
necessity of final
decline are irrevocably decided. More, it appears from a comparative
that all cultures pass through similar phases, that the stages of their
are parallel and four in number. Spring, the period of
Great creations of the newly-awakened dream-heavy soul. Super-personal
fullness. Summer, the time of "ripening consciousness. Earliest urban
stirrings." Autumn, the age of "Intelligence of the city. Zenith of
intellectual creativeness." And Winter, the final phase, marked by the
of megalopolitan civilization. Extinction of spiritual creative force
becomes problematical. Ethical-practical tendencies of an irreligious
cosmopolitanism." These four phases would appear to be of approximately
time-duration in the various cultures. We may therefore discard the old
chronology which regarded a great figure or movement of classical
culture as "earlier"
than a corresponding personality or development of Western, and adopt a
scheme which would regard them as cultural contemporaries.
views are accepted, history need no longer restrict itself to the role
and interpreter of the past, but may confidently assume that of
prophet. Since it
is the destiny Or each culture that rises from the world-waters of
humanity to pass
through these various phases of identical character, and of
duration, we may ascertain from the conditions of the day the place of
our own age
in the life-story of Western culture, and shall then be able to
anticipate the course
it has still to run before it reverts again into the proto-soul from
which it sprang.
It is Spengler's belief that the Faustian culture has entered the final
the cultural life-history, the winter-season of megalopolitan
period of the extinction of the spiritual creative force and of a hard,
efficient, material existence. Some two centuries of slackening energy
be spent before the decline of the West is finally accomplished and the
of the Faustian soul joins those of the Egyptian, Apollinian, and
Magian, as something
that has been.
the layman, would appear to be the main ideas which Spengler develops
and elucidates by exceedingly interesting analyses of Apollinian,
and Western mathematics, philosophy, and art. The view of world-history
presents is that of a mass of humanity, a proto-soul, out of which form
a succession of cultural souls, each of a definite character,
["actualizing its possible"] in an individual political, scientific,
artistic development; with the certainty that when the cultural soul
the total expression of its innate possibilities, the culture must
harden into "mere
civilization" and die away.
in any fair and adequate fashion on Spengler's ideas would require a
series of treatises ‒ to which end a Spengler library seems in process
A mere review must limit itself to one or two considerations. And
first, as any
student of the past would expect, in spite of the constant stressing of
of his views, much of Spengler's philosophy is reminiscent of earlier
the views of his cultural contemporaries. The remark of Bury in the
Progress" that the general view of the Greek philosophers was that they
living in an age Of inevitable degeneration and decay ‒ inevitable
because it was
prescribed by the nature of the universe," has a familiar ring for one
from the perusal of the Decline of the West Jean Bodin's division of
into three great periods, not ancient, mediaeval and modern, but those
of the South-Eastern,
the Mediterranean, and the Northern races, the note of the first being
that of religion,
of the second practical sagacity, of the third warfare and inventive
each having a duration of approximately two thousand years, would seem
in the 16th century, at least dimly, much of Spengler's 20th century
Or world-history as the study of a series of specific cultures. And the
be indefinitely extended.
chief weakness of Spengler's method is that it is too rigid and
rightly condemning the attempts of former writers to crush history into
framework, he is himself liable to fall into the same error. As an
example of this
tendency his view of the Greek historians may be cited. Having
determined that the
prime-symbol of the Apollinian soul is the visibly-present,
he decides that the Greek soul must have been a-historic, able to grasp
and depict contemporary events in a masterly fashion, but falling into
error in the attempt to deal with even the near past As a
generalization this is
true enough; but when Spengler makes his statement absolute, and
from the rank of a great historian to that of a brilliant annalist of
his own age;
it is permissible to doubt, more especially when it is discovered that
he has misrepresented
his author to prove the point. On page 10, Spengler states that:
As for Thucydides, his lack of
‒ in our sense of the phrase ‒ is conclusively demonstrated on the very
of his book by the astounding statement that before his time (about 400
B. C.) no
events of importance had occurred in the world.
actually says is:
The character of the events
which preceded [the
Peloponnesian War], whether immediately or in more remote antiquity,
owing to the
lapse of time cannot be made out with certainty. But judging from the
I am able to trust after most careful enquiry, I should imagine that
were not greater either in their wars or in anything else.
