– Volume XV – Number 12
Masonic Research Society
Bro. W.J. Marshall, P.G.M.,
the wheel of time has turned to that season of the year when the
pauses to remember and reverence Him who came to bring good tidings of
on earth, good will toward men."
On the date
of a pagan festival, the Christian harks back to Bethlehem, to the
birth of Jesus,
to the visit of the Magi, to the wonderful story that was told the
a day the world takes stock of its virtues and forgets its vices, to
honor by unselfish
kindness Him who was of all men most unselfish and most kind. Even the
and most hardened can feel the thrill of kindness that goes around the
the Christmas season and can wish to be and to live as did the Great
God has given us.
was not celebrated during the first century of the Christian church.
period the death of notable persons was observed rather than their
birth. In the
fourth century a feast was established in honor of the birth of the
the exact date of Christ's birth was not known, in the fifth century
ordered His birth celebrated perpetually on the date of the Roman feast
of the birth
of Sol. Among the Celtic and Germanic tribes the winter solstice was
an important part of the year and they celebrated their chief festival
of Yule to
commemorate the return of the "Burning Wheel." Although the holly, the
mistletoe and the Yule log had their original significance in paganism,
yet in our
celebration of Christmas the occasion is one of Christianity.
the Child that was born in the manger to the eternal glory of mankind.
In the memory
of that Child we seek to subdue that which is evil within us and in
memory of that
day church bells ring and from thousands of pulpits comes once more the
story of the Son of God, who died that men might live. It is a story
nothing as the years go by; it is the greatest thing that the olden
times have given
to the fevered, frenzied present; it is the greatest happening of all
of Christmas is the spirit of Christ, as does the lesson of His life
find its application
in lightening the burdens of others. Now, of all seasons of the year,
we are prompted
to remember others by kind thought, word and deed, especially those who
fortunate than ourselves. Let me remind you that it is living according
to the Golden
Rule and performing every duty which characterize good men and Masons.
Let us endeavor
to live more in harmony with the IDEAL whom God has sent for our
German of Glotthold Ephraim Lessing
By Bro. B.A.
last they've gone! O these prattlers! And
didn't you notice, or didn't you want to notice, that the one with the
wart on his chin ‒ let his name be what it will ‒ is a Freemason? He
threw so many hints.
heard him well enough. I even noticed from
his remarks something that probably failed to strike you. He is one of
those who, in Europe, are fighting for the Americans.
wouldn't be the worst thing about him.
has the whimsical idea that The Congress is
a lodge; that, at last, there is the place where the Freemasons, with
armed hand, are establishing their realm.
there even such dreamers?
must be so.
from what do you gather this freakishness
a trait which surely will be better known
to you, some time.
Heavens! If I knew that I had deceived
myself in the Freemasons so greatly.
without fear! The freemason calmly awaits
the rising of the sun, and lets the lights burn as long as they will
and can. To extinguish the lights, and then, after they are
extinguished, only to perceive that, after all, one has to relight the
stubs, or perhaps even put in other candles, that is not the affair of
the Freemason (1).
my thought, too. Whatever costs blood is
surely not worth blood (2).
Now ask whatever you will. I shall have
to answer you.
there'll be no end to my questioning.
you're unable to find the beginning.
understand you or did I not understand
you when we were interrupted. Did you contradict yourself or did you
not contradict yourself? For when you aid to me once that Freemasonry
had always existed, I certainly understood it to mean that not only its
essence but also its present constitution dates back to times
that were the case for both! In its
essence Freemasonry is just as old as human society. Both could not
help but come into existence together. It might be questioned whether
organized human society is not merely an offspring of Freemasonry. For
even the flame in the focus is outflow from the sun.
that somewhat faintly, too.
be it mother and daughter, or sister and
sister, the destinies of both have always been mutually interwoven.
However human society fared, so fared also, everywhere, freemasonry;
and so also, inversely. It was always the surest mark of a sound,
muscular government when it permitted freemasonry to flourish along
with it; just as it still is the mark of a weak, timid state, when it
will not publicly tolerate what, after all, it must tolerate in secret,
whether it desires to do so or not.
For at bottom it is based not upon
formal organization, which degenerates so easily into observance of
routine civil ordinances, but it is based on the feelings that
sympathetic minds have in common
who dares to enjoin them?
true, notwithstanding, that always and
everywhere Freemasonry had to shape and fit itself to organized
society, and the latter was always the stronger. However varied in kind
organized society has been, just so many forms of Freemasonry, too, was
constrained to assume and, naturally, each new form had its new name.
How can you believe that the name Freemasonry is probably older than
the prevailing mode of thought of the states, in exact conformity to
which it was carefully considered?
what is this prevailing mode of thought?
is left for you to investigate. Let it be
sufficient if I say to you that the name Freemason, to indicate by it a
member of our secret brotherhood, had never been heard before the
beginning of this current century. Before this time it does not
authentically appear in any printed book, and I'd like to see him who
will show it to me in even a written document that is older.
is to say, the German name.
no! Also the original, Freemason (3), as
well as all translations patterned after it, no matter in what language
they may be.
not! Stop and think! In no printed book
before the beginning of the current century? In none?
I myself have…
that so? Did your eyes, too, get into them
some of that dust which is still being thrown about?
Surely, the passage in…
the Londinopolis? (4) Isn't it? Dust!
the acts of Parliament under Henry VI? (5)
the great privileges which Charles XI King
of Sweden, granted the Lodge of Gothenburg?
philosopher. His communication to Count
Pembroke; his annotations to an inquiry that was written by Henry VI
with his own hand? (6)
must be quite a new find. I don 't know
it. ‒ But again Henry VI? ‒ Dust! And nothing but dust!
you know a milder term for distortion of
words, for forged documents?
do you mean to say that, without being
reproved, they could carry on a thing like that, with the eyes of the
world on them?
not? Of knowing ones there are far too few
to oppose all coxcombry the moment it is begun. Enough that it is not
outlawed. Better it were, indeed, if no silly foolery [Geckereien] at
all were undertaken before the public. For the worst of its kind, by
the very fact that it is the worst and that no one takes the trouble to
oppose it, may attain the appearance of being a very serious, sacred
matter, in the course of time. Then, in a thousand years from now, it
will be said: "Would they have been permitted to write that and send it
out into all the world if it had not been true? These credible men were
not contradicted then, and you want to contradict them now?"
History! O History! What art thou?
sorry rhapsody in which the history
of architecture is substituted for the history of the Order, this might
still pass! For just one time and for those times it might have been
well enough. Besides, the hocus pocus [Gaukelei] was so evident. But
that they still continue to build on this boggy ground, that they still
want to maintain in print what they are ashamed to assert against a
serious-minded man by word of mouth, that they permit themselves to
commit a forgery (3) for the continuation of a prank that ought to have
been discontinued long ago, for which forgery, if a contemptible civil
interest is involved in it, the pillory (3) is imposed, that…
what if it were true that more than a play
upon words prevails here? What if it were true that the secret of the
Order had been especially preserved since antiquity by the members of
this homonymous craft?
must it not be true? If not, how would it
come about that the Order should take its symbols from just this craft?
Just this one, and from no other?
question is rather artful, I admit.
such a fact must surely have a cause?
it has one.
has one? And has a cause other than the
I guess, or may I ask?
you had asked another question earlier, one
that I couldn't help but expect of you long since, your guessing
wouldn't come very hard now.
question that you couldn't help but
expect of me?
if I said to you that that which is
Freemasonry hasn't always been called Freemasonry, what was more
natural and more immediate…
to ask, what else it was called? Surely!
Well then, I'm asking it now.
asking, what Freemasonry was called
before it was called Freemasonry? ‒ Massoney (7)
yes! Masonry (3) in English.
masonry (11) in English, but masony (11).
Not derived from mason, the builder, but from mase (8), the table, the
the table? In what language?
the language of the Anglo-Saxons (9). But
not in this alone, also in the language of the Goths and Franks,
consequently an originally German word of which various derivations are
still in use or were, at least, until quite recently, such as:
Maskopie, Masleidig, Masgenosse (10). Even Masoney (11) was still in
frequent usage in Luther's time; only its good meaning had deteriorated
know nothing about either its good or its
you surely know about the custom of our
ancestors, of deliberating at table even the weightiest matters? Well
then, tease, the table, and masoney, a closed, intimate company at
table. And you can easily conclude how a closed, intimate company at
table became a drinking bout.
it only recently that the word lodge
almost suffered a similar fate?
previous to the time when, in part, the
masonies had degenerated thus, and had been lowered thus in the
estimation of the public, they were all the more highly respected. No
court in Germany, either small or great, that did not have its masoney.
The old songbooks and histories are witnesses to that. Separate
buildings, connected with the castles and palaces of the reigning
lords, or that were located in that neighborhood, took their names from
them. In recent times we have so many groundless interpretations of
these names. And what need I to say to their renown more, than that the
Society of the Round Table was the first and oldest "masoney" from
which all others have descended?
Round Table? That goes back into a very
the story of King Arthur be as legendary as
it will, the Round Table is not that legendary.
Arthur is said to be the founder of it.
at all. Not even according to legend.
Arthur, or his father, had taken it over from the Anglo-Saxons, as the
term "masoney" itself suggests. And what is more self-evident than that
the Anglo-Saxons brought over to England no custom which they did not
leave behind in their native country? Also, it may be seen in a number
of German tribes of that time that the natural propensity to establish
smaller, intimate societies within the larger, civil society was
peculiar to them.
this you mean ‒?
that I am now telling you cursorily, and
perhaps not with the proper precision, I bind myself to authenticate,
black on white, the next time you and I are in town among my books.
Only now, hear me as one hears the first rumor of some great event. It
tickles rather than satisfies curiosity.
did you stop?
"masoney" was a German custom which was
transferred to England by the Saxons.
scholars are not in agreement as to who
were the Mase-Thanes (7) among them. According to every appearance they
were the nobles of the "masoney," that struck its roots so deeply into
this new soil, that it retained its tenacious hold under all subsequent
changes of government and, from time to time, showed itself to be most
gloriously prosperous. Especially the "masonies" of the … of the
twelfth and thirteenth centuries stood in very high repute. And it was
such a … "masoney" which had maintained itself right in the heart of
London, up to the end of the seventeenth century, in spite of the
abrogation of the Order. And here begins the time when, to be sure, the
hints recorded in history are deficient. But a carefully preserved
tradition that has so many intrinsic tokens of truth is ready to
replace this deficiency.
what is it that prevents this tradition
from being written down and thereby being advanced to history?
Nothing prevents it! Rather does
everything about it recommend that this step be taken. At least I feel
that I am authorized, and even bound, no longer to make of it a secret
that is to be kept from you and all who are in the same position with
then! You have roused my expectations to
… "masoney" then, which still existed in
London at the end of the last century, but in great secrecy, had its
meeting house not far from Saint Paul's Church, which was being rebuilt
at that time. The architect of this second church of the world was…
you have named the author of all present
short, Wren, the architect of St. Paul's
Church in whose neighborhood an age-old "masoney" met, that goes back
to time immemorial. Wren was a member of this "masoney" which he
attended all the more frequently during the thirty years that the
building of it continued.
beginning to scent a misunderstanding.
nothing else! The English people had
forgotten, had lost the true meaning of the word "masoney." &
"masoney" (3) that was located near such an important structure, which
the architect of this structure attended so diligently, what could that
be other than a Masonry (3), other than a society of men skilled in
building, with whom Wren is deliberating over the difficulties that
continued construction of such a building
interested all London. To get first hand reports about it, everybody
that thought he had some knowledge of building endeavored to gain
admission to the supposed "Masonry" ‒ and found it to be a vain
endeavor. finally ‒ you know Christopher Wren, not merely by name, you
know what an imaginative, active head was his. Before that, he had
assisted in devising a plan for a Society of the Sciences, whose
purpose it was to make speculative truths more generally helpful, and
more profitable to civil life. Suddenly here occurred to him the
counterpart of a society which, from the practises of civil life might
rise to speculation. "In the former," he thought, "there would be
investigated that is servicable among that which is true: and in the
latter, what is true among that which is serviceable. How would it be,
if I made some of the principles of the "masoney" exoteric? And suppose
I conceal whatever can't be made exoteric and hide it under the
hieroglyphics and symbols of that craft? Everybody persists in thinking
that the word "masoney" (3) signifies that very thing (12). Suppose I
expand the "masony" (3) to a "Free-Masonry" (3) in which more people
could take part?" Thus thought Wren, and Freemasonry came into
existence. Ernst! What's wrong with you?
feel like one who has been blinded.
you begin to see some light?
Too much, all of a sudden.
you now understand?
pray you, my friend, nothing more! But don't
you have business in town soon?
you wish me there?
After you have promised ‒
I have business enough there. Once more!
Speaking from memory, I probably have expressed myself too ambiguously,
too unsatisfactorily about some things. But among my books you shall
see and understand. ‒ The sun is setting. You must go to town? Farewell!
different sun has risen for me. Farewell!
sixth dialog among these friends is not to be patterned after these.
But the essential
part of it is intended to be a critical annotation to the fifth dialog.
it is being withheld (13)
- A possible
meaning for this is, that it is not the affair
of the Freemason to destroy a political status or relationship and then
one that is the same in kind or is similar to it. The Freemason permits
order to continue, and calmly awaits the rise of liberty. This
in harmony with Lessing's political views.
- It is reported
by Lessing's contemporaries that he owes
this doctrine to Benjamin Franklin. The latter is quoted as having said
can be attained only by virtue, and virtue only by reason; that with
liberty cannot be purchased.
- The English
word is here used by Lessing.
an historical Discourse or Perlustration
of the City of London, etc., by James Howel, Esq., was printed in
London in 1657.
A memorandum in Lessing’s miscellaneous notes states that he knew of
Howel as a
"scribbler," but that he knows nothing of the book entitled
by him. From p. 44 of this work a friend quotes to Lessing, "The
Masons, otherwise called Freemasons, were used to be a loving
brotherhood for many
ages; yet were they not regulated to society, till Henry IV. Their arms
a Chevron between three castles argent, a pair of compasses of the
- Anderson, Book
of Constitutions 1723, p. 33, et seq.
- That Locke
wrote such annotations is not established,
and is generally doubted now.
- Lessing spells
it thus, but with the use of German letters.
Both massoney and Masony have been adapted by the translator from the
of Lessing. Naturally, therefore, neither is given either in the New
or in Murray's. Grimm's German Dictionary defines Masonei as a group at
approximately, as mahsaay.
- Base occurs in
Anglo-Saxon in variant forms, the commonest
being mese, pronounced, probably, may say. There is an undoubted
between the stem mas, or mes, and the modern English mess. Cf. messmate.
- These German
words are obsolete now. In part, Lessing's
etymology with regard to them is undoubtedly wrong.
- German nouns
are now capitalized, though Masleidig is
not a noun.
authoritative, print of 1780 says here: "How
would it be if I conceal whatever can't be made exoteric, under the
and symbols of the same craft, and expand the meaning of Masonry, as
now, into a Freemasonry in which more people could take part?" The
the other translation above, is involved in language and seemingly
contrary to good
usage in construction. In this place also the English words were used
trace of a
sixth dialog has ever been found among
Curious Russian Seal
By Bro. Oscar
or charm which is here described was bequeathed to the present owner by
John Long, who obtained it, by purchase, from a Russian. Nothing
further is known
of its history. As many of those who have examined it have
independently been impressed
by the apparently Masonic character of the design, it may be of
interest to readers
of THE BUILDER, and it may be possible that analogous designs may be in
and that from them more might be learned as to the meaning and origin
of the one
is an amethyst beautifully engraved in intaglio. The inscriptions are
all cut in
reverse, to leave a correct impression when used as a seal on soft wax.
cut shows the exact size of the object. The outer rim or border being
which is of silver, with a sort of crow's foot ornament engraved all
The amethyst is a flat oval stone, flat on the obverse side, on which
is the design,
and rounded on the reverse, being considerably thicker in the middle
than on the
edge. This side is finished by being marked with lozenges or diamond
figures, and it has been suggested by some who have examined it that
have been intended to represent the mosaic pavement of the ground floor
of the Temple.
As will be
seen there is an inscription running three-quarters of the way round
the edge. This,
as well as the others, is in the Russian language. Translated it reads:
your last hour. Never commit a sin. "
inscription, at the top, is a group of objects of which the most
prominent is the
two Tables of the Law, given by God to Moses on Mount Sinai. The Roman
from one to ten engraved upon them stand for the Ten Commandments. To
partly concealed, is an elaborately bound book, and to the right a
As the design is undoubtedly of Russian origin, it may be assumed that
is intended for the Book of the Gospels, of which a copy, ornately and
is always to be found on the altar of every Russian Church.
objects are irradiated by rays proceeding from behind them and arranged
shape. Below them is a winged sextile, an obvious symbol of time. Over
this is placed
a square tablet, or rectangle, supporting the tables of the law, and
upon it is
an inscription which may be translated "Everything is threatened by
comes a very curious group of objects. A two handled chalice or vase,
springs a branch or plant, upon one of the shoots of which is
what seems to be some kind of fruit, which may be intended for an
apple. Next to
this is a clock face, the hands pointing to the hour of nine. Then
comes a square
figure, containing two diagonal bars and a round boss in the center,
and intention of which is very uncertain, and lastly a lighted candle
in a candlestick.
Below these is a coffin, at the head of which is a skull and cross
bones. Upon the
coffin is the inscription, "After Death the Resurrection."
immediately below the coffin does not plainly appear in the cut, which
is from an
enlarged photograph of the seal itself, reversed to make the
In an impression of the seal it appears quite plainly as a line
separating the design
from the scroll below, while there are three bosses or hemispherical
one placed at each of the three visible corners of the coffin. Whether
this is merely
ornamental or not is not clear. Perhaps more knowledge of Russian
and customs might explain them.
line is a scroll upon which appears the word or name, Perstall, while
and the line, and partly superposed upon each, is the Greek letter, Phi.
of the inscriptions were made by the National Geographic Society, to
whom the owner
sent photographs of the seal. It was suggested by them that the word
either the name of a place, or possibly of the original owner. But this
a guess, unless it should be found that such a name actually exists. It
suggested that the Greek letter stood for Philosophy. But this again is
certain, as many equally significant Greek words begin with this
it may be accepted as possible.
of four objects above the coffin is very curious and their explanation
much to be
desired. The lighted candle is fairly obvious in meaning ‒ it very
human life. The clock is an emblem of time; but why is the hour of nine
emphasized? A clock face representing time in general, would naturally
hands placed symmetrically. While this is not absolutely certain, it
does seem as
if some special significance is here hidden. The branch or sprig in the
be taken (if we could be certain of the Masonic character of the
design) as being
the Sprig of Acacia; but the leaves are obviously not Acacia leaves,
and the single
fruit on the lower right hand shoot makes it still more certain that it
is not Acacia
that is intended. As a matter of fact the general impression given is
that of a
small rose bush, and in that case the round object might be intended
for a blossom.
