Masonic Research Society
Table of Contents
Bro. C. G.
A COPY of this address was sent by the author
to Bro. Walter H. Braun, the Editor of the "Templegram," the official
bulletin of Henry L. Palmer Lodge, No. 301, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. As
it was too
long to publish in the "Templegram," and as it was also of sufficient
interest to merit the attention of a wider circle than the membership
of Henry L.
Palmer Lodge, Bro. Braun has very kindly communicated it to THE BUILDER.
Dr. Christophorus G. Toraritis is a member
of the Supreme Council of Greece A. & A. S. R., and Grand
for the Island of Cyprus, as well as Representative of the Grand Lodge
a position roughly equivalent to a D.D.G.M., only relatively of greater
The address was given before Cimon Lodge, No. 53, Larnaca, Cypress,
Sept. 30, 1928,
on the occasion of the reception of a number of visitors from the
of the English brethren, who had attended
the recent meeting of Zeno Lodge, will remember that I had promised to
make a speech
on the history of Freemasonry in Cyprus during the present meeting in
as I consider that the English brethren would be interested in this
to my promise I am going now to deal
briefly with this subject in accordance with such sources and
information as I shave
been able to find.
would not be possible for any historian of
the Freemasonry of modern times to overlook that of England, because
country has undoubtedly been the mother, the light-giver, the hearth,
modern Freemasonry has spread, not only all over Europe, but in the
East and in
America as well. Let us examine, therefore, how and when Freemasonry
be of importance in Great Britain that we may be enabled later to study
as its descendant.
in the Constitution of Freemasonry,
which was published in 1723, stated that King Athelstan, grandson of
Great, the first Christian King of England, gave himself up to the
of great buildings and for this purpose he had called in Masons from
Masons brought with them the Charges and Regulations of the Lodges of
known under the name Collegia Romana, and with the help of King
improved the constitution of English lodges. Edwin, the King's younger
instructed in Masonry, and through the son's recommendations to his
King issued a charter, granting the right to the Masons to freely
own affairs, and these Masons were to convene once a year at a general
Assembly. At the first of these meetings which was held at York, and at
presided as Grand Master, there were produced the documents, of which
in Greek, Latin and French, and on the basis of these old records the
Laws and Regulations
in accordance with which the Craft was to be governed in the future
were drawn up.
These were later sanctioned by Henry VI and the Lords of his Council,
on the 24th
of June, 1717. Four Masonic lodges, the only ones surviving from the
of James II, met at the Appletree Tavern and established the Grand
Lodge of England,
still in existence, under the influence of two famous Freemasons,
namely Rev. James
A. Anderson, D. D., and Rev. J. Theophilus Desaguliers. Anthony Sayer
as the first Grand Master. Two years later (1719) Desaguliers was
Master and from this time onward a great progress of the Craft is
noble and wise men joining it. As I have mentioned above, in 1723
his famous Book of Constitutions, which he dedicated to the then Grand
Duke of Montagu. To these two great Masons the systematized drawing up
of the first
and second degree rituals is said to be due.
very brief compass, this is how and when
modern English Freemasonry was founded and the Grand Lodge of England
that wise and powerful Masonic authority which since that time has
spread, and continues,
up to the present time, to spread all over the world, in zealous
and with an exemplary authority, our sublime Masonic principles,
directing the numerous
lodges under its obedience with beneficent power.
of Masonry in Cyprus
this brief but necessary prologue I shall
deal with the Freemasonry of Cyprus, in regard to which I should,
that unfortunately the sources from which enlightenment was to be
derived are very
poor, and much is entirely missing. The island birthplace of Aphrodite,
of Beauty, has to exhibit two first-class stars in the Masonic
firmament each well
versed in Masonry: Zeno, the son of Mnassiou, the famous founder of the
who, as all of you are aware, has contributed so much to the Masonic
ideal, is the
first, and the second is St. Epiphanio, Bishop of Salamis, who was
five-tongued, as he was versed in the Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Syrian and
languages, and whose works on the Eastern mysteries, and those of
considered classical. Before these great minds the ages will continue
to do respectful
homage. But no information has been preserved of the Freemasonry in
Cyprus at that
time, nor during the subsequent centuries. During the Turkish
this was never positively ascertained from authentic sources, it seems
were certain sporadic groupings of Masons, at least among those
connected with the
various Consulates, and in view of the Friendly Society being a body
to Freemasonry, and knowing that the Archbishop and the other bishops
and the chief
men of the Island were initiated into the mysteries of this Friendly
cannot exclude the possibility that these persons, or some of them,
might have been
initiated into Freemasonry. But I should repeat that all these are
yet authentically verified. Organized Freemasonry, and this can be
appears in Cyprus at the time St. Paul's Lodge, No. 2277, was
established, and this
was the first cradle of the Craft in Cyprus. The founders' application
to the Grand
Lodge of England to sanction the establishment is dated April 7, 1888;
was granted on the 1st of August, and the installation of the lodge
took place on
Nov. 1, 1888. W. Bro. Harricott conducted the installation ceremony,
Bro. H. Silvester
was the first Worshipful Master, and the other founders were
twenty-seven in number.
appearance of Freemasonry in Cyprus as an
autonomous society commences from the establishment of this lodge. In
temple of this workshop were received the first Greek Masons, who have
zealous apostles of the Masonic ideal all over the Island. At this
stage we should
stop to mention the name of a great son of Cypriote Freemasonry, an
in the field of Masonic ideals, the deeply respected and beloved old
Carageorghiades, a physician, whose character will always be held forth
as an example
of Masonic industry and zeal. Bro. Carageorghiades was among the first
the Masonic seedlings of St. Paul's Lodge, and after he had arranged
for a few more
Greeks to be initiated in his mother lodge, he erected, with the aid of
brethren, a second lodge in the Island, which is the first Greek Lodge,
18, which is now subject to the Grand Lodge of Greece.
first Greek Lodge was established on Nov.
15, 1893, and its founders were fourteen in number. In 1892 St. Paul's
No. 2277, was established in Limassol. The following English Masonic
also established, but unfortunately I do not know at this moment the
dates of their
erection; they are, St. Paul's Mark Master Lodge, No. 455, in Limassol;
Lodge, No. 2402, originally in Larnaca, but now working successfully in
and St. George's Mark Master Lodge in Larnaca.
really great joy and Masonic pride I would
acquaint you, my dear brethren, that Cyprus, and particularly Limassol,
has a complete
chain of Masonic workshops, that is from the lowest one, the symbolic
the highest that can exist in a country where there is no Supreme
the Areopage, and the establishment of the various Greek lodges took
place as follows:
the 30th of November, 1899, nine Freemasons
of the 18th degree established the Chapter Plato, No. 6, in the Valley
under the jurisdiction of the most glorious Supreme Council of the
for Greece. On the 7th of October, 1918, Cimon Lodge, No. 53, was
the holy dome of whose temple pan-Cypriote Freemasonry is welcoming you
an exceptional great joy and happiness. On the 30th of December, 1918,
of the 30th degree established the highest Masonic lodge in the Island,
Cyprus, No. 3, at Limassol, empowered to grant the degrees from the
19th to the
the 8th of February, 1921, to complete the
chain of the Masonic lodges, eleven Freemasons of superior degrees,
the Lodge of Perfection, Eleutheria (Freedom), No. 2, at Limassol,
which works the
degrees from 4 to 14, inclusive. As you can see, brethren, Freemasonry
has now been
solidly established, and has begun to spread all over the Island,
lodges in nearly every one of our towns. Solon Lodge was established at
on the 18th of July, 1921; Cinyras Lodge, No. 64, at Paphos, the fabled
of Aphrodite, on the 8th of April, 1923; and thirteen Freemasons
the 5th of January, 1928, Evagoras Lodge, No. 77, at Famagusta, which
is at present
occupying the place of Benjamin among the Masonic lodges in the Island
I am sure, will with great pleasure cede this position to a lodge in
only town in the Island not yet possessing one, but in which I have
great hope the
Great Architect of the Universe will shortly help us to found another,
all six towns of the Island the Masonic light will be spread in all its
to the G. A. of U. and the prosperity of humankind in general and of
living in the fatherland of the great Stoic philosopher in particular.
Freemasons of the Island, including as well,
the regular members of the different lodges, and those sojourning with
some 600; and it is with great pleasure that I would communicate to you
Masonic phalanx in the Island, thanks to the praiseworthy labors of the
lodges, is continually on the increase, not only in quantity but also,
is more important, in quality. I am outlining the history of Cyprus
and I should not omit to mention that the Craft had successfully
carried out a bold
defensive war for nearly ten years during the famous Archbishop's
Freemasonry was persistently and cunningly slandered as being hostile
During this conflict the Masonic unity among the brethren, and their
and support was admirable.
foregoing is all I can say of Cyprus Freemasonry.
Undoubtedly there are many and great omissions, but let us hope that in
of time these will be filled up and scholars better equipped than
myself will deal
more perfectly with this subject, in which I shall always be greatly
Myself, I have simply broadly outlined it and I shall be delighted if
writer will shortly appear to compile the same in greater completeness.
As you see,
dear brethren, the Freemasonry of Cyprus owes its genesis to that of
as I have mentioned above, can properly be designated as the mother of
European and American Freemasonry.
Greek Freemasons are deeply grateful to English
Freemasonry, and pan-Cypriote Freemasonry today, under the holy dome of
lodge, addresses, through you, dear English brothers, as
representatives of the
English Craft, fraternal greetings, with the hearty wish that it may
prosperity and to ever progress, to the benefit of the highest and
ideals. To me, my brethren, you will, I trust, give permission to greet
in general, and in particular your high Masonic authority, the United
of England, in the name of the Grand Lodge of Greece, of which I have
honor to be the Representative in the Island, and under the authority
of which the
present lodge was constituted and continues to hold allegiance.
the conclusion of his address Bro. Toraritis
called upon the members of Cimon Lodge to give a formal Masonic salute
of the Grand Lodge of England, and the visiting naval brethren.]
Masonry; Their Origin and History
Bros. A. L.
Kress And R. J. Meekren
will now have to traverse once more the same
ground (1) that we did last month, this time in order to bring out
characteristic of old Scottish Masonic usage, as that is exhibited in
of the ancient lodges of that country. The often quoted clause of the
relating to the admission of Fellows, requires, among its other
the reception or admission should be duly recorded, "ord'rlie buikit,"
in the lodge books, and that
… the names of the
intendaris that Salt be chosin to evrie persone to be alsua insert in
interpretation of this is a matter open
to some doubt. The indefinite phrase "shall be chosen to [for] every
leaves us uncertain whether the intenders had been the official
instructors of the
apprentice who was then being "received or admitted," or whether they
were then chosen to instruct the newly made fellow of craft, as such. A
depends on the answer we give to this.
is to be remarked that the minutes of the
Lodge of Edinburgh do not seem to mention intenders (2), so that we are
say whether they were appointed there or not. This metropolitan lodge,
seems as exceptional in its way as Dunblane or Haughfoot were in
theirs. This is
only one feature in which it differed from other lodges. But the most
characteristic difference was the sharp cleavage between employers and
the former seemingly to have been well on the way to becoming a caste
none of the other lodges does this strong distinction appear; indeed,
in the Aitchison's
Haven Lodge the term "Masters" is hardly ever used in speaking of the
composition of the lodge. In the excerpts published by Bro. R. E.
the usual formula is "the brethren," or "the brethren of the lodge,"
when speaking collectively, or "fellow of craft," when they are
first example we will take of the appointment
of intenders is that of the "entry" of William Brotherstains at Peebles
in 1716, which has already been cited. He chose for his intenders,
David and Richard
Whyts, who were fellows of craft and masters of the lodge. Alexander
as "enter'd prentise," was "received" on the same date, presumably
as a fellow of craft seeing that he was already "entered." So that it
is evident that intenders were appointed both for the newly entered
and the master or fellow craft who was received. The appointment of
regularly recorded in this lodge, but there is no need to quote further
Aberdeen a special article appears in the
Statutes forbidding any member of the lodge to
… teach or instruct
ane entered prentise untill such tyme as he be perfyted be his Intender.
His Intender and
his Maate gives him over as being taught any person hath liberty to
teach him anything
then it is enacted that if, when the apprentice
"is interrogat at our publict meetings" [i.e., general meetings of the
lodge] he has forgotten anything "he must pay for it," unless he could
show it was something he had not been taught, in which case the
intender was fined
there is nothing here to show who the apprentice's
intenders were; that is, whether they were also apprentices or fellows.
the Aitchison's Haven minutes make this quite clear. In the second
has already been cited, the entrant, Alexander Cubie, chose two
intenders who are
expressly stated to have been Apprentices. The minute gives the names
of the fellows
of craft, and then those of four apprentices. and adds
… of ye quhilk enterit
prentiseis Alexander Cubie chois Archibald Glene and James Pettiecrief
to be his
we have already seen, in quoting these minutes
before, Alexander Cubie was chosen two years later by Andrew Patten as
one of his
intenders, Cubie being himself still an apprentice. But this is not
Widderspone, who was made a fellow of craft two days before Cubie was
apprentice, is recorded as choosing George Aytoune and Johne Pedden "to
his intenders and instructouris," and these had just been named in the
of fellows of craft present. Thus we see that in a lodge whose Warden
as we should say) had signed the Schaw Statutes, both apprentices and
craft chose intenders, which intenders were of their own grade. Further
could be cited in which this also appears quite unequivocally, but it
necessary to do so.
is another entry which is puzzling, and
may be significant. Andrew Patten was "entered" as we have seen, on the
second day of January, 1600. But on the seventh day of June in the year
1599, he had already been mentioned in what must be regarded as a most
Upon ye quhilk day
Andro Pattene payit xx sh to his buiking and had servit VI zeiris of
II zeiris to serve before vir witnes Johne Fender Wilzame Aytone, etc.
the scribe was economical of words and punctuation
alike we would paraphrase the statement thus:
Upon the which day
Andrew Patten paid 20 shillings for his registration and [declaration
that he had served 6 years of his apprenticeship, [and had] two years
more to serve,
before the [following] witnesses, John Fender, William Ayton, etc.
brings definitely before us that question
which has appeared vaguely in the background, suggested by the
variations in the
phraseology of the different records. It has already been remarked that
it was doubtful from the phraseology used, whether "entry" meant
more than mere "booking" or registration. Here apparently we have the
two things definitely recorded, as done at different times. Patten at
must have been seventeen or eighteen years old in 1599, seeing that he
been an apprentice for six years, and this was six months before he was
entered apprentice. This seems decidedly to confirm our suspicions that
of the lodge was as distinct from legal apprenticeship, as, let us say,
and church marriage are in France and some other countries. And to
accept this as
a hypothesis would clear up many obscurities which appear in the
and allusions to apprenticeship in the Mason's Craft.
Did The Intenders Give?
more than this follows from these minutes.
A young man of eighteen who had worked at the trade for six years must
a fairly competent Craftsman if he had had normal ability and
intelligence to begin
with. What then did he need intenders and instructors for? This
still more pressing in the case of the "accepted" fellow of the craft.
Ex hypothesi he was a competent and skilled Mason or he would not have
why then did he need instructors? What were they to teach him?
is possible that those who have had no experience
of skilled handicraftsmanship, and the way it is learned in
is more a soaking in of information than the result of set instruction
to see the full force of this question. But, though books and lessons
can make things
easier, and can shorten the time of pupillage if intelligently used,
of a skilled trade can only be learned by working at it, as we have had
to remark before. The only answer we can give to the question raised is
intenders taught the neophyte the formal secrets of the society
whatever they were.
Perhaps those "simpel questions and answers" to which the brethren of
Melrose reduced their ritual in 1764 may serve us here as the basis of
yet another thing follows if this be accepted,
and that is, that the things taught to the "fellow of craft," in spite
of the fact that two apprentices at least were required to make the
were something that the latter did not know; though the same reasoning
to the conclusion that they also had been taught something that was
from the outside world, cowans and un-entered apprentices alike. In
there were two "degrees," according to our definition of that term.
this illuminates the various regulations
and ordinances and enactments concerning periodical examinations. We
cited the Aberdeen statute. If it be understood that the apprentice's
there referred to were themselves apprentices, then the point of their
responsibility, and their liability to fine if they omitted anything,
clear in effect they also were being examined.
tradition of such formal or ritual examinations
was a continuous one in Scotland from the earliest times of which there
into and through the eighteenth century (3). It also appears as
for granted in the earliest days of English speculative Masonry. So
much so that
the "work" of the lodges in the eighteenth century was understood to be
this rehearsing of examinations, and not (as it now signifies in
America) the initiation
of candidates. This last, indeed, was regarded as something apart,
almost as an
interruption to the regular labors of the lodge. However this merely
place with our supposition, it hardly lends it any weight. We will
back to the Schaw Statutes, No. 2, the version pertaining especially to
The fifth clause enacts
… that the Warden
of Kilwinning … elect and chuis sex of the maist perfyte and worthiest
within [the bounds of the lodge] to tak tryall of the qualificatioun of
masonis within the boundis foirsaid, of their art, craft scyance and
to the effect the warden deakin may be answerable heirafter for sic
is committit to him, and within his boundis and jurisdictioun (4).
conjunction of art, craft, science and ancient
memory as subjects for examination is very curious and intriguing. Art
may refer to manual skill. Science could mean ability to make plans,
lay out work
and estimate costs. But what was "antient memorie"?
thirteenth paragraph of the Statutes returns
to the subject.
Item, it is ordianit
… that the luge of Kilwynning … tak tryall of the art of memorie and
of everie fallow of craft and everie prenteiss according to ather of
and in case that thai have lost onie point thairof eurie of thame to
pay the penalty
as followis for their slewthfulness...
faulty fellows twenty shillings and apprentices
eleven. In this we have "art of memories as well as "science." And
these were apparently divisible into "points." Here again we have a
that survived into the eighteenth century with a technical and, as one
speculative sense. Attention too must be called to the phrase,
either of their vocations," to modernize the spelling. This certainly
to imply a different content for the "art of memorie" in the two grades
tenth clause states the fees that all "fallows
of craft at his entries is (or are) to pay to the "common box," and the
value of the gloves to be given to the members of the lodge "or euir he
admittit," and then comes the proviso:
… and that he be
not admitted without ane sufficient essay and pruife of memorie and art
be the warden, deacon and quarter maisteris of the ludge…
we have "proof of memory" and
"art of craft." The changes have been pretty well run on these terms,
and the natural interpretation is that none of them was used very
essay was undoubtedly the "master piece" which proved the candidate's
manual skill and ability to design and plan. And that is the most
obvious and effective
way of discovering a Craftsman's capability; and we must insist again,
kind of capability once acquired is never forgotten, any more than one
to swim or ride a bicycle once either art has been acquired.
it must be remembered that these statutes,
and the ordinances of most of the Scottish lodges, primarily regulated
and trade by which the masons earned their livelihood, it must not be
that they seem to have been very largely re-enactments or
reinforcements of old
usage and custom. To argue that their main purpose necessarily excluded
to anything except the severely practical is to argue from an
assumption; in effect
the importation of our own mental habits and point of view into the
past. At least
the phraseology suggests more than a concern limited strictly to
and knowledge of craft technique; and it would seem as if these
all those previously adduced, will be most reasonably treated by
to relate to some formal and conventional body of information, very
the form of catechetical questions and answers, concerning which it
would be quite
possible to examine everyone at an annual assembly, and in which it
would be at
once apparent whether a man had forgotten any "point" or not.
our picture is still further developed.
