Masonic Research Society
Freemasonry Playing its
Part in Promoting the Welfare of the World Today?
of a Series of Discussions of Our Ancient Fraternity and Present Day
Bro. Herbert Hungerford
of Seeing Both Sides of Yourself
that Bro. Hungerford raises in this article is one of the gravest
we may certainty add, of peculiar difficulty also. It will probably be
very many different ways, but we hope that it may lead to a fresh
scrutiny of the
fundamentals of Masonry, and to consequent clarifying of ideas. For
there is undoubtedly
much confusion on the subject of the relation of our Institution to
problems, especially in the minds of the younger generation of American
THE ban upon
discussions of sectarian religious questions and partisan political
lodges has proven a wise precaution on the part of the founders of
Let no one misinterpret the intention of our present series of
discussions as suggesting
the slighting of this sensible rule for promoting peace and harmony
among the brethren.
good policy, however, this ban upon partisan and sectarian arguments
may be stretched
beyond its natural limitations so as to read into it a prohibition
by its originators and entirely contrary to the basic objectives which
itself seeks to foster.
where certain narrow-minded definitions of this rule attempt to
proscribe all discussions
of the great problems of religion or of world welfare, in my humble
are emasculating Freemasonry by a denial of the cardinal principles on
great fraternity has been established.
It is easy
for critics to claim that Freemasonry is not a forensic forum or a
No pretense is made to the contrary. But, does anybody deny that
more light and still further light is proclaimed as the central
activity for all
candidates for advancement in our mystic Order? If light-seeking does
not mean investigating,
discussing and studying the problems of life, what does it mean?
I contend that those who denounce this sincere effort to stimulate the
of present day problems in Masonic lodges have lost sight of this
of our craft. We are seekers after true Masonic light. We are builders
not made with hands. We profess the broadest principles of benevolence
and seek to serve humanity and advance the interests of civilization.
How can we
accomplish these worthy aims and endeavors unless we investigate,
discuss and study
the conditions of our world today, and seek to make a practical tie-up
principles and practices of our ancient craft and the present-day
problems of humanity?
charge us with attempting to inject political and religious disputes
into our lodges,
are deluding themselves and raising up a bogeyman. While we do not
weak, frail mortals will keep their discussions of any proposition
from expressions of personal prejudices and partisanship, we maintain
that the best
way to minimize the amount of bigotry and intolerance in any discussion
the choice of subjects of such broad and basic universal interest that
trend in their discussion will be upon a high plane. In other words, it
is the trivial
and narrow nature of the questions discussed which, generally, accounts
airing of petty notions and unkind personalities.
Demands Real Understanding
If we are
to practice charity, in accord with the tenets of our profession that
of Masonic charity is without limits, certainly this means that
Freemasonry is vitally
interested and deeply concerned in all the real problems of humanity
through the world. The conclusion inevitably follows that the
and study of world conditions and world- wide problems should be a
in every Masonic program. If the outlook of Freemasonry is not a
our professions of universal benevolence and brotherhood would
certainly seem like
a hollow mockery.
Yet, we must
confess that the charitable aims of some lodges we have observed seem
to be about
as circumscribed as those of the old fellow who prayed
bless me and my wife and my son John and his wife us four and no more.
can properly inquire (1) why (2), to what extent, and (3) in which ways
ought to participate in aiding the solution of present day
world-problems, we must
first make some survey of these problems to discover and decide what
of outstanding importance. This is by no means an easy task, since we
no unity of opinion as to what is the most important problem before the
In fact, we shall find that there are almost as many claims that
problems are paramount as there are prominent leaders in various phases
a few years ago, the writer was leader of an informal group of members
of the "younger
generation" who, because of their propensity to engage in red-hot
all sorts of subjects, were dubbed "The World Savers' Club." One day,
in this group, this question was raised, and as a result, on the
following day I
wrote a note to about fifty persons, selected somewhat hastily yet
a wide range of view-points and interests and each representing real
in a particular field of activity.
I was both
gratified as well as pleased to find that so many of these prominent
so promptly and with such evident personal interest to my request that
Savers' Club would like to have their views as to what should be
foremost problem before the world at that time, about four years ago.
from the replies from a number of these well-known personages are
Is The Most Important
Problem We Are Facing Today?
EMMERSON FOSDICK Preacher, philosopher, author.
provision of international substitutes for war."
CRANE Prominent philosophical newspaper writer and lecturer.
promotion of a League of Nations or its equivalent."
BOK-Former editor of The Ladies' Home Journal who offered $100,000 for
plan for achieving international peace.
achievement and preservation of peace in the world."
One of the United States' greatest lawyers.
just distribution of wealth."
HAYNES HOLMES Well-known preacher.
re-organization of industry in terms of cooperation and democracy."
PINCHOT Ex-Governor of Pennsylvania.
Leading socialist, author, publicist, publisher.
abolition of poverty."
LOEB Chairman of National Child Welfare Committee.
of pauperism among children."
W. ELIOT President Emeritus of Harvard University.
alcoholism and venereal diseases, acting in combination as they have
for more than a century past, and aided as they are now by birth
control and the
rejection by some women of motherhood as their most desirable
occupation, be allowed
to extinguish before long the white race, or be resisted to the utmost
means now available."
Prominent publisher and leading exponent of physical culture and sanity
general prevalence of venereal diseases."
BURNS Internationally known detective.
spreading of radical propaganda."
Spokesman for the "younger generation" and former editor of The Beckman.
standards of morality among women."
MURRAY BUTLER President of Columbia University.
to preserve personal, civil and political liberty in the face of a
by the use of conformities, aims to establish law-made conformity and
SCHWAB Head of the United States Steel Corporation.
the most of our lives while having as good a time as possible."
BATES Leader in the advertising profession.
a living in a manner which shall be helpful to other people."
SHERMAN Famous educator and essayist.
clear conception of an objective for our civilization. From a clear
an objective, we might formulate a practical and binding working
a realistic and cogent working philosophy one could go to work at
producing a type
of democratic character. And thus the movement of disintegration now so
in our society the movement towards disintegration and anarchy might be
Then editor of The Century Magazine, now, head of the University of
modern civilization morally control and socially use the results of
Every other problem is subsidiary to this."
PENNEY Founder of The Golden Rule Stores and publisher of the Christian
OTTO A. ROSALSKY
Judge of the Court of General Sessions New York City.
religious education of the young and the reeducation of the mature,
CANBY Editor The Saturday Review of Literature.
what the French call 'The petit bourgoisie' from vulgarizing our whole
BEARD National Scout Commissioner and founder of the Boy Scouts of
of those whose opinions are presented here have since passed to the
I believe it will be agreed that the group, as a whole, represents a
cross-section of American leadership. So, it seems quite probable that
questionnaire today would bring forth a like diversity of opinion.
any broad survey of world-problems always will disclose a wide variety
as to the relative importance of all these problems. So we may not hope
reach a common accord or agreement as to any one or two problems being
As a matter
of fact, it is not of utmost importance that we reach a common
agreement that one
or another world-problem is of all- surpassing importance. The more
is to see if we can discover a common denominator for all these
that will act as sort of a universal solvent to them all.
believe that there is such a common denominator solvent. Also, I
maintain that we
shall find this solvent, this cure for the ills of the world, in the
and fundamental principles of Freemasonry. But this is a matter of such
that I intend to devote a second article to it.
New Year Greetings
to the Craft
WE are very
happy in being able to present to readers of THE BUILDER the following
messages from a few of our friends among the Grand Masters of the
of the country. They will be instructive as indicating the special
immediate aims of the Craft in different sections, and also inspiring
to possibilities of a practical kind, which, if followed up at all
help the Fraternity to actively realize some of its ideals, and to
organization from the state of inertia into which many of our keenest
believe it has fallen to a very considerable extent. It is the
beginning of another
year, and we may well as Masons resolve, among other things, that we
will make a
definite attempt to put the principles of Masonry into our daily lives,
leave them buried in the ritual, or as subjects for lodge oratory,
which we hear
with a little thrill of pleasurable emotion, and go away and forget.
Bro. Hamp Williams comes first, chiefly because he is Grand Master of
but did not the alphabet put him in this place we might have chosen him
to the Lodges and
We as Masons
are trying to make a better place in this country in which to live for
our neighbors and our children. You may not belong to any church but
you are certainly
interested in better society which adds to our pleasure and safety. The
of Freemasonry and the teaching of the churches to our people lessen
crime and afford
greater protection to us, but unless we progress there are a lot of
lodges and a
lot of churches in Arkansas that are going out of business. Masonry is
science and we should not allow any lodge to die. When we do, it
community and discredits the Order. If I am properly informed there are
in Arkansas which are not fit places for brethren to dwell together.
needs is evangelism, something that will set them afire with brotherly
ever follows the ice-wagon, they follow the fire-wagon, which seems
alive and breathes
not a mystery and there should not be anything about our lodge halls
mysterious acts within their walls. They are only a mystery when their
inactive, when the lodge hall is unattractive and "spooky-looking." Our
lodge halls should stand out like beacon lights and they will if the
functioning properly. If our lodge halls were inviting and our conduct
one to the
other was good and we kept sacred our obligations a small increase in
and membership fees would not keep good men out of the Order.
they never had to solicit men to become Masons. Their own lives and
acts one to
another caused good men to have a desire to join with them. When we
reach a point
where we need to solicit and advertise for new members and give them
on the installment plan, God help us. But it may reach that point
unless we wake
up to a realization of our obligations one to the other.
all envy and jealousy in our minds use a little charity and not so much
use a little salve of affection on our sore spots; supplement
and vanities with a liberal supply of love and gratefulness to the
great God of
the Universe for life, liberty and the peaceful pursuit of happiness
when I hear one brother Master Mason maligning another, I will at the
time or soon
thereafter caution him and remind him of his obligations. Have you not
to do that?
if I know of a brother Master Mason doing an un-Masonic act, I will go
to him and
warn him. Have you not agreed to do that also?
Mason who is a law-breaker and is unreliable is more dangerous to
society than a
man who is not a Mason and restricted only by his conscience and
neither bound to
God nor man by Masonic vows. Isn't that true?
which have for their officers bootleggers, wildcatters and
law-breakers, if there
are any such in Arkansas, will not fare very well during my
administration. Is this
years ago, when I was a boy, were outstanding in this country. To say a
a Mason conveyed the idea at once that he was a good man. What does it
Just what we make it mean. Are we living up to that standard?
to the Masonic Order is one thing, to be a Mason is another. Is that
Masonic emblem is to let folks know that you are a Mason, but there are
of proving it which are more essential and lasting. Is that true?
my Masonic lodge to which I belong that hereafter I will not speak evil
of any brother
Master Mason. If I can't praise him I will say nothing. Will you make
the same promise
to your lodge?
day hence, I pledge that I will watch myself more closely and be very
careful to say nothing disrespectful or disparagingly of any person but
of a brother Master Mason or any member of his family. Are you willing
to join in
We are responsible
to the higher orders of Freemasonry for the material they use and we
be jealous or envy a brother because he has the higher degrees in
Masonry. He is
a child of a subordinate lodge. We are responsible for his Masonic
birth and he
has assumed additional obligations of fidelity which only strengthens
lodge and offers to the world a picture beautiful and sublime, and
builds a sacred
temple dedicated to God and the brotherhood of Masonry in the hearts of
by the multiplied thousands are suffering and paying the penalty of
those who are
sailing under false colors and who are Masons in name only. What is the
Turn them out and be more careful hereafter as to whom you take into
Am I right?
are continually reminding us of our duties to God and our fellowmen.
What are we
doing along these lines?
does it profit a man if he gains the whole world and loses his own
HAMP WILLIAMS Grand Master
saying of the Master, who as at this time was born into the world as a
as true of institutions as of men. We may increase in numbers and in
riches to the
stifling of the spirit and the final death of the soul.
Word from Arizona
Bro. Lloyd C. Henning of Arizona has been ill, and in consequence could
the following brief greeting. But he, too, sees the same need to stress
of the Fraternity:
I don't believe
that I have any message relative to the jurisdiction of Arizona that
would be of
any particular value to the Craft at large or more particularly the
to your estimable journal.
Arizona is moving on the even tenor of its way with a healthy increase
We are interested in the tubercular situation at Oracle and I think I
situation quite fully in a letter to the Masonic Service Association
which was published
in the December number of the Master Mason. I am rather hopeful that in
come something may come of the suggestions that I have made. Since the
written our Grand Trustees have authorized an expenditure of $2,300 for
and improvements to this property. That shows our faith.
I would just like to mention this thought which is perhaps not new and
be considered any message:
It is, the
longer I labor in Masonry, the more I am convinced that the good it
does to its
own members is something that cannot be measured or tabulated in
is within the inner man's spirit or soul that Masonry really makes its
mark. I am
convinced of this more than ever even in this day and age when all the
of humanity are subject to ridicule. A good many of our brethren seem
to be impatient
that we are not making the strides that we should, or doing this thing
or that thing
for the benefit of humanity, but I still have faith in the merit of our
which is the humble attempt to make men see for themselves the right
LLOYD C. HENNING, Grand Master.
a feeling abroad, and not only among our younger members, that this
should be doing something as such. There may be something in that idea,
is a path that has its pitfalls and dangers. Our organization might at
prevented from hindering group action among Masons apart from and
parallel to it.
But this would follow inevitably were Masons generally ruling their
lives by our
tenets and practicing the four cardinal virtues. It is so much easier
corporate action instead of working ourselves in our own sphere of
of Georgia have given Most Worshipful Bro. Raymond Daniel a second term
They are to be congratulated upon their wisdom in doing so. Bro. Daniel
A year of
efforts to re-establish the spirit of old Freemasonry to rechristen our
in the sacred waters of a holy past; a season of "putting our house in
in insisting upon respect for and observance of Masonic law, which too,
the statutes of the land in clearing up old obligations, and, with such
us, in looking forward to and planning for bigger and better things for
Such was the year of the Grand Lodge of Georgia that closed Oct. 30,
in the twelve months' service was the completion of the campaign for
funds for building
the $75,000 Tubercular Hospital for Little Children, which will also be
and deeded by the Masonic Fraternity to the commonwealth of Georgia as
a unit of
the State Sanatorium for Tuberculosis at Alto.
Masonic statutes there were unfortunate instances which demanded
Such instances always are to be regretted, but when remedial efforts
by and performed in conscience sought of God, such actions bring out of
the lasting results of good. Such good has been demonstrated in the
been begun on the Alto Cottage, marking the fulfillment of the long
of Most Worshipful Joe P. Bowdoin, who, as Grand Master in 1922 and
in the Cottage and many gifts are made up of pennies is the
of those who forgot the self of today and gave that little children may
continue our world and build upward our principles.
It is doubtful
if ever before members of any fraternity rallied by their individual
to help all humanity as the Freemasons of Georgia have. From over this
responses came to the cry for aid. On Georgia Craftsmen abides the
of a Heavenly Father, Humanity and Little Children.
every denomination have been made, from the one dollar by a blind
whom the dollar had been given for his own wants from the dollar by a
lad who has
worked for the money, on to the one thousand dollars, given by an
from the three little girls, who gave a "Penny Show," and sent in their
one dollar and seventy-five cents for their unfortunate little brothers
to a lodge that subscribed over $2,500.
will provide fifty beds and an isolation ward of four rooms. It will be
children of all creeds and classes.
It is the
gift of Georgia Freemasonry to suffering little ones of humanity. There
no place in Georgia for a little tubercular child.
will be located near the main building of the State Tubercular
Sanatorium. It will
be of similar design to the main building and in conformity with the
of that structure. The hospital will be two stories and a half in
height at the
rear, three and a half stories in front, due to the contour of the
ground. The half
story, or attic, will be used for the isolation ward. The building will
in accordance with the purposes and wishes of the Georgia State Board
It is being built with the cash contributions deposited in banks and
no cost more than the donations in hand. The equipment will be made
the $19,000 pledges of various lodges and individuals.
In the accomplishments
of the past months have been laid the foundations for the coming year,
for the dawn
of a better tomorrow.
In the address
of the Grand Master at the October annual Grand Communication, it was
that "the vital duty of and obligations upon Freemasonry today are the
of the old-time Freemasonry, brotherly love and relief, and the
a program of Masonic education along old lines that will bring pleasure
and create a renewed interest and attendance in lodges."
of existing necessities, Grand Lodge fraternally saw fit to adopt the
"Development Program of Nine Points," recommended by the Grand Master:
The ever-increasing desire for
the carrying out of the Masonic tenets of
brotherly love and peace.
A program of education for the
development of the individual Craftsman, for
the advancement of the subordinate lodge and the upbuilding of the
and inauguration by subordinate lodges of a
financial operation plan by which lodges can be placed on a more
adequate and agreeable
basis for the conduct of its affairs and the fulfilment of its
The strengthening of lodges.
The establishment of a
permanent voluntary subscription fund for the Masonic
Home and its proper enlargement.
Advancement of the Penny Box
Inauguration of further
beneficial programs for Masonic District Conventions.
Extension of the Masonic County
Development of the Georgia
of interest in lodges, the decreasing attendance of members, the
suspensions and the drifting away of the Craft have been and are a
of alarm and distress to all loyal members of the Craft.
have been set forth for this condition but to the Grand Master's mind
it is due
to the fact that lodges, for the greater part, offer little to
or hold the Craft. There are other associations and bodies that often
pleasure and profit.
In the hope
of securing some advisory program which could be suggested, at least as
to subordinate lodges, the Grand Master revived the former Committee on
Education and appointed thereon Craftsmen who have not only considered
advancement, but have achieved performances in these lines.
To be of
assistance to such a plan as well as to the committee and the Craft,
the Grand Master
undertook a survey of our lodges by furnishing to lodges series of
similar to those of the Masonic Educational Commission of the Most
Lodge of Missouri.
of the Committee on Masonic Education was one of the most remarkable
before Grand Lodge, and plans are now being formed for the inauguration
programs. Local committees on education are likewise being created in
for establishment of County Conventions is already showing wide-spread
Educational programs are to be employed in District and County
attention is being paid to the strengthening of lodges.
of all, is the manifestation of unity and fraternity as Georgia
a revival of brotherly love and understanding, awakes and arises in its
future service to God and Humanity.
RAYMUND DANIEL, Grand Master.
* * *
and Review from
the Grand Master of Illinois
Bro. Louis L. Emmerson is quite aware of the preeminence of the ideals,
but he sees
also the importance of the business and administrative affairs of our
spirit cannot function as it might if the organism is not sound and
tender anthem of "Peace on Earth, Good Will Toward Men" comes out of
distant past as a whispered greeting to warm the hearts of mankind. It
is like an
echo of the ages. Humanity, represented by a busy world, again spreads
of brotherly love and once more good will and good cheer prevail at
in this glad season, I pray that the ideals of Yuletide and their
may be ever present with you and the New Year be filled with peace,
plenty and happiness.