The symbolism of the rose is as old, if not older, than that of the
it is not of course, especially Masonic.
group of emblems seems to be definitely Christian in character, but
this of course
does not necessarily debar them from being also Masonic. It would be
if more could be learned about the intention of the design, and whether
it was purely
individual, or whether it has definite antecedents which would lead us
to some satisfactory
Bro. A. W. Altenbern, Kansas
ONE of the
greatest tasks confronting the Craft today, if, indeed, it is not the
the fraternity has ever had to face, is that of making Masonry itself
in the life of the world. In order to avoid misunderstanding later on
we must, of
course, at the very beginning, come to an agreement of what we mean by
Masonry effective." If we do not some of us are apt to be thinking of
and the rest of us about something entirely different, much to the
us all. We need to understand, also, that a definition, to be really
must be simple enough to be intelligible to the ordinary person and, at
time, it must avoid the mistake of a simple resort to synonymous terms,
In the fewest
possible words, then, as well as in the simplest we can hope to
making Masonry effective " means putting Masonry, and all it stands
work in the affairs of men, more especially in the affairs of Craftsmen
It may mean a great deal more, of course; but it most assuredly cannot
be a feeling of surprise on the part of some that any one should
consider it necessary
to have to say anything at all on the subject. This attitude, I think,
is due to
the supposition that because Masonry is old, and because lodges are
everywhere, it has, for that very reason, been as effectively at work
in the world
as we have a right to expect. But because a great deal has been laid
on the general subject of Masonry (no other Fraternity in all history
such a body of literature) it does not follow, of necessity, that
Masonry has been
as effective as it might be or as it ought to be. On the contrary, if
to have any particular permanent value it must not be simply something
to talk about;
something to provide an interesting field for philosophical
if you will, as so often happens in the case of religion, to believe;
it must be
instead a dynamic power working not alone for the benefit of the Craft,
the uplift of humanity as well. This it might be, I am persuaded, with
conspicuous as to be observable wherever Masonry is known.
be, as I suppose we all believe, the best as well as the greatest
in the world; but, unless its influence for good, its power for
betterment in the life of the world, goes out in constantly widening
circles ‒ like
those which go out from the point where a pebble is east into the water
‒ it might
as well not exist at all as far as the welfare and the happiness of
a whole is concerned.
much to the detriment of the world as well as to the Fraternity, many
of our members
have thought, and even taught, that Masonry was an organization to
belong to, instead
of something to be done; or, in other words, a kind of a life to be
lived. It would
seem, then, that before Masonry can be as effective in the world as it
of being, and as it ought to be, there will have to be, on the part of
in general, an awakening to the realization that there is a vast
these two conceptions of Masonry; that, in point of fact, they have
little or nothing
in your family, or in mine, were seriously ill and the physicians
called in only
offered philosophical dissertations upon the antiquity, or the beauty,
or the symbolism
of their system of treatment ‒ and not only did nothing, but arrived at
as to what to do ‒ until the patient died, would we not be justified in
to pay fees? Or even in bringing legal action for malpractice? Nay,
it not be our duty to do so that others might be protected?
for us to face seriously is this: Has not something of this sort, on a
scale I am
afraid none of us fully appreciate, been going on for years in Masonry?
not literally hundreds of thousands, if not millions, who still think
is simply a fraternal and social organization ‒ something to belong to
perhaps, to talk about in eloquent and flowery language? How many think
of it as
something to be put to work effectively in the life of the world? Do we
Masons, need to come to grips with the truth that until all that
Masonry is, and
all that it stands for, is actually put to work in the world's life, we
and have no right to expect, that the world of the future will be very
from that of the present?
Men, as Masons,
differ widely as to their theories concerning Masonry, which, of
course, is simply
what they say and think about this great subject. But if, somehow, we
can give the
majority of the Craft, or at least those who will be the fraternal
leaders of the
future, a real understanding ‒ or, better still, a vision ‒ of the
for Masonic living, as opposed to the "lodge membership idea" that so
often in these days passes for Masonry, then the Fraternity will be
able to take
that position and function for which it was designed by its founders.
Was not the
Good Samaritan made the hero of one of the greatest of the parables
because he was
one who practiced actual brotherhood, instead of one who regarded it
only as something
to talk about? And did not Jesus find it necessary to rebuke even some
who hailed him most loudly as the long expected Messiah, though they
accepted the whole body of his preaching, because they so signally
failed to see
any particular necessity for putting what they had accepted into
they believed Jesus was the one whose coming had been foretold; but, in
they made too wide circles around that religion of brotherhood and of
Rule which had been presented to them by the Master.
most of us, certainly far too many of us, be likewise found wanting if
we were to
be weighed in the balance, Masonically, against these things? Are we
not too content
with being in good standing, or doing well whatever share of the lodge
work is committed
to us? And are we not too little concerned with making Masonry, from
point of view, really effective? Do we not all need to understand that
not been as effective in the life of the world as it should be, largely
we have accepted the erroneous idea that, being powerful and wealthy,
it will for
that reason prevail whether we do our share or not? How can Masonry be
if we merely belong to lodges, attend the meetings with some degree of
build beautiful temples, help keep the "degree mill" running smoothly,
and read what we can of that abundance of magazines and books which is
or now and again lift up our voices to sing the praise of speculative
we ignore, or fail to see, that Masonry can prevail only to the extent
that we put
on the armor with which it equips us and go forth, both individually
to put its high teachings to work in everyday life?
to begin to see, it seems to me, that Masonry will be just as effective
in the life
of the world ‒ and no more ‒ as the extent to which the Masons of any
time put forth
efforts to make it effective. The truth of the fatherhood of God, the
of man, the supremacy of character, the immortality of the soul; these
truths upon which all else in Masonry, no less than in religion,
from the point of view of belief, be accepted by every Mason and yet
the world be
no better off; for, unless these sublime truths are lived, as the great
good of the Fraternity have tried to live them, each in his own way,
possibly be said to be effective in any true sense.
I do not
wish, in any way, to give the impression that Masonry has been wholly
good effect. Far from it! Masonry has done wonders! It has been no less
than religion in developing its "saints," so to speak. It has done a
amount of benevolent and charitable work about which the world knows
this country at any rate it has been the mighty champion of that
bulwark of the
nation, the public school. And in other ways, too numerous to mention,
it has ministered
to the wants of a needy world. But in spite of all this only a fool, or
blind to the facts, could assert that Masonry has been as effective in
as it ought to have been and as it has the power to be. That Masonry,
long history, has, in many respects, had a truly remarkable effect upon
there can be but little doubt. But think how much more effective it
might have been
if only those who have had the honor of being made Masons had done
their full share
to make it so! Could not the finger of such an organization write upon
of Time the sentence of doom for everything detrimental to the best
humanity? Would it not make the zeal and enthusiasm of the old
by comparison, as the pageantry of children at play in the streets?
another such giant of power with possibilities beyond the estimation of
us. It is not as effective as it might be because we have not yet
learned how to
harness and use it excepting in almost primitive ways. We still labor
misapprehension that the geographical spread and the numerical strength
is all that is necessary to guarantee its complete success. We fail to
of us, that Masonry must be operative today, as well as tomorrow; and
that if it
isn't more and more put into practice now the chances are all against
any more effective at any future period than it is at present.
it may be without any great portion of it knowing the actual reason,
has grown weary,
so it would seem, of profession without performance. Masonry will not
from the judgment, therefore we must set ourselves seriously to doing
that whatever of true Masonry we may have absorbed, may be put into
action in our
Some of us
are right and some of us are wrong in our theories of Masonry, but all
of us are
wrong as long as anything in or about organization is permitted to rank
Masonic living. Masonry cannot be as effective as it might be, and
be, as long as any considerable number of its members are actually
membership in a great fraternal order is all there is to Masonry.
A good attendance
at the meetings, a well-appointed and well-kept lodge room, a splendid
of the different degrees, fine fellowship, enjoyable "feeds"; these,
all else pertaining to Masonry, are but means to an end. And the end
great responsibility of seeing that true Masonry becomes a life in the
who have been privileged to pass the lodge portals!
many phrases of Masonry with which we may concern ourselves but let us
the mistake of putting our emphasis upon secondary considerations to
of the real purpose of Masonry, which is the gradual development of the
of every individual Mason. The way, as I see it, to come somewhere near
as effective in the life of the world, as, under ideal conditions, it
is for each Mason to do his very best to build out of his own growing
life the growing
temple of the living God.
Light on the Two Pillars
Bro. N.W.J. Hayden Associate
ONE of the
best reasons for Masonic Research is its attempt to trace back to their
‒ origins, the legends and traditions of Freemasonry, and to show that
history or science may have served as their starting point.
ever growing popularity of our Order during the last two centuries, its
been so changed and modified by Brethren who had more authority than
more desire to remove strange words and usages than patience to enquire
actual suitability, that it is common experience today for Brethren,
lodges, or foreign jurisdictions, to be unable to recognize essential
differences of presentation. This as been very noticeable in the
of British Districts, inspection of which is often a very difficult
task, and even
between the eastern and western Grand Lodges of the United States. The
of our heritage from operative times which has not suffered in this
manner, is that
collection of material known as "The Old Charges", which was handed on
or senior members to apprentices, as part of their education in
are not directly associated with our ritual but are comprised within
that body of
data, vaguely recommended to us as the basis for some daily advancement
Knowledge; consequently they have escaped the attentions of the
iconoclast and "improvement."
To read, and perforce smile, over their chronological misfits will give
mind a striking proof of the advance in education by which we benefit,
with the jealous cloistering of that precious possession which
prevailed prior to
the Reformation. We can well admire the efforts of our Operative
ancestors, in spite
such handicaps, to make their youthful pupils competent, not only as
also in that intellectual growth which distinguishes a MAN from the
the little better, slothful, minds characteristic of our pauper and
Of the problems
arising from statements made in these old Charges, which may be said to
solved, are the identity of "Peter Gower", of "Naymus Grecus",
of "Charles Martel, who was King of the Franks", and Prince Edwin",
who summoned the first General Assembly of the Craft, in order to
working conditions, because he "lovyd well masonry and masons." But her
problems still await the patient probing of enquiring Brethren, and
is the statement that two great pillars were erected to serve as
such scientific and historical knowledge as had been gathered up to
that time, i.e.,
shortly before the Flood; and this is my present subject.
In the May
and June issues of the Iowa Grand Lodge Bulletin of this year, Bro. C.
C. Hunt has
assembled the references to these pillars, found in the Old Charges,
with his own
useful comments thereon. We learn that their erection is variously
ascribed to the
sons of Lamech, to those of Seth, and to Enoch, the only time- feature
three accounts being their antediluvian date.
of which they were made is also variously stated to have been marble,
because these would not be affected by water, and of latres (bricks)
would be unharmed by fire. The Enoch legend tells us that he made these
and engraved all his knowledge on them, after he had completed the
in which he had hidden a plate bearing the Omnific Name, because he had
by God of the coming catastrophe. In the Seth and Lamech legends a
is given for their being made, this being the only use-feature common
to all variants
of this legend.
the Confusion Arose
As the Old
Charges passed from one generation to the next, and the Reformation
a knowledge of the Bible possible to all classes, whether by their own
hearing it read, these pillars became confused with those said to have
by Hiram for the porch of Solomon's Temple. It is curious that, with
all the information
about these latter given in Kings and Chronicles, no mention of their
is there made. This detail, with the thickness of the metal, is given
(52:21) but it appears that the opinion was long held by those without
knowledge that these pillars were solid, the more so as we are told (2
that the amount of brass used was “without weight ", i.e., enormous.
facts of their being hollow and used to record knowledge caused some
to enlarge the ritual with the statement that "they were east hollow
to serve as safe repositories for the archives of Masonry, against all
and inundations.” Just how these archives could be consulted, once
nowhere explained; no doubt some other "improver" will come into power,
who will find that the insides of these pillars were provided with
and recessed shelving. Why should a good story be left incomplete for
lack of needed
cause here for clear thinking and more exact language in the
proposition that a
pillar may be a record of an event, or of a symposium of knowledge and
a receptacle or a repository thereof, without being, inevitably, hollow
this matter in its interior. We should be more accurate in our language
unlettered ancestors and better able to express ourselves without
to the greater flexibility and complexity of our language. Our minds
while life lasts, our reactions to these impressions make the sum total
of our consciousness,
but do they thereby "contain" such data within them or upon them. The
daily paper contains news, that is a common expression, but the news is
on its surface,
even as the accounts of Assyrian officials were contained in the
scratched on the surface of the inch-thick clay tablet discovered in
the ruins of
however, is hardly germane to my title; what I hope to show as
reasonable is the
story that these pillars may have existed and served their stated
purpose. We are
familiar with the use of pillars for records, important enough to be
endure long periods of time and great stress of circumstances, without
which some readily to the mind are the two "Cleopatra's Needles,"
although that unscrupulous beauty had nothing to do with their
they were made by the orders of Rameses II, in the twelfth century B.
C. The evidential
value of groups of pillars dates from the dimmest recesses of the Stone
in Stonhenge, to our modern War Memorials.
ourselves, however, to monoliths and single, built-up, pillars it is an
generalization that the information they preserve is always devoted to
of some individual or event, which has passed into history. Always
was of a memorial nature. They pointed to the past and were intended to
and emulation in those who might pass by, because of this past.
Purpose of the Pillars
the contrary was the purpose of these two pillars mentioned in our
builder, no matter who, looked only to the future, to the advantage of
unborn. A terrible catastrophe was impending, unavoidable, a sacrifice
demanded by the angry gods. What could be done to offset its effects,
as quickly as might be the precious treasures of experience, of
that children to come might not be obliged to repeat the same weary
the unknown; to bruise themselves against the inflexibilities of
natural laws. Out
of this vision of wrath to come, one set of saviors drew inspiration
for a means
to preserve the bodies of a chosen few, and another became charged with
of preserving a synthesis of knowledge that, in a time equally certain
to come the
minds of a new race might benefit by that which had been won by its
and a reunion effected with the approval of a benign Deity. All this,
be gathered, or inferred, from the Hebrew narrative, what evidence in
can be adduced as a source of More Light.
reasons I take the position that the Noachian Deluge is an echo of the
last of the
catastrophes which overwhelmed the island- continent of Atlantis, of
of which civilization there is no need to speak here. By some cyclic
law many features
of its statecraft and communal life became reproduced amongst the
the Athenians. The fact that the latter boasted of their advanced
and practices but were shown to have originated none of them, is
mentioned by Solon,
who records for us the statement of his priestly hosts at Sais, in
to records in their care of the great nation buried beneath the western
"You Greeks, with all your arts, are but children wearing your parents'
and, like modern ones, copying their words and usages. There is
for us in this, in its evidence of the influence of memory, whether
Testimony to Atlantis
mentioned in a History of Atlantis [Lib 1900] by Lewis Spence, lies in the
known fragments of the life and writings of the Greek philosopher
Crantor, who lived
in the fourth century B.C., and is said to have been the first
commentator on Plato.
What little remains have endured to our time were gathered by one of
laborious, scholars of Germany ‒ Fr. Guil. Aug. Mullach, Ph.D., M.A.,
in the third
volume of his Fragmenta Philosophorum Graecorum [Lib*]. In this,
several pages are
filled with the biography and accomplishments of Crantor, who must have
a genius in his time. Diogenes Laertius is quoted (IV 24) as stating
that he [Crantor]
was born in Solis, a town of Cilieia, in the 110th Olympiad, wealthy
and so mature-minded
that, even as a youth, he debated with the citizens of Athens on
The Herr Doktor has Latinised the quotation as follows: homo bene
nummatus … longe
omnibus ingenio et doctrina praestans, … qui jam adolescens anteguam
conferred. The absence of certain letters from our alphabet makes it
transliterate accurately the original Greek, which is also given by
fragment deals with Crantor's mathematical studies of the properties of
triangle, but I am concerned here with the single short paragraph in
confirms, from his own knowledge, the statement made two centuries
before by Solon
that in Egypt were preserved records of an advanced type of
by the Athenians as peculiar to themselves, but which had previously
and exceeded, by the inhabitants of Atlantis. These records are
described as engraved
pillars, the exact words of the Greek, put into our Latin letters,
Marturousi de kai 'oi prophetai,
phesi, ton Aiguption,
en stelais tais eti sozomenais tauta gegraphthai legontes (1).
Ea vero, inquit, testificantur
vates, haec columnis, quae adhuc exstant, inscripta esse dicentes.
may be thus translated into English:
But, he says;
the prophets of the Egyptians testify, saying that these things have
on monuments that are still in existence. What cause there may be for
around the word Stelais and its rendering into Columnis. Stela (e) has
by modern archaeology to indicate any inscribed stone, whether a
portion of a wall or other flat surface; vertical block, grave-stone,
pillar of the ordinary type. On the other hand, the word column has for
of people ‒ certainly for operative masons ‒ a very definite form,
which has not
been changed in its passage to ourselves.
as closely as possible the sources of our legend, I compared with the
the eighteen references to the word Pillar given in Cruden's
Concordance; it seemed
unnecessary to compare the plural form also. Of these, I found half to
in the feminine form Stele (long e) and half in the masculine form
Stulos; the former
indicating a pillar used as a memorial or witness or record, and the
a pillar used solely as a support; e. g. the pillar of smoke (Judges,
cloudy pillar (Exodus, 33 :9 and Nehemiah, 9 :12) are so translated
or Stulon, but the five references to memorials in Genesis (19:28,
31:51, 35:20) are all taken from Stele or Stelen. One seeming
inconsistency is the
use of Stulon in 1 Kings 7:21 for both right and left pillars, which
were also given
names, thus showing their use was more than, or different from, that of
do we arrive on this excursion? The fact that Crantor closes his
the sentence that some of his contemporaries considered the story of
merely "an idle tale" which had caused them to laugh at him, has no
on the fact that in his own lifetime "quae adhue exstant," there were
certain pillars ‒ how many we do not know ‒ bearing on their surfaces
of some king's conquests, but of the knowledge of a great nation. These
been considerable, if lot actually voluminous, to have made possible
by their guardians of the childishly boastful Athenians.
pillars are unknown today has no bearing on the matter; who will
presume to say
that the sands of Egypt have been rifled of all their hidden treasures.
of the tomb of Tut-Ankh- Amen gives us a reasonable basis for hope that
Carnarvon will be driven by some blind but effectual
to search for and recover the relies of yet other forgotten greatness.