He then proceeds
to discuss earlier times in a manner which shows that he was very far
in vision to his own day, and anything but "a-historic."
book, as Taine pointed out, there is something more than a single
is the whole view of life land state of society from which it
proceeded. It may
therefore not be amiss, in conclusion, to relate Spengler's ideas to
in Germany during the 19th and 20th centuries. In a lecture delivered
some twenty-five years ago a prominent German historian pointed out
that there were
two Germanys, the dreamy, artistic, philosophical Germany of the South,
hard, efficient, practical Germany represented by the Prussian state.
of the country was accomplished by the triumph of the latter, which
to effect a transformation of the German world after its own pattern,
such former centers of culture as Weimar to the role of provincial
towns, and develop
the megalopolitan life of Berlin. It is impossible to read Spengler
the close relation of this development with his thought. It is to
Goethe that he
looks for inspiration and illustration, as a glance at the number of
under that name in the index will show. The Decline of the West is a
the overshadowing of the philosophical, musical, literary, and artistic
the practical, efficient, megalopolitan civilization, and may not
described as an "Elegy on Weimar."
Des Vereins Deutscher Freimaurer Mit Kalender
Published by the Verein Deutscher Freimaurer. Leather, 272 pages. Price, 2
THIS is the
sixth edition of this pocket-book diary and calendar. It is on the same
the previous editions. A diary calendar, followed by complete
German Grand Lodges and lodges, names and addresses of officers and so
about the V. D. F. itself and a list of lodges working in the German
the world, and a list of Masonic periodicals published in German.
has in addition an interesting essay on some prominent German Mason,
which is given
the place of honor in the book. Last year the subject was Christoph
in the present volume it is "Herder, as a Freemason," which subject is
dealt with by Dr. Rudolph Mense of Bonn.
* * *
Years of the
Carnegie Hero Fund
W. J. Holland, President of the Commission. Paper, 15 pages.
has passed since Andrew Carnegie founded this fund. It was important
news at the
time, the papers everywhere were full of it, and all the
about it. Today it is comparatively an ancient institution, and though
have a vague feeling of familiarity with the name, few really know what
was the idea that those who performed actions of conspicuous bravery in
of everyday life were fully as deserving of public honor as those who
themselves on the field of battle. Mr. Holland relates the
circumstances in which
the idea took form, and gives a compressed account of what has been
Box and Correspondence
Elimination of the Chapter.
to your "Chronicle and Comment" in the November, 1929, issue of your
page 343, "The Elimination of the Chapter," certainly deserves a few
of appreciation from all seriously minded Royal Arch Masons wherever
One is really
led to wonder what degree of "Masonic" intelligence is possessed by the
reviewer of the proceedings of the Grand Commandery, K T. of Illinois.
the biggest surprise is that he could find an entire "committee" to
such a report. The reviewer's reference to the "Royal Arch Chapter
mill stone about the neck of the Order of Knights Templar" and "if the
Royal Arch Chapter cannot stand upon its own merits, then the sooner it
of business the better" are ample evidence of his ignorance of basic
Law and Landmarks, particularly Landmark Second. Whatever may have been
intentions of those who deemed it essential to inject the "bond" of
belief into the structure of "Free" Masonry, the fallacy of such idea
is proven beyond doubt by the undisguised attitude of Illinois
Templarism at the
As to your
own comment on this matter, I can find but one fault, and that is your
that it might be better to make the "fuss and feather" degrees open to
Entered Apprentices. Maybe playgrounds and parades are more suitable
for the novices
and Masonic "youths" before they ever enter the door of a symbolic
But once a profane declares his desire to become "free," it is really
an insult to his intelligence to expect him to return to the "bonds" of
denominational organizations, from which he has just "escaped."
same, I want to repeat that your comment upon, and frank exposure of
on the trestleboard of Knight Templarism deserves the thanks of
Arch Masonry. They are words of caution whispered into the ears of
Royal Arch Masons
exposed to grave danger. The wide circulation of THE BUILDER will do
WALTER H. BRAUN, Wisconsin.
* * *
I have been
a subscriber of your magazine for some time, and enjoy it very much.
In your November
issue, page 343, the article entitled "The Elimination of the Chapter,"
in reply would quote C. C. Hunt, a P.G.H.P.
inevitably suggest themselves. One is the germinating and
of Masonry. While its three Great Lights, its Ancient Landmarks remain
from age to age, while it is not in the power of any man or any body of
men to make
innovations in the body of Masonry, yet in the application of its
diffusion of its light what a wonderful instance of organic development
Here indeed is genuine evolution. Not like the spurious development of
held by some religious teachers, which consists in the denial of truths
been believed and revered from the first, but a development by actual
increment. Knowledge from previous knowledge, truth from truth, light
this is the law of Masonic evolution, and how impressive and striking
of this is the whole system of Royal Arch Masonry. If, as has been
was a mutilation of the Third Degree when the Royal Arch was formed,
at the wealth and beauty of teaching which has therefrom accrued to the
Body as a whole can regret it? It is indeed a striking illustration of
the law of
sacrifice that the greatest good to the greatest number may be
obtained; and the
law of sacrifice is the law, not of death but of greater and fuller
life, the supreme
instance of which in all the world, and in all ages, is the sacrifice
of Him who
said: "I came that they might have life and have it more abundantly.”
