August 1929 –
Volume XV – Number 8
Masonic Research Society
Heraldry of Freemasonry
Bro. Reginald V. Harris,
Associate Editor, Nova Scotia
of the Armorial bearings of Masonic bodies is one that, so far as we
have been able
to discover, has never been comprehensively treated. The arms granted
to the Mason's
Company of London are mentioned in most of our histories; and there
have been occasional
articles about various partial aspects of the subject. Bro. Harris, who
of our readers know, is Grand Historian of the Grand Lodge of Nova
here an account of the various heraldic devices adopted by the various
of the British Isles since 1717, and those of the Dominion of Canada.
It is his
intention to follow this up with similar articles on the arms and seals
of the Grand
Lodges of the United States, Australia, Europe and Latin America, as
soon as he
is able to collect the requisite material, a great deal of which is
and difficult to obtain.
claims to be a science and a system of morality, veiled in allegory and
by symbols. Heraldry is a sister science or system, or a cousin at
least. Its beginnings
go back to the immemorial and remote past; some would claim it is as
early, if not
earlier than the beginnings of Freemasonry itself. An old authority
that our first parents were lawful bearers of coats of arms; assigning
to Adam a
shield gules (red), and to Eve, another argent (silver); while after
the Fall Adam
added a garland of fig leaves, which Abel quartered with argent, with
an apple vert
(green), in right of his mother.
the first beginnings it is certain that the use of emblems, insignia,
and tokens was common in the days of the Ancient Egyptian Kings,
and Rome. Among the North American Indians, families and individuals
designated or represented by tokens or figures in pictorial form.
or system of Heraldry as we know it today, comes from medieval and
It became a factor of importance in England about the end of the
The earliest record of a herald in England dates from 1137; in 1483
during the reign
of Richard III, the Herald's College was made a corporate body,
continuing as such
to the present day.
Men of noble
or gentle birth bore their coats of arms or family devices blazoned on
which they carried in battle; and with their visors down, these
devices, with the
crest upon the helmet, were the only means of indicating their
identity. When in
actual use a knight's shield was held in front of him, so that the
dexter or right
side and the sinister or left side covered his right and left side
As a consequence, the dexter side of the shield is on the left of
at it, and the sinister on his right.
It is unnecessary
at this stage of our study to go into other definitions and terms; many
will be met with and explained as we go along; others are of no
importance to our
To mark their
dignity and distinction the various guilds, associations and livery
early times in England were granted the right of bearing or exhibiting
devices or arms. These insignia harmonized with the trade of the
or fellowship. The Masons' Company was one of the early and important
England, and obtained its coat of arms thirty-three years after the
grant made to
the Drapers' Company in 1439, and was therefore fifth on the list. The
by the Crown in 1472 on the recommendation of the Court of Heralds to
of Masons of London founded probably about 1200, were described in the
"lingo" of the time as:
A field of sablys, a cheveron
thre castelles of the same garnyshed wt dores and wyndows of the feld,
in the cheveron
a cumpas of black.
or in plain
English: a shield or ground of black, upon which is a chevron of silver
indented or wavy edges; above the chevron and below, three silver
castles with black
doors and windows; on the chevron a black compass. This has been
reproduced on the
following page, Fig. 1.
of Arms of the Worshipful Company of Masons of London appears among the
illuminations of several of the old manuscript constitutions or "Old
In the earliest drawings of these Arms the chevron is shown engrailed;
that is notched
with concave curves, as it is shown in Fig. 1 and also in the left-hand
Fig. 2. It will be noticed, too, that the castles are very elaborate,
motto generally-used is: "God is our Guide," instead of the later: "In
the Lord is all our trust."
year 1600 we begin to find variations. In the-Harleian Collection of
in the British Museum we find two early seventeenth century documents
with drawings of the Mason's Arms. The first, No. 6860, is dated about
1610, and it depicts the old form of the bearing, with the castles
drawn in elaborate
detail, and the engrailed chevron, but with the new motto: "In the Lord
all our trust." This is reproduced in Fig. 2. It may be remarked
that the essential thing in a grant of arm is the "blazon," which
used means the description of the bearing according traditional rules.
draughtsman can reproduce the arms from the blazon, even if he has
never seen them.
But naturally his drawing will not be the same as that drawn by someone
every such drawing will be at once recognizable, just as words written
kinds of lettering by different hands are legible to everyone. Heraldry
is a kind
of sign writing, done according to elaborate rules. Thus it naturally
in the course of centuries the style of heraldic drawing changed
although the old
bearings of families and institutions remained essentially the same.
MS. of the two above referred to, Harleian No. 472, is supposed to be
of about 1640,
or some thirty years later than the other. This, which is also shown in
not only has the new motto, but has towers instead of castles, while
has a plain edge instead of being engrailed. The late Edward Conder in
of the London Masons' Company [Lib*] (of which he was the Master in
the opinion that the change in the chevron was due to the fact that it
resembled the square and that the tower may have been substituted as
easier to engrave. Sometime after 1717, when the original Grand Lodge
was organized, it selected as the basis for its arms those of the
as already described, but to the original design certain important and
alterations were made. The chevron became a Mason's square; each tower
triple turrets, while the crest was changed from a castle or tower to a
unknown species which may have been intended for a phoenix, and
finally, two beavers,
symbolical of operative builders, were added as supporters, placed one
on each side
of the shield. Some doubt has been expressed respecting these
supporters, some believing
them to be otters or panthers, but the opinion of Bro. Hughan and
others is that
they were intended for beavers even if they did not resemble them
closely. At a
still later period the motto was changed to "Relief and Truth" in
to the basic Masonic principles. These arms continued to be the arms of
or premier Grand Lodge of England from 1717 to 1813. A reproduction of
of the Grand Lodge will be found in Fig. 3. It will be noticed also
that the square,
level and plumb have been introduced below the shield.
of Scottish Masons also used the arms of the Masons' Company, with what
it is hard to say. The Grand Lodge of Scotland impaled them with those
of the country:
placing the latter, the lion rampant of Scotland, on the dexter or
right side (actually
the left of the design) and the Masons' arms on the sinister side. As
will be seen,
the later form of the arms is used, with corresponding motto. The crest
the Grand Lodges of Canada and the United States are not concerned
in the arms of the "Grand Lodge of all England", established at York in
1725, it will be of interest to refer to them in passing. The Seal of
Lodge was oval in form, and bore on it three regal crowns, with the
Sigillum Edwin Northum: Regis; that is, "the seal of Edwin, King of
When in 1751,
the Grand Lodge of England (Ancients) was established, a seal was
adopted with which
they sealed their Warrants, but until the present year no impression of
been discovered. It was the belief of Henry Sadler that:
… it was similar to the one
used by the Grand
Lodge of Ireland between 1731-59, a hand holding a trowel, and that it
and all impressions of it removed from official documents and replaced
from one of the Seals subsequently used in order to obliterate the
trail when they
were described as Irish Masons.
the case with all warrants issued prior to 1760, with the exception of
66, issued for a Lodge at Halifax, Nova Scotia, which was discovered
the writer. It is dated Dec. 27, 1757. As this and two other Warrants,
Nos. 65 and
67, also issued for lodges at Halifax at the same time, were the first
issued by the "Ancients" for lodges overseas, they were probably
by the authorities when changing the seals on Warrants issued
previously to 1760.
From this Seal we learn that the original Seal of the "Ancients"
of the Square (with square ends) and compasses, the angle of the Square
with a dagger with straight blade above, pointing upward; around the
top of the
Seal the words, "Virtue and Silence". A reproduction of a drawing made
of this seal will be found in Fig. 3.
made in this Seal in 1760 were very slight, and were principally in the
or design. The outline is a circle instead of oval, the ends of the
Square are curved
ornamentally, the compasses have a somewhat different shape, and the
blade of the
dagger is wavy or flaming, with a change in the hilt, and the
Lodge London", is added.
Warrants granted by the "Ancients" bearing this seal, is that for a
Grand Lodge in Pennsylvania July 15, 1761. A reproduction of this is
given in Fig.
new Arms were adopted by the "Ancients", though they were not generally
used until 1775. Untechnically described, these new Arms consisted of a
of four operative squares, placed with their angles together in the
center of the
shield, thereby dividing the shield into four parts. In the first or
quarter, a golden lion rampant on a blue field; in the second or upper
quarter, a black ox on a golden field; in the third, or lower left-hand
a man robed in crimson and ermine, with arms uplifted, on a golden
field; and in
the fourth, or lower right quarter, a golden eagle displayed, on a blue
The Holy Ark of the Covenant: Supporters; Two Cherubim: Motto, Kodesh
in Hebrew characters, i.e., "Holiness to the Lord."
idea of these Arms was evidently derived from the banners of the four
tribes of Israel: Reuben, Dan, Judah and Ephraim. During the passage
wilderness the twelve tribes were encamped in a hollow square, three on
As to the true colors of these banners, doubt exists. Jewish
that the color of each should correspond to the color of the stone
assigned to the
tribe on the breast-plate of the High Priest. The four charges, man,
lion, ox, and
eagle, are also to be regarded as symbols of the four Evangelists, and
also of the
four prophetic and apocalyptic living creatures, or "beasts", as they
are unfortunately called in our English translation of the Bible. The
the Ark, the Squares, Mottos and other portions of the device need no
continued to be the arms of this Grand Lodge until the union in 1813,
of the two
Grand Lodges, "Ancients" and "Moderns", so called, when the
arms of the two bodies were impaled, or placed side by side in one
forming the arms of the present United Grand Lodge of England, the
motto being changed
to "Audi Vide Tace" (Hear, See, Keep Silence), a command truly
to the initiate. The Crest chosen was that of the Ancients also, the
Ark of the
Covenant, the bird or phoenix of the Moderns disappearing. This has
in Fig. 4.
was made in these arms until 1919, when a re-grant was made by the
College of Heralds
by which a red bordure or frame was added to the shield, upon which
golden lions, passport guardant; the Motto "Holiness to the Lord", in
Hebrew characters placed over the crest, and the Latin motto "Audi Vide
beneath the shield, both being continued. A reduced photograph of this
reproduced in Gould's Concise History.
the arms of other Grand jurisdictions of the British Empire and the
it is necessary to glance at the arms of the Grand Lodge of Ireland. As
stated, the original seal used by the Irish Grand Lodge from 1731-59
a right hand holding a trowel. In 1760 the design was changed to a
arm holding a trowel encircled by the words "The Grand Lodge of
This device will be found in Fig. 3, second in the upper row, and
should be compared
with the crest of the arms of the Stonemasons in the center. About
1773, a beautifully
cut seal was adopted by the Irish Grand Lodge, depicting a shield, upon
displayed the square, compasses and plumb, above which were two right
The shield rests on the top of a globe, above the shield the blazing
two cherubs with flaming swords; the whole encircled by a Hebrew motto
and the Latin
words: Silentio Virtute et Amore, "Silence, Courage and Love." In
of the Deputy Grand Secretary having decamped with this seal in 1806, a
was adopted in that year similar to that of the Grand Lodge of England,
which has continued as the seal of the Irish Grand Lodge to the present
to the Grand Lodges of the Dominion of Canada we find almost universal
heraldically, of their descent from the United Grand Lodge of England.
lodges on Canadian soil were organized at Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia,
and at Halifax in 1750 received their Warrants from Massachusetts and
were of "Modern"
allegiance. What their Seals may have been is not now known. In 1757,
warranted a Provincial Grand Lodge for Nova Scotia, the first
established by them.
Its seal was probably similar to the mother Grand Lodge, namely, the
compasses, surmounted by a dagger pointing upward, encircled by the
and Silence" and possibly also the words "Grand Lodge, Halifax."
When, in 1784, this Provincial Grand Lodge was revived they adopted the
of Grand Lodge of England (Ancients) surrounded by the words
Lodge of Nova Scotia", with the motto "Kodesh la Adonai".
When in 1813
the two Grand Lodges of England were united the Seal of the Grand Lodge
Scotia was changed and a seal adopted similar to that of the United
of England, surrounded by the words "Grand Lodge of Free Masons,
of the independent Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia (founded by the Scottish
the Province), adopted on its organization in 1866 consisted of the
of the Province granted by Charles I in 1621, with the Bible, square
above; the square below; the plumb to the right and the level to the
left. See Fig.
3, lower left-hand corner.
when the English lodges united with it, the Grand Lodge adopted a new
on its dexter (right) side the arms of the Province, and on its
sinister side the
arms of the first Grand Lodge of England, at first sight a rather
as this Grand Lodge had warranted but one lodge in the Province in 1770
Provincial and District Grand Lodges had been of "Ancient" allegiance.
Possibly, however, it alludes to the origin of the first two lodges at
Royal and Halifax, warranted by the St. John's Grand Lodge, Boston.
the arms are various Masonic Emblems, with the motto, "Soli Deo Gloria"
"To God alone be the Glory". See Fig. 4, upper right-hand corner.
Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia exercised jurisdiction in New Brunswick from
1829, when a Deputy Provincial Grand Lodge under England was organized
1859. In this year a Provincial Grand Lodge took its place, the seals
of these two
bodies being similar to that of the United Grand Lodge of England. On
of the Grand Lodge of New Brunswick in 1867, the arms of the Grand
Lodge of England
were varied by changing or substituting three spruce trees for the
castles or towers;
the chevron which is argent on a red field lacks the usual compasses
Probably the substitution of the spruce trees is an allusion to the
of the Province. See Fig. 3, second in lower row.
Island, the smallest jurisdiction in the British Empire, adopted for
reason a similar seal in 1875; in fact there is no essential change
other than the
name of the Grand Lodge. The seals of both these Grand Lodges are shown
3, second and fourth respectively, in the bottom row.
Provincial Grand Lodge of Upper Canada (Ontario) 1795-1822 being of
lineage merely adopted the arms of the parent Grand Lodge of England,
with the words "Provincial Grand Lodge, Upper Canada", see Fig. 4,
left-hand Provincial Grand Lodge, though there is no certainty about
this. In 1844,
the third Provincial Grand Lodge adopted the arms of the United Grand
Lodge of England
1813, encircled by the words, "Provincial Grand Lodge, Canada West."
appears in Fig. 3, third in the lower row.
In 1856 the
present Grand Lodge of Canada (in Ontario) was formed, adopting as its
arms a design
somewhat similar to the previous design, but showing the dexter or
right side divided
into two parts, the upper showing the original arms of the Mason's
Company or the
premier Grand Lodge of England, and below the Canadian beaver on a red
background. The shield is surrounded by ears of wheat and an olive
branch. See Fig.
4, upper left-hand corner. When in 1869 the Grand Lodge of Quebec was
17 lodges of the Registry of "Canada", three of England and one of
it adopted arms closely resembling those of the mother Grand Lodge of
those last described, but the ox in the upper right quarter looks more
like a lamb,
and the eagle in the lower right, more like a phoenix or some other
In the lower half of the left side of the shield (below the arms of the
Grand Lodge of England) appears the Rose, Thistle and Shamrock
entwined, an obvious
reference to the three sources of Masonry in the Province of Quebec.
See Fig. 5.
daughter Grand Lodge to be formed by lodges on the Registry of "Canada"
was that of Manitoba in 1875, and again the "Canadian" design was
in the main but on the dexter side, instead of dividing the shield into
quarters, the arms of the Province of Manitoba (St. George's Cross,
above a buffalo)
were intruded into the upper quarter up to the chevron, so as to
eliminate the castle
usually found below the chevron. This is shown in Fig. 4, in the upper
Lodges of Alberta and Saskatchewan, daughter Grand Lodges of the Grand
Manitoba in 1905 and 1906, also adopted a similar design, replacing the
Manitoba with the provincial arms in each instance. These will be found
4 and 5 respectively.
remaining Grand Lodge in Canada, that of British Columbia, formed in
out into new paths and adopted a design, showing Queen Victoria seated
on a throne
between the two conventional pillars. Above, the square, compasses and
a rose in full bloom; all with the two supports found with the arms of
Grand Lodge of England. It is shown in Fig. 4, third in the lower row.
several observations may be made. The later Grand Lodges, Provincial
in Canada, followed very closely on the whole the heraldic precedent of
Grand Lodge of England, even though this was not always exactly the
to have done. From the aesthetic point of view the arms adopted by the
were altogether too complex. A coat of arms is not a "Tracing Board."
At the Union these arms became a component part of the Arms of the
Lodge of England, with the result that there was a further loss in
clarity and distinction.
Most of the Canadian Grand Lodges proceeded to make things still worse,
method in most cases has been to take the arms of the United Grand
Lodge and make
them more complicated and less distinctive still by the addition of new
When the simplicity of the beautiful seal of the Grand Lodge of York,
or the second
seal of the Ancient Grand Lodge, is compared with later designs, the
loss of effectiveness
in the latter becomes very striking. However in the course of years a
attachment grows up, and there is little likelihood that any of them
will be changed
in the near future.
R. F. Gould,
both in his large History of Freemasonry and the Concise History
something to say on the
heraldic designs adopted by the senior Grand Lodge and its later rival,
Grand Lodge, and there are interesting plates in both works. In the
latter is a
reduced reproduction of the latest Grant of Arms from the Heralds'
College to the
United Grand Lodge, which is legible with a magnifying glass. J. Ross
in his History of Freemasonry in Canada [Lib 1900, Vol 1,
the subject, and some of the illustrations
in the present article have been taken from his work. There is a plate
seals in Sadler's Masonic Facts and Fictions [Lib*]. For Irish seals
the work of
Bros. Lepper and Crossle [Lib*] may be referred to, the History of the
of Ireland, from which much interesting material may be obtained. There
many other books and pamphlets which might be referred to, but as in
the main the
subject has been dealt with so cursorily and incidentally the attempt
to list them
would not be worth the labor in the present status of the subject.
One thing more
may be noted. In the drawings reproduced in Fig. 2, the tinctures
or colors are indicated by letters and not by the later conventional
stands for sable, and A for argent.
