Masonic Research Society
Table of Contents
June 1928 –
Volume XIV – Number 6
Militia of Mercy
Bro. R.J. Newton, Texas
in December, 1921, at the Annual Communication of the M. W. Grand Lodge
an effort has been made to unite the forty-nine Masonic Grand
Jurisdictions of the
United States, and other Masonic bodies, in a national humanitarian
to provide home relief and hospitalization for tuberculous Freemasons
members of Masonic families.
six years have passed and the effort has not succeeded. When it is
American Freemasonry did not unite during the World War for welfare
work among the
soldiers, at home and abroad, perhaps the failure to secure united
action by the
Craft in this work of salvaging sick men, women and children, who have
upon the Fraternity, cannot be charged to those who have worked for
years in the
face of heavy odds and every discouragement, to arouse the Craft to a
of the need for unity of action against tuberculosis, the greatest
enemy of the
American home today.
sentiment has developed among the leaders of the Fraternity against any
national Masonic association, or organization. Perhaps they have good
such sentiment and we have no space to devote to argument to meet their
The sentiment of the rank and file, the great inarticulate mass of
may differ from the leaders' wishes and opinions, but it is difficult
any expression of their desires.
Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association secured the interest and
twenty-six Masonic Grand Masters, who either accepted a place on the
Board of Governors, or appointed a representative upon the Board.
Failure to win
the approval and financial support of their Grand Lodges resulted in
from the Board and caused its disintegration. By eliminating the words,
and "sanatoria" from the name and by changing its plan of organization
and curtailing its purposes, the Masonic Tuberculosis Association hopes
some measure of cooperation and financial support from Masonic bodies
for a modified
program of relief work.
it will become increasingly difficult to secure continuity of interest
in any national Masonic association of official character, no matter
what its aim
or purpose. The different objections raised by the rulers of the Craft
to any form
of national activity are too numerous to be recited here. Some feel
that any national
association might develop into a national Grand Lodge, or create
sentiment in favor
of a national Grand Lodge, and few or none look with favor upon such an
Some contend that each Grand Jurisdiction and every Masonic Lodge
should care for
its own sick and help its own needy. However, few are doing so on an
and few are making plans to do so. Where hospital care and home relief
in the home state, it leaves unsolved the problem of helping those who
and who will later migrate to the Southwest, seeking the benefit of the
of that section.
In the face
of proof of the need for a Southwestern Tuberculosis Sanatorium to save
of sick brethren from many states, and in spite of appeals for
for them, few Masonic leaders were found who would recommend that their
or Grand Lodges unite in financing the erection, or purchase and
operation, of a
national tuberculosis sanatorium located in the Southwest.
So the effort
to unite Masonic Bodies in the establishment of a tuberculosis hospital
met with success. The final appeal made by the Tuberculosis Sanatorium
was for funds with which to purchase an existing hospital in the city
of El Paso,
Texas which could have been purchased for $65,000 and which would have
one hundred patients. The response to this appeal was almost nil. The
St. Joseph purchased this hospital and it is operating today as St.
and rendering good service. Apparently little difficulty was
experienced by the
Sisters in financing the purchase and operation of this institution.
Lodge of New Mexico will again appeal for financial help to all Masonic
They will not ask contributors to assume any part of the responsibility
or to undertake to give continued support for the relief work they will
to do through the Masonic Tuberculosis Association. The latter will do
what it can
with the funds thus contributed. The movement to provide relief and
will not die, because it is the right thing for Freemasonry to do and
it will be
done. It must and it will be carried on, by those who believe in it,
until it comes
to a definite and successful conclusion.
In the past
it has not been possible to appeal to Freemasons individually to assist
relief work, which was under the auspices of a purely Masonic body or
because the approval, or consent of the bodies to which they belonged
to be secured. It is now proposed to enlist the brethren, and other men
who believe in the principle of brotherhood, of relief and charity, and
a real desire to serve their brethren and their fellows in an
organization for humanitarian
The Order Of The
and women in sympathy with practical movements for the good of
humanity, are invited
to become Founder-Members of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of
which is a modern American revival of the ancient brotherhood which
and Crusaders from the dawn of the Christian era, developed into the
Order for the care of the sick and helpless, and serves the people of
and charity to our own ‒ in that respect the "Knights Hospitaller" will
be in a sense similar to other fraternities with whose work you are
beyond that, and filling a place in the nation, our state and our
no other fraternal organization has ever sought to fill to as great an
is planned to lend a helping hand to sick and suffering humanity.