infinitely humbler but very real sense, this is true of the sacrifice
by the Third
Degree of its greatest treasure, and thereby, the Royal Arch might be
we look on our time-honored Institution today, we see no stunted or
no bare and blasted trunk on which the tempests and the lightning have
will, but we behold, as it were, a magnificent and beautifully
full of vigorous life coursing from its downmost fiber to its topmost
branches reach the remotest confines of the civilized world, in whose
we may find rest from the burden and heat of the day, whose blossoms
eye, whose fruit gives food and sustenance to our moral and
And of the several branches which go to make up this imperial growth,
is fairer or more fruitful than the Royal Arch with its four collateral
Oh, who could wish this branch lopped from the parent tree of Masonry,
unwritten, its ultimate secret relegated back to the Third Degree.
Surely not one
of the Royal Craft, not one who has ever partaken of its fruit, who has
its beautiful ceremonies and absorbed its sublime lessons. The
contribution of Royal
Arch Masonry to the entire Masonic system is beyond all laudation, and
A.E. CANTELON, Minnesota.
some of our readers may have misapprehended what was proposed by the
of the Grand Commandery of Illinois. He did not propose the abolition
of the Chapter
(which indeed would be ultra vires, not to say absurd) but the
the best word perhaps, of the requirement that a Mason must have
received the Royal
Arch before entering the Templar Order, and this is presumably a
for the Knight Templars to decide for themselves. While we may hazard a
such action would probably reduce the number of applicants for
exaltation, we are
sure it would very greatly raise the average level of their quality,
for the Chapter
would at once cease to be regarded as a mere stepping stone to the
Shrine, which is all it is in the minds of hundreds of Companions ‒ in
* * *
Membership and Research
stated your opinion more than once that "dual" or "plural" membership
would permit the formation of real "Research Lodges." But these lodges
would not be concerned with initiating men into Masonry, their work not
anyone who is not a Master Mason.
‒ N. W. J. H., Canada.
have been several instances within the last ten years in which an
attempt was made
to found a Research Lodge in America. Those cases known to us have been
separated states, but the outcome in each was the same. There was
adequate provision for financial obligations and there was no by-law or
understanding among the members to prohibit, or even limit, initiations
lodge. The result of these two causes in conjunction was that the lodge
applications in the usual way in order to obtain the initiation fees,
which it needed
to meet its expenses. This had two obvious consequences. Owing to the
ritualistic work there was no time left for reading and discussing
papers; and owing
to the difficulty of divining beforehand whether a profane is going to
in Masonic research or not and the strong probability is that he will
not be interested),
the original founders of the lodge were soon swamped by "average"
"good fellows," but bored stiff by anything "highbrow." In order
to meet this necessity for a carefully selected membership of those who
their interest in the intellectual side of Masonry, all successful
(wherever they exist) either have by-laws against receiving
applications for initiation,
or a general understanding, rigidly lived up to, that none will be
this implies that unless a Mason can belong to more than one lodge, he
the ordinary lodge life and interests, which very few zealous Masons
to do. Thus dual or plural membership does open up the possibility of
Research lodge in any jurisdiction permitting it. And we may say once
more, to remove
a persistent misapprehension, that there is no need for any special
charter to start
one; and in reality, no need for any special by-laws to maintain one.
of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, for example, is in precisely the same form
as that of
any other English lodge. It is empowered to initiate, pass and raise
like any other lodge, even though it never does. Naturally those
proposing to start
such a lodge would explain their object to the Masonic authorities, and
to receive their passive approbation at least. But considering the
in Masonic education now aroused in the United States, this should not
We rather wonder which of the Grand Lodges that have adopted the
principle of plural
membership, or are thinking of doing so, will have the honor of being
in such a development.
* * *
received the following communication from Dr. Joseph Fort Newton, which
he has sent
out generally to the Masonic Press. Bro. Newton is one of the most
perhaps the most widely known Mason living today, and his decision to
his Masonic labors will be received with regret not only in this
country but the
world over. Bro. Newton was the first editor of THE Builder, although
he only held
the post for two years and a half, as he necessarily felt obliged to
he had gone to England. However, length of time is not always a measure
It is quite possible that THE BUILDER might never have existed had Bro.
been on hand to direct it in its earliest days.
years, or thereabouts ‒ to be exact, since 1912 ‒ I have had three
outside my home: the Church, the University, and the Lodge. To these
fields of labor
my energies have been given, in about equal measure; and in all three I
trying to do one thing ‒ that is, to interpret the spiritual worth and
my aim has been twofold: to induce Masons to know more about Masonry,
and to inspire
them to do more with Masonry. In my little book The Builders [Lib 1914] ‒ now to be read in many
Dutch, Swedish, Spanish, Syrian ‒ as editor of THE BUILDER, the journal
of the National
Masonic Research Society ‒ and, later, of The Master Mason, the journal
of the Masonic
Service Association; in many books, and on a thousand Lodge platforms,
I have tried
to do somewhat in behalf of the gentle Craft of Freemasonry.