In the meantime
we have the satisfaction of knowing that profane history can supply
to the basic truth of Masonic tradition than any available through the
compilers of the Old Testament, and through channels not biased towards
the accomplishments of their predecessors.
A parallel to
the discovery that the Coverdale and Matthew's Bible was responsible
for our form of the Hiramic Legend, or at least for one feature of it,
indicated here. In the various versions which preceded the Authorized
or King James
translation I find that the word "hollow" is replaced in the Coverdale
version, and the Bishop's Bible by "rounded The Latin version, known as
Vulgate, which was in universal use in the Western Church from about
A.D. 400 to
the end of the Middle Ages (although some vernacular translations had
renders the passage thus: intrinsecus saga est. This Wyeliffe
translated as: "Hollowe
withynne." In the Geneva Bible (1590) this becomes "hollow," but
the Septuagint (Tischendorf 1856) gives only the thickness of the
metal, and leaves
the hollowness to be inferred. The dates given refer to the editions
Bro. C. L. Kasson, Massachusetts
of years, human beings have recognized matter in the known Universe. In
we have learned that energy is present in matter. Matter and energy are
interlocked so that it is impossible to conceive of matter without
of energy in matter varies from small to great quantities just as
in a great many and various forms, conditions and positions. It may be
or gaseous. It may be metal, rock, coal, soil or the body of living
things. It may
be water, oil or other Squid. It may be our atmosphere or other gas,
even to unknown
attenuated gases beyond our known atmospheric belt.
Let us assume
that an immortal traveler starting from the center of our earth would
as follows: Magnetic metal of the greatest density, so great in fact as
to be beyond
comprehension, then metals of lesser densities until near the surface,
and rock were found. Just under the surface fuels, coal and oil under
be found. Next, soil would be reached, then water and vegetation
together with animal
and human life. The atmosphere would next be encountered and travelling
this the density would be found less and less until life as we know it
This would occur at only a relatively short distance from the earth's
further out, gaseous matter must be found until its density would
become so low
and its attenuation great that our minds cannot comprehend such matter.
So on, until
the interstellar distances were covered by the immortal traveller. So
much for this
picture of matter; now, let us turn to its energy.
be manifest as heat, motion, sound, light. Perhaps it is all one and
the same thing,
but we as human beings perceive its different forms in matter through
We see light, hear sound, feel heat, and have knowledge of all these,
electricity. Perhaps energy may be mind and even Spirit. We speak of
and spiritual energy. Thus, perhaps energy in its greatest sense
includes all forms
from the lowest, heat, to the highest, Spirit.
has ever seen energy, or heard it, or felt it! The senses perceive the
it, but not what it is.
We, as human
beings, possess energy, bodily, mentally and spiritually. We are also
made up of
matter, as is well known. In the human this energy appears all the way
to Spirit, just as in all Nature. Besides matter, the human being
until death takes place. If all energy is the result of one force
to understand the nature of it we would have to understand why all
things are as
they are, even death itself. And it may be possible, that if we were
know the secret origin and exact nature of energy perhaps we should all
this knowledge. To discover the secret of energy must, in the very
nature of it,
spell death or immortality.
statement was made that all energy is one and the same thing, yet, we
energy can have different forms. For instance, electricity may be
or direct, yet it is electricity (energy) just the same. Let us, then,
different forms of energy. Let us start with the assumption that there
Sun or solar energy.
let us make a further interesting assumption that cosmic energy is
Spirit, solar energy to mind, and earthly energy to body.
energy is meant incomprehensible energy which lies back of this planet
and its life
and which was responsible for its initiation. Call this, if you will,
energy vouchsafed to us and our material world by God. This is said in
and reverence. As common mortals the explanation of this energy can be
the Bible in the first chapters of Genesis. As scientists, we know that
things must have beginnings. We must have faith to believe that energy
which is not perceivable to us mortals through our senses. Perhaps, as
if permitted to reach that goal, we shall recognize this energy. This
again is outlined
in the Bible in the last chapters of Revelation.
Sun, or solar
energy, is received on earth from the sun. We are all well aware of it
for it is
the source of light and heat for our planet. It promotes the growth of
things, plant, animal and human. Without it, we should all perish and
would grow cold.
energy was passing through the air from a metallic sphere under an
electric stress, the air would be luminous. If the air was attenuated
and the stress
exceedingly high, the sphere would appear as a ball of fire. If one was
distance from it in a denser atmosphere, they would thus perceive the
also might be surrounded by light because the energy content per unit
the atmosphere at that point was constant and of the right value.
Perhaps our sun
is analogous to this electrified metallic sphere. Let us assume that
is of the nature of electricity, in fact is electricity. In other
words, that the
sun is broadcasting current at enormous pressures. If this assumption
then it is conceivable that this electric energy travelling at a speed
186,300 miles per second traverses the various material media between
the sun and
the earth. This material being, as previously suggested, an enormously
gas is, of course, a conductor of electricity and one that exists at a
offer a very high resistance from the electrical standpoint, the low
would, of course, reduce its resistance. In fact, its attenuation and
would offset one another from the electrical standpoint. The electrical
traversing the greater part of the distance from the sun to earth
enters what we
know as the earth's atmospheric belt. This is simply a conducting gas,
whose attenuation is much less and density higher than that of the
gases at great
distances from the earth as previously pointed out.
energy, electric energy, passing through our atmospheric belt renders
and is light as perceived by the human eye. This is due to the fact
that light is
what the human eye perceives when the value of energy is great enough
per unit volume
of the conducting medium. This energy is present in our atmosphere and
a definite balanced potential drop from a given point above the earth
to the ground
are free to move and since there is moisture in suspension in the lower
our atmosphere, we should expect that the potential drops would be
time to time and that the gradient perpendicular to the earth would not
This, of course, explains the phenomena of lightning, not its
initiation but rather
its action, once started. The potential drops in the atmosphere are
an excessive energy content is present in one spot whose potential
enough to break down the atmosphere at a given point. The flash
restores the balance
and the result is heat in concentrated form, which produces physical
of solar energy through the atmosphere producing light as described
also must produce
chemical action because it is unidirectional. Heat in small quantities
be produced. Now, as the solar energy reaches solid material of much
no light is visible, but the effect is one of heat.
At this point
it should be observed that energy, electric energy traversing matter,
to us as light and heat. If the matter is gaseous, of high resistance,
we see light
and feel no heat, but there must be some heat, however small. If the
matter is solid,
of low resistance, we feel heat and see no light, but there must be
however low in intensity.
density increases and the resistance decreases toward the center of the
should expect to find greater heat there, and less light, not humanly
animal and human, exists as known to us only in a very small belt at
surface where the temperature and light promotes or rather the solar
sustains it. Now, human life is far above animal life and that in turn
life. The lowest forms of life require mostly heat and little light
from our standpoint;
thus, such life is found underground, buried, or in the water. Higher
forms of life
require more light and less heat, according to our standpoint, and are
the surface of the earth. Finally, human life requires still more light
heat as we believe until we reach that immortal state prophesied in the
it is all light and no heat.
Now, as long
as we are mortal and most of us are firmly convinced of that through
pain and suffering,
in other words, disease, we require heat. In all states of human
progress this is
obtained from the sun or as a result of solar energy present and past.
we spoke of earthly energy; this is locked in energy due to the action
of the sun
on earthly matter for ages untold. This resulted through the death of
in forming fuels.
man was warmed by the sun's rays by day and by re- radiated heat from
at night. At night he lay close to the earth thus unknowingly receiving
He learned to shelter himself from the direct sun by day because it
hurt him. Thus
man learned, as pointed out in Genesis, to do things because of pain.
man perceived light and gave thanks for it to unknown Gods. He realized
its aid he could do things. Primitive man discovered fire and then
for himself and family. He provided for his family and took notice of
men. And so on through the ages to our complex civilization of today.
has been brought to its present material state by our increasing use of
earthly energy. This energy is derived from fuel and our present age
be called the "Fuel Age." Through coal, oil and water power, we have
heat, light, electricity and caused it to serve us in a thousand ways.
in our strength and wonderful scientific attainments, we forget today
beginnings. That -we came up from the dust of the ground. That we are
through God's grace and infinite mercy through cosmic energy he created
us. Through solar energy he guides us on and through earthly energy
Bro. E.E. Murray, Montana
of the discovery of the three documents herein described makes them of
aside from their age. They belong to Bro. James Morrow of Moore, Mont.
The two certificates
he informs me were in the nature of demits, and were sent to his great
together with a similar certificate relating to the blue lodge, after
they were used and treasured by the original owner, and after his death
kept with other papers. The family later settled in Ohio, and some
years ago Bro.
Morrow's mother discovered the parchments in an old powder flask in the
the old home. From her they came into the possession of her son. With
was also preserved a curious engraved notice of Lodge No. 52 of
R.W. Bro. H. E. Flavelle, Deputy Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of
the following details in regard to the Benburb Lodge.
was working in Benburb from 1778 to 1825 when the warrant was cancelled
of the Grand Lodge.
days the Royal Arch and Knights Templar degrees were worked under a
and such "private lodge certificates" as they were then described were
made to Grand Lodge at that period were not always complete and I
cannot find the
name of John Morrow registered as a member, there is however an Alex
in 1796. The signatures on the certificate are all entered in G. L.
books Jno. Kean
and Robt. Neil in 1793, E. Morrison in 1782 and Jas. McCleave in 1781.
explains the reference on the certificates "In the Registry of Ireland."
also pointed out that Irish lodges constantly worked the Royal Arch and
degrees with no further authority than their Craft Warrant. And the
same thing not
infrequently occurred in America until Grand Chapters and Commanderies
are written on parchment, and the seals are attached to ribbons laced
cut in it. Whether there is any significance or not in the fact that
are so arranged that the ribbon makes a number of narrow bars I do not
it almost looks as if this might be the case seeing that for the Royal
five bars, and that for the Knights Templars seven.
are transcripts of the two documents.
We the High Priest, Royal Arch
Capt. Grand Master
&c. &c. &c.... of the Grand Chapter of Royal
Arch Super Excellent Masons
held under the sanction of Lodge No. 557 in the Town of Benburb, Parish
County of' Tyrone and on the Registry of Ireland … do hereby Certify …
bearer our True and well beloved Brother John Morrow past Master of'
was by us initiated in the most Sublime degree of a Royal Arch
Mason he having with due Honour and justice to the Loyal community
the amazing Tryals of Skill and Valour attending his admission and as
such we recommend
him to all true and faithful Brothers round the Globe … Given under our
seal of our Grand Chapter held in Benburb this 5th day of' May 1792 …
and of Royal
Arch Super Excellent Masonry 3292 Two …
JOHN KEAN, H.P.
ROBT. NEIL, J.G.W.
JAS. McCLEAVE, G.S.Y.
In the Name of the most Holy
Glorious and Undivided
Trinity ‒ Father Son and Holy Ghost.
We the Captain General
&c. &c. &c.
‒ of the General Assembly of Sir Knights Templars and Knights of Malta
the sanction of Lodge No. 557 in the Town of Benburb, Parish of
of Tyrone, and on the Registry of Ireland ‒
Do hereby Certify that
the Bearer hereof our Trusty,
true and well beloved
Brother Sir John Morrow was by us dubb'd a Knight of that Magnanimous
Order of Sir
Knights Templars, and of Malta the true and faithful Soldier of Jesus
Christ ‒ he
having with due honour and fortitude, Justly supported the amazing
Tryals of Skill
and Valour attending his admission ‒ And as such we recommend him to
Sir Knights Templars and Knights of Malta round the Globe.
Given under our hands and seal
of our Grand Assembly
at Benburb this 5th day of May 1792
and of Knights
and of Knights
of Malta 674
JOHN KEAN, Capt.
ROBT. NEIL, J.G.W.
JAS. McCLEAVE, G. Sy.
sight it sounds rather startling to read of a Grand Chapter of Royal
held under the sanction of a Craft Warrant (or Charter, as we would say
and the uninstructed brother might wonder if such extraordinary
behavior had anything
to do with the Grand Lodge of Ireland erasing the lodge from its rolls.
phrase did not have the same meaning then that it has today. A
the well-known Irish scholar, Bro. J. Heron Lepper, P. M., of Quatuor
No. 2076, elucidates the matter. He writes:
Chapter" was the title nearly always adopted by a lodge when conferring
Royal Arch degree in Ireland. This may be the reason why the real Grand
on its formation in 1829, took the title of Supreme Grand Royal Arch
it still retains. There are facsimiles of other certificates in our
History that use the same phrasing.
the Irish lodges conferred the R. A. and K. T. degrees by what we may
term, I suppose,
"immemorial right." I know of no case up to 1837 (and doubt if there
any later) of the Grand Lodge cancelling a subordinate lodge for
The seals are of course typical Irish designs. Finally, I have not the
that Lodge 557 was struck off in 1845 for non-payment of dues and
It had not registered a member with Grand Lodge since 1833!
the seals impressed on sealing wax on the ribbons, are impressions
stamped in printer's
ink or lamp black upon the parchment ‒ the "smoke" seals, generally
by Irish lodges. Probably the seal was blackened in the smoke of a
candle and then
impressed on the paper or parchment. The specimens on these two
been rubbed, and are not easy to make out, but I have been able to
with a magnifying glass, and have made drawings of them which are here
on a somewhat larger scale than the original. The seal on the Craft
was very well defined, and of that a photograph has been taken. It
shows the same
arm and hand holding a trowel that appears as the crest of the Arms of
Stone Masons, and is practically identical with the early seal of the
of Ireland, as shown in the article on "Masonic Heraldry " by Bro. R.
V. Harris in THE Builder for August last. Other specimens are given by
and Crossle in their History of the Grand Lodge of Ireland. The Craft
itself is in too damaged a condition to reproduce. The phraseology is
to the others.
document is the Summons. This is printed from an engraved plate, and
to fill in the place of meeting, date, etc. It reads as follows:
You are desired
to meet the Master and Brethren
of No. 52 ANCIENT
at their Room
in Arch Street on
at 6 O'Clock in the evening.
Anno Mundi 5791.
By Order of the
G. W. Bartran, Secretary.
shows that the form was engraved for Lodge No. 2, as the figure 2 is
the figure 5 is written in.
naturally be assumed that the building depicted at the top left hand
intended to represent that in which Lodge No. 2 met, if not also No.
52. In the
Addendum to the Yorston Edition of Gould's History of Freemasonry, vol.
iv, p. 365,
it is stated that on March 12, 1752, at a meeting of the Grand Lodge
and the First
Lodge, a committee was appointed to procure a lot, and take measures to
hall for the accommodation of the said lodges, Philadelphia Assembly,
uses. This was done and a building erected. In 1793 it was sold. The
question gives quite a little detail about the history of this building
that of Lodge No. 2. There might thus seem a strong likelihood that the
depicted in the Summons was intended for the one referred to, as it
would seem natural
to depict it here.
it would appear from the fact that Lodge No. 2 left a space in which to
their "Room" was located, that they did not have a very permanent
place, and Bro. Josiah H. Drummond, the author of the American Addendum
goes on to relate that in 1797 there was a desire to erect a building
the lodges in Philadelphia could meet.
for any such theory this design seems to have been a stock one,
times with slight changes, and used not only for a summons, but also at
certificates. Bro. Pepper says in regard to it, in the communication
in our book [The History of the Grand Lodge of Ireland] what is almost
replica of the Philadelphia summons, but applied in the Irish instance
to a certificate.
If I remember aright this "type" first appears in Philadelphia about
Whether Ireland borrowed from thence, or the original design was copied
Ancient source, deponent knoweth not.
We have in
this document further evidence that the Royal Arch Degree was worked by
in those days, as prominence is given in the design to the Arch,
with the Tetragrammaton, Tent and Bridge with Three Arches.
of this bridge with three arches is interesting to students of the
degrees; it is
the emblem of the Scots degree "Knight of the East or of the Sword." It
is the belief of many students that the Royal Arch Degree was formed
degrees that were being worked on the continent of Europe in the
century, particularly those of Scots Master and Knight of the East or
of the Sword;
there are evidences of the latter degree in the present English ritual
of the Royal
Arch as also in versions worked in the United States. The emblem here
shown is incomplete
as it lacks the letters "L.D.P." and the banner depicting the man, the
lion, the ox and the eagle.
At the date
of this document there was no Grand Chapter of R. A. Masons in
says: "As in 1758 when the 'Ancients' established their first lodge in
at Philadelphia the Royal Arch Degree was cultivated by them, there can
doubt that it was understood as a matter of course, that this degree
could be conferred
under that warrant … Undoubtedly the degree was occasionally conferred
in the Pennsylvania
Lodges in 1795. " Here we have evidence of that fact.
I have included
the discussion of this document here partly for the reason that it will
be of particular
interest to the brethren in Philadelphia, and that some one of them may
to give us further information concerning Lodge 52.
Thomas William Coke, Earl of
Communicated By Bro. A. J. B.
AN Englishman who occupied a
in his generation was Thomas William Coke, of Holkham, Norfolk. Born in
lived during an interesting and important period of English and
and left the impress of his active and useful life on both sides of the
He possessed a natural attachment for the soil, and as a result of the
experimentation in all phases of agricultural activity carried on by
him on his
Norfolk estate the farming practice of both hemispheres was completely
The Montreal Agricultural Society elected him an Honorary Member, and
the father of the Ambassador, wrote to beg the same honour for the
Agricultural Society. The annual Sheep-Shearings held at Holkham
a meeting attended by his tenantry to an event of international
importance, at which
were gathered agricultural experts from all over Europe.
He had a cordial dislike for
politics, but, actuated
by a high sense of duty, represented his county in the House of Commons
of half a century, during which time the force of his example exercised
influence upon the political world of his day. Coke was the prime mover
important political crises, and though offered a peerage upon seven
under six distinct administrations he remained a commoner until 1837,
the accession of Queen Victoria, he was created Earl of Leicester.
From its very inception, Coke
was opposed to
the American War and it was he who moved the motion in the House of
Commons to recognize
the Independence of the American States. The vote followed a strenuous
Parliament, and was carried by a majority of one. It devolved upon Coke
the Address from the House to George III, which he did as an English
a privilege, seldom, if ever exercised. But on this occasion Coke
of it and appeared unceremoniously before the King wearing ordinary
breeches, boots and spurs. It caused the greatest horror at Court, and
matter nor the manner of the Address was palatable to the King.