It is my wish that you may find yourselves helped onward and upward to
of the nativity, recently observed, has left with us many innate
life itself. We take a broader view of life at this season than at any
of the year. We are lifted onto a higher plane of action through
As we turn
our faces to the New Year, which has just crossed the threshold of
we realize that the record of another year has been folded up a year
full of interest
and activity. Institutions as well as men, should take stock of the
past and plan
for the future. The year just closed reflects much of development in
past year Masonry in the Grand Jurisdiction of Illinois has continued
the same qualities of broad activity in growth and stability which have
preceding years. We have enjoyed unusual and happy advantages, and in
good fellowship have been permitted to practice the noble tenets of our
has been a large and gratifying increase in those things that make for
of the proceedings of the several Grand Lodges reveals that in not a
there has been a loss in membership for the past year. It must be
realized and expected
that the death rate will continue to increase because many in the
advancing in years and must ultimately pay the last debt. It must
further be realized
that the Fraternity is commencing to stabilize, and that as soon as it
through the period of adjustment in the matter of suspensions it will
reach a point
when the net gain per year will attain normalcy. In times past there
has been entirely
too much stress placed upon numbers, overlooking the important fact
that the real
growth of the Fraternity lies in the development and expansion of the
for which it stands.
As a rule
Masons do not care for statistics, but facts of material interest are
in an exhaustive report compiled by the Committee on Financial Research
of the Grand
Lodge of Illinois. This research represents an extensive and exhaustive
into the general financial condition of subordinate lodges in Illinois.
of the information obtained may be of service to Masons elsewhere, and
to that end
I address my remarks.
upon the procedure to be followed, the committee decided that it would
only with the financial condition of Illinois lodges as a whole, and
not in any
way go into the financial status of the individual lodges as such. In
order to make
a satisfactory study, it was necessary to secure from each lodge its
income and expense for the past year solely for the purpose of arriving
and averages for the state and for several groups into which the lodges
received from 804 out of 1006 lodges, or 80 per cent. The lodges
reporting had a
membership of 248,176 of a total membership at that time in Illinois of
numbers, lodges in Illinois spend annually $2,575,000 and take in from
leaving $675,000 to be made up out of petition fees. Such fees amount
thus leaving a credit balance of $175,000. To this is added sundry
income from rentals
and other sources to bring the total net income to $250,000.
of Illinois lodges, totaling $8,662,800, have been grouped into four
cash on hand, furniture and other paraphernalia, investment in Masonic
other investments. Sixty-two per cent of the total assets of the lodges
put into Masonic temples or temple stock. The liabilities outstanding
assets are comparatively small, being only 19 per cent of the total
invested in Masonic temples is approximately represented by an
investment of $4,406.329.
The assets per capita of the lodges are greatest for those having the
and income per capita.
It is apparent
from the several analyses made of the lodges grouped according to their
gains in annual income that the amount of profit or loss depends in
only a small
number of cases upon the amount of the income from either dues or
fact that practically all lodges have accumulated some assets indicates
to me that
they are not operated at a financial loss every year.
From an analysis
appearing in the report, it would appear that growth of lodges depends
things: First, location of the lodge in a center of population where
plenty of material
is available; second, the enthusiasm and vitality possessed by the
and third, the maintenance of lodge activities in the form of wholesome
and other features aside from strictly ritual work.
totals for the entire state show that Masonry is living within its
income and is
putting aside a little money, the necessity for laying aside a larger
apparent. It would, of course, be almost impossible to design a
that would be appropriate for each individual lodge. In preparing a
it has been suggested through an analysis of the report, that the
should give consideration to the following steps:
Make a conservative estimate of
expected income from dues and petitions based
upon the experience of preceding years.
Subtract the amount which it is
planned to save and add to surplus for the
Apply the remainder to the
various items of expense, cutting down on the
variable items, if necessary, to come within the expected income.
From a yearly budget prepared
in this way, make up a budget for each month.
Monthly budgets are necessary for the purpose of checking actual
receipts and expenditures
with the budget so that modifications can be made, if necessary to meet
income or unavoidable increases in certain items of expense.
A final picture
appears in the report with an analysis of the item of investment,
investment of lodges in Masonic temples. This picture is alluded to as
one of sharp
contrasts. In the shadows is shown the sad failure of many temple
projects and the
vast sum of money sunk in non-earning properties. In the high lights
careful, conservative management necessary to accumulate the funds for
Of course, this does not mean that all temples are financial failures,
and it is
true that a few eases may exist where the sacrifice of capital to
homes is justifiable. In several instances it appears that the very
from such investments and the consequent shrinkage in their value is
these investments have been unwisely made.
projects are undertaken through vanity, either on the part of the lodge
build a monument, or on the part of individuals to obtain the glory of
such a project.
Most of the
temples are being financed on a conservative and businesslike plan,
which is necessary
to insure success just as necessary as in any private endeavor. The one
growing out of building a temple is that it provides something for the
save for. As a matter of fact, it is argued that Masonry has no other
object outside of its own operations and expenditures for charity. The
in its report on this phase of the investigation recommends that the
should give careful study to the possibility of controlling this temple
From an analysis
and careful study of the research made by the committee it is hoped to
practical information that should be of great value in the solution of
problems that confront many of the lodges of today. The report made by
on Financial Research is worthy of the attention of every Mason.
Mason, however, labors for the benefit of those that are to come after
his is a poor ambition indeed which merely contents itself within the
a single life. "The Spartan mother, who, after giving her son his
'With it, or upon it,' afterward shared the government of Lacedaemon
with the legislation
of Lycurgus; for she too made a law that lived after her. Long ages ago
built by Solomon and our ancient brethren sank into ruin when the
sacked Jerusalem, but the quiet and peaceful Order of which the son of
a poor Phoenician
widow was one of the Grand Masters, with the Kings of Israel and Tyre,
to increase in stature and influence, defying the angry waves of time
and the storms
The New Year
will furnish us the opportunity for added effort toward the making of a
institution and the ultimate success of the Order will, as it does now,
the energy exerted by the individual brother toward that end. We must
all do our
part, not part of the time, but all the time remembering that "the
argument for or against Masonry is the Mason himself."
LOUIS L. EMMERSON, Grand Master
that seems most important to be drawn from this review is that lodges
able to meet their usual and normal expenses from their membership
dues. Fees in
a well-managed lodge should go to form a reserve for benevolent
purposed In too
many places lodges would go bankrupt had they only their dues to depend
on. It is
unnecessary, for even the smallest and poorest lodges can live within
if they plan wisely and spend economically.
* * *
Bro. Harold E. Cooke sends a brief message. To paraphrase a well-known
the jurisdiction that has no history." The Craft in Maine has evidently
fortunate during the past year, and we wish them equally good fortune
in the coming
one. Bro. Cooke says:
brotherly greetings and best wishes for the New Year to all brother
I do so in behalf of forty-three thousand Free and Accepted Masons
under the jurisdiction
of the Grand Lodge of Maine. Our year past has been marked by the
absence of anything
sensational or unusual, but we have, I trust, made substantial progress
the body of the Craft closer to the best ideals of Masonry, closer to
and through them closer to the Grand Architect of the Universe. We have
out of our own store of material things, to assist worthy brothers, not
our own jurisdiction, but to render substantial aid to brethren in
which have been Scourged by tempest, flood and disease. These
privileges are among
the highest which Masonry offers to its votaries, and to be able to
respond in such
times of need is one of the greatest joys of Masonry.
bid our brethren, wheresoever dispersed over the face of the earth,
all their laudable undertakings and ask to unite with them in efforts
and prayers that the standards and ideals of Masonry will be held even
the years to come.
AROLD E. COOKE, Grand Master
* * *
Warning from Missouri
We now come
close to the present home of THE BUILDER. Most Worshipful Bro. Byrne E.
Grand Master of Missouri, writes thus:
to your kind letter of Nov. 28, I would call your attention to the fact
thing the Freemasons of Missouri have accomplished during the past year
able leadership of Most Worshipful Bro. Ittner, was to raise a
voluntary gift of
a block of twenty-five thousand dollars for the George Washington
Memorial Association in addition to the quota that the Freemasons of
heretofore contributed. For some time Missouri has been in the one
hundred per cent
class, and has provided for a maintenance of that one hundred per cent
in addition thereto has made this contribution as a slight token of its
of the magnificent work of building the memorial.
accomplished the task of national import the program for the future
lays in the
development of the interest and welfare of the individual lodge.
Already plans have
been under way and are being carried out that will be beneficial for
of interest and the stimulation of further interest in the welfare and
of each individual lodge, large and small, in every Section of the
state. To this
task the Deputy Grand Master, the Senior Grand Warden, the Junior Grand
myself have dedicated ourselves and in every effort so far expended the
responded nobly and royally.
in terms of national interests we must not overlook the fact that the
chain is not
any stronger than the weakest link, and the link in Masonic affairs is
years the tendency has been too much to think in terms of national
not enough in terms of individual Masonry. American Freemasonry must
learn to think
in terms of both at one and the same time, because the national program
without the individual program succeeds nor can the individual program
its fullest extent without thinking in terms of national Masonry. To
arise to the
best interests each program must proceed hand in hand.
A whole host
of Freemasons have come into Freemasonry who have not been taught and
who do not
understand the fundamental and rudimentary basic principles. There has
been so much
mass movement that there has not been a sufficient amount of individual
the program for the coming year is to make each Freemason a better
a broader and more general knowledge of the purposes and function of
the great Fraternity
and thereby a more efficient Freemason.
BYRNE E. BIGGER, Grand Master.
warning should be heeded. American Masonry is weakest in the individual
this sense: that in many of them the spirit of fraternity is being lost
in a huge and imposing machine, an efficient, mass production concern
out degrees. How brotherly love, and intimate friendliness and
to be recovered is one of the most difficult and in truth most pressing
facing the Craft in America. It is always something, however, to have a
pointed out and defined. It may not carry us far, but until it has been
constructive plan can be devised.
* * *
Master of Nebraska, Most Worshipful Bro. Frank H. Woodland, touches on
of education unhappy word! Yet there is no other to take its place.
First in place
comes the foundation work of the ritual, then its meaning and
absence from the city have combined to delay my acknowledgment of your
of Nov. 28 to send you a New Year's greeting to be published in the
of THE BUILDER, and I fear that this delay will make it impossible to
Nebraska are gratified in the continued growth of the Fraternity in
as shown by the last published reports. This increase in membership,
is, we feel, significant in view of the continued business depression
most of the states in this Mid-West Section of the country. More
mere increase in numbers is the continued interest in the welfare of
as manifested by the large number of building projects carried to
the last year by the Blue lodges and allied Masonic organizations in
Jurisdiction, each of which, without exception, being well financed and
prospect that financial difficulties, only too frequently occurring in
will be avoided.
gratifying is the evident interest of the more active members of the
in the study of the history of Freemasonry and their evident desire to
in the ritual, as manifested by the large attendance at Schools of
are carried on under the personal supervision of the Grand Custodian.
As an example,
the writer attended the last session of such a School the other day, at
lodges in four adjacent counties were represented, and more than one
of the Fraternity attended the all-day meeting which concluded the
session of this
past year, Nebraska Masons have renewed with marked enthusiasm and
efforts to raise their share of the contribution of American Masons to
and completion of the George Washington Memorial. Their failure in the
past to keep
step with most other Grand Jurisdictions in carrying out this great
was due to circumstances beyond the control of those now in authority.
a week goes by without our being able to credit at least one Blue lodge
met its share, placed at $1 per member.
face the New Year with the hope and expectation that the Craft in this
will continue in the future as it has in the past to measure up to the
obligations we assumed at the altar of Freemasonry, confident that the
will continue to do its share in the promotion of the peace, happiness
of the state of which we are so proud.
Masons extend through the courtesy of THE BUILDER to its brothers
land their best wishes for a happy and prosperous New Year.
Frank H. Woodland Grand Master
We Have a Word from
the "Hill Country" of the West
Bro. Charles F. Cutts sketches a most interesting picture, which we
could hope sometime
to have in more detail, of Masonry in wild places, where men come to
it may mean, and what high purposes it may serve. Bro. Cutts writes:
I thank you
very much for so kindly asking me to send you a word of greeting from
land. While I grew up as a lad in the far East I have come to love and
mountain country until it seems as if I had always lived here.
a land of magnificent distances, a land of golden sunshine and blue
skies, but our
population is scattered and small in number. However we carry on the
of statehood, form social groups in fertile valleys or on the slopes of
of the mining regions, living quite as wholesome lives, with as many
as do our Masonic brothers in the more populous states of the Far East.
its beginning here when Nevada was a territory. It has seen lodges grow
fine and then disappear with the decline of our mining towns. Often
will be found little groups of faithful brothers who still love these
and live there, and who meet together with a fine fellowship and so
Here in this
mountain land Masonry draws into a sympathetic fellowship groups of men
ideals who have reverent respect for the ancient landmarks of this
of our hearts as we face the future is to bring the inspiration of
symbols to meet the needs of the constantly changing conditions of our
life. We cannot escape the fact that the masses of humanity only move
they respond to the intelligent advance of their leaders. To meet
fairly and frankly
our responsibilities and problems as a great fraternal organization is
to test our
own advancement and breadth of vision. We cannot shut ourselves away
from the crying
voices demanding help and assistance we cannot escape the destiny of
of mankind, the stability of a growing and more intelligent
civilization, can only
be assured when men have fixed in their hearts the eternal principles
Just so long
as we live together as an organized society for a common good and a
so long will it be necessary for men to plan and work for a greater and
tolerance, for less prejudice and bigotry, and so create a practical,
Is it not
within the power and destiny of this age-old organization, composed as
it is of
thoughtful representative men of their communities, to mold and change
such forces as are known to be destructive into forces that shall make
for the best
and wisest growth of this structure we call life?
not learn to see that all humanity is of one blood with common hopes
that the great ideal and hope of mankind is to work for a real spirit
It was an
old philosopher of long ago that said, "When man will not help man the
of the world is come."
CHARLES FRANCIS CUTTS, Grand Master.
indirectly, in the efforts and influence exerted by Masons, might be,
be, one of the great formative social influences in favor of world
that is merely a negation, or the result of negatives cannot live. It
must be positive,
active. We must live, and act for it, first in our lives and then in
the life of
the community. When the standards of right and wrong that Masonry, in
the churches, upholds as between man and man, are also admitted as
states and nations, then the question will solve itself.
* * *
Bro. Samuel E. Wood, Grand Master of New Mexico, speaks of the relief
done in that state. And relief work in the Southwest, as our readers
means almost entirely tubercular relief, and the relief of sojourners.
We have many
times acknowledged the honor due to the Masons of New Mexico for what
done in this matter. New Jersey, too, must also receive honor for the
which she has made to this pressing work.
New Mexico has had a good year. Unless there are an unusual number of
for non-payment of dues we should show a fair gain in membership. A
the lodges are active and doing good work. Relief work is being carried
and earnestly and only in extreme eases beyond the financial resources
of the subordinate
lodges is aid requested from the Grand Lodge relief fund.
Home fund totals approximately $100,000, all invested in Government
fund will undoubtedly be allowed to accumulate into an endowment fund
large that the interest therefrom will be ample to take care of our
aged and infirm
brethren, not in a Masonic Home, but among friends and neighbors.
Lodge revolving student loan fund amounts to approximately $4,000, and
is in great
demand by college and university students requiring assistance to
education. Great credit is due to the loan committee who have so
this fund. The same committee is also handling the Knight Templar
Fund with equal success.
Club, at the Government Tubercular Hospital, Fort Bayard, N. M., is the
pride of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico. The Sojourners' Club was
brought into existence
shortly after the close of the World War by a few of the Masonic
and employees of the hospital with the idea of aiding their less
Neighboring lodges at Silver City, Santa Rita and Hurley became
interested and aided
in this work in every way possible. Through these lodges the work being
brought to the attention of our Grand Lecturer, M. W. Bro. John J.
Kelly, who in
turn brought the matter before the Grand Master M. W. Francis E.
Lester. Bro. Lester
visioned the wonderful opportunity for service to our afflicted
brethren and started
a campaign to raise funds for the club. The Northern Jurisdiction
contributed $25,000 to erect a suitable club building, the Southern
Scottish Rite assisted in furnishing, and many of our sister
contributed liberally. The Grand Lodge of New Mexico annually
towards the support of the club. The Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons,
Commandery and the Grand Chapter, O. E. S., of New Mexico, are liberal
In addition to this many of the subordinate lodges and Eastern Star
the club at Christmas time with liberal offerings.
From a relief
club aiding in a small way, the Sojourners' Club has developed into not
only a wonderful
relief organization but has become the social center of the entire
Here the ladies of the post entertain their friends in the spacious and
room. Here the patients who are able to leave their beds enjoy the
of the well-stocked reading room and write their letters on stationery
by the club. Then there is the billiard room, where the boys pass many
hours. The spacious auditorium, equipped with stage projection booth,
radio, is the scene of many entertainments and social gatherings. The
Club is open
Club is under control of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico. Its affairs are
by a committee of three appointed by the Grand Master. Both the Grand
the Sojourners' Club are fortunate in having such a capable and
efficient club secretary,
Bro. Paul R. Gantz, who was one of the organizers of the club and a
of the hospital. Bro. Gantz not only looks after the financial affairs
of the club
but helps to arrange the entertainments, visits the bed patients daily,
letters and gives aid and encouragement in every way possible. He also
or three weekly trips to Silver City to shop for the boys who are not
able to get
of an amplifier and ear phones all the confined patients are able to
enjoy the entertainment
from the radio world.
made by the club to those requiring temporary assistance, and to the
credit of the
patients requesting these loans, very few remain unpaid. Gifts of
clothing and necessities
are also made to those without sufficient funds.
of the club is not confined to members of the Craft, but is extended to
are many stories, some with tragic some with happy endings, hidden
within the records
of the club.
of operating the Sojourners' Club varies from $6,000 to $7,000 per
year. All funds
are placed in the hands of the Grand Secretary and paid over to the
in such amounts as needed upon recommendation of the committee and the
of the Grand Master.
in the way of hospitalization and up-to-date medical treatment is being
the Government for our boys, but the social contact and entertainment
by the Sojourners' Club has proven a wonderful aid in keeping up the
morale of the
there are 330 patients in the hospital, 50 of whom are Masons hailing
jurisdictions. The capacity of the hospital is 440 patients and the
that the hospital will be filled during the coming year.
Lodge of New Mexico deeply appreciates the aid we have received in the
the Craft and Masonic organizations, and trust that we will continue to
encouragement and financial support in this splendid constructive work.
Lodge of New Mexico is also sponsoring the work of the Trowel Club at
Marine Hospital, Fort Stanton, N. M., contributing $50 per month for
the work being
done by this club.
tubercular problem is still with us. Like Banquo's ghost, "it will not
our afflicted brethren continue to come to the dry climate of the arid
"chasing the cure," many of them without sufficient funds to provide
bare necessities of life. It is pitiful to be compelled to dole out
charity to these
brethren when rest and hospitalization is what they need.
of a National Tubercular Masonic organization has been shattered. Many
of our sister
jurisdictions state that migration is not necessary, that they are
willing to take
care of their own at home, that the National Tubercular Sanatoria
instituted is too unwieldly and cannot be efficiently managed. These
may be true, but nevertheless our afflicted brethren continue to come,
and we cannot
turn a deaf ear to their appeal.
At the last
annual communication of the Grand Lodge it was decided to take over the
the National Masonic Tubercular Sanatoria Association and handle this
the Grand Lodge, placing as many of our afflicted brethren, who need
in existing sanatoriums as our funds will permit. With approximately
the Masons and Eastern Star of New Jersey have so generously
contributed and with
the $1 per capita tax voluntarily assessed by the Masons of New Mexico,
we can materially
aid our brethren for a time at least.
SAMUEL E. WOOD Grand Master.