Sanatorium in the Southwest for consumptives ‒ Protestant General and
in the large centers of population ‒ relief of the sick, the poor and
in our own home towns, through our own efforts and by cooperation with
public and private organizations and institutions for public health and
work ‒ all these and more are embraced in our program.
any amount to the organization expense of the Order will thereby become
as a Founder-Member. The fee for initiation into the Preceptory, or
Lodge of the
Brethren of St. John, is five dollars, payable upon application. The
fees for the
four Orders of Knighthood are five dollars each, payable when
daughters, mothers and sisters of male Founder-Members will be admitted
these fees. Later the fees will be increased. The dues will be small.
Hospitaller" in various countries, except that they work each in their
way to achieve worthy ends of relief, are not under any common
authority; in some
countries they are altogether Catholic, in others Protestant. The Order
as in England and Prussia, is established as a Protestant organization.
of good character, eighteen years of age and over, are eligible to be
and pending the establishment of Priories and Preceptories in the
and towns, application may be made direct to the Grand Commandery.
needs this Order, and the time is not far distant when those who now
be justly proud of the fact that they were Founder-Members of it.
The Purposes Of
The Order Of St. John
fit the needs of any American community, large or small, is the program
of the Hospitaller
Order. Some part or parts of the following plan may be adapted to the
needs of the
smallest village or the largest city. Members of the Order will study
of their communities and seek to meet them as an organization in a
Our motto is "For the service of humanity" and it is our purpose to
people help themselves.
the principles of the Christian religion and to practice the teachings
of the Founder
and promotion of all works of humanity and charity in the relief of
suffering and danger, by the founding of institutions for such purposes
auspices of the Order, and through cooperation with existing
organizations and institutions
in such work; to instigate movements, either state, county or municipal
public relief of distress; and to cooperate with existing organizations
aims in view. And finally, the extension of the great principle of the
and maintenance of a National Tuberculosis Sanatorium in the Southwest
for the care
of members of the Order, Masons and others.
public provision for the care of indigent, migratory tuberculars.
and operation of General and Special Protestant Hospitals, and, in
Maternity and other hospitals for the care of women and children, in
the local branch of the Order may be able to maintain such institutions.
of Clinics and Dispensaries for the care of out-patients of hospitals.
of Visiting Nurses for home visitation and care of the sick.
of Training Schools for nurses and hospital workers.
and operation of Convalescent Homes.
of Special Schools for the care and education of physically defective
and operation of Training Camps for the physical education of men and
of the Protestant public in the elementary principles and practice of
hygiene, especially of the sick room.
VI. First Aid
of persons in rendering "First Aid" in case of accident or sudden
and in transport of the sick or injured, and the promotion of popular
in methods of caring for sick and injured in peace and war.
To do all
things which will promote the health and well-being of our home
of members of the Order and such other persons as may need or desire
VIII. War Work
and Calamity Relief
aid to the sick and wounded in war or during any calamity, and the
such permanent organization for this purpose as may be at once
available in time
of war or in the event of any calamity.
of Ambulance Corps and Nursing Corps.
and distribution, by sale or presentation, of ambulance material, and
of ambulance depots in or near the centers of industry and traffic.
of Service and Bravery
of Medals or Badges and Certificates of Honor for Humanitarian Service
and for saving
human life at imminent personal risk.
of City or Town branches of the Order to extend and carry out its
purposes as above
stated and as enlarged and developed in the future.
is an outline of the form of organization of the "Knights Hospitaller":
of the Order is the Preceptory, or Lodge of the Brethren of St. John,
branch, which consists of all members of the Order residing in and
about the city
or town where the Preceptory is located.
of the Preceptory are relief of the sick and the poor of its city or
the Priory in the establishment and operation of a General or Special
in securing necessary public, state, county, or municipal hospitals,
the Grand Commandery in the establishment and operation of a National
Hospital and in securing public tuberculosis hospitals; health
education and first
aid instruction of all members; public health work, campaigns for
etc.; cooperation in the Order's work in time of war; relief work in
and the carrying out of the general purposes of the Order.
more persons may secure the establishment of a Preceptory in their
first joining the Order and then filing their petition for a charter.
is the union of all Preceptories in one or more counties, or in a
territory or part of the State having within its area one of the large
population in which the Order plans for the establishment of a General
It will be
the duty of the Priories to establish and operate General and Special
or to contract with existing hospitals for the care of the sick,
pay and charity patients, with preference in the admission of patients
of the Order and their families, Masons and Protestants.
and Territory of the American Union and all countries in North and
will be a Province of the Order, under the supervision of a Provincial
will have administrative jurisdiction over all work of the Order within
authority of the Order rests in the Grand Commandery, which will
determine the policies
and direct the work of the Order throughout the United States, its
and other countries, direct the National Sanatorium, which shall be
the care of persons suffering from tuberculosis with preference in the
of patients to members of the Order and their families, and Masons and
and grant charters to Priories and Preceptories.
will be authorized to confer the First Degree only ‒ the Lodge of the
St. John. The four Knightly Orders will be conferred by the Priories.
