Masonic Research Society
Gematria and the Letter
Bro. L. F. Strauss. Massachusetts
Masonic lodge room there is presented for special notice, exhibited for
consideration, the letter G. At all Masonic expositions, shows or
on Masonry's golden or gilded emblems, on all the so very varied
configuration, we find embedded, and as it were enshrined, this letter
G. On special
occasions, feasts and celebrations, this letter looks with glowing
the assembly of Free and Accepted Masons.
Now the question
arises, or rather should arise, what is the significance of this letter
it should be given such an all-surpassing prominence in the Masonic
was the idea or ideas, what was the object, the purpose of the
pioneers, the founders
of Modern Freemasonry in giving such an illustrious position to this
G is a cogent illustration of the phenomenon that the large majority of
wanderers upon this planet Earth, spend their lives, and finally
destined pilgrimage, without ever troubling themselves about the goal,
or the purposes
of Providence or God. The raison
things, of the world, does not take up much of their
attention. They spend little of their valuable time in wondering at the
they feel, smell, taste, fear or see. The would-be teacher or monitor
is told in
irritated voice: "What difference does it make?" In other words. "What
can I buy for it?" The how, where, why and when, gives no trouble to
good American, German, or French citizen.
letter G is too conspicuous, too prominent, to be left altogether out
by the honorable "Guides of the Worthy Members of Modern Freemasonry."
So in one carefully arranged scene, at a definitely appointed time, the
the Candidate a brief elucidation of this so conspicuous, so
In reverential voice, with solemn mien, the Candidate is informed that
G has a double meaning; that being the first letter of the two words,
two ideas: the mensurable material, and the incalculable spiritual and
Guide, of course, simply repeats the memorized phrases, the words he
told when he was a Candidate.
reflection should bring this consideration: the letter G is the initial
the word God in the English and Germanic languages only, yet it is as
as omnipresent, in the Italian, French, Spanish, Slavic and Albanian
as in the English American-Germanic lodges. The initial letter of the
word for God
in the so-called Romance languages, Latin, French and Italian, is D; in
B. and in the Albanian language is P. Why then in these countries is
G not changed into D, B or P?
is only a small part, a short section of the great domain called
school child has his troubles with arithmetic, the student has his or
with algebra, trigonometry, calculus, etc. why enthrone geometry for
consideration, meditation and reverence? "The hardest thing in the
to think," says Emerson.
In this connection
we will add this: the Candidate sees, in the course of his Masonic
strange things, some very remarkable scenes and sceneries; he hears
words and phrases in the memorized proclamations of the Masters, the
High Priests. But the large majority of the honorable members of Modern
are in the same mental condition, or enlightenment, about Freemasonry
as would be
a well-trained, docile, puppy or kitten on the subject of art, when
puppy or kitten
is carried through a most magnior munificent palace or art museum. Its
be directed and steadily turned toward some special, highly valued
pieces of sculpture, and yet our patient kitten or puppy, like unto a
the Free and Accepted Masons, will not ask a single question, will not
no matter what is placed before its healthy, innocent eyes.
Now let us
return to our letter G.
What is this
It is for
one thing the initial letter of the word Gematria. But what is
Gematria? The word
itself constitutes a kind of combination of two others, of the two
and Geometria. Geometric "Grammateian" principles were applied by sages
called Kabalists, in their search for the principles, the laws, that
in the evolution of life, in the structure, the Building of this our
proper use of this geometric-grammateian principle furnished to these
sages and theologians, the key to the hidden, the fourfold meaning, of
what is today
known as the Old Testament.
Encyclopedia gives us a very learned treatise on the subject of
Gematria, six long
pages in reduced type, a great part in the Hebrew-Aramaic-Neo-Hebrew
writer of this article in the Jewish Encyclopedia is a great scholar, a
therefore a little skeptical. We will give a few quotations:
literature the use of Gematria has been greatly extended and its forms
developed in many directions. The principles on which the Gematria
rests is not
stated in traditional literature, but it may be assumed is essentially
as that which is found in the Cabala, though in the latter it has been
along the lines of cosmogonic theories.
basis: all creation has developed through emanation from the En Soph
(En Soph is
an important Masonic emblem or symbol). The first degrees of that
the ten Sephiroth; from the last of which, the “Kingdom" developed the
letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Through the latter the whole finite
world has come
into existence. These letters are dynamic powers. Since these powers
everything that has sprung from them is number. Number is the essence
whose local and temporal relation ultimately depends on numerical
has its prototype in the world of spirits, that spiritual prototype
being the term
from which the thing has been developed. As the Essence of things is
identity of things in numbers demonstrates their identity in Essence,
here wishes to call attention to a few articles recently published in
a "Scientific Masonic Magazine." These articles, entitled "The
"The Kabala" and "Freemasonry and the Kabala," will also give
this information: the nomenclature, the symbolism used, employed,
Freemasonry is Kabalistic, that is, is taken, borrowed from the Kabala.
of this Kabala were an Order called in history Essenes, the
the members of this Order was Banaim., which word translated into
"Mason," "Builder." The aim of every member was to become Rab-Bana,
that is a Master-Builder.
the only American Master-Builder to whom the Order of Free and Accepted
erected a monument, and this in the city of Washington, has built his
upon the doctrines of these Kabalistic Banaim, and on page 202 of his
particular attention to these Rab-Banaim, Master-Builders, and he
fact that the Kabala furnishes to Masonry secrets and symbols.
and even some novelists, claim these Essenes Banaism to have been the
the pioneers, the propagandists of Christianity. A use of Gematria is
by the true Initiate in many pages of the Old and New Testaments. The
here points to Genesis (1) XIV, 14, where the number 318 is equivalent
(2) XXXII, 1-6, (3) Ezekiel V, 2.
illustration or exemplification of Gematria is furnished by "Christian"
Kabalists. The form here prescribed and the principles involved are, or
of special interest to members of an organization known by the name of
Freemasonry." These Christian Kabalists, of whom the church fathers,
and Origen, are the most illustrious and best known representatives,
factors in the formation of Christian theology, and the propaganda of
Kabalists made a special use of the words IOANNES (John) and IESOUS
BAPTISMA were also used. This may be exemplified by a quotation from a
published by two unrecognized modern British students of Gematria,
Bond, F.R.I.B.A., and Thomas L. Lea, D. D.
is a case in which the Gematria value of the spelling might be looked
to for light,
if our theory be correct, and it must be admitted that the name IOANES
has an undeniable
importance in view of its divine origin in the gospel narrative. The
of IOANES (Joanes) is 1069, a number not apparently related to the
of mystic numbers which subsists in the writings, but as IOANNES
(Joannes) the form
generally formed and employed by the old Scribes and which is also to
be seen in
the Cosmic MS. of the Pitis Sophia, it is 1119, and this it may at once
is an important number in the mystical geometry of the Aeons, and is
number of the first.
Aeon in the
books of IEOU and is directly connected with the number 634. The French
Honore Balzac, in Louis Lambent and Seraphta [Lib 1900], proclaims a philosophical
in striking accord with the teaching of the Kabala. In this work he
presents a world,
ideas and doctrines, in striking agreement with the teachings given in
and by Gematria.
On one page, the page before me is 104, this French genius enumerates
that are stated in nearly the same words in the Zohar (Crown of
are some of these laws:
Everything in this world (iei
bas) exists only
by movement and by number.
Movement is in some sort number
Movement is the product of a
by the word and by a resistances which is matter. Without the
would be without result, its action would have been infinitely small.
of Newton is not a law, but an effect of the general law of universal
This is a
kind of "Einsteinian" relativity proclaimed in 1835.
is old, very old. But, dear reader, so is the so-called Atomic theory,
so is the
mis-called Copernican system of astronomy. Not only Pythagoras and
Plato had taught
this so-called Copernican or Heliocentric theory, but it was also
taught by the
Essenes Banaim and had been discovered through the modus operandi and
called Gematria. This "Heliocentric" doctrine, with Pythagoras and
as well as Essenes, was of course one of their "Masonic" secrets.
Albert Pike in his great work presents us, in the final chapters headed
of the Sun, Prince Adept, and Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret," [Lib
1871] the most brilliant exhibition
illustration of the modus operandi and opus quaerendi of his friends
The modus and opus operandi is, as we found out, called Gematria.
Albert Pike strongly emphasizes the fact that Graeco-Roman sages had
same, or similar, modus and opus. Now the question might arise whether
Banaim had borrowed doctrines and ideas from the Pythagorian adepts or
Mystics or vice versa. This question has been debated, we will leave it
In our opinion, no borrowing was necessary. Veritas habetur clara
at all times depends upon the eyes of the seer.
human race is ready for the reception of an idea it is precipitated
upon terra firma
by the Higher Powers. Again and again a new idea comes to, a new
discovery is made
by several individuals at the same time; in evolution we have Darwin
in mathematics, in calculus, Newton and Leibnitz.
Masonic authority, Albert Pike, thinks that Pythagoras had his
instruction in Judea
from Daniel and Ezekiel. This writer does not endorse the opinion of
of man, remember the declaration ascribed to King Solomon, "there is
new under the sun." one might see a kind of contradiction in this
proverb in the scientific dictum "nature never repeats." But to this
dictum should be added the word "exactly." No two things are exactly
So that every human voice even has its own peculiar flavor.
has now been told a lot about ancient Gematria; he might have heard of
hermetic-mathematical, astrological, superstitions, and now, lo and
comes a great, a recognized, modern scholar and scientist, a Doctor, a
at the University of Tubingen. He wrote for the March number of the
Jahrbücher, a conservative German Scientific magazine, a long article
und Kultur." Our professor had presumably never studied the Kabala; had
never heard the word Gematria; yet in his article he tells us of some
mystical, German discovery in the realm of mathematics; discoveries
the initiate of doctrines, of ideas and ideals found in the Gematria.
informs us that these strangely mystical "new" discoveries have been
useful not only in theoretical science, but are utilized today in the
modern industry, such as chemistry, radio-activity and so on.
In this article
our learned professor endeavors to place upon a scientific basis occult
about mathematics, the mystical potency of number, in the unfoldment,
of life in this our universe.
new doctrines are presented in eight printed pages we can give here a
only. Among many other things Dr. Knapp tells us:
The Pythagorean succeeded in
making a discovery
of far reaching significance; they ascertained the laws of Harmony in
were able to place these laws upon a Numerical Theoretical Foundation.
Gematria. He theorizes in many words about the importance of this
the intimate connection, the complementary features possessed by two
elements: Mathematics and Music. Our professor writes:
School endeavors to make number, or, more clearly expressed, the
relation of numbers,
the innermost basis of life and nature.
of Harmony of sound, the Pythagorean affirmed with keen speculation the
of the spheres, i.e., the doctrine that in the complementary motions of
and planets there is operative the principle of Numerical potency or
law or power resembles, is identical with, the law or power operative
in the law
of sound. This law in a way is "twin" and becomes affective and
in the life of men.
Now I wish to declare that this
the Pythagoreans has found, has experienced a resurrection, a most
in most instances, in the different races. Such as the modern "Quantum
Here we learn that relation between numbers furnishes for man the
mirror in which
he finds the unfoldment of Life.
we find the following:
The study, the investigation by
the ancient Greeks
of the Kegelschnitten [i. e., the analysis of the principles involved
in the formation
of the circle, the eclipse, the parabola and hyperbola] presents a
field of investigation. Appollonius of Perga gave to this mathematical
whole lifetime, and we have from him an elaborate presentation of his
eight books. Some inductions and deductions had seemed strange and
a few thousands of years later Kepler discovered that planets and
comets in their
evolution around the sun move in courses indicated and designated in
so that what had seemed mathematical playfulness or tomfoolery had the
further we read:
Let us return to our
Pythagoreans; their Einsichten,
their recognitions and the hope of new discoveries gave their study of
a value superior to all other occupations. The Structure, the nature of
was recognized as having a mathematical basis. They did not postulate
basis for the realm of exteriors, the phenomenal world, alone. For in
the sense of Harmony enters deeply the interior, the human sphere, and
made mathematics the basis of all knowledge. We do not know what
was reached, what discoveries in the realm of science was made by the
One thing we do know: they utilized as a fact, or rather as a factor,
of numbers. They taught that number, whole number, was at the
beginning, was in
a way the Source of the evolution of Life in the bosom of Nature and
that the relation
between numbers furnished for man the mirror in which he could see the
And yet again
At yet another point in modern
progress do we
see the potency of the "whole number." I wish here to call attention to
the principle of periodicity in the realm of chemical elements, to the
every element has a definite whole number, order-of-and-for-process,
determines so completely the character, the nature of the elements that
a recognized authority, maintained that the theory of physics and
become a problem of numbers.
Knapp is here in accord with a statement made by Lord Kelvin in his
last visit to
this country when speaking to the student body at Cornell University.
In this speech
he remarked "The great work of the twentieth century will be in the
of the life seen with the life unseen, by means of psychophysics." To
recognition are due some commercially important discoveries in the
quotation we will make from our professor:
An uneducated individual will
not be able to
imagine a nonEuclidian geometry, that is a geometry in which matter
such as the
three angles of a triangle make not 180 degrees, and yet Gauss, and
had posited, had worked with, these non-Euclidian principles. And we
that the Theory of Relativity postulated by Einstein is based upon this
Greek history we find that mathematics was revered as the Queen of
now we might say here a few swords about the relation of mathematics to
professor gives a dissertation too lengthy for a presentation in this
are strange, very strange when made by a modern scholar. Our scientists
looked, and the majority of them today still look askance, at the
sphere of the
spiritual, the mystical; in other words, the realm of Religion. The
claims of the
theologians were smiled at, were deemed beneath the honor of an
a real scientist and now the great Gauss is quoted by our professor as
But all search,
every effort was in vain; finally a few days ago there came success;
was not due to my efforts, my struggle, my powers. Success came like
unto a flash
of lightning; the problem was solved through the Grace of God.
is the purpose of Gematria? Gematria furnishes a solution for three
- Gematria teaches the nature of
the Cosmos, the origin of this our Solar System.
- Gematria teaches the Nature,
the Purpose, the Destiny of man the Genus Homo.
- Gematria shows to the
personality the road on which the wanderer can, eventually
must reach his destination.
The new philosophy
has coined a new term, supraliminal consciousness, and we would like to
American reader to the father of psycho-physics, Theodore Fechner. The
of course comes up, what is this supra-liminal consciousness? The
phenomena so long
rejected by scientists, such as clairvoyance, clairaudience or
telepathy, are today
"explained" as manifestations of this "supra-consciousness."
The scientists would find useful information for the solution of these
in the study of an occult treatise called Kabala, considered by some as
revealed; and in a certain modus operandi designated by the letter G.
American Army Lodges in the World War
Bro. Charles F. Irwin, Associate Editor, Pennsylvania
one topic that always has a charm to the Masonic student. It is the
history of the various Field Lodges that sprang up during our various
wars and ministered
to the Masonic needs of the Craft during the time of stress. The
presence of such
Army Lodges on American soil dates in the far past and is in fact one
of the pioneer
features of Masonry in the Western Hemisphere. These Field Lodges first
the British regiments years prior to our Revolution and kept appearing
war we have had.
It may prove
somewhat of a surprise to the Masonic public to learn of the number of
that either were stationed permanently in various American cantonments,
across the ocean and accompanied the military units to the end of the
We have been
working upon this fascinating problem for a number of years and as a
prepared to publish in THE BUILDER some papers either from the original
in these lodges or from their printed reports that are now accessible
to the general
Craft. The study of these papers will, we are convinced, present very
as to the value of the Field Lodge in times of national emergency. The
of army life displayed by these papers will stir up within the genuine
desire to continue further into the subject.
If this series
of papers does no more than arouse such a spirit in all our Grand
Lodges we shall
regard our labor as successful. Occasionally a detached story comes in
to our department
that by investigation can be linked up to one of these Masonic
thus the material is slowly accumulating into a valuable treasure.
of the series is a paper on Montana Military Lodge No. 1, by its first
Master, Major L. A. Foot, of Helena. Worshipful Brother Foot has been
in the line of the Grand Lodge of Montana, and has also been Attorney
that state. His paper displays a keen discernment on Masonic principles
a close consideration by all readers. We are deeply indebted to him for
preparation of the paper.
In a future
issue of THE BUILDER we will have the complete story of "Army Lodge A"
of the 113th Field Artillery, of the Grand Jurisdiction of North
accompanied this regiment throughout the war in France and brought home
a most enviable
record and tradition. Other lodges will appear as their story is shaped
a unity from the various fragments that have come to us from various
* * *
of Montana Army Lodge No. 1, U. D.
Bro. L. A. Foot, Montana
At the time
of the entry of the United States into the World War there was
among the various Masonic Jurisdictions of the United States relative
to the advisability
of granting dispensations for Army or Field Lodges in the United States
many instances petitions for such lodges were denied, under the belief
plan was not feasible, but the question continues to be a live one, and
submits this article on the experiences of one of such lodges, hoping
that the record
of the Army Lodge of Montana's jurisdiction may prove of benefit and
value to the
Craft in the future.
were not an innovation of the World War, Masonic history proves that a
such lodges existed in Washington's Army during the Revolution, and it
is not at
all certain that the first lodge on American soil was not an Army
Lodge. Why, therefore,
any jurisdiction should have hesitated to grant a dispensation in the
late war the
writer is at a loss to understand, but doubtless apparently good and
On the 25th
day of March, 1917, the Montana National Guard was mobilized for
service and assembled
at Fort William Henry Harrison, near Helena, Mont. The regiment (then
known as the
Second Montana Infantry, later to become the 163rd United States
Infantry) had but
recently returned from service on the Mexican border. During that
belonging to the regiment who were Masons had several times discus the
and desirability of petitioning the Grand Lodge of Montana for a
organize an Army or Field Lodge. However, when it developed that the
not to enter Mexico, but was merely to perform guard duty on the
border, the idea
call to duty was again sounded, however, and with an assurance of
in a foreign land presented, the idea was again revived, and finally a
all Masons in the regiment to meet at a certain time and place was sent
many brethren responded to this call and so much enthusiasm for the
that the result was the appointment of a committee to take the matter
up with the
Grand Master and officers of the Grand Lodge of Montana with a view of
a dispensation for a lodge that might be taken to France, there to
furnish to those
wearers of the lambskin in their country's service the joys of
only to be had within the mystic circle of Masonry.
Lodge of Montana met in its Annual Communication at Helena, and the
by the soldier Masons of the Second Montana Infantry, appeared before
and presented the petition, duly signed, asking that a dispensation be
form a Field Lodge under the name of Montana Army Lodge No. 1, to
regiment to the battlefields of Europe, or wherever its duty might call
Lodge received the petition, and by a unanimous vote authorized its
Most Worshipful Bro. Francis D. Jones, to issue the dispensation prayed
appointed a committee consisting of the Most Worshipful Grand Master
and Most Worshipful
Past Grand Masters E. C. Day and H. S. Hepner to prepare the
such powers as in their judgment were necessary to accomplish the
being in readiness, Montana Army Lodge No. 1 was duly constituted by M.
