Masonic Research Society
What’s the Matter with Freemasonry?
By Bro. Herbert Hungerford
of a Series of Outspoken Articles of Critical Analysis and Constructive
on Present Day Problems of Our Ancient Fraternity
the author of a striking and provocative book, “Seeing Both Sides of
in the present series hopes to show Masons that there are two sides to
by to which they belong. We fully expect that these articles will
pain many good brethren, but the only way to escape judgment by the
world, for men
and for societies both, is to forestall it by self-criticism, and
that which needs amendment or modification.
this question strike you? Does the implication that there may possibly
the matter with Masonry instinctively arouse an attitude of resentment?
Do you feel
that our beloved Fraternity, like Caesar's wife, must surely be "above
and beyond reproach?" Do you cherish any sort of subconscious notion
is something disloyal about an inquiry as to whether or not Freemasonry
the challenge of our times and living up to the principles it professes?
resenting the implication of our question, you may take just the
Possibly, you may belong to the "anvil chorus" of your lodge and,
our question inspires you with sort of an unholy hope that somebody is
give the Fraternity a good "ripping up the back."
Or, you may
pass over our question with the indifference that seems to characterize
majority of those who have been enrolled in our Fraternity, with the
difference does it make anyway?" Since less than 20 per cent of our
regularly attend their lodges, and a disproportionately large number
show no sign
that their membership in the Fraternity has made any real impression
lives, it must be expected that these inactive brethren are apt to be
regarding any question reflecting either credit or discredit upon
On the other
hand, our question may not arouse you, personally, to any of the
mentioned; yet I am sure you will admit that many of your brethren will
our question in one of these three ways. You may be alive to the fact
that we are
living in a challenging age, in which every social agency or
institution, no matter
how ancient its origin or honorable its history, is now being subjected
to a critical
analysis to determine whether or not it is keeping pace with progress
its full share in serving the needs of our times. Surely, a society
which so emphatically
advocates the seeking for light, more light, and still further light,
shun the searching rays of a critical survey turned upon its own aims,
and achievements. Surely, as every student of its teaching knows, the
Freemasonry was not intended, and should never be used, to hide
to the Craft.
will not deny that the mere suggestion of a critical study of
Freemasonry will be
received by many of our brethren in at least one of the three ways
This fact alone, I believe, would fully justify our series of studies,
there were not so many additional objectives to be gained.
when I mentioned the mere possibility of this undertaking to one of the
of my lodge, he immediately began to raise objections before I had a
chance to explain
anything further about my intentions than the fact that a critical
survey of the
Fraternity was contemplated. This cautious brother counseled: "Leave
criticism of our Fraternity to outsiders. Masonry always has had plenty
to point out its faults and shortcomings, and to throw brickbats at it,
any need for its own members doing any inside knocking. You ought to
old saying that 'It's a bad bird that befouls its own nest' and so you
lay off doing anything but boosting for your own Fraternity."
Now, I contend,
that this "sacred cow" attitude is one of the outstanding faults of the
Craft in America. Probably it is an inherent shortcoming of all secret
The impressive ceremonies of initiation, possibly, may suggest that
there is something
sacrosanct or superhuman about such a fraternity that no ordinary
dare to question, much less criticize.
We Ostrich-Like Bury Our Heads In The Sand?
Freemasonry is a gloriously human institution, and actually lays
emphasis upon the
facts of the frailty and weakness of the mortals who comprise its
if we should heed the warnings of some misguided Masonic "boosters," no
one would ever venture the suggestion that anything about our
possibly be improved. According to the views of these blind devotees to
the Fraternity was so perfectly and divinely devised originally that it
is now beyond
the power of any human agency to improve its plans or programs. The
real facts are
that, while the roots of Freemasonry are grounded in antiquity, the
body and branches
of the Fraternity always have been alive and vigorous, and,
growing. Our ever green emblem, the sprig of Acacia, is not merely a
symbol of individual
immortality, it also suggests the immortality of our always-living and
In the same
way that too much self-esteem stunts the spiritual growth of any
too much pride in its own superiority, with consequent resentment of
hinders the growth of any society. Constructive criticism always has
been the great
stimulus for progress and growth of all institutions. So, in
undertaking a series
of investigations of the present relationships of Freemasonry with its
institutions and their problems, I am breaking no precedents.
has been freely criticized in the past, from the inside, as well as by
enemies without its walls of secrecy.
outline of the objective of our series is not submitted as an apology
to clear up my readers' understanding as to my motives and to explain
I propose to employ in conducting my investigations. In particular, I
hope to make
clear the cooperative character of my studies and to urge you, as a
for your Fraternity, to join with us to the end that our combined
foster the continued growth and further extend the beneficent influence
of our beloved
course of this series, I propose considering every criticism that has
against the present day activities of our Craft, including the slurs
and slams of
careless or uninformed outside critics as well as the more serious
shortcomings by those within the walls of our fraternal fold.
such an inquiry should start with the question as to what extent the
is living up to its own ideals and accomplishing its stated purpose.
I propose frankly to face our first question:
What Extent Is Membership Today Improving, Morals: Building
is a fair question, since it is in no sense a secret that the chief
Freemasonry is character building.
That it is
a question frequently raised by outsiders, a few recent incidents will
At the annual smoker of a club composed mainly of Masons, Will Rogers,
entertainer for the occasion, told this story, which I am relating,
to reproduce the inimitable drawl of the world-famous comedian.
"Back home in Oklahoma, when I
was a boy,"
said Will, "there used to be an old character living in our town who
living shooting oil wells. He used to go clattering about the country
old pair of mules and a rattling old buckboard which was loaded with
of nitroglycerine while the old well-shooter himself always was loaded
liquor. Nobody in our town could ever remember seeing him completely
naturally, everybody expected that someday there would be an accident
and he would
be blown to kingdom come. But, no matter how tight the old boy got, he
to be able to attend to his business. Of course, lots of folks tried to
of his danger and to reform his wicked ways. I remember one day my dad
got to talking
with this old fellow. "Jim," says dad, "are you a Shriner?"
"Nope," answered Jim. "Are you a Knight Templar?" dad inquired
next. "Nope," was Jim's reply. "Well, you surely must be a Mason,
aren't you?" dad persisted. "No sir'ee, Mr. Rogers," Jim answered
cheerfully. "I ain't no Mason, nor an Oddfellow, nor an Elk; I'm jest
dig at shortcomings very generally supposed to be typical of certain
which our famous comedian put over so cleverly, was recently expressed
with evident intent of "getting a rise” out of our good friend Dr. S.
Cadman, in a letter which recently appeared in his column in "The New
Tribune." This critic's letter to Dr. Cadman, who is one of the Grand
of New York state, asked the doctor to explain why so many Freemasons
of the letter-writer's
acquaintance were such "intemperate and dissolute characters," whereas
it was generally understood that every Masonic Lodge is supposed to
uphold high moral principles and practices among its members. Dr.
this critic by asserting that those Masons who are guilty of such
conduct are the
rare exceptions and, therefore, must not be regarded as representative
of the general
moral attitude and behavior upheld by the Fraternity as a whole.
this criticism of the misbehavior of certain bibulous brethren seems to
common and I am not so sure that it is not fairly well justified. While
by no means admit that Masons are less temperate than other men outside
still I think that the Fraternity falls far short of living up to one
of the principal
tenets that it professes to inculcate and practice.
the question as to whether by joining a Masonic Lodge a man may learn
to subdue his appetites and improve his behavior is not the main issue
of this particular
inquiry. Surely it must be admitted that our ceremonials of initiation
do not transform
weak, frail mortals into angels of light. Likewise, it does not seem
to expect Masonic behavior to rank very much above that of average
passing on to another phase of this inquiry, I desire to register my
the common practice of meeting every criticism of Masonic morality with
retort that "Masonry is not a reform school." No one pretends that it
is, because it is an open secret that lodges attempt to guard their
portals by making
fairly strict inquiries into the past behavior and moral character of
admission into the Fraternity.
On the other
hand, if the answer to one of the first questions put up to each
not clearly state the moral objective of all Masonic activities; in
fact, if the
entire Masonic ritual does not instill plain principles of morality and
the fact that Masonry is a cultural agency, definitely aiming at the
its members and the advancement of all humanity, then I have been sadly
as to the meaning of the English language.
let us view this matter from another angle by considering a
of ritualism. This particular criticism, of course, is not confined to
but is directed against all secret societies or institutions in which
ceremonials constitute a principal factor. The question is: Does
Morality by Substituting Emotion for Effort?
principle involved in this criticism, which many prominent
psychologists have directed
against the performing of ceremonials or the reciting of creeds, is the
the idea expressed by the Great Teacher who said, "Be ye doers of the
not hearers only."
students of psychology argue that persons addicted to creeds and
fail to make correct distinctions between words and deeds. By reciting
the individual is apt to feel that he has actually accomplished a
worthy work, therefore
his real deeds or doings may not square up with his moral professions.
I doubt if
any unprejudiced observer will deny that this danger exists, although I
that one psychologist has carried this criticism too far when he claims
are our modern Pharisees who 'love the uppermost rooms at feasts and
the chief seats
at the synagogue, and greetings in the markets, and to be called of
I have stated, this seems a bit thick, still I believe it would not be
a bad idea
for every Freemason, particularly Masters of lodges, to read the
of St. Matthew and, thereby, learn something about the shortcomings of
addicts of ritualism, the Pharisees.
may never have heard any person bragging that he was "a good Mason."
you have never met a brother Mason who could recite the ritual
backwards, yet has
never begun to put into practice the real principles of our profession.
though you may never have heard this effect of too much ritualism upon
morality of members, surely you have heard another phase of this
by the following question: Is the Average Lodge of Thy Twentieth
a Decree Mill?
districts, this certainly is the most frequent inside complaint against
activities of our order. The claim is made that most city lodges are
devote their chief attention to the business of putting candidates
through the mill,
in order to provide necessary funds for Grand Lodge assessments and
increasing expenses all down the line. In many lodges, each successive
to break the membership and money-raising records of preceding
In a personal
canvass of as many absentee members of my lodge as I could reach during
as Master, the most frequent excuse given for not attending lodge was
that the constant
repetition of degree ceremonials was tiresome and boring. For instance,
exceptionally intelligent member, a professional man of considerable
told me frankly "I would just as soon attend the sessions of a Chinese
as to sit in lodge and hear nothing but that same old stuff droned over
again until it sounds like a mere rigmarole to most of the men on the
excuse for non-attendance was the objection to the frequent drives for
meetings. "Why should I come to lodge and be held up for some fund or
when it is easier and less expensive to go out in the street and be
held up by a
by one of our brothers, of course, is not in keeping with the spirit of
nevertheless, it represents a real criticism and, possibly, explains to
why some members seldom attend their lodge meetings. Furthermore, I am
not so sure
that the complaint against commercialized charity is not more or less
by the way some of the fundraising campaigns are conducted in many
lodges. It seems
to me that some of our Masonic fund-raising drives contain more of the
brass and tinkling cymbal" element than they do of the real spirit of
which "vaunteth not itself" and "is not puffed up.”
"Button" And "Knife And Fork" Members
In all cases
where the modern competitive spirit enters into our fraternal
activities and whenever
lodges strive after quantity rather than quality records of membership,
against making a degree mill out of the lodge seems justified.
Likewise, it doubtless
accounts for another common criticism of our order, represented by the
the truth of the old maxim that "There must be fire where there is so
smoke," it surely must be admitted that this particular criticism is
You hear the characterization of "button Masons" and "belly Masons"
everywhere you may go. Surely you have met many whose main activities
consists of buying a pin nearly as big as a fireman's badge which they
conspicuously as possible everywhere they go. Likewise, you will
probably have to
admit that there are a good many members of your own lodge who never
come out to
any meetings excepting the ones which provide a free feed. The
popularity of the
"Fourth Degree" in Freemasonry is comparable to the popularity of the
"Nineteenth Hole" in golf. Some of our brethren appear to be deaf to
everything excepting the call "from labor to refreshment."
of course, merely represents a common weakness of frail humanity;
also indicates a shortcoming and handicap to the progress of the more
and praiseworthy practices in our Craft. Surely, we have "missed the
our high calling," if we have failed to impress our candidates with the
that Freemasonry means far more than either social or business
it cannot be denied that this particular criticism is based upon fairly
faults of human beings rather than any serious shortcoming of our
us, therefore, as our final question, consider a criticism which is
definitely concerned with our customary lodge activities.
Masonic Meetings Devoted Mainly To "Backpatting, Blah
Here is a
criticism that comes from a representative of our rather boisterous and
obstreperous "younger generation," a young man of my own profession who
has achieved quite a brilliant reputation in the magazine field. If you
language rather loose and the criticism somewhat extravagant, please
bear in mind
that I am attempting to give it to you as I received it. Likewise, pray
do not overlook
the fact that this criticism represents a fairly common point of view
of our younger brothers.
"I quit coming to lodge because
that most Masonic meetings are devoted mainly to backpatting, blah and
lodge night I used to go home with a pain in the neck from listening to
old windbag spouting a lot of stewed bologna about the grand and
of some other old windbag. Then, after the first hot-air artist ran out
the old bird who had been all puffed up at hearing himself lied about
would have to get up and hand back a big line of blah-blah to the big
merchant who began the palaver."
If any of
our older readers are unable to understand the above, get one of the
of your lodge to translate it. Incidentally your younger brother may
give you an
"earful" of information as to the attitude of the Masons upon whom the
destinies of the Craft will depend tomorrow.
note that I have made little attempt to elaborate or comment upon the
raised in the questions which have been presented. My hope has been to
interest in these problems and to obtain your observations or views
You may deny
that any or all of these criticisms are in any degree justified. You
may pass lightly
over them as minor matters, deserving of little or no consideration.
You may hold
that these affairs should be kept under cover and never discussed in
any such a
public forum as the pages of a magazine. But, I contend, that if you
are a true
friend of our Fraternity you will frankly face these issues, and try to
to what extent they are operative in our lodges. Likewise, if you are
able to contribute
your bit or observation or experience towards the solution of these
in answering the questions that have been raised in this article, you
will be rendering
a real service to the Craft by participating in this discussion.
Address your letters
of comment, criticism or suggestion to the Editor of THE BUILDER.
John's Public Health Work
IN the purposes
of the Order of the Hospital of St John it is declared that the Order
for "The instruction of the public in the elementary principles and
of nursing and hygiene, especially of the sick room. To do all things
promote the public health and well-being of our home communities and of
of the Order and such other persons as may need or desire its
is also stated that the Order will work for "The securing of Special
for the care and education of physically defective children," and for
establishment and operation of Training Camps for the physical
education of men
and women, boys and girls."
It may well
be said that sickness is fast becoming a prohibitive luxury in America.
are unfortunate enough to have had any experience with the payment of
will readily agree with this statement:
If the patient
is very ill and requires a day and night nurse then the cost may be
from $20 to
$25 a day, plus the doctors’ fees. A week or more of this and the
sees bankruptcy ahead. Present day hospitals seem to provide for the
needs of two
classes of our population, the well-to-do and the poor. The first class
to pay hospital bills, while the poor secure some form of free
treatment. The great
middle class, without sufficient income to finance a hospital illness
and too self-respecting
to accept charity, are compelled to care for their sick in their homes.
It is the
plan of the Order of St. John to provide hospital accommodations at
for this class of our population.
for caring for the sick in the home finds the average family woefully
do so, no matter how willing. It may be possible to pay the bills but
is lacking. Neighbors and friends help out, and perhaps a "practical
a partially trained woman, may be secured. There is a real need for
of women and girls in the "elementary principles and practices of
hygiene, especially of the sick room." The public schools can and
such instruction. The hospitals could organize classes for the purpose.
of St. John will advocate that such provision for nursing education be
the country, and until it is done Priories and Preceptories of the
Order may provide
for the organization of classes in nursing and form a staff of
physicians for this
purpose. This can easily be made a part of the course in first aid work
is also proposed to organize.
organization with a social welfare purpose may be able to render great
the public along these and other lines. It is a project in which many
be glad to assist.
American Army Lodges in the World War
Bro. Charles F. Irwin, Associate Editor, Pennsylvania
ONE of the
most hotly debated questions before the Grand Lodges during the War was
of issuing either Dispensations or Charters to Military Lodges. A few
only of the
Jurisdictions gave affirmative consideration while the rest viewed with
the entire matter. I am presenting in this issue of THE BUILDER the
of the Grand Lodge of Indiana as a fine example of a conservative
by that Grand body to show how both elements of the discussion were met
in a broad
and open-minded way by the brethren of that Grand Lodge. The work
this Emergency Lodge U. D. for the brief time it was in existence
cannot be measured
by the number of degrees conferred but by the spirit of fellowship that
in the Masonic members belonging to these state troops during the long
days down in the southland. While this lodge did not get across to
France, but demised
upon the removal of the Indiana troops into foreign service, yet it
the thoughtful Mason one viewpoint in the problem of caring for members
of the Craft
in times of National Emergency. Though limited in its scope the
experiment may be
regarded as a success. Emergency Lodge, U. D., of the Grand Lodge of
at Camp Shelby, Hattiesburg, Mississippi from May 29, 1918, to Sept.
taken in the inception, formation, labor and demise of this lodge are
here in rotation from the official papers now resting in the Archives
of the Grand
Lodge of Indiana, in its Masonic Temple in Indianapolis, Indiana.
paper we reproduce is the Report of the Committee on Jurisprudence of
Lodge Communication of 1918 as read by its chairman, M.W. Bro. P. G. M.
Tuthill, as published in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge for 1918.
COMMITTEE ON JURISPRUDENCE
M. W. Harry
B. Tuthill Past Grand Master, presents the following:
of Lodge at Camp Shelby.
To the Most
Worshipful Grand Master and Grand Lodge of the State of Indiana:
having been heretofore presented to this Grand Body signed by O.O.
Dunbar, a member
of Logan Lodge, No. 575, Indianapolis, Indiana, and three hundred other
members of Masonic Lodges in the State of Indiana all under this Grand
who are now in the army of the United States and sojourning at Camp
praying that they be permitted to organize, open lodge, hold meetings
times and in a proper place at or near said Camp Shelby, and there
under the authority
of this Grand Lodge initiate, pass and raise candidates;
petition having been referred to Honorable W. Laurence Wilson, Most
Master of the Grand Lodge F. & A. M. of the State of
Mississippi, for his suggestions
and approval, which approval has been given, all of which appear by
on file in the office of Calvin W. Prather, Grand Secretary of this
and correspondence have received the attention and consideration of
now reports as follows:
bona fide residents of the State of Indiana who possess all of the
required for membership in subordinate Lodges within this Grand
the army of the United States and located at Camp Shelby in the State
and none others, be, and they and each of them are hereby authorized to
the Lodge having jurisdiction over the territory in which they now
reside, and if
two or more Lodges have concurrent jurisdiction over said territory,
then to petition
any one of said Lodges with such concurrent jurisdiction, and upon
payment to said
Lodge of the fee required by the by-laws thereof, said Lodge shall be
and is hereby
permitted to receive said petition, ballot upon, elect or reject said
in all things according to the Regulations of this Grand Lodge.
If said candidate
be rejected, the whole of said fee shall be immediately returned to
If said candidate be elected, said Lodge shall forthwith transmit under
of the Secretary and seal thereof of said Lodge under Dispensation at
Mississippi, a request that it proceed to confer upon said candidate
degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason in full
form, in all
things according to the Regulations of this Grand Jurisdiction; and
Lodge shall also enclose to said Lodge, under Dispensation, the sum of
to compensate it for the expense incurred in the performance of said
after said degrees have been conferred upon said candidate, said Lodge
shall certify that fact to said Lodge so requesting, which Lodge shall
name of said candidate on its records as a member thereof.
And to carry
out the terms hereof, your Committee recommends that there issue to
Brother O. O.
