Masonic Research Society
Bro. A. J. B.
the many brethren who have occupied high
offices in the Craft in Canada, none are more affectionately remembered
Honorable Claude Denechau, a distinguished French Canadian, who
public service to his fellow countrymen during the formative period of
Denechau was a Roman Catholic, and became
a Mason under the early "Modern regime in Lower Canada, and as appears
a Certificate issued by St. Paul's Lodge, Montreal, No. 12, of the
P.G.L. of Lower
Canada ("Ancients"), he was "haled" from Modern to Ancient Freemasonry
on the 14th of January, 1800. He subsequently became a member of
No. 40, at Quebec, and was appointed Grand Junior Warden of the
Lodge of Lower Canada in 1805 during the Grand Mastership of H.R.H. The
Kent. Appointed Grand Senior Warden in the following year, he served in
until 1812, in which year H.R.H. The Duke of Kent resigned as
Provincial Grand Master
in order that he might accept the office of Grand Master of the Grand
Lodge of England
official Circular for the year 1812 records
that the Hon. Claude Denechau was "elected" Grand Master of the
Grand Lodge of Lower Canada. This was an irregular proceeding for it
that the appointment of the Provincial Grand Master was a prerogative
of the Grand
Master of England. It seems clear, however, that Denechau's election
an expedient to meet the situation which had arisen, and that steps
taken to regularize his position by the application to England for a
Patent was not received until 1820, the delay in issuing it being no
doubt due to
the difficulties the United Grand Lodge of England was experiencing in
own house in order following the Union of 1813. Denechau's
was clearly recognized at the time, for in The Mason's Manual, issued
on the 2nd
March, 1818, by the Provincial Grand Lodge, it is provided that "the
of the Provincial Grand Master is a prerogative of the Grand Master of
by whom … a Patent may be granted … The Grand Master shall be
to ancient usage, on the twenty seventh of December annually, provided
has been obtained." (Italics in the original.)
Special Communication was held on the 12th
June, 1820, after the Patent had been received, and the Hon. Claude
regularly installed as Grand Master of the Provincial Grand Lodge of
a position he held until 1823 when the Provincial Grand Lodge was
divided into two
Districts the Hon. William McGillivray being appointed P.G.M. for the
Montreal and William Henry, and the Hon. Claude Denechau P.G.M. for the
of Quebec and Three Rivers. This office he held until his death in 1836.
Grand Master's address, delivered by Denechau
on the 27th December, 1821, is to be found in Graham's History of
Quebec, but it was not the last Charge given by him to the P.G.L. of
as the Quebec historian suggests, for there has recently come to light
a later address
contained in the printed proceedings of the P.G.L. of L. C., held on
the 27th December,
this address is of unusual interest, apart
from its historical value, it follows:
It is with heartfelt
pleasure that on again meeting you at the Anniversary of our Tutelary
Saint, I have
to congratulate you on the improving state of the Craft, and the
progress it has
made in this Province, since I last met you on a similar occasion.
which I then thought it my duty to make on the neglect which to a
I found to prevail in the several lodges throughout the Province, have
without effect and I have now to acknowledge the dutiful and
with which the Brethren have universally received the admonition, which
I can only
ascribe to a conviction on their part of its propriety.
Not only have the
Brethren been more zealous and punctual to their Masonic duties and in
to their respective lodges, but by the information I have received from
Grand Master, our numbers have considerably increased. This
circumstance is the
more gratifying as many of the Brethren recently initiated are from
that class of
our fellow subjects amongst whom prejudices against the Craft are
kept alive from an erroneous notion or rather pretext of the views we
to entertain with respect to matters of Religion. The deception is
and a steady perseverance in that probity of action which characterizes
the world, and which in fact is the very essence of the principles of
will hasten the period when our most ancient and honorable Institution
be less revered by our Catholic Fellow Subjects in this quarter of the
by our Protestant Fellow Subjects in Britain and elsewhere.
The great maxims
of our Institution comprehend all that is valuable in Christianity, and
embraces all that is charitable among every sect or denomination of
it entertains nothing repugnant to those great truths in which every
must agree. The practice of the Masonic Craft is by no means
incompatible with the
religious exercises of any sect of Christians or of Christian virtues
that can be
Our duties are plain,
simple and consolatory, to the Great and Omnipotent Architect of the
owe our gratitude as the great basis and foundation of all the
happiness we now
enjoy, to the King, attachment and allegiance, to all mankind (and in a
manner to Brethren of the Craft) friendship Charity and brotherly love.
who hath much wealth much charity to his poor and suffering
required, and from him who hath little, not more is required than he
with his other obligations conveniently spare, from the poor it
industry and sobriety, a due respect for superiors and all those who
in authority over them.
Exempt from those
scandalous persecutions, to which under the pretext of religion, the
Craft has and
still does labor in some countries, Masonry has at all times prospered
powerful and protecting arm of the British Government, and accordingly
are proverbially Loyal. The Craft we profess instead of debasing
mankind tends to
enlighten, and many are the Brethren of exalted rank and eminent
names are foremost in Patriotism, and whose devotion to their King and
evince that Loyalty may be justly considered as among the first of
It is our bounden
duty, Brethren, collectively and individually as far as our influence
among our fellow subjects to inculcate principles of Loyalty to the
King and obedience
to his Laws as well as the most entire confidence in the wisdom and
his Government as exemplified in our present and unequalled
which there can be no rational freedom.
To you Brethren,
Officers of the Grand Lodge, who have served for the last year, I
for your assiduity in the duties of your respective offices, and the
you have rendered me in the discharge of mine, and to you Brethren and
of the Provincial Grand Lodge installed this day, I enjoin a
perseverance in the
zeal and harmony which I have witnessed in the lodges for the last
year, and desire
that you will afford a like laudable example to your successors as you
from those you have succeeded. In your several lodges you are to take
the necessary labor be duly and fully executed, you are to be regular
that a proper decorum be observed, and that the advice and instructions
to form the perfect Mason, be from time to time attended to, and
imparted so that
the younger Masons may have frequent occasions to improve in the Craft
themselves as officers in their several lodges. I must particularly
call your attention
to the Returns, and request that they may be regularly made at the
to the Grand Lodge, and I am confident that this request will meet with
acquiescence on your part.
I take this opportunity
of informing you, Brethren, that our Grand Master, His Royal Highness
the Duke of
Sussex, has been pleased to appoint by an Instrument under his hand and
the Grand Lodge of England, Brother McGillivray, to be Provincial Grand
the Lodges in Upper-Canada a Brother of distinguished merit, and I
that whenever he may honor any lodge in this Province with his
presence, he may
be received with the distinction and respect due to his Masonic Rank
(Signed) C. DENECHAU,
is now on the Register of the Grand Lodge
of Quebec a lodge which bears the name of Denechau. Founded in 1906,
its membership from the French-speaking citizens of Montreal, it has
had a steady
and encouraging growth. The ceremonies are conducted in the French
translation formerly in use has been revised, with the result that the
and harshness of a literal rendering have been removed.
of Other Races
Bro. D. D.
Anderson. Island Of Mauritius
legend of H. A. forms the kernel of Freemasonry;
it is the peg on which all that the Craft teaches is hung. Let us very
up the tradition having not only the rendering as given in "Emulation"
working, but where necessary, going outside it to other sources in
order to fill
in the picture.
A., the Master Architect, paid his devotions
to the Most High … I have so far no precise information as to where it
was in the
Temple; probably somewhere towards the W. where was situated the Holy
In the Ritual of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, it should be noted, he
tries to escape by the W. door. Emulation then states that he went to
the S., to
the N., and then to the E. Other rituals give a different path, but all
that I have
had access to agree in the main detail that death overtook him in the
point of difference among the rituals are the working tools figuring in
His grave was marked by a sprig of acacia. All the various traditions
agree on this
point. Some rituals stress the r....g of the corpse on the F. P. of F.
and its subsequent
interment as near to the Holy of Holies as possible. Others the finding
on the body
of the Mystic Name engraved on a gold triangle, which with the sprig of
is placed in a coffer on the altar in the Holy of Holies.
although these last details appear so different,
the underlying meanings are identical. We must realize that it has been
a common belief that human spirits on death enter into plants. Acacia,
any other, is associated not so much with the actual survival of the
with the idea of resurrection. What is more dead looking than the pod
the seeds, yet what is more certain to sprout however adverse the
sprig of acacia thus symbolizes two distinct but complementary ideas,
that of immortality
in the abstract and that of survival of the soul in the concrete (if it
to use such a word in this connection).
Sacred Name engraved on the Triangle of
Gold is another paraphrase of the same general idea, but advanced a
Ever since the ancient Egyptians pictured Osiris as the All-Seeing Eye,
has served as the representation of God Almighty, no matter how
different the name
by which He has gone for the time being. The removal of the Golden
Triangle is another
way of describing the transference of the Vital Spark, the Blazing
Glory at the
c....e, the G. from the human corpse to the Holy of Holies, that is
back to the
Godhead. Consequently, whether you take the tradition of the actual
body being taken
to the sacred spot, or others of the Triangle or acacia being placed on
the idea remains the same; an actual, positive step-up of H. A. from
being a mere
man to a being somewhat nearer to Divinity.
are now in a position to analyze this extraordinary
myth. Stripped of all its pictorial and descriptive trappings, a man
who is above
the average is killed by members of the ruck of mankind because of his
relationship towards the Deity. But instead of being snuffed out, he is
to rank with the Gods, and as such continues to benefit the human race.
Ceremony forces this story in a peculiar way to the attention of every
thereby linking up the impersonal external teaching with the internal
of each of its members. It is therefore of considerable interest to
we can find the same teaching in any other ceremonial practiced either
in the present
or in the past.
meet it at once as the underlying motif of
the best known theology of our surroundings, the Christian religion.
Let us here
consider the one of its facets which is pertinent to our ends. The
is of a Man superior in many notable respects (conception, powers,
etc.), who by
reason of this superiority and of His connection with His "Father," is
put to death. He comes to life again, but there is already something
more of the
sublime, of the untouchable about Him, and He finally "ascends into
i.e. to the Godhead where He continues to benefit mankind. The whole
matter is too
well known to require more than this brief reference. We should realize
however, as it is the only modern religion which uses the H. A.
principle. It is
not contained in any other. Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, the beliefs
of the Parsees
or those of the Jews; they all use other vehicles to carry the truths
as they see
them into the minds of man. Even in the creed of Islam, its chief actor
die to benefit the genuine believer. In the past, however, we find a
state of things.
earliest trace of the Resurrection-God appears
probably in the myth of Osiris. Originally one of the minor gods of
Egypt, the Spirit
of the Corn and no more, he wedded his own sister, Isis, who was the
of nature. As time went by tradition changed him into a great and
and Isis into his queen; of her it was said that she discovered how to
and taught the secret to her subjects. Osiris was possessed of a
the God of Storm and Darkness. Bad brother Set killed him by luring him
coffin by a trick, nailing on the lid and throwing it into the Nile.
adventures Isis found the corpse, and with the help of certain other
Osiris, who thenceforth reigned as king over the dead in the
Underworld, his particular
seat being the Morning Star. All corpses were made to go through the
of Osiris, which course would then, by the concepts of imitative magic,
for their respective disembodied spirits. Some authorities believe that
ceremony of initiation was made of the myth whereby the initiates
themselves continuity after death.
Babylonia, not long after, or perhaps even
before, a different version of the same idea arose, which is summed up
in the words
of the Grand Old Man of the Euphrates, Ea. "Let one brother God be
him suffer destruction that man may be fashioned." The story goes that
great Mother, before the creation of the world, was Tiamat, the Womb of
When the gods decided to bring the world out of the universal chaos,
the scheme and was championed by a human-shaped monster, Kingu, also
called in the
tablets "her husband." Marduk, the leader of the pantheon, slays Tiamat
and makes use of her body to form the arch of heaven. He gets hold of
has hidden himself in Tiamat's womb, kills him and "created man out of
blood mixed with earth."
have here the old collateral meaning of "blood"
and "life," that we also find in Genesis, ix, 4. "But flesh with
the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat" … In
tale we find a supernatural being dying, but his spirit (the blood)
and in its continuance being of use to mankind.
passing centuries saw Babylon climbing the
ladder of civilization and the modification of the older gods into
Ishtar, the nature goddess, is fertilized by her lover, Tammuz, who
dies as a result
of that act which is so violent as to mutilate him. From the union a
son is born,
who is the reincarnation of Tammuz. Each year he sacrifices himself,
and were the
tragedy not to occur there would be no subsequent crop to feed mankind.
in different forms flourished all through the Near East in early
classical times, the chief actors always being the same, although
a host of different names such as Astoreth, Astarte, Aphrodite, Cybele,
Adonis, Attis, Pygmalion, and many others.
recently we have an almost historical person
in the shape of Hercules. He was a man strong above all others, who
died at the
hands of his wife. It is beside the point that he burnt himself on a
as the cause of his act was the poisoned shirt sent him by his better
after-life is depicted in the story of the eleventh and twelfth Labors,
various erroneous trains of thought have been transferred into his
In one of these he goes to the underworld to rescue the human souls in
in the other he is wafted to the Isles of the Blest where he marries
of Eternal Youth; it would be laboring the point to analyze this
further story of
the dying god.
have a disguised version in Celtic mythology.
Taliesin, who claimed to be the chief architect at the building of the
Babel, in his previous incarnation was pursued by a woman. To evade her
into a bird, but the woman, adopting the form of a hawk, was too quick
even when he changed himself yet again, this time into an ear of corn,
for she promptly
ate him up. On resuming her human form she found herself to be
pregnant, the baby
being Taliesin, a man above men.
over the world the legend is found in some
form or other, in the present and in the past, some with minor
with distinct and even striking differences, but all built upon the
of the death of a supernatural being under unnatural circumstances, who
by his resurrection
to a heavenly life benefits mortal man. But when we have attained the
which we set out and have contented ourselves by finding that H. A. is
not the solitary
hero of a single system but rather a Savior recognized by mankind
ages, we find our journey of discovery but begun. Intimately bound up
with him in
his many personalities are the sprig of acacia (sometimes metamorphosed
ear of corn), the tau cross, the lion, the morning star, the emblems of
and many another symbol of well-known import to the Freemason. As our
would say "it gives one to think," which, after all, is the essence of
our Second Degree.
were consulted in the preparation of this article:
Ward: Who Was
Bough. Lib 1922]
Genesis [Lib 1905]
of the Gods of Egypt. [Lib*]
The Degrees of
Masonry; Their Origin and History
Bros. A. L.
Kress and R. J. Meekren
now come to the consideration of the second
division of the evidence, the old lodge records.
will, fortunately, not be necessary to bring
forward very much that has not already been discussed, with the
exception of the
Aitchison's Haven minutes, which will have to be cited in their place.
bulk of these records are Scottish; for, beyond York and Alnwick, none
England earlier than 1717, and none at all before 1700. Those of
in 1701 apparently and those of York in 1712 (1).
state of affairs, which Hughan found inexplicable
(2), makes it essential that the question of the relation of Scottish
Masonry before the Grand Lodge era should be fully canvassed before we
with much hope of arriving at safe conclusions; for as Gould says,
there is far
more involved in the reply made to this question than at first sight
We have already had it before us, and we have sufficiently indicated
our own views
(4), but the point is too important to be left with a mere expression
The situation may be thus described; Gould as learned counsel presented
based on the brief provided by Lyon. The conclusions he reached seem to
accepted by everyone as final. Fortunately, to continue the legal
is no statute of limitations in such matters, and no judgment at the
bar of scholarship
is beyond reconsideration and revision.
treated this question in the sixteenth
chapter of his history. While it seems fairly certain that he had not
converted to the theory of the existence of a plurality of degrees
yet he does not ever seem to have relaxed in the least his conclusion
and English Masonry were so different that, judging by some
expressions, there was
really nothing in common between them. As, for example, when he tells
us that the
"old Scottish Mason Word is unknown" and that there is nothing to show
whether it was ever, before 1736, the same as anything used in England.
to his discursive style of writing this
chapter requires careful reading and close attention to disentangle the
steps of his argument. As a whole it makes a general advance over the
Early British Freemasonry. First one feature and then another is taken
tends to conceal whatever weaknesses there may be in the argument on
point. For in one place we are promised further discussion later on,
and then we
are referred back to what was said earlier. The chapter should be
re-read in conjunction
with this criticism, so that our analysis may be checked (5). To give
our own impressions
quite frankly, it might be likened to a trial where a clever rogue is
because there is insufficient legal evidence against him, although
every one, judge,
jurors and counsel, are quite certain of his guilt. Or putting it less
Gould so limited and restricted the significance of the facts that it
to arrive at anything but a negative conclusion.
Early Scottish Masonry
essentials of his argument seem to be the
following: It is pointed out that the scanty traces of lodge activities
prior to the eighteenth century seem to reveal only speculative (or
non-operative) bodies; with possibly, of course, some operative Masons
in the membership.
Only one exception to this rule exists, the operative lodge at Alnwick.
But it is
not properly included in the period as the existing minutes do not
begin until 1701.
Besides it was close to the Scottish border, and might well have been
the other hand, the comparative wealth of
records in Scotland reveals an organization, wholly operative in
including a considerable number of honorary and non-operative members,
in some lodges,
indeed, a majority. Again there is just one exception, the lodge at
this also is close to the border, and might have derived its ritual
and besides, like Alnwick, it is too late to be included in the period,
as its earliest
records do not begin till December, 1702. It is insisted that, in spite
inferences from the Old Charges, there is no proof, outside of Alnwick,
ever was an operative lodge in England. Thus a presumption is raised in
mind that these two exceptional cases in effect cancel each other out.
