Masonic Research Society
Degrees and the
Bro. Chas. Sumner Lobingier,
Washington, D. C.
of a chapter in the projected Official History of the Ancient and
Rite the degree system set forth in the Mother Supreme Council's
Manifesto of 1802
will repay careful study.
degrees which are in regular succession, it reads most of the
Inspectors are in
possession of a number of detached degrees given in different parts of
and which they generally communicate free of expense to those brethren
who are high
enough to understand them; such as Select Masons of ‘27.
last was the designation of one degree only or of more than one is not
Waite, who seems to have given more attention to the proper allocation
of the Cryptic
degrees than any other writer, tells us (1) that they "are a part of
Masonry, being concerned with the personage in question after his
arrival in Jerusalem."
Of the two degrees classed as Cryptic, that of Royal Master, he
… in respect of its motive is
with the Grand Tyler of King Solomon. It is also an integral part of
Masonry, and is concerned with the attainment of the Great Secret
a Master Mason… The ritual which next concerns us, being that of Select
takes us again to the vaults, which tradition supposes to have existed
beneath the site of the Holy of Holies. The degree is really a variant
Elect of 27, or at least it is an offshoot from the same root (2).
involving the origin of these degrees and their relation to the
Scottish Rite and
to the Mother Supreme Council have occasioned much discussion in recent
(3) informs us that the class to which they belong "are all prior to
1779 and some of them considerably earlier." The earliest date assigned
their use in this country is in connection with the Charleston Lodge of
which was organized in 1783.
to the recital above quoted from the Supreme Council's Manifesto of
1802, Bro. George
W. Warvelle says:
This statement is the basis of
the Scottish Rite
claim of dominion over the Cryptic degrees, and while it is possible
the side degrees of which "most of the Inspectors" were in possession,
there might have been that of Royal Master, yet there is no proof that
the fact. But even conceding that it may have been known to some of the
it was nevertheless individual property and the Supreme Council never
asserted a jurisdictional right thereto until fifty years afterwards
could hardly have known that
The first Council of Royal and
organized in Georgia, was Adoniram Council, No. 1, of this city, for
which a Dispensation
was granted by the G.C. of the 33d in Charleston, in October, 1822.
has been lost or mislaid. In 1826, our Grand Council was first
organized. I was
on the Committee of Correspondence who called the Convention for the
One of the
first acts of this new body was to recognize the Supreme Council by
to furnish it with a copy of the Proceedings (6). Surely this was not
but confirming, a jurisdictional right within twenty years after the
Under date of Feb. 7, 1825, Grand Commander Holbrook wrote to Giles F.
The Royal and Select Masters,
as mentioned by
Cross in his Chart and in the Masonic Library, were first conferred in
about forty years ago, and the Deputy Inspectors 25th Degree (as they
called) were empowered to give them. Brother Myers, I think, was the
first gave them in Baltimore, where they continued for some time to
at length they become nearly dormant, when a gentleman on his return
revived them with a vigor that has caused them to spread through the
Cross received them from that source, and then he gave an authority to
in South Carolina, for two dollars fee, but the Select Master was
garbled, and had
lost a good part of the signs and words, etc. The man who was making
money by so
doing was glad to pay for the knowledge of the Degrees in question. The
for conferring these Degrees Royal and Select has always been attached
to the charter
for Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem. But there are several Bodies
Arch Masons which are chartered for these Degrees expressly (7).
Mother Supreme Council continued to assert such right is apparent from
(8) dated March 24, 1828, written by Yates, which contained the
Our G. Council of P. of Jr. has
no formal Charter,
although our Charleston friends promised to send us one, and enquired
wished to have authority given in the same to confer the Degrees of
Royal and Select
Master. We answered in the affirmative. Subsequently, however, Bro.
that no formal Charter was necessary, they having regularly recognized
us and confirmed
our authority as a G. Council in their official communications.
It will thus
be seen that, early in the nineteenth century, the Mother Supreme
Council had acted
officially regarding the authorization of bodies to confer the cryptic
Certificates executed a year later, but avowedly based upon statements
of one or
more charter members of said body, then still living, point to its
working of these
degrees just as it had worked the Royal Arch and just as one of its
later worked that of Mark Master. On Feb. 10, 1829, Perez Snell, who,
on that day,
likewise received from the Mother Supreme Council letters of credence
him "to confer or to communicate… all the detached degrees," etc.,
to have written the following certificate:
Chamber Charleston, S.C.
certify that the "detached Degrees," called Royal and Select Master, or
Select Masons of 27, were regularly given by the S. Gr. L. of P.,
Lodge of Perfection 32 (No. 2 in the U.S.A.) established by Br. Isaac
in Charleston, in February, 1783, one of the original members of which
Illustrious Brother Moses C. Levy, is still alive and a member of it to
without ceasing to be so for a day.
that at the first establishment of the Gr. C. of P. of J., Grand
Council of Princes
of Jerusalem in Charleston, 20th February, 1788, by the Ill. Deputy
Joseph Myers, B. M. Spitzer and A. Forst, Br. Myers (who succeeded Br.
after his decease) deposited a certified copy of the degrees from
Berlin in Prussia
to be under the guidance and fostering protection of the government of
named Grand Council of P. of J. 33.
shortly after this (20th February, 1788) resided sometime in Norfolk,
Baltimore previous to his removal to Europe, and he conferred or
knowledge of these degrees upon a number of brethren in those cities
copy is still in my keeping and (10) …
to the obligations of the same and the Grand Constitutions governing
viz., Royal and Select Masters of 27, it is correct and lawful to give
to Sublime Masons who have arrived to the Kt. of the 9th Arch (13th) or
of the 3d Arch Royal Arch Masons.
1830. M. H.
(12) appears in Moses Holbrook's autograph ritual of the Cryptic
degrees, and is
initialled in his hand writing, under date of March 15, 1830. The book
referred to by numerous writers (13), is now in the Supreme Council's
is under my eye as I write. It may be objected that Snell here
certifies to much
that could not have been personally known to him; but it must be noted
that he relies
on Moses C. Levy, a charter member of the Lodge of Perfection then
In the same
year when the Snell certificate appears to have been executed the South
Grand Chapter had before it a circular (14) from the Maryland Grand
it, with other Grand Chapters, "to take the said degree (Select Master)
your recognizance and control." The circular was referred to a
which Moses Holbrook was chairman and which reported as follows "upon
and expediency of the different Grand Royal Arch Chapters … assuming
and authority over the Royal and Select Masters Degrees."
ascertained that the respectable brothers and companions, Dr. F.
Dalcho, Dr. Isaac
Auld, Dr. James Moultrie, Sr., and Moses C. Levy, Esqr., with many
their degrees in Charleston in February, 1783, in the Sublime Grand
Lodge of Perfection,
then established in the city (Charleston), of which body three of the
brothers are still living, venerable for their years and warm
attachment to the
glorious cause of Free Masonry, and highly respected and esteemed in
where they have so long and so honorably sojourned and they are still
the same sublime body. Your committee have further ascertained that at
establishment of the Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem in this
city, on the
20th of February, 1788, by the Illustrious Brothers Joseph Myers,
Barend M. Spitzer,
and A. Forst, Deputy Inspectors-General from Frederick II., King of
Myers then deposited in the archives of the said Grand Council of
Princes of Jerusalem
certified copies of the said degrees from Berlin, in Prussia, which
were to be under
the future guidance and fostering protection of the above named
The above named three respectable brethren and companions are, and have
been, members and officers of the said body of Princes of Jerusalem;
therefore, must be conclusive upon these points. Your committee are
the above named Brother Myers, previously to his return to Europe,
his mercantile concerns, resided some time in several of the cities of
and Maryland, where he communicated a knowledge of the degrees in
further state that the Grand officers and the Sublime Council of
have been since 1783 steadily in the habit of conferring the degrees in
under their authority in the Southern and Western States. Your
committee have seen
and perused the first copy of these degrees that ever came to America,
and old copies
of charters that have; been returned by Councils in States where Grand
have been formed, and the bodies surrendering have taken other charters
the degrees from such Grand Councils of Royal and Select Masters thus
statements the Grand Royal Arch Chapter will readily perceive that
have been under a regular and independent Masonic protection and
authority for more
than forty-six years, and that they were thus circumstanced in the
of America at a period long antecedent to the establishment of Grand
Chapters, or even of Chapters of Royal Arch Masons, in any part of the
W. Warvelle in commenting on this report observes:
Now Dalcho was born in 1770 and
at the date in
question was therefore but thirteen years of age. Nor did he come to
until 1799, when he resigned his position in the army and entered into
with Auld. I cite this to show how little reliance there is to be
placed on this
document, which, for so many years, has been quoted as practically
What he says
of Dalcho is true but it is not true of all the others mentioned in the
Moses C. Levy, e.g., was not only living at the time but was old enough
received the Cryptic degrees in 1783; for he was married prior to 1778
certificate quoted above from Holbrook's copy of the ritual mentions
Levy only as
one of the original members of the first Charleston Lodge of Perfection
if he alone received the Cryptic degrees in the year of its formation,
to establish their priority under the Scottish Rite. On this point Pike
great lawyer, had said, speaking of the same South Carolina report:
If we cannot believe Masons of
the loftiest character
and standing testifying to facts within our own knowledge, how are we
tradition? Which of the legends in the York Rite has testimony as good
it? Either this testimony is true, or all Masonry is one hideous lie.
degrees which Abraham Jacobs received from Moses Cohen in Jamaica in
1790 were Knight
of the East, Prince of Jerusalem, Knight of the East and West, Select
Mason of Twenty-seven,
Grand Maitre Ecossai … Knight of the Rose Croix, Grand Pontiff, Grand
vitam, Prussian Knights in two degrees, Knights of the Royal Axe …
and Sovereign Knight of the Sun (19).
observes Drummond (20), "is the first mention of the Select Degree that
seen or of which I know." But he overlooks Levy and the information
gave to Snell.
(21) contends that "the only authentic evidence respecting the early
of the Select Master's Degree comes from Baltimore," and "that the true
birthplace of Cryptic Masonry in this country, if not in the world, is
but Baltimore (22)." A further examination of his argument reveals that
"authentic evidence" consists mainly in a blank dispensation (23)
by Eckel and Niles and reciting that one Henry Wilmans
… did by and in virtue of the
powers in him legally
vested establish, ordain, erect and support a Grand Council of Select
the City of Baltimore.
This is said
to have occurred in 1792 and on March 12 of the same year we have a
showing Wilmans as a visitor at Baltimore Union lodge, No. 21
(chartered by the
Virgina Grand Lodge), in which he is described as "P. M., No. 13,
There is no lodge of that number at Charleston (now West), Virginia;
but at Charleston
(originally, and at that time still, called Charlestown) South
Carolina, St. John's,
No. 13, was a well-known lodge to which one or more Active Members of
Supreme Council belonged. Wilmans, as Grand Inspector General,
established a Lodge
of Perfection at Baltimore and all probabilities point to his having
degrees and authority from Deputy Inspector General Myers at
no other authority has been found for Wilmans. Bro. Warvelle admits
Wilmans obtained his degrees, or from what source he derived his
powers, is not
known (25)." Yet three years later we find him stating (26):
The primary dissemination of
the degrees, in
organized bodies and finder constitutional authority, must be conceded
and Eckel at Baltimore.
are ours. What "constitutional authority" can one possess if the
from which "he derived his powers is not known?" If Wilmans had any
authority" at all it came ultimately from the Mother Supreme Council.
Niles himself is on record as declaring at this very time (1817) that:
There is reason to believe that
this degree was
in use long before those of Most Excellent, or Mark Master… We have
been told that
a regular Chapter of the Select was held at Charleston, S.C., many
years ago; but
believe it has declined (27).
Here is a
distinct acknowledgment by one who received the degree from Wilmans
that the latter
did not "invent" it and a suggestion of Charleston as its probable
feature of Bro. Warvelle's challenge of the Scottish Rite origin of the
degrees is the claim that each originated separately and had at first
with each other. "If," he says (28), "the Charleston body would show
but a doubtful title to the Select Degree it was positively without any
to the Royal." But Waite, who appears to have studied them more than
writer, tells us that the Royal Master
… in respect of its motive is
with the Grand Tyler of King Solomon. It is also an integral part of
Masonry, and is concerned with the attainment of the Great Secret
a Master Mason. ... The ritual which next concerns us, being that of
takes us again to the vaults, which tradition supposes to have existed
beneath the site of the Holy of Holies. The degree is really a variant
Elect of 27, or at least it is an offshoot from the same root. (29)
Now it is
in this last phraseology that the Supreme Council enumerated the
degrees" in its Manifesto of 1802. There is certainly nothing in the
indicating that only one degree is referred to. So in the earlier
it is recited that
we have … initiated him in …
the Grand and Sublime
degrees of Knight of the East … Select Mason of Twenty-seven … and
on him the Sublime degrees of Knight of the Rose Croix. etc.
is not inconsistent with the supposition that this "root" degree, as
calls it, may have included, or at least given rise to, more than one.
the report of the South Carolina Grand Chapter Committee in 1829
the term "degrees" and specifies them as "Royal and Select Masters'
degrees." The fact that the two were "exploited" separately by those
whom Bro. Warvelle terms "rival peddlers" is hardly sufficient proof of
separate and independent origin in the face of the fact that they were
part of the same system (Adonhiramite) in France.
Degrees In The North
We must now
return to Abraham Jacobs whom we left at Kingston where he received
including "Select Mason of 27" in 1790. From there he returned to the
United States and was active in Scottish Rite work in Georgia for more
than a decade.
(31) An entry in his diary under date of April 25, 1796, recites that
the degree of Select Masons of Twenty-seven" at Savannah on Past Master
Clarok of Solomon's Lodge (32). From 1804 Jacobs was in New York
and establishing bodies (33) and we find the following entries in his
January 19th, 1806. Received an
Brother Thomas Lownds, a Royal Arch Mason, requesting to receive the
in expectation of establishing the orders in this city, conferred on
him the degrees
of Secret and Perfect Master.
February 2d. Intimate Secretary
and Provost and
Judge Thomas Lownds.
disclose that Lownds received more degrees during August, 1808, in
which year Jacobs
was also conferring the degree of Select Masons of Twenty-seven (35),
in October and November, 1809, and that of Knight of the Sun on the 3rd
of the latter
month (36), on which date also a Council of Princes of Jerusalem was
by the newly invested brethren, with the approval of Deputy Inspector
notice (37) thereof was forwarded, under date of Nov. 14, to Grand
of the Mother Supreme Council. Under date of Nov. 6, the new body
issued a charter
(38) for Aurora Grata Lodge of Perfection, a preliminary meeting for
which had been
held in the month previous. (39) In all these movements Lownds appears
to have been
a prominent figure, his name being first on the list of those present
at the preliminary
meeting. Less than two years later we find him occupying a similar
position in the
meeting which organized Columbian Grand Council of Royal Master Masons,
and he continued
to be its Master for nearly a decade. (40) Bro. Warvelle thinks that
probability it (the degree of Royal Master) was fabricated by Lownds
and his associates."
But why resort to the theory of fabrication when Lownds had been
working for a considerable
time with one who possessed, and was authorized to confer, the
of Select Master? As is well said by Past Grand High Priest Hunt (41),
of invention by Lownds
… is a mere assumption and
seems unlikely in
view of the fact that Lownds made no claim to exclusive control of the
while Columbian Council refused to admit those who had received the
degree in a
clandestine way, it from the first recognized and received several who
it elsewhere. This would indicate that it did not claim exclusive
the degree and that there was a legitimate and an illegitimate way to
(42) characterizes Jeremy L. Cross as "the great Apostle of the
and his patent (43), signed by Eckel and approved by Niles, as "the
grant of power in connection with this (Select) degree that has thus
far been discovered."
But what about the Jacobs' patent of twenty-seven years earlier which
its recipient "to initiate brethren and constitute lodges"? Its terms
were broader and it was issued by an Inspector General of the Rite
authority over this degree, while neither Eckel nor Niles produced
and if they had any it seems to have come through Wilmans from the
Council. Cross was made an Inspector General by that Council about
seven years after
he received the Eckel-Niles' patent, and while he claimed authority
under the latter
(44) he could have claimed it equally in the former capacity (45).
we find one of Bro. Warvelle's alleged "inventors" or "exploiters"
we find also a connection, either proved or highly probable, with the
Council, and all signs point to it as the source of their authority.
other Masonic body in the United States appears to have acted
independently in connection
with these degrees until the Maryland Grand Chapter, in 1817, declared
subordinate chapters "shall have (sic) power to open and hold Chapters
Masters and confer the degree of Select Master Mason (46)." On the face
it this was pure usurpation; no authority was even pretended and when
came before the General Grand Chapter it was explicitly declared that it
and the governing bodies of
Royal Arch Masonry,
affiliated with, and holding jurisdiction under it, had no rightful
or control over the Degrees of Royal and Select Master (47).
seems to consider that both Supreme Councils in the United States were
infrequent in exercising their authority over these degrees, though he
the Mother Supreme Council's assertion of such authority in the
was almost coincident with its inauguration. That document, it will be
refers to these "detached degrees" as those which the "Inspectors
… generally communicate." Now John Barkers whom Bro. Warvelle
active in the dissemination of Cryptic Masonry "sometime during the
(48)," was an Inspector, i.e., an Active Member of the Supreme Council
as 1823 (49), and Bro. Warvelle is strangely mistaken in thinking that
had no authority from either the Southern or Northern Supreme
have a reprint (50) of a blank patent issued to him and signed by all
Active Members for use in conferring degrees and while the portion
the degrees were has not been preserved, we may infer that it was not
than those specified in one issued under date of Feb. 10, 1829, to
Perez Snell which
expressly authorized him "to confer or communicate … all the detached
usually given by the authority of the Supreme Council (51).'' Barker,
on May 20, 1827, granted such a document to Snell expressly authorizing
confer the degrees of Royal Master and Select Master," and signed it as
Grand Inspector General of the 33d degree and General Agent of the
(52)." So on Sept. 6 of the same year Barker issued a warrant (53) for
of Royal and Select Masters at Louisville, Kentucky, signing it in the
and in the following month he opened such a Council at Cincinnati
to the powers vested in him by the Supreme Council (54)." So Mackey
after he had been Secretary-General for about six years:
There are many old Masons now
living in the Southern
and Western, as well as the Northern, States who received them (the
from Bro. barker the accredited agent of the Supreme Council.
And in the
same connection that eminent writer and Scottish Rite authority adds:
… And, indeed, we think we may
safely say, as
the report we have cited plainly implies, that the Subordinate Councils
in the South and West, were originally organized by Royal and Select
had received their degrees from and owed their allegiance to the
at Charleston. Much documentary evidence might be cited to prove that
possession and jurisdiction of these degrees were wholly vested in the
body came to establish its various Councils of Princes of Jerusalem,
they were specifically
empowered "to confer the degrees of Royal and Select Master," as in the
charter (56) of the New Orleans Council in 1829, and that of Natchez,
(57), in 1830. Writing in 1871 Albert Pike declared:
Every Grand Council in the
Union, except those
of Massachusetts and Maine, owe their being, in whole or in part, and
of them wholly, to the Supreme Council, and the Massachusetts Councils
wholly illegal and illegitimate, because self-constituted, or owe their
the Southern Supreme Council through Connecticut by the way of New
York, or directly
by the instrumentality of Jeremy L. Cross (58).