Master Jones in the Consistory Shrine Temple at Helena on Sept. 8,
1917, with the
writer as W. M.; Bro. Jesse B. Root, Senior Warden; Bro. Wm. O. Whipps,
Bro. Jos. P. Sternhagen, Treasurer, and Bro. Willard E. Olson,
Secretary. The appointive
officers installed at the same time were as follows: Bros. George A.
Deacon; D. E. Hawley, Junior Deacon; A. E. Johnson, Senior Steward; W.
Junior Steward; Jos. Writenour, Tyler; H. N. Johnson, Marshal, and Wm.
and furniture of the lodge were the gifts of the three Helena Lodges,
No. 3, Morning Star Lodge No. 5, and King Solomon's Lodge No. 9, the
compasses being made for the purpose by a Helena silversmith from pure
All these jewels and other articles were returned to the Grand Lodge
and are now
deposited in its archives among the other historical relics of Montana
after the institution of Montana Army Lodge No. 1, the regiment
departed for Camp
Greene, North Carolina, on the first step of its journey to France.
of the lodge were held in the United States although permission to meet
Greene was asked and received from the Most Worshipful Grand Master of
and the use of the beautiful lodge rooms in the Masonic Temple in
Carolina, was tendered to the lodge during its stay at Camp Greene. The
time the regiment remained there and the arduous work of preparing for
across the seas prevented the acceptance of the offer of the kind
brethren of Charlotte
who overwhelmed the brethren of the division with their attentions and
On Dec. 14,
1917, the regiment sailed from Hoboken, N. J., on board the
formerly the Hamburg-American Liner "Vaterland," for France and the
adventure. Being unconvoyed the vessel took a course far north of the
The day of
Dec. 21 found the ship somewhere off the coast of Iceland, and all
members of the
lodge feeling that they had their "sea legs." The first meeting was
in the stateroom occupied by our Senior Warden, which not being
designed for lodge
purposes, caused an overflow of the brethren into the bathroom. The
Master and Senior
Warden were provided with chairs, but the Junior Warden was compelled
a seat on the side of the berth, while the Secretary and other officers
made themselves comfortable on the floor. Nothing daunted by cramped
lodge was duly opened. Two petitions for degrees were received and
transacted, and the lodge was duly closed, somewhat hurriedly, however,
as a bad
sea had risen and some of the "sea legs" were found to be not as stable
as their owners had fondly believed.
The two petitions
were subsequently favorably acted upon and both candidates elected, one
was killed in action before any degrees could be conferred. The other
was duly raised
and is now a United States Consul in China.
meetings were held for several weeks, during which the 163rd Infantry,
the officers of the lodge, were scattered about over France, but
finally the regiment
was re-assembled in the St. Aignan area on the Cher River, and meetings
The Division Commander, General Robert Alexander, himself a brother of
of Kansas, gave the lodge permission to meet in a room in a school
was in use in the daytime for military purposes, and several meetings
there, until finally the trustees of the school entered objections to
its use as
a lodge room by Freemasons and it had to be abandoned.
At the first
meeting held in this school room a general notice was sent out to all
the area, and the result was four solid hours of examining visitors
before the lodge
would be opened. There was no work for this meeting, so the time after
was opened was devoted to a "get acquainted" meeting, the W. M. calling
the roll of the states and brethren present answering for their
The result was almost unbelievable, as 23 states and Porto Rico were
by brethren at the meeting.
At the second
meeting a third degree was conferred by courtesy for Helena Lodge No. 3
Both Wardens of the Army Lodge were absent on military duties, as well
as were several
other officers, so the Master called for volunteers from the brethren
assist in the work. Seven different states were represented by the
part, several by Past Masters, and owing to the difference in the work
of the seven
different jurisdictions, the Master was kept extremely busy maintaining
the spring of 1918 the regiment was moved to Montrichard, and several
held at that place, one of the most interesting of which was held in a
cave of a
single room, without seats of any kind, at which were raised two
orders took them to the front lines the following day. The altar at
was an empty "Corn Willie" box; the officers and brethren sat, tailor
fashion, upon the stone floor; the preparation room was all of France,
the starry sky. But the spirit of the brotherhood of Masonry was
present and the
impressiveness of the degree was enhanced by the thought that on the
two brothers being bound to us by unbreakable ties, were to take their
the firing line; that they were going from us, fresh from our altar
with their newly
assumed vows upon them, possibly to attend their next meeting in that
Lodge on High. However, I am glad to record that both brothers
returned, and today
are honored members of the Craft.
lives an American, a Mr. Wells, the owner of a fine large chateau. This
learning of the existence of the lodge, although not a member of the
the lodge the use of a fine large room in his chateau and several
held there by the Senior Warden while the Master was performing
military duty at
occurring at Montrichard seems worthy of mention. A French Mason,
having made himself
known to a number of American Masons, informed us that there was an
place in the village and led us to a cave in the rocks. Entering we
large room of probably twenty by thirty feet in size, cut out of the
At the east end of the room were three steps of stone and carved in the
were the Sun, Moon and All-seeing Eye. The ceiling was curved and still
the remains of a representation of the starry canopy. The walls were
pillars of the different classes of architecture. At one side we
winding stairs with the proper number of steps, each bearing its
and terminating in a small chamber whose walls were decorated with
and symbols familiar to Masons.
of the cave, which evidently had been of masonry, was gone, and the
place was crowded
with articles of machinery and a rabbit hutch. The small chamber at the
the winding stairs was fitted up as a bed chamber, and at the time of
quite late in the evening, contained a sleeping peasant whom we
disturbed, but who
accepted our apologies with a smile and resumed his slumbers. We
desired to hold
a meeting of our lodge in this old lodge room, which our guide informed
us had been
first prepared for Masonic purposes nearly three centuries before, but
the impossibility of properly closing the front, we were unable to do
Lodge which originally used the cave as a meeting place is still in
moved from Montrichard to Tours some thirty or forty years ago.
meetings were held at Montrichard in a mushroom canning factory which
Forces were using as a warehouse, the lodge room and preparation room
in the center of the large room by erecting walls of boxes and bales of
Armistice the Army Lodge met more regularly at St. Aignan, where a
fairly good room
was secured on the third floor of a building. Here several brothers
degrees and learned their lectures.
At the last
meeting held an investigating committee made its report on an
applicant. When the
ballot box was called for, it was missing. This ballot box consisted of
box divided into two compartments, with the lid in two parts, and the
red and white army beans.
the absence of such an article could not long deter the functioning of
Lodge, and two tin dishes were promptly produced, into one of which
a number of silver and copper French coins. The whole was then covered
with a cloth,
and the candidate duly elected with silver French 50 centime pieces.
Montana Masons serving in the A. E. F. was the Right Worshipful R. E.
Senior Grand Warden Elect of the Grand Lodge of Montana. Early in the
1919 the mails brought to the writer a proxy issued by the Most
Master of Montana, Bro. E. M. Hutchinson, empowering him to convene a
of the Grand Lodge of Montana for the purpose of installing Brother
Right Worshipful Senior Grand Warden. Brother Hathaway, who was then in
communicated with, and on March 29, 1919, he arrived at St. Aignan,
where, in compliance
with the authority granted, a Special Communication of the Grand Lodge
was convened and he was duly installed in his office.
as this is probably the only instance in American Masonic History where
Lodge of an American jurisdiction was convened on foreign soil, the
minutes of that
meeting and a roster of the acting Grand officers and brethren present
of interest to the Craft. We give them as follows:
Communication of the Grand Lodge of Montana A. F. and A. M., was held
at St. Aignan,
Loir-et-Cher, France this 29th day of March, A. D. 1919, A. L. 5919.
officers were present:
Bro. L. A.
Foot, Act. W.G.M. Bro. W. C. Riddell, Act. S.G.W. Bro. L. A. Buchanan,
Bro W. E. Olsen, Act. G. Sec'y. Bro O. S. Perry, Act. G. Treas. Bro. R.
Act. S.G.D. Bro. J. P. Webber, Act. J.G.D. Bro A. E. Johnson, Act.
S.G.S. Bro W.
E. Wilson, Act. J.G.S. Bro. G. R. Austin, Act. G.Tyler. Bro. C. S.
Winn, Act. G.
as shown by Tyler's Register.
opened in form on the Third Degree at nine o'clock p. m.
G. M. then read the following:
L. A. Foot, W. M. Montana Lodge No. 1, U. D. to install R. W. Brother
Hathaway as Senior Grand Warden.
To all to
whom These Presents May Come-Greetings:
at the Fifty-fourth Annual Communication of our Grand Lodge, held in
the City of
Billings on August 21 and 22 1918, R. W. Brother Robert E. Hathaway,
now in the
Medical Reserve Corps of the United States Army in France, was duly
elected R. W.
Senior Grand Warden; and,
he was not present to be installed into said position by virtue of such
now, therefore, know ye:
Ernest M. Hutchinson, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free
Masons of Montana, reposing full confidence in the Masonic skill and
Brother L. A. Foot, W. M. Montana Army Lodge No. 1, U. D., do hereby
as our special proxy and representative to install R. W. Brother Robert
as R. W. Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge A. F. and A. M. of
to the ancient customs and rites of the Fraternity, requesting that due
made to us of this, our proxy.
our hand and the seal of our Grand Lodge at Whitefish, this 19th day of
A. D. 1918.
Hutchinson, Grand Master Attest: Cornelius Hedges, Jr.
(Seal of Grand Lodge).
R. W. Brother
Robert E. Hathaway was then introduced and duly installed as R. W.
Warden of the Grand Lodge A. F. and A. M. of Montana.
ceremony, R. W. Brother Hathaway made an address to the assembled
his satisfaction and pleasure at being installed into his high office
by a subordinate
lodge of his own Grand Lodge in France, and thanking the officers and
Montana Army Lodge No. 1 for their efforts in his behalf.
no further business to come before the meeting, Lodge was closed in
form on the
Third Degree at 10:30 p. m. Peace and Harmony prevailing.
W. E. Olsen.
Act. G. Sec'y.
L. A. Foot
Act. W. G. M.
OF MONTANA ARMY LODGE NO. 1, U. D. St. Aignan, France, March 29, 1919.
R. E. Hathaway,
Glendive No. 31, Glendive, Mont. L. A. Foot, Choteau No. 44, Montana
and M. A. L.
No. 1, U. D. Wm. C. Riddell, Helena, Mont. Curtis Winn, P. M., St.
No. 17, Albany, Oregon. H.
W. Bateman, Choteau 44, Choteau, Mont. A. E. Johnson, Mont.
Lodge No. 1, U.
D. J. P. Webber, Silver Bow No. 48, Butte, Mont., and M. A. L. No. 1.
G. N. Austin,
Sandstone No. 34, Baker Mont., and M. A. L. No. 1 W. L. Hurlburt, Star
in the East,
New Bedford, Mass W. E. Olsen, Valier, Mont., and M. A. L. No. 1. V. E.
Excelsior 22, Council Bluffs, Iowa. W. T. Barker, Mt. Vernon, Malden,
Abraham, Oblong City 644, Oblong, Ill. Edward Hambrecht, Hamilton 79,
N. Y. Vernon A. Hammond, Rock Creek 685, Harriet, Ark. Albert E. Davis,
753, Brooklyn, N. Y. William Reed McCathran, Osiris 26, Washington, D.
C Kris M.
Solberg, Virginia Falls 171, Merrill, Wise. Robert D. Ashley, Cradford
Ind. Frank M. Good, Adoniram 517, Akron, Ohio. Oliver S. Perry, Montana
No. 1. Nathan B. Gillispie, St. George's Lodge, Barkston, Mass. James
North Star No. 46, Glasgow, Mont. Louis B. Meyer, Enfield No. 447,
Enfield, N. C.
Bernard Ettengen, St. George No. 6, Schenectady, N. Y. Lyman C. Ward,
J. Emory Tribbey, Washburn Lodge No. 421, Washburn, Ill. Edgar W.
the special communication of the Grand Lodge of Montana, above
Army Lodge No. 1 held eighteen meetings at which were initiated
eleven of whom were raised. The Lodge received requests from American
through the Grand Lodge of Montana, to confer 103 courtesy degrees.
With most of
these requests it was impossible to comply as the candidates were
never, due to
the exigencies of war, near enough to the lodge to present themselves.
of such requests were complied with and we would have been only too
glad to care
for them all had circumstances allowed.
In the eyes
of the writer the greatest benefit of the Army Lodge was the fact that
sacred precincts alone could soldiers of all ranks meet on an equal
from the somewhat undemocratic restrictions of army regulations
governing the associations
of officers and men. In an army made up, as was ours, of men from all
walks of life,
the rule of the old regular army that there must be no social
the enlisted and the commissioned personnel proved galling, and nowhere
such a place as was provided by the Army Lodge could this condition be
the Mason is a social being; he wants to meet his brothers on the
level, and he
does not want a little thing like a General's stars or a Corporal's
make any distinction between him and them. When he was on the drill
field or in
the trenches he believed in as strict compliance with army regulations
as he did
in the Landmarks of his Lodge, but he wanted a place where all rank
could be forgotten,
where he could meet his brother who wore the stars or the eagles and
who distinguished the insignia of a private soldier as equals. Such a
place he found
in the Army Lodge, where the Tyler looked upon military rank as in the
with cowens and evesdroppers, and where the military salute was
displaced by the
The Ancient and Illustrious Order of Knights
of Malta of the Continent of America
William A. Gretzinger, Pennsylvania
is a Past Grand Commander of Quaker City Commandery, No. 422, of the
Malta. In view of the recent revival of interest in the Order of St.
presentation of the claims of the American Order to be directly and
descended from the original Knights of the Hospital of St. John of
query welcome. The crucial link in the chain of evidence is concerned
with Sir James
Sandilands, and what is said of him in the article should be read with
of the Knights of Malta was originally divided into eight languages, or
These were, in order, Provence, Auvergne, France, Italy, Arragon,
Castile. These were thus divided long before the modern frontiers were
and Auvergne are now part of France. Arragon and Castile are in Spain.
of England, sixth in order, included also the Scottish branch, though
the two countries were then quite separate. It is from the Scottish
branch of the
Sixth Langue that the Order in America is descended.
us that several centuries ago some merchants from Amalfi, in Naples,
with the misery to which pilgrims were exposed on their road to the
obtained permission from the Caliph of Egypt to erect a church and
build a monastery
near the site of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, which they dedicated
to St. John
the Baptist or the Almoner, A. D. 1048.
all pilgrims that came for devotion and cared for the distressed among
became eminent in their devotion, charity and hospitality, and were
of St. John of Jerusalem, to distinguish them from the Knights of the
They took the Black Habit of the Hermit of St. Augustine and on the
wore a cross of eight points.
was a white cross or an eight-pointed fishtail Maltese cross,
Its whiteness the emblem of
of life required in those who fight for the defense of the Christian
faith and live
for the service of the poor and suffering.
The four arms representing the
virtues: Justice, Prudence, Temperance, Fortitude.
The eight points representing:
Patience, Repentance, Charity, Humility, Sincerity,
Faith, Justice and Mercy.
The eight points representing
eight original languages.
The eight points representing
eight original flags.
Representing the compass in its
cardinal points in: The Angles: North, East,
South, West. The Points: Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, Northwest.
Representing: Earth, Air, Fire,
Representing the four beasts
In war they
wore crimson with a white cross, but in their monasteries and on the
day of their
profession, the black garment only.
II, Bishop of Rome, by a decree appointed Peter Gerard, a native of
Provost and Guardian. By the same decree it was provided that the
successor of Gerard
was to be fairly elected by the brothers. The first election resulted
Raimond Du Puis to the Grand Mastership and he extended the original
design of nursing
and feeding the sick and poor to that of affording pilgrims and
strangers a safe
escort from the Holy City to their own home. (The country between
the nearest point of embarkation for Europe being inhabited by the
Christianity who used every means to destroy all those who bore the
name of Christian.)
a short time afterwards, petitioned that they might become a military
relinquishing their religious habits, and this petition was granted.
of Jerusalem armed them himself and received their vows to defend the
with the last drop of their blood, and to combat infidels wherever they
them. On the conclusion of the ceremony, the Knights of St. John
offered their services
to the King of Jerusalem, and afterwards, with Knights Templar, became
supporters of that ruler.
Knights of Malta were reorganized on a military basis, A. D. 1118, the
Assistants formed themselves into a chapter or council, and statutes
and rules were
instituted for their guidance.
We will now
turn our attention to the Sixth Language, the Scottish portion of which
the main body. As already stated, the Sixth Nation or Language was
Scotland, Ireland and Wales. It consisted of three priories, and was
a Chapter composed of representative officers from each priory. The
of the Chapter being the Lord Grand Prior, who was Lord Lieutenant of
sat in the English Parliament as Premier Baron of the Realm; the Lord
Prior of Torpichen,
who was Bailiff of Scotland, and sat in the Scottish Parliament as Lord
the Lord Prior of Kilmainham, who was Bailiff of Ireland; the
Turcopolier, the Conservator,
the Procurator, the Grand Crosser, the Grand Chaplain, the Grand
Priory was situated in the Parish of Clerkenwell, London, and contained
a hospital and an inn. A magnificent edifice, founded by Lord Briset
to the services of the Order in 1185, by Heraclius, Patriarch of
Jerusalem. It was
set on fire by the rebels under Wat Tyler, in 1380, and burned for
seven days. In
its widely varied decorations, both internally and externally, it is
said to have
contained specimens of the arts of both Europe and Asia, together with
of books and rarities, the loss of which in a less turbulent age would
a subject of national regret. The building was finally repaired by the
Prior Dotwra in 1504, and is still rich in the monumental grandeur of
Knights Templar were suppressed in 1312, the whole of their extensive
in the British Isles were bestowed to the Knights of St. John, thus
Order very considerably. They thereafter held estates in almost every
the three kingdoms.
and Irish branches were suppressed in 1540, by act of Parliament
(statute 32, Henry
VIII, chap. 24) instituted:
An act concerning the lands and
goods of the
Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, in England and Ireland, to be
hereafter in the
King's hand and disposition… That the lords, spiritual and temporal, in
parliament assembled, having credible knowledge that divers and sundry
of the King's
subjects, Knights of Rhodes, otherwise called Knights of St. John,
Friars of the Religion of St. John of Jerusalem, in England, and of a
in Ireland … have unnaturally, and contrary to the duty of their
and maintained the usurped power and authority of the Bishop of Rome
and practiced within this realm, and have not only adhered themselves
to the said
bishop, being a common enemy of the King our Sovereign Lord, and this
upholding and affirming, maliciously and traitorously, the same bishop
to be Supreme
Chief Head of Christ's Church, … it should be most dangerous to be
suffered or permitted
within this realm. Or in any other of the King's dominions, any
religion being sparks,
leaves and imps of the said root of iniquity… That it were and is much
the possessions in this realm, and in other of the King's dominions
to the said religion, should rather be employed and spent within this
the defense and surety of the same, than converted to and among such
which have declined from their natural duty of obedience daily doing,
privily and craftily, all they can to subvert the good and godly policy
this realm and all other of the King's dominions now stand, &c.