The one really
Scottish though in England, and the other having an English character
we have stated earlier (6), Gould went beyond
Lyon in his interpretation of the phrase "the Mason Word." Lyon had
that it was evident, from the Dunblane record, that "this talisman
of something more than a word." This Gould refused to accept, standing
literal meaning of the phrase. (7) The Haughfoot reference to a grip he
summarily as abnormal (8). The reference in the Dunblane minutes to
of the Mason Word" is then evacuated of its apparent meaning by the
Dec. 27, 1729, two Entered Apprentices from
Kilwinning desired to join the lodge of Dunblane and be passed as
fellows of Craft.
… being considered
by the members of Court [i.e. of the Lodge] they ordain James Muschet
them as to their qualifications and knowledge, who having reported to
that they had a competent knowledge of the secrets of the Mason Word,
then the said
Lodge, after entering them apprentices pass them to be fellows of craft
(according to Gould (10)) this really
means little (or nothing) because, even so late as 1735 the Kilwinning
of initiation was so simple" that two persons, in that year, were
into Masonry by individual operators at a distance from the lodge," and
found" in lawful possession of the word "were recognized as members of
seems to be the real substantial argument
offered by Gould in support of his position. Naturally, clothed in
with the aid of forensic rhetoric, and with its weak places concealed
by the many
breaks in carrying it through to a conclusion, it appears much more
in this summary. Whether this last is really a just analysis and
exposition or not,
must be left to our readers to judge for themselves. To us it seems
that the logical
fallacies of the argument are so obvious as to scarcely need pointing
out. We have
just as much right to insist that the last mentioned incident proves
of the word" at Kilwinning included the "secrets of the word" spoken
of at Dunblane, as the reverse. We are in fact faced with the negative
in an acute form. And when we consider the practical side of the
question, it is
seen that the inference last suggested gives the most probable result.
understood the "benefit of the mason word" to mean the obtaining
as a mason among strangers. Upon reflection it will be obvious that a
with nothing leading up to it, would be totally inadequate for this
like military watch words, it were changed very frequently. Even then,
have to be some rules as to how it was given. Gould appeals to
But the silence is not universal, for there are the exceptions. And as
we have insisted
at painful length, one positive instance is sufficient, logically, to
the negative weight of an otherwise complete silence. Of course such a
must be "exceptional" as long as it stands alone. To so describe it
not reduce its force, as Gould seemed to think. To do that some other
would have to be brought forward to show why it should not be accepted.
he tried to do by the suggested doubt raised by date and locality, but
no weight unless we admit that the difference which he assumed between
Scottish Masonry really did exist in this radical form.
course Gould (11) was too careful to state
these conclusions positively, as being compulsorily required by the
we have always to bear in mind that the only alternative to this
then presented itself was practically the acceptance of the traditional
of the antiquity of our present system and ritual. We have no desire to
question the value of Gould's work. He cleared the ground and laid the
we are only trying to continue the building where he left off. We are
any part of the structure he reared, but removing some of the
scaffolding for which
there is now no need.
must go a little further, however. In the
course of this argument Gould lay great stress on the date. The
suggestion was that
Alnwick, Haughfoot and Dunblane could tell us nothing of the state of
the seventeenth century. This sounds impressive, but there is a kind of
in it. Centuries, after all, are artificial periods. We may compare one
as wholes, just as we may compare one month with another. March is
is showery. But the last week of March may be rainy and there may be
early in April. We cannot, without fallacy, separate the last years of
century from the beginning of the eighteenth. There is this just kernel
in the suggestion created by Gould's classification of the evidence by
that we can only infer the existence of a thing before the date of its
definitely mentioned. Yet in this case such inference is sound enough
when the whole
nature of the phenomena is considered, and especially the intensely
and traditional nature of the institution. And we need only ask that a
years of previous existence be inferred to carry things back over the
line drawn between 1699 and 1700.
there was a difference between English
and Scottish Masonry we willingly admit, and Gould has the credit for
it out. It was a difference of organization and function. Where we hold
was mistaken, and indeed went beyond legitimate inference from the
in the assumption that this external difference implied equally great
on the esoteric side. We know that very great differences of
the strictly historic period, even down to the present day, have not
in ritual to the point of making recognition impossible. Variations
exist now, and
very likely existed then to an even greater degree than now, but that
is not the
same thing at all (12).
Scottish Masonry Esoterically Identical
Scotchmen will doubtless repudiate
the idea with vigor, and perhaps with heat, historically the English
of Britain have a common origin and culture. The Lowlanders of Scotland
the same race in the main as the inhabitants of the north of England.
was ever a division between them was a political accident, largely due,
it is probable,
to geography. The natural assumption is that Scottish Masonry would be
England. There is no need to go over in detail the minor features that
Just one thing may be mentioned, and that is the fact that a good
number of copies
of the MS. charges have been found in the possession of many of the old
When therefore the argument against recognizable likeness and close
between the Masonries of the two countries has been countered, the
natural assumption, that internally they were closely related, once
more takes its
is one more argument that may be brought
forward. Scottish minutes go on speaking of the "Mason Word" years
Desaguliers' visit to Mary's Chapel, where he, a London Mason, was
"found duly qualified in all points of Masonry." This hardly bears out
the minimal interpretation of the phrase insisted on by Gould; and,
once we are
free of that presumption, the possibilities are unlimited. Scottish
the influence of extreme Protestantism may have been, and very probably
to a process of deletion in some places, each lodge being a law to
itself, but not
to the point of making intercommunication impossible (13). There may
also have been
a process of decay and atrophy. Gould gives a sketch of Scottish
on the many invasions the country endured, most of them accompanied by
devastation of towns and countryside alike; and the unexpressed
suggestion is given
that as the arts and crafts generally declined the esoteric side of
also decay and be forgotten. This does not necessarily follow. Men
and transmit signs and tokens and secret catechisms even though
from exercising their craft. The process of decay would probably, we
England equally. It would be merely another example of the gradual
change of institutions;
and one of its effects might well have been that alleged fusing of two
one in some non-operative lodges in England in the seventeenth century
have thus given our reasons for refusing
to admit that the external differences of organization and function in
the two countries
in the seventeenth century necessarily require us to postulate equally
on the esoteric side. Our contention is that the attempt to prove such
breaks down under critical examination. There must have been, in the
nature of things
this much we may assume geographical variations, both local and
regional, just as
there must have been secular changes in the passing of the years. But
the other hand, the intercommunication, indications of which are
and the conservatism which so strongly characterized members of the
have had a strong stabilizing effect. Like an army on the march, with
foraging parties on the flanks, the vanguard far ahead while the
behind, nevertheless the organization may be supposed to have retained
and to have evolved along the same lines in different places and at
We say supposed, deliberately, because it is not proved, nor can it be
beyond all shadow of doubt. The dictum of Huxley, quoted by Gould
that "postulate of loose thinkers; that what may have happened must
is a warning. Yet there is its converse, which Bro. Tuckett has more
the unconscious postulate that the critically minded often assume; that
be proved cannot have happened ‒ the pitfall of the negative argument,
words (14). In view of all which we hold that we may assume, not only
but to some degree probable, that the Masons of the two countries
the same ritual forms and possessed in essentials the same secrets.
Upon this assumption
we will proceed.
of the Old Records
we will recall that in our consideration
of the Old Charges last month, we saw that they pointed to a definite
between apprentices and the skilled Fellows and Masters. Further, it
(though far from consistently) there was a tendency to employ different
changing the status of the individual. An apprentice was "allowed"
to some versions, but a Mason was "made," and a Fellow was "received."
Any interpretation of these vague indications by themselves is mere
they may fit into a scheme suggested by other facts. The Shaw Statutes
and the Orders
of the lodge at Alnwick do give some further precision to the hazy
According to the former the apprentice was "taken" by his master;
either by his master or the lodge, or by both for this is not clear and
to the lodge ‒ or in the lodge records for again it is not clear. On
the other hand
it is quite clear that a master or fellow was "received and admitted''
the lodge; and this "admission" must almost certainly, from the way it
is spoken of, have been formal in character.
Alnwick (15) we saw that the apprentice was
"entered" and "given his charge," while "Masons" were
"made free," and apprentices at the end of their servitude were
or accepted." Again we have the same vagueness as appeared in the Old
yet an outline begins to appear, as in a clearing mist. Remembering, as
we saw last
month (16), that "Mason" was apparently used, sometimes, at least, as
an inclusive term for the more particular designations "Master" and
it begins to look dimly as if an apprentice was taken and allowed or
at the end of his term was made free by being admitted or accepted as a
master, or alternatively, made a Mason. At York the "Old Rules" of 1725
speak only of a "Mason" or "Brother" being "made,"
there being no reference at all to apprentices.
back to Scotland (17) we find the Statutes
"ordeined" by the Lodge of Aberdeen, in 1670, giving the conditions
which an "Entering prenteise" is to be "reciaved." "Master
meassons" are said to be "made," and apprentices at the end of their
time are to "receave the fellowship." The last is also spoken of as
Kilwinning in 1643 wrote
into its records the clause of the Schaw Statutes relating to the
passing of fellows.
In 1646 four persons, one a Mason of Paisley, were accepted as "fellow
to the said trade"; the meetings being described as "Courts of the
trade of the lodge of Kilwinning." This entry probably relates to what
call affiliation.. The next item is to the effect that five
individuals, who are
named, were received as "prenteisses to ye said craft."
Glasgow, on the first day of the year 1613,
John Stewart younger, apprentice to John Stewart elder, was "entered"
by the Warden and Brethren, "conform to the acts and liberty of the
whatever that meant precisely to the clerk who wrote it. The earliest
of the Lodge of Dunblane is dated January, 1696. In December of that
year the members
"ordained" a scale of fees to be paid by those wishing to join; "at
their entrey six punds, and att their passing thrie punds Scots, with
dues." Twenty years later, in 1716, it was enacted that "there be no
or uthers entered and past by the members of this Lodge at one and the
excepting only "such gentlemen" who could not be present at a "second
diet." Instead, those "entered" were to be "first reported prentises,
and their passing ordered by the Lodge thereafter according to
Evidently the "entering" was generally done by a group of members of
lodge at their own convenience, as was apparently quite customary in
the period, and possibly in England, too.
27, 1720, is the first of the minutes of
the admissions of fellows of craft that contain the peculiar reference
to the square
and compass which for a number of years was regularly used by the
Secretary of Dunlblane
Lodge. It is worth quoting in full:
Compared John Gillespie,
writer in Dunblane, who was entered on the 24 instant, and after
duely passt from the Square to the Compass, and from ane Entered
Prentiee to a Fellow
of Craft of the Lodge.
the date of this is later than the formation
of the Grand Lodge in London, yet it is hardly likely that the ripples
that event could have had much effect in Scotland in the short interval
years. For the present, however, we will pass on as this calls for
later. Only it may be said that the phrase can hardly mean anything
aside from some
ceremonial to which it was a veiled reference.
Lodge of Peebles seems to have been deliberately
founded by the members of the "Honorable company of Masons" of that
… into their consideration
the great loss they have hitherto sustained by want of a Lodge, and
finding a sufficient
number of Brethren in this Burgh, did this day [Oct. 18 1716] erect a
themselves within the said Burgh.
makes one wonder just what the "great
loss" was that they had sustained. It could hardly have been a business
financial one, as the Company or Gild should have been sufficient for
It seems as if it might be a curious parallel to the "Accepcon" in the
London Mason's Company. However that may be, in December the same year,
Brotherstanes was "decently and orderly" entered; while Alexander
an "enter'd prentise, made application" to the lodge and was
Minutes of later years up to 1725 speak of Apprentices being entered,
persons being "received and admitted," (apparently in most cases
who were made fellows at once. But this is not absolutely certain in
A peculiarity of these minutes is that we are frequently told that
and "admissions" were "decently and orderly" performed, which
can hardly refer to anything but some ceremonial.
minute book of the Lodge at Haughfoot begins
in December of 1702, but the first ten pages have been torn out, and it
to be suspected that they contained, if not a ritual, at least ritual
In 1704 William Cairncross "gave in his petition" to be associated with
the lodge, and was examined and found to be a "true entered Apprentice
Fellowcraft." This shortened form of the usual term "Fellow of Craft"
was used also at Aberdeen, whence it was probably transplanted to
London by Dr.
Anderson, and thence, through the medium of the Book of Constitutions,
it has spread
over the whole Masonic world.
St. John's Day, 1706, "John Scott, brother
of Sir James Scott of Gala, was orderly admitted to the Society of
Felllowcraft." A year later a similar rule to that of Dunblane was
"meeting" having come
… to a general resolution
that in time coming they would not, except on special considerations,
the Society both of apprentice and fellowcraft, at the same tyme, but
that one year
at least should intervene betwixt any being admitted apprentice and his
we have another of the puzzling variations
in terminology. It is practically certain that in this exceptional
has been taken by many students as exceptional in the sense of being
there were two ceremonies used throughout its existence. But the term
is used for the higher grade and "admission" for the lower, the exact
opposite to what we have been coming to accept as the normal
terminology of the
come finally to the minutes of the Lodge
of Aitchison's Haven. These begin in the year before the earliest
of Mary's Chapel at Edinburgh, and the first entry records that "Robert
was maid fellow of Craft" in the presence of "John Fender the Warden,"
and seven other fellows of craft. No apprentices are mentioned. This of
not prove that none were present, especially as the Warden was one of
signed the Schaw Statutes which insisted that two apprentices were
required at the
admission of fellows of craft. The omission was remedied on later
as on May 28, 1599, "Johne Low was maid fellow of Craft in ye presence
Fender Warden for ye present," followed by the names of six others, who
said to be "all fellows of Craft," and then comes "also of enterit
Drentis Richart Petticrief [and] James Petticrief." So that the lodge
of seven fellows with the two apprentices that, as we have seen, were
required by the Schaw Statutes.
second minute in the book, January 11, 1598,
records that "Alexander Cubie was enterit prenteis to Georg Aytoune."
Two years later, Jan. 2, 1600, we find Alexander Culbie chosen by
as one of his intenders, the said Andrew being "enterit prenteis to
his maister," having paid twenty shillings for "his boukin," or fee
for registration, and given gloves to his "admitteris," who included
fellows and four apprentices.
minutes favor the term "maid fellow
of craft" for the higher status, but while frequently using the term
in regard to apprentices, this is varied by the expression "buikit,"
or recorded. This definitely raises the question, which has already
hovered in the
background, as it were, more than once; was the "entering" of an
anything more than formal registration in the lodge records, in the
its members as witnesses? For the present we leave it without
attempting an answer,
though it may be noted that in some places mention is made also of the
or paying the fee therefore when fellows were "maid."
is evident that where men's professional
or occupational status is affected records must be kept. And as we have
noted, in Scotland membership in a lodge was as important to a working
then as membership in a Trade Union is at the present day to the
in such trades as are fully "unionized." It is this that accounts for
the fact that Scottish lodges not only made records, but preserved them
further than this, it also accounts for their general character. They
mainly with those things that affected the rights and seniority of the
the lodge, and for this reason it is only incidentally, and as it were
that they ever tell us anything about those traditions and customs in
which we are
chiefly interested, all of which gives us an additional reason for
being very wary
of the negative argument here.
shows the difficulty of the subject that
Gould quite overlooked the significance of the record concerning
at Haughfoot, quoted above. The phraseology irresistibly suggests that
he was examined
not only as an apprentice, but also as a fellow craft. But this once
that this lodge was not ritually exceptional, but that there was a real
between it and the lodge in which Cairncross was entered and accepted.
developing picture is now a little clearer;
the lines are still vague and misty, but like a composite photograph
begin to stand out. The difference in status between apprentices and
i. e., Masters and Fellows, Which the Old Charges clearly indicated,
seem, in Scotland,
at least in the seventeenth century, to have been marked by certain
generally referred to respectively, as entering, and admitting or
History, Vol. iii [Lib 1884. Vol 3], p. 13; and
Rylands, A. Q. C., Vol. xiv, p.
6, for Alnwick. Gould, op. cit., p. 23, for York; also Hughan
Masonic Sketches and
1871], pp. 34-35.
We have not been able to refer
to the reproduction of the Alnwick minutes published in 1896.
Op cit., p. 19.
op. cit., iii, p. 10.
- THE BUILDER,
1928, pp. 135, 170, 299, 332, 333; and 1929, pp. 19, 36 and 68.
History, vol. iii, Chap. xvi. The argument begins on page 10, is
touched on in pages
12 and 13, taken up again at pages 29 and 30. From pages 48 to 56 is an
of Scottish history and its bearing on the existence of the Mason's
in pages 58 to 63. Pages 10, 29 and 30 should be read in conjunction
with 62 and
63, so far as Haughfoot and Dunblane are concerned.
- THE BUILDER,
1928, p. 332.
- It is possible,
however, that in his cryptic manner, Gould here only intended to convey
that nothing more than this was proven by the evidence.
op. cit., vol. iii pp. 29, 30 and 36.
- Lyon Hist.
Edin. [Lib 1873], p. 417.
op. cit., vol. iii, p. 63.
vol. iii, p. 30. Compare also vol. ii [Lib 1884, Vol 2], p. 51.
must perforce adapt itself to the conditions of the society in which it
Thus we find that every organization of more than local scope will
and the wider it is spread the greater these variations will be. In
lodges retained the quasi-legal status of the gilds which it is
possible that the
English lodges had before the fourteenth century. And it is possible
that in Scotland
the lodges filled the place of gilds to some extent, as that form of
arrived later in the northern kingdom than in England. The Statutes of
in England undoubtedly had some effect on the general situation,
frequent re ‒ enactment proves that they were as difficult to enforce
as some more
recent laws of prohibitory character. But the law of Henry VI which
the Masons "to confederate themselves in Chapters and Assemblies" would
undoubtedly destroy any external authority that custom and usage may
such organizations, and would tend to drive the lodges underground.
This would quite
naturally account for our finding so few traces of permanent lodges in
and no records at all before the eighteenth century. Records are a
of danger to an illicit organization, and casual lodges would have no
use for them
in any case.
