Masonic Research Society
Mason and the Pope
Bro Ernest E.
dealing with Napoleon and his biographers
can generally be divided into two classes; on the one hand we have him
as a military genius, regenerating France, a man of ambition,
strength, an example for all to follow in overcoming obstacles, and on
we have him branded as the greatest adventurer the world has ever
known, the scourge
of Europe, the ruination of France.
former accentuate and magnify his victories
in war and minimize his blunders, playing up small incidents such as
sentry, giving up his horse to a wounded officer, while the latter
revile him for
forsaking his armies in Egypt and Russia, his treatment of his wife
every act attributed to unworthy motives, and so forth, and so forth,
the one glorifying
him and the other condemning him.
he was a great general in an age when good
generals were conspicuous by their absence must be granted, but
Wellington was a
greater general as he conquered all the French armies opposed to him
by Napoleon's Marshals and finally the army under the direct command of
himself. Of the rest he was an ordinary man with man's shortcomings and
there is one aspect, although continually
referred to in all histories and by his biographers, which I think has
sufficiently analyzed that of his Destiny. Napoleon continually harped
destiny, he is continually referred to as the "Man of Destiny."
what did he conceive to be his destiny?
To conquer and dominate Europe? Undoubtedly but why? Why should he
conceive it to
be his destiny to do this? Let us consider certain facts.
maintain that Napoleon was without religion
is ridiculous; no man who believes that he is destined and used by the
to take certain action can be without religion. He certainly was not
there were any orthodoxy immediately following the French revolution.
ceremonial religion did not appeal to him, but he recognized that these
for certain minds. One of the complaints made against him by critics is
Egypt he posed as a Mahommedan. What is there irreligious about that?
of the Mahommedans is "God is God and Mahommed is His prophet." They
Moses and Jesus as His prophets, too, and venerate them. Can any
that God is God?
soon as he was elected First Consul he realized
that to ensure peace of mind to the masses and to stabilize the state a
religion was necessary for them, and to that end he concluded a
concordat with the
Papacy. The terms of this concordat were unique; there never had been
one like it
and none since.
the revolution the lands and other property
of the Roman Church had been confiscated. The people were as incensed
Church as much as they were against the nobles. The terms of the
It established the
Roman Church but only as subordinate to the State.
The bishops and archbishops
were to be appointed or reappointed by the First Consul.
The sequestered estates
were not to be restored to the Church.
it is considered that the Roman Church
at this time had a strangle hold on most of the states of Europe these
are the more remarkable. Spain, Italy, Austria and most of the states
formed part of the Holy Roman Empire, their rulers recognizing the Pope
as the Supreme
Pontiff and Temporal Ruler.
was a Freemason; that he was a "Blue"
Mason we are sure; very possibly he had taken some of the "Scots"
and others that abounded on the continent, wherein liberty of thought,
and action were inculcated. The American Colonies had rebelled and
into a Republic where the State was supreme over all other associations
To preach liberty of thought to the French at such a time would very
caused thousands to become atheists. As a wise administrator he was
awake to the
uses of a concrete religion as a preservative of order and so made this
with the Church of Rome as a measure of expediency, but he took the
demand that he nominate bishops and archbishops no foreign priesthood
It realized a false hope in the Church of Rome as we shall see.
a good Mason he desired education for the
people, and proceeded to see that they had it. In the concordat he
agreed to let
the Church have elementary schools. If the local authorities cared to
this or have schools of their own he did not object. But he at once
establish State controlled secondary or higher grade schools. He
schools and in 1806 the educational edifice was crowned by the
of the University of France.
established religion in France as a necessary
prerequisite for becoming a great nation, what was his attitude to the
Rome? He found cause of quarrel with the Italian States, marched an
took possession of the Papal States and forced the Pope to sign a
treaty very much
contrary to the Pope's liking.
his action at his coronation. He forced
the Pope to attend the ceremony and all went well so long as the
continued. When the Pope proceeded to place the crown on his head,
seized the crown from the Pope's hands and crowned himself. Many
on this act and refer to it as his bad manners, impulsive effrontery,
and so forth.
But was it not a deliberate act to demonstrate to "His Holiness" that
the crown of France was no longer in the giving of the Church of Rome?
Was not the
Pope deliberately brought there for that purpose to make no mistake
about the lesson
that the State was superior to the Church?
when his son was born he compelled the
Church to again officiate at his baptism in state, and immediately
King of Rome. As a church he recognized the Pope as priest only; by
every act he
proclaimed that he possessed no temporal power. At one time he had the
Austria and the states of Germany who
acknowledged the Pope as the supreme earthly as well as spiritual ruler
and conquered and members of his family and his Marshalls, owing their
to him, were placed upon the thrones of those countries.
he placed his brother Louis on the throne
of the Netherlands, the country which had been the worst victims of the
in the preceding century, he instructed him to be the patron of the
in 1806 Francis II of Austria regained
the throne of that country he dropped the "Holy Roman" title and called
himself Emperor of Austria. The Holy Roman Empire had ceased to exist.
Had not Napoleon
fulfilled his destiny to destroy the power of Rome? What would have
been the history
of Europe had there been no Napoleon?
fulfilled his destiny his "star"
began to wane first the debacle of Russia his army driven out of Spain
by the British
the banishment to Elba the 100 days of temporary triumph to be followed
by the final
and complete disaster of Waterloo.
the time of his election as First Consul
the Church of Rome dominated Europe. Who was to dominate the Pope or
represented by their kings or presidents? Did not Napoleon believe that
he was destined
to be the means to destroy the Papal domination? It would appear so.
the Papal domination was not utterly destroyed,
it was but subjected. The Papacy has obtained control of other nations,
in Mexico and South America. Again they have been subjected but not
all his many faults Napoleon was a pretty
good Mason. He had courage which many of us lack.
A Masonic "Who's Who"
the first time in the history of its fourteen
years of existence, the National Masonic Research Society is launching
to build up an adequate membership among the Freemasons of America.
growth of the Society has been steady, but
rather slow during these years. Its work has increased faster than its
because of that fact expenditures have exceeded income. As the Society
is not, and
has never been subsidized by any Grand Lodge or other Masonic body in
and as its revenue must come entirely from membership fees, the obvious
way in which
the increasing expense has to be met by building up a larger membership.
this effort can be combined with another
plan of the National Masonic Research Society for the Duplication of a
has long been needed by the Craft. There has never been any kind of a
record, directory or reference work which gave information about the
the whole country who are active and interested workers, or who have
in their states or in national life. That a volume of this character
will be of
great value is certain. So the Research Society has determined to
publish it and
make of it an agency, or avenue through which a greatly increased
the resulting increase in financial support, may be obtained.
is planned to make this reference work a
Biographical Directory of the Membership of the National Masonic
and to publish it under the title of "Masonic Who's Who in the United
preface of the prospectus of "Who's
Who" carries the following statement of the Society's plans and
the publication of this volume:
publishing this work the National Masonic
Research Society follows a precedent established in England, where a
recently published under the title "The Masonic Who's Who," contains
and general biographical details of prominent Freemasons owing
allegiance to or
in communion with, the United Grand Lodge of England.
history of America is written in the biographies
of the men who, having lived as Masons, have made the Fraternity the
power for good in our country today. Freemasons founded the United
States of America;
Freemasons have guided its destinies to its development into the
of the ages. The generations, which have passed from the stage,
and well, have left a sacred trust which the Freemasons of today must
and transmit to those who will follow.
two hundred years ago the first Masonic
lodges were formed in America. The exact date of the first is a matter
a question into which we have no intention of entering. Benjamin
Franklin was made
a Mason early in 1731. It is practically certain that the lodge in
which he was
initiated was self-constituted and had been in existence for some time.
It is as
probable, too, that similar lodges were working elsewhere. The year
1730 may therefore
be taken as a proximate date for the emergence of Freemasonry in
America into the
light of definite history, as 1717 is taken as the beginning of Masonry
as now organized
Bi-centenary of the latter event fell during
the dark years of the World War, and but little notice could be taken
of it. Some
commemoration should be made by American Masons of their own two
and for this purpose a compromise date must be agreed upon. It would
seem that the
year 1930 might, as above suggested, be accepted for this for a number
besides the considerations already mentioned, and the National Masonic
Society has decided to contribute its part to its observance in a way
it is peculiarly qualified, by publishing a National, or rather
Roster of living Masons who have rendered outstanding service to the
or who have other claims to distinction through their achievements in
science, literature, art or the various professions.
are three and a half million Freemasons
in the United States and Canada, and the records of the lodges contain
of men known to the public at large in every occupation and walk in
which, like that of Abou Ben Adhem, are found "leading all the rest" in
every phase of the multifarious activities of our complex civilization.
to a very great extent these men remain
strangers even to each other's names, for those brethren who become
as leaders and rulers of the Craft are after all but a small fraction
of the number
who have achieved distinction in their own life work. To meet this
least in part, the National Masonic Research Society is publishing, for
time in America, this Biographical Directory of Freemasons of the
and Canada, to be a medium through which the brethren of the North,
and West may become more fully acquainted with the personalities and
of men hitherto scarcely known to them, although bound to them by the
such a work the exigencies of time and space,
not to mention cost, make it necessary to limit the names included to a
percentage of the total number of Masons, and this necessity for
a very serious problem at the outset. He would be a bold man who would
the task by himself, and even a board of editors, no matter how able,
it a task full of difficulties. Fortunately there is already in
existence a list
of Masons which actually contains a very large proportion of those who
qualifications and work are worthy of a place in a Masonic Who's Who,
and that list
is the membership roll of the National Masonic Research Society. It
come as a matter of surprise to very many of the members themselves to
representative of the really prominent Masons of the Continent this
roster is, as
well as inclusive of those whose work and service to the Fraternity
be recorded in permanent form but who in very many cases are scarcely
the limited circle of their own lodges.
is for such reasons that we have decided
to limit this first effort to our own members exclusively. Doubtless
there are many
other Masons who have valid claims for inclusion in such a work, the
whom will make it to that extent incomplete. This is greatly to be
the limitations that the necessities of the case have compelled us to
set will make
it quite clear why such omissions have come about. With the experience
the preparation of the first edition we hope that later on it may be
make it more nearly and fully inclusive.
book of biographies becomes increasingly valuable
with the passing of the years. To have been included in the first
Who in America will be a real and coveted distinction. It is one which
will have deservedly won for themselves whether by actual research or
work, or in giving definite and practical assistance to make it
possible for the
Society to function and pursue the objects for which it was founded.
membership in the Society is open to any
regular Master Mason without restriction as to citizenship or
nationality, it has
upon its roll a small but very select and important group of Masons in
It would be invidious to omit them for the sake of strict conformity to
of the volume. Their inclusion will help demonstrate the ideal of
to the Fraternity has been a guiding beacon, and it will be the means
to American Masons the names of active workers in the Craft in other
parts of the
following Table of Contents has been tentatively
adopted. It is given here to indicate the scope of the projected work.
Abbreviations Brief History of Freemasonry
The Blue, or Master Masons' Lodge and Grand Lodge The York Rite The
The Red Cross of Constantine The Royal Order of Scotland Freemasonry
the World Auxiliary Organizations Masonic Statistics Masonic Press
Membership Roster of the National Masonic Research Society (With
Portraits of Foundation-Members
Index ( Biographies by State and
Post Office Address)
Who Have Recently Passed to the Grand
Announcements. (Schools and Colleges)
the National Masonic Research Society was
organized and chartered, provision was made for different
classifications of membership
as is usual in all such organizations. Up to the present time, with a
there are no members other than those who subscribe three dollars
annually and receive
THE BUILDER every month. It is now proposed to enroll more of this
class of members
and in addition members of other classifications so that a larger
measure of financial
support may be secured. The following statement gives the
and privileges of membership.
membership of the N.M.R.S. is composed of
Freemasons who are students of the history and teachings of the Craft,
who seek to apply the principles of Freemasonry to modern life in the
Applied Freemasonry will solve most of the problems of today, of those
rendered outstanding service to the Fraternity and of others who,
success and distinction in their respective vocations, have given their
to the N.M.R.S. to enable it to carry out the purposes for which it was
Following is the classification of the membership with their privileges
The membership fee is Five Dollars
for two years, or Seven Dollars for three years. Members receive THE
Society's official journal) for the period of their membership. The
name and address
only of the members will be listed in the N.M.R.S. Biographical
Directory, or "Masonic
Who's Who." Present members of the N.M.R.S. may assure such listing by
of membership dues for one or two years from date of expiration of
Members: The membership fee for Sustaining
Members is Ten Dollars for one year, or Fifteen Dollars for three
members receive THE BUILDER for the period of their membership and in
receive a copy of the N.M.R.S. Biographical Directory or "Masonic Who's
including a brief biographical mention of the member printed herein.
Members: The membership fee for
Contributing Members is Twenty-five Dollars for period of three years
time the Contributing Member will receive THE BUILDER and in addition a
the N.M.R.S. Biographical Directory "Masonic Who's Who" including a
biographical sketch of the member printed therein.
Members: The Life Membership fee is One
Hundred Dollars and Life Members will receive THE BUILDER for life and
a copy of
the N.M.R.S. Biographical Directory or "Masonic Who's Who," including
a complete biographical history of the Life Member.
Foundation: Freemasons contributing
any larger amount to further the work and purposes of the N.M.R.S., and
in establishing the N.M.R.S. as a Masonic Research Foundation, similar
and scope to other scientific and education foundations, will be
enrolled as Foundation-Membership
of the N.M.R.S. with all the privileges of Life Membership and with
which will be explained by letter to interested inquirers.
of the Society: Freemasons who have
rendered outstanding service to the Craft, and who are nominated by
may receive election as Fellows of the N.M.R.S. which honor carries
with all of
the privileges of Life and Foundation Memberships. Space limitations
will not rigidly adhered to in the cases of brethren who he rendered
the Craft, our country and humanity.
may, perhaps, be timely to remind our membership
of the reasons for our existence and for that p pose a restatement of
objects as recited the Charter is published in this connection:
Grand Lodge of Iowa authorized the format
and incorporation of the N.M.R.S. in 1914 for the following purposes:
- The collection and preservation
of all materials of value in Masonic study.
- The stimulation and guidance of
Masonic intercourse, among Masons of diverse interests.
- Promotion and supervision of Masonic
meetings specific study and discussion.
- The collection and circulation of
data bearing upon various specific Masonic activities.
- The foundation and management of
funds for financial aid of Masonic students.
- To produce and publish courses of
- The publication of books and pamphlets
upon Masonic subjects.
publish a magazine devoted to
the study and interpretation of the history, philosophy and purposes
Rites, Orders and Degrees of Freemasonry.
Society is best known for the publication
of THE BUILDER, a monthly magazine which is unique and peculiar in that
it is probably
the only publication in the world devoted to the study of Masonic
history and teachings,
with the very practical idea of applying the lessons so learned to
present day problems.
This is but one phase of the Society’s work for it is also a clearing
Freemasons throughout the whole world who seek information about any
or phase of Masonic history or activity. In addition the Society is
and directing the organization and operation of Masonic Study Clubs in
invitation is extended to all active and
interested Freemasons and to those whoa re prominent in their
and in their various communities to join the National Masonic Research
With a membership of this high character the Society will be enabled to
still greater service to the Craft and the Society’s Biographical
thus become THE “Who’s Who’ of the Masonic Fraternity, and a reference
is greatly needed.
Governor De Witt Clinton
Bro. Burton E.
WITT CLINTON was born in Orange County, New
York, on March 2, 1769. His grandfather was born in Longford County,
1690, and came to America in 1729. The family came, originally, from
father was a brigadier general in the Revolutionary War, as was also
General George Clinton. His uncle was eighteen times Governor of New
His family were Democrats and followers of Thomas Jefferson.
Witt Clinton was graduated from Columbia
College, New York City, with the class of 1786. This great institution
has kept pace with the growth of the republic and is now, probably, the
school of learning in the world. At the age of 29 years he was elected
of the New York Assembly and started on a career of public service that
parallels in American history. For thirty years he was the great
leader. In 1812 he came near wresting the party leadership from the
for the Presidency, he received 89 electoral votes to 128 for Madison.
was a member of the New York State Senate
from 1798 to 1802, when he was elected a senator of the United States.
from the United States Senate, however, to become mayor of the city of
which office he held from 1803 to 1807, 1808 to 1810 and from 1811 to
1815. He was
also at the same time state senator, 1806 to 1811, and
to 1813. In the early days of the republic to be governor of a state,
or even mayor
of a great city like New York, was considered a greater honor than to
be a senator
of the United States.
Governor Samuel J. Tilden and President
Grover Cleveland, De Witt Clinton was opposed to Tammany Hall. But he
was too powerful
a person, too great a personality to be held down by it. He is the
that New York State produced during the first half of the 19th century,
the greatest she has ever produced. Certainly he is only rivalled by
Roosevelt, and in this estimate Horatio Seymour and Grover Cleveland
Smith are not forgotten.
1817 Clinton was elected governor of New
York and reelected in 1820, serving two terms. A man of phenomenal
he refused to run for a third time as he felt that Tammany would beat
at this time was led by Martin Van Buren, a man of great political
he became a protégé of President Andrew Jackson and through his
of the United States. When Tammany came into power Van Buren could not
"braves" in check. Clinton, in 1824, was removed as canal commissioner.
He was the father of this great waterway. The people of the state stood
determined to save Clinton from the clutches of the tiger. That same
fall he was
again re-elected governor by an overwhelming majority. He died in 1828
is said that the so-called "spoils system"
can be traced back to Clinton. But this is not true, as he was not in
favor of replacing
worthy officials with his own henchmen. Conditions were different than
he came into power in New York State all offices were filled by
it was necessary, in order to carry out his policies, to replace those
authority by men whose views of government coincided with his own. The
system" really dates from Andrew Jackson's time. But even this was no
system" at all, compared with subsequent development, and especially
we have today.
order to recognize the true greatness of
this man the legislative measures that he sponsored must be examined.
them all would require too much space in a short article like this.
That he visioned
the future and endeavored to prepare the rising generation for the
duties of citizenship
is shown by his work in behalf of the New York public school system;
that he placed
human rights above property rights is shown by his work in repealing
the laws of
imprisonment for debt, and that he possessed a spark of the divine is
shown by the
efforts he put forth in the abolishment of human slavery in the state
of New York.