It is then
That the corporation of the
said religion, as
well within this realm, as within the King's dominions and land of
Ireland, by whatsoever
name or names they be founded, incorporated or known, shall be utterly
and void to all intents and purposes, and that Sir William Weston,
Knight, now being
Prior of the said religion within this realm of England and land of
not be named or called from henceforth Prior of St. John of Jerusalem,
but shall be called by his proper name of William Weston, Knight,
addition touching the said religion. And that likewise John Rauson, now
Kilmainhlam in Ireland, shall not be called or named from henceforth
Prior of Kilmainham
in Ireland, but only by his proper name John Rauson, Knight, without
touching the said religion, nor any of the brethren or confereres of
the said religion,
in this realm of England and land of Ireland shall be called Knights of
nor Knights of St. John, but shall be called by their own proper
and surnames of their parents, without any additions touching the same…
. It is
furthermore enacted that if the said William Weston, Knight, or any of
or confreres of the Hospital or House of St. John of Jerusalem in
and if the said John Rauson, Knight, or any of his brethren or
confreres of the
said Hospital or House of Kilmainham in Ireland, &c., do use or
this realm, or within the said land of Ireland, or elsewhere, in or
upon any apparel
of their bodies, any sign, mark, or token heretofore used and
accustomed, or hereafter
to be devised, for the knowledge of the said religion, or make any
chapters or assemblies, touching the said religion; or Maintain,
support, use, or
defend any manner of liberties, franchises, or privileges heretofore
the parties so offending shall incur, &c.
a list of penalties incurred.
So far as
England and Ireland were concerned this act gave an abrupt ending to
but fortunately the Order existed where King Henry had no jurisdiction.
not, however, overlook the magnanimity of "old King Hal." The act from
which we have just quoted was sufficiently magnanimous to leave the two
dignity of knighthood, and to grant a pension to each of the then
officers of the
Order to continue during their lifetime. This kind of magnanimity may
not be considered
wholesome, but the late Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M. P., acted on the
when, in 1869, he despoiled the Protestant Church of Ireland, and
doubtful as the
honesty of the principle may be he found a majority of the British
House of Commons
could sufficiently stultify their consciences to permit of their voting
Church-Plunder Bill, and believe that they were really magnanimous in
Truly, in point of honesty we are not much better than "old King Hal"
and we should therefore be sparing in our denunciations of his policy.
this statute never was repealed, an attempt was made by Queen Mary of
revive the Order, in the hope that the Priests of the Order would aid
her in her
bloody work of undoing the Reformation by the extermination of
Pole was her adviser, and she (or rather they, for the Cardinal had a
in it than the Queen) appointed Sir P. Tresham, Prior; Sir R. Shelly,
Sir Peter Felix de la Nuca; Baili de Aguila, and others of the knights
into a corporation
or Priory of the confraternity of St. John of Jerusalem in England. In
of James II we again find the Order existing in England under the Duke
as Grand Prior. It is scarcely necessary to point out that on both
order was popish.
the nineteenth century the Order was again resuscitated in England,
this time on
a legal footing, and by virtue of powers granted in 1827 by the
Commander de Dieune,
and others, forming a capitulary commission delegated to act by a
of the Languages of Provence, Auvergne, France, Arragon and Castile,
being a majority
of the eight Languages, held at Paris under the presidentship of Prince
de Rohan (Grand Prior of Aquitane in 1814), whose proceedings were
afterwards confirmed by the Lieutenant of the magistery and the sacred
Catania. Under these powers Sir Robert Peat, D.D., chaplain to King
was installed as Grand Prior in 1831. and as such took the oath de
fideli, but it
was found necessary to revive the corporation before the court of
which was accordingly done on the 24th February, 1834. These
formalities were gone
through at the instance of Sir Lancelot Shadwell, Vice-Chancellor of
was soon after elected a Knight of the Order. Sir Henry Dymoke, of
Sir Robert Peat, D.D., as Grand Prior in 1837.
thus resuscitated was strictly Protestant, and was understood to be so
by the conference
of five out of the eight languages, at which the order of resuscitation
and by whose authority a Protestant clergyman who was chaplain to a
was ordained as Grand Prior. Even in those latter days of the Order's
when it was slowly but surely dying out on the Continent, the Pope had
and Protestantism was no crime.
Order In Scotland
stated the Scottish branch of the Sixth Language outlived the parent
stem. It is
here and here only that we have an unbroken chain of existence. Here
of England had no jurisdiction; here the European resolution had no
there was no necessity to suppress the Order on account of the religion
of the Knights,
they being foremost amongst the reformers.
was introduced into Scotland by "the sore saint," King David I.
James VI., when viewing the tomb of his great ancestor in Dumfermline,
to him as "King David," when one of his nobles reminded him that it was
"St. David," James replied, "Aye, he was a sore saint for the crown."
The finest preceptory was established at Linlithgow, and in due course
was governed by a Grand Priory called the Grand Priory of Torphichen.
Prior had a seat in Parliament under the appropriate title of Lord St.
was by virtue of office a member of the Grand Chapter, or Supreme
Council of the
Sixth Language, a body which was presided over by the Grand Prior of
Knights do not appear to have had the same zeal for crusading which
their continental brethren. Probably the unsettled state of the country
for their lack of zeal in this matter. When people have more than
enough to do at
home, they don't as a rule go abroad; and the civil wars of the
kept the Scots very much at home. Yet they were not insensible to the
the age, and they have left their mark on many places in the country.
near Glasgow, has an interesting connection with the Crusaders. Some of
Templar, after their return from Palestine, settled near Jordanhill at
now called Temple. The general appearance of the district so reminded
them of the
country around the Jordan that they gave it the name of Jordanhill. A
of Jordanhill is the village of Knightswood, which also owes its name
to the Crusaders
from its having been the forest in which the Knights hunted.
Auchtermuchty, in Fifeshire,
bears the name of a Knight of Malta. The late Sir Samuel Auchmuchty, of
Regiment made the following statement:
My two uncles,
Sir Samuel Auchmuchty, for some time commander of the British forces in
and Sir Benjamin Auchmuchty, took much interest in the Knights of
Malta. I have
heard the latter frequently speak of them, and from traditions in my
family, I know
that our ancestors were originally Knights of Malta, and emigrated from
Scotland. They founded a town in Scotland, called from them
Auchtermuchty, and a
sword is to this day preserved in our family, once the property of one
death of Scotland's royal saint (David I.) in 1153 till the conversion
of Sir James Sandilands in 1553, exactly 400 years, there is little to
what date the Grand Priory was established in Scotland is, we fear,
lost in the
antiquity of the ages; but we have it on record that Archibald,
Magister of Torphichen,
held the office of Grand Prior in 1252, and his successors appearing in
order, all of whom received their appointment from the Grand Master:
de la More
It was undoubtedly
through the instrumentality of Grand Prior Sir James Sandilands Lord
St. John of
that period, and the last holder of that long honored title that the
of the Order, which converted it from a popish confraternity to a
in Scotland was effected. It certainly cannot be said of him that he
hid his light
under a bushel; when the light of the Sun of Righteousness penetrated
his own soul,
he reflected the brightness of that soul-saving light upon those around
distinguished reformer, liberator and guardian of the regenerated
Order, was the
second son of Sir James Sandilands of Calder, and Marietta, daughter of
Forrester of Corstorphine. He was initiated into the Order at Malta,
and there received
his knightly education under the eye of the Grand Master. He was
Sir Walter Lyndsay, on his decease, as a person well qualified to
succeed him in
the office of Grand Prior of Scotland. He was accordingly appointed to
by a bull of Grand Master Homedez, dated at Malta, April 2, 1547. He
was an intimate
friend of the great reformer John Knox, and had long been favorably
the reformers. By the persuasion of Knox he was led to publicly
renounce the Roman
Catholic religion in 1553.
to him in his Life of John Knox [Lib 1905], states that
After his return to the south
of the Forth he
(Knox) resided at Calder House, in West Lothian, the seat of Sir James
commonly called Lord St. John, because he was the chief in Scotland of
order of Military Knights, who went by the name of Hospitallers or
Knights of St.
John. This gentleman who was now venerable, for his grey hairs as well
as for his
valour, sagacity and correct morals, had long been a sincere friend to
cause, and had contributed to its preservation in that part of the
country. In 1548,
he had presented to the parsonage of Calder, John Spotwood, afterwards
superintendent of Lothian, who had imbibed the Protestant doctrines
Cranmer, in England, and who instilled them into the minds of his
and of the nobility and gentry that frequented the house of his patron.
who attended Knox’s sermons at Calder, were three young noblemen who
made a great
figure in the public transactions which followed Archibald, Lord Lorne
to the earldom of Argyle at the most critical period of the
with all the ardor of youthful zeal, that cause which his father had
extreme old age, John, Lord Erskine, afterwards Earl of Mar, who
commanded the important
fortress of Edinburgh Castle during the civil war which ensued between
Regent and the Protestants, and died Regent of Scotland; and Lord James
an illegitimate son of James V., who was subsequently created Earl of
was the first Regent of the Kingdom during the minority of James VI.
We have noticed
statements to the effect that it was at Calder House that John Knox
the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper in the Protestant form, but we are
to lay claim to doubtful honors. According to M'Crie, this event took
place in St.
Andrews, in 1547 which date is prior to the conversion of Sir James
But we will let M'Crie speak for himself:
His (Knox’s) labors were so
the few months that he preached at St. Andrews that, besides the
garrison in the
castle, a great number of the inhabitants of the town renounced Popery
profession of the Protestant faith by participating of the Lord’s
Supper. This was
the first time that the Sacrament of the Supper was dispensed after the
mode in Scotland, if we except the administration of it by Wishart in
the same place,
which was performed with great privacy immediately before his martyrdom.
Lord St. John had openly professed his acceptance of the Protestant
faith, he continued
to exercise all the functions of his office as Grand Prior, and as
shown by the
preceding quotation, his influence was over the best and foremost men
in the country.
Calder House, as the residence of the Grand Prior, would naturally be a
for the Knights of the Order, but as we have seen it was also a
rendezvous of prominent
politicians. Either these politicians were Knights of the Order, or the
the Grand Prior had an abnormal influence over them. It was under the
of the Grand Prior that they received both their religious and
That two of his respected guests became Regent of the kingdom and a
with an important command under the reformed, or Protestant government,
with the duties entrusted to him personally, point very plainly indeed
to the enormous
influence he wielded, and wielded for good.
On Oct. 1,
1557, he was still in communication with the Grand Master and Chapter
Thus proving conclusively that his conversion to Protestantism did not
in any way
affect his relations with the body.
On Feb. 27,
1559, we find him as one of the signatories to the offensive and
between Queen Elizabeth, of England, and the Lords of the Congregation,
Scottish Protestant party.
Aug. 24, 1560, the Scottish Parliament abolished popery, the work of
had been so well done that only three men raised their voice against
namely, the Earl of Atholl and Lords Sommerville and Borthwick "The
spake never a word." Lord St. John was on this occasion selected by
to go to France and lay their proceedings before the Queen (Mary) for
It is said that upon that occasion the Cardinal of Lorraine sought to
load him with
reproaches for his conversion to the Protestant religion, which step
ably defended by that chivalric Knight to the utter confusion of the
in which he carried out this rather delicate task is best shown by the
which the Queen appreciated his services on this and other important
On Jan. 24,
1563, we again find the Protestant Grand Prior and the Popish Queen
face to face.
This time he went at the request of the Grand Priory, to hand over to
the lands and possessions of the Order, together with the dignity of
Lord St. John,
which he held as chief of the Order; and this for the purpose of
and his Knights from certain obligations of their Sovereign a task
which few men
would care to take in hand.
accepted them in the most gracious manner, and in order to show her
for the man who thus divested himself of the rank and title of a peer,
to him as a personal gift the lands of Torphichen, and at the same time
him a peer of the realm under the title of Lord Torphichen.
time forward the Order has been separate from the state, and therefore
the eye of the historian, a circumstance which forces us to be content
being shed across our path, while other matters are under review, until
come into the full light of documentary evidence.
matter which presents itself to the mind of the thoughtful companion
is, did Sir
James Sandilands resign the office of Grand Prior when he gave up the
of Lord St. John, or did he retain office till his death in 1596? Some
assumed that he resigned, but we fail to see where the circumstances
assumption. The object of giving up the lands, etc., of the Order, was
that the relations of the Order to the Crown would be that of
civilians. Had the
Grand Prior intended to resign, his renunciation of the Order would
the end in view without risking the displeasure of the Queen. His
mission to the
Queen was no personal matter, he was acting for the Order as a whole
with a view
to their continued existence apart from the state, and they obtained
of their desire. The Order continued to exist, and whether Lord
to hold the office of Grand Prior or not, he positively did continue to
be a leader
in the Protestant cause, where he led the same men as he led as Grand
have never seen any valid reason put forward as to why he should have
while there are many reasons why he should have retained office; but we
to rest our case on the fact that all the trouble he took in gaining
state control would have been superfluous had he intended to resign. We
conclude that he retained office till his death, on 29th March, 1596.
Order continued in a publicly recognized manner is shown by the fact
the year 1572, David Seaton, with a portion of the Scottish Knights,
from the then Protestant fraternity. He retired to Germany where he
died in 1591,
the remnant of the seceders ultimately finding a shelter under the wing
of the first
lodge of Scottish Masons at Kilwinning, Ayrshire, where they introduced
of St. John, which are still given in connection with (Blue) Masonry.
We again get
a glimpse of the Order in 1643, when it was reintroduced into Ireland
for the protection
of Protestants who had suffered so severely by the Irish rebellion of
was the Second Grand Priory of Ireland, and be it noted, founded and
by the Grand Priory of Scotland. That this branch was still in
existence in 1795
when the Loyal Orange Institution was founded, is shown by the fact
that at a very
early date the Orange and the Black had become inseparably connected.
In some cases
separate warrants were held, while in others certain degrees were given
Orange warrant, and those wishing to travel further had to apply to a
These facts point to two conclusions: 1st, That the Orange was a
of the Knights of St. John to accomplish the object for which the Order
reestablished in 1643, namely: The protection of Protestants, and is
natural offspring of the Ancient Order. 2nd, That the Knights of St.
John were very
lax in the performance of their duty when they allowed their degrees to
under the jurisdiction of a body actually free from their control,
although a friendly
body, and it may be a body founded by them. That this was a blunder is
and the practice forbidden. While endeavoring to be just in our
criticism we must
not forget to be generous. It was this blunder which brought about that
which has kept the older Order alive, and without which it assuredly
ago have shared the fate of the continental branches.
We will now
turn our attention to documentary evidence; for this purpose we have
had free access
to all documents held by the Imperial Parent Grand Black Encampment of
Strange as it may appear, the oldest of these are of Irish origin, but
into the more ancient of them we will note one of semi-modern date. The
the Third Grand Priory (or Lodge) of Ireland, or to be more correct,
of a Committee to Grand Lodge on 11th April, 1850, re The newly
Black Chapter of Ireland. In the report they refer to their own origin
coming through the Scottish reformers, and they assert that "The Order
was dissolved and that they held the chain of transmission which was
all its links." Here we have an authoritative declaration of the
of the Order, from the time the political history of the country lost
the Order, until the time of giving their report, i.e., to 1850; and
from the tenor
of the report the Order was in a fully organized condition in 1807.
is implied, not stated, but the former general statement covers the
period, so that
we may not distress ourselves about the implication. We have before us
write a very old copy of Rules belonging to the Royal Black Association
they are undated, but they must have been compiled prior to the year
1820, and may
have been compiled as far back as 1795, which would only have
necessitated a change
of the monarch's name; which is common practice at the death of a
monarch. In its
"Prefatory Observations" it sets forth that "It should be understood
that this Order is entirely detached from that of Orangemen (with the
that no person, unless he has passed the Degrees of Orange and Purple,
can be admitted),
and it ought not to be supposed that it entrenches on the rights,
immunities of that system. It is calculated to instruct and inform
those who are
desirous of obtaining a knowledge of Divine Truth, and Sublime
Mysteries, and to
cultivate that harmony which should exist amongst true Protestants."
things provided by this code is a declaration to be read, by the
Master, to candidates
previous to their initiation:
Whereas our Christian
forefathers, the Knights
of Malta, who joined a holy bond of brotherhood, to support all kings
against Turks and infidels. we, the members of the Royal Black
as far as in our power lies, imitate their glorious acts and great
with our lives and fern tunes, to support and defend his present
IV, his heirs and successors, so long as he or they maintain and defend
religion and the present Constitution.
That a regular visiting officer
shall be received
at the different lodges in Dublin, for the purpose of communicating
to the Grand Lodge; and such lodges as do not meet in the Metropolis
shall, by their
Secretary, communicate to the Secretary of the Grand Lodge, annually,
goes on to give the obligation which is substantially the same as that
use. Of course the name of the Sovereign given is George IV., and it
was sworn to,
a custom long since abolished. It also gives the prayers to be used at
and closing of lodges. These are identical with those in use at the
Order was in good working condition both in Scotland and Ireland, long
time we might limit for the code quoted from above, will be seen by the
we will look at is headed "No. 155, Grand Black Order of Orangemen:
Regiment." It has the royal arms on the left, and the skull and
on the right with the words "God be our guide" under the royal arms,
under this a broad black ribbon with an equilateral seal in black wax.
is as follows:
To all Brother Knights of the
Grand Black Order
of Orangemen, to whom these presents come greeting. We, the Master
High Priest, Secretary, &c., of the Assembly of Knights of the
Grand Order of
Orangemen, held in Princes Town, England, do hereby certify that
Brother Sir James
Henry was by us dubbed a Knight of this Most Grand and Sublime Order,
on the 30th
day of August, 1814, &c.
We need not
quote further, as what follows are commonplace formalities. It
Given under our hand and seal
of Assembly, held
in Princes Town, this 31st day of August, 1814.
JOHN LAVERTY, Secretary.
document it would appear that Companion Henry had been initiated the
he left the regiment, and brought his certificate with him.
belonged to a Companion of more experience. It is headed with an arch
shown emblems of all the degrees. On the left margin above the ribbons
are the royal
arms, with the words, "King and Constitution we will support." The text
Loyal Orange Association, New
System, No. 155.
Now we, the Master, Deputy-Master, Secretary, &c., do strictly
charge you to
withdraw yourself from brethren that walketh disorderly
We, the Master and Deputy
Master, of No. 155,
of true Orangemen, do certify that Brother James Henry has regularly
colours affixed to this certificates &c.
represented by the colors affixed are orange, purple, black, scarlet,
old blue and
royal mark, and concludes thus:
Given under our hands and seal
of our lodge,
in our lodge room, in the County of Monaghan and Kingdom of Ireland and
Glasslough. Dated this 12th day of June, 1816.