- So late
as 1764 such a revision seems to have been made. In the second edition
of his History
of the Lodge of Edinburgh (Chap. iv) Lyon gives the following excerpt
from the minutes
of the Old Lodge of Melrose, which remained independent till well on
end of the nineteenth century. The Melrose brethren, it seems,
decided: "That the Mason word be administered in a simple way
and manner, free
sinful and superstitious, only word, sign and grip, and some simple
distinguish a Mason from another man, and all under a promise not to
under no less a penalty than to forfeit all right and title to every
to the lodge, and to be held in abhorrence by every brother." Such
"reforms" might well have taken place in other lodges at an
- A. Q. C.
vol. x [Lib 1897], p. 52.
Hist., vol. iii, pp. 14-15. The Alnwick Orders are dated Sept. 29,
1701, the "Gen'll
Head Meeting Day" of the Lodge. The 5th Order has already been quoted,
May, p. 141. The other relevant passages are: "9th. Item.
There shall noe apprentice after he have served seaven
admitted or accepted but upon the Feast of St.
Michael.... "12th. Item. Thatt noe Fellow or Fellows within
this Lodge shall att
or times call or hold Assemblies to make any mason or masons free Not
the Master of Wardens "13th. Item. That noe rough Layers or any others
has nott served their time or [been] admitted, shall work within the
lodge …" We have here the term "accepted" equated with
possibly with "make free" also.
May, 1929, p. 131. It will
be more convenient to give the references in the text altogether here,
as it would
otherwise entail much quite needless repetition. For Aberdeen, Miller,
the Early History and Records of the Lodge, Aberdeen, pp. 61-63. Also
of the Lodge of Edinburgh p. 423. The same chapter contains extracts
from the records
of Kilwinning, Glasgow Dunblane and Peebles. For Haughfoot, Yarker, A.
Q. C., vol.
xxvi [Lib*], p. 16 ‒ and for Aitchison's Haven, Wallace-James, Ibid.,
p. 30. See also Gould, op. cit., vol. iii.
of Some of the Difficulties of Squaring the
H. Merz, Ohio
paper is not intended as an attempt to
set aside the commonly accepted ratio or any other, or to uphold the
same; but it
is written to set out, so far as opportunity permits, some of the
upon quadrature of the circle, and to show the rudiments of the
tedious method commonly adopted of attempting the approximation of the
between the diameter and the circumference.
different methods of solving the problem
of the quadrature of the circle are more than a hundred in number. The
the circumference to the diameter are equally numerous. Some
eight hundredths of the circumference, while others vary as much as
the mechanic arts the ratio of the diameter
to the circumference is assumed to be as 7 to 22, which is accurate
enough for many
purposes, though it is claimed that the real ratio can never be exactly
in numbers. In ordinary mathematical work it is assumed to be as 1 to
One English mathematician has carried out the decimal to 607 places.
ratio between the diameter and circumference
is fundamental, and any error made in the beginning is carried into all
which depend upon it, and the same is true of any other possible errors
occur in the additional operations to ascertain the relation between
and the square.
is of interest to note that the Masonic apron
is actually an ancient Egyptian mathematical problem, based upon the
of the Operative Mason's Square, showing a quick and very nearly
of determining a squared circle, in which the peripheries of both
square and circle
are of precisely equal length. Correctly analyzed, it consists of two
3 x 4 (at the top) and two oblongs of 4 x 5 (at the bottom).
constitute a perfect square. Setting one
leg of the compasses upon the intersection of the lines that divide the
the free leg on A or B. we have a circle the circumference of which is
that of the square. Lines drawn from A and B to E will be of precisely
length as the distance from E to F which is the vertical axis of the
The relation of this to the circle squaring problem is that A-E, B-E
and F-E are
the radii of a circle of almost equal perimeter to the whole square. In
taken as the base and the triangle E-C-D as the vertical section
thereof, we have
the precise geometrical proportions of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh. As
comparatively few Masons who are familiar with that most admirable work
by the late Brother H. P. H. Bromwell, "Restorations of Masonic
Symbolry," [Lib*] I take this opportunity of presenting some of the
by him in this connection.
circle, though in itself intractable by
any mathematical method as far as actual precision is concerned
to the aid of mathematicians as the sole key to unlock the treasure
house of trigonometry
and expose its exhaustless stores.
all the processes in which the circle, or
any part thereof, is directly involved, the ratio between the diameter
and the circumference
is the fundamental truth to be first ascertained-for the diameter is
what may be
termed the measure of the circle (i. e., the surface thereof). For it
known or ascertainable by direct measurements. And the circumference is
must conform, according to some ascertained ratio, which, if correct,
correct which it affects; but, if erroneous, infuses the error into all
and there it remains constantly present.
for instance, in the case of the velocity
of the rim of a revolving wheel, or the length of an arc; but not in
that of the
length of a radius, or of the spoke of a wheel, or the sine of an
angle, for these
last may be ascertained without knowing the length of any
circumference, or without
any circle at all. Furthermore, all proportions between the
circumference and the
parts of a circle, as chords, segments, sectors, etc., remain
unaffected; and in
calculating the diameter of one circle that shall be of twice or thrice
of another of a certain diameter or circumference, no harm can arise
from an error
in the ratio, for the operation only applies to the proportions between
parts of one figure, or the corresponding parts in two or more figures.
when it is sought to ascertain the area
or the length of the side of a square, hexagon, or other regular
polygon, or the
several sides of an irregular figure, which shall be equal to or
greater or less than a circle of a given diameter, the error, if any,
in the ratio
between the diameter and the circumference, enters at once into the
work, and remains
and propagates itself in every subsequent operation founded upon or
it in most cases increasing as it proceeds. For, in finding the content
the circumference must first be known; and finding an equal square,
other figure, depends on first knowing the contents of the circle. If
depended on be too great or too small, the circumference, and
consequently the area
or surface therein contained will be too great or too small. Hence in
circle which shall contain a given surface say, equal to a square of
five on a side
if the ratio should be too great, as 3.16, a diameter shorter than is
be assigned to the circle, in order to bring the surface within the
of the ratio, that is, of the square.
several methods of computing the surface
of a circle of given diameter, depend on the ratio. One method is to
circumference by half the radius, or one-fourth the diameter, which is
as to multiply the diameter by one-fourth the circumference. No doubt a
mode, if the ratio be the true one. Another method is to multiply the
the diameter (the square circumscribed about the circle) by one-fourth
another method is to multiply the square
of the radius by the ratio. By any one of these methods, the same
result is obtained,
whether the ratio is right or wrong and the result will be right if the
be right, i.e., if the ratio between the diameter and circumference, on
latter is computed, be right; and as certainly wrong if there be error
in the ratio
assumed for the purpose.
conclusions reached by ninety-eight different
authors, most of them skilled in mathematical pursuits, have shown very
but very different conclusions concerning this problem, already
subjected to centuries
of continued dispute. The different methods of finding the ratio are
not less than
forty-four, and the different ratios proposed, not less than
seventy-two. The number
in which the proportion between the diameter and the circumference is
the commonly accepted ratio is about fifty-eight. The number giving a
than the "orthodox" is sixteen, and the number of those which agree
the orthodox ratio is twenty-six. Of the whole number, one hundred and
date in this century. Now every specific numerical value assigned must
except one; if any of them, by chance, should happen to be right.
"orthodox" ratio depends for its
validity on what Bromwell calls "the process of exhaustion," that is,
in the sufficiency and correctness of the work in the arithmetical
of the area of a regular polygon having a sufficient number of sides to
substantially equivalent to a circle. No one of the modes of dealing
with a series
of numbers or fractions, or known dimensions, of some part of a circle,
figure, by multiplication, division, etc., carries with itself its own
Had such been the case, there never would have been any controversy. On
that several doubtful calculations make one good one, one of two
solutions or both
are accepted because they agree, not because either is correct. Is it
any such case that any one can say, before seeing the result, that the
to be pursued is actually its own test and must be correct, or that it
can be referred
to a veritable test? Some of the conclusions examined are manifestly
some others afford nothing, except the assertions of the author, to
show that the
result is a ratio of anything.
we take a polygon of four sides (a perfect
square) and successively double the number of sides making it a polygon
of sixteen and then or thirty-two on so on, the sides will eventually
numerous and so short that the figure is so nearly a circle that the
may be deemed of no consequence. However, at the same time the content
of each polygon must be computed at every increase of the number of
sides, by means
of two proportional triangles, involving multiplication, division,
of the square root, etc., and the surface of the last polygon computed
as the surface of the circle in question.
every regular polygon (square, hexagon, polygon)
may be considered as composed of as many isosceles triangles (equal
sided) as it
has sides the side of the polygon being the base and the two equal
sides of the
triangle meeting and forming an apex at the center of the polygon the
be regarded as a polygon of an indefinite number of sides, and
of a like number of triangles, each having two equal and two very long
an exceedingly short base, which is the same as the side of the
polygon. Such a
polygon may be regarded as having a thousand million of equal sides,
composed of as many equal sided triangles. If accurately measured, such
would doubtless furnish a very close approximation to the measure of a
a radius equal to either of the two equal sides of any such triangle.
But one with
a less number of sides, say 30,000, with a slight error in the
computation of each
triangle, might offer a grossly defective result. But it might be much
case of a million sides, with an error in each.
it appears from principles not dependent
on any ratio between the diameter and circumference, the circumference
of a circle
whose diameter is one is necessarily equal in figures to the area of a
diameter is two, and whoever succeeds in finding the surface of the
is thereby in possession of the number which shows the true
circumference of the
former. Hence, the computation is made by ascertaining the area of a
a diameter of two. To accomplish this, a polygon of four sides is
about the circle, and another of four sides the corresponding sides
being made parallel
is inscribed within it. The outer polygon is the same as the square of
that is, its surface is equal to four, while the inscribed polygon (or
necessarily one-half as much, equal to two; the side of the inscribed
to the side of the circumscribed square as the side of any square is to
of its own diagonal so that the two squares (polygons) are in
proportion to each
other as any two adjacent squares inscribed in any other circles for it
be seen that the diameter of any circle is the same as the diagonal
line of its
inscribed square. The object in taking two polygons is to secure a
of measurement which would be lacking if only one were used. In
doubling the number
of sides it necessarily comes to pass every time except in the case of
the two polygons
of four sides each that the angles of the inscribed polygon present
the middle of the sides of the exscribed polygon and vice versa. By
this a mean
proportional as to surface, between corresponding parts of the two
also presented in geometrical form, susceptible of being computed by
rules. The beginning of this series of duplications of the number of
sides may be
seen in the accompanying figure.
forming and doubling the number of sides
of these polygons is easy enough and the process may be continued until
become so minute that no farther division is practicable, but however
it would go but little toward finality, which is only to be reached by
These give the measurements and demand the utmost accuracy and here is
trouble begins. The principal cause of difficulty is error, which
attends the work
from first to last. In order to reach the point at which the operator
to stop say at a polygon of 32,768 sides (the number usually adopted)
no less than
twenty-seven complicated processes each made up of several partial or
operations must be accomplished. These are each simple enough, but they
separate and independent, so that any error, from omitted fractions or
will only affect the particular calculation in which it may occur, and
but they are cumulative, as will be seen from what follows:
a simple expression of the surface content
of a corresponding part of each of the two original polygons one being
2, the other
4. Then a multiplication of these parts together and extraction of the
of the product, leaving a remainder. Then following twenty-seven
thirty-six multiplications, involving sixty ‒ eight numbers, each
endless decimal fraction; also thirteen additions, each of two of the
each with its fraction, being very nearly equal to, and slightly
exceeding, so many
multiplications by two, the finding of thirteen quotients, and the
thirteen additional square roots, each root and quotient leaving a
entire process being one unbroken series of computations, every one
all which precede it to the last. Any deficiency or excess in the first
(which leaves a remainder) is thus multiplied and re-multiplied no less
times, by a factor not less than 2.8 (and reaching 3.31; or more as an
and thirteen times by two. And besides this we have the addition of two
of the larger
factors together thirteen times, making it equivalent altogether to
by two in a series, each multiplying the former product. And this all
to the first remainder, it being the first of twenty-six following in
each on an average through forty-three multiplications, making more
than one thousand
one hundred multiplications in all.
is easy to form a square and a triangle equal
in area to each other; and the same is true of any two figures bounded
lines however different their forms, for their lines are subject to
direct and equal
measurement, and these being known, the included surfaces are easily
But not so with the circle. This remarkable figure has something about
mysterious. While it is that by which all right lined figures may be
proven as to
their forms, and in many cases even to their contents, yet to ascertain
content, that is, to find an equal square or other right-lined figure,
a special object of search and the ever a present stumbling block of
of all ages.
It will be understood that the point raised
in the article is theoretical rather than practical. All measurements
and in the case of the circle and other curved figures we have a second
The first one is the determination of the radius of the figure, and the
that in the calculations to determine the ratio between the radius or
the circumference. And though, as has been shown, any error in these
is a cumulative one, yet the process adopted puts a limit to the error.
the sides of the inscribed and exscribed polygons shown in the second
will be seen that the perimeter of the former increases at every step,
latter decreases. Eventually each becomes approximately coincident with
Thus every step in the calculations must fall between these limits and
error there may be cannot be great enough to vitiate the result for any
purpose. ‒ Ed.
Army Lodges in the
Bro. Charles F. Irwin, Associate
and Field Lodge No. 5, Overseas,
At Beaune, France
TO enter into
the story of this Field Lodge adequately, we are compelled to cover to
the entire field of the Educational Program within the American A.E.F.
To most people
the educational program of America within its military forces is a
And yet to those who participated in it, or who have in later years
steps in the official literature of the U. S. A. and of the Y. M. C.
A., the wonder
of the story passes any limits that might ordinarily be established.
After a thorough
study of the official volumes published by the Y.M.C.A. as embodied
Chapter 34 of their "Service With Fighting Men," found in the second
and covering some twenty-five pages, and after a similar study of the
officially issued by the University at Beaune, together with an
with many of the men who were identified in this Educational Program,
stating that I had myself some limited experience as a schoolman
one of the larger Post Schools with over 500 students and a Faculty of
I am in a position to appreciate the work the government set out to do
and how well
it was done.
Early in 1918,
the Y.M.C.A. turned its attention to this problem. They secured Dr.
Stokes, Secretary of Yalta University, to draw up a comprehensive plan.
arrived in France on Jan. 18, 1918, and made a thorough survey of the
field. In February he submitted a report to the Chief Secretary of the
Y. M. C.
A. In his plan he made provision for teaching during the ante-Armistice
and for teaching in the post-Armistice period. His plan was approved by
Pershing in a telegram dated Feb. 28, 1918, and by letter dated March
It is of course
impossible for me to go further into this part of the story. Suffice it
to say that
some 27,000 men were enrolled in the various divisional educational
But in addition
to this secondary school work, there was a provision made for men whose
work had been interrupted baby entrance into the war. Also others who
pursue post-graduate advantages while in Europe. This was made easier
by the fact
that the British and French Educational leaders were most sympathetic
about our educational program. They threw open their Universities and
our troops. This was accepted by our command, and thousands of American
attended various universities in the above countries. In some of these,
Clubs were formed, and their stories will be told in our subsequent
series on Clubs.
But even with these opportunities there were thousands of others whom
desired to aid. Consequently it was decided by the Educational leaders
A.E.F. to form and open an American University along American lines.
At Beaune, France,
there had been established during the war a great Hospital Center,
about two miles
square, containing more than 200 buildings. This was chosen as the site
of the new
American University. Ten miles away was Allerey, another hospital camp.
by 600 acres of farm land, it offered an ideal site for an Agricultural
Within one month after the plan was adopted, the hospital buildings
to suit educational purposes, and one hundred and seventy-five new ones
On Feb. 7, 1919,
Colonel Ira L. Reeves, former President of Norwich University, was
local representative of the General Staff of the A.E.F. He became the
and Commanding Officer of the new University, and finally its President.
the specialists for a Faculty, the A.E.F. was found to contain 2600
officers alone, who had been college professors, or who were equipped
to teach in
such a college. Consequently a faculty was selected, second to none on
or anywhere in our own country.
to arrive on March 7, 1919. Soon 6000 of them were at work on a wide
range of studies.
When in full action the University at Beaune had 240 courses, in 36
with a total class enrollment of 13,243.
Amid such a great
assemblage of Americans of College and University standing, it was
members of the Fraternity of Freemasons were to be found in large
contemporaneously with the appearance of the advance troops to man and
the center, the Craft came to the front. The first attempt to
in the history of the "American Masonic Club," which was formed on
30, 1919, just 23 days after the first students appeared. Perhaps this
never been surpassed in the history of the Craft. Their Roster printed
France, 1919, displays the names of 458 members. Among the officers of
we find the name of Col. Ira L. Reeves as Honorary President. He is a
De Witt Clinton Lodge, No. 15, N. Y.
In the 1920 Proceedings
of the Grand Lodge of New York, on page 193, in the report of P.G.M.
on the work of the Overseas Masonic Mission, we find this reference to
of Sea and Field Lodge, No. 5, at Beaune:
Sea and Field Lodge, No. 5, at A. E. F. University at Beaune, with Bro.
Penney of New York as Wor. Master, which sat ten times at the Temple of
Reveil de la Cote d'Or, of Grand Lodge, No. 1, rue de la Loge, Beaune,
the degrees on 64 candidates. Its first session was May 3, 1919 and its
4, 1919, at Brest…. of the Masons made overseas, to date … 8 (have
No. 5 … the warrants have been surrendered to you and are in abeyance
and the untransferred
material, consolidated with that of Sea and Field Lodge. No. 1.
Bro. Mark E.