have done better work, but no one ever worked harder, trying to do good
work, square work, in the effort to expound the principle and to
promote the practice
of Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth; by which I mean the Truth that
makes all other
truth true. My work speaks for itself and is worth what it is worth; it
is not for
me to estimate its value, if it has any, still less to appraise its
for the Craft. All a man can do is to do his work, as best he can, or
well or ill,
and pass on; leaving the results with the Master of all Good Work to
have reached a time of life when I cannot go on doing so many things,
and must conserve
and concentrate my energies to do some things of which I have long
the night falls and no one can work. To that end I am withdrawing as
editor of The
Master Mason ‒ with which I have had only a nominal association since
of last March ‒ and from all active labors in Freemasonry; and I shall
attempt such work as I have been trying to do in the years gone by. My
has not been reached without reluctance and profound regret, and I
shall be lonely
for a time; but it must be so, and one must face facts.
If the Grand
Master will grant me grace, I hope sometime to write a little book on
of Masonry, and a Manual for Young Masons and Masters of Lodges, as
well as the
Masonic History of Texas, my native State; but these things are only
may not come true ‒ if only because our fleeting life is of such stuff
are made on, rounded with a Sleep. Yet, if all dreams came true, life
its luster, and there would be nothing to look forward to Beyond ‒ out
the City on the hill.
To all my
Brethren, all over America, in England, in Africa, Australia and the
far ends of
the earth, good men and true, brothers and builders, the very thought
of whom has
been an inspiration in the midst of the years, whose fellowship has
added a whole
dimension to my life ‒ men to know whom is a kind of religion, and
whose love on
earth has made a God of Love real and radiant in the heavens ‒ I send
blessings, thanksgiving, and goodwill. To each one I would fain whisper
a tiny word
trust God, hope much, fear not at all, and love with all your heart.
Joseph Fort Newton
* * *
I read your
articles with much pleasure and especially agree with the sentiments
your question, What is the Matter with Masonry? They fit in precisely
with the judgment
of a good many Masons here in the West. Only not too much stress has
on the almighty dollar which very often opens the doors of our temples
for men who
don't care for obligations, misusing the name of Mason for gain only.
Hope to see
some more of this style.
B. J. BOUBIGIUS, Oregon.
* * *
to congratulate you on the excellence of the magazine both in contents
I am chairman of our Library and Reading Room Committee and place it on
when I have read it. It may interest you to know that I have complete
files of it
from first number to present time. Wishing you all manner of good
things for the
T. R. STONER, South Dakota.
* * *
In THE BUILDER'S
list of books, I notice the Caliph of Bagdad [Lib*], by Sylvanus Cobb,
novel pertains to the Council Degrees. The author wrote two other
One entitled Alaric or the Tyrant's Vault [Lib*], which was based upon
Lodge Degrees. The other was entitled The Keystone [Lib*], and of
course was founded
upon the Royal Arch Degree. These three novels were first printed in
York Ledger," (Robert Bonner's famous story paper), many years ago.
was printed about seventy years ago; (caliph about sixty years ago, and
later. The first two mentioned were afterwards reprinted in book form,
those editions are out of print. I don't know that The Keystone was
in book form. If desired for reprinting, I presume copies of the first
stories mentioned might be obtained.
lived and died at Hyde Park, Massachusetts, and was a member of the
Blue Lodge at
that place. He was also a Knight Templar, and was a thirty-second
of the Scottish Rite. Bro. Cobb was an extensive and versatile writer
and his many
novels and stories over different names were printed in a number of
and were very popular.
A.O. ROBINSON, Florida.
* * *
Degrees of Masonry
We are engaged
in revising the series of articles published in THE BUILDER in 1928 and
a view to republishing them. Our request for comment, corrections and
in the final article was quite serious. The articles were, many of
under circumstances not conducive to the complete accuracy that such a
to be of any real value. We have discovered some errors, and in a few
argument will have to be modified, but it is often very difficult to
from the inside. If such of our readers who are interested in the
subject and have
taken time to read the articles, would give us the benefit of any
have to make, we should be really very grateful.
A. J. Kress.
‒ R. J.
* * *
George G. Meade
Has any reader
of THE Builder any information in regard to whether General George G.
a Freemason or no? Or can suggest any place where the information might
History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
Supply Co., 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 594. - 24.5 MB.
A History of the United States
since the Civil War - Vol 1
Obe17HU1 / auth. Oberholtzer Ellis P. - New York : The Macmillan
Company, 1917. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 598. - 25.4 MB.