General Erich Ludendorff
Bro. L. F. Strauss, Massachusetts
WE will continue
with some further extracts from the work of the German General, Erich
which we quoted last month, the work by which he expects to annihilate
in ignorance, it would seem, of the fact that he is far from being the
make the same attempt by the same means, that others have attempted the
before him, even so long ago as the year 1747.
then, seeks to Show that Masonry has nothing in common with the
which is not wholly without point in Germany, where the Prussian Grand
accept no candidates who do not profess to be Christians. Our German
"The words of the Evangelist
John, in the
first chapter, have no connection with the teachings of Jesus of
"Masonic connection with Jesus
is very loose."
"Christian lodges call Him
and Instructor … represent Him as divinity approaching the human, as
… include Him in their Fraternity, analogous to John the Baptist."
"Freemasonry teaches that Jesus
to the Jewish sect of Essenes, and that he was actually a Freemason."
"The introduction of the
Jesus was a kind of afterthought, done for a purpose: To make
by 'good' Christians."
"The enlightened, the really
initiated, know that Christianity and the New Testament are used by,
as a kind of decoy; but only as far as Christianity, as the New
Testament, is in
accord with Kabbalistic philosophy, Kabbalistic theology and
"In the mystical forms of
factor decisive in everything; Jewish Orthodoxy, Jewish standard,
these three made into a terrific unity… This Jewish unification falls
force upon unsuspecting innocent Germany."
"Food for thought, Freemasons
Noachides, sons of Noah. The Patriarchs, of course, are also mentioned
in accord with Bible texts, El Shaddai, etc."
"The Devil made an alliance
later Abraham, and promised him offspring later called Isaac the first
the genus homo to be circumcised. This Abraham is an important figure
with the Odd
Fellows as a model for Love, for do we not read that he sold, for a
good price of
course, his wife as a harlot?"
"The Talmud is next to the
Torah, the Jewish
Law, and shows the hate and contempt of Jews for all people."
"It is evident that the Talmud
the determining influence upon Masonic theories and practices."
"We read: 'Moses our teacher
we should force all men to accept, follow and obey the laws given to
the sons of
Noah to kill anyone who refuses.' "
"It is Jewish policy, politics
both in the minor and the higher Masonic degrees, to withdraw Noah and
his place Solomon."
"The Kings of Sweden and
Denmark are Masons."
"The head of Swedish
Freemasonry is a man
known as Vicar of Solomon, until he actually becomes ruler; his
membership is to
remain a secret till his actual reign."
"The Kings of England, Edward
V, were high degree Masons. [King George is not a Mason.] These Masons
monarchical prestige, abuse people's confidence."
"In the shadow of its
does its work, i.e., the establishment of Jewish domination and
son of man, begin to think, then act and obtain your freedom."
"The training for the breeding
Jewry. King Solomon and the Old Testament. In the constitution of
lodges we read: 'The wise King Solomon is to be called the founder and
of our Order.' "
"The position of the human foot
angles presents the Kabbalistic symbol straight walking figure of
speech for upright
living." [Ludendorff is a student, and as such can and does make
"The numbers presented in
Three, 3^2=9; 3^3=27. This institutes one of the Kabbala's strange
(The number) "3 as already
the creative force of Jehovah." "In the Kabbalistic dominion we have 3
empires; 9 represents the basis of the magic square; 3x3=9. Here the
given in such a way as to make 15."
"Twenty-seven is the cube of 3.
represents a fully developed figure whose impersonation is the
incorrupt and incorruptible
Jew." [Put "Mason" in place of "Jew" and Ludendorff gives
OF THE WORLD
"The Kabbala presents creation
in 10 concentric
"The tree with its highest
a crown is another Kabbalistic figure of creation. And the crown is one
of the sacred
symbols of Freemasonry. The 'Master Mason' in the lodge represents,
the power, the secret of this crown."
"Freemasonry, to which many
belong, has accepted but little of Christianity. Even the Bible is but
"The teaching of Jesus,
according to Masonic
interpretation, represents religious morality."
"The Jew with conscious malice
make his words into the religion of the whole world through
"Dr. Hieber writes: 'We ought
not to introduce
theological doctrines … we must remain mindful of this: that if Christ
had not perfected
His work, His life and work would have been in vain, but as things are,
runs into millennia.' Next Hieber shows the unification of the human
as configuration approaches the figure of the cube, the symbolic
the Son of God. The Jewish child in Bethlehem." [Ludendorff here comes
to a Kabbalistic and Masonic doctrine.] "All Masonic brothers form,
but one lodge, and the central of the one lodge is in New York, the
capital of Jewry."
"The Royal art is one of the
to Masonic work … the overthrow of Kings in the honor and name of the
Jew King Solomon."
"Three great Lights of
from the Kabbala, are Wisdom, Beauty and Strength."
"Most German lodges do not
but will accept baptized Jews. Now, do we not all know baptism cannot
change, a Jew? A Jew always remains a Jew."
"Hieber, objecting to
appellation of anti-Semite,
rejects, refuses to accept a name of honor."
"Freemasonry makes the North
the seat, the
home, of Darkness; the rough and hard side of Life, the place of vice
In the North are the rough stones representing the genus homo in
state, to be worked upon with dagger and trowel to be made into a cube
in the interest
and glory of the Jew."
"The great lie, Ex oriente lux,
is a Jewish
claim and assertion. This lie is today upheld by Freemasonry."
presentation of the case; Humanity-Civilization vs. Freemasonry; it
makes but one
charge, brings but one accusation, Freemasonry has been generated,
Semites, by a something called Jews. This charge, accusation, might be
at least debatable. Now, my dear Bro. Ludendorff, if a Semite, a member
of the Jewish
race, and likewise a member of the Order called Freemasonry, may be
do so, I would ask: what about Christianity? Whence comes Christianity?
race belonged Jesus of Nazareth and all his apostles? Have not you,
been born into, been baptized into, been "confirmed" into that religion
called Christianity? Are you aware of this: The word Christian, Christ,
is the Greek form or word for "Anointed," which word gives the literal
meaning of the Hebrew Meschia, usually spelled Messiah? Christian
martyrs in Roman
courts till the third century were recorded as Novi Judaei.
the source, the origin of Freemasonry, as stated, is at least
debatable, but there
is not, there cannot be, a mentally sane member of the genus homo, who
that what today is called Christianity is an offspring, a child of
Judaism. Has not this religion called Christianity (this offspring of
an important factor in civilizing your race, your "Nordic" race, of
you are so proud?
of information pleasing to Ludendorff. European civilization will reach
state in the North. Now everything which is, or exists, has a reason, a
an explanation. For this, a kind of "Nordic" ascendency I will not give
a reason, but will give a cause and a kind of explanation. In accord
with a certain
Law of Nature, the longer anything takes to develop and mature the
it become. This law is operative even in the vegetable Kingdom. Fruit
the most quickly, decays the most rapidly. In the North physical,
mental and moral
life develops more slowly than in the South. The pre-Christian
Roman historians relate, drank the life-blood of conquered enemies.
is greatest in the North. In aerial navigation the "Nordics" lead. The
American Lindbergh is a "Nordic." In literature we have Ibsen,
and Strindberg; in the spiritual world we have Swedenborg the mystic.
of information: This "Nordic" ascendency will not be eternal; change
progress is the Law of Life.
of information, displeasing at first, but highly gratifying later,
additional, real information and an after serious reflection: The
Founder of what
today is known as Freemasonry was not a Jew. He was a "Nordic" for
many generations, both on his father's and on his mother's side. And
was the greatest, the noblest, the best "specimen" of the genus homo,
produced by the so-called European world.
to this: you are a Patriot, and Patriotism is a virtue. Have not
German, as well
as British, French or American Jews, done their duty in the so-called
item of information: this writer was a personal friend of Prof.
well known psychologist and philosopher. This scholar was a friend and
Count Bernsdorff, and at a time when many other Germans had, in a way,
patriotism, when Germans in Turnhalle were putting pictures of Bismarck
in the cellar,
and those of the Kaiser into another place, Muensterberg suffered and
and finally died of a broken heart. The writer of these lines also
further: a man is good to the degree that he is unselfish, and bad in
that he is selfish. Every man has a duty to the self, the ego, towards
tribe, towards country, and finally, towards the race. No man should
at the expense of his family, or his family's fortune at the expense of
country, or his country's welfare at the expense, the cost, of the
human race. And
here another item of information: a teaching in the Weltanschauung of
of Freemasonry it is that the human stage is not the last, the highest,
level of life on this planet called "Earth." There is another, a higher
stage. What is this stage? A name! What's in a name? "A rose by any
would smell as sweet."
as food for thought, the following verse from Goethe may be recalled:
Des Menschen Seele gleicht dem
Von Himmel kommt sie zur Erde steigt sie
Und muss hinwieder zur Erde nieder
Ewig wandernd …
published biography of Goethe, reviewed in THE BUILDER a few months
ago, may be
recommended. In this work we are informed that Goethe not only believed
in the idea
of re-incarnation, but that he actually remembered a previous life, in
of the Roman emperor, Hadrian. And for meditation the utterance:
was, I am," and another idea found in that same book called the Bible,
a certain John, surnamed the Baptist, had once on a time been Elias.
speakest thou unto them in parable?" asked the disciples.
and said unto them, "Because it is given unto you to know the mysteries
the Kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not given."
Parables, and Masonic Symbolism.
We are told
that once upon a time there was in "Heaven" a great celebration and
by angels there was a song, heard by you in childhood, "Glory to God in
highest and on earth peace to men of good will."
Now, ende gut alles gut.
Degrees of Masonry;
Their Origin and History
Bros. A. L. Kress And
R. J. Meekren
in the answer to the first question in the Catechism in the
MS. that was suggested last month may be regarded as the more probable,
it only gives significance to what is, as it stands, a rather
but it also brings it into closer accord with the parallel documents.
catechism extant excepting this and the Trinity College MS. has a
demanding: "Are you a Mason?" The other exception, the Trinity College
MS. has the following:
manner of man are you?
Thus we may
suppose with some plausibility that the original of the
had some such question as this last, and that would make it probable
that the third
question, as quoted above, was an inquiry as to a higher grade, and
that the answer
embodied the same contrast as appears explicitly in the Grand Mystery
and its congeners.
In the Examination,
and its companion, the Mystery of Freemasons, we find further questions
the grade of the one questioned.
you been in the Kitchen?
you ever dine in the Hall?
answers the Mystery appends respectively the two notes. To the first:
N. B. You
shall know an Enter'd Apprentice by this question.
and to the
N. B. A Brother
Mason by this Question.
throws its own light upon the subject. It begins somewhat differently
from the Mystery.
The first two questions and answers are as follows:
you a Free Mason?
indeed I am.
shall I know it?
signs and tokens … from my entrance into the
kitchen and thence into the Hall.
turns up once more, it would seem, the terminology we have tentatively
in the Old Charges and the Scottish Minutes that is, that "Mason," or
(in the Examination) "Free Mason," was equivalent to Master and Fellow.
goes on to ask another question to differentiate the Fellow which has
in any other of our documents, though it appears in Prichard, and in
des Francs-Mašons (1). And in both it is definitely noted in
explanation that it
has the same purpose as it has in the Mystery. Of course in these last
it is quite possible that the idea was borrowed from a version of the
it appears in the latter it runs:
old are you?
5 or under 7, which you will.
N. B. When
you are first made a Mason you are only enter'd Apprentice, and till
you are made
a Master, or as they call it, pass'd the Master's Part, you are only
and consequently must answer under 7, for if you say above, they will
Master's Word and Signs.
note is quite likely to have been the work of the editor who prepared
the MS. for
the printer, so that if any weight is to be given to it at all, it is
the usage in or about 1730 in London. But the implication is plain that
was the grade above Apprentice, and that the "Master's Part" was a
degree, in our sense of that word.
documents will have to be treated separately as the indications they
afford on the
subject of grades, and the secrets pertaining thereto, are almost all
one source only. We may take the Mason's Confession first. Its date of
is late, but the anonymous author, who seems to have quite honestly
come to the
conclusion that Masonry was superstitious and sinful, and that it was
his duty to
expose it, says that his account is … to testify concerning that oath,
other secrets held among the corporation of Mason's wherein I was taken
same by sundry of them gathered together and met at D about the year
We may observe
here, incidentally, that the Confession and the Sloane MS. No. 3329,
are alone in
being written from a hostile or critical standpoint. Omitting the
in the Mystery and Grand Mystery, which are not properly part of these
all the others give the impression of being memoranda of things
important to remember
but likely to be forgotten. The "Confessor" was admittedly a Mason, but
his account is so confused and disjointed that it seems probable that
he had had
no Masonic intercourse for many years before he wrote it. That he was
not a Mason
by trade may be also surmised. On the whole it seems safe to assume
that, so far
as it goes, the Confession represents Scottish usage of about
1725-1750. But whether
earlier or later, the lodge in which the author was entered would seem
to have known two degrees, but two only. He says explicitly that "a
the Scripture was "shewed" him, which he was told was "the Mason
word." And then he adds that one word is the "Mason word," and another
"a fellow-craft word," and goes on to say:
is shewn to an entered prentice after he has sworn the oath, and the
latter is shewn
to one that has been a prentice at least for a year, when he is
admitted a degree
higher in their lodge, after he has sworn the oath again, or declared
Now the use
of the term "degree" here is cause for suspicion. By the time this was
published the modern system of three degrees was being worked in
Scotland. The minutes
of the Lodge at Kelso tell us that the new Master Mason degree was
in June, 1754, and it is remarked that it was worked elsewhere;
certainly in Edinburgh
whence it was brought. It is very likely therefore that the "Confessor"
used the terminology of the period of his writing rather than that of
the time of
his initiation (2). But this does not affect the fact that when he was
made a Mason
the Fellow Craft received secrets which were kept from the Apprentice.
was more to these secrets than the "fellowcraft word" merely, appears
at the end of the Confession, where a series of signs and signals for
are described. One of these (so loosely described that one cannot say
was really revealed) he calls the "fellow-crafts due guard"; and with
this, it is intimated, there went a grip, which is as difficult to
the description as the "due guard." And then is added, as an
the five points we have already discussed, though he gives them no
The passage runs:
… or placing himself hand to
hand foot to foot,
knee to knee, heart to heart, ear to ear, [he] says 'Great you, great
you God greateth
you, and make you a good Master-mason. I'm a young man going to push my
if you can furnish me you will do well."
Now in his
account of what he remembered of his initiation the "Confessor" gives
an Apprentice salutation, which will be mentioned later in conjunction
Chetwode Crawled MS. On the other hand all the other sources give a
or salutation of a similar character to the above. The only exception
is the Trinity
College MS., which is so very brief, and omits so much, that there is
in its not mentioning this.
It is one
of the indications of an amalgamation of the secrets of the two
time during the period preceding 1717 that this formal salutation is
in most cases as pertaining to the "Fellows," though in form it is from
Masters and Fellows to Masters and Fellows, which in itself would seem
to make it
inappropriate for an apprentice. The phraseology varied a good deal. It
guessed that the original form was distinguished by a triple
repetition, which however
in some places had become obscured. Perhaps the Sloane MS. may be taken
a typical form:
The right worshipful, the
Mast'rs and fellows
in that worshipful lodge from whence we last came greet you, greet you,
the reply was,
God's good greeting to you dear
… the right worshipful brothers
and fellows of
the right worshipful holy Lodge of St. John … greet you thrice heartily
of the reply to this possibly included the jingle, "God's good greeting
at this our meeting," which appears with variations in the five
in the Grand Mystery and Examination groups, and also in the Sloane MS.
is certainly Scottish in origin; the Examination type, judging by
indications, possibly originated in or about London. From other equally
it might be surmised that the Grand Mystery versions came from
in between possibly the north of England. Yet in all we find definite
certain forms and secrets peculiar to, and distinguishing, the Fellow
of the Craft
or Master. There is the formal greeting or salutation, associated with
a sign and
a word, and "proper" points of Fellowship; and besides this, test
and answers to introduce and pave the way to these more definite and
of the free Craftsman's status.
Means of Recognition
It may be
remarked in passing, that to no one will the various means of
and hinted at in these documents seem stranger than to a Freemason of
is a curious commentary on Mackey's Code of Landmarks (3), unalterable
as the laws
of the Medes and Persians, that in the very first of them, and the one
all the most legitimate and unquestioned," which can "admit of no
we find the "Means of Recognition," which in two hundred years have
changed beyond recognition. Though it is probable that on the whole
has been due to a progressive and organic evolution.
We will now
take up the very curious Chetwode Crawled MS. which links up with the
on one point, and with the Haughfoot Minute of 1702 in regard to
another. It is
the only one of our sources that definitely describes a second
as we have seen, the Confession alludes to one as following the "entry"
at an interval of the year or more. The passage is not a long one, and
may be quoted
in full. (4) After telling how the Apprentice receives "the word" the
author or transcriber says:
Now it is to be remarked that
all the Signs and
words as just spoken of are only what belongs to the entered prentices.
But to a
Master-Mason or ffellow Craft there is more to be done, as after
ffirst, all the Apprentices are
to be removed
out of the Company, and not Suffered to Stay, but only Mason-Masters.
Then he who
is to be admitted a member of the ffellowship is put again to his knees
the Oath administered to him anew. Afterwards he must go out of the
the youngest Master to learn the words and signs of ffellowship. Then
again, he makes the Master-Sign, and says the same words of Entry as
did, only leaving out the Common Lodge. Then the Masons whisper among
beginning at the youngest, as formerly. Afterwards the young Master
and put himself in the posture wherein he is to receive the word. And
says to the
assembled Honorable Company whispers;
"The worthy masons and
that I came from, Greet you well, Greet you well."
of the word "whispers" at the end of the next to last sentence seems
Both the Grand Mastery and the Institution have an Addendum in which
of recognition are described, of which the fifth is
You must Whisper, saying thus;
The Masters and
Fellows of the Worshipful Company from whence I came greet you [all].
point is not of importance in the present connection. We will now pass
to that curious
fragment on the present first page of the minute book of the old Lodge
It will be remembered that some preceding pages have been torn out at
The few words remaining were a great puzzle until the Chetwode Crawled
MS. was discovered.