Penney, the former Wor. Master of Sea and Field Lodge, No. 5, Overseas,
final report to Bro. Townsend Scudder under date of April 19, 1920, as
the 1920 Proceedings of New York, page 208, as follows:
my report of Sea and Field Lodge, No. 5, Overseas, permit me to say at
that the statements and discussions which follow are not offered as in
a justification, either of the request of the American Masons at Beaune
greatest possible Masonic intimacy, or of your own action in granting
one of the
warrants issued by the Grand Master for the establishment of Sea and
No. 5, Overseas, at Beaune. The former, I venture to assert, needs no
and the latter is amply justified in the Grand Master's and your own
desire to offer
to the Masons of America a type of Masonic intercourse which, without
of the Grand Master of New York, and magnanimous concern for the
interests of the
American soldier at home and overseas, would never have been achieved.
arrival at Beaune I set myself to ascertain something of the status of
the camp, and to learn, if possible, the number of Masons assembled
there. By personal
inquiries I was soon able to gather a little group of sixteen officers
and Y. M.
C. A. Secretaries.
We met in one
of the unused barracks, and it was decided to advertise all over the
camp, a meeting
of all the Masons to be called at an early date. Each member of the
his services to distribute the notices to a section of billets, and the
anything that could possibly have been predicted. The meeting was
called to be held
in the largest mess-hall in the camp, and when I arrived there, not
room was available inside the doors, and large numbers of Masons stood
crowding the doors and windows. This condition was not merely an
incident of Masonic
activity at Beaune, but in the highest sense typical of what took place
the camp broke up. The 'American Masonic Club' was formed at that
the Commander of the camp as honorary President. The prestige of the
Club soon gave
rise to a desire on the part of non-Masons to associate with us, and
this in turn,
quite naturally and inevitably, gave rise to a desire on the part of
and non-Masons alike for a Masonic Lodge. "I sent a telegram to the
of the Masonic Mission at Paris, requesting a visit from him, and
asking him if
a Lodge would be possible. In response to that telegram R. W. Bro. W.
a member of the Masonic Mission, paid us a visit, fortunately on the
date of the
regular meeting of the Club. We did not know of his coming until he was
his letter of advice having miscarried, and in spite of the fact that
of his visit had been given, he was enthusiastically greeted by upwards
of a thousand
of Masons, whom he addressed in the evening.
time there were estimated to be in the vicinity of fourteen thousand
men in camp,
more than half of whom were students and teachers in the University
which had been
created there by the American Expeditionary Forces. This is a clear
the type of men who were interested in Masonic intercourse.
there from all the learned professions, and among the students were
many young men
who had left their studies where they were preparing to become lawyers,
etc., and some who expected to enter studies leading to these
professions upon their
return to America. These students, and the officer-instructors were not
to do camp duty except in emergency, and thus had ample time to devote
work. As to the exact number of Masons in camp it was impossible to
make a census,
owing to the conditions of camp life, and the changing personnel. But a
estimate placed the number between three thousand and four thousand. At
we had on our Club Roster the names of over twelve hundred Masons, and
that in the
earlier days of the camp.
generally understood at this time that the duration of the camp at
extend throughout the summer and autumn, and perhaps even longer, and
of the camp, in a personal conversation with Bro. Prime, in my
presence, made the
statement that, so far as anyone could foresee, the camp would remain
for an indefinite
period. Whisperings were heard that a renewal of hostilities might
in which case the American Camp at Beaune would continue until the
should be withdrawn from Europe.
"As a result
of this visit and Bro. Prime's report thereof, I received, some days
later, a notification
from the Masonic Mission at Paris that we were to receive a warrant for
In due time, Bro. Merwin Lay came to the camp, instituted the Lodge and
the officers. The Commander of the Camp and his Adjutant gladly
consented to act
as Senior and Junior Wardens respectively. The cosmopolitan character
of the Lodge
may be seen when I point out that ten states were represented among the
and among those who attended the meetings of the Lodge, I was told by
committee, that during the course of the Lodge meetings every State of
of the warrant for a Masonic lodge at Beaune raised the question as to
place in which to hold the meetings. The buildings of all army camps,
those at Beaune, were flimsy structures, inadequately lighted and
and hurriedly built, and in no sense adapted for the purpose of holding
lodge meetings. The Commander of the Camp assured me that everything
be done to make feasible the holding of the Lodge in the Camp, but
investigation, the situation was considered hopeless. Moreover, it
would be extremely
difficult to procure proper furniture and keep it from being destroyed,
when accessible to strangers and enemies. In my anxiety to find a
for meeting, I consulted the Master of the French Masonic Lodge in the
City of Beaune,
and asked him where a suitable building might be found in the city for
He immediately offered us the use of the French Lodge rooms, their
equipment, without any reservation whatsoever in regard to time and
nature of their
use. The spontaneity of his offer, his willingness to be of service to
us, and his
cooperation during our stay at Beaune, are in no small degree
responsible for the
success of our work there.
Lodge at Beaune operates under the jurisdiction of the Grand Loge de
bears the suggestive title of 'Le Reveil de la Cote d'Or.' It has been
years under the guidance of Worshipful Master, or as he is called, Le
Louis Barbier, a man of broad sympathies and high intellectual
attainments. He has
a profound knowledge of Masonry in France, both as to its historical
expects. Through his efforts, the French Masonic Fraternity at Beaune
status which is exceedingly gratifying to him, and which procured for
us a welcome
and a prestige socially and fraternally, which we could not otherwise
this report to its conclusion, permit me to express the hope, in which
I voice the
desire of almost every Mason who had anything to do with our work at
some means may be found whereby a closer relation may be brought about
Grand Jurisdiction of which this French Lodge is a member, and that of
Masons in general, and those of the State of New York."
In the final
settlement of Sea and Field Lodge, No. 5, we find that 52 members were
from the roster of the Lodge to that of the consolidated Sea and Field
1. An appended list of the names of the members of this Lodge may be
found in the
Proceedings of New York, 1920, page 202, together with a tableau of the
of officers. For the benefit of the reader this latter is here printed
with the names and jurisdictions of the Lodges in each case.
W.M. Mark E. Penney, Konosioni No.
950, Syracuse, N.
Ira L. Reeves, DeWitt Clinton No. 15, Northfield, Vt.
Waldo P. Hair, Woodlawn Park No. 841, Chicago, Ill.
Terrence W. Gilbert, Rising Light No. 637, Belleville, N. Y.
Paterson, A.E.C., Englewood No. 690, Chicago, Ill.
H. Ford, District of Columbia.
H. Leet, Ohio.
I. Weinstein, Evergreen No. 51, Tacoma, Wash.
Spencer A. Merrill, West Point No. 877, N. Y.
S.S. Lt. E.
T. Stretcher, Imperial No. 159 Portland, Ore.
A. R. Davis, Lakeside No. 739, Chicago, Ill.
E. H. Whitehead, Cornerstone 247, Osmond, Nebr.
B. Monges, Durant No. 268, Berkeley, Calif.
Tiler James A. Davis, Flora No.
204, Flora, Ill.
O. of W. Lt.
F. S. Wheeler, Burlington No. 100, Burlington, Vt.
There are several
observations we wish to make regarding these New York Lodges, which
entire field of Masonic activity in the A. E. F. They touch largely
upon the persistent
question of French Masonry. And one of these observations concerns the
which faced every one of the group of Masonic leaders when they
institution of a lodge in France. In some cases military red tape made
to attempt to open or conduct Masonic meetings within military
other cases the inadequacy of location and buildings wherein to conduct
of the Craft were met. In every one of the four overseas Lodges of New
last resort was to the generosity of the native Masons. And without
fail our American
Craftsmen bear testimony to the unexcelled generosity and unflagging
of our French brethren. Not only in the metropolitan Lodges in Paris,
but also in
the rural cities and towns scattered throughout the country, the
met with this high type of men. Their Lodge rooms were thrown open for
our use without
money and without price. There was no intrusion, and no attempt to
within our tiled bodies, except upon invitation extended by our own
In every case the French Masons who appeared before our altars were men
and devotion to the highest and most ancient of the landmarks of the
Only direct contact with the conditions in France under which
Freemasonry must struggle
for existence can prepare the American mind to draw conclusions as to
cast their indigenous Masonry shall take.
In the particular
case of the Sea and Field Lodge at Beaune, the environment made for a
of thinking and living. The results were happy. The American Military
found so brief a stay within the bounds of the Educational Center of
to itself younger and older American Masons of the very strongest
larger proportion of our troops stationed at Beaune were there for the
continuing the educational discipline which had been interrupted when
was called to the colors. These young soldiers were filled with the
ambition to take the fullest educational benefits offered them. And
throughout the United States are men of the professions and of business
back to the days at Beaune much of their inspiration and their training.
at Beaune proves that a Republic based upon an enlightened intelligence
itself a vital influence that dares to break through conventionality
and to blaze
new trails for the coming generations. This was a unique experiment
among all nations.
A great nation pausing with its allies while an Armistice stays the
turns its attention to the intellectual needs of its men in arms and
out of its
resources of men and material brings into being an educational center
second to no old established institution in our own or any other land.
of this Field Lodge were all held in the same Lodge room at Beaune with
of the last meeting it ever held. This communication was held at Brest
on July 4,
1919, while the bulk of the students who had trained at Beaune awaited
Wearied of the
delays and restless with the exuberance of young life, there appeared
Penney and the other officers of the Lodge the advisability of
gathering their members
together, with other Masons, into a farewell meeting. Accordingly the
issued and a large body of Masons assembled. Bro. Prime in a recent
letter to me
calls attention to this unique meeting and praises it in highest terms.
roll of New York Lodges in military service during the World War has
There was a historical booklet issued by the American Masonic Club at
presents vividly and artistically the ability of our soldier artists of
The reproduction of the cover design will be found on a previous page.
The Warrant under
which Sea and Field Lodge. No 5, at Beaune, operated was identical with
the other Sea and Field Lodges. For the benefit of readers who have not
to my former stories of these Sea and Field Lodges, it is reproduced
LUX ET LUX FUIT.
William S. Farmer,
I, William S.
Farmer, Grand Master of Masons in the State of New York,
do, by these presents, appoint, authorize and empower our Worthy
Brother Mark E.
Penney to be the Master, our Worthy Brother Ira L. Reeves to be the
our Worthy Brother Waldo P. Hair to be the Junior Warden, our Worthy
W. Gilbert to be the Treasurer, our Worthy Brother Arch Paterson to be
our Worthy Brother Joseph H. Ford to be the Senior Deacon, and our
William H. Leet to be the Junior Deacon of a Sea and Field Lodge of
Free and Accepted
Masons, to be by virtue hereof, constituted, formed and held at Beaune,
and elsewhere overseas as may be convenient and necessary, which Lodge
distinguished and known by the name and style of Sea and Field Lodge,
No. 5, Overseas,
at Beaune, France. The said Master is hereby authorized to appoint
of said Lodge and said Lodge is authorized to adopt all such by-laws
for the governance of its proceedings, and labor as may be necessary
subject to my approval and Subject as hereinafter set forth.
And further, the
said Lodge is hereby invested with full power and authority
to assemble on all proper and lawful occasions and to elect and confer
degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry or any or either thereof upon
candidates who have
actually enlisted or been drafted or commissioned officers in the
Forces in the present great war, on payment of Twenty Dollars;
conforming in all
respects and at all times to the provisions of the Book of
Constitutions of the
Grand Lodge of the State of New York and to the standard ritual
as also to do and perform all and every such acts and things pertaining
to the Craft
as have been and ought to be done for the honor and advantage thereof.
officership in said Lodge shall in nowise impair or affect
existing membership or officership in a regular chartered or warranted
Lodge shall have a seal and shall have and keep all books required to
be kept by
regular Lodges in the State of New York the same and all records to be
to the Grand Lodge on the termination of this Warrant.
This Warrant shall
terminate at the pleasure of the Grand Master.
Given under my hand
and Private Seal at the City of New York in the United
States of America, this Fourteenth day of December in the year of our
thousand nine hundred and eighteen, and in the year of Masonry, Five
hundred and eighteen.
William S. Farmer
Bro. N. W. J. Hayden, Associate Editor, Canada.
an addendum or appendix to the article that
appeared in the May number of THE BUILDER, the following notes by Bro.
J. T. Thorpe
in the Transactions of the Lodge of Research, No. 2429, of Leicester,
be of interest. The accompanying illustration is from a pen and ink
from a photograph and is substantially accurate so far as the
inscription is concerned.
This, and the following remarks upon it, Bro. Thorpe has most kindly
to me to reproduce:
Masons' marks were found by Bro.
Lt. Col. W. N. Hay, C. I. E., on a scarped rock in the Afghan fortress
of Spin Baldak,
after its capture.
basis of the marks is a five pointed
star, or triple triangle, known by the name of Pentalpha from the Greek
and alpha (letter A), because it shows that letter in five different
This figure is quite a common Masonic emblem of considerable antiquity,
of the bond of Brotherly Love that unites the whole Fraternity.
Masons considered it a symbol
of deep wisdom and it is found among the architectural ornaments of
many of the
ecclesiastical edifices of the Middle Ages. It has also been employed
for many ages
throughout the East as a charm to resist evil spirits, and it was,
this object in view that these particular marks were cut.
the five points of the Pentalpha are
five sets of three tens and, in the center of the figure, a pentagram
and five triangles,
all of which are of significance and interest to every Mason who has
to the Supreme Degree of the Holy Royal Arch.
addition to the geometrical figures,
there are in three of the four corners of the group certain Afghan
when translated and written in English letters, read as follows:
Top left corner
Top right corner
Bottom left corner
Bottom right corner
were probably the names of the Afghan
Masons who were employed at the erection of this fort."
1909 Bro. A. J. Dawes made an interesting
communication to Quatuor Coronati Lodge Notes and Queries, A. Q. C.
vol. xxii, in
which certain alleged occurrences were cited which suggest that a
might exist among the Pathans and other tribes in Afghanistan. The most
was the following: "Some years back an Afghan Sirdar demanded admission
a Lodge in India, proved himself, and was admitted. To the interpreter
who was put
at his service, he expressed surprise at the accuracy of the working
how Masonry had spread to England.
if true, is very interesting and curious.
But without further proof it would hardly be safe to accept it.
Meekren, Editor in Charge
E. E. Thiemeyer,
John's Day in Summer
OF course all
Masons know that the Fraternity has two patron saints, St. John the
St. John the Evangelist. Perhaps no one knows definitely how or why
these two saints
came to be considered the particular guiding geniuses of Freemasonry.
other saints who were patrons of particular lodges and there seems to
be no real
reason why St. Michael, for example, was not accepted as a patron as
the two Sts. John. Possibly the London Masons who were the fathers of
Lodge accepted the Sts. John as their patrons, or it is even
conceivable that some
of the lodges may have had one of them and others the other saint. The
of both would thus partake of the nature of a compromise.
Some of the country
lodges seem to have revered one and some the other, while there were
accepted both. At least one lodge paid particular attention to St.
It is doubtless
more than a mere coincidence that the Saints Days adopted by the
should coincide with the equinoxes and the solstices. St. John
Baptist's Day, for
example, comes very close to the summer solstice; they falling on June
24 and 21,
respectively. St. John the Evangelist's Day is on Dec. 27, and the
on December 21. St. Michael's Day comes in September, very close to the
These days were venerated in sun worship, and particularly in the
At least one authority accuses Christianity of setting the date of its
festival on Dec. 25 to correspond with the festival of the solstice
the followers of Mithraism. Mayhap some of our Masonic students see in
a reason for believing that Freemasonry is a descendant of Mithraism.
They can reach
such conclusions as best suit their convenience. There is no present
The thing that
is interesting at this time is not the historical significance of these
but the fact that it was almost a universal custom for lodges to hold
meetings on one of these days. There were other meetings, of course,
but those gatherings
at which all Masons were expected to be present took place on these
one of these days was the date of the General Head Meeting Day, or the
of the General Assembly. Officers were elected for the ensuing year and
on these days.
Today the Grand
Lodge of England celebrates both Saints Days.
Lodges are still following the custom so far as to mentioning the Sts.
John as the
patrons of Freemasonry, but the ritualistic reference to them is about
as far as
we go. There is no presence of St. John's Day meetings, as a general
is no attempt upon the part of subordinate lodges to install on either
day, in spite
of the fact that St. John's Day in Winter, Dec. 27, is close enough to
the end of
the calendar year to satisfy almost anyone.
It is unfortunate
that the lessons ritually taught by the references to our patron saints
more deeply impressed by some formal observance of the days that have
been set aside
We decry innovations
in the body of Masonry; we protest against ritual changes; and still we
important and ancient customs as the celebration of St. John's Day
* * *
MOST words of
social import and significance are very difficult to define. Technical
which are to be classed those used in the various sciences, are clear
as a rule. But the great majority of words that are used to express
are vague and general in meaning, and depend for their exact
significance upon the
context, upon the way in which they are used.
It follows that
while they are clear enough, and adequate enough for purposes of
situations, actions and events of human life, they are little adapted
or discussion. Reflection will show that this must be so. When we use a
in reference to some social relation or attitude, it is limited by the
described, and still more by those that are understood. When we use it
there are no limitations, and first one meaning and then another may be
‒ which leads straight into ambiguity of expression and confusion of
example may make this clear. We all know what the descriptive term
means. We understand perfectly what an "honest man" is. But an "honest
woman" means, or may mean, something quite different. Again it is said
is the best policy." This is perfectly clear when a certain background
ethics and beliefs is understood, and because the background is usually
granted the statement seems unquestionable. But when this background is
or denied, uncertainty at once arises. What is honesty as a policy?
What kind of
policy is honesty? Is it the honesty that keeps within the law? Or is
it the honesty
of him who loves his neighbor as himself? And a policy is good or bad,
to the end in view ‒ and what is the end to which honesty is to be the
But this is not
a word about which confusion is likely to arise, because that kind of
honest is very nearly unanimously agreed upon by all men. Even the
as a rule to imagine they are really honest, and they certainly desire
other people. There are other terms in which this substantial agreement
exist; "religion," for example, is one of them; and most words that are
used in connection with religion are likewise variable in meaning;
among them "intolerance."