(59) shows that of the thirty-five Grand Councils of Royal and Select
in existence, at least foursevenths "were organized by Councils
either directly or indirectly, by the Southern (Mother) Supreme
the Scottish Rite authorities in both jurisdictions have consistently
claims of their respective Supreme Councils and especially that of the
Council as the source of these degrees. Following the activities of Dr.
in the third decade of the nineteenth century, Mackey (60) reasserted
it in 1848
and 1850, and in the latter year the Northern Supreme Council formally
its claim to these degrees as a part of its heritage from the parent
The latter, in its first compilation of laws, withheld from the
Consistory the right
to grant charters to "Councils of Royal and Select Masters, which must
receive their charters from the Supreme Council or from a Grand Council
by consent of the Supreme Council." It also prescribed a fee of $25 for
a "Council of Royal and Select Masters," and a tax of fifty cents on
member thereof (62). In its next compilation it enacted that:
The Supreme Council shall have
the Councils of Royal and Select Masters in every State where no Grand
of those degrees has been established; and such Councils shall make
and pay their tax to the Supreme Council (63).
took over the rituals of the Mother Supreme Council for revision he
them, and copied (64), those of the Cryptic degrees; and in 1868 he
As to the Council degrees, or
what is lately
called "Cryptic Masonry," they are originally side degrees of our Rite
which one could have or not as he pleased (65).
a distinguished member of the Northern Supreme Council, wrote in the
The Royal and Select Masters'
Degrees were side
or detached degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. In the
of the Union, the Supreme Council initiated chartered, and fostered
Royal and Select Masters, and as rapidly as they were self-sustaining,
has been the position taken by such eminent dignitaries and writers of
Rite as Drummond (67), Robertson, (68) Grand Recorder Davis of the
Grand Council (69), and Past Grand High Priest Hunt of Iowa (70).
in 1852, a committee of the Illinois Grand Chapter, avowedly
… these (Cryptic) Degrees seem
to be under the
control of three jurisdictions ‒
1 State Grand Councils.
2 The Grand Council of the 33d.
3. State Grand Chapters.
acquired their always doubtful title from the General Grand Chapter
that Body repudiates
them. As to the second, your committee are aware that the 33d is
composed of worthy,
eminent, and substantial Masons; but from whence they derive their
your committee do not know.
It was to
this passage and to the South Carolina Grand Chapter report that Albert
when, as chairman of the Arkansas Grand Chapter Committee on Masonic
Law and Usage,
… that and
all other Grand Chapters, whether they have any more authentic
information as to
any one single fact of Masonic history or tradition, than we have
quoted, as to
the jurisdiction over the Council degrees belonging of right to the
(To be concluded)
Field Willard, California
IT is curious
how various bits of news about Stephen Morin are struggling to the
surface, to show
his high standing in the Grand Orient de France.
Rebold, Gould, and Rebold's recent successor, Lantoine, seem entirely
the high rank that Stephen Morin enjoyed among the dignitaries of the
such as the Duc de Luxembourg, the Duc d'Orelans, Bacon de la
des Langes, Dr. Guillotin and many others, whose names were signed on
with his of which I have given photostatic copies in other publications.
rank he would not have enjoyed had he been a Jew, as the detractors of
Rite have always alleged he was. It is well to bear in mind that the
Jews of France
were not accorded full civil rights until after the Revolution of 1789
a Jew could not have signed the documents he did and associated with
In the March
number of the Masonic Digest last year I reproduced a Masonic
certificate or patent
to Bro. Noel from the Grand Orient de France, which Bro. Robert I.
Clegg had framed
and hung over the doorway of his office, because it bore the signature
of Dr. Guillotin,
the originator of la guillotine, by which he did not die, according to
research. On close examination it showed among the signatures of those
and in the names of the members of the Chambre de Paris, the name
signed in the same manner as he signed his name as Master of the Lodge,
Union, at Port au Prince, San Domingo, on the patent of Ossonde
Verriere, a planter
of that Island, which Sachse says in his Ancient Scottish Rite
Documents is now
in the possession of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
said it was the oldest Scottish Rite document in America, but I have
shown in another
article, entitled A New Masonic Find, in the Masonic Digest for
September and October,
1926, that the oldest Scottish Rite document was the certificate in
to Michel Morel Domeny by the Scottish Lodge La Parfaite Union, at New
York in May,
1764, which document is now in the possession of Ossian Lang, Grand
the Grand Lodge of New York. This document is signed by one who calls
"Past Scottish Master" and also "Knight of the East." Strange
to say it also bears the signature of George Harison, the Provincial
under the Grand Lodge of England, Moderns; and this lodge was organized
by him in
1760, which was considered incredible by Bro. W. Wonnacott at first,
was not on the lists of the Grand Lodge of England and it was necessary
on to him copies of the documents in question.
Lang is of the opinion, since my discovery, that Stephen Morin was a
member of the
French Protestant family of Morins that came from the Protestant city
of La Rochelle
in France and settled in New York in 1691 and became members of the
Church of Saint Esprit, that this French Lodge, La Parfaite Union of
New York was
the Mother Lodge of Stephen Morin. He said hundreds had ransacked the
list of members
of lodges in France without ever being able to find the Mother Lodge of
Morin. It was my privilege to show, that in all probability, the Lodge
Union of Port au Prince that gave the patent to Ossonde Verriere and
which is signed
by Morin, was the same Lodge La Parfaite Union of New York which
Stephen Morin had
carried from New York to Port au Prince as Moses M. Hays carried his
New York to Newport. Especially so since in the Verriere Patent, Morin
says he is
acting by the powers conferred on him by Washington Shirley, Earl
Master of England, who was the superior officer under whom George
Harison was acting.
Sachse how it could be that Stephen Morin claimed to be acting under
of the Grand Master of England, when his well-known patent, at which
in disdain, says he is only acting under the authority of the Grand
Lodge of France
and the Supreme Councils of Prince Masons of France.
which Sachse could not unravel is plain, if we accept the fact which
that Stephen Morin transferred the French Lodge La Parfaite Union from
(where George Harison, Provincial Grand Master under Earl Ferrers, had
Domeny certificate) to Port au Prince, with the consent and approval of
Master of the Moderns, which he would have to have in order to do this,
it to a jurisdiction over which France ruled. We know that the Lodge La
Harmonie, a St. John's Lodge, which Morin was authorized by his patent
under the authority of the Grand Lodge of France, was actually
organized, for an
endorsement of that Lodge is inscribed on the Verriere Patent. But
was also Master of the Lodge La Parfaite Union, and acting under the
power and authority
of the Grand Master of England, Earl Ferrers, for he so states in his
Verriere which is signed by himself; and this of course he would be, if
a member of a lodge founded in New York by George Harison under Earl
additional facts about Stephen Morin.
In A History
of Lodge No. 61, F. & A. M., Wilkesbarre, Pa. [Lib 1897], by Oscar J. Harvey, on page
et seq., which was at my request loaned to me by Bro. Wm. L. Boyden,
the Supreme Council, Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, who first
we find a long account of the manner in which the author of that book
"An Old Masonic Charter" and which, divorced from much prolixity, is as
in historical researches a few months since, I discovered an
ancient but well preserved though discolored and marked by the hand of
on its face to be a Warrant or Charter granted by the highest Masonic
in France to a number of brethren in the Island of St. Domingo,
a Lodge by the title of Chosen Brethren and bearing date of "the 3rd
the 3rd week of the 5th month in the year of Light, 5774 Annoque Domini
It is printed on a sheet of parchment from an elaborately and
plate, 18x19 inches in size. It runs as follows:
A LA GLOIRE DU GRAND ARCHITECT DE L'UNIVERS.
Sous Les Auspices et Au Nom Du Sérénissime Grand
LE GRAND ORIENT DE FRANCE A Tous Les Maçons
UNlON FORCE SALUT
Sur la demande présentée le premier jour de la
première semaine du cinquième
mois de l'An de la vraie lumière Cinq mil Sept cent soixante et
quatorze. par les
frères composant la Loge des "Frères Choisis" a Orient du Fond des
Isle de St. Dominique, a l'effet d'Obtenir du GRAND ORIENT DE FRANCE
pour leur Loge sous le dit titre:
Vu la décision de la Chambre des Provinces du
sixième jour de la seconde Semaine
du cinquième mois de la présente année ‒
Nous avons constituées et constituons a perpétuité
par ces présentes a Orient
du Fond des Negres, Isle St. Dominique, une loge de St. Jean sous le
des Frères Choisis, pour la dite Loge… a se livrer aux travaux de l'Art
la charge par … de se conformer exactement aux Statuts et règlements
faits et a
faire en notre Grand Orient et être inscrites sur le tableau des loges
de France a la date du troisième jour de la seconde Semaine du
troisième mois de
l'An de la vraie lumière Cinq mil Sept cent soixante et treize, Epoque
que le Grand Orient … régularisant les travaux de cette loge a l'époque
jour du troisième mois, 5774.
EN FOI de quoi nous lui avons délivré ces
présentes qui ont été expédiée au
Grand Orient de France et scellées des Sceaux et Timbre de l'Ordre,
nous et contresignées par notre Secrétaire-General le troisième jour de
Semaine du cinquième mois de l'An de la vraie lumière Cinq mil Sept
three places where words have been obliterated and are shown blank
The translation following is by the present writer. It begins with the
TO THE GLORY
OF THE GRAND ARCHITECT OF THE UNIVERSE
Auspices and in the Name of the Most Serene Grand Master (1).
ORIENT OF FRANCE To All Regular Masons Union Strength Health
request presented the first day of the first week of the fifth month
(2) of the
year of the True Light, Five Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy-four by
composing the lodge of the Chosen Brethren at the Orient of Fond des
of St. Domingo, for the purpose of obtaining from the GRAND ORIENT
for their Lodge under the above-named title:
the decision of the Chamber of the Provinces on the sixth day of the
of the present year:
We have constituted
and do constitute by these Presents unto perpetuity, at the Orient of
Fond des Negres,
Island of St. Domingo, a lodge of St. John under the distinctive title
Brethren for the said Lodge … to devote himself (or itself) to the
works of the
Royal Art upon the condition that … of conforming himself (or itself)
the Statutes and regulations made and to be made in our GRAND ORIENT
and to be inscribed
upon the list of regular Lodges of France at the date of the third day
of the second
week of the third month of the year of the True Light, Five Thousand
and seventy-three (3), Epoch of the Constitutions that the GRAND ORIENT
the work of this lodge from the twenty-ninth day of the third month,
WHEREOF we have delivered to him (or it (4)) the Presents which have
to the GRAND ORIENT OF FRANCE to be sealed and stamped with the Seals
of the Order. Signed by us and countersigned by our Secretary General
day of the third week of the fifth month (5), of the year of True Light
Seven hundred and seventy-four.
of the History of Lodge No. 61 then goes on to say:
is signed by Le Duc de Luxembourg Grand Master, "Le Baron de
Secrétaire General and by the members of three Boards or Councils,
d'Administration, Chambre de Paris and Chambre des Provinces. [Note
that this was
shown on the photostatic reproduction of the Noel Certificate.] Among
of the last named Council is that of the celebrated Dr. Guillotin, the
of the gillotine. The Warrant also bears a certificate of registry. En
De Paris, signed by S. Morin, Secrétaire
without doubt that Stephen Morin, or Etienne Morin as it would have
been, had he
been a Frenchman instead of an American, was the Secretary of the
Chambre de Paris
of the Grand Orient de France in 1774, inasmuch as we have here the
a reputable witness that he had seen his signature to that effect.
a footnote by Bro. Harvey at the bottom of page 183 which reads:
Stephen Morin was a Jew who in
1761 was appointed
by the "Grand Lodge and Sovereign Grand Council" which convened at
as Grand Inspector to establish in every part of the world, the Perfect
Masonry. He proceeded to the Island of St. Domingo where he resided for
of years and executed his delegated authority for propagating the hauts
the New World personally and by deputation Thus the island of St.
Domingo is of
Special interest to Free Masons as having been the first home in the
of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite and the Source of Sublime
of the History of Lodge No. 61 also gives a very long and prolix
account of the
capture by the U. S. S. "Trumbull" of Connecticut, during the
between France and the United States (1799 1900) of the French vessel
(6) which was taken to Norwich, Conn., Sept. 13, 1800, and sold as a
prize of war
on Oct. 29, 1800.
prisoners sent to Norwich was a Lieutenant named Jean Pierre Boyer, a
Port au Prince where he was born in 1776. In his possession at the time
of his capture
were found a complete set of regalia and jewels of a Masonic Lodge, and
of Masonic documents in French, such as forms for admission to the
of the various degrees, from E. A. up to Perfect Master, communications
Grand Orient at Paris and the Warrant or Charter above referred to,
which was, at
the time when the History was published, in the possession of Bro.
He goes on
to say that Jean Pierre Boyer became President of the Haytian Republic
at Port au
Prince in 1818 and in 1820 became President of the Republic of Hayti,
comprised the whole island, and continued as such until 1842 when a
overthrew his power and compelled him to fly. He died at Paris in 1850.
Eliphalet Bulkeley of Norwich, and New Londont Conn., retained the
charter in his possession until a short time before his death in 1816
had removed to Wilkes-Barre in 1807) when he transferred it to Hon.
P. M., of Wilkes-Barre Lodge. The Warrant remained in Bro. Scott's
his death in 1839, when it passed into the hands of his daughter, Mrs.
Watson. With her it remained for nearly forty-four years (1883) so Bro.
and on her death it was presented to Bro. Oscar Jewell Harvey, the
author of the
History of Lodge No. 61 (7).
was Worshipful Master of this lodge in 1879 and published his book in
Boyden in looking over this book for information ran across the
reference to Stephen
Morin which in due time came to the attention of the writer who has
ascertain by writing to the Secretary of this Lodge where the Charter
point, however, is that this Charter or Warrant establishes the fact
Morin was not the unknown Jew that the detractors of the Scottish Rite
to prove him to be in order to create a narrow prejudice against him
and the Rite.
It is strange
that the French writers and especially those who have claimed to be
have never been able to bring out these facts. It is probably due to
the fact that
they did not want to do so, any more than Gould did. Gould must have
position in the Grand Orient, as will be shown by later quotations from
but he allowed his prejudices to overcome his judgment.
In the Encyclopedia
Britannica, under the heading "Morin" we find the following: Jean
the most learned Catholic theologian of his age and one of the founders
criticism, was born in 1591 at Blois. His History of the Deliverance of
Church (1630) brought him into trouble and gave great offense at Rome
Declaration (1654) was strictly suppressed. His great work on penance
offense to the Jesuits and to Port Royal.
a family eminent in the Roman Church, and also perhaps why his family
Protestants. There was nothing Jewish about this family.
of baptisms, marriages and deaths in the Protestant French Church,
in New York, as furnished to me by its present minister, show that the
settled in New York in 1691, shortly after the Revocation of the Edict
had driven the best blood of France to foreign shores, was the Son of a
of La Rochelle, the city that so bravely withstood the siege of the
It is certain
that Stephen Morin who, Rebold says in his Histoire des Trois Grandes
under 1803, was an American, could not have held the position of
Secretary of the
Chambre de Paris of the Grand Orient of France, among so many of the
he not also been of good French family.
are now endeavoring to create an historical school in Masonry, but they
know very little about the history of the Grand Orient of France by
virtue of authentic
documents, nor of Stephen Morin's connection with it, which eventually
led to the
planting of the seed of the Scottish Rite in America, which in the
alone has 600,000 members or more than ten times the membership of the
of France today.
dealing with Freemasonry in France, says in the third volume of his
Rebold suffered under the same
defect [i.e. blinded
by hatred of high degrees] combined with a prejudice against the Grand
On June 15, 1771 the Grand
Master, the Count
de Clermont, died. (p. 401). In the first place it will be well to
recall the names
of the exiled brethren, among whom are Daubertin Morin and Labady. (p.
In this year  the faction
(or Grand Lodge)
headed by Lacorne and Jonville, held a joint meeting with the Emperors
[of the East
and West, governing body of the Rite of Perfection predecessor of the
which resulted in the grant to Morin of his famous patent.
1765. At the next election, it
would appear …
that the Emperors had secured all the offices. This gave rise to
and recriminations both in Lodge and in print.... As a consequence the
were banished… Among the exiles may be mentioned Daubertin, the former
of the Emperors. (p. 400).
Daubertin signed Morin's Patent
of the Grand Lodge and as Grand Secretary also of the Sublime Council
Masons in France (9).
1771. The exiles were
re-admitted and received
with open arms and the kiss of peace … Oct. 17. Circular of Grand Lodge
past events and calling upon the Lodges in the Provinces to appoint
It gives a list of the Grand Officers [among whom were] Daubertin,
Sec. for the Provinces; Maurin [or Morin] Asst. Sec. for the
Provinces.... (p. 403).
A committee of definition was
of Buzeneois, B[acon] de la Chevalerie, Chev. Champeau, R. de
Begnieourt, De Bauelas,
Morin, Toussainct (10), De Lalande and Bruneteau, the four latter being
of the four latter is Morin, who must therefore have been the Master of
Lodge. It is well to note on this Committee the names of Counts,
and others whose name began with "de" the mark of French nobility, and
with whom Stephen Morin was associating in 1773 on terms of perfect
he could not have done had he been a Jew. As Americans we care nothing
matters except as they may be historical indices.
1773.... Buzencois being on the
point of leaving
Paris was replaced by Lamarque l'Americain of St. Domingo. (p. 406).
there was a lodge in St. Domingo in that year, perhaps the Freres
Choisis or perhaps
La Parfaite Harmonie.
A commission consisting of
Bacon de la Chevalerie,
Count Strogonoff and Baron Toussainet was appointed to revise and
examine all the
high degrees. (p. 410).
of Bacon de la Chevalerie is on the Clegg certificate to Noel, with
that of Morin,
as a member of the Chamber of Paris.
1776. The Grand Orient replaced
the former committee
to inquire into the high grade, by Guillotin, Savalette des Langes
Morin. De la
Ghaussee and De Lalande. (p. 411).
signature is on the Clegg certificate and also on the charter cited by
his History of Lodge No. 61. Savalette des Langes has his signature on
certificate. He was the head of the Philalethes that the Baron de
of in his Souvenirs, and one of the greatest aristocrats in France. De
the founder of the celebrated "Nine Sisters" Lodge and head of the
while Brest de la Chaussee was one of those who signed Morin's Patent
in 1761, fifteen
years previously. Yet this shows Morin by the fact of his being
appointed on this
Committee to revise the high grades, as associating with the men of the
which he could not have done had he been a Jew.
Master was Philip, Duke of Orleans, a close relative to the King of
his Deputy was the Duke of Montmorency-Luxembourg, persons with whom a
not have associated at that time, as the Jews did not win full civil
1792, or sixteen years later. But Morin is shown as being appointed by
officer, the Duke of Luxembourg, probably, as he did all the work, on
to examine into and revise the higher degrees. Gould recites these
facts and suspiciously
remains quiet about it, although he must have known who Morin was. De
stated was the founder in 1776, the same year, of the "Nine Sisters"
which became so celebrated, and among whose members were Benjamin
Franklin and John
Paul Jones, two celebrated Americans like Morin, Vernet and Greuze,
Lacepede, director of the Jardin des Plantes, Helvetius, and later,
a member of the same committee of the Grand Lodge with De Lalande, it
is more than
possible that Stephen Morin, who was an American sea-captain, sat in
Benjamin Franklin and John Paul Jones, with whom he had many things in
the very careful author of Jews and Masonry Before 1810, has assured
that Stephen Morin was not a Jew, but was a sea-captain who was
captured on one
of his voyages to the West Indies by a British vessel in 1777. This
why we hear nothing further about him until the American Revolution was
We see by
the Moyer charter, as related by the author of the History of Lodge No.
he, S. Morin, was the Secretary of the Chambre de Paris of the Grand
Orient of France
in 1774, and a man of considerable prominence in French Masonry.
Gould not show this fact plainly (10)?
piece by piece, we are beginning to learn more about him and the part
in French and American Masonry. If we had some organized Lodge of
Research in America
working on this matter instead of one lone individual we would make
in placing before the world the true history of Stephen Morin who was
for the two great organizations of the Southern and Northern
Jurisdictions of the
Scottish Rite in the United States, whose combined membership as
is now in excess of 600,000.
It was Stephen
Morin who appointed Henry Andrew Francken, who in turn appointed Moses
M. Hays who
appointed Isaac Da Costa, who organized the body in Charleston from
developed the Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite, Mother Council of
It is from this Mother Council that all other Supreme Councils of the
It is for
this reason that any scrap of information about Stephen Morin is of
(1) This was
the Duke of Chartres, later the Duke of Orleans.
(2) March was
the first month, hence this was Aug. 1, 1774.
(3) This would
be May 10, 1773.
(4) Who or what
lay was, was evidently told in the places obliterated.