"One can picture the strange
writes his biographer, "the discomfited King, forced to agree to what
failure of all his hopes, of all for which he had so long and
the excited members divided in opinion of the momentous event in which
assisting; and the man who headed them ‒ that youth of twenty-eight who
that great body of men whom he represented, showed himself oblivious to
details of Court etiquette to everything, save the one thing which he
he had come in triumph to claim ‒ a belated act of justice to a long
Among Coke's many intimate friends was the Duke of Sussex, Grand Master
of the Grand
Lodge of England, and it is not surprising therefore to find him an
of the Craft. He was a member of Union Lodge No. 52 at Norwich. The
of his Masonic career was his Installation as Provincial Grand Master
on August 23rd, 1819.
The following is an account of
ceremonies taken from A. M. W. Stirling's volume Coke of Norfolk and
"The Duke (of Sussex) arrived
the previous Sunday, and the eventful day dawned brilliantly fine.
in Norwich was crowded with people, and all the windows, gay with
with spectators. At 10:30 a.m. the Duke drove in an open carriage with
Coke to the
Assembly Rooms, from which daylight ‒ and all chances of prying eyes ‒
previously excluded. The windows were carefully closed and the whole
artificially, so that in the warm August weather the heat must have
"Three hundred and twenty
the Duke at the entrance, but of what took place behind those darkened
closed doors, no knowledge penetrated to the outside world, even the
record of those
present is not known, for the entry which should have preserved their
with 'H.R.H. The Duke of Sussex, G.M., and Thos. Coke, Esqre., P.G.M.',
the Provincial Grand Secretary's courage must have failed him, for he
blank pages on the Minute Book with no further entries!
"The ceremony over at twelve
Brethren in full Masonic dress issued forth into daylight, and formed
to march through the streets to the Cathedral. Soldiers lined the way,
their midst, in the brilliant sunshine, wound the picturesque train.
the Brethren dressed in black, then followed the trumpeters, next, men
swords; next a long procession, gay with banners; after which, borne by
came the Banner of the Provincial Grand Master, behind which Coke
walked, and finally
the Banner of the Grand Master, behind which walked the Duke of Sussex.
of the banners were gilt, the flags of white silk adorned by
inscriptions in gold
lettering, and as the procession wound through the quaint old streets
and towards the gateway of the Cathedral, the enthusiasm of the
spectators was great.
"Lady Jerningham, writing to
from Holkham, August 25th relates:
all went to the Cathedral; it was
a beautiful sight; thirty thousand people waiting, all perfectly quiet
and in good
humor, and the procession from the Assembly Rooms to the Cathedral, the
all the way on foot and cheered enthusiastically.
"As they reached the Erpingham
long procession formed up, one by one, making a passage through which
the Duke and
Coke passed to the Western door of the Cathedral, where they were met
by the Dean
and Canons, and conducted to the Choir. The Cathedral was packed with
all rose as they entered while the organ played 'God Save the King'.
Upon a platform
was a chair of purple velvet for the Duke, while Coke sat with the
banners ranged round them. A special service followed, at the
conclusion of which
the Duke drove with Coke, in the latter's barouche, through the streets
while the Brethren returned in procession to the Chapel Field House.
But the long tiring day was not
yet over. At
5:30 a banquet was given in St. Andrew's Hall, once a fine old Church,
said by Bloomfield
to have been built by Sir Thomas Erpingham, the gallant old knight who
signal to start the Battle of Agincourt. At the tables in the Hall the
again appeared in Masonic dress, and the side benches were reserved for
who came to watch the proceedings. The Duke presided, seated in another
purple velvet, with Coke beside him. At seven o'clock the banquet
ended, the tables
removed, and while this was being done, the Duke rose three times, and
said to the
guests at each table, 'Brethren, The Grand Master and the Provincial
drink a cup of Good Fellowship with you all! The None nobis was then
sung, and many
speeches followed. The Duke pointed out how: 'The knowledge, the
veneration of Coke's
name is not confined to this kingdom, but is echoed from one side of
Europe to the
other. He is hailed and blessed wherever he goes'; and the hall rang
with such applause
that used as Coke was to such demonstrations, it is recorded he
at the enthusiasm displayed. In his brief reply, however, he made two
the Duke; first, that certain farmers were anxious to take a glass of
His Royal Highness; and secondly, that the Duke would enliven the
a song. Both requests were granted, and, as the Duke loved the sound of
voice, the hall resounded cheerfully to his rendering of 'Precious
Goblet' ‒ no
doubt an appropriate choice.
"Afterwards the procession
Norwich by torchlight. On the following Wednesday, August 25th, a Grand
was held at Holkham, where the Duke was staying, in order to appoint
Grand Superintendent of Royal Arch Masons."
Baal's Bridge Square
By Bro. Philip
ONE of the
most curious relics of the ancient Craft of Freemasonry is the
Bridge square, now in the possession of Union Lodge, No. 13, Limerick.
A brief account
of it, with a wood cut illustration appeared in the Freemason's
for August, 1842, contributed by Bro. Furnell. There was another
article upon the
same subject in the Freemason's Quarterly Magazine and Review for 1850.
does not appear to have been published again till 1925, when a full
made from a rubbing of the original appeared in our History of the
Grand Lodge of
Ireland. This was later reproduced in THE BUILDER for May, 1927, from a
the drawing furnished by the late Bro. Simpson. The accompanying
from photographs taken by myself, at Limerick, to which place I went
for this express
purpose. The illustration is the same size as the square, and shows the
imperfections due to age and corrosion. The outside length of the arms
are a trifle
over four and one-eighth inches in length, seven-eighths in width, and
is less than one-sixteenth of an inch thick.
In a paper
by Bro. Henry 17. Berry read before Quatuor Coronati Lodge, published
in the Proceedings
for 1905 [A.Q.C. vol. xviii, p. 18] another brief account of it is
given. This paper
chiefly dealt with the interesting "Marencourt" Cup. For the benefit of
readers of THE BUILDER who may never have read of the romantic incident
with this, it will perhaps be not without interest to give an outline
of the story.
Captain Marencourt was the commander of a French Privateer, Le Furet
"The Ferret") which in November, 1812, captured the sloop "Three
Friends" of Youghal. Marencourt gave orders that she should be scuttled
sunk; but discovering that her Master, James Campbell, was a Mason, he
the order, and released the vessel and her crew. In February following
was herself captured by an English frigate, the "Modeste," and
was made a prisoner. Campbell was a member of Union Lodge, No. 13, but
no record remaining of any action being taken by it, though it is most
that something was done, for Ancient Limerick Lodge, No. 271, passed a
eleven days after Marencourt's capture, thanking him for his humanity
Lodge No. 79 at Portsmouth to communicate this to him, and also
expressing a desire
that the government might take some special steps in the circumstances.
resolution was passed by Rising Sun Lodge, No. 952, a week later, which
asked for the good offices of Lord Donoughmore, Grand Master of
Ireland. This was
published in the Limerick and Dublin papers.
remains, what if anything came of these resolutions, but later still,
13 ordered a cup or vase to be made to present to Capt. Marencourt, to
This was to have been presented to him in May, but before the time came
he had been
released and had returned to France. The cup was then sent to the Grand
France, but in the meantime Marencourt had gone to Africa, where he
died. The cup
was therefore returned by the Grand Orient of France to the donors, and
preserved by the lodge ever since.
the history of this memorial of fraternal sentiment, Bro. Berry
concluded his paper
with an account of the relic now under consideration. This was
presented to Bro.
Furnell by Bro. James Pain, Provincial Grand Architect. This was the
same Bro. Furnell
who contributed the account to the Freemason's Quarterly Review. In
this he said
that Bro. Pain had in 1830 been the contractor for the rebuilding of
Ball's] Bridge, and that it was in taking down the old structure that
was discovered "on the English Town side." The square was "under
the foundation stone." It is a pity that more definite details of its
of concealment were not preserved, and especially whether there was
to mark the covering stone as a "foundation" stone, over and above the
inference that it was such because of the deposit of the square under
it. The "English
Town" is on an island in the river Shannon, also known as King's
is the old town, dating back to the times of the Danish conquests in
Bridge connected the island with the south bank of the river where the
Town" later grew up. The square was deposited in the eastern corner of
northern pier or abutment.
here given of the old bridge is taken from a drawing in the possession
of the lodge,
which was probably made by some member of the Furnell family.
ornamental border did not come out completely in the photograph.
gives a good idea of the old bridge with its four arches, and the
houses and shops
built on it. An alternative name for the structure seems to have been
Thye, or Tide
Bridge; which seems to have been a suitable appellation, as judging
from the current
represented as racing through the arches it must have been as perilous
as Old London Bridge.
stated the date on the square to be 1517. With this Bro. Berry
it as 1507, and this earlier date has been generally accepted since on
as I did myself in making the drawing for our History. But after a
of the relic with a magnifying glass I am unable to agree with him. In
the third figure is certainly intended for the figure one, as Bro.
it to be. It is formed in the old style, like our letter J. and the
curve at the
bottom is what has undoubtedly led to its having been taken for a
is black with age and the inscription is not very deeply engraved. The
also very much corroded. These imperfections appear very plainly in the
relic is genuine seems to be beyond reasonable doubt. The date of the
the old bridge is not known. It is practically certain that there has
a bridge of some sort to the island since the year 1174 at least, when
came into English hands. The deposit might have been made during some
the abutments if the bridge itself should be supposed older than the
numerous instances of foundation deposits in the mediaeval period, but
nearly all of the nature of foundation sacrifices. It was customary in
to deposit specimens of the building material and models of the tools
employed. This model square, for it is obviously nothing more, is the
instance of the kind in the British Isles, so far as is known. The
too, witnesses to a moral application of mason's working tools in a
way. And this is also almost unparalleled, were it not for the
inscription on the
ancient chest that belonged to the Steinmetzen of Hamberg, in which
interpretations of the square, compass, level and gauge are given, or
to l, and which is also found on the "Master's Tablet" at Baste in
of Masonic scholarship, while it has been most valuable in the past in
away many baseless imaginings, has possibly gone too far. In reality
there are so
many indications of something more than trade usages and technical
secrets in the
Masonic Fraternity that the impartial student is forced to accept them
even if they
remain very difficult to interpret.
1. See Gould,
History (Yorston Edition) Vol. i, [Liv 1884 Vol 1] p. 168. Where
of this curious inscription is given in full.
Meekren, Editor in
Lapse of Time"
we approach the end of the year. With this number the fifteenth volume
of THE BUILDER
is completed. Those of us who are charged with the responsibilities of
publishing it have had to meet many difficulties, but so far they have
and we are full of courage to carry on with those of the new year.
of the Masonic periodical press is a tale of numberless wrecks. Scores
good, bad and indifferent, have, during a hundred years or more, shared
fate. This year we have had to regret the cessation of a most excellent
The Mountaineer Mason. Another reminder that Craft periodicals are
and sail on perilous waters.
In one respect
THE Builder has been most fortunate. Its contributors are numerous, and
in its welfare as the editors themselves. They have a right to be,
that our magazine is the main link of communication between members of
Society. Whatever success we can claim is due to them, and so
from the membership for the moment, and speaking as the Society's
agents and servants,
the Editors offer their sincerest good wishes to all readers of THE
is the kindly custom at this Christmas season; and even if, owing to
the date of
publication, it is a little premature by a week or so, it makes no
their sincerity, and as we hope to their effect. May this Christmas be
a happy one
for all, and the New Year bright and prosperous.
* * *
of the Craft knows ‒ or at least he has heard ‒ that Speculative
Masonry has a technique
analogous to that of the Operative art. Among the five processes, as we
them, that the Speculative Craftsman must learn before he can truly
become a Master
Mason, is one that seems, if not comparatively unimportant, at least
elementary. To subdue the passions is a difficult thing ‒ even those
who have never
tried admit it, and offer it as an excuse. To act upon the square, and
to keep a
tongue of good report, always and under all circumstances, is certainly
easy, and needs definite and continued effort. To practice charity in
any real sense
demands self-denial and sacrifice, again no easy thing ‒ but to
seems a trifling sort of thing to include among things that require
endeavor towards self-improvement, it is such a simple negative thing ‒
it is not
to do anything, but merely to refrain from doing.
we get thus far in analysis there comes a pause. Is refraining from
easy ‒ is not self-control one of the hardest things? This particular
was not thrown in to make weight, to make up the number five, or any
motive. Secrecy has always been one of the great Masonic virtues; and
like all the
Masonic duties and requirements it is one of the great social virtues
were once regarded as schools of secrecy. Not secret schools, but
places where the
maintenance of secrecy was taught and learned. In the phraseology of
Masons were "secret men," men who could keep secrets. Is it so today
It is to
be feared that in this as in other things there has been a change, and
not for the
better. In feet, let us make the matter quite clear. These requirements
Masonry are general, they are supposed to be practiced as a rule of
life, and not
only in the lodge. The Secret of Masonry is safe enough, for no one who
it has yet learned it; or to put it another way, it cannot be
to those to whom this is a dark saying, it can only be answered that it
of the mystery. The "official secrets" of Masonry are also safe enough.
There is no danger of even the most careless and indifferent member
away. It is not such lapses as this that we are referring to. It is
rather the fact
that so many Masons limit their obligations to secrecy to these formal
It is sometimes
said, even by chief rulers and official leaders of the Craft who should
that a Mason should not lightly demand secrecy of another, that he
should not communicate
trivial expressions of opinion or of feeling, or relate things about
and the like, on the square. It is suggested that the definite demand
by one Mason
upon another to regard a communication as secret, as covered by Masonic
should never be made except in matters of grave and serious concern.
With this suggestion
we must totally disagree. It is a limitation of the scope of Masonic
analogous to those interpretations of the law made by the Jewish
Scribes which were
so severely denounced by Jesus of Nazareth, as making it "of none
And besides how shall we learn to run if we never walk? If we cannot be
small things who will trust us in great?
We are none
of us perfect, we all have moments of weakness, of carelessness. We
statements, we express irritation, anger or suspicion. We say unjust
things on the
spur of the moment. Suddenly we realize" it; and some idea comes to us
mischief, or the embarrassment to ourselves or others that may ensue if
have said is repeated. But we are speaking to a brother Mason, we are
on the square,
and we remind him that it is to go no further. What is this but the
should exist between friends? And what is a friend for if we cannot
with him? Not only wisely but also foolishly? A real friend will guard
even more carefully than things of greater import, for it is the
trifles, the little
things that weigh most in every life. The great things indeed are built
out of the little ones.
seem that those who express such opinions have rightly got the idea
is not as it should be, but have taken hold of it by the wrong end. It
is not that
young Masons should be warned not to demand Masonic secrecy too lightly
(it is to
be feared that many of them soon learn to their sorrow that it is not
that they should be told insistently, always to maintain secrecy
whether asked for
or not, in all cases where not to do so might cause any harm; or better
all cases where it will not do any good.
The man who
maintains secrecy is the man who can be trusted. It does not take long
people to find him out. But such men are not too common, and no more
to say, in the Craft than out of it. And yet few people do more good in
than those in whom others can confide, with whom they can freely
express their moods,
tell their difficulties or merely "blow off steam."
education of Masons is a desirable thing, undoubtedly, but it is of
beside their moral education. Freemasonry is easily summed up ‒ to
subdue the passions
and reform vices, to act honestly and uprightly, to bridle the tongue
from all evil
speaking, to be charitable and benevolent, and not least, or least
maintain secrecy. And how many members of the Fraternity in America
to do these things? Many more perhaps than might be supposed, but it is
that many have never even begun.
* * *
Price of Freedom
IT has been
said that the minority is generally in the right. A disturbing
utterance, if at
all true, for any democratically governed community; for in all such it
assumed that vox populi vox Dei est.
dictum is manifestly untrue, for majorities too often do things that no
could hold to be of Divine ordinance or inspiration. Majority rule is a
Minorities have to win over the majority ‒ if they can.
are made up of average, decent citizens, with average intelligence and
in their own affairs. Events at a distance, future contingencies,
affect them little.
For this reason they pay little attention to the warnings offered by
those who foresee
the future result of present tendencies and developments. The changes
by history are great, but it is always difficult for us to realize the
also a time of change. Yet every observer knows that this age in which
we are living
is a period of very rapid developments; and especially is it true that
of individual freedom under democratic institutions is being
challenged, and the
institutions themselves are everywhere being subjected to insidious
who believe in freedom and passionately desire it for themselves the
is disturbing. The slogan during the war was: "Make the world safe for
Then it was the autocratic Prussian government which seemed to be the
Prussianism was vanquished ‒ but its spirit lives, and is active in
in the world. Despotism comes now to us under the specious form of
the standardization of the individual to make him efficient.
eighteenth century it has been realized that freedom of speech and
freedom of the
press, is necessary to the maintenance of free institutions. Our
long ceased to attempt control ‒ but it does not follow that the
freedom of the
press is out of danger. Those who can remember from one incident to
who put one and two together, must realize that the press in America is
in an increasing degree to a secret censorship and control, in the
powerful groups which seek to manipulate public opinion to serve their
war, and the great development of the technique of propaganda to
further war aims,
it is probably that almost everyone is vaguely suspicious of the
honesty and candor
of the newspapers of the country. Unfortunately secret controlling
now reaching out to the weightier periodicals. Two years ago, exactly,
we made this
same statement. At that time we had learned from an unquestionable
source that a
whole issue of a highly respected and widely circulated magazine was
on account of a certain article. Only some half dozen copies escaped
one of which was in our informant's possession. The article in question
to by the hierarchy of the Roman Church. That it came to be known
was an additional disturbing feature.
but more open instance has recently occurred, which is of an even more
nature ‒ to those who are able to see beyond the day after tomorrow.
which deals entirely with the political events and social developments
of the world,
especially those of international interest, and which professes to
offer full and
impartial information, and which promises its subscribers to give them
of every controversy and subject of dispute or debate, recently
cartoons published in various European journals on the subject of the
and treaty between Italy and the Vatican. Some of these cartoons were
to the Church, some not. The magazine kept faith with its subscribers
gave both sides.
But one of
those Romanist lay organizations which seem to fill the role of a
militia took the
matter up, treating this republication as an offense and an attack on
Church. As a result the editor of the magazine in question publicly
the pages of an important Romanist organ, and promised, in effect,
never to publish
anything in the future that might be distasteful to supersensitive
Of what was
the editor of this periodical afraid? It is certain that he cannot have
that he had done anything unfair, or had misled anyone. He had merely
his magazine exists to do, or, rather, professes, to do, to present
both sides of
every important world event. One thing is certain, those who have
upon this periodical for full and trustworthy information have had
rudely shaken. It might be well if the reaction of such readers were
such as to
demonstrate that the Romanist group is not the only one worth taking
In the Extension
Magazine for October there appeared an editorial article under the
Showdown." It has been considered of sufficient importance to have been
by Romanist press agencies for reproduction elsewhere. It is an
rhetorical "red-herring" drawn over the trail "to confuse the scent."