It is very necessary
in any discussion to define the terms we use; so much argument and
dispute is at
bottom little more than a logomachy, a fight about words, or their
in the case of words with a wide range of meaning it is almost always
to know something of their derivation and history in order to fully
use. "Intolerance" is evidently derived from "toleration," the
privative or negative prefix "in" makes it equivalent to "the state
of being not tolerant." Now when one word is derived from another it is
to assume that the thing designated by it is also derived, or is at
in time. But this does not follow. It may be, and often is the fact,
that it has
merely been distinguished later. Things that have never been questioned
things without names, for language is a severely practical affair.
Words are not
invented for the sake of theoretical completeness, they come into
when needed to describe something new, or something newly seen. And
this is the
case with "intolerance." Until toleration became an important attitude,
its opposite was nameless; although it is not too much to say that the
intolerance is not only the natural state of humankind, but of all
whatever kind. For it is merely an aspect of the instinct of
the tendency of an organized whole to persist and maintain itself in
of forces that would disrupt it. If this view be correct, then
toleration can never
be complete, it must always be a partial attitude on a background of
Now should anyone
be inclined to deny this (with or without vehemence) he is requested to
it has been premised that these words have very general meanings, and
propositions may be true of them in one sense and untrue in another.
What we are
trying to do here is to get at some underlying principle of general
and not merely to speak in vague generalities.
a social attitude, is very closely connected with religion, or rather,
strife between the adherents of different religious creeds. It is one
of the stock
arguments of the Rationalists (and a very telling argument, too) in
on the Christian religion or religions. The argument is that the
introduced religious intolerance into a world previously quite innocent
of it. Of
course this is obviously not true in so sweeping a form, for no
community has ever
been tolerant of the infringement of established usages and customs,
and no state
has ever tolerated rebellion or treason.
But it may be
said that we do not usually call these attitudes intolerant. And this
may be admitted;
for the point is, not whether they are called by the same name, but
are the same kind of thing. John Smith and Thomas Jones may be sons of
mother in spite of bearing different surnames.
Let us, however,
confine ourselves for the moment to religious intolerance. It is
asserted that the
three great monotheistic religions, the Jewish, the Christian and the
are alone in being intolerant, and that of the three the Christian is
par excellence. This belief ‒ for it is believed ‒ is founded on a
Other religions are quite as intolerant, only not about the same
things. In fact
it is only from the Christian point of view that this seems to be so,
for the Rationalist
opponents of religion are only members of Christian churches turned
inside out ‒
their hostility to religion and to belief in God being only a reaction
form of Christian faith, and presupposes such faith. From the general
point of view
of the history and. evolution of religion the intolerance of Christians
to be only a special case.
In all organized
religions, ritual has a prominent place ‒ in most it has the only
place, it is religion
in fact. Only in the three religions above mentioned has it a
competitor in creed
or belief. It is necessary to make this quite clear. In most religions
no creed ‒ the gods worshipped are indifferent as to what is believed
They are interested only in what their worshippers do, or leave undone.
of the proper offerings, any infringement of taboo will anger them.
such things are not tolerated. But opinion or belief about the gods has
good or bad, and so that is regarded with indifference, that is,
But on precisely
the same grounds, socially and humanly, a monotheistic religion cannot
polytheism. Where there are, en hypothesi, a number of deities, a few
more are easily
assimilated. When the Great King of Babylon, or of Nineveh, conquered a
a tribe ‒ the gods of the vanquished were added to the celestial court
of the conqueror's
supreme god, just as the captive kings became his slaves. But a
do this, it must, to maintain itself, deny the existence of other gods.
becomes of equal or greater consequence than ritual.
It is impossible
here to show in detail how, in the necessity of the case, this emphasis
became still stronger in the Christian churches. The fact that it did
and this is sufficient for our purpose, which is to see why intolerance
form of persecution of heresy and heterodoxy among Christians.
The reason is
not very far to seek, and it is a perfectly natural and human one. Men
transfer or "project" their own interests into the realm of the divine.
They assume their deity to be as interested in ritual as they are, if
them is important. Equally if "right belief" is the chief thing to
they may suppose God will punish those who believe wrongly. The mystic
course, that neither is intrinsically of any real importance; only as
and some belief, of some kind, is necessary for men to live and act
reason then that wrong belief, heresy, must be combatted and
extirpated, is because
it is a menace to what is orthodox, whichever orthodoxy it may be.
Heresy and infidelity
are each a menace, because belief is subject to discussion and
argument shakes it. Those who are absolutely sure they are right are
of other beliefs. But churches have to consider the mental babes as
well as the
strong men, and policy is determined by the need the former have for
milk, as they
are always greatly in the majority.
belief must in the first place be imparted dogmatically. There is
always a shock
to the youthful believer to learn that his creed can even be
questioned. The cogency
of the arguments advanced against it does not matter, it is the
of the attack. Consequently no church has ever willingly permitted its
be discussed; it is only to be taught and expounded. Thus from the
human and sociological
viewpoint, Christian churches are intolerant by necessity ‒ the
necessity of self-preservation
and perpetuation. When to this is added the desire for dominance which
is so strong
in many people, and the desire for conformity which characterizes all
‒ and each of these phenomena is ultimately sprung from the same root,
‒ we are able to understand, even while we deplore, religious
persecution in whatever
form it appears.
Now when in any
state or nation there are found two or more creeds, and the adherents
of these creeds
find that no one is able to abolish or suppress the others, a situation
that necessitates a compromise, and this compromise is what is usually
religious toleration. It is a choice of evils so far as the churches
because the mere co-existence of another creed in the community has the
as hostile criticism. It undermines the faith of the "true" believers
insensibly. The eventual and natural result is that indifference
creeds which is the distinguishing feature of so many people in all
religious toleration has existed for some generations. This
indifference is frequently
regarded as a virtue, as marking a higher stage of development. Really
it is nothing
of the kind. It merely means that religion and creed are regarded as of
The same people who are religiously tolerant are often fiercely
intolerant on other
matters which are important to them. As a matter of fact intolerance
has very largely
been transferred from the religious to the political sphere, because
the state now
has the dominant place, and has enforced peace on the rival creeds.
takes the place the creed did originally, and is defended in the same
way. This attitude, however, is not called intolerance, but patriotism
we must remember, too, that from the inside religious intolerance is
zeal and devotion.
It is always hard to realize how we appear to other people.
attitude may thus be due merely to indifference, but it may also spring
from a wider
knowledge and more comprehensive understanding. And we find as a
that the degree of intolerance exhibited is in inverse proportion to
level. The greater the ignorance the more intolerant an individual or
will be found. And this again is inevitable, for the ignorant have not
and resources that knowledge gives. The highest type of mind can see
that all creeds
and all attitudes have their reason, and some basis in truth His view
and so needs not be in tolerant.
This is the tolerance
which is the ideal of Freemasonry. Not that it has ever been realized,
or that Freemasonry
alone has upheld it. But it is founded, not on indifference to beliefs,
but on a
conviction that all beliefs held by good men are expressions of the
same, or parts
of the same, fundamental verities. Yet Masonry has its intolerance,
too. It cannot
tolerate bad moral character in its membership, because immorality (in
sense) is disruptive of an association of such a character ‒ far more
than it is
of a church, for the churches aim at converting and raising the sinner.
respect Freemasonry is on a distinctively lower level.
There is no intention
in all this to try to change the ordinary denotation of the word
It came into being to describe a religious compromise, and as has been
language is purely practical. All that has been attempted is to show
is not only natural, but inevitable; and also to show why, to those who
it, it seems necessary and right. Further it is to point out that
not always a virtue; it may even be a vice. Only when it springs from
and sympathy has it any moral value. We may even say that none but a
being who is
omniscient and omnipotent could be absolutely tolerant; and that in
measure as we
are weak and ignorant we must be intolerant, physically, mentally and
tolerance, in our sense, the Masonic sense, is not easy ‒ it is the
crown of a lifework
of self-improvement and knowledge, of sympathy and understanding.
* * *
READERS of THE
BUILDER will recall that last year a Conference of Masonic Librarians
was held at Cedar Rapids, a similar gathering having taken place the
at Detroit. Continuing the example of Michigan and Iowa, the Masons of
arranged for the third Conference at Milwaukee, which was duly held on
3rd and 4th of last month. The Grand Lodge Committee on Research and
the responsibility, with the active approval and concurrence of M. W.
L. Wright, Grand Master of Wisconsin, who indeed officially welcomed
at the opening session.
Each of these
Conferences has been a great success, and each has been an improvement
on the previous
one. Though there is nothing in the way of any organization to
they have proved of such value to those who participated in them that
we may confidently
expect them to be continued. Two or three jurisdictions are in friendly
as to which shall undertake the calling of the fourth one in 1930.
In the Conference
just held, more time was allowed for discussion than has been given
as a result this proved a more prominent and important feature. Even
so, there was
not time for all the papers that were prepared.
Committee on Research is to publish the papers and discussions, and as
soon as possible
they will be presented in THE BUILDER.
As one of the
delegates, the Editor must congratulate the Committee on the
completeness of their
arrangements and the efficient way in which everything was managed. The
and hospitality of the Milwaukee brethren were beyond praise. On the
the Conference was a succession of banquets and festivities, Henry L.
being the host one night and the Grand Master another. Aurora Lodge,
No. 30, which
follows a modified form of the old French rite in the German language,
special meeting so that the delegates might be enabled to witness their
working. The first degree was exemplified, and it made the deepest
all the visitors. The ceremony was characterized throughout with
and with all the old traditional formality and courtesy.
Among those present
at the Conference were the Grand Master of Missouri, M. W. Bro. Byrne
who gave a paper on Grand Lodge Publications. Bro. Robert I. Clegg,
of the National Masonic Research Society, and Bro. C. C. Hunt, its
discussed respectively the subjects of Masonic Education, Its Matter
and the Place of a Library in Masonic Education.
The program as
arranged is given on a later page for the information of our readers.
* * *
Education in Montana
months ago the Grand Master of Montana, M. W. Bro. William J. Marshall,
the cooperation of the National Masonic Research Society in a proposed
movement in his jurisdiction. As matters developed the plan adopted was
Research Society was authorized to approach the lodges in the state
urge upon them the organization of Study Clubs and the adoption of some
program, preferably to begin with the Syllabus prepared by the Society
as a first
course in Masonic Education.
We were rather
glad, in deciding to accept this task, that Montana is comparatively
speaking, at least so far as numbers go; there being only a hundred and
lodges in the state. It meant a great deal of extra work of an
Practically all of it fell on the shoulders of Bro. Thiemeyer.
Recently we have
been obtaining reports of the result, primarily to present to the Grand
The figures are rather remarkable. Montana may be said to have "started
scratch" so far as education was concerned. In the first place the
of replies is unusually high, for a great many lodge secretaries are
very poor correspondents
outside of necessary official communications ‒ and some are poor at
that if rumors
from Grand Secretarial offices are to be believed.
Many lodges were
unable to do anything, not from lack of will or interest, but from
sheer force of
physical circumstances. The percentage of lodges which took up some
form of educational
work is approximately 50 per cent, which those who have experience in
will agree is very gratifying ‒ small as the figures may seem to those
nothing of the heartbreaking obstacles met with in any such enterprise.
There was no
attempt to exert compulsion. We strongly advised against this; for such
little value unless it be undertaken voluntarily, and with a real
interest in learning
more about Masonry. The work having been done by the advice and with
of the Grand Master, and not by command, it will undoubtedly have
deeper and more
We hope next
month to present a detailed account of what has been done, as a study
of what may
be possible elsewhere.
* * *
It will be of
interest to members of the Society that Bro J. Hugo Tatsch, who is one
of the best
known Masonic students of America, and whose work is well and favorably
has resigned from the Curatorship of the Iowa Masonic Library at Cedar
it will be generally felt, is a great loss to the Library, as it is
there is anyone in the United States better fitted for such a position.
position has to be frankly faced that in Masonry, or at least in the
field of Masonic
education and research, the laborer is not (apparently) regarded as
worthy of his
hire. The same ability and effort in other occupations will bring many
financial remuneration. In fact Masonic study is by force of the
misapprehension of the great body of the Craft confined perforce to
who have independent means of livelihood or to those few who are
or willing to forego material success.
who is a Captain in the U. S. A. Reserve, is for the time being taking
at Leavenworth, Kan. When this is completed we understand he intends to
go to New
York, where there is no doubt that his talents and special knowledge
will be in
request. This change will not affect his connection with the Research
are happy to say, and he will remain one of the Associate Editors of
* * *
the rules of the Order we may not ask a man to become a member of it.
How then are
the members to spread abroad the Masonic faith? By deeds, not words.
True, the Masonic
faith is contained within the covers of the V.S.L., the guide of and to
life, which should be exemplified in actions, not only on lodge night
but in every
act and deed of the daily life. The teaching and training in the lodge
exemplification outside. Hence the lodge work must not consist solely
conferring. Degree confirming must take an equally prominent place in
The lodge is not only the place for the demonstration of ritual but it
is also the
place of instruction in fundamentals.
South Australian Freemason.
Masonic Study Club Forum
Are Urged To
Help Make This A Real Forum
brothers interested in any phase of Masonic
Education, especially those who believe in fostering the Masonic Study
are invited to send criticism, comments and, particularly, practical
for furthering this movement. Those who are willing to help organize
Discussion Groups or other Masonic Study Clubs in their Lodges or their
are invited to send for Membership Blanks, etc., which will be supplied
HUNGERFORD, General Campaign Manager,
Masonic Study Club Campaign Harrisonburg,
does the Masonic Study Club movement progress
so slowly? This is a key question. Its answer will disclose just what
are attempting to foster the Study Club movement are up against. Let us
facts frankly and fearlessly. Let us not dodge any feature or phase of
know that there are many thousands of Freemasons
who believe that the most vital problem of our Fraternity today is
newly-made brethren the fundamental principles of Freemasonry and
in practicing these principles. In fact, I doubt if any thoughtful
observer or leader
in the Craft will dispute the claim that the educating of more of our
the genuine art of Freemasonry is the paramount problem of our
know, likewise, that a fair percentage of
our newly-made brethren will gladly avail themselves of an opportunity
more about the fundamentals of Freemasonry, providing they can obtain
without too great an expenditure of time, money and effort. From my
I believe, that at least seven out of ten newly-made Masons would be
glad to enroll
for at least a primary course of studies or discussions of the
fundamentals of Freemasonry.
does not imply that more than a small minority
of our brethren are very seriously concerned about digging deeply into
of Freemasonry or would be willing to devote any great amount of time,
effort to Masonic Study.
enthusiasts the "dyed-in-the-wool fans"
of the Masonic Study movement seem to think that any brief and
of the history, symbolism or teachings of Freemasonry is scarcely
is where we, who are undertaking this present campaign on behalf of the
Study Club movement, do not entirely agree with our more learned
brethren. We hold
to the old principle that creeping comes before walking and walking
We believe that many of those who enroll for our admittedly superficial
courses of Masonic Study are more likely thereby to acquire a taste or
dig more deeply into the lore and principles of the Craft. Likewise, we
that even a little Masonic Study is better than none at all.
heartily approve of the endeavors of our
learned brethren to develop more Masonic scholars, but we also insist
might be termed the kindergarten class of Masonic students are
deserving of due
answer to the question which opens this
discussion, therefore, is that one of the factors which has hindered
of the Masonic Study Club Movement, heretofore, is the fact that the
study recommended usually have been "over the heads" of the rank and
Even the so-called elementary courses have been too elaborate and deep
this is not the real answer to the question.
Getting right down to the "brass tacks" of the situation, the reason
more Masonic Study Clubs have not been organized is due to the fact
that most of
those who profess to believe in the value and importance of such clubs,
about their views as to the advantages of Masonic Study and, likewise,
lack of interest on the part of their brethren in this matter. But, how
do these critics, these Masonic Study talkers, ever lift a finger in
a Study Club? Answer this question honestly and you will find the real
there are only hundreds instead of thousands of Study Clubs.
give a pertinent and practical illustration
of this point. Since the writer began his series of articles on "Our
Fraternity and Present Day Problems," more than two hundred brethren in
parts of the country have written to express their approval of our
the stimulation of more Masonic Study Clubs is the most practical
far proposed for the problems briefly reviewed in our series.
each brother who has thus expressed approval
will actually do his bit to form at least one Study Club, we surely
will make a
flying start in getting our present Study Club Campaign under way.
stated in my announcement, I am anxious to
conduct this department as a real forum, filled as fully as possible
and contributions from brothers from all sections who are interested in
the Study Club movement and are willing to pass along their views and,
their experiences for the benefit of their brethren.
is written before our first announcement
could reach many of our readers, consequently few comments and
been received, excepting those from brethren who wrote me regarding my
"Our Ancient Fraternity and Present Day Problems," which series was
of a fore-runner for this forum. So, although some of the comments are
concerned with Masonic Study Clubs, selections are presented from the
several correspondents, because, indirectly at least, all problems of
are concerned with Masonic Study.
Bro. Daniel B. Robinson, 5020 W. 23rd St.,
Cicero, Ill., President of the West Suburban Masonic Standard Club of
the 17th Masonic
District of his state, sends a mimeograph outline of the program used
in his Lodge
during his term as Master, in the year 1927. We present a Topical
Outline of W.
Bro. Robinson's Course.
Club Program of Prairie State Lodge
The Beginning of Free Masonry in
Masonry's Place in the Early History
The Fatherhood of God and Brotherhood
What and Why Is Masonry
The First Degree ( Symbolical)
The Second Degree ( Symbolical)
The Third Degree (Legendary)
M. E. Gore, 51 Main St., Orange, N. J.,
also sent us a ritual designed to stimulate interest in Masonic Study
we regret went astray in the mails. We hope to receive another copy
from Bro. Gore
for our next forum.