Witt Clinton was a far seeing man. He had
visions equal to any of the prophets of old. He was a statesman in the
of the word. Human history shows but few such examples. In addition to
what we have
heretofore shown his work in building the Erie Canal shows this most
worked unceasingly on the canal for more than fifteen years. As early
as 1810 he
secured the appointment of a commission to report to the legislature
the best course
for a canal from Lake Erie to the Hudson River. After many trials he
had the great
honor, as governor in 1825, on the completion of the canal, to preside
at its dedication.
New York City thus became the outlet for all of the great Northwest.
growth of New York City, and of the Empire State, can be dated from
this time. Not
only numerous villages sprang up along the line of the canal but great
Utica, Syracuse, Rochester and Buffalo. The canal not only furnished an
the wheat and other products of New York state, but for the whole
gave impetus to the growth of cities on Lake Erie, Lake Michigan and
and to the building up of their vast tributary territory. Mighty
Chicago arose and
imperial New York became the greatest city of the New World, the
greatest city in
the whole world, and is now the greatest one that time has ever known.
natural outlets of the Northwest are through
the St. Lawrence River by way of the Great Lakes and through the Gulf
by way of the Mississippi River. The natural outlet of Western New York
Lake Ontario by way of the Genesee and Oswego Rivers, and of Northern
New York through
the St. Lawrence River and Lake Champlain by way of streams flowing
into them, and
of New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio through Delaware and
by way of their streams. No man can even dream of the mighty traffic
from this great
empire centering in New York City were it not for the Erie Canal.
Whether, but for
the canal, the metropolis of the Western World would have been on the
or on the Delaware or Chesapeake Bays, or at the mouth of the
can only be surmised. But we can conjecture, judging from Chicago, that
have been on one of the Great Lakes.
one-sixth of the population of the United
States is in the Empire State and one-third of its wealth is centered
in its great
city. Where is the man that can point to a more constructive statesman
or to a prophet
with truer vision or to a finite being that possessed more of the
did DeWitt Clinton?
Witt Clinton joined the Masonic Fraternity
in 1793. The Grand Lodge of New York was established only six years
Then it was composed of thirteen lodges, six "Ancient," six "Modern"
and one of undetermined origin. All early New York Masonry went back to
Grand Lodge of England. It was not till 1776 that the Schismatic Grand
a foothold in New York. It came with the British army. Gradually the
lodges disappeared from the roll, the last one going in 1827. New York
are, for all practicable purposes, pure Free and Accepted Masons. They
their ancestry back to the first regular Grand Lodge of England and
through it to
the mixed operative and speculative lodges that went before, and
through them to
the old operative Masons, and through them to the Ancient Guilds.
the Masons in 1793 and the next year was made Master of his lodge. In
1806 he was
selected Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New York. Governor Clinton
was a member
of the Chapter, Commandery and Consistory. He was a 33rd Degree Mason
of the Scottish
Rite. He was a leader in both Rites and gave the same force and energy
to both that
he gave to civic affairs. In 1816 he was elected General Grand High
Priest of the
General Grand Chapter of the United States. The Sovereign Grand
in New York, in 1814, instituted the Grand Encampment of Knights
Templar and appendant
orders for the state of New York. Governor Clinton was elected its
first Grand Master
and was reselected annually thereafter till his death on Feb. 20, 1828.
20 and 21, 1816, a convention was held in Masons' Hall, New York City,
and the General
Grand Encampment of the United States of America formed. Delegates from
and Encampments were present, to-wit: Boston Encampment, Boston; St.
Newburyport; Washington Encampment, Newport; Darius Council, Portland;
New York; Temple Encampment, Albany, and Montgomery Encampment,
Clinton was elected General Grand Master. The other officers were
Thomas Smith Webb,
D.D.G.M.; Henry Fowle, G.G.G.; Ezra Ames, G.G.C.G.; Rev. Paul Dean,
Hoffman, G.G.S.W.; John Carlyle, G.G.J.W.; Peter Grinnell, G.G.T.; John
G.G.R.; Thomas Lownds, G.G.W.; John Snow, G.G.S.B., and Jonathan
Governor Clinton was reselected General Grand Master in 1819 and in
1826 and served
as such till his death. In 1823 he was elected Sovereign Grand
Commander of the
Supreme Council for the United States of America, its territories and
which office he also held until his death. This occurred in March,
1828, five years
last two years of his life saw the beginning
of, the Anti-Masonic movement which swept so many lodges out of
existence and caused
thousands of Masons to forsake the Craft. Governor Clinton made a
to stem the tide at its beginning, by offering a reward of one thousand
either for the production of William Morgan, or for information that
to discovering his whereabouts.
of personal wealth," as
Bro. McClenachan says, "he left little fortune but his fame." And
Jackson said that in his death "New York had lost one of her most
and the nation one of its brightest ornaments."
Relief Corps Of The Order Of St. John
THE BUILDER for June in the announcement
of the plans of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, the
general statement was made concerning the first aid work, relief in
in time of war:
The instruction of
persons in rendering "First Aid" in case of accident or sudden illness
and in transport of the sick or injured, and the promotion of popular
in methods of caring for sick and injured in peace and war.
Work and Calamity Relief:
To furnish aid to
the sick and wounded in war or during any calamity, and the promotion
of such permanent
organization for this purpose as may be at once available in time of
war or in the
event of any calamity.
Organization of Ambulance Corps and Nursing
The manufacture and
distribution, by sale or presentation, of ambulance material, and the
of ambulance depots in or near the centers of industry and traffic.
of Service and Bravery:
The award of Medals
or Badges and Certificates of Honor for Humanitarian Service and for
life at imminent personal risk.
should be clear to all that this form of
service will not be in competition with any other existing
organizations, nor with
the work of physicians and surgeons, but that it will be in cooperation
other institutions and agencies dedicated to such service.
general purposes of the Relief Corps will
be to enlist and train layworkers through the medium of first aid
classes, to aid
and assist physicians and nurses, in time of disaster. Also to organize
nurses and physicians into disciplined units which can offer and render
to the civil and military authorities at such times and to maintain a
organization that will always be available, on call, for any emergency
at home or
within reasonable distance of its headquarters.
there is much needless suffering, and sometimes
deaths, due to the mishandling of injured persons in accidents and
unskilled, though willing people is without question.
discussing the need for first aid instruction
of the public the following statement is made in a publication of the
of St. John, whose St. John's Ambulance Association has rendered great
the nation, prior to and during the war and at the present time. The
work of this
Association will be reviewed at a latter date.
rough handling, or even the mere want
of the slightest knowledge of how to support an injured limb, a simple
has been made compound, or even complicated. The method of arresting
an artery is quite easy, yet thousands of lives have been lost, the
very life blood
ebbing away in the presence of sorrowing spectators perfectly helpless
of them had been taught one of the first rudiments of instruction of an
pupil the application of an improvised tourniquet. For example, a
had one of his legs almost torn off by a hawser, and although he was at
to the hospital fatal results ensued, owing to his companions having
around the leg instead of improvising a tourniquet. Again, how frequent
is the loss
of life by drowning, yet how few persons, comparatively, understand the
way to treat
properly the apparently drowned."
States government statistics, published
in official bulletins and in the daily press, show an appalling loss of
year from accidents on railways, on the highways, and city streets, in
and the mines. The loss of lives due to drownings is likewise very
many of the injured, and apparently drowned, might have been saved, if
first aid and the appliances necessary, in some cases, were immediately
Because of the ignorance of the bystanders in even the simplest of
first aid measures,
many valuable lives have been lost.
railroads, factories and mines have first
aid crews, enlisted from among their own workers, but the number of
those who have
been trained for such work in this country is all too few, as is
evidenced by the
high death rate from accidents and calamities. The need for general
of the public and of special training of groups of lay men and women,
in all of
the large centers of population and the smaller cities is obvious. It
is a peculiar
fact that America has been training its boys and girls, through the Boy
and similar work among girls, to render first aid, and has neglected to
instruction to the adult population. Why should such heavy
responsibility be placed
upon the children and why should our men and women refuse to assume the
Order of the Hospital of St. John, "a
fraternal organization with a social welfare purpose" will endeavor to
this need with the expectation that, as it grows and becomes active in
of the cities and towns of America, an army of volunteer workers will
being, trained to give unselfish service in every calamity, large or
may befall any individuals, or community, anywhere.
is expected that this work will have a strong
appeal to the thousands of men who served in the World War, and that
many of them
who had experience in the hospital and medical corps, will enlist for
St. John. They will furnish the leadership for local relief corps
and will take the initiative in the organization of the work in many
work of establishing a general medical and
surgical hospital in any city through a Priory of the Order of St. John
time and patience but the organization for calamity relief may be
started at once
in any city or town. First, a priory of the Order must be established
by those interested.
As stated in THE BUILDER for June, Priories will be chartered in cities
where it is planned, in time, to establish a Priory Hospital, and such
towns, with their surrounding "trade territory" must have sufficient
to support a hospital when established. The Priory, when organized and
may proceed at once to form a Relief Corps, which will be a part of the
work and under its general direction. The Relief Corps may work in
any existing hospital, by agreement, until the Order's Hospital may be
by the Priory.
Corps Captain is the first officer to be selected.
A former officer of the American Expeditionary Forces, or of the
National Army is
the logical man for the place, if he can be secured. He should be
allowed to select
his lieutenants, and other officers to be assured of having a
group of physicians must be enlisted. Their
first duties will be to prepare a series of lectures on first aid and
for the instruction of the lay members of the Corps. The responsibility
the men and women members of the organization for efficient service
rests upon them
and they will measure up to it.
of the physicians and surgeons can serve
as instructors and others as field workers when the call for duty
comes, but an
adequate number should be enlisted to assure a sufficient number for
the Corps in the field. All physicians should be given the rank of
will be subject to the orders of the Corps Captain.
large number of nurses should also be enlisted,
both graduates and undergraduates. They will assist in the class work
as well as
in the field. Graduate nurses will have the rank of sergeants and
the rank of corporals.
will come the enlistment of layworkers,
both men and women. A Relief Corps when fully recruited, will consist
of one hundred
and eight men and women, as officers and privates, the same as a
company in the
army. The Corps will be divided into six squads of sixteen men and
women each and
every squad will be specially trained for certain duty, along the
- Squad No. One - Ambulance Duty. Obtaining
and driving ambulances to the nearest hospital, or to the extemporized
or to a train which will take them to the nearest large city for
- Squad No. Two - Transport of injured.
Obtaining the train accommodations for injured and escorting them to
city for hospital care.
- Squad No. Three - Intelligence duty.
To be composed of men and women. Listing all wounded and injured and
relatives. Obtaining hospital accommodations, or extemporizing same.
- Squad No. Four - Nursing squadron.
To be composed of nurses only, who will aid Squads Nos. One, Two and
Three, as needed.
- Squad No. Five - Commissary. To be
composed of women, who will provide coffee and food for injured and for
- Squad No. Six - Orderlies. To be
of men and women, who will do messenger duty for officers, doctors and
the total enlisted strength of the Corps
will be 108, this will not include the physicians. It will also be wise
a number of alternates to take the places of men and women who may not
be able to
go when called upon. On the other hand a Corps can be organized at half
if need be, and render good service.
period of training will be fixed by the
Medical Staff which will issue certificates of proficiency, to be
by the officers of the Priory, to those who complete the course of
study and stand
examination. In time the Order of St. John, through its Relief
Division, will prepare
a complete course of instruction, with all necessary printed forms, to
the work of organization and training. Those who assist in the
of this work will be called upon to aid in preparing the course of
study which will
be adopted later for general use.
details of the work will be developed
and worked out by those who are first in the field in the organization
of this service
for the suffering. No one man, or group of men, is competent to prepare
plan of action at this time. The advice and assistance of those who
learn by actual
experience will be invaluable in the formulation of the rules and
will later be adopted for the carrying on of this work. When the time
comes to do
this "book" work, the assistance of the United States Army, the
Red Cross and similar organizations will be sought.
regalia and uniform houses have been
asked to submit sketches and designs for uniforms for both men and
and an attractive and inexpensive uniform will be adopted. Many other
organizations have their "uniform ranks" which are principally for show
purposes, but the Relief Corps of the Order of the Hospital of St. John
a uniformed body for practical service to humanity. In time its uniform
an honored place in every parade in every city.
and sisters who are interested are
invited to open correspondence with the Grand Commandery of the Order,
Building in St. Louis, if they wish to initiate the movement to form a
in their home city.
American Army Lodges in the World War
By Bro. Charles
F. Irwin, Associate Editor
is always a profound sense of satisfaction
when a Mason is privileged to discover and secure the facts concerning
enterprise of unusual merit and thus preserve the same to future
the Craft. The following story pieced together from records and
a group of former members and leaders of the Army Lodge A is one of
a number of Military or Field Lodges came
into existence during the World War, and we are striving to secure
records of the
same, and intend to present them in THE BUILDER from time to time. By
it is hoped to make generally accessible information concerning Masonic
in war time that comparatively few brethren know anything about, as
well as insuring
that it will not be forgotten in time to come.
of the most interesting accounts of our
American Field Lodges during the World War is afforded us through the
M. W. Bro. Claude L. Pridgen, P. G. M. of North Carolina. Dr. Pridgen
through all the offices within the range of the Grand Lodge of North
has always been a keen student of Masonry.
number of years ago I came upon the evidences
of the Military Lodge over which he presided and opened up a
him. He most kindly turned his attention from his medical practice to
dig up the
records of the Field Lodge with the results as hereafter shown.
record includes the petition for a dispensation
with a copy of the dispensation empowering the group to perform the
duties of a
lodge. It further carries the story across the waters into France and
gives a graphic
description of their work in France. The return is described and the
brethren from the southland have given
us a broad cross-section of the type of fellowship that prevailed
Army and Navy both at home and abroad. This story is to me more
thrilling than the
story of the Argonauts, for it is authentic and leaves behind it a
of unselfish devotion to principles that undergird the highest type of
Past Grand Master Claude L. Pridgen, P. G.
M. George Norfleet, and Bro. Col. A. L. Cox, Grand Secretary W. W.
Willson and others,
this story is dedicated, together with the large number of Master
Masons of North
Carolina who enabled Army Lodge A to function in the brilliant manner
in which it
Army Lodge A Of
Bro. A. L. Cox
One Hundred and Thirteenth Field Artillery,
being almost one hundred per cent North Carolinian to start with, was
a hot bed of Masonry. All North Carolina believes in the principles of
of all secret orders, the fraternity of Masons; and no good "Tar
figures on living out his allotted span and dying without having been
the degree of Master Mason.
the regiment had had time to get settled
and there was opportunity for casting about and getting acquainted with
there were found many brethren in the Regiment, some of them of high
rank. The Brigade
Commander was a Mason of the most enthusiastic type, as was our
Colonel, our three Majors, and nearly all of the line officers. There
among the non-commissioned and enlisted personnel in large numbers. We
had the bucks
of the batteries; cooks, muleskinners and incinerator experts.
studied out a plan for an army lodge,
an organization of brothers who could "meet upon the level," with rank
for the moment laid aside and all enjoying maternal intercourse. The
plan met with
universal approval and a petition to the Grand Master for a
Dispensation was started.
The name designated in this petition was for "Army Lodge A".
a happy coincidence, Major Claude L. Pridgen,
commanding officer of the Sanitary Detachment, was at the time Grand
Master of the
Grand Lodge of North Carolina. He arranged for the issuance of a
in due time was received. Copies of both the Petition and the
at the conclusion of this history.
first meeting of the lodge was held in the
Masonic Temple at Greenville, South Carolina, on Jan. 12, 1918, it
by the Grand Master, Bro. Claude L. Pridgen, himself. It is to be noted
the meeting was held in South Carolina, which Grand Lodge most
to her sister Jurisdiction the privilege of carrying on work within her
It is one added testimony to the unfailing courtesy not only of South
but of Masonry in all the states of the Union, and dispels the fears
that the rights
of sovereign lodges might be trespassed upon in the creation of Field
time of war.
this meeting Sergeant Joseph H. Mitchell,
of the Sanitary Detachment, was elected Worshipful Master; brigadier
G. Gatley, commanding the 55th Field Artillery Brigade, was elected
and Colonel Albert L. Cox was elected Junior Warden. Thus at the outset
displayed that democracy of fraternal fellowship that speaks so highly
for the Craft
wherever it may be stationed.
officers who served at this first meeting
were as follows:
Master, Joseph H. Mitchell.
Warden, George G. Gatley
Junior Warden, Alfred L. Bulwinkle.
Chaplain, Claude L. Pridgen.
Senior Deacon, Benjamin R. Lacey, Jr
Junior Deaoon, Louis A. Hanson.
Senior Steward, Erskine E. Boyce.
Junior Steward, Ralph S. Sholar.
Tyler. Karl P. Burzer.
S. Payne of the Sanitary Detachment was
elected Secretary of the lodge and Erskine E. Boyce, Adjutant of the
was elected Treasurer.
a subsequent meeting the following permanent
officers were appointed by the Worshipful Master:
Claude L. Pridgen.
Deacon, B. R. Lacey, Jr.
Deacon, John E. Burris
Steward, Samuel T. Russell.
Steward, Julian M. Byrd.
Karl P. Burger.
following standing committees were also
Claude L. Pridgen George G. Gatley,
Benj. R. Lacey, Jr.
Alfred L. Bulwinkle, Erskine E. Boyce,
Albert L. Cox.
Orphanage, Thomas S. Payne, Karl P. Burger,
Samuel T. Russell.
lodge meetings were always interesting,
but it was the first that will linger longest in the memories of those
present. It was the first experience of meeting on the level the
had had for many months. They had been in the Army for more than six
distinctions of rank are well defined and rigidly enforced within the
For the first time Brother Buck Private met Brothers Brigadier General,
and Major on an equality of footing as Master Masons, with no one the
Buck discovered that Brother Brigadier
was a human being, and not the tyrant he had gazed at from afar with
fear and trembling,
and this discovery he carried back to his less favored comrades, and
thus Army Lodge
A became a source of benefit to the regiment from its inception. The
good it accomplished
can never be fully estimated.
the first meeting of the lodge there were
short addresses by General Gatley and Major Pridgen, but the most
taken was to direct the newly elected Master to go to Raleigh, N. C.,
to the meeting
of the Grand Lodge and there to formally present to that body their
a Charter for Army Lodge "A".
following is the Petition which Worshipful
Bro. Mitchell carried to the Grand Lodge:
THE MOST WORSHIPFUL GRAND MASTER OF ANCIENT,
FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS IN NORTH CAROLINA:
UNDERSIGNED PETITIONERS, being Free and
Accepted Master Masons in Good Standing, having the prosperity of the
at heart, and willing to exert their best endeavors to promote and
diffuse the genuine
principles of Freemasonry, and for the convenience of their respective
and other good reasons, respectfully represent:
they are desirous of forming a new lodge
at *113th Field Artillery, (N.C.N.G.) U.S.A., of Camp Sevier, S.C
from the nearest lodge in this Jurisdiction); to be named Army Lodge A.
therefore, pray for a Dispensation to
empower them to assemble as a regular lodge to discharge the duties of
a regular and constitutional manner, according to the ancient forms of
and the regulations of the Grand Lodge.
have nominated and do recommend Brother
Sergeant Joseph Henry Mitchell to be the first Master- Bro. Brigadier
G. Gatley to be the first Senior Warden- Bro. Colonel Albert L. Cow to
be the first
Junior Warden, of said Lodge.
the prayer of this Petition shall be granted,
they promise a strict conformity to the edicts of the Grand Master, and
and laws of the Grand Lodge.