Orders of Knighthood and Grand Crosses will be conferred by the Grand
of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, although one of the most
ancient of existing
societies, with Grand bodies in several European countries, has not
organized in America.
legend sets the beginning of the Order in the days of the Maccabees,
with King Antiochus
as the founder and Zacharias, father of John the Baptist, as one of its
A hospital existed in Jerusalem, with rare interruptions, from the very
centuries of the Christian era. This hospital was in the charge of the
Brethren of St. John."
In the eleventh
century there existed a Latin hospital, established by Charlemagne.
This was destroyed
by the Saracens in 1010, and in or about the year 1023, certain
merchants of Amalfi
purchased the site and built thereon a new hospital for pilgrims,
dedicated to St.
John the Baptist. From that day the Order ceases to be legendary and
at Jerusalem rendered important service to the Crusaders, and after the
fell into the hands of the Christians great gifts of land and treasure
to it and the "Poor Brethren" became the "Knights of the Order of
the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem."
the Order was purely eleemosynary, but later it took up the armed
defense of pilgrims
as a part of its functions and became an aggressive military force,
joining in the
defense of the Holy Land. It grew in strength and importance and
branches were established
in all parts of Europe, with the highest nobility of all countries
serving in its
ranks. Though originally instituted to serve a local need at Jerusalem,
a universal society.
Knights Templar, which were also in existence at that time, were a
organization, the Hospitallers were primarily a nursing brotherhood,
this character was subordinated during their later period of military
it never disappeared. In all their establishments the sick gave orders
and the brethren
obeyed. The Hospitallers, moreover, encouraged the affiliation with
of women, who devoted themselves to prayer and nursing the sick and
In 1291 the
Holy Land had ceased to be in Christian hands and the Order was
expelled. In 1309
it was established in Rhodes, which island was its home for more than
years. From 1529 to 1798 its headquarters were in Malta. It was
in 1798, but was later reconstituted in various European countries and
in strength and usefulness until the present day.
now exists in Germany and Italy as Roman Catholic bodies and in England
as a Protestant organization. The English body, which had then been
years in existence, was chartered by Philip and Mary about 1550 and was
by Victoria. It numbers among its members the royalty and nobility of
rendered important service during the Great War through the St. John's
Association. It maintains at the present time a hospital in Jerusalem.
of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem is now established in America
as a Protestant
organization. The primary purposes which it hopes to accomplish,
according to its
articles of incorporation, are: (1) The establishment and maintenance
of a national
hospital for the care of tubercular patients; (2) the establishment and
of general and special hospitals throughout the United States.
headquarters of the Order will be maintained in the Advertising
Building, St. Louis,
Missouri. Local branches will be formed and chartered in all parts of
to carry out these purposes.
of the Hospital of St. John asks for the cooperation of all brethren,
and the members
of their families, who wish to serve their fellow men.
the Order Of the Temple, tracing its lineage back to the dawn of the
and with a record of continuous service up to the present day, the
has a long and glorious history of service and sacrifice in behalf of
the sick and injured.
of the Order will not be limited to the care of the tuberculous. Nor
will it be
entirely limited to the members of the Order, to Freemasons and members
families, or even to Protestants, although primarily designed to serve
is a great need for more, and larger, general medical and surgical
the cities and towns of America. There is a great need for Special
tuberculosis patients, for heart disease, for maternity cases, for
for chronic and incurable cases of all kinds, etc. There is a great
need for convalescent
homes. These and other institutions may be provided by local branches
of the Order
of St. John according to local needs and according to the ability of
the local branch
of the Order to meet such needs.
In many cities
and counties the local branch of the Order may take the initiative in
or cooperate in securing, county or municipal provision and support for
needs of the city or county through bond issue campaigns, etc.
and counties need the services of clinics, or of additional clinics,
and of public
health visiting nurses. These may be provided by local branches, or
county or municipal
provision of same may be secured by local branches.
Many of the
smaller cities and towns have no organized charity work and in such
places the local
branch of the Order may undertake to do the work usually carried on by
branch of the Order can render great service and meet many needs and
membership in every line of charitable, public health and social work,
if it recruits
a large membership and secures necessary finances.
of the Mystic Shrine has been called "The Playground of Freemasonry."