Dunbar and the other signers of said petition, residents of Indiana,
under the hand
of the proper officers of this Grand Lodge and the seal thereof, a
enabling and empowering them to assemble at some convenient and proper
Camp Shelby, or in Hattiesburg, Mississippi and there organize a Lodge
of Free and
Accepted Masons with Brother Lieutenant C. C. Brautigam, Past Master of
City Lodge, No. 312, Indianapolis, as Worshipful Master; with Brother
C. Chambers, Past Master Excelsior Lodge, No. 41, La Porte, as Senior
Brother Captain C. R. Dunn, Past Master of Decatur Lodge, No. 571,
Decatur, as Junior
Warden; and that the other officers thereof be selected and appointed
by said Master
and Wardens; that said Master and Wardens have full power by selection
to fill any office of said Lodge under dispensation except that of
Master and Wardens
made vacant by death, inability to act, detailed to other posts or
resignation, or by reason of such officer being sent across the seas;
in the offices of Master and Wardens shall be filled by the Grand
Master of Indiana;
that said Lodge be governed, and work in all things according to the
of this Grand Lodge.
of said Lodge under dispensation shall cease and determine when said
at Camp Shelby is abandoned; and at the close of the war; or at such
time as this
Grand Lodge may determine, or the Grand Master be authorized to
withdraw this dispensation
All of which
is respectfully submitted,
Harry B. Tuthill
Lincoln V. Cravens,
Martin A. Morrison,
John W. Hanan
Wm. H. Swintz,
Olin E. Holloway,
Wm. E. English
of the Committee on Jurisprudence was based on the reception by the
of the following Petition for a Dispensation to open and conduct a
at Camp Shelby, Mississippi:
To the Most
Worshipful Grand Lodge Free and Accepted Masons of the State of Indiana:
We, the undersigned
members of various Lodges in Indiana who are now located at Camp
fraternally request that we be granted a dispensation or permission by
Lodge of Indiana to organize and open Lodge and hold meetings in a
near our cantonment, for the purpose of conferring the Entered
Craft and Master Mason degrees upon men who are in the United States
whose residence is in the State of Indiana, and none other. This Lodge
or permission to be immediately advised of the election or rejection of
men in the
U. S. Service located in the cantonment, city or vicinity of
whose bona fide residence is in the State of Indiana; if elected, five
of the fee to accompany the certificate of the Lodge in Indiana
electing him, to
cover the necessary expenses of conferring all the degrees upon the
his home Lodge in Indiana. If the petitioner is rejected, the entire
fee to be returned
to the rejected petitioner. Immediately upon the degrees having been
the petitioner elected by his home Lodge, a certified notice will be at
to the Lodge electing him to be enrolled as a member of said Lodge. If
any excess of money accumulated in this Special Lodge from the amount
to cover expenses, when the Lodge is dissolved it will be donated to
and agree as Master Masons, members of Masonic Lodges of Indiana to
to all the rules, regulations and requirements of the Grand Lodge of
existence of this Lodge to terminate when this cantonment is abandoned
or at the
close of the war or at such other time as the Grand Lodge may determine
or the Grand
Master be authorized to withdraw the dispensation or permission.
If this petition
and request meets the approval of Grand Lodge for which we earnestly
pray, we recommend
for the first Worshipful Master, Lieutenant C.C. Brautigam, Past Master
City Lodge, No. 312, of Indianapolis for the first Senior Warden, Major
R. C. Chambers,
Past Master Excelsior Lodge, No. 41, of La Porte; for the first Junior
C. R. Dunn, Past Master Decatur Lodge, No. 571, Decatur. The other
Officers to be
appointed by the first Master and first Wardens. We further recommend
be given to the first Worshipful Master and first Wardens to fill by
appointment any office vacated by virtue of the first officers named
to other posts or sent across the seas.
further promise to obtain for themselves or to rent from Hattiesburg
quarters in which to meet and necessary paraphernalia to confer the
degrees in accordance
with the ritualistic requirements of Indiana.
this Petition for a Dispensation were the names and lodges of the
who signed it.
favorable reception of the report of the Committee on Jurisprudence the
Dispensation was issued by the Grand Lodge:
LODGE U.D. at CAMP SHELBY, MISSISSIPPI.
To All to
Whom These Presents Shall Come, Greeting:
It has been represented to us that in a cantonment near the city of
State of Mississippi, there are a large number of soldiers who are Free
Masons, who are desirous of associating together agreeably to the
Ancient Crafts Masonry, and for the purpose of Entering Apprentices,
Crafts and Raising Master Masons according to the known and established
of Ancient Crafts Masonry and not otherwise.
It is ordained
that no petitions can be received or acted upon from any Source
whatever under this
dispensation. It is further ordained that the degrees of Entered
Craft and Master Mason can be conferred on persons who are in the
service of the
United States and no others. It is further ordained that the aforesaid
Entered Apprentice Fellow Craft and Master Mason can be conferred only
who are bona fide residents of the State of Indiana and who have been
the Lodge in Indiana in whose jurisdiction they reside, to receive the
above indicated. Under this dispensation, the brethren aforesaid, whose
is on file in the office of the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of
permitted to associate themselves together as a Lodge of Free and
for the purpose as indicated in the foregoing all these persons to
adopt such by-laws
for the government and regulation of the Lodge as may appear necessary
for the proper
transaction of any business coming before said Lodge said by-laws to be
to the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Mississippi for his approval;
conforming to the General Regulations of the Grand Lodge of Indiana, no
is granted whatever to do any work, transact any business or commit any
would be in conflict and contrary to the Grand Lodge or Grand Master of
I, Thomas B. Bohon, Grand Master of the Most Ancient and Honorable
Society of Free
and Accepted Masons, in the State of Indiana, by and with the consent
of the Grand
Lodge, and by their Regulations and Special Edict, do hereby constitute
for the first Worshipful Master Brother C. C. Brautigam; for the first
Brother R. C. Chambers; and for the first Junior Warden, Brother C. R.
remaining officers to be selected in accordance with the report of the
on Jurisprudence, copy of which is hereto unattached and becomes a part
For the more
effectual preservation of these presents, the same is hereby ordered to
in the Record Book of the Lodge.
THE HAND OF Thomas B. Bohon Grand Master of the Most Worshipful Grand
Lodge of Indiana,
and the seal of said Grand Lodge, this 29th day of May, Anno Domini,
Thomas B. Bohon, Grand Master. Attest: Calvin W. Prather
Dispensation now a fact, upon its arrival in Camp Shelby, the first
problem to be
considered was where to meet and what furniture to secure. I take from
of the first Worshipful Master of Emergency Lodge, U.D.", W. Bro. C. C.
the following history:
"One of the peculiar things
that did happen
occurred when we found that we could not use the lodge at Hattiesburg.
We were told
of a lodge at McLaurin, Mississippi (McLaurin was a lumber camp of
We followed up this information to find that the hall had been blown
years previous, and the debris was piled up back of the railroad
station. We were
then compelled to find out where the McLaurin Lodge was meeting. We
were told that
the Worshipful Master of McLaurin Lodge was a brother by name of White.
a general store and Post Office, in fact about everything in town. Of
him we inquired
as to the possibility of meeting at the school where the McLaurin Lodge
referred us to the Board of Trustees from whom we gained permission. We
have any equipment, so we inquired of Bro. White as to the equipment
they were using.
He escorted us to an old ware-room in the rear of his store. In an old
twelve aprons, two deacons tops, two steward rods, a plumb, square and
shall never forget this peculiar incident. One of the boys who had
ridden over to
McLaurin on a mule, volunteered to take the equipment over to the
When he arrived at the school he had but five aprons left, for the mule
away with him on his way over and scattered equipment throughout the
"We were compelled to move all
in the school room to one side in order to give us ample room to confer
as McLaurin Lodge had not conferred a degree in three years and had not
any floor space. We used the piano stool for the altar, the strips torn
old curtain for cable-tow. When lodge was taken up, we locked the doors
and when the brethren wanted to gain admission they would throw rocks
at the window
on the second floor and the Tyler would go down and admit them provided
properly vouched for. We were compelled to confer all degrees in the
there were no lights in the building."
Lodge having been primarily formed to care for the degree work upon
within the Cantonment of Camp Shelby, its powers were strictly limited
and its labors
confined within strait lines. I here attach a brief summary of this
Lodge as it comes to me from the pen of its former Master, Bro. Lieut.
"On Sept. 22, 1917, the
remainder of the
Indiana troops stationed at Ft. Benjamin Harrison were ordered to Camp
and was formed into the 76th Brigade of the 38th Division. It was while
Troops were in this camp that the petitions for Masonry began to pile
up in the
lodges at home from soldier Candidates. The lodge at Hattiesburg,
Miss., was overtaxed
with work, and was compelled to work four nights a week. As many as
were conferred on Candidates each Wednesday and Saturday by the soldier
Camp Shelby, which continued throughout the fall and winter of 1917 and
"In the spring of 1918 the
Masons of Camp
Shelby set about to have a Field Lodge in order to facilitate the work
Lodge. This could not be accomplished by correspondence, which,
however, did not
discourage our efforts.
"Petitions were circulated
Camp for signatures of Indiana soldier Masons, to present to the Grand
Indiana for a dispensation to confer degrees in the Grand Jurisdiction
It required about four weeks to obtain 380 signatures, which were
presented to Bro.
Calvin W. Prather, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Indiana. A
was granted to the soldier Masons of the Camp in May, 1918, which was
to us immediately after the Grand Lodge Session, but we were not able
degrees until June 29, 1918. This was due to the fact that the Grand
of Mississippi was slow in giving consent in the matter.
"Having secured the
dispensation from the
Grand Lodge of Indiana, it then became necessary for us to find a place
the degrees. The lodge in Hattiesburg, Miss., agreed to the use of
but on account of the vast amount of work which had piled up on them,
we were compelled
to look elsewhere. Finally we secured the High School at McLaurin,
Miss., a small
town about two and one-half miles from the Camp.
"On Saturday, June 29, 1918,
Lodge held its first meeting for the purpose of conferring the E. A.
Degree on Mr.
Harry Morganthaler, Capital City, No. 312, Indianapolis; Capt. Humphrey
Southport Lodge, No. 270, Southport; Paul L. Myers, Samaritan Lodge,
No. 105, Marion,
"On July 13, 1918, we held our
for the purpose of conferring degrees and conferred the F. C. and M. M.
on Bros. Morganthaler, Evans and Myers.
"July 26, 1918, was our third
the purpose of conferring the E.A. Degree on nine candidates:
Walter Good, Prince Lodge, No.
Ind. Russel H. Davis, Samaritan Lodge, No. 105, Marion, Ind. Nathan
Ancient Landmarks, No. 319, Indianapolis, Ind.; Emory Neal Cook,
No. 319, Indianapolis, Ind. William R. Simmons, Terre Haute, No. 19,
Ind.: Howard M. Baldwin, Samaritan, No. 105, Marion, Ind. Albert L.
No. 67, Peru Ind. E. F. Minch, Samaritan, No. 105, Marion, Ind.; and
Roland B. Cooper,
Mystic Tie, No. 398, Indianapolis, Ind.
"The next meeting was held on
Aug. 3, 1918.
The F. C. and M. M. Degrees were conferred on Bros. Good, Davis, N. A.
Simmons, Baldwin, Lockwood, Minch and R. B. Cooper.
"About Aug. 1, 1918, a request
came to us
to confer the F. C. and M. M. Degrees on Col. Healey of Prairie Lodge,
Rensseler. He was in command of the 151st Infantry and also the 76th
meeting was called for the evening of Aug. 3, 1918, and I am proud to
say that we
had a great many of the brethren present to confer the F. C. Degrees.
"On Aug. 10, 1918, a meeting
to confer the M. M. Degree on Col. Healey. This meeting was a grand
of the machines and trucks that were available were mustered into
service to carry
the brethren over to the little school house. After arriving, there
were so many
present that we were dubious as to where to put them all. However,
satisfied, although a number were compelled to find seats on the floor.
"The great amount of military
was going on in Camp about this time made it rather late for us to get
as our Temple (or I should have said, school house) was not equipped
it was necessary for us to muster in every light available, which
kind, from candles to automobile lamps, which made the meeting very
"On Aug. 18, 1918, the lodge
met again for
the purpose of conferring the E. A., F. C. and M. M. on Bros. Albert E.
Walter Dodson of Shelburn, No. 369, Shelburn, Ind.
"On Sept. 7, 1918, the last
meeting of our
lodge was held, and the E.A., F.C. and M.M. Degrees were conferred on
E. Kinnerman, of Samaritan, No. 105, Marion, Ind., and John Frank
Snyder, of St.
Johns, No. 20, Columbus, Ind.
"It will be noted that we have
above our last meeting. We were then under orders for the great task,
about to be
undertaken on the other side. That task which thousands of Masons
bravely faced. Hundreds of our brave brethren are now sleeping in the
Honor in France.
"In closing the history of the
Lodge we wish to submit a few figures. Our receipts were $85.00 for
fees and our
expenditures were $29.50, which included the Secretary's fees, truck
telegrams and incidentals, which left a balance of $55.50 which sum was
to the Masonic Home Fund.
"Although greatly handicapped
in our efforts,
every soldier brother took great pride in the acknowledgment of having
the degrees in the Emergency Lodge,
"Now that the brethren are all
back home where they have magnificent Temples in which to meet I am
the respective lodges of which these brethren are members will be proud
(signed) C. C. Brautigam,
orders moving the 38th Division from Camp Shelby came and the troops
began to travel
toward the coast, the Emergency Lodge Dispensation was returned as of
16, 1918. Upon the Dispensation appears this brief notation;
Lodge Dispensation Returned September 16, 1918, when our boys went
Secretary of Camp Shelby Emergency Lodge, U. D. This brief recital of
and activities of a prescribed Field Lodge on American soil, working
busily to convey
to comrades in the service some of benefits and enjoyments of the Craft
this with the full consent and brotherly cooperation of the Grand Lodge
seems to refute the prognostications of those brothers throughout many
who shook their heads whenever the matter of Field Lodges was broached.
view taken by the Grand Lodge of Indiana carried into practical life
that "everyone shall bear his own burdens." From the record as given
we find the Hattiesburg Lodge overtaxed in the midst of most strenuous
days by the
courtesy work furnished them by many of those very jurisdictions that
refused to relieve the pressure. But Indiana by her common sense
provision of this
Emergency Lodge by means of which much of the pressure was taken from
lodge at Hattiesburg, have established a precedent upon which American
future days may wisely build.
this history of Emergency Lodge, U. D., of the Grand Lodge of Indiana,
I wish to
bear testimony to the unfailing good will and active interest of
Secretary Calvin W. Prather now gone to the lodge above, who at all
times gave me
the information I desired. Also to W. Bro. William Swintz, Grand
to W. Bro. C. C. Brautigam, who gave unreservedly of the facts on file
in the archives
of the Grand Lodge. And I take this opportunity to say to them, in
behalf of all
the Craft who value the preservation of such records, "My brothers, I
Cryptic Degrees and the Supreme Council
Bro. Chas. Sumner Lobingier, Washington, D. C.
of a chapter in the projected Official History of the Ancient and
of the origin of the Cryptic Degrees has thus far been considered
mainly from the
standpoint of external evidence. Our late Companion William F. Kuhn
If the solution of the riddle
of the origin of
the Cryptic Degrees is ever found, it can never be obtained simply by
by whom and where the degrees were first conferred, but its solution
rests on the
relation of these degrees to existing degrees (73).
regard the Scottish Rite as the source of the Cryptic Degrees need not
to apply such a test. But it is obvious that it can be successfully
by a comparative study of the rituals and here we are confronted with
or at least probability, that the Cryptic rituals of the present day
are not the
same as the original ones. We have seen that as early as 1825 Holbrook
that in the Jeremy Cross Ritual, "the Select Master was garbled and had
a good part of the signs and words, etc. (74)." Bro. Hunt (75), a very
and impartial writer, on this Subject, says:
Eekel and Niles were ardent Royal Arch Masons and very anxious to have
Chapter take over the control of the Select Master's degree. It is,
that they remodeled the degree so as to make it conform to the Royal
Arch as then
worked in America … That there have been changes made in the degrees we
several sources. For instance, we know that the Grand Bodies who have
the degrees have frequently revised the ritual and it is fair to assume
controlled by individuals, each would make such changes as he desired,
to make them
conform to his purposes. Possibly Wilmans, Eckel and Cross each made
At any rate, the ritual has been changed.
to another phase he adds:
It would be very easy for a
Royal Arch Mason
to take this part of the degree and remodel it to fill the gap in the
Degree of the York Rite.
who claims (76) that "our inception may be traced by internal evidence
Ancient York Rite," does not specify what this internal evidence is but
admit elsewhere (77) that the degree of Select Master can be made to
with the 14th degree of the latter (Scottish) rite, while the scene of
both degrees is identical, to-wit: the S. V.
(78) points out that in spite of the changes in the rituals to which he
there are internal evidences to
support the claim
that these degrees originated from the same source as those of the
He then proceeds
to marshal certain items of this internal evidence as follows:
In the present Select Master's
degree and in the old Royal Arch of Solomon
reference is made to 27 workmen the number of whom could not be
increased. In both
degrees also there is a reference to nine arches and there is no such
in the Royal Arch of Zerubbabel.
In some of the old forms of the
two degrees there is a reference to some
valuable secrets deposited by the Patriarch Enoch in two pillars, one
of which was
destroyed by the flood, and the other discovered by Noah after the
These secrets were afterward placed in the Ark of the Covenant. Webb,
in the first
edition of his Monitor, printed in 1797, describes the Royal Arch
Degree of the
Scottish Rite and in this description gives incidents which show a
of this degree with those of the Cryptic Rite.
A prominent character in both
the Royal and Select Master's degrees is Adoniram,
an official of the time of David. Solomon and Rehoboam … Adoniram
in Scottish Rite Masonry but is found in York Rite Masonry only in the
point is especially significant for we have seen that Waite (79) makes
degrees "a part of Adonhiramite Masonry." Bro. Hunt also points out
the following aspirant's description, written in 1817, "refers to the
Arch of Solomon rather than the Royal Arch of Zerubbabel":
forward for the prize, I obtained the beautiful and interesting degree
of the "select
mason," in which I received a golden chain of traditional knowledge
from Enoch to H.A. (80)
a few of the signs which point unmistakably to Scottish Rite origin.
accomplished ritualist, familiar with all three rituals Scottish Rite,
and modern Cryptic could find many more, while none have been cited to
similarity between the two last named. As to the first named we have
seen that both
the Snell certificate and the Holbrook report say that the Myers'
ritual was deposited
in 1788 with the Charleston Council of Princes of Jerusalem. J. Ross
It is claimed (81) that in 1803 a copy of this ritual was made by J.
that it is a verbatim copy of the Myers' ritual which, in 1788, was
Myers in the archives of the Council at Charleston.
In his earlier
work (82), the same author had said:
There is extant a ritual of the
purporting to be made in 1803 by J. Billeaud. Bro. Drummond has
examined it, had
it copied, and has no doubt of its genuineness, and that it is the copy
of a ritual
then in use. It came to him from Companion Wilmot G. DeSaussure, of
who had it from Bro. John H. Honour, for a long time Grand Commander of
Council for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, to whom it
his predecessor in that office, among the archives of that Supreme
Council. He says:
"There is no reference in this
any governing authority whatever, nor to any degree of Masonry save the
It recognized no permanent body whatever, but it is a ritual of a
'side' degree in every respect."
feature is a convincing mark of genuineness and not even Bro. Warvelle
it; indeed, he admits it by implication when he says (83):
There is not a ritual in
existence, as far as
I am aware, which antedates the year 1800.
It is of
the original Myers' ritual that he observes:
This ritual no one now living
has ever seen.
Therefore it exists only by faith. The late Comp. Pierson, of St. Paul
have seen and perused same but admits that it contained a vow of fealty
to the Supreme
Council thirty-third degree which, as a matter of historic fact, was
until nearly twenty years afterwards. It is not unlikely that the
by Comp. Pierson was what purported to be a copy.