They were recognized as being of the nature of a ritual rubric, but
bearing was a matter of conjecture only. There are only two sentences
… of entrie as the Apprentice
did leaving out
(the Common Judge). They then whisper the word as before, and the
Master Mason grips
his hand in the ordinary way.
Now the Chetwode
Crawley MS. in the description of, or more properly perhaps, the
the "entry" of an apprentice, says he is sent out of the lodge
by the "Youngest Mason" to be taught the "manner of making Guard,"
consisting of the sign, word and postures of his Entry, and including
Now am I the youngest and last
As I am sworn by God and St. John, by the Square and Compass and Common
attend my Master's service at the Honorable Lodge, from Munday in the
Saturday at night, and to keep the keys thereof …
is not essential for our purpose here. Turning to the Confession we
find that the
author says concerning the signs and words that at his initiation;
One person in the lodge
instructed me a little
about them the same day that I entered, and was called my "Author"
chose another to be his "intended until the following assembly "that
twelve-month." It is not definitely said that the newly entered
was sent out of the lodge, but there is a description of his taking
over three lines drawn on the ground, which seems to indicate a
and salutation. The passage is as follows, and must be considered in
the light of
the excerpt from the Chetwode Crawled MS. given above;
stand I (with his feet in form of a
square) younger and last entered Prentice, ready to serve my Master
from Monday morning to the Saturday night in all lawful employment.
leads almost irresistibly to the conclusion that at the beginning of
century and of course by inference earlier still there were two quite
salutations employed in Scottish operative lodges, one by the
apprentices, and the
other by the Masters and Fellows; and that each was accompanied by
and gestures, which were in effect signs of recognition; and that those
to the higher grade were not known to the apprentices.
salutation it would appear was known and used in England in variant
forms, and it
may be a fair inference to assume that this implies an Apprentice's
although in that breaking down of the distinction between the two
grades in purely
non-operative lodges which we believe to have occurred in some places,
have come to be little emphasized, or even to have entirely dropped out.
the Chetwode Crawley MS. we may note that in the Catechism which
follows the descriptive
note on the reception of a "Master Mason or ffellow Craft," the
query and response appears:
the name of your Lodge?
Lodge of Kilwinning.
If this is
to be accepted as a safe indication of ultimate origin, and there seems
reason why it should not be, then it is an additional confirmation of
that Gould was mistaken in inferring that the bare communication of a
word was the
sum total of the secrets known to the Masons there; for this reference
it up closely with the ritual practiced at Haughfoot in 1702, which he
as abnormal (5).
two MSS. more to be considered, the Sloane MS. No. 3329 and the Trinity
MS. These present a special problem, in that on their face they seem to
three degrees, under much the same names as are employed today. We have
noted that the paper and handwriting of the former has been judged, by
no interest in the contents, to be possibly as early as the first years
of the 18th
century or even the last years of the 17th. While, judged by these same
criteria, 1730 is probably as late a date as it would be justifiable to
with Mackey's theory of the origin of the symbolic degrees we examined
he based on certain features of this document (6), and it is these that
for further examination.
We have already
remarked the somewhat critical and disparaging tone of this MS. This
could be accounted
for by assuming that it is a compilation from various sources by the
hand of a non-Mason.
The author or compiler always speaks of members of the fraternity as
"'They discover [each] other by signs," "their gripe for fellowcrafts";
while "they say," or "say they," is a frequently recurring phrase.
It is this latter especially which almost gives the MS. an air of
having been written
by one who had become a Mason out of curiosity but had never identified
with the Craft, and had written down something of what he had learned
in the same
spirit of detachment that an anthropologist might write of the
ceremonies of some
primitive secret society to which he had gained admission in his study
of the culture
of a savage race. Whichever way it was, there is not much order or
system in his
account. He first describes at greater length than in any other of the
a number of the "casual" signs or signals used to attract a Mason's
in various circumstances. Among these we find the description of
that is quoted by Mackey. Then comes a Catechism thus introduced:
Here followeth their private
discourse by way
of question and answer.
sixteen questions. Then we are told that:
In some places they discourse
to a group of eight questions, evidently a fragment of another
catechism in part
parallel to the first, and which, as it stands, ends with a form of the
Salutation and the response thereto. Then follows this addendum, which
it may be
assumed comes from a different source:
Another salutation is giving
the mast'rs or fellows
grip, saying, the right worshipful the mast'rs and fellows in that
from whence we last came, greet you, greet you, greet you well.
there is also a proper formal reply. In this reference to the "Master's
Fellow's grip" it is natural to take the two terms as synonymous, as we
found them to be in so many other places. But the previous description
of the "gripes"
throws some doubt upon this, and the difficulty thus raised makes
not unreasonable at the time he wrote. As he quoted this previous
passage in full
in a work that is accessible everywhere, there will be no need to give
than the phrases we are especially interested in; there are two
beginning with a capital letter:
their gripe for fellow craftes
is clasping their
right hands, etc., etc.
their master's gripe is
clasping, etc., etc.,
but some say the mast'rs grip is the same I last described, only, etc.
it stands this differentiates the masters and the fellows, and ignores
If we might suppose that a mistake had been made in copying, and that
their gripe is, etc.
their masters or fellow craftes
would vanish; but the emendation is rather risky. It is very true that
a word can
easily get misplaced or doubled in copying, as everyone who has done
much of it
knows only too well, but it is safer not to avoid a difficulty by
altering the text,
unless it is obvious on general grounds that an error exists.
If we had
further information as to these "gripes" from other sources we might be
able to come to a more definite decision. But there is nothing quite
them in any of our documents. The Grand Mystery has a list of "Signs to
a true Mason", the fourth of which is:
To take hand in hand, with Left
and Right Thumbs
close and touch each Wrist three Times with the Forefinger each Pulse.
And the Institution
repeats this with some changes that make it more incomprehensible
still. The Examination
has, in a somewhat similar list of signals, the following statement:
To Gripe is when you take a
Brother by the Right
Hand and put your middle Finger to his Wrist.
pulse are much the same thing for such a purpose, and this last, which
clear, may be the original of the former. But neither is like the two
described in the Sloane MS.
quite strongly of the opinion that the Sloane MS. is later than the
of Prichard's work, and that the compiler knew and borrowed ideas from
describes three grips, one for each degree, and the first one, assigned
to the Entered
Apprentice, sounds as if it might have been a variation of the one
in the Sloane MS. This might be taken as some confirmation for such an
of the text of the latter as we suggested above, especially as the
gripe" as therein described bears a general resemblance to the grip set
in a note to Prichard's "Master's Degree." This would leave Prichard's
Fellow Craft grip with no traditional parallel which is of course what
If then this
emendation were accepted, the Sloane MS. falls into line with all the
so far examined, as exhibiting two grades; some secrets being common to
and some reserved for the Masters or Fellows. But on its face it
grades, although apprentices are only mentioned once, in the fifth
question of "their
is a just and perfect or just and lawful
just and perfect lodge is two Interprintices
two fellowcraftes and two Masters … [or] if need require five will
serve that is two Interprintices, two fellow crafts and one Mast'r on
the highest hill or lowest valley of the world without the crow of a
cock or the bark of a dogg.
It must be
said quite frankly that this particular variant of the description of
found in each of our documents (with one exception) seems to imply the
idea of three
degrees; even more so, indeed, than Prichard's version does in the
This last tells us the lodge consists of
One Master, two Wardens, two
Fellow Crafts and
two Entered Apprentices.
A Master and two wardens, and
adds to this, "five Apprentices." There is the possibility, which we
for what it may be worth, that the two Masters mentioned by the Sloane
referred to two officers for it would appear that there were not always
in addition to a Master (or Deacon).
It may also
be noted that the Grand Mystery gives:
.... Five or Seven right and
perfect Masons on
the highest Mountains, or the lowest Valleys in the world
Essex MS. and the Institution repeat; the latter changing the order,
making it "seven
or five." Remembering the insistence of the Shaw Statutes on the
two Apprentices, this might be interpreted as referring to the
constitution of the
lodge before and after the apprentices were "removed out of the
as the Chetwode Crawley MS. puts it, when a Master or fellow was to be
But the fact is that there is no consistency between the accounts,
that the numbers given are generally odd. Indeed the Grand Mystery and
draw attention to this by asking "Why do Odds make a lodge?" the
says "odd numbers" to which the answer is, "Because all odds are
men's advantage"; all which he may interpret who can.
MS. has an additional series of questions, in the answer to one of
which we are
told that any number "from three to thirteen" makes a "perfect lodge."
discuss this and some other subsidiary points would take too much time
not be worthwhile, but it may be noted that the subject is far from
exhausted. We will therefore pass to the last of our sources, the
MS., which even more definitely than the Sloane seems to postulate
Master, "fellow craftsman" and "Enter prentice."
to begin with that this MS. bears an endorsement "Freemasonry Feb.
This is in a later hand than the body of the document, and we know
what it means nor why it was made. The first judgment that naturally
occurs is that
it is a note of the age of the document; and as we do not know who made
it, or what
his source of information, we are left in a state of uncertainty as to
But there is another possibility; it might be a note of the date at
which the paper
was examined and filed. It is quite plausible that some methodical
person who was
sorting and classifying miscellaneous family papers, not only labelled
made a note of the date when doing so. If this supposition were
accepted it would
follow that the document itself is older than the date. We believe that
experts, with no knowledge of Masonic antiquities, are inclined to
judge the paper
and handwriting to be of the beginning of the century, though obviously
alone can hardly lead to certainty inside of fairly wide limits, thirty
years or so (7). We have therefore to allow for this indefiniteness and
so to interpret the document as to make our conclusions, if possible,
with either the earlier or later limits which means that they will be
to the same
extent tentative and indefinite, too.
The MS. contains
a brief series of eleven questions and answers, for all of which, with
exception, close parallels are to be found in most of the other
come a few memoranda regarding signs. Here we are first told of a
sequence of gestures called the "common sign," and then comes a short
paragraph in which mention is made of a "Master sign," a "fellow
craftsman's sign" and the "Enter prentice sign." They are not
but are merely designated by words that doubtless would have had
to anyone who had once known what they were, but which have for a
no meaning at all. The "Master sign" is said to be "backbone,"
that of the "fellow craftsman" is "knuckles and sinews," while
to the "Enter prentice" is assigned "sinews" only. The following
paragraph gives a little more detail, and each sign is coupled with a
"backbone" is stated to go with the word "Matchpin," a corrupt
rendering, doubtless, of the word "Maughbin" found elsewhere.
thing in all this that is of concern in our present inquiry is the
special secrets to three classes of Masons, bearing essentially the
as our three symbolic degrees. This is quite clear and unequivocal. The
reference to three degrees in the Sloane MS. can be removed by an
the text requiring only the deletion of a single word. Here the
conclusion is unescapable
that three degrees were definitely recognized by the author of the
If we assume
that it was written by, or at least owned by, some member of the Irish
the Molyneux family, in or about the year 1711, then we have to
conclude that in
Ireland the evolution of the Masonic system was earlier than in Great
far as the extant evidence leads us to suppose. The endorsement has not
we believe, except in regard to the date. And the date has been
because it was assumed that the other evidence requires us to conclude
that no third
degree could have existed, anywhere, before 1723.
It is very
difficult here to hold the balance true. The endorsement may be
and yet in this one respect erroneous. That is obvious. But this is not
to be proved
by a negative argument. We must recall Bro. Tuckett's fallacy of the
the assumption "that what cannot be proved cannot have happened." The
positive evidence tells us that in 1730 certainly, and probably, in
1727 or a little
earlier, the three degrees were in existence in some places. It also
tells us that
in 1723 the Grand Lodge of London, and most of the old Scottish lodges,
used a two
degree system. But this does not exclude the possibility that elsewhere
degree had come into existence. It may be considered unlikely, it may
more probable that the endorsed date of the Trinity College MS. is a
the possibility remains that it may be substantially correct; and this
must be kept
On the whole,
we are, ourselves, inclined to the view that the MS. is later than
1711, but we
do not think that the point is so important to this investigation as it
may at first
seem to be. Before discussing this, however, it may be remarked that,
the endorsement was made in good faith, and this no one has ever
doubted, the fact
that the month is given as well as the year certainly indicates that it
a mere conjecture on the part of whoever made the note. one may guess
at the probable
date of a thing, and set down a year, but no one would be likely to
particular month in a year without some warrant for it. But even so,
there are still
plenty of ways in which error could have arisen. The date might have
from some partially illegible memorandum, or the information may have
at some time previously and remembered inaccurately. All that can be
said is that
it was probably based on some information received, whether good or
bad, or accurately
or inaccurately reproduced.
- Published in
1744 by Travenol. Reprinted the following
year in the expose' entitled Le Sceau Romps, and shortly after in
L'Ordre des Franc-Macons
Trahi [Lib 1781] and in the
successive editions of those two works
- According to
the editor's note to the Confession, the
original MS. bore the date Nov. 13, 1751, and was supplemented by
dated Feb. 20, 1752, both by the same hand presumed to be that of the
The whole had been communicated to the Scot's Magazine "by a Mr. D. B."
Thus we have no indication of the part of Scotland from which the
came. But it is fairly safe to assume that he could have heard about
the new system.
On the other hand it cannot be said positively that the term "degree"
was not in use before the Grand Lodge era. It was a word in quite
common use to
designate social rank and status.
Encyclopedia [Lib 1914]. see
- The passage is
discussed by Bro. Herbert Poole in the
paper previously mentioned, A. Q. C., xxxvi [Lib 1923], p. 4.
- It is really
amazing that Hughan was unable to see the
significance of the conjunction of the Chetwode Crawled MS. and the
which he seems to have been the first to notice; he being apparently
of the MS., or at least the first to critically examine it. From the
he gave of it in A. Q. C., vol. xvii [Lib 1904], p. 91, it
seems it was found in the pages of an old
book, the antecedents of which were not discoverable. It is hard to see
view of the definite date and unquestioned authenticity of the
that it was possible to remain blind to the almost compulsory
conclusion, that whatever
the actual date of the MS. it represented, in a variant version, the
that underlay the usage of the lodge of Haughfoot.
August, 1928, p. 240. For Mackey's citations
see his History, vol. iv [Lib 1906, Vol
4], p. 969. Revised edition, vol. iv, p. 1023.
Hawkins (A.Q.C., vol. xxvi [Lib*], p. 18)
says that an expert judged the writing to be thirty or forty years
1711. Gould took it to be later than 1723, solely on the ground of the
it contained. But what if it came from Scotland?
Army Lodges in
the World War
Bro. Charles F. Irwin.
Madre Lodge (Sin Numero) Mexico, 1916
ago while pursuing an inquiry into another matter connected with the
the Masonic Fraternity during the World War, I came across a copy of
the 1916 Proceedings
of the Grand Lodge of Texas, in which I found an account of a Military
connection with the Punitive Expedition led by General Pershing into
Mexico in 1916.
This story possessed elements of such unusual interest to the Craft
that I made
the resolve to follow it up at a more favorable opportunity.
passed by and once more the matter was brought to my attention when
copies of the
1917 Proceedings of the Grand Lodges of Tennessee and Pennsylvania came
for in each of these I found the Texas story repeated, each omitting
or inserting others, which indicated again that we had a rich find in
opening of my present series of articles on the American Field Lodges
in the World
War I decided that this would be an appropriate opportunity to deal
with this lodge,
for though not directly connected with American participation in the
falls within the same period. After much correspondence with brethren
in all parts
of the country, I was enabled to get in touch with a number of the
in this lodge of a single communication, and I have decided to give the
of each as variants of the same story that nothing may be lost. The
latest of these
to come to hand is the fullest. It is from the pen of Major J. S. S.
of New York City, who at that time (1916) was a New York newspaper
has two photographs of a most interesting character. These are of a
memento which he had the foresight to obtain upon the occasion related
in the story.
He ripped from his bedding roll a piece of canvas and secured the
a number of the brothers present at the time. On the reverse side he
the Square and Compasses, together with the name and location of this
also that Sam Dreben, the scout and interpreter of the expedition, was
of Union Lodge, No. 172, New Orleans, through a list of lodge members
a copy of the 1917 Proceedings of Louisiana. This enabled me to
the Secretary of said lodge, Bro. H. Waszkowski, who informed me that
he had in
the archives of his lodge papers which had been entrusted to him by
years before. Bro. Dreben passed on to his reward some years ago. A
copy of these
papers, which Bro. Waszkowski kindly made for me, discloses the fact
that they are
a transcript of the minutes of this historical meeting in Mexico. Thus
we have recovered
an official record written immediately subsequent to the occasion.
was enabled to get into contact with W. Bro. W. H. Faringhy, who was at
a Quartermaster Sergeant, Q. M. C., and who now is the Master of
No. 217, Monterey, California. He was chosen as Junior Warden of Sierra
He has sent me his recollections of the occasion.
F. W. Clarke, M. C., whom I met by a happy chance, I learned that Col.
M. D., M. C., now working under the United States Veterans' Bureau in
might have additional information. Correspondence with Dr. Scott proved
be true. He informed me in his letters that he served in the Punitive
into Mexico, but that being on duty at an outstation upon the occasion
of the meeting
of the lodge, he was prevented from being present. However, he
naturally heard all
about it from brethren who participated.
and other sources, then, I have succeeded in recovering from oblivion a
deserves to be recorded, and to be made more widely known than it seems
been hitherto. It is a side light on the working of Masonry under
such meetings having occurred in other days, not only in our country
members of the Craft have met the world over. In most of such cases
a tradition, or a bare reference, remains. It is seldom that definite
record is made at the time, and we have to congratulate ourselves on
able to recover these accounts before they were lost beyond recall, and
it is to
me a source of great pleasure that I have been enabled to become the
agent in putting
the story of this lodge upon permanent record.
of time the first reference we have to Sierra Madre Lodge (sin numero)
in the Grand Master's Address to the Grand Lodge of Texas in the year
1916. It is
found under the title, "A Unique Lodge Meeting." It is based on a
and an enclosure therewith, sent to the Grand Secretary of Texas by
Bro. John W.