Today it is more than that because of its great service to childhood in
for crippled children. Perhaps the time may soon come, when the Order
of St. John,
whose membership will be largely composed of men and women with Masonic
or who are in complete sympathy with the principles and teachings of
may be called the "Service Branch" of the Craft, its "Life-Saving
Crew," or "Red Cross Unit"; its "Ambulance Brigade or Hospital
Corps." It may become, in truth, Freemasonry's "Militia of Mercy."
even though membership in St. John is not based upon Freemasonry, or
Freemasons There are many men and women, who are Freemasons at heart,
who will be
glad to enlist in any way that they may serve the Craft, even though
afar off. The
qualifications for St. John are the same as the qualification for
every respect, except the physical.
like St. John, with its marvelous historical and religious background,
objective is "Service," could not function, or succeed without
women to membership. They played an important part in the work of the
in Europe and the Holy Land. They will likewise render great service in
All men and
women, who believe that any Brother or Sister, who for any reason is in
should be aided, with the primary object of helping them to help
members of the Order of the Hospital of St. John, AT HEART. They will
as members, IN FACT.
General James Oglethorpe: Benefactor and
By Bro. Gilbert
W. Daynes, Associate Editor, England
many outstanding and remarkable personalities of the 18th century there
is one whose
association with Freemasonry gives him a more than passing interest to
of the Craft. James Edward Oglethorpe the youngest son of Sir
(1650-1702) of Westbrook Place, near Godalming, Surrey was born in the
St. James, Westminster, London, on the 1st June, 1689. It has been
stated that he
entered the English Army as an Ensign in 1710, but there is a
based upon old MS. Lists of Officers, that he received his first
Commission in the
1st Regiment of Foot, or Grenadier, Guards in 1706. It is believed that
into the Army was through the influence of the Duke of Marlborough. He
service abroad, but returned to England some time before the 9th July,
he matriculated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He could not,
however, have continued
his undergraduate course with any regularity, because we find him a
of the 1st Troop of the Queen's Life Guards, and leaving England to
join the Army
of Prince Eugene, whose aide-de-camp he became before the close of the
He served with distinction throughout the Turkish Campaign, and was
present at the
siege and capture of Belgrade, in 1717. In connection with this
Boswell, in his life of Dr. Samuel Johnson, relates that, at a dinner
on the 10th
told us, that when he was a very young man, I think only fifteen,
Prince Eugene of Savoy, he was sitting in a company at table with a
Prince of Wirtemberg.
The Prince took up a glass of wine, and, by a fillip, made some of it
fly in Oglethorpe's
face. Here was a nice dilemma. To have challenged him instantly, might
a quarrelsome character upon the young soldier: to have taken no notice
of it might
have been considered as cowardice. Oglethorpe, therefore, keeping his
eye upon the
Prince, and smiling all the time, as if he took what his Highness had
done in jest,
said "Mon Prince (I forget the French words he used, the purport,
was ), that's a good joke; but we do it much better in England;" and
a whole glass of wine in the Prince's face. An old General who sat by,
a bien fait, mon Prince, vous l’avez commence:" and thus all ended in
had been concluded between the Emperor and the Sultan, in 1718,
to England. On the death of his brother Theophilus he succeeded to the
at Westbrook, and resided there for some years. In October, 1722, he
one of the Members for Haslemere, in Surrey, and represented that
and Market Town in Parliament continuously for 32 years. Lecky, in his
England, in the 18th century, says of him:
man of indomitable energy, and of some practical and organising talent,
he had no
forensic ability, and he was both too hot-tempered, too impulsive, and
to take a high rank among the adroit and intriguing politicians of his
would probably have remained an undistinguished member of Parliament
had he not
devoted his energies to improving the conditions, in London prisons,
for debt. This subject he made preeminently his own, and, by what he
in the amelioration of that great national evil, became, perhaps, the
of the philanthropists of his day.
At this period
imprisonment for debt was the cause of a vast amount of misery and
ruin; and until
Oglethorpe turned his attention to the matter glaring abuses in
its enforcement went on unchecked. In 1716 it is estimated that about
were incarcerated in English and Welsh prisons. The mortality amongst
victims was very high. Oglethorpe's notice to this appalling state of
attracted, apparently, by the imprisonment in the Fleet of a friend of
Caster a man eminently skilled in Architecture, and the author of The
the Ancients Illustrated [Lib*], a costly folio produced in 1728 who
from affluence into hopeless debt. Owing to his inability to pay even
fees of the Warder of his prison he was consigned to a house in which
where he contracted the disease and died. In 1729 Oglethorpe secured a
enquiry into the terrible conditions obtaining in the Fleet and the
which was afterwards extended to those of other goals. A Prison
of 14 members of the House of Commons, with Oglethorpe as Chairman, was
The Committee commenced their labors by visiting the Fleet and
examining some of
the debtors. It may be noted in passing that amongst the prisoners
Sir William Rich, Baronet, who was a Freemason, having been a member of
at the Fleece in Fleet Street, London, in 1725. Many atrocities were
the result of the three Reports of this Committee of Investigation, and
put a stop to much barbarous and deliberate ill-treatment; although
Warden of the Fleet, and other gaolers, who were indicted for their
prisoners, were acquitted for lack of sufficient evidence.