But in reality
he seems to have here had in mind the Holbrook ritual, which, as we
have seen, is
now in the Supreme Council's Library and of which Bro. Drummond says
ritual annexed is certainly not a copy of the one deposited in the
archives in 1783,
for the ritual of the Select Degree refers to the Royal Degree, and
of them recognize the Supreme Council as the governing authority of the
and that body did not exist till 1801. A comparison of this ritual with
1803 shows that the former is a revision of the latter with only verbal
and the addition of declaring allegiance to the Supreme Council and the
of conferring the Select Degree on any one below the degree of a Royal
The introduction says the Select Degree follows the Royal Master's
Degree; but the
ritual is inconsistent with that. And the allusions to the Royal Arch
the Royal Master's Degree and to the Supreme Council, are evident
This seems to sustain the assertion of Companion Stapleton, of
Maryland, that the
allusion to the Royal Arch Degree was first interpolated by Cross for
Hunt comments as follows:
It is possible that these
rituals were copied
from the one deposited at Charleston with the exception of the
to by Drummond. It has sometimes been asked why if Myers actually
rituals, they have never been produced. The answer given to this is
that they had
been destroyed in the conflagration at Charleston during the Civil War
and it was
not until several years after their destruction that their existence
But if the
Myers' ritual existed as late as the beginning of the Civil War, we may
that we have it in all essential respects in Pike's MS. copy, now in
Council's Library, of all the Charleston rituals. In the title page of
to the degrees of Royal and Select Master, we find the notation in
"as furnished by the Sec. Gen'l. of the Supreme Council of the 33rd
at Charleston, So. Carolina, in May, 1853." This copy, like Holbrook's
that mentioned by Pierson, does contain an allusion to the Supreme
as above suggested, is an "evident interpolation"; but it contains no
allusion to the Royal Arch (of Zerubbabel) and is clearly much closer
to the original
Cryptic rituals than those in use by present day Councils which have
come down to
us with "the allusions to the Royal Arch degree … first interpolated by
It is to the Holbrook and Pike copies both extant then, that we must
the internal evidence of the origin of the Cryptic degrees; and those
with the interpolation as to the Supreme Council eliminated, confirm
to jurisdiction over them and support the conclusion stated two
"The Degrees of Royal and
came from France prior to 1783, as detached Degrees of the Scotch Rite,
being, in point of fact, the Ecossais or 5th Degree of the French Rite,
and a Degree
of the Rite of Perfection, conferred in the Scotch Rite as an Auxiliary
and that from 1783, if not from 1766, they were conferred by Lodges of
and Councils of Princes of Jerusalem (86).
Supreme Council's Relinquishment of Jurisdiction
the Mother Supreme Council never wavered in its claim to confer these
as a matter of right and as a part of its heritage from the older
world, still the
situation produced as a result of the work of the "rival peddlers" was
such as to cause grave concern to all who placed Masonic harmony in the
above personal aggrandizement. It is to the lasting credit of the
and the Scottish Rite leaders that they initiated the plans which
order out of chaos and that they were willing to sacrifice their
and prerogatives in the interest of that harmony. As early as 1848,
Mackey, writing in one of the leading Masonic periodicals of the time,
the history of the degrees and reasserting the Supreme Council's claim
The matter, however, has now
confused and I know of but one method of getting out of the difficulty…
the Supreme Councils of the 33d, are not willing to have their
authority and rights
wrested from them vi et armis I have no doubt (but I do not speak
for the good of Masonry, they would willingly enter into any
compromise. Let a Convention
of Royal and Select Masters be held at some central point. To this
the most intelligent Companions, legitimately possessing the degrees,
Councils of R. and S. M., as in most of the States; from R. A.
Chapters, as in Virginia;
or from Councils of Princes of Jerusalem, or Grand Inspectors General,
as in South
Carolina and Mississippi. Let the wisdom there congregated be directed
to the amicable
settlement of this dispute. The important point is not to have these
in any particular order, but to make the mode and manner of conferring
it be before or after the Royal Arch, uniform throughout the country.
on this proposal Bro. Warvelle (98) says:
An attempt was made to have
this convention held
at Boston in 1850 during the convocation of the General Grand Chapter
but it does
not appear that sufficient interest in the subject could be created at
to insure an attendance and no call was issued. With this exception,
one seemed prepared with a remedy, and no matters remained until 1867.
by his first failure, Mackey came forward with a new plan. Two years
later, in his
own magazine (89), he contributed an illuminating and convincing
article on the
Supreme Council's prerogatives and their infringement, in closing which
There is but one method of cure
which we can
conscientiously recommend with any hope of success, and we think it has
of being a course that will do justice to all parties while it restores
degrees their ancient landmarks. We propose then that the State Grand
retain their control over their respective subordinate councils, but
that they in
turn shall acknowledge the Supreme Councils of the 33d at Charleston
and New York
to be the chiefs of Royal and Select Masonry, with power to determine a
mode of work, to establish general laws for the government of the
degrees, to decide
all disputed points between contending Grand Councils in the respective
of each Supreme Council, and, in one word, to exercise all the
these degrees which are now possessed over Royal Arch Masonry by the
Chapter. The objection that according to the present organization of
Councils of the 33rd, the State Grand Councils would not be
represented, might be
obviated by some arrangement for the establishment, under the authority
of the Supreme
Grand Council, of a Chamber of Deliberation, to be composed of
each State Grand Council who should assist the Inspectors in all their
for the general good of the order. As these degrees are detached from
order of the Scotch Rite degrees, such an arrangement might be made by
Councils, without any infringement upon, or interference with their
prerogatives as "Sovereigns of Scotch Masonry."
of this kind, would, we believe, be eminently productive of unanimity,
prosperity, and without some compromise of the kind, we do not see how
peace can be produced out of the chaos and confusion in which the Royal
Masters' degrees are now involved.
In the same
year the Northern Supreme Council, after protesting against the
its rights and prerogatives" regarding the Cryptic degrees, announced
This Supreme Grand Council, for
the sake of harmony,
is willing to confer and advise with our Illustrious Brethren the
Grand Council at Charleston, S. C., and act in concert with them in
measures in reference to those degrees as may be mutually adjudged most
and proper, without infringing in any way whatever upon our supremacy
over the said
followed immediately from any of these proposals, although the Illinois
(91) which, as we have seen, was among the first to question the
"exclusive authority," adopted, two years after the announcement just
mentioned, a report which contained the following:
Nothing is more to be
deprecated in Masonry than
conflict of jurisdictions. There ought to be one common level. It is
plain to see,
that the State Grand Councils are fast acquiring this jurisdiction, and
believe that they are the source of authority, and ought to be, until
of their own act, a portion of their power, to a Representative Head of
seems to have been done for a long time by anybody outside the Scottish
this matter. In his Allocution (92) of 1861, however, Pike devoted
nearly two pages
to the Royal and Select Degrees, reporting that he had invited the five
of Arkansas, which he had established to form a Grand Council for that
then proceeded to say:
It is desirable, I think that
we should as soon
as possible rid ourselves of all control over those degrees everywhere.
of them is an anomaly; since it may very well be that more than one of
are not in possession of them. I think it bad policy for the
authorities of a Rite
to administer any side or auxiliary degrees; and we, at least, have
enough in our
regular scale to engage our attention and task our energies… It seems
to me that
our wisest course would be, by Special Statute, to relinquish all
control over them
to the Grand Councils already established in the several states. Then
could grant charters for subordinates in the unoccupied States, and
of Masonry which has had a separate and independent organization for so
in several of the States, would be recognized as independent and
distinct, as Royal
Arch Masonry is, and as it, I think, has an equal right to be.
Council approved this recommendation (93) but the Civil War came on and
which might have been made to put these views into effect was rendered
after its close, however, a statute (94) was enacted which, while
Supreme Council's continued jurisdiction over Cryptic Councils "in
where no Grand Council of those degrees has been established," further
But so soon as there are three
in any such State, the Supreme Council recommend to such Councils to
Grand Council, and, upon the establishment of the same, the
jurisdiction of the
Supreme Council over such Councils shall cease.
Then at the
Supreme Council session of 1870, Inspector Todd of Louisiana offered
resolution (95), which was unanimously adopted:
Whereas, in the opinion of this
the time has arrived when the Degrees of Royal and Select Master are
be considered as a separate and distinct organization in Masonry; there
twenty-eight Grand Councils of Royal and Select Masters in the United
this Supreme Council being desirous to cede and transfer to the said
all its rightful jurisdiction over the said degrees, and to sever its
with the same; Therefore,
That this Supreme Council does now relinquish all control over the
Degrees of Royal
and Select Masters, and leaves all Councils now under its jurisdiction,
to attach themselves to the obedience of such Grand Council as they may
and does hereby remit and release to all such Councils, all their dues
to this Supreme
Council; and all sections and provisions of the Statutes which refer to
are hereby repealed.
long controversy came to an end so far as the actual conflict of
concerned. As an academic discussion of historical origins, it has
we have seen, to the present hour. But whatever one's conclusion may be
as to the
merits of that discussion, it will hardly be denied that the amicable
of the conflict and the avoidance of a perpetual feud in American
was due to the forbearance and magnanimity of the Mother Supreme
closely upon its action a national convention of Cryptic Masons was
held in New
York City in 1872, and after a series of other meetings a General Grand
of Cryptic Masons of the United States was finally organized (96) in
(1) Waite: The Secret Tradition of Freemasonry
[Lib 1911, Vol
I, pp. 158, 159. In the New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry
[Lib*], Vol. I, p. 5, he says:
Adonhiramite Masonry itself as the name of a
specific system arose in France.
It has been referred to Baron Tschoudy and alternatively to Louis
SaintVictor. From the Grades of Royal and Select Master it follows as
we have seen
that it enters also into Cryptic Masonry, about the symbolical
importance of which
in connection with the Holy Royal Arch, I hold strong views and on
expressed them strongly.
(2) Secret Tradition, I, pp. 163, 165.
(3) New Encyc., II, p. 381.
(4) Warvelle: Genesis of the Degree of Royal
Master Mason, p. 6.
(5) Letter of Wm. T. Gould, G. H. P. of Ga.,
reprinted, Florida Grand Chapter
Proc. 1849, pp. 35, 36.
(6) Proceedings, 1826, p. 6.
(7) Reprinted, Off. Bull., IX, p. 252.
(8) Reprinted off. Bull., X, p. 212.
(9) Reprinted Trans. 1857-1866 (reprint), pp.
(10) Note by the transcriber (Bro. W. L.
Boyden): "The italics and explanations
in brackets are those of the transcriber."
(11) Folger, though hostile to the Mother
Supreme Council, states that the
Cryptic Degrees were "conferred in Rhode Island by Myers in 1781."
and Accepted Scottish Rite, p. 128.
(12) For photostat copy of original see The New
Age, Vol. xxxv, p. 315.
(13) See Pike's Rep. to Ark. Gr. Chap. Proc.,
1853, App. 7, where he says
that G.H.P. (and Gr. Com.) John H. Honour, in his address to the S.
Car. Gr. Chap.
in Feb., 1853, quoted the same certificate. Robertson, The Cryptic Rite
1888), pp. 17, 18, also quotes from it. Other certificates of similar
the following, copies of which have been furnished me by Bro. C. C.
of the Iowa Masonic Library:
New Orleans, La., Thursday, June 12, 1856.
To all whom it may concern: Greeting:
I hereby certify in my official capacity as
Deputy Inspector General of the
33d degree for the Southern District of the United States of America,
that our well
beloved Companion I. E. Elliott is in possession of a literal and exact
the Royal and Select Masters degrees, brought from Berlin, Prussia by
Deputy Inspector General Joseph Myers in the year A.D. 1783, and
in due and ancient form, by the Sublime Grand Lodge of Perfection, No.
2 in Charletson,
S. C., United States of America, and subsequently by the legitimate
Royal and Select Masters throughout the United States.
In Testimony Whereof: I hereby affix my
official signature as Deputy Inspector
General of the 33d Degree, on this twelfth day of June, in the year of
one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six and in the year of Masonry
eight hundred and fifty-six.
(Signature) PEREZ SNELL,
R. K.’.K.’. S.’.P.’.R.’.S.’. Deputy Inspector
of 33d Degree for the Southern District of the United States of America.
I hereby certify that I am personally
acquainted with Deputy Grand Inspector
Snell whose signature is above written, and that the aforesaid
signature is genuine
and authentic having been written in my presence, this twelfth day of
June A. D.
one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six.
I further certify that I have carefully examined
both the original degrees
above referred to, and compared them with the copy in possession of
J. E. Elliott and hereby announce the Copy perfectly in accordance with
degrees as brought from Berlin in Prussia in 1783 by Deputy Inspector
(Signature) W. P. COLEMAN,
R. K.’.K.’. S.’.P.’.R.’.S.’. P.’. of J, Grand
Jacques de Molay Encampment No. 2 and W. M. of Dudley Lodge No. 66 of
the City of
New Orleans, La.
New Orleans La. June 12th. 1856)
(14) Maryland Grand Chapter Proc., 1827, pp.
(15) S. Car. Gr. Chap. Proc., 1829, reprinted
S. Car. Gr. Council Proc. 1909,
(16) Gr. Coun. Proc. 1901, xxv.
(17) New Age, Vol. xxxv p. 143.
(18) Report of the Committee on Masonic Law and
Usage, Ark. Grand Chapter
Proc. (Little Rock, 1853), App. 8.
(19) Patent, reprinted by Folger, op. cit.,
App. p. 77.
(20) Robertson, op. cit., p. 25.
(21) A Review of Cryptic Masonry [Lib 1895]
(22) The Cryptic Rite (Chicago, 1892), p. 10.
(23) Schultz, History of Freemasonry in
Maryland [Lib*] (Baltimore 1884),
(24 )Original returns, furnished by James N.
Clift, Grand Sec'y, Virginia
(25) Warvelle, op. cit., p. 10.
(26) Review of Cryptic Masonry, p. 6.
(27) CoIes Freemasons' Library and General
Ahiman Rezon [Lib 1817]
(Baltimore, 1817), p. 221, attributed to Niles. (28)
Warvelle: Cryptic Rite, pp. 11, 12.
(29) Waite, Secret Tradition, I, pp. 163, 165.
(30) Reprinted in Folger, op. cit., App. 77.
(31) Ibid, pp. 83 101.
(32) lb., p. 89.
(33) Ib., pp. 102 110.
(34) Reprinted, lb., p. 102.
(35) Ib. p. 110
(36) Ib. pp. 103, 106.
(37) Ib., pp. 108 110.
(38) Reprinted, Brockaway. One Hundred Years of
Aurora Grata [Lib 1908]
(Brooklyn, 1908), pp. 8, 9.
(39) Ib., pp. 35
(40) See its records (Portland, 1876), p. 3 et
(41) Cryptic Masonry (Iowa Grand Council Proc.,
Robertson says, Op. cit., p. 28:
He received the Ineffable and other degrees from Jacobs, and it is
that he received from him also the Select Degree.
(42) Historical Notes, Illinois Grand Council
Proc., 1901, p. 25.
(43) Reprinted, Voice of Masonry (Chicago,
1863), I, pp. 329, 330; Schultz,
Op. cit., I, p. 338; THE BUILDER VI, p. 64.
(44) See his Charter to the Richmond Councii.
Virginia Grand Chapter Proc.,
1848, p. 18.
(45) Pike: off. Bull. I, p. 398. Mackey says,
Southern and Western Masonic
The (Cryptic) degrees were entirely conferred
by Inspectors General whose
authority for so doing was derived from a patent granted by the Supreme
of the 33d.
(46) Maryland Grand Chapter Proc., 1817, p. 5.
(47) General Grand Chapter Proc., 1853
(reprint), p. 255.
(48) Ill. Grand Council Proc., 1901, App. xxv.
(49) 0ff. Bull., vii, p. 313.
Ib. ix, 547
Trans., 1857 1866 (Reprint), pp. 19, 20.
(52) Supreme Council Library, M 265, Pocket 1,
(53) 0ff. Bull. Sup. Coun., x, p. 762.
(54) See its By-laws, 1836, p. 3.
(55) Southern and Western Masonic Miscellany
[Lib*], I, p. 43.
(56) Supreme Council Library, M-265, Pocket 1,
(57) Ib., M-265, Pocket 1, Document 17.
(58) 0ff. Bull. Sup. Coun., 1, 399.
(59) Ia. Grand Coun. Proc., xlv-xlvii, where
the jurisdictions are set out.
Cf. Lee, History of Cryptic Masonry, Conn. Gr. Coun. Proc., 1872, pp.
Jurisdiction of Royal and Select Master's Degree, Masonic Review, Vol.
v, p. 193.
(60) Royal and Select Master's Degrees,
Freemasons' Magazine, viii, p. 9,
Southern and Western Masonic Miscellany, I, p. 41.
(61) Proc Northern Sup. Council (reprint),
Portland, 1876, pp. 45, 46, 205,
212, 214, 216; 217, where, after a recital of the history of these
degrees the following
This Supreme Grand Council, therefore, as in
duty bound, protests against
this invasion of its rights and prerogatives, and further declares and
that the said degrees of Royal and Select Master, from their nature or
the history they develop and the circumstances upon which founded,
in an anachronistic and improper manner, be conferred disconneeted from
degree" and "Lodge of Perfection" (fourteenth degree), and that said
degrees belong not only characteristically and historically, but
"Ineffable Masons" and "Lodges of Perfection," and do not appertain
and cannot consistently and lawfully be made an aPpendage to any
except said "Sublime system," nor to any Rite except said "Ancient
and Accepted Rite."
Bro. Warvelle (Genesis of the Degree of Royal
Master Mason, 1893 P. 7). says
of this body that "from its organization until 1844 it was practically
and it was not until 1860 that its present career of activity
would seem sufficient to explain any delay in assessing its authority.
(62) Revised Statutes, 1855, Articles, vi-viii.
(63) Grand Constitutions, 1866, Art. xxi.
(64) MS. Ritual, p. 376.
(65) Letter to Gouley, Trans., 1868, p. 193.
(66) The Book of the Ancient and Accepted
Scottish Rite (N. Y. 1868), p.
(67) Robertson, Op. cit., Chap. v.
(68) Ib., Chap. iii.
(69) A Century of Cryptic Masonry, etc., S.
Car. Gr. Chapter Proc., 1909,
(70) Cryptic Masonry, Iowa Gr. Council Proc.,
1923, pp. xxxviii xlvii.
(71) Proc., 1852, p. 92.
(72) Ark. Grand Chapter Proc., 1853, p. 8, App.
(73) Gen. Grand Coun. Proc., 1921, p. 53.
(74) Off. Bull., p. 252.
(75) Cryptic Masonry, la. Grand Coun. Proc.,
1923, pp. 39, 40. (76) Warvelle:
Cryptic Rite, p. 15.
(77) lb., p. 5.
(78) Iowa Gr. Coun. Proc., 1923, xxxvii.
(79) Waite: Secret Tradition, I, pp. 158, 159.
(80) Cole, Op. cit., Vol. ii.
(81) The Freemason (Toronto, 1900), xix, pp. 8,
(82) Robertson, Op. cit., p. 18.
(83) Historical Notes, Ill. Gr. Coun. Proc.,
(84) Robertson, Op. cit., p. 18.
(85) Cryptic Masonry, Iowa Grand Coun. Proc.,
(86) Mellen, Ordo ab Chao, Masonic Review, xii,
p. 239. Cf. Mitchell, History
of Freemasonry (1858), I, p. 707.
(87) Freemasons' Magazine, viii, p. 10.
(88) Warvelle: Review of Cryptic Masonry, P 9
(89) The Southern & Western Masonic
Miscellany (Charleston, 1850), I,
(90) Proceedings (reprint), 1850, pp. 206, 207.
(91) Proc., 1852, p. 93
(92) Trans., 1857 1866 (Reprint), pp. 200, 202.
(93) Ib., (Original), 1861, p. 17.
(94) Gr. Constitutions, 1865, Art. xxi, p. 1.
(95) Trans. 1870, pp. 88, 89.
(96) Warveile, Op. cit., pp. 13 15; Williams,
Sketch of the General Gr. Coun.,
Ohio Gr. Coun. Proc., 1895, App.
The Degrees of Masonry: Their Origin and History
Bros. A. L. Kress and R. J. Meekren
So far as
we have yet gone in our account of the different hypotheses advanced
degrees, it will be noticed that one aspect of the problem has hardly
it is really by no means an unimportant one. Practically all the
views we have considered were agreed on one point; that there had been
a great expansion
in the initiatory rites of the Craft. The controversy really was only
amount of the additional matter, and whether it was pure innovation and
or based upon genuine tradition. The question, that so far no one had
how and why this expansion came about.