R. Lacey, Jr.
A. Hanson, Jr.
Petition was duly presented to the Grand
Lodge by W. Bro. Joseph Mitchell, whereupon Grand Lodge authorized the
of the following Charter of Dispensation:
SIT LUX ET LUX FUIT
No. Army Lodge A.
THE MOST ANCIENT AND (Seal) HONORABLE
OF FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS
AMPLE FORM assembled, according to the Old
Constitutions regularly and solemnly established under the auspices of
of the City of York, in Great Britain, in the year of Masonry 4926,
Most Worshipful George S. Norfleet, Deputy
Right Worshipful Henry A. Grady Senior Grand
Right Worshipful Jas. A. Braswell Junior
by these presents
authorize and empower our Worthy Brother
Joseph Henry Mitchell, to be the Master; our Brother George G. Gatley
to be the
Senior Warden; and our Worthy Brother Albert L. Cow to be the Junior
a lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, to be, by virtue hereof
formed and held in Camp Sevier, which Lodge shall be distinguished by
the name or
style of Army Lodge A, Number ....... ,and the said Master and Wardens,
successors in office, are hereby respectively authorized and directed,
by and with
the consent and assistance of a majority of the members of the said
to be summoned and present on such occasions, to elect and install the
of the said Lodge, as vacancies happen, in manner and form as is, or
may be prescribed
by the Constitution of this Grand Lodge.
FURTHER, the said Lodge is hereby invested
with full power and authority to assemble upon proper and lawful
occasions to make
Masons, and to admit members, as also to be and perform all and every
and things appertaining to the Craft as have been, and ought to be,
done for the
honor and advantage thereof, conforming in all their proceedings to the
of this Grand Lodge, otherwise this warrant and the powers thereby
granted, to cease
and be of no further effect.
under our hands and the seal of our Grand
Lodge, at the City of Raleigh, in the United States of America, this
4th day of
January, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and eighteen
and in the
year of Masonry five thousand nine hundred and eighteen.
W. W. Willson, Grand Secretary.
L. Pridgen, Grand Master.
to the granting, however, of this Warrant
or Charter for Army Lodge A to meet and work, there was issued a
ALL and every OUR Right Worshipful and loving
YE, That the Most Worshipful Claude Leonard
Pridgen, Grand Master, at the humble petition of our Right Worshipful
Claude L. Pridgdn, George G. Gatley, Albert L. Cox, Benj. R. Lacey,
Jr., E. E. Boyce,
Otto E. Millican, Louis A. Hanson, Jr., Samuel F. Russell, Ira C.
H. Mitchell, Ralph Law Sholar, John E. Burris, Thos. S. Payne, Karl P.
L. Futrelle, Dudley Ropers, Julius M. Byrd, Alfred L. Bulwinkle, of the
and Honorable Fraternity of York Masons, and for other certain reasons,
Most Worshipful Grand Master, doth hereby constitute the said Brethren
into a REGULAR
LODGE OF FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS, to be opened at 115th Field
in the U.S.A. at Camp Sexier, S.C., by the name of Army Lodge A. At
their said request,
and from the great trust and confidence reposed in every of the said
Most Worshipful Grand Master doth hereby appoint Joseph Henry Mitchell,
General George G. Gatley, Senior Warden, and Colonel Albert L. Cow,
Warden, for opening said lodge and governing the same until the first
of the Grand Lodge after the date of this Dispensation.
however, that this Dispensation is
based upon the express condition, that said lodge shall secure the
services of one
of the grand Lecturers of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina; become
the authorized work of the Grand Lodge, and file with the Grand
Secretary a certificate
from said Lecturer certifying that at least five of its members can
the three degrees in Masonry efficiently and according to the
authorized work of
the Grand Lodge. Failure of the lodge to comply with this condition for
from date shall render this Dispensation null and void, and it shall be
to the Grand Secretary's office, unless the time is extended by the
is required of our friend and Brother Joseph
Henry Mitchell to take special care that all and every of the said
Brethren of the
said lodge, as well as those hereafter to be admitted into our body by
be REGULARLY MADE MASONS and that they do, and observe and keep all the
Orders contained in the BOOK OF CONSTITUTIONS, and that the ANCIENT
strictly attended to; and, further, that he do cause to be entered, in
a book kept
for that purpose, an account of the Proceedings of the Lodge, which,
is to be transmitted to the Grand Master with a list of those
and Raised and otherwise disposed of under his authority.
at Raleigh, under the hand of the Most
Worshipful Grand Master, and the Great Seal of Masonry, This 4th day of
A. L. 5918, A. D. 1918.
Leonard Pridgen, Grand Master.
W.W. Willson, Grand Secretary
LOVE, RELIEF, AND TRUTH.
the next regular meeting, which was held
on Jan. 19, 1918, the lodge was legally dedicated and consecrated and
elected at the first meeting, lawfully installed. Grand Master Pridgen
at the ceremonies and there were many visiting brethren present. At
the first petitions for degrees were received, this being from
A. Speed, and Lieutenant Henry P. Ledford of the Sanitary Detachment;
Aaron T. Salling and Harry B. Register, also of the Sanitary
Detachment. It became
necessary to ask the South Carolina Grand Lodge for permission to
within its Jurisdiction. This permission was readily granted.
lodge was much gratified to learn that the
Grand Lodge of North Carolina had accorded the new organization a warm
was proud of its new offspring. Past Grand Master Pridgen brought from
Lodge of North Carolina an offer to donate $500.00 toward a Masonic
Club Room for
the soldiers of the regiment, and from St. John's Lodge, No. 1,
Wilmington, N. C.,
a further donation of $50.00 for the lodge. The project met with
disfavor when the
Camp Authorities were approached, and it was abandoned. It was also
the War Department had prohibited secret meetings within the limits of
Camps and arrangements were made to hold all meetings for secret work
in the Masonic Temple at Greenville, S. C.
first meeting of the lodge in March was
featured by a visit from Most Wor. Bro. George S. Norfleet, Grand
Master of North
Carolina. He had been elected in January to succeed Major Claude L.
Grand Master took a great deal of interest in Army Lodge A and offered
encouragement. He gave the lodge a beautiful silk flag which was
carried with the
lodge throughout the war and after the regiment's return to the United
this emblem to the Grand Lodge of North Carolina. Unfortunately, the
the lodge were not well kept at all times. The first secretary of the
transferred to another outfit and the lodge lost his services and the
work was passed
around from hand to hand. Such of the records as are still available
election of the following candidates for degrees.
E. Lambety, Jr.
Frank W. McKeel
Rufus C. Miller
is also recorded at various meetings in
the United States and in France and Luxembourg, the election to
membership in the
lodge of various Masons, among them being the following:
E. W. McCullers
H. G. Coleman
last regular meeting in the United States
was held on May 1, 1918. Moving orders came soon after and no regular
held until after the regiment had completed its period of training in
had been actively engaged in the fighting on the Toul front for two
weeks. On Sept.
7, 1918, in the little village of Sanzy, on the outskirts of the Foret de la Reine,
Lodge A met in special communication to initiate Thomas I. Graham, W.
and Stewart Barnes; the first two having been elected as candidates for
and the last named as a courtesy to Watauga Lodge, No. 273, of Boone,
N. C. This
point was only a few miles from the front and the sound of guns and the
roar of exploding shells furnished a strange accompaniment for the
of the Masonic ritual.
was no regular or special communication
after that until after the Armistice, when meetings were resumed in a
shack in the
Foret de la Montagne, on the Woevre Sector, which Headquarters Company
the title of "Messhall." Here at a meeting held on Nov. 16th, 1918, the
following new officers were elected:
M., Albert L. Cox, the former J. W.
W., Karl P. Burger, the former Tyler.
W., Christian E. Mears.
Erskine E. Boyce.
George N. Taylor
a subsequent meeting held at Colmar-Berg,
in the Duchy of Luxembourg, the following appointments were made:
D., John E. Burris
B. R. Lacey, Jr.
D., W. Reid Thompson
S., Ralph L. Sholar
Dewitt T. Moore
S., Cleve L. Gross
following Standing Committees were appointed:
Orphanage: John E. Burris, Chairman-
John M. Lynch, Harry B. Newell.
A. L. Fletcher, Chairman; Harry B.
Register, Lennox P. McLendon.
Alfred L. Bulwinkle, Chairman, Wm.
L. Futrelle Rov L. Vaughan.
officers served throughout the remainder
of Army Lodge A's existence.
lodge did a great deal of work for other
lodges in various states, a service which it rendered gladly. It also
house" for all Masons everywhere. Comparatively few of the Masons of
transferred their membership to Army Lodge A, but those who did not
just as warmly at every meeting as if they had transferred and the
Masons of other
regiments of the 30th Division, while in the United States, and of
with which the regiment served in France and with the Army of
Occupation were always
invited to all meetings of the lodge and many a homesick Mason was
cheered and comforted
by the experience.
Book of Minutes, which is now the property
of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, records meetings in various parts
at the little town of Bous, just a mile from the Moselle River in
Colmar-Berg and at Bissen, in Luxembourg; and at Jouy-Sous les Cotes,
The last meeting on French soil being held on Saturday, Jan. 18, 1919,
the regiment entrained for Le Mans, to rejoin the 30th Division.
last regular communication of the lodge
was held aboard the U. S. S. Santa Teresa, on March 15, 1919, en route
Nazaire, France, to Newport News, Va. It was marked by a large
attendance of visiting
Masons from the ship's crew, and everybody enjoyed the very unusual
aboard one of Uncle Sam's great transports, headed for home. At this
B. Corey, Sam. N. Nash, Rufus C. Miller, Herbert N. Thornburg, Lewis
R. Davis, Wilbur C. Spruill and John W. Brookshire were given the
degree of Entered
the close of this meeting Army Lodge A
passed into history. It was not regularly dissolved until the regiment
but in the rush and hurry attendant upon demobilization, it was
impossible to hold
other meetings. Under the charter of the lodge, the membership of the
who constituted Army Lodge A automatically reverted to the home lodges
they had received dimits and the new Masons were certified to Lodges
Lodge A did a great deal of good, underwent
many odd and unusual experiences, and brought into the Masonic fold a
fine lot of
young men. It aided materially in maintaining the morale of the
regiment in all
kinds of trying circumstances. It helped the Masons of the regiment to
keep in mind
the high principles of their great order. It served to remind the
officers of the
regiment of the fact which all officers in all armies are sometimes apt
that they were only men, clothed for a time in authority, but no whit
the men under them. It served also to bring about a clearer
the enlisted personnel of the heavy load of responsibility their
carried, and by so doing it helped to make the regiment what it was.
The lodge never
forgot its obligations to provide for the widows and orphans and
to every good cause. Fifteen hundred francs, at that time equivalent to
was contributed to the A. E. F's French Orphans' Fund.
Roster of Army Lodge A, A. F. & A. M.,
was as follows:
Eugene Atwater, R. L. Bailey, R. A.
Baugham, W. E. Bolt, J. P. Boyce, E. E. Brookshire, J. W. Bulwinkle, A.
K. P. Burris, J. E. Boyd, J. M. Chambers, S. C. Coleman, H. G. Corey,
A. C. Cox,
A. L. Crayton, L. B. Davis, C. R. Dixon, W. T. Dorsett, C. E. Fink,
A. L. Fogus, O. C. Fortune, F. C. Futrelle, W. L. Gardner, L. W.
Gatley, G. G. Graham,
T. I. Gross, C. L. Gross, J. T. Hanson, L. A. Huntley, W. C. Lacey,
Jr., B. R. Lacey,
T. A. Lambert, J. E. Ledford, H. P. Leslie. J. T. Lynch, J. M. Mallard,
L. L. Mauldin,
R. L. Miller, R. C. McCawley, J. W. McKeel, F. W. McLendon, L. P.
Mears, C. E. Mitchell,
J. H. Moore, D. T. Nash, S. N. Nelson, N. L. Newell, H. B. Norwood, G.
T. L. Pollard, H. C. Pollock, W. W. Pridgen, C. L. Norwood, L.
Ratcliffe, Z. O.
Reeves, N. O. Register, H. B. Rogers, Dudley Russell, S. T. Salling, A.
C. T. Sholar, R. L. Simmons, E. S. Speed, J. A. Spruill, W. C. Stem, T.
G. N. Thompson, W. R. Thornburg, H. M. Vaughan, R. L. Wortman, Q. O.
the annals of this most interesting lodge
of World War days come to a close. The following letter from the
organizer of the
lodge will form an interesting addition to the record:
Charles F. Irwin,
Dear Sir and Brother:
am at my country home with no typewriter and
if you will excuse pen I will hasten to reply to your letter which was
to me by Bro. Willson, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of North
you will realize I am far from home with
no data here and it would be impossible for me to write with any
accuracy an article
such as you wish. I think the Grand Secretary has the minutes of our
Lodge A". Col Cox, Raleigh, N. C., or Lieut. Col. S. C. Chambers,
C., was to write up the minutes of this lodge, giving the movements and
engaged in as preface to each minutes. Whether this has been done or
not I do not
at Camp Sevier, Greenville, S. C., we
were all sore because the K.C. were holding Mass every morning and
our men and the "Y" did not seem to be able to compete. The "Powers
that were" turned a deaf ear to all our pleadings for the same
an interview with Sovereign Grand Master
George Fleming Moore, in Washington, I was convinced that Masonry had
for recognition and at the request of many I. as Grand Master, granted
to Army Lodge A to meet and act as other lodges anywhere on earth where
Grand Lodge whom we recognized held jurisdiction. The Grand Lodge of
waived its rights and allowed us to meet in Greenville S. C. The lodge
with my Sergeant Joseph H. Mitchell, Sergeant Sanitary Detachment,
113th F.A., as
Master; Brigadier General George Gatley, 55th Field Artillery Brigade,
S. W.; Col.
A. L. Cox, 113th F. A., as J. W.; Capt. B. R. Lacey (now pastor of
Church), S. D.; I was Chaplain.
were many clamoring for admission. At
this time a brother came and said that he leased the government the
land on which
the Camp was located and when he did so, he reserved a part in the
center of the
Camp, intending to use it for stores, etc. He offered us this land free
for a Masonic building. The Grand Master of South Carolina and the
of Tennessee met with me and Deputy Grand Master of North Carolina
and decided to erect a two-story Masonic building in the center of the
Camp on the
ground given us for this purpose. (The 55th F.A. Brigade was composed
from Tennessee, South Carolina, and North Carolina.)
building was erected and the lower floor
devoted to entertainment of all soldiers regardless of outfit or
material, magazines, eats, a nice clean lounging place was provided.
was Strictly Masonic and in regular Masonic form. The lodge met here
waiver from Grand Lodge of South Carolina until we left for France. We
from many states, Initiated, Passed and Raised a goodly number of
profane and were
a very live, active lodge.
sailed for France but did no work going over-no
place and too crowded, and everybody too Seasick. We landed in England,
and as our
Grand Lodge recognized England, our lodge held no meetings there
although we got
together and talked and planned for the future. The Grand Lodge of
France had requested
recognition from me before we sailed but I had replied (and the Grand
me) that we could not recognize France until she put the Bible back on
So as we had not recognized France our Lodge held meetings and did work
country in many places- in the S.O.S. at Coetquidan and in shot-up
the front. We held one meeting in the Cathedral at Verdun and got a
for the lodge from its ruined wall. We held a meeting at St. Mihiel and
get a Rough
Ashlar that was knocked out of a wall there which we brought home with
Our jewels were made from the brass shells we captured from different
and from shells we fired in victorious action.
the Argonne Forest we did degree work in
an old dugout with guards placed on watch for eavesdroppers and the
falling about us. We met in Belgium and also near the palace of the
Duchess of Luxembourg
and here the lodge voted many francs to care for the orphan French
children at Paris.
Some of us crossed the river into Germany but as our troops did not
move over we
held no regular lodge meeting there.
final meeting abroad was held aboard ship
in the salon in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean with Masons from all
parts of the
world present. We initiated an Entered Apprentice.
lodge was always true to form and a stickler
for doing everything as required by the Grand Lodge. Every visitor was
by a committee and all work done exactly as prescribed by the Grand
Lodge of North
after organizing, the regular election
was held and all officers moved up one step. Before disbanding I think
was held and Colonel Cox was Master when the lodge returned.
L. PRIDGEN, M. D.,
Grand Lodge of N. C.
another letter, Colonel A. L. Cox made this
interesting reference to the jewels of the lodge, in addition to the
lodge jewels which were made by members
of the lodge from shell cases used in action by 75 mm. guns of the
been presented to the Grand Lodge of North Carolina. The Deacon Rods
made from rammer
staffs, the Perfect Ashlar secured from the Cathedral at Verdun, and
the Rough Ashlar
secured from the Cathedral at St. Mihiel, were also presented to the
were many learned brothers in the lodge
and the work at all times was splendidly put on. The lodge held regular
before leaving this country and also in England, France and Luxembourg
and the final
meeting was held in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean on board the S. S.