A History of the United States
since the Civil War - Vol 2
Obe22HU2 / auth. Oberholtzer Ellis P. - New York : The Macmillan
Company, 1922. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 663. - 26.9 MB.
A History of the United States
since the Civil War - Vol 3
Obe26HU3 / auth. Oberholtzer Ellis P. - New York : The Macmillan
Company, 1926. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 545. - 27.5 MB.
A History of the United States
since the Civil War - Vol 4
Obe31HU4 / auth. Oberholtzer Ellis P. - New York : The Macmillan
Company, 1931. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 757. - 44.6 MB.
Abraham Lincoln and the Union
Ste18 / auth. Stephenson Nathaniel W. / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford :
Oxford Press, 1918. - Vol. 29 : 50 : p. 324. - Vol 29 of The Chronicles
of America - 8.6 MB.
Adventurers of Oregon
Ski201 / auth. Skinner Constance L. / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford :
Oxford Press, 1920. - Vol. 22 : 50 : p. 329. - Vol 22 of The Chronicles
of America - 8.9 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 018 - 1905
Ars05 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1905. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 256. - 15.0 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And38 / auth. Anderson James. - London : J. Robinson, 1738. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 249. - 16.2 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And23 / auth. Anderson James. - London : William Hunter, 1723. -
Fac-Simile by Jno. W. Leonard & Co., New York, 1855 : Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 119. - 6.0 MB.
And201 / auth. Andrews Charles M / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 9 : 50 : p. 266. - Vol 9 of The Chronicles of
America - 10.0 MB.
Crusaders of New France
Mun20 / auth. Munro William B / ed. Johnson Allan. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 4 : 50 : p. 277. - Vol 4 of The Chronicles of
America - 8.2 MB.
Diary and Correspondence - Vol 1
Pep85DC1 / auth. Pepys Samuel / ed. Bright Mynors. - New York : Dodd,
Mead and Co., 1885. - Vol. 1 : 9 : p. 386. - 13.1 MB.
Diary and Correspondence - Vol 2
Pep85DC2 / auth. Pepys Samuel / ed. Bright Mynors. - New York : Dodd,
Mead and Co., 1885. - Vol. 2 : 9 : p. 369. - 12.5 MB.
Diary and Correspondence - Vol 3
Pep85DC3 / auth. Pepys Samuel / ed. Bright Mynors. - New York : Dodd,
Mead and Co., 1885. - Vol. 3 : 9 : p. 365. - 12.7 MB.
Diary and Correspondence - Vol 4
Pep85DC4 / auth. Pepys Samuel / ed. Bright Mynors. - New York : Dodd,
Mead and Co., 1885. - Vol. 4 : 9 : p. 361. - 11.8 MB.
Diary and Correspondence - Vol 5
Pep85DC5 / auth. Pepys Samuel / ed. Bright Mynors. - New York : Dodd,
Mead and Co., 1885. - Vol. 5 : 9 : p. 362. - 12.3 MB.
Diary and Correspondence - Vol 6
Pep85DC6 / auth. Pepys Samuel / ed. Bright Mynors. - New York : Dodd,
Mead and Co., 1885. - Vol. 6 : 9 : p. 369. - 13.1 MB.
Diary and Correspondence - Vol 7
Pep85DC7 / auth. Pepys Samuel / ed. Bright Mynors. - New York : Dodd,
Mead and Co., 1885. - Vol. 7 : 9 : p. 368. - 12.5 MB.
Diary and Correspondence - Vol 8
Pep85DC8 / auth. Pepys Samuel / ed. Bright Mynors. - New York : Dodd,
Mead and Co., 1885. - Vol. 8 : 9 : p. 365. - 12.7 MB.
Diary and Correspondence - Vol 9
Pep85DC9 / auth. Pepys Samuel / ed. Bright Mynors. - New York : Dodd,
Mead and Co., 1885. - Vol. 9 : 9 : p. 378. - 13.3 MB.
Dutch and English on the Hudson
Goo20 / auth. Goodwin Maud W / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 7 : 50 : p. 286. - Vol 7 of The Chronicles of
America - 8.3 MB.
Woo20 / auth. Wood William / ed. Johnson Allan. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 3 : 50 : p. 279. - Vol 3 of The Chronicles of
America - 8.7 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre29 / auth. Preston William and Oliver George. - London : Whittaker,
Treacher, and Co., 1829. - 14th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 482. - 21.7
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre75 / auth. Preston William. - London : J. Wilkie, 1775. - Second
Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 327. - 10.0 MB.
John Marshall and the
Cor20 / auth. Corwin Edward S / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 16 : 50 : p. 277. - Vol 16 of The Chronicles of
America - 8.5 MB.
Pri30 / auth. Prichard Samuel. - London : Charles Corbett, 1730. - 20th
Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 35. - 1.7 MB.