JOS. MILLS, Deputy
and countersigned "Jos. Mills,
is a written document almost as neat as copper plate. The kingdom is
It is headed "Royal Black Association, No. 3," and is a certificate of
"Brother Sir Thomas Burgess," who has been
… duly initiated into the
Mysteries and Secrets
of a Royal Arch Black Knight Templar … having taken the sword in hand
Turks and unbelievers. We therefore recommend….
It is dated
2nd March, 1821, and bears the signatures
WM. M'KEY, High
JAMES CARSON, Grand Pursuivant.
became a member of No. 24, and we judge the document to be from No. 3
of the Grand
Lodge of Scotland.
We now turn
to a parchment certificate, which is still in good condition, and
issued by a lodge
holding its authority from the Grand Black Lodge of Scotland. It runs
God is our Guide. Royal Black
Protestant Association: 1st Royal Regiment. "And God said let there be
and there was light."
Now we, the Master,
Deputy-Master, &c., do
Strictly charge you to withdraw yourself from brethren that walketh
In the name of the most holy, glorious, and undivided Trinity, the
and Holy Ghost, we grant to Brother John Nixon this certificate from
No. 16 Warrant,
of the Magnanimous and Invincible Order of Royal Black Lodge
Association of Lodge
No. 16. held at Banzalore, in the East Indies.
We need not
copy the document further. It is dated 1st August, 1829, and is signed
A. BLAIR, Deputy
WM. HALLIDAY, High
J. R. BAILLIE, Pursuivant.
affixed represent the degrees up to and including the green.
the oldest written documents to which we have had access, but they are
to prove the existence of the Grand Lodge of Scotland when No. 16
warrant was issued,
and that it (No. 16) was working in Bangalore on 1st August, 1829,
whither it had
removed with the regiment some time previous, therefore an old lodge at
given. This certificate alone gives the death-blow to the theory so
that the Grand Lodge of Scotland was founded in 1831; but when taken
the other documents quoted we are carried far back beyond the time when
Lodge of Ireland ceased to exist; therefore impossible for them to have
the letters of authority, held by Grand Master Donaldson, for the
of Grand Lodge in 1831, they being nonexistent for at least seven years
event. Moreover, No. 16, of the Irish Grand, was working at the same
time as the
No. 16 to which we have referred, and continued to work in Ireland up
When we add to this fact that the Grand Lodges of Ireland publicly
Scottish origin, and were justly proud of it, is it too much to ask, or
that we should hear no more of such foolish fancies being promulgated
Whether the wish be father to the thought or not, the persistence with
has again and again been put forward proves that the wish is not
wanting. Had it
been possible for them to prove their case, it would have been done
many years ago.
They cannot prove a case because they have no case to prove.
is rather a peculiar document consisting of a series of resolutions
financial affairs, in which fines are imposed for certain offenses,
such as absence
from the regular meetings of the lodge, arrears of dues, etc. In each
case the resolution
closes with the reminder that if they (the members) fail they will
the benefit of a committee." What that means must be plain to the
dullard, so far at least as modern notions carry us; but those who have
to read the "Old Maltese Laws" and the "Old Scotch Laws" will
be aware of the fact that the committee had to be paid by the offending
or members, according to a printed scale. This document is headed
September, 1829, and begins thus: "At a committee meeting of the Royal
Lodge, No. 24, held in M'Culloch's, it was resolved, &c." Only
one of the
resolutions is of any importance to us, namely, No. 3, which gives us
as to the age of the lodge, and places beyond dispute the claim of its
Ancient St. John's, Glasgow, No. 24, is the oldest subordinate Black
Lodge in the
refers to arrears extending over "the last twelve months," and giving
details of meetings held on the following dates: 24th February, 24th
August, 31st August, 26th October, 24th November, 24th February, 24th
April, and 24th May. The year dates are not given in above details, but
show the existence of the lodge on 24th February, 1828; and the fact
that the committee
dealt with an accumulation of arrears proves the existence of the lodge
for a considerable
time prior to that date.
bears the seal of the lodge which is a neat little thing, one inch in
Round the outer circle are the words, "Loyal Black Association, No.
and in the center a skull and cross-bones, surmounted by the Latin
mort Remember death. The signatures appended are: Taylor Rankin, Hugh
William Gemmell, William Dickson, and William Kilpatrick.
presented to the lodge it was approved and signed "Henry Burnside, M."
and "William Dickson." In connection with the foregoing we have the
"Glasgow, 24th October, 1829.
two months from date 1 promise
to pay to Royal
Black Lodge, No. 24, the sum of Ten Shillings sterling.
(Signed) WILLIAM KILPATRICK.
JOHN ALLAN, Witness.
We now come
to a very important document a Grand Lodge Warrant which evidently
implies a reconstruction
of some kind; probably necessitated by the introduction of Orangeism
and the consequent flooding of the Order in Scotland by members from
were, as a matter of course, Orangemen. From this time forward the
Order in Scotland
had been closely connected with the Orange Institution. That the
of Grand Lodge was a legal one is shown by a letter from the Grand
behalf of the Grand Council, to the Grand Master, requesting him to
attend a subsequent
meeting of Grand Lodge, and "to bring with him the letters authorizing
to reorganize the Grand Lodge." So whatever the change was it was
and Grand Master George Donaldson held the letters of authority.
is one of a lot lithographed for issue to subordinate lodges, altered
to suit the
purpose of Grand Lodge. We give it as altered. (It was surmounted by
the Royal Arms):
Royal Black Association
HELD IN GLASGOW 'GOD IS OUR
In name of the Most Glorious
and Undivided Trinity.
We, the Grand Master and
Officers of the Grand
Black Assembly of Scotland, &c., held in Glasgow, do hereby
authorise and empower
our well beloved brother, Sir George Donaldson to establish a lodge of
worthy Black Men, and to act as Grand Master thereof, this being his
to issue out Warrants,
Given under our hand and seal
of our Grand Assembly,
at our Lodge Room, 24th June, A. D. 1831, and of Royal Black, 4344.
(Signed) Sir GEORGE DONALDSON,
Sir JOHN ALLAN,
On Black and
Sir ANDREW KETING,
Sir JAMES HENRY, G.P.M.
return to Lodge No. 24. This lodge has in its possession an old warrant
of the pattern
referred to, but as we have proof of the existence of the lodge long
granting of this warrant, we are forced to conclude that it is not the
or first, warrant, but a renewal of one previously held, probably
the purpose of bringing them into conformity with the new state of
in 1831. The heading of this warrant is the same as the Grand Lodge
given, and the text is as follows:
Lodge No. 24. Held in Glasgow,
County of Lanark.
We, the Grand Master and Officers of the Grand Black Lodge of Scotland,
held in Glasgow, do hereby authorize and empower our well-beloved
Thomson, to establish a lodge of true and worthy Black Men, and to act
thereof, this being his Warrant.
Given under our hand and seal
of our Grand Assembly,
at out Lodge Room, 24th March, 1833; and of Royal Black, 4346.
(Signed) Sir GEORGE DONALDSON,
Seal. Sir ANDREW
Sir JAMES HENRY,
Royal Black Lodge
Sir JOHN M'KEAND,
Sir ADAM THOMSON, G.P.M.
is in good condition and in the original frame.
(No. 24) has in its possession a copper plate on which is engraved what
to have been the emblematic heading of a warrant, and must have been
of Grand Lodge. It must also have been of an ancient date, as we are
not aware of
any existing document taken from it. For the benefit of our readers we
a copy, taken from the original plate.
We have before
us another warrant of the same design as the one given in connection
with No. 24.
This one is No. 99, and is granted to James Scott, of Johnstone, on
1854, and has written (with pen and ink) on the back thereof what is
called “A Dispensation
of Knights of Malta," while No. 24 warrant has no such endorsement or
and therefore (presumably) not entitled to confer the degree of Knights
The dispensation runs thus:
Grand Assembly Rooms, No. 71
Nelson Street, Glasgow,
24th March 1854. By the advice and consent of the Very Right Worshipful
Master and Office-bearers of the Parent Grand Black Encampment of the
I, Sir Hans Newell, Grand Chancellor in virtue of said office, do
and empower our truly and well-beloved friend and constituted Knight
Sir and Brother James Scott, and each of his successors, to hold a
of Knights of Malta in the town of Johnstone, in the County of Ayr and
of Scotland (of course this is a simple yet important error.
Town of Johnstone is in the County of Renfrew) to act Commander thereof
all the requisites of said Royal Illustrious Grand Black Order of
Knights of Malta.
Given under my hand, at
Glasgow, this 24th day
of March, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and
(Signed) Sir HANS NEWELL, Grand
God Save the Queen
later we have the revised copy of the laws applicable only to
Commanderies and Sub-Commanderies
of Knights of Malta. (They bear no date but the context proves them to
with the revised laws of the "Black" which were sanctioned by Grand
in February, 1854). The first page is a warrant, of which the foregoing
may be accepted as an advance copy, the only differences being that in
warrant they use the words "Great Chancellor," and the second paragraph
runs "do empower and authorize our trusty friend and constituted Sir
Companion, &c." Following the dispensation is the "Declaration
Knights of Malta," and the "Caution to Candidates," both of which
are identical with those now in force.
documents it would appear that the degree of Knights of Malta was only
by such lodges as held this special dispensation or warrant. At any
rate they prove
that the ordinary warrant of a Black Lodge was insufficient. This
accounts for some
lodges conferring the degree, while others did not confer it; and this
applies to the Irish as well as the Scottish lodges.
We now get
a glance at the condition of affairs in the Grand Lodge of Ireland, in
addressed to Henry Burnside, evidently the Master of No. 24. Strabane,
Sir and Brother,
I received yours of the 10th
about the Grand Black Lodge. I am sorry to say that that establishment
badly conducted these last four years, but I think there will shortly
be a change
in its affairs. I have written several times during the last two years,
get no satisfactory account from them. We will shortly have an entire
the Orange system, its laws and government ‒ which I hope will be more
in every department ‒ which, when it takes place, I will send you the
of the letter is of a private nature testifying to the good character
of Wm. Battersby,
and is signed "Dan. Cook, Martin B., L. No. 13; and of O.L., No. 250."
We have quoted
this letter at length because it is the first evidence we have of the
condition of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, which as a matter of fact was
the time this letter was written although Bro Cook seems not to have
of it. Later on we have proof positive that warrants were not
obtainable in 1825.
On Feb. 11, 1832, we have an application for a warrant to work in
The names appended are David Lindsay, Samuel Black, Henry Rollins,
John Craig, John Graham, Charles Birch, William Laughlan and Samuel
warrant granted was No. 32. In this encampment we were duly initiated
into all the
mysteries of the Order in the year 1869. We may be pardoned for adding
that in our
boyhood we were personally acquainted with three of the above-named
M'Gowan, John Graham and William Laughlan.
Language is being perpetuated at the present day in Scotland by a body
the Imperial Parent Grand Black Encampment of the Universe with
Glasgow. In the year 1870 the Order was first introduced into America
and an encampment
was chartered at Toronto, Canada, from which it soon spread to the
and in 1875 the Supreme Encampment of America was chartered by the
of Scotland, but a few years later the charter was revoked and
cancelled by the
Imperial body for disloyalty and departing from the ancient landmarks
of the Order.
Some of its
Subordinate Commanderies, however, remained loyal to the Imperial
continued to carry on the work and in 1884 formed themselves into a
Their growth was most remarkable, and on June 1, 1889, the Supreme
of America was chartered by the "Imperial Parent Grand Black Encampment
the Universe," and under this charter the Supreme Grand Commandery of
is granted the sole power on the Continent of America to issue charters
and Subordinate Bodies.
In the Court
of Common Pleas No. 2, for the County of Philadelphia, as of December
No. 566, a charter was granted the Grand Commandery of the Ancient and
Order of Knights of Malta in accordance with the Provisions of the Act
of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as approved the 29th day of April,
A. D. 1874,
which charter is recorded at Philadelphia, the 23rd day of January,
1884, in Charter
Book No. 8, page 375, etc.
In the same
Court an amendment was presented to change the name of the Grand
Commandery of the
Ancient and Illustrious Order of Knights of Malta to the Supreme Grand
of the Continent of America of the Ancient and Illustrious Order of
Knights of Malta
on which a Decree of Court was allowed and duly recorded at
Philadelphia in Charter
Book No. 26, page 408, on the 23rd day of September, 1901.
design of the Order was duly patented by letters at Washington, D. C.
design of the Order has recently been protected at Harrisburg,
a recent Act of Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
of the head of the Order in 1889 was Most Eminent Grand Commander,
changed to Sir Knight Supreme Commander, for titular head Supreme Body,
Knight Grand Commander for Grand Jurisdictions.
The Master of Mount Vernon
By Bro. E. E. Thiemeyer, Research Editor
all the titles conferred upon George Washington none was closer to his
described more completely the ambitions of the man than that which
heads this article.
The man whose knowledge and genius had led him to the highest pinnacle
envied no one, desired no glory, and still he could not help but become
close of the Revolutionary War, Washington returned to his home on the
That he had at last attained his fondest desire is amply attested by
quotation from one of his letters to the Marquis de Lafayette, who had
by this time
returned to his native France:
I have not only retired from
all public employment,
but I am retiring within myself. Envious of none, I am determined to be
with all; and this being the order of my march, I will move gently down
of life until I sleep with my fathers.
a sufficiently simple statement, but it is couched in terms of such
that no one could doubt the satisfaction that the writer was gathering
We can imagine
Washington, after those strenuous years of war and pestilence, happily
in the massive colonial mansion which overlooks a broad sweep of the
he was surrounded by every intimate thing which he held dear. Here he
answerable to no man but himself, literally lord of all he surveyed.
companion of his domestic joys and sorrows was with him; the Manor
house rang with
the artless prattle of their two adopted children; his friends and his
within visiting distance; but above all he could gather up the tangled
the rural life that he loved and weave of them a beautiful fabric of
consolation for his declining years. Such was his dream, but such was
not his destiny.
had been wealthy at the beginning of the war. Probably he was the
richest man in
the colonies. During the hostilities he gave freely of himself and his
At its end he was no longer vaunt though the hardships through which he
had left him strong enough to enjoy life, and he had not lost the
desire to retrieve
his fallen fortunes. We can picture him at this time as a vigorous and
planter. For recreation there was fishing, fox hunting, visiting,
and other favorite diversions. Southern hospitality was no empty phrase
Vernon. There was a constant stream of visitors, and the house was
imagine a Washington content to sit by and delegate the management of
his vast estates
to others. To the man who has always been active and industrious,
a habit, and even in the retirement he loved Washington was constantly
The man is
the topic of the present discussion only incidentally. It is a new book
that is the main interest. What a pleasant task it must have been for
D. Sawyer to investigate the life of such a character [Lib*]. Perhaps
could acquire as much joy in a work of research, but could others put
their findings? Many of them could do so, but their work would not
bubble over with
the pure joy of doing which stands out so prominently from the pages of
work. The author has been indefatigable in collecting facts; he has
in recording them; but like all great accomplishments it has been a
labor of love
and all of the creator's love for his creation appears in the pages of
of Washington is told in an intensely interesting manner. The author's
easy and readable. Even the chronological table of Washington's
ancestry takes on
an interest usually lacking in such accounts. Most of us know that
family came from England, but very few of us know anything about the
of the Washingtons. In the first two chapters Mr. Sawyer has told us
Sulgrave Manor, and he has pictured the stock from which George
I have no desire to go into this subject; were there nothing else in
the book than
those two chapters, and the illustrations that accompany them the book
of illustrations gives us an opportunity to say something of the
of this work. The composition cannot be passed over without some
type is clear, legible, and pleasantly spaced. No matter how
interesting the book,
unless it is readable in make-up it is not all that it should be. There
is no doubt
but that the type, paper and illustrations add materially to the
interest of this
work. The paper has a glossy finish which is usually somewhat difficult
on the eyes,
but illustrations are so profusely scattered through the text that to
use any other
material would have been impossible. Some 1500 illustrations are
included in the
work. Many of them have never before been published, and the gallery of
portraits of Washington is notable in itself. It is possibly
unfortunate that some
of the facsimiles of letters and documents did not reproduce well
enough to be easily
read, but this is a minor defect since in most cases a complete
given in the text. They are all decipherable if one cares to expend the
It would be too bad if the binding were not of the durable kind, but
even here the
publishers have lived up to the highest standards. The student will be
to find that the book is substantially bound in such a manner that the
flat when open. Taken all in all the book is a masterpiece of the
I do not mean by that that it is highly ornamented or that it rivals
books that one frequently sees, but for mass production no better work
It is not
surprising that in a work which excels in so many respects we should
find the first
mention of Washington as a Mason that, to my knowledge, has been made
in a biography
published under purely non-Masonic auspices. There is contained in its
pages a complete
record of Washington's Masonic career and an account of the work that
is being done
by the Fraternity today in erecting the George Washington Masonic
Memorial. It is
unfortunate that there are some minor errors in this section of the
work. Only one
of them, however, is of enough consequence to warrant specific mention
referring to the Signers of the Declaration of Independence Mr. Sawyer
nine of them were Masons. We know positively of thirteen, and there are
which point to more of them having been members of the Craft.
Fortunately this is
an error on the conservative side and Mr. Sawyer, who by the way is not
is to be congratulated for not having fallen into the too common error
that fifty or more of the Signers were members of the Fraternity.
be interesting to Masons generally to know how many of the characters
in Washington were Masons. It would require some little research to be
the ground, but a goodly number of Masons could be found with ease.
John Paul Jones,
Benj. Franklin and Pulaski are a few who come to mind at once.
A very interesting
illustration which, unfortunately, cannot be reproduced, appears in the
It represents John Paul Jones at the Constitutional Convention. Its
lies in the fact that the three central figures were all Masons, Jones,
and Washington. Probably this painting is the only one in existence
these three prominent Colonists together, and it is striking that all
of them belonged
to the Fraternity.
has included so many illustrations in his text that it is difficult to
them for the purpose of illustrating this review. Many of those used
and it is impossible for us to reproduce them. The author and the
have' been very courteous in permitting us to use illustrations from
the text. It
has been our desire to make those used as representative as possible.
one is from a photograph of the statue by Jean Antoine Houdon that
stands in the
Capitol at Richmond, Va. Two views of this are given, and this one was
because it gives in a marked degree the impression of height. It is now
generally realized that Washington was an unusually tall man, and of
tenure of the Presidency a very large number of portraits were made.
The State of
Virginia voted one thousand guineas for the purpose of having a statue
French sculptor Houdon was selected for the work, and arrangements were
Franklin and Jefferson, who were then in France. Houdon decided he
could not do
justice to the work from a portrait only, one by Charles Willson Peale
sent for the purpose, he sailed for America and reached Alexandria in
Washington recorded the event in his diary
… after we were in bed, about
Mr. Houdon, sent from Paris by Dr. Franklin and Mr. Jefferson, to take
my bust in
behalf of the State of Virginia, with three young men assisting arrived
Thus it will
be seen that this statue is probably, in every way, the most accurate
of Washington's appearance, face, figure, attitude and dress that is in
It cost the State of Virginia the artist's fee of some five thousand
his expenses, and is now beyond price. To say it is worth several
millions is absurd.