* * *
Main Issues before the
Bro. St. Clair Smith, Grand Master of South Dakota, calls attention to
problem as others of his fellow rulers have done, but from a somewhat
point of view. Pride of antiquity is good if it inspires to emulation
of the great
achievements of antiquity. Otherwise it is but an opiate, "dope," which
leads to degeneration and decay. He sums up the true function of
history in a single
sentence. It is indeed the only guide we have to the future, without it
we are blind
and can only blindly guess. But perhaps even more important in this
message is the
insistence that Masonry is not a mere system of copy book moralities,
but is designed
to aid in the exceedingly difficult task of putting those same trite
into life and action. It is labor, work, not talk.
requested an expression of opinion as to what may be done to enhance
of Masonry in America. The purpose of this letter is to reply briefly.
method of keeping attention fixed on the main issue which has so
the success of organized business needs application in the
administration of our
beloved institution of Freemasonry. The lore of Masonry, the majestic
sweep of its
history, its heroes, its ritualistic ceremonies with the accompanying
upon the right word, and its gala days have so engrossed the interests
the potential of the Craft, that too small a proportion of our strength
available for the accomplishment of its objective. In fact, so much
stress has been
placed upon these aspects of Freemasonry in our assemblages and in our
that to many these things have come to represent the institution
itself. Pride in
a past has become more important than the opportunities of today and
as families of strong fiber have gone to seed through such a process,
so will Masonry
as I understand it, is to increase the capacity of men to live
satisfying lives, and by thus molding the character of the individual,
level of present and future civilization. We cannot travel far on the
achievement with our eyes fixed on the past. Neither will men enlist
to the task of preserving a history. We can afford no more time for our
than is required to discover the lessons it teaches as guides for the
energies and all of our intellectual powers are required in a study of
the men who
constitute the raw material on which we propose to exercise our skill,
and in the
analysis of methods available for the accomplishment of our task.
to men an understanding of the simple laws of conduct governing
Because of the complexity of present day civilization men are more
bewildered and more in need of an understanding of the fundamental and
laws of living today than at any time in history. Therefore Freemasonry
has a larger
place in our social political and economic life, and a greater
at any time during its history. It can only embrace its larger
by improving the efficiency of its methods of instruction, and by
methods to the psychology of the day. Men of today pride themselves in
above all else. Anything that can be branded as idealistic is
handicapped in advance
in its appeal. The lessons of Masonry are in fact intensely practical
to everyday life because no success can be attained without their
must present them in a practical as well as in an idealistic manner.
our method of instruction need in no manner change the body of Masonry.
a slogan, group discussions and councils are needed for the purpose of
upon the apprentice in life that not only his personal and practical
but his selfish interests demand that he honest. moral, just, friendly
that time is given him that he may exchange it for knowledge; that he
can only succeed
in any phase of his life by increasing his capacity; and that no human
skill expands except through use. The trade apprentice was kept in
contact with his instructors over a long period of time. Under our
we could make the greatest impression on the life of the apprentice, we
with little more than demanding an exercise of his powers of memory. By
reiteration we need to teach him that a true Mason gives of himself and
can be no
less than a certain type of rugged, wholesome, trustworthy friendly
man. Every man
who kneels at our altars must be repeatedly brought face to face with
responsibility to himself, to Freemasonry and to society to measure up
to our standards.
None of this should be done haphazardly, but should be followed out
a well thought out plan. We need an organized and directed program of
not long be honored and loved for what it has been. It will be judged
by the conduct
of living men.
could well be spent in seeking new and supplementary methods of
lessons of Freemasonry into the lives of practical men.
ST. CLAIR SMITH Grand Master.
* * *
in South Carolina
Most Worshipful Bro. William A. Giles, Grand Master of Masons in South
He speaks of the relief and benevolent work of the Craft in his
it is to us exceedingly good news that South Carolina Masons have
erection of a hospital unit for tubercular cases. Every step taken in
will prove an incitement for others to go and do likewise:
Lodge of South Carolina extends fraternal greetings to the Craft
year in the Grand Jurisdiction of South Carolina has been one of
We have no Masonic Home, instead we have a Masonic Relief Fund of
$160,000, the income from this fund being used to take care of aged and
Masons and widows of Masons in their own homes and among their own
kindred and friends.
also are cared for in the home when it is possible to do so, but if
not, we have
an arrangement with the four denominational orphanages in the state
take our Masonic orphans and the expense is borne from this fund. In
the income derived from this fund we have a per capita tax of $1 on
in the state which is used entirely in this way. Last year we expended
for this purpose. The figures are not available for this year, but the
gradually growing each year.
children's hospital at Greenville is maintained and supported by the
the Grand Lodge appropriated $1,500 this year to be used in improving
the ground. There are a large number of children on the waiting list.
Fund of the Grand Commandery has also been successfully handled and
many young men
and women are enabled to complete their education who might otherwise
had a chance to do so.
But to me
the outstanding work of the year was the erection of a sixteen-bed unit
Park for T. B. patients. This is a state institution and we have the
that a sufficient amount of money is always appropriated by the state
but none for buildings. At the last report made to me there were over
180 on the
waiting list, about 40 per cent of these being young women.
aid could be obtained most of these would die before they could be
the Grand Lodge, recognizing this need, appropriated $10,000 to erect a
State Park and present it to the state. This was accepted and the
building is now
complete and in use. In addition to this we are now attempting to
raise, by voluntary
contribution from Masons and lodges in the state, a sufficient sum to
erect a twenty-eight
bed unit for women, and while the amount raised is yet comparatively
small, I am
much encouraged at the reports from the several districts in the state,
and I believe
we will be successful in building this unit also. I feel that this
step, which was
taken by the Grand Lodge at its last annual communication in March, has
most outstanding accomplishment of Masons in our state in many years,
is for the good of humanity in general and Masons have no claim ahead
else The above gives a brief outline of what we are doing in a
charitable way. our
Educational Director, C. K. Chreitzberg, Past Grand Master, is doing a
and the reports from all sections of the state confirm me in the belief
Grand Lodge made no mistake in adopting its educational plan, thus
an opportunity to learn what Masonry really means, and I think the
results so far
are very encouraging. W.A. Giles Grand Master
of members of the Research Society and other readers of THE BUILDER the
his gratitude to these brethren who have taken time in the midst of the
responsibilities that throng upon them to send us these messages. With
the Craft should go on to greater and higher achievements. We in our
turn may wish
them all happiness and success in their efforts in this New Year just
IT is a widespread
opinion among Masonic writers that our Freemasonry is descended from a
gild" of cathedral builders, which formed, as it were, the engineer
the church, and was more or less under the protection of the Pope and
supervision of the Bishops. The theory was first started, apparently,
by Elias Ashmole,
the well-known antiquarian and Mason, and seems to have been later
adopted, as an
opinion, by Sir Christopher Wren. Masonic authors have been repeating
it ever since
until, in comparatively recent years, some who prefer facts to fiction
bold enough to throw doubts upon it.
the original theory was embroidered. In book after book we are
that the early Craftsmen, and especially the masters and architects,
monks; that their skill and intelligence was far superior to the
general level of
culture of the period; and that the Masonic ceremonies were, owing to
connection with the ecclesiastical organization, largely borrowed or
church ritual. Further, it followed that the cathedral builders were
from the common stone workers of the gilds and had no fellowship with
finally that the decay of the Operative Fraternity was due to the
the consequent cessation of all church building.
presented by this theory are obvious to anyone in the least acquainted
history; or would have been, had any thought been given to the matter.
To take the
last statement: church building did not cease with the Reformation. And
it had done so in Protestant countries, why should it have affected
which remained unreformed?
and Cathedrals were not the only buildings erected in the Middle Ages.
is true that houses were generally of wood; there were municipal
halls, town halls, Royal palaces; and more than all the rest put
the fortifications of cities and castles. And while, very naturally,
not, on the exterior, embellished with moldings and sculptures to any
yet many municipal buildings were as lavishly decorated as any
just one consolation that we, as Masons, may take to ourselves for this
of opinion in place of facts; it is that others have been equally
guilty. It has
been very generally accepted by everyone that to the monasteries the
art and science
of architecture owed its preservation and re-emergence into western
In this connection
the recent work by Dr. G. G. Coulton, Fellow of St. John's College,
a most useful corrective. Dr. Coulton is an authority on the history of
Ages, especially on the less known social and economic aspects of that
and active period, and in this latest book, Art and the Reformation
[Lib*], he makes
a real contribution to Masonic history, all the more valuable, perhaps,
he is not a Mason and has no intention of dealing with the subject from
of view. He is also singular among non-Masonic authors in that, where
has touched upon the history of the Craft, he has gone to Masonic
works. He quotes
the Masonic historian, Gould, quite freely, and is familiar with the
Regius) Poem and the Cooke MS. of the Old Charges; though not in the
editions published by Quatuor Coronati Lodge. It is rather curious that
have remained in ignorance apparently of these publications, and of Ars
Coronatorum the Proceedings of the Lodge, as there is much valuable
might have been of service to him. It shows how little the sound work
that has been
done by Masonic students is yet known to the outside world, even among
special subjects parallel or even penetrate the field of Masonic
sets forth his object as being briefly to trace
… the rise and decay of
Medieval Art, and thence
to argue that its origin was less definitely religious than is commonly
secondly, that its decay was gradual a logical and natural consequence
of its evolution
and lastly, that its deathblow came not so much from the Reformation as
general transformation of the western intellect which we can the
century cartoon from Nuremberg, showing lay brethren building the
Art he limits,
for his purpose, to Architecture and its subsidiary arts. Religion he
to Christianity as conceived between (roughly) A. D. 1000 to 1600, and
thesis is that though art parallels religion, within the period set,
yet there is no good reason to hold that it was a causal relationship;
we must not,
he tells us
… take the line of least
and assume that we can find a single secret for the explicated process
he would deny all interaction between the two. That would be equally
untrue; but medieval art was not the mere creature of medieval
religion, an offshoot
or by-product; it was itself the result of the same social and
that molded and fixed the form of the Western Church.
of Gothic are in Byzantine art. The great buildings of Justinian at
were the models and exemplars. From Greece, Byzantine architectural
design and technique
spread westward along the regular trade routes by sea and land, and
can to some extent be definitely traced in remaining monuments. And as
points out, it is very significant that the commonest term in medieval
for "mason" was lathomus or latomus, which is pure Greek. The much
Lombardic or Comacine School was Byzantine in origin; and as it came
from the east
so was it transmitted to the west and north, till it reached Germany
insisted on is that though the Romanesque, as this architecture of
is usually called, was to a large extent monastic, or at least the
largest and most
important edifices in this style were monastic, the Gothic was chiefly
The great cathedrals especially, and the parish churches, were the
popular feeling, and were built by lay artisans with funds contributed
by the general
public. The feeling was doubtless religious, but far from being wholly
was also civic pride and emulation, the desire to out-do neighboring
also undoubtedly a genuine appreciation of the result of the work as a
Gothic was a popular art and appealed to its public as the lines of the
car, or the last word in ultra-modern furniture appeals to the general
and decline of Gothic follows in the main a simple curve. Beginning
with the rudest
kind of construction, where immensely thick walls were required to give
that the inexperience of the builders could not obtain by more
there was a steady advance in skill, accompanied by diminution of the
mass of the
walls, which became thinner as window openings were larger, until the
peak was reached
in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. This is of course speaking
only of churches
and civic buildings, castles and city walls did not greatly alter in
of their construction, though undoubtedly they became stronger as the
skill and knowledge was not attained as we should seek it now, by
and careful calculations. It was learned by experience, and many
the more daring experiments. Dr. Coulton quotes Bishop Creighton's
being shown over an English Cathedral ask when the central tower fell.
have nearly all fallen at one time or another.
At its highest
the Gothic building, church, castle, hall or dwelling was the
inevitable form that
expressed the possibilities of the material for that particular purpose
most perfect proportions and the minimum of effort. The ornament, which
was so often
freely lavished, was subsidiary. The chief structural elements were
made the ornamental
features, and the more important they were the more work was spent on
main ribs of vaults, for example, were always more elaborately molded
than the secondary
ribs. The flying buttress, which mechanically is nothing but a stone
prop, was made
one of the most prominent decorative features of a Gothic cathedral.
began to decline when its exponents had become too clever and, like our
schools of art, sought only for opportunities to invent something new
of, to use stone like wood, or rope, or anything but what it was, and
to make ornament
the chief thing instead of strictly subordinate to construction. We are
from the same thing today. Technical skill far out-runs capacity to
design or to
appreciate good design. Thus Gothic had in itself the seeds of its own
the skill of the craftsmen at the end was carried over to executing
work in imitation
of an alien and exotic style, that of Greece, or more correctly, the
of Imperial Rome.
But we must
get on to the monks, who are faithfully dealt with in the second and
chapters. The author says he knows only two writers who, having gone
into the question
in detail, do not ascribe all the beginning and much of the development
art to the members of the monastic orders. One of these two exceptions
Porter in his great work, Medieval Architecture. Dr. Coulton quotes a
writers to the effect that the monks planned their churches and
convents, and not
only planned but did much of the work themselves, and that the layman
their craft from monkish masters. There is no need to cite any of these
of opinion here. They have been repeated over and over again in almost
dealing with the operative past of Freemasonry, and in altogether too
many of the
more serious works on the history of the Craft. However, when so many
Fraternity were insisting on the same erroneous statements we can
hardly blame the
brethren who repeated what they supposed to be opinions based upon
facts. By a careful
analysis of the authorities cited in confirmation of these opinions,
has found that they all directly or indirectly go back to Montalembert,
of Les Moines d'Occident. [Lib 7 Volumes see
Bibliography - English]
then proceeded to carefully verify the references given by Montalembert
his claim that the monks were the original artists and architects of
The latter's work purports to be a history of western monasticism from
to St. Bernard. Dr. Coulton expresses the opinion that it is not really
but a very elaborate party document,
… written by an eloquent
statesman who … would
have been a great Scholar had he given his life to scholarship but who
in fact wrote
these seven volumes in the intervals of polities for a political
devoted twenty pages in his sixth volume to the monk as an artist, and
… these twenty pages form
practically the basis
of all that has been written on the subject for the last sixty years;
on art are not likely to find the time (even if they have the
and the necessary access to a great library) to verify the numerous
means of which this great French politician seems so clearly to
establish his case.
And Dr. Coulton goes on to remark that a man of world-wide reputation
the favorable moment can set in motion almost any misconception or
if he be
… what James Russell Lowell
once called "an
inaccurate man with an accurate manner."
of the examination of the fifty odd references and their context cited
was as follows:
Three could not be verified as
the works cited
were not available.
In twenty-one no proper
reference is given, or
else there is nothing to show that the artists mentioned were monks;
cited proving only that such and such work was done for some monastery,
or in some
monastery, quite a different thing from being done by monks.
In six cases the document
definitely states or
plainly implies that the artist was a layman.
In fifteen cases monastic
artists are really
spoken of, but the circumstances are abnormal. Such as those where a
might plan and work on the erection of a church for his converts today.
thus eight cases left in which a real artist is found to be a monk
under what may
be termed normal monastic circumstances. Considering that in the period
there must have been at the lowest estimate half a million monks, eight
does not seem a very large proportion.
One of the
worst cases is cited; it happens to be one that has been frequently
quoted as an
example of monkish skill and genius, the famous St. Savin paintings.
quotes Prosper Merimee, without giving page number. When, however, the
been run down in the large folio volume containing the Description
des peintures de Saint-Savin, it turns out to be a statement
that the artists were, not monks, but Greek painters, imported for the
As a result of this painstaking investigation Dr. Coulton offers a
who did any kind of artistic work, at the most favorable times and
a small minority in the community; and if we take all times and places
the monastic artist was quite an exception. As to monastic
have evidence for them only under still more exceptional circumstances.
It is impossible
to quote all of the relentless proof by which this counter thesis is
for that the book itself must be referred to.
there were some cases of work done by monks, though more often by
At Nuremberg are a series of cartoons, probably designs for windows,
Scenes in the life of St. Hildegund, and the founding of the monastery
These drawings are 16th century work and some three hundred and fifty
than the events depicted. One of them is given in the text, which is
It shows the church being built by the "bearded" or lay-brethren, the
inscription under the original, translated, is as follows:
Lay brethren built the
monastery of Schoenau
led by devout love of religion.
And Dr. Coulton
observes that it is quite in accordance with other instances
…. that we see no choir-monk
directing the lay
brethren; all are alike barbati,
those doing the roughest work to him who is taking a well-earned
draught from the
cases where choir monks and even, occasionally, abbots, worked on their
or like Henry of Hoxter,
…. learned how to chisel stones
for the frame
work of doors and windows, and to form them and square them perfectly
to their proper pattern.
This is told
as a singular and remarkable instance of piety and humility, which the
and wondered at, and later made capital of, but were not moved to
unexpected statement is made, and though no special effort was made
accumulate instances, several are mentioned. This is that the mason was
a free man. The natural response to this would be to suppose that a
must have been a layer, a rough mason or cowan. But this was not always
in one case mentioned it was a master mason who was a serf of William,
Earl of Warrenne
in the twelfth century, and in 1304 a mason's wife is a bondwoman,
which makes it
almost certain that he was not free either. Other instances are also
as they are not from England they are perhaps not so significant. It is
by what the author gives on this head, though he does not say it
the rule found in the Old Charges that the apprentice must be free
born, is a stage
in the development of the Craft organization; that is to say, part of
movement towards emancipation in the whole community, and at that time
on the body of Masonry rather than a landmark. He intimates also that
masons were rather a quarrelsome lot, and that the prohibition of
or pointed knives in the lodge was not an idle or symbolic one.
Although, and this
he refers to more than once, the hammer-axe, or as we should call it
which was always one of the chief working tools, was also a most
one indeed that even a man-at-arms, in full mail, could not afford to
touches on the origin of the term "Freemason," and is inclined to adopt
the theory that it originally meant a worker in "free stone" as
to the hard-hewer. He points out that "free," applied to the softer
used for carving and fine work, appears before the term "free-mason,"
and that intermediate is the phrase "mason of free-stone." But he also
suggests that later on the term took also the second meaning, of
freedom to work
where and when he would. In this he has come to much the same
conclusion as a number
of the foremost Masonic scholars who have discussed this point.
chapters that will probably prove of the greatest interest to the
are those on the Freemasons, the Mason's Mark, and the Handgrip, but
immediately preceding these is also of great interest, for in it the
largely from the "self-characterization" of four medieval artists,
as typical of the personal interests, ideals and mental ability of the
the Craft. These are the German monk called Theophilus, who wrote a
on all the arts and the crafts connected with them; the French Master
de Honnecourt, whose so-called sketch book, Dr. Coulton thinks was
publication, in the medieval sense of the word; Cennino Cennini, the
and last, Albrecht Durer. The first is of the twelfth century, the
second of the
thirteenth and the last two of the fourteenth. Actually there is a
hundred and forty
years' interval between Theophilus and Millard, and about fifty years
of the last three.
is very interesting, as he assumes that hardly anything can be bought
use. Not only the raw material has to be procured by the artist or
was no distinction between the two but he must also make his own tools
and them also from the raw material. He concludes with a rhetorical
summary of what
his Little Roll of Divers Arts will teach:
… thou wilt here find
whatsoever Greece hath
in divers kinds and mixtures of colours with all that Tuscany knows of
mosaic or of varied enamels with all that Arabia displays in casting or
or casing metal; with whatsoever Italy adorns with gold, in various
vessels or carvings
in gems or in bone with all that France loves in precious variety of
that industrious Germany approves in cunning work of gold, silver,
copper or iron,
timber or stone.