We have no concern with it except on one count. In it is an absurd
to the non-Romanist citizens of the United States, to test legally the
of members of the Church, in view of the recent recognition of the Pope
as a quasi-temporal
sovereign. And in it Mr. Charles C. Marshall of New York is represented
denied the citizenship of members of the Roman Church in America.
Now it is
a common trick of controversy when unable to answer an opponent to
him. All who have read Mr. Marshall's book, The Roman Catholic (church
in the Modern
State [Lib*]), reviewed in THE Builder for May, 1928, know what his
It is too clear and logical to be misapprehended by any intelligent
Roman Catholic editors are not fools. The position is; first, that if
were in a majority they could lawfully and constitutionally secure
the Constitution; and secondly, that they would be in conscience bound
to do so
in obedience to the principles of their church. The church holds that a
ruler must acknowledge the church and put it in a preferred position.
In such a
case as the one postulated, the Romanist majority would be the
of the country.
It may seem
a farfetched and fanciful suggestion that such a majority could ever
come into being
‒ but is it? That there should be an actual majority of Roman Catholic
hardly possible in less than a century or two, if ever. But that a
large and powerful
group, with unlimited financial resources should control a majority is
in view of the developments in political technique for the dividing of
and misleading masses of uninterested and uninformed voters. And
control of the
press of the country is a first step towards such a control of the
controversalists assert that such contingencies are too far in the
future to be
worth considering, a "practical" argument that appeals to the
But institutions are modified by imperceptible changes, and a very
small leak, neglected,
will sink a ship.
has replied to the attack upon him, and at his request we are
publishing it in THE
BUILDER, for he does not expect that the Extension Magazine will do so.
be seen he restates his position in the light of recent Papal
We regret having to deal with
this subject at
all. The most fitting place for such discussions is in the pages of
of general circulation. But if they are no longer free from outside
remains only "class journals" as agents of free publicity. Fortunately
THE BUILDER wears no one's muzzle. And this is a subject of special
concern to Freemasons,
for it is only in a free country that Freemasonry can thrive. Even if
refuse to see the peril inherent in quite possible developments of the
there is no reason why we should shut our eyes.
Review of Masonry the
and Universality of
of universality in Masonry is one that will not die, however hardly it
may be used
under existing circumstances. The fact is that unless it is universal,
or aims at
universality, it means little or nothing more than any particularistic
Every Mason who catches a glimpse of the soul of Freemasonry, its inner
and secret, is bound to be fired by this ideal, and in consequence it
rising from its grave; the allegory or parable might be continued
further, but enough
has been said.
Home Journal of Kentucky has seen the vision, but is content to suggest
of some kind of Confederation of American Grand Lodges, something
the lines of the loose federation of the German Grand Lodges, which,
their sovereignty over their own lodges, enables them to take common
action in all
matters affecting the German Craft as a whole. This would seem to be
the idea of
Bro. H. H. Moore, the editor of the Journal, when he hopes to see the
accommodating itself to the changing conditions in the country today.
Lodge of each state legislates as if there were no such thing as
its narrow borders. This should not be. The spirit of brotherly love
comity forbids it. We would not touch the authority of any Grand Lodge
to the value
of a hair. What we say is, confederate, counsel together, draw the
bonds of fraternal
union closer and closer … you can at least let us have a periodical
Confederated Grand Lodges for mutual counsel, advice and improvement.
Service Association was founded to fill such a function, but
unfortunately it has
so far missed being the success that was hoped for. There is also the
Masters Conference, but with Grand Masters changing every year it has
for continuity of influence. Still, both these efforts of rapprochement
among the sovereign jurisdictions of the United States prove that Bro.
not far wrong in his diagnosis of the situation. Something is wanting.
* * *
Supreme Grand Lodge
Tidings of Milwaukee is even more definitely in favor of co-ordination
of the Craft,
although Bro. Fetterly very wisely does not say too much about it,
because he does
not want the Tidings to "become known as 'bugs' on the subject."
It is curious
to recall how very nearly a Supreme Grand Lodge came into being in
1780. If Washington
had not definitely refused to accept the office of Grand Master of the
in 1780 there is little doubt that he would have been elected by the
Grand Lodges, and the machinery once organized and in operation
would have had a Federal Government.
might-have-beens is largely speculation always, but sometimes the
observer is inclined to wonder whether it may not have been better that
fell through for the sake of Universal Masonry the world over. It may
be that a
Supreme Grand Lodge would have enhanced and emphasized the defects of
Craft instead of its merits and virtues. And a centralized American
be almost too overwhelming today. So perhaps its opponents, for reasons
hidden from many of them, are right after all. It is hard to say.
* * *
Lodge No. 30, Milwaukee,
Tidings for October gives a brief account of this German-speaking
lodge, the only
"foreign language" lodge in Wisconsin. We are told that:
In many ways
Aurora Lodge, No. 30, is a marvelous lodge. During the war when many
found it necessary to either interrupt the work of German-speaking
lodges or to
direct them to work in English only, no question of such action arose
Aurora. Its meetings continued regularly and no suspicion was ever
voiced as to
the loyalty of its members.
writer has had the privilege of visiting this lodge and the praise
it by the Masonic Tidings is fully deserved. The word "impressive" has
been used so much in this connection that it has almost lost its
work of Aurora is electrifying. It is the acme of simplicity, sincerity
and those who are made Masons by this lodge must receive an impression
can never possibly forget.
according to the members of the lodge, is based on the old French work.
Or, as it
is more often, but undoubtedly less accurately, described, it is the
Rite" and not the "York rite" that is followed. Both terms are, of
course, misleading, unless it is realized that they are mere nicknames.
three main types of ritual followed in the lodges of the world, which
may be geographically
designated as the American, the British and the European. Each type has
but these varieties or variations are all recognizable at once as
belonging to one
of these three main groups.
* * *
It is difficult
to understand the narrowness of view in regard to ritual matters among
so many Grand
Lodge officials, for California is not the only offender. But certain
Grand Lecturers and so on seem to wish to guard the ritual virginity of
much as the mistresses of a seminary for young ladies looked after
in the mid-Victorian era. When the fact, the obvious fact, is
considered, that every
Grand Lodge in the United States has its own sacred set of formulas, it
to go through the performance of trying officially to forbid anything
in the subordinate
lodges that might reveal the fact that the local ritual was not
California has some "foreign language" lodges, and the Grand Master
that they could not be allowed to visit an English-speaking lodge and
degrees. Of course, there may have been some other reason than this
that does not
appear, but in view of similar fatuities elsewhere it is open to doubt.
* * *
of the Orphan's Friend and Masonic Journal, of North Carolina, relates
how he recently
visited a lodge in Richmond, Virginia, Dove Lodge, No. 51. The
character of the
lodge, the enthusiasm and Masonic spirit made a great impression on
him, and the
question naturally arose in his mind how it was, and for what reason,
from so many other lodges throughout the country. He answers the
Richmond is a living, thriving, pulsing, force ‒ or, at least, it seems
to be. Why?
Richmond has its share of civic clubs, theaters and other places of
its fine theaters, it offers every inducement to its people to be
how can we account for the fact that they are able to convene a Lodge
at 4 or 5
o'clock in the afternoon and keep several hundred men working
until low 12? I think that the answer is in the feet that they eat
bread and eating salt with your fellow man knits you a little closer
meeting him and talking with him on subjects of interest to you both.
This was the
custom of our ancient brethren, and I feel that if we adopt it, our
will feel closer to us ‒ we will be as one big family.
are held together by their custom of weekly luncheons. The members do
not go for
the lunches ‒ they can and do get better lunches at home ‒ but they
attend on account
of the friendly feeling they generate for their fellow man by eating
him. When one eats a meal with his fellow man, he feels just a little
him than he did before. I think that our brothers of Virginia have
It is too
easy to judge the Mason who seldom attends his lodge except when there
is a “feed.”
He is very likely seeking something that he needs and desires, which he
in the business sessions and the operation of the degree mill. The
trouble is that
lodge "feeds" are in this country too often that and nothing more.
Masonry has suffered a great, though unrealized, loss in the disuse of
formalities of the Masonic Banquet.
* * *
correspondence in the same volume of proceedings is the following
on modifications in the ritual adopted by the Grand Chapter of Florida:
a resolution adopted by Grand Chapter set the seal of condemnation
against any innovation
in the degrees, but the Grand High Priest this year thought that the
to stop rough practices was to change the Ritual, which met with
do not see the necessity of changing a ritual, far better to educate
We will always believe that many more who came to us after the war
would have been
interested and retained in our membership, if instead of buffoonery,
create at the best only amusement, at the worst disgust, they had been
with the beautiful lessons of our degrees given to them as they can be
the Grand Chapter of Florida has not devised a new ritual, but has
to adopt the ritual of the General Grand Chapter. There has been an
tradition of horse play in the Chapter in America, both in the Past
where a little is not out of place, and emphasizes, or may be made to
an exceedingly important lesson. In the Royal Arch such levity is
of place. But the dramatic form of the American ceremonies lends itself
of this kind in a way that the rituals followed elsewhere make quite
* * *
and Plural Membership.
from the Grand Lodge Bulletin of North Dakota shows that the movement
the needless restrictions on a Mason's freedom in this regard is
and more. We hope that North Dakota will again be found among the more
of our jurisdictions:
has been prominently before American Grand Lodges the past year or two.
adopted dual membership a year ago. Wisconsin adopted plural membership
dual membership last June. The question was up in Michigan at the last
but we understand the action was not completed. Nearly all of the New
Lodges allow dual membership, and it has long been the custom in
English and Canadian
lodges to allow plural membership. As we see the question, there ought
not to be
any good reason why any brother who desired and was able to meet the
not be permitted to belong to more than one lodge. It might make a
bookkeeping for the lodge and the Grand Lodge secretaries, but that is
objection to the principle. There are many Masons who desire to remain
the Mother Lodge and yet who would gladly affiliate with a lodge where
Such was our ease some years ago, but under present North Dakota
Masonic law it
could not be done. The question is a live one and will come before the
before very long.
* * *
Selection of Material
a timely and vigorous editorial article in a recent number of the
and Compass. It is pointed out that it is the business of every member
of the lodge
to be sure that each applicant is worthy. Though how this would be
possible in a
large lodge, with applications coming in by the dozen, it is hard to
of some kind would seem to be necessary first. But the following is so
to present conditions that it deserves quotation at length:
One of the
many handicaps the Craft labors under today is its size. Our lodges are
Every Master boasts of how many he raised during his year ‒ not how
good the material
was that he condescended to work upon. One of the first things the
asks of the first member he meets of the visited lodge is: "How many
have you?" I've done it myself ‒ and then thought "What an ass I am!"
What difference does it make to you or to me how large our particular
Does it confer any particular favor or honor upon you or I because our
a hundred or a thousand members? What do numbers mean, anyway?
the editor describes the subsidiary activities and arrangements of a
lodge and comments as follows:
This array of "goodies" is not
but is culled from the lodge bulletin and magazines of large lodges
United States. Can you suggest any field more inviting to the social
the politician, the self-seeker or the dollar-chaser? It makes one
wonder how a
candidate can truthfully answer within the landmarks, "what came you
Question About A Questionnaire
of the above is an account in the Masonic Chronicler of Chicago of a
prepared by a certain lodge to be answered by would-be candidates. It
is too long
to quote here in full, but it is somewhat on the same lines as the
made in European lodges, only there the answers are not written and
a committee, but are asked of the candidate in the lodge.
agree with the Chronicler that if this particular set of questions were
by an applicant intelligently and sincerely that he “… would have
proven his qualifications
for Masonry, even under more rigid conditions than usually exist."
we would be inclined to put it stronger still.
it seems that a certain applicant resented the inquiry, and the matter
to the attention of' the Grand Master, who disapproved, and sought to
show the Master
of the lodge the error of its ways. The Master, however, stuck to his
insisted that the lodge alone had a right to say whom it would elect,
and that so
long as it did not transgress the specific enactments of the Grand
Lodge and the
spirit of Masonic law in regard to the selection of candidates it was
rights to examine the qualifications of applicants in whatever way
The position is unassailable. If applicants are not prepared to submit
they can either give up their intention of becoming members of the
Craft, or seek
a lodge, the requirements of which are more formal and less searching.
should be none such.
* * *
Truly Masonic Lodge
It is Kennesaw,
No. 33, of Marietta, Georgia. The Masonic Messenger tells us in a
recent issue how
much it has accomplished for the children in the Masonic Home. Says the
that the brethren had about done all possible and ‒
comes again Kennesaw Lodge!"
following motion was voted and carried: That the funds accruing from
offering which is made at each meeting of this Lodge be turned over to
of the Benevolence Committee at the close of each year.
the Benevolence Committee use this fund to assist some boy or girl from
Home to complete their education or to secure a vocational training.
the Benevolence Committee use this money only to help the boy or girl
who is named
by the Director of Masonic Welfare."
be no contribution to Humanity as permanent and as great as helping a
child to be
what God intended it.
was an old clergyman, wise in experience, who was asked by a young
charge of a dis-spirited and indifferent congregation how best he could
go to work
to pay oft the indebtedness on his church. The elder's reply was:
Missions." The younger man asked how this could help. The answer was:
you can get your people interested in the needs of others your own
will solve themselves automatically." A lodge is in this respect like a
if it is not engaged or interested in some form of disinterested
service it has
lost its reason for existence, and like any other disused machinery
* * *
in the Eastern
ago Pennsylvania Masons were enjoined from being or becoming members of
Star chapters. The grounds for the edict, given in general terms, were
said to be
that the Order had been attempting to interfere in the affairs of the
just what way was never publicly explained.
the Missouri Freemason informed us of most unseemly proceedings and
actions in the
Order in Missouri, which it seems will probably be ventilated in the
courts of law.
Now we learn from an article by Bro. A.B. Green in the Masonic Review
and bitter party strife in the Grand Chapter of New York. Just why
should be we do not know, but we have no doubt that the British Grand
feel it is an added justification for the action taken by them to
prohibit any connection
whatever between the female order and Freemasonry in their respective
* * *
Grand Lodges Recognized
In the last
issue of the Masonic Digest is a report of the Annual Communication of
Lodge of California, held at Los Angeles on October 8th. The Committee
and General Purposes recommended:
… recognition should be
extended to four German
Lodges. They are: The Mother Grand Lodge of Frankfort-on-the-Main, the
Grand Lodge of Berlin, the Grand Lodge of Hamburg and the National
Grand Lodge of
All Freemasons of Berlin. The Grand Lodge approved the report and
extended the recognition.
titles of German Grand Lodges are not easy to render idiomatically into
as they are formed quite differently from our own, owing largely it may
their jurisdictions are not territorial in any strict sense.
on the above list was originally (before the war) The Grand Lodge of
Royal York of Friendship. It became a Grand Lodge in 1798, originally
it was a subordinate
of the Lodge of the Three Globes (Welt-Kugeln), which chartered
a "Mother Lodge." Royal York seceded from its Mother and became a
Lodge in its turn, and later with its daughters formed a Grand Lodge.
war "Royal York" has been deleted from its style and it is now the
Lodge of Prussia, called "of Friendship," in Berlin.
body is styled the Grand Mother Lodge of the Eclectic Masonic Union
at Frankfort-on-the-Main. The last of the four mentioned is presumably
National Lodge (Landesloge) of the Freemasons of Germany, at Berlin,
and was instituted
in 1770. The Grand Lodge of Hamburg has a simple geographical title of
that needs no explanation for American Masons.
four other Grand Lodges more than a hundred years old, and one very new
last is the Grand Lodge of the German Brother-tie (lit. Brotherchain,
at Leipzig, and is, we believe, formed of the five old independent (but
regular) lodges that for many years were confederated in the "Free
the Five Independent Lodges of Germany."
are the Grand National Mother Lodge of the Three Globes, dating from
1740, the Grand
Lodge "of the Sun" at Bayreuth, the Grand State-Lodge (Landesloge) of
Saxony at Dresden, and the Grand Freemason's Lodge "of Concord" at
is given in the report as to the reasons for selecting four only out of
to be granted recognition by California, it may be only these four
or that the committee has so far gone no further in its researches. In
the regularity of these Grand Lodges from the strictest Anglo-Saxon
point of view
there has never been a breath of accusation from any responsible source.
* * *
and Myths of
of being in doubt is mentally more than merely an uneasy one, to most
minds it is
positively painful. It is this urge for certainty that is the root
cause of so many
also appears in Masonry, and especially is the obscure field of the
origin of Masonic
symbolism a fertile field for such invented explanations. In an article
Flowers and Numbers in Symbolism" that appeared recently in the Masonic
of New York, the author, Bro. J. B. Nicholson, has collected much
curious information, but he has inadvertently included a statement that
has no other
grounds for credence than the fact that it has been frequently and
It is to the alleged fact, as it is put in this instance, that “a sprig
has been used by many ancient peoples to mark the grave and as a sign
life." The more usual version of this mythical dictum is to the effect
it was an ancient custom among the Hebrews to mark a grave with a bush
of acacia. Not an iota of evidence has ever been offered to
substantiate the statement.
Not a single reference in ancient authors to any such custom has ever
among the Hebrews or any other race. The single possible exception is
the late version
of the myth of Osiris as related by Greek authors, where a tree is said
grown up about the coffin or chest containing the body of the dead
deity. This tree
is said to have been a tamarisk or acacia, but more correctly a
tamarisk or acaca,
neither of which is related to the acacia. It is indeed probable that
of the acacia, or, rather, the transformation of the original cassia
in the Masonic legend, was due to the emendations of learned brethren
in the eighteenth
century under the influence of the classic version of the story of
* * *
and Germany and World
from Alpina, the organ of the Grand Lodge Alpina of Switzerland, is of
It originally appeared in the Luzerner Tagblatt.
France officially poses as a champion of European peace, her political
still too often influenced by military considerations …
And yet the
French people are much less militaristic than their government, or than
by those who do not know France. It is here that the great difference
is to be found. There the bourgeoisie cannot believe it to be possible
to be at
the same time patriotic and pacific. The League of the Rights of Man,
societies have numerous members in France, while in Germany the same
though active, have a much smaller membership. The Grand Orient and the
of France, which have between them 70,000 members, are entirely
the Prussian lodges are anti-pacifist.