There is probably not gold enough in the world to tempt Virginia to
even think about
recommend Mr. Sawyer's work too highly to the Masonic Fraternity. Aside
principal character there are dozens of men mentioned who were
Craftsmen. It is
fascinating to read through the pages and realize the prominent part
that our Fraternity
played in the Revolution. To the student of Colonial Masonry there will
numerous fields for research. If all of the possible lines of inquiry
to their ends there would be enough to occupy several men for the
balance of their
lives. From a purely profane standpoint, however, it can be truthfully
Sawyer's Washington deserves to be ranked with the great biographies of
The Degrees of Masonry: Their Origin and History
Bros. A. L. Kress and R.J. Meekren
with the primitive esotericism of the Craft, and the forms and
ceremonies, if any,
inherited by the new Grand Lodge organizations in the British Isles,
from the old
Operative system, Murray Lyon, as we have seen, practically ignored
In fact from his History alone we should hardly even suspect that there
Hughan did touch upon it slightly, but only because those he opposed
had to some
extent used it in support of their contentions. He expressed his
opinion that either
it was spurious, or else too late in date to have any bearing upon the
at issue. In the revised edition of his valuable work, The 0rigin of
Rite (1) expresses himself to this effect in several places.
he and Lyon did accept, apparently in an uncriticized way, so much of
tradition or tradition of ritual that is inherent in Freemasonry as to
to understand the bare and laconic pre-Grand Lodge records in the sense
was something of a secret and ceremonial character practiced in the
as we have pointed out, this is hardly a necessary conclusion from the
of these records by themselves.
whose arguments we are now considering, did however go into this aspect
of the subject
more fully (2); though, apparently, he was only acquainted with The
of Free-Masons Discovered, of 1724, Prichard's Masonry Dissected, of
1730, and the
Sloane MS. No. 3329 of unknown date, but probably between 1700 and
1720. It was
thus impossible for him to treat the matter adequately. Two or three of
have been discovered since, but the Mason's Examination and the Mason's
were well known when he wrote, and it seems curious that he was not
them. As this evidence will have to have its turn later we need only to
the salient points of his argument on this score.
first that in the Grand Mystery (3) there is no reference to degrees.
This is not
true of all these documents, and the Grand Mystery itself actually
makes a distinction
of class in two questions and answers:
Q. What is a Mason?
A. A man, begot of a man, born of a woman, Brother to a king.
Q. What is a Fellow?
A. A Companion of a Prince.
This is very
slight by itself, and for its full significance needs to be compared
passages in other versions. But Mackey goes on to quote the Sloane MS.
in regard to the formation of the lodge, where it is said:
What is a just and perfect or
just and lawful
A just and perfect lodge is two Interprintices, two fellow craftes and
so that by
his own showing the (apparent) silence of the one is balanced by the
of the other, though he, of course, interprets the last quotation as
status only, and not to degrees. He takes these documents as
representing old operative
ritual, and as he sees nothing in the Catechism that definitely refers
degrees and more restricted secrets, he infers that they did not exist.
is good so far as it goes. The Sloane MS. has, however, some additional
which a "gripe for fellow crafts" and a "master's gripe" are
spoken of. In this passage he certainly has put his finger on a real
for the proponents of the two degree hypothesis, although on its face
it seems to
support the older and traditional belief in the antiquity of the
rather than a single initiation. The difficulty from the former point
of view will
have to be discussed later. Mackey seeks to show, first, that the
these two "gripes" is trifling, and second, presumably along the lines
of his interpretation of "the threttene artycul" of the Regius MS.,
they "distinguished" the higher grades but yet were known to all
including the apprentices, just "as the number of stripes on the arm
the grades of noncommissioned officers in the army."
In the MS.
there are two variant forms of "their master's gripe" described, and
second is introduced by the words
… but some say the mast'rs grip
is the same I
last described only, etc.
Now the last
described was the one coming immediately before, for the "gripe for
craftes" is the one first described. But Mackey misunderstood the
and that he did so is concealed in a broken quotation. He cites it thus
… the close of the passage
leaves it uncertain
that the "gripes" were not identical, or at least with a very minute
"Some say," adds the writer [i.e., of the MS.], "the Master's grip
is the same" as the Fellow Crafts "only" and then he gives the hardly
But the MS.
does not say "the same as the Fellow Crafts," but "same as I last
described," and this can only grammatically, and in common sense, refer
what actually had last, that is, just previously, been spoken of; and
that in fact
was the Master's, not the Fellow's, grip. In other words, the MS.
describes a Fellow's
"gripe" and two variant forms of that of the Master's, which have a
but in spite of Mackey a quite appreciable difference between them.
is drawn from this MS., and here again it seems Mackey fell into error,
through having an inaccurate copy before him. He says:
The manuscript speaks of two
Mast'r Word" and "the Mason word." The latter is said to have been
given in a certain form, which is described. It is possible that the
have been communicated to Masters as a privilege attached to their
rank, while the
latter was communicated to the whole Craft. In a later ritual [this
refers to the
Grand Mystery] it has been seen there were two words, "the Jerusalem
and "the universal word," but both were known to the whole Fraternity.
Had he written:
"The first is said to have been given in a certain form … It is
it may have been communicated to Masters,” and so on, the passage would
In the MS. there is at the very end an oath, so headed, which begins:
The Mason word and everything
you shall keep secret …
before this are two paragraphs describing formal salutations, the
second of which
Another they have called the
mast'r word …
is given, and it seems to be another form of the word " “Maughbin"
appears in several other of the old catechisms. What the "Mason word"
was is not said, it may have been another term for the "Mast'r word,"
or we may perhaps interpret it, as Lyon seemed willing to do (though
it must be said), as a phrase implying all the esoteric secrets and
Masonry. The two words spoken of in the Grand Mystery as the Jerusalem
the Universal word respectively are Giblin and Boaz, but in the Essex
MS. (6), which
is an independent variant form of the same catechism, they are given as
Maughbin. This fact, which of course was unknown to Mackey, really cuts
from under his argument in this place, whatever it may be worth on its
a further argument on this oath, and says it
… supplies itself the strongest
proof that during
the period in which it formed part of the ritual, that ritual must have
common to all classes; in other words, there could have been but one
there was but one obligation of secrecy imposed, and the Secrets,
were, must have been known to all Freemasons, to the Apprentices as
well as to the
fear, rather in the nature of special pleading. The Grand Mystery, and
two documents which are variant forms of it (8), all give a
which has nothing about secrecy at all. It runs
You must serve God … be a true
liege man to the
King and help and assist any Brother so far as your ability will allow.
By the contents
of the Sacred Writ, etc.
or closely following it, in all three documents is the "Freemason's
in which occurs the phrase:
… to every faithful Brother
that keeps his Oath
inference is that the oath actually given was not the only one. Mackey,
others, has argued as if these stray memoranda, for that seems to be
in every case but that of Prichard's exposure, were complete rituals.
quite hold Mackey fully excused, as he was acquainted with the contents
of the early
French publications, such as L'Ordre de Franc-Macons Trahi, and here we
degrees fully fledged while only one form of oath is given.
Theory Of Deliberate Invention
theory of the origin of the two higher degrees of Fellow Craft and
is very simple, and in such a complex situation its very simplicity
lays it open
to doubt. He lays it all to deliberate and conscious invention.
is now [about the
year 1880] very generally admitted that the arrangement of Freemasonry
present system of three degrees was the work of Dr. Desaguliers,
assisted by Anderson,
Payne and perhaps some other collaborators. The perfecting of the
system was of
very slow growth. At first there was but one degree, which had been
the Operative Masons of preceding centuries. This was the degree
practiced in 1717,
when the so-called “Revival” took place. It was no doubt improved by
who was Grand Master in 1719, and who probably about that time began
experiments. The fact that Payne, in 1718 "desired any brethren to
Grand Lodge any old writings concerning Masons and Masonry in order to
usages of ancient times," exhibits a disposition and preparation for
we may agree seems a very justifiable conclusion, but surely not
along the lines of "innovation" and "pure invention." He continues:
First and Second
Degrees had been modelled out of the one primitive degree about the
year 1719. The
"Charges" compiled in 1720 by Grand Master Payne recognize the Fellow
Craft as the leading degree and the one from which the officers of
lodges and of
the Grand Lodge were to be selected.
This of course
assumes that the Regulations as printed in 1723 were exactly the same
as those Payne
compiled and submitted for the approval of Grand Lodge on St. John
1720, at Stationers Hall, when the Duke of Montagu was installed as
This is not certain, for there is no way of proving it; and as a matter
Anderson definitely states that they had been edited and "digested"
a "new method" by him. Indeed, Mackey himself, as we have seen,
an alleged interpolation in Regulation xiii. He goes on:
to this time 
we find no reference to the Third degree. "The particular" lodges
only the First Degree. Admission or initiation into the Second Degree
was done in
the Grand Lodge. This was owing to the fact that Desaguliers and the
the new degree were unwilling to place it out of their immediate
control, lest improper
persons might be admitted or the ceremonies be imperfectly performed.
Here we may
observe that there is nothing whatever to show that this requirement
was ever anything
but a dead letter. The existing minutes of the Grand Lodge (10) begin
June 24, 1723,
and this particular regulation was repealed at the quarterly
Nov. 27, 1725 the proceedings of eight meetings being recorded
previously; in none;
of them is there the slightest reference to any passing of Fellow
Crafts. From this
it would seem, that either it had never been carried out and the lodges
their own members Fellow Crafts, or else that between June, 1723, and
(or perhaps June, 1721, if this clause appeared in the original
Regulation as submitted
by Payne), the Grand Lodge worked overtime and made sufficient Fellow
qualify all the Masters and Wardens of the many new lodges that were
The only other possibility is to suppose that the qualification had
and that there were no Fellow Crafts outside the little group
and Payne and those active in the supposed plan to transform Masonry
into a new
and purely speculative system. Really it would seem this last
fit Mackey's theory of conscious and deliberate innovation the best.
To go on
with his account of the steps taken by the inventors of the new degrees
out their alleged plans:
in 1717 (I use the term under protest), Desaguliers had divided the one
had been common to the three classes into two, making the degrees of
and Fellow Craft. It is not to be supposed that this was a mere
division of the
esoteric instruction into two parts … we may believe that taking the
of the Operatives as a foundation there was built upon it an enlarged
of ceremonies and lectures. The Catechism of the degree was probably
improved, and the "Mason Word" as the Operatives had called it, was
to the Second Degree, to be afterwards again transferred to the Third
Desaguliers continued to exercise his inventive genius and consummated
of degrees by adding one to be appropriated to the highest class, or
that of the
Masters. But not having thoroughly perfected the ritual of the degree
the time of publication of the Book of Constitutions, it was probably
among the Craft until the year 1723.
is in agreement with Hughan, who thought that the Mason's Examination,
in the Flying Post the same year, proved that the "Master's Part" was
then in existence as well as the Fellow Craft. This, too, will have to
discussed (11) the account given by Laurence Dermott, in the second
edition of Ahiman
Rezon, of the origin of the "Modern" (i.e., the senior) Grand Lodge,
he thinks may reflect some recollection of the invention of the degree
Mason, and, indeed, it is not improbable that it is founded on some
at first or second hand, that a degree was added to the old system.
1764 was not
too long after 1720 to be bridged by the life of an individual as has
pointed out, and Dermott had been a Mason a good many years before he
We may add
that Mackey also adopted the "mutilation" theory of the origin of the
Royal Arch (12), which Dr. Oliver had supported in later life; so that
on his showing,
the "Mason Word" was progressively transferred from degree to degree
it finally found a resting place in that "Supreme Order."
Opinion Of Albert Pike
was quoted by Hughan as among those authorities who agreed with him,
but we have
been able to find no new argument advanced in his published works.
Indeed he seems
to have depended largely, if not entirely, on the conclusions reached
Lyon, and Hughan himself (13). We may, therefore, dismiss him without
in the present connection. But it is noteworthy, and rather curious, to
the proponents of the single initiation theory have depended on the
reached by Lyon, based on his consideration of the ancient Scottish
conclusions were inferences, but these brethren were all more than a
to object to the inferences of others who held different views, not as
drawn, but simply as being inferences.
Two Degree Theory
We have now
examined the case for the existence only of a single admission ceremony
by Masons before the Grand Lodge era (14). As against the traditional
three degrees existed from time immemorial it carries very great
weight. So much
so that it is probable that any critical mind would accept it. However,
it is not
the only alternative, and we now come to the consideration of the
arguments of G.
W. Speth, who may be regarded as the protagonist of the so-called "Two
theory, though R. F. Gould became a very prominent supporter of it too.
appear, though, that Speth was first in the field. He broached it in
to Masonic audiences (so we gather from scattered allusions) and in
various periodicals, among them the old Keystone of Philadelphia. We
have not been
able to trace all these scattered articles and references, but it
not seem necessary for our purpose, as both Hughan and Speth presented
cases before the Quatuor Coronati Lodge and, so far as can be judged,
argument in support of their respective views that seemed to them to be
Speth regarded his paper, which was read the year after Hughan's, as a
This we will now consider.
by a caveat (15): He says that Hughan's strongest argument was the lack
evidence for more than one degree, and this he admits is the chief
has to face. His task is to marshall the indirect evidence which Hughan
were inclined to rule out as inadmissible. On this question of evidence
will have to be said in the sequel so it may be passed over here, but
almost have said that there was no direct unequivocal evidence (other
and tradition) for any "degree." It really seems curious that no one
in the discussion saw this. Tradition apparently blinded them.
He then divides
the question by periods, which he classes as the purely Operative, the
the mainly Speculative and the purely Speculative, though he makes it
there are no sharp clearly defined boundaries between them. The purely
period is in fact quite hypothetical, or at least pre-historic in the
because as far back as we have records we find non-Operative members in
But we must presumably postulate such a period; and in it, sometime
before the fifteenth
century let us say, the Old Charges were formulated and introduced,
with a legendary
account of the invention and progress of Geometry and Masonry.
argument is that something was necessary to distinguish the fellow in
order to prevent
an apprentice running away and passing himself off as a fully qualified
In the discussion following the paper Hughan was unable to see why this
more necessary among Masons than in any other Craft. Lane seemed
inclined to think
it doubtful that the apprentice received any secret mode of
recognition. And if
the one degree theory is to be adopted it would really seem more
feasible to suppose
the initiation came at the end of the apprenticeship rather than at the
But as Speth pointed out in reply boys became men much earlier in life
days. There are cases of boys of sixteen leading armies in the field,
objection was met by pointing out the peculiar conditions of the Craft,
were migratory, and, outside the larger towns, free to work anywhere.
made the point that our present nomenclature is, from the operative
point of view,
incorrect, as the apprentice became a Master first, a master of his
craft, and thus
was eligible to become a Fellow of the Fraternity; and in this Conder
with him, stating that this was certainly the case in regard to the
Company. Speth also asked if it was probable that such an important
the Craftsman's life as the end of his servitude as an Apprentice was
pass "without some ceremony to mark the occasion." Hughan (who answered
every argument adduced categorically) asked why more so in the Mason's
any other? And if there was a ceremony, why it should be esoteric? In
the first question it might be said that there was something in the
nature of a
ceremony in other crafts. There would be the formality of release, and
craftsman, even to our own day, had to stand treat. In regard to the
second it can
only be countered, why any secret ceremony at all? If the implied
argument is good
it covers the initiation as well.
point rests on the passages in the Old Charges that have already come
in discussing Mackey's views. It is the phrase "hall and bower" in the
Regius MS. and "lodge and chamber" in the others. Now to
…. kepe all the counsells of
yo'r fellowes truely,
be yt in Lodge or chamber
as the Grand
Lodge Roll No. 1 has it, might possibly refer to two sets of secrets;
but, as we
noted before, there is nothing on the face of it to lead us to think
so; one would
naturally take them to refer to trade and personal matters. But the
is that several of the Old Catechisms make the Hall and Kitchen a mark
between the Fellow and the Apprentice. In the Mystery of Free Masons
in 1730 the question
Did you ever dine in the Hall?
to distinguish a "Brother Mason" from an "Enter'd Apprentice"
who had only been in the kitchen. By itself then this argument carries
but yet Speth's interpretation is not to be brushed aside as requiring
Cooks and Regius MSS.
argument advanced is drawn from two passages in the Cooke MS. This was
in Quatuor Coronotorum Antigrapha with a commentary by Bro. Speth
himself. In this
he advances reasons for holding that this MS. consists of a copy of the
of the Charges now existing, prefaced by an extended legend or history
of the Craft,
and that though the Regius MS. is older than the Cooke yet the latter
in part is
a copy of the same code that the author of the Masonic poem had before
him and which
he versified, and further that it is probably a more primitive version
the Regius has a number of additions which seem to be amendments to the
The two passages
that Speth thought significant in the present connection are as
follows, both being
from the part of the document that is supposedly the copy of an older
code. It has
briefly announced the spread of Masonry "from londe to londe and fro
to Kyngdome" and says that in the time of "kynge adhelstone" the
craft was reorganized in England on account of "grete defaute" found
Masons, and it was consequently ordained that "fro provynce to provynce
fro contre to contre," that is presumably from county to county,
scholde be made," by masters of "alle maisters Masons and felous in the
forsayde art," which in modern English would be "all master masons and
fellows of the aforesaid art or craft," and then, that at such
…. they that be made masters
schold be examned
of the articuls after writen, & be ransakyd whether thei be
abulle and schulde
receyue here charge that they schulde welle and trewly dispende the
goodys of here
that they who are "to be made masters" are to be examined as to their
knowledge of the law of the craft and their technical skill, and then
their charge" that they will honestly conserve the interests of their
After this follow the "articuls," of which there are nine, and these
are followed by nine "poynts." The latter concern the private relations
of Masons to each other, while the articles seem to refer to those with
In other words the articles were regulations that had probably the
force of civil
law, while the points were by-laws governing the internal economy of
These having been recited, the narrative returns to the conduct of the
with the words:
Whan the master and the felowes
be for warned
ben y come to suche congregaiones …
And it goes
on to say that, if required, the sheriff or mayor shall be an assessor
… felow and sociat to the
master of the congregacion,
to help him
keep order and maintain the right of the realm. And then comes,
first order of business:
At the fyrst begynnynge new men
that neuer were
chargyd bifore beth charged in this manere …
Now in his
commentary (18) Speth says of this
The first business was to
charge men that had
never been charged before. It is impossible to read this otherwise than
who had served their time were here declared free of the craft, master
admitted into the fellowship.
words that it was a restatement, in the form of an Order of Business,
for the Assembly, of what had previously been said in the historical
the organization of the Craft in England. Or that the charging of "new
was the same thing as the "receiving their charge of those that were to
made masters." This was in 1890, eight years before the paper we are
was written. In the interval Speth seems to have changed his mind, for
he now contrasts
these two passages and says of the latter:
"New men that never were
must be the newly entered apprentices,
on to say that in later versions of the Constitutions it seems to be
this obligation was
… administered at the lodge at,
or shortly after,
their entry, pointing possibly to the gradual obsolescence of the
No one seems
to have noticed this reversal of opinion except Upton. However, Lane
said that the
Charges generally, that is the written documents, were addressed to
man that is a Mason," and were either given to Apprentices or Fellows.
the former why was there a separate set of "Apprentice Charges?" If to
Fellows, the phrase "new men" seems inapplicable. To this, it must be
observed, that the special Apprentice Charges do not appear till late,
the point raised hardly affects any argument concerning the early
period, the "purely
Operative," represented by the Cooke MS. Also it might be contended
men" were those who had learned the trade outside the Fraternity, and
to join, or were being forced to join it as in our own times men have
to join trade unions. This would of course imply that the original of
this MS. dated
back to a time when the Craft organization was being introduced into
into parts of England, where it had not existed before.
said that there was no indication in the Cooke MS. of anything esoteric
charging of "new men" or making of masters, which is quite true. There
is no hint anywhere of anything secret, excepting the third point
… that he can hele the
councelle of his felows
in logge and in chambere and in every place ther as Masons beth,
of this he quoted the equivalent passage from the Carson MS.
to hele … the counsel of his
fellows in Lodge
and in Chamber and all other Counsels that ought to be kept by way of
or as it
appears in other places "Masonhood" or "Brotherhood."