Ort20 / auth. Orth Samuel P / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 35 : 50 : p. 284. - Vol 35 of The Chronicles of
America - 11.4 MB.
Wre50 / auth. Wren Sir Christopher. - London : T. Osborn, 1750. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 388. - 38.3 MB.
Pioneers of the Old South
Joh20 / auth. Johnston Mary / ed. Johnson Allan. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 5 : 50 : p. 288. - Vol 5 of The Chronicles of
America - 7.7 MB.
Pioneers of the Old Southwest
Ski20 / auth. Skinner Constance L / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford :
Oxford Press, 1920. - Vol. 18 : 50 : p. 325. - Vol 18 of The Chronicles
of America - 10.6 MB.
Texas and the Mexican War
Ste21 / auth. Stephenson Nathaniel W / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford :
Oxford Press, 1921. - Vol. 24 : 50 : p. 325. - Vol 24 of The Chronicles
of America - 9.8 MB.
The Age of Big Business
Hen20 / auth. Hendrick Burton L / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 39 : 50 : p. 215. - Vol 39 of The Chronicles of
America - 7.6 MB.
The Age of Invention
Tho21 / auth. Thompson Holland / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1921. - Vol. 37 : 59 : p. 298. - Vol 37 of The Chronicles of
America - 9.7 MB.
The Agrarian Crusade
Buc20 / auth. Buck Solon J. / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 45 : 50 : p. 264. - Vol 45 of The Chronicles of
America - 6.1 MB.
The American Nation - Vol 01
AmNa01 / auth. Cheyney Edward P / ed. Hart Albert B. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1904. - Vol. 1 : 28 : p. 375. - 16.3 MB -
European Background of American History 1300-1600.
The American Nation - Vol 02
AmNa02 / auth. Farrand Livingston / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1904. - Vol. 2 : 28 : p. 328. - 9.7 MB -
Basis of American History 1500-1900.
The American Nation - Vol 03
AmNa03 / auth. Bourne Edward G. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1904. - Vol. 3 : 28 : p. 374. - 20.0 MB -
Spain in America 1450-1580.
The American Nation - Vol 04
AmNa04 / auth. Tyler Lyon G / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York : Harper
& Brothers, 1904. - Vol. 4 : 28 : p. 378. - 14.4 MB - England
in America 1580-1652.
The American Nation - Vol 05
AmNa05 / auth. Andrews Charles M. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1904. - Vol. 5 : 28 : p. 391. - 14.6 MB -
Colonial Self-Government 1652-1689.
The American Nation - Vol 06
AmNa06 / auth. Greene Evarts B. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1904. - Vol. 6 : 28 : p. 383. - 20.5 MB -
Provincial America 1690-1740.
The American Nation - Vol 07
AmNa07 / auth. Thwaites
Reuben G. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York : Harper & Brothers, 1904. -
Vol. 7 : 28 : p. 345. - 13.3 MB - France in America 1497-1763.
The American Nation - Vol 08
AmNa08 / auth. Howard George E. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1904. - Vol. 8 : 28 : p. 374. - 14.6 MB -
Preliminaries of the Revolution 1763-1775.
The American Nation - Vol 09
AmNa09 / auth. Van
Tyne Claude H. / ed. Hart
Albert B.. - New York : Harper & Brothers, 1904. - Vol. 9 : 28
: p. 395. - 23.5 MB - The American Revolution 1776-1783.
The American Nation - Vol 10
AmNa10 / auth. McLaughlin Andrew C. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1904. - Vol. 10 : 28 : p. 371. - 16.1 MB -
The Confederation and the Constitution 1783-1789.
The American Nation - Vol 11
AmNa11 / auth. Basset John S. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York : Harper
& Brothers, 1904. - Vol. 11 : 28 : p. 354. - 15.3 MB - The
Federalist System 1789-1801.
The American Nation - Vol 12
AmNa12 / auth. Channing Edward / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1904. - Vol. 12 : 28 : p. 320. - 12.7 MB -
The Jeffersonian System 1801-1811.
The American Nation - Vol 13
AmNa13 / auth. Babcock Kendric C / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1904. - Vol. 13 : 28 : p. 365. - 15.4 MB.
The American Nation - Vol 14
AmNa14 / auth. Turner Frederick J. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1904. - Vol. 14 : 28 : p. 392. - 13.0 MB -
Rise of the New West 1819-1829.
The American Nation - Vol 15
AmNa15 / auth. MacDonald William / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1904. - Vol. 15 : 28 : p. 366. - 11.6 MB -
Jacksonian Democracy 1829-1837.
The American Nation - Vol 16
AmNa16 / auth. Hart
Albert B. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York : Harper & Brothers, 1907. -
Vol. 16 : 28 : p. 382. - 15.6 MB - Slavery and Abolition 1831-1841.