The main lines are now fairly clear and definite. The three classes of
so far examined, taken as a whole, are all explicable upon this
and the mutual support thus given by each class to the others raises
of the hypothesis to a considerable degree. But the details are still
for so much of these as can be recovered we must look to the last group
have already indicated that the small and
curious group of documents known as the "Old Catechisms" are all of
origin and of dubious character. They are untrustworthy witnesses whose
unless otherwise supported, is not to be relied upon. Unfortunately
there is nothing
else. Aside from them there is scarcely a hint as to what the ritual
usages of the
pre-Grand Lodge of Masons may have been.
is to be regretted that, though the greater
number of these documents have been published, and though they have
discussed, and still more frequently quoted, they have never been
and critically examined and classified in the same way as the Old
Charges have been,
as by Hughan and Begemann, to mention two of the foremost scholars in
It seems best therefore to briefly give some account of them here.
have first three printed examples, all of
which were published as expose's during the first years of the Grand
Lodge of 1717;
in consequence, it may be presumed, of an aroused curiosity upon the
Freemasonry on the part of the general public. The first of these in
point of date
is the Mason's Examination, published in the Flying Post, or Post
Master of April
13, 1723. It will be remembered that the first Book of Constitutions
was in print,
and apparently on sale to the general public in the early part of the
The sanction to publish at the end of the work being dated Jan. 17, and
probably printed just before publications.
printed Constitutions were apparently the
cause of a good deal of excitement within the Fraternity, and of
curiosity and gossip
outside it. The Examination appears in the Flying Post as a
communication to its
editor from an anonymous contributor. The preface, in the form of a
letter, is quite
complimentary to the Craft, and introduces the communicated document as
that was pretended by its inventors to have been found among the papers
Fellow Mason lately deceased." As there was an earlier publication of
character (of which no copy remains) it is possible that this was
merely a reprint
with a new introduction.
following year a pamphlet entitled, The
Grand Mystery of the Free Masons Discover'd appeared, which contained
Letters to a Friend", signed by "Verbs Commodus." This Catechism
is likewise said to have been "found in the Custody of a FreeMason who
suddenly." The two letters are "propaganda" for the rival society
of the Gormogons. The first of them decrys and ridicules the Masonic
and the second eulogizes the upstart rival organization now so dead
that few but
scholars have even heard its name.
years later appeared the Mystery of Freemasonry
in the Daily Journal of Aug. 15, 1730, and in the following October
came the first
edition of Prichard's Masonry Dissected [Lib 1730].
Mystery of Freemasonry (or of Freemasons)
must not be confused with the Grand Mystery Discovered of 1724, as it
is quite a
different document. It, too, was said to have been "Taken from a
found amongst the Papers of a Deceased Brother." It may be remarked
there is nothing inherently improbable about this having happened, not
but a number of times. On the other hand it must also be remembered
that this explanation
of how such a thing came to be in hands of outsiders would be very
likely to occur
to a forger or fabricator, and also that the earliest example extant is
as an invention by the Flying Post's contributor. It follows that we
come to any definite conclusion, and must leave the question of
MS. Catechisms are even more dubious as
to origin than the printed ones. With the single exception of the
No. 4; they have turned up in between the leaves of old books, or in
of papers and MSS., with nothing discoverable as to their antecedents;
there is one exception, the Trinity College MS., which bears an
endorsement in another,
and later hand; "Molineux Family Papers, Freemasonry Feb., 1711." In
so casually have these MSS. appeared that it gives some verisimilitude
to the claim
made by the publishers of the printed catechisms; that the originals
existing MSS. are the Dumfries-Kilwinning
MS., No. 4; the Trinity College MS. above mentioned; the Sloane MS. No.
the Chetwode Crawled MS.; the Essex MS. and
the Institution of Freemasons, the last two of which are later than
1750; and a
copy of the Mystery of Freemasons which may or may not be independent
of the printed
version of 1730. Finally we have the confused and fragmentary Mason's
published in the Scot's Magazine in 1755, which professes to refer to a
of a century earlier (6); namely, "about the year 1727."
of these Catechisms are versions of a
common original, the Grand Mystery, the Essex and the Institution. The
printed, as we have seen, in 1724. The two latter can be shown, by
to be independent versions, so that in spite of their late date as
support the earlier printed document. This makes it practically certain
original version, from which all three are independently derived, must
than 1724 by a number of years. The same thing is true of the
Examination and the
Mystery of Freemasons, which are also independent versions of a common
The remaining documents all stand alone, having no especially close
So far as the probable date of the MSS. can be determined from the
paper and handwriting,
they might all be earlier than 1717, with the exception of the Essex
and the Institution.
But most of them have been set later than this on account of their
as the age of these contents is a question at issue, this cannot be
a conclusive argument against an earlier dating. Into this controversy
no need for us to enter now; it is sufficient to say that all these
MSS. are of about the same period as the printed Catechisms. Probably
of all are, in the main, older than 1717, but all are open to the
suspicion of being
modified, added to or re-arranged at some time after this date.
rather tedious prefatory remarks have
been necessitated by the fact that the documents are practically
unknown to the
average Masonic reader, in spite of the fact that much of the Grand
Mystery is to
be found in Mackey's History, and that Gould published it, and the
full (7). A general idea of the nature of the Catechisms may thus be
these well-known works. We shall strictly limit ourselves here to such
as may throw light on the existence of separate degrees, and these are
not very numerous. And in respect to this, we shall merely inquire what
it is they
tell us, regardless of their general lack of authority and the
uncertainty as to
their date. And in doing this we shall treat them as a whole, so far as
prove to be possible.
we will take that group which may be designated
by the name of its published exemplar the Grand Mystery. In each of
catechisms we have this question and answer:
How many proper points?
A. Foot to foot, knee to knee, hand to hand, heart to heart and ear to
itself this signifies little to our purpose,
but as has been said, these cryptic statements must be treated as a
whole, and we
have to interpret one by parallel passages elsewhere, when such exist.
answer appears in the Examination and the Mystery, with the slight
to ear" instead of "ear to ear," but the question makes it much more
significant in view of our present object. It is, "How many points be
in Fellowship?" In view of all that has gone before this can hardly be
the Chetwode Crawley MS. we find this passage:
Are you a Fellow Craft?
Q. How many points of fellowship are there?
answer being the same as the enumeration
in the Grand Mystery of the "proper points."
to the latter, and the two related
versions, the Essex and the Institution, we find almost at the
beginning these questions
and their answers:
What is a Mason?
A. A Man, begot of a man, born of a woman, and Brother to a King.
Q. What is a Fellow?
A. A Companion of a Prince.
has no close parallel elsewhere in our
sources, but there is a passage in the Dumfries-Kilwinning MS. No. 4
to be an echo. It will be best to give it in full.
What are you?
A. I ame a Man.
Q. How shall I know that?
A. By all true signs …
What, are you no more to us?
A. Yes, but a man, I was begotten of a man and born of a woman, and
several potentat kings and mighty princes to my brothers.
spelling in this MS. is fearful and wonderful,
and punctuation is practically absent we have inserted several commas
to bring out
the apparent meaning.
the first answer stands it makes very little
sense, and is probably corrupt, as perhaps the whole passage. If we
that the original answer was "I am a Mason," the rest would be
- See BUILDER,
May, p. 168, note 17. To the works there cited should have been added
W. F. Vernon,
History of Freemasonry in the Province of Roxburgh Peebles and
- That is,
so far as can be judged from such excerpts as have been published.
- For other
instances see Gould, Hist., voI. iii, p. 57 and note 5 [Lib 1884, Vol
- This and
the following citations are quoted by Gould loc. cit. in his notes. For
see Lyon, Hist. [Lib*], p. 12, et seq.
- The "Sanction
to Publish" at the end of the book is dated Jan. 17, 1723, and this was
printed shortly before publication. See Vibert, BUILDER, 1923, p. 230.
Dumfries-Kilwinning was published by John
Lane A. Q. C., vol. vi [Lib 1893], p. 41; the
Sloane MS. has been published a number of
times; see BUILDER, 1928, p. 248, note 4; also for the Institution. The
College, the Chetwode Crawley and the Essex MS., have never been
also the discussion of these documents by Bro. Herbert Poole, A. Q. C., vol.
xxxvii [Lib 1924], p. 5, et seq.
- In the
Appendix to his large History. In the American Edition it will be found
in the middle
of the last volume at p. 276.
Washington Johnston; an Early Opponent of Slavery
Bro. Curtis G.
day in the year 1793 there arrived at Vincennes,
the "Old Post on the Wabash," a lad of seventeen years who answered
to the name of General Washington Johnston. Little is known of his
early life, but
it has been established that he was born Nov. 10, 1776, in Culpepper
near where George Washington had lived many years.
his migration to Vincennes, General Johnston
had spent some time with relatives at Louisville, Ky. It is said that
law there and it is quite certain that when he left that place he had
somewhere acquired the rudiments of a liberal education. Louisville was
then a frontier
settlement of some seventy log cabins. It had been established by Col.
Clark only fifteen years before, on the occasion of his celebrated
Kaskaskia and Vincennes.
have no account of Johnston's journey from
Louisville to Vincennes. It is quite certain, however, that he followed
"Buffalo Trace," which took its name from the fact that from time
countless thousands of those animals had traveled the same route each
the prairies of Illinois and the salt licks of Kentucky, thereby
well-worn trail through the wilderness. In Esarey's History of Indiana
found a graphic account of a journey made
over the same route by Arthur St. Clair and Judge Jacob Burnet, six
Johnston had located at Vincennes. It is very interesting in connection
sketch, because it gives us an idea of the dangers and difficulties
by this lad of seventeen in traversing a distance that may now be
covered in a pleasurable
motor jaunt of three short hours.
the Falls of the Ohio (Louisville) they left
their boat, mounted horses and proceeded on their way. About nine
o'clock in the
evening they discovered, at a little distance from the path they were
the camp of four or five Indians, which they approached. After having
with the Indians, they procured a brand of fire, proceeded some
on their way, and halted for the night. Having brushed away the snow
from the spot
they had selected for a camp and collected a good supply of wood for
the night they
kindled a fire, took some refreshments, wrapped themselves in their
laid down to sleep.
next night they encamped in a rich valley,
where they found an abundance of fallen timber, thus enabling them to
keep up a
warm fire through the night, before which they slept very comfortably
During the night a couple of panthers, attracted by the light of the
sufficiently near the camp to serenade the travelers with their
but kept a respectful distance. The next day they encountered a severe
during which they surprised eight or ten buffalos, sheltering
themselves from the
storm behind the top of a beech tree full of dead leaves, which had
fallen by the
side of the "trace" and which hid the travelers from their view. The
and the noise of the wind among its dry leaves prevented the buffalos
the men till they had approached within two rods of the place where the
stood. The latter then took to their heels and were soon out of sight.
One of the
men drew a pistol and fired but without visible effect. That evening
White River where they found an old cabin, deserted by its builder, in
which a large
wildcat had taken shelter, and seemed at first inclined to vindicate
its right of
possession. It was, however, soon ejected, and the travelers entered
the premises without molestation during the night and without
attempting to do personal
violence to the tenant whom they had driven out. The next morning they
now let us take a glimpse at Vincennes not
the modern little city that proudly bears that name, with its well
its beautiful homes, its churches and its schools, but the Vincennes of
General Washington Johnston took up his residence there. Again we are
look to contemporary sources for information. In 1796 Vincennes seas
Count Volney, a traveler from France. In his published works he has
left us an interesting
description of Vincennes and its people as he saw them, when Johnston
had been a
resident there but three years.
day after my arrival a court was held, to
which I repaired, to make my remarks on the scene. On entering, I was
to observe the audience divided into races of men, in persons and
differing from each other.... They know nothing at all of civil or
their women neither sew, nor spin, nor make butter, but pass their time
and tattle, while all at home is dirt and disorder. The men take to
hunting, fishing, roaming in the woods and loitering in the sun. They
do not lay
up, as we do, for winter, or provide for a rainy day.... If they trade,
by exorbitant charges to make much out of little; for little is
all, and what they get they throw away upon Indian girls, in toys and
time is wasted too in trifling stories of their insignificant
adventures to town
to see their friends. Thus they speak of New Orleans, as if it were a
walk of half
an hour, though it is fifteen hundred miles down the river.
of the Indian population of the town
The men and women
roamed all day about the town, merely to get rum, for which they
their peltry, their toys, their clothes, and at length, when they had
their all, they offered their prayers and entreaties, never ceasing to
they had lost their senses. Hence arise ridiculous scenes. They will
take hold the
cup with both hands, like monkeys, burst into unmeaning laughter, and
beloved cup, to enjoy the taste of it the longer; and about the liquor
invitations, bawl aloud at each other, though close together, seize
and pour liquor down their throats, and, in short, display all the
freaks of vulgar
drunkenness. Sometimes tragic scenes ensue: they become mad or stupid,
in the dust or mud, lie a senseless log till next day. We found them in
by dozens in the morning, wallowing in the filth with the pigs. It was
a day to pass without a deadly quarrel, by which about ten men lose
yearly… They dwell separately, in mistrust, jealousy and eternal
them, what they want they have a right to, and what they have strength
seize is their own.
we find General Washington Johnston located
at Vincennes in 1793, determined to become a lawyer and inspired, no
doubt, by the
brilliant achievements of such men as Thomas Jefferson and Patrick
Henry, back in
Old Virginia. What force of character, what tenacity of purpose, what
what faith he must have possessed, not to have completely lost himself
unpromising and uninspiring surroundings! How the young man spent the
years of his life in Vincennes is not recorded, but it is evident that
himself in study, by way of preparation for his chosen profession, for
at the February
term of the District Court of the Territory Northwest of the River
Ohio, held at
Vincennes in 1799, he was duly admitted to the bar the first to receive
west of what later became the State of Ohio.
all present day standards, Vincennes must
have presented anything but an attractive picture when Johnston became
of Blackstone and nailed up the "shingle" that proclaimed him an
and counsellor at law." The village was nothing more than a frontier
of rude log cabins. The streets were mere paths leading from one house
The fort, the church, and the tavern comprised all that might have been
buildings. The population, aggregating perhaps six hundred souls, was a
of French, Indians and Americans, the latter consisting of venturesome
who had wandered up from Virginia through Gumberland Gap, by way of
a few of the French spoke English and practically none of the Americans
The seat of the government was at Marietta, Ohio. There was no
newspaper and no
practice of law presented many perplexing
problems to the young barrister. Conflicting land claims constituted a
source of troublesome litigation. Sessions of the General Court were
the judges being obliged to ride the circuit, which embraced Marietta,
Detroit, Vincennes and Kaskaskia. At Vincennes the situation was
by the attitude of the French inhabitants toward the new system of
justice. They were accustomed to a simple and inexpensive government,
resembling the manorial system of the middle ages. The law of the land
time of Grozat had been called rather grandiloquently the Coutume de Paris. Evidently no one knew
what the "customs"
of Paris were, so the military commandant of the fort and the Catholic
together had been the whole government of the French settlement for
nearly a century,
administered the customs of the country, somewhat after the fashion of
law. The priest kept the vital statistics, settled all minor disputes,
and, of course,
officiated at all marriages. The commandant issued and confirmed land
administered a self-imposed criminal code in a summary manner. No
wonder the French
settlers at Vincennes were perplexed and bewildered, and petitioned
be relieved from the blessings of freedom and self-government!
is remarkable tribute to his character that
Johnston was able to win and retain throughout his eventful life the
esteem of all the discordant elements that went to make up the
citizenship of the
community. He learned to understand the viewpoint of the French
mastered their language. So great was the confidence of the judges in
and integrity that he was permitted to address juries in French, a
accorded any other lawyer at Vincennes.
no man in Indiana, certainly none in
Indiana Territory, ever held so many important offices of public trust
as he did.
In 1800 he was made the first postmaster at Vincennes. Three times he
President of the Board of Trustees of the Borough of Vincennes, an
office that corresponds
to that of Mayor now. In 1810 he was appointed a Justice of the Peace,
of much responsibility in those days. He was for two terms a member of
Legislature, and was Speaker of that body at the time it petitioned
admit Indiana as a state. At different periods he served as Auditor of
Adjutant General, and Treasurer of Indiana Territory. He was a member
of the General
Assembly of the state in 1821, 1822, 1826 and 1829. During the session
of 1822 he
was Speaker of the House of Representatives. He was twice the presiding
the Circuit Court. In 1809 he published the first law book written in
under the title, The Justices' and Constables' Guide. He was with
at the Battle of Tippecanoe, and upon the return of the General from
publically welcomed him on behalf of the Legislative Council and House
alone as a public officer, but as a private
citizen as well, did Johnston assume a position of leadership in the
He frequently delivered public addresses on patriotic occasions, and a
these were published in The Western Sun, by request of the citizens. He
of the members of the original Board of Trustees for the Vincennes
the first Clerk of that Board, and throughout his life manifested the
and concern in that institution. He was likewise one of the
incorporators of the
Vincennes Library Company which, in 1806, established the first library
in the Territory.
At his death his own extensive collection of books found its way into
and upon the dissolution of the Company in 1883, these passed into the
of Vincennes University. Their well-balanced variety, and the succinct
notes, in the bold handwriting of the original owner, stand as mute
proof of his
comprehensive interest in literature and the cultural pursuits.