endeavors in connection with prison reform did not exhaust his
activities. A pamphlet
entitled The Sailor's Advocate was first published in 1728. This was
to Oglethorpe, and in it the evils of impressment and other abuses
by the Admiralty were clearly exposed. On the 31st July, 1731, he was
M.A. at his University. During the same year he was elected a Director
of the Royal
African Company, of which the King was Governor, and in the following
its Deputy Governor.
Inquiry with its disclosures particularly the hard lot of prisoners for
to Oglethorpe's attention the problem of pauperism generally; and with
a view of
solving this problem he became the pioneer of, and took the leading
part in, the
movement which resulted in a Royal Charter being granted for a new
Colony in America
south of the river Savannah called Georgia, after King George II. In
Oglethorpe met Viscount Percival, then M. P. for Harwich, in the Lobby
of the House
of Commons, and gained his sympathies with regard to this project.
and protracted negotiations took place between the promoters and the
At one time it looked as if nothing would materialize, and Lord
Percival in his
Diary, early in 1732, states that he told Horatio Walpole, when
discussing the matter:
We apprehended there was still
a distrust that
we sought our private advantage, whereas we had no view but serving the
and I did not know how we came to be such knight-errants.
on the 9th June, 1732, a Charter was at last granted to Viscount
2nd Earl of Egmont); Edward Digby (eldest son of the 5th Baron Digby);
Carpenter; James Oglethorpe, M.P.; George Heathcote, M.P.; Thomas
Tower, M.P.; Robert
Moor, M.P.; Robert Hucks, M.P.; Roger Holland, M.P.; William Sloper,
M.P.; Sir Francis
Eyles, M.P.; John Laroche, M.P.; James Vernon, Commissioner of Excise;
John Burton, D.D.; Richard Bundy, D.D.; Arthur Blaford; Samuel Smith;
and Captain Thomas Coram. Several of these gentlemen were Freemasons.
George, Lord Carpenter was a member of the Lodge at the Horn,
Westminster, in 1723,
becoming Senior Grand Warden in 1730. Roger Holland acted as Junior
on 13th April, 1732, although the name of his Lodge is unknown. John
in 1731, a member of the Lodge at the Prince Eugene's Head Coffee
House, St. Alban's
Street. Mr. George Heathcote may perhaps be identified with the Mr.
the Lodge at the Rummer Tavern, Charing Cross, and Mr. James Vernon may
be the Mr. Vernon who was a member of the Lodge at the Bedford Head,
It is also quite likely that some of the other Trustees were
Freemasons, as we know
James Oglethorpe to have been, although there is no record of then
having been initiated.
As will appear later on in this article there are records in the Colony
proving that Oglethorpe was a Freemason, but at present we have no
evidence to show
when or where he was made. In view of the interest taken by the Grand
Lodge of England
in this scheme of colonization, and the cooperation Oglethorpe received
Freemasons, it is reasonable to suppose that he was made in England
prior to the
granting of the Charter in 1732.
In 1732 Oglethorpe
published A New and Accurate Account of the Province of South Carolina
and also An Essay on Plantations; or Tracts Relating to the Colonies,
expounded his theory as to the advantages and general object to
settlers for the new Colony were selected from the unfortunate but
classes who had failed in England, and also from the oppressed and
sects from Europe, particularly those from the Bishopric of Salzberg.
the Colony was intended to exercise a civilizing and missionary
influence upon the
surrounding Indians, while inserted in its Charter was a most memorable
prohibiting the introduction of slaves. One further clause may be
shows quite clearly the character and ideas of the promoters:
And for the greater ease and
our loving subjects and such others as shall come to inhabit in our
we do … grant establish and ordain that forever hereafter there shall
be a liberty
of conscience allowed in the worship of God to all persons inhabiting …
province, and that all such persons except Papists shall have a free
their religion, so they be contented with the peaceable and quiet
enjoyment of the
same, not giving offense or scandal to the government.
were to receive no salary, payment, fee or profit from the undertaking,
nor be able
to obtain any grant of land in the Colony.