While meeting at and near the front, guards were at all times put out
our meeting place to detect communications from felons and
following is from a letter from Bro. Willson,
lodge surrendered its charter as soon as
it was mustered out of the service. It was chartered on Jan. 16, 1918.
meetings were held on the third Saturday night in each month. They were
with eighteen members and they surrendered the charter with
forty-seven. They conferred
degrees upon the high seas, in France, and one degree, I think in
would seem that the last reference is probably
to the meeting held in Luxembourg.
closing this article we may express the hope
that the Grand Lodge of North Carolina may have had photographs taken
of the Jewels
of this remarkable lodge as well as carefully preserving the latter
It would also be a valuable addition to their archives to secure, as
far as possible,
pictures of the different localities where the lodge met, as well as
resides in Raleigh, N. C. Born in Raleigh, N. C., Dec. 1, 1883. Raised
G. Hill Lodge, No. 218, June 2, 1908. Dimitted from the same to join
"A". Upon surrender of the charter of the Army Lodge "A", on
March 29, 1919, automatically reinstated in his mother lodge.
first Master of Army Lodge "A", North Carolina, resident of Wilmington,
N. C. Initiated in Central Cross Lodge, No. 187, and Raised in the
same, Sept. 8,
1905. Dimitted from same and affiliated with Louisburg Lodge, No. 413,
on May 5,
1908. Dimitted from same in 1912, and affiliated with St. John's Lodge,
No. 1, at
Wilmington, N. C., July 9, 1912. On July 8, 1917, he dimitted from St.
No. 1, to become a member of Army Lodge "A". Upon surrender of the
of this Military Lodge, March 29, 1919, he was automatically restored
in St. John's Lodge, No. 1, at Wilmington, N. C.
Bro. W. W.
Grand Secretary of North Carolina, to whose kindness and unfailing
courtesy we have
been so much indebted in obtaining the records of Army Lodge "A", and
putting us in communication with its members, was called to the Grand
on July 15th. His death will be a great loss to the Grand Lodge he
served so faithfully
and efficiently, and we desire to extend our sincere sympathy to his
to the Craft of North Carolina generally.
The Degrees of Masonry: Their Origin and History
Bros. A. L.
Kress and R. J. Meekren
have now to consider the later periods into
which Bro. G. W. Speth divided his consideration of the vexed problem
of the origin
of Masonic degrees. (1) The first, as we have seen, was the "purely
period, and the only evidence concerning it is almost entirely confined
to the scanty
indications to be discovered in the old MS. Constitutions, from the
Regius and Cooke
onwards. These scattered fragments are in themselves so obscure that it
impossible to construct any system at all out of them except upon some
based upon other considerations outside of and apart from them. Thus it
that all the contestants could find support for their own theories in
in spite of the fact that these theories were mutually contradictory.
next two of Speth's four periods are the
"Mainly Operative" and the "mainly Speculative." It might almost
have been better to have treated them as one under the head of the
Period," though this term has been more usually applied to the few
1717 and 1730. It would, however, be very advantageous to enlarge its
this limitation is a very narrow and almost artificial one. Presumably
in the first place, before it was realized that the process of
evolution from the
Operative to the Speculative status of the Craft began long before
a century or more, and continued long after 1730. Indeed one might
bring the later
limit of transition down to 1813, when, with the Union of the Ancient
Grand Lodges, the last traces of Christian doctrine were eliminated
from the rituals
of English Masonry, though a few are still left in those used in
a matter of fact Speth has very little to
say about his "mainly Operative" period, even less than for the "purely
Operative." He remarks that
… the accession of
gentlemen to the membership must have been gradually on the increase
and that it
is scarcely conceivable that the operatives, whose object in admitting
was doubtless to insure their Patronage and good will, should have
failed to admit
them at once to the full membership, i.e., fellowship. We cannot
suppose for one
moment that a seven years' apprenticeship was demanded of them.
then he goes on to add:
Possibly they were
entered at one lodge meeting and passed to the fellowship at the very
which he means, presumably, not the meeting
of the lodge in which they were entered, but the next general Assembly,
as the Cooke MS. terms it. He then argues that;
If so, in course
of time the procedure would be simplified, especially if the annual
being neglected, and the two degrees would be conferred consecutively
at the same
other words, the lodges began to exercise
the functions of the Assembly, in respect at least to making Masters,
or in other
words, "Passing" or "admitting" Fellows. Speth however insists
that the designation of these honorary, or gentlemen, members would be
not Masters, because they would be in no sense masters of the craft,
were Fellows of the society. Yet we find a number of instances in 17th
records in Scotland where such gentleman Masons are distinctly spoken
of as masters
as well as "fellows of craft," though undoubtedly the latter seems to
have been the more usual form. Two examples may be cited from the
minutes of Mary's
Chapel. The first, of date May 20, 1640, it is said that the members of
… doeth admit amoght
them the right honerabell Alexander Hamiltone, generall of the
artillerie of thes
kindom, to be felow and Mr. of the forced draft
on Dec. 27 (St. John's Day) 1667 the Rt.
Hon. Sir Patrick Hume was
admitted in as fellow
of craft (and master) of this lodg. (2)
fact, if they were honorary members there
is no reason why they should not also have been honorary masters. Speth
to draw a conclusion from this presumed passing of gentlemen masons to
at one time; he says:
we admit these suggestions as plausible,
it would be necessary, even at the entering of gentlemen to exclude the
because the admission to the fellowship was to follow on immediately,
and we should
thus be able to account for the chief characteristic of the next period
that of the mainly speculative, when only one ceremony is indicated and
of apprentices ceases.
naturally gave an opening to those who
took the other side of the question to retort, "If, as you admit, there
only one ceremony at a later period, why suppose two at an earlier
the weakness of his argument is more apparent than real, as there does
any necessity for supposing that the apprentices were excluded from
share in the proceedings, whatever these were. The later silence in
regard to this
grade could be very simply accounted for; in lodges of purely
there would never be any apprentices, unless as was actually done at
Dunblane, special rules were enacted to forbid the "entering" and
(whatever the terms may have implied) on the same occasion. The first
of these two
lodges, on Dec. 27, 1707,
… came to a generall
resolution that in tyme coming, they would not, except on special
admitt to the Society both of apprentice and fellowcraft, at the same
that one year at least should intervene betwixt any being admitted
his being entered fellowcraft. (3)
most of the old lodges the terms "admit"
and "pass" was generally used of making fellows, and "enter"
of apprentices, but the Haughfoot minutes seem to have reversed this
usage. It may
be noted incidentally that this lodge met once a year on St. John's Day
but that any five members (or presumably, more than five) were
"to admit and enter such qualified persons as should apply to them."
Dunblane minute is not perhaps so significant,
though it is dated Sept. 1, 1716, a year before the four lodges in
London had held
the momentous assembly from which the Grand Lodge was born.
is enacted that in tyme coming there be no
meassones or others entered and past by the members of this Lodge at
one and the
same time (except such gentlemen who cannot be present at a second
diet.) (4) But
failing such a definite regulation it would come about naturally and
whether entering and passing implied two secret ceremonies, or one, or
if all the members of the lodge were non-operative, and received to
full membership) at one time, the apprentice rank would not exist not
was unknown or disused, but because no one remained an apprentice for
a few minutes. And this would quite naturally account for its not being
next stage of Speth's presentation of his
argument can be treated more briefly, though it actually takes a good
space; but as it deals with evidence that has already been discussed,
it will not
be necessary to cover it in detail. The initiation of Elias Ashmole is
and Rylands' proof that the lodge at Warrington was non-operative in
quoted. Rylands laboriously hunted through wills and parish registers
till he was
able to show that most of those mentioned as present by Ashmole were
of the neighborhood. The lodge at Chester to which Randle Holme
belonged was also
non-operative in the main, though its members were chiefly burgesses of
To some extent the same thing seems to have been true, in the
of the "Accepcon" connected with the Mason's Company at London. The Old
Lodge at York was also non-operative, though one instance is recorded
two members gratis because they were working stone masons. And, if we
existence, the lodge at Doneraile which initiated the Hon. Mrs.
Aldsworth was certainy
non-operative. Plot's account is mentioned, which speaks of Freemasons
of the Society." In all these instances there is no mention of
those who were admitted or accepted were thereupon spoken of as Fellows.
is obvious that all this is compatible either
with "entering" as an esoteric ceremony and "passing" a mere
form, or the other way about, entering a form and passing a secret
even with the supposition that there was nothing worthy of being called
sums up this part of his argument by supposing
that, during the transition between his two intermediate periods, the
… gradually dropped
the apprentices from their meetings, and finally became, what we next
as we have suggested, the dropping of the
apprentices, or their exclusion (which Speth assumed) would be
automatic as the
lodge became non-operative in character, if honorary members were
passed to the
fellowship immediately after entry. It does not seem necessary to
that operative lodges ceased to exist in England, though it is quite
they would become less and less permanent. The Scottish lodges,
as they did, all trade matters in their district, naturally kept
records of their
proceedings. But it is quite possible to suppose that English working
on with their traditional ceremonies when apprentices were indentured
employer, and when they had served their time. One thing alone would
keep the custom
alive, and that would be the treat the young craftsman had to stand all
is, however, quite possible, or even probable, that the usage was a
dying one, and
it may have been well-nigh extinct by the beginning of the eighteenth
again, it may not. In the absence of records it is impossible to be
in the scraps of old Masonic usage that turned up about 1720 and later
to be taken for granted that a gentleman Mason might pretty confidently
find a "free brother," as the Sloane MS. puts it, wherever stone masons
were working; and there are strong indications of a tradition that the
of a working mason was necessary to make the action of a lodge valid.
then takes up another aspect of the situation
he has assumed; were the members of the non-operative lodges of
acquainted with the secrets of the apprentices? And he says;
so, then as we only know of one ceremony
being usual, the two degrees must have been practically welded into one.
support this he advances the fact that we
never hear of more than one oath. Randle Holme only gives one oath,
which the secrets are only to be communicated to the "masters and
apprentices not being mentioned. Aubrey, who said the adoption "was
adds that it is "with an oath of Secrecy." Pritchard contains only one
oath, and for that matter, as we have already noted, the early French
1745, and even later, have no more. Yet this is not conclusive, for, as
also seen, the Grand Mystery implies another oath besides the one
given. The oath
mentioned above is in the handwriting of Randle Holme, and is bound up
copy of the Old Charges known as Harleian MS. No. 2054 and what seem to
be a sheet
of lodge accounts. It runs as follows:
There is seu'rall
words & signes of a free mason to be revailed to y'u w'eh as
y'o will answ:
before God at the great and terrible day of Judgm't y'u keep secret and
the same to any in the heares of any p'son W [whomsoever?] but to the
fellows of the said Society of free masons so helpe me God, &c.
this lodge at Chester (if we may judge from
the fact that the Charges are also in Holme's own handwriting) also
the oath contained in all these documents to abide by the several
articles and points.
In fact it would seem that this lack of specific reference to more than
does not prove there was no more than one. And the Chetwode Crawley MS.
was discovered some years after this paper of Speth's was written)
that the oath was "administered anew." But even this document, like the
Grand Mystery, seems to imply yet another oath not given, possibly
because it was
embodied in the charges.
now follows an argument which seems rather
questionable, and it was naturally taken up in the discussion. Speth
… the necessity of
two degrees arose from the absolute need of two signs or modes of
if, therefore the gentlemen received both degrees, they would have been
of more than one.
retorted that "a multiplicity of signs
and words" exist today, any of which would serve for recognition, and
their combination would not justify us in assuming (presumably from the
that each one presupposed "a distinct and separate degree." Which is
true, and it may be said, though the point did not arise in the
it is obvious that a single word or sign would never serve as a
of recognition. It would have to be surrounded and guarded, as it were,
in order that two strangers could step by step assure themselves each
of the other's
right. In fact, precisely what might be understood by the Scottish
secrets of the Mason word." But besides this we have a "multiplicity"
of means of recognition given in the Old Catechisms which are not
ritual in character
(though they may, some of them at least, have obscure ritual
references) but are
purely practical; such as coughing, or clearing the throat three times;
the left stirrup over the saddle when dismounting from a horse; saying
that a stone
lies loose, or is hollow; asking where the master is; or throwing one's
over the left shoulder and the like. So that the reference by Holme "to
words and signes," Aubrey's "certain signes and watchwords" and Plot's
"certain secret signes" prove nothing to the point, though the doggrel
verses from "the Prophecy of Roger Bacon" may refer to more than this:
ffree Masons beware
Brother Bacon advises
Interlopers break in & Ispoil your Divices
Your Giblin and Square are all out of door
And Jachin and Boaz shall bee secretts no more.
is appended to the Stanley MS. of the Old
Charges, and from internal evidences is known to be of a date between
and August, 1714. There is also the doggrel verse in the Mason's
An enter'd Mason
I have been
Boaz and Jachin I have seen
A Fellow I was sworn most rare
And know the Astler, Diamond and Square
I know the Master's part full well
As honest Maughbin will you tell. (8)
Hughan contended, proved not two, but
three degrees; which is quite possible seeing it was published in 1723,
at the same
time it does not necessarily have to be so interpreted if we suppose
Fellow were synonymous terms. Another version (9) of this catechism,
of Freemasons, was published in 1730, said to have been found "Amongst
Papers of a Deceased Brother." This has a note that is very much to the
Having given the questions about the Kitchen and Hall, by which an
Apprentice" was to be distinguished from a "Brother Mason," there
follows another about age to the same end, and then the following:
N.B. When you are
first made a Mason you are only enter'd Apprentice (10) and till you
are made a
Master, or as they call it, pass'd the Master's Part, you are only an
and consequently must answer under 7, for if you say above  they
the Master's Word and Signs.
Note. There is not
one Mason in a Hundred that will be at the Expense to pass the Master's
it be for Interest.
one might ask what interest would
induce Masons to be at the expense? To qualify for office in the lodge?
But in any
case, as late as 1730, when the present three degrees were certainly
document appears to envisage only two, of which the superior one was
or Brother Mason. But "Brother Mason" would seem to be equivalent to
or Fellow of the Craft. Of course the note may have been interpolated
by an editor
who was a non-Mason, so that as evidence it is dubious; but as an
may have some value. As Speth remarked, though the spurious rituals
this imply three degrees, they also reveal, by all kinds of
discrepancies and inconsistencies,
an original two degree system.
last period, the purely speculative, can
be dealt with very shortly. The evidence of the first edition of the
is brought forward, which has already been discussed. Speth says of the
…it was admittedly
looked upon as replacing the assembly.
could well have put it more strongly and
said that it was a conscious effort to revive the Assembly, and
actually was an
Assembly for a few years. It was the force of changed circumstances
it into a representative body such as we now understand by a Grand
Lodge. If, therefore,
there was a tradition that the passing or admitting of masters was a
the Assembly, and not for any chance gathering of seven masons, it
would fully account
for the clause in Payne's Regulation xiii requiring this, just as the
and increased numbers would at the same time tend to make it a dead
regard to this Speth countered Hughan's interpretation
that the Regulation implies that the three degrees had already been
1721, or at least in 1723 when it was published, and that the order of
"Masters and Fellow Craft," and the subsequent change in the second
to "Fellow Craft and Master," was without any significance, by pointing
out that if three degrees were originally referred to, then the minute
the repeal of the clause, which mentions only "Masters," produced the
extraordinary result that the lodges could make Masters but that Fellow
only be made in Grand Lodge.
refers also to Dr. Stukeley's statement that
… the first person
made a Freemason in London for many years. We had great difficulty to
enough to perform the ceremony. (11)
was inclined to see in this remark, concerning
an event which took place (according to Stukeley's diary) on Jan. 6,
1721, an evidence
of the difficulty in finding Masons competent to work the second
degree, that is
to pass Masters or Fellows. That the difficulty was anything but
so to speak, local, that is within the limits of the Doctor's friends
acquaintance, is a little hard to believe, if there really was a second
ceremony. Really there is nothing in what he says to give the least
he here referred to a second part and not merely to the "making" or
Stukeley does indeed seem to have been concerned in an attempt to
degree or society, but whatever the "Order of the Book, or Roman
may have been it seems to have died still-born. (12) The suggestion
that the difficulty
mentioned by him was due to his desire to go beyond the first grade was
from Speth's point of view. Having argued that in lodges which had
ceased to have
any Operative element in them would inevitably tend to amalgamate the
into one, it only served to weaken his case to suppose that the
formed to initiate Stukeley worked them separately, or as would be
implied by the
suggestion, that the two grades were given separately in London. Such a
really fitted Hughan's theory much better, that the three degrees had
invented by the leaders of the Grand Lodge, for being recent inventions
be only natural that but few would know them. However it is probable
that in this
Speth was following Gould, who had, in his paper on Dr. Stukeley, (13)
same suggestion some years before. Neither this interpretation, nor the
one that fits Hughan's theory, really follow from what Stukeley
actually says in
his various allusions to the event. In his autobiography he remarks
under the year
His curiosity led
him to be initiated into the mysteries of Masonry, suspecting it to be
of the mysteries of the antients, when with difficulty a number
sufficient was to
be found in all London. (14)
gives no hint how he came to "suspect"
that Masonry was a survival of the ancient Mysteries, and still less
he came to after his initiation. His account is quite consistent with
that he was satisfied as to its antiquity, and this is strengthened by
that his interest was much greater and more lasting than that of his
Ashmole. This second allusion to the difficulty in collecting
to form a lodge can only be interpreted (seeing that we know for a fact
were Masons enough in London to form a number of regular lodges) as
his own circle. Like so much else of the evidence it is ambiguous; it
can be made
to fit into the most widely opposite theories.
(1) A.Q.C., Vol.
xi [Lib*], p. 41, et seq.
the Lodge of Edinburgh [Lib 1873],
pp. 80 and
[Lib*], p. 178, also Gould History, Vol. ii, p. 68. It was the regular
this lodge for those who were made Masons to be "entered" to the lodge
by a "commission" of five members. Apparently any five members might
act though the "commission" was renewed at each St. John's Day meeting
of the lodge. This may be Significant in view of the requirement in the
that no one is to be made a Mason without five or six or seven Masons
consenting. The numbers required vary in the different versions.
(4) Lyon op.
II [Lib 1884],
Hughan gives here a brief account of this MS. and its discovery. Like
at least one
other MS. Catechism it was found in an old book, the original owner of
unknown. Expert opinion, based on the character of the handwriting,
puts the approximate
date as 1730. Hughan is contemptuous of this group of documents, but
unwillingly, compelled to admit that this one (perhaps because it has
published) may afford some light on the usages of the period.
Speth here, as early as 1888, argued that this piece of coarse, not to
doggrel, was an important indication of the character of the Masonic
to the formation of the Grand Lodge. His analysis of this "Prophecy of
Roger Bacon … woh Hee writ on ye N: E: Square of ye Pyramids of Egypt"
been universally accepted as demonstrating that it must have been
after the Peace of Utrecht and before the death of Queen Anne, the
first ten lines
consisting of cryptic allusions to important events that occurred at
He stresses the phrase "Interlopers break in," and suggests that it may
refer to the influx of non-operatives, who were gaining control by
sheer force of
numbers, and were inclined to modify the old customs or introduce
unheard of novelties.