Masonry of the High Degrees, so much decried and calumniated, which has
leaders in France, is wholly international, and has only one political
union of Europe for European peace, and work in common for the
advancement of culture
In the month
of September the (International) League of Freemasons assembled at
the banner "Peace in Europe." The leaders of Freemasonry were gathered
there from every country: the German Grand Lodges alone had not yet
disarmed, spiritually, to participate.
We may understand
the attitude of German Masons by putting ourselves in their place and
realize how we should feel. And it must be remembered too that
Freemasonry in Germany
is being subjected to a relentless and continued attack, and that every
being made by its enemies to brand it as unpatriotic and
anti-nationlist. The absurdity
and ridiculous nature of the accusations may lead us at a distance to
the actual weight and effect of this organized attack. But it is enough
our German brethren to be very circumspect in what they do, quite aside
* * *
Death of Ettore Ferrari.
of Bro. Ferrari in Italy has been quite generally announced in the
The following details, which we take from Alpina, are worthy of record
Ettore Ferrari was born in 1849, and was eighty years old this year. He
was a sculptor
by profession, one of the most widely and favorably known in Europe. He
been attached to the Italian Republican Party ‒ now of course
suppressed ‒ and served
several terms on the Municipal Council of Rome in the past. He was an
Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Italy and Secretary of the Supreme
the Grand Orient. On account of his Masonic connections he suffered
under the present regime. Sometime ago his house was burned by a
Fascist mob and
his valuable art collections pillaged. The venerable old man was
dragged out and
threatened by assailants, revolvers in hand, to whom he made the proud
protest, "You can kill me if you like, but it will be the shame of
Though not injured he was subjected thereafter to constant and petty
in every way that might suggest itself to small and vindictive minds.
on "How to Organize and Maintain a Study Club" will be sent free on
in quantities to fifty
Bro. Herbert Hungerford
Study Club In
past few months I have urged the need of a general program of "popular"
Masonic education, a program designed to appeal to the average Mason.
Now, I find
that our good "high-brow" brethren are much too far in advance to be
to help much; they simply do not seem to be able to understand where to
order to appeal to the ordinary member of the Fraternity.
are all right, but they are not enough by themselves. I propose,
month to present extracts from some letters written by an Ohio brother
ago which describe how he solved the problem of interesting a group of
in his lodge; and more than interesting them, he succeeded in getting
them to work.
A Three Months'
was a wonderful tonic and affords me considerable encouragement, just
when I have
been in doubt.
I think the
following will give you the information you request, and if there are
developments worthwhile I will inform you.
I might mention
that the complete "Designs on the Trestle Board" have been fairly well
worked out so far, but I had hoped to climax the six weeks' course by
one full evening
instead of one and one-quarter hours ‒ then let the brethren talk their
off" instead of limiting them to three minutes. They are now raring to
and I wanted them just that way. Twelve to twenty-three minute talks
hour or more and allows little time for anything else.
Lotus Study Club
of the Study Club were held after the lodge was closed. (The lodge
referred to is
Lotus No. 625, Toledo, Ohio.) All present at the lodge meeting were
invited to stay.
The percentage of those who did so was very encouraging.
A Director, T. C. Devine.
twelve members, all with a sort of a let's-see-what-it's-all-about
look, not sure
of themselves. This look soon vanished.
by Director on Object and Purpose.
myself in Masonry.
seek the Light of Masonry.
the meaning of Masonic symbols, allegory and metaphor.
more about the work, of the phraseology or the ritual and so on.
study and learn all I can.
be able to arise on my feet and explain what I know briefly and
increase my vocabulary.
are given to look up and to use.
It was impressed
on their minds that no one can speak in public or even converse
knowing his subject, and the subject here is Masonry.
a series of questions. Not to be answered however, but simply to arouse
No embarrassing questions, no trick questions, no difficult questions.
is to simplify.
in his talk asks concerning the First, Second and Third Degrees, from
the time of
Entrance into the Lodge until the end; the Points of Entrance, the
Cable Tow, Circumambulation,
Divesting, etc., and inserts a constant, "Why?"
present has one of these symbols assigned to him to look up, and is
told that at
the next meeting he will be called upon to rise to his feet and talk
on his subject. (Bear in mind that with one or two exceptions these are
who never talked before an audience in their lives, Rough Stones to be
then reads a carefully selected, short article on Symbolism, perhaps a
illustrative of the meaning of' allegory and metaphor. The Director
then gives them
a Jewel (at every meeting) to take home with them ‒ a Jewel that cannot
bought, sold or stolen. They wonder now what sort of a Jewel this is.
then requests them all to rise to their feet, and now a carefully
‒ from a bound volume of THE BUILDER ‒ of about six or eight lines, is
to them, then they are asked to repeat after the leader, after which he
and they recite alone.'
The Jewel Memorized by the Class.
We are all
like children playing on the seashore, picking up here a pebble and
there a stone,
with the whole ocean of truth unexplored before us. ‒ Sir Isaac Newton.
A few minutes
explaining the meaning of this, the necessity of gathering information
sources, the proper authorities to seek for data. Then, Goodnight.
reported there were twelve present at the first meeting, and each
accepted an assignment.
At the second meeting ten responded, out of 22 present. It must be kept
too, that we meet after the regular meeting. Now let us proceed.
Subjects: The Cable
Tow; Women Who Were Masons; Was Abraham Lincoln a Mason? Was George
Mason? (Both subjects appropriate for February); Metallic Substances ‒
Of; Working Tools of a Mason; The Lambskin Apron; The Three Greater and
Lights; T.G.A.O.U.; Entered Apprentice Degree; Fellowcraft Degree, and
all the way through have been made to Mackey's Encyclopaedia and THE
have the pages marked and ready for those who call, or telephone, and
my bound copies
of THE BUILDER are accessible to all, though not always to take home
were given for this meeting and about twelve responded, but there were
who remained after the meeting to participate. All cannot accept
to uncertainty of attendance. But the big thing is that interest is
shown. The subjects
assigned were: Eavesdroppers and Cowans; The Widow's Son; Tubal Cain;
Ashlar; Why Does the Worshipful Master Wear a Hat? Allegory and
Metaphor; The Lodge
a Symbol of the World; the Temple Not Made With Hands; The Lost Word;
How to Wear
a Masonic Ring? How Many Circumambulations Round the Lodge in the E. A.
the F. C. and M. M.? How Was the C. T. employed in the E.A. Degree; The
twenty subjects assigned, but I must now tell you of disappointments as
successes, so this was not so good. It was a late meeting (the regular
with a great deal of important business, and the lodge was not closed
The class could not get started until 10 p. m., with the F. C. team
drill preparatory to inspection the following week. At the beginning of
there were only ten present, with twenty assignments, and not all
present had assignments.
Later on the attendance increased to about eighteen, but the meeting
I talked between times) because we could not proceed according to
brothers were tired out. I have no fault to find. Bear in mind,
however, that all
had studied their subjects and only they know how diligently. This was
were: The Cornucopia; Pomegranate; Acacia; Lotus; All Seeing Eye;
Almond Tree Shall
Flourish; Altar and the Horns of the Altar; Designs on the Trestle
of Labor; Gavel, Plumb, Square, Level; Twenty-four Inch Gauge; Compass;
Circumambulation; Hour Glass and Why Is There No Light in the North?
I gave ten
assignments for this meeting and in the interval endeavored to get in
the brothers who were absent, to keep them in tow. The subjects
assigned were: The
Lion of the Tribe of Judah; Tetragrammaton; High Twelve and Low Twelve;
of the Lodge, Broached Thurnel; Sublime Degree; Ineffable Name; The
Pectoral; Guttural Points; The Northeast Corner ‒ How Symbolic of the
(Gave the student my copy of 1918 BUILDER, which has best article on
I have seen anywhere. I have made several good talks from it); Where Is
Opened in the First, Second and Third Degrees?
or season ends, with only six lessons in all, and I consider it time
for the club or class, for the lodge, for Masonry and for myself.
been sixty subjects, and, of course, any student knows that no one
Mackey's for one subject can escape finding others of interest, and the
to the bound volumes of THE BUILDER. Each brother who has visited me is
amazed at the information in THE BUILDER and puts in a couple of hours
bound volumes of THE BUILDER I have read, quoted, and taught the class
(and I always have my bound volumes with me during meeting):
pages 157, 189, Vol. 3.
page 157, Vol. 3.
Joyce Kilmer, page 115, Vol. 1.
as example of allegory and metaphor ‒ preparatory to ‒ explaining the
Tree Shall Flourish, page 138, Vol. 1.
xii, page 297, Vol. 1.
Fellowship," page 264, Vol. 1.
page 233, Vol. 1.
Wisdom, page 241, Vol. 1. ( Education )
When Is a
Man a Mason? pages 41, 45, Vol. 3.
of a Mason, page 117, Vol. 3.
by class, one at each meeting by repeating aloud.
Designs, page 288.
a Bridge at Twilight," page 168.
the Master Wear a Hat, page 120.
How to Wear
a Masonic Ring; current issue.
others, but this gives the general idea. And to my mind the keynote of
instruction in Masonic literature, Symbolism, etc., is to arouse
it, and organize those interested into study groups or clubs rather
than a dry lecture
by a sometimes dry lecturer who reprimands his audience for neglect.
do the same thing with a baseball or football team ‒ scold the college
faculty and students because they had no team, or take no interest in
But the thing required is a captain or coach or trainer who knows the
game and will
say, Come on, here are bats, balls, etc., let's organize. He plays with
directs them and eventually they have a team.
So my theory
is that while there are a few of us who love reading, studying or
we cannot hope for all to do so alone, so magazines and books are laid
away in moth
balls until "We get time." "Someday we are going to read." Their
best friends, the books, get musty with age, waiting for that "someday"
which never comes. The brother gets a thrill in saying, "I've got a set
books," or "I've got a book," but he has it on the shelf instead
of in his head, and needs our aid in transferring the contents.
has been my purpose in volunteering first, and directing for six
evenings in three
months, in class, and every day in aiding the members of Lotus Study
been no dues, no charges, no sales. We worked with the tools at hand.
thing to do was to get the brethren started ‒ their interest aroused.
This has been
done, and not only myself, but all the members of Lotus Lodge are very
with the results.
* * *
General Knowledge Questionnaire
In the October
number of the Orphan's Friend and Masonic Journal, the following
appears. It seems to offer a useful suggestion for the educational
lodges as well as for study clubs. There is nothing like an element of
to stimulate interest:
of Carolina Consistory, of Charlotte, for October is interesting. Among
it carries twenty-five questions on Masonry, with the answers given at
A very wide range is found in the questions, which makes them all the
From general Masonic knowledge to local information the student goes.
of the bulletin tells us that the idea was first tried out in a contest
a District of Columbia lodge when the best of answers were correct by
only 64 per
cent. Nothing is said about the brother who handed in the worst
with local questions made to apply to this grand jurisdiction instead
of the District
of Columbia follows:
Who is the present Grand Master
of North Carolina?
Who is the present Grand
Secretary of North Carolina?
Who is the District Deputy
Grand Master (Twenty seventh District?).
How many Masonic Districts in
How many lodges in the
Charlotte (Twenty-Seventh District?
Give names and numbers of the
Masonic Lodges in Charlotte.
How many Presidents of the
United States were Masons?
When was the mother Grand Lodge
formed in England?
Where was George Washington
raised a Master Mason?
What was the highest Masonic
office held by Paul Revere?
How many Past Grand Masters
reside in Charlotte?
Where should the Bible be
opened on the Third Degree?
How many Masons compose a
Master Mason's Lodge?
How many a Lodge on the first
How many stations in a Lodge?
What Grand Lodge forbids its
members to join the Eastern Star?
What President of the United
States was violently opposed to Freemasonry?
What President of the United
States was a Grand Master?
How often does the General
Grand Lodge of the United States meet?
When is St. John the
What degree is higher than
Can a Lodge try a sojourning
Brother for un-Masonic conduct?
What Grand Lodge does not
number its Lodges?
Is dual membership permitted in
What Grand Lodge uses the
letters A.F.M. instead of F.&A. or F.&A.M.?
reviewed in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of
at the prices given, which always include postage. These prices are
a matter of precaution) to change without notice, though occasion for
very seldom arise. Occasionally it may happen where books are privately
that there is no supply available, but some indication of this will be
the review. The Book Department is equipped to procure any books in
print on any
subject, and will make inquiries for second-hand works and books out of
to Masonic Literature
J. Hugo Tatsch. Published by the Macoy Co. Paper, 31 pages.
years there have been a number of pamphlets published to aid the
enquiring brother in his search for information about the Craft. These
have been made from very different standpoints. Some have tended toward
others have included titles of works that are only indirectly of
others again have been confined to strictly Craft literature.
has endeavored to steer a middle course. In the first place he has
listed only books
still in print, which can be readily obtained. As he remarks:
Many of the
choicest books were issued only in limited quantities, and are now to
be found only
on the bookshelves of the discriminating collector, or in the libraries
or Grand Lodges. Very few appear on the market today.
In the second
place the titles listed are marked in two categories, those which are
of the first
importance, and those of a subsidiary character. And this is a guide
both for reading
come under general subject heads, beginning with History, while in
spite of the
prejudice against it in the minds of so many, is the foundation of a
understanding of Freemasonry. Masonic History is given two sub-lists,
these come Ethics and Philosophy, the Ancient Mysteries, Symbolism, the
Mysticism, Jurisprudence, Fiction, Miscellaneous Works and Works of
there are Monitors and Handbooks, Proceedings and Transactions,
works in other languages. The arrangement is purely empirical, and
is an advantage, for any attempt at a theoretically consistent
be apt to confuse those for whom the pamphlet is intended. At the end
are some brief
hints on the management of a small library.
very little that we would criticize. One might feel some surprise that
Language list contains only German works. There have been a number of
works in French recently published. Perhaps there are fewer American
read French than German.
Some of the
miscellaneous works are really historical, but perhaps are better thus
the purpose in view. We are glad to note that Bro. Tatsch gives a word
as a preface to the works on the Ancient Mysteries. Most of them need
to be taken
with more than one grain of salt.
* * *
Story of a Fourfold Life
John Rathbone Oliver. Published by The Macmillian Company, New York.
of Contents, 305 pages. Price, $2.65.
IT is not
at all uncommon for the statement to be made that a book will live, or
that it will
have a very short life. The elements which go to make for longevity are
cases elusive and defy description. It is a conceded feet that
have a longer life than almost any book published. The reasons for this
Biography also has its place among the classics. Perhaps this is one
might contribute to making the volume under review a book of future
it is very difficult to predict what will live and what will not, I
should be inclined
to the opinion that if any of Dr. Oliver's works are handed down to
it will be his last volume in preference to either of the first two. I
Dr. Oliver's style will have more to do with the long life of his book
else. Perhaps basically this is not true, because in his style is
more than the experiences of his life. He has in the present volume
life experience into four parts. His style might be said to have four
characteristics, which correspond to the four divisions of his
existence. Dr. Oliver
writes in the last part of his book of his religious experience, and to
me at least,
this is the most interesting, but at the same time, the least
of the work. It is hard for one who has had a somewhat similar
experience to appreciate
the difficulties in the way of writing about one's religion, and
although I make
the statement that this is the least successful part of his work, I do
have a deep
appreciation for the many obstacles he must have encountered in writing
it. It is
in no way a detraction from the interest of the book, and it is no
the book as a whole to say that this section is not the best example of
Dr. Oliver has done. As I have indicated, it is to me at least, in
spite of its
failure as an exposition, the most interesting of all he has written.
which he terms "The Altar" has had its effect on his style. Just as his
religion is indefinable in many respects, so does his style have the
that one finds in a deeply religious person who is very sincere in his
but at the same time, finds it impossible to describe them. The
pervades the atmosphere of Four Square from beginning to end, expressed
in words and at other times in nothing more than this characteristic of
of Dr. Oliver's life is that which he terms "The University." As a man
well along toward middle life, he enrolled as a graduate student at
University, and took his Ph.D. degree. During his student life a new
which has come to be known as the Alumni Memorial Hall, was erected,
and Dr. Oliver
occupied and still occupies a suite of rooms therein. He has now been
of the Hall, a sort of gentleman supervisor, but his supervision is of
kind. It would take too long to tell about it here, and only the fact
that he is
in such close contact with college students, many of whom are very much
than he is, could account for a certain happiness that is to be found
his book. This buoyant style is not the joy of a man on the downward
grade of life,
but rather a youthful enthusiasm. It is one of those contagious
elements of youth
which seemingly has infected Dr. Oliver through his dormitory contacts.
element is that of a scholarly doctor of medicine interested in his
which happens to be mental diseases. One must naturally be a scholar to
in a field such as this, and it is only natural that his study of the
which come to his notice should reflect itself in his manner of
writing. And then
we come to the fourth division, namely, Dr. Oliver's experience in the
court, which has led him to a kindly understanding of human nature such
as few people
possess. Perhaps it is due to this experience that we find a very deep
in the style of the author.
it may seem in thus analyzing Dr. Oliver's style, and at the same time
about his book, we have handled the subject matter in reverse order
from the way
in which he has chosen to treat it. But this arbitrary arrangement is
in which the various elements of his style make their deepest appeal,
and I think
it may be safely said that it is the way in which the four elements
have made their
deepest impressions on the man.
speaking, Four Square does not fall into the realm of autobiography,
it be classed as a collection of memoirs. About as near as it is
possible to come
to any classification would be to say that it is a collection of
reminiscences. Anyone who has read previous books published by Dr.
Oliver must undoubtedly
feel that he should like to know more about the man himself. It is the
which gives that information, and it is by far the most interesting of
In many respects, it is the least well done. Perhaps this is due to
I am inclined to think that this is perhaps the most important reason,
Oliver in all of his books has approached his subject with this same
a lack of presumption, an unwillingness to take the credit for being of
help to mankind. He takes his successes primarily, I think, as lucky
but his failures leave a deep impression. But we see revealed in Four
Square a man
who has had trials and tribulations amply sufficient many men, but from
has emerged victorious, and leading the kind of a life that many of us
* * *
Apostle of Modern Times
Bernard Fay. Published by Little, Brown and Co. Cloth, octave, table
bibliography, index, xvi and 547 pages. Price, $3.00 net.
to which one instinctively takes a fancy ‒ it has the appearance,
and feel which readers relish in something which attracts them. The
binding is of
soft black cloth, such as first made its appearance last year in
European book marts.