Theophilus seems to think the arts can be learned from his book,
Cennini, two hundred
years later, insists that one can only learn from a master; and that
best from one
master only, till the pupil, or apprentice, has advanced far enough (if
ability) to develop his own style. It is probable that Cennini so felt
himself had learned that way, and masters were plenty in his day.
the other hand may have largely taught himself aided by similar
handbooks to the
one he compiled. At least, in North Germany in the twelfth century, the
not so definitely specialized as they were later on, though even in the
period the greater Italian artists turned their hands to everything on
either for their own pleasure, or for their employers. There is more
than one case
of architects and sculptors being set to do such work as cutting stone
making gun carriages, platforms or scaffolds, and even garden benches.
these last were what we would consider art work, and they would
probably be carved.
Honnecourt is undoubtedly the most interesting of the four from the
of view, as he was an architect, either in charge, or consultant or
a number of notable works, and was indeed probably responsible for the
Cambrai Cathedral. We could wish that he had written more of his life,
tantalizing us with stray allusions in the notes to his drawings and
In his book
we find passing mention of different places he had been to. He was some
Hungary, for example. While the studies and drawings of architectural
windows, mouldings and so on, described as from different places, by
prove how he had traveled. In one note, upon which Dr. Coulton
as giving a glimpse of the intellectual life of the lodge, he says,
time have masters discussed" how to make a wheel turn of its own
motion, in short; and he gives a scheme of his own that he thinks might
another place he sketches the plan of the apse of a cathedral which he
devised by himself and another master, Pierre de Corbie; or as he put
in discussion with each other." The design would involve most
of vaulting, and that seems to have been its chief interest to its
than its effectiveness from the architectural point of view. He also
….of difficult practical
problems not only in
stone cutting, but in carpentering, he shows the working of a saw mill,
of a screw
jack and how to cut a screw how to make a machine to straightening
that lean from the perpendicular and the construction of a great
mangonel for siege
operations. He can take approximate measurements from a distance by
rough and ready
trigonometrical methods…. And he ends with a recipe … for a potion that
for all wounds: "drink not too much, for in an eggshell ye may have
… Whatsoever wound or sore ye may have this will heal you."
here one page of his notebook which is very curious. It gives a method
the proportions, by triangles and straight lines, of human figures, and
in different attitudes. The attitudes are precisely those that are
with in medieval painting and carving. The Virgin and child, the king
on his throne
especially so. The man using the flail seems much more like a study
from life. (1)
pages are more drawings of animals that seem also to have been from
life, and in
the case of a lion's head he expressly says that this was so.
In the chapter
on "The Freemasons" there is a brief notice of the Comacine Masters, or
as Dr. Coulton prefers to spell it Commacine. It is probable this is
He observes that from the very scanty records of this period (the
the most that can be said is that some of the trade associations may
from imperial times. He notes, too, that besides the Masons there were
existing or surviving, and names those of the shipwrights and the
He goes on
to point out the causes that tended to differentiate the building
crafts from all
others; they have been observed before, but his opinion adds weight to
the first place, on large edifices there would be more men working
common direction than in any other occupation, but that of war. Two or
men may seem a small enough personnel to us, but in those days all
conducted in small workshops, and he was a master in a large way who
than four or five men and a couple of apprentices or so. This question
alone called for something in the way of executive work. So far as
finance and purchasing
was concerned that was done by the employer. But the master, with even
no more than
thirty or forty craftsmen and their laborers under him, would be
obliged to spend
a good deal of time in overseeing and allocating work. The other
feature was the migratory character of the craft. Though some buildings
years to complete, many others were very rapidly built. Churches and
were put up in a far more leisurely way than dwellings and
the latter. Froissart, for example, gives the impression of city walls
or castles rebuilt, in a few months sometimes. Doubtless the work was
by forced labor; even the masons and carpenters were frequently
impressed for such
conditions of employment were such that it was seldom that there were
of the building trades resident in one place to form, even all
together, a gild
of their own. For gild protection and municipal purposes they joined
the gilds of
other trades. Yet their constant moving in search of work made some
kind of general
organization almost essential in an age where, as hardly ever since, a
man who had
not the backing of some organization was helpless and at the mercy of
It is in
this way that he accounts for the special laws against masons and
England. The men of other crafts were under control through their
gilds. The gild
had its charter and its property, and these were hostages to the
one might be revoked and the other confiscated. But the builders had no
property, at least none to speak of. They were here today and gone next
the only way to get at them was to forbid the annual Assemblies,
"Chapiters," under the pains and penalties of felony. And little enough
effect it seems to have had.
one point on which Dr. Coulton differs from our most authoritative
is very much inclined to treat the Freemasons, Steinmetzen and
Compagnons as all
practically the same thing adapted to local conditions in different
the outside this seems justified. Medieval culture was not national; we
seen a French Master in Hungary. There were Germans in Italy, and
Frenchmen in Scotland,
and doubtless Scots and English abroad. In general, it is hard to say
Craft organizations had no inter-relations. But it is also fairly
when we first definitely come to know of them, that no one of them was
either of the others. Excepting only, that as the Craft technique
and north, it may be said that the forerunner of the Compagnonnage in
probably the origin of the Craft in England in Saxon or Norman times.
on Mason's Marks is most valuable. In spite of all that has been
written about this
by Masons we do not seem to have got very far. There have been several
for the systematic collection of these marks, coupled with accurate
details of their
position, probable age and so on. Dr. Coulton has shown what might be
were two distinct kinds of marks, personal marks or signatures, and
The latter being perhaps the most common. Several illustrations are
given of these,
and we here reproduce one showing position marks cut on the drapery of
Rheims. The scheme here was very elaborate. The T or tau-cross was for
side of the south door. The statues for this position were then marked
order beginning from the inside. The north side of the central door was
by a crescent and the others by yet other signs. There was no recondite
in this, the marks were used simply as letters and numbers would be
of the book is also very interesting, but it is impossible to deal with
it in the
space available. There is a delightful reconstruction of the breaking
up of a lodge
on the completion of the building and the pilgrimage of the masons
seek new work. If Dr. Coulton were not so busy writing history he could
delightful fiction if he chose.
In the later
chapters the effect of Puritanism and the Renaissance is fully
discussed, and many
new sidelights are given on facts that are generally known, but of
which the full
significance has not been realized. The Puritan hostility to art did
not cause the
decay of Gothic architecture for that was already advanced. But for
must be referred to the book itself.
drawing from Villard de Honnecourt's Sketch book was reproduced
in THE BUILDER, December, 1925, p. 367, which showed an elevation of
two bays, inside
and out, intended for Cambrai Cathedral.
Army Lodges in
the World War
Bro. Charles F. Irwin,
Rhode Island Lodge
No. I, U. D., At Coblentz, Germany
IN the history
of the Overseas Rhode Island Lodge, No. 1, U.D., that was established
Germany, during the period of the Army of Occupation, we come upon a
number of valuable
steps that have established precedents that will have a very decided
the actions of American Grand Lodges should another National Emergency
Island Lodge was a direct outgrowth of a Masonic Club already in most
condition in Coblentz. With a membership reaching into the thousands
this club had
fixed itself in the organic life of the Army of Occupation. It had been
a beneficent movement by officers in important stations in the military
It was composed of Masons from widely scattered portions of America and
Consequently the young lodge was destined to wield a most potent
Craft members up and down the Rhine Valley.
of the Rhode Island Lodge, out of an existing Club, was not unique in
Masonic life. For of the four New York "Sea and Field Lodges," everyone
was planted upon soil cultivated by an already existing Masonic Club.
But the good
fortune of the Rhode Island Lodge lay in the fact that the A. E. F. was
drawing to a close, whereas, the Army of Occupation faced a long season
The one group was declining, while this later one was growing.
Be this as
it may be, there is a chapter of history not very widely known, which
nearly Coblentz came to possessing, at least temporarily, one of the
New York "Sea
and Field" Charters. Let Past Grand Master Townsend Scudder tell this
It is embedded in his report to the New York Grand Lodge in 1920:
from Lodges Overseas.
I was greatly
enlightened on conditions in the occupied territory, by interviews in
Major W. S. Solomon, 417 Telegraph Battalion, Signal Corps, a prominent
member of the Fraternity from Rhode Island, who was stationed at
Coblentz, and who
had, as President, undertaken the reorganization of the "Third Army
Club" in the occupied territory of Germany, assisted by M. W. Wendell
P.G.M., and by R. W. James C. Collins, then Deputy Grand Master, now
of Rhode Island, both Secretaries of the A.E.F.-Y.M.C.A. These Brethren
been with the forces for months, in conflict, and behind the lines, and
been in Germany for some time, since the Armistice, not only recognized
of the Masonic Club, referred to, but had cabled the Grand Master of
requesting a Warrant for an Overseas Lodge with the Army of Occupation.
and in due
time were assured that their request had been granted and a warrant
I offered these Brethren, whatever I might decide as respects Lodge
France, to hold for them one of the Warrants which I carried, until
their own should
arrive, or until they should be assured it had not been lost in
transit. Their Warrant,
a replica as to authority of those entrusted to me, arrived in due
now, to the story proper of the Rhode Island Lodge, we turn to the
History and Roster
of the Masonic Club of the Third American Army and Rhode Island
and find on page 121 the record of the formation of the Lodge.
arise some confusion in the mind of the average reader of the story,
and he might
come to the conclusion that the Club and the Lodge were both Rhode
This is inaccurate. The Club was not a Rhode Island Club. It was made
up of active
Craftsmen from all the Grand Lodges of the United States, as well as of
is, however, that Rhode Island contributed some of the most active
leaders in the
Club. And these Rhode Island members of the Club came together shortly
was formed, and conferred together as to the possibility of their
obtaining a Warrant
from their Grand Master to form and carry on a Military Lodge.
found expression in other groups of Masons in the A.E.F. at earlier
dates. For example,
the Masonic Club of Base No. 1 at St. Nazaire, France, through Bro.
Charles I. Cook,
a very active member, sent in a request to the Grand Master of North
a Dispensation for a Military Lodge, to work at that Base. In a letter
from W. Bro.
W. L. Stockwell, Grand Secretary of North Dakota, this paragraph occurs:
At one time
he ( Charles I. Cook) tried to induce us to issue a Dispensation to
organize a Lodge
at that place. This we declined to do because it was planned to include
in the membership
many brethren from other jurisdictions and we did not believe it would
for us to go outside the jurisdiction of North Dakota.
of Rhode Island Masons at Coblentz came together for conference and the
was a decision to cable a request to the Grand Master of Rhode Island
for a Warrant
for a Military Lodge. Accordingly the cablegram was sent. Then set in
of waiting for the reply. They were not held in long suspense. The word
that a Warrant had been granted and was on its way to Coblentz.
Island Masons signed the request for the Warrant. This dispensation was
arrived in April, 1919. The word was sent round, and a meeting was
called for April
24, 1919, to be held on the floor above the Masonic Club, at No. 6,
At the regular
meeting of the Club on the Monday preceding, the announcement was made
of the arrival
of the dispensation and the proposed opening of the new Lodge. Within a
period applications began to come in for the degrees. And on the
opening night fifty-four
petitions were read.
A word will
be useful at this point in regard to the meeting place of this Lodge.
which grew in favor with our Craft in the A.E.F., the original meeting
always taxed beyond their capacity, and newer and larger quarters were
necessary. There has always remained the lurking conviction that these
of Craftsmen in the Lodges and Clubs of the A.E.F., while the Lodges at
to secure sufficient brethren to fill the chairs and transact business,
to the fact that higher bodies and parasitic growths of appendant
on to the Blue Lodge, and which draw on its vitality were wholly
absent, which left
the field clear for basic Masonry to obtain its due place in the
interest of the
Craft. Perhaps the Grand Lodges will take this into consideration some
selecting candidates for its highest honors, and lean rather to the
Mason who is
not mortgaged by membership in a number of other so-called higher
bodies of Masonry,
thereby giving his whole Masonic attention to Craft programs.
to return from this digression. This Rhode Island Lodge was unable to
the number of Craftsmen who sought its halls, and at last provision was
the use of the Lodge Rooms of the German Lodge, "Johannes L. Friederick
Vaterlandsliebe," their rooms being very commodious. This Lodge has had
history, being a child of the French wars of 1812 with Germany
generally known as
the Napoleonic Wars. Its history will be presented in THE BUILDER as a
article in the near future.
meeting for work was held on May 1, 1919, at which time five candidates
the Entered Apprentice Degree. From this time on to the close of the
daily sessions were held, occasionally twice a day.
finally ceased from its labors in Coblentz on July 31, 1919. During
from May 1 to July 31, the Lodge conferred the degrees upon 517
hundred and ninety-eight of these were initiates of Overseas Lodge, U.
19 were courtesy work for other home Jurisdictions. This material was
the history of the Lodge: '"MADE IN GERMANY."
to these communications held within their own Lodge Room, the Overseas
two communications at the town of Neuweid, Germany, in the Lodge Room
of the German
Lodge located at that place.
In the Proceedings
of the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island for 1919 is the report of W. Bro.
Davis, Master of Overseas Lodge, in which he gives some valuable
states that eighty communications in all were held during the life of
Lodge. Fifteen of them were regular and sixty-five were special
Four hundred and ninety-eight E. A. Degrees were conferred, four
hundred and ninety-one
F.C., and four hundred and eighty-six M.M. It is significant that the
ten, showing that care was maintained -throughout all their work. In
this work, they conferred by courtesy, fourteen E. A., sixteen F. C.
M. M. Four hundred and eighty-six signed their by-laws, thus becoming
the Lodge. Forty-five of the forty-eight states were represented in
was a success financially, for we find in W. Bro. Davis' report that
the Lodge transmitted
to the Grand Master of Rhode Island the sum of $12,858.86.
with which all visitors were examined as to their knowledge of and
the Craft is indicated by the fact that eight hundred and thirty-seven
submitted to this test prior to entering the Lodge Room of this
the degrees the Lodge usually employed a larger room for the first two
a smaller room for the third.
As the number
of candidates were made Masons they were arranged in groups of
convenient size and
these groups were all thoroughly trained in the lectures of the three
home Lodge ever worked upon its material more thoroughly than did not
Military Lodge, but every Military Lodge we had in Europe did likewise.
the gloomy predictions of the officers of Grand Lodges at home who
opposed the granting
of Dispensations to groups of their soldier Masons for Army Lodges, on
that great looseness would prevail, and much undesirable material creep
Craft. With regard to this fallacious argument I believe I am in
position to pass
judgment on the point after a most intimate contact with the official
all the Military Lodges that thrived during the War. I am prepared to
that every one of them both at home and abroad took the utmost care to
doors, and to have thorough satisfaction as to the qualifications of
who knocked at their doors. Comparing the military material admitted
with the great
influx permitted by these same critical brethren at home, not one of
Lodges needs to take a back seat.
several fine illustrations given in the official history of this Rhode
which I believe ought to be passed on to the readers. Take the case of
Bro. H. A.
Stewart, of the State of Indiana. Our Hoosier brethren ought to be
proud of this
candidate. He served as a chauffeur in the army. He was admitted into
Overseas Lodge in Coblentz on May 8, 1919, receiving his first degree
He was passed on the 14th of the same month and raised on the 17th.
That is, his
course ran between the dates 8 and 17 or ten days in all. The records
of the Lodge
reveal this brother serving as Junior Steward on the 21st of May, as
on the 31st, and as Senior Deacon on June 3. On June 10, he delivered
in the F. C. Degree. M. W. Bro. Davis remarks:
weeks from becoming a M. M., in addition to thoroughly learning his
he was able to competently fill any subordinate position in the Lodge.
then calls attention to several other brethren, who within a few days
raised, were actively at work assisting in the conferring of the
degrees and lectures.
In the popular
mind the average high officer in the military forces was a rather
tending largely to enlargement of the abdomen and circumference of the
to say that this is a fallacy. Take this incident reported by Bro.
Parker was a Brigadier General in the First Division. He was entered
June 10, 1919,
passed on June 17. He presented himself for his examination in the
lecture of the
Entered Degree on June 17. He was asked to stand a personal examination
the 22 others in the class and responded. Having received his Entered
Degree only one week previously, he had so perfected himself in the
Bro. Davis remarks: "He passed a highly satisfactory examination."
of the Lodge having been completed on July 31, 1919, the Lodge became
some time. At the 1919 Communication of the Grand Lodge of Rhode
Island, the suggestion
was made that the warrant or dispensation be continued on the American
Rhode Island, and that its work should be confined to military
material, that is,
those either in the active or auxiliary service or veterans of that
G. Abbott presented the following Resolution, which was unanimously
That the dispensation heretofore granted to Overseas Lodge, No. 1, U.
D., to do
work in Coblentz, Germany and continued in force at the last Annual
until this time, be further continued until the next Annual
Communication, but with
the provision that it shall hold its meetings and do work in the city
with jurisdiction comprising the whole state, and that it shall have
confer the degrees of Freemasonry upon such candidates as shall be
those who shall have served in the Army or Navy of the United States,
or in any
organization associated with said Army or Navy in the World War and who
resided within this Grand Jurisdiction for a period of one year prior
to the time
of filing his application, or shall then belong to the Army or Navy of
the passage of this Resolution, a second was introduced by Wor. Grand
M. Capron, who served as the Secretary of the Military Lodge in
also was adopted, as follows:
The Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Rhode Island has learned from the
members of Overseas Lodge, No. 1, U. D., of the faithful and untiring
by several brethren of other jurisdictions, in the formation and work
Lodge while in Germany.
BE IT RESOLVED,
That at this Semi-Annual Communication, held in Freemasons Hall,
Island, this seventeenth day of November, 1919 it be the unanimous vote
of the Grand
Lodge of Rhode Island, that its thanks and appreciation be expressed to
Lieut. A. H. S. Haffenden Washington Lodge, No. 46, Portland, Oregon;
P. Stewart, Argenta Lodge, No. 3, Salt Lake City, Utah, Sergt. William
Kaw Lodge, No. 272, Kansas City Kan.; Sergt. Robert S. Brown, Homewood
635, Pittsburgh, Penna., Ellis H. Duvall, Moriah Lodge, No. 105,
Ohio; Dr. Guy Potter Benson, Burlington Lodge No. 100, Burlington, Vt.;
Snow, Eureka Lodge, No. 70, Concord, N. H., Rev. L. R. S. Ferguson, St.
No. 56, Hudson, Wisc.; Lieut. Ernest M. Myers, Las Palmas Lodge, No.
Calif.; Dr. J. W. McDonald, Fairmont Lodge, No. 9, Fairmont, W. Va.;
Clair H. Norton,
Walnut Hills Lodge, No. 483, Cincinnati, Ohio; L. A. Patterson, Weston
562, Whiting, Iowa, for their invaluable services rendered to Overseas
in Coblentz, Germany.