We say it
is not important, and for this reason. The various solutions offered
for the main
problem rest on a nice discrimination of the value and implications of
references and fragmentary and ambiguous records. Every possible
must of necessity be mainly a structure of inferences based on the
and what these inferences are will depend almost entirely on a more or
preconception, or pattern, in the mind. It is obvious that to be able
to show that
a given explanation demands unusual and improbable motives on the part
of the actors
in the process is to present a very formidable argument against it, no
logical and self-consistent it may be in itself. Conversely, if it can
that each step in the development was a natural one, following lines
that can be
observed in any human society, it will be a very strong confirmation of
to be taken for granted that the great change from the ceremonial,
and crude (as it is variously said to be) of the operative Masons, to
and ornate ritual of the Speculatives, was so natural and inevitable
that no explanation
was necessary on this point. It was casually assumed that part of it
was due to
the fashion of the period which expressed itself in the formation of
all kinds of
eccentric clubs and societies with bizarre ceremonials, and also in
part due to
a desire or a necessity to dress up the alleged "crude" and "imperfect"
initiations practiced by "rough and ignorant workmen" so they would
an appeal for "educated and cultured gentlemen."
But as we
have said, this was only assumed, and was merely referred to in passing
The value of an answer to this question as an additional test of the
the inferences based on the evidence had not been seen. We are not at
all sure even
that Robert Freke Gould, to whom we now come, definitely realized this
he did advance a general explanation of the way in which an additional
inserted in the original two degree system. His theory is that it was
entirely to a misunderstanding of one or two sentences in the first
edition of Anderson's
Constitutions. At first glance it looks very inadequate, but on closer
there is not a little to be said in its favor. It can be shown that
of the ritual are due to mistakes and misconceptions (1), so that the
is not at all improbable in itself.
Gould’s Theory of the Origin of Degrees
to present a coherent account of Gould's position is, however,
except in the broadest outline. His style is discursive to extreme; he
interrupts the course of his argument to explore each bypath as he
comes to it,
and it is necessary to read him with the closest attention to avoid
losing the thread
of the discourse and getting lost in a maze of apparently disconnected
it would not be quite fair, without qualification, he might be
described as essentially
a man of strong prejudices who had painstakingly cultivated the method
At least his prejudice on the subject of the Grand Lodge of the
Ancients crops out
in almost every reference to it. Legalism has had a great deal to do
with the development
of Masonic orthodoxies (as it has, indeed, in every traditional system)
had the typically legalistic type of mind, one would judge, quite apart
training, to which a form of law means more than the human needs and
which it is rooted. To him the premier Grand Lodge was legitimate; and
by exclusion, that of the Ancients was illegitimate, heretical and
This is all
quite outside our subject of course, but it has a bearing upon a proper
of Gould's arguments, for it certainly seems that it caused a bias in
which led him to summarily reject certain statements made by Dermott in
which if admitted as evidence would have militated against some of his
or at least would have modified them in some important details.
in presenting his views lies in the fact that it would almost seem as
if he had
to some degree progressively changed them. Of this, though, we are by
no means certain;
in the preface to the Concise History he expresses himself in such a
way as to imply
that he held the same views then, on the subject of Masonic Degrees, as
he did when
he wrote his large history in 1882. Yet it must be said, that were a
reader to have
no other source of information than the latter work he would come to
either that the author had been unable to definitely make up his mind
on the subject,
or even that he favored the hypothesis advanced by Findel and supported
and Mackey. He accepts and insists upon Lyon's view that the "mason
was the only secret communicated in early Scottish lodges, even indeed
him, in throwing doubt on the latter's admission that this may have
more than its literal meaning (2); he equally insists that in the old
lodge at York
intrants were merely "admitted and sworn," and gives the impression
there is no probability of there being anything more than this in other
England in the seventeenth century (3). Yet as we shall see he later
this very argument.
In a paper
read before Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1886, On Some Old Scottish
Customs (4) he
emphasized the comparative poverty of the ritual employed in North
… as a simple matter of fact
the only degree
(of a speculative or symbolic character) known in the early Masonry of
was that in which the legend of the Craft was read and the benefit of
in a material difference between the two countries is an important
factor in the
development of his views. Whether he regarded the Scottish Craft as
or as having been defective from its origin, is nowhere really made
(5) But as we are not concerned to follow out the development of his
will be more direct to consider his later and more mature
will be found chiefly in the "Digression on Degrees" in the Concise
and the paper entitled The Degrees of Pure and Ancient Freemasonry (6).
In the latter
he states his purpose as being to sum up.
… the conclusions that seem to
be deducible from
the evidence, with respect to the existence of Masonic Degrees in 1717
presumably from a time far more remote,
he goes on to say:
If we begin with the three
Craft … degrees of
today, their devolution can be traced with sufficient exactitude from
the year 1723,
nor is it reasonable … to believe that any change in the method of
secrets of Masonry could possibly have been carried out by the Grand
Lodge of England
between 1717 and 1723. But during the period immediately preceding the
era of Grand
Lodges there is much darkness and uncertainty. To a necessarily great
all speculations with regard to the more remote past of the sodality
on inference or conjecture; and deductions which are accepted with easy
some, will be rejected as irrational by others. The boundaries of
cannot indeed be defined ex cathedra by anyone and the utmost we can do
is to pursue
our researches according to the evidential methods which have received
of the best authorities.
We have quoted
this passage at length because while in the first part he expresses an
Hughan, for one, regarded as "irrational"; in the latter part he lays
down the limits of the degree of certainty we may hope to reach in this
in a most admirable manner, and which gives others full warrant to
He then proceeds
to refer his readers to a paper read some years before, On the
Antiquity of Masonic
Symbolism (7). In this he deals with much the same subject but holds
that the term
symbolism is more inclusive than Degrees. He evidently used it in
rather a peculiar
sense, and we may take it broadly that by it he understands all the
of Masonry, signs, words, ritual, ceremony, as well as the symbols and
usually understood. Each of these essays is along quite different lines
and to adequately
summarize them would take altogether too much space. We shall,
a shorter way, that we hope will be even more satisfactory than to
follow his arguments
step by step. With most of the actual evidence he builds on we have
familiar and in consequence there is no need to take it in detail. What
to do is to pick out what appear to be the distinguishing features of
and the arguments by which he supports them.
We have already
seen one general argument by which he supports the main contention
which he held
in common with Speth, the inherent improbability of radical innovations
in the six years between 1717 and 1723. And it would seem that this,
for him, was
the real starting point, when he discovered the significant differences
the first and second editions of the Constitutions in regard to Old
and compared them with the entry in the minutes of the Grand Lodge of
Nov. 27, 1725,
repealing the clause in question and authorizing the lodges "to make
at their discretion."
to this we have a case, not of the "easy faith" of one being "rejected
as irrational" by another, but of the same thing being interpreted in
opposing fashion by two such keen minds as Hughan and Gould. If we wish
for an authority
we can take our choice, but it will hardly be a wholly satisfactory
depend on authority alone in such a case.
Estimate of Dr. Anderson
took the stand that, in the first edition of the Constitutions, the
and must be admitted Masters and Fellowcraft only here" (that is in the
Lodge) must be interpreted by the amendment that appeared in the second
of 1738. He says:
At all events Dr. Anderson
ought to know what
he meant by Masters and Fellowcraft in 1723, and that he intended the
words to refer
to two distinct degrees appears to me conclusive by the editorial
remarks in 1738,
under the year 1725 (8).
Hughan meant by the last remark we are not quite clear. In the account
of the progress
of the Craft up to the year 1738, that was added to the second edition,
makes no reference to this amendment in the brief notice of the meeting
of the Grand
Lodge on Nov. 27, 1725. The note to Old Regulation XIII on page 160 of
hardly seems to be properly called an editorial remark, as it appears
in the form
of an extract from the minutes of Grand Lodge. But assuming, by
this is what Hughan referred to, it may certainly be admitted as
everyone has done
that Anderson did here intend two distinct degrees by the terms Master
It may also be admitted that Dr. Anderson knew in 1738 what he meant in
it does not at all necessarily follow from that that in the later
edition he intended
to let his readers into the secret. Anderson has been very freely
accused of literary
dishonesty as well as inaccuracy, but it seems to us not entirely with
His work we must remember was official, for though the publication was
his own private
venture apparently, he depended on the approbation of the Grand Master
and the Grand
Lodge. Before we cast our stone at him let us ask ourselves if no other
works are similarly inaccurate and evasive in regard to awkward facts.
We all know
that often enough to speak of an explanation of some occurrence as
is as good as to say it is to be received with caution, or even that it
is to be
highly suspected. But we do not have to go to such pronouncements made
of governments and churches, there are a sufficient number concerned
with the Craft
to give the Masonic historian constant trouble. We do not accuse those
of dishonesty, because we realize that such statements are expressions
compromises, or are ex parte justifications for action taken. If
Anderson is to
be held guilty, we must condemn also the Grand Lodge, which was equally
with whatever was concealed, and which doubtless would have rejected
a full and plain statement of the case.
is somewhat of a digression. Gould and Hughan drew directly opposite
from the same passages. As was intimated above, the facts may be fitted
into a number
of different patterns. We may liken Anderson's account to those curious
diagrams which alternately seem to represent a cavity and then a solid;
or to one
of the puzzle pictures that may sometimes be found in old print shops,
where a study
of "still life," or a landscape, resolves itself into a grinning skull
when looked at from another point of view. The point of view in this
case will probably
be determined by some latent bias or prejudice in the student's mind.
we may quote Gould himself:
It has been
too much the habit especially in America [this was written in 1893, and
Gould had Mackey and perhaps Pike in mind] to assume that Masonry was
1717, and English afterwards. Thus it is contended (with regard to the
that as there was only one degree in Scotland, a plurality of degrees
in Universal Masonry the English evidence being coolly and quietly
the tables are turned, with a vengeance, in 1723, when the Old
"digested" by Anderson for the Grand Lodge of England, are assumed from
thenceforth to govern every Mason under the sun (9).
statement is a little irrelevant, but it states very well that
of which Gould was not himself always guiltless, which has done so much
the real truth of the history and development of the Craft. But we see
of the reasons why Gould was always so strenuously insisting on the
gulf fixed between
Scottish and English Masonry before 1717. The English evidence, that he
ignored, is very scanty, and so disconnected as to be very difficult to
all into a coherent system, at least one that will command assent. As a
fact, Gould himself in the discussion of it in his History failed to
point out its implication. On the other hand the Scottish evidence is
comparatively speaking; and as Speth put it, it was "laid down by a
of authorities" that it proves that apprentices when "entered" received
all the secrets known to the Craft in that country (10). It was very
interpret the English remains in the light of this accepted conclusion,
we may suppose was the unconscious influence that prevented Hughan from
discrepancy between the first and second editions of the Constitutions
its real significance.
quoted Anderson's version in dealing with Mackey (11) it may be better
to cite the
crucial passages again. In Regulation XIII, on page 61 of 1723 edition,
Apprentices must be admitted
Masters and Fellowcraft
only here, unless by a Dispensation.
As the regulation
is dealing with the Quarterly Communications the words "only here" mean
"only in Grand Lodge."
It has previously
been pointed out that we are not sure whether this is the actual
wording of the
Regulation as read over by Payne on St. John the Baptist’s Day in 1721,
by Stukeley in his Diary (12), but it is all that is otherwise known
In the 1738
edition the Regulations (distinguished as the Old Regulations) are
printed in parallel
columns with a set of New Regulations that supersede them. First there
is a change
in the wording of the Old Regulation XIII which the reader would
to be an exact reproduction of the original. It now runs:
must be admitted Fellow Crafts and Masters only here, unless by a
the Grand Master.
have the words "from the Grand Master” been added, which is
the order of the terms "Master" and "Fellow Craft" has been
reversed. This may have a good deal of significance. The old Scottish
frequently spoke of "maister" or "mester" and "fallow of
craft" but rarely or never, at least we have not noticed any instance,
of craft and master." In the old Operative sense of the terms the first
the correct sequence. The apprentice having become master of his craft
or became, a fellow of the fraternity; or in other crafts, of the gild
But when the interpolated degree had been given the name "Fellow Craft"
it was naturally less appropriate to follow the old sequence.
"corrected" version of the Old Regulation appears in the second column
On 22 Nov. 1725. The Master of
a Lodge with his
Wardens and a competent Number of the Lodge assembled in due Form can
and Fellows at Discretion.
It must be
admitted that in going back here to the Master-Fellow sequence the note
the argument drawn above from the misquotation of the original clause.
was nothing but carelessness and general inaccuracy. Anderson may have
between a new phrase that he used more or less consciously, and an old
came by habit. It is hard to say. In any case we may charitably suppose
note of the repeal of the clause was not intended to be misunderstood
as an accurate
transcript of the actual resolution, for it is evident from the
remainder of the
notes and amendments that complete accuracy was not proffered, nor,
expected. The very next item, for example, begins:
On 25 Nov. 1723. It was agreed
to be recorded in the Grand Lodge Book) …
kept in this way a paraphrase might seem as good as the actual text! It
may be as
well to recall that this forgotten resolution was passed at the second
in the Minute Book. We now come to the amendment as it appears in the
date of Nov. 27, not Nov. 22, as Anderson, or the printer, gave it.
being made that Such part of the 13th Article of the Genll Regulations
to the Making of Mars only at a Quarterly Communication may be
repealed. And that
the Mars [Master(s) ?] of Each
with the Consent of his Wardens and the Majority of the Brethren being
make Mars at their discretion.
we see that Anderson's paraphrase differs quite a little from the
record. Not only
has he inserted the words Fellows, but "a competent number of the lodge
in due form" is not by any means the same thing as "the Majority of the
brethren being Masters." This latter is not very likely however to have
what was intended, and it might be taken that Anderson's version
for we must keep in mind that the Book of Constitutions was prepared
and adopted not as a history, still less a source book for history, but
as a legal
code. It would seem, therefore, that we can assume that what appears
in accordance with what was understood to be the law of 1738. Of course
not necessarily follow that this was the same in 1725, though it may
give a certain
presumption that this was so.
we may note that Hughan made a very strange slip in this place (13). He
Does not the qualification,
so late as 1738 suggest that the Degree was not then generally worked,
was gradually becoming better known?
of course was made in 1725, not 1738. The error is all the stranger in
that he had
quoted Anderson's 1738 paraphrase just a few lines above, in which this
does not appear, as we have seen; even should the suggestion be
accepted that it
implies that the number of Masters was very limited. As we showed
above, the resolution
was so loosely drawn that it is hard to say definitely what it did mean
though the general intention is clear enough. Hughan would appear to
have been somewhat
inconsistent in advancing this particular argument seeing that he held
present three degrees were being worked in 1723, and that Regulation
XIII in speaking
of Masters and Fellowcraft meant just what we would mean by the terms
it would follow that these new degrees had lain almost dormant in the
that had elapsed. It would almost seem as if any stick were good enough
(1) We may be
permitted to refer to the series of articles, "The Precious
Jewels," which appeared in THE BUILDER in 1926 and 1927, for an example
this kind of thing. It is there shown how the furniture, ornaments and
the lodge all sprang by a series of misunderstandings from a common
1884, Vol 3],
Vol. iii, p.
(3) Ibid, Vol.
iii, p. 116. Chapters xvi to xviii should be read to fully
appreciate the statement made in the article.
Vol. I [Lib 1895],
p. 10. Cf.,
Gould Op. cit., Vol. iii, pp. 55 70, and elsewhere.
0p. cit., Vol. iii [Lib 1890],
p. 64. In this
seems even to doubt whether there was any connection at all between the
of Scotland and that of England in matters esoteric.
Vol. xvi [Lib*], p. 28. Reprinted in the Collected Essays.
Vol. iii, p. 7. Also reprinted in the Collected Essays.
(8) Ib., Vol. X
(9) lb., Vol. vi, p. 76. Review of
Vernon's History of
Freemasonry in the Province of Rowburgh, Peebles and Selkirkshire.
(10) Ib., Vol.
I [Lib 1895],
BUILDER, P. 199, July, 1928.
Concise History [Lib*], p. 392 (Macoy Edition) also A.Q.C. Vol.
vi, p. 130
Vol. x [Lib 1897],
Three Pioneer Masons of the Early West
Bro. Henry Baer, Ohio)
Nova Caesarea Harmony Lodge, No. 2
ON a bleak
November morning of 1794, a stalwart figure in backwoodsman's garb
soft and noiseless tread on to the porch of a tavern in Cincinnati,
of a mind to indulge in something designed to warm and cheer the inner
proceeding to the business which had brought him to town. Hilarious
sounds and loud
talking reaching his ears convinced the traveler that "first drink
already was part of the history for that particular day and
indications that some had negotiated a point rather removed from their
About to enter, above the roistering voices he heard the boastful
"I am the best man in Ohio!" Before anyone inside could take issue with
the speaker, if indeed any were so inclined, the door whipped open and
in ringing tones demanded to know what was said and who said it.
went up a shout in recognition, then silence.
the mixed crowd representative of a border town that filled the place,
forth a tall English officer, evidently a stranger in the vicinity, who
to a cool inspection of him who dared challenge his claim to the
He faced a man of forty, inch for inch his equal in height, dressed in
fringed deerskin, splendidly proportioned, keen-eyed, with features
bronzed to the
color of an Indian from a life in the wilderness, an ideal type of the
frontiersman, Captain Ephraim Kibby, leader of Wayne's scouts in the
the savages then recently closed.
I am the best man in Ohio," repeated the Englishman, undaunted by his
you had said you were as good a man as there is in Ohio, there would be
for dispute, but as it is I dispute it," was the response of the
Kibby, step into the room," suggested the other, and opened a door
into the long room of the tavern. This the captain was prompt to do,
inside by his opponent and all the onlookers, intent on seeing the
undoubtedly a man of experience and reputation in duelling, had things
for on the table lay two long flintlock pistols, primed and ready for
he ordered, "Captain Kibby, take one of them." At the latter's ready
he picked up the other with the words, "Name your time and distance."
the handkerchief from his neck, the American held to one corner with
his left hand
and cocking the weapon in his right, reached the other end for the
take and likewise prepare, at the same moment exclaiming, "Here is the
and now is the time!" Completely taken aback at such unusual, if not
unheard of, conditions, his rival wilted, whereupon Kibby reversed his
with the butt knocked him to the floor, while the house rang with
shouts of "Hurrah
for Captain Kibby!"
when making his challenging boast did the Britisher figure on the
catching a Tartar, even in a rough frontier town as Cincinnati then
as in all places of such character, trouble could be had for less than
However, that he backed down before his American antagonist need not
stamp him as being deficient in courage. Rather would it prove an
with the ways of the West, where the favorite method of settling
disputes and questions
of supremacy was to engage at close quarters. Some of the more fierce
backwoodsmen are said to have even gone to the extreme of tying their
together and fighting it out to the death with knives.
About a month
later, on Dec. 27, 1794, there was instituted in Cincinnati the Masonic
today as Nova Caesarea Harmony Lodge, No. 2, under its warrant of 1791,
by the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, the delay in organizing being due to
of the Indian war raging in the Northwestern Territory. The first
petition for the
degrees of Masonry was received on Jan. 21, 1795, signed by Captain
hero of the foregoing near duel. Following investigation and favorable
March 4 he formed one of a class of three candidates who were the first
at the altar of this frontier lodge likely nothing better than a wood
or a stool. In due time he was passed as a Fellowcraft and raised to
of Master Mason.
was born in New Jersey in the year 1754. As a seasoned veteran of the
in which he was sergeant, he emigrated after the close of actual
1781 to the Southwestern Pennsylvania border, where resided others from
state. This region was constantly exposed to Indian attacks and forays,
and it was
here that Kibby acquired his knowledge of woodcraft and developed the
skill in Indian
fighting that afterwards made him famous along the Ohio. Strangely,
many of his adventures and exploits have come down to us, but it will
be here recounted
the few that are known, although they are unfortunately in but the
Major Benjamin Stites, a noted frontiersman of Pennsylvania, in
the first settlement in Southwestern Ohio, late in 1788, and having a
in the erection of Cincinnati a month later, Kibby became one of a
number of hunters
employed by contract to furnish buffalo, deer and hear meat for the
the soldiers at Fort Washington. This post was constructed at the
latter place in
the year following, lying about five miles down river from Columbia.