In this Lane
appears to be justified; to see anything beyond the proper reserve and
concerning trade secrets, and the business and personal affairs of the
of the individual Mason, his fellow workmen and employers, is an
if this, being only an inference, is to be held as conclusive against
of something esoteric in the "making" and "charging" of Masters
it is equally conclusive against the existence of anything esoteric at
all at the
time when the Charges were formulated.
Origin of the English Rite of Freemasonry [Lib 1884],
first in 1884. The revised edition appeared
in 1909; a third edition, edited by John T. Thorp, was published in
revision, Hughan, on page 23, admits that the discovery of the Chetwode
Crawley MS. Catechism head some weight in favor of a primitive two
more especially as it is in part corroborated by the cryptic note in
book of the old lodge at Haughfoot, of date 1702. However, in spite of
his opinion was not really shaken. On page 37 he dismisses the ritual
in his opinion worthless, and on page 24 quotes a letter from Murray
Lyon, in 1897,
as saying he was "more than ever convinced that we are right in our
on the question of degrees.
History of Freemasonry [Lib 1906, Vol
Vol. iv, Chap. xxxii, p. 926. (In the
it is Chap. 76, Vol. iii, p. 977.) The discussion is carried on in the
Catechism is reproduced in the Appendix to Gould's History of
[Lib 1884, Vol 4].
Edition, this is to be found in Vol. iv, p. 280. The Mason's
Examination is also
given. (4) This was discovered by J. G. Findel in the Sloane collection
in the British Museum. It was published by the Rev. A.F.A. Woodford,
to Mackey, by W. J. Hughan in the Voice of Freemasonry, October, 1872,
in the National
Freemason for April, 1873. It was reproduced again in the Montana Mason
1921. The Catechism contained in the MS. is given in Finders History of
App. C. Mackey apparently intended to publish it also, judging by a
Chap. xxxii, p. 927, but the passage referred to in the note merely
tells us where
it was to be found. Possibly his publishers decided to leave it out. We
a transcript made from the original MS.
(5) Mackey: op.
cit., p. 969.
(6) In the
British Museum. It has never been published.
(7) Mackey: op.
cit., p. 971.
(8) The Essex
MS already mentioned, and the Institution MS., which was published
in facsimile by Bro. A. F. Calvert, in the Transactions of the Authors'
3456, in 1919. [Lib*]
(9) Mackey: op.
cit. p. 991.
(10) These were
published in the Reprints of Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1913,
Q.C.A., Vol. x. [Lib*] The minute referred to is on p. 64.
op. cit., p. 998.
(12) Ibid., p,
1108 and Vol. v, p. 1238.
(A.Q.C., Vol. x, p. 131) [Lib 1897]
Origines. In this work Pike offers as
his chief argument the authority of Hughan's own conclusions.
Masonic students, as Kloss and Findel took the same view. Findel
indeed was the first to advance it. So far as we have been able to
work, no further arguments appear than those already discussed. The
chief one, on
which all the others depend, being that elaborated by Murray Lyon that
were present in the lodge when Fellows were admitted or received.
(15) A.Q.C., Vol.
xi, p. 47 [Lib*], et seq.
Vol. xi, p. 72, also Hole Crafte, p. 58, and A.Q.C., Vol. ix,
p. 35, et seq.
(17)This is not
to be confused with the Grand Mystery; the Catechism given
is a variant of that in the Examination.
(18) Q.C.A., Vol.
ii [Lib 1889]. The commentary
no page numbers. The passage quoted is on the next to the last one.
Meekren, Editor in Charge
WE all know
that certain subjects are absolutely barred from discussion in Masonic
may they not be discussed but they cannot even be raised. It is one of
that every Mason has at his tongue's tip, and is ever ready to pass on
to the inquiring
non-Mason. It is true, that in many cases, were the question then
the informant would be non-plussed. For to most it is more a sacred,
tabu, rather than a rule based on reason.
the intelligent Mason, thus posed, would soon think of reasons, even if
not occurred to him before. "The members of our lodges," he would say,
"belong to different political parties, and to different churches, and
of these things would create a risk of breach of harmony and brotherly
indeed this is the very reason that is given for the rule where it
in the Book of Constitutions of 1723, although it there appears more as
than as a dogma. However, this is aside from the aspect of the subject
we wish to
with this idea has English speaking Masonry become in the two centuries
that have elapsed since Dr. Anderson first deprecated "private piques
and "quarrels about religion, or nations or state policy," that it has
come to be assumed, quite generally, that this prohibition is general
in its scope,
instead of being strictly applicable only to the private assembly of
in this form, especially affects the Masonic author and publicist. It
is true that
in a rough way it has been answered in practice, but it is without any
of the principles involved. If every topic that trenched on religion,
to take that
alone, were deleted from Masonic literature, probably a good half of
what has been
published would disappear. Yet, owing to confusion of thought upon the
at any time the Masonic writer is liable to criticism on the grounds
that he has
transgressed this fundamental rule.
As we have
seen, the reason given for the first form of this law was that it would
lack of harmony and disunion among the brethren. But though this is
and adequate enough too, there is more behind it. Certainly, everything
that would lead to disunion is to be avoided, but that does not mean
subject about which there may be disagreement should be suppressed, as
only logical if this were all that is implied in the rule. There are
upon which there is full agreement, there are many which no one would
dream of barring
from discussion, even in the lodge that are highly controversial. It
not merely the existence of differing opinions, or even of warm dispute
that is the fundamental, underlying factor. It is not even so much that
be thereby opposed to each other upon grounds that are external to
practically this consideration has great weight. At bottom it is that
of such a private and secret nature as is a Masonic lodge is not a
fitting or proper
place for such discussion; and to have permitted it, would have laid
the Craft under
deep suspicion by governments and established churches, or have given
grounds for such suspicion where it already existed.
reorganized itself in 1717 as neutral in regard to these matters.
Perhaps it had
always been so, we can quite believe it was; but we know certainly that
time it emerged into the light of history it definitely sought to be a
union between good men who otherwise would remain disunited. It
and deliberately ignored those things which have always been the active
dissension and strife. To admit, therefore, any question of this nature
lodge would inevitably have given it the appearance at least of being
in some sort
a political or religious body. But does this affect in the same way
is public and open to the whole world, as are the contents of a book or
certainly seem that this element of publicity makes an important
then it must also be remembered that the terms politics and religion
have very wide
and comprehensive meaning. We must not allow ourselves to be blinded by
mere words. It is not enough to say politics is politics, or religion
that gets us nowhere. Freemasonry certainly has a very close contact
if in no other way, through the fact that it is an ethical and moral
and that morals have always in human history been most intimately
religion. In the same way it may have contacts with politics in the
wider and accurate
sense of the term. What is usually understood is, properly speaking,
For this reason the word is usually avoided for fear of
misunderstanding. But this
may help to conceal the real connection. For example, such matters as
good citizenship, law enforcement, education and the like are all
political in the
general and proper meaning of the word. It would be absurd to say that
relating to the duties and obligations of the citizen was alien to the
such, when these have had a most prominent place in the Masonic code
from the first.
The propriety of the interest remains even if they become questions of
though admittedly such a condition makes discretion much more necessary.
like politics, is a word of wide and vaguely defined meaning. It has
clearly marked sides. Religion proper, as a spiritual interpretation of
or as a system of belief; and religion in a secondary sense, as an
or hierarchy based on a common belief or set of dogmas. In the first
sense it comes
in contact with Masonry, as has been said, through ethics. Also,
through the general
requirement of so much of religion as is implied by profession of a
belief in God.
In the other sense there is also contact, of a different kind. Certain
organizations, churches, have opposed and condemned Freemasonry, just
political organizations, states, governments, have opposed and
In such circumstances
some consideration of these matters is forced upon us. The actual facts
bring the matter into our purview however reluctant we may be to touch
is a universal institution. It is by its own principles (not always
up to, unfortunately) tolerant of religion, race and politics. It
ignores, in other
words, the three chief factors that, in the history of mankind, have
and strife, and has sought to unite them on the basis of justice,
morality and benevolence.
It is, as we all know, bitterly opposed by another world-wide
not only in polemic, but with actual persecution, whenever and wherever
have made it possible. Do our principles forbid mention of the fact? It
to discuss the underlying causes for this hostility? Masonic tolerance
all our own rule for ourselves, and we alone are judges as to how and
where it applies.
that the presentation of any facts throwing light upon the situation
indirectly is justifiable, and is in no proper sense of the word
are precedents of great weight for the historical treatment of the
what difference in principle is there between the relating of what has
in the past and giving information concerning the present? Or even
future? The only difference is the practical one that it may be more
But what essential sin is there in controversy, if it be kept within
of fairness and courtesy?
are we limited merely to answering wild accusations made against the
or defending it from unprovoked attack? Have we no right to consider
what this organization
really is that is so hostile to us. Is it intolerance to recognize the
to show that the divergence or opposition is complete and
irreconcilable? We have
indeed scriptural ground for recognizing the utter futility of saying
peace," where there is no peace. Intolerance is quite another thing. It
the child of prejudice, as prejudice is the offspring of ignorance. A
may reveal a state of opposition, but as one may, when necessity
arises, fight without
hate, so it is possible to oppose without intolerance.
* * *
In the June
number of THE BUILDER we reproduced, as a curiosity, an item under the
which was taken from the Fortnightly Review. Last month we gave, from
the same source,
a letter from a Roman Catholic physician expressing common sense doubt
of the truth
of the original tale, based on general grounds. The editor of the
the issue for July 1, then invited us to discuss the subject. We shall
be very glad
indeed to publish any development of the accusation, whether by a
Romanist or anyone
else, but to discuss it ourselves is rather embarrassing. It is rather
famous question, "Have you given up beating your grandmother?" To take
the matter seriously is to artificially give it a weight that it does
this we have no desire to make any reflection upon those to whom it
credible. We suppose any story, no matter how preposterous in itself,
if only repeated
often enough, will find believers. And the individual is always
by the presence of a group of believers. So that, wherever there is any
motive to belief, no matter how baseless, or how irrational, the fact
have accepted it will in itself seem a proof that the thing asserted is
men, even the very best, are naturally prone to believe evil of an
is, indeed, an almost inevitable emotional response to any kind of
Protestants, for example, believe the most impossible and ridiculous
Roman Catholics. No proof is asked for, or rather constant reiteration
enough. Even if something like critical questioning arise, it is
by some process as is expressed in the proverb "Where there's smoke
fire." If, says the "critic," these things are stated so conclusively,
and they are not denied, they must be true. The "critic" of course is
not situated as a rule to hear of any denials, and if he does meet
them, he can
easily explain them as the natural protective reaction of the guilty to
innocence whenever accused. Humanity at large is not just by instinct.
impartiality are high virtues gained only through the most severe
of heresy, witchcraft and diabolism were made against Freemasonry
almost from the
first possibly even before the historic period of the Fraternity
begins. Lest this
be taken as a proof of there being basis in fact for them, let us
remind those who
would so conclude that the same kind of accusations were made against
Christians. Every association of an esoteric character is subject to
this kind of
thing, which is only another natural human phenomenon. The motives are
and jealousy at being on the outside probably form one component. It is
that there is only one possible motive for concealment, that is, the
wicked or shameful
character of the secrets in spite of the common knowledge that there
are many other
respectable and laudable reasons for secrecy in every day life.
Review specifically asks:
THE BUILDER regards the reports upon which our article was based as
and if so, how it explains this anti-Christian tendency of a portion of
Freemasonry, or if it considers that these and other reports, no matter
well founded, are false, how are we to explain their repeated
confirmation by European
Masons and the fact that they are so persistently circulated? All we
are after is
It is in
the confidence that the editor of the Fortnightly Review is quite
sincere in the
last sentence that we are taking the trouble to try and throw some
light upon the
subject. We think that if he will consider the nature of his question
he will admit
that there is in it a shift from the original point. It refers to an
tendency." Truly Satanism and the black mass and the rest of the
that probably did once exist, are anti-Christian in one sense, though
not in the
same sense that Atheism or Materialism are, for the former require a
in Christianity as a starting point.
here some room for misapprehension owing to lack of definition in
and Satanism and such names are freely used as opprobrious epithets in
controversy. From certain points of view Atheism may be called Satanic,
described as Atheistic. Yet there is a real difference between the
practice of black
magic (if anyone does practice it) which demands a belief in spiritual
powers, and the Atheism based on materialistic views of the universe
the existence of God precisely because there is seen (by the Atheist)
no place in
the world for anything but mechanism and mechanistic determinism. The
may be equally inimical to religion but they are not at all consistent
other. The point is an important one, for it is very easy to argue from
sense to the other.
of misconception lies in the possibility of confusing anti-clericalism
Here again it depends on the way in which words are used. The
the member or supporter of a hierarchy of any kind, naturally
identifies the machine,
the organization, with its purpose, its raison
Thus autocrats or oligarchies always identify
themselves with the state or country they rule, anyone who opposes them
administration is a traitor and an enemy to his country. So anyone who
a priesthood or religious officialdom is accused of being an enemy of
After all it does not much matter how the words are used, as long as
they are used
in the same sense all through an argument. Unfortunately this too often
is not the
We have entered
into this preliminary discussion, which may have seemed somewhat
the question we are asked by our contemporary really covers a good deal
the original assertions which have given occasion to it. In respect to
Satanism revealed by the writer in the Revue des Sociétés Secrètes, the letter we publish from Mr. Goaziou on
page shows conclusively (if it were necessary) that the whole thing is
of misrepresentations. We simply decline to give it even so much
as would result from denying it.
We do not
think that it would be accurate or just to describe, even the Grand
Orient of France
as anti-Christian, though it is undoubtedly very strongly anticlerical.
no religious or anti-religious tests required by it. We do not know
tables as to the percentages of various types of religious belief (or
lack of belief)
among the members would show, but we do know that some among them are
Christians and some are orthodox Jews. An organization in which
men can find a place is not in the strict sense anti-religious, even if
of its members are individually non-believers, or even inclined to hold
to be a primitive survival, or an emotional outlet. The point is that
not even in
the most condemned and heretical Masonic Obedience is the organization
religion. We use the word here in its general and vague sense. Anyone
religion with some given religious organization will naturally dissent
statement. We do not wish to argue about words. Religion is used
commonly in this
general sense and we know of no other word to take its place. Perhaps
we can give
precision to what we are trying to say, by putting it thus: even under
Orient of France, which probably a large majority of Anglo-Saxon Masons
to be atheistic and definitely hostile to all religion, there is
nothing to prevent
any theist, any member of any organized religion, from joining it. The
is that the Grand Orient, as such, is not concerned with religion at
in the general sense of the word. That it is anticlerical no one would
denying. Naturally, anyone, as we have said, who defines religion so
to make it practically synonymous with a particular religious
insist that its anti-clericalism implies its hostility to religion. But
the same time every other church and sect also becomes anti-religious
the same sense.
of any kind, secular or religious, tends to evolve a hierarchy, and a
involves that spirit and tendency, that in this particular case is
as "clericalism." Freemasonry itself is not by any means immune from
general law, though its fundamental principles are totally at variance
of the sort; so much so that Masonry can never agree with any kind of
The matter may be summed up in this. We all fall far short of the
spirit of our
creeds, but we are generally in advance of the letter of our dogmas.
we would repeat our invitation to anyone who desires to present any
proof or argument
that there are anywhere Masons or groups of Masons who indulge in black
even in studied disrespect and insult to the religious beliefs of
others. We will
gladly give him all the space he needs to develop his thesis.