Philip Crossle, Assistant Secretary of
The Lodge of Research, Dublin, Ireland, writes a most interesting
if space permitted, we would like to quote in full. But we must confine
to the first two paragraphs of Bro. Crossle's letter, which give the
his comments. Later we hope for further contributions from Bro. Crossle
us something of the particular methods of his Lodge of Research.
have been reading your recent series of essays
in THE BUILDER with great interest. Much of what you say about the
of the teachings of our Antient Fraternity appeal to me so much that I
Study Club Forum, if conducted according to your practical point of
be of inestimable help to Masonic students who are not carried away by
theories so prevalent these days.
inner meaning of the symbolism of Freemasonry,
as I endeavor to insist upon with my brethren here, must be based upon
more sublime and practical than a peculiar system of morality, veiled
and illustrated by symbolism, a definition which has never appealed to
me as embracing
the foundation upon which our Antient Fraternity stands.
Bro. Franklin H. Reeder, P. M. of Colonial
Lodge of Philadelphia, Pa., makes an excellent comment upon Freemasonry
from which we quote the following brief extract:
the question arises as to whether Freemasons
should show preference to fellow members, it is easily answered by your
If you are a true Mason, you will have a due regard for the rights of
especially our brethren in Freemasonry. As it takes not only push but
pull to advance
materially, we should always help a brother, when knowing him to be
worthy and his
cause just. Holy Writ informs us that if any provideth not for his own,
for those of his own house, he hath denied the faith and is worse than
The Quakers look out for each other and no one ever sees or hears of a
The Knights of Columbus always give preference to a Roman Catholic, and
of darkness are wiser than the children of light. Masons should stand
up more for
Masons. Any true Mason will consider every other Mason worthy, unless
and will give him a reasonable amount of preference over a non-Mason
and will do
so as a privilege, and not as an obligation; and no true Mason would
of such consideration and wrong his brother. One who would violate such
reposed in him should be regarded as an unworthy and false brother and
treated as such.
G. A. Kenderdine, Iowa City, Iowa, takes
a slightly different attitude, as shown by the following extracts from
I have been following
your series in THE BUILDER with a great deal of interest. Many of your
I agree with, and others, I think are counsels of perfection, but not
Let me ask this question
squarely, in respect to business ethics. Can we, or should we, as an
expect from a brother Freemason in dealing with him, any greater degree
or service, than one can reasonably expect elsewhere? In other words,
if a man is
absolutely honest in his business dealings (and there are very few who
the long bow sometime, as we all know. Most of us are guilty of at
the lily and painting the rainbow when presenting a business
proposition) but, as
I say, if we are dealing honestly and giving a good quid pro quo, what
another Mason have a right to ask or expect of us or we of him in
I don't think Masonry
should be considered an exclusive virtue, although there are many who
wear our badge,
as someone has said recently, for the purpose of being called Rabbi,
being asked to eat in high places, there is no question about that.
There is a growing
tendency among people to prize their Masonic membership as a badge
that, at some
time at least, they were respectable in their community and to wear it
as a sort
of certificate in that direction with no intention of working at any of
or responsibilities of the Craft.
Masonry seems to
be more popular than ever in point of men wanting to get into it, for
that I have expressed. Certainly interest in the average lodge is dying
despite the increase in the number of brethren holding proficiency
the time will come when these badge-wearers will have to receive their
teams of semi-professionals at least, who may have to be hired to take
their other secular employment in order to perform this work.
A. J. Caldwell, Amarillo, Texas, Past Potentate
of the Shrine, writes a most vigorous and pertinent letter from which
we quote a
In every age of recorded
history, when an organization becomes creed bound, and therefore,
ossified, a few
progressive Entities have deserted the sinking craft and sought
in the life boats of progressive thought and a greater appreciation of
the organization of Masonry there is an ever ‒ increasing number who
dissatisfied with a few rudiments of Geometry; a few unimportant
meaning of which is imperfectly understood or totally unknown, and a
of morality that have been preached and practiced for thousands of
otherwise, the organization has and is building within itself a Robot
monster that is both certainly and surely causing its disintegration.
mental inertia must be speedily overcome, in part, if this so ‒ called
Institution remains and functions, during the oncoming centuries.
are deeply interested and greatly concerned
that we, as an organization, assist a great number within the pale,
not only further Light but more Light than we are now giving.
will not permit quotations from many other
interesting and helpful comments, but we wish at least to make mention
of a number
of brethren whose letters have given us much encouragement. Also, we
to thank each of these brothers for their promise of cooperation and
our Study Club Campaign and give each writer the assurance that we will
to have them report fully regarding their efforts and experiences in
organizing Study Clubs in their localities. Letters pledging support
for the Masonic
Study Club Campaign have recently come from the following brethren, and
support the spread of the movement is assured:
O. W. Dynes, University of Tennessee,
Edson Davis, 191 N. Harris Ave., Columbus,
C. W. Sehulz, Rex Hotel, Duluth, Minn.
Alex Vanna, 1146 13th st., San Diego,
E. C. Parmenter, Belmont, Vt.
Raymond Williams, 845 S. National Ave.,
Fort Scott, Kans.
Ernest w. Gruss, R. No. 6, Pox 317, Houston,
Samuel Pfrimmer, Corydon, Ind.
W. M. Strom Greenville, Texas.
to Organize a Masonic Study Club
Keypoint Programs for Discussion and Study,
Historical, Symbolical and Ethical
graded courses of study must be provided
which are adapted to the various ages, interests and tastes of all
classes of students
is a sound pedagogical principle which, I believe, should be applied to
Education as well as to all other branches of knowledge.
some Masonic scholars it may seem a sad situation
that most members of our fraternity can only be interested in a
superficial or extremely
elementary study of the fundamentals of Freemasonry. Yet, this is a
and not a fancied theory. Therefore, we must face the fact that the
of Masonic Study into the average lodge should begin with what we might
Primary Grade possibly, in many cases, kindergarten would be a better
if we make Masonic Study appeal to
the rank and file, we must accept the condition that the average Mason
be willing to permit studies of any sort to interfere with or distract
time and attention he devotes to the movies, sports, and other
social affairs. Furthermore, the average Mason will become bored and
drop out of
the meetings if there is too much red tape officialism, or if the
into matters too deep and mystical for ordinary understanding.
these plain, common-sense factors in
mind, the easiest way to introduce Masonic Study into a Lodge is to
any great hurrah or whooperup speechmaking.
the Right Way
has shown that many a time an enthusiastic
Masonic orator has stirred up so much interest that a large group has
begun a Masonic
Study Club which, after just a few meetings, has entirely petered out,
who started the club disillusioned and, perhaps, bitter over the
their brethren towards "the deeper interests of life in general and
every Lodge, I believe, it will be possible
to discover a few members who will take a fairly keen interest in the
of the craft. But it is almost impossible to find out just who these
by any check-up of the membership.
indicates that the best way to discover
the genuine Masonic students of any Lodge is to begin your Masonic
Study Club work
with a brief series of informal discussion group meetings, taking up at
a topic of the most universal and elementary nature. For a few meetings
character it will be possible to maintain the interest of quite a large
members. But one important objective of these introductory discussions
will be to discover or develop a few genuine Masonic students who are
get together and take up more advanced work in Masonic Study.
the other hand, my personal opinion is that
every member who attends any of these introductory discussion group
receive considerable benefit, so that the courses would be well worth
if none of the members should be encouraged to pursue the more advanced
Masonic subjects. But, in most cases, I am sure you will find that your
discussions will start a number of the brethren on the way towards the
to be gained from digging more deeply into Masonic problems.
presenting the following outlines for our
Seven Keypoint Programs on Masonic History, Masonic Symbolism and
no apology is made for their incomplete and somewhat superficial
character. It would
be impossible to cover these subjects completely in seven short
reason we have arranged for seven meetings
on each general Subject is obvious to all members of the Craft. The
refers to the idea that each discussion is intended merely as a key to
which opens up a broad field of information.
brief topical outlines we present herewith
are simply offered as seed-thoughts to enable each discussion group to
its own" study course. We make no pretense that our outline programs
best. On the contrary, our strong hope in offering them is that they
forth many suggestions and ideas for their improvement. To change our
the seed-thought idea to what may be regarded as more of a Masonic
introductory outline programs are merely the rough framework for our
We expect to modify and improve the construction of the programs in
the suggestions for their betterment which we hope to draw from the
our well-informed brothers from all parts of the country.
we not merely invite but most earnestly
urge every interested reader to send his comment or criticism. Do not
point out any flaw or weakness that you may find, or to suggest any
change or correction
that you think would be an improvement. We shall gratefully welcome all
from every possible source.
Introductory Keypoint Programs actually
will be arranged and constructed by the readers of THE BUILDER. At the
merely offer the topical headings for the seven meetings of each
course. We propose,
from month to month, to present a more elaborate outline of questions,
interest and suggested references for the successive topics of each of
brief, these Keypoint Programs will be conducted
through this department of THE BUILDER and it is hoped that a goodly
number of our
readers will help us knock off the rough corners and construct a fairly
course or rather, three courses to be used as the best possible
the study of the main phases of Freemasonry.
best possible way, and by far the most practical
plan, to aid us in developing this Study Club Campaign is for every
to get together a study club group and follow the program with us. It
is not necessary
that your discussion group be numerous or your plans elaborate. To
simply get a
few interested brethren to meet once a month and discuss together the
will be better than to attempt a more elaborate and formal organization.
references will be confined to the most
popular and easily procured books on Masonic subjects, which may be
found in any
good library. It will be unnecessary for any member of the introductory
group to purchase any text-books, since all the data actually required
will be given
in THE BUILDER. Of course, it is hoped that the discussion will
encourage some members
of the group to read more Masonic literature, but that objective will
usually, when the leader of the group conducts the discussions so
as to stimulate deeper interest in the subject on the part of some of
in mind that all the abundant resources
of information of The National Masonic Research Society are available
to every Study
Club discussion group. All you have to do is to ask and you will
or information on any Masonic question.
brethren, don't overlook the point
that this puts the problem of fostering the Masonic Study Club movement
up to you.
If you really believe that more Masons ought to be better informed with
the principles of the institution, you are the one who should start the
You can do it now with the least possible expense and effort. Instead
of going about
criticising the Craft for being indifferent or ignorant regarding the
of Freemasonry, let us put a little action in the place of mere talk
and we shall
at least start things on the way towards the betterment of our beloved
Keypoint Introductory Programs, Arranged
for Round Table Discussion Groups
Primitive Origins of Masonic Activities.
Legendary Forerunners of Freemasonry.
Early Records of Operative Freemasonry.
The First Grand Lodges of England.
Beginnings of the Craft in America.
Patriotism, Persecution and Progress.
Historical High Spots of the Past
The Origin, Development and Importance
The Major Symbols of the First Degree.
The Minor Symbols of the First Degree.
The Major Symbols of the Second
The Minor Symbols of the Second
The Major Symbols of the Third Degree.
The Minor Symbols of the Third Degree.
The Prime Importance of Character
Building through Self-Denial, Self-Control and Self-Culture.
A Reverent and Reasonable Faith
in the Fatherhood of God.
The Practice of Brotherly Love in
all Human Relationships.
The Belief Life is Eternal and the
Soul of Man is Immortal.
The Profession and Practical Exemplification
of the Spirit of True Democracy
The Practice of Universal Tolerance,
Unlimited Charity and Constant Loyalty.
The Ultimate Triumph of Truth and
following is the program of the Milwaukee
Conference referred to on a previous page:
CONFERENCE OF MASONIC LIBRARIANS AND
Room, Scottish Rite Cathedral, Milwaukee.
2nd, 3rd and 4th, 1929
of the Conference
at 9:00 A. M.
of Welcome M.W. Fred L. Wright, Grand
Purpose of the Conference Herbert N. Laflin
of the Conference H.A. Crosby
Is Masonic Education ‒ What Is There to
Teach ‒ What Can Be Taught, and How? Robert I. Clegg
Purpose and Possibility of Masonic Education
‒ A paper by Prof. Roscoe Pound
Place a Library Occupies in Masonic Education
‒ C. C. Hunt
at 2:00 P.M.
Small Masonic Library ‒ A paper by J. H.
Possibility of Cooperation With the American
Library Association ‒ John T. Jenkins
New York Grand Lodge Library – A paper by
Research; Its Methods and Possibilities
‒ R.J. Meekren
at 9:00 A M.
Masonic Library and Its Relation the Social
Welfare of the Community ‒ Clara A. Richards
Clubs ‒ E.E. Thiemeyer
Contests ‒ Frank T. Lodge
Bureaus ‒ Frank S. Moses
at 2:00 P.M.
of a Corps of Masonic Speakers ‒ W.C.
Lodge Publications ‒ Byrne E. Bigger
Journalism ‒ F.H. Littlefield
of Successful Methods ‒ Oliver
thirty-minute period is provided for general
discussion of each of the topics and this program is subject to
books reviewed in these pages can be procured
through the Book Department of the N.M.R.S. at the prices given, which
postage. These prices are subject (as a matter of precaution) to change
notice, though occasion for this will very seldom arise. Occasionally
it may happen
where books are privately printed, that there is no supply available,
but some indication
of this will be given in the review. The Book Department is equipped to
any books in print on any subject, and will make inquiries for
and books out of print.
The Officers of
By Frank T. Lodge. Privately printed,
paper, 64 pages.
author, M. W. Bro. Lodge, is a Past Grand
Master of the Grand Lodge of Michigan, and there is a brief foreword
from the Grand
Master for 1928, M. W. Bro. F. H. Newton. It is being distributed by
the Grand Lodge
Service Commission of Michigan. But though especially written for the
that state, it contains little or nothing that is not equally
applicable in any
other jurisdiction of the United States.
and Handbooks for the guidance of lodge
officers we have had before, and many of them are most useful. The
is on somewhat different lines, for the author tries to keep in view,
more accurately, to develop, the symbolical aspects of their relative
in the hierarchy of the lodge and their stations and functions,
combining with this,
brief sketches of their particular duties and the special
to carry these out in the best way. It is prefaced by a short
touching on a few of the "high spots" in the evolution of Freemasonry
from an Operative Craft to a Speculative art. The next chapter is
devoted to the
lodge, in part of which the formal description in the lectures is
certain features specially elaborated, and part is devoted to lodge
Bro. Lodge evidently feels quite strongly that the lodge with swollen
that has become a characteristic of American Masonry is not, in
practice, an unmixed
blessing, and he describes with approval the small lodges of England
where every member is the close friend, as well as brother, of all the
this the reviewer is in the heartiest accord, and he is glad to find so
a Mason as Bro. Lodge saying plainly that
… a large increase
in the number of lodges and a corresponding decrease in the membership
of each lodge
would mean far greater strength and value to the Masonic institution,
and we cannot
too deeply deplore the tremendous increase in the expense of running
which has seemed to make these modern American methods necessary.
goes on to point out that a few very large
lodges have, by special effort and devoted work, managed to maintain a
of fraternal feeling and usefulness, but it is admitted that such as
these are very
last chapter is headed Suggestions, and
it is interesting to note the author's regret that the old Masonic
the "Banquet" have been so utterly and completely forgotten in America.
It is indeed a great loss. The simplest food eaten together formally,
as a fraternal
rite, is far to be preferred to the most elaborate meal served as in a
the only object is to "get outside" as many of the good things as
Bro. Lodge also regrets the old time toasts ‒ as probably do most
who have been guests of English lodges where they are still given. He
certain old customs, not Masonic, that used to be observed. The Masons
of the eighteenth
century seem merely to have adapted the common usages of the day, and
them distinctive of the Craft. Even the use of military phraseology,
"handling your weapons," "firing" and so on, was quite common
practice, and is referred to in the popular songs and drama of the
one point in the brief sketch of the history
of drinking toasts that is given, it is impossible to acquiesce, and we
Bro. Lodge must have been badly misled by some inaccurate, not to say
authority. Treacherous attacks, attempts at assassination, and the
like, at feasts
have never been common, either among the early Teutonic races, from
whom these drinking
customs were directly derived, or among any other race. Such abuse of
has always been exceptional, and though the early legends and history
of most peoples
contain instances of it, it is almost always a crime so dreadful that
party was thenceforth accursed of gods and men, till Nemesis brought
him to an unhappy
end. This point, in such tales, may easily be overlooked by modern
primitive story tellers never moralize, never offer judgments on their
The moral is in the story itself as a whole.
error, of less consequence, is to speak
of the right as the dagger hand. The right was the sword hand, the
dagger was used
in the left. Except of course, that like the-table fork in eating, if
it would probably be in the right hand. Toasts were only drunk kneeling
were to some person to whom special loyalty and service were due. The
cup has three handles, not two. It was held, while drinking, by two of
when passed to the next man, he took it by the unoccupied handle first
by one of the other two. If this were done in the same way each time
the cup would
be rotated on its axis once for every three drinkers. Loving cups and
always passed "sun-wise" round the table.
regard to inviting all Installed or Past
Masters to sit in the East, this would not be pleasant or comfortable
for them as
American lodges are usually arranged. But in other countries it is held
to be highly
improper for brethren of this rank to sit anywhere else, and lodges are
accordingly, with ample and comfortable seating arrangements in the
practically all of the author's suggestions
we heartily agree; the restoration of these lost formalities and
go far to help us regain that intimate fraternal atmosphere we have
lost in the
lodge and vainly seek in the "higher" orders and the various
of Masonry. We hope that Bro. Lodge's work will be widely disseminated,
and as widely
* * *
POUR LE TRAVAIL EN LOGE D'APPRENTI
By Edouard E. Plantagenet. Published
by V. Gloton, Paris. Paper, index, 190 pages.
author is well known in French Masonic circles,
and though the present work is written, naturally, as a commentary on
of the French ritual, there is much in it of great value for Masons
Indeed, perhaps, of greater value to them for it would give them an
viewpoint of many familiar things, and thus reveal still greater depth
As the title informs us, it is concerned entirely with the initiation
in the first
degree. Other similar "causeries" are in preparation, we are given to
understand, for the second and third grades. The first "talk" is on
Education, and the author says some very good things. For example:
It is evident that
what we are to understand by Masonic instruction cannot be in any sense
to the teaching, of every kind, that society offers to every man
desirous of culture,
and anxious to increase his knowledge. If this were not so it would be
to conceive how Freemasonry has been able to build itself up; we would
to explain the deep rooted causes of its persistence, and we should
have to admit
that its universality would have been unable to withstand the solvent
its cultural mediocrity, and its inferiority as an educational
translation is a free one, but it gives
the author's meaning. He goes on to say that
Under these conditions
it is obviously erroneous to pretend that it is in our power, or that
we have any
mission, to seek, didactically, to influence the political opinions or
[and religious] opinions of the neophyte who has entered our ranks.
gives a rather different impression of
French Masonry than that so often presented in America. Every man has
and is subject to the laws of his own being, a prisoner of the
by his education; how then shall the neophyte be freed from this
by passing from the street into the Temple?
once more we have presented to us that
essential difference between American Masonry as a whole and that of
former is taken, by the majority at least, as a social affair merely,
as a kind
of amusement. The European Mason incurably believes that it means
should accomplish something.
what should it accomplish and how? M. Plantagenet's
answer is doubtless largely personal ‒ there is no orthodoxy in
Masonry. He finds
it in initiation. This implies, of course, much more than the mere
profane declares "I would be instructed."