A bit faddish, it is true; just how long it will last is something that
blush, the book is one which the Masonic reviewer hails with delight,
wonder of wonders! ‒ it actually has references, and many of them, to
a Freemason. We have condoned, though somewhat grudgingly, the failure
to mention the Masonic activities of their subjects when such have not
or unusually outstanding; but why biographers of Franklin never said a
him as a Freemason is something unforgiveable, when considering how
much is on record
in that respect. True, Franklin himself never said a word in his
his Craft labors, or gave any intimation of them, with but two known
in his correspondence. Says W. Bro. Julius F. Sachse in Franklin as a
is the more remarkable when we look at his Masonic career while in
the later years of his life. There his activity and intimacy with the
intimate and close both personal and official, Franklin taking an
active part in
their proceedings, even advancing to the so-called higher degrees.
retained all of his French Lodge notices and correspondence, while of
and English career not a scrap can be found, except what is noted in
the entire book, which is written in a fascinating and interest
would take more space than is available. I must confine myself to the
solely. The work first came to my attention two years ago, when
examining one of
the large private collections of Frankliniana in a western state, where
I was informed
by the librarian that Bernard Fay had been visiting. Consequently, I
announcements of the book, and procured an advance copy through the
the publishers. This is an opportune time to say that the book has been
by the Book of the Month Club as its December title, something which
pleasure and regret. Pleasure, because it will give many people an
Freemasonry's eighteenth century activities; regret, because much that
said by Fay about Franklin in a Masonic way is misleading. The author
has read into
his record a number of things which we review with tongue in cheek. It
Fay is not a Mason; but if he should be a member of the Fraternity, he
has not caught
the spirit of our Masonic institution.
some friendships which must be taken by assault. Such was the case of
to be a Mason and needed to be one. But at first his chances seemed
The solid bourgeois men, who made up the Lodge of Saint John of
Jerusalem in Philadelphia,
didn't think highly of this much traveled, adventurous, jolly little
did not belong to their environment. Besides, his club, the Junto, a
little artisans, was a kind of rival.
wanted to belong to this circle of serious rich, influential men, who
him much in his career. In London he had seen how rapidly Masonry had
made its way
among the important men, among the intellectuals and the most
intelligent of the
upper middle class. It spread over the United States with the same
had its lodge in 1727 [sic], Boston in 1733, Georgia in 1734, South
1725, etc. In Europe, Paris had its first lodge in 1725, but Florence
had to wait
until 1733, Hamburg until 1737, Berlin 1740, and St. Petersburg 1771.
behind the times.
realized what power was represented by such international affiliations
and how important
they could be for a journalist and printer; he also knew his ideas on
politics and the future of humanity corresponded with those of Masonry.
to force his way into the society and succeeded.
was not without weapons and he was quick to see the weak point of
its very start, Masonry had been surrounded in mystery, and this
Government and annoyed the idlers who could not join. Secrecy was the
power of the
Masons in business and politics, but it was also their weakness. If the
were to stir up public opinion against it, the Masons risked being
by the furious crowd, or the hostile Government.
made the Masons realize that he could use his newspapers either to
serve them or
to harm them. In several numbers of 1730 he printed the news relative
lodges and their functioning, and his accounts were written in an
Then he made a sign to show that it was time he be chosen, either as a
an enemy. On December 8, 1730, he published a report sent from London
in the Pennsylvania
(gazette, which claimed to contain a complete description of the
[Here follows the well known account.] * * *
were wiser than to discuss the matter. Some weeks later they invited
printer to join them.
quite ready "to carry on the jest," seriously accepted.
in the above extract are mine. The statements may not mean much to the
be he Mason or nonMason, but they most assuredly arouse conflicting
the heart of the Craft student. The author certainly has succeeded in
attention to his text, and assures himself of a careful reading of
references. One wonders why the positive assertion that the
Philadelphia lodge was
founded in 1727? I suspect this is attributed to the 1908 Philadelphia
in facsimile, of The Constitutions of St. John's Lodge which is none
the Tho. Carmick MS., to which the date of A D. 1727 has been given As
I point out
in my recently published volume, Freemasonry in the Thirteen Colonies,
of the manuscript is not necessarily proof that there was a lodge in
in the same year, even allowing for Julius F. Sachse's statement in
in Pennsylvania, (Vol. 1. page 2) that "The finding of a copy of the
of St. John's Lodge, written by Bro Thomas Carmick and dated 1727,
that St. John's Lodge was established several years prior to the date
first notice in the (gazette." Bro. Sachse's commendable zeal to prove
Masonic priorities was not always tempered with the caution which
should mark the
careful historian. He may have been right; but if the evidence is ever
will be based on documents other than those cited. The lost Liber A ‒
if there is
one ‒ may offer more definite information.
of 1725, attributed to Masonic origins in France, is also open to
though Louis Amiable in his Une Loge
d'avant 1789; La R. L. les Neuf Soeurs [Lib French 1897] does say "La franc-maçonnerie
moderne avait été introduite en France vers 1725." Gould in his larger
of Freemasonry, speaking of Masonry in France, says: "The History of
half century must be open to much doubt." Yet these details are beside
point; but I mention them in passing as a matter of information. We
might also question
the logic of the author's statement that "Franklin realized the power
by such inter-national affiliations,” for at the time of which we
speak, there were
no lodges (other than the doubtful French ones) on the Continent. While
it is true
that Masonry had a rapid run in England among excellent people, and
also in Philadelphia
‒ to judge from the character and activities of the early members of
Lodge ‒ we must not lose sight of the fact that the lodges were
democratic in spirit.
It is difficult to believe that Franklin had to "force his way into the
or that Franklin was obliged to coerce ‒ no matter how politely ‒ the
his day to "invite" him to join the Craft. The matter of solicitation,
which we abhor so today, was probably then a fairly common thing,
it was felt that persons of prominence would add dignity, stability and
to the social organizations which the lodges really were in the early
days. I doubt
if it is justifiable to attribute ulterior motives to Franklin's
Masonic news in his "Gazette" during the period before he was a
He had a keen nose for news, as Fay shows in his later pages where he
relationships of Franklin with the rival printer, Bradford.
minor points, I grant; but they reflect the tone of the Masonic
the book, which all tend to be misleading. There is also one definite
attributing to Franklin the authorship (or at least a part) of the
of the Free-Masons, which Franklin reprinted in 1734 [Lib 1734]. On page 167 of the book
is the statement: "He [Franklin] wrote, 'All Preferment among Masons is
upon real Worth and personal Merit only.'" This appears on page 50 of
reprint, being part of the first sentence in Article IV of "The Charges
a Free-Mason." Franklin did not add anything of his own to the work; it
simply a reprint of Anderson's The Book of Constitutions which appeared
1723 [Lib 1723].
On page 179
is this sentence: "These 'Masons' practiced all kinds of bizarre, and
shocking rites which had nothing in common with the central
organization, the Grand
Lodge of London." Reference is had here to Masonic or pseudo-Masonic
of continental Europe; such to whom the charge applies had no
with the premier Grand Lodge, which was in no sense a "central
maintaining supervision over the lodges referred to. The fallacy that
has, or ever did have, a central governing body which controlled lodges
parts of the world on an equal basis is one which will not down in the
also attributes too much importance to the anti-Masonic activities in
1736-1738. The coarse and bucolic sense of humor possessed by one or
precipitated a mild storm which had no lasting effect. (See my article
in THE BUILDER,
August, 1926, "The Rise and Development of Anti-Masonry in America,
I think, too, that too much stress is laid upon the opposition of women
Such Anti-Masonry as existed in eighteenth century America was
and did not partake of the political and clerical animus which existed
at the same time.
On page 384,
the author speaks of political difficulties in the Colonies, and says:
Massachusetts the Masonic lodges and the revolutionary committees led
Masonic orators and writers, with more enthusiasm than the facts
warrant, and with
a disregard of what they are bringing down upon the Fraternity, have
said that Freemasonry was a vital influence in the American Revolution.
true, no doubt; but they would be hard pressed to prove that it was
Having succeeded in the aims and objects of the Revolution, we can take
a smug pride
in the accomplishments of the Craft of the day; but had the Revolution
were we still subjects of the Crown, these very same orators and
writers would speak
contemptuously of the "rebels" and "traitors" among their ancient
brethren, and how they perverted the true doctrines of the Fraternity.
no doubt that Freemasons did their part in freeing the Colonies from an
situation ‒ one in which they had the warm sympathy of Britishers in
whatever they did, it was done as individual citizens and patriots, and
not as groups
of organized Freemasons. Freemasonry has many a
story written by the Craft counterparts of Weems; a little iconoclastic
would have a wholesome effect.
review may appear highly critical and unfriendly, it is not written in
Perhaps we should not find fault with non-Masons for failing to
interpret the spirit
of our ancient and gentle Craft and its workings when our own writers
so often make
a miserable job of it. Freemasonry and its story through the centuries
time and time again; there is always something about it which eludes
and analysis. It simply cannot be studied as a thing separate and apart
times in which it grew; like all things, it partakes of its environment.
A word about
Bernard Fay. The Fraternity should feel honored that so distinguished a
taken notice of it, and especially in connection with our beloved
Franklin ‒ that
human, whole-some, many-sided man whose span of life, 1706-1790,
covered a remarkable
period in our history. Fay was born in Paris in 1893; he has taken all
that can be earned by a professor in France; he won his M. A. at
Harvard in 1920.
He has been lecturer or acting professor at Columbia University,
University of Chicago,
Northwestern University, State University of Iowa, etc. He has lectured
Denmark, Holland, etc. His contributions have appeared in many notable
among them "The Forum," "The Saturday Review of Literature,"
and "The American Historical Review." French, German and Spanish
have also published his writings. He served in the World War with
discharged as Captain in 1919, having won the Croix de Guerre at Verdun
Medaille de Leopold II for service in Belgium.
* * *
by J. Henry Smythe Jr. Published by the Frederick A. Stokes Co. Cloth,
296 pages. Price, $3.00 net.
come in threes! We have had the Phillips T Russell biography; I have
the Fay book; and here comes a third treatment of the lovable Franklin.
a volume the discriminating book-lover will delight in. It is nicely
bound in a
maroon cloth, embossed in gold on the back strip and front cover; has a
title page, and is set off with a portrait of Franklin in colors as a
The type is of a neat face, showing legibly on the laid paper which
makes the book
a bit out of the ordinary. Apparently its makers had in mind a tone
that would last
longer than an ephemeral novel, and wisely chose materials which would
the ravages of time, as well as the thumbing that would be meted out to
which might well be classified as a reference work in addition to being
as a biography.
The new book
is not a running tale, but is a collection of forty-three separate
articles by the
same number of contributors on the various and multitudinous aspects of
a book arranged as this is cannot very well have an index; hence I am
volume the castigation which I never fail to give one which should
have, but lacks,
an index. Were I a theologian of the old school, I'd reserve a special
Hades for authors and publishers who send forth their products without
This one omission has caused more loss of potential buyers than any
other that can
of the chapter titles alone, classified under three headings as
the Public Man," "Franklin, the Printer," and "Franklin, the
Versatile," give one a picture such as could not be so readily obtained
a glance from the usual biographical treatment. Each writer treats of a
evidently dear to him, and one upon which he can speak authoritatively.
Hoover contributes a short Foreword to the book; Charles E. Hughes
writes of Franklin
as a diplomat; Harry S. New, the Postmaster General, tells us what
as father of the U. S. Postal Service. Major General Hugh L. Scott, U.
S. A. (Retired)
brings out a fact not so generally known ‒ that Franklin held and
exercised a Colonel's
commission at one time. This treatment is contrasted by an article on
the "Advocate of Peace," written by an officer of the National Council
for Prevention of War in the vein so common among professional
banker pays tribute to Franklin as the father of thrift in America;
Green, President of the American Federation of Labor, designates him as
Patron Saint." Further, I cannot resist mention of chapters on Franklin
an athlete; as a patron saint of the music industries; as the inventor
lens and the father of daylight saving; as a printer, who "made a
fortune in twenty years" ‒ why, oh, why did the secret of that
die with him? It is as unique as the feat of the seven Hebrew buglers
of Holy Writ,
who played together in perfect unison, thereby causing the walls of a
to fall. In sheer astonishment, no doubt!
of Franklin's virtues and achievements naturally places him on a
pedestal, and the
inevitable reaction follows. Happily, this is relieved by the chapter
as "America's First Great Humorist," written by Griffith Alexander,
American Press Humorists. Our hero comes down to earth again, and when
we read the
sentence, "And those who want further proof that he was kind to his own
and the shortcomings of others may read Polly Baker's speech," we
full publication (with also another choice bit) in Russell's biography
to. A Colonel of militia who would think of serving grog to his men for
interests, after holding prayers with them for their spiritual welfare,
his feet on the ground, and was well aware of the human frailties and
one chapter that interests Freemasons especially; it is on "Franklin,
Worshipful Grand Master," [Lib*] written by Bro. J.E. Burnett
D., who, until a year or so ago, was Curator and Librarian of the Grand
Pennsylvania. This stamps the chapter as being authoritative, and as
such can be
taken as dependable. The date of 1723, given as the year when the
Ancient and Honorable
Society of Freemasons had been reorganized, is obviously a slip of the
pen for 1717.
The year 1723 is noteworthy for two things, first, the publication in
Anderson's Book of Constitutions (which Franklin reprinted in 1734 at
and the year when the Grand Lodge of England began its written mini
were none for the first six years. (See Quatuor Coronatorum
Antigraphia, Vol. X.)
Bro. Buckenham had a penchant for collecting old Constitution books,
and his interest
in that direction no doubt caused the unintentional substitution of
1723 for 1717.
of the Franklin reprint of the Constitution Book, Bro. Buckenham
eight copies are known. It might be said that eleven have been traced,
in an article of mine in "The American Collector" (New York), issue of'
December, 1927, entitled "Notes on Rare Masonic Books: The Franklin
membership in the Lodge of the Nine Sisters, Paris, is mentioned. This
on "the 11th of the 1st month, 1776," (which means March 11, 1776, as
the French Masonic year began with March, not January), is well known
Masons through the friends which the struggling Colonies had among the
whose names appeared on the rolls. Franklin was Venerable Master of
1779-1781, as is shown by Louis Amiable in his Une Loge Maçonnique
avant 1789: La
R. L. Les Neuf Soeurs (Paris, 1897). I mention this because Bro.
the year as 1782, an error which Bro. Julius F. Sachse made in his
as a Freemason. (Philadelphia, 1906), page 107, and which error is
by American writers. Amiable
says: Franklin fut élu vénérable le 21 mars, 1779.
[Op. cit., page 136. See
also THE BUILDER, April, 1928, page 102.]
Benjamin Franklin merits a place on the bookshelves of the busy reader.
will find it a most convenient reference volume for facts on the many
Franklin's busy life. Here the information is sorted out, and even
so to speak. A glance at the table of contents will indicate the proper
for talks on any subject with which Franklin can be aligned
consistently; this book
should help a speaker to meet any calls upon him insofar as Franklin’s
career furnishes topics for presentation.
* * *
Song Of Sano
by Nancy Fullwood, with an Introduction by Claude Braydon. Published by
Co. Cloth, table of contents, xviii and 206 pages.
speaks of this as an amazing book. And possibly there are many who
would agree with
the description while totally at variance with him in regard to the
value he sets
It is one
of those works, of which such a really considerable number have been
the war, that owe their being to that curious psychic phenomena
Now the present
writer has a perfectly open (though critical) mind on the subject of
or supernormal phenomena. Those who ascribe all such things to
imposture and fraud
seem to be even more prejudiced and illogical than those who naively
take them at
their face value. If there exists anywhere a twilight zone of knowledge
it is here,
and the wise man will neither deny hastily nor readily believe. The
wise being unfortunately
very few, it happens that most people jump to conclusions and then
close their eyes
and ears to all evidence that counters their adopted views.
To the writer,
such of the books of this type that he has read have been very
of them claim to be a message from a higher state of existence than
ours. The mode
of their communication is, however, the only credential they bear, and
that is not enough. It is probable, practically certain, that all
have come to their authors in a like manner. Hebrew prophet and
alike felt possessed of some divine communication. However, it is not
the mode of
the communication but its content that is the final criterion. The
higher and truer
it is the wider and deeper its appeal.
Of Mrs. Fuller's
candor and belief in her book there is not the least doubt. It is also
a fact that
it has been received in certain circles almost as a new gospel. The
author in her
introduction says that her book "cannot be read intellectually. It must
read with intuitive feeling," and adds that then "its effect is quite
magical." In other words, those in the same psychical or psychological
as the author will feel the same effect. It may be magical ‒ or the
same kind of
thing. And magic is not always a healthy thing to indulge in. The
however, is simply unable to "tune in," and must let Mrs. Fuller's
stand for whatever it may be worth.
thinks that the book has a real message to this present day, nervous,
civilization of ours. He thinks that we are obsessed by "sex" (in which
it is not unique) and he thinks that this is partly due to the
emancipation of women,
with a kind of reversal of roles between men and women, or something at
the nature of a shift in "polarity" between them. From the historical
standpoint one can hardly agree. There is no more interest in sex now
ever was. It may be that a culminating civilization is likely to
abnormalities, but even in this we are not exceptional. It has happened
only not with generations of Puritan repressions preceding it. So today
shows itself more in books ‒ in ancient Rome to take one example ‒ it
without "inhibitions," in action.
If Sano Tarot
will help anybody's sex complexes (and lest anyone buy the book under
it must be added that in it sex is very innocent and highly sublimated)
it is all
to the good. But it does not seem at all likely that it is a message
for the ages.
* * *
John Alford Stevenson, paper, 28 pages
Fitzhugh Green. Paper, 37 pages. Published by the American Library
the two fastest publications of the Library Association. Their
show the extremely wide scope of the project. Each pamphlet consists of
survey, by an acknowledged expert, of the particular subject, treated
with a carefully
selected list of books dealing with it ‒ books which will be found in
public library. It is largely for the purpose of increasing the
usefulness of public
libraries that these guides are being prepared and published.
* * *
We have been
requested to insert the following note on the forthcoming book by
R.W.Bro. Sir Alfred
Robbins, P.G.W., on English-Speaking
Freemasonry, [Lib*] in order to obviate
misunderstanding as to its status and character.
will make it clear in his introductory remarks that he does not claim
for what is the fruit of long and close acquaintance with Masonic
problems, as well
as considerable study of Masonic literature The statement will be made
volume, while the work of one who for sixteen years has been a
Officer of the United Grand Lodge of England, does not claim authority
body, the author taking full responsibility for every statement,
deduction and opinion.