The American Nation - Vol 17
AmNa17 / auth. Garrison George P. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1906. - Vol. 17 : 28 : p. 381. - 14.0 MB -
Westward Extension 1831-1841.
The American Nation - Vol 18
AmNa18 / auth. Smith Theodore C. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1906. - Vol. 18 : 28 : p. 358. - 10.6 MB -
Parties and Slavery 1850-1859.
The American Nation - Vol 19
AmNa19 / auth. Chadwick French E. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1906. - Vol. 19 : 28 : p. 386. - 15.2 MB -
Causes of the Civil War 1859-1861.
The American Nation - Vol 20
AmNa20 / auth. Hosmer James K. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1906. - Vol. 20 : 28 : p. 365. - 14.0 MB -
The Appeal to Arms 1861-1863.
The American Nation - Vol 21
AmNa21 / auth. Hosmer James K.. - New York : Harper & Brothers,
1907. - Vol. 21 : 28 : p. 367. - 13.8 MB - Outcome of the Civil War
The American Nation - Vol 22
AmNa22 / auth. Dunning William A. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1907. - Vol. 22 : 28 : p. 393. - 16.0 MB -
Reconstruction Political and Economic 1865-1877.
The American Nation - Vol 23
AmNa23 / auth. Sparks Edwin E. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1907. - Vol. 23 : 28 : p. 393. - 15.7 MB -
National Development 1877-1885.
The American Nation - Vol 24
AmNa24 / auth. Dewey Davis R. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York : Harper
& Brothers, 1907. - Vol. 24 : 28 : p. 376. - 13.7 MB - National
The American Nation - Vol 25
AmNa25 / auth. Latane John H. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York : Harper
& Brothers, 1907. - Vol. 25 : 28 : p. 366. - 13.3 MB - America
as World Power - 1897-1907.
The American Nation - Vol 26
AmNa26 / auth. Hart Albert B.. - New York : Harper & Brothers,
1907. - Vol. 26 : 28 : p. 426. - 21.2 MB - National Ideals Historically
The American Nation - Vol 27
AmNa27 / auth. Ogg Frederic A. / ed. Hart Albert B.. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1918. - Vol. 27 : 28 : p. 446. - 22.8 MB -
National Progress 1907-1917.
The American Nation - Vol 28
AmNa28 / auth. Matteson David M.. - New York : Harper &
Brothers, 1918. - Vol. 28 : 28 : p. 383. - 20.5 MB - Analytic Index.
The American Spirit in Education
Slo21 / auth. Slosson Edwin E / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1921. - Vol. 33 : 50 : p. 355. - Vol 33 of The Chronicles of
America - 12.2 MB.
The American Spirit in
Per20 / auth. Perry Bliss / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford Press,
1920. - Vol. 34 : 50 : p. 317. - Vol 34 of The Chronicles of America -
The Anti-Slavery Crusade
Mac20 / auth. Macy Jesse / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford Press,
1920. - Vol. 28 : 50 : p. 253. - Vol 28 of The Chronicles of America -
The Apocalypse of Freemasonry
Cas25 / auth. Castells Francis de P.. - Edinburgh : Neill &
Co., Ltd., 1925. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 230. - 0.4 MB.
The Armies of Labour
Ort201 / auth. Orth Samuel P / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 40 : 50 : p. 303. - Vol 40 of The Chronicles of
America - 7.7 MB.
The Boss and the Machine
Ort19 / auth. Orth Samuel P / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1919. - Vol. 43 : 50 : p. 225. - Vol 43 of The Chronicles of
America - 6.3 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Captains of the Civil War
Woo21 / auth. Wood William / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1921. - Vol. 31 : 50 : p. 465. - Vol 31 of The Chronicles of
America - 14.7 MB.
The Cleveland Era
For201 / auth. Ford Henry J / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 44 : 50 : p. 268. - Vol 44 of The Chronicles of
America - 6.9 MB.
The Complete Free Mason
Unk641 / auth. Unknown. - Unknown City : Unknown Publisher, 1764. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 199. - 9.9 MB.
The Conquest of New France
Wro20 / auth. Wrong George M / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 10 : 50 : p. 288. - Vol 10 of The Chronicles of
America - 8.8 MB.
The Cotton Kingdom
Dod20 / auth. Dodd William E. / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 27 : 50 : p. 204. - Vol 27 of The Chronicles of
America - 6.1 MB.
The Day of the Confederacy
Ste20 / auth. Stephenson Nathaniel W / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford :
Oxford Press, 1920. - Vol. 30 : 50 : p. 246. - Vol 30 of The Chronicles
of America - 6.5 MB.
The Decline of the West
Spe26 / auth. Spengler Oswald A G. - New York : Alfred A Knopf, 1926. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 981. - 37.7 MB.