Washington Johnston was one of the pioneers
of the old Indiana Territory and when we speak of Indiana Territory it
is well to
bear in mind that it embraced what is now the states of Illinois,
Michigan and Wisconsin,
as well as Indiana all of the old Northwest, except Ohio. He came to
the formative period, when the future states were just beginning to
Constitution of the United States had been adopted only six years
Washington had been first inaugurated President but four years before,
and but fourteen
years had passed since George Rogers Clark had captured this part of
from the British. He saw the beginning of almost everything, and was
himself a part
of almost everything in the beginning. He reached Vincennes seven years
was known that it would become the capital of Indiana Territory. He saw
and the seat of government established. He saw the territorial officers
tardily came to take up their residence and set the wheels of
government in motion.
He saw, one by one as they came, bright, educated, ambitious and daring
from the eastern states, who had each determined to make a mark for
himself in the
new country. He saw the settlers come and drive the Indians from their
and hunting grounds. He saw some men from the free states, and some
from the slave
states, who brought their slaves with them, all determined to carve out
the wilderness and on the prairies. He saw representatives come from
settlements roundabout to the seat of the new government, bringing with
various problems to be solved.
saw William Henry Harrison come as a young
man of twenty-seven to assume his duties as Governor of Indiana
Territory, and he
knew Zachary Taylor when he was a young army officer stationed at
was Harrison's steadfast friend and staunch supporter from the
beginning to the
end. When Harrison first came everybody was his friend, but as time
wore on enemies
sprang up and these tormented him and his administration continuously,
never failed him. One of the most vexing problems that arose in those
was the question of slavery. It may seem strange to us that slavery
have been a serious problem in Indiana Territory, but it was one of the
matters that confronted the new community. Harrison favored slavery,
and this fact
brought many of his friends to the same way of thinking.
is true that the Ordinance of 1787, creating
the Northwest Territory, prohibited slavery. But this was only a
that could have been changed by Congress, and it came very nearly to
the point of
doing so two or three times under the influence of those who would
profit by it.
1807 the Territorial Legislature adopted
a very remarkable law respecting slavery, known as the Indenture Act.
among other things, that slaves might be brought into the Territory by
that within thirty days thereafter the owner and the slave might enter
into a contract
of indenture, by the terms of which they might agree upon a period of
which the slave should serve the master in consideration of his
freedom, and that
upon the refusal of the slave to enter into such an agreement he might
from the Territory by his master and sold.
following are specimens of Indenture agreements,
taken from public records, as given by Col. William M. Cockrum, in his
this 27th day of July, 18 , I, Joseph Barton,
have this day set free my slave, Thomas Turner, and I hereby make and
the emancipation paper for his complete freedom. The said Thomas Turner
privilege of being known as a free man, has agreed to indenture his
me for a period of thirty years from date.
Thomas Turner, do hereby accept the emancipation
papers for which I Sincerely thank my former master and do cheerfully
agree to indenture
myself to the said Joseph Barton as per the above agreement.
27, 18 . THOMAS TURNER.
My own mark.
is to certify, that I, James Hartwell,
of my own free will and accord, do this day emancipate and give freedom
to a negro
slave, named Charles Hope, brought by me from North Carolina. In making
I want to bear testimony to the painstaking and careful way he has done
and that he is a quiet and most obedient servant and has always been
managed. For these good qualities it affords me great pleasure to be
able to give
him his rightly earned freedom. For some necessary expenses that has to
before he can leave the home he has so long lived at and for the love
he has for
me and my family, he hereby agrees to indenture his Services to me for
years from the 18th day of October, 18 , which is the date of this
Charles Hope, do hereby acknowledge my thankfulness
to my master for the kindness he has shown in setting me free and I
the conditions in my freedom papers and agree to serve the time
Specified, or until
contracts of indenture were assignable
to any person in the territory if the slaves consented, which they were
obliged to do. Commenting upon the last mentioned case, above quoted,
in his book says: Note the meanness of this hypocrite who made the
great show of
giving this negro pretended freedom with such a good certificate of
would make the negro more salable when he had an opportunity to sell
him, and on
the fifteenth day of the next November he did sell him to a neighbor
for four head
of horses, ten head of cattle, one hundred acres of military land, and
note for three hundred dollars. The next year this negro went with his
a pretended trip to the saline country of Illinois, but was carried
and was sold into slavery for life.
was a member of the legislature in
1808 as he had been in 1807. That body in 1808 was almost evenly
divided on the
subject of slavery; at least it was supposed to be at the beginning of
As usual, a number of petitions relating to slavery were presented, and
all referred to a committee of which Johnston was the chairman.
was not long before a report came in and
this was written by Johnston himself. He read the report to the body
and took the
strongest grounds possible against slavery. The document was a masterly
it must have been delivered in an eloquent manner, because after it was
before the body adjourned, the report was unanimously adopted.
proved to be the death knell to the institution
of slavery in Indiana Territory. The question was never presented
again, and Congress
never had another opportunity to comply with a request from Indiana
extend slavery to any of its soil.
was severely criticized for his apparent
change of front on the question of slavery. He answered his critics
candor and frankness. He acknowledged that he had allowed himself to be
a pro-slavery man, out of deference for what he believed to be the
a majority of the people among whom he lived. But he said he had always
slavery and was personally opposed to it. He said further that he had
been confronted with the responsibility of seriously and officially
the subject; that when he considered the harm that it would do
posterity, and the
trouble that it would surely bring to the country there was but one
course for him
to take, and that he had taken that course.
report was a remarkable document. No more
able or forcible indictment against human slavery was ever submitted to
of people in the United States. It contained the cold logic of William
the fiery eloquence of Wendell Phillips, and the human sympathy of
Cabin." It deserves to be classed among the great state papers of the
became and continued to be throughout
his life a devoted adherent of the institution of Freemasonry. He was
a member of the order at Louisville. The community at Vincennes was
more or less
unfriendly to Masonry, and William Henry Harrison was a pronounced
the Fraternity had a bold and determined champion in Johnston. Through
and persistent efforts Masonry was introduced into Indiana Territory.
On his initiative
a group of members at Vincennes applied for a dispensation to establish
there to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky. This was granted Aug. 27, 1807,
but one difficulty
after another prevented the formation of the lodge. The dispensation
Johnston requested another which was likewise granted. The lodge was
on March 13, 1809, the first legally constituted lodge of the order, or
matter the first assemblage of Masons in the territory now comprising
Michigan, and Wisconsin.
the occasion of the anniversary of Saint
John the Baptist, 1809, he delivered a Masonic address at the court
house in Vincennes,
"in the presence of the members of the lodge and a respectable
citizens." The full text of this discourse was published by request in
Western Sun of July 16, 1809. In the proceedings of the Grand Lodge of
1819, it is disclosed that Johnston proposed to publish in book form a
of his Masonic addresses, but if this was done no copy is known to be
served repeatedly in every office of Vincennes
Lodge, No. 1, and was the moving spirit in the organization of the
Grand Lodge of
Indiana. He represented the Vincennes Lodge at the preliminary meeting
held at Corydon,
Ind., Dec. 3, 1817, for the organization of a grand lodge, and acted as
of the committee which formulated the address to the grand lodges of
Ohio and Kentucky,
advising them of the proposed action. For two years he was the Deputy
of Indiana, and there is a tradition at Vincennes that he purposely
from the Grand Lodge meeting of 1830, because he did not desire to be
Washington Johnston died at Vincennes
Oct. 26, 1833, and was buried with full Masonic honors. In 1923 the
of Indiana and Vincennes Lodge, No. 1, caused an appropriate monument
to be placed
at his grave in Fairview cemetery. His family Bible and the Masonic
he wore are prized possessions of the Vincennes Lodge.
the Vincennes Gazette of Nov. 9, 1833, appeared
Departed this life
on the 26th ult. Gen. W. Johnston, Esq., in the 59th year of his age.
He was born
in Culpepper's county, Va., and came to this borough in 1794 (1793). He
of the very oldest immigrants to this part of the country. The writer
of this paragraph
(which is far too short and imperfect adequately to detail his merits)
design to eulogize him now, for "flattery" cannot "soothe the dull
cold ear of death," but to pay a just tribute of respect to departed
As a lawyer he stood deservedly high. His reading in his profession was
deep, and he used the advantages which he possessed for the advancement
of the interest
of his clients' justice. He filled many honorable offices with credit
and usefulness to the people. As a legislator he was discriminating,
intelligent, and dignified. As president judge he preserved the
sanctity of the
"ermine," and was equally impregnable to the flattery and intimidation.
As a magistrate he was enlightened and faithful to his trust. And in
relations of a Christian citizen, husband and father, he was not
surpassed. He was
one of that noble and gallant band that presented a fearless front to
tomahawk and deadly rifle on the well contested and bloody field of
His death has left a blank in our society which will not readily be
filled. He was
buried with Masonic honors and the large concourse of citizens that
remains to the grave, proclaimed the respect entertained for his memory.
writer has summarized the distinguished
services rendered by General Washington Johnston in these appropriate
"He killed the
institution of slavery and established the brotherhood of Freemasonry
Washington Johnston's Report against Slavery. 1808
a struggle of seven years the inhabitants
of this portion of the British Empire in America found themselves in
of independence as a nation, and in the institution they adopted they
enjoyment of a degree of personal liberty utterly unknown to any other
But an unfortunate circumstance darkened the cheering prospect. In
but especially in the southern section of the Union, an oppressed race
of men, supplied
by a most inhuman trade, portended the most serious evils to the
Sensible that slavery in a country where liberty was deservedly so
dear, and had
been purchased at so high a price, presented a feature of deformity not
to be justified,
every state hastened to put an end to the horrid traffic.. Those which
it without anger abolished slavery altogether, and those which from the
of their negroes could not with due regard for their safety follow at
once the dictates
of justice and humanity, enacted laws for the protection of that
of men, and then gradual emancipation. When the Northwestern Territory
by Virginia to the United States, Congress obeyed the impulse of
justice and benevolence
and endeavored to prevent the propagation of an evil which they could
eradicate, by enacting in the ordinance which forms our constitution
shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the Territory,
law of the Territory entitled, "An
act concerning the introduction of negroes and mulattoes into the
makes it lawful for a holder of slaves to bring them into the
Territory, and to
keep them therein during sixty days, during which period the negro is
alternative of either signing an indenture by which he binds himself
for a number
of years, or of being sent to a slave state or territory there to be
sold. The natural
inference from this statement forces itself upon the mind that the
slave thus circumstanced
is held in involuntary servitude, and that the law permitting such
contrary to both the spirit and the letter of the ordinance, and that
it is unconstitutional. Your committee might add that the most
is made of that law. Negroes brought here are commonly forced to bind
for a number of years, reaching or extending to the natural term of
so that the condition of those unfortunate persons is not only
but down right slavery. It is perhaps unnecessary to advert to the
of a person under extreme duress of a slave becoming a party to a
with himself and receiving nothing.
That slavery though in itself unjust, might
nevertheless be tolerated
for reasons of expediency is a point which your committee do not feel
at liberty to concede. They are firmly fixed in the persuasion that
what is morally
wrong can never by expediency be made right. Such a pliable doctrine,
admitted, would soon line our highways with banditti, our streets with
and fill our exchange alleys with swindlers; but policy itself forbids
With respect to population, the great and more compact middle and
compared with the southern states, justifies the expectation that
proceed more from the first than the last. This observation will be
by the fact that the state of Virginia, older and larger than
a body of militia of sixty odd thousand men, when Pennsylvania actually
ninety odd thousand men.
With respect to the spirit of enterprise and
internal improvement, your
committee cannot trespass upon the time of the house by entering
minutely into the
elucidation of this important Subject, upon which very erroneous
opinions have been
entertained. They will only observe that a general view of the
of the union, and of their respective means of prosperity and
importance, will soon
convince the impartial enquirer that the hand of freedom can best lay
and rapidly raise the fabric of public prosperity. The old states north
without one single precious commodity, exporting nothing but bulky
everywhere the spectacle of industry and initiation. Their style of
is superior. Their mills, bridges, roads, canals, and their
manufactures are in
point of number without a parallel in the southern states, and they,
parts of the world, export to those states manufactured commodities to
a large amount
annually. On the subject of public improvements we will beg leave to
refer the house
to a document laid before Congress on the subject of roads and canals.
of Ohio furnishes us with a case in point, which aptly illustrates the
observations. In the short space of a few years our eyes witness it
importance, where but a little while before Indian hordes and savage
without control. Farms, villages and towns are multiplying with a
in the history of new settlements. The same cause will produce the same
The exertion of the free man who labors for himself and family must be
than the faint efforts of a meek and dispirited slave, whose condition
to be bettered by his incessant toil. The industrious will flock where
is honorable and honored, the man of an independent spirit where equity
and where no proud nabob can east on him a look of contempt.
With respect to the influence which the
practice of slavery may have
upon morals and manners, when men are invested with an uncontrolled
power over a
number of friendless human beings, them to incessant labor; when they
see the whip hurrying promiscuously the young, the aged, the infirm,
woman with her sucking infant, to their daily toil; when they can see
shivering with cold and pinched with hunger; when they can barter a
with the same unfeeling indifference that they barter a horse, part the
her husband and, unmindful of their mutual cries, tear the child from
when they can, in the unbridled gust of stormy passion, inflict cruel
which no law can avert or mitigate; when such things can take place,
can it ever
be expected that the milk of human kindness will ever moisten, in their
with one another, the eyes of the man in the daily practice of such
and will respect the moral obligations and the laws of justice, which
they are constantly
outraging with the wretched negro? Their passions, never controlled,
out in frequence, which will be decided with savage cruelty, and their
receive a tinge of repelling fierceness, which will be too often
a proper education has not softened and expanded the heart and
corrected the understanding.
At this very moment the progress of reason and general benevolence is
slavery to its merited destination. England, sordid England, is
blushing at the
practice! I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just.
Must the Territory
of Indiana take a retrograde step into barbarism and assimilate itself
With respect to its political effects, it may
be worthy of inquiry how
long the political institutions of a people admitting slavery may be
remain uninjured. How proper a school for the acquirement of republican
is a state of things wherein usurpation is sanctioned by law; wherein
of justice are trampled under foot; wherein those claiming the right of
are themselves the most execrable tyrants, and where is consecrated the
maxim "that power is right?" Your committee will here only observe that
the habit of unlimited dominion in the slave holder will beget in him a
haughtiness and pride, productive of a proportionate habit of servility
in those who possess no negroes, both equally inimical to our
lord of three or four hundred Negroes will not easily forgive, and the
and laboring man will seldom venture a vote contrary to the will of
such an influential
question your committee have hitherto only
considered in relation to the internal prosperity and happiness of the
They cannot yet dismiss the subject without offering to this House two
tending to prove that in relation to the United States the admission of
into this Territory is a measure which neither justice nor policy can
Negro holders can emigrate with their slaves into the extensive
the Territory of New Orleans, and the more extensive Louisiana. By
them the Territory of Indiana a kind of monoply of the United States
land is granted
to them, and the middle and eastern states, as well as enemies of
slavery from the
south, are effectually precluded from forming settlements in any of the
of the United States. Your committee respectfully conceive that the
cannot with justice make such an unequal distribution (if they may be
expression) of the laws with the disposal of which they are entrusted
for the benefit
of all, but especially of those states whose overflowing population
we take a general survey of the geographical
extent of the United States we will discern the system of slavery
the line of Pennsylvania and the Ohio River to the Floridas, and from
to the Mississippi. By the purchase of Louisiana, where it was found
may spread to an indefinite extent north and west, so that it may be
said to have
received a most alarming extension, and is calculated to excite the
fears. By admitting it in Indiana, that is to say opening to it the
vast tract of
territory between the state of Ohio, the river of that name, the Lakes,
Mississippi, the comparative importance of the middle and eastern
states, the real
strength of the Union, is greatly reduced and the dangers threatening
tranquility of the United States proportionately increased.
the above reasons, and many others which
might be adduced, your committee are of opinion that slavery cannot and
to be admitted into this Territory; that it is inexpedient to petition
for a modification of that part of the ordinance relative to slavery,
and that the
act of the legislature of Indiana for the introduction of negroes and
into said Territory ought to be repealed, for which purpose they have
committee are further of opinion that a
copy of this report, and a copy of one of the petitions upon which the
same is predicated,
be immediately made out, signed by the Speaker of the House and
attested by the
Clerk, and forwarded by the ensuing mail to the Speaker of the House of
of the United States, with a request that he will lay the same before
W. JOHNSTON, Chairman of Committee. Indiana
Territory, Vincennes, 19th Oct., 1808.
the period this is a most remarkable
document and we may well be proud that it came from the pen of a Mason.
the grave of General Washington Johnston was erected by the Grand Lodge
as appears from the following transcript of the inscriptions on the two
on the base. That on the south side reads as follows:
ERECTED A. D.
A. L. 5923, BY THE GRAND LODGE, F. AND A. M. INDIANA, AND VINCENNES
LODGE NO. 1,
F. AND A. M. IN GRATEFUL RECOGNITION OF THE DISTINGUISHED SERVICES OF
JOHNSTON TO FREE MASONRY AND THE STATE
The tablet to
bears these words:
JOHNSTON BORN NOVEMBER 10, 1776; DIED OCTOBER 26, 1833: FATHER OF
MASONRY IN INDIANA
TERRITORY; CREATOR OF VINCENNES LODGE NO. 1, F. AND A. M. MARCH 13,
OF GRAND LODGE F. AND A. M. INDIANA DECEMBER 3, 1817.
Judaism and General Erich Ludendorff
Bro. L. F.
future historian, the writer of history
yet to be made, will be puzzled by one problem, one strange
phenomenon is named anti-Semitism. It is
an agitation, a propaganda, of international scope, forming the
political parties in some countries, and is directed towards the
complete denial of social, economic and political rights to the Jew;
"making it impossible for him to exist," to use Mussolini's phrase in
regard to Italian Masons.
psychologist will speculate and the historian
will wonder in regard to this phenomenon, that the originators, the
the anti-Semitic movement were "good Christians," in many cases the
and administrators of Christian Churches and denominations.
and psychologist will comment on and
seek to explain this strange phenomenon. Jewish converts were welcomed
received a fair, and even generous treatment in the Roman Catholic
in Great Britain we can point to Disraeli, and to many other Jews who
have won high
place and received honorable treatment. But in Protestant countries
has been conspicuous by its absence, and anything like a fair economic
treatment has usually been totally denied to anyone of Jewish race. The
these lines has had some strange experiences in this regard. Once he
philosophy in a Christian institution. He was meeting with marked
was a wonderful response on the part of the students but there was a
of the authorities, and a pious official said: "What will the world
will people think? A Jew teaching philosophy in a Christian
a like case we read:
The accusing angel
flew up to Heaven's Chancery with the words, and blushed as he gave
them in. The
recording Angel dropped a tear as he wrote them down, and blotted it
illustration of anti-Semitism in Germany,
the future historian and psychologist could mention the case and
conduct of Stoecker,
a Court preacher in the time of Bismarek's regime. More recent is the
Ludendorff, a German general.