Elliott, Secretary of Army Lodge, No. 1105, Fort Sam Houston, Texas.
was a copy of an account of the meeting written by a member of this
Elmer E. Sampson, who was with the expedition and who was chosen as one
of the officers
of Sierra Madre Lodge. This account is as follows:
THE ACCOUNT OF BRO. SAMPSON
Sierra Madre Lodge ( without
number) F. &
A. M ., was opened for social purposes this 14th day of May, the year
of our Lord,
1916, in due and ancient form. The brethren assembled in a pass of the
due east of the Headquarters encampment of the United States Punitive
Forces, near Namiquipa, Mexico, the place of meeting.
Upon examination, being found
adequate to be
used for Masonic purposes, the several stations and places of the lodge
Major Ellwood Waller Evans,
Commander, Tenth Cavalry, U. S. A., Annapolis Lodge, No. 89, Annapolis,
Quartermaster Sergeant W. H.
Corps, U. S. A., Monterey Lodge, No. 217, Monterey, Calif., Senior
Captain John Raymond Barber. M.
C., U. S. A.,
Hiram Lodge, No. 10, District of Columbia, Junior Warden;
Sergeant Elmer E. Sampson,
E. C., U. S. A., Army Lodge, No. 1105, Fort Sam Houston, Tex., San
Captain W. E. Burt, Twentieth
Inf., Ass't Chief
of Staff, Expeditionary Forces, Hancock Lodge, No. 311, Fort
J. S. Stewart Richardson, New
York Herald Correspondent
with the Expeditionary Forces, Thistle Lodge, No. 900, New Orleans,
Sam Dreben, Interpreter of the
Expeditionary Forces, Union Lodge, No. 172, New Orleans, Louisiana,
In opening the lodge the
Worshipful Master remarked
that by meeting al fresco in a mountain crevice, the brethren of Sierra
were but following the example of the ancients of the Craft.
Captain Burt suggested that
each of the twenty-three
brethren present be presented with a copy of the minutes of the lodge
that he may
properly inform the brethren of his home lodge of the proceedings of
This was carried.
Captain William E. W. MacKinley
of the Eleventh
Cavalry, U. S. A., and of Ethan Allen Lodge, No. 72, Essex Junction,
a meeting of a lodge of Bermuda, which he attended. The lodge
exclusively of officers and enlisted men of the Second Battalion, D. C.
L. I. (46th
Foot), British Army.
The Worshipful Master called to
the East, Captain
Barber who was directed to proceed to close the Lodge. Sergeant Elmer
occupied the South in place of Captain Barber, and Sergeant Sampson's
Senior Deacon was occupied by Lieut. C. D. McMurdo of the Tenth
Cavalry, and of
Faith Lodge, No. 181, Crawford, Nebraska.
The Lodge was then closed in
due and ancient
form. As Masons the world over, from the time of the Ancient Operative
have done, so did the brethren of Sierra Madre Lodge (without number)
The brethren signed the minutes
Those present not already mentioned were:
Major J. B. Clayton, Medical
Corps, U. S. A.,
Hancock Lodge No. 311, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas;
Captain W. O.
Chief of Staff,
Expeditionary Forces, Springfield Lodge, No. 50, Springfield, Kentucky.
Sergeant John F.
Signal Corps, U. S.
A., Hancock Lodge, No. 311, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas;
Lieut. Henry R.
Cavalry, U. S. A.,
Faith Lodge, No. 181, Crawford, Nebraska;
Captain R. Porter,
Corps, U. S. A., White
Pass Lodge, No. 113, Skagway, Alaska;
Captain I. E.
Corps, U. S. A.,
Pentalpha, Lodge, No. 194, Gaithersburg, Maryland
Captain W. L. Hart
Corps, U. S. A., Philanthropic
Lodge, No. 32, Yorkville, South Carolina;
Captain Charles E.
Medical Corps, U.
S. A., Andover Lodge, No. 558, Andover, New York
Private Harry L.
Clerk Headquarters Punitive Expedition, Woodlawn Park Lodge, No. 841,
Sergeant Warren C.
C., U. S. A., Nebraska
Lodge, No. 1, Omaha, Nebraska;
Hubbel, S. C., U.
S. A., McKinley
Lodge, No. 631, McKinley, Kentucky
L. Miller, Corps
of Engineers, U. S. A., Harmony Lodge, No. 6, Galveston, TexasSergeant
Towers, S. C., U. S. A., Hiligrove Lodge No. 540, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Captain J. S. Coulter, M. C.,
U. S. A., Hancock
Lodge, No. 311, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas;
Master concludes his narrative with these words:
While I may be criticized for
burdening the record
with the above named meeting of our brethren in foreign lands, yet it
so many unusual features, that I believed it would be of interest to
you all. You
will notice that these brethren were from lodges all over our great
we can easily imagine their pleasure in meeting together as brothers,
tiled precincts of a lodge, where all rank and distinction were done
away, and they
met upon the level and parted on the square.
Worshipful Brother needed not to apologize, for in thus recording so
incident he rendered the Craft a benefit far exceeding many of the
addresses which proceed from our Grand Easts, in which little of
to the Craft is to be found with much chaff and dust.
found in the papers of Bro. Dreben is an exact duplication of that
given by Bro.
Sampson with this additional information in a note at the bottom of the
has just been received that Lieut. Henry R. Adair has been killed in
And in a
recent letter from Bro. Waszkowski I learn that Bro. Dreben himself
three years ago (1925) in Los Angeles, California."
variant of the story that has come into my hands is that of Bro. W. H.
of Monterey, Calif., who under date of Feb. 1, 1929, writes as follows:
I have before
me your letter of Jan. 22, 1929, to Secretary of Monterey Lodge, No.
217, F. &
A. M. (of which at the present time I happen to be Master), relative to
with "Sierra Madre Lodge" in Mexico while serving with General
Punitive Expedition. My memory is a little hazy about that matter, as
was held nearly thirteen years ago, and I have thought of lots of other
that time. However I will try and give it you as well as I am able to
At the time,
the Expedition was encamped at a place called Namiquipa, in Mexico,
where I was
on duty as Quartermaster Sergeant, Q. M. Corps, in the Q. M. Depot
One day a couple of brother Masons, I cannot recall their names, called
on me and
asked me to go up with some other Masons up in the mountains like our
did and hold a social Lodge meeting. I agreed, and so a number of us
went up to
the top of a range of the Sierra Madre Mountains east of the camp and
was called "Sierra Madre Lodge, sin numero," on May 14, 1916; but it
not in the evening as it was too dangerous to be out at night, that is
camp. Some of the brethren rode out to the foot of the range, I should
five miles, on horses and some rode in trucks and light wagons. All
were armed as
we were in the heart of the bandit Villa's country. When we arrived at
the top of
the range we found an ideal spot and formed our Lodge.
of the meeting of the Lodge I will quote from a copy of A.A.S.R.
Bulletin date at
Fort Leavenworth, Kan., in May, 1916, as follows (here follows an exact
the Sampson variant):
As far as
I know that was the only Lodge that ever met in which the officers and
armed, and the Tiler instead of being armed with the implement of his
a revolver strapped on his hip instead. [See the story of Saxonia Lodge
at Sea," of this series, for a duplication of this point -C. F. I.]
R. Adair, 10th Cavalry, was afterward killed in a fight with the
that merits the closing of this unusual story comes to me recently from
S. S. Richardson (Major), who at the time of the incident was War
for the New York Herald, with the Punitive Expedition. It took quite a
time to locate Brother Richardson but at length I found him residing in
City and he has proved most courteous and kindly in aiding in the
this story. He was the Secretary of the meeting and one of its
instigators and hence
his story had special value to the Masonic student. I here give his
LODGE (Sin Numero)
By Bro. J.
S. S. Richardson, Secretary (Maj. U. S. Cavalry Reserve).
Sir! Salute! Salaam!
an' it doesn't do no 'arm. We met upon the level an' we parted on the
I was Junior Deacon in my Mother Lodge out there! Kipling.
In the light
of a campfire flickering fitfully from the light wind of the Sierras
sat six men.
The fire was one of several in a bivouac of some 5,000 American troops.
was the sun-dried plateau of central Chihuahua, 220 miles south of the
of the recumbent fire gazers related to many things. These men had been
to the four
corners of the earth and their experiences were numerous and varied. In
themselves more than one had used a phrase reminiscent of Masonic
the senior of the group, Major Elwood W. Evans, commanding the Second
10th U. S. Cavalry, said: "I believe all of us around this fire are of
Craft. How about it?"
five each answered in the affirmative and it was Sam Dreben, trained
and soldier of fortune, who remarked they were more than sufficient
to convene a lodge in due and ancient form.
a real Masonic discussion. The six, after interrogating one another as
Masonic woundings, constituted themselves a committee, with Major Evans
to examine other Masons who might care to attend a possible meeting.
the writer were detailed, as a sub-committee, to find an appropriate
All of this
took place on a Friday night, in the latter art of May, 1916. The
troops were a
part of the Punitive Expedition, under the command of Brigadier General
Pershing, which had crossed the border two months before to exterminate
the band of outlaws which had raided Columbus, N.M., putting a portion
of the town
to the torch and murdering several American citizens.
of the expedition hitherto had been far-flung and the marauding
banditti now were
effectively scattered. The outlaw chieftain, however, Pancho Villa, had
captured and the American Expedition, most of whose elements were now
was yet to remain on Mexican soil for many months. This main
concentration of the
United States forces was six miles south of the ancient Mexican plaza
which is situated on the plateau between the parallel mountain chains
and south, the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Sierra Madre Occidental.
following morning Dreben and the writer, fully armed, rode into the
the Sierra Madre Oriental in search of a "Moot Room" and about five
from camp we located an ideal place, such as might have been used by
It was an oblong clearing, almost level, set lengthwise due east and
with flat rocks, it was protected on the north side by some stunted
and I collected several of the smaller rocks and fashioned a crude
we arranged flat stones in the East, in the South and in the West. We
for about two hours, then, bestriding our mounts, rode back into camp
to Major Evans.
that day word was passed among the troops that the following afternoon
at two o'clock, a meeting of Master Masons would be held nearby. Those
to attend were asked to report to Major Evans that afternoon (Saturday)
the following morning. Everything went according to schedule.
At one o'clock
Sunday a strange cavalcade was seen to leave the encampment and follow
eastward into the hills. All were mounted and armed and I, as
the necessary Lodge paraphernalia strapped to my saddle. We draped the
in an American flag and opened the Holy Bible in place. The Bible was
one of the Chaplains of the Expeditionary Force, none of whom,
was of the Craft. On the top of the Bible we placed a Compasses and
by Sergeant Elmer E. Sampson of the Engineers.
then the nomination and election of officers of what was proclaimed as
Madre Lodge, sin, numero" (without number). From the Worshipful Master,
Evans, down to the squad of Tilers, election was by acclamation. After
took his seat in the East, Quartermaster Sergeant W. H. Faringhy of the
Corps and Captain R. S. Porter of the Medical Corps, were elected
and Junior Warden, respectively. They took their stations accordingly.
officers were Sergeant Elmer E. Sampson of E Company, Engineers, Senior
Captain W. B. Burtt, 20th Infantry, Assistant Chief of Staff of the
Junior Deacon; J. S. S. Richardson, Secretary; and Sam Dreben, Senior
Tiler was insufficient in the circumstances for the customary function
off cowans and eavesdroppers. We were in a hostile country with armed
of the bandit group still at large. Therefore four men, mounted and
the precincts of the meeting from the time the lodge was opened until
it was closed
in due form.
the work resolved itself into an exchange of Masonic experiences among
who had first seen the light of the Craft in various parts of the world
several jurisdictions. The interesting discussion was led by the able
Master Evans, who had the God-given faculty of making everyone talk
ease and to the interest of all present.
represented at the meeting were in various states in the Union, the
Hongkong, Canada, and Great Britain. Much that was peculiar to Craft
in the several localities provided topics absorbing in the
realized that the meeting had been in session for nearly three hours
until a distant
bugle call reminded the assembled Craftsmen that retreat was being
at camp. Before closing the lodge, Worshipful Master Evans delivered a
in which he stressed the fundamentals of Masonic relationships, the
of Craft brotherhood and the all-embracing universal democracy of
It was Major
Evans who quoted the appropriate lines of Kipling with which this
article is prefixed
and it was he who expressed the fervent hope that in the not remote
future the brethren,
gathered as they were from lodges of the three continents, would meet
the banner of Sierra Madre Lodge, Mexico, sin numero.
words of the Worshipful Master proved vain however. A considerable
portion of the
comparatively small assembly since have passed to that far country from
no traveler returns. Major Evans himself is among that noble company;
Sam Dreben, our genial Tiler and soldier of fortune, who was later
exceptional gallantry in action in France.
Henry R. Adair, of the 10th Cavalry, another of the brothers, was
killed a week
or two after the meeting, not far from that spot, by Mexicans. He and
his troop commander, fell with several of their men when they were
badly out-numbered by a force of Mexicans at Carrizal. It was that
fight which really
inspired the mobilization of the National Guard along the Mexican
to say that as Secretary of the Lodge I preserved no copy of the
is but one record of the interesting meeting still in my possession. It
of a square canvas cut from my bedding-roll. In the center, with pen
and ink, I
designed the traditional Compasses and Square and lettered above and
legend "Sierra Madre Lodge, sin numero, Mexico, 1916, A. D." This was
suspended in the East during the session and, after the meeting, I
everybody present to sign his name on the reverse side of the canvas
with an ink
pencil. A few of those who attended left before this was done, but
there are nineteen
names still legible on the fragment of canvas.
appear as follows:
W. Evans, Major, 10th Cavalry, U.
M. Sgt. W. H. Faringhy, Q. M. Corps, S.
B. Burtt, Capt., 20th Infantry.
S. Porter, Capt. M. C.
E. Sampson, "E" Co., Engineers.
R. Barber, Captain.
O. McMurdo, Vet. 10th Cavalry
Dreben, Union 172, New Orleans.
F. Gleaves, Sgt., Signal Corps.
W. Towers, Sgt., Signal Corps
V. Bailey, Sgt., Signal Corps.
Hubble, Sgt., Signal Corps.
R. Adair, 1st Lieut., 10th Cavalry
L. Miller, Btn. Q. M. Sgt., Engineers.
S. Coulter, Capt. M. C.
O. Demmer, Capt. M. C
J. Hecket, 16th Infantry
S. Stewart Richardson, Thistle No. 900,
W. MacKinley, Capt. 11th Cavalry, Ethan Allen Lodge, No. 72.
By the standards
of near perfection reached in most of our Masonic jurisdictions the
meeting of Sierra
Madre Lodge might not have been considered in any sense a finished
product. We were
Masonic wanderers traveling on the face of the desert far from our
rooms." We had been taught differently one from another in some details
the work, but we were a complete unit on the essentials.
One and all
"we knew the ancient landmarks and observed them to a hair." If the
Master plumbed the thoughts of that dusty band of adventurers, he found
but the true gold of Masonic sincerity.
account rounds out the story of this remarkable lodge, and to him we
for photographs of the relics of which he speaks. Thus after some years
it has been possible to combine these versions of the very unusual
story of a gathering
of Masons upon a mountain side in a hostile country, who there
principles which we have universally been taught in our several lodges.
to obtain an account from each of the officers of the lodge but though
unsuccessful it is probable that everything of value has been set down
in the foregoing
accounts. Nevertheless I would be very glad to hear from any other
brother who was
present in order that his account could be placed in our archives along
others. Should any reader know of one of the brethren present on the
should be only too glad to receive his present address, or should any
of the passing on of any of this group in addition to those noted in
a notification of the same would be appreciated.
Lodge sin numero came into being because a group of Masons around a
relating experiences drawn from roving days around the globe, came
together in thought
and conversation to that mutual spot where other men have foregathered
days and under other circumstances. Masonry once again has in this
the universality and the vitality inherent in the Craft.
In the 1917
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania (page 497) is the
to the subject:
was made to him (Texas 1916) of a unique lodge meeting 'in a pass of
due east of the headquarters encampment of the United States Punitive
Forces in Mexico,' commanded by General Pershing. There were
present, nearly all of them commissioned or non-commissioned officers
of the Army,
representing about fifteen different jurisdictions. A lodge was opened
'in due and ancient form.'
For the 1917
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, a like reference is made
to the Texas
Proceedings, quoting Bro. Sampson's account in full. To which the
procedure may not be entirely without precedent. During his service in
Army, the writer hereof, though not then a Mason (but wanted to be as
soon as old
enough), heard that the Masonic Grand Lodge of North Carolina
authorized and recognized
Army Lodges. The Federals, however, kept the writer so constantly
on the move that he could not get the degrees during the war."
It was with the
greatest difficulty that a portrait of Maj. Evans was found
to illustrate this article. Through the courtesy of Bro. J. Orville
Bush we learned
that a portrait had been published in Rat Tat, a college magazine
published at St.
John's college, Annapolis, Md. Bro. Evans then Lieutenant, was
Professor of Military
Science and Tactics, and Lecturer on International and Constitutional
law. It was
found however that Rat Tat had long since been discontinued and the
that for 1898 was unprocurable. At last it was found that two ladies,
and Miss Mable Linthieum, had a copy of this volume of the magazine,
and very graciously
made it available for the purpose of reproducing the portrait, for
I desire to express my appreciation and gratitude.
Years A Leper
Bro. Leo Fischer, Philippine
article has been reprinted in various Masonic publications and THE
it of sufficient importance to be included in its pages. Its original
was in the Masonic journal, The Cabletow, Philippine Islands. If this
to the charitable instincts of any of our members we will be glad to
act as forwarding
agent for contributions.]