(5) July 17,
(6) This was
not the frigate La Vengeance which was defeated in an engagement
with the U.S. Frigate Constellation (commanded by Commodore Truxton) in
The French frigate made her escape owing to the Constellation's
been shot away. The vessel spoken of here was a trading Schooner,
pierced for ten
guns, but actually only carrying eight four-pounders. The Trumbull was
a sloop of
war of eighteen twelve pounder guns. The frigate La Vengeance carried
(7) At the time
this lodge was organized, 1794, the Pennsylvania lodges were
known only by their numbers, and had no distinctive names. They were
of St. John.
History of Freemasonry, Yorston edition, Vol. iii [Lib 1884, Vol 3],
(9) See the
transcript given by Gould, Ibid. p. 380.
signature as Baron de Toussaint is on the Boyer Charter.
does not pretend to do more than attempt to reconcile the
very conflicting accounts of Thory, Von Nettlebladt Kloss, Rebold,
Jouast and Daruty
in a very condensed narrative. He points out the particular bias under
of the more important of the authors labored, estimating Kloss as most
although he followed Jouast, "the next best," because Kloss is "too
detailed for his purpose." It thus seems that Gould has disclaimed
any original research, but depended on making the best of the existing
of this most troubled and obscure period of the history of Freemasonry
See Gould. Op. cit. chapter xxv. pages 391-392. Ed.]
The Charitable Work Of The Order Of St. John
ONE of the
problems of the small town is the relief of members of the community
who for any
reason, sickness, accident, loss of employment, etc., become a charge
upon the people
of the city or town. Another problem is the proper handling of similar
drift into the town and are found to be without means to live or to get
other place. In these days of cheap automobiles and cross-country
tourists who give
free transportation to such indigent "hikers," the latter have become
a real problem to many towns located upon transcontinental highways.
have all that they can do, and more, to care for their own, without the
of providing for the needs of transient strangers. In the case of old
problem is simple, provided the county has a home for them, but there
are many localities
which have made no such provision. In some arrangements are made to
board aged persons
in private homes, which is seldom a satisfactory method of care. Other
make no pretense of caring and their custom in the handling of such
cases is to
ship them to the nearest large city with a railroad ticket and a small
money. This plan of unloading these eases is entirely satisfactory to
and tax-payers for it saves them the continued cost of care for the old.
method is often followed in the care of the sick, especially chronic
tuberculosis, or any other disease which is not acute and if the
patient is able
to be moved. Comparatively few localities have made any provision for
of their sick, except counties which have a large city or center of
their boundaries. Many states have no provision for the hospital care
of acute cases
and many lack hospitals for chronic cases, except the insane. Where
for the care of the tuberculous, frequently it is limited to the first
stages and no provision is made for the advanced cases, which from the
of infection of others are the most dangerous.
So the men,
women and children who become sick in any small community and whose
for some time must be cared for in their own home if they are fortunate
have one. If for any reason the patients are homeless then perhaps a
or neighbor will take care of them. In any event the patients do not
have the best
chance because home treatment, save in exceptional cases, does not
offer the same
hope of recovery as hospital care. Thousands of lives have been lost in
because of the lack of hospitals in the rural communities, supported in
in part, by public taxation, so that sick persons can secure care and
even if financially unable to pay for same.
This is true
of accident cases and their recovery in direct proportion to the
and thoroughness of the care which they receive. Our large and
increasing army of
cripples, from which is recruited the army of beggars, is often due to
of adequate hospital care immediately following accidents.
the small town do for the survivors of the sick and injured who die as
of lack of care? A widow with small children is in a hard way in a
small town. Not
that the people are unsympathetic, quite the contrary, but they as a
rule can only
give temporary relief with money secured by "passing a list". The help
given usually consists of providing for the immediate needs of food,
shelter and then sending or shipping the family to relatives, friends,
or to the
nearest large city where there are institutions and organizations for
the care of
the indigent and homeless.
work is undertaken as a voluntary act by good-hearted people who have
been in contact
with the family. The ladies of a church, the members of a lodge, or
group. In comparatively few places is there an organization prepared to
with some funds on hand, and with knowledge of state, county, city, or
institutions and organizations which might be able to lend a helping
hand in handling
each particular case according to its needs. In the larger communities
organizations known as Associated Charities, or United Charities, which
need, but in few places are they adequately financed to handle all of
which come before them, both resident and non-resident, in the course
of the year.
In the Western
country, the problem of relief is far greater than in the more thickly
of the country because of the migration of both sick and well. It is
for a broken-down Ford to bring in a family with a number of small
no funds, no gas, perhaps a bad tire, or some mechanical trouble that
in the family becoming a more or less permanent addition to the
population. In such
cases it is far cheaper to provide for their immediate needs,
especially such as
may be necessary to get them as far as the next town. But provision for
of citizens is sadly lacking. Thousands of babies come into the world,
mothers leave it at the same time, without the attendance of a doctor.
In many parts
of the country where the city, town or county cannot provide hospital
care for expectant
mothers it would seem to be the duty of the state to do so and since
the ballot, it is strange they do not demand it. It is a strange fact,
in most of America, that the unmarried mother usually receives better
care in some
institution than a beloved wife. Why the women's organizations do not
of this and work for hospital care of all mothers-to-be is also one of
facts of American life.
problem of relief of unemployment, of poverty, sickness and distress,
what its cause, nor where it is met, is due to the lack of constructive
planning. There are many thousands of organizations in America, but
few are devoted to the constructive charitable work. Healthy,
do not need such organizations and usually are little interested in
them. In times
of great calamity they liberally respond to any appeal, but they never
the million or more people in this country who, at all times, need some
assistance to tide them over an unforeseen emergency of life. There may
million, mentally or physically sick, or crippled, who need permanent
two groups of our population to whom the foregoing does not apply in
They are our Jewish and Catholic brethren. The Jews come nearer to
the problem of relief of their own people than any other group in
America and the
Catholics are next in the performance of this duty. Both groups help to
in caring for others in addition to their own. The Protestant group
does not meet
its obligations completely, though it is also true that Protestants
millions of dollars for the building of Catholic institutions, and
there is a vast
number outside of these three groups who have no claim upon any but
or the limited private charities and institutions of the larger cities
No one agency
can hope to meet all the needs and it can only be met by each group
doing its utmost
to provide for those of its own household. Every state, city, country
and town must
do its full part to meet the apparently increasing burden of indigence
of immigration will, in time, help to lessen the load, provided the
bars are not
lifted again to flood us with people who came in during the past
and who have cost us billions of dollars, both in care and treatment in
institutions and in our penitentiaries, in addition to the cost of
crime. The open
door to Mexico is bringing in thousands of others who will be a
liability for many
years. The beautiful ideal of America as the "melting pot" of the
of the world has cost Americans billions of dollars and we have found
of value to us coming from it. Much of the poverty and crime, with the
of our national and American standards, is due to the unlimited
immigration of the
past few decades.
If the three
great groups into which America has previously been divided, namely the
Catholics, and the Protestants, are to progress on anything like the
then Protestantism must unite and its first duty is the care of those
of its own
household. We have taken much pride in our "campaigns" to save the
of other foreign countries, many of whom have no ideals, or whose
ideals are in
direct conflict with ours. These millions sent abroad would have built
of hospitals in America and would have saved thousands of American
the lives of many American mothers. This money, properly handled, would
thousands of American families on their feet in a financial sense and
self-sustaining. We hear much of "farm relief" during these campaign
and much of the farmer's troubles are due to his trying to start and
operate a business
without sufficient capital or are due to his ignorance of handling
should be plenty of money available in America to supply his needs and
him business methods. The city man gets his benefit of every public
supported by public taxation, if and when he needs it. The farmer gets
and Catholic groups render efficient service to their own because they
Protestantism is not. In the very large cities a few of the great
have built and successfully operate denominational hospitals. In the
where no one denomination is strong enough to build and operate a
have been made to combine several, or all Protestant, denominations and
a Protestant hospital, but these efforts seldom are successfully
Local differences are usually responsible. The same has been found true
cities where an effort has been made to build a Masonic hospital
because of a failure
upon the part of the Masonic bodies to agree on plans for financing and
reasons the Order of St. John has come into being in the effort to
provide an agency
through which Protestants, and Masons, may unite for service to the
sick and needy.
Through the organization of Priories in the large places a hospital may
which will serve not only Protestants, but others who may seek its
doors. Such hospitals
must, of course, charge for service until such time as they can give it
in need. In the planning of the work of St. John in every state
Priories must be
so located as to make hospitals available for the people of every
section of the
It is, perhaps,
looking a long way into the future to be discussing the time when the
Order of St.
John will be maintaining hospitals of its own. It is well known that
do a great amount of charitable work. The patients who pay their way
doors cannot be expected to yield sufficient profit to care for all of
cases handled. For the surplus revenue needed these organizations
depend upon endowments,
charity campaigns, and like sources. A great many, perhaps all,
hospitals have their
financial worries. Funds are not available to take care of all the
that comes to their doors. There is an opportunity here for the Order
of St. John.
It can begin its charitable work within a comparatively short time of
in a community. Select some hospital, endow a bed, a ward, or a floor,
if the necessary
funds are forthcoming, and specify that this endowment is to be used
only for the
care of charity patients. Any hospital will look with favor upon such
and the small sum of $500 or $1,000 will be sufficient to enable a
of the Order of St. John to point with pride to what it has
will also function in the care of the sick and needy of the smaller
places and aid
in the solution of that vexing problem. The Preceptory, organized and
in small towns, may become the organized charity society or Community
Fund of the
town. Through its membership fees and dues, funds collected for special
through benefits, a charity fund can be built up to adequately care for
cases of distress. Through the knowledge of the work of institutions
in the larger cities and throughout the state, the Preceptory can
institutional care for some of its charges. By exchange of information,
be developed in time, impostors can be detected and put to work for the
While this, nor any other one organization, can hope to meet all calls
St. John can do a great work in caring for some of its own group who
may need help.
can also help in the establishment and operation of a St. John's
Hospital in the
nearest large center of population and will benefit by being able to
care for the sick of its own town in the nearest city. This should
include the care
of maternity cases to give both babies and mothers their best chance
Any few interested
persons in any town may organize a Preceptory of the Order of St. John.
speedily increase in numbers and influence as its objects and work
It will combine in one large and strong group the people who want to
help the other
fellow to help himself and who want to help him before he needs real
help, so that
a little aid given at the proper time may save a larger need at a later
of a number of Preceptory groups will make the Priory and through their
a hospital may be established that will serve them all at any time of
need. A hospital
is like the fire department. You hope that you will never need it, but
do, you want it quick and you cannot wait for it to be built.
is invited from those who are interested in the work of the Order of
St. John as
outlined by this and previous issues of THE BUILDER.
The Degrees of Masonry; Their Origin and History
By Bros. A. L.
Kress and R. J. Meekren
definitely left the Scottish evidence out of consideration, though, as
it "would at first sight have told greatly in his favor," that is if
in the light of Lyon's interpretation of it. Without this
presupposition one would
be inclined to say that on their face the old Scottish records shout
aloud on almost
every page that two degrees existed from the first.
also to the "Masters Lodges" which appeared in London (and elsewhere,
even in America) about 1730, and persisted, in name at least, all
through the eighteenth
century. Later on they consisted merely of the members of a warranted
as a lodge of masters, but at the beginning they were separate
of the members of a number of other lodges, who were masters of course,
such lodges worked only the master's degree, and worked for the
which for some reason could not, or at least did not, do it for
In an Appendix
to the paper some remarks are offered on the nature of this original
The long note in the first Book of Constitutions on Hiram Abif is
adduced, and Speth
says that the first mention of a name or fact cannot be coincident
with, but must
be posterior to, its introduction. Hughan of course replied that this
did not affect
the question, as he held that the three degrees were in existence when
were first published. But the curious fact remains that the name in
this form appeared
in Coverdale's translation of the Bible, and its immediate successors,
all of which
were so thoroughly suppressed that they are exceedingly rare. why
of the 18th century have gone behind the Authorized Version for the
name of their
hero? However, this point was not raised in the discussion.
Speth's theory may be thus summarized. In the Operative period the
"made" a Mason by some ceremony of a secret character, and received
signs and words and so on for recognition. At the end of his servitude,
into the ranks of free craftsmen, Masters of the Art and fellows of the
was celebrated by another secret ceremony, in which further signs and
so on were communicated, and that this ceremony contained the
essentials of the
present third degree. Then that during the "mainly speculative" period
it became habitual to work both of the ceremonies at the same time, so
"making" became merely an adjunct or preliminary to receiving gentlemen
and others as Fellows. And that finally, owing to unknown causes and
the first "part" was divided and two degrees made out of it, producing
our present system, the title Fellowcraft being given to this
of the first degree. Hughan's theory agreed with this origin of the
though it is not made quite clear if he agreed with Mackey that this
the first step, and the third a final addition, or whether (as would be
possible on his premises) that the materials of the present Master
were ancient, or whether they were, as Oliver thought in his later
years, and Pike
and Mackey after him, merely manufactured out of whole cloth, in the
succeeding the formation of Grand Lodge, by Desaguliers, Payne, or some
whose name has not come down to us.
with Speth's paper we have incidentally dealt with the objections
raised in the
discussion, especially by Hughan and Lane. There does not seem anything
importance left to consider in what was said by these two eminent
others who joined in the discussion call for remark, as though brief,
were advanced. The Master of the Lodge, Sydney Klein, suggested a
like that of Mackey-Speth said of it that in trying to prove Hughan and
both right he would in fact prove them both wrong. He supposed that in
or 12th century, during the great period of mediaeval building, there
would be a
greatly increased demand for masons, and that in order to train new
men, an apprentice
degree was "thrown off downwards." This would be in order to bind the
young men who were being taught the trade not to desert those who had
i. e., their masters. Later, in the 17th century, at the time of the
of London after the "Great Fire," a great stimulation of activity in
Craft resulted, and that then, or shortly afterwards in the 18th
century, the present
third degree was separated, or thrown off upwards, from the one that
been the second, and which in the earliest times had been the only one.
And so finally
the Royal Arch, some twenty years or so later still, was again thrown
from the third degree, which till then had contained all the essentials
This puts a great deal on the supposed second degree of the pre-Grand
but if there were only one ceremony of initiation at the start, this
does seem to
be the most plausible supposition. J. Ramsden Riley agreed with Speth
were two degrees before 1717, but seemed inclined to think that the
second was something
in the nature of a qualification for office as Warden or Master of a
lodge and he
degree, as we now have it, is of sufficiently later date to be
the degrees question.
would have been much strengthened had the Chetwode Crawley MS. then
for that on its face seems to describe in some detail just such a
as he supposes. On the other hand, Riley agrees with the "one degree"
supporters, by holding the present third to have been a late invention,
or nothing in it derived from tradition. The Rev. Canon Horsley
supposition of the amalgamation of the original two operative degrees
in the early
English lodges of Mainly Speculative membership, by an analogy drawn
from the Catholic
Church, in the sense, of course, in which that is understood by the
Church of England.
His illustration was drawn from the two traditional ceremonies of
Baptism and Confirmation.
The first of which is an initiation into membership, the second an
all the privileges of communion. These ceremonies are now, in the
at least, generally widely separated Baptism being usual in infancy,
delayed till years of something like discretion. But there have been
both were performed at the same time, and there is nothing to prevent
done in the Anglican Communion in the case of one baptized in later
life. He might
also have added another example from ordination. It is true that in the
Church a Candidate for Holy Orders is made to serve as a deacon for a
before being made a priest, but in effect the order of deacons does not
more than does the degree of Entered Apprentice in Masonry, for the
remains such for the shortest possible period. In the Eastern Church
is a permanent order, as every church has to have a deacon to serve it
as well as
a priest; it is not merely a step to the higher order.
Jr., the author of the well-known work on the Mason's Company of
with Speth that master meant, or could mean, master of the craft, and
an employer or master of the work, and that only such masters (of the
become fellows, and he quoted as example the following from the records
of the London
Reed of Thomas Taylor ye late
Apprentice of Thomas
Stanley, made free ye third day of July 1634 by way of gratuitie to
this house XXs.
for his admission then to be a Master IIIs. IIId. for his entrance VId.
Total XXIIIs. Xd.
But he said
he was unable to accept
the theory that any great secrets of the Craft, beyond the necessary
sign and perhaps
word, were imparted to the newly passed master.
He went on
to say that it was only in there being two forms of the Mason Word in
use that a
Fellow could be certainly distinguished from a runaway Apprentice, but
that he could
not agree to there being "an extra ceremony for those who joined the
and that he thought the conditions of the period of the opening of the
the prevalence of Clubs of all kinds, the need to interest men of
attainments, accounted for a complete transformation of the character
of the traditional
ceremonies, and the addition of such features as made them real
… as time went on the
protoplasmic germ of mysticism
which is in every society where secrecy is observed gradually developed
a real factor under the guidance of such men as Anderson, Desaguliers
almost appear that he had misunderstood Speth to suppose one form or
the mastership, followed by another for the fellowship; but this
impression is probably
due to an unfortunate choice of expression. In any case it would seem,
said he held to the two degree theory, that he was nearer Hughan than
he scarcely allows the possibility of sufficient ceremonial to be
called an initiation
to the second grade, while Hughan was willing to grant not only the
but even the probability of the private communication of a pass word to
the author of Arcane Schools [Lib 1909], also supported Speth on the
that master originally meant master of the craft, and was what the
after serving his time. He made another remark which is very much to
the point in
considering the arguments on the other side.
is we know nothing of ceremonies from minutes either Scotch or English,
and we have
no right to expect to know anything.
Crawley, while professing to be unable to make up his mind, quoted the
Hallam; who said of a certain question, "A strong conviction either way
not attainable on the evidence."
he could not make up his mind, yet he delivered a shrewd blow at the
of Hughan's argument. He said that the latter might seem to be capable
reduced to syllogistic form, such as this;
- There is direct evidence of a
Degree (or secret ceremony)
- There is no direct evidence of
a second Degree (or secret ceremony)
- There never was more than one
- This as he said is obviously
not a syllogism but a sophism, it requires some
other premises, such as;
- The only evidence to be
admitted is direct evidence or
- The indirect evidence adduced
is irrelevant or insufficient or
- No Degree (or secret ceremony)
can have existed unless we have direct evidence
has been pointed out, the direct evidence for any secret ceremony is
ambiguous. But on this question of evidence, and the proper limits of
and the employment of assumptions and inferences, something more will
have to be
brother, W. H. Upton, intervened in the discussion in a letter that was
article in itself. He valiantly espoused the traditional belief in the
of three degrees as separate and distinct entities. First stating his
that the Haughfoot minute alone established the fact that in Scotland
in 1702, there
was a plurality of ceremonies with corresponding secrets, he sets out
to state his
own theory. This is that the apprentice received a charge, he quotes
rule that has been already referred to [Ante, page 174] that any Mason
an apprentice was to enter him within one year and give him his charge,
charge he believes was not the series of articles preceded by the
the Craft" contained in the old Constitutions, but the set of articles
appears only in a few of the latest copies of these MSS., and is there
Apprentice Charges. This he thinks would have been suitable to his
years and situation.
But at Alnwick, where working stone-masons "entered" their apprentices
long after the Grand Lodge had been formed, the copy of the charges
used, for it was written into the first pages of the record book-has
not got the
Apprentice charges. Nevertheless, it is possible that in some places
was informed of the "history" of the Craft, and then caused to promise
to observe the "charges general," and, where they had been adopted, the
Apprentice Charges also. And that at the end of his time on being made
received once more the "Charges General" and the "Charges Singular"
for Masters and Fellows. The repetition causes no difficulty, for they
not only to the entrants but to all present.
went on to say that after seven years the
.... Apprentice was released
from his indentures
whether a good workman or not. If unskillful he probably nevertheless
a master of his trade, but became a layer or rough mason and perhaps
between the Freemason and Gild Masons is one of those elusive fancies
be exploded because there is never any tangible evidence offered in
support of it.