AND BE IT
FURTHER RESOLVED, That a letter expressing these sentiments be sent to
each of the
above named brethren, over the signature of the Grand Master through
the Grand Secretaries
of their respective Grand Lodges.
amendment to the Constitution of the Grand Lodge was introduced at this
P. G. M. Wendell R. Davis, former Master of the Overseas Lodge in
That Article VII of the Constitution of the Grand Lodge be amended by
of the following section:
It shall be permissible for a member of any Lodge in this Jurisdiction,
good standing, who shall have served in the Army or Navy of the United
in any organization associated with the said Army or Navy in the recent
to become a member of Overseas Lodge formerly exercising jurisdiction
Germany, under dispensation, when it is duly chartered by this Grand
losing his rights of membership in his original Lodge and it shall be
for any member of said Overseas Lodge to become a member of any other
in this Jurisdiction in whose jurisdiction he may reside, without
his membership in said Overseas Lodge, notwithstanding any provisions
in this Constitution
to the contrary.
was referred to the Committee on Jurisprudence with instructions to
report at the
Communication in May, 1920. Following up this important step we turn to
of the Grand Lodge for the Annual Communication which opened on May 17,
find in the East M. W. James C. Collins as Grand Master. W. Bro.
as a Secretary of Welfare Work in the Army of Occupation, and was one
of the guiding
spirits of this Military Lodge. Therefore what he has to say about it
is of peculiar
worth. In his address at this time he says:
was ever established under such unique circumstances nor was ever more
in the accomplishment of its purposes. This success was obtained only
good judgment and the untiring efforts of its officers.
He then goes
on to call the attention of Grand Lodge to the fact that
the dispensation under which it
worked was continued
until this Annual Communication with permission to do work in
Providence upon Candidates
who had been in the military service or auxiliary service of the United
the World War, or were still in military service. Its jurisdiction was
that of the limits of our Grand Jurisdiction. In the month of January,
meeting of the Lodge in America was held… They conduct their meetings
the uniforms in which they saw service… I sincerely hope that this
Lodge … will
receive favorable action upon its petition for a charter at this
There is an incident in the activities of Overseas Lodge in this
is worthy of your attention. On Wednesday evening, March 17, 1920 the
Overseas Lodge visited St. Johns Lodge No. 1, Providence, at its
and worked by request the first section of the Entered Apprentice
Degree upon Candidates
of St. Johns Lodge. I had the honor to be present that evening in my
and observe the work. The work was rendered with a military precision
and a finish
which was most inspiring…. We were impressed more clearly than ever
before how closely
interwoven are our Masonic and Civil duties, that true Masonic
teachings and practice
stood for patriotism and loyalty to one's country… On May 11 Overseas
the Master Mason Degree upon twenty-one Candidates. This was the first
time it had
worked this degree in America.
on Jurisprudence in making its general report, took occasion to refer
to the proposed
Amendment to the Constitution of the Grand Lodge in order to permit
for veterans of the war, in the following language:
that has consistently obtained in this jurisdiction has been to limit
to one Lodge. With one or two exceptions this is the universal practice
in the several
Grand Jurisdictions in this country. In a few jurisdictions a secondary
in another but not in the same jurisdiction is permissible. The
no opinion with reference to the advisability of establishing dual
this jurisdiction. It is of the opinion, however, that if this Grand
dual membership advisable, it should be generally and not specially
and that the Constitution should be amended in a manner that would make
law confer equal obligations and equal privileges in a uniformity of
has ever marked Masonic legislation.
amendment in its present form does not permit the consideration by this
of the broader question of granting the privilege of dual membership to
in this Jurisdiction. In order, therefore, to present the question for
consideration of Grand Lodge at the present Communication, the
and hereby propose, as an amendment to the proposed amendment now
before the Grand
Lodge, that a proviso be added to Section 16, of Article VII, of the
in the following form: "Provided, however that a brother may be a
not more than two Lodges within this Jurisdiction." Section 16 of
by such addition would read as follows:
"Section 16. No subordinate
admit to membership a brother made in another Lodge, or confer the
upon any person, except upon a clear ballot therefor at a regular
nor permit a brother admitted to membership to qualify himself as such
shall have presented a dimit from the Lodge to which he formerly
HOWEVER, that a brother may be a member of not more than two Lodges
of the Committee on Jurisprudence is accepted and the recommendation
the report is approved.
At this point
Bro. W. S. Solomon, as Master of Overseas Lodge, under dispensation,
claims of that Lodge, with the request that a charter, in form as
follows, be granted
said Lodge. For this Charter see the later part of this article.
resolution was introduced and carried:
That the dispensation of Overseas Lodge, No. 1, U. D., be continued in
such time as said Lodge shall be regularly constituted under its
Thus we learn
that this notable Lodge which started upon its career as an American
located at Coblentz, Germany, was transplanted into the soil of the
of Rhode Island, to become a class Lodge, and to develop a history most
very beginning this Lodge attracted to its membership men who have
rank in the Military branches of our National Forces, as well as men
who have reached
the heights in civilian life. Its roster is crowded with such names,
and as the
years pass this Lodge will attain to the prominence that has long been
held by other
Military Lodges of earlier Wars, and are now engrafted into the Grand
in various parts of our country.
be invidious for us to indicate here any particular group without
giving the same
position to the humblest who have passed the portals of Overseas Lodge,
of Rhode Island.
to say that these brethren have the latchstring of their present Lodge
they are noted for the most delightful hospitality that they display to
Masons who once wore the uniform of their country, or of its auxiliary
commendations are due Worshipful Bro. Winfield S. Solomon for his
in our inquiries, and his responsiveness to the many requests we have
made for information
concerning this Military Lodge.
A most pleasing
incident occurred during the life of the Overseas Lodge, No. 1, U. D.,
Coblentz. It appears that at the Communication of July 2, 1919, Bro.
Lt. Col. Donald
B. Sanger, who was present, presented the following:
To the Worshipful
I am sending
you herewith the contributions of 30 Signal Corps Master Masons
gathered for the
purpose of starting a fund for a Lodge of Signal Corps Men. As this
materialized and Overseas Lodge, No. 1, is the home of many Signal
Corps men, I
feel that its purpose can best be served by donating it to your Lodge
to be used
at the will and pleasure of the Worshipful Master.
DONALD B. SANGER
No. 6, Galveston, Texas.
the jewels and furniture of this Lodge the following gifts were
1919, a valuable ancient Bible dated 1729, by Bro. Adolf Lotz of the Lodge
Friederich Zur Vaterlandsliebe
1919, Tyler's sword, by Bro. Major George Cockrill, A. P. M. of
from a Spartacist arrested and disarmed at Coblentz.
Herr and Frau Julius Wegeler, Coblentz.
purchased from descendant of a member of the French Lodge stationed in
during Napoleon's War, said to bear the signatures of both Napoleon and
Island the following presents were received:
of the Bible, from St. Johns Lodge of Providence,
and Compasses from Doric Lodge of Auburn,
Set of silver
working tools by Union Lodge of Pawtucket,
from Mt. Vernon Lodge of Providence,
from Nestell Lodge of Providence.
HONORABLE SOCIETY OF FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS FOR THE STATE OF RHODE
To all to
Whom these presents shall come
a petition has been received by me from several Rhode Island Masons now
with the Army of Occupation in Coblentz, in Germany; stating that they
and are maintaining a successful Masonic Club in that city, and are
obtaining a charter for an Army and Navy Lodge; and,
three of the petitioners are well-known members of this Grand Lodge, to
R. Davis, Past Grand Master, James C. Collins, Deputy Grand Master, and
S. Solomon, Past Master of Morning Star Lodge; and,
I am convinced that the granting of this request will be of great
benefit to an
Masons, in that vicinity as well as to those loyal citizens of this
by their isolation, are at present deprived of receiving the advantages
to be obtained
from membership in this Ancient and Honorable Institution. Now,
I, G. Tudor Gross, by virtue of the power vested in me as Grand Master
in Rhode Island, do hereby appoint, authorize and empower our worthy
R. Davis, to be the Master; our worthy Brother Winfield S. Solomon, to
be the Senior
Warden; and our worthy Brother James C. Collins, to be the Junior
Warden of a Military
and Naval Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons to be by virtue hereof
formed and held in the City of Coblentz, in Germany, which Lodge shall
and known by the name of OVERSEAS LODGE, No. 1, U. D.; and the said
Master is hereby
authorized to appoint subordinate officers of said Lodge, and said
Lodge is authorized
to adopt all such by-laws and regulations for the governance of its
and labor; subject to my approval, as it may see fit, always adhering
so far as
conditions will warrant to the constitution of this Grand Lodge.
is hereby vested with full power and authority to assemble on proper
occasions to elect, initiate, pass and raise candidates without the
and requirements of chartered Lodges, provided that such candidates
shall be selected
only from citizens of the United States serving in the Army or Navy of
States, or in any organization associated with said Army or Navy.
this Lodge shall in no wise impair or affect existing memberships in a
shall terminate at the pleasure of the Grand Master, or of Grand Lodge;
automatically terminate if all the three Brothers named herein shall be
continue as active officers of said Lodge.
hand and seal this fifteenth day of March, A. D. 1919 and A. L. 6919,
at the Grand
East in the City of Providence in the State of Rhode Island.
G. Tudor Gross,
To all the
Fraternity to whom these presents shall come:
We, the Most
Worshipful, the Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honorable Society
of Free and
Accepted Masons for the State of Rhode Island and Providence
Plantations, Send Greeting:
on the fifteenth day of March, in the year of our Lord, one thousand
and nineteen, and of Freemasonry, five thousand nine hundred and
nineteen, our Most
Worshipful Grand Master did issue his dispensation to certain brethren
in the cause of our country in the World War, authorizing and
empowering them to
open a Lodge in the City of Goblentz, situated on the Rhine River, in
of Germany; and,
the granting of this dispensation was approved and confirmed at the
Communication of the Grand Lodge, and was further continued in force
until the Semi-Annual
Communication thereafter; and,
the dispensation was further continued in force at said Semi-Annual
of the Grand Lodge until this Annual Communication with the privilege
said Lodge from said City of Coblentz to the City of Providence in this
and to receive applications from those residents thereof who were
formerly in the
Army or Navy, or in the auxiliary service, of the United States during
War, or who may be at the time of making their application, in the Army
of the United States; and,
in our Annual Communication this day said dispensation, with the record
doings under the same, has been returned to us, together with a
by our trusty and well-beloved brethren:
Charles T. Glines,
James H. Magee,
W. L. Sorterup
and Accepted Masons, praying that they with such others as may be
with them, may be created and constituted into a regular Lodge of Free
Masons; and the doings of our brethren under said dispensation, having
by us, the petition, after due consideration, appearing to us as
tending to the
advancement of Freemasonry and the good of the Craft, was granted.
Know ye, that we, the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge aforesaid, reposing
in the fervency, prudence, and fidelity of our brethren Forenamed, have
in our said Annual Communication constituted and appointed, and by
do constitute and appoint them, the said brethren, a just and legal
Lodge of Free
and Accepted Masons, to be hereafter known and designated by the title
Lodge, No. 40, Free and Accepted Masons, for the purpose of putting
the principles of Freemasonry, thereby inculcating and sustaining at
all times the
spirit of patriotism and loyalty to our country, giving and granting
unto them full
power and authority to convene as Freemasons in the City of Providence,
and enter Apprentices, pass Fellow Craft, and raise Master Masons; for
of such compensation for the same as may be determined on by the said
also to elect a Master, Wardens and other officers annually, to receive
funds for the relief of poor and distressed brethren, their widows and
to make by-laws and the same to alter, amend or repeal, as occasion may
and in general to do and transact all matters relative to Freemasonry
to them appear to be for the good of the Craft, according to ancient
usage and custom
of this Lodge shall embrace the limits of our Grand Jurisdiction and it
the right to accept applications only from those residents thereof who
were in the
Army or Navy, or in the auxiliary service connected with the Army or
Navy of the
United States and who have served in the World War.
And we do
hereby require of them to attend us at our Annual and all other
by their Master and Wardens, or by their proxies, regularly appointed,
as also to
keep just, regular and accurate records of all their proceedings, and
to lay them
before us when required, making due return to us of all persons whom
they may have
entered, passed, raised or admitted members of said Lodge. And we do
upon our brethren of said Overseas Lodge, No. 40, Free and Accepted
they be punctual in the payment of such sums as may be assessed for our
and in all things that they strictly conform to our Constitution and
the general regulations of Freemasonry. Furthermore, we do hereby
declare the precedence
of said Lodge in the Grand Lodge and elsewhere to be the fortieth from
whereof, we, the Most Worshipful Grand Master, the Right Worshipful
Master and the Right Worshipful Grand Wardens by virtue of the power
to us committed, have hereunto set our hands and caused the seal of the
Grand Lodge aforesaid to be hereunto affixed, at Providence, this
of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and twenty,
and of Freemasonry,
five thousand nine hundred and twenty.
C. COLLINS, Grand Master.
E. BEATTY, Deputy Grand Master.
LAWTON, Senior Grand Warden.
I. DANA, Junior Grand Warden.
order of the Grand Lodge,
Degrees of Masonry;
Their Origin and History
Bros. A. L. Kress And
R. J. Meekren
on Gould's argument as a whole that the evolution of the original
degree system into our present one of three degrees, one more quotation
given, that in some ways is very illuminating, though perhaps not
exactly in the
way the author intended it.
… I have expressed my belief
that Anderson only
joined the English Craft in 1721, but whatever the period may have
been, his opportunities
of grafting the nomenclature of one Masonic system upon that of another
in the latter part of that year, and lasted barely six months, as his
Constitutions were ordered to be printed March 25 1722. He was,
from borrowing as largely as he must have wished judging from his
fuller work of
1738 from the operative phraseology of the Northern Kingdom (1).
seems like building a pyramid with its apex down! The second edition
extra Scottish term, the word Cowan." It is true that Gould brings up
like a troop of camp followers camouflaged as reserves the mention in
the 1738 book
of the old custom of meetings held
… early in the Morning on the
Tops of Hills,
especially on St. John Evangelist's Day … according to the tradition of
Scots Masons, particularly those of the antient lodges of Killwinning,
Aberdeen, etc. (2)
seems to think, may have given rise to like statements which appear in
most of the
early printed exposures. But really this is putting the cart before the
paragraph in question did not appear until 1738, and at least four such
three of which are quite distinct and characteristic in their contents
been published before 1738, or rather before 1731, and they all contain
analogous statements. The more reasonable interpretation is surely that
here a genuine operative tradition, current equally in England and in
At the critical
date of 1723 the sum total of the Scottish importations discoverable by
actually two compound titles, Entered Apprentice and Fellow Craft, of
the chief element in each case was admittedly known and familiar in
that it is only the addition of the qualifying terms, "entered" in the
one case and "Craft" in the other, that can be claimed as new. It would
seem that a far more natural, and perfectly adequate explanation
the terms were an importation) is that Anderson, who wrote calamo
currents and who
evidently never stopped to verify quotations but just put down things
as he remembered
them, simply used the phraseology that was familiar to him as a
with not the least idea or intention of supplanting or altering that
which was in
use in London, or even realizing that he was using terms that might be
to his English brethren. If so, it would follow that in his mind
was the same thing as Apprentice, Master Mason as Master, and Fellow
Craft as Fellow,
and conversely that his English readers understood what he intended as
well as he
all, Gould's argument rests on the supposition that these terms really
known in England before Anderson's work was published. Here we are once
with a negative argument, and one resting on very slender evidence.
There are, roughly
speaking, the Old Charges, the references of Ashmole and Randle Holme,
and the accounts
of Plot and Aubrey. The "Old Charges" hardly tell us anything, for they
were copied from older exemplars and would not have been changed even
terminology had been modified in this regard. And for proof of this we
to go to Scotland itself, where we find copies of the old MS.
Constitutions in which
the terms Fellow and Apprentice are found without qualifying additions.
that was used in the Lodge of Aberdeen, which (if Bro. Miller's
suggestion be accepted)
was copied by Dr. Anderson's father, may be taken as a peculiarly
It contains the normal phraseology, Fellow, Master and Apprentice,
though the Statutes
of the lodge speak of Master Masons, Entered Prentices and Fellowcraft.
Thus it would
certainly appear that Scottish Masons must have quite understood the
and it seems pertinent to ask why English Masons should misunderstand
that of Scotland;
at least we can rule out the evidence of Old Charges as being quite
this particular question. We thus have only four brief mentions, which,
more conclusive than they are, could not possibly prove, being all
the 18th century, that London Masons were ignorant of these compound
terms in 1720,
or even 1700. We are not suggesting that they were known, but merely
the fact that the evidence adduced is altogether inadequate to prove
such a sweeping
negative as Gould required for his argument.
It is to
be noted, as Gould points out in more than one place, that the earliest
the Old Catechisms, both printed and in manuscript, contain some
mention of these
two "scotticisms." The curious and rather exasperating thing here is
none of the manuscripts can be dated with any certainty before 1723,
while all the
printed versions extant are later than the date of publication of the
Book of Constitutions.
We have references to a catechism printed before 1723, but no copy of
so far as is known. Should it turn up some day, and prove to be (as we
probable) an earlier publication of the document printed in 1723 under
of the "Mason's Examination" (and many times thereafter under other
it might settle the question definitely as against Gould. Or on the
other hand it
might lend him strong support; though even then not to the point of
But that this should happen is only a pious hope.
As the matter
stands, the evidence of the Catechisms is tied up with the hypothesis
we are considering
in a very peculiar way. They do not lend it any logical support, nor do
against it. If on other grounds we agree with Gould that Anderson
phrases, then it is likely that the compilers or publishers of these
from him. If we doubt whether Gould is right and suppose the terms were
unknown, then their appearance here will confirm our doubt. They fit
of Sloane MS. 3329 and the Trinity College and Chetwode Crawley MSS. is
annoying (4). They have no date. From appearance, paper, handwriting
and the other
criteria by which experts judge the age of documents, they are all of
critical period. They may be earlier, they may be later. It is equally
they, like the printed versions, give no certain indication. All three
of them have
a strongly Scottish character, over and above the use of the terms
Prentice" and "Fellow Craft," or "fellow craftsman," and
one is apparently closely linked up with the usages of the old
Gould was so obsessed with the idea that the Scottish Craft knew
nothing but the
"Mason word," that he had to put on one side as "exceptional"
the indications plainly pointing to more than this which appear in the
Haughfoot and Dunblane, and which are confirmed, and elucidated to some
by these MSS. And if the two degree system was known in Scotland as
well as in England
before 1723 or earlier, then the theory of misunderstanding will become
incredible. But we will have to discuss these documents more fully
later on and
for the present we may leave them on one side.
Let us admit,
for the sake of argument, that these two phrases were not known in
we think it is quite probable they were at least not usual or familiar;
then arises, were they so new and unintelligible as to cause confusion
in the minds
of the Masonic readers of the Book of Constitutions?
could have been none in regard to the Apprentice. For if, in England,
he was not
"entered," he was "admitted." The difference in meaning is too
slight for there to have been any doubt in anyone's mind what was
whole burden of the alleged misunderstanding must rest on the term
If, as seems
certain the sequence in England was Apprentice, Master (of his Craft)
(the Mason being accepted as a Fellow of the Fraternity because he had
of his trade) it would seem that it would have taken truly
to suppose that Master Mason and Fellow Craft meant something
different. The old
sequence was not changed in Regulation XIII, and in the fourth Charge
the term Master
obviously means Master of the Lodge the two meanings one would suppose,
enough, and usual enough, to make misunderstanding very improbable. The
of the term Master were not peculiar to the Masons, they were general;
and not only
that, they have continued down to the present time. We all understand
at once the
difference between a master workman, a man proficient in his trade, and
"boss," or employer. But we may here quote a contemporary writer,
Clare (5). In the Defense of Masonry, written in reply to Prichard's
There are a MASTER, two Wardens
and a number
of Assistants, to make what the Dissector may call (if he pleases) a
in the City Companies. There is the Degree of Enter'd Apprentice,
Master of his
Trade, or Fellow Craft and Master, or the Master of the Company (6).
to indicate that seven years later there was no confusion in Clare's
the equivalence of the old English and the Scottish terms; and as the
widely circulated, and was reprinted as an appendix to the second Book
it would further seem to show that there was not much room for
neither does Clare's language betray any objection to the compound
terms as Gould's
argument would seem to require (7).
his belief that misunderstanding did exist chiefly on the appearance of
three degree system, but he supports it also by two other items of
first is the apparent reference to three degrees by Francis Drake, F.