Once, of a
party of six hunting in the forest north of Cincinnati, all were killed
with the Indians with the single exception of Kibby. Another time, when
alone, this redoubtable adventurer, whose person apparently was greatly
by the red enemy, was chased for twenty-four hours through the
being in prime condition and exceedingly fleet of foot, he finally
shaking off the relentless pursuit and safely reached his home at
As an officer
in the frontier militia, Kibby was kept fully employed in the years of
war which raged for five years from 1790 and included campaigns by
St. Clair and "Mad Anthony" Wayne. In that of the overconfident St.
he served as a spy, and doubtless was one of those to "warn him of
danger," but whose reports were heeded not, to the consequent slaughter
the American army. When Wayne was organizing his force in 1792, in
for what was hoped to be the final action against the troublesome
tribes of the
North, a first thought of this sagacious soldier was the formation of a
frontier scouts and spies to lead the way through the wilderness. To
this end Ephraim
Kibby was named leader, with the rank of captain, and doubtless to him
the selection of personnel. Its members, to the number of two-score,
from among the best and most experienced Indian fighters of the
Northwest, and henceforth
were known as Wayne's "forty famous scouts."
in his Winning of the West, has this to say regarding the employment of
It was on these fierce
backwoods riflemen that
Wayne chiefly relied for news of the Indians, and they served him well.
parties, or singly, they threaded the forest scores of miles in advance
or to one
side of the marching army, and kept close watch on the Indians'
movements. As skillful
and hardy as the red wariors, much better marksmen, and even more
daring, they took
many scalps, harrying the hunting parties and hanging on the outskirts
of the big
wigwam villages. They captured and brought in Indian after Indian, from
got valuable information.... Among these wilderness warriors were some
… known far
and wide along the border for their feats of reckless personal prowess
strange adventures. They were of course all men of remarkable bodily
almost unlimited powers of endurance, and the keenest eyesight; and
they were masters
in the use of their weapons.
with the widespread fame of Neal Washburn, Robert McClellan, Andrew and
Ellis Palmer, "the Injun Killer," and ferocious Lewis Wetzel, were
among these scouts, the choice of Kibby as leader at once would
establish his superior
knowledge of the Western Ohio country and testify to his great
and reputation in Indian warfare. Furthermore, it points to
essential in the command of hardened half-wild borderers, men who in
spirit of independence found it ever irksome to work under orders, and
a chosen leader only so long as it suited their convenience or
Kibby's rangers were the greatest and most daring and desperate band
on the American continent.
winter of 1793-4, while out on Wayne's campaign, he was scouting with
McClellan in a howling blizzard and zero weather. The latter after a
to show signs of distress. Alone in a great snow covered forest and
unable at the
moment to build a fire, Captain Kibby, with border resourcefulness,
killed one of
the horses and slitting it open with his knife made a large opening in
Then gathering up the benumbed and stiffening McClellan, he placed him
in the gory,
but warm, aperture and in this manner succeeded in saving him from
was gradually cornering the Indian tribes in Northwestern Ohio, Kibby,
in the spring
of 1794, had opportunities to make several flying trips to his home at
it probably was on one of these excursions that occurred the marathon
chase by the
savages already mentioned. In March the captain set out with a small
party of settlers
and killed two Indians who had committed depredations in that vicinity.
he was publicly congratulated by Territorial Judge, George Turner, in a
was copied in the Centinel of the Northwestern Territory, the earliest
A month later the same publication notices that Kibby and ten men
trailed a body
redskins who had stolen four horses from their settlement, and that
pursuit of many miles and his force overtook and defeated the enemy in
returned in triumph with the purloined equines.
1794, occurred the fast flying action of "Fallen Timbers," near Toledo,
Ohio, when the perfectly trained and disciplined troops of Wayne
smashed their way
through the Indian lines in record time and put the savages to complete
again to be a serious menace to the peace and safety of the white
the Ohio. Although official accounts fail to note the participation of
in this battle, it is inconceivable that men of their intrepid and
after having been so conspicuously employed, would be content to remain
when once the firing commenced. Indeed, more than likely they were in
of the fighting on this glorious occasion and added materially to their
of scalps. Their services after a time no longer required, this fierce
band, whose employment had proven of such value to Wayne, returned to
where they were disbanded
known incident in the life of Kibby was the abortive duel already
its unusual, and, to the onlookers, disappointing climax. This occurred
in the same
year. It was shortly afterward that he was initiated in N.C. Harmony
what prompted his action in petitioning so soon after this body was
interesting conjecture. The answer, however, is believed to lay in his
close association with the officers and soldiers of Wayne's army, in
which a traveling
military lodge was at work. This was Lodge No. 28, under the registry
formed in the spring of 1793, with Captain Robert Mis Campbell as
Brother Campbell was so unfortunate as to lose his life while leading a
in the battle of Fallen Timbers. Numbers of Wayne's force were included
members enrolled in N.C. Harmony Lodge during its first year, an
the rush to the altar of Freemasonry that has obtained throughout all
the wars of
adventure of Captain Kibby of which there is record occurred in 1797,
when he undertook
the herculean task of cutting a road from Vincennes, Indiana, to
Cincinnati, a distance
of more than 155 miles. After completing the first 70 miles he in some
separated from his men in the almost impenetrable wild. After a vain
search of several
days the undaunted leader continued onward, blazing a path through the
with no other guide save the sun, moon and stars. Being left without
he was forced to subsist almost wholly upon roots on his long and
At last Brother Kibby broke through at Cincinnati, greatly worn from
exposure and reduced nearly to a skeleton from his exertions.
hereafter he removed to the adjoining county of Warren, being one of
its early settlers.
To this time he had shown quite versatile ability on the border, having
Indian fighter and scout leader, surveyor, township clerk and road
followed his election to the Territorial and also the State
legislature. After serving
as inspector of Ohio militia with the rank of major, this sterling
the backwoods, unsung in history except in one work as a "brave and
soldier," passed away at Deerfield, Warren County, Ohio, in 1809, at
early age of fifty-four. Hardship and privation had their effect on the
even when they escaped the perils of the wilderness.
(To be continued)
Study of Lecture Courses in Masonic Education
Bro. Charles S. Plumb, Ohio
of Masonic education has been receiving special attention in recent
years. The writer
does not mean to imply that educational work has not had a place in the
before that. The word special in this case, however, applies to a
phase of education. At the conferences held at Detroit in 1927, and
in 1928, the question was raised as to what Masonic education really
is. The opinion
seemed to prevail with many present, that anything whereby the Craft
intellectually covered Masonic education. One definition given at
Detroit that seems
rational is the following: A method by which Masons will have a more
comprehension of the Craft.
At the Cedar
Rapids conference, Brother R. I. Clegg led with a paper on the "Purpose
Masonic Education." He emphasized the fact that Freemasonry especially
to character, or a system of morals in action. This system he thought
study. He thought this a good time to lay stress on education,
following as we are
a great period of extravagance. Brother R. J. Meekren was inclined to
the study of history in its Masonic application, and especially
emphasized the study
of the ritual. He referred to the operative masons and their premium on
and the symbols emblematic of it. He thought we were really starting
in modern Masonic education.
has been especially interested in the various means of promoting
the Masonic group. This has been expressed in several ways outside of
of the customary contact within the lodge during stated or ritualistic
doubt the oldest and most common method has been from special lectures.
of Masonic books among English speaking people has played its part
since the day
of the first edition of Anderson's Constitution in 1723. During the
course of two
centuries Masonic literature has grown into great volume. Masonic study
of more recent birth, and we learn of their organization in Iowa as
1902 at Cedar Rapids. These clubs have not in general proven a success.
At the 1928
conference at Cedar Rapids, where study clubs received much attention,
it was agreed
that they could not expect to be successes, unless under inspired
that was lacking, such clubs soon passed out of existence.
have been published many years in America, but they vary greatly in
merit, and have not thus far been used as special mediums for
educational work within
lodges. Some of them have played a most useful part in lodge uplift,
but the influence
has been more specifically on the individual. Some lodges print monthly
that are a credit to the Craft, which, in their limited spheres, render
consideration of the lecture system might impress one with the superior
of this method of Masonic education, whereby considerable groups should
The lecture method has been made use of in several ways. It has long
been an essential
factor in the degree work. Occasional lectures not related to the
degrees, yet bearing
on the Craft, have been given. Many lectures on the general beauties
of Freemasonry have come from silver-tongued brethren, such as usually
have a wide
application, and are prepared on short notice. Popular lectures have
had a place
in the lodge room, whereby the brethren would be both entertained and
but not on things Masonic.
In his Encyclopedia
of Freemasonry [Lib 1914], Vol. 1, 1919 edition, the
late Bro. Albert
G. Mackey discusses at some length the subject of Masonic lectures.
From this the
writer offers some abstracts that are pertinent to the subject here
Each degree of Masonry [he
states] contains a
course of instruction, in which the ceremonies, traditions, and moral
appertaining to the degree are set forth. This arrangement is called a
Each lecture, for the sake of convenience, and for the purpose of
certain divisions in the ceremonies, is divided into sections, the
number of which
has varied at different periods, although the substance remains the
of the lecture to the three symbolic degrees is then briefly explained,
It must be confessed that many
of the interpretations
given in these lectures are unsatisfactory to the cultivated mind, and
seem to have
been adopted on the principle of the old Egyptians, who made use of
symbols to conceal,
rather than to express their thoughts. Learned Masons have been,
disposed to go beyond the mere technicalities and stereotyped phrases
of the lecture,
and look into the history and the philosophy of the ancient religions,
and the organization
of the ancient mysteries for a true explanation of most of the symbols
and there they have always been enabled to find this true
interpretation. The lectures,
however, serve as an introduction or preliminary essay, enabling the
he advances in his initiation, to become acquainted with the symbolic
of the institution. But if he ever expects to become a learned Mason,
he must seek
in other sources for the true development of Masonic symbolism. The
are but the primer of the science.
In a rather
extended consideration of the "History of the Lectures," Bro. Mackey
the following interesting opening paragraph, which is very pertinent to
of Masonic education:
To each of the degrees of
Symbolic Masonry a
catechetical instruction is appended, in which the ceremonies,
traditions, and other
esoteric instructions of the degree are contained. A knowledge of these
which must, of course, be communicated by oral teaching constitutes a
part of Masonic education and until the great progress made, within the
century in Masonic literature, many 'bright Masons,' as they are
could claim no other foundation than such a knowledge for their high
But some share of learning more difficult to attain, and more sublime
in its character
than anything to be found in these oral catechisms is now considered
form a Masonic scholar. Still, as the best commentary on the ritual
is to be found in the lectures, and as they also furnish a large
portion of that
secret mode of recognition, or that universal language, which has
always been the
boast of the institution, not only is a knowledge of them absolutely
every practical Freemason, but a history of the changes which they have
to time undergone, constitutes an interesting part of the literature of
has been especially interested in a scheme for Masonic education that
might be consistently
planned, which should not cover the ordinary processes of the lodge,
and that would
appeal to a fairly representative group of the Craft. With such a
thought in mind,
a lecture course seemed the only feasible means of successfully
carrying out the
plans. Consequently, in October, 1923, at a stated meeting of
No. 631, of Columbus, Ohio, a motion was adopted that a course of
lectures in Masonic
education be conducted under the auspices of this lodge. A committee of
of Bros. C.S. Plumb, L.E. Wolfe and B.A. Eisenlohr, was appointed to
such a course. This leads me to a rather systematic consideration of a
lectures on Masonic education. University Lodge occupies rooms in York
Columbus, the property of York Lodge, 563. Capital City Lodge, 656,
also uses the
same temple. Following the first course, it was thought desirable for
lodges jointly to promote a lecture course in York Temple.
Columbus Lecture Course
committee was authorized to arrange for and supervise the conduct of
such a lecture
course. The original committee of University Lodge was three. The
was supervised by three representatives from each lodge, or nine in
all. With the
third course each lodge committee was reduced to two, and again with
the next course
but one representative was appointed from each lodge. The idea
prevailed that appointments
to this committee should represent men who were interested in this
of work, and would give it their best service. While different men have
these committees, the writer has from the beginning represented
and served as Chairman. Each committee man, I desire to say, rendered
service, and reflected credit upon his lodge.
motive of each course was to present for the consideration of the
talks on Masonic topics that in general were not a part of the ritual,
give them a clearer knowledge of Freemasonry in general. As the courses
the endeavor was made to furnish better arranged programs. Most of the
extended to lecturers were accompanied with suggested topics. Each
speaker was given
to understand that the motive behind the course was instruction, rather
Six courses have been conducted between 1923 and 1928.
of the lectures given is indicated by the following subjects, not all,
of which were suggested by the various committees. Forty-seven lectures
in all were
scheduled, but seven of these were in fact more or less short talks on
The following are the subjects, under the dates given:
1923 to June 5, 1924
Factors in Masonic Education [Lib*], by C. S. Plumb, 32d, K.T.
[Lib*], by Ill. Bro. C. J. Pretzman, 33d, K.T., P.G.M. Ohio. This was
postponed until the second course.
Lodge and Its Work [Lib*], by Ill. Bro. C. M. Vorhees 33d, K.T.,
Citizenship [Lib*], by Ill. Bro. J. P. McCune, 33d, K.T., P.G.C. Ohio
[Lib*], by Bro. Howard Dwight Smith, 32d.
and the Ritual [Lib*], by Ill. Bro. W. L. Van Sickle, 33d
[Lib*], by Bro. F. H. Howe, 32d, K.T.November 15, 1923 to May 15, 1924
[Lib*]. (Held over from first course.)
The Old Constitutions
[Lib*], by Ill. Bro. J. E. Sater, 33d, K.T.
and His Work [Lib*], by Bro. Henry P. Howe, 32d, K.T.
Landmarks [Lib*], by Bro. J.A. Bauer, K.T.
[Lib*], by Bro. R. C. Wolcott, 32d, K.T.
Temple [Lib*], by Rev. Bro. J.J. Tisdale, 32d.
the Mason [Lib*], by Bro. G.E. Wood, 32d, K.T.
The Two Hirams
[Lib*], by Rev. Bro. W. R. Walker, K.T.
[Lib*], by Bro. Bert Brown, 32d, K.T.
Library [Lib*], by Ill. Bro. F. H. Marquis, 33d, K.T., P.G.M. Ohio
of Freemasonry [Lib*], by Bro. H. L. Haywood, then Editor "The
7, 1924 to April 17, 1925
in Foreign Lands [Lib*], by Ill. Bro. Robert I. Clegg, 33d, K.T.
of Templar Masonry [Lib*], by Ill. Bro. F.O. Schoedinger, 33d, K.T.,
(Carried over from the third course.)
Builders [Lib*], by Rev. Bro. M. H. Lichliter, 32d,
Light: The Book on the Altar [Lib*], by Rev. Bro. A. H. Limouze, 32d
of Ancient Craft Masonry [Lib*], by Bro. C.H. Merz, K.T.
of Freemasonry in America [Lib*], by Bro. H. L. Haywood.
21, 1925 to April 30, 1926
of Freemasonry [Lib*], by Bro. W.G. Sibley, 32d, K.T.
A Night of
Masonic Poetry and Song [Lib*], Supervised by Bro. Grant Connell
by Rev. Bro. A. H. Limouze, 32d, K.T.
and Methods [Lib*], by Bro. O.C. Riddle, 32d, K.T.
Church and Freemasonry [Lib*], by Bro. David B. Sharp, 32d,
K.T.November 18, 1926
to April 15, 1927
to Masonic Education in Ohio [Lib*], by Bro. C. S. Plumb, 32d, K.T.
and the Church [Lib*], by Rev. Bro. E. A. Krapp, K.T.
and Masonic Obligation in Support of Treatment [Lib*], by Bro. C.L.
K.T., G.M. G.L., Ohio.
Franklin [Lib*], M.W. Grand Master, by Bro. C. H. Valentine, 32d
the Entered Apprentice Degree at Bayreuth [Lib*], Germany, by Ill. Rev.
G. Eisenlohr, 33d, K.T.
and the Masonic Ritual [Lib*], by Bro. E.W. McCormick, 32.
Builders [Lib*], by Bro. C.C. Hunt, 32d, G.Sec. G. L. Iowa.November 22,
May 17, 1928
Operative Masonry [Lib*], by Bro. C.T. Warner, 32d, K.T.
[Lib*], by Bro. H. H. Maynard.
[Lib*], by Ill. Bro. J. P. Kuhns, 33d, K.T., P.G.C. Ohio
[Lib*], by Bro. R.W. Taylor, 32d, K.T.
Ritual [Lib*], by Ill. Bro. H. S. Johnson, 33d, K.T., P.G.M., Gr. Sec.
[Lib*], by Bro. J.E. Frahm, 32d.
the Man and Mason [Lib*], by Bro. J.J. Tyler, P.M.
Hubbard [Lib*], by Bro. Simeon Nash, 32d, K.T., J.G.W. G.L. Ohio
the Trestle Board [Lib*], by Ill. Bro. T. M. Stewart, 33d
[Lib*], by Bro. C.M. Vorhees, 33d, K.T., P.G.C., P.G.M. Ohio.
[Lib*], by Bro. H.C. Ramsower, K.T.
Kinsman [Lib*], 33d, by Ill. Bro. W. L. Van Sickle, 33d
To Set the
Craft at Work and Give Them Proper Instruction [Lib*], by Bro. the Rev.
Fort Newton, 32d. K.T.
some very interesting phases to these subjects and the speakers.
essentially religious, were presented by clergymen. Those relative to
were discussed by Past Grand Masters of Ohio. A number of biographical
especially in this last course, were handled by local Masons interested
in a study
of noted Ohio Masons of other days. The Most Worshipful Grand Master of
Lodge of Ohio and four M.W. Past Grand Masters of Ohio; one Past Grand
and three Past Grand Commanders were among the list of speakers. After
course it essentially became a policy of the Committee to secure a
Craftsman from without Ohio, notable in the educational work of
act as the last speaker of the course. Twice Brother Haywood, then
Editor of "THE
BUILDER," was the speaker, and he was followed by Bro. C.C. Hunt, Grand
and Librarian of the Iowa Grand Lodge, and by Bro. Rev. Dr. Joseph Fort
Philadelphia, Editor of the "Master Mason." Both Bros. Newton and
are noted authors of Masonic literature. Bro. Robert I. Clegg of
Chicago, on his
return from Europe, in November, 1924, gave a talk on "Freemasonry in
Lands," and Bros. Marquis of Mansfield, Merz of Sandusky, Sibley of
Johnson and Eisenlohr of Cincinnati, and Tyler of Warren, gave valuable
It is noteworthy
that of this long list of speakers, over a period of six years, not one
keep his appointment. Two unexpectedly were unable to be present as
met every obligation in the course following. Many of the speakers used
from which they spoke, while others presented their subjects
informally. The method
of presentation seemed to make no material difference in the interest
of the audience.
Emphasis, however, might be made of the fact that the committee
programs was fully advised that each speaker possessed a personality
to address an audience that should guarantee his success as a speaker.
were therefore secured with the knowledge of their fitness for the
was free. The first and last one of the course we planned to hold on
no other Masonic function took place in York Temple. The other
lectures, as a rule,
followed a stated meeting of one of the lodges, which closed as near 8
p. m. as
Analysis of Time Attendance
at these lectures was made a special study. This was quite overlooked
in the first
course. In the second and other courses, we recorded attendance at some
of the lectures.
On Feb. 12, 1924, when Bro. Wood spoke on "Washington, the Mason," 221
brethren were present, representing 49 lodges, seven states and the
Columbia. The maximum attendance in this second course was 300, about
of York Temple, when Bro. Haywood, in brilliant style told "The Story
In the third course, on Dec. 16, 1924, there were 165 present, with 36
On Jan. 14 in this course, 202 were present, with 39 lodges
represented. Again on
April 17, 1925, there were 198 present, with 48 lodges represented. On
1927. at the lecture of Bro. Hunt, 219 were present. Of these 179 were
and vicinity, and 40 from outside this jurisdiction. 45 lodges were
which 13 were of Columbus, 28 of other parts of Ohio, and 4 from
without the state.