The ritual responds, "Give him light." Let us not confound these two
It is quite possible to illuminate without instruction, just as it is
be instructed while remaining a miserable prisoner of darkness.
story is told of a Polish traveler in pre-war
days who, vexed by the questionings of German customs officers on the
said to an English fellow passenger: "The French know nothing, but they
everything. The Germans know everything and understand nothing." This
of difference between people can often be observed, though such
can never, at the best, be more than rough approximations. The
difference is one
of intelligence, which is not at all the same thing as knowledge of
facts. But in
the present case the reference is to much deeper levels. Perhaps the
not agree with the description, but it seems that his understanding of
is the gaining of an experience that is really mystical. The
apprehension of something
beyond the world of sense. But this experience, while the emotional
by the ritual in the Candidate's mind and heart will aid, is ultimately
by his own effort, by meditation on the symbols offered to him. Other
serve equally well; there are many roads.
ceremony of reception, in effect, teaches
us that the character of Mason is only acquired little by little, and
never by privilege
of age or seniority, or by the prestige of degrees, but solely by
ritual shows the stages and indicates the
direction to be taken, teaching the apprentice how to work upon the
is proper to his condition; by which labor he will elevate himself to a
before he is aware.
explanations of the various symbols is different
from those to which we are accustomed, for the interpretations of
have developed from those of the eighteenth century very much on a line
that taken in America. But the final effect is much the same. It only
goes to show
once more that symbols have no definite meanings ‒ they are suggestive,
book contains also a translation of the
first Book of Constitutions, the author maintaining, and (as the
proving, that previous translations into the French language have been
and misleading. Like most French Masonic writers he insists that the
first of the
"Old Charges," "Concerning God and Religion," is the universal
foundation law for Masonry, and not later modifications made in
The argument is one that has never been fairly met by those who would
own religious conceptions upon Masonry.
Discussed by Count Carlo Sforza, Charles
Clinton Marshal and John A. Ryan, D. D. Pamphlet No. 56 of the Foreign
Paper, 31 pages.
discussion was the one hundred and sixteenth
of the Luncheon Debates of the Foreign Policy Association of New York,
place the sixteenth of last March, while the new concordat between the
the Italian dictator was still "front page" news. Count Sforza's
as a diplomat and patriot hardly needs mention. Mr. Marshall is even
in America, since his Open Letter to Governor Smith, while Dr. Ryan is
Roman Catholic controversialist and apologist.
judges from Count Sforza's address, though
delicately and diplomatically phrased, that he is none too well assured
as to the
outcome of the newly ratified bargain between church and state in
Italy. He insisted
that those Italians who had, in the past, opposed the Papacy as a
were, according to their lights, faithful sons of the church.
Marshall took the view that the assertions
freely made that the arrangement was a private and domestic affair, not
the interests of the rest of the world, were quite erroneous, and that
world might in fact be very much affected by it. His contention was
that, so far
as claims go, the Italian government, that is, Mussolini, acknowledged
universal moral supremacy over all nations and peoples. That in fact it
is an alliance
between two absolutisms, between which not a shred of freedom is left
to the Italian
in his native land.
Ryan made a very clever defense of the new
treaty, belittling those points in which others see potential mischief,
and by a
series of skillfully arranged comparisons sought to give the impression
Roman church was to get no more in Italy than any church has in the
All that he said is doubtless quite true, but the entirely different
and traditions of the two countries make any such point for point
set addresses were followed by a debate
which was opened by Mr. James P. Roe, whose pamphlet on Fascism,
Masonry and the
Vatican in Italy was reviewed in these pages last month. As was to be
defended the Fascist regime and sought to show that Mussolini had
gained by it far
more than he paid. In this most competent observers in Europe seem to
him ‒ it being thought that the dictator has probably lengthened his
supreme power, for few believe Fascism is permanent. But political
notoriously dangerous ‒ for the prophet's reputation.
pamphlet is to be recommended to all those
interested in the future of international developments, and of the part
aspires to play therein.
God Of Science
By Arvid Reuterdahl. Published by the
Arya Company. Cloth, table of contents, index, xvi and 312 pages. Price
is a very curious work. At first one is
inclined from general appearances to class it as one of the many freak
are published as the gospel of some new cult, or way of life, or mode
In spite of the fact that it is printed in clear type on good paper,
persists that it belongs in this category. Analysis seems to point to
due to improper balance of the black and white on the page. For the
large type used
should have been leaded, and it demands wider margins. In addition to
this the text
is overcapitalized to an extraordinary extent. This seems to have been
the idea of giving emphasis, but emphasis has entirely been lost. The
same may be
said about the use of italics. A further disfigurement to the pages is
of references in the text, between brackets. It would have been much
better to have
followed the usual convention and put them in small type as footnotes.
to these external features which tend
to prejudice the would-be reader against the book, there are
difficulties in the
arrangement and style. Apparently the intention was that the
be popular ‒ at least to some limited extent. It seems, as so often
men of deep erudition attempt to popularize their theories, to fall
stools. Much of the detail given would be unnecessary were the work
for the expert, but at the same time it is too abstruse to be easily
the intelligent but unlearned reader (it is quite certain that Dr.
not writing for the unintelligent) and the result is that it is not at
to follow the main course of the argument.
has not been written with any idea of belittling
or derogating from the real value of the work. Indeed exactly the
reverse. The shell
may be hard but it is distinctly worth the effort to crack it to get at
within. Naturally, the appeal will be comparatively a limited one. In
place only the intelligent need attempt to read it, and it will
certainly be easier
for those with some knowledge of the methods and results of modern
And secondly only those who are really interested, for whatever reason,
whatever point of view, in the question of ultimate origins and the
of man to the universe will find it worth the effort of reading. But
for those so
qualified it is indeed an important contribution to the subject.
Reuterdahl approaches the subject from a
rather unusual direction. He is a physicist and mathematician of
standing, although he is not in the fashionable mode, the scientific
bon ton of
the moment. For there are fashions in science as in everything else.
This is not
only natural, but practically inevitable. Scientists are human beings,
gold diggers they flock to any point where a "strike" has been made.
that ground has been thoroughly worked and exhausted, some new line
will be taken.
This produces satisfactory results in the long run, but it is always
well that there
should be some who refuse to follow the crowd, who stand somewhere
apart and give
us perspective by considering things from another point of view ‒ which
in a few
years may quite possibly itself become the fashionable one.
author's main contention in the present
work is that we must infer the real existence of God from the very
nature of the
world, taken as-a whole. That such an inference is as proper and as
the accepted inferences regarding the existence of atoms and their
protons, electrons, and so on. But as has been said, this main thesis
being obscured by the introduction of detail of scientific
investigations and resultant
hypotheses. It would not be fair to say these have no place in the
it might be said that they are somewhat misplaced. Which is to say that
suffers from its arrangement, or perhaps more accurately from its
first step undertaken is really a resume'
of the history, or progress of speculation and investigation into the
matter, leading up to the present status where the theory of its being
energy is generally held in some form or other. In this the point is
that our conclusions on these points are all inferences based on
Having thus linked up matter with energy, the latter is then similarly
and the nonsensical nature, in the literal sense, of all mechanistic or
theories of the universe is stressed. No theory, the author insists,
and the present
reviewer would agree that he does so with justice, that regards the
some kind of self-winding clock is logically tenable. Energy, at least
in the various
physical forms, mechanical, electrical, chemical and so on, is
degraded into heat; so that if there be not a constant and infinite
supply of new
energy flowing into the system, everything must eventually come to a
stop, a permanent
equilibrium devoid of all motion ‒ a dead world in fact. No dodging of
is possible. And the fact that the clock is running down implies that
it must have
been started, at some time. Or probably that time began when it was
scientists evade this issue by saying that
questions of ultimate origins are without significance. Which, so far
as any specialized
branch of science is concerned is perfectly true. But for science as a
mankind in general, they are not insignificant. Upon such questions
depend our conclusions
as to whether the world and all in it, including men, are merely
machines, or whether
there be something more behind the physical and material world.
next stage in the argument is the distinction
of levels of energy ranging from the purely physical up to what the
"deific." At bottom the argument seems to rest on the old dilemma; is
the higher to be understood in terms of the lower, or the lower in
terms of the
higher. At bottom, that is the fundamental question, the parting of the
through the book there is much keen, and
effective criticism of the views and theories with which the author
atheists, agnostics and sceptics ‒ the various modern cults, Einstein
and the various
hyper-geometrics and super-mathematics, are touched on, and searchingly
cannot help but feel that a deeper acquaintance
with theology would have led to more respect for it. Theologians, one
uses the past
tense as there are very few today, were not fools. And no honest
exercise of the
intellect is wholly valueless. It is evident that when Dr. Reuterdahl
(and the same
is true of hundreds of other writers ) inveighs against theology ‒
intolerant ‒ that they are not speaking of theology, of which they
little, but of popular presentations of various religious creeds, whose
are anything but theologians.
final conclusions reached by the author
seem to be as follows: Personality persists ‒ the life or mental energy
one of us is not merely emptied into an infinite reservoir of energy,
like a bucket
of water thrown into the sea; but though it becomes more intimately at
the whole, it yet retains its own entity. The Deity, who is this
is not an abstraction, a pantheistic inclusion of the whole universe,
‒ Dr. Rueterdahl objects to anthropomorphic pronouns here ‒ is more
than the universe.
While very little is said as to the character of this scientific God,
it is to be
gathered that It is the source and origin of everything, and higher and
than everything ‒ including man. And from that, most of what is
enshrined in the
creeds of the world Theisms would seem to follow by logical inference.
spite of all its difficulties it is a book
that should be read by everyone who has been so much affected by the
modern science as to wonder whether anything "scientific" can be
in favor of religious faith, or its essential content.
one or two references one might suppose
that the author is a Mason, but of this the reviewer has no certain
By W. B. Seabrook. Published by Harcourt,
Brace & Company, New York. Cloth, table of contents, appendix,
386 pages. Illustrations
by Alexander King. Price $3.70.
SEABROOK is an enviable person; he is able
to go out into strange places and see and hear almost unbelievable
of us, even if we were able to travel at will to the ends of the earth,
nothing but exteriors. We should take with us our habits, prejudices
which would raise an insurmountable barrier which could not be broken
from without or within. The Magic Island is Haiti, that beautiful
which until recently was an independent republic of a people of Negro
democratic government ruled entirely by blacks has existed for well
over a century.
The famous Christophe, who was the central character in John
book Black Majesty, was the first independent ruler of the island.
Until this Negro
made himself a throne through revolution the island was the property of
Christophe declared its independence, and it has to this day remained a
state, though the U. S. A. is now exercising a not very clearly defined
Seabrook spent several months in Haiti endeavoring
to learn something of the customs and religions of the people. Possibly
due to his
vivid style, perhaps to his unusual powers of observation and his
of prejudice and preconception, he has succeeded in some inexplicable
way in catching
the very soul of the island. The reader cannot help but feel that Haiti
is an island
pregnant with mystery and teeming with the magic of primitive peoples.
It is, in
very truth, a Magic Island.
speaking the book does not fall into
the category of Masonic works. It contains, however, a discussion of a
type of religion that should appeal to every Mason because of strange
to Masonic ritual that are to be found in some of the ceremonials. For
reasons it is not desirable to indicate these parallels in this review.
this statement will be taken in some quarters as additional support of
that Masonry practices devil worship, witchcraft, and the like. But
those who are
interested in seeking parallels between Masonic ceremonials and
will find much valuable material contained between the covers of Mr.
work. The book is divided into four parts, really it falls into two
third and fourth sections dealing mainly with those things that any
humanly sympathetic traveler might have seen. The cultivated society of
the government that receives stability from the American occupation at
of going in leading-strings. Such things are ‒ perhaps needs must be ‒
but it seems
too bad that it should be accompanied by the introduction of hitherto
prejudices. One cannot help feeling glad that the Haitians show a
at this, and that they have a fair chance of maintaining their
they will only be true to their own culture. Their own by adoption, of
theirs is a thoroughly Latin, or more specifically French culture.
French cultural antecedents of the island
account, perhaps, for the peculiar mixture of custom that is now
primitive African nature survives along with the veneer of French
strangely enough they are not working side by side, but are so
that an entirely new culture has developed. The written language of the
French, but the spoken tongue is Creole. The description of this tongue
a small part of The Magic Island should be valuable from a linguistic
point of view.
Mr. Seabrook's analysis is brief, but he furnishes references which
one to pursue a study of this blending of French with the savage
if he feels so inclined.
as has been said, this part of the book,
interesting as it is, might have been observed and set down by any
first part must surely be unique. If the cultivated classes are
culture in one way, the masses are preserving their savagery in wholly
Mr. Seabrook is quite possibly the first person without Negro blood in
to have been initiated into the mysteries of voodoo. It is true that
and administrators have become members of the secret societies of
Africa, but voodoo
is not the same. It is a religion, evidently an eclectic religion. The
into the island in the old days of the French regime came from many
tribes and races,
and they were all superficially Christianized. The result has been a
many elements, that has become systematized into something quite new,
is more pagan than Christian.
Seabrook is not a scientific anthropologist,
or student of comparative religion. He is a literateur with a gift of
a boundless tolerance and apparently a complete lack of any social or
prejudice; and with that the art of gaining the confidence of people
who have the
best of reasons to be suspicious and reserved with strangers.
elements of Voodoo and Haitian witchcraft,
which are not at all the same thing, it seems, will not be new to
students of these
subjects, though their details and the new combinations in which they
doubtless be welcome. The sexual characteristics seem to be strongly
as would be expected; though that is but following the fashion of the
do the hideous drawings with which the book is illustrated. It may be
will, as presumably was the intention, heighten the effect of
uncanniness and horror
found in the text, but they certainly add nothing to our knowledge, as
do the photographs
reproduced in the appendix.
mass of the blacks belong to either the
witchcraft or voodoo sects. Both are strictly forbidden by law, but the
is beginning to take a charitable view and to overlook the legal code,
both religions to function with no more than an outward show of
secrecy. This attitude
is, of course, unofficial; its strength, or weakness, rests in the
are not immune to the persuasive powers of silver. Good Catholics, and
of other denominations, would doubtless be horrified at some of the
They are basically primitive but intermingled with their elemental
much that is borrowed from Christianity. The Christian doctrines were,
brought to the island by the missionaries of the Roman Catholic Church
French occupation, and many religious bodies have sent missionaries
what has actually happened in Haiti has occurred in other places that
fruitful fields for missionary enterprise. It may be that elsewhere the
work has been more effective, and that what is found in Haiti is only
of incomplete Christianization; but whatever may be the solution, the
that there are Christian ceremonies grafted on to primitive religious
rites in a
most unusual manner, in both the voodooism and witchcraft of Haiti.
mayhap represents one of the sports so frequently encountered in any
Instead of following the normal religious development, and finding
absorbing the characteristics of its more primitive forerunners as we
do in other
countries, the process is reversed and the primitive has swallowed the
a description of the rites practiced
in these cults would incline one to the opinion that the witchcraft of
Europe had come to light again. Certainly many people who did not
the mental attitude of the Haitian Negro would accuse them of
Mr. Seabrook shows quite clearly, however, that this is not so. What
happened is that the primitive religions and the Christian ceremonies
grafted into each other forming a religion different from either of its
but partaking of the nature of both of them. The conglomeration is a
queer one and
would be interesting aside from the rites which recall some of Masonic
The old fertility rites which came over into the Christian religion are
side by side with their more modern children.
student of these subjects will find the
work of value, he will know how to distinguish the observed facts from
explanations, and to estimate the value of the latter. It is very
strong meat, and
hardly meet for babes. And those with definite religious beliefs of
their own will
find it a challenge that may be wholesome, if it sets them to thinking
realities and foundations of their own creed.
By Frederick G. Mueller. Privately printed,
stiff paper, profusely illustrated, 16 pages.
is very curious, indeed, considering the
enormous number of Masonic Temples that have been erected in the United
and the unsatisfied desire for yet more in localities as yet not
that practically nothing has been published that would be of assistance
committees and architects in planning, constructing and financing such
Mueller is himself an architect and has
come up against the problem himself, and has presented in compressed
form the result
of his experience. He starts from the very beginning, the organizing of
among the members of the lodge or lodges and other bodies concerned in
building when that is called for. Then follows a brief discussion of
of holding companies or corporations, to assume the responsibilities of
erection and maintenance. Follows a brief notice of the kind of
architect, and his
qualifications, who should be employed. The next stage is to make up a
of the various purposes for which the building is to serve, as a basis
for the plans.