were granted by the Trustees to influential people to enable them to
on behalf of the scheme, and subscriptions came in freely from private
every rank, as well as from various public institutions. The government
it, and the Duke of Newcastle (himself a Freemason) and others remitted
of office upon the granting of the Charter, amounting to some hundreds
Southey, in his life of John Wesley, says:
No colony was ever established
more honourable to its projectors: nor did the subsequent conduct of
discredit their profession.
added their contributions to the rest. From the Newcastle Courant of
the 30th December
1732, we learn that a Lodge, which does not appear to have ever come
upon the roll
of the premier Grand Lodge, "ordered a considerable sum of money to be
among the poor families sent to Georgia." A little later a subscription
all the Lodges under the premier Grand Lodge was organized for the same
In the minutes of the Quarterly Communication, held at the Devil
Bar, on Tuesday, 13th December, 1733, it is recorded:
Then the Depy Grand Master
opened to the Lodge
the Affairs of Planting the new Colony in Georgia in America, and
having sent an
Account in Print of the Nature of such Plantation to all the Lodges,
the Grand Lodge That the Trustees had to Nathaniel Blackerby Esqr. and
Commissions under their Common-Seal to collect the Charity of this
enabling the Trustees to send distressed Brethren to Georgia where they
may be comfortably
that it be strenuously recommended by the Masters & Wardens of
to make a generous Collection amongst all their Members for that
seconded by Br. Rogers Holland Esqr. (one of the said Trustees) who
opened the nature
of the Settlement, and by Sr. William Keith Bart. who was many Years
Pennsylvania by Dr. Desagulier, Lord Southwell Br. Blackerby and many
worthy Brethren it was recommended accordingly.
Grand Master and Br. Blackerby Treasurer informed the Grand Lodge that
wait upon the Noblemen, and others Persons of Distinction, who are
Members of this
Society; for their Contribution to the charity of Georgia.
On the following
18th March, a further resolution was passed, at a Quarterly
Communication held at
the same place, which was as follows:
That the Masters of all regular Lodges who shall not bring in their
of Charity Do at the next Quarterly Communication give the reasons why
Lodges do not contribute to the Settlement of Georgia.
Festival was held on the 30th March, and the next Quarterly
was on the 24th February, 1735, but in the minutes of neither of these
are there any references to this matter. Thus, from Craft Records, we
the extent of the support given by the Freemasons to this deserving
seems, however, little doubt that this Colonization had the special
active support of the Brotherhood, no doubt on account of those
Brethren who, headed
by Oglethorpe, set the enterprise in motion.
On the 1st
November, 1732, a meeting of the Trustees was held at which it was
a civil government should be established at Georgia; that the first
town to be erected
should be named Savannah; that powers under seal should be entrusted to
that a surgeon and apothecary should go with the first settlers; and
that the Rev.
Henry Herbert son of the late Lord Herbert of Cherbury a Church of
should go a voluntary chaplain until a paid Clergyman could be
supported and found.
After attending this meeting Viscount Percival records in his Diary:
Thus, I hope,
with the blessing of God, this noble, charitable disinterested and
to the nation will take root and flourish, having taken all possible
care for its
the move westward took place, and on the 16th November, 1732,
with 35 families (comprising 120 persons) in the ship, Ann, commanded
Thomas. They embarked at Graves-end, and arrived at Charleston Harbor,
on the 13th January, 1733. The only casualties on the voyage were the
two children, both under three months old. Oglethorpe thus became the
of Georgia, a position he retained for nearly 20 years, and throughout
not only received no salary or recompense, but expended large sums out
of his own
By the 31st
January, 1733, the settlers had arrived at the site of the future town
They set to work to clear the site for the buildings to be erected and
at once got on terms of amity with the Indian tribes, who inhabited the
On 12th March he wrote to the Trustees as follows:
This province is much larger
than we thought,
being 120 miles from this river to the Alatamaha. The Savannah has a
very long course,
and a great trade is carried on by the Indians, there having above
boats passed since I have been here. There are in Georgia, on this side
of the mountains,
three considerable nations of Indians… One of these is within a short
us and had concluded a peace with us, giving us the right of all this
part of the
country: and I have marked out the lands which they have reserved to
Their King comes constantly to church, is desirous to be instructed in
religion, and has given me his nephew, a boy who is his next heir, to
agree so well with the Indians that the Creeks and the Uchees have
referred to me
a difference to determine, which otherwise would have occasioned a war.