When we first
began recording the attendance, we passed slips about among the
brethren, on which
they were requested to write name, home address, and name and lodge
This system was not most convenient, so we adopted a plan to give each
the lecture began, a small blank voting slip, on which he was requested
this desired information. These slips were very soon written and
easily classified by lodges and states.
the 1927-1928 series, we had not kept a complete record of attendance
at any one
course. Beginning with the sixth, we kept a careful record through to
the end. This
involved much work, but furnished interesting and useful information,
follows. Attention here should be called to the fact that in order to
room for the lecture of Bro. Newton, by a joint arrangement with the
Officers' Association of Columbus, and the Temple trustees, the
Scottish Rite auditorium
in the Main Masonic Temple in Columbus was used.
for 1927-1928 Series of Lectures
tabular statement gives one the more important figures representing
It will be noted that the attendance ranged from 74 to 460, with 165
This course gives a high average because of Brother Joseph Fort Newton,
on May 17.
Aside from this we have had other courses that no doubt showed a higher
attendance. The record of lodges represented is a most interesting one,
with a minimum
of 24 and a maximum of 72. Certain factors will very readily explain
the cause for
the large number of lodges represented. There are perhaps 15,000 Masons
and about Columbus. The Ohio State University has several hundred
Masons, many of
whom, living in and about Columbus, have never dimited from the home
in reporting, specify such membership. There are 28 lodges in the 14th
of Ohio, and the attendance from these has varied. York Lodge, No. 563,
2200 members, has invariably led in attendance at the lectures. On
April 13 there
were present 28 men from York, and on May 17 there were 90. At Bro.
on May 17, there were 7 lodges from this Jurisdiction represented with
23 or more
members, with Humboldt, No. 476, showing 66, and Magnolia, No. 20, 46.
of Ohio lodges represented, outside of the 14th District, ranged from 9
to 38. Brethren
also drove in from approximately fifty miles away to hear some of the
entire course, eighteen states, the District of Columbia, Canada and
represented at our gatherings. Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois,
Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Montana, New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma,
Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, the District of Columbia, Canada
show this wide distribution.
study was made of the records of each person in attendance at this
of lectures. In checking up each person was placed in the list in
with number of times at lectures placed against his name. The total
number of persons
recorded as present was 721. A large percentage of these had but one
their credit. It is interesting to note that 11 of the brethren
attended each lecture
of the course, 9 were at six, 16 at five, 30 at four and 43 at three
comprises a list of 109 different persons, who attended from three to
in this course, which one might regard as a very satisfactory showing.
It is especially
gratifying that 20 of the brethren were present at either six or seven
of the lectures.
effects of these lectures is rather difficult to determine. The members
of the Craft
understood that they were purely educational, and if they attended they
listen to serious presentations of important subjects. There were no
other than that one should be a Mason in good standing. From three view
is my opinion that these lectures bore good fruit. The brethren took a
in the subjects presented, and after the meeting closed, in quite a
number of instances,
gathered about the speaker and questioned him for more light. A number
of the local
speakers engaged in considerable research in the preparation of their
and became much interested in their subjects. Some of these brethren,
have delivered their addresses to Masons elsewhere, and so have carried
an important purpose in this work. Lastly, within the past two years at
is notable that similar courses in Masonry are being introduced in
in Ohio. Bro. Merz of Sandusky has promoted a valuable course with
50, and Perseverance, No. 329. At Warren, Bro. Tyler has done a similar
with Old Erie, No. 3. Some of the Cincinnati lodges have conducted
for several years with real success. Humboldt, No. 476, under the
Bro. Meyer, the Secretary, has made a notable record in holding special
only partly Masonic, however, during the past several years. Just how
the courses held in York Temple may have had elsewhere, no one knows,
but one is
safe in saying any credit is surely on the right side of the ledger.
Incidental to the Course
attending these lectures has not been a serious one. No charge is made
for the use
of the lodge room for this purpose. None of the local speakers charged
rendered. Brethren from other parts of Ohio who participate have never
than their expenses. Only under certain special conditions have more
been allowed, and this in the case of two speakers from other states,
who were given
slight honorariums above their expenses. During the first two years of
we repaired to the banquet hall after the lecture, and the brethren
were given a
light supper. The third year this plan was abolished, without material
the attendance. However, the last lecture of this and the other bourses
was by a
distinguished brother from out of Ohio, on which occasion a
was served. Brief advertising is given in the city daily papers for one
or two days
prior to each lecture, and The Ohio Mason publishes a similar one, and
reading notices, both before and after each lecture, and frequently
address in full. The nature of the lecture course is set forth in a
four page leaflet
about six by three and one-half inches in size. Made of this size it
in the pocket or in a standard small envelope. The first is a title
page; the second
a brief historical resume of the course; the third and fourth pages the
with information regarding each subject and speaker; and finally the
names of the
committee in charge. The items of importance in expense have here been
Anything else has been of very minor importance.
Each of the
three lodges conducting this course, bears one third of the cost of the
course for the year 1924-25 cost each lodge $133.72; that for 1925-26,
for 1926-27, $93.28; and for 1927-28, $107.07. In the last item of
the Blue Lodge Officers' Association of Columbus, very generously cared
expenses of Joseph Fort Newton, but to make the item of expense
uniform, it is made
a part of the average for each lodge.
not close this rather lengthy communication without an expression of
of the cordial sympathy expressed by several Most Worshipful Grand
Masters of Ohio,
over the lecture course at York Temple. They have shown a most kindly
interest. Here in the city of Columbus brethren of Masonic distinction,
there are many, have rendered much valuable service, and contributed
to a promotion of the cause of Masonic education. We also feel a deep
debt of gratitude
to quite a number of our Ohio brethren in various parts of the state,
who have generously
and graciously played important parts in our programs.
Meekren, Editor in Charge
ago there was a war. It had nearly come to an end, but those in the
thick of it
did not know that. Those years before were a world nightmare.
Sometimes, to those
who lived through it, the ten years since seem to have gone by like a
was the dream and which the reality? Or is all our life here a
It is in
answer to that question that religions have been taught. Masonry
follows at a respectful
distance, with the teaching that to do right, to be just and upright,
is what alone
will give permanent satisfaction to a man.
the so-called white ant of the tropics, is an industrious creature, and
achieves wonderful things in the way of destruction ‒ from the human
point of view
‒ from the termite's side it is but the seeking of the collective
curious trait of this creature is that it will not work in the open.
Not that its
operations are concealed exactly, but like men in the trenches it
advances by sap
and tunnel. It will build a covered road of mud when an open space has
to be crossed.
We are something like the white ant in intellectual and spiritual
our naked souls and the vast questioning abysses of the universe, the
mystery of things, we erect a shelter of conventions and conventional
‒ the mental bases of what we call our civilization.
are we going and what is it all about? Apparently the present
generation does not
care ‒ it is enough that it is "on the way." It is doubtful if the
generation has ever really at heart had any very different attitude;
but that is
not saying it is wise not to care. A man running amuck in a car in a
is wise and prudent compared to a community following its own momentary
and fashions as to what is desirable for it ‒ intensive production and
obsolescence" ‒ oil concessions ‒ large navies and the like. The
has partly forgotten the war, in another decade there will be another
that has no
remembrance. It is well perhaps to think sometimes what it was all
about ‒ especially
as so many now speak as if it might have been avoided, was not
necessary, and accomplished
On the contrary,
it accomplished a great deal, and the price, though heavy, was not too
America the watchword was to make the world safe for Democracy.
Pessimism has arisen
because, so far from the world following the democratic rule, it has
Anglo-Saxon countries turned towards dictatorships. But here we must
Democracy as we understand it is not fool-proof. It is a complex
machine that needs
skillful manipulation. It only works among people who by hereditary
learned in some degree to handle it. Underneath Democracy lies a wider
ideal, one that might quite well be attained in other ways than the
of counting votes and listening to political speeches.
It is the
fashion to gibe at the efforts that have been made towards putting the
world upon a peace basis. But one thing alone should give food for
the war, war was not only one instrument of national policy, it is not
to say it was the instrument of national policy. Now when the tenth
of the Armistice comes round, those who returned can feel that they did
for nothing, nor that their friends and comrades who did not come back
died in vain.
The nations have formally and solemnly agreed to renounce war as a
means of furthering
national aims and desires. It is easy to say it is merely a pious hope,
professions do not bind, and mean nothing. It is not quite the same
world as it
was in 1913. Such an undertaking would then have seemed madly
always lags behind profession, but it yet follows. That such
professions have been
made means at least that the peoples have at last come to suspect that
war is not
inevitable in the nature of things, but that it is due chiefly to
As a recent writer said, "There is wisdom enough in the world; what the
needs is some machinery to apply it to its problems." In proposing the
Peace Pact the United States has once more thrown its influence on the
side of that
ideal that underlies Democracy.
* * *
with ‒ how shall we put it ‒ with regret, tempered with amusement, that
esteemed contemporary, the London Freemason, does not seem to approve
of the answer
to a query published in the September number of THE BUILDER.
conductor of "The Question Box" in The Builder, St. Louis, U.S.A.,
a question as to whether a woman (wife, mother or daughter of a Mason)
to wear the Masonic emblem, says that the wearing of emblems by anyone
is to be
regarded as a purely personal matter, and that if there be no
regulation for the
Mason, it is obvious that still less can there be for one who is not.
propriety of the practice is another matter. It would seem that while
is hardly the right word to use, a woman is at liberty to wear Masonic
that there is no reason to object to it. In any case we do not see how
it can be
prevented." The truth of the last sentence is obvious; but that there
reason to object to women wearing Masonic emblems shows how far our
America have gone.
It had really
never occurred to us that the Question Box was conducted anonymously.
It has always
been the editor's task, from the beginning of THE BUILDER; though after
of editors, the several incumbents of that none too comfortable chair
have as far
as possible used the brains of brethren with special knowledge to
In this particular instance, however, whatever of guilt and blame has
must fall upon the editor's own head.
hardly have noticed this comment here, only that it seems that our
confrere of the
Freemason has got a somewhat distorted impression of what was said, and
think it is an indication that American Masons have diverged
dangerously from the
path marked out by the Ancient Landmarks. Let us hasten to reassure
him, and the
English brethren who gain their information of Masonic events from his
opinion expressed in THE BUILDER was a personal one, not in any way
representing any large body of American Masonic opinion. To speak sooth
expected to hear about it before this.
As a matter
of fact the Square and Compasses, in the "familiar arrangement," have
been made much more of a sacred device in America than anywhere else in
It is a tendency that we feel calls for protest, though doubtless it
will be of
little use to make it. As we noted in the answer referred to, the only
designs that peculiarly belong to the organized fraternity, are first
bearings granted to the Mason's Company by Edward IV in 1473, and the
and seals officially adopted by the various sovereign Grand Lodges ‒ we
ourselves strictly to the Craft. It is true that various jewels and
have also been formally adopted, but so far as we have been able to
find out, no
Grand Lodge has ever officially adopted the square and compasses, with
the letter G, as a personal badge or mark for its members to wear, in
the way that
has been done in other orders and societies in regard to their emblems.
is quite true that a number of American Grand Lodges have been
interested in, or
availed themselves of, state laws forbidding, under penalties, anyone
not a Mason
wearing a button, pin or charm with the square and compasses upon it ‒
for the information
of our English brethren we may interject here that we believe that in
by the strict letter of the law, a woman could be imprisoned for
wearing a "Masonic"
pin ‒ yet we repeat that so far as our information goes, no Grand Lodge
formally, by resolution, adopted the square and compasses. It has
merely been taken
for granted that it was peculiar to Masonry.
is simply not so. Every one of the crafts and trades that employ the
compass as working tools, and there are several besides the masons,
used this design
in the past, and still use it, in some places, in the present. The
arrangement," for example, is frequently found in Germany, on houses,
and elsewhere. It may be a token of carpenters, bricklayers,
stonemasons ‒ as well
as of Freemasons.
in regard to women wearing such ornaments, we believe it was much more
or seventy-five years ago than it is today ‒ and for reasons we
indicated in the
place referred to. It was done for a purpose, and a purpose to which it
no Mason could see objection. Doubtless it is done with the same
now, though the Eastern Star pin is so well known that it has largely
occasion for such use.
is there any reason to object? As things are American Masons depend
much upon badges and buttons. Instead of making themselves known to the
by the four perfect points, and to the world by the four cardinal
virtues to which
they refer, they put on a button or charm that anyone can buy in any
pawnshop, and expect others to accept them as Masons on the strength of
it. If our
contemporary had animadverted upon this tendency of the American Craft
have felt it to be fully justified.
But it all
lies in the sense of the word "object." Can we object, properly
‒ we may dislike, be annoyed with, wish to prevent ‒ but can we object
to a thing
being done that other people have a right to do? We leave aside the
where the law, mistakenly and improperly as we believe, has made it a
but in general there is no such right, and historically we have no
grounds for claiming
it. And besides this, unless we regard the device as a sacred, tabu
object, a fetich,
is there any practical reason to be annoyed or resentful? In the case
of a man there
is perhaps ‒ if not a Mason the presumption is that he is sailing under
But in the case of a woman there obviously cannot be any intention to
* * *
of the distance Masons in America have gone, we note another item,
although it again
would not be fair to regard it as characteristic of American Masonry as
It is difficult for our brethren in other countries to realize that
there are not
only forty-nine sovereign and independent Grand Lodges in the United
also (without any great exaggeration) forty-nine separate and distinct
Masonry. At least the different Grand Lodges vary quite as much, and
more, in legislation, ritual and local traditions and usages, as do the
Lodges of the British Isles. Having thus prepared the way and warned
readers it is not to be taken as typical of American Masonry, we will
story that appears in another of our contemporaries. According to this
a lady approached
the Master of a lodge with a request for a petition blank, as she said
she was very
anxious for her husband to become a Mason. She undertook to see that
was duly sent in accompanied by the fee. This was sufficiently unusual,
extraordinary still, the Master of this lodge ‒ instead of explaining
to the lady
that applicants have to come entirely of their own voluntary motion and
and not influenced by any other person, and that therefore it would be
to comply with her request instead of explaining this he gave her a
was subsequently sent in as she had promised. What action, if any, the
in regard to the matter does not appear. All that can be said is that
exhibited a painful lack of the most elementary knowledge of Masonic
law, and no matter how expert he may be in reciting the ritual he has
to appreciate its significance.
seem to be an idea growing up among the younger generation of Masons in
that the questions asked of the candidate are formal only, and that
be interpreted as narrowly as possible so that their intention may be
answers only formally true. Instead of being a real test to weed out
who though they may be good men will not make good Masons, and there
are many such,
the desire is to open the gates as wide as possible, and indirectly,
them to come in."
It is supposed,
for instance, that "improper solicitation" is restricted to
of friends who are Masons. There is no such restriction. The influence
of a wife or mother or sister is just as improper as that of a member
of the Craft.
We believe that many lodges are suffering from a mass of undigested and
material. It is not enough that a man should be moral, just and
and under the tongue of good report. He must want to belong to the
must have that element in his make-up which is lacking in a great many
which finds an appeal in ritualism, symbolism, and the whole idea of a
brotherhood. Without this disposition it will be better for him, and
better for Masonry, if he stay out.
This is elementary;
every Entered Apprentice should know it, but apparently there is one
Master of a regular lodge who does not.
* * *
New Masonic Bibliography
first begins to acquire the habit of reading books, a habit that like
is easier to make than to break, the first stage is naturally to think
only of their
contents. There are some people, of course, who take to book
collecting, as others
take to collecting stamps, coins or old china. With these we need not
themselves, except as they come under our first classification as
of books, at first, takes them as they come. The binding, the place and
printing, even the author possibly, are quite ignored as insignificant
This is quite natural, for after all it is the primary purpose of books
to say something
of interest to the reader. But after a time it is found that these
facts may be of importance in more ways than at first would seem
the reader begins to specialize, as sooner or later he must to some
extent if he
keeps on reading, he finds that in order to judge the contents of a
book it is sometimes
necessary to know whether it or another was first written, and so
questions of editions
and date arise. Incidentally it is a bibliographical crime to publish a
a date, and something oriental with boiling oil in it, ought to be done
uses a library of any size, public or private, finds at once the
necessity of a
catalog. A catalog is like a telephone or city directory, it tells us
a book is there, and if so where to find it. But we find that, useful
as directories are, they do not give the information we would
frequently like to
have, and that it will save us time and trouble to have condensed and
available form; and thus biographical dictionaries of one kind or
another have been
prepared. Their practical value is proved by the fact that not only are
be found in every reference library, but that many individuals find
in spite of the fact that they are all very expensive. A bibliography
same service in respect to books that the Biographical Dictionary does
The latter is a "Who's Who," the former a "What's What."
of books is so enormous that bibliographies have to be
many educated people would be surprised to find out how many there are.
bibliographies of the sciences, of the arts, of history, of archaeology
and so on;
and a good deal of work has been done in the field of Masonic
literature. The descriptive
catalog of Bro. Carson's library was a valuable bit of work.
Bibliography is invaluable so far as it goes. The Library of the Grand
Iowa is preparing for publication a full catalog of its treasures;
while Bro. Quint
is taking up the task in Germany, and with true Teutonic thoroughness
to devote the rest of his life to it. In order to assist him we make an
all Masonic authors and publishers to send him copies of their works,
large or small,
which will ensure their mention, and will greatly assist a project that
of incalculable value to the Craft in time to come.
* * *
Effects Of Tuberculosis
item of news about the Missouri Masonic Home, published recently in the
FREEMASON confirms the numerous statements published in THE BUILDER in
few years about tuberculosis. The second paragraph is of special
interest. If the
parents had been cared for, in time, perhaps they would have been saved
their children. If they had been placed in a tuberculosis hospital, in
the children would never have been infected. Freemasonry will now spend
in the effort to save these children, and later to rear and educate
them, than it
would have cost to save the father and mother. Whose the fault and
whose the blame?
Can those who have opposed the effort to establish and operate Masonic
Hospitals be free of guilt? Perhaps this tragic story of one Masonic
stir the Craft to action:
A novel charge, has been on the
hands of the
Masonic Home of Missouri for about four months, one that was not
welcomed yet could
not be avoided, and one upon which is being expended every facility and
can be commanded. The charge is a boy, between two and three years old,
tuberculosis had obtained more or less footing. Of course, the infant
has been kept
as isolated as practicable and given the utmost care in the way of
diet, etc., along
with every possible benefit from outdoor exposure to sunshine, and
notes with keenest satisfaction that traces of color are being brought
to its cheeks.
The Masonic Home is not equipped for that sort of demand, however, is
of its obligation to protect members of the family from contact with
that or any
similar dangerous malady, and probably will place the child with the
at Mt. Vernon as soon as it reaches the age when it can be received
there, now only
a few months ahead.
is one of four children of parents who died of tuberculosis within a
of each other. They were Missourians, but went to Arizona in search of
avail. The four children were brought to the Masonic Home, being
eligible by reason
of the father's membership in the Order. All of them bore traces of the
had orphaned them, but the three older ones were removed to the Mt.
where they are reported to be doing well.
Albert K. Wilson
has been Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Kansas for thirty-five
has concurrently held the offices of Grand Secretary of the Grand
Recorder of the Grand Council of the same state for the last twenty-one
Grand Recorder of the Grand Commandery for eighteen years. Recently
unanimously, in all these bodies, he asked to be allowed to retire, not
on account of age, but that he might be able to devote all his time to
of a History of Freemasonry in Kansas, a work for which he has been
for a long time.
regret this permission was granted in each case, and it does great
credit to the
generosity of Kansas Masons that his salary and honorarium is to be
has always been most helpful and ready to cooperate in any way possible
Research Society, and we are very pleased to learn that he will now be
carry out a work that should be a, valuable addition to the literature
of the Craft.