FAWCETT was born in New England among people to whom it comes natural
to go down
to the sea in ships, so he was still in his teens when he made his
before the mast. The broad surges of the open sea and the whistling of
a fresh breeze
through the rigging never lost their charm for him. For a time he
served in the
American navy, then he returned to his first love, the merchant marine.
he studied navigation and became more and more proficient in his chosen
until he finally obtained a master's license. In due course of time he
and, prompted by a desire to be useful to his fellowmen and occupy
higher things, he applied for and received the degrees of Freemasonry
Lodge, No. 4, of Manila, P. I. Early in 1918 he had reached the height
of his ambition:
he was in command of a deep-seagoing vessel, had a faithful, devoted
wife and promising
children, was a Master Mason in good standing, honored and respected
among the workmen
upon the Temple, and enjoyed the esteem and confidence of the rest of
Then the blow fell which shattered all his hopes of a quiet, happy old
at that robust health of which he was so proud, tearing him from the
arms of his
family and the company of his brothers and fellows, and making him a
conditions that person must see for himself in order to fathom their
horror he became
How he contracted
the dreadful disease neither he nor anybody else has ever been able to
He himself believes that a fly, lighting on an open wound on his face
or hand after
having settled on a leprous sore, carried the germ. He was forced to
leave his family
and was taken to the San Lazaro Hospital, in Manila, for observation
The symptoms of leprosy, the swelling of the ears and face and the
here and there on his body, marked him as a subject for exile to
Culion, that isola
dolente of the South China Sea to which society, intent upon its own
banishes those afflicted with the loathsome disease. After a few
months' stay on
the island he was, at his insistent request, and in view of the fact
that the progress
of the disease seemed to be checked, transferred back to the Leper Ward
of the San
Lazaro Hospital, in Manila. There, at least, he could have his wife
visit him and
felt not so much an outcast from the civilized world.
the vermin-infested old Spanish buildings of San Lazaro and the fare
abundant and wholesome, was not what he was used to, coupled with the
lack of privacy
and his enforced association with people who, though he had only kindly
for them, were not his own compatriots, made life burdensome even
there. To make
our Brother's sad fate more bearable, his Masonic Brethren purchased
for him a large
tent which was pitched under some acacia trees in the extensive
compound of the
hospital. A fund was raised to buy extras for his table; a small
ice-box was secured
and he was furnished with reading matter and other comforts. But tents
expensive and do not last long in the tropics. The burning rays of the
sun of the
14th degree of latitude and the typhoons for which the Philippine
Islands are noted,
played havoc with several tents in succession and the old mariner
back into the building, where a small corner, partitioned off with an
screen, was assigned to him, and there he is still confined now, not
he will be able to walk out of his prison, a free man once more.
looks like a medieval prison more than anything else. The light comes
a grated opening in the thick, massive wall. In the narrow,
screened-off space stand
two iron bedsteads, one being the captain's and the other that of
American leper, a mulatto. Mason, who has been a leper for a year or
two, must be
a godsend to the lonely old man. Cheerful, easy-going, neat and clean,
orderliness and efficiency of the ex-service man, we found him busy
extras for his and the captain's table when we made our last visit. On
alcohol stoves standing on a table, codfish cakes and bacon were
sizzling, and the
big man was working silently, with evident gusto, contributing an
or some casual remark in his soft speech to our conversation.
screen, among the beds of the Filipino lepers, another alcohol stove or
in operation. The scene reminded me of a gipsy camp.
sitting in his canvas easy chair, has generally some grievance or the
he bears his fate with wonderful resignation. The treatment which he
too trying and the injections according to the official standard would
the old man. The private physician who used to treat him with a
specific of his
own has given up the case, because of interference on the part of the
doctors, according to our Brother. Be that as it may, the disease shows
of giving way, though it is not making much headway, either.
On the grimy
walls of our Brother's prison hang pathetic reminders of the happy days
had a neat, snug cabin on a steamer or sailing vessel and had but to
to breathe the salt air and scan the wide expanse of tumbling waves,
him since his early youth. There is his ship's clock, near it hangs his
and suspended from a nail are his binoculars. His master's license,
and the model of a sail-boat, his own handiwork, vie with each other in
a poor attempt
to conceal the hideous we were going to say leprous walls. Day in and
day out, night
after night, when the terrible itching caused by the injections keeps
his eyes, our Brother beholds those prison walls and on them those
the days of his strength and glory.
whenever we visit him, which is none too often because those visits are
by no means
a pleasure, the old captain has a cheerful smile on his face and
on his lips and expresses his longing to sit once more with the
Brethren in his
In all probability,
Brother Fawcett will not leave the Leper Ward of San Lazaro for years
to come. What
he will do when he gets out is a problem that causes him considerable
lodge has, for a number of years, been paying a small allowance to his
our Brother is husbanding the small fund raised for him four or five
years ago through
the good offices of The Cabletow with jealous care, for her and his
His Service in the U.S. Navy does not entitle him to a pension and he
to fall back on but the hundred odd dollars left of that fund.
In the meantime
he bears his sad fate with a courage and resignation worthy of the best
of American manhood and trusts to the Great Architect of the Universe
and protect him.
of which we have spoken is under the joint custody of the Grand
Secretary and the
Managing Editor of The Cabletow. There have been no accretions to it
years except the interest. If any Brother feels like adding his mite to
gift will be gladly received and acknowledged and faithfully managed
for the benefit
of a Mason whose fate is one that we would not wish to our worst enemy.
Meekren, Editor in
E. Thiemeyer, Research Editor
year or so of Masonic life are to the members of our Fraternity very
much what the
years of childhood are to the adult. In them those conceptions and
received, those habits formed, which dominate later life. The young
Mason is in
a receptive state, he craves for explanation and instruction. If he
does not receive
it, he is apt to gain an unworthy, or at least an impoverished idea of
which generally prevents his ever making any real advance. Therefore,
of arousing the interest of the newly initiated brother is of paramount
What we have to do is to encourage the newly-made Mason to follow the
given to him, to "approach the East." Here of course is meant, not the
point of the compass, not the East of the lodge room, but the symbolic
source of light and knowledge. It is impossible for anyone to actually
destination; it is an ideal that recedes as we advance, but in receding
magnitude and significance. Though we can never reach the goal yet each
the effort to approach it, and to advance along the path. Some will go
others; some will fall by the way before they are well started; others
to the frontiers of recognized knowledge; and a few, very few, will
bounds of what has been accomplished and find themselves pioneering in
before touched by the labors of any predecessor. There are other
factors into which
the way of attainment can be analyzed, but they need not be considered
is aside from our purpose in the present discussion to indicate how to
progress after the start has been made, for example. It is the start
and the material
with which to begin that we are essentially interested now.
of the present situation does not seem to help us much in finding a
insofar as it gives the key to the weaknesses which must be eliminated.
in this country more than three millions of men who wear the square and
Of these three million possibly three per cent know any more about
was told them on the nights they received their degrees. Thus we are
a staggering problem. The overwhelming majority of American Masons know
than the bare ritualistic elements of Masonry and most of them only the
smattering of that. These Masons form the various categories of "button
Some of them attend lodge at irregular intervals, others on
elections are held, others whenever refreshments are served, and still
never come at all. It is necessary to see no farther, here is the great
to strengthen which must be the first object of any constructive work.
before us then, two evils, one existing in the present state of the
and one which threatens the future. Where is the best point at which to
efforts are made on those members who are at present uninterested
observers of the
workings of the Craft and we neglect those who are coming up the ladder
a constant supply of uninterested members is being created and our work
It might be stated with certainty that concentrating on the other horn
of the dilemma
leaves the already dying timber to the final ravages of dry rot and
decay. It is
for both the old and the young Mason that we have to work, but
latter is far more important for the future.
however, need a twofold treatment. The two classes cannot be reached by
same methods, although in the final analysis the same principles and
the same material
must be employed. The educational efforts of various Grand Lodges, the
of Study Clubs fostered by the N.M.R.S. are directed very largely
towards the greater
and senior class of Masons, and it is only by such means that they can
But the task is difficult. The subject of the effort has been initiated
several years previously, and the enthusiasm of the early period has
died out, and
must be revived. This phase of Study Club work will require the hardest
will prove the least fruitful. The other phase of Study Club work comes
the new initiate into the fold of thinking Masons. There is a
preliminary step to
this work and it is being worked with considerable success in many
cases. We refer
to the presenting of pamphlets, magazines, or books to the newly
as he climbs the three steps. The value of this lies chiefly in the
fact that it
shows the young Mason that there is more than a mere ritualistic
formula to the
Order, and while his enthusiasm is still at its highest, encourages him
a start in "approaching the East." He is ripe to fall in with the Study
Club idea and capitalize the knowledge he has acquired from the
that have been given him.
we have seen a possible remedy to a bad situation. We probably never
will see the
day when Masonry is composed of reading or at least thinking members,
even to the
extent of one in three, but a reasonable goal at this time would be one
and that might, and ought to be accomplished before very many years are
it is devoutly to be hoped for, it is doubtless beyond our wildest
dreams that each
of these 300,000 future readers on Masonic subjects will become
students in the
scholastic sense of the word. If we got only 3,000 research workers out
number we are increasing the present member by about 2,700, and that
might be judged
as beyond the wildest hope. It is not research students that Masonry
They will develop if this idea can be worked out. It is interested
are needed; men who are capable of intelligently performing the
of the lodge, men who when they take part in a ceremonial understand
speak, and do not merely repeat a meaningless formula memorized after
of a parrot, or ground out mechanically like a gramophone, with less
effect or conviction
than the bird of green and iridescent plumage says, "Polly wants a
is attractive and looks well on paper, but unfortunately there are
and stumbling blocks in the way. One, and the most important, because
it seems harder
to remedy than the others, is the dearth of reliable popular Masonic
is no scarcity of books, and even of popular works which the unstudious
for pure enjoyment, much as he would read one of the six best sellers,
unfortunately, just as much foundation in fact. It is a dearth of
that we are confronted with. There is much valuable information that is
but so written that it is of interest only to the more advanced
student. There are
no more than half a dozen ‒ a dozen at most ‒ of good, authoritative
books suitable for the beginner in Masonic reading. Doubtless every
field of knowledge
has been obscured with wild theories and the baseless fancies of
writers with more
imagination than knowledge, but none to the extent that Masonic
been. There are more hobby-riders, more constructors of systems on the
scraps of disparate facts, among so-called Masonic scholars than in any
of research. While of those who sincerely try to weigh all evidence and
every step taken are conspicuous by their rarity.
It is this
state of affairs that makes the task of educating Masons so difficult.
arise and corrections have to be made and the earnest seeker after
truth, who has
not sufficient time to read everything of importance that has been
written and weigh
it for himself, becomes disgusted and joins the army of uninterested
long as the type of scholarship remains what it is the task of
overcoming the lack
of interest in Masons is going to be difficult. It means hard work and
effort and the best possible use must be made of the material in hand.
two aims that must be fostered, first, to increase the interest of new
in those old initiates who can be reached, and second, to increase the
the quality of authentic yet popular works on Masonry. When these tasks
Masonry will rise to heights yet hardly dreamed of, and may possibly
begin to justify
some of the extravagant claims made for it by our panegyrical writers
* * *
IN the appropriate
circumstances it is sometimes asserted with great solemnity, and as it
that Freemasonry is not a debt collecting agency. It is a very just
presumably of very great importance. It therefore calls for some
must be presumed, considering the times and occasions when those high
in the councils
of the Craft utter this fundamental verity or truth, that it refers
only to debts
owing by and to Masons. In other words, no man should become a Mason
the Institution will straightway put pressure to bear on his debtor
whom he believes
to be already a Mason. That certainly would be very foolish, so foolish
we are inclined to ask if anyone ever sought to become a Mason for such
No, on mature
thought we feel sure that this cannot be the intended application, it
to debts contracted between Masons. But here again the hypercritical
"Can a Mason refuse to pay his just debts?" being able to pay,
of course. We presume a distinction must be made between Masons and
is between Masons and those who have somehow joined. Let us then
lends V some small sum of money at a high rate of interest, and, after
more in interest than he originally lent, wants the debt paid, which V,
distress cannot do. They are both Masons, or at least both belong, and
demands that charges be preferred. Well, "Masonry is not a debt
agency" as we have been informed, nevertheless (supposing that such a
situation were ever real) charges ought to be preferred ‒ against
Or take another
case; M sells C certain goods and because C is a brother Mason gives
perhaps without any of the customary safeguards that he would take in
strangers. Later he is pressed for money, but C neglects to take any
notice of his
requests for payment. Or let us suppose that L lets B have fifty or a
to help him in a tight pinch, such as may happen to anyone. Both are
L simply trusts B. and takes no note or other acknowledgment –
especially young and enthusiastic Masons, have been so-so, well,
us say. That is a fairly colorless word. B forgets all about it, buys a
or another car, and so is unable to pay; somehow always has some
reason, quite satisfactory
to himself, why he can't pay. If L asks the advice of any of his elders
in the Craft,
he will of course be told at once about the sacred doctrine, "Masonry
a debt collecting agency."
So it would
seem that L and M must act in the matter as if they were not Masons,
they must seek
legal remedies, bring the matter into court, with the public and the
The judge says, "Where is your proof of the transaction ‒ was it made
witnesses? Have you a written acknowledgment of any kind?" And the
in the negative he naturally may want to know why a grown man,
omitted such elementary precautions in a weary, wicked world. "Oh, he
brother Mason and I trusted him." Sounds nice in cold print. Yet a case
California was decided on precisely similar grounds, the judge holding
defendant had used this fraternal bond to further a fraud on the
plaintiff ‒ and
the newspapers of the country told us all about it.
not a debt collecting agency we repeat, and most emphatically. Neither
is it a shoe
manufacturing company, nor a chain store concern, nor a financial
statements are all sublimely and absolutely true, and they all have as
much to do
with the essentials of such cases as we have mentioned. We fear that
of Masonry today in the United States is to organize itself in such
fashion as to
make it impossible to carry out any of its professed ideals. Like the
of old, our leaders and rulers and legislators ‒ and ultimately the
always responsible for their governors ‒ by their "traditions of the
their rulings, their fundamentals and landmarks, have made Masonic
none effect ‒ or at least that is the direction in which our
organization is drifting.
once more, is not a debt collecting agency, but it is a brotherhood of
and upright men, or at least supposed so to be. Is a man who refuses to
debt an honest and upright man? Is the man who presses an unjust claim
and honest? Or suppose, as often happens in real life, the situations
are more complex
than the simple cases we have supposed and that the Ms and the Cs, and
the Ls and
Bs, all, as they usually do, honestly think they are in the right. The
of the whole world teaches us that money matters will breed quarrels
and ill feeling
quicker than anything else. Is not Masonry a Fraternity, a band of
friends and brothers
between whom no contention should exist ‒ what does it all mean? Is not
to be interested in such things? No, say our Scribes and Pharisees with
our traditions, our principles, our landmarks forbid ‒ Masonry is not a
agency. Two members of a lodge are at daggers drawn, one thinks the
pay his debt at once, he needs his money. The other understood he could
he was able, and it is very inconvenient to pay. Both are angry. But
the lodge must
not interfere, the Master mustn't say a word, he would infringe the
the elders, and disturb a sacred truth ‒ we will not repeat it. No, the
must go to the courts of law, and make their differences public, so the
say, as once it said (oh long ago!) of Christians: "These Masons, how
love one another."
It is very
strange ‒ Masonry still survives (unchanged we fondly believe) through
all the revolutions
of the ages ‒ yet a hundred years ago a Mason who sued another in a
before bringing his complaint before his lodge for the good offices,
or judgment of his brethren, was actually held to have committed a
and rendered himself liable thereby to the severest censure, even to
But Masonry does not change, its landmarks are fixed ‒ sometimes one
in the band wagon of progress ‒ its traditions (even if new) are of the
and we have their word for it, it is not a debt collecting agency. But
what is it?
* * *
WE have to
announce with the deepest regret the death of one of our Canadian
members, R. Ex.
Comp. Henry Thomas Smith, for many years Grand Scribe E of the Grand
Royal Arch Masons of Canada in Ontario. He was one of the best known
Masons in Canada,
possibly the best known. Not content with the faithful and efficient
his official duties, he was an indefatigable student of the early
history of Masonry
in the Dominion, and especially in the "Two Canadas," now known as
and Ontario. Several of his works have been reviewed in THE BUILDER
we understand that he was engaged at the time of his death upon a
history of a Toronto
He died suddenly
on May 29, aged 69 years. We extend our most heartfelt sympathy to his
daughter, and his other surviving relatives.
* * *
Canadian Lodge in Australia
a lodge in Montreal, the Lodge of Antiquity, No. 1, which originally
under a different
name opened the first regular lodge in Australia in 1814. This lodge
known as the Lodge of Social and Military Virtues, No. 227, R. I., and
March 4, 1752, in the 46th British Regiment, known now as the Duke of
A Review of Masonry the World
In the June number of Mercury,
the official organ
of the Societas Rosicruciana in America, there are two articles
concerned with the
Craft. The first, by Dr. Maitland A. T. Raynes, is entitled
of Freemasonry" and deals with the hypothesis which has attracted so
The article does not go much beyond quoting a number of writers for and
‒ including Gould, Albert Pike and Ossian Lang. Dr. Raynes, accepting
himself, suggests that the Craft was organized as a kind of "Outer
from which candidates could be picked for the true mysteries, and he
proportion of snobs, joiners and
politicians who followed his Grace of Montagu into the Craft [in 1723]
as great as ever ‒ till we are tempted to cry with the Prophet Ezekiel:
of Man, can these dry bones live?"
The second article attempts to
answer the question:
"Why the Holy Bible Is Freemasonry's Greatest Light." The answer,
is along "esoteric" lines. One passage may be quoted; having pointed
several things to the credit of the Fraternity, or its members, the
recent performances are less encouraging.
The promising T. B. movement flickered out, and when three million
tolerate the suppression and persecution of their brethren in some
Europe without even demonstrating in their behalf as the K. of C. did
Mexican co-religionists, then there is lack of centralization and in
of Masonic activity.
There is; the feat is obvious
to everyone. And
it is not wholly an unmixed evil that it is so. Everyone, both of
friends and enemies,
seems to expect Freemasonry to act, to do things, as an organization.
But this is
foreign to the genius of the Craft ‒ our work is individual. But even
so the force
of the criticism is not wholly evaded.