month the new Colony was visited by three or four residents of South
of whom in an account of his experiences wrote;
Mr. Oglethorpe is
indefatigable, and takes a
vast deal of pains. His fare is but indifferent, having little else at
salt provisions. He is extremely well beloved by all the people. The
give him is Father. If any of them are sick he immediately visits them,
great care of them. If any difference arises he is the person who
decides it. Two
happened while I was here, and in my presence, and all the parties went
outward appearance satisfied and contented with the determination. He
keeps a strict
discipline; I neither saw one of his people drunk nor heard one swear
all the time
I have been here. He does not allow them rum, but in lieu gives them
It is surprising to see how cheerfully the men go to work, considering
not been bred to it. There are no idlers here; even the boys and girls
part. There are four houses already up, but none finished; and he hopes
has got more sawyers to finish two houses a week. He has ploughed up
part of which is sowed with wheat, which is come up and looks
promising. He has
two or three gardens, which he has sowed with divers sorts of seeds and
thyme, with other pot herbs, and several sorts of fruit-trees. He was
the town round, including some part of the Common. In short, he has
done a vast
deal of work for the time, and I think his name deserved to he
In due course
the town of Savannah was erected, to be followed subsequently by other
such as Abercorn and Ebenezer, when other parties from England and the
of Europe had followed, including many of Count Zinzendorf's Moravians.
On the 10th
February, 1734, the first Lodge of Freemasons in Georgia was organized
known as "The Lodge at Savannah." The founders seem just to have met
without any formal ceremony of constitution, and to have appointed
as their first Master, an office he seems to have held until he left
about nine years later. He was succeeded, in 1743, by Noble Jones, who
was the first
initiate of the Lodge, having been made between the first Meeting and
the 25th March,
1734. The formal Constitution of the Lodge did not take place until
the arrival of Roger Lacey. In Anderson's Constitutions of 1738,
amongst the "Deputations
sent beyond Sea," there is the following entry:
Weymouth Grand Master granted …
Another to Mr.
Roger Lacy, Merchant, for constituting a Lodge at Savannah of Georgia
other Masonic reference to Oglethorpe that I can find is contained in A
General James Oglethorpe by Robert Wright, published in 1867, in which
it is stated:
There is, or before the late
strife there was,
in Savannah a Bible his gift to a Masonic Lodge.
spent a busy 15 months in exploring portions of his Province and
parts of it as were being settled. There were defensive posts to be
manned. The town of Savannah had to be laid out, not merely for the
with an eye to its future possibilities and magnitude. The settlers had
buildings erected for them as speedily as possible. Then, too, the
of South Carolina had to be visited and numerous points settled,
besides many meetings
with the Indians and arranging treaties with them. As the Colony grew,
settlers arrived, judicial and administrative powers, at first
exercised by Oglethorpe
alone, had to be delegated to others competent to carry them out.
1734, Oglethorpe committed the charge of the Colony to Mr. Thomas
Causton, the Trustees'
Storekeeper, with the title of Bailiff, and proceeding via Charleston,
returned to England, arriving in June, 1734. He received a great
welcome on reaching
London. In the Gentleman's Magazine Mr. Urban offered a prize for the
for a medal to commemorate Oglethorpe's benevolence and patriotism. It
cast, but after a few specimens had been struck off the die was
England Oglethorpe obtained two statutory enactments for the benefit of
Province. One was an Act prohibiting the importation and sale of rum,
other distilled liquors, and the other was an Act for rendering the
Georgia more defensive, by prohibiting the importation of black slaves
Governor Belcher of Massachusetts, and a brother Freemason, strongly
these measures, and in a letter to Lord Egmont stated:
I have read
Mr. Oglethorpe's State of the New Colony of Georgia once and again; and
by its harbours,
rivers, soil, and productions, do not doubt that it must in time make a
to the British Empire in America; and I still insist upon it that the
regulations of the Trustees are essential to its healthy and prosperous
On the 20th
October, 1735, Oglethorpe sailed from Gravesend, and was accompanied by
Charles Wesley the Methodists who were to superintend the moral and
of the Colony. Although the vessel got as far as St. Helens it was
several weeks by bad weather, and it was not until the 10th December
that it finally
stood out to sea, arriving at Georgia on the following 4th February.
did not stay long in the Colony, and was back in England in December,
place was subsequently taken by George Whitfield, who reached America
in May, 1737.
In the following year John Wesley, too, returned home to answer certain
made against him, and his commission seems to have been revoked. George
has preserved an interesting note upon Freemasonry, which Dr. Richard
copied and forwarded in the following letter to his friend and Masonic
Thomas Towle of London:
As you preserve all relating to
the Subject of
Masonry I send you this from Mr. Whitfields Continuation of his Journal
Oct. pag: 6.