General Erich Ludendorff
do not take possession of our ideas;
they take possession of us, they master us and force us into the arena
and we are
but gladiators fighting for our ideas," so said Heinrich Heine.
us, first of all, introduce the innocent
reader to our subject ‒ object, the main, the "heroic" figure of this
article, whose name constitutes one-half of our title, Erich
Ludendorff, the military
genius, together with Hindenburg, now President of Germany, the chief
in the Great War of 1914-19. Meyer's Encyclopedia ascribes to him the
initial success of the German army. "For all the achievements, the
of the German army, its victories in the East and West, credit and
honor is due
to Ludendorff. His labor was gigantic and so were all his contributions
military matters." In some future textbooks of History, the student
will have to memorize:
was the guiding "genius"
in the German invasion of Belgium. His scientific strategy made
possible the swift
capture of Liege, the military occupation of a great part of Belgium
the near capture of Paris, the capital of France, whose occupation by
"might" have terminated the war, and for a time established the
in a way the world hegemony of Germany. But Fata versunt aliter.
us return to our main, our renowned and
Ludendorff was born April 9, 1865, in
Druszewina, Posen, now a part, a province, of the Kingdom empire
name, what's in a name," etc. of Poland. His father was an officer of
Army, a successful commander in the Prussian-Austrian conflict of 1866.
was a pupil of the cadet school in Plow; he was made a Lieutenant in
1882, at the
age of seventeen; and naturally "rationally" became a military man. The
English word military comes, is derived, from the Roman word miles,
for the understanding of the psychologically
inclined reader: by race Ludendorff is, and proudly calls himself, a
This word Nordic is intended to designate a Northman, that is, a Norman
‒ Danish-North ‒ German member of the genus hobo. Although born in
Posen, a Polish-Slavic
district, he traces his paternal ancestry to Sweden, from which country
father had taken unto himself a wife.
Ludendorff, after the war, became an unsuccessful
candidate for the Presidency of the German Republic. He is now a member
of the German
Reichstag. He has published a number of partly political, partly
or treatises, which have been translated into most Aryan languages, and
found on the shelves of our Public Libraries. The latest, to readers of
the most interesting, achievement of Erich Ludendorff is the writing
of a learned, scientific, philosophic treatise on the subject of
book, printed in 1927, has for its title, The Annihilation of
the Revelation of Its Secrets. [Lib 1927
For an understanding,
an appreciation of this purpose, this good intention, this attack by
we deem it expedient to give a few historical statistical facts
concerning the "Fatherland"
and of Freemasonry.
is a country which, before the war,
had a population of a little over 65 million, and now has a population
more than 60 million. The number of members of an Order called
Freemasonry, on a
planet called Earth, is about four million, in the U. S. membership is
million, in Germany is about 60,000 (Ludendorff claims 80,000). In the
U. S. three
men in a hundred are Masons, in Germany there is one Mason in a
number of Jews now living on this Planet
Earth is about fifteen million, of which number we have in the U.S.
million or three per cent of U.S. population. In Germany are living
statistics) 600,000, or one per cent of the German population.
Ludendorff, as usual,
exaggerates a little and claims one million Jews as inhabitants of the
stated, the number of Masons upon a planet
called Earth is about four million, of which number this writer gives
per cent, or 40,000, as Jews. Of these 40,000 about 30,000 are in the
U. S., and
most of these are in the "Jewish metropolis" called New York.
"Situation" In Germany
ancient times, that is, until very recently,
unbaptised Jews were not admissible into German Masonry. At this hour
in most lodges
"unbaptized" Jews are not even nominally admissible, baptised Jews are
nominally admissible. A few lodges welcome, nominally, all religious
even Jews, as members of their Order. Now, if the number of Jews in
of Germany were in exact proportion to the percentage of their race to
population, there would be six hundred Jewish Masons; but actually we
find in Germany,
whose population is over sixty million, about two hundred Jews, two
of Israel, who are members of the Order of Freemasonry.
the presentation of these facts, we will
give a few excerpts from the latest book by General Ludendorff.
of Freemasonry is the Jew. A man of any racial affinity, particularly a
ought to recognize this fact." "To prove, to justify, to establish this
declaration I [Ludendorff] will give the reader a glimpse of the
dependence of German
Freemasonry upon Judaism." "The Jews, of course, know but too well the
secret or secrets of Freemasonry, for we read in a work by Dr. Isaac M.
upon a time a friend of this writer, L. F. Strauss, and the
father-in-law of Mr.
Ochs, owner of New York Times], 'Freemasonry is a Jewish institution
degrees, symbols, passwords are Jewish from beginning to end.' "
of Freemasons upon Jewry not only renders so difficult the liberation
of the German
people from the yoke of enemies, but it intensifies, aggravates the
and makes of some Germans, workers in the establishment of Jewish
Jewish world dominion. The primary aim of Freemasonry is to impress the
the professional leaders in industry, into service for the
establishment of Jewish
of Germans of both sexes was made possible by making a German forget
that he was
an Aryan, a Teuton and above everything, a German."
"There is not
sufficient space to give now the whole history of Masonry. We wish to
only: Masonry came to Germany from England about the middle of the 18th
with strongly Jewish constituent forms and formulas; it was favored by
such as Moses Mendelsohn, and was supported by the Order of Jesus."
Freemasonry had made propaganda for the World War, and now prevents the
of truth about this war by means of Judaizing this our Universe."
in one of the highest Masonic degrees is not a test or proof of a
of a knowledge of final designs of the Order. In one of the
we can read to what awful, frightful things a member of the 30th Degree
one of our foremost statesmen, found himself in such a dilemma. He
prohibition of the Order in the Congress at Verona in the year 1822."
were chosen Protectors, and then had to suffer." "Emperor William II
the Czar of Russia were not Freemasons, and for this reason both lost
"Masonic members, not in Jewish Lodges, on the Planet Earth amount to
millions, first, U. S. with more than three million Masons, next
England with several
hundred thousands, Germany 80,000. This number 80,000 gives a good, a
of German, Teuton blood. But hereby is strengthened the force of German
number about one million in Germany." [Exaggerated official statistics
are influential officials in the German government. Streseman is a
is a sticky, glutinous, invisible substance penetrating everything."
called Acacia is the Sceptre of Judah. "I [Ludendorff] know the Acacia
a thornbush. In the inner realm of Freemasonry Acacia is presented as
the tree of
life, is adorned with blossoms white and red and impersonates Truth and
"The Germans, of course, know but too well this truth or justice
the World by the Sceptre of Judah."
"In all Masonic
Lodges shines the Star of David." "In the lowest degree, in that of
we have in Germany, in place of the six-pointed, the five-pointed star,
has become the Jewish Soviet star a Kabbalistic symbol." "This
star represents Light, personified by the Jew priest standing in the
of the Temple of Israel when the High Priest [on the Day of Atonement]
the inner Sanctuary." [Some useful information here.]
"G, so conspicuous
in all Masonic presentations, represents Gematria. In reality this
letter G takes
the place, personifies, the letter of the initial letter of Jehovah."
Kabbala is a book of Jewish philosophy, Jewish magic, dark
is vicious superstition letter and number mysticism. The Hebraic word
War calculated by, in Gematria, equals 1914."
star of David is for the Jew the creation in six days and the geometric
Solomon's Seal, presented in the form of a triangle."
"This star of
David we find in all lodges."
teaches Jewish ideas of Creation, mentions 10 concentric figures."
teaches the idea, the doctrine of reincarnation."
"A tree is another
Kabbalistic figure or picture for creation and is a highly venerated
symbol in the
realm of Freemasonry."
"The New Testament.
So-called Christian humanitarian Freemasonry bases its mythology, not
on Jesus of
Nazareth, not on Petrus, not on Paulus, not on the four evangelists,
but on the
Evangelism of St. John. Here we find the first words of John: In the
the Word, the Word was with God, God was the Word, etc. This is in
accord with fundamental
Kabbalistic Doctrine of the Logos." [Correct, Strauss.]
doctrines of moral laws and ideas about Divinity are expressed in the
the word 'Vernunft,' reason. In the bloody French Revolution at the end
of the eighteenth
century this goddess 'Vernunft,' or Reason, was carried through the
streets of Paris
and in her name the most noble and hochrassiger, most highly
blood was shed just as now in Russia. The Jewish Vernunft demands these
"The Jew has
but one purpose, one aim in life: To make his ethical standard a
religion, a faith
for the whole Universe. Christianity, Mohammedanism, is for the Jew a
Freemasonry is a second step."
"The Order of
Odd Fellows is another tool in the Jewish effort. Here appear Moses and
Chaplains, as ministers in Levitical dresses. We even hear the 'Our
the customary blessings of the Christian Church."
Lodges in the World War
F. Irwin, Associate Editor
approach to the task of writing the histories
of these two Military Lodges has been postponed to the latest possible
to the fact that the record of these two Lodges is the most
unsatisfactory of all
the series we have been recording. They are also the only ones in the
in which their officers made no report back to the Grand Lodge,
returned no records
nor their dispensations. In other words, after they were granted their
and started on their way, they dropped from the official sight of their
officers thenceforward. Only a note here and there is left to indicate
not they ever held a single meeting after their formal institution.
Grand Lodge Officers attempted to obtain
reports and records but in the words of Grand Secretary Hardwick:
made no returns to us. While I was present
at the setting to work of both I know of no meetings they had
afterwards as the
Regiments moved and I was not in touch with them and no report of any
kind was made
to this office.
Dave Jackson, in his 1919 report as Grand
Secretary, said in reference to "Army Lodges," after first reciting the
circumstances in which the two were established in Kentucky regiments,
from Grand Master James N. Saunders, that:
either of these lodges ever held a meeting,
the Grand Secretary has not been advised of it, nor has he been able to
get in communication
with the masters or secretaries since the organization of the lodges.
When the dispensations
were continued by the authority of this Grand Lodge in 1917, date of
was not given, but the presumption is that they expired at the
termination of the
war. Unless otherwise instructed, I will drop the names of these two
our roster of subordinate lodges.
action appears to have been taken by the
Grand Lodge in respect to this part of Bro. Jackson's report, and
was taken by him as tacit authority for the erasure of the lodges from
Lodge roster, as they do not thereafter appear.
Army Lodge, U. D. 159th U. S. Inf.
first of the two Kentucky Lodges to come
into existence was designated the W. A. Colston Army Lodge, U. D. The
up from the Masons within the First Kentucky Infantry, that was
designated by the
government as the 159th U. S. Infantry. The petition is as follows and
favorable consideration by the Grand Master:
FOR A MILITARY LODGE AND DISPENSATION
Grand Master J. N. Saunders, Grand Master
of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A. M.:
the undersigned officers of the First Kentucky
Infantry, having volunteered our services to the country in the war now
being about to depart for foreign lands for active service with the
Army of the
United States; we, each of us, being residents of Kentucky, Master
Masons in good
and regular standing, under the jurisdiction of Lodges subordinate to
Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A. M., not disturbing our present
relationship to our
home Lodges, hereby ask a Dispensation empowering us to meet as a
at or near the military stations of said Regiment of the United States
there practice the rites, perform the duties and enjoy the privileges
and in said Lodge to receive to membership, to initiate, pass and raise
of said regiment who are residents of Kentucky, who are found worthy
and who possess
the requisite qualifications.
A. Colston, Falls City Lodge No.
L. Shulhafer, St. George Lodge, No. 239
Mallenekrodt, Phoenix Lodge, No. 31,
V. Williams, Aurora Lodge, No. 633.
J. Hardesty, Eminence Lodge, No. 282.
C. Barnes, Donovan Lodge, No. 292.
F. Ewing, Louisville Lodge, No. 400.
M. Chesehier, Louisville Lodge, No.
Carrell, Daylight Lodge, No. 760.
Byrne, Jr., Russelville Lodge, No.
F. Rives, Solomon Lodge, No. 5.
S. Wright, Solomon Lodge, No. 5.
Duncan, Daylight Lodge, No. 760.
Short, Lexington Lodge, No. 1.
E. Royalty, Breekinridge Lodge, No.
67 (W. M.).
F. Offut, Preston Lodge, No. 281.
Grand Master reported that the above mentioned
were all of them residents of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Master
Masons in good
and regular standing, under the jurisdiction of Lodges subordinate to
Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A. M., and officers in the First
Army of the United States now One Hundred and Fifty-ninth United States
summoned to active military service in a foreign land, and said, that,
their present relationship to their home Lodges, they asked for a
them to meet at or near their military stations as a Masonic Lodge:
… and there to practice
the rights, perform the duties, and enjoy the privileges of Masonry, to
to membership, to initiate, pass and raise soldiers of said regiment
who are residents
of Kentucky, who are found worthy and possess all the requisite
Master Masons who make this petition have
evidenced the highest claim to all the rights and privileges possible
to be granted
under the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky; they have
their services and their lives in defense of their country, in
vindication of the
rights of outraged civilization, and in protection of peaceful homes,
children and defenseless women against the most barbarous and faithless
tyranny the world has ever known. The dispensation is granted.
petitioners are hereby authorized to open
and hold a Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons at or near the military
said regiment, to be known as W. A. Colston Army Lodge, with
jurisdiction not territorial,
with the First Kentucky Infantry, now One Hundred and Fifty-ninth
Infantry. I hereby designate Hubert E. Royalty to be Master, and I. L.
to be Senior Warden, and William A. Colston to be Junior Warden of said
of whom has been examined by me and found proficient in the work and
the Symbolic degrees of Masonry.
Lodge shall be governed by the Constitution
and Regulations of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A. M., and
and Rules of Order as recommended by the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, F.
& A. M.,
and published in the authorized Book of Constitutions, Fourth Edition,
All Past Masters admitted to this Lodge to retain such rank therein as
under my hand and the Seal of the Grand
Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A. M., at Standford, Ky., this 27th day
of August, 1917.
Aug. 27, 1917, at Regimental Headquarters
of the One Hundred and Fifty-ninth United States Infantry, at Camp
Louisville, Kentucky, with the assistance of the Officers of the Grand
Kentucky, in the presence of most of the Past Grand Masters of this
and a large company of distinguished Masons from different parts of the
Grand Master instituted W. A. Colston Army Lodge and installed the
to any work that may have been performed
by this Lodge, no returns having been made to the Grand Lodge of
Kentucky and no
Dimits having been brought under the notice of the Grand Secretary, all
is to the effect that the Lodge was dormant so far as work was
a letter from Bro. Frank D. Rash, Louisville,
Ky., Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, dated Feb. 16,
latest sum total of information I have been
able to secure indicates that most likely neither of these Lodges held
after their Institution. At least Capt. Shulhafer, S. W. of the W. A.
Lodge, tells me this concerning his Lodge. He did tell me that perhaps
session was held on the transport en route to France.
is the sum total of all that I have been
able to glean as to the Military Lodges of Kentucky during the World
War. The present
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky is M. W. Bro. Dr. John W.
Juett of Eminence,
Kentucky. Bro. Juett was a Y. M. C. A. Secretary in France during the
war and in
1919 was stationed at St. Nazaire, Base No. 1 in the Embarkation
Service. I met
him while on duty at that Base and formed a lasting and warm friendship
"Dad" Juett, as he was affectionately known by thousands of returning
soldiers, was one of the most popular Y Secretaries in the A. E. F. and
of strength to our overseas Masonic activities. He was for quite a
of the Masonic Club of Base No. 1 and through his experience and
enabled that Club to do a most effective piece of work.
the course of the years he has now reached
the summit of Blue Lodge leadership in his native State. Immediately
upon his induction
into the office of Grand Master, M. W. Bro. Juett appointed a special
to investigate the whole matter of the two Kentucky Field Lodges. This
is the Deputy Grand Master Frank D. Rash of Louisville, and Bro. Rash
expecting to be able to report back to the Annual Communication of the
this year the complete story of these two Lodges with their records
story therefore of the Kentucky Lodges is still open with bright
it will be made complete so that it may accompany all the other
histories of American
may be said of our Kentucky brethren. I
was fortunate in meeting many of them during the war and have made a
host of friends
among them since that struggle and I know that they embody a host of
excellent Craftsmen. There is no doubt at all but that these Masons did
and that they performed those deeds of Brotherly Love and Relief which
the Craft throughout our Army.
their own sakes our interest and our hope
is that the former officers of the two Lodges will have that historic
will arouse them to the importance of enabling their Grand Lodge to
rescue and to
preserve the records for later generations.
following notice of this Kentucky Field
Lodge appeared in the Masonic Home Journal of Louisville, Ky., for
Sept. 1, 1917,
and was reproduced in THE BUILDER for November of the same year:
Lodge Grants Dispensation For Military Lodge
the second time in the history of
the First Kentucky Infantry, a Masonic Lodge has been established in
During the war with Spain, just before the regiment was ordered to
Porto Rico, a
dispensation was granted and KENTUCKY ARMY LODGE, No. 1, U. D., was
among the soldiers, which flourished until the regiment was mustered
out of the
last Monday night M. W. Grand Master
James N. Saunders called together the officers of the Grand Lodge of
& A. M., to meet in one of the buildings just completed at Camp
the purpose of granting a dispensation to a number of soldier brethren
who had petitioned
for permission to organize a Lodge, to be named after their Colonel.
Grand Master issued a dispensation
to form the W. A. Colston Army Lodge, U. D., and under direction of the
of the Grand Lodge it was set to work. The following brethren having
and named in the petition as the three principal officers were
installed by Grand
Dr. H.E. Royalty, Worshipful Master
I. L. Shulhafer, Senior Warden;
W. A. Colston, Junior Warden.
newly elected Master assumed office, and
thanked the Grand Master for the honor conferred upon him by appointing
first Master. The following officers were elected or appointed:
Dan. M. Carrell, Secretary
Walter R. Byrne, Treasurer.
George M. Chesehier, Senior Deacon.
Ben. F. Offut, Junior Deacon.