At the Annual Communication of
the Grand Lodge
of South Australia in April the Grand Master, the Hon. Mr. Justice John
was re-elected to office for the ensuing year. In his address he
referred to the
Third Australian Masonic Conference held July, 1928, at Sydney. The two
recommendations passed at this Conference were quoted by M. W. Bro.
first is in these terms:
That this conference reaffirms
it is not desirable that a lodge should become so large in numbers as
members from engaging in and enjoying fraternal fellowship with one
That this Conference is of the
that the membership of a lodge should not exceed 150.
The second resolution was:
That a Committee to be
each lodge to visit sick or afflicted members and to renew an interest
lodge in members absenting themselves from lodge meeting.
That the delivery of
the symbolic meaning of the several parts of each ceremony in each
degree be encouraged,
and that it be a recommendation to the Grand Lodges to institute
and arrange for the delivery of lectures.
In some ways conditions in
Australia more closely
resemble those in this country than they do in the British Isles, and
so these resolutions,
especially the first, are of great interest.
It seems from some further
remarks of the Grand
Master, that there are variations in one of the significant points of
degree as that is worked in different parts of Australia. It was
suggested at the
Conference apparently, and the Grand Master expressed his approval,
that the lodges
of South Australia should make changes to conform with the practice
the Commonwealth. We have no other information as to the exact nature
of the changes
proposed, but it should be remembered that the desire for uniformity is
not a wholly
safe guide. In general it is best to hold to local tradition and usage,
candidates carefully in the variations to be met with elsewhere. This
is done in
many lodges in Scotland, and possibly elsewhere, and is the best
solution of the
problem; for these variations all are valuable, both as proofs of our
and as suggesting different points of view in regard to our symbolism.
M. W. Bra. Torrigiani Going
The London Freemason of May 25
quotes a correspondent
of the Daily Chronicle, who, writing from Paris, makes the statement,
on the authority
of "an address by Mussolini" ‒ so that it must of course be true ‒ that
the exiled, or more correctly imprisoned, Grand Master, Domizio
been removed from the Island of Ponza and is now in a "nursing home"
hospital] near Parma, undergoing treatment for blindness.
Until we have better authority
than that so far
given, we have to doubt the granting of such a favor by the Fascist
the official organ of the Grand Lodge of Switzerland, had in its issue
15 a brief note to the effect that Torrigiani was going blind; that he
political prisoners had been removed from the Island of Ustica to the
still more barren Island of Ponza, and that in spite of his suffering
from a very
severe inflammation of the eyes (which makes any attempt to escape
is guarded constantly by half a dozen Carabinieri, and that while he
was being removed
from Ustica to Ponza, the steamer was convoyed by two submarines for
fear of some
attempt to liberate him by sea. It is to be said, however, that several
journals in different parts of Europe accept this report of the
in spite of the unreliability of its source. It is further stated by
some of them
that it is a prison hospital in which Bro. Torrigiani is being treated;
the story sound less improbable. We may hope to learn more definitely
even if without much expectation of obtaining the real facts under
The International Masonic
The Proceedings of the meeting
of the Consultative
Committee of the A.M.I. (as it is most generally known), which we held
last February, have recently come to hand. The Association in recent
years has met
with grave difficulties financially, which hinders among other things
program. For one thing it has not been able to pay the very modest
to the Grand Chancellor, who is the equivalent in many of his functions
to a Grand
Secretary. Bro. Gottschalk, who held the position temporarily after the
Bro. Quartier le Tente, has renounced his claims in this respect, for
action he was fraternally thanked by the Committee.
Some criticisms had been
received in regard to
the last edition of the Association's Year Book (reviewed in THE
BUILDER last October)
in that it gave information about certain irregular organizations. It
in reply that the purpose of the Year Book is to supply information and
chief value lay in its completeness. Inclusion in the Annual implied
to regularity or recognition. As the Chancellor said:
we limit ourselves to the list
of Obediences that are unanimously recognized, we will not only be
of judging, but we will be trenching upon questions of regularity an
which are entirely beyond our competence.
Another very interesting
question was raised;
that of the minimum requirements in Masonic ritual. The able and
published by the Association some time ago on Jurisdiction and
hope that useful work could be done in this direction too ‒ though one
how it could be published.
Death of the Grand Master of
the Grand Orient
of the Netherlands
Masonry in the Netherlands has
suffered a very
great loss in the death of Prof. J. H. Carpentier Alting on April 29 of
He was born in 1864 at Colmschate. He was a graduate of the University
and as a young man went out to Padang in the Dutch East Indies, in the
where he became Secretary of the Department of Justice and finally
the Supreme Court. He was made a Mason in the lodge Mata Hari at
home he was appointed to the chair of Administrative Law in the famous
of Leiden, in 1907. In 1919 he went back to the East Indies returning
again in 1921.
While in the East he was editor of the Indisch Masonnick Tydschrift,
and later of
Broedereten, and was also Deputy Grand Master for the Dutch East
Indies. He was
elected Grand Master in 1926, which office he held till his death.
It is impossible in this brief
notice to say
anything of Bro. Carpentier Alting's services to the Craft and to
it is safe to say that not only was he one of the most outstanding men
‒ and Masons
‒ in the Netherlands, but also in Europe.
The International Conference of
Councils of the A.& A.S.R.
The July number of the "New
a report of the Conference of the representatives of the Supreme
Councils of the
Scottish Rite throughout the world. The Conference met in Paris, and
were held in the Masonic Temple, rue Puteaux 8, which is also the
the Grand Lodge of France. The meetings continued from Monday, April
29, till the
following Saturday. They were of course many social functions,
including a reception
and banquet at the Palais d'Orsay. One important question discussed was
revival of the Supreme Councils which have been suppressed or become
was decided that the Supreme Councils of the same continent should
do what seemed best in this regard. Bro. Bareia, the Sovereign Grand
Spain, spoke of the difficulties of the Craft in that country, under an
dictator and in face of the constant and powerful hostility of the
The Supreme Councils
represented were the Southern
and Northern Jurisdictions of the United States, France, Spain,
Peru, Portugal, Uruguay, Argentine, Cuba, Mexico, Venezuela, Chile,
Canada, Egypt, Turkey, Ecuador, Yugoslavia, the Netherlands, Poland,
Romania and Austria. Both Sovereign Grand Commanders of the United
States were present,
Bros. John Cowles and Leon M. Abbott. There are thirty-four recognized
at present at work throughout the world, and of these twenty-six were
The Scottish Rite has had, and
has, many more
or less active opponents, and it has been the subject of much criticism
over. But this much must be said for it at least; it is the most active
agency connected with the Craft that is making for a realization of the
St. John's Day Meeting of
Quatuor Coronati Lodge
Readers of THE BUILDER will be
in this meeting of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, as a paper by our Research
E.E. Thiemeyer, was read by the Secretary, Bro. Lionel Vibert, seeing
Thiemeyer (to his great regret be it said) was not able to be present
to read it
himself. The paper dealt with the origins of the first Grand Lodge in
a subject about which, one might excusably think, everything possible
been said, not once but many times. However, there was something new in
Bro. Thiemeyer advanced evidence to show that the original organization
a "General Lodge," and was probably regarded by the brethren who formed
it as the same thing as the "General Assembly" which according to the
Old Charges was the legislative organ and final court of appeal for the
1721 the presiding officer had come to be called Grand Master, though
the term General
Master was also used as an equivalent.
The election of a great
nobleman, the Duke of
Montagu, who shortly after was made Grand Master of the Order of the
the term Grand Master seem more appropriate, and as a consequence the
in London came also to be called a Grand Lodge by a natural conveyance
although this did not become a fixed usage till some years later. The
well received and was the subject of considerable discussion.
The Eastern Star in Scotland
As has been intimated at
different times in THE
BUILDER, the Order of the Eastern Star as constituted in the United
States has fallen
foul of the laws of the Grand Lodges of the British Isles, and quite
of the Empire also. The following report was submitted to the Grand
a meeting held on April 18 of this year:
The Special Committee appointed
to enquire into
the position of the Order of the Eastern Star, whose first Report was
the Grand Lodge on the 4th of November, 1926, have further to report
that they are
satisfied that the Constitution and Ritual of the Order have been
as now in use in Scotland, these contain nothing associating or
claiming to associate
or connect the Order with Freemasonry. The Committee are therefore of
any further action is unnecessary and request that they be discharged.
The Report was approved and the
for their services.
The earlier Report referred to
as having been
adopted by the Grand Lodge in 1926 was rather lengthy. It contained
to illustrate and establish the Masonic connection of the Eastern Star;
action taken against it by the Grand Lodges of England and Ireland; and
in consideration of the fact that the Order had been introduced into
than twenty years previously, and that no action had hitherto taken in
it, that a certain time be allowed for its Constitution to be altered
in such a
way as to eliminate all reference to Freemasonry. This sensible plan
by the Grand Lodge, and the recent report of the committee is the final
of the question.
Secret Societies in Ireland
Anyone who knows anything of
the history of Ireland
is fully aware that secret societies have flourished there like weeds
in a rich
but neglected soil. We noted in passing last month, that there seemed
to be some
indications of an incipient anti-Masonic movement under way in the
Irish Free State.
The government organ, we are informed, has recently published an
with equal impartiality, the Masonic Fraternity and a new organization
apparently an imitation of the Knights of Columbus ‒ named, after a
saint, the Knights of Columbanus.
The article asserts that
Freemasonry is a corrupt
organization, existing for the promotion of graft ‒ that it enables
to obtain positions and privileges for which they are not entitled by
or education. It also says that they are "all known and watched." Then
attacking the Knights of Columbanus it asserts that, like Freemasonry,
is graft, and the putting its members in a preferential position in
regard to promotion
in professional and other occupations.
It seems that this new society
unknown until this article appeared, and the disclosure has apparently
of a sensation. It is understood that the matter will be considered by
Catholic Bishops at their next Synod. However, the general objection
that the Roman
Church has to secret societies has never prevented the Irish from
One thing must be added.
Whatever this article
may portend, there has hitherto been no open exhibition of hostility
either on the part of the government of the Irish Free State or of the
It is possible, therefore, that the article merely represents the views
of the author,
or else that he castigated the Masons merely in order to be able to
strike at the
From another source we learn
that a Roman Catholic
magazine is publishing the names of all Freemasons in Dublin, as if
were an offense. And in response R. W. Bro. Colonel Claude Cane, Deputy
of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Ireland, has written
to the press
to say that 60 per cent of the Irish Freemasons at the time of the
passing of the
Catholic Emancipation Bill were Roman Catholics, and he based this
the records and registers which have been carefully and accurately kept
by the Grand
Lodge of Ireland for nearly two centuries, and not upon vague
have never been, as the Roman Catholic clerical papers are so fond of
of religious liberty. On the contrary, they have always done their best
it. It is apparently forgotten that, during the whole of the time in
which he was
agitating for Catholic emancipation, Daniel O'Connell was an
and frequently wrote and spoke in favor of the Order.
Some Facts About English Masonry
It has been an unwritten law of
that the Grand Lodge of England always meet in London. This precedent,
was recently broken when a meeting was held in Liverpool and it has now
that at least one Quarterly Communication a year will be held out of
While there is no law to the
contrary, it has
been customary for the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England to be
of the nobility. The last commoner to hold that high office was George
According to Sir Alfred Robbins
the average size
of an English Lodge is 86, but the average of attendance is much higher
either the United States or Canada. Sir Alfred Robbins, by the way, has
been appointed for the twelfth consecutive term as President of the
Board of General
Purposes of the United Grand Lodge, an unusual distinction and the
in the history of that Grand Body.
Not only is it customary in
England for a Mason
to be a member of a number of lodges but he may also be the Master of
one lodge at the same time. Charles E. Keyser who recently succeeded
Halsey as Provincial Grand Master of Hertfordshire, has been Master of
The latest Scottish Rite News
Bureau report advises
that the Bro. Charles Edward Keyser mentioned in the above paragraph
at his home, Aldermaston Court, near Reading, Berkshire. He was 82
years of age
and had nearly 20,000 votes in the three great Masonic institutions,
large sums to their upkeep and was known as "the Prince of Masonic
That he well deserved this title was shown upon more than one occasion.
in 1927 when the sum realized at the Annual Festival of the Royal
Institute fell about $40,000 below the sum needed, he very generously
a check for $50,000 to the treasurer of the institution to meet the
Bro. Keyser was a member of thirty-six lodges.
Plural Membership in Wisconsin
The Grand Lodge of Wisconsin
now permits "plural
membership." This simply means that a Mason in Wisconsin can belong to
Masonic lodges as he wishes and his financial resources permit. In case
of a Wisconsin
Mason's residence in another Grand Jurisdiction, provided such other
permits dual or plural membership, he may affiliate with any lodge of
of his residence. With the provision reversed a Mason from another
but residing in Wisconsin, may affiliate in Wisconsin. In neither case
affiliate lose his membership in his "home lodge." The Masonic status
of the individual holding dual or plural membership is, of course,
governed by his
status in his "home lodge."
A total of about sixteen
Masonic Grand jurisdictions
in this country and abroad now permit either dual or plural membership.
those who have once adopted the system have abandoned it. This is
pretty fair evidence
that the system works satisfactorily.
Evidently the idea of Study
Circles is spreading
beyond the realm of American Masonry. In a recent issue of the South
Freemason appeared an article on Study Circles. It may be of interest
in America to know that the idea has been in operation in Australia for
Glen Osmond Lodge has had a
Study Circle in connection
with its lodge for over six months. There are several study circles in
throughout South Australia, one at Moorook on the River Murray having
been in operation
For years W. M's and officers
of lodges have
been ever conscious of the falling away in attendance of their members,
lack of personal interest in their lodge's welfare, and it may fairly
assumed that this apparent absence of interest is due very largely to
the lack of
individual thought, from which brethren suffer, and that they need some
from ordinary lodge meetings and the cursory study of the Ritual to
help them along
the paths of thought the better to grasp the treasured teachings which
to be found for their seeking, and to make a daily advancement in
The South African Masonic
Journal carries this
"At the meeting of the Cape
Circle held in the Refractory of the British Lodge, Capetown, on
6, Wor. Bro. W. B. Know delivered a lecture on "Irish Freemasonry, Past
South Africa and South
Australia have joined
the ranks of those interested in the Study Circle plan. It leads us to
many other countries follow this idea. We know the research lodges in
course, but are there similar organizations in existence elsewhere?
Something New In Masonic Service
The New South Wales Freemason
reports that advice
has been received by the Secretary of the Big Brother Movement that all
Chapters in Scotland have been circularized by the Grand Scribe E,
that on their sons' arrival in New South Wales a Scottish Royal Arch
be allotted to them as a Big Brother.
Lectures have been delivered in
and the Grand Superintendent, Lord Cassillis, occupied the Chair on one
Our Scottish Companions gratefully acknowledge the interest and
given to their sons.
The Secretary of the Big
Brother Movement is
Ex. Companion F. J. G. Fleming. His address is corner George and Argyle
Sydney, and he states that he will be pleased to hear from any
Companions who are
willing to act as Big Brothers to one of these boys. There is no
on the part of the Big Brother nor is he responsible for finding a
Reconstitution of the Lodge
“Goethe" in Paris
This lodge, working in the
German language, was
formed in 1909, under the Grand Lodge of France. Naturally its members
of German nationality or of German origin, and for this reason it
on the outbreak of the war. It is another sign of the lessening of war
and hostility that it has again been revived. Many of the members are
The Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Spain was present, two
D.D.G.M's of the
Grand Lodge of Yugo Slovakia the Grand Lodge of Vienna was represented,
as several lodges in different countries. The jewels were gifts; a
Fels am Rhein, gave the Master's gavel, and the Bible for the altar was
by Bro. Muffelmann of Berlin.
Teachings and Modern
BRO. HERBERT HUNGERFORD
Help to Make
These Pages a Real Forum for Discussion
interested in any phase of Masonic Education, especially those who
believe in fostering
the Masonic Study Club movement, are invited to send criticism,
comments and, particularly,
practical suggestions for furthering this movement. Those who are
willing to help
organize Round Table Discussion Groups or other Masonic Study Clubs in
or their districts are invited to send for Membership Blanks, etc.,
which will be
supplied free of cost.
General Campaign Manager,
The Masonic Study Club Campaign
BEAR in mind
the warning given with the first announcement of our Seven Keypoint
Programs arranged for Round Table Discussion Groups in which we
emphasized the fact
that we were simply offering tentative suggestions which might be
modified any way
through the experience or advice offered by well-informed brethren.
Thus far, but
few suggestions have been received but one of them seems to be quite
suggestive of immediate action. Bro. Ernst W. Gruss, of Houston, Texas,
in a very
able and illuminating letter advises a change in the arrangement and
names of the
Masonic Symbolism Applied.
Ancient Landmarks and Teachings
History of Masonry.
Home County, City, and Town
exception of item e, the student can get his history by just reading a
on the subject. By "History" I suppose you mean the past of the
as we now have it and those organizations we claim to be the
forerunners of our
Now, I hold
a somewhat different idea of the history of Masonry. Briefly it amounts
Since the hour or day when man felt the desire to improve himself both
intellectually, spiritually, and physically, he was engaged in Masonic
Masonry, according to my opinion, is synonymous with Civilization. On
all those beings who have done aught for the betterment of mankind have
regardless of whether not they were members of any organization. And
lose ancient organizations, whose object of their labors was the
betterment of mankind,
were Builders in the truest sense of the word, hence masons, though not
I do not accept the old trade guilds as the forerunners of Masonry.
Just think that
I should consider organizations of beer-guzzlers, rum fiends, and
gluttons my Masonic
ancestors, men who destroyed, but did not build the human mind, when I
the leadership of all those great master minds who sought to improve
the beginning of human improvement. I consider it puerile to emphasize
far-fetched theory that the trade guilds were our Masonic ancestors. To
me it shows
that our Masonic Students are themselves not clear just what Masonry
My Masonry is a direct descendant of those ancient leaders who, tens of
of years ago, sought to raise their fellowmen to higher level of life.