At least it does seem to indicate Masonic activity and evolution before
of these verses is given in Prichard's "Master's Part," but broken up
for catechetical purposes. As the "Dissection" presents three degrees
under their present names the line "A fellow I was sworn most rare" has
been edited into "A Master Mason I was made most rare."
(9) So far as
this document has not been recently published. Gould (Op. cit. Vol. iv,
says it first appeared in the Daily Journal, Aug. 15, 1730. Chetwode
Vol. xviii [Lib 1905],
p. 141) says
it was copied in the same month by The
Dublin Intelligence. Franklin (before he became a Mason) reproduced it
small variations, in The Pennsylvania Gazette of Dec. 3rd following.
But it was
reprinted in London in the form of "broadsheets," and it may have been
from one of these that he took it. It was reproduced many times and
names, such as The Grand Whimsey, The Puerile Signs and Wonders of a
so on. The Catechism is obviously a version of the Mason's Examinations
(10) Or, as a
discovered a few years ago by Bro. Songhurst, has it, "you are only
an Apprentice," a variation that may be of importance in regard to the
and intention of the term "Entered Apprentice." This MS. was also found
in an old book under similar circumstances to the Chetwode Crawley MS.
and paper appear to be consistent with its being at least as old as
1730, and it
may be an independent version.
History [Lib 1904],
p. 223, also
the larger work, Vol. iii [Lib 1884],
p. 36 and
A.Q.C., Vol. vi [Lib 1893],
Vol. iii [Lib 1884]
p. 40, note 6.
(13) A.Q.C., Vol.
vi [Lib 1893],
(14) Ibid., p.
Masonic Symbols of the Minoan Period
discovery of the remains of a great civilization
that preceded by many centuries that of Greece, and that was apparently
in the Island of Crete, gives rise to some of the most interesting
problems in archaeology.
For one thing the Minoans seem in many ways to have been
or what we are pleased to think of as "up-to-date."
the great palace at Knossos, which was discovered
by Sir Arthur Evans at the beginning of the present century and
gradually laid bare
by his excavators in succeeding years, many surprising and intriguing
to be found. Not least among them was the so-called "throne-room" and
the hall of the double axes. Recently our Greek contemporary
Pythagoras, which is
the organ of the Supreme Council of the A.A.S.R. at Athens published a
in a lodge there in February of this year, by Bro. Spiridean Monsouris
has been translated into English by Bro. Eustis Eliople of the Henry L.
No. 301, of Milwaukee, Wis. Both the translator, and the editor of the
desire that all credit for this should be ascribed to their lodge. The
suggestions that most Masonic students will feel much caution in
there are undeniable coincidences that at least are exceedingly
Cretan Civilization dates back to about
3500 B. C., and differs vastly from that of Ancient Greece of 400 to
300 B. C. Attention
has again been called to it through the excavating operations
undertaken in 1900
A. D., by Sir Arthur Evans and others of like fame and reputation for
of the treasures of this remarkable Cretan
Civilization were found in the enormous palace at Knossos, on the
island of Crete,
the domain of Minos. There, in this wonderful palace at Knossos, was
a separate section, or sanctuary of ceremonies, and it has been
that in this sanctum certain mysterious and religious rites were
symbolic exercises. There also has been found the so-called Hall of the
in which the ancient Cretans held their symbolical assemblages.
Arthur Evans made a minute study of the
various signs and marks found there. In his book, "The Palace of
[Lib 1921-30; Vol
Vol 2 (not found), Vol
he expressed himself definitely: "It
is impossible for anyone to have the least doubt that this Hall of the
was intended and used for religious ceremonies; during my visit there
it gave me
indeed the impression of being a Masonic Lodge."
Hall is rather small and at its North wall
still stands the throne, constructed of alabaster, on a raised dais,
and canopied. On either side of it are to be found frescoes, mural
winged lions interspersed with irises, the lions turning their heads
throne as if they were guarding it. This throne corresponds with out
W.M's chair. To the left and right of it are permanent benches and this
shows similarity to our rows of seats.
the hall from the left there is a mysterious
underground cavern with a stairway leading into it, and it has been
archaeologists that this room was always kept dark and apparently
served the purpose
of a purifying and meditation chamber, in which there were duly
prepared all those
desirous to be initiated into the Cretan mysteries. To the South of the
are other sections with various ceremonial designs carved into the wall.
the main-entrance of the Hall there are two
giant square stone-pillars. All archaeologists and architects have been
discover, that these pillars ever supported any part of the building.
erect and independent, a magnificent symbol, and undoubtedly correspond
pillars in symbolic meaning.
the many other ceremonial relics found,
forming a basis of this ancient form of deistic worship, are various
objects of bone having the appearance of flowers, calyses, birds, etc.,
having the form of seeds of the pomegranate.
most interesting frescoes to us as Masons
are one consisting of alternate black and white squares, and another
the famous Rhytophorous, or bearer of the cornucopia (the horn of
an Apron. These two objects of interest have been removed to the Museum
there were found many statuettes holding
their hands outstretched in various positions. The most important one,
Elnouth Bossert, has its hands in the exact position of an Entered
have their hands over their hearts, forehead and in still more
representing signs similar and analogous to Masonic signs of higher
the oath of secrecy forbids us to divulge or describe in detail in
it is known that the ancient Cretans were
allied with the ancient inhabitants of Asia Minor, it is not improbable
two peoples had common mysteries.
us endeavor to bridge the gap of time and
we must admit, that the mysteries performed at Knosos, Crete, have the
symbolic meaning as the relics found in Antioch, Asia Minor, and
Greece, and bear close alliance to those of the Temple of Sol-om-on.
The Message of Masonry
A. Ellwood. Missouri
Masons are studying the question of
spreading more efficaciously the ideas and principles of Masonry in
the General Masonic League, the National Group of Austria, organized
by the following scheme. Austrian Masonry counting not more than 1600
ask whether the principle of selection, on which they are based, really
propagation of Masonic doctrines, which is and must be their aim.
carefully circumscribed may in the contrary lead to excluding rather
from joining our Order, instead of encouraging them to enter it. Thus
might come to represent an extreme limiting itself to a small number of
in touch more or less with one section only of their people (six and
but consequently limited also in its social influence and material
other extreme seems to be personified by
American Masonry extending over such a great portion of the population
tenth part of its adults is gathered within the bounds of the Temple of
No wonder they are able to perform most striking and visible effects!
Frank of Vienna [known to readers of THE
BUILDER through a number of excellent articles] was charged to inform
concerning American Masonry at large, in a discourse held on March 19.
by the aid of Statistics the gigantic results obtained by large numbers
organizing; large sums can be raised for the building of temples, for
works of public and Masonic beneficence, for Social progress in general
education especially; and also that "number" by no means necessarily
an obstacle to intellectual and spiritual action or evolution, which is
led by the "few"; and he explained and described such performances, and
even their influence upon polities in the higher sense.
Frank came to the conclusion that Austria
could not possibly try to transplant American conditions upon Austrian
that very much was to be learned from American Masonry, and, properly
serve immensely to the benefit of the Craft, in spite of the serious
standing against Masonry in Austria.
this, Bro. Ellwood had been invited
by the above mentioned Austrian Branch of the Universal Masonic League
his views on Quantity and Quality, before the same Masonic group, which
he did on
April 16. Thus the same question was answered by a representative of
one of the
smallest and by one of the largest Masonic entities. Bro. Ellwood has
enthusiastically received by the Viennese brethren and cordially
cheered by his
audience, his lecture being highly admired and appreciated the more as
it in the German language.
Viennese lodges will subsequently sum up
the ideas expressed by the two discourses, they will be discussed, and
will be submitted to the Grand Lodge of Vienna, whose Grand Master,
in the movement, assisted at both meetings. B. L.F.
[Dr. Ellwood is Professor of Economics at
Missouri University, Columbia. He is a member of Acacia Lodge, No. 602,
and of the
Consistory of Western Missouri. His address was published in the April
the Wiener FreimaurerZeitury. It is published here at the Special
request of Bro.
me to express, first of all, my deep
appreciation of the privilege of meeting and addressing the Freemasons
and of bearing fraternal greetings in an official way, from the Masons
to the Masons of Austria.
and the United States have much in common,
though apparently widely separated. Both, in spite of their different
have developed a cosmopolitan spirit and in both the conflicting
tendencies of our
civilization have come to intense expression. Both are vitally
interested in promoting
the peace of the world and in finding some solution of the problem of
It should not be difficult, therefore, for the Masons of Austria and
do something more with their Freemasonry than merely to cultivate
it ought to be possible for them to develop to some degree fraternal
The Masonic Order throughout the world must, indeed learn to cooperate,
together, if the ideals of Masonry are ever to be realized or even to
perhaps a beginning of such cooperation has been made by Austrian and
has not been customary among Masons to speak
of the "message" of their Order. Yet surely it has a message for the
which was never more sorely needed than at the present time. For our
is one of suspicion, distrust, dislike, and disunity, yes even of hate
destruction. Never was the world in more pitiful need of a message of
fraternal unity, and constructive work than at the present time; and
this is the
essential message of Freemasonry. In some way or other the gospel of
fraternal unity, and constructive work must be preached to the classes,
and races of the modern world, or else our civilization will go under.
call ourselves "builders"; it is high time that we demonstrate to the
world that we are able to "build" and to cooperate on a world scale in
of all, of course, comes the great Masonic
doctrine of toleration. Classes and nations, not less than individuals,
mutual appreciation. But there can be no mutual appreciation among men
learn to tolerate each other's differences. Toleration is the first
appreciation and cooperation. It has been no accident, therefore, that
Order, as an order of builders, has stood so strongly for liberty and
in human development. Liberty and tolerance should not only be
our Order, but in some way or other should be preached to the world. It
is a matter
of pride to me that I belong to an Order, which unites Christians,
Jews, yes even Buddhists and Confucianists, in one fraternity. The
historian and apostle of democracy, Guglielmo Ferrero, has shown in his
that mankind is being driven by all the forces of history steadily
even against its will; that even the wars of the last four centuries
in the greater unity of mankind; and that no other destiny is possible
than one of social unity. For he shows that to create unity out of
diversity is the very essence of the historical process.
men foolishly resist human unity. Classes,
nations, and races, brought into contact with one another, suddenly
of their differences, and each begins to emphasize his own superior
national and racial pride assert themselves, and these all too
into class, national and social hate. Objectively unity is being forced
but subjectively men still resist unity. This makes the process
It should be the work of the Masonic Order to teach men that unity is
of mankind, and that this unity ought to be cultivated in the
sympathies and sentiments
of the individual soul, in order that the process of achieving
objective unity in
our world may be hastened and that out of unity may develop the harmony
brotherhood of mankind. It has long been the boast of the Masons that
has done even more than the churches to make the brotherhood of mankind
Let not this be an idle boast! Let it become a practical program! It is
in part such; but it would become even more practical if all Masons
the historic mission of their Order is, in one sense, to mediate and
process of world unity. A vital part of the message of Freemasonry is,
the inevitableness of the fraternal unity of mankind.
The Royal Art Of
the great Masonic doctrine of work,
of constructive work, is a message sorely needed by our world. Our age
is a critical
one, and like all the critical ages of the world's history, it has
tended to make
criticism merely destructive and negative. It has forgotten that
built up only by constructive labor. The forgetting of this fact is the
of the "Bolshevism" of our age. It is too intent upon asserting its
and too little solicitous of its duties. Duty, in fact, is a concept
held up to
ridicule, as a mere superstition. Pleasure is the idol of the hour. But
work are nearly synonymous, and those who repudiate duty usually end by
work also. They seek not to render the greatest service to mankind but
easiest way possible through life. No socially healthy human world can
upon such a basis. When our human world has been built soundly, it has
built by labor and love, and it can be built in no other way.
there must be at times when institutions need to be changed; but our
world can never
be built by destructive criticism. It must be built by intelligent
effort. Work, next after intelligence, is what produces culture; or
we not say that culture is produced by intelligent work? Cooperation in
work is what our world manifestly needs; and this is the message of
we Masons must remember that the world can
never be saved by exclusive organization. It must be saved by an
which will in some way or other comprehend all men. If we have any
mission it must
be to promote the growth of such an order, which shall embody the great
of Masonry namely, toleration, fraternal unity, and constructive work
in an objective
social world. As Bro. Frank has said in effect:
can be no ethical advance, no general
development of mankind, without the cooperation of all the good. How,
then are we
Masons to reach all the good? Are we to seek to bring all the good,
men in every country into the Masonic Order? Or should the Masonic
Order be composed
of carefully selected individuals who are fitted to lead?
we come to the question of "Quantity
verses Quality" in Masonic bodies. The Masonry of the United States and
continental Europe have followed opposite paths in this matter. Of the
Freemasons in the world, over three million are found in the United
out of every ten of the adult men of the United States is a member of
Order. The result of this popularization of Masonry has not been
Masonic Lodges in the United States have a great deal of "dead wood,"
of merely nominal adherents, among their members. Moreover, the
have quite generally come to neglect the higher work of Masonry in the
way of philosophical
and ethical teaching, and have tended to become formal and ritualistic
the whole stress upon symbols which each individual is allowed largely
as his fancy dictates. The inclusion of great numbers within the lodges
have lowered its tone. To some extent it may be due to the fact that
feel that their political and social battle is won. The Masonry of
and Thomas Jefferson's day stood for very positive democratic, social
ideals; but these ideals were written into the Constitution of the
and since then, American Masons have felt that their work was to guard
and political order already established.
And High Degrees
is noteworthy, however, that out of the general
body of Freemasons in the United States there has developed special
bodies of higher
degrees which have tended in a measure to re-introduce the
philosophical and even
to some extent the social and political aspects of Masonry. This is
case with the Scottish Rite Bodies. There are now more than half a
in the United States in these bodies which represent the higher
degrees. They are
supposed to be a carefully selected group. Of course, not all the
members of these
bodies are true leaders in their communities, but they include a
of leaders in every line, and especially in economic lines. The
development of such
bodies of higher degrees, if their members are selected for
is one solution of the problem of leadership.
might seem that I regard the development
of Freemasonry in the United States as ideal and as affording a model
Masons. But that is not the case. Masonic bodies of every sort in the
are still too apathetic to social and political conditions which are in
contradiction to Masonic principles. They no longer universally
manifest that enthusiastic
loyalty to democracy which characterized American Masonry in George
day; nor is there much effort in American Masons to develop intelligent
political leadership. Lectures on philosophical, social and political
are almost entirely absent from American Lodges. European Masons, on
the other hand,
perhaps just because they are persecuted and because they have not won
in some countries, have kept alive the consciousness of the social and
ideals of Freemasonry. They undertake more definite social and
of their members. European Masons are few in number as compared with
but they are a carefully selected group which has better kept alive the
of the Masonic movement. For example, in America we have at present, so
far as I
know, no great social and political philosophers of Masonry, such as
you seem to
count in European ranks. Yet obviously we need the stimulus of many
such men. European
Masonry can do much for American Masonry if intellectual contacts can
between them. It can re-awaken American Masonry to a consciousness of
social mission and responsibilities, and incidentally get it to
carefully the quality of its membership.
the other hand, American Masonry sets before
European Masonry the example, not only of popularization, but also of
Masonry needs not only a large popular following to accomplish its
also within it a body of men carefully selected for distinguished
the sole problem of Freemasonry, as I see it, is how the few can lead
It is a problem of social leadership. European Masonry must devise ways
and leading the masses; American Masons have the same problem, but in a
form. They must devise ways of selecting and developing a body of
leaders. European Masonry needs to expand and popularize the Masonic
Masonry needs to concentrate and to dedicate itself more fully to the
of Masonic ideals. Only thus can the message of Freemasonry namely,
fraternal unity, and constructive work be spread effectively throughout
my opinion, the spread of Masonic doctrines
is not wholly dependent upon the size of Masonic lodges. It is rather a
of the effective social leadership which the lodges can furnish; and
depends upon the quantity and quality of their educational work. Now it
that the education of adults unto new and ideals is a difficult task,
education of the young, if they can be re-echoed, does not present the
We must devise means, therefore, of conveying to our youth the idealism
of the Masonic
movement, if we would economize our energy. I would commend, therefore,
to my European
Masonic brethren the De Molay movement. It aims to inculcate into our
while their character is forming the principles of Masonry and to
educate them practically
for the responsibilities of democratic citizenship. The message of
be effectively spread only through schools for the dissemination of
which shall bring these ideals to the open minds of the young. The De
opens a way to reach the minds of the young. It should, therefore, be
by the Masons of all countries, as perhaps the surest means of
promoting the Masonic
movement and of establishing Masonic principles.
conclusion, let me congratulate the Masonic
lodges of Vienna upon their excellent educational program, as revealed
by many of
their monthly programs. They are setting a standard for Masonic lodges
of the whole
world which it will be difficult for many of us to emulate.
thus building the minds and souls of men,
they are engaged in the truest sort of Masonic work.
Editor in Charge
Thiemeyer, Research Editor
is very curious how completely the nature
and constitution of the Order of the Eastern Star is misunderstood in
and quite generally for that matter, in the British Empire. We are
moved to this
remark by the following pronouncement by the Rt. Hon., Lord
Ravensworth, the Provincial
Grand Master of the Province of Durham in the North of England. As
reported in the
London Freemason, he said, in his address to the Provincial Grand
Lodge, that he
had been given considerable anxiety by the "recrudescence" of the
Star. He proceeded as follows:
Now it is a direct
command from Grand Lodge that no Brother is to have any sort of truck
the "Eastern Star," which apparently is a spurious form of Masonry
over by women, and in which women attend. It is absolutely against
tradition that such a thing should obtain; it is against all our
I must ask that you should be very firm in having nothing whatever to
do with this
thing in any sort of way.
this with attention one is almost compelled
to believe that what our noble and right worshipful brother really said
been condensed by the reporter till it has become almost
unintelligible. But even
allowing for this it would seem as if Lord Ravensworth had completely
Order of the Eastern Star with the lodges of the English branch of the
known also as Co-Masonry.
last, indeed, does come under the designation
of spurious Masonry, as that is defined, for it does actually work
according to French rituals, while admitting both sexes to membership.