M. Wright, Tyler.
Colston, when called upon for a few
remarks, made a stirring and patriotic speech, referring particularly
to the fact
that the teachings of the Masonic Order are exactly the same principles
United States is now fighting to uphold.
number of Past Grand Masters who were
present were called upon by the Master for remarks, and they responded
patriotic speeches until a late hour, after which a luncheon was served
in the Officers'
Mess Hall to all present."
reference to the former Field Lodge of the
First Kentucky Infantry during the Spanish-American War brings to mind
that the officers of this former Lodge are designated in their
dispensation as follows:
recommend that Bros. John H. Cowles, Wallace
W. Morris, and Fred. W. Hardwiek be appointed Master and Wardens of
Lodge, to be known as "Kentucky Army Lodge, No. 1, U. D."
H. Cowles was Captain of Co. H; Fred. W.
Hardwick was Second Lieut. of Co. H. ‒ Wallace W. Morris was First
Lieut. of Co.
these names the readers of my story will
be pleased to discover our Sovereign Grand Commander of the Southern
of the Scottish Rite, Sov. Grand Com. John H. Cowles, while in 2nd
they will discover the genial and popular Grand Secretary of the Grand
Kentucky. They have run true to form and in the years that have passed
come to a position of honor and responsibility, which but proves that
of Kentucky are fine example of Masonry at its best.
is a still further strain of coincidence
in the two histories of the Kentucky Army Lodge, No. 1, U. D., of the
War, and the W. A. Colston Army Lodge, U. D., of the World War. It is
found in the
person of Bro. I. L. Shulhafer. In the Masonic Home Journal of March
17, 1917, we
find the following:
next meeting was held on Aug. 1 in the Quartel
de Infanteria, Mayaguez, Porto Rico, in the audience chamber of the
Worshipful Master being seated on a dais, over which was suspended a
Alphonso XIII, King of Spain. The Fellow Craft degree was conferred on
Bro. I. L.
Shulhafer, Lieutenant of Company M, at the request of St. George Lodge,
the story of the later Kentucky Military
Lodge (W. A. Colston) we read: "At the end of the petition presented to
Grand Master of Kentucky, a list of names of the petitioners." The
this list is I.L. Shulhafer, St. George Lodge 239.
the dispensation granted we find this line:
"I hereby designate I. L. Shulhafer to be Senior Warden."
these two paragraphs from the two stories
we are glad to present to our readers the remarkable record of Bro.
the two historic epochs in Kentucky Military Masonry.
Army Lodge, U. D. 160th Inf., U. S. A., Kentucky
is the second of the Kentucky Field Lodges
that were warranted by Grand Master Saunders during the World War. It
unique distinction of having had two names during its brief career. You
the name originally applied to it in the petition sent up to the Grand
the Masons of the 2nd Kentucky Regiment, known during the War as the
U. S. A.
story as I have obtained it from Grand Secretary
Hardwick of Kentucky is as follows. It comes from the records of the
and the first is the report of Grand Master Saunders to the Grand
by this note: "I am sending you the portion of my address to the Grand
as Grand Master, upon the subject, which shows my opinion. The Grand
me and continued the dispensations until the close of the war and the
the Regiments. Upon request of the members of the Army Lodge the name
Rifle Lodge' was changed to 'J. N. Saunders Army Lodge.' " (signed) J.
following is the story as P. G. M. Saunders
told it to me: From eighteen officers and privates in the Second
Army of the United States, he received the following petition and made
James N. Saunders, Grand Master of the Grand
Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A. M.:
the undersigned officers and members of
the Second Kentucky Infantry (now the One Hundred and Sixtieth United
having volunteered our services to the country in the war now raged,
and being about
to depart for foreign lands for active service with the Army of the
we, each of us, being residents of Kentucky, Master Masons in good
standing, under the jurisdiction of Lodges subordinate to the Grand
Lodge of Kentucky,
F. & A. M., not disturbing our present relationship to our home
ask a dispensation empowering us to meet as a Masonic Lodge at or near
stations of said regiment of the United States Army, and there practice
perform the duties and enjoy the privileges of Masonry; and in said
Lodge to receive
to membership, to initiate, pass and raise soldiers of said Regiment,
who are residents
of Kentucky, who are found worthy and who possess all the requisite
Lieut. J. M. Harper, McKee Lodge, No.
144 (S. W.).
K. B. Wise, Harlan Lodge, No. 879 (J.
Lieut. Ena W. Walker, Jackson Lodge,
George W. Jenkins, Whitesburg Lodge,
Lieut. A. C. Cope, Breathitt Lodge,
Lieut. Ura W. Bryant, Island Lodge,
Lieut. Carter D. Stamper, Proetor Lodge,
Lieut. Hiram Hogg, Jr., Booneville
Lodge, No. 425.
R. J. H. Spurr, Lexington Lodge, No.
F. W. Staples, Lexington Lodge, No.
Robert W. Jones, Lexington Lodge, No.
1 (W. M.).
James Bowling, Red Bird Lodge, No.
Henry Evans, St. Helen's Lodge, No.
Charles Barker, St. Helen's Lodge,
Stone, St. Helen's Lodge, No. 684.
Bradley, St. Helen's Lodge, No. 684.
M. Curtis, Somerset Lodge, No. 111.
John M. Bartley, Whitesburg Lodge, No.
of them residents of the Commonwealth of
Kentucky Master Masons in good and regular Lodge standing, under the
of Lodges subordinate to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A.
M., and officers
and members of the Second Kentucky Infantry, now the One Hundred and
States Infantry, summoned to active military service in a foreign land,
their present relationship to their home Lodges, ask me for a
them to meet at or near their Military Station as a Masonic Lodge, and
practice the rights, perform the duties and enjoy the privileges of
receive to membership, to initiate, pass and raise soldiers of said
are residents of Kentucky, who are found worthy and who possess all the
qualifications. The Master Masons who make this petition are the
the home-seekers who, bearing the rifle, the Bible and the ax converted
Land" into one of the greatest of all the American States.
of such descent, Masons who voluntarily
answer their country's call to patriotic duty, to hardships, to victory
or to death
are entitled to make such request. The dispensation is granted.
petitioners are hereby authorized to open,
and hold a Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons at or near the military
said regiment, to be known as KENTUCKY RIFLE LODGE, with jurisdiction
and limited to residents of Kentucky in the service of the United
States with the
Second Kentucky Infantry, now the One Hundred and Sixtieth United
hereby designate Major Roger W. Jones to be
Master, First Lieut. Joseph M. Harper, to be Senior Warden, Capt. Keith
to be Junior Warden, each of whom has been examined by me and found
the work and the lectures of the symbolic degrees of Masonry.
Lodge shall be governed by the Constitution
and Regulations of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A. M., and
and Rules of Order as recommended by the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, F.
& A. M.,
and published in the authorized Book of Constitutions, Fourth Edition,
Past Masters admitted to this Lodge to retain
such rank herein as though Past Masters thereof.
under my hand and the seal of the Grand
Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A. M., at Stanford, Ky., this 25th day
N. Saunders, Grand Master.
Sept. 25, 1917, upon a high hill, in the
open, overlooking Camp Stanley, near Lexington, Kentucky, guarded by
who stood out of sight and hearing, and carefully tiled by two Master
opened Kentucky Rifle Lodge, U. D., installed its Master and Wardens,
their appointment and election by the Lodge, installed the remaining
love and the prayers of a grateful people
go with the brave boys of these two Lodges. They have voluntarily
answered the greatest
call our country can make to its patriotic sons; they have voluntarily
in the holiest army that ever followed a battle flag. We who sit at
home in the
place of safety cannot, dare not, deny our soldier brothers, to the
our homes, to the defenders of our country, the sweet ministration of
their shell-swept camps, which we, in places of security, here at home
the Grand Lodge continue these dispensations until the close of the war
return of what will be the two battle ‒ scarred regiments.
N. Saunders, Grand Master.
Frank D. Rash, in corresponding with me,
calls attention to the change of name of this Field Lodge as referred
by me. I trust that readers will note this alteration of the name of
Lodge that no confusion may arise and the impression go forth that
more than its two Army Lodges in the World War. The change of name was
on Oct. 18, 1917, by Grand Lodge action, in honor of the Grand Master,
N. Saunders Army Lodge, U. D."
the 1917 Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of
Kentucky, pages 110 ‒ 111, the following report was brought in to Grand
its Committee on Charters and Dispensations:
dispensations were granted by the Grand
Master to form "Army Lodges". The report of the Committee which was
was as follows:
approve the action of the Grand Master in
establishing these two Army Lodges. We find there will be numerous
from time to time, and believe that, in as much as it seems to be the
the Craft to maintain Army Lodges, these two Lodges be continued under
Committee is of the opinion that it would
not be wise at this time to take further action. Your Committee feels
as these Army Lodges remain under dispensation and therefore under
control of the
Grand Master, the incoming Grand Master be left free to handle as to
(sic.) arising in the future concerning territory, designation of Army
unit to which
the Lodge may be attached, and any other questions which may arise.
are in a state of war, conditions are changing
daily, and we feel the incoming Grand Master should not be hampered by
and restrictions, but should be at liberty to use his judgment in
Lodges during the War. We recommend that dual membership be allowed in
of the members of these or any other Army Lodges which later may be
for the duration of the war only, and that the members of these or any
Lodges which later may be established for the duration of the war only,
the members of any Army Lodge under the jurisdiction of this Grand
Lodge be allowed
to retain membership in their home Lodges.
this word in closing. W. Bro. Fred Hardwick
has been indefatigable in his cooperation with me in the securing of
the data for
this story. He is most desirous of recovering for the records of his
the records and books and papers of the two Kentucky Field Lodges. And
ten years have passed and more since the Lodges functioned, surely
among the former
officers of these Lodges there may yet remain brothers who will deem it
and privilege to reduce to writing and to forward the same to their
Officers, the story of the Lodges as they recall them.
are bright prospects that this happy consummation
is just before Bro. Rash as he labors in fulfilling the responsibility
Master has laid upon him, and we are all looking forward eagerly to the
meeting of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky when a special order of the day
a splendid ceremony as the lost is found and fitted into the Arch of
Editor in Charge
E. Thiemeyer, Research Editor
years ago the newly organized Masonic Research
Society of West Virginia inaugurated the publication of their official
Mountaineer Mason, the first number of which appeared in April, 1927.
It was stated
in the editorial announcement that a publication was necessary to such
… in order to accomplish
anything of an important and enduring character, must have a means not
only of permanently
preserving but also of disseminating to others the result of its
the information gathered and collated thereby.
secondary consideration lay in the fact that
the State of West Virginia was, so far as Masonic publications were
virgin field, and the promoters believed
… that the position
Masonry has attained in this state … by its growth and development in
the last quarter
of a century, warranted a periodical of a research nature.
was also stated that the new magazine was
absolutely non-commercial in character, but it was hoped that it would
be able to
pay its own way. Expenses were reduced to the barest minimum. Those
for the editorial and business management receiving and expecting no
Prescott C. White was chosen as editor
and with him were associated Bros. C. William Cramer, Gilbert B. Miller
and E. M.
Showalter. Under their direction a most useful and interesting magazine
one that the Masons of West Virginia could justly be proud of, and
merited their support.
the Masons of West Virginia remained
indifferent, with the result that The Mountaineer Mason has ceased
the disappointment and discouragement that
this has caused in the zealous brethren who have so unselfishly labored
welfare of the Craft, who without hope or desire for reward have sought
Masonic light in places where illumination was evidently most feeble,
we have the
deepest sympathy. They have made a noble attempt, and like hundreds
they have failed ‒ in the face of an invincible ignorance and an
a broad survey is taken of the activities
of American Masonry the observer may be pardoned if he feels
is a tremendous potential moral force latent in the Craft, there are
resources available, millions of dollars are as nothing. Apparently,
when it is
a question of building luxurious temples, and like enterprises. But an
raise the intellectual level of the American Craft receives the
and in too many cases is starved to an untimely death. Even where such
is adopted officially, and is supported by Grand Lodge appropriations,
it is subject
to constant attack on the part of a reactionary minority, which is
supported, in effect, by a passive and indifferent majority.
reflections are bound to occur to the thinking
Mason when confronted with such happenings as the brief career of The
Mason. If failure was the result, it was not the fault of the laborers,
seed they sowed was good, but it fell in hard and stony ground, and was
besides, with thorns.
inaugurate in the present issue a new Department.
Naturally it is experimental to begin with, but if it proves of value
it will be continued.
BUILDER has never undertaken to publish
news in any form, and it is not going to begin now, even if a good deal
may appear in the new Department should as a matter of fact prove to be
many of our readers. Our contemporaries, or an overwhelming majority of
organized to publish Masonic news within their respective fields, and
this we gladly
leave to them. What we propose to do is to give a monthly review of
interesting events with comments thereupon when such seem called for.
the personal equation will inevitably
enter into the selection of/matter for use in these special columns.
And it may
quite often happen that important matters will not appear interesting ‒
not until their bearing is fully understood. But, though it is hardly
we can wholly succeed in it, our endeavor will be to insert nothing
that is not
worthy of permanent record.
Society receives Masonic and other journals
from all over the world. We have attempted to make our exchange list as
as possible. It is doubtful if there are so many as a dozen Masonic
published throughout the world that do not come regularly to this
office. This puts
us in a very favorable position to resume everything that is of Masonic
wherever it may occur.
intend further to make these columns catholic,
in the widest sense. We see no reason why our readers should be kept in
of what is happening among unrecognized, or irregular Masonic groups,
if it appears
of real interest. Whatever it may be deemed policy to ignore in
we assume that members of the Research Society are competent to make
their own judgments,
both about the events themselves, as well as of such comments as we may
them. There has been altogether too much ignorance on the part of
but especially in America, of what is occurring in other parts of the
and this has operated to the great practical detriment of the
of Masonic universality. We therefore feel that if certain things are
on account of ulterior considerations, such an undertaking would be
more harm than good.
is our hope that this survey and review will
materially aid in a wider diffusion of knowledge of the current history
of the Craft,
the problems before it, and lead to a better understanding of the
which they are to be solved.
month we published a letter offering some
criticism of the methods of working in the American Military Lodges in
War; in the Correspondence Columns of the present number will be found
from a Canadian brother who condemns such lodges altogether, and does
not seem to
approve even of their history being recorded. So far, this is
practically all the
adverse criticism that either the articles, or the Army Lodges with
which they deal,
one who is in very much the same position
as that of our correspondent of last month, the Editor would like to
say that he
cannot agree with the idea that such lodges could not adequately
character of those who petitioned for admission. Every man who served
in any of
the armies will bear this out. In the conditions of field service the
disguises we all wear in civil life are stripped off. Men appear as
they are, for
the standards of judgment are different.. It is true that a soldier
comrade by the cruder virtues. If he gets drunk, or runs after women,
little or nothing. What does count is: can he be depended on? Can he be
Will he stand by you? Will he share his rations or his pay with you?
Will he risk
his life to assist you? And, again, every man who served will bear this
these things one could learn more in a week on active service than the
committee would be able to discover in a year in civilian life.
does, however, seem that those who were instrumental
in forming the Army Lodges were too much affected by the vicious
tradition that now has American Masonry in its grip, and is sapping its
a cancer. The figure is not too strong. The Army Lodges should have
for the benefit of soldiers who were Masons, not for the purpose of
making as many
members as possible out of soldiers who were not Masons; and this in
to have been very much what was done, whether it was intended or not.
it was a noble experiment, and we hope that it will give rise to
by our readers, so that when Bro. Irwin's series of studies is
completed a final
summing up of results can be made as a guide for a future emergency.
And it would
be useful and interesting to know whether a larger percentage of men
in Army Lodges are now suspended or unattached than the average, though
the figures would be hard to obtain. Perhaps this could be done for New
someone there to attempt it.
Masonry the World Over
New Old Masonic
there has been an amalgamation of the
Southwestern Freemason and the Corner Stone, under the name of
Freemasonry and the
Eastern Star. Claiming, according to rule in such matters, the age of
constituent, the new magazine is the oldest on the Pacific Coast. It is
to be a
journal for Masonic homes, as its title indicates. It is going to adopt
of promoting Masonic principles in practical, everyday life ‒ the home,
the church; and in business and politics also. It is not to be an
it will be free to criticize, when criticism is called for, in the
constructive effort. While this is all very much what every Masonic
and desires to be, the fact that Bro. E.P. Ramsay is editor will be
in this case, at least, promise will find vigorous fulfillment. Bro.
what he thinks; and no one, of however great influence or exalted
make him "soft pedal." In these days of chain newspapers, a controlled
press and government by propaganda, such men are badly needed. Would
more of them.
to reports in the daily press a case
that has been pending in the Supreme Court of the United States has
in favor of the Negro Order of the Mystic Shrine.
case began in Texas as far back as 1918.
The regular (white) Shrine body at Houston sought an injunction against
organization to restrain them from using the badges, titles, ritual and
so on of
the Order. The Supreme Court finds that there is no evidence of
on the part of the members of the Negro body, and that the latter has
prescriptive right to the use of the name and emblems and other
of the Shrine.
cannot help feeling that appeals to the courts
in such matters are, to say the least, undignified; and whatever the
only do more harm than good.
Editor of the Prophet, the official publication
of Oola Khan Grotto, M.O.V.P.E.R., of Cincinnati, Ohio, has an
under the above title in his last issue. He discusses the origin and
and title (if such ever existed) of the "initiation stunts" practiced
on the candidates of both the Grotto and the Shrine. He remarks it
would be "a
stupendous task for any one fraternal organization to prove its claim
that it originated
these stunts." We fancy it would be not only stupendous to attempt, but
to achieve. Such methods of embarrassing, humiliating and terrifying
have been borrowed and stolen and adapted and re-borrowed until they
property, not only of the fraternal organizations, but of school
caddies and newsboys.
Considers Dual Membership
Bro. Frank T. Lodge, P.G.M., is leading
a movement to put Michigan in line with those of the American Grand
Lodges who permit
their members to belong to more than one lodge. Those who have opposed
advance two objections; the first, apparently regarded as the most
the alleged impossibility of keeping accurate membership records. The
an imagined difficulty about discipline. Neither difficulty seems to be
than a mountainous mole-hill when fairly met.