R. S., in
his speech to the assembled Fraternity at York on the Festival of St.
17268. The passage in question follows a lengthy quotation from
Addison. Drake then
goes on to say:
From what he [Addison] has
said, the great Antiquity
of the Art of Building or Masonry may be easily deduced; for without
to Seth's Pillars or the Tower of Babel for proofs the Temple of Belus
the Walls of Babylon … are sufficient testimonies, or at least give
to conjecture, that three parts in four of the whole Earth might then
into E-P-F-C & M-M.
frankly do not have any clear idea what this means. It may be that
Drake had mistaken
Dr. Anderson to speak of three grades in London and did not wish to
admit any fewer
in York; it may be he first learned of the term Fellow Craft in the
1723 Book of
Constitutions, and that Masons in the North of England had no previous
of its use in Scotland; it may be that they were familiar with the
terms and used
them in the old way; but what actually may be properly deduced from it
as it stands
we do not even wish to guess. Gould held that there was but one
at York; basing that opinion on the minutes, which speak only of
"admitted and sworn." But then what did the three titles mean to Drake
and those who listened to him ranks merely? Or Degrees?
But, as it appears to myself,
Drake had evidently
constructed an imaginary tri-gradal system, from a mis-reading of James
ambiguous expressions in O. R. XIII.
But why should
the "Apprentices," "Masters" and "Fellow Craft" of
the 1723 Regulation lead to such an imaginary construction when the
"Masters" and "Fellows" of the Old Charges, with which Drake
must have been familiar, had not done so? The natural thing would be to
the new in the light of the old, and we have really nothing in the
to show that Drake, if he did borrow his terms, understood them in any
than Anderson in 1723 had intended them.
Usage In 1730
piece of evidence seems much stronger. In our opinion it is the one
fact he offers. In Pennell's Constitutions [Lib
virtually an edition
of Anderson, published in Dublin before the end of August, 1730 (that
is a little
earlier than Prichard's work) we find the following addition to Charge
No Master should take an
Apprentice unless …
[he is physically qualified and so on, and thus not incapable] … Of
being made a
Brother and a Fellow Craft, and in due time a Master; and when
quailfy'd, he may
arrive to the Honour of being Warden, then Master of a Lodge, etc.
is compared with Anderson it certainly does give the strong impression
degrees are intended. But seeing that only a month or two later
us with a complete sketch of a trigradal system, it will depend on our
the origin of that work what significance we give to this. The curious
that in 1734-1735 William Smith published in London and Dublin A Pocket
for Freemasons [Lib
1735], virtually a book of
Constitutions, having official
approval of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, which the 1730 work did not
have. This follows
Pennell very closely, but it omits the pregnant words "and in due time
a number of questions. Was the omission intentional? If so did it mean
than two degrees were unknown in Ireland? Or was the Grand Lodge of
to suppress a three degree arrangement introduced unofficially from
trying to maintain the ancient system? It is impossible to say without
So far, however, as Gould's theory goes, Pennell's work is overshadowed
Masonry Dissected [Lib 1730], which followed it so closely.
In a number
of different places, Gould has intimated his theory of how the change
as for example, in the History he says (10):
It is probable
that about this period [1724-25] the existing degrees were remodeled,
and the titles
of Fellow Craft and Master disjoined the latter becoming the degree of
and the former virtually denoting a new degree, though its essentials
composed of a severed portion of the ceremonial hitherto observed at
the entry of
(with which, as it is here stated, we fully agree) is based on a
comparison of Prichard
with the other versions of the Old Catechisms. The process is by no
complete in Prichard, but it does show us a second degree, called the
Part, which is not so much a severed portion, but a variant version of
part of the
old Mason's Examination or Catechism. It is a separate degree almost
virtue of having a name and being set apart, rather than in its
if might almost be called a doublet of the first. However, in spite of
form it may be taken as a sketch of what later became the normal type.
another fact to support his contention that in 1723 the Grand Lodge
two degrees. A French lodge was constituted in London in August of that
the Earl of Strathmore, and 'le Maître, les Surveillants, les
Compagnons et les
Apprentis [The Master, the Wardens, the Fellows and the Apprentices]
particularized. He goes on. (11)
Soon after 1730, indeed a
system of three degrees
crept into use, of which the proximate cause appears to have been the
exercised both directly and indirectly by the spurious ritual of Samuel
But there is nothing from which we may infer that a division of the old
Part" into two moieties each forming a distinct step or degree had been
by the Grand Lodge prior to the publication of the New Book of
1738. [Lib 1738]
In an article
in the Northern Freemason in 1906 he recapitulated his position (12).
briefly to the fact that
In Scotland, both before and
long after the year
1723, the expressions "Fellow Craft" and "Master" were terms
of indifferent application, meaning one and the same thing…
he goes on
to repeat the assertion, which while possible (and even probable) is
not as, we
have said, demonstrated, that the term "Fellow Craft" was unknown in
until Anderson imported it. He then says:
The combined use, therefore, of
the terms Apprentice,
Fellow Craft and Master in the XIIIth of the "General Regulations"
gave rise to the singular hallucination that they denoted three
distinct and separate
degrees which were then recognized by the Grand Lodge.
after running over the earliest allusions to three separate degrees,
that we have
already discussed, down to Pennell's Constitutions, he adds:
… After this the delusion
assumed such proportions
that yielding to the popular clamor, the two degrees inherited and
recognized by the Grand Lodge of England were by the bisection of the
part declared not only to be, but to have been, THREE.
For a historian
this seems to us a very unguarded statement. Granting, as we are
to do, that the change might have been made in the way he asserts; it
is going entirely
beyond any evidence adduced by himself, or known to us, to say the
Grand Lodge made
any such declaration unless he means no more than the official
approval, or acquiescence,
in the changes made by Anderson in his New Book of 1738. If this was
it seems so over emphatic as to be very misleading to any reader who
has not been
able to weigh all the evidence for himself.
The Grand Lodge Oppose
The New System?
He had been
more cautious in 1903. In a paper read to the Quatuor Coronati Lodge,
he said (13):
The precise circumstances under
which an expansion
of the original system of degrees was authorized, or perhaps it would
to say regulated, by the earliest of Grand Lodges, have not been
recorded, but there
is a sufficiency of evidence from which the broad facts of the ease
The governing body of English Masonry evidently tried to combat the new
of which Samuel Prichard was the high priest by having the "Discourse"
of Martin Clare read in the lodges and doubtless in other ways. But
novelty had taken root and there can be no doubt that the seed from
Dissected ultimately germinated, had been sown by Anderson … the Grand
is more than probable, felt bound to regulate a movement it was unable
Three steps therefore, were declared to exist in the Constitutions of
1738 and the
order of their precedence was determined by the Grand Officers, in the
appeared to them in the greatest harmony with the ancient and Symbolic
of the Craft.
We see that
here, perhaps because addressing a more critical audience, he inserts a
"it is more than probable" the Grand Lodge felt bound to act. It seems
to us that Anderson's emendations in the New Book are rather a
recognition or an
adaptation of formula to a fait accompli; but perhaps this is all Gould
by his Discourse, reference is made to the Defense of Martin Clare we
passage that we quoted above is what Gould had in mind as the reason
for the Grand
Lodge having it read in the lodges (14). But there is so much more of
value in Clare's
tract that it is hard to pick on one brief, and not especially striking
and say that that was pre-eminently the thing it was desired to
finally, where is there the least shadow of an indication that "the
took counsel together on the subject? It is all pure inference, based
mind on another part of his general hypothesis which we will shortly
have to consider,
respecting the "order in which the two moities" of the Apprentices part
were given. We now continue the quotation:
The second edition of the
the first, was the cause of serious trouble in the lodges, and in each
discontent appears to have been at its height about a year after the
of the work. In 1739, the rearrangement of the degrees gave offense,
not only to
brethren who were working in the old way, i.e., according to the system
of two degrees
as existing prior to and after 1717; but also to all those practicing
who followed the method of conferring them as laid down in Prichard's
of 1730. There were other causes which tended to widen the breach
between the Masons
who were submissive and those who were disobedient to the mandates of
Lodge. The principal of these was a second tampering with the "Mason's
which, at a later period, caused a further divergence of procedure
between the two
parties into which English Freemasons ultimately became separated. (15)
The two parties
are the rival Grand Lodges of "Moderns" and "Antients," and
the "Mason's Creed" is, we suppose, the first charge, "Concerning
God and Religion," which was somewhat modified in the New Book; but
lodges which continued to work only two degrees may have objected to
no evidence whatever has been brought to light, in such minutes as have
to show either that they rebelled on this account, or that the Grand
for the sake of uniformity, or any other reason, to force them to do
in three stages instead of two. It may have been so, but there is
to show it.
History [Lib 1884, Vol 3],
2. Ibid, Vol.
iii, p. 45.
3. These are
the Mason's Examination published in the Flying Post of April
13, 1723, the Grand Mystery of Freemasons Discovered, published in
1725. These two
Gould reproduces in the Appendix of his History, Vol. iv, p. 281 [Lib
1884, Vol 4].
On Aug. 16,
1730 the Daily
Journal published the Mystery of Freemasons, the catechism in which is
variant version from that of the Examination. It was reproduced by
Franklin in the
Pennsylvania Gazette in the December following. In October Prichard's
appeared. Besides these we really should add the Sloane MS. No. 3329 as
gives it so late a date as 1738. The Trinity College and Chetwode
Crawley MSS. might
be also adduced if it were not that they may be of Scottish origin
4. The Trinity
College has on it the following endorsement, "Freemasonry,
Feb. 1711" but this is in a different hand from the contents of the MS.
and as we have no idea who made it or when, or what grounds there were
for the statement
it is impossible to receive it as evidence.
5. A. Q. C.,
Vol. iv, p. 33 [Lib 1891];
Vol. 28, p.
New Book of Constitutions 1738 [Lib 1738],
Reproduced in Q. C. A., Vol. vii.
7. For Gould's
argument on this point the Concise History [Lib 1904],
p. 400, and
Essays [Lib 1913],
p. 223, may
Masonic Sketches and Reprints [Lib 1871]
Essays, p. 218. Pennell's work was reproduced by Dr. Chetwode Crawley
in Caementaria Hibernica, Vol. i.
Vol. iii, p. 114.
11. Essays, p.
12. Ibid, p.
13. Ib., p.
14. We judge
that it is. See Concise Hist., pp. 400-401. Compare also Wonnacott,
A. Q. C., Vol. xxviii, p. 80.
also the Concise History, p. 417.
(To be continued)
Meekren, Editor In
E. Thiemeyer, Research Editor
I. CLEGG, Illinois
W. DAYNES, England
V. DENSLOW, Missouri
H. DERN, Utah
F. IRWIN, Pennsylvania
E. MORCOMBE, California
C. PARKER, New York
HUGO TATSCH, Iowa
M. WHTED, California
Regard to Research Lodges
in the United States a number of local organizations, clubs, societies
that are specifically devoted to Masonic Study, Research and
Instruction. So far
as our information goes there is no Lodge of Research.
rule in this country against plural membership doubtless accounts for
Few Masons want to give up their ordinary lodge membership in order to
devoted entirely to study and research. While a research lodge, on the
cannot very well perform the usual functions of a lodge for several
For one, there would not be time to do both; but the most compelling is
would be practically impossible for an applicant to understand whether
Lodge was what he wanted to join, and equally difficult for the lodge
to know whether
a candidate was likely to be of assistance in its special work. A lodge
to be successful, must recruit its membership from Master Masons who
know what they
want and who show a definite interest in learning more about Masonry.
several jurisdictions where the experiment might be tried. There are
Grand Lodges in this country that permit, in some form or other, dual
membership. Of these five only, so far as our information goes, allow a
to belong to more than one lodge within the jurisdiction: these are
Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia, and very recently New York. In
it is open to interested brothers to form a Research Lodge.
Such a lodge
does not require any different form of dispensation or charter. It is
that there be an understanding, which might be embodied in the by-laws
advisable, that no applications for initiation should be received. If
Lodge should decide to favor the formation of such lodges by remitting
dues, so much the better; but this in most cases is not a heavy tax and
be met. The other expenses can be reduced to a minimum and the lodge
on a basis to provide sufficient income. There is no reason why, in any
permitting dual membership within its jurisdiction, such a lodge should
not be constituted
without any constitutional or legislative changes.
such a lodge could be more easily formed in large centers of
population, where there
are many brethren to draw from, as unfortunately the percentage of
in the higher aspects of Masonry is very small. They form the elite of
and would have more influence if organized as a lodge than in any other
this would be very much to the good.
thus seem, now that it has been made possible by the Grand Lodge of New
the time has come for the experiment to be made. There must be a
of brethren in New York City to support such a lodge, and to make it a
We hope that they will avail themselves of the opportunity now opened
up, and not
wait for the start to be made elsewhere.
* * *
Momentous Step Retraced
years ago, when the World War was blazing up to its height, the United
of England took a step that aroused a good deal of criticism and caused
regret in this country. This was the exclusion of members of English
were of German or Austrian birth, and a declaration of non-recognition
with the Grand Lodges of enemy countries. The then editor of THE
BUILDER spoke of
it "with mingled sorrow and amazement." The amazement has long since
but the sorrow and regret have remained.
of the English Grand Lodge were by no means unanimous in this decision.
was forcibly opposed, and the minority was a large one. This shows that
of the provocation and provocation there certainly was many of our
felt it would establish a most unfortunate precedent.
We will briefly
recapitulate the circumstances. First, the German Grand Lodges had, in
terms, repudiated the idea of universality in the Craft, and had
severed all connection
with the Masonry in the allied countries. But this, though unpleasant,
did not raise
any question as regarding brethren of German birth who were English
there were many such.
cause of complaint was the behavior of these brethren, behavior that
to a very high degree. It was not their loyalty to their country, their
serve it in any way, even by espionage. There is nothing reprehensible
If we are just, we must recognize that a German civilian was as noble
in risking his life to obtain information for the government of his
country as Englishmen
and Frenchmen were in doing likewise and many did. The difficulty was
that the German
brethren insisted on bringing the subject of the war into the lodges.
rather incredible, but we have it on the best of authority that it was
only here and there, but almost generally. What was difficult to
is still obscure, is why the ordinary, normal machinery of Masonic
not have fully met the case. To do anything to disturb the harmony of a
a recognized offense, one that the Master has full power to take
cognizance of summarily.
Any brother refusing to submit is thereby contumacious and liable to
that ground alone. And action along such lines so far from creating a
would have strengthened a good one.
particular lodges had the power to exclude anyone who was persona non
grata to a
majority of the members, and the right was frequently exercised. Such
did not affect the brother's standing generally, it left him much in
of a dimitted Mason among ourselves. But lodges, both in England and
been progressively shorn of their powers until they are approaching the
being little more than the agencies of Grand Lodges with no other
that of running candidates through the "degree mill." It is a
lesson of history that rights once lost are seldom or never regained.
reviving and strengthening the old powers of the individual lodges, and
them to take such action as seemed best to fit individual cases, and
the matter on the eminently Masonic ground of maintaining peace and
harmony in the
lodge, without specific reference to any particular cause of irritation
of fraternal feelings, it appeared to be necessary to make an ad hoc
lines which, at the very best, were contrary to the great ideal of the
It was all
the more unfortunate because the whole Masonic world is affected,
willingly or unwillingly,
by the action of the Grand Lodge of England. Englishmen are reputed to
faults and failings, but impulsive and resentful action is not looked
for from them.
And when they do act in that way it has a very far reaching effect. In
we cannot help feeling, a very unfortunate one.
It is now
ten years since the war ended, nine since the treaty of peace was made,
resolution has at last been rescinded. It is now open to the English
lodges to restore
such of their excluded members as they may unanimously choose.
period, so we are informed, the lodges holding of the Grand Lodge of
been forbidden to admit to Masonic intercourse brethren whom no one
would have dreamed
of wanting to exclude. In some cases, so we are informed, these
born in Germany or Austria, had lived their whole lives under the
had served in some cases in British armies, whose sons fought in the
Great War for
their father's adopted country, and indeed in some cases have been
honored by British
Governments for services rendered. It certainly seems time that such an
was remedied, if remedied it can be.
Grand Lodges have received much reprobation for their action in
breaking off fraternal
relations. But in following their example we have condoned their
action. In any
case we ought now to be free enough from war-bred passion and prejudice
to be able
to see that this action was really inevitable, practically speaking, on
Indeed it might with truth be said that it was compulsory. Aside from
of mass sentiment, which was so fully organized and exploited in
they would have been suspect in the eyes of their own government had
they not taken
the step they did. Under the circumstances it is not fair to blame
them. We might
have admired them more had they made themselves martyrs for the Masonic
we have no right to demand that they should have done so, even had we
willing to sacrifice everything for that ideal it is far from certain
that we should.
however, remains. The actions of Grand Lodges have not always the
seem to have. Practically, and in effect, all relations between the
of the combatant countries were severed by the existence of a state of
of non-intercourse were really no more than rubricating and underlining
fact. These declarations had little or no effect on the actions of
The present writer can vouch from personal knowledge that German Masons
did in many
cases aid and assist enemy brothers so far as lay in their power.
reverse was also true, though of that he cannot speak so certainly.
Thus in reality
the formal action was not much more than what the French would call a
Behind that screen individual Masons were fulfilling their obligations
regard to the thunders of official excommunication.
We have sometimes
thought that if the chief priests and rulers of our particular
be thrown for a time into the stress and danger of flood and field,
battle and murder
and shipwreck, destitution and starvation, and had personal experience
of the workings
of Masonry in such circumstances, that many questions would be seen in
new light, and that some obstacles to the ideal of universality would
so insurmountable as they seem to do at present.
on "How to Organize and Maintain a Study Club" will be sent free on
in quantities to fifty
the Cedar Rapids Conference
given by Bro. William J. Patterson, Acting Librarian and Curator of the
of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, dealt with the foundation and
growth of that
institution, in which incidentally the salient points of the history of
Lodge of Pennsylvania were touched upon.
the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania
of the library of our Grand Lodge that is to be presented to this
be more interesting if I preface it with a brief recapitulation of the
in the Masonic history of the State of Pennsylvania.
The first mention of Masonry in
Pennsylvania is that contained in a letter
by John Moore, Esq., the King's Collector of the Port at Philadelphia,
to a friend,
in 1715, in which he states that "he had spent a few evenings in
with his Masonic brethren in this city."