The Freemasons were Gild Masons where there was a gild. In Scotland
many of the
old lodges exercised all the functions of a gild. There was no
difference in Craftsmanship
between the two, and though in the 16th century (and still more in the
may assume the existence of working Masons, members of gilds or
companies, who were
not Freemasons, that was only due to the decay of the Operative
suggestion, too, that only a comparatively small group of apprentices
Craftsmen seems very strange. It is as a matter of fact impossible for
youth to work continuously for seven years at a handicraft and not be
at the end. If he was too incapable for this, he would have been so
that he would never have been accepted in the first place. However this
is not an
essential feature of Upton's theory. He supposes, in agreement with
Lyon and Hughan,
that apprentices were present during the "passing" of the Fellowcraft,
but that the latter received certain reserved secrets, such as a word
in the ear, or something of that sort. At this time he supposes the
Legend of the
Craft was read and the oath taken to keep the articles of the Charges.
seems a curious inconsistency; it was inappropriate that the apprentice
this charge when entered, as being beyond his capacity, yet he had to
when the fellow received it! The Third Degree he considers to have been
thing as the installation of the Master of the lodge, which has
persisted in America
as the Past Master's Degree. This installation ceremony appeared as a
in the first Book of Constitutions, and, though only guardedly hinted
was obviously some secret ceremonial attached to it. Though, on the
there is nothing to show that this was something restricted only to
Still it is possible that there is more in this suggestion than might
at first appear.
belief, however, in the antiquity of the Legend of the Builder. He had
to the passage in the Cooke MS. referring to the charge to be given to
be mad masters" and their examination in the "articuls aftr writen,"
Whether it was on this
occasion, or what I have
called the second degree, that the lesson connected with the widow's
son was unfolded
I do not venture to say .
And he sums
up as follows:
When our "work" was revised,
1723, in my opinion the Apprentice Charge was eliminated; a large part
of what had
been the second degree was thrown into the first; an operative lecture
was put in
the second degree as a graceful tribute to the past; the legend of the
remained in, or was transferred from the second to the third degree;
and as all
Fellows were henceforth to be "virtual" and not "actual" masters
the "secrets of the chair" were detached from the third ceremony and
as before, for actual Masters, in the old sense of that term [i.e.,
Masters of the
lodges]; and finally, that nothing essential was taken from or added to
body of Masonry" at that time.
This is very
ingenious, but it seems very complicated, and it presupposes conscious,
"ritual tinkering" on the lines of an American Grand Lodge Committee on
Work, with all the modern American conception of the supreme authority
of such bodies
to do whatever they may choose. It is not a process that could have
come about naturally,
by development, it implies a thorough shuffling of the pack and a new
the Grand Lodge, in 1722, when it authorized the new Constitutions, did
the old custom of reading the Charges to the Apprentice, for it was
the new version of them in the printed Constitutions was "to be read at
making of new Brethren," which at that time certainly meant initiating
A.Q.C. I, 167 [Lib 1895].
Hospital Builders – [A Poem]
‒ Edward A. Mount, Jr.,
'94 (The Alcalde).
build no Pyramid to lift its height
futile pride above the bones of Kings,
publish some great Pharaoh's martial might,
shame the vanity of earthly things.
raise no Monument of graven stones
mark the spot where some great Battle raged,
Nation spoke to Nation in the tones
iron hate by crimson hate assuaged.
pillared Hall of Justice build we here,
Marble Fane, nor House of Narrow Faith;
firm and strong these Fortress walls we rear
buttress out the ghastly Hordes of Death.
Death that rides triumphant on the breeze,
taints the crystal goblet ere we drink,
brings the strong man trembling to his knees,
hurls its gasping victim oer the brink.
build a Knightly Hold along whose halls
white-clad Hosts of Healing come and go;
from the crest of battlemented walls,
struggling Science marks her ancient foe.
give our Red Cross banner to the breeze,
all the stricken myriads can see;
in the face of many-fanged Disease
hurl the gauntlet of the strong and free.
ask not much; if in the passing throng
be a few that bless our labor, then
thank our God that we have builded strong
sent them forth as better, nobler men.
we be judged as we have lived and wrought,
ask no grudging praise, nor sordid gold.
only to fulfill the lesson taught
Him who healed the suffering ones of old.
on Freemasonry in Europe
Bro. E. Rammelmeyer, Utah
the state of affairs in Germany remind one almost of the Anti-Masonic
America; Masons are dragged into politics, although through no desire
of their own.
There are abnormal conditions, with many people out of work, and the
are looking for a scape-goat for all these ills.
(Catholic) party, the largest bloc in the Reichstag, together with the
Voelkisch parties are accusing the Freemasons of an international
compact with the
former enemies of Germany, preaching reproach and calumny of the worst
German Freemasonry, which forces the latter to defend themselves with
parties cite the irregular Grand Lodge, "The Rising Sun," the Grand
of which met the representatives of the French Grand Lodges at Bale,
at a Masonic gathering, supposedly as representing German Freemasonry;
any shadow of right to do so, as all the regular German Grand Lodges
their members to attend.
Adels-Genossenschaft, an association of the German nobility, in their
the Deutsche Adels-Blatt, assail the German Grand Lodges as a medium of
Judaism, and it forbids all its members to join the Masonic Order. It
to note that since the war this society of the Prussian and German
nobility in all
its branches has a predominating membership of Catholics and their
They inaugurated an intensive propaganda against Masonry, chiefly in
for popular consumption, seeking to make it appear contemptible. The
of the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes (the oldest, and largest in
to these venomous defamations as follows:
German Freemasonry stands aloof
contention. At the cradle of Freemasonry stood the thought of
Tolerance, and to
this thought the Germanic lodge life, and German Freemasonry has been
to the present time. The three old Prussian Grand Lodges, with their
more than 57,000
members, represent the Christian principle, and take as members
we admit that the other German Grand Lodges, with about 23,500 members,
some non-Christians among them, but their numbers in these so-called
lodges are insignificant; and if they put Humanism in the foreground,
they do it
nevertheless with an enlightened Christian perception. Who is it
these conditions, the harmony of the creeds? German Freemasonry unites
into its fold Christians of all confessions, who by the understanding
of the religious
opinion of others bring themselves closer together, and encourage
their fellow men all of which is contrary to the desires of the leaders
of the Catholic
Church, and of the Jesuits, who are perverting and opposing the thought
completely, by striving everywhere to separate their adherents from
and always with the deliberate aim to strengthen the power of the
Which is working more for the betterment of the country? German
for unity and harmony, or the Catholic Church with its policy of
division and strife?
Chief of the Staff during the war, is also very antagonistic, with the
and the silliness and absurdities in his recent pamphlet, Annihilation
Through Disclosures of Their Secrets. This eighty-two page production
is read extensively
by the gullible members of the public, chiefly because it is written
by a distinguished man.
Some of the
assertions of this pathological individual are mentioned here briefly:
- That Freemasonry is a
cosmopolitan society controlled by Jews.
- That the Jewish order B'nai
Brith was acknowledged by the German Grand Lodges
as a regularly accepted and constituted Grand Lodge.
- That Freemasonry is the avant
garde to bring all nations under the yoke of
the Jews, depriving the people of their liberties.
- That a Cabalistic Rabbi is a
lecturer in the German Christian Grand Lodges
in the higher degrees.
- That the Thirty-third degree
system is flourishing among the German Freemasons,
but more especially the Cabalistic Order of the Kadosh, etc.
- That Emperor William and
Nicolas of Russia lost their thrones because they
did not belong to the Order.
he is bitter against the Jesuits he nevertheless makes use of their
Masonry. The Grand Masters of the nine Grand Lodges have taken
to counteract this insidious affront.
attacks to which German Freemasonry under the present condition is
is to be noted which comes from a very unusual direction. Two
Presbyters (D. D.)
of the Protestant Synod have been assailing the Craft in lectures and
periodicals, stating among other things that Masonic tenets would lead
from the Church, and that it was a serious question whether Masons
would be able
to stand before the tribunal of Christ without fault, and so on. To
this the Right
Honorable National Grand Master of the largest and oldest Grand Lodge
writing to both of them, saying among other things:
That in Berlin there are over
ministers who are officers in their respective lodges, and many others
Germany, who are either Masters or officers in their respective lodges
and are also
Protestant ministers, from all the various theological and Church
They certainly do not deny Christianity in the lodge room, which is
Then he went
on to say:
In no wise do we feel that we
are put before
the tribunal of Christ-but only before the tribunal of misinformed
we deny to them the right to pass judgment upon us. The verdict thereon
we will appear before the tribunal of Christ is not of your choosing,
but of Christ
himself, and this is a matter we, as Freemasons, have to settle solely
replied in a conciliatory manner to the Grand Master, who happens to be
in the church, and pastor of one of the prominent churches in Berlin.
To this we
may well apply as an addendum the pithy words of Bacon:
It is certain that heresies and
Schisms are of
all others, the great Scandals. Nothing doth so much keep men out of
and drive men out of the Church, as breach of unity.
we have the Masonic doctrine wherein all good, unprejudiced men can
is also some contention between the Christian and the so-called
Lodges. The latter are mixed in respect to the religion of their
is dispute also concerning the application of this or that ritual,
which at times
rises to the surface with some ebullition in the various Masonic
the two systems; but this is only a matter of local opinion, and both
the old landmarks with heart and mind.
Masonic publications are full of articles treating of philosophic,
religious issues and questions. They are written chiefly by brethren
with an academic
education, who are an important factor in all the St. John's lodges.
Masonic events from other countries are recorded for the benefit of the
brother. The many books and pamphlets published yearly by individual
various Masonic topics may be mentioned here also, many of them are
by intellectual depth and are of great value and interest.
between the German Grand Lodges and the Grand Orient of France and the
of France at Paris for an agreement and reconciliation has not made
as is disclosed by the correspondence. The following is a summary,
taken from the
Mitteilungen, the official monthly journal of the Grand Lodge of
Saxony, with a
circular letter to the Saxon lodges, dated
Dresden, March 10, 1927.
With reference to the
correspondence of Feb.
16, 1927, between the French Grand Masters, Messrs. Brenier and
Doignon, and Br.
Ries, the Grand Master of the Eclectic Grand Lodge at Frankfurt, the
came to me for your information.
G. Anders, Grand Master.
mentioned is translated as follows:
The authorized representatives
of the French
Freemason organizations, the Grand Orient of France and the Grand Lodge
expressed a desire for a conference in regard to Masonic questions with
of a German Grand Lodge. They addressed a communication for this end to
Master of the Eclectic Grand Lodge at Frankfurt-that Grand Lodge which
in the years
1905-1908 had made the proposition to the German Lodge Union to take up
of entering into Masonic intercourse with the French Grand Lodges.
Master of the Eclectic Grand Lodge welcomed this proposal for a
meeting, and subsequently
informed the German Grand Masters of its contents by letter, and left
it to their
discretion to be present at the discussions. On Feb. 16. 1927, Bro.
of the Council of the Order for the Grand Orient, and Bro. Diognon,
of the Grand Lodge of France, went into conference with Bro. Ries, the
of the Eclectic Grand Lodge. After greeting the representatives of the
Lodges, Bro. Ries gave a brief resume of the character and condition of
Grand Lodges. The French Grand Masters replied that they would
the past in an endeavor to accomplish a rapprochment, for which the
Lodges have repeatedly expressed their desire in various resolutions.
asked the following questions:
Q. Does French Freemasonry
recognize all the
rights which are inherent in and incumbent on all free people, for the
as well as others; and if so, whether the German people have the right
to work in
a peaceful way for a revision of S. 231 of the Versailles Treaty, in
is charged with the sole guilt and being the instigator of the World
A. This question being of a
has never been considered by French Freemasonry. We will gladly submit
it to our
associate councellors; but the answer remains with our Convents. the
Q. Is French Freemasonry of the
there will be difficulty in a rapprochment should the French troops
territory for years to come?
A. We work daily to have the
French troops withdrawn
from German territory. We support, in this, the policy of Briand.
Q. Are the French Grand Lodges
prepared to prove
their brotherly disposition by obtaining the return of Masonic
property, such as
libraries, matriculations, archives, souvenirs, pictures, furniture,
belonged to the German lodges in Alsace-Lorraine, and which should be
to the respective lodges?
A. We beg to receive a list of
these lodges and
of the desired articles. The French Grand Lodges will take an interest
in this and
do whatever can be done.
says in regard to the above:
In the Eclectic Journal
(Bundesblatt) the Grand
Master of the Eclectic Grand Lodge, Bro. Ludwig Ries, gives an
explanation in reference
to the meeting between Brethren of his Grand Lodge and the Grand
Masters of the
French Grand Lodges. The question, "What is to be done now?" Bro Ries
answers as follows: we will have to await the final reply to the
the respective Convents of the French Grand Lodges. When this answer is
I shall send them to the other Grand Lodges and submit to their
to seek for further propositions by the Frenchmen. The attitude of my
to the French Grand Lodges did not change through our discussion, nor
was it binding
in any way whatsoever. Nor have I any idea of giving the world a
Scene. But what I aimed to do was Masonic Service for our country and
Bro. Gottschall, the Editor of the Mittelungen, remarks:
Nobody will doubt the best
intentions of the
Grand Master of the Eclectic Grand Lodge. But it would have been more
have obtained the opinions of the other Grand Lodges before entering
into the discussion.
In the Bundesblatt
of the drei Weltkugeln (the Three Globes), the oldest and largest Grand
Germany, we take the following:
In regard to the movement of
the French Grand
Lodges for a French-German Union, we cite a communication of Bro
Wertheim, a German
Freemason living in Paris, to his Grand Lodge, to the effect that
numerous in the French Grand Lodges and subordinate lodges, and that
their views the future development of Europe depends solely on the
between France and Germany, and they therefore have come to a
determination to seek
for an international Masonic union between the two countries, for the
of an international spirit and popular sentiment. Such a union would
work in the task of informing the French of what happens in the German
vice versa, and by carefully sifting the material thus obtained for
But such international union has been made impossible from the moment
Freemasons declined to entertain the proposition. Whether, or to what
Eclectic Grand Lodge has come to an agreement upon the extract of the
cited above, the Eclectic Bundesblatt is silent. We were very anxious
to hear something
definite on this topic, especially since the most Hon. Grand Master,
at the quarterly Grand Lodge meeting, gave out that the Eclectic Grand
not repulse such an approach, but that it must be in harmony with the
the Grand Lodge and with German honor.
the Bundesblatt of the Three Globes comments:
But we are, from our position
opposed to any deviation, and we will not allow the pure ideal striving
of our Union
to be overlaid with politic, economic, or social interests.
German Freemason lodges in German Poland, which was reunited to the
Republic of Poland by the Versailles Treaty, and which were formerly
of different German Grand Lodges, founded a Grand Lodge of their own,
name, Grand Lodge of German Freemason Lodges in Poland.
informs its readers of the seventh Annual Catholic Reunion in that part
at which, besides the Archbishop and several Bishops, the apostolic
Primate of Poland
was in attendance; information which was taken from the Posmer
Tageblatt. This dwelt
first on the crisis of the Polish soul, and secondly that the Holy
the festival of the Christ-King for the Polish soul. Christ in all His
today, with the demand that Poland's existence must safeguard its
rights, and the
question arises how Poland can be saved. It must counteract the wave of
which undermines the religious life. Before all things it must break
which aims to suppress the Christian spirit among the nations. And so
much the more
should Poland break with them, because Freemasonry represents the
favor of foreign ways and of foreigners.
efforts against the Freemasons, the Bundesblatt says:
Department demands that all officers in the Navy and Marine must make
known to the
Government their affiliation with secret societies, especially with the
Men who belonged to the Order must give date of initiation and when
they took their
dimit, they also must make declaration not to affiliate again.
Logenblatt (Grand Lodge of Hamburg) in 1927, June number, writes as
press brings news of all sorts and kinds about Freemasonry in Italy on
of the judicial procedure against Zaniboni.
put his declaration of May, 1925, into action: "I will contest
to the utmost, first I will break their bones in two, and then make
old General Bro. Capello was condemned to thirty years in prison, and
six years of it was to be in solitary confinement. The Grand Master of
Orient of Italy, Bro. Torrigiani, was two hours after his arrest,
without any court
proceedings, exiled to the Liparian Islands for five years. Altogether,
Italian brethren have been exiled for the crime of being members of the
Order; some of these leaving wife and children behind in dire distress.
crime of which Capello was charged, and the verdict rendered, two
and they truly are not friendly towards Freemasonry. The Börsen-Courier
What really, as it appears to
is charged against Capello, is that he belonged to an organization
Italy. But with the General, Italian Freemasonry was to be destroyed,
most presumptuous logic failed to show actual connection with Zaniboni,
evidence was incredible.
(the organ of the Catholic Clergy, Berlin) commented thus:
From what one heard in the
corridors of the Halls
of Justice, the verdict was not surprising. To an outsider, the trial
has not brought
out any satisfactory reason for the severity of the verdict against
at the trial it was really Freemasonry that was at the bar of judgment,
was only its representative the same verdict that fell upon the guilty
had to strike him also.
Rome the word was coined "Fiat Justitia, pereat mundus!" Today in the
fascistic Rome it is forgotten.
History of North Dakota Military Lodge, No.
2, U. D.
F. Irwin, Associate Editor Connected With the
164th U. S. Infantry
THE dispensation for this lodge was granted in
October, 1917, to a large group of North Dakota
Masons who were officers and soldiers in the 164th Infantry, U.S.A. The
officer of this regiment, Colonel John H. Fraine, was the first Master
of the lodge.
Stockwell, in commenting on this lodge, writes as follows:
I do not
recall that he (Col. Fraine) made any formal report in turning over the
dispensation in connection with this lodge. The paraphernalia of the
was largely made by the brethren overseas has been returned to our
Grand Lodge Museum
and is one of the most interesting collections which we have there.
connected with the 164th Infantry, U. S. A., held one or two meetings
North Carolina, before going overseas. One meeting was held on board
and I am inclined to believe the meetings in France did not exceed
eight or ten.
of candidates were elected and received their degrees in France. We
right of this lodge to receive petitions from North Dakota men only. We
do not care
to infringe upon the jurisdiction of any other Grand Lodge and more
than that, in
order to be absolutely certain, we made it necessary for the name of
to be submitted to the lodge in whose jurisdiction the petitioner
resided when in
source of information of this military lodge is confined to printed
references found in various Grand Lodge Proceedings of the years 1918,
1920. For example:
of Missouri, 1919, correspondence: "Three lodges were created (by North
by Dispensation in casual form and are Military Lodges. [Note: This is
Only one was Military C.F.] The Grand Master explains at length and was
supported by the council of wise members but the great majority of our
have refused to take such an action." This was a review of the North
Proceedings of 1918.
of Indiana, 1919, p. 98, correspondence, reviewing North Dakota,1918:
new lodges were instituted and ONE MILITARY LODGE was granted a
In the Proceedings
of 1918, North Dakota, the Grand Master in his address at the annual
referred to this military lodge in the following language:
On Oct. 30,
1917, we issued our Dispensation to the above lodge (No. Dak. Mil. L.
No. 2, U.D.)
upon Petition of some 45 Master Masons in the Military Service of the
U. S. A.,
with the 164th Infantry, at Camp Greene, North Carolina. These brethren
been in the 1st and 2nd North Dakota Infantry, National Guard. We
the petition, weighing any objections which might be urged against
and decided that in the light of our previous experience (namely, the
No. Dak. Mil.
Lodge No. 1, which went to the Philippine Islands during the
in 1899) the advantages far outweighed the objections. This
Dispensation was a lengthy
one in which we endeavored to cover any possible contingency which
We trust our action in this particular will have your approval. While
of the military service, particularly in things war, have prevented as
meetings as might be desired, still enough information has reached us
in our own mind the organization of this lodge.
designated in the Dispensation are as follows:
H. Fraine, W. M.;
Bro. Gilbert C.
Grafton, S. W.
Bro. Frank S.
Henry, J. W.
L. Eckman, Treasurer
J. Kunz. Secretary
from the 1920 Proceedings of North Dakota Grand Lodge the following (p.
North Dakota Regiment arrived in Charlotte, North Carolina, Oct. 1,
1917, the first
mobilization point on its way to France. As soon as the regiment was
men of the Masonic Fraternity at once began to talk of the possibility
a Military Lodge, such as North Dakota Military Lodge, No. 1, U. D.,
to the Philippine Islands during the Spanish-American War. A petition
and sent to the Grand Lodge requesting a Dispensation to work as a
military Service. About the 1st of November, 1917, Colonel John H.
the Dispensation, which gave North Dakota Military Lodge, No. 2, U. D.,
work the degrees and receive candidates subject to the jurisdiction of
Lodge of North Dakota.