The requirements of the site, the design, and the equipment are then
and after that the all-important question of finance. To this more
space is given
than to any other heading. The last pages deal with the engineering,
supervision of erection.
is included a very interesting chart which
shows at a glance every point that a building committee will have to
keep in mind
and the relative sequence of each. It would serve admirably, with
as an advertising poster in a temple "campaign."
pamphlet should be of real service, but
it can only be regarded as a stop-gap. What is needed is a work of some
with all the problems here mentioned in greater detail, and with full
to actual buildings embodying various solutions, and the experience
based upon them.
Such a book is needed, but it is doubtful whether sufficient demand
could be found
for it to make the writing more than a labor of love, and the
publishing a desperate
venture. So probably it will not be written just yet.
The Amateur Band And Orchestra
By Ralph H. Korn, with an introduction
by Willem van Hoogstruaten. Cloth, illustrated, x and 117 pages. Price
Masonic bodies have bands and orchestras,
and more would like to have them. For the latter the present work will
quite invaluable, and very probably not without value to the former.
author confesses quite frankly that the
several chapters of his book were written in the first place as a
series of articles
for publication in a periodical devoted to music. This came to an
untimely end before
all the articles had been "run." This must have been post hoc and not
propter hoc, for the articles should have kept the magazine alive had
author further says that he decided not
to recast his material for publication in bookform, and we believe this
was a happy
decision, for the familiar and at times humorous style makes the
even for those not ‒ intending to undertake the formidable task of
creating an amateur
orchestra or band. Incidentally a very great deal of what is said
well to choir and chorus work.
almost universal distribution of gramophones
and wireless sets should lead to an increase in musical interest
there is always a something lacking in such means of transmission even
best. While the really musical will always desire to produce music
of course, there is no substitute for a band, for marches and parades.
several chapters of the book cover the formation
of an amateur band or orchestra and the various things that are
necessary to make
it successful, including the conduct of rehearsals and the special
of the functionaries, from conductor to publicity man; the various
pitfalls to be
avoided are discussed and many hints given to make it easier to "put it
all of which are evidently based on experience, and one can well
bought experience, on someone's part. It is a book that everyone who
has the idea
in mind that a band or orchestra might be an excellent addition to the
of his lodge or commandery, or of his community, should be read and
having done so, if he has not been warned off by the difficulties to be
will probably want to have it by him as a chart to help him avoid the
reefs that such an organization is bound to encounter on the human and
For it is these that wreck amateur choirs and orchestras, and not lack
book is well printed on good paper, and
the proof reading has been most carefully done, which too often is not
in such handbooks.
Samtaler for Frimurere. By G. E. Lessing.
Translated, with notes, into Danish by P. A. Fenger. Published by Levin
Copenhagen. Stiff paper, index, 77 pages.
is a Danish version of Lessing's well known
Masonic Dialogues, Ernst and Falk. Bro. Fenger has been a contributor
to THE BUILDER
in the past, his last article appearing in the tenth volume.
1781 (German)] By Johannes
von Guenther. Translated by Huntley Paterson. Published by Harper
& Bros. Cloth,
table of contents, illustrated, xii and 445 pages. Price $3.65.
rather sensational novel based on the usually
accepted accounts of the life of Cagliostro. The Masonic connections of
adventurer are elaborated, though the author has rather curious ideas
Lodges and their organization. As fiction, with a vague background of
work will interest many readers.
By A.E. Waite. Published by Williams
& Norgate, Ltd., London, also by the Macmillan Co., New York.
table of contents, illustrated, index, xxvi and 686 pages. Price $7.75.
study of the Secret Tradition in Israel,"
critical and interpretative. The author avoids the Scylla of credulity
and the Charybdis
of scepticism. The work will be indispensable to those who want to know
Kabbalah really was, and how to estimate it and its value to humanity.
And New England
By George Lyman Kittredge. Published
by the Harvard University Press. Table of contents, notes, index, x and
exhaustive study of witchcraft among the
English people. The author disagrees equally with recent writers who
the objective reality of witchcraft and demonism, and those who
consider it to have
been an organized secret religion. He corrects a number of erroneous,
accepted opinions; among them that James I was responsible for a
the persecution of witches. The real facts seem to be that he
discouraged it as
much as he was able. The notes, which take up nearly one-third of the
be most valuable to the student seeking for first-hand materials on the
By John Galen Howard. Published by the
Macmillan Co. Cloth, table of contents, x and 287 pages. Price $2.65.
very unusual piece of work for the present
day. It is the life story of the great Greek sculptor in blank verse,
to his friend Pantarkes of Olympia. The author has utilized all the
biographical notices of his hero, and accepts that version of his death
him the victim of the jealousy of the Athenians, like Socrates. The
from the imaginary Pantarkes himself, and describes Pheidias' defense
charge of sacrilege before the court of the Areopagus. While the modern
not accustomed to blank verse as the medium of a story, in this case he
well advised to read it. It gives intimately the spiritual evolution of
and could only have been written by an artist.
* * *
Leerlingsinwijdingen De Leerlingsgraad
[Lib*] BY Dr. W. H.
Denier Van der Gon. Published
by the Maconnieke Vereeiniging
tot Bestudeering Van Symbolen en Ritualen (Masonic Association for
Study of Symbolism
in Ritual). Paper, table of contents, index, 171 pages.
study of the symbolism of the Apprentice Degree
in the Rite of the Netherlands.
Analysis Of The Holy Royal Arch Ritual
the Rev. F. deP. Castells. Published by A. Lewis, London. Cloth, table
index, 119 pages. Price $2.75.
discussion of the Royal Arch ritual from the
point of view of its significance in the light of what is known of its
It naturally refers especially to the English Royal Arch, though the
wider knowledge of American rituals than is apparently possessed by
many other British
Masonic writers. In a sense the present book is a sequel, or at least
of the earlier work, The Antiquity of the Holy Royal Arch, which was
THE BUILDER some time ago. To a considerable extent the author's views
seem to be
peculiar to himself.
The Question Box and Correspondence
have received both your letters and I thank
you very much for what you say. I am also emboldened to make one or two
in regard to THE BUILDER, or rather the form in which it is presented.
so I hope what I say will not be construed as petulant faultfinding,
indeed I am
sure it will not, as it is with the intention of making things easier
for the vast
army of readers of the journal you have the responsibility and honor of
first observation I have to make is in respect
of notes to articles; these are assembled at the end of the article and
them necessitates often turning over several pages, resulting in a
break of the
continuity much greater than if the notes were inserted at the bottom
of the page
to which they referred. The next observation is in respect to the
splitting of articles.
Rarely is an article or installment of any length brought to a
conclusion in the
same position of the journal as it begins, and I hesitate to estimate
the time lost
in hunting up the continuation and in turning back again carefully to
said this I feel I must add that there
is no department of THE BUILDER in which I do not take an interest, and
I find it
difficult to say which I admire most.
note that the "Ancients" are still
regarded as schismatics by at least one of your contributors, whose
article is flawed by a term proved years ago to be wrong. I refer to
article on DeWitt Clinton, page 262, September, 1928.
The Editor would endorse every suggestion
made by Bro. J. H. and would gladly adopt them if ‒
Unfortunately he is not omnipotent (which
may seem a strange confession) and things often have to be done as they
are difficulties, technical and other, in the way of attaining the most
"make up" for THE BUILDER, but we live in hope that they may be
In regard to the second matter brought up,
the explanation is fairly simple. Most American Masons who read have
read or consulted
the works of Mackey and Gould. Both these authors, and their followers,
older view that the Ancients were schismatics and rebels. Very few
whether they read or not, have ever heard of the later work of Sadler,
and his convincing
proof that the old orthodox view was wrong headed and unjust, and in
the first place
merely propaganda for one party. Consequently it is not surprising if
well informed brethren should take the view so emphatically presented
by two writers
who are held in such high estimation as authorities in Masonic history.
But it is
to be hoped that gradually the real facts will soak into the
consciousness of those
who aspire to write for the information of Masonic readers.
a Mason who was in the War I have been keenly
interested in Bro. Irwin's articles. I did not have the luck to come
military lodge, but I can realize how delighted I should have been had
been afforded me of visiting one; and still more of belonging to one.
while I fully approve of military
lodges, in peace time as well as war for that matter, I cannot help
with Bro. Allen C. Terhune, whose letter to the Grand Master of
Kentucky is given
at page 106 of your April number. It seems to me that the crowd of
through could not have been properly assimilated. Had I been a member
of a military
lodge I should not have cared to see more than one or two candidates at
and they the pick of those offered. A war time lodge is a godsend to
Masons in military
service, but I cannot see why such a lodge should be a degree mill any
in peace time; I do not approve of degree mills anyway. Indeed I
believe that young
men in the army were attracted to the Fraternity by mistaken ideas of
and with motives that verged closely on the improper and interested,
and that in
consequence many of them who succeeded in gaining admission were bound
T. B., Missouri.
articles of Brother Hungerford are timely
and instructive. Surely, every brother is deriving benefit from them.
that the final aim of Freemasonry is the brotherhood of man cannot be
is in keeping with the teachings of all the great teachers of all time.
the discussion of political subjects
within the portals of the lodge would work for good or ill, is very
hard to say.
It should work for the better, for certainly, the whole framework of
depends upon politics, and the better every citizen understands them,
will our political house be. Study is the great necessity of the day.
article of Brother Shepherd in the March
number was also very good. We cannot learn too much of the origin of
the newer books that throw light on the
origin and development of Masonic signs, symbols and ceremonials are
The Lost Continent
of Mu, The Problem of Atlantis, Bison of Clay, and Village Life in
Lost Continent of Mu is especially instructive and every Freemason
could read it
S. Fair, Washington.
G. R. Kenderdine, of Iowa, seems disturbed
by what he calls fundamentalism in my article published in the April
Standard gives as the primary definition of fundamental, "Relating to
the purpose of a foundation or ground work; indispensable; primary;
I believe in fundamentals. "If
this be treason make the most of it." It was reported that the engineer
built a California dam some years ago did not go down to bed rock at
He was not a practical fundamentalist. His modernism cost hundreds of
Kenderdine thinks many Grand Lodges are
not in accord with Missouri in requiring from petitioners a "firm
the one living and true God," and doubts whether Missouri today would
the stand it took forty years ago in a case I cited. Well, only a few
it did reaffirm that position. In 1927 we adopted a special report on
of Foreign Grand Lodges, drawn up by M. W. Bro. Joseph S. McIntyre,
in 1923. This report has already been quoted with evident approval by
of other Grand Lodges. In my work as correspondent for Missouri, I have
reviewed the proceedings of thirty-eight Grand Lodges and have failed
any dissent from our position. I quote only one item of that report:
That every candidate initiated
under said Jurisdiction shall have and express an unfaltering belief in
Being as the Father of all Mankind, the G.A.O.T.U., and shall also have
a belief in the immortality of the soul."
Kenderdine is unfortunate in his selection
of great names to illustrate his views. Their greatness lay in other
before his death Burbank stood in a California pulpit and told us that
Nazareth was a rebel against the religion and government of his day. He
of intending a double-barrelled falsehood, but he did not know enough
of Nazareth to know how to tell the truth about him. Jesus was not a
either the religion or government of his day. Edison’s pre-eminence in
no man dare challenge. But when in answer to a question as to the
origin of in our
world he said it must have come as a spark from some other world we
smiled and said
"shoemaker! stick to your last.”
Twain" was made a Freemason in his
early years. If it was true as reported that in his later years he
faith of his good wife so that at the end she drifted out into the
hope, we doubt if in those years he could have qualified for membership
in a Missouri
Lodge. The writer has Albert Pike's Morals and Dogma in his library.
1928, on the invitation of his Scottish Rite brethren at Joplin, Mo.,
their Easter service. The local Commandery of Knights Templar attended
and the service was open to the public. The speaker quoted freely from
in his discourse and if he in any way transgressed the bounds of
propriety a complaint
to that effect has never reached his ears. Freemasonry rests upon
fundamentals. The writer has installed many Worshipful Masters but in
he has required the Master elect, before his installation, to assent to
“You admit that it
is not in the power of any man or body of men to make innovations in
the body of
Masonry." Fundamentals do not change. The forty-seventh problem of
the same as it was in the days of Pythagoras, and the law of
gravitation has not
been amended since Sir Isaac Newton's day.
Modernists want something new let them organize
and develop the Grand Imperial Order of Snollygosters, but Ancient
is good enough for me.
further reference to the subject brought
up in my letter which was published in the Correspondence Columns of
the April number
of THE BUILDER, I would like to add that our Grand Secretary holds that
are lighted according to rank of officers, the highest or Master's
then the Senior Deacon's then the Junior's and are extinguished in the
He holds that the Great Lights are arranged first in opening, then the
while we have been in the practice of lighting the candles first.
should be very much pleased to have you use
this letter for publication as it would be interesting to learn what is
or the ruling in other jurisdictions on both of the questions raised;
what is the
order of lighting and extinguishing the candles, and also whether the
lighted before opening the Bible in opening the lodge and whether the
Bible is closed
first or candles extinguished in closing.
M. C., Montana.
It will be remembered that last month Bro.
C.C. Hunt asked the very pertinent question if anywhere the candles or
explained as representing the three principal officers of the lodge.
Bro. Hunt we
believe is right, in intimating that in none of the official rituals of
Jurisdictions, and we believe it is equally true of those of the
and also in those of at least some German lodges the explanation is
that given by Webb in his Monitor that the candles or tapers represent
moon and Master of the lodge. However, there is an undeniable
these lesser lights and the Master and Wardens, for they are placed in
quarters as the stations of those officers, which brings them together
in a symbolic
interpretation. But this can only be said to be implicit in the ritual,
for it is nowhere given expression.
the issue of May, 1929, I read the review
by Bro. S.J.C. of Fascism, Masonry and Italy by James P. Roe. My
to Bro. S.J.C., and I certainly do want to thank him for the way he
Masonry. What Bro. S.J.C. says is the truth and the best comment I have
Bro. Roe is quite wrong in many places in regard to Italian Masonry. I
am much surprised
at Bro. Roe's writing in defense of Benito Mussolini's action towards
Masons, and especially about the way he links Mussolini and the Roman
Masonic activities together.
here with you will find a circular
letter of which M.W. Bro. Domizio Torrigiani, Grand Master of the
wrote to Mussolini and the Italian government making a protest against
of killing and destroying Italian Masons and Masonic temples throughout
I would like to know what Bro. Roe and the Italian Historical Society
this circular and about the martyred Italian Masons who are now living
The protest referred to was addressed to
His Excellency, the President of the Ministerial Council, by M. W. Bro.
Torrigiani and was published at Rome as an eight-page pamphlet under
date of Sept.
18, 1924. This was at the beginning of the dreadful persecution of
Masons have been victims. THE BUILDER has published from time to time
the subject. The one that appeared in July, 1925, is worth referring to
connection, as well as those in August and September of 1927. It is
only too easy
for us to forget what our Italian brethren have suffered, merely
because they belonged
to the hated Fraternity.
article in the May number of THE BUILDER
on Masonic Statistics was an excellent one. It is just the sort of
thing we need,
to give us definite information instead of vague impressions. Why could
it not be
made an annual event, a statistical review brought up to date?
your article last month on Masonic Statistics
you intimate that it is a pioneer effort. May I draw your attention to
that M.W. Bro. A.B. Andrews prepared some very interesting statistical
the period from 1876 to 1926. These were published as an Appendix in
of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina for 1928.
read the article in your last number concerning
Masonic Statistics, and while it is very interesting I wondered whether
it was worth
the time and trouble. Just what purpose can such information serve? You
intimate that they would be useful, I should like to know just what you
had in mind.
The Editor has to confess that he was not
aware of Bro. Andrews' elaborate tables and charts when the article was
As so often happens, as soon as it was beyond recall they were brought
to his attention.
However, Bro. Andrews' charts, which covered a more extensive period,
data about other Masonic bodies, were not designed to bring out quite
the same relationships
as those accompanying the article. But had he known about this previous
Editor would have given the credit which was due to their author.
The question asked by Bro. G.S.R. is not
an easy one to answer definitely. It might be evaded by saying that the
advances in knowledge seemed perfectly useless from the practical
first made, and that if it were not for investigations made out of pure
scientific curiosity our civilization would probably not have advanced
beyond that of the Stone Age. But while it is profoundly true that we
tell what value any definite bit of knowledge may prove to have
there is one conclusion that can be drawn at once from the three
charts; and that
is that the number of demitted Masons appears to be no more than it
be, and that the loss by suspension is relatively a small one.
reference to the article by Bro. Strauss
in the May number of THE BUILDER, I note that Mackey says in his
it is uncertain when this symbol was introduced into Masonry, and he
it was later than 1730. He also points out that it has no important
except in the English and German languages, that is, from a Masonic
point of view.
But he also shows that at its first adoption it was taken to refer to
the "fifth science," and in this connection he quotes Hutchinson as
that to restrict it to a reference to Deity is to deprive it of part of
‒ C.C.H., Indiana
Transactions Vol 010 - 1897
Ars97 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 306. - 63.8 MB.
Historical Analysis of the Holy
Royal Arch Ritual
Cas29 / auth. Castells Francis de P.. - London : A. Lewis, 1929. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 96. - 0.2 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
Leben und Thaten des Joseph
Gue81 / auth. Guenther Johannes von. - Zurich : Orell, Gessner, Fussli
& Co., 1781. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 214. - 12.0 MB - German .
Masonic Sketches and Reprints
Hug71 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : George Kenning, 1871. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 158. - 4.2 MB.
The Book of Genesis
Dri05 / auth. Driver S. D.. - London : Methuen & Co., 1905. -
4th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 519. - 37.1 MB.
The Golden Bough
Fra221 / auth. Frazer James G. - [s.l.] : Project Gutenberg, 1922. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 664. - Formatted and Indexed from Project Gutenberg
File by rhm - 2.6 MB.
The Lodge of Edinburgh
Lyo73 / auth. Lyon David M. - Edinburgh : Blackwood and Sons, 1873. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 480. - 17.4 MB.