But it is
rather hard on Rob Morris to confuse the female adoptive order that he
an organization that would have crisped his hair in horror had he ever
we understood the objection to the Eastern
Star in England, it was chiefly upon what would seem to most American
Masons a mere
technicality that it was refused any recognition. Masonry in every
country has its
own special traditions and customs in addition to those that are
general or universal.
This is a fact that most Masons forget, or never learned, sometimes
with very unfortunate
results. The Eastern Star was of American origin, and its constitution
designed to fit in with American Grand Lodge customs and regulations,
just as its
inception especially filled a need in a partly settled country. A
glance at its
history will bring out what we mean.
Masons owe not only certain duties towards
their brother Masons, but also to their near female relatives. This is
consequence from the fact that the greatest injuries, and conversely
services, may be done to a man indirectly through wife, or sister, or
While apparently the lax moral standards of the present day do not
it is too much a matter of instinct and of natural feeling to ever be
It was thus that certain methods of making this part of the Masonic
more effective came into being early in the last century. Where they
no one knows. They filled a need, and presumably the need gave them
were several of these arrangements; some of them are on record some
not. They had
various names, in some cases quite explanatory of their purpose such as
Mason's Wife." In some of them there was a simple improvised ceremony,
the essential of all of them was that certain signs, and other means of
attention, were communicated by Masons to their female relatives under
of secrecy, which same signs were communicated to all and sundry Master
opportunity served. The Thian Ti Hwui or Hung League did the same thing
only rather more logically and efficiently. A set of signs for female
use was communicated
to each member, which he could communicate at his discretion to his
wife or daughter.
This ensured that every member would recognize such signals, which the
methods among American Masons did not.
Rob Morris collected several of these incipient
feminine organizations, and enlarged and improved them into an
for women, he still had the original purpose in view. Each Chapter was
patronage of a Mason, probably because the women of that day were
of anything like executive work, and all Master Masons were to be urged
and thus become better equipped to fulfill their obligations to the
their brethren in the time of need.
and inevitably, once it was started
as an independent organization it began to develop along its own lines,
development has been accelerated in the complete change in the
conditions of life
and improvement of communications. The practical side of the original
form of the
Order has become in actual fact unnecessary. Yet it does fill a social
very efficiently, and without any special danger to Masonic Landmarks
have now to consider what was found incompatible
with British Masonic rules and customs. The Constitution of the Order
membership was to be restricted to Master Masons in good standing, and
female relatives. The crux was in the requirement of good standing.
Codes and customs made no especial secret of membership rolls.
Presumably in most
cases, convinced of the usefulness of the organization as a means of
duties into effect, the various Grand Lodges saw no reason to forbid
of lodges furnishing information, thus the arrangement worked very
well. But in
other countries membership is regarded as one of the lodges' most
Not even a Mason has any right to know anything about the membership of
lodge. This tradition of privacy is one of the original and most
ancient ones in
the Craft, which American Masonry has long abandoned. It is not to be
therefore but neither is the Masonry of other countries to be denied
to maintain the older ideas.
is thus obvious that without a radical change
in its Constitution the Eastern Star could not exist in Great Britain.
it could be modified so that the Order could retain its character
official information is not easy to say. Something has been done along
we have no definite information about it, however. But, these changes
made, we fail
to see what objection can remain if English Masons and their families
in the pretty ceremonies of the Eastern Star. They have nothing Masonic
and make no practice to have. And while the practical value may
now-a-days be almost
nil, yet the same may be said of Masonry itself in that particular
this day of feminine independence it might
seem more appropriate if the ladies were to eject their Patrons and
and carried on by themselves, without any regard or connection with the
Fraternity. It is not likely this will happen, possibly because, as
would have us believe, women as a sex are not clubbable, are not
interested in the
feminine equivalent of fraternity. But the real factor will be the past
of the Institution. Springing as it did from a need to make effective a
part of the Masonic obligations, a tradition has been created that
be uprooted without killing the organization entirely.
so the reader will not think that he has
started on a discussion of Masonic Libraries, we wish to advise that
the title is
taken from the department in THE BUILDER which goes by that name. The
we wish to discuss book reviews is ample justification for the
we analyze the duties which arise from the
practice of reviewing books in any publication it becomes apparent that
a two-fold aspect to the problem. On the one hand there is a duty to
of the periodical to give him a fair and impartial judgment of the
against this there is a duty toward the publisher which might be summed
up in the
same way – to furnish a fair and impartial judgment of his product.
There can be
no doubt as to which is the most important. There is no difference
between the two.
The debt is one of honor in either case and must be lived up to so far
frailty will permit.
is still another aspect to the case. In
the event that the reviewer does not consider a book up to the highest
or if he finds in its pages inaccuracies that should be corrected, to
whom is his
first duty? Should he smooth over the rough places for the benefit of
or should he endeavor to protect readers who may not be as familiar
with the subject
from falling into the traps that the inaccuracies may place in his path?
an illustration of this question will
not be out of place since our present purpose is to discuss these last
In the course of a review of one of the best books we have had the
pleasure of reading
in recent years the writer found a few mistakes so far as Masonic facts
The author of the book is not a Mason, as a result he did not have
material that naturally comes to the Mason who is interested in
learning about his
fraternity. This was a minor detail in a book filled with the soundest
In view of the high standards of this work should we have passed the
and allowed our readers who might be interested in the book to fall
into the same
error or should we call attention to them to the possible loss of the
and discredit of the author?
is another illustration which will serve
to present one side of the story and we will insert it before making
the action taken in the example above given. Some time ago one of our
severely criticized the work of one of the Masonic students who is
popular. It so happens that reviews of this author's works have
appeared in THE
BUILDER with some frequency in the past. For the most part the reviews
unfavorable. There is no need for our readers to gather the impression
that we were
antagonistic to the author. We were anything but that, nevertheless we
our duty to our readers came before any other and that as long as we
in our own conscience that we were being entirely fair and impartial
that we could
not pass over the errors. In one of the books reviewed we found an
Whether it was intentional or not we do not presume to say. The fact
the manner in which a certain authority was quoted in this writer's
in better with the author's idea than the way that it originally
appeared in the
text. Be that as it may. The error was called to the attention of our
the case of the last book reviewed our reviewer discovered what he
thought to be
an inaccuracy, and he criticized it rather severely. We are taking no
part in the
argument. We do not presume to dictate what our reviewers shall say and
shall not say. Their opinions are their own and as long as their
clear we are satisfied. The publisher of these books has refused to
furnish us with
copies of their publications for review. That is the stand taken by one
return to the first example. When the mistakes
were called to the attention of the author he wrote and thanked us for
stating that he was grateful to us for assisting him and that he would
to eradicate the errors in the case of a revised edition. We suggested
manuscript be submitted to a man who was an authority on that phase of
in an endeavor to have any other possible errors corrected. We were
our trouble and believe we have made a friend of the author.
leave it to others to decide which course
was correct. We have been consistent in both cases. The reaction has
different. There is no desire on our part to be unjust. Every publisher
to a fair and impartial judgment upon the books reviewed. When we
cannot be fair
to ourselves and fair to our readers in giving a book a favorable
we be favorable to the publisher to the extent of deceiving our
readers? The answer
The Study Club
pamphlet on "How to Organize and Maintain
a Study Club" will be sent free on request, in quantities to fifty
on Cedar Rapids Conference
the June number mention was made of the Conference
of Masonic Librarians and Research Workers held at Cedar Rapids, Ia.,
and a fuller account of the proceedings was promised in due course.
delay was inevitable, as the brethren who
read papers naturally desired to put them into shape for publication,
and in any
case it seemed better to wait till the vacation season was over, and
revived after the summer quiescence.
following account of the Conference was
prepared by Prof. Charles S. Plumb of the University of Ohio at
Columbus for the
Ohio Mason, in the pages of which it appeared on June 1st. It will
for an introduction to the papers themselves.
Plumb, who is Grand Historian of the Grand
Lodge of Iowa, is also one of the foremost workers in Masonic education
in the country,
and there are few, if any, with longer experience. He holds very
decided views on
the subject which will be apparent to readers of his valuable article
to be published
conference of brethren interested in Masonic
library work was first suggested by some of the Wisconsin Masons, which
in Bro. C. C. Hunt, Grand Secretary and Librarian of the Grand Lodge of
a provision for such a conference to be held May 10th and 11th at Cedar
Ia. All told about 25 brethren were present, of whom but five were
present at the
Detroit conference the preceding May.
members of the Iowa staff, there were
seven from Missouri, four each from Wisconsin and Pennsylvania; one
each from Washington,
D. C., California, Texas, Illinois and Ohio, and several from Iowa.
original plan was to especially discuss
books and libraries, but the program broadened into the wider field of
Brother Hunt of the Iowa Grand Lodge, opened the meetings by a
statement of the
intended purposes, and he acted as chairman of several sessions.
purposes of Masonic education were discussed
by Brothers Robert I. Clegg of the Masonic History Company of Chicago;
R. J. Meekren,
editor of THE BUILDER, official journal of the National Masonic
St. Louis, Mo., and F. H. Littlefield, Executive Secretary of the same
seemed to be the consensus of opinion that
the field of Masonic education was a broad one, although Brother
Shepherd of Wisconsin
thought a study of the ritual the most important factor in Masonic
operation of a Masonic library was first
discussed by Bro. William L. Boyden, Librarian of The House of the
Temple of the
Supreme Council (Southern Jurisdiction) of the A. & A. S. R. at
D. C. He was followed by Bro. William J. Patterson, Assistant Librarian
of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania; and he by Bro. Southwick, Librarian
of the Masonic
Library Association of Los Angeles, Cal.
Boyden called attention to the various
phases of Masonic thought that had its schools and writers, and
emphasized the importance
of certain phases of it, such as history, biography, research, etc. He
the creation some day of a great international Masonic library.
Patterson gave in some detail interesting
references to the early developments in Freemasonry in Pennsylvania.
Southwick emphasized the value of Masonic
records, the importance of instructive talks after each of the first
and making use of books as easy as possible to the brethren.
educational activities of the Grand Lodge
of Wisconsin were briefly discussed by Bro. Silas H. Shepherd, chairman
of the Committee
on Masonic Research and Education of the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin. He
told in some
detail of the development of the Wisconsin work, and stated that they
$100 a year to carry out their plans, and this was the amount allowed
for some years;
but the Grand Lodge now gives them a much more generous financial
support. He spoke
strongly in favor of study clubs, but agreed that to be a success they
Crosby, a member from Wisconsin, representing
the Grand Lodge, also spoke on the Wisconsin situation, and especially
told of the
introduction of talks before the lodges. He does not believe in any
place at stated meetings, but that after the necessary business, talks
should be given.
general activities of the Grand Lodge of
Iowa were most interestingly and instructively placed before the
members of the
conference, through 136 lantern slides, displayed on a screen in a
It was a remarkable exhibition of the important work conducted in Iowa.
presented by Bro. Frank S. Moses, P.G.M., Secretary of the Masonic
of the Grand Lodge of Iowa.
libraries, their selection, operation
and promotion were considered by Bro. J. Hugo Tatsch, Curator of the
Lodge Library at Cedar Rapids. The first library of the kind was
started in Iowa
in 1909. In 1911 the Grand Lodge allowed $500 for promoting this
work. They have 30 to 40 libraries of 20 or more volumes out at one
time, and right
at the time of this meeting 793 books were on the road. The Grand Lodge
six to 50 books of one kind, according to demand. They have a sheet
system of record
for each lodge in the state, on which they record a list of books sent,
used by the lodge. The traveling library is a commendable thing in the
the Iowa people.
Clubs, their organization, literature,
programs, leadership, etc., was introduced by Bro. Meekren. An extended
followed, in which it seemed agreed that a study club, consisting of a
of those interested, was a fine thing, under good leadership. There are
few such clubs at present in actual operation. Bro. Shepherd told of
such a club
at Madison, Wis., that had met every Wednesday for quite a period of
time and with
journalism was discussed at first by
the editor of the Masonic Tidings of Milwaukee, Wis., Bro. J. A.
Fetterly. He was
followed by several other editors of Masonic periodicals. With one
editors were rather pessimistic on the support given by the Craft, and
their efforts were not appreciated. The one shining light in this
respect, was the
editor of a local lodge paper, named LIGHT, published at Marshalltown,
contributed a good gleam of sunshine through the foggy atmosphere
offered by the
other leaders of the Craft. Several Grand Lodge Bulletins, however,
should not be
included in this class, as they serve quite a different purpose from
subscription journal. These were discussed interestingly by
representatives of Iowa
and Missouri Grand Lodges.
Anthony F. Ittner, Grand Master of the
Grand Lodge of Missouri made interesting and forceful comments in
general on the
topics discussed. He thinks Masonic editorials have been too
pessimistic - that
the editors will never get anywhere unless they sound the optimistic
delegates were treated with very cordial
hospitality while in Cedar Rapids. They were shown through the new
cathedral, and regarded it with special favor as a fine structure for
The Shrine Temple was not very accessible to the brethren, and but very
shown of its interior. The High Twelve Club of Cedar Rapids gave a very
to the visiting brethren on Friday. Brothers Clegg and Ittner sat at
the head table
and as spokesmen expressed the sentiments of the other guests. The
of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, in every capacity, were most hospitable and
contributed much to make this a most pleasant and profitable conference.
following is the official report compiled
by the staff of the Iowa Masonic Library and is reprinted from the Iowa
Bulletin for the added details that it gives.
interest and enthusiasm of Bro. Phil A.
Roth, Secretary of the Masonic Service Committee of Milwaukee, is
for a conference of Masonic librarians and educators which took place
at the Iowa
Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids, May 10 and 11. Bro. Roth had visited us
1927, and carried home such glowing reports that several other
made plans to visit the Library early this year. As leaders in study
work of other jurisdictions heard of this, they suggested that the
visit of the
Wisconsin brethren be made an occasion for others to join with them,
C. C. Hunt, Grand Secretary and Librarian, tendered an invitation to
them to do
of Grand Lodges and other Masonic bodies
interfered with the plans of several brethren to be present as
libraries and educational activities in their respective jurisdictions;
but on May
10 the following were registered:
Silas H. Shepherd, Chairman, Committee
or Masonic Research and Education, Grand Lodge of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.
Roth, Secretary, Masonic Service Committee, author of "Freemasonry in
of our Government," Milwaukee. James A. Fetterly, Editor "Masonic
Milwaukee. Henry A. Crosby, Librarian Scottish Rite Library, Milwaukee.
Anthony F. Ittner, Grand Master of
Masons in Missouri, St. Louis. Byrne E. Bigger, Deputy Grand Master
Arthur Mather, Grand Secretary and Librarian, Trenton. F. H.
Secretary, National Masonic Research Society, St. Louis. R. J. Meekren
BUILDER ' " official journal of the National Masonic Research Society,
Louis. R. J. Newton, National Masonic Research Society, St. Louis. E.
Research Editor, "THE BUILDER," St. Louis.
Robert I. Clegg, Past Grand Historian,
Grand Lodge of Ohio, President Masonic History Company, Chicago. Chas.
Grand Historian, Grand Lodge of Ohio, Columbus.
William Dick, Librarian and Curator,
Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Win. J. Patterson, Ass't
Curator, Philadelphia. Win. H. Shreve, Philadelphia. Alfred C. Lewis,
Allentown Masonic Library, Allentown.
OF COLUMBIA: William L. Boyden, 33d,
Librarian of the Supreme Council, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite,
Thos. S. Southwick, Librarian, Los
Angeles Masonic Library Association, Los Angeles.
was represented by Chas. C. Hunt, Grand
Secretary and Librarian; Harry A. Palmer, Deputy Grand Secretary; Frank
P.G.M., Secretary, Masonic Service Committee; J. H. Tatsch, Curator and
Editor; and Nathan L. Hicks, Editor of "Light." Members of the local
staff, especially Miss Lavinia Steele, Assistant Librarian, contributed
to the special
features of the program.
Conference was called to order by Bro. Hunt
at 10 a.m., Thursday, May 10. In a brief address he announced the
origin and objects
of the meeting. Bros. Robert I. Clegg and R. J. Meekren followed with
talks on "The
Purposes of Masonic Education," in which they presented their views on
educational activities. The discussion which followed their remarks was
of those which came after each principal subject of the two days'
program, for all
of them revealed the deep and studied interest in the educational work
Operation of a Masonic Library"
was covered in three presentations. Bro. Win. L. Boyden of Washington,
D. C., led
with a paper on the large library which was of general interest, and
to the activities of the Iowa Masonic Library. Bro. Win. J. Patterson,
Librarian and Curator, Philadelphia, gave some interesting historical
data pertaining to the origin and growth of the Grand Lodge Library of
and related experiences in connection with visitors to the institution.
As in Iowa,
the Craft of Pennsylvania take much pride in their Library and support
problems of the smaller library, one which
is designed to cater to local needs, were elucidated by Bro. T. S.
based upon his experiences as Librarian of the Los Angeles Masonic
Library. It is
supported by many of the Los Angeles lodges through a small per capita
and was recently incorporated. The Los Angeles brethren are planning to
building to house the rapidly growing collection of books, periodicals
Bro. Southwick's enthusiasm revealed itself by his presence at the Iowa
Library at all available hours; one morning be got here as the janitor
the building at 7 a.m. He stayed over until Saturday evening in order
more time to his activities at the Library.
afternoon session was opened by the reading
of letters of regret from those who could not attend. This was followed
by the presentation
of a Grand Master's apron from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania to the
Library for its collection. It was gratefully accepted by Bro. Hunt on
Educational Activities of the Grand
Lodge of Wisconsin" by Bro. Silas H. Shepherd, Chairman of the
Masonic Research and Education, was a recital of most interesting
with a meagre appropriation a number of years ago, the Committee has
not only covered
its program of addresses, but has prepared printed matter eagerly
sought after by
students, and has also fostered traveling libraries. The Grand Lodge of
has no library of its own; hence the Committee found it necessary to
and brethren on this respect. Bro. Shepard told of the library of
No. 301, Milwaukee with more than one thousand volumes. This lodge sets
stated communication for an address on a Masonic topic. The lodge also
has a Study
Club with an average attendance of sixty.
Shepherd's talk, and the discussion which
ensued, was followed by a stereopticon address by Bro. Frank S. Moses,
of the Masonic Service Committee, on "The General Activities of the
of Iowa." This address, which is available to Iowa lodges through the
Committee, evoked much applause and comment. It gave our visitors a
idea of what Iowa Masons are doing in the name of Masonic charity and
of the lengthiest discussions was that on
"Study Clubs." This was led by Bro. R.J. Meekren, P. M., Editor of "THE
BUILDER," the official journal of the National Masonic Research
incorporated in Iowa but which now maintains its headquarters in St.