St. John and the Masonic Press
of hot weather and the accompanying lassitude in all things fraternal
and in the
work of all organizations, the announcement of the plans of the Order
of the Hospital
of St. John seems to have struck a responsive chord among Craftsmen in
of the country.
press seems also to be interested. The following editorial reprinted
from the Masonic
Chronicler of June 23, 1928, is typical of references to the Order of
St. John which
are now appearing in the various magazines and newspapers of the
country. In addition
many letters have been received from other papers giving promise of
editorials to be published later:
A "Militia Of Mercy"
by some time the Ancient Order of Knights Templar, the Order of Knights
of St. John of Jerusalem was formed in the early days of the Christian
principal function was to care for the sick. Through the centuries it
until the present time, being now an active organization among Roman
Germany and Italy and under Protestant auspices in England and Prussia.
it appears, is about to be made to establish the modern Order of the
St. John of Jerusalem in the United States. The particular emergency
which has brought
about the contemplated attempt is the failure of the National Masonic
Sanatoria Association of New Mexico to obtain aid, endorsement and
the Masonic jurisdictions of this country. It will be remembered that
sanatoria project was launched by the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, in
coordination with the Grand Lodges of Arizona and Texas, to provide
help and hospitalization
for the hundreds of tuberculous Masons, and their dependents, who in
to arrest the progress of the dread "white plague" had migrated to the
southwest and become unable to provide for themselves, thus throwing a
of charitable work on the Masons of three sparsely peopled and not
It will also be recalled (with shame, we hope) that Masonic
to extend the help asked for. Various alibis and sophistries, as well
as a few well-
grounded objections, were heard from many quarters and the project was
failure as a national movement. The Masons of New Mexico are resolved,
it is understood,
to persevere in the work as well as they can in their necessarily
It is the
plan of the promoters of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of
from a general headquarters in St. Louis, Mo., to organize local
the cities and towns, which shall be united in Priories in certain
in the counties and large cities, which in turn will be under the
Provinces or state-wide bodies and the whole governed or directed by a
or national assembly. An ambitious program has been devised, with
religious, charitable, institutional, physical training, health
aid, public health, war activity and calamity relief, and recognition
and bravery work. These organizations are to be conducted like most
societies, conferring degrees with a ritual of their own and getting
from fees and annual dues.
by Masons the Order will not be confined to members of our fraternity.
eighteen years of age or older may seek membership, the qualifications
are to be much the same as those required of prospective Masons, with
that wives, daughters, mothers and sisters of members may be admitted
at half the
rates asked of men.
in THE BUILDER Calls the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem
of mercy," and such it may prove should its promoters succeed in
it successfully on the sea of fraternalism.
have also been received from brethren who have been, and still are,
the work of Masonic tubercular relief, in which they express their
approval of the
new plan and effort to secure action. Many inquiries are being received
who apparently have not carefully read the announcement in the June
BUILDER of the
plans and methods of work. For the benefit of these it may be worth
briefly what is proposed.
is desired to aid and assist tuberculous Freemasons, and tuberculous
Masons' families, who are resident in the Southwest, seeking health.
work will be carried on in conjunction with the work of the Masonic
Association, if possible. Relief will be given in their homes and by
in existing tuberculosis hospitals until the day when a Masonic
can be purchased or built.
is planned to continue the effort to induce every Grand Lodge to take
for relief of tuberculous Masons in their own home states. It is hoped
that in time
each Grand Lodge will vote an appropriation, or an assessment for that
the money to be expended in home relief and in hospitalization in
In many states, where a State Tuberculosis Hospital exists,
arrangements can be
made for hospital care, all or part of the expense of same to be borne
by the Fraternity.
the need exists, and a Priory of the Order of St. John can be formed
for the purpose
with sufficient numerical strength and financial resources to do so, it
to establish a general hospital for the care of medical and surgical
there is need for another hospital, frequently there exists a need for
type, or kind, of institution, which may be established by a Priory of
many of the smaller cities and towns, there is no organized charity
society to provide
for the needs of the local sick and poor. In many places where a
exists, it does not command the full support of the people. In both
a Preceptory of the Order may be established and render great service.
is but a brief outline of what may be accomplished. There are many
of work which can be taken up later when the Order is firmly
established, or may
be taken up now in some places. Public health work and first aid and
in times of disaster, are but a few of the lines of activity which will
of organization is simple. The Grand Commandery is the sovereign body.
or Great Prior, will be designated in each state who will have charge
of all work
in his Province. His position corresponds to that of the S.G.I.G. of
Rite. Priories will be established in key cities where later it is
desired to establish
a hospital or other institution. Priories correspond to the Scottish
Rite body in
that they will have jurisdiction over a certain number of counties, the
of which will be expected to support the Priory Hospital when
established. The Preceptory,
similar to the Masonic lodge, in the smaller places will aid in the
of the Priory hospital and carry on their own work of relief, etc., in
of Brother of St. John only is conferred by the Preceptory, and the
this, from dues, from benefits, entertainments, etc., must go to
support the Preceptory
work. The Priory will confer the first degree on those resident in the
and in addition will confer the four orders of Knighthood. The fees
will go to the
support of the Priory work, to a hospital building fund, etc.
A plan for
financing hospital construction, through financial campaigns which
gifts for that purpose, the entire amount of the gift to be returned to
estate at his death, is under consideration and if adopted will be
to be feasible and has been carried out for financing hospital
and other and similar institutions.
and urgent need is for the right man, in every state, to come forward
for service as Provincial, or Great Prior, to take entire charge of the
and executive work incident to the establishment and carrying forward
of the Order. A beginning has been made in several states and it is
hoped that every
state will soon be assigned.
* * *
Bohemian Mason Visits American Lodges
from Die Drei Ringe by C. L.)
Mason is inclined to be a one-sided academician, the American Craftsman
materialistic practitioner. This is in essence the verdict arrived at
by Bro. Dr.
Ludwig Brajjer, honorary member of the Lodge Munificentia in Karlsbad,
who had spent one-half of the year 1927 in the United States. It was
not his first
visit to our shore. A whole-souled Mason, he missed no opportunity of
lodge activities, visiting Masonic libraries and charitable
institutions and gathering
all available information about the progress of the American
Brotherhood. Some of
his impressions he published in a very interesting communication to Die
of Reichenberg, the official monthly organ of the Lessing Grand Lodge
in the number of December, 1927.
that the European Masons walk on the stilts of a sterile idealism. They
it their primary mission to promote the ideals of democracy and an
They love to parade worn out slogans like, "to educate humanity, to
the temple of humanity, to promote the social aims of humanity, to
truth." These high sounding phrases largely fill their program.
by them, these European Masons rather commonly neglect the practical
waiting at the door: mutual aid and social recreation.
Brajjer feels refreshed in the atmosphere of practical charity and
that envelops the Craft on our side of the Atlantic where barren
theories and abstract
ideas are at a discount. He points with admiration to the many
institutions maintained by the American Fraternity for its ailing and
and their families. He mentions in particular the Masonic Orphans' Home
N.Y., which he calls the greatest of its kind in the Masonic world;
also the Old
People's Home in Tappan, N.Y. He was also deeply impressed by the fact
the cyclone devastated Florida, the Masons were the first to rush aid
to the afflicted,
the Grand Lodge of New York alone raising several millions of dollars.
And he was
edified by our diligence in visiting sick brethren and attending to
This emphasis of charitable and social work deserves full recognition,
though thereby Masonry has become in the eyes of many chiefly a mutual
or a social club. The fondness of club life and recreative activities
he finds more
pronounced in the German speaking lodges of America than in the English
ones. The Germans, he notes with satisfaction, are indefatigable in
evening entertainments, lectures, dinners, balls, picnics, parades and
of "fests." Which reminds us of the delightful observation of an Irish
lady of our acquaintance: "Give a German a flag and he will march
all day long." But the parade usually leads to a fine luncheon with
beverages and a general good time. Fritz is no fool.
earth is perfect. Bro. Brajjer is not blind to the fact that this
practical humanitarianism and sociability in American Masonry is
a certain neglect of Masonic dogma, history and lore. He ascribes this
the somewhat materialistic, practical American mind, partly also to the
make-up of the American membership. In Europe Masonry is almost
from the educated bourgeois. In America the Craft includes a large
the small tradesmen and working classes.
European Mason enjoys the advantage of a higher education, Bro. Brajjer
finds that when it comes to team work in the initiation ceremonies, the
Brother shows himself more familiar with the ritual. He knows his part
while Brother Hans or Brother Wenceslaus nervously thumbs the pages of
until at last he finds his text.
To sum it
up: European Masonry labors under an excess of dogmaticism and abstract
to the neglect of practical humanitarianism. In America the opposite
one-sided pragmatism fostered at the expense of Masonic study and
happy mixture of European dogmaticism and American pragmaticism would
be a desirable
readily admit our deplorable lack of interest in the academic side of
fear that Bro. Brajjer bestows on us too generous a praise when he
extols the depth
and width and height and other dimensions of our fraternal charity. So
we are tempted to opine when we think of the general apathy towards our
Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria.
reviewed in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of
at the prices given, which always include postage. These prices are
a matter of precaution) to change without notice; though occasion for
very seldom arise. Occasionally it may happen, where books are
that there is no supply available, but some indication of this will be
the review. The Book Department is equipped to procure any books in
print on any
subject, and will make inquiries for second-hand works and books out of
Joseph Dillaway, Sawyer. Published by the Macmillan Company, New York.
of Contents, Index, Profusely Illustrated, two volumes. Volume 1,640
2, 619 pages. Price $20.75.
THIS is probably
the final word upon the "Father of His Country." Every possible source
of information has been searched, and the results presented fully and
any predisposition to make the national hero either more or less than
shows him as what he was a great man. An extended review of the work
will be found
at page 237.
of the Masonic Degrees
the Rev. F. deP. Castells. Published by A. Lewis, London. Cloth, table
index, 450 pages. Price, $4.00.
attempts to discuss the origin of Masonic degrees he had best define
The subject is one of great interest and one on which comparatively
little has been
written. Naturally everyone is interested in knowing where and how and
why our ceremonies
originated and the fact that so few writers have definitely treated the
from this point of view may seem to call for explanation. Yet the
reason is fairly
apparent. To discuss origins it is naturally necessary to discuss the
origin of which is being sought. In the case of Masonic ritual this is
all but impossible. One who attempts such a discussion soon finds this
out for himself.
The need for precise definition of terms is not so immediately
apparent, and it
seems to be less apparent to authors than to the laity. The resulting
is anything but desirable and misconceptions are far too general to be
some notice. Perhaps what is meant can be more clearly demonstrated
than in any other way.
of the work under discussion would naturally lead one to expect a
the historical developments of the Masonic degrees. As a matter of fact
pretends that this is what he is giving his readers. He begins by
who have preceded him in investigating this field and the reader is led
a quite different treatment of the subject. The impression is conveyed
new material is about to be offered. But when he has read half through
the reader begins to awaken to the fact that the author seems to have
no clear conception
of what he is driving at, and finally it becomes clear that it is not
origins that are being discussed, but philosophical ones. The whole
book is a strange
mixture of history and philosophy.
will grant that if we wish to trace the moral origin of Freemasonry we
must go back
to the day when Johnny Caveman was Worshipful Master of Stone Hatchet
1. As a system of morals the Masonic Ritual is as old in its teachings
as man. We
find the same lessons being taught in the most primitive of peoples.
This one fact
has led to more confusion in the minds of Masonic authors generally
than any other.
The teachings of our ritual are older, perhaps hundreds or thousands of
than the oldest existing religion. But there is no more reason for
saying that Masonry
is as old as its teachings than there is for asserting that Masonry
teachings from other sources. If we accept the ritual definition of
Masonry we might
accept the former view. That definition is not complete, however.
Masonry is more
than a system of morals. It is an organization of a definite character.
In the strictest
sense Freemasonry, as we know it, does not begin until 1716. We know,
the Modern Fraternity was an outgrowth of a previously existing
is not the same thing. Nor was the transition from the old to the new
the act of
a moment. It was a development of many years duration.
Craft bears, organically, some resemblance to a parasite. It started
enough, but in the course of centuries the parasite consumed the host.
It is only
because we know and have definite evidence to support this
theory that we have any reason for going beyond 1716 in our search for
Certainly we can hardly hope to go beyond the Operative Society which
was the host
of the parasitic Speculative Fraternity.
to the discussion of degrees - if we grant what has just been said, we
confine the discussion of t origin of degrees to the usages of the
an its predecessor, until such time as the chain is carried farther
into the past
through the medium of historical research. All of this leads to one
if it cannot be shown historically that Freemasonry had a direct
such organizations as the Rosicrucians or the Kabbalists, we have no
asserting that they were connected simply because we find the same
symbols or philosophy
in each. We must first prove the historical connection before the
can be taken to indicate more than a borrowing of ideas ‒ which is the
way of accounting for it.
for the truth of any statements in Bro. Castells' work we submit the
a sketch of his theory. The Royal Arch is the apex, the summit, the ne
of Masonry. It is the oldest part of the system, and therefore is
The Craft degrees were invented for special purposes, and it was not
until the Mason
attained the Royal Arch that he became a Master. He cites the Order of
the Masters' Lodges as evidence. There his history ends and his
A long discussion of the Kabbala and its Masonic import follows. It may
if his first postulate is granted the rest follows logically; but to at
reader the evidence is wholly unconvincing. It might carry more weight
if the author
had had the consideration for his readers to cite his authorities, and
from being quite so dogmatic. The following is an illustration:
in his works declared himself to be a disciple of Agrippa, and he
claimed that the
traditions of the Kabbalah are sacred truth, giving us as a sample the
of Jacob's Ladder, which we still find incorporated into Craft Masonry.
"Here we find the two extremes ‒ Jacob is the one, at the foot of the
and God is the other, who stands above it. The rounds or steps in the
the middle nature, by which Jacob is united to God." The Craft Mason of
endorses all this, and says that "rounds or staves" represent the Three
Cardinal Virtues of Faith, Hope, and Charity, by which we also draw
near to God.
In the first
place, where in Thomas Vaughan's work is the above statement found?
Next, when did
Jacob's Ladder come into Masonry? So far as we can recall there is no
reference to the ladder as a Masonic symbol before the latter part of
century. There is indeed the passage in the second of the famous Two
a Friend, published in 1725, praising the Gormagon Society and
in the guise of a candid friend:
Reports and Stories of raising the Devil, of Witches, Ladders, Halters,
and Dark Rooms, have spread Confusion and Terror.
is the well-known coarse and obscene engraving of Hogarth's, The
Mystery of Masonry
Brought to Light by the Gormogons, which seems to be the graphic
of the "Letter."
As a contribution
to the real history of Masonic Ritual and the origin of degrees the
work will be
disappointing to students, and it is to be feared misleading to others.
But it will
scarcely be fair to leave it at that. It would appear to be in reality
or sequel of the previous work, the Antiquity of the Royal Arch. Read
from the point
of view of a symbolical interpretation it has an interest that will
make a strong
appeal to a large number of Masons, especially those who are little
history but attach great importance to symbolism. And after all,
without the symbolism
the history would be of little moment.
* * *
of the Lodge Original, No. 1. Vol. 1
[Lib*] Second Edition Revised. Edited
by Bro. W. Harry
Rylands. Privately printed. Cloth, table of contents, illustrated,
index, 436 pages.
in Masonic literature are altogether too rare owing largely to the
of publication. Occasionally, however, something happens which is of
more than usual
importance. For many years prior to 1911, English Masonic students had
the fact that the records of Lodge Original No. 1 were almost
lodge itself seems to have realized that it would be of great
assistance to those
who were seeking to find the origins of things Masonic to have those
In the Transactions of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, the famous English
prior to this date, one finds references here and there regretting that
should be so closely kept. Suggestions for their publication were
In 1911 the first volume of these records was published. Bro. W. H.
editor, did not tell us how long they had been in preparation, neither
did he mention
whether Quatuor Coronati had been an influence in causing them to be
light. We are left in total oblivion as to how long this step had been
by the Lodge of Antiquity. The characteristic caution of the English is
to assure us that it was not decided on the spur of the moment. The
care shown by the work itself attests the time spent by Bro. Rylands in
publication, however, was only a step in the right direction. For some
first edition of Volume I was limited to one hundred copies, none of
for sale. A few volumes were presented to outstanding Masonic
libraries, the remainder
found homes in the private libraries of the members of the Lodge of
since the Union, has been No. 2 on the Grand Lodge rolls. Thus it
the records were made more accessible, but still their availability was
to a very few. The first volume brought the records up to the year 1779
and a part
of the plan was to publish the remainder of the minutes in subsequent
Rylands did not live to complete his self-imposed task. For fifteen
years the matter
stood as it was left by the Past Master of No. 2, who besides editing
Volume I of
the Records was Secretary of Quatuor Coronati Lodge and Editor of Ars
During all of this time scholars bemoaned the scarcity of the first
In 1926 under
the able editorship of Captain C. W. Firebrace, Volume II made its
volume was reviewed in detail in the July number of THE BUILDER for
because of the urgent pleading of the world of Masonic Research, this
published in an edition of 300 copies. It was understood at the time of
that if the sale warranted, a sufficient number of Volume I would be
complete the sets. This explains the appearance of the second edition
of the first
Masonic world owes the Lodge of Antiquity and its two able editors a
debt of thanks.
The now existent 300 sets of the Records of Lodge Original No. 1 will
make it sufficiently
accessible for Masonic students generally to consult the work. This is
of the utmost
importance since the Lodge of Antiquity has enjoyed an existence longer
of any other lodge in England, and was one of the four that organized
anything like an adequate account of this important work is impossible
at this time.
The late Bro. Wonnacott reviewed it very exhaustively in Volume XXV of
As has been said, there are only 300 sets available. Probably most of
already been subscribed for, so that those interested will have to act
if they hope to secure a copy. It is a work of pre-eminent value for
and enough copies should be secured for our Masonic libraries, at
least, to make
it as accessible in America as in England to those who require to
of the salient points in the history of the Lodge of Antiquity may be
This was the lodge with which Sir Christopher Wren was connected. It
met at the
Goose and Gridiron in St. Paul's Churchyard. In this tavern, be it
held the meeting on June 24, 1717, where the General Assembly and
Annual Feast were
revived. This, together with the additional fact that it was placed as
No. 1 on
the records, may point to its seniority among the London Lodges. It
will be recalled
that the first meeting which had to do with the reorganization of the
held at the Apple Tree Tavern in 1716. There must have been some reason
gathering on St. John's Day in the summer following being held at the
Girdiron. Either it was traditional for the Annual Feasts to be held in
of the cathedral or it was done because this inn was the meeting place
most interesting part of the two volumes is the account of the quarrel
Grand Lodge and the Lodge of Antiquity. For here, for the first time,
of this break and how the Original No. 1 came to act as the Grand Lodge
of all England
South of the Trent has been fully told from the actual records. Just in
of this quarrel Volume I ends. Volume II takes up the thread and
carries the history
down to the present day.
some differences between the first and second editions of Volume 1.
should be a matter of record, it may be well to, quote Bro. Firebrace's
to Volume II where these changes are outlined:
text has been left practically unaltered. The book has been divided
some printer's errors corrected, and a few slips of the Editor amended.
the light of further knowledge, a larger correction or addition was
refer the reader to the "Notes and Corrigenda to Vol. I," printed in
II, Appendix F.
In the first
edition some of the earliest minutes were reproduced in facsimile, and
is made to these in the Introduction. These were eighteen in number,
of seven pages of notes and a list of members dated 1721 from the old
Book E, a
page of the Minute Book dated 1736, and nine pages of signatures of
1737 and 1767. The extracts from Book E are all printed in the text,
of the notes, purporting to be Minutes between 1721 and 1736, are of no
establish an early date of entry, as it is admitted that they cannot
have been written
in Book E before the year 1768. The facsimile signatures are those of
are quite unknown, and their names are found in the text and in the
list of members
printed in Vol. II, Appendix E. For these reasons and on account of the
of reproduction, these plates have been omitted. For the same reason it
been found possible to reproduce the colored prints of the Heading and
of the "Antiquity" Roll of Old Charges. The other illustrations remain,
but the Engraved Lodge Summons of 1760, the list of members of 1776,
and the Lodge
Certificate of 1788 (incorrectly described as the original one of
1777), are reduced
in size. Two new plates are added, the actual Lodge Certificate of
1777, which is
particularly interesting as being the one given to William Preston on
Feb. 18, 1778
and the Lodge Summons attributed to the year 1769, to which reference
is made in
Vol. II, pp. 319-321. The original of both are in the Library of Grand
I am indebted to the late Bro. Wonnacott, the librarian, for permission
them. Many of the corrections also, which are noted in Appendix F, and
are now inserted
in the text, are taken from his review of the first edition, printed in
Coronati Lodge, Vol. XXV, 1912, p. 165, et. seq.
the value of these two volumes to posterity would be difficult, and
about all that
can be said at this time is that the recent publication of the second
Volume I of the Records of Lodge Original No. 1 brings to a culmination
one of the
most important incidents in the history of Masonic Literature.