Stephen Young Taylor
We have received
an In Memoriam booklet prepared for the Grand Lodge of Alberta, A. F.
and A. M.
in honor of their late Grand Secretary, Bro. Stephen Young Taylor, who
suddenly last March. Bro. Taylor was an active friend of the N.M.R.S.,
has a larger number of members in Alberta than in any other Canadian
was born in August, 1866, in Huron County, Ontario. He entered the
and held various principalships in his native Province. In 1906 he
removed to Calgary,
Alberta, and became principal of the Alexandria Public School. Later he
was on the
Board of Trustees of the Calgary School District. He was Grand Master
for the years 1915-16, and the following year was elected Grand
Treasurer, and the
year after that, Grand Secretary, to which office he was continually
until his death.
two rituals, the so-called "York" or "Webb" work, and the Canadian,
which is based on that of England. Bro. Taylor was custodian of the
in Alberta and was very active in bringing the lodges that follow this
a very high level of proficiency. Naturally, as a teacher, he was not
with mere parrot repetition of the words, but used his position of
set a higher standard of understanding and appreciation of ritual forms
of the members of the Research Society, we desire to extend our
sympathy to our
brethren of Alberta for the great loss they have sustained.
The Study Club
the Cedar Rapids Conference
this month the publication of the papers read before the conference of
held in Cedar Rapids last May. The first of these documents is that
read by Bro.
Robert L. Clegg, Associate Editor of THE BUILDER, and was the opening
the conference. The full report of the proceedings of the meeting which
in the September number of THE BUILDER makes it unnecessary for us to
go into detail
regarding the purposes of the meeting. Without further introduction we
Clegg's paper on
Of Masonic Education
word initiation if it means anything means education. By initiation we
education we are also instructed. Initiation indicates individual
is no initiation by proxy among Freemasons. We get it ourselves or we
it at all. We have it conferred or communicated. We follow guides. But
we are not
initiated by merely seeing or hearing or feeling even if the eye, the
ear, the hand,
are intimately concerned with Freemasons and Freemasonry.
heart are the principal elements in Masonic education. Knowledge deeply
in the heart and wisdom exhibited by the mind are essentials to the
these he falters and falls in his Freemasonry, with them he soars in
is Freemasonry? What has Freemasonry to teach? How may Freemasonry be
questions are always suitable for Masonic discussion. No attempt will
be made by
me to answer them at length. At the very most all that may be
undertaken will be
such comments as may, it is hoped, bring forth further light.
refers to character. Over ten years ago, in THE BUlLDER, my definition
was venturesome perhaps, but it is still my opinion. Freemasonry is a
moral knowledge in action. An older brother long ago, Bro. A. T.
Pierson, said it
was the Science of Sciences because it comprehends within itself that
of all others.
This was indeed all-inclusive but did not give that touch of human
warmth that we
usually ascribe to Freemasonry. Probably Bro. Gilbert Parker, the
gets more brotherliness into it. He says Masonry is not the exposition
of a manufactured
article, nor is it a relevation. It expresses the underlying principles
all the religions which the race has loved, and it is founded upon the
traditions which are necessities to humanity. May we not truly and
ask ourselves are these things not worth sincere study? Do they not
and circulation? Of course we are all well aware of the various other
that may be given of Freemasonry. It is indeed a system of morals
by symbols pertaining to the art and science of the building trade, and
upon the mind chiefly by an allegory in dramatic form.
most important elementary principles in Masonic ethics are, first,
God as the Grand Architect of the Universe, second, love for our
loyalty to the government of our country, and patriotism for all our
represents. With faith triumphant in God, mutually encouraging hope in
and abiding charity for all mankind we shall fulfill the Masonic duties
love, relief and truth.
other basic principles of the Masonic Institution. Of these we may here
toleration, justice, sincerity moral rectitude. These are logical
our first step in Freemasonry the Entered Apprentice Degree where we
such wise and useful lessons as prepare the mind for a regular advance
in the principles
of knowledge and philosophy. These are in our Masonic Institution
imprinted in the
memory by lively and sensible images well calculated to influence our
the proper discharge of the duties of an honest, able, God-fearing life.
We may therefore
not regard Freemasonry merely as a memorial, but as an example, not
simply to commemorate,
but to inspire. This Freemasonry of ours is not just another secret
Order in which
to claim membership and accumulate degrees. None other compares with
it. The history
of its progress, the caliber of its real initiates past and present,
and significant methods of its operation, and its universal exposition
centuries in all the four corners of the globe, are abundant and
to its unique and surpassing worth among all human agencies for good.
Next to the
Church of God it stands secure.
anxious ever to put upon us in any particular the customs and trappings
of any other
organization there is but one thing to say: Hands off! Initiation to
may become but a dim memory, the solemn obligations feebly remembered
as to substance,
but may we not hope for recollection enough to maintain a fervent
respect, a heartwarming
love, and some pride of possession for every brother in the enjoyment
of his affiliation.
We all need at least to be reminded. Such is Masonic education.
such a competent sentiment for proficiency, to advance with emphasis
claims of the Craft, and to increase the sterling pleasure and the just
the search for more Masonic light is for me the purpose of Masonic
We are builders
carrying forward the designs of the Grand Architect. Our houses are not
to last for a few years but for many, yes, eternally in the heavens.
And is there
a better time to consider this education carefully than now when the
rush of successive
ceremonies has somewhat abated and we now face not the flood tide but
ebb in our rate of numerical growth? At all events we can in this
the more fittingly urge our brethren to join with us in unearthing and
all that our Masonic Institution has to teach.
Much of this
instruction is especially individual. Man is ordinarily too much a
crowd. A man
is often not enough of himself. Our eyes too frequently are seldom
raised from the
heels of the fellow in front. The Golden Rule applies to the
individual. Each of
us is responsible. It is a personal matter. We are not expected to wait
magical elevation of everybody at once. Assuredly we all get raised to
by the efforts of the enthusiastic and the stalwart who advance
themselves and so
lift the general average. Yet the path for each is marked out by
The heights are within the range of Masonic Craftsmanship. The means to
goal are by the quiet study of Masonic fundamentals, the ritual, the
the regulations, the history and the objectives of its leaders.
May we not
in our patient, helpful deliberation, one with another, also do
something to aid
each and all of us to stem the stream of so much modern reactionary
all events to re-direct and control the rising flood in the world of
we not in our civilization altogether too apt to overvalue the material
the spiritual, to overvalue knowledge and undervalue wisdom, to
and undervalue quality, to overvalue the body and undervalue the soul?
insist upon rights but usually neglect duties. In every direction there
are to be
seen flagrantly mistaken values for comparing play against work,
against originality, state against individual, noise against silence.
Let us not
overvalue the temporal and undervalue the eternal.
preferable things is the substance of Masonic education. And the
essence of it all
in Cedar Rapids were held conferences of honored Masonic brethren in
deal with wartime problems. Here was the inception of the National
Society with which most of us have been for years actively identified.
In my mind
and heart this present meeting appears as another promising step in
having the active support of these our Freemason brothers of Iowa and
it is a happy
omen of success that we have their cordial encouragement and hospitable
conclusion of Bro. Clegg's address the program called for a discussion
Education by Bro. F. H. Littlefield Executive Secretary and Treasurer
of the National
Masonic Research Society. Bro. Littlefield was detained unavoidably and
J. Meekren, Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER, was called upon to fill his
* * *
I am inclined
to believe that in the consideration of the subject before us we may
find it useful,
as in so many other things, to approach it from the historical side.
And as an aside,
may I be pardoned for saying that I hold that in a country with a
of government, history is the most important subject the schools can
children of today choose the government of tomorrow, and they need a
accurate history to enable them to function intelligently as citizens.
I mean history,
of course, not mythology or propaganda, which is too often, in all
in its place.
popularly supposed to be the very ultimate the last word in things dry,
and useless. But it is not. Everyone finds history the most interesting
of subjects; it is in regard to historical matters that everyone has
the most lively
curiosity only they do not know it by that name. They have in their
been introduced to some dry bones, and told that that was the Muse of
one can love a skeleton; it is flesh and blood and the "skin you love
that excites admiration and affection. To prove what I say, it is only
to call attention to the fact, which I am sure has been equally your
as it has been ours in the Research Society, that there are no subjects
more inquiries are received than whether such and such a prominent man
was a Mason,
or what influence Masons have had in the making of the Nation, in
fighting its battles
or administering its affairs. And what is this but history?
from this digression, however. I said that I believed the historical
enable us to see the question of Masonic education in a new
perspective. It is generally
agreed that our Speculative Institution was evolved out of a Fraternity
working stonemasons of Operative Craftsmen. To modern ears, the terms
"artisans," "mechanics," have a smack of inferiority if not
social inferiority at least intellectual and cultural. It is therefore
to remember that a mediaeval craft was differently organized and
equivalent occupations today. Now we have horizontal classification
directors. Then, roughly speaking, it w as perpendicular the employer
administrators all began with the training and status of the worker.
should not be spoken of as "mere artisans," with the present day
of the term. This point I regard as of great importance in any attempt
the state of affairs in the original Operative organization in which
Freemasonry has its roots.
be entirely aside from the present subject to go into the probable
Operative Masonry on its Speculative side. We know practically nothing
directly, and it is impossible to speak of it with any assurance. But
there is some
evidence, aside from general considerations, that makes it quite
probable that the
Mediaeval Freemasons moralized upon their working tools a simple and
of ethical character. To some the evidence may seem conclusive. I
to distinguish always between the three levels of opinion, the
possible, the probable
and the certain. There has been so much loose assertion in regard to
that it is better to be cautious.
It is also
probable, perhaps highly probable, that there were ceremonies of a
and magical nature of the type with which modern anthropology and
made us so familiar. These ceremonies could not have been properly
placed and understood
in the eighteenth century, yet they would inevitably have intrigued the
of the educated men who joined the Fraternity at the time it emerges
into the light
of history. With the prepossessions and mental patterns of the period
it was again
inevitable that this ritual should have been taken as the vehicle of
and occult secret, and that attempts should be made to interpret it in
Thus we have the multitude of high degrees which all professed to give
the key to
unlock the mystery. The most significant and meritorious of these
degrees have been
collected, with many modifications, into the various rites that still
the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, and the so-called York Rite.
Some of these
degrees gave an occultist interpretation, others related the symbolism
others were theosophical others mystical, others metaphysical. All were
that they assumed that Freemasonry enshrined a great mystery, and in
reveal it more fully.
the first, Speculative Masonry was what we should call educational. It
illuminate its initiates, to put them in possession of hidden
knowledge. And it
will hardly be necessary to point out that our modern rituals assume
the same viewpoint
at every step. The candidate comes with a "desire for knowledge." It is
through "the secrets of our art" that he is expected to exhibit to the
world an estimable and virtuous character; while the central point of
is the revelation of light, illumination.
In our modern
programs we are, therefore, making no innovation, or breaking fresh
possibly in the methods adopted; and even these are by no means wholly
in our rather materialistic and practical age, we are inclined more to
scientific treatment, yet the occult and mythical schools still
flourish among us.
There is no orthodox doctrine in Freemasonry and consequently there is
The brethren of mystical leanings, and those who seek occult knowledge,
equal right with the utilitarian and historically minded. There has
been, and still
is, however, a tendency to belittle one aspect of Freemasonry, and that
some brethren of the greatest eminence and authority. Just as the "mere
of the Middle Ages has been despised so also have the "trite
of the symbolical degrees been held up to scorn by those who sought
thing.” This attitude has led to theories which assume that the
of Freemasonry did not belong to the Operative Masons, but that their
was used as a veil or a disguise by some school of mystical or occult
or by some noble and chivalric order suppressed and persecuted.
rather than admit a real fellowship with "common workmen."
Now it must
be admitted that there is a difficulty here. We cannot possibly claim
that any new
moral teaching is given the initiate. Indeed we will not accept a
we suppose him not only to be acquainted with ethical rules, but also
be moral and virtuous in his life and conduct. At least that is the
then does it mean? Are unnecessarily and foolishly putting him into the
again when he comes to us with a graduate's diploma? It seems that it
has been some
such idea as this that has led to the belittling of the moral teaching
of the first
three degrees. But this is all a mistake. The symbolical teaching is
to teaching a higher, and as yet unknown morality; but to the practical
end of putting
what is known and understood into effect. Simple and obvious as these
may be, they are yet fundamental, and they are most hard to put into
have to consider our symbolism as a whole. Masons are builders. They do
wholly for themselves, but for the community. There is no need for
every man to
be able to cut stone or lay brick, a comparatively few specialists can
do all that
is needed in that way. This is the reason for the exclusive character
of our Institution.
It is a body (supposedly) of picked men, who are trained to serve
society at large.
For this end we are taught to labor first to improve our own
characters, not for
purely self-centered reasons, but that we may build speculatively,
other people to make the world a better, happier and more beautiful
place to live
practical side of Masonic teaching is grasped no one will be tempted to
its being a set of obvious platitudes. Furthermore, everything else
falls into its
proper place about this central motive. We must improve not only our
but also our minds, in order to better carry out our fundamental
purpose. All the
various departments of Masonic study and research are subordinate to
this. To some
they are of interest in themselves. That is perfectly proper and
natural. But they
also have their place in the functioning of Freemasonry as a whole, if
it is to
be what Freemasons have supposed it to be from the beginning: an
through the co-operation of its members tends to the general betterment
of all mankind.
reviewed in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of
at the prices given, which always include postage. These prices are
a matter of precaution) to change without notice; though occasion for
very seldom arise. Occasionally it may happen, where books are
that there is no supply available, but some indication of this will be
the review. The Book Department is equipped to procure any books in
print on any
subject, and will make inquiries for second-hand works and books out of
Law And Custom Of Freemasonry
Lewis Edwards. Published by A. Lewis, London. Cloth, Table of Contents,
pages. Price, $4.00.
a discussion of Masonic Jurisprudence leads into complications without
this reason no attempt will be made to discuss the subject matter of
under consideration lest we use as much space as the book consumes.
would attempt such a discussion of Masonic Law for each Masonic
this country the task of comparison would be made less difficult than
it is at present
and there might come out of such works a uniform code for all of our
Such a consummation is devoutly to be wished, but we fear impossible of
work deals solely with the Grand Lodge of England. It is divided into
and two appendices. The titles will serve as a means of estimating
Part I ‒
Sources of the Law.
Part II ‒
‒ Private Lodges.
Part IV ‒
Provincial and District Grand Lodges; London and Overseas Rank.
Part V ‒
Grand Lodge and Its Boards and Committees.
Part VI ‒
Masonic Tribunals and Their Powers.
I ‒ Decisions of Grand Lodge and Its Committees.
II ‒ Recent Changes in the Book of Constitutions.
seems thoroughly authentic. The discussion is free from technical
language and is
easily readable. There have been few enough contributions to the
subject of Masonic
Jurisprudence and such a work as this is a most welcome addition.
* * *
Durant Drake. Published by The Macmillan Company. Cloth, Table of
pages. Price $2.65.
of the world today, both individual, national, and international, have
place in the sun of comment. At various times during the past several
have been magazine articles, and not a few books, published which
professed to show
us what was wrong with the world in which we live. Doubtless there will
of this to come. Whether our morals at the present time are any better
or any worse
than they have been in times past is a question which might be
It is difficult to make comparisons on anything like an intelligent
like everything else, are constantly changing. They must change to meet
‒ it makes no difference whether the new requirements have to do with
with national politics, with international affairs, or with individual
the times are changing, there is no doubt about that, and changes in
mean new problems which must be solved upon the basis of a moral code.
question is what shall our moral code be? Shall it consist in merely
dictates of our own consciences? Shall it consist in following a set of
down for the guidance of conduct under an environment entirely
different from our
own? The real problem is, shall there be such a thing as a definite,
list of laws, carefully tabulated and enumerated, or shall our moral
code be a basic
principle subject to application to every possible contingency, and by
can rightly judge between exemplary conduct and wrong doing?
A code of
laws has been the standard of Christian morality for almost two
Before that the same code was the standard of moral behavior among the
unknown centuries. This list is known as the Ten Commandments. Is it,
as it stands,
applicable to all of the phases of life today? Or is this code
obsolete? Does it
cover every possible contingency that may arise in the complicated life
of the present
just a few questions which arise in connection with any discussion of
us look backward for a few moments and endeavor to analyze the origin
There are, perhaps, three definite branches to the root. One of them
will not fit
in with the beliefs of the dogmatic members of the churches known as
This is what we might call the Animal Origin of Morality. Relative to
of the subject Mr. Drake says in The New Morality.
has its roots far back in the lives of our pre-human ancestors. It is
of millions of years of natural selection. Since this stern process
general, in the survival of the fittest structures, we may be pretty
sure that morality
has survived, persisted, developed because of its usefulness.
he reaches in regard to the animal origin of morality is summed up in a
is, in its early stages, as natural and unconscious a development as
any other sort
of animal behavior.
of morality which characterizes the fundamentalist and which to a large
him from the modernist in matters of religion is too complicated a
subject to be
discussed in any adequate way in a review. Briefly the "supernatural"
morality owes its origin to religious development, but the result as we
see it reflected
in present conditions is that
exposition and ecclesiastical edict, morality is stamped as, in its
origin and sanctions,
the expression of His [God's] will. Thus a contemporary churchman
does not require actions because they are right, but they are right
because He requires
them, just as others are evil because He forbids them."
of the acceptance of such a moral code may be summed up in the
from without, even of a Creator and Ruler of the Universe, could alter
that inhere in the very nature and conditions of human life now that it
such a command could not make right other than right, or wrong other
If God is a conscious Being, aware of and interested in our fortunes,
he does no
doubt wish us to do right; but the rightness or wrongness of an act is
of his desire, and just as real if there be no such Being interested in
Drake, Problems of Religion, p. 321, quoted from The New Morality.]
of morality to supernatural sources is not only irrelevant, it is
dangerous. A supposedly
supernatural morality is above criticism and resists improvement.
possible origin of morality is a kind of consolidation of the two
discussed and there is no need for mentioning it in any detail at the
we are in a position to answer some of the questions asked in regard to
Commandments a bit earlier in the discussion. First let it be made
quite plain that
the reviewer does not consider it in any sense necessary to discard the
Moses. They are a wonderful moral guide, but is that all there is in
laws were written before the day of radio, telephone, telegraph,
business, international politics, and countless other things that might
They can be made to fit all walks in life it is true, but there is
‒ they must be interpreted in order to fit the needs of the present
day. That is
fairly obvious. Then they are not literally applicable to all phases of
Since, however, they can be made to conform to modern life, they are
not what might
be termed obsolete. There are certainly things that are not covered by
code of centuries ago. What are the moral duties of a newspaper toward
government? What is the duty of the employer toward the employee? The
made no specific mention of these things.
everything else the Hebraic laws are supernatural morality. They are
to the people. They must, therefore, be infallible. They must not be
they are being changed. We believe in them as rules for the guidance of
conduct, but we do not believe in them as rules for the guidance of
or international councils. At least they do not appear upon the statute
If a supernaturally
inspired moral code is not acceptable to modern religion what sort of a
we establish? Frequently mention is made of the Golden Rule. That truly
be the sum and substance of the whole matter. It has been said that
took volumes to prove their contentions and their followers used
sentences to describe
their theories. This is perfectly true, even in the case at hand. Mr.
taken a whole volume to say no more than that our modern moral code
should be to
do unto others as you would have them do unto you. But, and here is the
of the philosophical mind, Mr. Drake says this in such a way that the
can see its application to every phase of modern life. The new morality
he speaks, to use his own words, can be summed up as follows:
which, basing itself solidly upon observation of the results of
aims to secure the maximum of attainable happiness for mankind.
Let us follow
this line a little farther and see where it leads.
beings had no capacity for pain or pleasure, for sorrow or joy, there
would be no
sense in preferring one act to another, no meaning to morality, no
any sort of evaluation (of actions) at all... Yet it is not widely
least with any clearness, that morality actually serves to foster human
or lessen human suffering... It is easy enough to see that most of our
moral ideals do serve that purpose. But what needs clearer recognition
is the fact
that if any one of these accepted ideals does not make for the greatest
human happiness, it is a cruel ideal, not deserving of our allegiance,
and in need
of emphatic repudiation.