Thomas Duke of Norfolk, Grand
Master of the Free and Accepted Masons of the
Grand Lodge of England, granted a deputation to Bro. Daniel Coxe as
Master of the provinces of New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania June
Benjamin Franklin was initiated
into St. John's Lodge, of Philadelphia, Feb.
1, 1730, which feet he recorded in his journal.
The Pennsylvania Gazette,
Franklin's newspaper, announces the meetings of
"several lodges of Freemasons." These lodges united in the organization
of an independent Grand Lodge which did not recognize superior
The Pennsylvania Gazette of
June 26, 1732, gives notice of a meeting held
by the Grand Lodge of the Society of Free and Accepted Masons at the
when Bro. William Allen was elected Grand Master for the ensuing
Masonic Year, and
that he appointed Bro. William Pringle as Deputy Grand Master; the
Thomas Boude and Benjamin Franklin.
On June 24, 1734, Benjamin
Franklin was elected Grand Master.
The first Masonic book printed
in America, a reprint of Anderson's Constitutions
of 1723, was published in 1734 by Benjamin Franklin.
Thomas Oxnard, Esq., of Boston,
Mass., Provincial Grand Master of all North
America, on July 10, 1749, appointed Bro. Benjamin Franklin Provincial
of Pennsylvania, with full authority. The first Grand Lodge under this
held Sept. 5, 1749, at the house of Bro. Henry Pratt, "The Royal
Market Street, near Second, in Philadelphia.
The regularity of the Oxnard
appointment was questioned, and on March 13,
1750, at the communication of the Independent Grand Lodge, William
presented to the Grand Lodge a commission direct from the Grand Master
of all England
appointing him Provincial Grand Master of Pennsylvania, recognized as
Grand Master Allen then appointed Bro. Benjamin Franklin Deputy Grand
position he retained until after his departure in 1757 to England. The
the Grand Lodge of England, Nov. 17, 1760, records him as "Benjamin
Esq., P. G. M., of Philadelphia."
June 24, 1755, the Grand Lodge
dedicated Freemasons' Lodge building, in Lodge
Alley, Philadelphia, which was the first Masonic building erected in
On July 15, 1761, Thomas
Erskin, Earl of Kelly, then Grand Master of England
"Ancients," granted his warrant No. 1 in Pennsylvania (No. 89 in
for a Grand Lodge in Philadelphia, "independent of any former
warrant or constitution granted to any person or persons in America."
this warrant the Grand Lodge met as a Provincial Grand Lodge subject to
Lodge of England according to the Old Constitutions [the "Ancients"].
This Grand Lodge continued through the Revolution and until Sept. 25,
it was resolved "That the lodges under the jurisdiction of the Grand
of Pennsylvania, lately held under the authority of the Grand Lodge of
will and do form themselves into a Grand Lodge to be called 'The Grand
Pennsylvania and Masonic Jurisdiction Thereunto Belonging."'
Account of the Library
On June 7,
1871, the following resolution was adopted:
It has for a long time been the desire of a large number of the
brethren that the
Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania should possess a Masonic Library that would
credit upon the Fraternity; and
The Building Committee have, with a wise forethought, set apart a room
in the Masonic
Temple for that purpose;
BE IT RESOLVED: That a committee of five be appointed to examine and
material as may now be in the possession of the Grand Lodge, to
procure, if practicable,
complete sets of the proceedings of Sister Grand Lodges with which we
are in correspondence,
and take such other steps as may be necessary for the formation of a
On Dee. 5,
1871, the Library Committee appointed by resolution of the Grand Lodge
in June last,
fraternally beg leave to present their first annual report.
for organization was held on the 27th day of September, at which the
were chosen as officers:
Meyer, Chairman; M. Richards Muckle, Treasurer, and John Hanold,
time many meetings have been held, all of the books, papers, etc., in
of the Grand Secretary, Bro. John Thomson, properly belonging to this
were received. Contributions started to come in and the Library
commenced to grow.
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, October, 1871:
of the R. W. Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania contain resolutions passed as
March 26, 1787, and subsequently, on Oct. 7, 1816, and March 17, 1817,
efforts were made to establish a Library. Attention has also been at
called to the subject in the addresses of the R. W. Past Grand Master
Nothing appears however to have been accomplished, and the subject was
to rest until the Quarterly Communication held June 7, 1871.
on Library then solicited the membership to contribute such
Biographies, Essays, Addresses, etc., Masonic and anti-Masonic)
relating to Freemasonry
as they could, thereby assisting in the collection and the furnishing
to the brotherhood which would be accessible to all, and be productive
of much good,
both as to the dissemination of instruction and for the purpose of
acquainted with the subject of forming a Masonic Library, the very
to be encountered will be at once apparent. The entire history of each
and other Masonic bodies must be gone over to ascertain when organized,
first publication was issued and what years publications or meetings
Take for instance the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania:
Masonic book published in America was printed in the city of Brotherly
Love by Bro.
Benjamin Franklin in 1734, being a reprint of Anderson's Constitution.
is very rare, and would bring a high price to those engaged in
publication of the present Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania was "Smith's
Rezon," in 1783, published by direction of the Grand Lodge, and
our Bro. George Washington.
we find is a large folio-4-page sheet, being an abstract of proceedings
The size and shape of the publication from that year seemed to vary to
taste of the printer or Grand Secretary, and was confined principally
to lists of
expulsions, suspensions, etc. In 1801 brief extracts of proceedings
and were reduced to a size as much too small as before they had been
In 1823 another Constitution or Ahiman Rezon was published, which was
from Anderson's Constitution.
In 1850 the
present size of proceedings of the R. W. Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania
has grown and for the past 57 years of labor it has had a continuous
increase of material worthy of note, under the guidance of the members
of the Committee
on Library, and time has filled the book shelves and museum cases to
is now capable of furnishing the scholar, who is in search of Masonic
the means for the study of Freemasonry in its various branches.
It is gratifying
to know the interest in the Library and Museum is continually growing,
is daily sought by the members of the Fraternity.
Lodge Library has helped in the progressive work of the Committee on
assisting the lecturers from the different districts in their labors,
and by giving
the brethren from the various subordinate lodges information they have
to time requested.
resources of the Library are at the command of the Master Mason, and
staff are at all times glad to be of service.
registered in the Library for the year 1927 total 1169. They viewed the
collection contained therein, but it is only possible to display a
portion of the
museum collection owing to the lack of space.
number of volumes on the shelves in the Library total 19,117. The
contains 7721 specimens.
over 210,000 Master Masons in the State of Pennsylvania, 60,000 in the
city of Philadelphia;
565 lodges now hold warrants from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in
and there are 95 lodges meeting in Philadelphia, 87 lodges meeting in
Temple, Broad and Filbert streets.
Chapter Masons in the State of Pennsylvania, and between 18,000 and
20,000 in the
city of Philadelphia; 153 Chapters throughout the state and 19 in the
city of Philadelphia,
13 meet in the Masonic Temple, Broad and Filbert streets.
over 42,000 Knights Templar in the State of Pennsylvania and about
12,000 in Philadelphia;
98 Commanderies throughout the state and 8 meet in the Masonic Temple,
lodges are still in existence in Philadelphia; Girard Mark Lodge and
Lodge meet each month in the Temple.
Consistory, Valley of Philadelphia, now meets in its new temple, Broad
streets, and a large room has been set aside for a library, which, in
be the finest of its kind in this country.
Bro. T. S.
Southwick, Librarian of the Los Angeles Masonic Library, then discussed
problems of the local library. The Los Angeles library is not a Grand
nor yet the enterprise of an individual lodge. It is under the
management of the
Masonic Library Association, which is composed of representatives of
as care to contribute. Their ideas of library management are very
liberal and they
seem to think that the chief purpose of books is to have them read by
as many people
* * *
Operation of a Local
have their problems, which vary according to location, equipment,
etc. The library at Los Angeles is the outgrowth of a Mason's request
for used magazines
for the use of candidates and others waiting in the ante-room. It was
that a library association be formed. A conference with three lodges
assistance of five dollars per month from each of these lodges. In
time, other Masonic
bodies contributed also.
nominated a library committee of two or three brethren who were known
to the Library Board, and acted as an advisory directorate. Experience
that this kind of government or management is not satisfactory, because
made no reference to the selected individuals' fitness or interest in
Everything rested upon the Secretary who, of course, had his own
business to look
after. Unless the Secretary was especially altruistic, he did no more
than was absolutely
necessary. Most of the lodges felt a self-satisfaction if they
contributed a monthly
cheek, and did not advertise the library to their members. Now,
however, many of
the lodge bulletins give the library publicity by book reviews and
items of library
is constantly growing in patronage. Members of every lodge in the city
use the books.
In some of the lodges an assortment of books has been placed as a
branch. We place
as few restrictions as possible upon the borrower; for we want him to
read the books,
knowing it to be the best service we can render. Men today are so
they have little time for serious reading, and we do not insist upon a
a book in seven or fourteen days (some books cannot be digested in a
we do require that books be returned as promptly as possible after
think little of the intrinsic value of a shelf of books. They consider
means to an end. A library is not merely a collection of books; it is
institute. Education means the development of mental faculties for
to the relationships of life. The life of man improves in direct ratio
to his intellectual
Most of our
initiates are intelligent, cultured men and desire to know the meaning
of all the
steps of the degrees. Unless they do understand truth through the
symbols of the
ritual they cannot grasp the ideals and purpose of Masonry. If these
better acquainted with the library, they would know where to look for
and instruction in regard to the Masonic work.
read for them. We cannot thrust a book at them, but it is our privilege
books which may lead to a better understanding of the ritual and aims
of the Craft.
Books are the tools which help us to build high ideals, or to delve
history. A library is like potential energy; the student must release
is of great assistance to those who are doing research work. It
procures and gives
out books, pamphlets and other data necessary to such studies. For the
years, one of our brethren has been engaged in the preparation of
matter that will
be a reliable and valuable contribution to the Fraternity at large. He
arranged the Masonic affiliations and the important acts in the lives
of more than
nine hundred past and contemporary Masons of prominence. I allude to
Bauling, whom some of you may know through correspondence. He is an
worker, very particular about the accuracy and his source of knowledge
for his statements.
We are glad that our library has been of assistance to him in many of
and to furnish necessary information for his work.
We have frequent
requests for reports of proceedings of our Grand bodies, and are glad
to be able
to furnish them, as we have made a special work of collecting this
Such a collection contains the accurate history of our Craft throughout
and also many matters of special Masonic interest. Since the first
issue of a Grand
Lodge report, in 1734, there have been published about 13,700 of these
of which we have more than eleven thousand. We have also a large number
jurisdictions, and files of those from the General Grand bodies, Knight
Encampments, Supreme Council, A. A. S. R. of the Northern Jurisdiction,
and other Consistories. We will ever be grateful to our good friends,
Secretaries, whose patience we must often have tried by our insistent
With the exception of about six states, we have exhausted the available
our Grand Secretaries. However, they possess the knowledge that they
to the benefit of the Craft by placing in our library their reports and
them available to many brethren.
We hold monthly
meetings which any Master Mason may attend. At some of these we have a
address us on some topic of Masonic interest. In the future, when
favorable, we plan to have regular monthly meetings for the purpose of
and another monthly meeting for a discussion in open form. To
these activities, we should have a building of our own. At the present
time we are
restricted for room, cramped for finances and handicapped by lack of
some of the lodges.
that a Masonic library is a decided asset to the Fraternity, and now,
as in the
past, we are preparing our library for its work of tomorrow. Our income
very small, but by careful buying we have collected many valuable works
study, which we are confident will be required in the future. There are
Masons in the lodges of Los Angeles, and there are fifty thousand
of them probably permanently located with us, but unaffiliated. There
is no reason
why we should not in time be as important and as influential in Masonic
as the great library at Cedar Rapids Ia. now is.
reviewed in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of
at the prices given, which always include postage. These prices are
a matter of precaution) to change without notice, though occasion for
very seldom arise. Occasionally it may happen, where books are
that there is no supply available, but some indication of this will be
the review. The Book Department is equipped to procure any books in
print on any
subject, and will make inquiries for second-hand works and books out of
G.G. Coulton. Published by Blackwell, Oxford. Cloth, table of contents,
26 plates, appendix, index xxii and 622 pages. Price $9.65.
presents this as a source book on Mediaeval architecture and artisans.
It is this,
but it is much more also. Dr. Coulton is well and widely known as an
this subject and period, he is hardly less known for his literary
gifts. Even the
appendices, where not merely quotations, are interestingly written. The
prove indispensable for obtaining a correct idea of the conditions in
Mediaeval Freemasons lived and labored, and no Masonic student or
library can well
afford to be without it. For a more extended account see previous page.
De L'ordre Des Templiers
[Lib*] (Imprimes et Manuscrits). By M. Dessubre, with a preface
by Albert Lantoine. Published by Emile Nourry,
Paris. Paper, addenda, tables, xv and 324 pages. Price 50 francs.
is the fifth of the series of volumes being published by the firm of
The Library of Modern Initiation (Bibliotheque des Initiations
of which have already been reviewed In THE BUILDER. A bibliography is
not an exciting
kind of book, any more than a dictionary, but to the student it is a
no less indispensable.
by M. Albert Lantoine, were there space to translate it in full, would
an excellent critique and the reviewer can hardly do better than cite
informative passages from it.
us that there is no subject that has been treated at once more wisely
and more foolishly
than that of the Templars. And there is no doubt that those who have
to connect Freemasonry with them are more frequently to be put in the
than the former.
the motto put by Chevalier at the beginning of his great Bibliography
of the Middle
Ages, "Bibliography is the vestibule of Science," and says that
It is not
historians who will contradict this, for they know the inestimable
by those authors who with laborious tenacity task their ingenuity to
most complete documentation upon a given subject, and he goes on to
remark how much
time a bibliography intelligently employed will save a student.
Yet in spite
of the value of the service rendered by the bibliographer it seems that
it is the
most thankless task a scholar can undertake.
is an extremely ungrateful task. It always runs the risk of exciting
than praise, for an impossible quality is demanded of it which no one
of any other work, no less than perfection. The omissions, which are
are picked out in a spirit of criticism which may be strictly just, but
fair. Then, some want more information regarding the value of the books
others, contrary wise, judge that the bibliographer … should limit
to a dry list of titles. In short, it is most difficult to please the
one should never be upset by their ingratitude.
has, from the reviewer's point of view, very wisely and properly
conceived it his
duty to give, wherever it seemed called for, some note on the nature of
of the books and manuscripts mentioned. In some cases quite lengthy
in the work of Henri de Auryon, La
Règle du Temple,
the full Table of Contents is given, which
in itself contains much valuable information.
to save repetition the works have been listed in strict alphabetic
order by the
author's name, and where more than one work comes from the same writer
put in order of the date of publication. For cross reference there are
Classification at the end of the book, by the aid of which the works on
aspect of the subject, or of any special type, may be easily found.
has not expected any overwhelming demand for the work, as the edition
to five hundred numbered copies. It is, therefore, quite possible that
it will not
be very long before it is out of print. Every Masonic library should
possess a copy,
for it will be indispensable in any research work upon this most
highly controversial subject.
* * *
The Light Of
Jacob Slomovitz. Published by the Author. Boards, frontispiece, table
132 pages. Price 10/6.
is the Rabbi of a Jewish congregation in Kroonstad, in the old Orange
South Africa. He is evidently a scholar well versed in the Hebrew
the Talmud, and his interpretation of the symbolism of the Craft is
interesting, and will appeal to many Masons; though it is to be feared
many will be able to appreciate the arguments based on the exact form
words and phraseology. But there is enough aside from this to give
plenty of food
two main types of Masonic students, with many who partake more or less
of the characteristics
of both. There are those who are interested in the history of the
and simple, and those who are concerned only with its content. To put
it in a metaphor:
the first, are interested in the vehicle only, where was it made, who
did the work,
who bought it; while the second accept the fact that there is a vehicle
interested only in the nature of what it contains.
is really one of the last, but he has let some of his interest pass
over to the
historical aspects. The danger in such a case is that the history is
apt to be colored
and distorted to fit symbolical interpretations.
In the Preface
and Introduction we are told that the author shortly after his
initiation read a
number of books about Masonry. He does not mention any by name, but one
was evidently the History of Freemasonry by R. F. Gould. What is
curious in connection
with this is that the only one of the many theories concerning the
origin of Masonry
that Gould discussed that seems to have impressed itself on the
was that it was derived from India and transmitted by the gypsies! Now
a baffling writer in some respects. It was his habit to discuss both
sides of every
question in a most discursive way, seldom giving any indication as to
what his own
conclusions were. Bro. Slomovitz has quite misunderstood him here.
books that came into his hands would seem to be several by Dr. George
rather mixed diet! One hardly wonders that he set out to construct
himself. His first suggestion is not, we fear, a very happy one. It is
was introduced into England and America by Jews from Holland, or Spain,
in the last
part of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century. He accepts the
story of the
17th century working of Masonic "degrees" on Mordecai Campannell as the
alleged record spells the name. But there is so much doubt about the
of this alleged record, which no one but its reporter has ever seen,
that as a foundation
for a historical theory it is little better than a quicksand. From the
point of view, the great, and one might say insuperable, difficulty in
a theory of the Hebrew origin of Freemasonry, is that the further back
we go the
less it has about it characteristic of Hebrew thought or learning. In
forms known to us it contains nothing of this kind that is not
from the English versions of the Bible.
is by no means to say that Freemasonry as it exists is unaffected by
the lore of
Israel. This was undoubtedly largely drawn upon by ritualists and
the eighteenth century, and is especially evident in the various "high"
degrees. Including in that not only the Royal Arch but many of those
included in the system of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
One is inclined
to demur to a statement that "the translation of the word 'Aviv' or
was not known to the translators of the King James version of the Holy
from which Bro. Slomovitz infers that "Freemasonry was not introduced
England" at that time, 1611. With the conclusion we must agree; but it
not seem to follow from the premises. The word is translated as
or rather "his father," which is grammatically correct enough, although
the King James translators show no indication of realizing that it was
a term or
title of honor, and might have been rendered as lord, seigneur, master,
Doubtless they must have realized it was not to be taken literally.
first English versions were translated from the Latin of the Vulgate,
based on the Greek translation of the Hebrew known as the Septuagint;
in his revision of the Latin version went to the original Hebrew as it
his day. In the Vulgate the word "Aviv" is translated into the
of "his father," and thus appeared when again translated, into English,
by Wiklif and his forerunners. The first English printed Bible, that of
and the next by Matthew, and his successor Taverner, were taken direct
original Hebrew, and in them "Aviv" is not translated, but appears as
part of a proper name, "Hiram Abif." The Bishop's bible returned to
his father," and all versions since have done the same.
thus appear that the third degree legend probably took its present form
in the few
years that these versions of the Bible were in circulation. Which,
however, is not
saying that it was then invented or introduced.
a number of other points in the book to which exception might be taken
purely historical point of view, but to enumerate them might give an
If read as an interpretation of the content of Freemasonry it will not
and no doubt many will find it most valuable.