It will try to set before all interested in Freemasonry, whether from
out, the inner meaning and outer expression of a world-spread
is revealed a Mason should preserve; what is told all may know. It is
in the belief
that, by the very spread of knowledge of Masonic ideals and their
will promote the cause of peace on earth, good will towards men, that
puts forth this work.
* * *
Analysis of the
Holy Royal Arch
I have read,
quite naturally, Bro F. deP Castells "Reply" to my review of his latest
book, the Historical Analysis of the Holy
Royal Arch Ritual [Lib 1929] with very much interest. With
all due deference,
however, I still find myself quite unable to agree with him about the
of the word "authentic" to designate either historical Masonic
or those Masonic scholars who confine themselves to the limits imposed
by the strict
methods of purely historical investigation. I submit that the word
in such a connection is absolutely meaningless. No one of the scholars
(so far as
I have yet heard) who would be so classed by those who use the epithet
employed the term either of himself or of others, nor can I imagine any
historical student ever venturing to describe his work, or his school,
Authenticity is a quality adjudged to documents and records, not to
based upon them.
who, a few years ago, proposed this designation, probably had some
in his mind of the fact that the historian's first task is to criticize
the accuracy and authenticity of his sources. But to apply such a term
to a school
would be intolerable arrogance on the part of those who belonged to it,
derisive on the part of those who did not. The designation is therefore
and useless, and the sooner those who are beginning to employ it forget
it the better
it will be for all concerned. Meaningless terms breed and perpetuate
thought, and there is no greater obstacle to the search for truth than
of thought. But if those who employ it are too much in love with it to
at least let them in common justice so use it as to make it quite clear
is their own term, and that those whom they thus stigmatize have never
used it of
themselves. Hitherto, so far from doing this, these brethren have
the word in such a way as to give the impression that the title was
by those designated by it. Bro. Castells himself has done this in the
of his reply, though I am sure it was without any intention of being
has merely followed others unthinkingly. Speech being free, it is of
any Mason's right to describe any group as the "Authentic school,"
in derision or in unwise admiration. But this gives him no right to go
on to imply
that such group has so named itself, for this is more than a suggestio
is a downright untruth.
the points more definitely connected with Bro. Castells' work, I will
deny having found fault with him "for referring to the practice of one
and fifty years ago." What I desired more information about was his
or authority in regard to the American Royal Arch ritual of one hundred
years ago. I have myself examined MS. Royal Arch rituals probably of
century, and probably representing the Royal Arch working of one
hundred and fifty
years back, but they were all English, not American. It may be that I
was not sufficiently
explicit when I said that; “In actual fact there seem to be no known
rituals extant either than the beginning of the nineteenth century." I
I supposed it would be clear in the context that I referred only to
America. I would
amend the statement now as follows So far as I am aware, there are no
Royal Arch rituals earlier than 1820.
This is the
question at issue between us. I found Bro. Castells very obscure in the
to his sources, and the additional information in his reply does not
seem to elucidate
the matter very much. I pointed out that in his book he discussed the
the American Royal Arch ritual of a hundred and fifty years ago, but
that the only
American Royal Arch ritual he definitely referred to was one "produced
in 1892. Of course I assumed as obvious that this could not be his
the earlier forms. He now tells us a little more. What he had before
him was an
"English reprint, without date." This he has judged "from the internal
evidence to belong to the close of the XVIIIth century." But surely he
expect us to accept his ipse dixit on such a crucial point. Without in
impugning his judgment I submit that his readers have a right to demand
of this reprint, and the reasons for judging it’s original to be of the
In a later
paragraph of his reply he seems to be speaking of the same work, where
he says "it
is not the same as that of Elder Bernard in Light on Masonry published
because it contains an addendum of three years earlier." Again I would
that in a reprint, an addendum of three, or thirty, or three hundred
does not conclusively give a limiting date to the main work. The
obvious way to
determine the question would be to compare it with Light on Masonry.
I fear that
Bro. Castells has entirely misunderstood me in what I said in reference
(and his co-exposers) and Thomas Smith Webb; at least he has quoted me
in a very
confused way. I based no positive argument at all on "open to question"
(which phrase referred to Bernard's work) or "seems very probable." One
may legitimately base a negative conclusion on uncertainties. But I did
do that, I was seeking ‒ as I still seek ‒ the identity of Bro.
of information. All that he says of it makes it seem to be merely a
version of the
ritual that the "exposers" of the time of the Morgan episode claimed to
have "exposed." And my argument was that any such version could not
well have represented the American ritual of the previous century,
revision had by that time been generally accepted in the U.S.A. In the
a review it is impossible to go into the evidence for this last
statement, and still
less is it possible here. But it is very generally accepted in America
radically revised the rituals of all the grades dealt with in his
Monitor. I am
myself of the opinion that he did not alter those of the lodge to any
and Bro. Castells may be right in his inclination to believe that he
did not alter
that of the Royal Arch. But the burden of proof in each case lies on us
the received opinion. In any case this was all subsidiary to my main
concerns the identity of Bro. Castells' source of information, and the
adjudging it to represent an original of a hundred and fifty years ago.
to the "Sections" Bro. Castells again seems to have misunderstood what
I said. I did not say that Carlile was the only authority for these
for I have personally examined older ones. What I said was that the
Bro. Castells himself offered was Carlile. This may be an error on my
if so I will gladly acknowledge it if it be pointed out. My own opinion
in all degrees, from the E. A. through all the high and higher grades,
was in each case the first and oldest definite crystallized formula.
of the original number of keystones is one upon which we may well
differ. My own
opinion, at present, is that the three vaults version is the oldest,
but I refuse
to state it dogmatically for I am not sure, though the balance of the
to me to point to this. The only way to satisfy Bro. Castells' demand
for my reasons
for thinking so would be to present the evidence in an article, which I
some future time to be able to do. If further investigation should
prove this provisional
conclusion to be wrong, I shall be only too glad to say so.
Question Box and Correspondence
Ohio Army Lodge
letter was received by Bro. Charles F. Irwin which, as it contains some
details in regard to Ohio Masonic activities during the late War, seems
being put on permanent record here, as an addendum to the article in
Of August 27th addressed to Bro. Harry Johnson, Grand Secretary, has
to me by him.
I trust that
you have been able to cancel the report of my death, because as Mark
upon a similar incorrect report of his death, "the report is greatly
Probably you had been informed of the death of my brother, Charles W.
died six years ago.
that I am not able to give you any information of any value in
reference to the
proposed Military Lodge which was to be formed in connection with the
of the Army, which was composed of the Ohio National Guard units.
meeting at which the application for Charter was agreed upon, was
my absence in attendance at the Annual Assembly of the Grand Council of
which I was at that time Grand Master. Brother Harry B. Huston of
was the prime mover in the matter and secured the signatures to the
do not know his present address, and am under the impression that he
Army service after the end of the war. It is possible that Dr. Harry H.
of Columbus might be able to give you more definite information as to
address of Bro. Huston.
meeting chose myself, General William V. McMakin and General John R.
the first three officers. We consulted upon several occasions, and
to assemble the charter applicants for further organization, but upon
were compelled to postpone the meeting for the reason that the dates
with military maneuvers which held us busy in camp. Subsequently all
three of us
became permanently separated from the Division. I was transferred for
duty to the
Base Hospital, and Generals McMakin and Speaks were discharged from the
I felt at
the beginning that a mistake was made in choosing us for the officers
of the proposed
lodge, and that men of lesser military rank should have been selected.
We did upon
one occasion assemble a sufficient number of Ohio brethren so that we
to confer the Master Mason Degree within Jackson Lodge at Montgomery,
Ala., in accordance
with Ohio ritual and procedure. Our military work at Camp Sheridan,
Ala., was very strenuous and we three officers were very busy men.
sailed for France in May, 1918, and neither of the proposed officers
to accompany it. As a consequence the Charter or Dispensation could not
It provided only for work outside the borders of the United States.
Frank W. Hendley.
* * *
One of the
purposes of your leading articles or editorials, is to obtain the
opinion Or the
membership; therefore I want to set forth my views on this matter of
after reading the article of E. E. T. in the November number.
given to the word Charity by your correspondent is evidently that of
alms" ‒ the spirit of benevolence. Of course, all men should exercise
of benevolence to a certain extent, giving according to their ability
ordinary wants of their family ties are attended to. Just what each man
must rest with the individual; no one is qualified to set the sum or
a man has given what he should, except the man himself. He may be well
have all the outward signs of prosperity, yet only that man knows the
calls on him
for financial assistance, sick relatives, aged parents, doctors' bills,
of' children, and so forth. It is in such eases that we should exercise
Masonic Charity ‒ charity of thought, leniency in condemning, slow to
in fact we have no right to judge at all and should refrain from doing
so. If Bill
Smith does not "come across" for your pet charity do not assume that he
is "tight or hard," but say ‒ Well I guess Bill has a lot of calls on
him and if he could see his way to give a bit he would do so ‒ and in
out of ten Bill would and does do so. Again, he may have views about
you do not have and he is entitled to those opinions.
If all the
homes, hospitals, institutions and funds which your correspondent
in action for the benefit of Masons, it would be a fine world and to
the glory of
Masonry, but if Masons confined their benevolence to the support of
and to the exclusion of all others, the glory would have departed and
we would stand
condemned before the whole world as the most selfish and bigoted
would want to join for the same reason that they join a sick or benefit
I would want them to join for the same reason that they do now, that is
good opinion they have formed of the individual membership. There are
join for other reasons; we have heard the phrase, "If anything happens
the Masons will take care of the wife;" maybe they will, but is it
on them to do so? No, not in all cases.
I am dead
against the Tuberculosis Hospital for Masons myself, unless we insist
upon a medical
examination of all applicants to membership in the Craft to show that
not the germs of the disease at the time of their admission. A man has
got to join
the Order for other reasons than to get supported in his sickness.
As to the
different methods of obtaining funds for the support of Masonic
‒ the English method and the American method ‒ I was also made a Mason
and the first year of my membership I subscribed and paid to the Boys'
sum which was large for my pocket. We formed a club in my lodge and
paid our subscriptions
by installments. I derived a lot of satisfaction out Of it, it made me
I had met the call upon me. But I could not go on doing that every
year; I never
did it again, I could not afford to. That was 36 years ago. In course
of time I
came to the United States and affiliated with the lodge in my home town
so affiliated five times) and commenced to pay an annual assessment for
of Masonic Homes for Aged Masons, and of course, have done so ever
since. Now this
assessment is just as voluntary as that which I gave in England for my
in Grand Lodge, acting for me, agreed that such assessment should be
made in order
that such institution would be sure of being maintained so long as the
existed in the State. And it has this great advantage over that in
force in England;
it demonstrates that every man can provide for the needy brethren of
even though he have but ordinary means and by the exercise of
The inmates of those homes are not dependent on the charity (atrocious
word in this
connection) of their brethren in a better financial condition, or are
under an obligation
to them; they are but receiving their reward for having subscribed
money with benevolent
impulse when they had not the slightest idea that they themselves would
be the beneficiaries
of such fund. They are not the objects of charity; they can maintain
want to say this ‒ cease to criticize or laud the English and their
ways; the solution
of their problems is their affair entirely, and not yours; what you may
to do is your own affair, and yours alone; solve your problems
according to your
own lights, to the best of your ability, and be assured that it will be
Ernest E. Murray, Montana
* * *
ago there was a query in the Correspondence of THE BUILDER on the
subject of the
Lesser Lights (April, 1928, page 128), and the answer given seems to me
a contradictory usage that is found rather widely spread. First, what
are the Lesser
Lights? The information is specific enough on that point; how is it
then that one
finds so much confusion of the lights placed in those symbolic
positions (over the
chairs of the officers concerned) with the lights usually placed by the
illumine the V.S.L. I have been in only one Temple where this
distinction is strictly
observed, and that is used by the lodges of Brantford, Ont., where
there are no
lights at the altar. There is one over the V.S.L. in a funnel-shaped
tube, and just
before light is given all lights are extinguished, and this one alone
lit, so that
the E. A. sees nothing else at all but what is spread before him.
Later, as the
Lesser Lights are described to him, each one is lighted, but I don't
it is left so or not.
to me that the Lesser Lights are displayed in all degrees in all
because the officers whom they represent are present, regardless of
symbolic lights are lit or not. It is the officers who make the lights,
it is to so serve the brethren; not the candles or other sources of
The feet that eleven positions are in use in various jurisdictions for
of these artificial lights around the altar is only evidence of the
which unwise symbologists will go. Those famous old French prints of an
century lodge at work, and the practice of the British lodges in
placing the altar
close to the W. M's pedestal, is, I think, additional evidence that
lights serve only for illumination, and, when portable, used to be
placed or held
wherever they would best serve the needs of the moment.
‒ N. W. J. H., Canada.
passage referred to the difference in usage between British Masonry and
America was pointed out Recently Bro. C. C. Hunt raised the question
three lesser lights did represent the three chief officers of the
lodge, as is so
frequently taken for granted. Our own suggestion is that these lights
do not represent
the three officers, at least as a group, but are very closely
associated with them.
And in our opinion the divergence of usage arose when the old "Diagram
Lodge" ceased to be used. Before that the officers and members had
this diagram during the progress of the work. The lesser lights were so
that one Or them stood by each of the three officers. When the diagram
of fashion and the officers and members found permanent places and
the walls of the lodge room there was a question at once whether the
tapers should remain in their old position in the middle of the floor
follow the officers to their new positions. It could be argued either
way, and which
way would be chosen would depend on the point of view. In England the
the officers.. In America the introduction of the altar in the middle
of the lodge
room made it seem more appropriate that the lesser lights should be
left in their
old position, only brought in somewhat closer to group them about the
* * *
of the State
C. Marshall, the well-known authority on Canon Law, and the legal
aspects of the
relationship between church and state, has sent us the following letter
addressed to a Chicago Romanist monthly, the Extension Magazine, in
reply to an
editorial attack therein upon himself which appeared in a recent issue.
Sir ‒ You
address me in the editorial of your October issue, charging me with
I do not hold, and with statements I have never made. You offer not a
of proof. Your Catholics "to vote and to hold office is open to
I assume that under these circumstances you will give space in your
columns to this,
my reply, and that the N. C. W. C. will give it that circulation which
it gave to
that I have maintained that the right of Roman Catholics “to vote and
to hold office
is open to question.” I have maintained just the contrary. I have so
stated in my
books, Governor Smith's American Catholicism, pp. 6 and 7 [Lib
The Roman Catholic Church in the Modern State [Lib 1928],
pp. 118 and 214.
I have pointed out that it is obvious that the right of Roman Catholics
and hold office in this country is as effectually guaranteed by the
Constitution as the right of life itself.
is no doubt about the existence of this guarantee or about my
recognition of it,
your challenge to me to bring legal proceedings to test the rights of
is plainly without reason.
What I have
said is that a Roman Catholic party under the leadership of the Pope,
if it had
sufficient numbers, would do in this country just what the Roman
and the Pope have done in Italy, i.e., change the Constitution, make
the Roman Catholic
religion the State religion, and Roman Catholic doctrine the foundation
of public education. It would do this necessarily in compliance with
doctrine. That doctrine has been recently declared and set forth by
Pope Pius XI
in his letter to Cardinal Gasparri. The Pope repudiates freedom of
the conscience of men to the Roman Catholic Church. "In questions of
he says, "the Church, and she alone, by reason of her divine mandate is
Again he says, "In a Catholic State liberty of conscience and
be interpreted and practiced according to Catholic doctrine and law."
he declares: "The full and perfect mandate for education belongs not to
State, but to the Church."
Catholic religion requires obedience to the Pope in his Divine Right,
penalty of damnation, in matters belonging to morals (see the Decree,
of the Vatican Council of 1870. [Lib 1870]) The present Pope has
reaffirmed this, in words of tremendous emphasis, in his Encyclical,
Freedom of conscience, freedom of speech, and education are all matters
to morals and in those obedience to the Pope is integral in Roman
It is, therefore,
clear, I submit, that the guarantees of our Federal Constitution
against a State
religion, and in favor of liberty of conscience, freedom of speech, and
school system free from religious domination are obnoxious to the
doctrines of the
Roman Catholic Church, and in plain conflict with the demands of Pope
Pius XI in
his letter to Cardinal Gasparri. If they are not, let Roman Catholics
show why they
are not. Denunciation is not demonstration.
As an American
citizen I have criticized, and I shall continue to criticize the
which Pope Pius XI, as above shown, declares part of Roman Catholic
that I petition the courts and legislature to deprive Roman Catholics
of the rights
which the Federal constitution guarantees them. I shall do nothing so
suggest that I attack the Home for Cancer Relief, established by Sister
Lathrop. I shall do nothing so wicked. I have never attacked the
worship of God
according to the forms of the Roman Catholic religion. I have never
Catholic works of mercy. The Home for Cancer Relief I have specially
the valued letter to me from the saintly hand of Mother Rose Alphonsa
If you desire
such action as you suggest, you must apply to those who can find a
of controversy in the editorial which you and the National Catholic
have so widely disseminated. I am not one of them.
Charles C. Marshall.
* * *
Masonic Relief Association
This is to
call your attention to errors in name and address of one of the
officers of the
Masonic Relief Association of U. S. and Canada in your November issue,
Reference to this letterhead will set you right about the president,
How you ever
got my name as "JOHN" I do not know, for it has ALWAYS been JAMES.
James D. Henderson, Tennessee.
glad of this opportunity to correct the error in regard to Bro.
The notice was taken from the Missouri Freemason.
Franklin as a Free Mason
Sac06 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Lancaster : The New Era Printing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 187. - 13.2 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And34 / auth. Anderson James / ed. Franklin Benjamin. - Philadelphia :
Unknown, 1734. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 52. - 1.1 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And23 / auth. Anderson James. - London : William Hunter, 1723. -
Fac-Simile by Jno. W. Leonard & Co., New York, 1855 : Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 119. - 6.0 MB.
Bull - Mortalium Animos
Pop28 / auth. Pope Pius XI. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1928. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 9. - 0.2 MB.
Decrees of the First Vatican
Vat70 / auth. Vatican. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 9. - 0.4 MB.
Historical Analysis of the Holy
Royal Arch Ritual
Cas29 / auth. Castells Francis de P.. - London : A. Lewis, 1929. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 96. - 0.2 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
The History of Atlantis
Spe00 / auth. Spence Lewis. - London : Rider & Co, 1900. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 272. - 11.1 MB.
Une Loge Maçonnique d'avant 1789; La R.L. Les Neuf
Ami97 / auth. Amiable Louis / ed. Alcan Felix. - Paris : Ancienne
Librairie Germer Bailliere & Cie., 1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 416.
- 22.8 MB - French.