Nor do we
have to borrow the symbols of the bricklayers and stonemasons for our
own use. The
fundamental symbols of Masonry are ages-old and date back to the time
when man first
began to think. This is incontrovertibly proven by the findings of
and anthropologists. No, the equilateral triangle, the square, the
circle, the cross,
the apron, the East, the West, the South, and others were established
tens of thousands
of years before guilds of bricklayers and stonemasons were thought of.
to me that the points raised in this letter are well taken and, mainly,
of our emulation. While I do not altogether agree with the viewpoint
Bro. Gruss, I can fully appreciate his point that it will be far more
to the newly-made Mason if we start with lessons more definitely
points that we have tried to impress in the ceremonials of our
I am quite
willing, in fact, to concede that Masonic history should be made the
than the first, of our introductory round table discussions.
I am inclined,
however, to believe that our first course of study in discussion
chiefly newly-made masons, should be on "The Fundamental Teachings of
which have brought about this conclusion on my part have been not only
observation of the activity of Study Club Groups but, particularly, the
or response to my series of articles on "Our Ancient Fraternity and
Day Problems" which have been running during the past year in the
THE BUILDER. It seems to me that the considerable interest manifested
by our brethren
everywhere in this series of critical articles indicates that there is
value in tying-up or comparing the problems of modern life with the
our ancient Fraternity.
to me, likewise, that this particular plan of beginning Masonic Study
with a brief course on "Masonic Teachings and Modern Problems" is right
along the line and fully in harmony with the plan of our ritual.
It is presumed
that every candidate applies for admission to a lodge because he hopes
learn how to improve himself in Freemasonry. In other words, it seems
to me that
it is a natural and justifiable expectation of every newly-made Mason
that he will
find in the Fraternity practical assistance in solving his personal or
If the objective of Fraternity is not precisely this, I confess that I
to understand what it is.
It is absurd
for anyone to assume that the sole objective of Fraternity is
its members, yet, I doubt if anyone will deny that this is one of its
This being the case, it seems a common sense proposition that each
Study Club group
for newly-made brethren should first be concerned with discussing the
and practices of fraternity which ought to help every member of any
lodge to live
more happily, and a more serviceable and, therefore, a more successful
Challenge To Inside Critics
in accepting or rejecting this challenge should determine whether you
are a sincere,
constructive critic of your Fraternity, or merely an ordinary
fault-finder. My claim
to the privilege of presenting the challenge is derived from the fact
that my recent
series of articles in THE BUILDER, on "Our Ancient Fraternity and
Problems," brought me considerable commendation as well as some rebukes
being, as one writer puts it, "a bold and plain-spoken critic of our
and honorable institution."
I make no
denial of the fact that I have endeavored to criticize our Fraternity
but I do insist that I have always been, likewise, a friendly critic.
have pointed out what I considered an unwise or unwholesome tendency,
or a serious
shortcoming in the programs and activities of present-day Masonry, I
invariably to suggest changes or recommend remedies, which, I believe,
the conditions of which I have complained.
most vigorously to any implication that every critic of our Fraternity
must be regarded
as a "calamity howler." The Fraternity certainly is a human institution
and the weakness and frailty of all mortal beings is a clearly
of our ritual. So, the ostrich-minded objectors to any criticism of our
do not disturb me in the least.
On the other
hand, it is a matter of serious concern when we find so many members
who do not
hesitate to criticize the Craft, but appear to be unwilling or at least
either in putting forth any effort of their own or participating in a
program for changing and improving the conditions which are the cause
of their complaints.
I issue, therefore, is that every critic who sincerely believes that
some of the
activities we emphasize in our lodge programs today are not the best
and most desirable
features to be put foremost; also that some of the tendencies and
trends of modern
Masonry do not seem to be in the right direction, is not acting in
accord with the
true Masonic spirit when he merely gives voice to his objections, yet
fails to do
his part to bring about the changes necessary to correct the conditions
believes should be modified.
to my observation in our lodges today, we have too many fault-finders
and too few
constructive critics. In nearly every lodge you will find members who
more or less as "pests" because they are always raising objections,
fault and scolding about this, that or the other activity of the lodge;
fault-finders seldom can be induced to assume the leadership of any
even take part in any program that is designed to correct the
conditions which they
I admit that
this is a perfectly natural human trait, nevertheless, it is not in
the high ideals of Freemasonry. A person who professes to be a good man
and a Mason
should always be willing to back up his words with his deeds.
In my own
criticisms of modern Masonic activities and tendencies, I have pointed
out why I
believe that the average lodge today has made a mistake by shifting too
upon the purely social and entertaining features of its program with a
decrease in the emphasis upon the educational features of Freemasonry.
of this shifting of our emphasis, it is my contention that the present
are away from the ancient fundamental ideals of the Fraternity and that
is in danger of a decline because it is failing to impress upon every
brother the true teachings of the Institution. This is due mainly to
the fact that
the distracting social, commercial and recreational activities of
have so influenced Masonic programs that we push our candidates through
mills" so rapidly that we fail fully to impress upon their minds the
educational and moral lessons upon which our great Fraternity has been
In my series
of articles criticizing these modern Masonic tendencies, I believe that
ample evidence to justify every criticism. I have since received
from brethren from all parts of the country whose observations and
bore out my contentions.
I maintain that I have not rested content with merely pointing out some
of the faults
and mistaken efforts in modern Masonry, but I have sincerely endeavored
a constructive program that will provide the things that I believe are
supply these shortcomings to which I have called attention. In other
words, I regard
the activities to supplement every lodge program with some sort of
study as being, by all means, the best possible way to remedy the
about by the overemphasis upon speed with its consequent superficiality.
I was gratified
by the numerous letters of comment which my series of critical articles
but I confess that I have been somewhat disappointed at the response to
for cooperation in helping to devise and develop popular programs for
of the Masonic Study Club campaign and the introduction of some form of
education into every lodge possible.
If you agree
with the writer's contention that some of the activities of modern
gotten off the main track, you certainly owe it to yourself, as well as
brethren, to do your part in helping to switch your lodge programs back
to the right
reviewed in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of
at the prices given, which always include postage. These prices are
a matter of precaution) to change without notice; though occasion for
very seldom arise. Occasionally it may happen, where books are
that there is no supply available, but some indication of this will be
the review. The Book Department is equipped to procure any books in
print on any
subject, and will make inquiries for second-hand works and books out of
The Star Points
John Kennedy Lacock. Published by the Sampson Publications, Inc.,
Boston Stiff paper,
illustrated, 68 pages.
is based on a series of articles that originally appeared in the
Eastern Star Magazine.
These found such a wide appeal among members of the Order that the
supply fell short
of the demand, and it was therefore decided to reprint them, with some
and the addition of new material.
has done his best with somewhat intractable material. While Jephtha’s
vow and its
result are perfectly understandable in the light of primitive ideas and
and indeed similar stories can be found in folk tales all over the
world, yet it
is hard to draw any consistent moral from it suited to our own level of
One would say, if it teaches anything, it teaches the folly of making
knowing what they imply, with the corollary that there are times when
be broken. Actually, we should understand the story that Jephtha left
of the gift to God, to God as he and his people conceived him, and
them, that God desired the sacrifice of the maiden. In this light the
story is noble
and heroic, so far as the human characters are concerned.
with the difficulties of adapting this terrible story (which is as
it is realized, as that of Iphigenia), the beautiful tale of Ruth is a
While some of the motives are obscure without some knowledge of
oriental ideas regarding
marriage, and the completeness with which a woman ceases to belong to
her own family
and becomes part of her husband's, yet it is so human and natural that
is universal. To talk about it, to describe it, is to spoil it ‒ such
is its delicacy.
And whatever it may be in the original, the translation of the King
is a masterpiece of simplicity and directness of style.
In the veracious
history of Esther, which is a novel or romance of the third or second
we again have moral difficulties. It is a story, in very heightened
colors and little
regard for probability, of oriental court intrigue and harem polities.
a lot of skill to adapt it so as to make it fit into a scheme of
virtues, and Bro. Lacock has done everything that is possible with it.
and Electa, the ideal figure of an early Christian lady, the task is
there is nothing that needs explanation or explaining away.
should be of real assistance to those engaged in active work in Eastern
and we trust it will have the distribution it deserves.
* * *
Charlatan, Rogue, Mystic and Mesmerist
[Lib 1781 (German
By Johannes von Guenther; translated
by Huntley Paterson [Lib*]. Cloth and boards, 12mo., 445 pages;
Truly a name to conjure with. Even to this day ‒ as witnessed by the
books still being written ‒ his name arouses attention and interest.
And thus it
is that the house of Harper and Brothers of New York and London have
Johannes von Guenther's Cagliostro ‒ Charlatan, Rogue, Mystic and
Mesmerist a worthy
addition to their series of romantic biographies.
hundred and more pages of this readable book held my attention and
one wild and stormy Sunday not long ago. Bending trees and wind-swept
the flooded banks of the Missouri stood out in sheer relief against
in which blinding flashes of lightning and the long roll and rumbling
artillery added to the ominous spell of the book at hand. Perhaps the
of the elements added to my appreciation of this interest compelling
that as it may, the work will also interest others, and especially
brethren of the
Craft, for throughout the entire book the Masonic Fraternity of
Continental Europe is brought into the rapidly changing settings of
St. Petersburg, Strassburg, Paris, Boulogne, Sur Mer and Rome.
Let the American
or English Mason be warned, however, that he will not come upon the
with any feelings of friendliness. It is instantly apparent that the
author is not
a Freemason, and it is also very evident that he has drawn upon the
and the fictions of the eighteenth century for his so-called Masonic
His text recalls the anti-Masonic literature of the 1780's and the
1790's ‒ notably
Robison's Proof of a Conspiracy Against the Governments of Europe [Lib 1802 related], first published in 1797 and
in many editions and in several languages. He has also availed himself
of the German
and French literature treating of the Illuminati. The first flush of
coming upon one when reading of the utterly absurd and totally
about the Freemasons soon gives way to calmer feeling of mild
amusement; one wonders
how anyone could have believed such preposterous things. Still, when
the vast amount of literature that has been written about Cagliostro in
French, German, Dutch and English, and realizing that this impudent
the people of his time much to talk about, we continue our perusal of
the book in
a more appreciative frame of mind.
In the author's
belief, it should be said that he is aware of the criticisms of the
Craft. In an
epilogue to the book, he says:
"Friends have called the
to the fact that the Freemasons of the present day may feel that they
assailed in this book, and may assume that the narrative contains
attacks upon their
Order. But nothing of the kind was intended; for, in the first place,
knows much too little of modern Freemasonry to be in a position to
either favorably or unfavorably. And, secondly, he does not believe
Freemasonry can possibly feel that it is affected by the foolish
blunders of the
past, particularly as these blunders are more or less proved
historically. For the
much glorified eighteenth century, the 'gallant Age,' the 'era of
was also a period in which much nonsense flourished, and in which every
tomfoolery immediately found enthusiastic admirers."
written defense ‒ for it is clever, ironical and even satirical ‒ is in
of the treatment accorded to Freemasonry in the book. Only the capable
and vigorous style of the author, blended with the spirited action of
the work as
a whole, compels the reader onward in spite of his protests, and
carries him to
the conclusion of the volume with the feeling that the time spent in
has been worthwhile. It gives him a better understanding of the
even to this day against Freemasonry in Europe, and reminds him again
that the bitter
clerical opposition of the eighteenth century is equally as vindictive
in the twentieth.
the Masonic references, the book presents a cross section of eighteenth
European life which can only be brought out in the form of historical
As the author frankly states, the volume "is a romance based on a free
of the historical material [and] was not intended as anything more than
artistically to depict the portrait of Cagliostro in accordance with
of his Age and of his environment." The tale is slightly erotic in
not in a manner to be offensive; the dashes of passion are in full
the situations, revealing the masterly craft of the author.
Unfortunately, no facts
are before me as to the author. The vigor, flavor and style of the
very evidently has been skillfully preserved in the translation; even
are European in their treatment and subtly add to the enchantment of
It may not
be amiss to add that Masonic students will find a more acceptable
account of Cagliostro
in W. R. H. Trowbridge's Cagliostro: The Splendour and Misery of a
Master of Magic,
a work now out of print, but available through Masonic libraries. In
with this should be read Bro. B. Ivanoff's excellent article,
Eastern Europe (Courland, Russia and Poland)," which appeared in Ars
Coronatorum, Vol. XL (1927), pages 45-80 [Lib 1927]. It touches upon the alleged
of Balsamo and Cagliostro as one and the same individual, as well as
Masonic visits. The volume under review does not differentiate between
the two characters.
* * *
The Freedom Of
Alec Wilson. Published by the League of Nations Union, London. Paper,
little doubt that one of the greatest obstacles to the furtherance of
projects is that question which is compendiously, but most ambiguously
the Freedom of the Seas. As things stand today the problem lies mainly
two great English speaking political entities, neither of which is
English in any
but the loosest sense. Could a way out of the virtual impasse be found
of peace would be greatly advanced. The difficulty is that there has
been too much
heat and too little light in the discussion of the problem hitherto.
And this is
true not only of ordinary people, and the newspapers which provide
their opinions, if not the opinions as well, but also to a very great
extent by statesmen too.
under review briefly and clearly traces the history of the problem, and
so demonstrates the curious and significant feature that the problem
changed during the course of the development of our modern
civilization. The earliest
claims were for freedom for ships to sail on the seas on their "lawful
on the one hand, and on the other, that certain seas were closed, the
of the states making the claim, and that all intruders were trespassers
England from very early times claimed sovereignty over the "Narrow
the English Channel, and the adjacent waters. Spain, Portugal and the
each made claims of exclusive rights in the Western Atlantic, the
Pacific and the
Indian Ocean. There has been no consistency in these claims, they were
on self-interest, or what seemed to be to the advantage of the states
at the moment, and every maritime nation has been as quick as a weather
change from one attitude to the opposite under changed conditions.
of the freedom of the sea in time of peace settled itself by changed
and force of circumstances. It was not due to any abstract sense of
to the feet that the game was not worth the candle. Indeed it became
impossible, as impossible as for a land owner to claim exclusive right
in the atmosphere
above his land. It is Mr. Wilson's contention that circumstances are
now such that
the freedom of the seas in time of war has come to mean something
from what it did, and that to discuss it upon the old lines is worse
Two of the
many changes that vitally affect the question are the conquest of the
air and the
feet that modern war means the active belligerency of every member of
from the soldier in the field to the children "cultivating potatoes in
gardens." Every article of commerce is contraband of necessity, for
may directly or indirectly assist a country in prosecuting a war.
that the author sees emerging is a simple and comprehensive one. It is
but it has not been accepted hitherto because of the difficulty in
effects of changed conditions. Once the possibility of war between the
and the British Empire is ruled out, no real obstacle remains between
interests are alike. The latter says: if we could agree that neither
each other's sea borne commerce in war time nor permit others to do so
remove the one thing that England, the heart and nerve center of the
to fear. And this in effect is precisely what the United States has
under the phrase the "freedom of the seas."
quotes Prof. Gerould of Princeton:
If we attempt
to maintain our rights in a "public" war [i.e., a war waged by members
of the League of Nations against one that has broken the Covenant] we
break the blockade laid down by the League, in which ease we become the
the Power which has broken its agreement … or we shall be forced to
cause with the League. The dilemma is inescapable.
And he thinks
that the logic of events is forcing every nation closer and closer to
of President Wilson.
Freedom of Navigation upon the Seas outside territorial waters, alike
in Peace and
War, except as the Seas may be closed in whole or in part by
for the enforcement of international covenants.
such conclusion as this the logic of events is leading the world. The
that characterizes humanity in the mass may make the process of
realizing it slow
and painful ‒ but the logic of events always wins in the long run.
* * *
Witchcraft in Old
and New England
George Lyman Kittredge. Published by the Harvard University Press.
of contents, notes, index, x and 641 pages. Price $6.25.
and the working of magic, is a subject almost as extensive as all
allusions, descriptions, are to be found in almost every kind of book
to theology. In the present volume the notes alone take over two
and they consist almost entirely of references. And even so, it is not
to be supposed
that they are exhaustive, even for the limited subject of English
so much of this material is merely repetition of the same kind of thing
is by no means necessary to go through it all in order to get a just
idea of the
subject. It is possible to reach conclusions and make judgments even if
the extensive acquaintance with obscure and rare works that is
exhibited by the
author of this latest work on witchcraft.
and the two last chapters of the book are really independent articles,
published, as is explained in the preface. Nevertheless the reader gets
that they actually contain the motif about which the rest of the book
‒ or motifs would be more accurate. And regarded in this light the work
is to be
warmly welcomed for it corrects a series of errors and misapprehensions
almost to superstitions, which are held by practically everyone,
excepting a very
few specially well informed students. The chief of these erroneous
opinions is that
witchcraft was a baseless illusion founded on a corrupt, or at least
religious outlook, coupled with an insane desire to persecute and shed
magic and witchcraft, in the widest sense, are universal, a primitive
the human race, has long been known to anthropologists and students of
religion and folklore. But until recent years there was not much
to mediaeval and modern witchcraft in Europe, with the result that many
still remained current; and with this a general lack of any real
brings this out very clearly in the first chapter, entitled a "Typical
No one can read it without seeing that there was much to be said on the
Granted that the whole thing was a baseless superstition ‒ in the
proper sense of
that word, a "standing-over," a survival, from the most primitive
of the childhood of the race ‒ yet the "persecution" was inevitable. As
the author says, if not guilty in fact, the witches were generally
guilty in intention.