Mason's sentiment of affection for his Mother
Lodge is not a thing to be scorned, or to be regarded as a kind of
Besides dual membership will permit the formation of real research
there are sufficient studious brethren to form them.
learn from a number of sources that the Masonic
authorities in England are disturbed by the recent importation from
America of an
organization rather vaguely described as a "quasi-Masonic body." No
is given, but it seems to have a "Supreme Grand Lodge of the World,"
in the U. S. A., and to be headed by a Grand Dictator.
do not know to which of the numerous fraternal
organizations of this country this refers. It does not seem to require
as a qualification to join it, and so, according to American ideas, it
is not quasi-Masonic,
and would be considered outside the jurisdiction of Masonic
in some countries a Mason may not join any other society without
is the other extreme.
is gratifying to learn that Quatuor Coronati
Lodge, No. 2076, the oldest and foremost research lodge in the world,
in overcoming its financial difficulties, and is apparently entering
upon a period
of prosperity. At the May meeting, Bro. Lionel Vibert, Secretary since
of Bro. W. J. Songhurst, was able to report that the Publication Fund
$5,000 to its credit. As a result, the transactions, Ars Quatuor
known as A.Q.C.), have been brought up to the end of 1927; and the
volume for 1928
will be forthcoming before the end of the present year. We may perhaps
forward to some more of the valuable reprints to be issued in the near
were just over one hundred applications
for membership in the Correspondence Circle, which the Secretary
remarked was a
record for a May meeting, and double the average.
Coronati Lodge has been subjected to
some criticism recently. We have long known that the members of the
"Anthropological School" of Masonic Research regarded themselves as in
opposition to what they call the "Authentic School," by which term they
apparently mean Historical; and an English brother, in an article
in this country, also had some severe things to say. But opposition and
of this kind is generally a stimulating influence, as it appears to be
in this case.
Bro. W. John
learn that W. Bro. W. John Songhurst, the
former Secretary and present Treasurer of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, was
attend the Annual Festival of the Royal Masonic Institute for Girls,
owing to illness.
Bro. Songhurst has served as a Patron, and Member of the House
Committee of the
Institution, as well as having served 27 Stewardships. It is said that
the first time for many, many years that he was not able to be present
at the festival.
members of the National Masonic Research
Society will recall with pleasure their relations with Bro. Songhurst,
sincerely regret his illness. We trust that it is not serious and that
he is by
now fully recovered.
Masonry Of England
English Masonic press reported during May
on the 141st Anniversary Festival of the Royal Masonic Institution for
is an annual affair of the English Craft and ranks with the festival
for the Royal
Masonic Institution for Boys as well as other charitable festivals
observed by our
English Brethren. It is interesting to note that over $350,000 was
the work of this enterprise. R.W. Bro. Brigadier-General Richard Beale
Grand Master of Essex, was chairman of this year's festival. His
all others in contributions; the sum subscribed being over $150,000.
Masons were not far behind with contributions of $125,000. Two lodges
over $5,000 each, while two others brought in over $2,500. One of these
has only thirty members.
could not the Masons of this country do
for charity if they showed as much real interest in regard to this
basic tenet of
Irish Catholics In 1825
Trestle Board of San Francisco publishes
a letter from Col. Claude Cane, D.G.M. of Ireland, drawing attention to
a fact well
known in the history of the British Isles. This is, that the man to
and disinterested efforts the Roman Church in Ireland owes the greatest
gratitude, was Lord Donoughmore, Grand Master of Masons in Ireland.
succeeded after many years of constant agitation in obtaining the
repeal of the
laws which discriminated against Roman Catholics in Ireland. Indeed, he
his life to this cause, for he rose from a sick bed to attend the House
in May, 1825, to move the second reading of the Catholic Relief Bill;
and from the
after effects of this undue exertion he never recovered ‒ dying in
Lord Donoughmore maintained that in thus serving the cause of religious
he was but carrying out the principles of Freemasonry ‒ which is so
true as to be
almost a truism.
Cane's letter seems to have been inspired
by a recrudescence of Anti-Masonry in certain journals of the Irish
including the government organ. Perhaps some of the supporters of the
government are hoping for an opportunity to ape Mussolini's "black
and start a Masonic persecution of their own. Will American Masons, in
accept the accusations made against the Masons in Ireland as true, as
done in the case of those made by the Fascists? They are of exactly the
made in the same way, and the attack seems to have begun on very much
the same lines.
regret to see that more than one of our contemporaries
has apparently accepted the pamphlet by Mr. Roe, reviewed in THE
BUILDER last month,
at its face value. It is a very curious phenomenon, the avidity with
which so many
Masons accept every statement detrimental to the Masons of Latin
scrap of abuse, every slanderous utterance, is received almost as
gospel truth without
the least consideration of its source. The orthodox in religion once
in the same way. There was some excuse for that, because the
differences in belief
were held to affect men's eternal salvation. No one has ever dreamed of
unorthodox and irregular Masons will be dammed on that account in the
yet often enough, the same men, who say that all creeds are good, as
they all lead
to the same end, are bitterly intolerant in this regard. It may be that
recognize these men in other countries as Masons, but that is no reason
why we should
join their enemies (and ours) in slandering them. At the utmost, all
that can be
said against them is that they are liberals in politics and free
thinkers in religion;
neither of which things are crimes, nor even regarded as morally
our own people.
curious case has arisen out of Ludendorff's
frantic campaign against Freemasonry. Following the precedents of
he published in his notorious book, The Destruction of Freemasonry
Through the Revelation
of Its Secrets [Lib 1927
of the members of a German Military Lodge at St. Quentin in 1916. In
appeared a civilian. Ludendorff stated that this man was a Frenchman, a
whom the German Masons were conferring. It turns out that this
individual was a
German, as ordinary common sense would lead anyone to suppose. He
and brought a suit against Ludendorff. The result has been, that in
spite of all
efforts to evade it, the latter has been found guilty of libel and
fined eight hundred
marks, or sixteen days' imprisonment, whichever he prefers. The most
as well as most charitable supposition, is that Ludendorff is insane.
He is now
seeking to revive the cult of the old pagan deities of the Germanic
articles by Bro. Joseph R. Roucek that appeared
in THE BUILDER for February, March and April have been reproduced in a
of the Masonic periodicals of the country. We are not quite sure where
but a sub-title has also been freely reproduced. This reads: "The first
information on Masonic activity in the Balkans ever published in
If a European writer spoke of New York as a city in Pennsylvania the
displacement would seem to us a ridiculous error. Czecho-Slovakia, or
between Austria, Poland and Germany. The Balkan Peninsula is to the
south and east
of Austria. Prague is about five hundred miles north of Bucharest ‒
which may be
taken as marking the northern boundary of the Balkans. Presumably the
from a confusion between Czecho-Slovakia and Jugo-Slovakia.
paragraph has been going the rounds of the
Masonic press in regard to an iron coffin turned up by the plow near
and at present, it is said, in the possession of Crescent Lodge, No.
City, Kan. It is "engraved" elaborately, and the ornament includes a
symbol." It is further said that when found it contained "a skeleton,
a sword, bits of armor and several coins."
the first intimation of the existence of
this curiosity THE BUILDER endeavored to find out more about it.
to those who might be expected to know something have been unanswered.
information it seems well to warn those who may have seen the item that
story should be regarded as highly suspicious. For one thing, if the
coffin is made
of iron it is not likely to be even so much as a hundred years old. It
to be desired (though probably too much to hope for), that someone in a
to do so would investigate further.
Masonic Apron Of 1727
the sake of those of our readers who have
seen an item which has appeared in a number of Masonic periodicals
about this interesting
relic (which would be much more than merely interesting were it really
of the age
alleged) we are glad to say that an investigation is being made at THE
suggestion, by a brother in Detroit. The information so far obtained is
to the effect
that the fabric of which the apron is made cannot possibly be so old as
tradition of the owner would make it out. There is no documentary
evidence to support
Flint Hills Craftsman of recent date carries
an announcement that M.W. Bro. J.E. Fowler, Grand Master of the Grand
Lodge of Washington,
has presented to the Scottish Rite Bodies of the Valley of Hoquiam two
an apron, two jewels and a baldrick, which are stated to have belonged
Bonaparte. The relics are all enclosed in the French lacquer box,
inlaid with pearls,
in which they have always been kept. We do not know what evidence there
is of their
and Conduct a Masonic Study Club on the Round
Table Discussion Plan
to Make These Pages a Real Forum for Discussion
brothers interested in any phase of Masonic
Education, especially those who believe in fostering the Masonic Study
are invited to send criticism, comments and, particularly, practical
for furthering this movement. Those who are willing to help organize
Discussion Groups or other Masonic Study Clubs in their Lodges or their
are invited to send for Membership Blanks, etc., which will be supplied
HERBERT HUNGERFORD General Campaign
Manager, The Masonic Study Club Campaign Harrisonburg, Virginia.
must first be prepared in your heart by
having a sincere and enthusiastic conviction of the benefits that your
your fellow-members will derive from a Round Table Study Club. If you
luke-warm towards the idea, merely thinking that it might be a good
thing, it would
be far better if you do not attempt to start a Study Club. A
to form a club among your brethren would be doomed to failure at the
you are filled with contagious enthusiasm for the project and go into
it with a
zealous determination to carry it through to a successful conclusion,
it would be
a mistake for you to start anything. If you think that you can give the
idea a little
push and leave it to go ahead on its own steam, you have the wrong
the Study Club movement.
you yourself have a clear vision of the
benefits each of your brethren will gain through his study of the
and principal teachings of Freemasonry, and when you appreciate the
Lodge will derive from having more members who are better educated in
of Freemasonry, you will not have the least difficulty in obtaining all
and support you need for organizing a Study Club in your Lodge.
must realize, of course, that our Round
Table Study Club program is not another auxiliary Masonic association.
It is not
a side-line or a diversion from regular Lodge activities. On the
rightly understood and properly organized and conducted, a Study Club
regarded as a regular and essential feature of the program of every
The time will come, we hope, when it will be the usual custom for the
each Lodge to appoint an Educational Committee, similar to the
Finance Committees, the principal purpose of such Educational Committee
assist the Master to encourage and promote Masonic education through
Study Club programs and in various other ways.
you have caught the vision of the good
that will be accomplished among your brethren and in your Lodge, the
next step is
to secure the support and enthusiastic cooperation of the Master of
Providing you present the project properly, so that the Master will see
of competing against or interfering with other Lodge activities, a
Round Table Study
Club is bound to stimulate increased interest in all other Lodge
affairs, you will
have little difficulty in persuading the Master to back up your
a properly conducted Study Club will help the Master solve one of the
of many modern Lodges, namely, how to discover, develop and train the
and officers of the Lodge. In some Lodges today, there are officers
of the real fundamentals of Freemasonry is almost appalling.
Approval of the Master
the full approval and sincere support
of the Master, of course, there should never be an attempt to start a
in any Lodge. It will be a rare exception, however, to find a Master
who will not
heartily approve and support the Study Club program, providing its
been properly set forth and its advantages clearly presented.
if you bring the Study Club idea
to the attention of the Master of your Lodge, he will be apt to insist
accepting the appointment as Chairman of the Educational Committee.
Unless you feel
that you can render better service by remaining in the background as an
sponsor and guide for the Study Club project, you should accept the
In some cases, of course, you may find it better to urge the
appointment of another
as chairman; but you certainly should stay with the project and help
carry it through
to a completely successful establishment. Simply to take the initial
steps of starting
the club and then leaving it to fend for itself would be almost like
your own baby.
any formal announcement is made, after
the proposed Chairman of the Educational Committee has agreed to accept
in conference with the Master, a small group of key men for your Study
should be selected, each of whom should be personally interviewed and
in the project.
not disregard this preliminary personal work,
if you wish to insure the permanent success of your Study Club program.
announcement of the Study Club idea in your Lodge may arouse some
interest. It may
even get some sort of a program started; but, if you want to build your
plan on a firm foundation, you must make these preliminary preparations
been herewith outlined.
these necessary preliminaries have been
arranged, an announcement of the appointment of the Educational
be made in the Lodge bulletin, also announcing that a Round Table
will be organized for those who may be interested.
the plan is explained at the regular meeting
of the Lodge, let us caution against spread-eagle oratory or too much
the project. It is far better to begin with very small groups, each of
whom is sincerely
and seriously interested in Masonic education, than it is to start with
group, some of whom have little or no heart interest in the idea but
have come along
with the others through their casual curiosity or chiefly because their
has been overstimulated by some high-powered speaker.
your organizing meeting, steer clear of red
tape rules and elaborate plans and programs. Stick closely to the main
let informality be your guiding principle. A chairman to preside and
lead the discussions
and a secretary to send out notices of the meetings and keep the
records are all
the officials required. No constitution and by-laws are needed, as the
of procedure for conducting each meeting, as presented herewith, will
for all practical purposes.
only necessary expense for each member of
the Study Club group is the small cost of enrolling for membership in
Masonic Research Society, which includes a subscription to the official
BUILDER, in which each member of your Study Club group will find full
regarding each course of study taken up in a Round Table Discussion
well as other valuable information and aids towards Masonic Study.
THE BUILDER, each Study Club member will find suggestions and ideas
throughout the country engaged in similar activities, which will be a
of inspiration and stimulus for each member to attend regularly and
enthusiastically in all the meetings of his particular group.
there is no iron-clad rule requiring every
Study Club member to enroll in the N. M. R. S. and thus become a
of THE BUILDER, we feel quite certain that you will find that the
modest sum required
for such membership will do more than anything else you possibly could
do to insure
the permanent success of your Study Club program. Bear in mind that
the N. M. R. S. also carries other valuable benefits and privileges,
such as the
privilege of obtaining advice and information on any Masonic subject
from a staff
of specialists in Masonic Research and Education, backed by the
resources of one
of the most completely equipped libraries of books and pamphlets on
that can be found anywhere in this country. As you are aware, no doubt,
Masonic Research Society, through its official organ, THE BUILDER, and
is the principal sponsor for the Masonic Study Club movement and
devotes its chief
endeavors to the fostering of this movement and the general advancement
Round Table Discussion Programs
are repeating, in connection with this article,
the Topical Outlines of the Seven Keypoint Introductory Programs for
Discussion Groups, published in a previous issue of THE BUILDER.
we believe that the logical plan of taking
up these courses is to commence with Masonic History, and then to take
Symbolism, concluding with Masonic Teachings, there is nothing to
prevent any group
from changing this order if it seems desirable for one reason or
principal point to be kept in mind in conducting
every meeting is that it is a Round Table Discussion, the chief
to have every member participate in the program. If anyone is permitted
long-winded speeches, or even if you bring in well-informed and highly
speakers outside your group, you certainly will defeat the main
objective for which
your Study Club is organized.
is admitted that often it is the easiest
way to get some good talker to tell your group what you think they
ought to know
about these various subjects; but bear in mind the old tried and true
principle, "Telling is not teaching." In a Study Club, the prime
is to encourage every individual in your group to dig out as many facts
by his own efforts in his own way. The job of the Chairman, leader or
the group, is to inspire, stimulate and aid in this personal study and
A good leader will never try to show off his own superior knowledge,
must be admitted that too many teachers, even in famous institutions of
sometimes seem to disregard this fundamental factor.
big task of the group leader is, first,
to get the discussion properly started and, next, to steer it along
so that it will not run off into side issues, or get tangled up in a
lot of technical
or unimportant details. Likewise, the discussion must be kept free from
and must not be permitted to become merely the voicing of unbaked
opinions and personal
prejudices. If you permit your Study Club group to become dominated by
a few or
to become, in any sense, a "one man affair," you will soon defeat your
own purpose. Make every meeting a genuine discussion of all possible
phases of the
subject, viewed from various angles and you will have no difficulty in
the interest of your group.
simplest system for conducting each meeting
is to have handed out previously to each member of the group a written
on some phase of the main topic, with the understanding that each
member is expected
to dig up all the facts possible in answer to his particular question
his answer at the next regular meeting. Members should be permitted to
their answers and read the same or make notes and present a verbal
the same question may be assigned to several members, although it will
be best to
confine each member to a single question.
the meeting, after each question has been
answered by the member or members to whom the question has previously
a limited time not more than three minutes should be permitted for
and discussion of that particular question.
all the scheduled questions have been
answered and discussed, there should be a general discussion covering
of the main topic and including any additional questions that may be
in mind, however, that the subjects of
our Keypoint Programs are so broad that it will be impossible to cover
and exhaustively. Furthermore, the objective of the Keypoint Programs
is to stimulate
a desire for further knowledge rather than to satisfy fully the quests
who join our Round Table Discussion groups.
you exercise reasonable skill in steering
the course of these discussions, you are likely to find that many of
will be anxious to prolong the discussions of mooted points. Above all
not permit this. In fact, the best possible time to break up a meeting
is when everybody
is anxious to have it continue. If the interest is strong at the close
of each meeting,
it will carry through and sustain itself for the next meeting.
fact, while simplicity and informality should
be the general keynote of your programs, this does not imply any lack
or system. Particularly, it does not mean that you should be informal
as to the time and places for holding your meetings. In assuring prompt
attendance, nothing carries more weight than having and living up to a
for opening and closing each meeting. The final order of business at
should be assigning the question slips for the next meeting. Always
of these slips prepared so that every person present will be given one.
specific recommendations are made regarding
the frequency of meetings, as this will naturally vary with local
are always pleased, however, to answer inquiries on any feature or
phase of Masonic
Study. Since our chief endeavor is to encourage the organization of
to aid every club in every way possible to achieve the highest possible
we esteem it as a privilege as well as a pleasant duty to give free
our experience to everyone who seeks our advice.
for Reading Service League District
Managers and Other Masonic Study Club Organizers
study the whole proposition carefully
and become thoroughly familiar with the reasons back of the Masonic
Study Club Campaign
and the advantages which every Lodge derives and each Study Club member
participating in this program.
that a Study Club is not another auxiliary
Masonic association, but should be regarded as a feature of the regular
of activities of each Lodge which fosters and supports the Study Club
idea. In fact,
one of the best ways of forming a Study Club in any Lodge is for the
Master to appoint
an Educational Committee, similar to the Social, Finance and any other
committees, the objective of this Educational Committee being to assist
in promoting Masonic Education through Study Club programs as well as
in other practical
advantages of providing the ways and means
for encouraging Masons, particularly newly-enrolled brethren, to make
study of the history, symbolism and principal teachings of the
fraternity, to supplement
the somewhat superficial and casual knowledge they gain from regular
and the occasional lectures, are so obvious that most Masters, and
others who have
the best welfare of the Craft at heart, will gladly cooperate in the
of any practical plan and program such as our Study Club Campaign
first step, therefore, in starting a Study
Club, is to explain our plans and programs so as to gain the
unqualified and enthusiastic
cooperation of the Master of the Lodge. No attempt ever should be made
a Study Club Program into any Lodge, unless the full approval of the
Master is first
possible, as noted previously, you should
persuade the Master to appoint an Educational Committee with a Chairman
who is definitely
interested in the Study Club Plan and familiar with its progress.
should not be too much "horn-tooting"
and "whooperup" talks in getting your Study Club group interested,
you will find that the overstimulated interest may die out before the
best way to bring the Study Club program
before a Lodge is to arrange with the Master to have a Chairman of the
Committee explain the proposition at a regular communication of the
should not be any oratory and very little talking from those who are
not going to
take an active part in the program of the Study Club.
any Lodge, however, no matter how quietly
the Study Club idea may be presented, there will be a few members to
whom the idea
will make instant appeal. These naturally interested brethren will be
by far the
best possible nucleus of the group to begin your Study Club program.
to begin with a small group of brethren really interested and let this
gradually than to work up a big enthusiasm and get a large group to
start and then
have those who were simply carried along by the tide of enthusiasm drop
out as soon
as this tide ebbs, which, of course, it is bound to do when you take up
work of your Study Club programs.
words of caution and counsel, of course,
are more or less perfunctory, or what might possibly be called
generalities." You must be aware, of course, that we cannot hand you an
formula that will enable you to organize a Masonic Study Club in every
work of this kind requires tact,
personality and good judgment on the part of those undertaking it. So
the best we
can do is to try to make the importance and value of the Masonic Study
as clear and plain as possible, offer you a few general suggestions for
the movement in the Lodges of your locality and leave the rest to your
point, however, that we wish to impress
as strongly as possible is the urgent necessity that you keep as
closely in touch
with our Reading Service League Office as you possibly can, letting us
how you are progressing and also letting us pass along for your benefit
on any point that may come up during your work. As you are aware, our
is to help you do this organizing work successfully. We have enjoyed
experience, although we do not profess to know all there is to know
about it. But
we do feel confident that we shall be able to aid you on any matter
you care to consult us.