What is of
prime importance is to see clearly that if an act has no tendency to
amount of happiness in the world, it is not wrong, and no prohibition
by man or
God or conscience could make it wrong.
The way to
secure human happiness is to be moral; not, necessarily, to follow the
by the majority in a given community, for that may be a distorted or
code, but to be really moral.
not good because desired, but because, whether desired or not, they are
means toward the enhancement of happiness.
just a few random thoughts gleaned from different parts of the author's
which help to clarify the definition of the new morality which he gives
in the first
sentence of his preface.
part of the work is devoted entirely to establishing the necessity for
of morality and to showing that it does fit the case. It is easily seen
author's plan does not encompass any aim to set a definite set of rules
but to give one general rule which will enable any intelligent person
to weigh his
actions and determine whether they are moral or immoral.
arguments in favor of this view well in hand Mr. Drake launches upon a
of many of the important problems which confront the world today. The
to the attention of the reader are treated with respect to America, but
applicable to other nations as well. The presentation is masterly and
The following are some of the phases of modern life to which attention
at this time:
Self-Indulgence and Luxury.
Lawlessness and Crime.
Intoxication. and Bootlegging. Marital Failures. Irresponsible
Politics. Selfish Business. Privilege. Suppression of Opinion. Poisoned
Demoralizing Art and Literature. Dogmatism and Indoctrination. Race
an array of topics one would hardly think that a brief three hundred
would be sufficient. The real defect of the whole book is that it is
Mr. Drake has succeeded in writing a splendidly constructed outline for
of modern philosophy, or better, the philosophy of modern problems. He
so much into so little space that every sentence is important, not one
one word can be left unread else something really worthwhile will be
to many readers of this review, the subject will seem dull and
philosophical discussions do fall into this category, but there is one
that is an
exception to the rule. The reviewer knows one professor of philosophy
who has written
more than one interesting novel. Mr. Drake is not that man, but he has
lacking in so many scholars, of treating serious subjects in a vein
not one whit from their seriousness, but which adds a great deal to
and their "understandability."
* * *
Valeriu Marcu. Published by The Macmillan Company, New York. Cloth,
Table of Contents,
Illustrated, Index, 412 pages. Price $5.65.
of biographical writing which are antithetical appear to comprise about
can be said for difference in treatment. Of course there is every
the two poles and these might, perhaps, be termed other styles. Really,
only variations. In one of the two major methods a great deal of
the part of the reader is presumed. For example, in treating the life
of a character
prominent in history it frequently happens that little or no
description of the
events surrounding his life is included in the discussion. It is
presumed by the
author that the state of society which makes for the development of the
described is quite generally known by the readers. A life of Lincoln
be written which made no mention of the battles of the Civil War,
because the history
of this struggle is fairly well understood by most Americans. The other
does not presume any knowledge of current conditions upon the part of
and endeavors to show how closely the life of the man is enmeshed in
of his country.
It is this
latter style that Mr. Marcu has chosen to follow in Lenin. The
advisability of such
a practice is immediately apparent. There are few persons who know very
the progress of the Russian Revolution. The newspaper reports of the
time were garbled
and, at least to me, were very confusing. Things were changing so
rapidly that it
was very difficult indeed to keep track of all of the developments in
the new Russian
Government. Baron Wrangel wrote a book some time ago which was reviewed
in the pages
of THE BUILDER called From Serfdom to Bolshevism. The book did not
purport to be
a history of the past sixty or seventy years in Russia, but contained
recollections of the events which took place. Naturally the conclusions
with aristocratic bias. The reign of terror centering around the
the second to the third decade of the twentieth century was pictured in
all of its
gruesome horror. This was the Russia seen by the aristocrat.
we see, so to speak, the power behind the throne. We are shown the
reasons for such
actions on the part of the new government and there is painted for us
of a man who was possessed of an all-consuming purpose. The years of
to bring this aim before the populace of his native land to endeavor to
the theories that he had been preaching for years, sometimes in Russia,
Siberia, not unfrequently in prison, and in more than one country in
Europe as an
exile from his native country. In this frank discussion of the man
nothing is lost
except the horror that most Westerners feel for the leader of the
whose real name was Vladimir Ilyitch Ulyanov, was the tartar he has so
pictured, whether he was a menace to modern civilization does not enter
estimate of the man. Right or wrong in his theories one cannot help but
of his morality, if we may define morality as doing the right thing
his estimate of right or wrong. He was sincere in his opinion that
the remedy for the ills that beset the world. He worked with that aim
in view. His
every action was tinctured with a real desire to be of service not only
to the Russians,
but to the world at large. At one stage in his career he attempted to
scope of his activities. The failure of the campaign led him to the
the world was not yet ready for the doctrine he was prepared to preach
and he turned
all of his attention to solving the problems which confronted him in
his own land.
always ready to listen to the voice of the people. He encouraged them
but ‒ strange paradox ‒ he encouraged them to talk along lines that he
Constantly in touch with the peasant he had the ability to analyze
their ideas and
often promulgated doctrines or policies that they wanted before they
that they wanted them. His analysis of popular opinion was accurate and
His ideas were always subject to change. One minute he was advocating
and terrorism because it seemed to him that that was what the people
was not in accord with his previous teachings, but when the wave of
changed Lenin changed with it and reverted to his former viewpoint. His
to crush opposition because it was only by full control that he could
give his theories
his experience he found that the absolutely socialistic state was not
at that time. He accordingly modified his views to some extent. The
given in Mr. Marcu's book that Lenin was very much an opportunist. He
kept the higher
aim constantly in view, but was willing to adopt any means at hand if
that through this adoption his ultimate goal was going to be better
served in time.
In this one characteristic Lenin differed materially from the fanatic
who sees only
one all-consuming purpose and sees no possibility of modifying his
views on unimportant
points. Before his death Lenin had succeeded in bringing some measure
of order out
of the chaos. This in spite of opposition not only from within, but
from the other
nations as well.
not we agree with the teachings of Lenin, we cannot help but admire him
fervent devotion to an ideal, his earnest desire to serve the people,
and his willingness
to sacrifice personal gain for the common good. It is said that even
after his advent
to power he refused to purchase a new pair of trousers, though the ones
he was wearing
were old, ragged, and perhaps even grimy. For years he had belonged to
of the poor, and he continued to be a member of this group even during
To read Lenin
is to revaluate the man. To study Lenin is to gain a new estimate of
Russia. To do either needs some patience as the style of the book is
and the task of reading it is not as easy as it might at first seem.
The early days
of his life are, or at least were to this reader, dull, drab reading,
but the days
of power, the history of the Russian Revolution was as fascinating as
it has been my pleasure to read. Unfortunately the publishers have not
careful of misprints. There are a few rather annoying ones that have
spite of the vigilance of the proof readers. These do not materially
the book, but they do mar its readability.
* * *
Joseph Fort Newton. Published by The Macmillan Company, New York.
Cloth, Table of
Contents, 203 pages. Price $1.90.
FORT NEWTON is perhaps best known in Masonic circles as the author of
but he has written and published numerous other works not pertaining to
This is one of his works on religion ‒ a book of prayers that may be
by laymen or in the pulpit. All of them express a beautiful philosophy
and a goodly
number would be suitable for Masonic use, though they make no pretense
Masonic prayers. Many of the readers of THE BUILDER who are interested
prayers for different functions will find in Altar Stairs a book of no
That it is of pocket size will undoubtedly add to its usefulness.
The Question Box and Correspondence
Is A Masonic Lodge?
under this head that we published in the September number did not bring
out as much
comment as might have been expected. The challenge of F. V. J. can
hardly be regarded
as unimportant. Is it that our readers so completely agree with what he
there was nothing more to say, or is it that the difficulties presented
great? For a number of years now Freemasonry in America has been in a
state of rapid
expansion, on the material side, in numbers and wealth. The moral and
side have become obscured. There are definite signs that a period of
if not of depression, is setting in and it is time for us to return to
The following three letters are of interest. Bro. Feige points out what
done, Bro. Murray and Bro. Block each tell what they have themselves
found as an
answer to the question.
the September issue I laid it on the desk so that I would not forget to
there having been several articles which I wished to mention.
I shall take
the last one in the number first, viz., "Why Is a Masonic Lodge?"
In my opinion
a good deal of benefit might accrue were this question to be discussed
I was formerly a member of the lodge in Woonsocket, S. D., and both in
and in this I have on several occasions in speaking to the lodge said
that if all
they cared to do was to meet to transact their business and to make new
it might be as well to disband, and I can see it no other way. It seems
are a great many things that might be accomplished by the large number
if they would only get the idea and work toward those ends, and once
they were well
started along these lines the idea would grow and there is no telling
how far they
would go and what a vast amount of good they would accomplish.
can be little doubt but what the average lodge attendance would be
and all who attended would be benefited more than ever before.
made a good attempt to get lodges generally started in work which would
be of great
benefit to all who participated, but it seems that in this, as in
else, it is extremely hard to do the right thing and I presume that it
will be a
long time before it will be done.
I have every
issue of "The New Age," except one number, bound up to and including
I have every issue of THE BUILDER and some day when money is more
plentiful I expect
to have all of them bound. Then someday it will be up to me to decide
how to dispose
of them all in the best way. Maybe you could offer a good suggestion
E. W. Feige, South Dakota. * * *
from your correspondent F. V. J. of Kansas in the September number
As you say in the footnote to his letter, it does not seem at all easy
his questions generally and fully, but I would like to set forth some
they appear to me.
with, just what does Masonry (in the Blue Lodge) "teach"? It has no
whatever; that which it "teaches" is revealed only by the study of its
symbols and these are interpreted differently by different people. No,
no dogma and in this respect it differs from the churches. The only
thing that Masonry
"teaches" is that it teaches you to think. The first thing that it asks
you to give thought to is a knowledge of yourself, and where can you
find a more
difficult task than that? Next, you are given to understand that you
have a quest
imposed upon you to determine the true name or nature of the
G.A.O.T.U.; in that
it differs from the churches ‒ in what way is a matter we will not
enter into here,
for it is a big subject; that also is quite a task, but you are greatly
studying the symbols. One thing you are taught, and that is that you
yourself to study the arts and sciences and thus improve your mind.
Only by improving
your mind can you arrive at a knowledge of yourself and the true name
All churches have a different creed and each has certain tenets; these
subscribe to in order to obtain membership therein; Masonry has no
tenets and only
one broad creed. Other associations of men such as the Rotary Clubs,
correspondent refers to, have a written code of ethics. Masonry
requires none such,
as ethics come spontaneously as you educate and improve your mind.
As to charity.
Masonry is not a "charitable organization" in the generally accepted
of the words. Masonic charity is charity of the mind and not confined
of the heart. It is not the giving of alms. As your correspondent
points out, all
cities have charitable organizations to that end, and therefore Masonry
is not required
for that purpose. Our charity is charity for the opinion of others,
them in their wrongful acts. Maybe the churches are too hard in this
if so then we differ from them. No, you will not find many edifices of
brick, you will not find drinking fountains and signs for "Quiet" in
districts, with a statement that they have been erected or donated by
I do not want to see any. But we give sums of money to charitable and
institutions nevertheless. In my city the Masonic bodies gave $20,000
to the hospital
but you will not find any tablets or cots dedicated, recording the
fact. We don't
want them. The Scottish Rite gives away from $600 to $800 annually to
the poor and
destitute of the city. And there is no song about it. During the 35
years I have
been a Mason, during which time I have belonged to six Blue Lodges, I
you all sorts of good deeds done by Blue Lodges; not just to brethren
of the Order
but to outsiders.
not a benefit society; if it were, there would be no virtue in the
benefits to its
members; such benefits would be rights.
brother refers to Rotary and the "fellowship" therein. Now I happen to
be a Rotarian and an enthusiastic one. But I have to admit that much of
lasts but an hour or so a week; we call each other by our given names
for that space;
it is one of the rules to do so. But in the Masonic lodge there is no
rule or ordinance
to this effect, but we do it. In the lodge we refer to each other as
or Brother Smith, but it is no uncommon thing for us to refer to Bill
of Brother Jones. We just can't help it. We call each other by given
we have an affection for each other; there is a tie that binds. If this
does not exist in your lodge, my Kansas Brother, there is something
wrong. If we
could get down to the bottom of it, we would probably find that it is
due to shyness.
The poorer brethren hesitate to get close to the brethren who are more
in a monetary sense. You are a Rotarian and therefore the recognized
head of your
classification in your city; you have a fine opportunity to put Masonry
into practice. Get acquainted; call some of the "lesser" brethren by
first names; give them a smile, a handshake that has a real grasp of
in it; start a topic in lodge; give them an inspiring or humorous talk;
ice; start some social affair this winter; by spring you will be a
and have some fine friends and be a good one yourself; you will get
real joy out
of life and find that there is a "Why" for a Masonic lodge.
E. E. M., Montana.
* * *
is a Masonic Lodge?" You will have a lot of answers to that but I want
mine. If my language seems to be too violent, you tell the brother that
it is that
way for one purpose ‒ to get itself remembered. Not to offend anyone,
love the brother just the same and maybe a little more so for giving me
He says "the
teachings of the Craft are the same as the teachings of the church."
Does his church teach "Forget yourself, forget your desire for
of species, forget your immortality? Travel the middle way as hard and
as you can to the land of contentment?" If he has a church like that ‒
brother ‒ congratulate him. I can't find one.
I can go and here the Master say, "I give it you strictly in charge
walk and act as such."
to which I have access teaches my religion. If I want further
exposition of its
precepts I can get it only from constant repetition of that ritual
which puts thoughts
in a man's mouth so tremendous that he cannot even know of their
I want to
hear the doctrine expounded that "God is God and He has many prophets."
Where can I hear it except in a Masonic lodge room?
teach "It is more blessed to give than to receive." That is only an
fraction of the truth which is that positively anything is more blessed
receive for what you take will be taken from you and what you give you
Has the brother found these teachings in lodge? If not, let him stay
he does, for I am not the only one who has found them there.
And ‒ does
the brother contend that the teachings of the church which he finds
the lodge are sufficiently well and widely taught by the church? Then
knows them and neither church nor lodge need teach further. No
teachings are to
be taught. No teacher needs any excuse for so doing.
But as for
his "real purpose" ‒ to inquire why Freemasonry has nothing to which to
point with pride ‒ let me doubt that this is the fact and conclude by
if it is so it is because the Institution is innoculated with the germ
so that it is so jealous of its Grand Lodge Sovereignty ‒ its wooden
leg ‒ that
the Grand Lodges cannot surrender this insular idea and get together
for the good
of the Order.
Albert F. Block, Iowa.
* * *
brotherly letter of July 26 my sincere thanks. I also thank you very
much for the
pamphlets. Not one of them was previously known here, even by name. You
how happy I was to get them. It is the American Masonic literature
which is so hard
to obtain and I am therefore very much pleased to have found someone
who is interested
in our laborious bibliographical work.
A still greater
pleasure you have given me in promising to give this work in the future
brotherly attention. It is such interest and assistance which is
necessary if the
work is to be complete. For a single individual working alone, such a
task is impossible.
Only with the support of the whole brethren can it be carried out as we
do it. I personally have taken it up as a voluntary and gratuitous
there was no one else to do it. Now I acknowledge and see in this work
life ‒ object to which I shall devote every free hour and week, every
free day and
month, because I am convinced of its necessity, and the labor is a
In my dear
Bro. J. Hugo Tatsch, I have found a true supporter of my undertaking
and a rarely
brilliant man. To him I am indebted for much valuable assistance. He
has sent me
The Bulletin of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, which enables me to work upon
American periodical. I would like to work on other periodicals too, but
I cannot afford to subscribe to them as I do not have the money to
spare, and no
financial aid from any other source is available.
my dear brother, I shall be very thankful to you for every little
I beg you now to be so kind and give my work your brotherly attention
in the future.
Everything you may send will be very welcome and each new item will
bring us nearer
to our goal.
Hans Quint, Germany. [Some years ago, a German
Mason, Dr. Wolfstieg, compiled in two large volumes the most
of Masonic literature that had hitherto been published. He endeavored
to make it
exhaustive for the eighteenth century, and for the nineteenth and
twentieth he aimed
at listing all important works and everything published in German. The
greatly needed and has proved invaluable to students. But it is obvious
can never be absolutely complete. Bro. Hans Quint has taken up the task
as a contribution
to Masonic scholarship, and be is desirous to fill up the gaps in his
work and to bring it up to date. He also desires to include
periodicals. We strongly
urge that every Mason publishing a pamphlet, or book, should send him a
inclusion. He would be glad also to receive the pamphlets and booklets
that so many
Grand Lodges are now having printed and distributed. We suggest also
and publishers of Masonic journals would be helping a really useful
work if they
sent him copies of their publications, or even put him on their
be glad to forward any material to him, but it would probably be better
it direct. His address is Dr. Hans Quint, 10 Mosenstrasse, Falkenstein
i. V., Germany.]
* * *
Morris On Arabic Masonry
I have read
with much interest the article "The Degrees of Masonry," which has been
published in the last three numbers of THE BUILDER. The question is
raised as to
the number of degrees in the original rite.
I think it
was in the early part of the year 1882 that I listened to a lecture
the venerable Bro. Rob Morris of Kentucky, who is remembered as the
founder of the
Order of the Eastern Star, also author of several books, including
the Holy Land. In his lecture he told that one night he went out of the
Jerusalem, down into the valley where in a tent he was given the Arabic
the Masonic Order by several Arabs themselves, the oldest one being
then about ninety
years of age. After the ceremony which was only one degree Bro. Morris
the ceremony used in this country, for the three degrees, and the aged
said, "Masonry is a mass of gold, we keep it all in one piece, while
it into three parts, it is all the same." When Bro. Morris offered him
for the work, the old Arab put his hands behind him and said, "We don't
this Holy Rite for money," or words to that effect.
I have never
seen this peculiar and interesting, as well as instructive, Arabic
ceremony in print,
but I have told it in a Master Masons Lodge a number of times. I am an
now about seventy-seven years of age, but perhaps there are some other
who may have heard the same lecture by Bro. Morris delivered at about
the date mentioned.
That Arabic Masonic ceremony, like certain religious creeds, seems to
handing down for antiquity some ideas pertaining to the Astrological
signs of Aries
and others. The question comes, From whence did the Arabs get their
Perhaps some of our research brethren have delved in on that line and
may be able
I can send in another well authenticated story of a Masonic nature
the American Indians at the Northwest of the United States.
A.O. Robinson, Mass.
* * *
inform me who is the author of the following verse, and in what work it
To touch the cup with eager
lips and taste, not
To woo and tempt and court a bliss ‒ and not attain it;
To fondle and caress a joy, yet hold it lightly,
Lest it become necessity and cling too tightly;
P. R. Pardillio, Philippine Islands.
to say it is entirely unknown to us. Do any of our readers know where
it is to be
* * *
wishes to secure volumes 1, 3 and 6 of Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, to
complete a set.
However the parts of unbound volumes of the same might be very useful
reader of THE BUILDER have a copy of a Bibliography of Masonic
Literature by Enoch
Terry Carson, the writer would like to purchase, if for sale.
C. S. Plumb, 1980 Indianola Ave., Columbus, Ohio.
of Cryptic Masonry in the USA
War951 / auth. Warvelle George W. - Chicago : Grand Council, 1895. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 18. - 1.5 MB.
Col17 / auth. Cole Samuel / ed. Cole Samuel. - Baltimore : Benjamin
Eder, 1817. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 444. - 22.5 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
AQC Transactions Vol 001 - 1895
Ars95 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1895. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. - 29.8 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 003 - 1890
Ars90 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1890. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 277. - 23.5 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 006 - 1893
Ars93 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1893. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 311. - 20.3 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 007 - 1894
Ars94 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. - 83.6 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 010 - 1897
Ars97 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 306. - 63.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
One Hundred Years Aurora Grata
Bro08 / auth. Brockaway Charles A.. - New York : Aurora Grata
Consistory, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 161. - 3.8 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 1
Wai11 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
1 : 2 : p. 474. - 19.1 MB.
The Secret Traditions in Freemasonry Vol 2
Wai111 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p. 478. - 19.6 MB.