Louis. He told
of the study club movement in various parts of the United States, and
lodges and Grand Lodges were taking an active part in making the facts
history and symbolism available to seekers for further light.
Classification" was informally
discussed at the same time in a separate room by those familiar with
operation of a library. This was led by Bro. Wm. L. Boyden, Librarian
of the Supreme
Council Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Washington, D. C. and Miss
Assistant Librarian of the Iowa Masonic Library. Miss Steele has
evolved a simple
yet highly scientific classification by means of which our Masonic
books are being
recatalogued. It is adaptable to small libraries, and flexible and
to meet the needs of a large one such as ours. Its preparation has
in both Masonic and general library circles, and was therefore of
interest to those
confronted with problems such as ours.
evening was utilized to good advantage
by the visitors in going through the Library and holding informal chats
other on topics of mutual interest. It was reported the next morning
that some of
the brethren found so much to talk about that they did not retire until
Friday sessions began with a talk by James
A. Fetterly, Editor of "Masonic Tidings" of Milwaukee on "Masonic
Journalism." He gave an entertaining and instructive talk on the
the commercial Craft journal, as distinguished from subsidized
remarks were interspersed with amusing and witty comments. It was
evident from his
address why "Masonic Tidings" wields an influence in Wisconsin and has
become one of the representative Masonic journals of the United States.
more cooperation between official Masonry and the Craft journal in the
field. and showed how each could help the other in activities of mutual
W. Bro. Anthony F. Ittner, Grand Master of
Masons in Missouri, in the unavoidable absence of R. V. Denslow, editor
of the "Missouri
Grand Lodge Bulletin," spoke on the preparation of their publication.
articles of historical and biographical interest, but carries little or
news, this being left to the so-called commercial publications of
Missouri. As in
Iowa, much interest is being taken in Missouri in such historical
their continuation was strongly urged.
C. C. Hunt followed with an account of
the Grand Lodge Bulletin of Iowa, stating how it appeared originally
years ago as a Library bulletin, but was now covering a larger field.
were presented showing the appreciation accorded to it by the Iowa
Craft, and how
it was being utilized in bringing to the newly raised Master Mason a
deeper concept of what Freemasonry is and what it stands for.
Lodge Bulletins" were discussed
by means of a paper written by Bro. W. H. Braun, Editor of "The Palmer
of Milwaukee, and read by Bro. Phil A. Roth. Bro. Nathan L. Hicks,
the Masonic bodies at Marshalltown, and Editor of Light," contributed
vital manner to the discussion by setting forth his experiences. His
talk was so
interesting, and so replete with valuable information, that he was
urged to elaborate
his notes into a paper, which he has promised to do. Copies will be
with those of other papers, to all institutions represented at the
discussion which followed brought out the
fact that Grand Lodge periodicals and local lodge publications were
by the commercial journals, for they served to create a larger interest
reading and thus developed a body of Masons who would seek other
avenues for instruction
and information. This was personally testified to by Bro. James A.
Bro. F. H. Littlefield, both of whom are interested in Masonic journals
as the topics of "Mutual Cooperation"
and "Comment in General" had been covered in the discussions and
evening talks, these features of the program were dispensed with. The
closed at noon with the hope that a similar informal meeting of Masonic
could be held next year. No organization was affected, it being deemed
best to assemble
annually as opportunity afforded.
Robert I. Clegg, William Dick and Wm.
L. Boyden acting as a Committee on Resolutions, presented the
following, which was
adopted by the visitors:
OF GRATEFUL APPRECIATION. We
brethren from several widely separated Masonic Jurisdictions - far
asunder in distance
but closely united in fraternal purpose - do here place upon record our
thanks for the truly affectionate hospitality given to us so generously
by the officials
of the Grand Lodge of Iowa at our exceedingly enjoyable and decidedly
meeting in Cedar Rapids, May 10-11, 1928, and we would particularly
C. C. Hunt for skilfully guiding our informal sessions with tact and
to Brother Frank S. Moses, P.G.M., for his illustrated lecture upon the
of the Grand Lodge, to Brother J. H. Tatsch for his ' constant
cooperation, to Miss
Lavinia Steele for much light upon Masonic book classification and
and to all the Library staff for their splendid, untiring and earnest
our common good."
Wm. L. Boyden.
entertainment was provided by the Grand Lodge
for the visitors, it being the wish of those in attendance that the
available be devoted to the work of the conference. Through the
courtesy of Bro.
Cogswell, 33d, Deputy for the Sovereign Grand Inspector General of the
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in Iowa, the visitors were conducted
the beautiful new Consistory building, of which the cornerstone was
laid by the
Grand Lodge of Iowa in 1927, and the structure dedicated by Grand Lodge
Thursday noon Brother Hunt was host to the visitors at a luncheon,
while on the
following day the Cedar Rapids High Twelve Club, an organization of
which meets every Friday noon for lunch, invited the distinguished
visitors to meet
with them, and later furnished cars through the courtesy of Mr. W. B.
a sight-seeing tour of the city.
Louis Block, Past Grand Master of Iowa,
who from the inception of the National Masonic Research Society has
been one of
its strong supporters, being both a member of the Board of Stewards of
and an Associate Editor of its organ, THE BUILDER, has recently been
Deputy for the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction of the
in Iowa. We are sure that our members will be pleased to hear of this
upon one who was actively concerned in the foundation and organization
of the Research
Block was born in Davenport, Iowa, in June,
1869, and has resided there all of his life. He was educated in the
of that city and later entered the University of Iowa at Iowa City,
from which he
graduated in due course. He was married in June, 1893, to Cora
Bollinger and has
three sons. He is a lawyer by profession and has attained no little
books reviewed in these pages can be procured
through the Book Department of the N.M.R.S. at the prices given, which
postage. These prices are subject (as a matter of precaution) to change
notice; though occasion for this will very seldom arise. Occasionally
it may happen,
where books are privately printed, that there is no supply available,
but some indication
of this will be given in the review. The Book Department is equipped to
any books in print on any subject, and will make inquiries for
and books out of print.
Lost Keys of
Legend of Hiram Abiff. By Manly Hall. Second Edition. 125 pages. Hall
Co., Los Angeles.
is a remarkable book to have been written
by a non-Mason. It is dedicated to "The Ancient Order of Free and
Masons." It only goes to confirm what many persons have known for a
‒ that actual initiation into the Order is not an indispensable
Masonic research; though this brochure is hardly a work of research,
rather it is
one of brilliant imagination. The author has evidently studied
everything in print
touching the Masonic ritual, and to use the language of a beautiful
poem by Bro.
Reynold E. Blight respecting the author:
a Mason himself, he has read the deeper
meaning of the ritual. Not having assumed the formal obligations, he
all mankind to enter into the holy of holies. Not initiated into the
he declares the secret doctrine that all may hear.
the introduction we are told that Masonry
is essentially a religious order; but we soon learn that what is meant
is an order
of a universal religion. He tells us that twelve Fellow Craftsmen are
the four points of the compass, and asks:
… are not these twelve
the twelve great world religions, each seeking in its own way for that
lost in the ages past, and the quest of which is the birth-right of
man? … Masonry
is a religion which is essentially creedless; it is the truer for it. …
religion exists in all the world than that all creatures gather
together in comradeship
and brotherhood for the purpose of glorifying one God, and of building
for Him a
temple of constructive attitude and noble character.
author further informs us that in the work
he is undertaking
… it is not the intention
to dwell upon the modern concepts of the craft, but to consider Masonry
as it really
is to those who know, a great cosmic organism whose true brothers and
tied together not by spoken oaths, but by lives so lived that they are
seeing through the blank wall, and opening the window which is now
the rubbish of materiality. When this is done and the mysteries of the
unfold before the aspiring candidate, then in truth he discovers what
the foregoing excerpts, and from other
incidental indications, a suspicion arises that the author is a
this suspicion is confirmed by the subsequent chapters. This gives us a
key to the
intention of the author and the meaning of his book. There is nothing
which is at variance with Masonry, indeed there is much in common. The
faith, the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man, and the
of spiritual truth under the form of symbolism, are fundamental
processes of thought
in both. Moreover, the author allegorizes the legend of Hiram Abiff
Whether, however, his knowledge of mythology and the history and
evolution of religion
is as complete as might appear upon the surface, is perhaps open to
general scheme of the book is to symbolize
creation (using the term generally) from chaos to cosmos by the Masonic
following the introduction, he presents a cut of the Tabula Smaragdina,
Tablet of Hermes, which is said to be "the Most Ancient Monument of the
Concerning the Lapis Philosophorum." This is one statement, which is
at all, which places his critical knowledge in doubt. The "Emerald
is classed by authorities on these matters as a production of the
Middle Ages, one
of the products of the pursuit of alchemy. One scholar gives its date
as 1541. This
tablet is said to contain the name of Hiram, which is interpreted to
signify a triune
substance ‒ three aspects of creation, but one in source, matter,
energy and life.
remaining chapters of the book can only
be mentioned by their titles, but these will indicate the general plan:
the Prologue, "In the Fields of Chaos;" then come chapters on "The
Candidate;" "The Entered Apprentice;" "The Fellow Craft;"
"The Master Mason;" "The Qualifications of a True Mason;" and
finally the Epilogue, "In the Temple of Cosmos: the Priest of Ra."
is appended besides, a short address to the Order of De Molay.
the Mason who delights in symbolic imagery,
the author presents a feast, much of it of original conception; but it
is to be
feared that most of it will be above the heads of the great body of the
after all said and done in the elucidation of symbolism, the body of
like the workers in a beehive, must depend far more on common sense to
within the bounds of fraternity of man and fatherhood of Deity than
upon these profound
depths of poetry and rhetoric. We commend it to the student of Masonic
as containing much of interest. The illustrations are by J. Augustus
are, the spirit of H. A. rising in a blaze of glory from the tomb; the
already mentioned; the three murderers, perverted thoughts, uncurbed
destructive actions, standing over the remains of their victim, which
is the spirit
of human life; the Candidate at the Gates; the Master Mason; the Grip
of the Lion's
Paw; and the Dweller on the Threshold.
In The Light Of The Bible
An address by William Leon Brown. Published
by the National Christian Association. Paper, 22 pages. Price 10 cents,
is no indication as to the time, place
or occasion of this address. Mr. Brown is evidently very sincere and
most anxious to lead those whom he conceives to be in the "way of
to safer paths. All members of all secret societies (or rather
with secret ceremonies of admission and private modes of recognition)
are soul destroying,
but Freemasonry is the arch-offender, because it is in a sense the
parent of all
the others. Thus the address really deals with the Masonic Fraternity,
as the primal
and greatest culprit. His information is derived from a number of
books, eight in
all, which he supposes to be authoritative because he found they were
all in the
Scottish Rite Library at Chicago. These books are the Lexicon of
Symbolism of Freemasonry and the Masonic Ritualist, by Albert Mackey,
with The Encyclopedia
of Freemasonry by Mackey and MacClenachan (really an edition of
itself an expansion and enlargement of the Lexicon). The Traditions,
Early History of Freemasonry by A. T. C. Pierson, Chase's Digest of
The Freemason's Monitor by Thomas Smith Webb (evidently a modern
edition) and two
more works, the titles of which are not given, by Daniel Sickles and
the Rev. E.
A. Coil respectively, the latter a Unitarian minister, and (we judge)
on that score
alone outside the pale. This actually makes nine instead of eight, and
he quotes a "cipher ritual" which he tells us he obtained without
or difficulty from a well-known Masonic publishing firm. In addition,
and on the
other side, he had the Bible.
of course, will not be impressed by
his "authorities," even if their books are to be found in Masonic
What the religious minded anti-Mason can never seem to understand ‒
to him all truth is always enclosed in a rigid system of dogma, outside
truth is to be found ‒ is that there is no authority in Masonry.
Pierson may interpret
things his way, Mackey in his, but every brother has equal freedom, to
interpret, to speak and to publish. Consequently, what the accusation
into finally, both from the Protestant and Romanist point of view, is
is not an organization professing and teaching the creed held by the
opponent. Masons hold the inclusiveness to be the chief attraction of
that in it men of all creeds who are moral and virtuous, can meet on a
But this the sectarian (Romanist or Protestant) cannot bear the thought
is to him (in practice) the greatest of all heresies. Thus the
opposition is irremediable,
we can only accept it, and be thankful that we do not live where such
have power of life and death over us.
old objections based on the alleged Masonic
oaths and penalties are brought in. There is here nothing new; it was
ad nauseam, by the anti-Masons a hundred years ago. But here again we
The same type of mind the fundamentalist mind, that takes the
symbolical and poetic
language of the Bible, as prosaic literal fact ‒ nay more, takes the
letter of the
English translation of Hebrew and Greek, as absolutely the very
utterance of God
‒ will naturally take the symbols and forms and allegories of Masonry
also. It cannot be helped; it takes all kinds of people to make a
world, as the
proverbial wisdom of the race puts it, and if our friends cannot
tolerate us, we
must, to be true to our own principles, try to be tolerant of them. At
Brown is temperate in his language, and has a sincere regard for our
this we thank him.
By John E. J. Fanshawe. Boards. 30 pages.
Published by Independent Education, New York.
is a booklet reproducing an essay in the
February number of the magazine Independent Education. The editor of
Frederick J. Haley, says in his foreword that it "evoked favorable
and is now published in this form in response to many suggestions that
it be given
a wider circulation."
careful study of its contents, brief as they
are, we think fully justifies its reproduction for permanent
propagation of the
thoughts of the author. The main theme is the danger of war between the
and Great Britain. He first alludes to the "marked strain of
rampant in the American people," and says "it is indeed difficult to
the keen business acumen that raised America to industrial supremacy
with the failure
to understand many of the fundamental principles used to solve abstract
He also calls attention to the tendency for mechanical organization for
of every error, real, or supposed, humorously illustrating his position
with a supposed
case of a society for the distribution of chocolate drops among the
obtains the name, minus actual aid either financially or otherwise, of
men in high social and political position, for "indorsements," and
the illustration with the fact that chocolate drops in overdoses are
likely to produce
this stand he remarks that "just now
the particular field that is overtaxing the time and energies of the
is the establishment of friendly relations between the United States of
and the British Empire. This is most unfortunate because there is no
the world today more delicate. Upon its outcome depends the future
course of civilization.
Here is no place for the novice. The question of Anglo-American
the entire time, brains and experience of such men as the Hugheses and
the Balfours and the Baldwins. They cannot delegate to those of lesser
the execution of their policies."
that there are numerous errors and
fallacies underlying this particular breed of sentimentality, he thinks
flagrant one "perhaps is that of assuming we are one and the same
that because, by chance, we have derived our language, our laws and our
from England, we should therefore be friendly with the British Empire."
shows that this fact, instead of being promotive of peace, is more
likely to involve
us in war, because, as a matter of fact, "we are not the same people,"
but are "two very distinct and different peoples," with different
and different motives underlying our actions.
an instance of how a common language, common
laws and common traditions failed to prevent a bloody war he cites the
the States of the Union in 1861-1865, and shows that opposing
the South and the North, that each in its place obscured the real issue
which brought about the war. "All the sentiment against slavery in the
grew up after two centuries of slave-holding in the New England States
that it was an unprofitable venture," ‒ and "no objection to slavery
made in the New England States so long as it was profitable." The North
"copious tears over Uncle 'Tom and Old Black Joe, while the South waxed
and belligerent about States' Rights. Thus were the real issues
beclouded, and one
of the most deplorable and devastating cataclysms in history was
entire essay is so closely packed with sound,
common sense, we can only say further that the author's remedy for the
is education along two lines of fact: 1. That both nations are
in maintaining prosperity, and 2. That self-preservation against the
of the world necessitates permanent peace and amity between the two
nations. It is strictly a business proposition from which all
be eliminated. The author thinks, that with these two nations owning
most of the
unsettled habitable portion of the globe, and the other peoples of the
seething millions, constantly increasing in numbers, who must find an
a few generations or reach the saturation point of population, all gush
set aside and the younger generations of both England and America be
taught to give
and take as between them, recognizing and tolerating national
differences of view
just as the different members of a single family have to tolerate each
sum up the essay, as between these two great nations of the world,
we stand, divided we fall."
by, Prof. Hyder E. Rollins. Published by the Cambridge University Press
Macmillan Co. Cloth, 491 pages. Price, $7.65.
collection of "broadside" ballads
of the period 1596-1639 has been selected chiefly from the collection
made by Samuel
Pepys. Pepys bequeathed his library and his famous diary to Magdalene
With the other works were five large folio volumes, the first title
My Collection of
Ballads. Vol. 1. Begun by Mr. Selden; Improv'd by ye addition of many
thereto in Time; and the whole continued to the year 1700. When the
Form, till then
peculiar thereto, vizt., of the Black Letter with Pictures, seems (for
sake) wholly laid aside, for that of the White Letter without Pictures.
Rollins reproduces eighty ballads,
seventy-three of them are the most interesting seventeenth century
ballads in Pepys's
first volume (none of them of a later date than 1639) and of the
remainder six are
from the Bodleian and one from the Manchester Free Reference Library.
As a picture
of the social conditions of the time they are exceedingly interesting
so to Freemasons seeking all possible light upon the era leading up to
when the Grand Lodge was in 1717 put formally into action at London.
are not to be judged as poetry, but as Professor Rollins points out
they were in
the main the equivalent of modern newspapers:
have always interested educated men, not
as poems but as popular songs or as mirrors held up to the life of the
them are clearly reflected the lives and thoughts, the hopes and fears,
and amusements, of sixteenth and seventeenth century Englishmen. In
us the one showing "a worshipful company
in the making" is of the liveliest significance. This is of the year
none will deny the interest in this account of how the 1041 porters in
a corporation and secured a hall for meetings. The broadside had three
one in which a porter is shown standing idle with an empty basket, next
with a heavy load, and third as setting out in holiday attire for a
meeting of his
society, they were headed: "At the first went we as here you see," "But
since our Corporation, on this fashion," "And to our Hall, thus we goe
all," typical of the advancement made in their fortunes, social
happiness by this congregation into a brotherhood of their calling.
and occupations are mentioned in the selection of ballads but this one
noteworthy. It is headed "A new Ballad, composed in commendation of the
or Companie of the Porters." The author was one Tho. Brewer and it was
by Thomas Creed, to be sold "at the syne of the Eagle and Childe in the
Chaunge." The date is 1605. The first stanza runs as follows:
is that Land
where King and
and men of great
are to see,
are to see,
the Commons good
by friendly vnitie,
the proppe of any
are some more of these pious and loyal
sentiments, and thus introduced we come to the subject proper of the
As plainly doth
by that was lately
for them that
and doe on
the Porters of
some being men
but now the more,
the more the pitty
by crosses are decayde.
this we learn definitely, what we would naturally
expect, that the porters were recruited, at least in part, from the
broken down men of other classes.