4, 1917, the first preliminary meeting of the lodge was held in the
at Charlotte, North Carolina. Colonel John H. Fraine was elected
Lieutenant Colonel G. C. Grafton, Senior Warden; Major Frank S. Henry,
Capt. Louis Eckman, Treasurer; and Lieutenant C. J. Kunz, Secretary. As
was Viable to be called at any time, the meeting adjourned subject to
the call of
1917, the regiment left for Camp Mills, Long Island N. Y., and the
was so taken up with plans for embarkation for France, that there was
opportunity for any meetings of the lodge. The regiment embarked on
Dec. 12, 1917,
on what had been the German Vaterland, then renamed the U. S. S.
passage a stated meeting was held in Col. Fraine's stateroom, where as
many as could
be crowded in attended. One of the ship's officers loaned an electric
with three lights which originally had been part of the equipment of
suite of rooms always reserved for him on this boat. A week was spent
and France was reached on the first day of January, 1918, when the
immediately split up and scattered.
standpoint of Masonic activity the next three months were without
enough of the officers (of the lodge) met at Gondrecourt so that
Sunday, March 3
(1918), a preliminary meeting of the lodge could be held in an old hall
the Y.M.C.A., which had at one time been the dining room of an old
hotel. At this
meeting 36 different states Canada, England and Australia, were
were made for active work.
1918, a meeting was called for work in the Entered Apprentice Degree,
at which Louis
M. Thune, who later gave his life, received his first degree. Col.
as Master. The altar consisted of a hotel table with two cases of
covered with a gunny sack, as kneeling benches.
At the first
meetings each man used his own handkerchief for an apron, and French
hired to sew on tapes, so that thereafter there was a regular supply of
The three lesser lights at this first meeting were candles fastened to
piece of wood nailed to a tent pole, sawed off to the proper length.
Grant secured a candlestick with three lesser lights from the ruins of
a Roman Catholic
Cathedral in the front line trenches at Xivry. The altar jewels, the
and the trowel were cut from the tops of men's kits by means of a pair
shears, an old pocket-knife and a three cornered file which Lieut. Hill
to have in his possession. He and Capt. Grant first drew the outlines
on the aluminum
pans, and then cut them out, the task requiring most of their leisure
time for more
than a week. The trowel was provided with a fork handle. The letter "G"
was cut from pine and covered with the lining of a bacon-tin.
jewels were fitted with blue ribbon bought at a French store and
fastened with ordinary
safety pins. The setting maul was a stuffed canvas canteen cover. The
High Twelve were made by Capt. Grant from two 75 mm. French shell cases
the FIRST SHOTS FIRED by one of the American batteries and which
produced a tone
very pleasing to the ear. The first Tyler's sword was a rusty
jack-knife which he
happened to have in his pocket later a U. S. bayonet was used, and
still later a
German bayonet was secured.
box was made from some bits of pine, and the ballots were white navy
beans and cubes
of pine dipped in ink. The gavel and other implements were made from
of wood procured from the remains of an American gun carriage which had
by a German shell, and the handles of two of them from the spokes of
the same shattered
One of the
first gavels used was one which had been brought from New York by a
attended the Ziegfield Follies there. Capt. Grant provided the means of
columns and the three, five and seven stairs by having a sign painter
upon the reverse side of an old black poncho.
Proceedings of 1920, Grand Lodge of North Dakota, we gather quite a few
to this Military Lodge, as follows (p. 521):
were held between March 16 (1918) and the latter part of June, at about
the regimental headquarters were moved to Langres, where meetings were
continued until Col. Fraine left the regiment. There was also a two-day
Aug. 10-11, 1918, at Gondrecourt, at which the First, Second and Third
worked on unfinished material left over from the earlier meetings held
Col. Fraine and LieutCol. Grafton came from Langres to Gondrecourt for
of holding these meetings, during which eleven received the E. A., four
the F. C.
and seven the M. M. Degree. Complete details of these meetings are on
file in the
Grand Secretary's office.
In all, meetings
in France were held at Gondrecourt and Turanne Barracks, Langres.
Degrees were conferred
at all these meetings with the exception of one. Much of this work was
done at the
request of various lodges in North Dakota and other jurisdictions,
Oregon, Minnesota, Washington, South Carolina, Kentucky, Michigan and
One of the
very interesting facts about this lodge is that its three principal
been members of the old North Dakota Military Lodge, No. 1, U. D., at
the Spanish-American War.
In the Proceedings
of 1919, p. 270, the Grand Secretary has the following to add to this
Late in March
there was received at the Grand Secretary's office the paraphernalia
and funds of
this lodge. The paraphernalia we have brought with us for exhibition at
Communication. The funds ($666.66) came to us in seven money orders,
and are deposited
in the Northern Savings Bank of Fargo. in a savings account in the name
Dakota Military Lodge, No. 2, awaiting disposition by the Grand Lodge.
have not given the matter careful consideration, we are convinced that
ought not to be carried into our General Fund, but rather set apart for
purpose having relation to the Great World War.
the advice of the Grand Master and the Jurisprudence Committee, we have
certificate giving the status of those elected in this lodge, and
over them in favor of any lodge in whose jurisdiction they reside, or
a residence. A copy of this certificate is attached for the use of any
to which this may be referred.
On page 254
of the same Proceedings we come upon this reference:
of North Dakota Military Lodge, No. 2 U. D., has been returned to the
and return of the Minutes and Records is expected at any time. Owing to
that this lodge was restricted to candidates who were bona fide
residents of North
Dakota, and owing to the transfer of many men and officers there were
encountered. In spite of all these handicaps this Military Lodge held
about a dozen
meetings and conferred all three degrees. Some thirty candidates were
a number of degrees were conferred by courtesy for other lodges. At one
more than 100 Masons met, and nearly thirty different jurisdictions
Very few Grand Jurisdictions had Military Lodges in this war, but we
that our Military Lodge served a useful purpose. The Dispensation will
now be surrendered
and the candidates who received degrees will receive certificates
similar to those
issued twenty years ago in the case of our first Military Lodge.
On page 511
in the 1920 Proceedings, the Grand Secretary speaks concerning these
the Grand Lodge instructed the Grand Secretary to issue a certificate
for those brethren who constituted North Dakota Military Lodge, No. 2,
U. D. We
prepared copy for the same and forwarded it to Bro. J. H. Fraine, W.
M., for his
approval. The letter containing the copy for the certificate never
We had retained no copy and hence, thinking that the original might
appear, we have
delayed preparing a new copy. However it is our intention to prepare
this copy without
further delay and have the same printed. The money in the North Dakota
Lodge Fund is still in the Northern Savings Bank, Fargo, N.D. We have
Plain City Lodge, No. 449, Paducah, Ky., $30.00, fees paid by R. L.
Boone for degrees
conferred as courtesy by N. D. Mil. L., No. 2, U. D. Interest amounting
has been added so the Fund now totals $671.33.
P. 516, ibid.
Grand Lodge Library Report.
has received … (names) in North Dakota Registration Book for the
returning men from
service who visited the North Dakota section of the Hall of States, New
which we received through the courtesy of Miss Harriet Wenburg.
519-21. Of outstanding importance among the additions which we received
year are the N. D. Mil. L., No. 2, equipment .... The lodge equipment
made by certain
members of the N. D. Mil. L., No. 2, U. D., was brought back to Fargo
in the Museum by Lieut. Ernest Hill. It was displayed during the Grand
of 1919 at Grand Forks and later organized into an exhibit in our
Museum. The official
records of the lodge contain no references to this interesting
it has seemed advisable to make a statement concerning it; a matter of
means of this report. With the collaboration of Capt. R. F. E. Colley
Ernest Hill, this brief sketch has been prepared.
In the Proceedings
of 1919, p. 362, we come upon the list of brothers who entered this
brothers, residents of North Dakota serving in the A.E.F., received one
degrees in the North Dakota Military Lodge, U. D., No. 2:
Herman A. Carlson, Earl O. W. Drowley, George Harold Ellis, Walter
C. Gram, Bristol F. (Elected) Hanson, Earl E. (Pet. Reed.) Heaton.
Vinton P Moore,
Cuthbert B. Moon, Glen W. Mosted, Alfred Omlie, Myron W. Oster, Hyman
Perry N. (Elected) Scharnowski, Adolph H. Skinner, Forrest F. Skogmo,
South, Earl W. Stillings, Harlow C. Stillings, Raymond Stillings, Roy
of the Military Lodge were now fast running to a close, and we come
upon the records
of its closing in the Proceedings of 1919 and 1920, as follows:
of the Committee on North Dakota Military Lodge, No. 2, U. D. Presented
by W. Bro.
Theodore S. Henry who had been a Capt. and a member of the Lodge
overseas. He moved
its adoption. It was adopted as follows:
To the Grand
Lodge A. F. & A. M. of North Dakota:
on North Dakota Military Lodge, No. 2, U. D., begs leave to report as
careful examination of the letters and other papers received of this
the fact that this Military Lodge, No. 2, performed much labor while in
but papers are lacking which would give us complete records of the many
joined this Order by initiation.
the non-appearance at this time of the minutes and other vital records,
of degrees, it is not possible to give complete information concerning
However, we recommend that the Grand Master be authorized to issue
showing the name of the brother who received his degrees in the North
Lodge to be in good standing in the degree which he attained, and
waiving and releasing
all and every jurisdictional right which said North Dakota Military
Lodge, No. 2,
U. D., may possess over said brother. Attaehed hereto is a form of the
been turned into the Grand Lodge Treasury the sum of $666.66 by North
Lodge, No. 2, U. D., being proceeds received for degrees conferred. We
that this Grand Lodge issue to each charter member and each person
or more degrees in North Dakota Military Lodge, No. 2. U. D., a
and engrossed Certificate of Membership, the expense of which will be
the proceeds turned in to the Grand Lodge by said Military Lodge.
recommend that the balance of the money remaining from these proceeds
form a nucleus
for a Military Relief Fund, which fund shall be used for the relief of
their families of the North Dakota Military Lodge, No. 2, U. D. This
be under the control of the Committee on Masonic Relief, and be kept
all other funds of the Grand Lodge. We further recommend that the
North Dakota Military Lodge, No. 2, U. D., be discontinued. Fraternally
S. Henry James M. Cubbison Thaddeus C. Michael Albert Lowe Elmer W.
1920 Grand Masters Address, P. 511.
the review of the Proceedings of North Carolina, your correspondent
wishes to acknowledge
the great kindness and unbounded hospitality extended by the people of
to the officers and men of the 1st North Dakota Regiment, later the
164th U. S.
Infantry, during their stay at Camp Greene. Its Colonel, Hon. John H.
most of the field and line officers were Masons. They have written home
the kindness of the brethren of North Carolina in general, and the
citizens of Charlotte
are extended to the loyal Americans who opened their hearts and homes
to our North
Dakota boys. Col. Fraine and two companies of the regiment came from
home of your Correspondent, and we of this city as well as the people
of the whole
state, feel deeply grateful for the kindness and courtesy shown these
who are now in the trenches of France, fighting for liberty and
proves more fully that we of the North and you of the South are a
with the bitterness and misunderstanding of the past forever buried,
than the spontaneous
and openhearted hospitality shown by the people of Charlotte, North
the soldiers of North Dakota. God bless you all for your goodness, and
keep our boys and your boys from the supreme sacrifice that they may
return to us
and live and labor for a more splendid realization of the institutions
Liberty and Justice established by the signers of the Declaration of
And now may
I offer the following toast which is a sentiment unquestionably dear to
of all Americans, North, South, East and West:
Here's to the blue of the
wind-swept North As
it meets on the fields of France. May the spirit of Grant be over them
all As the
Sons of the North advance!
Here's to the grey of the
sun-kissed South As
it meets on the fields of France. May the spirit of Lee be over them
all As the
Sons of the South advance!
Here's to the Blue and the Grey
as one As they
meet on the fields of Frances May the spirit of God be over them all As
of the Flag advance!
this beautiful sentiment expressed more than eight years ago by the
of North Dakota Grand Lodge toward our splendid brethren of the
southland the story
so far as we possess it is told. There are many additional experiences
be added to it and the hope lies in our hearts that some son of that
will take upon himself to tell the complete story as known only to
those who went
through the whole moving picture of the Lodge Life can tell it. It is
one more chapter
of the brilliant Masonic history written during the days when the
shook the nation. And in these days of peace the principles tested by
the fire of
battle are proving themselves and we confidently believe that Masonry
has a vital
place in the life of our nation and, God helping us, we shall ever do
that the Brotherhood of the World may become not only a hope but also a
is the text of the certificate granted to members of Military Lodge,
Compasses) GRAND LODGE A. F. & A. M. Of North Dakota.
GOD AND COUNTRY
This is to
certify That Brother ......... was identified either as an officer,
member or candidate
for degrees with NORTH DAKOTA MILITARY LODGE, No. 2, UNDER DISPENSATION.
was granted a Dispensation on October 30th, 1917 and was attached to
the 164th U.
S. Infantry, originally composed of the First North Dakota Infantry and
the Second North Dakota Infantry. The 164th was commanded by COL. JOHN
who was the Worshipful Master of said lodge.
were held in Camp Sevier at Charlotte, North Carolina, on board the
and at various points in France. A number of candidates were elected
their Masonic degrees in this lodge.
is given as a testimonial of our high regard for the valor and
which prompted these, our brethren, to respond to the call of their
Country in time
of national peril; and whose attachment for our Order caused them to
together in a Masonic Lodge that true Masonic light and fellowship
might be known
amid the storm and stress of war.
our handles and the seal of the Grand Lodge A. F. & A. M. of
North Dakota, this
...... day of ....... A. D. 19...., A. L. 59.....
pocket in a small lambskin apron, the flap of which was buttoned, and
tapes, was the following Certificate:
A. F. & A. M. Of North Dakota United States of America. (Square
presents and vouches for
as a worthy Master Mason, a member of ....... Lodge No ..... at
......... , North
Dakota, U. S. A. and so commends him for brotherly care and lawful aid
to any Mason
who may find him in distress or need, incident to his Service as a
soldier of the
United States of America, with the assurance that all courtesies
extended will be
La Grande Loge A. F. & A. M. présente et
....... comme étant un digne maitre maçon, membre
de la Loge maçonnique, numéro
..... , située a ...... , de North Dakota, U.S.A. La Loge ci-dessus le
au soin Fraternel et l'aide légitime d'un franc-maçon qui le trouve
dans le besoin
ou la misère, a l'effet de son service comme soldat des Etats Unis
l'assurance que toutes courtoises montrées seront profondément
Die Große Loge A. F. & A. M. stellt vor
und steht Bürge für
.................... dass er ein würdiger
Meistermaurer ist und ein Mitglied
der Loge Nr ....... in ....... , North Dakota U. S. A., und empfiehlt
Freimaurer der ihn in der Not finden möge, als Folge seiner Pflichten
der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika, für Brüderliche Pflege und
mit der Versicherung, dass alle Gunstbezeigungen, die man ihm zeigen
, Grand Master.
, Grand Secretary.
Writes; Mussolini Acts
Rammelmeyer From Die Bauhütte.)
who unified the Italian provinces into a centralized government and
nation was an
ardent enthusiastic Freemason and Grand Master of "The Grand Orient of
He also had a plan worked out for the unification of all European
in later years was painfully set up on legalized principles and
The respect paid to this man by the Italian people by external actions
can be seen
by the statues erected to him conspicuously in every city.
edict to exterminate the Masonic Fraternity by Mussolini, wreaths were
the Craft at the foot of these monuments on July 2, the day of his
by the Lodge "Cavour" in Turin.
Now it happened
that some thirty odd years ago, at the solemn dedication of the great
Garibaldi Monument in Rome, the Italian Freemasons had set at the
pedestal a beautiful
durable wreath of bronze. This was embellished with our symbols.
On a November
night of last year this wreath was chiseled out and removed. By this we
that the monument was dishonored; and more, through Facistic illogic
more infamy was brought to desecrate this wreath, the same as was done
at the Masonic
Temple of the Grand Orient of Italy by Facistic mob power. For in the
place of the
Square and Compasses were placed bound Lictor rods acrimoniously,
inserted as a
sign of senseless Facistic Might.
ancient Roman war symbols, skipping the many magnificent symbols which
produced in Italian deeds of culture, an army rifle was wrought in
beside the fasces;
also a Bronze Book, which possibly represents the Italian Constitution,
Duce trampled underfoot.
of torches of a festive nocturnal procession illuminated this vulgar,
at the pedestal, dishonoring the memory of Garibaldi whose Masonic
deeply rooted in him as a precept and creed, leading him to his great
deeds and achievements.
Editor in Charge
been some comment about the pessimistic attitude adopted by the Masonic
not there is justification for the remarks is a debatable question. The
of the Fraternity, in which Masonic journals have participated, has
in the past few years. Many defects in the organization have been
called to the
attention of those in official circles, but as yet we have seen little
to remedy the trouble. One critic of the press some time ago asserted
should adopt an optimistic attitude. Unfortunately no definition of his
Let us for
the moment grant that we have been pessimists; that we are continually
the dark side of the situation. Suppose we adopt the other attitude and
present state of affairs as predicting a rosy future. Will we get
anywhere? We might,
but on the other hand at least one person is inclined to believe that
officials will rest on their haunches and allow things to drift along
constructive effort on their part.
the moment that the Masonic Fraternity is as perfect as it is possible
to make it.
Can we keep it that way? More than once has it been said that nothing
still; everything must progress or else it goes backwards. The world is
illustrations of this point. No city which is not constantly widening
improving its lighting facilities, and more recently, constructing
hope to compete with its more progressive neighbors. Unless the
made the city does not grow. New industries pass it by and its
to increase. It has reached its peak. Will it stay the same size,
support the same
industries, and have as many inhabitants for very long? The answer is
enterprises begin to seek more progressive homes. They must keep
abreast of the
times. When they leave a city their employees leave, too. There is a
not very far from St. Louis that is a typical illustration. A score of
it was the home of a huge glass plant. The city failed to see the
advantage of electrical
power. Another town five miles away seized the opportunity. The glass
and now the original town is a collection of boarded houses. The
in spite of its age-old ritual and love of tradition, must progress or
possibly progress with Grand Lodges content to follow in the footsteps
forefathers. Would any Mason consent to have his home lit with gas or
simply because his father or grandfather had this form of illumination?
failed miserably on the tuberculosis campaign because there were a
number of objections
raised, most of which could be simmered down to the fact that such a
plan was a
new innovation. The Order of St. John has taken the idea in hand and
Fraternity has lost an opportunity to grow.
is not perfect, it makes errors. Such mistakes should be discussed
are many of them, but this is not the time to enumerate them. The
in editorial writing is splendid. No one will find an editor who is not
to praise any undertaking which reflects favorably upon the Craft, but
editor is in a peculiar position. He is in touch, directly or
indirectly, with every
Grand Lodge. He sees all the errors and all the good. The evidence is
before him. A Grand Lodge errs. The editor can see the error because he
effect on the Craft as a whole, whereas the Grand Lodge either does not
does not want to see, the effect outside its own border.
It is only
through the Masonic press that such errors or criticisms can be brought
to the attention
of the Craft. It is hard to tell how much influence the editorial
columns do have.
Sometimes we are inclined to think that it is very little. The
organization of Masonry
is such that the pulse is not easily taken. The fact that the Grand
Master is an
absolute monarch during the interval between Grand Lodge meetings makes
to impress one particular man or the whole thing fails. He may say no,
with no reason
whatever, as more than one G. M. has done, and his actions are subject
only by the Grand Lodge. By the time this body meets the whole plan may
whereas his support may have given the impetus necessary to put it
over. As a result
we stand still, we don't progress, and we will eventually retrograde.
been very little severe criticism of the Craft in America, except on
The press generally has condemned the utter failure of official Masonry
charitable undertakings. We say that charity lies at the foundation of
but there is nothing on which the securing of favorable action is more
than a charitable undertaking. We have our homes, it is true, but
Masonry will never
attain the satisfaction of Masonic charitable aims until no worthy
appeal for aid
by a Mason goes unanswered, whether it be for financial aid, medical
care in old age, or what not.
be optimistic about the future of the Craft until such time as this aim
We can pat ourselves on the back and say we are getting along, but we
in the footsteps of Voltaire's Candide until the outlook is vastly
sees the failure of an organization like the National Masonic
Association, can he help but be pessimistic? When one sees a Grand
Lodge of 116,000
members (and that only one of many) unable to take care of its
insane and incurables, can he be optimistic? Not unless he sees some
taken to attain the desired end, and when those steps are taken, and
not until then
will optimism take the place of pessimism in Masonic journalism.