* * *
[Lib*] The Doctrine and History
of Masonry or
The Romance of the Craft. By John George Gibson. Published by the
Press, England. Cloth, table of contents, 248 pages. Price, $1.85.
BY some oversight,
the cause of which cannot now be ascertained, this work has never been
in THE BUILDER, although it has been advertised on the cover at least
know this, without an examination of the files, through Bro. Vibert who
to an error in the title. It was the most recent of these occasions
that led the
present writer to read the book, which he had never done before. This
to the opinion that it would have been much better named without the
neither of which are especially appropriate. It is not a history of
Masonry in any
strict sense of the word, nor yet is it "romance." However, this is
a minor matter as no one will ever remember or speak of it except by
the short title,
The Builders of Man.
Dr. Gibson was (for we understand he is no longer living) a clergyman
of the Church
of England. This church is known for its practical tolerance and
It contains Catholics and Protestants, Modernists and Fundamentalists,
Formalists. Not entirely without internal friction it is true, but yet
without much danger of schism or measures of repression, and this in
spite of recent
happenings. This helps us in part to understand Dr. Gibson's position.
from the pages of his book that he was eclectic in his opinions,
choosing them here
and there as they seemed to fit in with his vision of the truth. He was
to see in all forms of religion, even the most primitive, a seeking
and some apprehension of the source of all good. In a sense he took
the mantle of Dr. George Oliver; at least his vision of the essentials
seems much the same. Dr. Oliver interpreted the spiritual aspects of
the Craft to
his own generation in terms they could understand. Terms more alien to
than if he had lived a thousand years ago instead of in the last
century. Dr. Gibson
naturally uses a language more familiar to us. Perhaps it is the result
of a natural
bias, but it would seem almost that his ideas are on a higher spiritual
will make a more permanent appeal.
idea of the book would seem to be that Freemasonry is a greater thing
than its formal
organization at any given time. Part II is entitled "History," Part I,
being no more than a sort of introduction. The reader should be on his
Dr. Gibson is not to be taken as an authority on Masonic History. He
seems to have
accepted much of the theories of such writers as the late Bros. Yarker
Writers who, like himself, were more interested in the symbolism and
value of their theories than their literal accuracy as a record of
But with this caution in mind no harm will be done.
holds that the living principle of modern Freemasonry has been that
which has led
man from primitive savagery to the highest state of civilization. All
who have built
in and for mankind, whether materially or morally, intellectually or
have been Masons ‒ not in the narrow and formal sense, but in their
hearts ‒ and
they have sought for the true word, even though the substitute we know
whispered in their ears. This is a high and inspiring conception. The
possibly inclined to think that this spirit always was embodied in some
organization, and also that there may have been some physical
continuity of such
organization as well, yet this is not forced upon the reader; while on
side it is constantly insisted that it is spiritual continuity and not
that really counts.
the relationship of Masonry to religion a very important point, and
may find the author somewhat paradoxical. But that may be the only way
a complex truth. One might say that as be sees it the essence of
religion is one
with that of Masonry. That Masonry is the practical aspect of belief
emotion, as religion has been defined. Paradox is hard to avoid in
words of such general and hardly defined meanings. On the whole it is a
and stimulating idea.
style is worthy of his theme. It is easy and flowing at all times, and
demands rises to the level of true poetry in prose form. For the Mason
who is not
satisfied with the essential, though elementary moralities of the
are few books that will be more helpful in setting him upon the way to
Not a will o' wisp withdrawn in mist, but a light that will lead him to
of his brother men and the ennoblement of his own character.
* * *
for Royal Arch Masons as To Mark Master, Most Excellent
Master and Royal Arch Degrees
Henry T. Smith, Grand Scribe E. Canada (Province of Ontario). Privately
Paper, 12 pages.
IN this little
pamphlet Bro. Smith has put together some useful elementary information
the Chapter degrees that will answer many of the questions that will
rise in the
candidate's mind after he has passed through them. Indeed it might be
for preliminary information to the Master Mason who is contemplating
his application to the Chapter. Naturally it refers especially to the
which in many respects is quite different from that used in the United
are several illustrations and diagrams which assist the reader in
the text; an especial one showing the arrangement of the furniture of a
proper placing of the banners, the working tools and so on.
gives a brief sketch of the place of the Royal Arch in the Masonic
system, in which
he follows the older authorities, whose conclusions are not so well
as they once were considered to be. It is doubtless correct to say that
late as 1758 the Moderns had no Royal Arch Degree." It would be equally
to say that they had none as late as 1813, in the sense that the Senior
never recognized the Royal Arch. But this is not to be taken as meaning
Modern Masons did not possess and work the Royal Arch, either in 1813,
1758 or earlier.
The difference between Ancients and Moderns being that the degree or
order was recognized
officially as part of the Masonic system by the first and was
or repudiated by the second.
a limited sense, too, in which we may admit that the original ritual of
degree contained the germ of the Royal Arch, in that, apparently, so
far as we have
any evidence, the lost word was at first said to have been found.
there seems to have been a modification of this. The word was not lost,
and incidentally it was told what the original word was. This was
obviously an unsatisfactory
arrangement, both dramatically and symbolically; and naturally it was
improved by the addition of the new motif of the secret vault, which
out along two divergent lines in Britain and France. But the subject is
obscure, and may always remain so.
too, seems to follow older sources in saying, by implication, that the
rise of the
Ancients is to be dated from 1738. Really it was twenty years later.
is perhaps hardly fair to criticize what is after all only an
only reason for doing so is that these erroneous ideas are very widely
are constantly being repeated, and it is only by as constantly taking
them up that
there is any hope of spreading knowledge of the actual facts so far as
known. Outside of these few paragraphs on the first and second pages
there is nothing
to find fault with. The progression of the degrees is touched upon with
of the lesson of each in the ordered system, culminating in the Royal
silver shekel, the Ark of the Covenant and the Banners of the Twelve
among the other topics dealt with.
The Question Box and Correspondence
Ark of the Covenant
For the information
of Bro. Briggs, and of all interested Masons, I deem it wise in
addition to my communication
last month, to give my authority for the suggestion in the May number
of THE BUILDER
that the bones of the Patriarch Joseph formed the contents of the Ark
of the Covenant.
Stanley A. Cook, one of the greatest of English Biblical scholars,
author of The
Religion of Ancient Palestine [Lib 1921], Critical Notes on Old
History [Lib 1907], The Laws of Moses and
Hamurabi [Lib*], etc.,
"Whether the ark contained some
Yahweh has been a subject of much discussion … As the palladium of the
it has even been suggested that the bones of Joseph were treasured in
I will take
advantage of the opportunity also, to point out a typographical error
a difference of a century in the date of King Hezekiah. 801 B. C.
should have been
701 B. C.
Burton E. Bennett, Washington.
* * *
Marshall and His Critics
In the review
of Mr. Schroeder's recent book, Al Smith, the Pope and the President,
in your July
issue, it is stated that I "believe in the civic supremacy of the
Whether this statement is correct depends on the meaning attached to
the words "believe
in." The civic primacy of the people is not properly the object of
being more of a fact than a theory or principle. It is possible that
has acquired the notion that I am a defender of unlimited State
a worshipper at the altar of "majorities." Late reviews in Roman
Journals both here and abroad, of my recent book, The Roman Catholic
Church in the
Modern State, seek to give this impression and the Rev. Bertrand S.
Conway, of the
Paulist Fathers, in The Catholic World for June states that I am "a
of the theory of unlimited State Sovereignty," according to Hegel and
and that I "make State Sovereignty the final determinant of morals."
is that I execrate the Hegelian State and the Austinian conception of
and have very flatly so expressed myself in the book Father Conway
attempts to review.
It is wholly devoted to the maintenance of the moral supremacy of the
conscience against the moral supremacy of the State as well as against
supremacy of the Pope as defined in the Vatican Conciliar decrees of
to be a conviction in Roman Catholic thought that to escape the
Hegelian State one
must take refuge in a "Hegelian" Church, and that if one rejects the
as the final determinant of morals he must accept Papal Supremacy and
‒ as such determinant.
One may not
"believe in" the "Civic Primacy of the People" and yet may utilize
it in moral determination if it is the only alternative to Papal
Supremacy de fide
and jure divino.
To the latter
a large part of the world interposes vigorous objection, and asserts
of self-realization towards God. Such assertion does not mean the
negation of a
teaching and sacramental church but it does mean the negation of a
claiming for its Supreme Pontiff, by the ordinance of Christ and
superior to all
human consent and will, a Supremacy and Infallibility over the moral
life of man.
must in the end agree with Burke that it cannot exist unless a
upon will and appetite is placed somewhere. It is manifestly absurd and
oppressive (until "America is made Catholic") to claim that the
power should be placed outside the State in the Supreme Pontiff of a
Church of which
only a part of the civic community are members. The only alternative,
like all things human though it may be, is to place it where the modern
it ‒ in the civic primacy of the people in which we all share, and
balance it there
with the moral supremacy de jure of the individual conscience ‒ a
is not mere choice or whim but the serious reaction of man to the
at the basis of human society. There is a universal church which offers
juridical order to that of the State ‒ the formless church of Father
which, as he said, underlies the hierarchical organization and in the
life of which
"God's spirit exercises a silent but sovereign criticism and his
judgment is made known not in the precise language of definition and
in the slow manifestation of practical results." In that Church there
controlling power upon will and appetite. Of that Church all Christians
that the Roman Catholic Church is a part but they cannot concede that
it is more
than part, or that, with the State, it alone constitutes the two powers
theory and claim, or that all Christians are bound by their duty of
subordination and true obedience to submit to the Pope in matters which
faith and morals under the penalty of loss of salvation.
community which recognizes the de jure moral supremacy of the free
the antithesis of the Hegelian State and a book whose argument, however
asserts the moral supremacy by divine right of the individual
the moral supremacy of the State cannot justly be assailed as defending
State Sovereignty merely because it protests against an unlimited Papal
by Divine Right.
Charles C. Marshall, New York.
* * *
I have been
reading the June number of THE BUILDER and have noticed the item
Satanism." I am not at all surprised at anything that appeared in the Revue Internationale
des Sociétés Secrètes,
but it is interesting to learn that an American Roman Catholic should
pay any attention
to what it may have to say about Masonry.
I have at
hand the copy of L'Acacia (June, 1927) from which it professes to
quote. At page
534 is a paper by M. Charles Bernadin dealing with the history of a
at Metz in the period preceding the French Revolution. In this he
points out the
relatively large number of priests who were members or visitors of the
in some ironic raillery at the elasticity of their consciences in thus
forbidden society. He remarks that he has published elsewhere an
account of a lodge
at Angers of which, in 1883, "almost all the members were
But nowhere in this paper does he suggest that any special search
should be made
for such cases. One might judge indeed that in his opinion they were so
it would not be worthwhile. What he does advise, and is indeed the
of his paper, is that in every old lodge someone should be appointed to
inventory of all the old documents in the archives, making copies of
any that are
unique or of special interest, and that duplicates of these lists and
be sent in to the Grand Orient for the purpose of making them available
of Masonic history.
In a post
scriptum he adds the following, which is evidently the basis of the
in the Revue
Internationale des Sociétés Secrètes:
Apropos of Freemason clergymen,
I had a friend
of childhood days who became a priest. After having lost sight of him
for a long
time I ran on to him again some thirty years ago, more of a priest than
still more than that, an authentic Freemason with a diploma. He said
held missions, had mistresses, gave me consecrated hosts, and lunched
with me on
Good Friday. He was not a fool, quite the contrary. He died three years
the last "Priest, Monk, Reverend Father Dom X -, resting in the peace
Lord and fortified with the Sacraments of the Church," as it says in
notice. Some time or other I will tell you all about this, for it is as
as the moving pictures.
Was his life vowed to God or to
the Devil? Whom
has he deceived? The church? That is quite certain. Us also? If so,
why? It would
be very interesting for us to investigate it further, were it only to
once more that the heart of a priest is unfathomable.
sentence hardly bears out the supposition that he became a priest after
he was a
Mason, nor does the casual reference to the reception of consecrated
any such fantastic mental aberration as is supposed by the journalistic
Louis Goaziou, Colorado.
* * *
Freemasonry: A Reply
like to make a few remarks concerning the letter signed by Albert
Lantoine in the
June number of THE BUILDER, under the heading "French Freemasonry."
"Albert Lantoine" is so well known, being that of the French historian,
that it would be interesting to know whether the letter in question is
to come from "the" Albert Lantoine or not.
to know that Lantoine's knowledge of English is extremely limited, and
that it is
impossible for him to have written such a letter in English, and it is
doubtful whether he could, as stated in the letter, have enjoyed
reading the April
number of THE BUILDER. (That of course is his loss!)
wrote the letter, there are certain parts of it which are very
misleading, in connection
with the Grande Loge Nationale. It must be remembered that the question
is a very delicate one, and that every Grand Lodge has a special
deals very carefully with every demand for recognition, and I consider
is insulting the intelligence of a number of very distinguished Grand
when he suggests that such Grand Lodges as England, Scotland, Ireland,
Western Australia, Canada, Massachusetts, New York, etc., have been
taken in by
the claims of the Grande Loge Nationale. Every Grand Lodge deals with
recognition in its own particular manner, and a casual letter in THE
with a distinguished name, is not the right method to pursue to obtain
Indeed the only result of such a letter is to mislead a number of
is one point which does need attention, and that is the part played by
in the formation of the Grande Loge Nationale, in 1913. Now in 1913,
what was the
exact position? It was this: A number of Frenchmen had discovered that
as they understood it was non-existent in France. A number of
Englishmen also, found
that regular Freemasonry as practiced by the Grand Lodge of England,
in this country. Those of you who realize how much you would miss your
you lived in a town or country where regular Freemasonry did not exist,
understand how this small body of Frenchmen established cordial
the English Masons living in France. The result was that the Grande
was formed by the Lodges, Centre des Amis, No. 1; La Loge Anglaise, No.
2 (At Bordeaux);
and almost immediately, by the St. George's Lodge, No. 3. This small
immediately applied for recognition from the Grand Lodge of England,
it. To suggest for a moment that the Grand Lodge of England formed our
as one of its branches is grotesque, and can only be accounted for by
extremely limited knowledge of English.
Grand Lodge has grown and is growing. At present we have:
working Emulation in English.
working Emulation in French.
1 Lodge working
the Rite Ecossais Rectifie in French.
1 Study Lodge,
where papers are read in English or French.
French Lodge is to be consecrated in October, and others are in the
that the number of French Lodges is small. But remember that we are
must go slowly; and remember also that to the average Frenchman
a society which is political and anti-clerical. (The anti-clerical tone
letter is of course obvious.) We are out to spread regular Freemasonry
but I repeat that our chief difficulty is that Masonry as practiced by
Orient and Grand Lodge of France has a very dubious reputation and we
careful in our choice of French candidates. But the English in France
alive to their responsibilities and to their limitations. They have no
wish to control
the Grand Lodge at all, and they are quite content go to their own
lodge and receive
the moral refreshment such lodges offer. As an example of what the
English are doing,
let me quote one instance. Last week I was present at the installation
the Lodge, Centre des Amis, No. 1. Three years ago among the eleven
the lodge there were two Frenchmen and nine Englishmen. At present
there are ten
Frenchmen and one Englishman (and he has lived on the continent for
years). The Englishmen held office until there were Frenchmen able to
offices, and when such Frenchmen were available, the Englishmen stood
continued to support the lodge as ordinary members, and this is the
role of the
Englishmen in our Grand Lodge, to stand aside when Frenchmen are
I have said
already that this is not the time or the place to discuss our claims
and I am not authorized to do so. But I should like to state:
Grande Loge Nationale
insists on having the V. S. L. open at its meetings,
and insists on the obligations being taken thereon.
Grande Loge Nationale
forbids all discussion of a religious or political
Grand Lodge of France says
that lodges may, if they wish, use the V.
S. L., but it remains in close cooperation with the Grand Orient.
Grand Orient forbids the
use of the V. S. L. and of the words "G.
A. of the Universe."
is a well known fact among
students of French Masonry that the Grand Orient
(and therefore the Grand Lodge of France owing to their close
in political matters. Indeed most of the Grand Orient Masons I know try
this, and do not attempt to deny it.
Let me conclude
by saying that the Englishmen who have been initiated out here are very
belonging to a French Grand Lodge. We claim to be doing something
those principles which (are maintained by most of the Grand Lodges in
and we continue to make progress under the guidance of our
distinguished and well
beloved French Grand Master, Charles Barrois.
W. J. Coombes, France.
apologize for having omitted to note, in publishing the letter referred
that it was a translation. Ed.]
* * *
Oldest Masonic Building
In the July
number of THE BUILDER, at page 206, 1 see that it is stated that the
erected for Masonic purposes was that owned by the Richmond-Randolph
Lodge and occupied
continuously by the lodge since it was built in 1785. I would like to
attention to the New Age for May of this year, in which is an article
by Bro. S.
M. Gary (page 301) on the Royal White Hart Lodge, No. 2, at Halifax, N.
C. In this
it is asserted that Benjamin Franklin built the first house for purely
in America. This was located on Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, between
Eighth Streets, and was put up a little prior to 1769. It was torn down
The second such building to be put up exclusively for Masonic purposes
of the Royal White Hart Lodge at Halifax, N. C., as mentioned above, in
the old minutes show, and the building has been used continuously
since, and is
still in use by the lodge.
John S. Wood, North Carolina.
seen the article in the New Age referred to by Bro. Wood, but the one
in THE BUILDER last month was prepared before the other had come to
hand. As the
matter now stands it would seem that the Royal White Hart Lodge has the
to the oldest temple continuously used, though we do not intend to
assume the role
of arbiter in such question. Bro. C. W. Cramer, in an interesting
article in The
Mountaineer Mason, Vol. I, Nos. 8-9, tentatively arrives at the same
Transactions Vol 002 - 1889
Ars89 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1889. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 221. - 18.0 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 010 - 1897
Ars97 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 306. - 63.8 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 025 - 1912
Ars12 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 529. - 35.8 MB.
Critical Notes on Old Testament
Coo07 / auth. Cook Stanley A. - London : Macmillan and Co Ltd, 1907. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 183. - 10.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 3
Mac062 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 3 : 7 : p. 328. - 12.9 MB.
Life of John Knox
MCr05 / auth. M'Crie Thomas. - Philadelphia : Presbyterian Board of
Publication and Sabbath School Work, 1905. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 582. -
Morals and Dogma
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston : Supreme Council AASR, 1871. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 895. - Formatted & Indexed by rhm - 7.6 MB.
Origin of the English Rite of
Hug84 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : George Kenning, 1884. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 166. - 5.1 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 25 -
Bal00CB25 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 25 : 25 : p. 354. - 25.3 MB.
The Religions of Ancient Palesting
Coo21 / auth. Cook Stanley A. - London : Constable & Company
Ltd, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 132. - 7.6 MB.