Keypoint Introductory Programs, Arranged
for Round Table Discussion Groups
Primitive Origins of Masonic Activities.
Legendary Forerunners of Freemasonry.
Early Records of Operative Freemasonry.
The First Grand Lodges of England.
Beginnings of the Craft in America.
Patriotism, Persecution and Progress.
Historical High Spots of the Past
The Origin, Development and Importance
The Major Symbols of the First Degree.
The Minor Symbols of the First Degree.
The Major Symbols of the Second
The Minor Symbols of the Second
The Major Symbols of the Third Degree.
The Minor Symbols of the Third Degree.
The Prime Importance of Character
Building Through Self-Denial, Self-Control and Self-Culture.
A Reverent and Reasonable Faith
in the Fatherhood of God.
The Practice of Brotherly Love in
All Human Relationships.
The Belief Life Is Eternal and the
Soul of Man Is Immortal.
The Profession and Practical Exemplification
of the Spirit of True Democracy.
The Practice of Universal Tolerance,
Unlimited Charity and Constant Loyalty.
The Ultimate Triumph of Truth and
Round Table Discussions
Primitive Origins of Masonic Activities
In what ways do certain Masonic
activities cater to inherent human instincts, traits and desires?
In what respects were the earliest
social groupings of primitive man similar to Masonic Orders of the
Mention some of the earliest social
orders from which modern Freemasonry may have derived certain
What are the grounds for the claim
that architecture was the first of all the arts?
To what original principles or fundamental
factors do you attribute the permanent growth of Freemasonry?
Point out some of the relations
between the arts of building and the development of principles of
Trace the origins of modern educational
principles and methods back to the invention and use of tools and
architecture and agriculture and to the employment of Symbols for
has been repeatedly urged, we desire to make
this department a real forum, consequently we are anxious to receive
contributions from everyone interested to aid the cause of the Masonic
of all, we want our readers to help develop
these Round Table Discussion Programs. To stimulate further interest in
matter, we will award a yearly subscription to THE BUILDER, either as a
or extension of your present subscription or as a gift to one of your
the seven best sets of seven questions apiece on any of the topics
named in our
Keypoint Discussion Club Programs. As a suggestion regarding the sort
desired, a set of model questions are presented. Remember, we will
award seven annual
subscriptions to THE BUILDER, for the seven sets of questions that our
staff judges to be the best submitted. This contest is open to
subscribers or not. Contributions must be received not later than Sept.
and announcement of prize awards will be made in the November number of
BUILDER. Send all entries for prizes to address below.
brothers interested in any phase of Masonic
Education, especially those who believe in fostering the Masonic Study
are invited to send criticism, comments and particularly, practical
for furthering this movement. Those who are willing to help organize
Clubs in their Lodges or their districts are invited to send for
etc., which will be supplied free of cost.
Masonic Study Club Campaign,
Length of the
correspondent is quoted in the current number
of the Masonic World as follows:
church nor Masonic organization has the right
to exist that is not engaged in making the community a better place in
editor, Bro. Jos. E. Moreombe, comments
thorough and general conviction of the truth
in such statement should give up cause furiously to think. There would
be a great stretching of the scope of the Masonic cabletow, a vast
the force and meaning of Masonic obligations. We are not concerned for
mentioned; they are doubtless well able to take care of their own
affairs and to
decide upon their proper course. But most of us will admit with sorrow,
with some shame, that judged by efforts for community betterment our
not been conspicuous successes.
criticism is doubtless justified ‒ but still
it is not the lodges, as lodges, but their members as Masons, upon whom
is laid. But if the latter fail therein, then the lodges are proved at
fault ‒ either
in selecting unfit material, or else in not properly instructing their
books reviewed in these pages can be procured
through the Book Department of the N.M.R.S. at the prices given, which
postage. These prices are subject (as a matter of precaution) to change
notice, though occasion for this will very seldom arise. Occasionally
it may happen
where books are privately printed, that there is no supply available,
but some indication
of this will be given in the review. The Book Department is equipped to
any books in print on any subject, and will make inquiries for
and books out of print.
Analysis of the Holy Royal Arch Ritual
the Rev. F. deP. Castells. Published by A.Lewis, London. Cloth, table
index, 119 pages. Price $2.75.
CASTELLS has a rather low opinion of the
work of such Masonic scholars as might be classed under the head of
term, the "Authentic" school of research; for which, by the way, if any
qualification be really needed, "critical" or "historical" would
be far more appropriate. It is to be feared that none of these terms
can be accurately
used of Bro. Castells’ methods or conclusions. Every seeker after truth
an open mind, but that does not mean that we should discard all
conclusions at the advent of every new opinion, for to do so would in
that we should never arrive anywhere. The line we are following may be
it is well nevertheless that it should be thoroughly explored. This
will serve as good reason for critical students to continue their
step by step, and not to take aerial flights borne on the wings of
But it equally debars them from condemning those who prefer the latter
discovery, for something may be seen by them through the mists and
clouds of fancy
which will prove of permanent value.
far as can be gathered from his published
works Bro. Castells' general position seems to be that the traditional
of Masonry is founded on genuine fact, that it was transmitted by the
and that it is so closely related to Kabbalism as to be in effect an
portico to the adytum of that mystical system. As subsidiary to this,
the Royal Arch as being Masonry proper, and infers that all lower
grades were offshoots
from it, designed to sift out those candidates not really fitted to
position has been very fully set out in
the author's earlier works. Indeed the Origin of Masonic Degrees might
well be called
a study of the Kabbalah as much as anything else. The present work is
closely defined by its title, for it is really an analysis of the Royal
and even if its historicity be questioned, Bro. Castells is entitled to
of having compared the various types of ritual actually in use.
Generally such studies
have been undertaken on the basis of one ritual form only.
latest work also seems to offer indications
that the author has not been content with such sources as he used in
efforts, but has pursued his researches. And if we cannot agree with
of them, it must be admitted that it is far from easy to appraise such
of Masonic antiquity that remain to us; and their fragmentary character
assumptions necessary to extract any meaning from them.
might seem as if in such a case one set of
assumptions is as good as another. Certainly they cannot be approved or
in the same clean cut way as we can deal with questions of fact. They
a rule very delicate balancing of considerations for and against, and
of opinion are inevitable. Nevertheless such assumptions, so far as
to explain and interpret historical evidence, do depend on that
evidence to the
extent that they must use the facts as they are found in their proper
anything at all may be proved by facts selected here and there, and
or twisted in order to make them fit.
serious complaint must be made about Bro.
Castells' method of work, and that is the complete absence of definite
At times modern Masonic writers are quoted, but without any indication
statements or opinions ascribed to them are to be found. He cites old
and in MS., but seldom gives even a clue as to what they are. Unless
is sufficiently conversant with the material to recognize the passages
is left entirely in the dark if he wishes to verify them, or to judge
from their context, whether they really bear the interpretation put
upon them. What,
for instance, is the "old American Ritual" cited at pages 17, 27, 32
elsewhere, and which it is intimated at pages 46 and 67 is one hundred
years old? Is it something else from the only American ritual that he
was able to
find in the Grand Lodge Library, dated 1892? Of this he says that it
ceremonies completely remodeled" though "it contains all the essentials
of our Supreme Degree." The way this is put gives the impression,
quite unintentional, that this ritual "produced at Wisconsin" (sic) is
something new, full of innovations. As it has not been possible to
work it cannot be said definitely that this is not so; but it is most
it follows the normal American type. Indeed it may be guessed that all
meant to say was that it differed from the English type ‒ only if so,
he might have
expressed himself with less ambiguity:
the question remains, what is the American
Ritual that is a century and a half old? Where is it? There are two or
least who would travel a thousand miles or more to see it, if they were
it could be found. As a matter of fact, one is inclined to suspect from
said concerning the peculiar features of this ritual, that this
is a reprint of part of Elder Bernard's "Light on Masonry," published
in 1829, at the height of the anti-Masonic furor. But this, even if its
be granted (which is at least open to question) does not take us back
to the eighteenth
century. And Webb stood at the dividing line between the centuries, and
may doubt if he very greatly modified the Craft rituals, it does seem
that he remodeled those of the Chapter and the Commandery. And Webb
became the law
and gospel for American Masonry, with the exception of Pennsylvania. In
there seem to be no known Royal Arch rituals extant earlier than the
the nineteenth century, or the last decade of the eighteenth, either in
in MS. If Bro. Castells knows of any he will do Masonic scholarship the
service if he will let us into the secret of their whereabouts.
would seem that at about the end of the eighteenth
century there were the widest variations in the Royal Arch as practiced
places. So wide indeed that visitors were frequently re-obligated in
order to communicate
things they had not received in their own Chapters. As Webb
standardized the American
work, so was it remodeled in England, and probably Ireland, a little
later on. In
all cases great changes were made. The English ritual minimized the
the American exaggerated it. In Ireland a subsidiary incident was
developed as the
page 38 Bro. Castells refers to an "interrogatory,"
which he says "is taken from the Sections, which are at least two
old." By "Sections" he means what in America is called a "Lecture,"
properly a Catechism. Now the only authority for these "Sections" that
he mentions is Carlile's expose of 1825 [Lib 1845]
(as at pages 15 and 20). The "interrogatory" above mentioned was not
from any American ritual, nor is it in Carlile. Apparently it comes
from some other
source ‒ but without further knowledge it would be unsafe to accept it
as two hundred
dealing with the "Vaulted Chamber,"
he describes some ceremonies of the "eighteenth century ritual," by
apparently he means the American form, and in a suggested comparison
with the English
work (which refers to "three cope stones") he observes that "the
mention of three 'keystones' at a later date is decidedly wrong; there
be one Keystone." Why? If there be any point that emerges from the
information we have about pre-nineteenth century Royal Arch symbolism
it would seem
to be that originally there were three vaults and so three keystones.
And this even
so late as 1825, for it is plainly so stated in Carlile. The three
of the present English work are an attenuated survival of the original
Carlile is here supported by numerous Masonic designs, many of which
are of the
is perhaps not worthwhile to discuss the
arguments when the premises on which they are based seem to be so
unreliable. But we can say that the symbolical interpretations
suggested by Bro.
Castells are often worthy of consideration, they are sometimes striking
always ingenious. And in one matter we must heartily agree with him;
of the three Principles, and especially that of the Ex. Z., in the
certainly do need drastic revision and curtailment. When he had to
the present reviewer was never able to look the candidate in the eye;
possible he sought a later opportunity to explain their impossibilities
and to try
and substitute something better. The older and shorter addresses, while
superficial, were much to be preferred. In fact it would seem that in
to make the Royal Arch a ne plus ultra, and the repository of the most
the ritual makers of the nineteenth century succeeded only in creating
there is little real interest in the Royal Arch by the average
Companion, it is
not the fault of the general conception of the degree (or Order), but
taste of the furnishers and decorators who painted and gilded and
fitted it out
in the very worst rococo style.
By A. E. Waite. Published by Williams
and Norgate, Ltd., London, and the Macmillan Co. New York. Cloth,
of contents, illustrated, index, xxvi and 686 pages. Price $7.75.
latest work from the pen of Bro. Waite
proves that in spite of advancing years his powers are in no way
enfeebled nor his
industry slackened. The amount of work he has accomplished is
remarkable for its
sheer bulk, and during a long literary life he has written nothing
that, in its
own field, can be safely neglected by the seeker therein. Now at an age
man might be expected to lay down his working tools he has produced
piece of work, thoroughly and competently dealing with a subject about
has been written but with little knowledge in too many cases. Every
every teacher or prophet of some brand of "new" thought, honest and
alike, have fallen back on the Kabbalah as a fountain of mysteries, and
of secret illumination with (on the part of most) no real acquaintance
at all with
the Kabbalistical texts. The term "Kabbalistic" has been one to conjure
with since the Middle Ages ‒ literally to conjure with ‒ in the working
magic, both black and white. But of what "it was all about," really,
few seem to have so much as guessed.
Waite, in the present work, is continuing
to prosecute his search for a "secret tradition." None of his books can
be properly estimated or appreciated unless this be kept in mind. And a
is the most elusive thing imaginable, as one would naturally expect.
is a widespread school of thought ‒ with
many organized and unorganized groups within it ‒ which holds to the
of a religion behind all religions. This is often more than a
an article of faith in itself. Albert Pike held it, among many other
teachers and prophets, and he recast the rituals of the Scottish Rite,
Morals and Dogma to propagandize this view.
hypothesis to which we refer is not at all
the same thing as that underlying the scientific study of religion from
anthropological and objective standpoint, though there are many points
and resemblance. Comparative religion is not concerned with the
content, the value
or truth of religion, but merely with its form, its history and
evolution. The attitude
of the theosophical occultist ‒ the term will serve to designate those
to, even if not a very accurate definition ‒ is quite different. Here
is of different religions being deliberately devised systems, adapted
to races and
peoples at different levels, by teachers and prophets, who were the
agents and servants
of the hidden religion, the true religion, to which only those of the
spiritual and intellectual, could ever hope to arrive; and they only by
a long series
is a manifest plausibility about this
view. There is so much, taking the various religions together, which
they seem to
hold in common. There may be even the adumbration of higher truth in it
to whom God is not merely an impersonal, indifferent "All," and
in man ‒ and beast ‒ a mere illusion. But into this it will not be safe
now. What we are concerned with is that Kabbalism has been frequently
adduced as one of the vehicles, or official paths, from exterior
religion to the
occult ecclesia; the religion behind religion, conceived as a hidden
a "Great White Lodge," enduring from age to age, watching over the
‒ with, the cynic might say, singularly little effect.
Kabbalah is by its own claim a "Secret
Doctrine." Not a doctrine of magic worked by names of power, as it has
been taken to be; all that is mere excrescence, debased offshoots of
the main stem;
the true Kabbalah is a doctrine of mystical interpretation of the Holy
‒ the Law. And here we may quote Brother Waite's own words:
is, of course, broadly and generally, a method
of interpreting Scripture, but so far as this expression is to be
an ordinary sense ‒ as an actual and logical construction of the letter
‒ the interpretation,
as I have indicated already, is of no value ‒ for the most part, at
least. It is
to be taken or left in the sense of its own motive, which is to
establish, at any
and all cost, a Secret Doctrine on the foundation of the Old Testament;
and in the
light of this it signified little that the Doctrine, in respect to
arbitrary to the last degree.
so Bro. Waite judges, the "sons of
the Doctrine" produced "pure and precious jewels of the spirit" amid
"much dust and scoria" from the matter that passed under their hands,
and he goes on to say:
is only as if casually that the word interpretation
can be held to apply in any solid sense; the Secret Doctrine is rather
below the sense which is found in the literal world ‒ as if one story
on the obverse side of the parchment and another on the reverse side.
it appears that the Kabbalah is not properly
either exegetical or historical;
… it is not of systems,
schools or interpretations, it is of a living and spiritual kind. Here
the only vital point of view from which the subject can be regarded,
and it redeems
the whole circle of my present inquiry from the charge of vanity. It
why the research has been undertaken and why its results are offered at
to those whom they concern.
would hardly be possible to adequately criticize
such a literature as that of the Kabbalah without some discussion of
its age and authenticity. The first four books (of which there are
twelve in all)
in Bro. Waite's work deal with this aspect of the subject; and
although, as he takes
pains to make clear, he is not interested in such matters as textual
and dates and authorship, for and in themselves, yet his treatment is
not the less
thorough and painstaking on that account. It would appear that he has
all that has ever been published upon the subject. At its own value the
of the Kabbalah has its origin in the remote past; the Sepher Yetzirah
to Abraham, for example; but on its own account it was an oral
tradition till the
time of Rabbi Simeon Ben Jochai in the second century of our era. The
of Formation" or "Creation,"
is regarded as the oldest extant work, and Bro. Waite thinks that there
inherent improbable in its having been the work of Rabbi Akiba, shortly
destruction of Jerusalem in the first century; although this ascription
more than a thousand years later. Obviously therefore it remains an
The Zohar or "Book of Splendor" [Lib 2007]
by its own account was written down by a disciple of Rabbi Simeon, and
in part pretends
to reproduce discourses and discussions between that famous Rabbi and
It is patently a compilation, and the materials used are of very
Modern critics have ascribed it Moses de Leon, a Spanish Jew of the
Of this question Bro. Waite says:
is useless to reason with those whose confidence
is not shaken in the face of impossibilities, whose imagination can
bridge all gulfs
in evidence by fantastic suppositions. On the other hand there is the
which rules off a literature by a single stroke of the pen into the
region of forgery
and imposture.... It does not matter that this criticism is always in
It proved Troy town to be solar Mythos till Troy town was excavated; it
as it believed, the Book of Daniel till fresh archaeological
discoveries cast it
into the pit it had dug. It is truly not less stupid, and it is far
than the opposed excess.