* * *
of how thoroughly the subject is treated, either editorially or in
regular intervals it becomes necessary to mention the practice of
relative to the publication of the so-called secrets of Freemasonry.
discussion is inspired by a pronouncement appearing recently in one of
and which objects rather strenuously to the plain speaking of most or,
many Masonic writers. The writer recalls the feeling of surprise that
him when he read his first Masonic book. To see in cold black and white
had previously been considered almost sacred was a severe blow. THE
received requests for information on the subject which show that there
who are equally shocked. There is no need of going into detail about
it is sufficiently well known as it is.
of view of the lay brother, if we may be so bold as to separate the
two classes, the scholars and the others, and call one the inner circle
other the outer circle, is easily understood. In many respects we can
with them, but we suggest that they try their hand at writing on
or on the history of the ritual, and see how far they can go without
certain things which must be discussed if we are to progress. These
be brought to the attention of the reading public without verging on
work of the Order. How are we to accomplish the desired end? Two
methods seem open,
one of them to fill in with dots or some other sign which says to every
"This is a secret, I dare not say more." The other is to adopt the
which has come into common use and about which so much talking is done.
of one plan over the other are not immediately obvious, but at the
of development one has very decided advantages. Suppose that scholars
adopt the first alternative. In this case, where is freedom of speech
to stop? If,
for your own amusement, you make a collection of monitors from various
and compare them you would have a difficult time in deciding where
secret work begins
and exoteric matter ends. The secrets of one jurisdiction are public
another. There are the code monitors of some Grand Lodges which do not
of anything, and which any person with average intelligence could
figure out if
he so desired. That is one difficulty in the way of closing the tongues
of the writing
Mason, but it is, to our mind, not as serious as the second one. As
soon as blank
spaces are left, the non-Masonic reader is aware of the fact that
secret work is
the object of reference. He will, consciously or unconsciously,
remember these blanks.
In some other work he may find the blank filled in and immediately
he has learned one of Masonry's secrets.
almost childish to have to draw diagrams in defense of what is going
on, but that
seems to be the only way that the desired result can be accomplished.
side of the picture is a study in psychology. When the scholar speaks
average Mason is astonished. He readily recognizes the allusions and
jumps to the
conclusion that others will do the same. Therein he is wrong.
are confused by free speaking. They are unable to sift the esoteric
from the exoteric.
There are certain limits beyond which even the scholar will not go.
There is no
reason for being specific on this point.
you may perhaps say that scholars are violating their obligations in
but practically speaking, are there any secrets in Freemasonry? There
in the ritual which does not appear in other places. The mere fact that
is a bit different does not constitute a secret. The Mason does not
know any more
about many of the subjects to which reference is made in the ritual
than the ordinary
individual. The thought may be conveyed to the Mason in a way intended
to make him
think, but that makes no difference.
of Freemasonry are the secrets of individual thought. Some people are
create for themselves the thought channels which would enable them to
secrets for themselves. They must be helped along the road. Whatever
writes he cannot do a man's thinking for him, he can only endeavor to
reader to think for himself. It is not the hearing of a wordy ritual
a Mason, though we accept as a Mason any man who has heard this
ceremony. A Mason
is not really a Craftsman until he learns to put the words into deeds.
the deeds of many who are members of the Fraternity, and from the
attitude of many
who are in official circles in the Craft, there are few indeed who are
however, is another story. The student who could put the real secret of
into words would indeed deserve to be classed as rara avis, so much so
publication of his work would be a priceless gift to mankind.
We do not
sponsor nor permit the unlimited divulgence of the so-called ritual
secrets of Freemasonry.
THE BUILDER is careful to exercise many of the subterfuges known to
avoid pointing out the secrets, if you care to call them that, but we
cannot conscientiously take part in any effort to stifle the work of
are striving to improve our knowledge of Freemasonry.
May we close
with just one question, which is worse, the student who cloaks the
accepted as such, in a maze that is unintelligible to the profane, or
who calls himself a Mason and yet refuses to aid a worthy brother in
need of assistance?
To make the
meaning absolutely clear, we refer to the lack of support accorded to
Banners of Mediaeval Craftsmen
Bro. N. W. J. Haydon, Associate Editor, Can.
ONE of the
important features of the 14th century was the struggle between the
towns and cities
and their feudal overlords. Feudalism was based upon agricultural land
grew up when such land was practically the only source of wealth. The
manufacture and commerce had no place in it. The feudal lords sought,
enough, to treat the burghers as they did the peasants, but it was
found that the
inhabitants of populous towns had an advantage, in certain respects,
over even the
knights and men-at-arms. This was due to the fact that they were always
and could more easily organize. One of the chief difficulties of kings
in prosecuting war in those days was to keep an army together for more
than a few
as their towns grew up, organized themselves everywhere, by their
crafts and trades,
into guilds and fraternities, and many of the towns of that period
exhibit a stronger
resemblance (on a very small scale) to a confederated republic than to
municipality, and private wars between guilds in the same city were by
unknown. In war the guild became a military unit, and the men of a city
under their craft banners.
of the cities for freedom went on more or less everywhere, but during
the 14th century
it was especially notable in the Low Countries. Had the great towns of
only been able to have whole-heartedly sunk their jealousies and
they only been able to have realized that the growth and wealth of a
in the long run, only react favorably on themselves, they would have
But this they could no more see, than their overlords could understand
demands and exactions would slowly strangle for them the goose that
laid the golden
In the long
struggle between the men of Ghent and Louis de Male, earl of Flanders,
took the offensive, and, in alliance with those of Ypres, besieged the
town of Oudenarde
which took the earl's part. The earl advanced from Lille to Dendremonde
them, and the Flemings hearing of this, planned to make a surprise
attack upon him.
The illustration is taken from a 15th century MS. of the Chronicles of
and represents this attack. Froissart says that the attacking
at a village a short distance from Dendremonde, intending to attack the
morning. Unfortunately for their purpose some of the country people
of their presence to the earl; and the garrison was on its guard.
the attack thus:
Immediately on the break of
day, the Flemings
advanced by land and in their boats, well prepared for an instant
attack. When those
in the castle and town saw them approach they sounded their trumpets,
part of the knights and squires being already armed. The earl of
Flanders, who slept
in the castle, heard of the march of the Flemings, and that they had
attack; on which he instantly arose, armed himself, and sallied forth
from his castle,
his banner displayed before him. At this time there were in the town,
de Wrle, great bailiff of Flanders [and others mentioned by name]. All
advanced to meet the banner of the earl, and then they marched under it
to the assault,
which was already begun in a severe and horrible manner; for these
brought in their boats, cannons and crossbows, which shot such large
and heavy bolts
that when any one was struck by them there was no escape from death.
bolts were strongly shielded; and the earl had with him some excellent
who by their shooting gave the Flemings enough to do.
was indecisive, but as the only hope of taking the castle by such a
was by surprise, and that having failed, the Flemings withdrew, and
Oudenarde in the afternoon after having fought all the morning.
party in Ghent were distinguished by wearing white hoods, and were
spoken of as
the "white hoods." Froissart gives the impression that practically all
of the men of what he calls the "small crafts" had assumed this badge.
The chief industry of Flanders was cloth making. This was subdivided
into many minor
occupations, such as fullers and dyers and shearers and so on. Of the
displayed in the boat, the middle one shows the lion of Flanders. The
two to the
right each bear a pair of shears extended, showing that they belonged
to some cloth
working guild. The one to the left of the lion banner has an engrailed
a very common heraldic "charge," below which is a small square and a
pair of compasses arranged in Masonic fashion. Above are two
carpenter's axes. It
is therefore not the banner of a mason's guild. To the left of that
again is the
fifth banner, which also bears a chevron with a level below it and two
This if not a mason's guild was probably of some closely allied craft;
As has been
said, the chevron was a common heraldic device, and was employed with
in a great many coats of arms. It is however found so frequently as a
part of the banners and seals of guilds of the building crafts that it
question whether it was taken to represent a square. Against this it
must be admitted
that it is never depicted with a right angle, and was frequently given
a wavy outline
(engrailed) as in the later form of the arms of the Mason's Company in
It would be very interesting to make a complete, or at least fully
collection of the devices of the building guilds throughout Europe, and
it is to
be hoped that some day it may be done, as it may reveal some important
Michigan's Unique Experiment in Masonic
experiment seems of sufficient importance to warrant an interruption of
of articles scheduled to appear in this Department. The N.M.R.S.
the idea and will willingly cooperate in any way possible with other
education has made great strides in a number of our American
the past half dozen years, it is useless to deny that the average blue
has yet to read his first Masonic book. He is perfectly willing to give
and study necessary to master the three degrees in the hope of donning
but beyond that, he wants any further information pertaining to Masonic
symbolism, philosophy, ethics, jurisprudence, etc., handed to him in
by able speakers. He simply cannot be induced, and I refer to the great
file who enter the Order and not those few who are natural scholars to
dig out for
himself the many fascinating facts concerning the Craft with which
Mason should be conversant, and which, of necessity, are not included
in his ritualistic
It is the
same the world over; it is those in the minority who must do the
research, the digging,
the polishing, if the overwhelming majority are ever to have an inkling
it is all about. And then twenty to thirty minutes is about the longest
average Mason will listen. Since we find ourselves in a restless,
hurried age, we
must face conditions as they exist and make allowance for the terrific
under which most Americans live, move and have their being. If Masonry
really vital to tell a Mason over and above the regular work presented
in the tiled
lodge, then it must put its appeal, its instruction into the most
possible. Fifty per cent or more of the pamphlets and other printed
to educational chairmen and officers of blue lodges, finds its way into
unread, because it requires putting one's eye glance to paper. We grasp
an idea more readily when the ear, and not the eye, is the medium.
That any blue lodge educational committee which attempts to function
adequate Masonic Speakers' Bureau is pretty much of a total loss.
Summing up the
situation as it existed in Michigan, it was discovered that eighty per
cent of all
demands made upon the Grand Lodge Educational Commission for service
the past two
years, has been to supply speakers for individual, group, county and
The remaining twenty per cent of the calls has been for various other
illustrated lectures, reference work, the loan of Masonic books,
With its limited number of speakers, the Commission often experienced
and delay in trying to meet the incoming calls. In addition, the
necessity of sending
speakers throughout the length and breadth of the state considerably
cost of furnishing this line of Service.
Master Frank T. Lodge, Chairman of the Michigan Educational Commission,
with the other four members of his committee, gave the matter serious
was evident what the Commission needed most was speakers in every part
of the state;
speakers prepared to talk on topics of vital interest to Masons;
to give two or three evenings a year, without fee or reward, to diffuse
information. Thus was born the idea that a state-wide Masonic Speakers'
might help, in a measure, to solve the problem. The results were
amazing, as the
contest proved to be the greatest impetus yet given the educational
the first, the foremost thought was not only the marshalling of talent
but the discovery and development of new speaking talent in all
Work on the
Speakers' Contest was initiated by a series of organization meetings.
was divided into nine districts. As rapidly as arrangements could be
made, a meeting
was held in each district, with one of the Commissioners in charge of
Worshipful Masters, heads of educational committees and all other
brothers who wished
to attend being invited. In addition to the consideration and
discussion of established
lines of service, attention was especially called to this new feature.
chairman, who was to take active charge of the contest in his district,
in each instance.
contemplated Lodge, County, District and State Contests, the winner in
each of the
three classes being eligible to compete in the next higher class. The
open to all Michigan Master Masons. In order to insure as great a
possible, a list of subjects, printed in bold type on large blue
posters, was mailed
to each lodge, each contestant being left free to choose any subject he
As an incentive and to stimulate interest, prizes were offered to the
each class; a suitable Masonic book for the winner of lodge contests; a
for the winner of county contests; a silver medal for the winner of the
contests; and in the state contest, a diamond-studded gold medal was
first prize and a plain gold medal as second prize.
finals in which all nine districts participated were held at the new
Detroit, the night preceding Grand Lodge Annual Communication. Each
talk in the
finals, as in the lodge; county and district contests, was limited to
The speakers were permitted to use an outline of their talks, during
if they so desired. The winner of the first state honor was Rev. James
of Grand Haven, who gave a masterly handling of "The Apron." Second
honors went to Rev. Joseph L. Kennedy, of Rogers City, who spoke on
and His Church." The judges in all cases based their decisions on 60
subject matter and 40 per cent delivery; this in the hope of
In this first state contest, no distinction was made between
professional and non-professional
speakers. Michigan's experience would seem to demonstrate that such
be divided into two classes, one for the professional and another for
For the non-professional, the plan pursued of lodge, county, district
contests seemed to answer all requirements. No doubt the professional
be better confined to two contests, district and state finals.
four months while the contest was under way, from January to May, the
the Michigan Grand Lodge Commission was deluged with requests for the
loan of books
and reference material of all kinds. A number of the regular Traveling
were necessarily called in and redistributed in single book shipments.
the state, keen interest was kept alive by the frequent visits to
lodges of the
nine district chairmen and the fifty sub-chairmen. Enthusiasm spread in
to their efforts. The country lodges were rather of the opinion that it
own particular proposition and that the larger cities would have few
met with a surprise, however, when twenty-six of Detroit's fifty lodges
in an aggressive manner and entered contestants. One of the finest of
all the talks
developed by this speakers' contest was that of a Doctor of Dental
Surgery, a member
of Palestine Lodge of Detroit, which boasts 5000 members, the largest
His talk, "What Came ye Here to Do," indicated great care had been
to the preparation of every sentence.
It is satisfying
to note that this experimental contest proved to be neither a
small-town nor a big-city
proposition. There is no longer any question as to its general appeal.
Masonic thought, many of them state and national figures in their
caught the vision and did their best to inspire younger men with whom
in contact, to take advantage of this opportunity for self-development.
were put in direct correspondence with older Masons who have made a
some particular phase of Masonry, and were thus in a position to give
Of the subjects
chosen, the two which proved to be most popular were drawn from the
realm of applied
Masonry; one, "A Mason in His Community and Government," the other,
Contribution to America." More than forty of the two hundred and
contestants chose the former and twenty-five the latter subject.
Following is the
complete list of subjects entered:
Approach to the East, The
Builders and Building Tools
Five Points, The
Forty-seventh Problem of Euclid
Great Light in Masonry, The
Great Teachings of Masonry, The
Legend of the Third Degree
Lessons From the Ritual
Level and the Plumb
Liberal Arts and Sciences
Lost Word, The
Mason in His Church, The
Mason in His Community and
Mason in His Home, The
Mason in His Lodge, The
Masonic Law in Michigan
Masonry and Business
Masonry and the Law
Masonry's Contribution to
Michigan Grand Lodge, History of
Middle Chamber, The
My Contract With Masonry
Northeast Corner, The
Our Duty as Masons
Practice and Tolerance
Second Degree, Symbolism of
Square and Compass
Three, Five and Seven
Three Steps, The
Trestleboard of Friendship
Two Pillars, The
"What Came ye Here to Do?"
Winding Stairs, The
during the contest brought packages of books and clippings from the
library in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, all of which were loaned without charge.
It is safe
to state that at no one period in the history of Michigan's Grand Lodge
has so much
earnest study and reading been stimulated as during the four months of
The very comprehensive "Syllabus of Masonic Study" as prepared by the
National Masonic Research Society of St. Louis, Mo., was put to daily
use. It proved
to be a very distinct help to speakers who were not accustomed to
but who were desirous of getting all obtainable data on any given
putting the talk into their own words. For instance, one Detroiter
worked up a remarkably
interesting and instructive twenty-minute talk which he has since given
in a number
of lodges; it is entitled "Approaching the East." By the use of the
he was quickly able to run down all references and get his material in
order. Into it, he injected his own interpretation and "a wonderful job
made of it," according to his Worshipful Master's comment, the week
exception, if reports of those who listened in on the two hundred and
talks which were finally given are true, the winners in ninety percent
of the contests
were those who had not depended on their wits or fluency of speech to
out at the eleventh hour, but rather the honors went to those who had
time and pains to go after the proposition in a thoroughly systematic
do the necessary amount of preparatory work to make a meaty,
statement that can be advanced as to whether or not Michigan considers
such a contest
worthwhile, is that a similar Masonic Speakers' Contest will be staged
by the Grand
Lodge Commission beginning Jan. 1, 1929.
* * *
is part of a letter from a Mason of many years' experience, not only in
but in life. There is always the danger of carrying a good thing too
far, and the
still graver though more subtle danger of fettering the spirit of a
machinery and smothering it with red tape. The whole object of
education is to stimulate
interest. It begins and should remain individual. The Research Society,
of individuals and working through individuals, stands upon that
is much to learn in and about Masonry, but not every Mason wants to
it. If he doesn't it is no use to try and force him. Here the old
proverb is most
certainly true, the horse can be taken to the water, but he cannot be
drink. It will be seen that we have here an expression of the reverse
side of official
educational methods. Not for a moment would we discourage such efforts,
will be accomplished so long as they are merely official, and applied
from the outside.
leads me to believe that we have too many expert moralists in the
field. This Education
Committee, with its "short talks" pushed on the lodges, with insistence
that some brother read them at every meeting, and its various and
calls on the lodges to instruct them in this, that and the other, I
think puts the
fraternity in the position of being "fed up" on that kind of dope.
is, it seems to me, a tremendous amount of claptrap and "bull" being
among the Craft. It is destroying interest rather than cultivating it.
One has seen
lodges talked to death by some good old brother who was always ready
reasons why he loves Masonry. My opinion is that the continuous forcing
of all these
"short talks, leaflets, pamphlets, et hoc genus omne", on the Craft is
doing no good, and much harm. The average Mason is an average good
if the members of lodge have not violated their obligations, he is not
a fool. He
doesn't need to be told every meeting, under rhetorical forms, that
lying is lying,
stealing is stealing and all that kind of preachments. The truth is, a
play is much more attractive to the average business man who has to be
business hours than so much serious homily and commonplace moralizing.
I have now resigned my office as D.D.G.M., because of the infirmity of
age, I have
tried, in my visits to the lodges, as far as possible to combine a
with the official lectures imposed upon me by law.
this by permission though it was written as a private and personal
letter. But as
our correspondent does not wish to be identified we suppress even the
initials and the name of his state.
reviewed in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of
at the prices given, which always include postage. These prices are
a matter of precaution) to change without notice; though occasion for
very seldom arise. Occasionally it may happen, where books are
that there is no supply available, but some indication of this will be
the review. The Book Department is equipped to procure any books in
print on any
subject, and will make inquiries for second-hand works and books out of
[Lib 1918] Supplemented by a Descriptive
List of 586 Masonic Ex Libris. By J. Hugo Tatsch and Winward Prescott.
by the Masonic Bibliophiles, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Buckram, profusely
158 pages. $10.00 net.
impression the reviewer has on taking up this book is that it is a fine
of the printing art. Its very appearance and "feel" attract one to it,
and when the pages are opened, and the steel plate frontispiece, two
page and the one hundred and more full size reproductions carefully
further incentive is required to read the text. The type and format are
to attract the reader. All in all, Masonic Bookplates is a volume which
possessors will cherish as one of the choicest works in their libraries.
is written for both the novice and the experienced collector. A chapter
"Concerning Bookplates in General" informs the reader why and how
first came into existence. They were the logical accompaniment of
books circulated when few could read. Some distinguishing mark was
needed to identify
books; very naturally, as a result, heraldic emblems were utilized.
through the various forms of art and ornamentation is related in just
detail to satisfy the needs of the beginner. The text is of practical
it also tells the booklover how to go about to get a bookplate to suit
chapter is followed by a discussion of "Masonic Bookplates in
and "Bookplates of Masonic Bodies." Herein are set forth, for the first
time, the fine points which distinguish Masonic bookplates from the
many other styles
and varieties. These chapters are original and distinctive
contributions to the
literature of bookplates, and reveal a thorough knowledge of the
these chapters is one on "Masonic Engravers of the Eighteenth Century,"
in which sketches are presented of well-known artists of their times,
such as John
Pine, William Hogarth, the Cole family, Bartolozzi, Cipriani, Paul
Revere and Goethe
the poet - all Masons, by the way - together with citations of their
A large bibliography of bookplate literature, printed in many
languages, shows somewhat
the great amount of research the authors must have engaged in during
of this work.
value to the collector, however, is the descriptive check list of 586
In this are given details of all known Masonic bookplates, together
notes of the owners wherever this information could be ascertained.
also represents a vast amount of research work and correspondence which
be appreciated by those who have attempted a similar undertaking.
of the volume need no introduction to their respective groups. Bro.