Now they that
by suite haue
salude that sore,
and gainde a
shuts out many
that were of base
and will not
such person bide
But such as well
and honest Acts
among them theiIe
that haue no
among them theile
(as neare as they
but such as well
to beare an honest
what was done was to limit the number
of regular porters to those who had definite domiciles and were "under
tongue of good report." This limitation would give all in the company
employment by barring out casual labor.
For now vnto their
they pay their
and right if they
there, they that
haue that to them
administration and discipline of the new
company followed the lines of the older ones. There follows three
the old punishment for theft (an obvious and constant temptation to the
which was no less than the time honored "riding on a rail." We are told
this was not very effective, and that the new penalty of expulsion
worked much better,
for it meant loss of employment.
If there be any
of them, a burthen
and with the same
their hall, the
for that that
he hath lost:
the theefe without
out of their
It is a better
then that they
when as the
was on a
for th' owner
tis much better,
to taste this
newe made order,
then ride a wooden
That shame was
soone slipt ouer,
soone in obliuion
and then againe,
would in like
fault be found:
not caring for
and trust another
as a bit
to hold them from
follows a stanza dealing with the fines
laid on those who disobey the rules of the company, and one of these
rules was that
of "first come first served" in regard to a job.
All iarres and
braules are bard
that mongst them
first is serude,
where as a burthen
if one be ready
he must his
all other must
and no resistance
we learn, that again following the traditions
of the older companies, a charity fund had been established for the
the sick and infirm members.
Such as haue long
to vse this
and into yeares
(so that their
they can no longer
as they haue done
the Companie doth
and maintaine euermore.
follow some general reflections on the
necessity of rule's and regulations and then we are told of their
in a body to bear a special sermon, which again was an old Guild
custom, and is
still remembered by Freemasons.
These and a many
good orders they
to make rude
but their owne
losse, if they
and likewise to
good, there meete.
For great is the
of this Societie:
and many without
can neuer setled
but things will
as oft it hath
the number of
a thousand fortie
They all meete
at Christ church,
to heare there
a sermon, for
There markes of
made out of tinne,
about their neckes
the chiefe, of siluer
this we learn that the members wore badges
by which they were known. It seems probable that these would be worn
that prospective employers could know whether they were engaging a
member of the
company or not. It would seem that the organization was not a chartered
one. Its name does not appear in the list of the London Companies and
would thus be voluntary, yet not less effective for that. This
formation of a new
gild in London in 1605, or before, is very interesting, and throws a
the social history of the period that may have significance for Masonic
* * *
Loge Zu Z
[Lib*] Ein Auszug
aus dem Reise-Journal eines unterrichteten Maurers. Published
by Alfred Unger, Berlin, 1927. Paper, 76 pages. Price, 4 marks.
title means: The Masonic Lodge at Z. An
extract from the travel memoirs of a proficient Mason.
author of these memoirs, Ignaz Aurelius
Fessler, is an interesting personality. Born in 1756 at Czurendorf,
German parents, he entered at the age of seventeen the Capuchin Order.
spirit of the time, known as the Sturm-und-Drang Periode ‒ period of
storm and stress
‒ of German thought, made its way even into the seclusion of the
cloister. The rigidly
circumscribed dogmatism of the Roman Church soon proved an irksome
fetter to the
insurgent mind of young Fessler. He left the monastery, and in 1791 he
Evangelical Lutheran Church. In 1796 he transferred his domicile to
he engaged in a many-sided, fruitful literary activity. His favorite
the philosophy of Marcus Aurelius, Seneca, the Fathers of the Church,
and, above all, Masonic history and lore. He left a permanent imprint
the summer of 1802, Fessler went on a journey
in the course of which he visited the city of Z. The identity of the
city is not
disclosed. He was agreeably surprised to find not only a Masonic lodge,
but a lodge
in which the Masonic ideals flourished exceedingly. He was edified and
by what he discovered there. He published his impressions the following
a magazine named Die Eleusinien, a periodical that expired after a
of but two years.
present simple, but elegant little volume
is a reprint of a portion of these travel memoirs. In its facile,
it contains valuable information for the student of Masonic teaching.
It is thought-provoking
and, in its degree, inspiring.
* * *
Nathan the Wise
from the German. Edited by Ernest Bell. Published by David McKay.
Cloth, 174 pages.
Price 55 cents.
is one of a series of pocket translations
of the classics. The name of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing is well known ‒
at least ‒ to all educated people. It is not so well known, outside of
in Germany, that he was an ardent Mason, and that Masonic influences
are to be seen
in his literary work. Early attracted by the theater he produced a
number of plays, comedies and tragedies both. In later life today the
sounds strange he became pre-eminently interested in theological
and practical, and in 1779 he finished Nathan der Weise, a drama in
which he embodied
in poetic form the ideas to which he had been led in respect to
religion, and especially
in regard to what was then regarded almost as heresy by every sect,
Those who have the degrees of the Scottish Rite should be especially
in this dramatic representation of the cIash between Christian, Saracen
but every Mason may read it with profit who would know what tolerance
The Question Box and Correspondence
Apron Be Worn?
had a discussion the other day as to how
the apron should be worn. Most of the members of our lodge tie the
apron under their
coats, but there is one brother who insists we are all wrong and ties
It looks rather funny to me, because the back of his coat is all
wrinkled up, and
I would like to know if there is any rule about it, and if so why?
S. P., Maine.
This is another of those details upon which
there is no general agreement. We believe that in some jurisdictions it
a matter of regulation that the apron should be outside the coat. On
the other hand,
it is the general usage of American Masons to wear it underneath. Where
rule has been adopted it is very probably directly or indirectly due to
of the regulation in England, which is to the effect, that in evening
apron is worn under, and in morning dress over, the coat. As the
wearing of evening
dress is almost universal in English lodges, even when meeting in the
it follows that, if we ignore the difference between a "swallow tail"
coat and a "lounge jacket," that in fact the apron is generally worn
the coat by English Masons. We suppose this difference must not be
without danger of incurring the penalties of lese majeste, or high
treason, or something
equally terrifying. Of course if the two species of the garment are
in the one case the apron still remains visible in all its glory (in
its border of ribbon and rosettes ‒ or other emblems for higher ranks)
the other it is partially obscured. We may suppose this is the real
reason for the
In this country, where the same rule has
been adopted, it is usually supported by an appeal to "operative"
It is argued that the apron is designed to protect the clothing and
be worn outside everything else. Those who appeal to Caesar must go to
operative practice the apron is not worn over the coat for the workman
coat off. If he has occasion to put it on during working hours, he
it on over his apron. In this country the overall has supplanted the
stone masons, but in countries where the apron is still worn this may
by the observant even at the present day.
It does not really seem, however, that there
is any need to make operative usage a rigid law. We think that Bro. G.
S. P. has
given the real answer himself. To wear a belt or girdle of any kind
outside a loose
jacket, normally unbuttoned, not only looks awkward, but is awkward. A
belt can be worn very well over a frock coat, or uniform tunic, which
to the figure and has sufficient skirt to fall below it. But the rule
good brethren would force upon us, would make us all look rather
we took to formal dress. Perhaps that is the motive underneath. But so
long as American
Masons adhere to informality in this regard, we believe that custom, as
does in such matters, offers the best solution, and that the apron
girded on under
the coat, is not only more convenient and comfortable, but also more
Worn By Women
a woman, the wife, mother or daughter of
a Mason, entitled to wear the Masonic emblem?
This is one of those simple seeming questions
it is impossible to answer off hand with "yes" or "no." The
difficulty here lies in the word "entitled." It may mean is such a
permissible in law? Or is it recognized (or forbidden) by Masonic
is there any precedent or custom in favor of it? Or it might mean no
more than is
it fitting or in good taste? We suppose that the second or third
is what was in the mind of our correspondent.
The wearing of emblematic devices by
has in the past always been regarded as a purely personal matter. As
has never been any regulatory action taken concerning it on the part of
although it must be confessed that certain tendencies of recent
appearance are in
The only ancient Masonic device or design
of an official character was the well-known armorial bearing granted to
Company of London, and later assumed by the Freemasons all over
England. In the
same category we might put the arms or seals adopted later by Grand
Lodges and their
subordinate lodges. These very properly are subject to regulation, but
a character entirely different from any trinket or ornament an
individual may choose
or design for himself. And if there be no regulation for the Mason, it
that still less can there be any for one who is not. Grand Lodges
for those not under their jurisdiction. The time has long since passed,
ever were one, when a man could be held responsible for what his
might choose to.
The propriety of the practice is another
matter. There is some reason to object to a man wearing a Masonic
emblem if he is
not a Mason, but that does not hold in regard to a woman doing so.
There is, too,
some warrant in tradition for it. In a past generation, when women were
and less able to look after themselves, to have been able to claim the
of a Mason in any emergency was of real value, and it seems that when a
to travel alone, her husband or father not infrequently gave her some
to carry with her. It would, therefore, seem that while "entitled" is
hardly the best word to use, that a woman is at liberty to wear Masonic
and that there is no reason to object to, it. In any case we do not see
how it could
the heading "Masonic Satanism"
I notice on page 205 of the July number of THE BUILDER, a reference to
I have come across the name before and would like to know who he was
and what he
did. Can you enlighten me?
J. B., Oregon.
The story of the great imposture concerning
Palladian Masonry and Luciferism is almost completely forgotten by the
though for some ten or twelve years at the end of last century it was a
literally worldwide interest. Leo Taxil was the assumed name of one,
Pages, was born (it is said) at Marseilles in or about the year 1854.
He is also
said ‒ but such a cloud of mystification and downright lying obscures
that it is hard to arrive at certainty in these details ‒ to have been
in a Jesuit College, from which he departed in a reaction from
discipline and religion.
He became a hanger-on of journalism, an author of pornographic
literature and a
retailer of scandal about the clergy.
Again it is said, though French Masons have
denied it, that he was initiated in some unspecified lodge, in
(according to his
own account, which is not evidence) the year 1881. He is supposed to
only the first degree, and was either expelled, or quarreled with the
departed of his own accord.
In or about the year 1885 he pretended to
repent of his sins and sought reconciliation with the church, bringing
as a sort
of gift, or fruits of repentance, weird and wonderful tales of crimes,
obscenities, and conspiracies against all law and order and religion,
in and behind
the Masonic Fraternity.
He drew for his materials, it would seem,
upon the accusations against the Templars, the accounts of black magic
Eliphas Levi, which were then a subject of general curiosity, and
this is doubtful) got some material from American anti-Masonry. All
this he mixed
up into a fantastic hodgepodge, exceedingly interesting in its way, if
small doses. The raison d'être of Masonry, according to him, was the
of Lucifer, the archfiend. This included the practice of every
and every form of sexual vice. Albert Pike was made the high priest,
and an imaginary
Diana Vaughan was the high priestess.
It is too long a story to tell in any detail.
The amazing thing is how, in spite of the warnings and protests of many
and sensible men among them, the hierarchy of the Roman Church, from
up to Cardinals, and even Pope Leo XIII himself, accepted the
of the impostor as absolute truth. The deception was finally exploded
by Taxil himself
in a most dramatic way, and with unblushing effrontery, for the reason
that he saw
the game was nearly up, and decided to make the exposure himself and
gain an opportunity
to publicly deride the victims of his hoax.
Curiously, Roman Catholics were not the only
people to believe the tales. Many American Masons appear to have
accepted them as
a picture of Latin Freemasonry, carefully excepting references to Pike,
other American and English Masons; who, of course, they were sure had
by accident or malice. This seems incredible, but it is stated on good
to be true. Romanists were to be excused in part for their credulity,
it is natural
to believe evil of people to whom we are opposed. We rather suspect
that the tales
of Satanism related by the Revue
Internationale des Sociétés Secrètes are
only echoes from
Taxil's inventions, with all reference to their origin conveniently
question has arisen in which I disagree with
the other Past Masters of my lodge and apparently also with the rulings
of our Grand
Masters. The accepted view is that no one may reveal how he voted in
on an application for membership. I maintain that in common sense,
anyone who has
cast a black ball has, if for any reason he sees fit to do so, a right
the fact. I understand perfectly that almost everywhere the law is
forbid his doing so, but I insist that the secrecy of the ballot is
to protect the objecting brother or brethren, and that therefore the
secret is his
secret, not the lodge's, nor Masonry's, and being his, he may reveal it
at his own
discretion. The position of the objector is quite different from those
favorably. No one of the latter may reveal how he voted because if one
might follow in turn, and if all did, the objecting brother would be
by elimination, and the secrecy of the ballot, designed solely to
protect the objector,
would be violated.
know I am in a minority, but f would like
to know how others think about it, and whether the point has ever
Our correspondent is quite right in saying
that in most jurisdictions a brother revealing the fact that he voted
application would be liable to the pains and penalties of the
the secrecy of the ballot. It is not the only instance in Masonic law
object of a regulation has been quite forgotten, and the rule has
become an end
in itself. The ballot box is in any case a sign of weakness. In an
ideal lodge it
would be quite unnecessary. There would be so much mutual trust and
anyone who objected to an applicant would feel quite free to do so
that no one would take offense. Such lodges are, unfortunately, very,
The secret ballot is therefore a necessity.
There are other anomalies, connected with
the subject, to be found in various places. In quite a number of
application must go to a ballot even if the committee of investigation
This seems absurd. An unfavorable report should certainly count as a
The rule has, indeed, actually permitted applicants, who had been
on, to be elected, than which nothing could be more ridiculous, if it
were not so
We must agree that Bro. L. S. T. is right,
but that it will not be safe for him or anyone else to exercise the
Masonic legislators and executives come to realize that the secrecy of
is not an original landmark of the Craft, or one of the hidden
mysteries of Freemasonry,
but in fact, a concession to the weakness of the brethren, and a sign
of the internal life of our lodges.
Is A Masonic
you invite perplexed Masons to consult
you on matters pertaining to the Craft, I venture to submit a question
be in the minds of many who perhaps may consider it disloyal to even
is a Masonic Lodge?
came into Masonry some few years ago after
passing middle age. My wife's prejudices against any lodge kept me out
years. But when I entered the Lodge it was with the same reverential
I, as a much younger man joined the church.
have been a faithful attendant upon all lodge
meetings, both the stated communications and the few special meetings
we have during
the year to confer degrees. Our communications rarely have much of
interest to attract
us. There is little real business to be considered. The degree work is
what is there for us after we become Masons?
What is there to do besides initiating new members? The teachings of
the Craft I
find are the same as the teachings of the church, though presented in
form. The principles are not peculiar to Masonry, the truths taught us
is to me, at least, a sense of restraint
in a Masonic lodge room which limits fellowship. At least it is not the
which we have in our Rotary meetings where I meet the same men whom I
meet at Lodge.
to charitable work, there are at present
none of our membership who need help, nor have any for a long period.
As we grow
older some of us may, and the Masonic Home will shelter us. Certainly
our own Lodge
could do nothing for us because the dues collected will not permit the
of a charity fund. What relief we give to other than Masonic cases is
now done through
a collection. The good women of the town take care of charity cases and
we as business
men help through them. Of course we help to support the Masonic Homes
for aged brethren
and their wives and for children of our unfortunate brethren, but we
conscious of this help we give because it is taken from us in our
as I see it, the Masonic Lodge has
no program. The church teaches the same truths that Masonry teaches.
clubs furnish a livelier fellowship. The charitable work of a general
done by other agencies and we collect no funds for our own charities,
if there be
any such. Therefore, I ask, what is there for Masonry to do? We are
take any part as Masons in our country's politics, so what is there for
us to do?
I read nothing in any Masonic publication of any national effort that
adopted to put over, except the George Washington Memorial, and that
calls for nothing
but a financial contribution from the rank and file.
my good brother, tell me, "Why is a
Masonic Lodge?” At least, why is it in the small town? It may be
and something different in the big city. Of that I have no knowledge.
But the real
purpose of my question is to find out why an organization of such great
large influence, and with such tremendous potentialities for
accomplishment is doing
nothing to which we as Freemasons can point with any pride.
anticipate that some brethren will tell me
that we are building character and training men to serve their country
fellows. To him I say that if we do not develop our character and get
in the public school, the Sunday school and the church, long before we
there is not much material worth working on in a Masonic lodge.
V. J., Kansas
[This letter raises a very penetrating
or rather several questions. It does not seem at all easy to answer
and fully and at the same time convincingly. It is a problem. Doubtless
is one of those complex ones made up of many different elements,
probably in different
proportion in different cases. We hope that others will give their
views on the
subject, for it is obviously one for general discussion. Ed.]
History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
Supply Co., 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 594. - 24.5 MB.
A Pepysian Garland
Pep22 / auth. Pepys Samuel / ed. Rollins Hyder. - Cambridge :
University Press, 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 521. - Illustrated - 14.4 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 001 - 1895
Ars95 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1895. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. - 29.8 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 006 - 1893
Ars93 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1893. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 311. - 20.3 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 017 - 1904
Ars04 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 396. - 33.0 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 018 - 1905
Ars05 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1905. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 256. - 15.0 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
Nathan the Wise
Les79 / auth. Lessing Gotthold E / trans. Taylor William of Norwich. -
1779. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 195. - Formatted and Indexed from Project
Gutenberg File by rhm - 0.7 MB.
The Lodge of Edinburgh
Lyo73 / auth. Lyon David M. - Edinburgh : Blackwood and Sons, 1873. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 480. - 17.4 MB.
The Lost Keys of Masonry
Hal24 / auth. Hall Manly. - Los Angeles : Hall Publishing Company,
1924. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 124. - 9.4 MB.
The Palace of Minos Vol 1
Eva21PM1 / auth. Evans Sir Arthur. - London : Macmillan and Company,
1921. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 784. - Illustrated - 47.8 MB.
The Palace of Minos Vol 2 [Book] / auth. Evans Sir
Arthur. - Volume not Found.
The Palace of Minos Vol 3
Eva30PM3 / auth. Evans Sir Arthur. - London : Macmillan and Company,
1930. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 589. - Illustrated - 45.2 MB.