The Dominion of Canada
Ske19 / auth. Skelton Oscar D / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1919. - Vol. 49 : 50 : p. 347. - Vol 49 of The Chronicles of
America - 8.2 MB.
The Eve of the Revolution
Bec20 / auth. Becker Carl / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford Press,
1920. - Vol. 11 : 50 : p. 298. - Vol 11 of The Chronicles of America -
The Fathers of New England
And20 / auth. Andrews Charles M / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 6 : 50 : p. 258. - Vol 6 of The Chronicles of
America - 7.6 MB.
The Fathers of the Constitution
Far21 / auth. Farrand Max / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford Press,
1921. - Vol. 13 : 50 : p. 288. - Vol 13 of The Chronicles of America -
The Fight for a Free Sea
Pai20 / auth. Paine Ralph D / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 17 : 50 : p. 275. - Vol 17 of The Chronicles of
America - 8.7 MB.
Whi20 / auth. White Stewart E / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 25 : 50 : p. 294. - Vol 25 of The Chronicles of
America - 7.5 MB.
The Hispanic Nations of the New
She20 / auth. Shepherd William R / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 50 : 50 : p. 282. - Vol 50 of The Chronicles of
America - 7.6 MB.
The Masters of Capital
Moo20 / auth. Moody John / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford Press,
1920. - Vol. 41 : 50 : p. 247. - Vol 41 of The Chronicles of America -
The Natural History of Wiltshire
Aub47 / auth. Aubrey John. - London : J. B. Nichols and Son, 1847. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 148. - 14.5 MB.
The New South
Tho20 / auth. Thompson Holland / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 42 : 50 : p. 276. - Vol 42 of The Chronicles of
America - 9.5 MB.
The Old Merchant Marine
Pai201 / auth. Paine Ralph / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 36 : 50 : p. 244. - Vol 36 of The Chronicles of
America - 6.7 MB.
The Old Northwest
Ogg20 / auth. Ogg Frederic A / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 19 : 50 : p. 267. - Vol 19 of The Chronicles of
America - 7.9 MB.
The Passing of the Frontier
Hou20 / auth. Hough Emerson / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - p. 224. - Vol 26 of The Chronicles of America - .
The Path to Empire
Fis201 / auth. Fish Carl R / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 46 : 50 : p. 326. - Vol 46 of The Chronicles of
America - 8.3 MB.
The Paths of Inland Commerce
Hul20 / auth. Hulbert Archer B. / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 21 : 50 : p. 244. - Vol 21 of The Chronicles of
America - 7.6 MB.
The Quaker Colonies
Fis20 / auth. Fisher Sydney G / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 8 : 50 : p. 266. - Vol 8 of The Chronicles of
America - 8.4 MB.
The Railroad Builders
Moo21 / auth. Moody John / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford Press,
1921. - Vol. 38 : 50 : p. 277. - Vol 38 of The Chronicles of America -
The Red Man's Continent
Hun20 / auth. Huntington Ellsworth / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford :
Oxford Press, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 50 : p. 226. - The Chronicles of America
- Vol 01 - 7.5 MB.
The Reign of Andrew Jackson
Ogg19 / auth. Ogg Frederic A / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1919. - Vol. 20 : 50 : p. 274. - Vol 20 of The Chronicles of
America - 7.4 MB.
The Sequel of Appomattox
Fle20 / auth. Fleming Walter L / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 32 : 50 : p. 341. - Vol 32 of The Chronicles of
America - 9.4 MB.
The Spanish Borderlands
Bol21 / auth. Bolton Herbert E. / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1921. - Vol. 23 : 50 : p. 366. - Vol 23 of The Chronicles of
America - 10.2 MB.
The Spanish Conquerors
Ric20 / auth. Richman Irving B / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1920. - Vol. 2 : 50 : p. 266. - The Chronicles of America - Vol
02 - 8.6 MB.
The Tragic Era
Bow29 / auth. Bowers Claude G. - Cambridge : Riverside Press, 1929. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 591. - 77.5 MB.
Theodore Roosevelt and His Times
How21 / auth. Howland Harold / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1921. - Vol. 47 : 50 : p. 308. - Vol 47 of The Chronicles of
America - 8.3 MB.
Washington and his Colleagues
For20 / auth. Ford Henry J / ed. Johnson Alan. - Oxford : Oxford Press,
1920. - Vol. 14 : 50 : p. 269. - Vol 14 of The Chronicles of America -
Washington and his Comrades in
Wro21 / auth. Wrong George M / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1921. - Vol. 12 : 50 : p. 341. - Vol 12 of The Chronicles of
America - 10.8 MB.
Woodrow Wilson and the World War
Sey21 / auth. Seymour Charles / ed. Johnson Allen. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1921. - Vol. 48 : 50 : p. 402. - Vol 48 of The Chronicles of
America - 10.5 MB.