Tatsch is widely
known as a Masonic scholar who has added to his reputation by the
several other books since assuming his present duties with the Iowa
at Cedar Rapids, as Curator and Associate Editor. Short Readings in
and High Lights of Crescent History have been reviewed in these pages,
in the Thirteen Colonies is now in the printer's hands for immediate
is Assistant Professor of English at the Massachusetts Institute of
has made voluminous contributions to the literature of bookplates.
Among them are
Canadian Bookplates (Boston and Toronto, 1919); Masonic Bookplates
a brochure of twenty-nine pages which evidently brought the authors of
volume together as collaborators; "Bookplate Extra Illustrating" and
Modern Trend in Some Continental Ex Libris," two articles published in
Year Book of the American Society of Bookplate Collectors and
Designers. He also
wrote the foreword to Verna B. Grimm's A Bibliography of Bookplate
It is hoped
that The Masonic Bibliophiles will bring out further artistic
productions of this
kind. The initial undertaking, though delayed a year, has been well
* * *
by Edwyn R. Bevan and Charles Singer. Planned by the late I. Abrahams.
by the Oxford University Press, New York. Cloth, Table of Contents,
552 pages. Price, $4.25.
book, sumptuously illustrated, is a companion volume to The Legacy of
The Legacy of Rome. In some respects, however, it presents a subject
which is more
baffling than those contained in what we may call the rival books,
is a living force in the world today, whereas the contributions of
Greece and Rome,
in the sense in which they are treated in this series, have ceased. It
to gauge the waters of a reservoir, or a silent pool, even with its
inlets and outlets,
than it is to estimate the force and depth of a moving stream.
To some the
title may be misleading. The term, Israel, has many meanings. To one it
the picture of the patriarch Jacob, in his great spiritual struggle at
he received the designation Israel; to another the tribes as described
in the Pentateuch,
wandering from oasis to oasis as they took their tortuous and much
towards Canaan; to another, it connotes the kingdom of Israel as
distinct from Judah.
Indeed, this volume might easily at the first glance be regarded as a
apology for that modern aberration, British-Israelism. A second glance
confidence since the book is published by the University of Oxford
Press and has
among its contributors Sir George Adam Smith, Professor Burkitt and
used in this book as a sort of synonym for Judaism. But it is more than
It is adopted as involving a continuity of culture, not necessarily of
the dim, patriarchal age, the Mosaic system, the teaching of the
prophets, the period
of Ezra, the traditions of the Rabbis whether contemporary with Christ
or with St.
Francis of Assisi. In fact this age-long culture is undeniable; it has
in the hoary past and in a simple faith directed towards one Deity
and attributes were growingly apprehended and finally has become
firmly that the vicissitudes of time and experience alters it not.
cultures of the past which enrich their successors and pass away, this
today. The volume under review attempts to estimate the contribution of
to the rest of mankind.
the series of essays begins with a consideration of the Hebrew Genius
in the Old Testament from the eloquent pen of George Adam Smith.
Nothing could be
better than this overture. It is a graceful and lucid presentation of
of Hebrew influence and prepares one for what follows. To this succeeds
sketch of Judaism in its Graeco-Roman environment from Professor Bevan.
of Christianity to Judaism is also briefly but succinctly treated by
To the casual reader it may appear that more should have been said upon
especially upon the latter. But when we consider that every serious
with the history of religious development emphasizes the
and that no author engaged in the study of Christian origins has failed
how much in its first stages Christianity owes to Judaism, such
much of its force. Its force disappears altogether when the scope of
the whole work
is under review. Discursiveness here would upset the balance and
destroy the symmetry
of that which, as it stands, is a very fine literary achievement. When
says, "It is easy to enumerate the Jewish elements in Christianity,
two: Jesus and the Bible," he has said everything. Dwell upon that
and you will see how pregnant it is.
has become familiar to many from his fruitful investigations of the
with our Lord and his essay on the influence of Judaism upon Jews
exhibits a sympathy
with a knowledge of the people and its genius throughout the many
the commencement of the Christian Era. Professor Guillaume shows the
the debt Islam owes to Judaism, a debt which includes not the
essentials of religion
alone ‒ the monotheism common to both ‒ but the ceremonial minutiae of
Mohammedanism reveals Jewish influence even in its reactions. The whole
is full of interest but ‒ what does Professor Guillaume mean by
traditions?" (p. 158.) It is perhaps a misprint.
essay by Dr. Singer and Miss Singer will be read with eagerness by all
who are interested
in the development of Mediaeval thought. Moreover, what Professor
in regard to Rabbinic influence in the codifying of the tenets of Islam
to be true in a large degree also in later times and in a larger
theatre ‒ in the
widely extended Ilamic dominions and in Western Christendom alike. The
the carriers to the thirteenth centuries "the Islamic world developed
intellectual system" which was based upon Aristotle and largely
Syrians, Persians and above all Jews, who were the heirs of the old
civilization. Something of Plato was also known, the Tirnaens being
while the speculations of the Neoplatonists were eagerly devoured. In
has said that the philosophy of this period was "Aristotle seen through
spectacles" ‒ a truth but not the whole truth. The positive sciences
even to greater degree and in all this intellectual activity the Jew
was the interpreter
of Greece to Arab and to Persian and the link between the latter to the
minds of Western Europe. Many of the greatest scholars also of this
of Hebrew stock or faith, Avicelron, Abraham Ben Ezra, Averroes,
all Jews of Spain. Indeed the Jew may be regarded as the pioneer of the
Renaissance, that of the thirteenth century. One has not in this book
of redundancies but ‒ might not the maps (pp. 203 and 225 respectively)
combined? The second would seem to be superfluous.
the Jew was the object of much suspicion and contempt which manifested
occasionally in popular massacre and later on, as in Spain, employed
processes of the Inquisition to satisfy their malice and mistrust, many
of the best
men of the Western World deprecated the persecution of the Jews. The
of Lincoln, Robert Grosseteste, "by his eloquent protests and vigorous
saved groups of Jews from massacre in England." This prelate was the
of Roger Bacon who also entered a noble plea for tolerance towards the
in advance of his age as he was in the scientific method of research he
its child theologically as the following extract discloses: "Adam,
and others testified to the truth of the faith not only in Holy Writ
but also in
books of philosophy long before there were any philosophers so-called."
italics are the reviewer's.]
In the Renaissance
period many of the leading Humanists, as they were called, received
from the Synagogue. This is true of the Renaissance itself but even
more true of
the parallel movement, the Reformation. Mirandola and Reuchlin were
on the scholarly side of the latter movement, amongst its precursors.
interested in Hellenic and New Testament studies as he was, did not
pay a high tribute to the value of Hebrew. Luther studied Hebrew, and
more or less a master of the language.
later essays in this volume perhaps the most important is that which
the contribution Judaism has made to the Western Law. It is customary
the legal system of Western Europe (and America) as being merely an
the Old Roman Law which it received through the Christianized Roman
claim that the basis of English Law is largely Teutonic. How many
consider the contribution
the Hebrew bad made to the jurisprudence of Western civilization? Quite
the Christianizing of the pagan system which took place between
Justinian and which was necessarily Hebrew in its origin, being based
principles, there has always been, especially during austere and
"a harking back" to Hebrew procedure, softened sometimes, it is true,
by evangelic interpretation and the Sermon on the Mount. Then, again,
of large Jewish communities in the midst of our Western civilization
modified the law.
contributes a fascinating chapter on the Influence of the Old Testament
Within the Christian Church two principles are present, apparently
but, as the reviewer believes, truly complementary. There is the warm,
principle, the principle of fellowship, humanity, and good cheer
best in paganism and present in a very large degree in Catholic
the true sense of the word Catholic) and there is the stern,
side which is the legacy of Israel and manifests itself in the
movements of the church from the days of Tiertullian till modern times.
As is most
justly due Spinoza wins his meed of praise and sympathetic appreciation
in M. Leon
Roth's article on "Jewish Thought in the Modern World."
A brief but
attractive essay concerning the influence of the Hebrew Bible on
is contributed by M. Meillet, while the legacy of Israel to the
literature of modern
Europe is dealt with most competently by Professor Magnos. The volume
concluded in the epilogue from the pen of Dr. Montefiore.
glossary and sufficient index complete a book which is a marvel of
and the only criticism of a general character which can be levelled
against it is
that too much is compressed into one volume.
* * *
Charles C. Marshall. Published by Dodd, Mead & Company. Cloth,
author of "An Open Letter to the Honorable Alfred E. Smith" has just
a further comment upon the relation of the Roman Catholic Church and
state as it applies to the Democratic nominee for the Presidency of the
Those who read the controversy between Mr. Marshall and Governor Smith
as it appeared
this spring, will not need assurance that there is none of the
that has become popular in some circles in reference to Roman
Catholicism. Mr. Marshall
presents his evidence in a cold, dispassionate manner, and he argues
with the genius
of the talented lawyer. It has frequently been said that the legal
method of argument
makes for dryness and difficulty of reading. Perhaps Mr. Marshall's
have more of an appeal if they were accompanied by some of the
prejudice that makes
for impassioned statements. There is always an emotional appeal to that
pronouncement, but it is questionable whether it has the lasting effect
of the mere
presentation of cold facts. So far as the present writer is concerned
appeal is always felt, but it happens that as soon as the senses have
there is frequently no weight to the argument presented. On the other
hand the presentation
in an intelligent manner of mere facts has the effect of cumulation; in
the more thought that is given to the subject the weightier the
if it is only factual evidence.
Mr. Marshall's method of presenting his subject. Our readers will be
in knowing something of the line of thought that he pursues. It is
that the reply of Governor Smith to the "Open Letter" departed
from the opinion commonly held regarding the relations between the
church and state.
The accepted view is that the Roman Church holds itself above the law
of the land.
Mr. Smith stated that he knew of no power in the church sufficient to
him in matters of government. These are not his exact words, and are
to give the general trend of Mr. Smith's reply. This pronouncement was
as being the first statement of a new Catholicism. It has been termed
in the press
of this country as well as abroad "American Catholicism." The real
is whether or not this new found Americanism in Catholic circles is
Mr. Marshall, by citing appropriate passages from the law of the
very convincingly shows that it is not legitimate and that no Catholic
by the laws and edicts of his church and still follow the dictates of
as Mr. Smith indicates he will do.
is plainly made and no amount of denial upon the part of Catholics can
otherwise. The letter and the intent of the Catholic law is clear and
no one but
the Pope has the power to interpret it. The generally accepted
the Roman Catholic law as relates to church and state was confirmed
during the past
year by an additional letter coming from Rome. To be fully acquainted
with the subject
one needs only to read this book by Mr. Marshall and his previous one
Catholic Church in the Modern State.
* * *
Lewis Browne. Published by the Macmillan Co., New York. Cloth,
of Contents, Index. 160 pages. Price, $2.65.
has Lewis Browne, with the keen understanding of an experienced
into the minds of the proletariat and produced a book which simplifies
complicated subject of religion. This Believing World was an outline of
of the world. In scholarly, yet readable, style the author treated the
beliefs of all major religious beliefs. A vide gap in the religious
most people was filled by that work. With the accuracy of the compass
the North Pole, Mr. Browne has found another of the wide open places
it as only he can do.
We all know
the Bible as the text book of the Christian religion. The Old
Testament, of course,
is the guide to Judaism, and since Christianity is an outgrowth or a
from the older religion, the books of the Hebrew Scriptures, together
with the New
Testament, comprise the Christian Bible. Unless one has no little
patience and a
great amount of time to devote to the study of this volume of Sacred
Law he is likely
to find himself lost in a maze. The story is hardly sequential, and
to be no real continuity. Is it any wonder that the Sunday-school pupil
facing the task of reading it with dread? Indeed it would be strange if
of fourteen or fifteen, to say nothing of those younger, could really
of it. Most of the philosophy of the Holy Bible is beyond their
it is put into language of one syllable, if we may use that term.
All of this
need, and more too, has been felt by Mr. Browne. A part of it has come
long experience as a Sunday school teacher. More came through his role
as an uncle.
The idea of The Graphic Bible found its beginnings in the following
Mr. Browne's gift for drawing.
Uncle!" jeered Arnold almost rudely. "You ought to read Treasure
I have read it," I replied. "Tell me, Arnold, why do you find Treasure
Island more exciting? Do you think it is truer than the Bible?"
not exactly truer, Uncle. But somehow it seems more real."
I asked. "Doesn't it tell about a place quite as foreign to you as
the lad replied with assurance.
I suppose it's because I know my way around on Treasure Island. You
there's a map inside the cover of the book!"
continues the story in his introduction:
for this Graphic Bible did not first come to me as a result of that
remark of my
nephew. I rather think it came to me much earlier, and as a result not
of a single
bright remark but of a series of trying experiences. It came to me when
was a Sunday-school teacher and had to contend week after week with a
children who did not even pretend to be interested in what I sought to
They were frankly bored…
almost by accident, I hit on the idea of drawing crude maps on the
were exceedingly crude, especially in the beginning. I used to scrawl
while I talked to the class, cluttering them up with little hills and
forts and ricocheting arrows as the lesson progressed. But their
seemed to make them only the more interesting to the children. At times
I did not
use the board at all, but instead made a sort of relief map on the
floor. The desk
over here became Mt. Gilboa, the chairs over there represented the
hills on which
the Philistines were encamped, and the chasm in between we called the
Jesreel. And with the topography thus indicated, the class and I
proceeded to fight
out the battle between Saul and the enemy.
it was intended that the book should consist merely of maps, but as the
into reality it seemed necessary to add some descriptive text. The text
only one hundred sixty pages in the whole book, and nearly one hundred
them are broken by animated maps of Palestine. The story is simply told
as animated as the maps. There is no attempt to follow the dictates of
The story is the story of the Bible and not that of more modern
critics. Those who
believe the Bible to be absolute truth will find this appealing. To
those who are
not so literal in their conception of the Holy Scriptures it will be
as a guide to what the Bible does say. Naturally the story has been cut
to the bare
bones; it is only a skeleton, but such a skeleton that it is
fascinating to behold.
The philosophy has been omitted, the long descriptions and lists of
are cut from the text. There is nothing to detract from the continuity
of the story
and it is virtually a brief history of the Jews with maps to show where
the events took place.
of the maps is interesting. The sea is peopled with ships and dolphins
and all of
the queer monsters that were pictured in the maps of ancient
land is dotted with trees, fortresses, camels, and the prophet and
warrior. Of course,
this is not accidental. Anyone who had seen any of Mr. Browne's
immediately recognize the style of drawing. A glance through the pages
of the book
will convince one that the maps gain much in interest by the conscious
of ancient cartographic style. They are not the flat colored splotches
no more life than the paper upon which they are printed and which so
the walls of Sunday-school classrooms. They are illustrative of places
people might live and breathe and have their being. Such maps make us
the Bible tells us of real men and real women who lived in real places
is the story made a true one.
At no time
would such a book have been more welcome, and at no period less so.
was published it would have filled a long felt need. Parents will find
and will not put it down until they have read it from cover to cover.
are sufficiently familiar with the story to scan it hastily, but even
find it both interesting and entertaining, as well as instructive, to
maps with imaginary bands of pilgrims coming out of Egypt, with farmers
to gain a living from the none too fertile soil, or with armies that
cross and recross
the plains, hills and valleys, occasionally fighting a pitched battle.
the more peaceful expeditions of the Great Teacher through Galilee and
on to Jerusalem.
No home will
be complete without a copy of this latest work from the pen of Mr.
Browne, and no
Sunday-school teacher will find himself properly equipped unless he
Graphic Bible. But aside from its purely utilitarian purposes, one who
it for the mere enjoyment of doing will be depriving himself of a
* * *
Graves. Published by Jonathan Cape. Cloth, illustrated, appendix,
index, 54 pages.
few people who have not at least seen newspaper references to Lawrence,
almost mythical exploits during the war; there are many doubtless who
to know more of the matter. It cannot be said that present work is
‒ it is like certain kinds of liquid refreshment ‒ to imbibe simply
creates a thirst
does, however, make clear a number of things ‒ surface mysteries ‒ but
only to reveal
further depths beyond for which apparently no plummet is available.
himself published a book, Revolt in the Desert, some two years ago.
When it came
out the world at large learned that it was an abridgement of another
and much larger
and more comprehensive work, bearing the appropriately oriental
sounding title The
Seven Pillars of Wisdom, which according to Mr. Graves, and undoubtedly
he is right,
bears an obscure reference (obscure to the ordinary occidental mind
that apostrophe to Wisdom which is to be found in the ninth chapter of
of Proverbs, which begins:
builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven piIlars. She hath killed
she hath migled her wine, she hath also furnished her table.
Of this work
only a hundred and fifty copies were printed, one hundred went to
roughly $150 each, the other fifty were given away; this, though the
cost of the
illustrations alone came to more than $15,000. These facts alone are
to intrigue curiosity. What was in this mysterious book, produced at so
by a man without money ‒ who had to write the second book to pay for
first? It is a question that is not fully answered by Mr. Graves,
though some information
is given from which the reader may divine or construct an answer to
It is apparently as unsparing an account of men and motives and actions
as a human
being could write. That is one thing. But that is not all; and one
it was not fear of libel actions that was the motive for its private
Lawrence would seem not to be the kind of man to let such trifles stand
in his way
did he deem it right. It is intimated, Mr. Graves' own words may be
… the censor might ban as
obscene some of the
more painfully accurate accounts of Turkish methods of warfare, and he
A simple member of the public
was shown the most
painful chapter … Then he could do no work for a week, but walked up
and down …
unable to rid his mind of the horror of it.
to see a glimmer of light ‒ both for the writing and for the refusal to
To those with the gift of expression ‒ in words or plastic art ‒ the
best way to
forget is to record. That is as good a guess as any. If the record thus
a reader, the writer would need to forget the reality if he wished to
keep his sanity.
work is a connected account of the Arabian campaign; Revolt in the
Desert was not.
In that Lawrence minimized his part, although, amazing as it seems,
that part was
so extraordinary that certain reviewers accused him of an exaggerated
ego in writing
it. General Allenby is quoted as having the opinion that Lawrence could
kind of campaign as Commander-in-Chief, but that he would have to be
from control; while Marshal Foch is reported to have said, in jest it
is true, when
there seemed danger of war between the French and the Arabs, that he
had no intention
of risking his fame in Syria if Lawrence fought on the other side. The
may be apocryphal, but Mr. Graves quotes General Allenby's opinion as
given to him
personally in answer to a question.
wants to know what really happened in Arabia and Syria in the years of
the war must
read the book. It would be impossible to even give an outline in a
review. It is
an absorbing story in itself, the reader finds it difficult to lay the
till it is finished. But a number of questions are raised. One is, what
is the object
of war ‒ any war? Fashion, it would seem, is as autocratic and all
powerful in military
affairs as in anything else. Germany had set that fashion for many
years. It was
at bottom as unintelligent as the mediaeval battles of massed armoured
charging each other according to the rules of chivalry; as
unintelligent as the
fighting of two bulls. The complexity of modern armies, and their
a veil of illusion over the fact that modern war, especially as
exemplified in the
last one, is a mere stupid collision of brute force with brute force.
organization, and the technical skill required of the individuals
engaged who compose
the war machine, are to be compared to the complicated organism of the
the organs of which are also highly specialized and work together in a
fashion had we eyes to see it. But the German theory of war was the
seek out the mass of the enemy and destroy it. But this is offered
Lawrence, an amateur, whose knowledge had been gained chiefly in
considered and rejected this theory of making war; and while lying sick
in an Arab
tent thought out a plan of campaign, adapting means to ends, with the
idea of economizing
as much as possible the material and lives available. First of all he
he wanted to do. The war as a whole was fought by people who had no
clear idea of
their objects, or their value if and when attained. Lawrence's object
for the Arabs. He wanted to gain this with as little sacrifice of life,
the Arabs or their enemies, as might be possible. That plan he carried
out. He had
to keep it to himself, however. Not only had the Turks to be deceived
as to his
ultimate object, but to some extent his own nominal superiors in the
in Egypt and Palestine had also to be kept in the dark. He had to use
they thought important as bait to gain his own end. Besides this he had
revolution to the Arabs themselves. But again, for all this the book
must be referred
that is raised, it is perhaps a variant of the one about war, what is
of imperialism ‒ ever, at any time. And one might add, of civilization,
such a civilization as ours. The Arabs live as hardly as the Apaches of
did, as fond of fighting as they, but without their cruelty. One gets
their lives, their interests, ambitions, pleasures. Our culture tends
make us more and more dependent on things. The machinery we build
becomes our master,
as unintelligent at bottom as war. The body is indefinitely adaptable.