And there is no doubt that with the working of magic went, often
enough, other more
material and practical methods of working injury, especially the use of
In this typical
ease Prof. Kittredge had before him the original depositions of the
complainants against a certain Michael Trevisard, by his name a
Cornishman and a
"foreigner" in Devonshire, where the offenses occurred, Alice his wife,
and his son Peter. This took place in 1601 and 1602, in the reign of
The witnesses had all suffered grievous misfortunes of one kind and
loss of goods and health; all following upon curses or maledictions
from one or
other of the defendants, particularly the woman. There can be no doubt
witnesses and the community believed these misfortunes to be due to
or maleficia, and it is very likely that the Trevisards believed it
too; and at
least that they had sought advantage from the fear which they were held.
in England was an offense against the criminal law and was proceeded
the secular courts like any other felony, robbery or murder for
example. The evidence
is generally of the same kind. The complaint in most cases follows some
death or disease usually. And in the trials evidence is given of
on the part of the accused to work evil against those afflicted, with
evidence of the performance of magical rites. In general, the evidence
of the injury
suffered by the victim, which was real enough, and the announced, or
intention of the witch, was taken as proof of guilt. And granted a
that evil could be worked by magical and demonic means it must be
it would seem sufficient.
chapter is entitled "English Witchcraft Before 1558." The special
of the date lies in the fact that one of the author's pre-occupations
is to controvert
an opinion that the belief in witchcraft was an importation by the
who returned to England after the death of Queen Mary. The theory
that they were imbued with the belief in the reality of compacts with
and so on, during their sojourn on the Continent, and that they
fellow countrymen to it on their return. The supporters of this theory
mentioned by name so far as the reviewer has been able to discover, and
also confess that he has never come across it previously. In any ease
it seems so
preposterous that one would suppose the least acquaintance with the
dispel it. One would have thought it more appropriate to have dismissed
it in a
brief note, as the theories of Mr. Summers and Miss Murray are disposed
it is evident-that here once more we have differing views accounted for
by an ambiguous meaning of words. What the unnamed "scholars" mean by
witchcraft, and what Mr. Summers means is quite different from what
means, and Miss Murray means something different again; though there is
excuse for misunderstanding her position, as she clearly defines the
sense in which
she uses the word, and sticks to that aspect of the subject.
to the second chapter the author brings samples of the evidence for the
and the character of, witchcraft in England, from Anglo-Saxon times
down to the
Tudor period; with so much of parallel historical and anthropological
to establish its character as a primitive heritage of mankind.
chapters deal with the methods and machinery of witchcraft. The use of
like means to work evil or good ‒ generally evil. This in some form or
found everywhere the world over, and at all periods. Following this
comes the subject
of curses, elf shot, induced madness, magical poisons and charms. Then
and rain making, metamorphosis, treasure hunting, divination and so on
up in succession. In the sixteenth chapter we come to the witches
Sabbath and the
compact with the devil. In this chapter the general thesis is that the
meetings of witches and their worship of the devil, was all a creation
of the Continental
inquisitors, with the further contention that there was no basis in
feet for it.
Or rather, that it was built up out of the secret meetings of heretical
sects, to whom all kinds of enormities were ascribed, mixed up with the
of mediaeval demonology, and it is insisted that nothing like it ever
It is of
course, impossible to adequately discuss the matter in the brief space
of a review.
Prof. Kittredge obviously disagrees with the theory advanced by Miss
Murray in her
witch Cult, published some eight years ago. One cannot help feeling
that her argument
was entitled to more consideration than a few rather contemptuous
regard witchcraft as merely a delusion, an example of collective
insanity, are ignorant
of the antecedents of the phenomenon. They do not realize that it is a
human evolution and part of the price of the development of
who, like Mr. Summers, still believe in its reality, are simply in this
at a lower cultural level. The difference between Miss Murray and Prof.
is more one of emphasis, and as it would seem, some misunderstanding or
comprehension on the part of the latter, due to preconception or bias,
prevented him, not only from seeing the force of the evidence
marshalled by Miss
Murray, but also from seeing the full implications of some of the facts
he has himself
To get the
matter clear; Prof. Kittredge has dealt with witchcraft as a generally
A state of affairs found not only in mediaeval England and Europe, but
else. Miss Murray expressly limited herself to the subject of an
practicing what she calls the Witch-Cult. The two theses are
not necessarily in conflict. Taking primitive peoples generally, among
may be called normal, we find that its methods are known to everyone,
but they are
especially practiced by certain individuals, who in many cases are
and such organizations are frequently equivalent to a sort of
priesthood. It is
Miss Murray's hypothesis that such an organized primitive religion
and more driven into concealment and into bitter hostility to dominant
Christianity, from pagan times down to the seventeenth century at least.
nothing inherently incredible in this in the light of our present
knowledge of the
history of religion, and Prof. Kittredge has not demolished the theory
by his method
of limiting and separating the evidence. He leaves Scotland out
entirely, for example,
although in view of the cultural relationship of the two countries we
to assume that what existed in Scotland in the sixteenth and
would illustrate the situation in England from one to two centuries
he deals with the most pertinent evidence of such an organization in
weakens the force of the facts by paraphrasing the records and
of his own. While it may be quite true that in Elizabethan England this
had broken down, it does not follow that it had not existed, or did not
elsewhere. A religion implies some organization, and in the second
chapter we are
presented with a whole series of laws and canons which couple
witchcraft with the
ritual observances of paganism. When we consider in what manner Western
Christianized it would have been miraculous indeed if the worship of
the older gods
had not survived.
Kittredge comes to King James and the New England witches he is wholly
He shows conclusively that so far from the witch trials in England
being due to
the fanatic zeal of the Scottish king, as everyone has taken for
granted, the exact
reverse is true. The trials were due to popular pressure and James did
much to cheek
it, counseling his judges to be very skeptical of the evidence offered
in such cases.
In the same
way he goes far to rehabilitating the people of New England by showing,
they were necessarily limited by the beliefs and knowledge of their own
that the outbreak was comparatively very mild, and that in a remarkably
it was suppressed.
interesting item appears in the second chapter. A monk named Thomas
Wryght was accused
of practicing magic and of having "books of experiments." He defended
himself by saying that he had used his books "for speculation merely
for operation." This was in 1500, and is a fresh instance of the use of
words in the same way they are now used by Masons. It is probable that
genuine tradition in the Craft to distinguish two classes of members.
Question Box and Correspondence
Roman Catholic Grand Master
in June an interesting article about a Roman Catholic being Grand
Master of one
of the Canadian obediences. In the April number of "The Master Mason"
a reply is given in the question department that "no church affiliation
a disqualification to Masonic advancement in England," and instances of
Grand Masters were cited.
these citations are of occurrences long ago and far away, given without
of the present status between Freemasonry and the Roman Catholic
Hierarchy. So that
from your article and "The Master Mason's" reply, it might be inferred
that today a Romanist in full communion with his church could be a
of our Order. Just to dispel such notion I give the following quotation
Wolf's Life of the First Marquess of Ripon. The heading of Chapter xiii
is "From King Solomon's Throne to the Pope's Footstool," and at page
reads: … Moreover, he [the Marquess] was convinced that, the Syllabus
there was no necessary incompatibility between Roman Catholicism on the
and religious toleration and political liberalism on the other. When,
at the last
moment, the attitude of the Vatican in regard to Freemasonry was made
clear to him
it was relatively much too small a matter to modify the grave decision
he had arrived.
Here is a
capable and distinguished Grand Master being told (in 1874) on his
the Roman Catholic faith, that renunciation of Freemasonry was in order
Yet, one can find ambiguous replies and articles in Masonic
publications in 1929
such as have been alluded to herein.
Donald Lightbourn, New York
cases analogous to that of the Marquess of Ripon could also be cited.
We had no
idea that any of our readers could suppose that conditions were the
same now as
they were a hundred years ago. Though the first Papal Bull condemning
was promulgated as early as 1738 it was long before it was universally
The subject cannot possibly be gone into here. Much has been published
in THE BUILDER
in the past, and may need to be repeated in the future.
* * *
Regional Grand Lodge
In 1924 the
officers of the Grand Orient of France moved by the pleadings of a
of the Regional Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, entered into an agreement
The arrangement met with some opposition and the Grand College of Rites
Council of the Grand Orient) refused to confirm it insofar as the
under its authority were concerned. The agreement, therefore, has
covered only the
Blue Lodge organization of the Regional Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
his election as Grand Master (President du Conseil de l'Ordre) in 1927,
M. W. Bro.
Arthur Groussier started to investigate the real relations between the
and the Pennsylvania body, as these relations had caused the Grand
of fraternal relations and individual good will. He was anxious to
sever all connections
with this body but did not want to be unfair or unjust. The fact,
the Regional Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania was not carrying out its part
of the agreement
made his task much easier and the Executive Committee (Conseil de
l'Ordre) at its
last meeting, adopted the following resolutions severing all
connections with the
Regional Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
Executive Committee of the Grand Orient of France, at a plenary
meeting, June 23,
read the Agreement entered into May 10, 1924, between the Grand Orient
and the Regional Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, and
heard the report of its Officers
on the one hand
the articles of this Agreement have been but partially applied,
the Grand Orient of France has not been kept informed of the
proceedings of the
Regional Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania and has not even knowledge of the
for the above reasons, the relations between the two contracting
parties have no
serious basis and that the tie holding the Regional Grand Lodge of
to the Grand Orient of France has become purely nominal
on the other hand
rules relating to territorial jurisdiction adopted by the Congress of
Masonic Association in December, 1927,
of the opinion
under such conditions it is much preferable that the two Obediences
therefore, terminates, on its part, irrevocably and at once, the above
brings about the immediate, absolute and definite independence of both
In line with
the above decision the Grand Orient of France lately refused fraternal
to two ether unrecognized Grand Bodies in this country and also turned
down an application
received from a number of Masons in New York City to form a new lodge
Grand Orient has decided to strictly observe the laws on territorial
adopted by the International Masonic Association.
L. G., Colorado.
is a native of France and a member of a French Lodge under the Grand
Lodge of France,
with which a considerable number of American jurisdictions hold
The Regional Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania was originally under the Grand
Spain, and its formation was due to one of the many unfortunate
American and European ideas about territorial jurisdiction. It has
taken the European
brethren a long time to realize the rigidity of American rules on the
the report of the A. M. I. has been widely accepted, and will probably
such false steps being made in the future.
* * *
that you have once or twice recently mentioned the subject of dual or
I am in a position to see the annual Proceedings of a number of our
and from them I gather that some of the Fraternal Correspondents are
very much opposed
to the idea, and I rather suspect their influence has had a good deal
to do with
the slow progress it has made.
that is often repeated is that dual membership makes it impossible to
statistics of total membership, and it is frequently said that the
of the British Isles do not know what their membership really is. This
to be regarded by those who advance it as an unanswerable argument that
once crush anyone so foolish as to believe in plural membership. If it
is a fact
that these Grand Lodges do not know their membership figures (about
which I cannot
say anything) it can only be because they are not especially interested
the information; for it is obvious that only a little ingenuity would
to overcome the difficulty. Naturally, it would involve a little more
every brother who belongs to a second lodge would be paying Grand Lodge
over, and the extra income thus secured should be far more than the
cost of the
added clerical work.
If I may
be permitted to take up your space for the purpose I would like to
suggest two possible
methods. When a brother affiliates with a second lodge that lodge must
of the fact; for not having a dimit, it would be necessary for him to
show he was
a member in good standing of the other lodge. Of course the first lodge
in ignorance of his second membership, but not if the second one made
regarding him. This could be easily made part of the procedure in such
he would appear on the roll of each lodge as belonging to two lodges.
Now if every
lodge in its annual reports to the Grand Secretary classified its
many brethren belonging to that lodge only, so many belonging to that
one, it will be a very simple matter to get the true totals. The
would be summed up under the two heads ‒ say 50,000 single memberships,
memberships. As each brother belonging to two lodges is reported twice
of such is obviously 500, and in consequence the grand total is 50,500.
method would not even require so much calculation as this. If in every
roll is kept so as to show primary and secondary membership. Secondary
will be that of those brethren who join a lodge while holding
membership in another.
Should they dimit from the first, their membership in the second would
In this ease the grand totals for the jurisdiction would be the sum of
I can see
absolutely no difficulty in working out such plans. There might be
starting them, not due to the plan itself, but to the mental inertia of
with its working. Compared with the records kept in any business of any
all such differentiations would be simple and elementary. Why should
of Lodge Secretaries be deemed incapable of grasping a system of
when very often the same men are conversant with more complicated
records in their
As for the
advantages of dual membership, it seems to me they are so obvious and
so great that
I cannot really understand why such trifles should be regarded as a
I should say that had we to choose between exact membership totals and
that the latter would be of such advantage to the Craft that the
sacrifice of the
former would be a very small price to pay for it. But we can easily
have both if
we only think so.
J. G. G., Missouri.
* * *
is a translation of part of a letter from Sig. Fr. S. Nitti, former
Premier of Italy,
now living in exile in France. It was sent to us by Bro. Charles Fama,
of New York
and as it will be seen, is of sufficiently great importance to be
published in full:
has just arrived to me from Italy state that the deportation of the
Fascism have never been as numerous as they have been in recent weeks.
has ever been connected at any time with the Masonic Fraternity is
deported to one of the prison islands.
Commander of the Italian Masonry, Ettore Ferarri, who is 86 years of
age, is under
imprisonment in his own home guarded by the police and can only leave
his own home
in the company of members of the police force.
Commander, one of the most noted attorneys, Guiseppe Leti, escaped to
Fascisti not being able to arrest him, without any reason whatsoever,
son, Francesco Leti, who was sent into exile in one of the prison
islands for five
years. This son, a physician, had never occupied himself with politics
and was not
even a Mason. He was a noted physician and did not occupy himself
outside his medical
profession. The Fascisti not being able to attack the father took
revenge upon his
Grand Master of Italian Masonry, Domizio Torrigiani, after being
several years on one of the islands where he was subjected to the
and became almost completely blind, has been taken to a prison hospital
former Republican Deputy and President of the Italian Press
Association, has also
been sent to one of these penal islands.
prominent Mason out of prison in Rome was the Deputy Grand Master,
A few weeks ago he was also arrested and without a trial sent to one of
islands for five years.
In the last
wave of persecutions is to be noted the arrest of many great writers,
and lawyers, amongst them Guastalla Lenzi, Pavone, Cosmo and many other
of the greatest respectability. The Special Fascist Tribunal has just
to four years and eight months imprisonment two very noted attorneys,
Mazotti. The only accusation against these was that they had given
the actual Fascist situation to their friends in Paris.
criticism to the Fascist regime is considered a crime. Any person who
dares to criticize
the evil consequences of the stabilization of the Italian Lira to
is mercilessly treated and arrested. Never has there been a greater
amount of money
deposited by the Italians of Italy in foreign banks. This because
everyone is convinced
that Fascism is about to be financially bankrupt.
Croce, who is the foremost Italian philosopher, had the courage to
the Italian Senate the Fascist-Vatican Concordat. It is said that his
a masterpiece, but not one word of it was permitted to be published in
On coming out of the Senate chambers he was attacked and beaten
mercilessly by a
band of black shirt thugs.
and students of the University of Turin sent a letter to Senator Croce
their admiration for his stand. The letter was opened by the postal
and the undersigned were all arrested and sent to jail.
A very noted
author, Signor Umberto Cosmo, and a journalist of the highest esteem, a
man of most
conservative personality, because he dared in public to say that he
spirit of Senator Croce against the Vatican treaty, was sent to the
To help the
poor and destitute family of those who are in exile is also a crime.
lawyers of Milan, Signor Sehuavi and Sacerdote, were arrested because
financially the family of an old anti-Fascist deputy which is now in
gold of the Banca D'Italia is diminishing every day and the balance
is becoming demolished. All attempts to float new loans in foreign
unfruitful. The Fascist regime feels itself shaky and therefore becomes
correspondence is under strict scrutiny and control, and in a letter
sent from Italy
which contains unfavorable comment on the Fascist situation, is enough
the arrest of the sender.
here several dozen of ex-Italian deputies, ex-ministers and
who have preferred exile and misery rather than submission to the
tyranny of Fascism.
They cannot even write to their friends in Italy without compromising
exposing them to persecution, but what is much worse, if anyone from
Italy is caught
writing to these exiles he is not only subject to persecution but also
has become so acute that the end of Fascism cannot be very far.
* * *
List of Anderson's Constitutions
would greatly appreciate learning through members of the National
Society of the addresses of owners of editions of Anderson's
Constitutions in North
America. This applies to original copies only. The name of the private
library, whether of 1723, 1738, 1746, 1756 and 1785 and condition. This
is desired in connection with a study of Anderson and his work. Bro.
Secretary of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, London, 2076, writes me he thinks
not over forty or fifty copies of the 1723 edition in existence.
C. S. Plumb, Columbus, Ohio.
that every reader who has any knowledge of any old edition of the
now in America, outside the major libraries, should write to Bro. Plumb
of THE BUILDER.
History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
Supply Co., 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 594. - 24.5 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
AQC Transactions Vol 017 - 1904
Ars04 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 396. - 33.0 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 036 - 1923
Ars23 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Songhurst W. J.. - London :
AQC, 1923. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 307. - 47.4 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 040 - 1927
Ars27 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Songhurst W. J.. - London :
AQC, 1927. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 310. - 18.0 MB.
Cagliostro - Miseries and
Mysteries of a Master of Magic
Tro10 / auth. Trowbridge William R H. - London : Chapman and Hall,
1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 364. - 16.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry in
Canada Vol 1
Rob00FC1 / auth. Robertson J Ross. - Toronto : George N. Morgan
& Co Ltd, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 1358. - 36.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry in
Canada Vol 2
Rob00FC2 / auth. Robertson J Ross. - Toronto : George N. Morgan
& Co Ltd, 1900. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 465. - 19.0 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 1
Mac06 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 7 : p. 316. - 13.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 2
Mac061 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 2 : 7 : p. 341. - 10.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 3
Mac062 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 3 : 7 : p. 328. - 12.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 4
Mac063 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 4 : 7 : p. 324. - 13.1 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 5
Mac064 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 5 : 7 : p. 318. - 13.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 6
Mac065 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 6 : 7 : p. 328. - 13.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 7
Mac066 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 7 : 7 : p. 398. - 18.7 MB.
Pay02 / auth. Payson Seth. - Charlestown : Samuel Etheridge, 1902. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 235.
Leben und Thaten des Joseph Balsamo
Gue81 / auth. Guenther Johannes von. - Zurich : Orell, Gessner, Fussli
& Co., 1781. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 214. - 12.0 MB - German .
L'Ordre des Francs-Mašons Trahi
Per81 / auth. Perau Gabriel L C. - Amsterdam : Unknown, 1781. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 133. - 4.7 MB - French - Not Searchable.