* * *
J. Walter Hobbs. Published by the Masonic Record, Ltd., London. Cloth.
contents, 118 pages. Price $2.00.
another of the excellent series of books published by the Masonic
what is now the well-known and distinctive pale blue binding. The
present work is
naturally prepared with a view to the habits and usages of the English
of course lessens to some extent its value to the American Mason who
needs aid and
assistance in these matters. Nevertheless a great deal of it could be
only those minor additions and changes that would have to be made in
any case to
fit the particular circumstances, while most of the remainder would
It is probable
that the ability to speak is still more general in the United States
than in England;
it was certainly so a generation ago. Perhaps Americans are not quite
so fond of
oratory as they once were, and, the demand slackening, the supply may
off. But the present work is not intended to give models for orations
or the art
of eloquence in general. Its scope is much more limited and practical.
that intermediate field in lodge life that falls between the ritual and
addresses and speeches or lectures. Such matters as introducing and
formal presentations and so on. For these are given most admirable
it would in many cases be well worth the while of lodge officers to
learn by heart.
Mason in looking through the book will probably be struck by the great
occasions when such little speeches and replies may be required in an
It will indicate that there is something there that has been lost in
institutions. An English lodge is still a workshop, ours are huge
on a high production basis. It may be that a perusal of the book may
give an incoming
Master some ideas as to what may be done in the way of lodge amenities
and promote the fraternal spirit.
* * *
and Physician of King Zoser, and afterwards The Egyptian God of
Medicine [Lib 1926]. By Jamieson B. Hurry, M. A.,
D. Published by the Oxford University Press. Cloth, illustrated, index
xvi and 118
pages. Price $2.65.
perhaps no more fascinating reading than the history of an individual
a powerful influence in his lifetime, and whose record persists over a
three thousand years. Such an individual was Imhotep, who lived in the
King Zoser, a Pharaoh of the IIIrd Dynasty (circa 2980-2900 B. C.) at
he was Vizier. The office of Vizier was of such importance and covered
such a multiplicity
of activities that it was entrusted to men of the most outstanding
men whose qualifications must have been far greater than the existing
bear witness to, for they were capable in every field of human
endeavor, and conferred
imperishable fame on their Royal Masters. Of these brilliant
was pre-eminent, for in recognition of his skill in the healing art he
to the status of a demi-god and exalted eventually to complete
apotheosis as the
Egyptian God of Medicine.
The son of
a distinguished architect named Kanofer, Imhotep was a notable member
of that profession
and the author suggests that it is probable that he designed and
construction of the Step-Pyramid of Sakkarah, near Memphis, the
constructed of hewn stone. This pyramid, a transition between the
of the earlier kings and the true pyramid form met with later was
destined to become
the repository of the bones of King Zoser. Imhotep is also associated
with the building
of the first temple at Edfu.
be one of the greatest of Egyptian sages, Imhotep produced works on
architecture as well as on more general subjects, and his proverbs were
interest of this book, however, lies in the claim set forth for the
of Imhotep as the patronal deity of medicine, a claim incomparably
older than that
of his semi-mythical rival Asklepios (Aesculapius). The elevation of
the status of demi-god had been formerly associated with the religious
occurred at the advent of the New Kingdom (1580 B. C.) but relying on
of one of Oxyrhyncus Papyri, dating probably from the second century A.
possibility is now assumed of his being an object of worship as early
as the IVth
Dynasty. The narrative of Nechautis, the writer of the papyrus in
question, is related
in some detail, throwing light, as it does, on the practice of
incubation and the
use of Temples as centers of healing.
It was not
until 525 B. C., however, that Imhotep was assigned a divine father in
of Ptah and became a member of the triad of Memphis-Ptah, Sekhmet and
the possible influence of Hellenism he was gradually assimilated with
god, Asklepios the fusion of Greek and Egyptian deities being quite
were built in his honor, one at Memphis becoming a famous hospital and
magic and medicine, while portions exist to the present day of another
his worship extending well into the Roman period. The deification of an
mortal, a rare honor, is attributed by Maspero to the cumulative
of architect, physician, sage and magician.
In the presentation
of his subject the author has drawn on his personal researches in
gone to authoritative sources for material. There is a great deal of
in the appendixes and numerous footnotes, and an excursus on ancient
will be of particular interest to the medical profession.
* * *
Sir Alfred Robbins. Published by Ernest Bern, Ltd. Paper, 80 pages.
Price 25 cents.
author is not only a publicist of high standing, and President of the
Board of General
Purposes of the United Grand Lodge of England, but, and this in the
eyes of Masonic
students will not be the least of his claims to distinction, he is also
a Past Master
of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 2076.
professional qualifications plus those of a historian, make him
man to handle the subject of this little book, which is one of a series
with aspects of history, ancient and modern, which are largely
neglected in the
regular textbooks. It is usually just such by-paths that are the most
work covers in brief compass the history of the development of means
news. It is remarkable that, while compressed, the account is not
merely a bare
synopsis. A most difficult thing to accomplish. The story is told. very
in the words of contemporaries, of the different stages the printed
news sheet passed
through in its evolution into the modern newspaper. We are reminded
that it long
existed under sufferance and supervision. That governments feared it,
concerned with it had little favor from law, from judges or from kings
counsellors. However, it persisted, chiefly because there was such an
demand. Thus gradually from irregular suppression, through hostile
Press in civilized countries without dictators, is free, and is a
for the preservation of the liberties of all free peoples.
* * *
Joseph Gollomb. Published by The Macmillan Company. Cloth, Table of
pages. 6x8 inches. Price $2.65.
A short history
of spies which is gripping as only true stories of adventure can be.
is laid upon some of the modern spies, but there are stories that go
back into the
very remote past.
* * *
"Soul" Of The
Lucien Levy-Bruel. Published by The Macmillan Company. Cloth, Table of
Index, 851 pages. 6x8 3/4 inches. Price $5.25.
It is hardly
necessary to comment upon another work by this celebrated student of
of the primitive. Those who are interested in the subject will find
this a valuable
Question Box and Correspondence
articles you are publishing by Bro. Hungerford appeal to me as being
is needed at the present time. I do not wish to decry research and
study into the
history of the Order. We are interested in that, of course, and proud
to the oldest Fraternity in existence, but still what we need is
to the future. Such discussions as these help us in this, and I hope we
a lot of good ideas from the further articles that are promised us.
J. S. C., Illinois.
I think Bro.
Hungerford is getting very near the danger line in his article,
especially the one
in the December number. It is one of the landmarks of Freemasonry that
of religious questions is barred. While I have no doubt he has the
the Craft at heart, I hope he will not overstep the proper limits in
M. B., Mississippi.
in his second article, has, in my opinion, put his finger on one of the
of our American civilization, the "menace of materialism." Christ
his disciples, we are told, by telling them that a camel could pass
through a needle's
eye sooner than a rich man could enter the Kingdom of Heaven. We can
that he meant this poetic expression of practical impossibility to be
taken as absolute,
as covering every ease in all circumstances. As a general maxim,
applicable to the
majority of eases, is it not true within our own observation? It seems
to me that
it must be equally true of communities and nations as well as of
United States by comparison is the richest nation in the world, the
that has ever been. It is not only a question of money or credit, but
of goods and luxuries. Indeed things that are regarded as luxuries of
or at least of the well-to-do in other countries, with us are regarded
that even the poorest working people must have.
Is it not
true that it is the races that are poorest in material things are
richest in spiritual
ideals, and religious and ethical leaders? The Jews were a poor people
own land, compared with the neighboring empires, of Egypt, Babylon;
even the Philistines
and the Tyrians had more wealth and luxury. The western world owes all
to the Jews; the contributions, if such may be called, of other ancient
are current only in restricted circles of cranks and occultists.
the dependence on material things, the feeling of self-sufficiency that
give, are a hindrance and a danger to the spiritual life. Freemasonry
on the side of idealism, of altruism, of high ethical standards in
life. But is
not American Freemasonry also in danger of a surfeit of material
wealth, so that
members of the Order are thinking of their own interests and ambitions
of opportunities to aid their brethren in need and to do good to all
at least it has seemed to me, and I welcome any honest attempt to face
American Freemasonry stands by a belief in God, and in a future life;
and it holds
by the Bible as the rule and guide not only of our faith but of our
cannot avoid contact with religious belief or religious questions; and
to my mind
we have been too cowardly in the past in dealing with them. It may be
in theory to fit in the claims of Freemasonry and those of the
We can see there is a border land where they overlap. But I am sure
that no religious
minded Mason has ever found any difficulty in practice. Nothing in
least that conflicts with the practice of his religion, where his
church does not
arbitrarily oppose Masonry. And there it is not a matter of faith but
of rules and
So let us
have more of such discussions, and perhaps we may have a real revival
in the Craft
and begin to count by quality and not by numbers.
G. C. D., California.
* * *
Lodges and the Bible
ago I recall reading the reason why the Bible was removed from the
altar of Masonic
Lodges in France, but I cannot recall the particulars. It may have been
in THE BUILDER,
but if so I do not seem able to find it in any of the indexes.
E. P. H., Florida.
have been incidental references to this subject in THE BUILDER, but
deemed of sufficient importance to be noted in the index. As a matter
of fact Bro.
E. P. H. has been misled by the very inaccurate information that is so
so dogmatically repeated. The Bible could not have been removed from
the altar of
French lodges for two good reasons, one because in the first place the
never on the altar and the second because there is no altar.
naturally think in terms of the ritual and usages to which they are
and the American brethren are not to be specially blamed for failing to
what very wide variations have always existed in ritual forms; though
in responsible positions might be expected to inform themselves only
too often they
has always been great freedom in the matter of ritual in most European
and especially so in France. Though Grand Lodges and Grand Orients
official rituals it was seldom or never made obligatory to follow them.
did follow the custom of Anglo-Saxon Masonry, so far at least as to use
or the New Testament, or the Book of the Gospels, in obligating
thus placed it with other paraphernalia on the pedestal of the Master
of the lodge.
In other places the Book of Constitutions took its place, and sometimes
a Book of
blank pages, which was regarded as a symbol of universal moral law.
of the Grand Orient of France was occasioned not by any action taken
Bible but on account of the official disuse of the phrase "the Grand
of the Universe." The story is a long and complicated one, and cannot
here. But it can be said that in the light of the previous history of
France, its peculiar difficulties and the conditions under which it
the action taken was, not inevitable perhaps, but certainly most
convinced we may be that the severance of relations by American Grand
right, we should at least base our judgment upon the facts and not upon
exaggerated statements, many of which are derived entirely from the
the opponents of Freemasonry, not only in France but throughout the
* * *
I have read
with interest your August issue relating to the Ancient and Illustrious
Knights of Malta, and have noticed they claim a pointed fish-tail white
cross. I have seen this emblem on Templar uniforms. Who is the better
J. H. B., Pa.
are two sides to this question; whether the title to this badge or
emblem is to
be taken as a legal one or as a moral one.
eight-point or fish-tail Maltese Cross was adopted many centuries ago
by the Order
of the Knights of St. John, variously known as of Jerusalem, Rhodes and
is a well-recognized rule regarding heraldic bearings or coats of arms
descend in different branches of a family, frequently with some
addition or change,
technically known as a "difference." The same rule was naturally
to organizations. A somewhat similar case is in regard to the
well-known grant of
arms to the Mason's Company of London. Many of the other Mason's gilds,
England and even in Scotland, seem to have assumed they had a right to
and individual Masons also. There is no record that any objection was
to this, though the grant was not made to the Craft but to the
case of the Knights of Malta there are, as the recent articles in THE
shown, a number of recognized or legitimate branches which can all
prove their connection
and descent from the original Order. These all use the ancient emblem.
and Illustrious Order of Knights of Malta claims legitimate descent, so
the Masonic Order of Knights of Malta. It follows from the rule that if
descended they equally have a right to this particular form of cross.
of the emblem may be taken as an indirect statement of their claim.
legal point of view there is first of all the question of priority of
is complicated further by the question whether it is original priority
in the United States. If either or both the claims to descent are good
is here expressed on that score) the question of original priority does
for as has been said the right of one descendant does not exclude the
right of another.
If we take priority in the United States only, then as between these
the Masonic of Malta has the better claim, as it was in existence at
of the nineteenth century certainly and probably before, while the
other was not
introduced into this country till 1870.
does not fully cover the legal aspect. Designs are to be taken as a
whole. The official
and copyrighted emblem of the more recently introduced organization
eight-point cross as component part, but in combination with other
cross by itself has been in use so long, and has been used so
frequently as an element
of designs, heraldic and other, that it must be regarded as public
not pretended that this opinion is final, but it will show the complex
the considerations on which the question has to be judged.
* * *
letter was addressed to the Editor of "The Missouri Freemason," which
reprinted in a recent issue all the matter that had been published in
under this head. The letter was passed on to us as a curiosity, and as
we are presenting it to our readers.
I have just
come across a copy of The Freemason and certainly was more disgusted
with the piffle under the heading "Masonic Satanism."
I think you,
as a Mason, and Masons are supposed to be broadminded and tolerant, to
all men and
creeds should have more dignity or respect for the Craft than publish
rotten rubbish. I do not say that you have composed the rubbish which
for your comments are of a broader mind, but why publish it at all, it
to keep up bad feeling. Many small towns here in the East have both
and Knights of Columbus and both have combined and picnicked together.
That is a
feeling which should exist everywhere, but by the publication of such
only tends to keep up the feeling of hatred engendered by one of the
who, because he was not allowed the passwords, etc., without the
obligation of becoming
a Mason (as many of the previous Popes had done) issued a Bull
Catholics. My father was a 33rd Degree Mason in New York City. I am a
became a Mason in Scotland, as much to find out the truth of all this
about Masons as anything. I was secretary and treasurer of a School of
and left Masonry because I became disgusted with the lack of sincere
the codes to which each had sworn an oath to obey. Charity, one of the
was practiced for self-aggrandizement within the lodge. In other words,
is not what it is supposed to be and they (with very few exceptions) do
what they preach. I can get no assistance to employment, even from the
in New York City. You are hail fellow well met when you have plenty of
Masons here, but can go to hell when you ask them to help you get
was so intrigued by this communication that he wrote to Mr. Toope as
I must confess
I fail quite to see your point in your letter of Sept. 5th to "The
Freemason." I should be glad to have it made clear.
to Masonic journals reproducing accusations made against the Fraternity
Catholic periodicals. Do you also object to the latter doing this?
I agree that
the accusations are rubbish, and even that the adjectives you employ
but why should we be criticized for informing our readers of what is
about us? It is certainly of some importance to us to know it.
throw doubt on the truth of the quotations but the journal in which
was cited. You can write to its editor for copies if you wish to verify
no doubt that the majority of Masons are good friends with Roman
Catholics as neighbors
and fellow citizens, and desire so to continue. There is equally no
doubt that your
church as a church is very hostile to Masonry. Why pretend it is not so
knows it is?
is evidently a bird of passage as this letter was returned marked
address unknown." Further comment we will leave to our readers if
* * *
Bulls Against Masonry
the Roman Church issue an edict against Masonry and why?
H. J. K., Minn.
sake of new readers of THE BUILDER we will briefly answer this question
first formal condemnation of Freemasonry was in 1783, when Clement XII
Bull In eminenti [Lib 1738]). This condemnation, which is
drastic and sweeping as it could well be, has been frequently
reaffirmed since then.
Full particulars may be found in the Catholic Encyclopaedia, which is
to be found
in most public libraries. THE BUILDER treated the subject fully in
volumes 2, 4
and 6, and also later.
why, is harder to answer. We can only judge by probabilities, as
naturally we cannot
admit the reasons officially given, that Masonry is treasonable,
of all true religion and piety, etc., etc. The occasion of the first
Bull was the
discovery of a lodge in Rome. All despotic governments are inevitably
of any associations among their subjects, and much more so of one with
signs and passwords and so on. That in itself was reason enough for the
the temporal sovereign of the Papal States, to condemn it. But not
civil enactments and police action, he carried his opposition over into
realm, and made his condemnation universal.
Roman Church is justified, from its standpoint, in condemning Masonry
must be admitted.
The principles and spirit of the Craft are quite incompatible with
those of Romanism.
It is freedom and tolerance against intolerance and autocracy. The two
in the nature of things. To be just we have to recognize this.
* * *
Red Cross of Constantine
like to know if the Order of the Red Cross of Constantine has ever been
in Canada, and if so, in what places.
C. E. H., Canada.
We are informed
by the Rev. Bro. C. G. Lawrence, of St. John, N. B., that sixty years
was organized in St. John a lodge of the Masonic and Military Order of
the Red Cross
of Constantine and Knights of the Holy Sepulchre and St. John the
was registered as McLeod Moore Conclave, No. 13, by the Imperial
Council of England,
and the Warrant was issued by Lord Kenliss, subsequently the Earl of
was the first Conclave of the Order on the North American continent,
and is now
the only one in operation in Canada. The officers elected for 1929 are:
S. Sawaya, M. P. S.; Stanley M. Wetmore, Esq., yen. Eus.; Albert C.
S. G.; J. W. Duncan, Esq., J. G.; Rev. C. G. Lawrence, Prelate; Col. M.
Treas. The membership has been slightly increased during the past year.
History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
Supply Co., 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 594. - 24.5 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 004 - 1891
Ars91 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1891. - Vol. 4 : p. 305. - 80.7 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 028 - 1915
Ars15 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Reylands W. H.. - London :
AQC, 1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 268. - 215.4 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And38 / auth. Anderson James. - London : J. Robinson, 1738. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 249. - 16.2 MB.
Bull - In Eminenti
Pop38 / auth. Pope Clement XII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1738. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 4. - 0.2 MB.
Cra26 / auth. Crawley Chetwode. - 1726. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 20. - 2.0 MB.
Collected Essays &
Papers Related to Freemasonry
Gou131 / auth. Gould Robert F. - Belfast : William Tait, 1913. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 313. - 14.3 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
Imhotep the Vizier and
Physician of King Zoser
Hur26 / auth. Hurry Jamieson B. - Oxford : Oxford University Press,
1926. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 143. - 14.7 MB.
Masonic Sketches and Reprints
Hug71 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : George Kenning, 1871. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 158. - 4.2 MB.
Pri30 / auth. Prichard Samuel. - London : Charles Corbett, 1730. - 20th
Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 35. - 1.7 MB.
The Monks of the West Vol 1
Mon61MW1 / auth. Montalembert Charles F. de. - London : William
Blackwood & Sons, 1861. - Vol. 1 : 7 : p. 527. - 33.2 MB.
The Monks of the West Vol 2
Mon61MW2 / auth. Montalembert Charles F. de. - London : William
Blackwood & Sons, 1861. - Vol. 2 : 7 : p. 559. - 25.4 MB.
The Monks of the West Vol 3
Mon67MW3 / auth. Montalembert Charles F. de. - London : William
Blackwood & Sons, 1867. - Vol. 3 : 7 : p. 480. - 31.8 MB.
The Monks of the West Vol 4
Mon67MW4 / auth. Montalembert Charles F. de. - London : William
Blackwood & Sons, 1867. - Vol. 4 : 7 : p. 492. - 18.8 MB.
The Monks of the West Vol 5
Mon67MW5 / auth. Montalembert Charles F. de. - London : William
Blackwood & Sons, 1867. - Vol. 5 : 7 : p. 373. - 17.3 MB.
The Monks of the West Vol 6
Mon79MW6 / auth. Montalembert Charles F. de. - London GB : William
Blackwood & Sons, 1879. - Vol. 6 : 7 : p. 604. - 30.2 MB.
The Monks of the West Vol 7
Mon79MW7 / auth. Montalembert Charles F. de. - London : William
Blackwood & Sons, 1879. - Vol. 7 : 7 : p. 639. - 41.5 MB.