If we live
softly and at ease, then hardship and exertion become painful evils.
What is really
gained in the end? We have radio, and newspapers ‒ the Arab has his
and poetical contests. We have competition in business, and elections ‒
has blood feuds and tribal raids. These things are pretty well on a
all is said and done, for the good they do, or the harm they bring
one sees here and there why the Englishman is so hated in certain
places and by
various people. It is not what he does, but the way he does it. It is
not only the
alien who feels this, but his own blood often enough. One thing seems
the working of what may be called the group nervous system has not yet
studied. Why should French and British officials, army officers,
have sought, perhaps still seek, imperial ends? It is of no value to
of their countries, and the aim is impersonal to themselves. National
be the explanation, but it seems inadequate.
all these questions, incidental really to the story, yet not
unimportant in themselves,
is the problem of Lawrence. Mr. Graves gives the impression that he
him, though they are friends. He presents him as without beliefs,
without ambitions, without object in life. Is his present suppression
as a private soldier to be accounted for as reaction? Ten years is a
long time for
such reaction to persist. There was a division of loyalties, it would
the war and after. There was his loyalty to his country, which was a
matter of accident
of birth and upbringing, and the loyalty to the weaker people whom he
so much in their fight for racial freedom. It was as dramatically
difficult a position
as an intelligent sensitive mind could be put into. A harder and
would not have felt it perhaps; a less keen mind might not have seen
it. He fought
first against the Turk, and for his country as well as the Arab, yet
that he would have later to fight, with different arms of course, his
if the Arab was to get his right. Both fights he won, and both at the
And now what is there for him to do ‒ like Alexander he finds no
further world to
conquer. Greater than Alexander in this, that he has not advantaged
himself by the
value of a penny in what he has done. Even his pay as an officer in the
Army was used only as expense money.
It is possible
that Mr. Graves is not entirely on the right track about what is at the
his hero's mind. One incident he relates gives rise to speculation. It
made a peculiar impression on Lawrence or he would not have related it,
or so we
might think. It happened at Rumm, a place east of Akaba, a town at the
head of the
eastern horn of the Red Sea. Lawrence was bathing in a pool, his
clothes lying on
a rock ledge.
An old grey-bearded
ragged man suddenly appeared, with a face of great power and weariness,
down upon Lawrence's clothes, not seeming to notice them or him. At
last he spoke
and said: "The love is from God; and of God; and towards God."
later tried to get some explanation of this. All he could find out was
old man had always been mad and … never answered a word or talked aloud
out by himself or alone among the sheep and goats.
occurrence may or may not be significant, but in the face of the
to us in Lawrence himself it seems as likely to be a clue as anything
by the International Masonic Association. Stiff paper, 418 pages. Price
IT is now
five years since the last issue of this exceedingly useful reference
book was published.
This has been due to lack of financial support in conjunction with
increase in prices
during the post-war period. Those who were familiar with the Annual in
will be glad to know that it has now been brought up to date.
contains statistical and other information about every Grand Lodge or
the world, with lists of lodges, and in many cases addresses of
addition the Supreme Council and other bodies controlling "higher" or
"philosophical" degrees are given with the names of their officers.
this there is a list, divided by countries, of Masonic periodicals, and
information. The general matter is given in three languages, French,
We note in
the English sections, American especially, a considerable number of
the official representatives of too many English speaking jurisdictions
cooperate in any way, thus forcing the compilers to obtain their
or from out-of-date proceedings and the like. For what reason this
attitude is taken
is hard to say. Even if Anglo-Saxon Masonry generally refuses
recognition to some
members of the International Masonic Association, almost all of its
recognized by some English speaking Grand Lodges. An American Grand
Lodge, let us
say for example, denies recognition to the Grand Lodge of Switzerland
on the sole
ground that it recognizes the Freemasonry of France, but it does not
with a neighboring American Grand Lodge that also recognizes French
position is absurdly illogical. Under the circumstances the I.M.A. is
to be congratulated
on having done the work of collection and editing as well as they have.
users it will be the foreign information that will be most valuable,
and this so
far as we have been able to test it can be relied upon.
Universal League of Freemasons
THE aim and
desire of all beneficent and true Freemasons, is the pacification of
the world and
the universal brotherhood of mankind. Unfortunately it is more
difficult than ever
to attain this object, but for this very reason, it is all the more
spare no efforts. Only a united and universal Freemasonry can undertake
enormously difficult task; especially after the sad experiences of the
and its subsequent period of depression and soreness. Unless
strengthened by the
bonds of brotherhood, it would be presumptuous to talk further of these
fact it would render us the laughing-stock of all clear-minded men. In
to the various circumstances which separated the warring nations, must
the many obstacles to be found, in our own Freemasonry ‒ the diverging
instruction, the varying systems and the attitudes regarding certain
symbolic Masonic tokens. The removal of the latter is the object of the
(A. M. I.).
We, the great
mass of brothers from all countries, do not wish to remain remote from
such a splendid
movement. We are striving for the same ideals, even though our methods
Our aim is the international union of man and man. We do not turn to
and Grand Lodges, but appeal to the individual brother. We extend a
to him and shall feel more than compensated if he will grasp it in
fired with the desire for peace and harmony.
make a call to all brethren of all lands. We will not longer remain
the nations, themselves, are drawing nearer to each other, a
has become happily conspicuous during the past years. We cordially
initial steps to conciliation, even although they be hesitating ones
dictated by economic pressure, and would gladly participate in their
Uhlmann, Basle, President;
Kurt von Sury, Basle, Vice-President;
Lennhoff, Vienna (Austria), Director of the International Board:
Ch. Rothenberger, Basle, Secretary;
are the three first paragraphs of the Statutes of the Universal League
The Universal League of
Freemasons (Universala Framasona Ligo) is an association
of freemasons from regular rites. Its object is the improvement of
the brothers of the whole world. It strives to promote a unanimous
the common ideals of the brotherhood of nations and men.
shall be accomplished by:
Written and personal exchange
The publication of a general
The arrangement of meetings.
The systematic encouragement of
that may foster unity and the brotherhood of men.
The publication of explanatory
The arrangement of lectures in
the several countries.
The engagement of itinerant
Supporting and cooperating with
Masonic institutions having similar aims.
The League shall abstain from
every interference connected with the various
Grand Lodges and keep out of politics and religious questions.
Membership shall be obtained by
means of a written entrance declaration,
which grants complete freedom in everything not appertaining to the
program of the
brothers, whose feelings have been aroused by the principles engendered
in the foregoing
Manifesto and who have the desire to cooperate in the endeavours of the
are invited to communicate with the International Board, under Bro.
Bocklinstrasse 53, Vienna (Austria), and at the same time report their
membership. The statutes, etc., are gladly placed at your disposal. The
fee is 4 s. or 1 dollar.
The Question Box and Correspondence
of France, in the August number of THE BUILDER, says:
The Grande Loge Nationale,
recognized by the Grand Lodge of England, insists on having the V. S.
L. open at
all meetings and obligations taken thereon.
The Grand Lodge of France,
not recognized by the Grand Lodge of England, says that lodges in their
may use the V. S. L.
The Grand Orient forbids the
use of the V. S. L.
A good many
worthy Masons in the United States, on reading this, doubtless consider
in the Grand Lodge of France and the Grand Orient of that country as
and look upon the custom of the G. L. National as very virtuous. But
the real question
is, "What V.S.L. is referred to?” If it is, as I am pretty sure it is,
Douay version of the Bible, these brethren should be told this and also
is the Roman Catholic Bible. The Douay Bible is very correctly referred
to as a
"version" for it certainly is not a true "translation" of the
original text. It was because this version is not a true translation
that this V.S.L.
was removed from the altars of lodges of the G.L. of France and upon
of a Protestant minister. Would American Protestant minister Masons
like to be obligated
upon the Roman Catholic Bible? Is it the Book of their faith? Is it the
the faith of any Protestant?
Douay Version of the Bible was removed from the altars of the G. L. of
G. L. of England, severed connections with them. Now we are told that
recognized the Grande Loge Nationale because they have the V.S.L. on
Just what Bible does the Grande Loge Nationale place on their altar and
their members on? I, for one, would very much like to know. My sympathy
is for the members of the Grand Lodge of France.
Ernest E. Murray, Montana.
letter raises a number of interesting questions, but as the matter
appears to this
writer, they all simmer down to the age old question in Freemasonry ‒
is the Volume of Sacred Law?"
Anglo-Saxon Freemasonry is pretty generally agreed that the V.S.L. is
the Book of
Faith of the initiate. Many, in fact most, of the Grand Lodges will not
divergence in the V.S.L. within its own jurisdiction. All subordinate
use the same V.S.L. Perhaps the Grand Lodge of England is the most
to this practice. Lodges working under that jurisdiction in India are
known to use
Sacred Books other than the Holy Bible. Still, no Grand Lodge thinks of
relations with the Mother Grand Lodge of the world.
always been the contention of this writer that it is perfectly
permissible for any
lodge to have on its altar the volume that is sacred to the candidate.
For the Hebrew
the Old Testament might be used, for the Mohammedan, the Koran, and for
faiths their particular V.S.L. There is no reason, historical,
traditional, or otherwise,
which would prevent such a practice, but Grand Lodges have seen fit to
question either by direct legislation, or by precedent. Another of
where the Grand Lodges have taken unto themselves powers that do not
and never have
belonged to them. After all, the powers of the governing body come by
the governed so it may be all right.
to be splitting hairs to the nth degree to argue about which version of
Bible should appear upon the altar. Especially is this true in view of
of practice within the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of England. If a
not want to be obligated upon the King James version why shouldn't he
upon the Moffat Bible in modern English, or the Douay version if he
the desire of Masonry to make its obligations binding, and to make them
as possible. If it were not for the fact that an oath taken upon a
is believed to be more binding or more sacred than a mere promise there
no need for any argument. If we follow the same line of reasoning an
taken upon the Holy Bible is more binding to the Christian than one
taken upon the
Koran for example. And one taken on the King James Version would be
to the man who believed in that translation than one taken upon a more
It works both ways.
advanced not as an authoritative pronouncement, because there is and
can be no authority
which will be binding upon the whole fraternity. 'It is advanced merely
as a personal
opinion. Other comments will be welcomed.
* * *
brief reply to the letter in the August BUILDER on the subject of the
Nationale from Bro. Coombes, has been received from Bro. A. Lantoine,
of the Grand Lodge of France and member of the Supreme Council of the
for France. The letter as received is in French, which we
I do not
wish to begin a controversy about the Grand Lodge, entitled "National."
Such a controversy would serve only to change divergences of opinion
that would be very regrettable. I believe that the Masonry of England
and that of
Latin countries are too different to be mutually understandable; they
do not speak
the same language; and it will be better not to attempt an
I judge to be (for the moment) undesirable.
I will permit
myself only the remark, which confirms what I said; the defense, or
rather the panegyric,
of the Grande Loge National de France which appeared in the August
number of THE
BUILDER is signed "W. J. Coombes, France," and Mr. W.J. Coombes is
Albert Lantoine, France.
* * *
of my good friends in Batesburg, S. C., one H. L. Fulmer, I am now a
member of the
N.M.R.S., and one of those fortunate to receive THE BUILDER.
To the interested
Mason there are thousands of questions that might be asked, however, I
at this time upon which I would appreciate some illumination. It is:
When is a man
a Past Master?
I do not
recall ever having beard this question answered before, and it has come
up for discussion
several times. I have the honor of being Past Master of my lodge,
326, Columbia, S. C. Personally, I would say that when the Past
is conferred, the man is then a Past Master, others say that when he
his term of office, but in many places they serve for more than one
year or term.
I would like to know what you think.
H. G. W., South Carolina.
not only a good deal of looseness in using the term "Past Master," but
there is in it not a little ambiguity. In the Masonry of the British
this is eliminated almost entirely by using an additional term. The
is installed and becomes an "Installed Master," sometimes also spoken
of as "Master in the Chair." So long as he is in office he remains an
Installed Master, but as soon as he installs his successor, personally
or by proxy,
be becomes a Past Master. The word "Past" may be taken in two
that of being passed (as in an examination) to the chair, that is the
Master of the lodge, or on the other hand, of having held that office
in the past.
the British Grand Lodges insist very strongly that the secret part of
is not a degree, which in truth seems a mere quibble with the object of
the famous declaration made in the Articles of Union in 1813 between
the rival Grand
Lodges of Ancients and Moderns, where it was stated that "Pure Ancient
consists of three degrees and no more; viz., those of the Entered
Fellowcraft and the Master Mason (including the Supreme Order of the
Arch)." In accordance with this pronouncement the Royal Arch in England
regarded as if it were a separated part of the Third Degree, and the
Master" is refused the name altogether, in spite of the fact that it
every essential of a Masonic degree, including even an embryo legend.
to giving it the status of a degree has been so strong that the whole
official influence has been used to suppress the old forms of opening
a "lodge" of "Past Masters" and to insist that it is not a lodge
but a "Board." Incidentally it may be said that recently the old lodges
in England, which in spite of official opposition had retained their
have definitely won their fight, and are now legally permitted to
seem, returning to the question of the propriety of nomenclature, that
if the "Past
Master" be allowed the status of a degree, and aside from the English
of Union (which were merely a compromise) there is no good reason for
so, and if this degree be named "Past Master," then everyone receiving
it becomes a Past Master in that sense. On the other hand he is not a
of his lodge until he has handed over the gavel to his successor in
* * *
Ease" and "At
please explain the difference between a lodge being "At Refreshment"
being "At Ease"?
I have always
been taught that a lodge was either "At Labor" or "At Refreshment,"
and when "At Refreshment" the lodge was in charge of the Junior Warden
until such time as called to order again by the Worshipful Master.
in some lodges the W. M. will declare the lodge "At Ease" and then call
them to order later. Is this correct? If so, in whose charge is the
lodge when "At
S. H. T., Novia Scotia.
is the term "At Ease" heard in a Masonic sense. Our rituals, so far as
the writer has been able to discover, make no mention of this term.
Still it is
a practice in quite general use and does differ materially from the
jurisdictions, more particularly those outside the boundaries of the
it is customary for absolute silence to be maintained by the brethren
part in the work, during the conferring of a degree. Perhaps this is
where the idea
of a lodge being declared "At Ease" arose. The records are strangely
on the subject.
it works out as follows: during a lull in the work (the interval
or possibly between items of regular business) the W. M. will
the lodge "At Ease." This simply means that the brethren are free to
among themselves and make themselves generally comfortable. The doors
and the lodge remains tiled. It is under the care of the W. M. and not
Warden. In short the practice is merely a means of relieving the
tension of a long
formal meeting, without making it necessary to purge the lodge, as
should be done
whenever the lodge is called from "Refreshment."
term implies freedom from all restraint. The lodge doors may be left
open and as
is frequently the case the meeting adjourns to another room for actual
Because of the absolute freedom of movement in and out of the lodge
room, it is
essential to purge the lodge when calling to Labor again.
* * *
of Bro. Wood in the August number on "The Oldest Masonic Building" is
inaccurate about the first Masonic hall in Philadelphia.
to Johnson's Beginnings of Freemasonry in America, page 382, "The first
of the construction of a Masonic hall in the western hemisphere is
dated April 4,
1744, and concerns the lodge room of 'The Great Lodge at St. John's in
and from another part of the same work we learn the lodge room was 60
and 30 feet wide.
Masonic building erected on western mainland was the Freemasons' Hall,
dedicated on St. John's Day, June 24, 1755, which stood on Norris,
Alley, west of Second Street. The building was torn down in 1801, when
of Pennsylvania was built on its site. The site is now within the U. S.
Store, and the Alley is now Sansom Street. A plate of part of the
list for this hall, dated March 13, 1754, is on page 46, Vol. II, Old
of Pennsylvania, "Moderns" and "Ancients.' [Lib 1912/13, Vol 1, Vol 2] The diagram showing its site
is on page 46,
Vol. I, Freemasonry in Pennsylvania, 1727-1907 [Lib 1908, Vol 1]. It was sold by the extinct
"Modern' Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania at
auction, Oct. 1, 1785, and on July 23, 1793, one-third of the proceeds,
turned over to the Mayor and Council of Philadelphia for a fuel fund,
and was known
as the Freemasons' Fund, but is now merged in the report with other
funds; this was the first o the City Trusts. See page 99, Vol. 11
in Pennsylvania, 1727-1907.
of the first Masonic Hall, on Chestnut Hill between Seventh and Eighth
was laid in 1809, and the dedication was on St. John the Baptist's Day,
1811 and it was destroyed by fire in 1819.
A. H. V., Pennsylvania.
* * *
I have often
given the lectures in my lodge, and it shows how a person can go on
without thinking of what they mean. Recently a Fellowcraft asked me
was over, what was meant by Pythagoras "sacrificing a hecatomb." I had
to admit I did not know, but said I would try and find out. It is
probably a very
foolish question, but I expect many other Masons know no more about it
than I do.
What is the answer?
H. B., Vermont.
is a compound Greek word derived from hecaton, a hundred and bous, an
ox, and means
simply "a hundred oxen." It is to be found in most dictionaries, and we
sometimes wonder why brethren who are puzzled by obsolete or unusual
words in the
ritual do not think of consulting a dictionary; it would help greatly
to their appreciation
of passages that are, we fear, hopelessly obscure to many Masons.
passage of the Fellowcraft lecture was composed probably by William
references were familiar to most people who were not entirely
illiterate, for they
were constantly used by all the writers and speakers of the period. The
sacrifice was seldom made, except by kings and rulers, and then only on
occasions. Indeed the word was often used hyperbolically, not of a full
but for a considerable number. Such sacrifices were really feasts,
parts of the
animals only being burned in honor of the deity to whom it was offered.
in fact, very much to the ancients what a combined camp revival meeting
on a large scale would be to us.
* * *
Not A Masonic
press recently carried a news story with the Miami Fla., date line,
the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, in their annual
convention, have approved
a proposal to establish a National Foundation Fund for Charity totaling
and that this fund will supplement the charity work of local and state
the Order. No detail are given as to how this fund will be expended.
by the Elks raises the question why a similar fund cannot be raised by
Fraternity to provide for the care of Masonic tuberculars and other
sick and unfortunate
brethren. It could be done if one outstanding leader of the Craft would
initiative and propose it. We have funds to send boys and girls to
for other similar and worthy efforts, but the one great principle of
Charity, remains unsupported by any Masonic Body or leader.
has given an example of what Freemasons will do if given the
charity, however, is not for members of the Craft. What we need is an
adequately provide for those of our own household, who may for any
reason need a
Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Craft in America gives us an
opportunity to demonstrate
in a big way what Freemasonry can do. Let us not attempt to commemorate
milestone by the erection of a useless monument of brick, stone and
let us see to it that when the time comes, no sick or suffering
Freemason, or member
of a Freemason's family, nor any who for any reason are in need, shall
waiting the assistance of the Craft.
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