extreme incredulity is only extreme credulity
turned inside out, or working in a negative sense. Bro. Waite goes on
to say that
… the history of
debated questions of this kind teaches another lesson, and the closest
to truth is found usually in the mean of extreme views
concludes that an unbiased consideration
of all the evidence
… will lead us to
conclude that there are elements of old doctrine in the Zohar, their
is, in part, highly speculative, but it is quite sufficient to invest
considerable interest, from this point of view only. Like the Sepher
of it may be even referable to a comparatively remote antiquity.
if we accept the indications found in the
Talmuds which point to the existence of a secret and mystical tradition
… and follow them
through the large mystical literature which intervened between those
works and the
Zohar as we now have it, we shall be led, not to the conclusion of the
and dreamer, that there was a great body of Secret Doctrine which
gradually, but that there was a kernel of Tradition which was planted
in the secret
heart of Israel, which many watered and fostered, till the growth at
forth, not without something of transformation and of suddenness, the
of the Zohar.
then we are to conclude, from the external
evidence critically examined, that the Kabbalah is relatively old ‒
back to the first centuries of the Christian era ‒ and also that it is
not in the sense of coming from the authorship ascribed by tradition,
but in that
of being the product of a mystical school of thought within the Jewish
what, if anything, has it to offer to us now? Its bizarre symbolism is
not of a
kind to appeal to the ordinary intelligent person, even if of a
Bro. Waite tells us that the Kabbalah is the first word to appear in
world to affirm
… with no uncertain
voice that God is altogether without mutation or vicissitude ‒ that
wrath and judgment
are of man alone, placing thus a new construction on the divine
not, less ye be judged"; and showing also the significance of the not
divine promise: "I will repay." Never for the true Kabbalist could this
mean that God would repay the sinner in his own spirit, outrage for
for hate… Amid the firebrands of the Papal Church it promulgated for
the first time
the real meaning of the forgiveness of sins.
is something certainly, though it does
not lie on the surface. Nor does another matter which Bro. Waite
discerns, but of
which none of the ordinary accounts ever gives so much as a hint. It is
of Sex." In hag-ridden America, obsessed as it is today with real (if
Incubi and Succubi this should be of interest. But it is to be feared
mystery is too great, that too high a price is demanded of those who
is rather curious and exceptional. All schools
of mysticism have features in common, and one of the most general of
links is asceticism. The attainment of the Beatific Vision, of the
of union with God, is deliberately sought by the path of keeping the
body in subjection,
of self-denial and abstinence and continence. And before all
continence. The oriental
mystic and the occidental alike have held that only at this price could
be unlocked. Herein it would seem that the Kabbalah has opened another
way ‒ the
way of marriage ‒ holding that man is imperfect without woman, and that
there is a spiritual partner or spouse of the opposite sex, with whom
the way of
perfection may be travelled. It is a doctrine that will commend itself
to all true
lovers. And it would serve as well as a corrective to the silly
nonsense now so
fashionable on this subject, which is nothing but an unreasoning and
reaction from the Puritan theory that everything pleasant was wrong and
inherently wicked ‒ especially when it was the joy of the lover in the
But for all this those interested must go to Bro. Waite's work for
the eighth Book is devoted to it, the way thereto having been prepared
which precede it.
eleventh Book considers the connections
of the Kabbalah with other lines of Secret Tradition, real or alleged.
magic, in the West, was (so it appears) highly Kabbalistic, borrowing
its doctrine concerning names and words of power ‒ and spiritual
these is a short chapter on the links between the Kabbalah and
Freemasonry. It is
brief, because Bro. Waite has so fully dealt with the Secret Tradition
that it was unnecessary, as well as out of place, to have said more
a reference to the hypotheses which relate the Fraternity to the
the Templars and the Rosicrucians, he goes on to say that
… no presentation
of this hypothesis has been able to survive analysis, and it is left at
a possible connection between Masonry and Rosicrucianism a little
before and after
the Grand Lodge epoch of 1717… This being the state of the case, and
the claim on
antiquity which is made for Freemasonry by some of its unwise votaries
been urged by the institution on its own behalf outside the Rituals,
there is nothing
prima facie to accredit the idea that it has ever been a channel of any
except its own, or to warrant us in supposing a priori that it should
have any distinct
analogies with Kabbalism. And as a fact its position in this respect is
that of Alchemy, seemingly fortuitous, a question of subsequent
much imputation as reality, a varnish rather than a permanent tincture.
adds that Masonry has "attracted occultists
and even mystics" and that during the Rite-manufacuring period, the
part of the eighteenth century,
… alchemists, Swedenborgians,
Martinists, theurgists, astrologers, all invented new Grades and new
as at this period there were also Kabbalists, so in one or two
instances we hear
of Kabbalistic Rites, especially of Rites and Grades which exhibit
he concludes from this that as Freemasonry
is not alchemy, or theurgy or mysticism, neither is it Kabbalism,
has been put to use in Kabbalistic as in other interests."
on he briefly mentions Albert Pike's
interest in occultism, and such Kabbalism as was known to Pike's
master in these things, Eliphas Levi, and says that:
It matters little
that the sources from which Pike drew were of the worst rather than the
that though a man of wide reading, he was not a critic; for we are
with a tendency and its development.
Pike, "in spite of these limitations,"
did make available an amount of information on occult subjects which no
scheme had imported into Masonry, although it is only the rites of
Memphis and Misraim
which claim "a distinct purpose of an occult kind."
final conclusion is that the Kabbalistic
influence is confined to the so-called High Grades, and that to
interpret the Third
Degree by Jewish Tradition ("outside the allegory of the Lost Word") is
So far as history
is concerned Kabbalism and Masonry once joined hands in the sphere of
Grades, and as a historical fact this is interesting, but that it
must be left to those who affirm it.
The Question Box
A Critic of Army
please find a total of three dollars,
being a renewal of my membership and subscription for the ensuing
writing I would like to address a few
words regarding the contents of THE BUILDER. Many of your articles are
and general interest but on the other hand there are some that cannot
under this heading ‒ I refer particularly to those dealing with
These cannot be of any interest to the majority and neither can they
appeal to those
who are seeking historical information. Undoubtedly they were a very
from a Masonic point of view (that is the lodges) as shown from the
and from the large number of brethren who have been suspended for N. P.
D. and general
lack of interest in Craft affairs.
articles in THE BUILDER often ask what is
the matter with Masonry? This question can be quickly answered by
anyone who has
read the papers dealing with Overseas Lodges. I do not for one moment
lodges of being the sole cause but they form a glaring example of
accepted without due regard to their fitness. How could any lodge
HUNDREDS of men were suitable within the space of a few months? How
could ANY investigating
committee decide upon character knowing only the man's army character?
have probably written a lot to express my
mind regarding the articles in question, but the continued grabbing of
whether suitable or otherwise, certainly needs drastic action. In my
mind the only
good cause the articles can afford is to prevent the Craft suffering
from a like
disaster at some future time at the hands of other thoughtless members
of our Order.
as a whole, I appreciate THE BUILDER
or I should not renew my subscription.
comments published on Bro. Hungerford's
articles make me wish to speak too, even though I may also be only a
in the wilderness. With the mutually opposite views of D.D.H. and
A.E.C., I feel
in sympathy and J.T.T. has given an accurate diagnosis. Our last Grand
held constantly in his addresses to our lodges to the opinions
expressed by D.D.H.
but, if they are right and the utmost limit of Masonic achievement is
a nursing mother for the various service clubs, then I must agree with
"Freemasonry is, as a whole, operating under false pretenses." There
greater need than ever for the exercise of Brotherly Love, Relief and
why keep our machinery idle?
Roucek, on page 114 (April), might have
gone further and applied his "second problem" to Freemasonry the world
over instead of only Continental Europe. The human qualities of our
not differ greatly anywhere and the old difference between Operatives
seems reborn in the division between intellectuals and men of other
types. It is
likely they will always remain with us, and Bro. Roucek's solution goes
realizing a happy cooperation.
this, however, there remains grave need
for a sense of responsibility on the part of our Investigating
whose incompetency, largely, is due the influx of unsuitable material,
a deterrent to efficiency in any direction of activity. A remedy
against this can
be found in the practice followed, I understand, by lodges in
Switzerland. A local
Brother, who had been stationed there during the War, spoke here
several times after
his return on his experiences and stressed the fact that entrance and
there were far more difficult than with us.
lodge, in the city where he passed most
of his service, was constantly occupied with benevolent work; not
because of the
demands of the War but as a normal condition by which applicants and
tested before their membership could be completed. No candidate
received more than
one degree in a year's time and not only had his proposer and seconder
on his behavior during the periods between these ceremonies, but the
to give a written statement of his understanding thereof and of his
in trying to live up to them. On these reports would depend entirely
my readers will stop to consider what a difference
would result in the Freemasonry of North America if such a practice
should by any
means be inaugurated here, they will at once perceive why there is so
and dissatisfaction amongst us under conditions wherein nothing of the
sort is attempted.
Unsuitable material would cease to obstruct Masonic progress, or make
ridiculous by their natural incapacity to meet such responsibilities.
cannot be done as long as we put quantity
and ceremonial so much in the place of quality and work, as at present,
all natural impetus to service of any sort outside our present narrow
be continually turned aside from Masonic channels. The statement that
we are not
operative but speculative Masons, that our teachings are allegorical
historical accuracy, should not be twisted into a reason for mere
temples and other externals.
may justly point to the "Three
Jewels" of British Masonry, to the Homes supported by some U. S. Grand
to the fact that 80 per cent of its revenue is earmarked for
benevolence by the
G. L. of Canada, in Ontario; but the core of this discontent is, like
of Heaven, not outside but within each one of us. For we spend vast
others direct into useful channels, yet as Lowell wrote ‒ "The gift
the giver is bare." Some genius in psychology may yet earn our
devising a method whereby we can work individually to these ends, as
well as pay
others to do so.
‒ N.W.J.H., Ontario.
further reference to "Masonic Fundamentalism,"
the writer has lately been making a number of addresses under the
auspices of the
Service Committee of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, and in every one of those
has stressed the fact that Masonry requires a belief in God, but does
a definition of the term God.
is extremely doubtful if brethren could write
a definition upon which any two, or at least any considerable number,
To wrangle with a fundamentalist upon these matters is vainest of vain
The great names which adorn the pages of Masonry from Voltaire, Payne,
Washington and Franklin and many another, were all professing a belief
true and living God," which would scarcely be approved among the ranks
Mason has a right to make such application
of our teachings as he sees fit, which best approves themselves to his
and understanding. The writer has been for many years a Knight Templar.
a Knight Templar in an American jurisdiction a man is required to
profess that he
is a firm believer in the Christian religion. What does that mean? He
can give it
any such interpretation as he sees fit. The word religion is very
elastic, and even
a modern Jew can, without conflict with his conscience, subscribe to
the other hand, visiting in the Canadian
jurisdiction we found that a positive statement of belief in the Holy
Trinity was a pre-requisite for membership in the Commandery degrees or
as they are known in Canada, and elsewhere, and that the Apostle's
Creed was recited
as an article of faith. In some consistories in the northern Masonic
of the Scottish Rite an attempt is made to give the degree, a
interpretation, and some consistories will not admit anyone except
Such was not the belief of Albert Pike, who was seeking to find a
for all sorts and conditions of men and all kinds of beliefs, and to
honor a Shrine
in which all could gather and develop their common humanities for the
good of all.
Pike believed he had found this altar in Freemasonry and that its
be elaborated and expanded through the several degrees of the Scottish
written by him for the Southern Jurisdiction.
the writer doesn't belong to the "snollygasters,"
but I believe he would rather belong to them than to the "gullibles,"
who believe everything, and as the late Bob Ingersoll used to say,
there were more to believe."
is it for Freemasonry, though, that there
is a place for all sorts and conditions of men and beliefs and that
differences of opinion we should unite under friendly auspices and in
one of another. A study of the "Morals and Dogma," by Pike, will
all of us and a recognition of the fact that none of us are altogether
altogether wrong will help us orient our opinions.
I believe to be true and what I know to
be true are very separate and distinct things. The one is essential,
the other is
fundamental, the one is demonstrable, the other is problematic. Believe
will, the other party has a right to do likewise, amend his theory is
to be right as our own.
A. Kenderdine, Iowa.
candidate has applied for admission, been
accepted, and has received his E. A. Degree in Lodge "A." He later
that his occupation calls him to another part of the country, too far
away to attend
his lodge, but there is a lodge in that town which we will call "B."
"A," through the Grand Secretary,
instructs Lodge "B" to confer the Fellowcraft on before named E. A. as
a courtesy to Lodge "A."
the question rises, is Lodge "B"
required to examine the candidate and satisfy themselves that he has
proficiency in the preceding degree?” Or may they without examination
F. C. Degree on the order of the Grand Secretary (no mention of
made in the Grand Secretary's letter)?
personal view is, that having the order from
the Grand Secretary, Lodge "B" is perfectly in order to confer the F.
C. Degree on the before mentioned E. A. without any examination; but
"A," through the Grand Secretary, instruct Lodge "B" to confer
both F. C. and M. M. Degrees, I claim that Lodge "B" may go ahead and
confer the F. C. Degree on the E. A., but before conferring the M. M.
usual time should elapse and the F. C. brother should satisfy Lodge "B"
that he has made "suitable proficiency" in the F. C. Degree before the
lodge will confer the M. M. Degree. Am I right or am I wrong?
opinion on these questions will be very
H. T., Canada.
A general authoritative answer to a question
in regard to procedure is impossible. Brethren are obviously bound by
rulings and precedents of their own jurisdiction. We may, however,
offer some general
reflections on the principles that should govern any decision that may
In the first place the regulation of courtesy
work of one lodge for another by Grand Lodge officials is a new thing.
It may have
grown up partly by the tendency of all governing bodies to continuously
the scope of their powers; and it is quite possible that the general
of self-governing ability in our lodges has made some regulation
there has been such a deterioration is hardly open to doubt, and it is
to the "degree mill." This has gradually changed the conception of
work in the minds of the great majority of Masons on this continent.
of a lodge is regarded merely as a "foreman" in charge of the "mill."
His function is to know the ritual, and any questions of procedure, of
or Masonic instruction are out of his province, and must be referred to
experts. Did the lodges arrange such matters as these between
as they used to do, such questions as the one under consideration could
It would be settled by correspondence simply and naturally.
The principle on which the question should
be answered seems quite clear. Examination of proficiency in the formal
of one grade is really an integral part of advancement, and always has
candidate must be examined if all requirements are to be filled. But
there are variations
in usage as to the time and place of examination. The standard rule has
and still is in many jurisdictions, that examination should be in open
before the conferring of the next step. Where this is the rule, there
to be no question. The examination is to all intent a part of the
Thus it would appear, that unless it be expressly stated and certified
candidate has been examined and found proficient, that the Lodge "B"
examine him as a matter of course.
Another point arises subsidiary to this,
and pointing to the same conclusion. Unless the candidate is vouched
he must be examined to discover whether he be the person to whom the
Further than this, examination is nothing
that can be objected to by anyone. It is no hardship, if the Mason, of
degree, is proficient. And (it is another of the things that have been
it is the duty of the Master (in principle, though now, alas, honored
the breach of the rule) not only to assure himself of the proficiency
but of the members of his lodge also, at any and all times.
If the Lodge "B" is under another
jurisdiction and there are variations in ritual, there might be some
But these would be no greater than in examining a visitor. The Master
and consequently the Past Masters, of any lodge, ought to be
with ritual variations to be able to conduct such an examination, and
to judge whether
the visitor or candidate knew what he had been taught.
It follows from the consideration of the
first question, that the second question should also be answered in the
Both on the general grounds here advanced and the particular reasons
were the Dionysian Architects, where and
when did they live? Is there any book on the subject?
L. B., Canada.
For the usually accepted ideas about this
ancient corporation or gild the article on the subject in Mackey's
may be consulted. For a full discussion of the value and truth of these
article by Bro. D. E. W. Williamson in THE BUILDER for March, 1928,
should be read.
Bro. Williamson shows conclusively that the often repeated accounts are
of errors and fabrications. The Greek title is generally mistranslated.
be Dionysian Artificers, or better, Dionysian Artists, and better still
"Artistes," for it was a gild or association of actors and musicians,
dancers, jugglers, acrobats and the like. However, this does not prove
were no gilds of builders. It is quite likely there were, but we know
Island Of St.
Croix; a Correction
did you let Burton E. Bennett's mistake
get by in the April issue, wherein he writes: "… the island of St.
the now Danish West Indies…?" In 1917 the American Government purchased
three islands comprising the Danish West Indies, St. Croix being one of
at one time this island contained a population of 25,000, but at
present the combined
population of these islands would not greatly exceed 20,000.
I am not mistaken, the governments of Denmark
and France had an agreement whereby the island of St. Croix could
undergo no change
of sovereignty unless the Knights of Malta were consulted; which
agreement was adhered
to in the transfer of 1917. Donald Lightbourn, New York.
Esa15 / auth. Esarey Logan. - Indianapolis : W K Stewart Co, 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 532. - 18.6 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 006 - 1893
Ars93 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1893. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 311. - 20.3 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 037 - 1924
Ars24 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Songhurst W. J.. - London :
AQC, 1924. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 330. - 38.0 MB.
Freemason's Secrets Sloane MS
Hug721 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : Geo Kenning, 1872. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 22. - 1.0 MB.
Historical Analysis of the Holy
Royal Arch Ritual
Cas29 / auth. Castells Francis de P.. - London : A. Lewis, 1929. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 96. - 0.2 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
Manual of Freemasonry
Car45 / auth. Carlile Richard. - Leeds GB : Celephais Press, 1845. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 333. - 1.2 MB.
Pri30 / auth. Prichard Samuel. - London : Charles Corbett, 1730. - 20th
Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 35. - 1.7 MB.
The Book of Formation or Sepher
Jos23 / auth. Joseph Rabbi Akiba Ben / trans. Stenring Knut. - Berwick
: Ibis Press, 1923. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 89. - 28.3 MB.
The Destruction of Freemasonry
Through the Revelation of Its Secrets
Lud27 / auth. Ludendorff
Erich. - Munchen : Ludendorff's Volkswarte Verlag, 1927. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 113. - 16.4 MB - German - not searchable.
Lai07 / auth. Laitman Michael. - [s.l.] : Laitman Kabbalah Publishers,
2007. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 512. - Copyrighted Book - 3.0 MB.