Savannah in Georgia Friday 24
To the great surprise of myself
and people was
enabled to read Prayers and preach with power before the Free Masons,
I afterwards dined, and was used with the utmost Civility. May God make
of Christ, and then, and not till then will they be free indeed.
What notions this Gent has of
the Craft you may
guess by his surprise and wish.
I am Sr. Yours to command,
13 Jany 1738/9 R. R.
It was during
this decade that Alexander Pope immortalized James Oglethorpe by
extolling his abundance
of that Masonic virtue Charity. In his Imitations of Horace, Epistle ii
Pope wrote these well-known lines:
One driven by strong
benevolence of soul
Shall fly like Oglethorpe from Pole to Pole.
more to the Colony, Oglethorpe was kept busy adjusting differences,
settlers and superintending the formation of several new settlements,
the town of Frederica. A considerable part of his time was spent
dealing with the problem of defence against the Spaniards, including
with the Spanish authorities. Peremptory demands by the Spaniards for
of part of the territory occupied by the settlers created further
and brought Oglethorpe's military qualities into full play. Troubles
also added to Oglethorpe's anxieties. It was at this juncture that he
following letter from Mr. Verelst, the Trustees' Secretary:
of Egmont, Mr. Vernon, and Mr. Thomas Towers give their service to you,
with the rest of the Trustees have directed me to renew their desire
for your presence
in England as early as may be, for the approaching session of
is expected to meet about the middle of January next; for without your
they have no manner of hopes of any further supply, and then Georgia
will be in
a melancholy state.
had its effect, and on the 29th November, 1736, Oglethorpe once more
When back in England he enlarged upon the Spanish danger. His Majesty
the raising of a corps for the protection of Georgia, and appointed
of all his forces in Carolina as well as in Georgia. He was also
in that year, and on the 5t July, 1738, Oglethorpe, for a third time,
On his reaching
the Colony, Oglethorpe at once resumed control. In November, 1738, an
made on his life by some mutinous soldiers, but it fortunately
miscarried, the soldiers
being caught and the ringleader executed. An arduous task now fell to
lot, but by gaining the goodwill and friendship of the Indians, and
a strong bulwark between the Colony of Georgia and the neighboring
as well as by his clever defence he saved Georgia from the Spaniards
years that followed the outbreak of the Spanish War of 1739.
serious financial matters Oglethorpe, in July, 1743, once more crossed
The English Government, by failing to honor his bills, cast a very
burden upon Oglethorpe, from a part of which apparently he was never
Stephen was left in charge of the Colony as Deputy Governor,
President of the Colony when a form of civil government was established
President and four Councillors. Lecky, in summing up Oglethorpe's rule
The administration of
Oglethorpe was marred by
some faults of temper and of tact, but it was on the whole able,
energetic and fortunate.
John M. Bolzius,
a pastor who accompanied some of the Salzburg refugees to Georgia in
1734, in his
Journal, speaks of Oglethorpe, during the period just closed, as
a Man having great reverence
for God and his
holy Word and Ordinance; a cordial love for the servants and children
of God; and
who desired to see the name of Christ glorified in all places.
On the 15th
September, 1744, at the age of 55, Oglethorpe married Elizabeth, only
daughter and heiress of Sir Nathan Wright, Baronet, of Cranham Hall,
Just as Oglethorpe
was about to return to America once more the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745
and, promoted to the rank of Major General, he was attached to the
forces of the
Duke of Cumberland. He was repulsed, with some loss, at a minor
engagement at Clifton
in Westmoreland. His conduct in connection with this reverse became the
of an enquiry by Court Martial in September, 1746; but although he was
his military reputation suffered. On the 13th September, 1747, he was
Colonel, and was finally raised to the rank of General on the 22nd
to England Oglethorpe resumed his place in Parliament, and after the
over was continually in his place. In 1749 he was successful in getting
an Act passed
exempting the Moravians in England from the necessity of violating
convictions. About 1765 he ceased to sit in the House of Commons having
get re-elected. Throughout his Parliamentary career he was thoroughly
and consistent. His political principles were high Tory, but he was a
and a strong advocate of the Protestant Succession. Bills for the
benefit of commerce
and the amelioration of grievances received his wholehearted support,
and his success
may be gauged by what he effected rather than for what he said.
In 1749 Oglethorpe
was a candidate for the Royal Society. His Certificate of Candidature
reads as follows:
Lieutenant-General James Oglethorpe
of Lisle Street, London.
A gentleman well versed in
Natural History, Mathematics,
and all branches of Polite Literature, being desirous of becoming a
Member of the
Royal Society, we whose names are underwritten do from our personal
him and his great merits recommend him as one who will be a useful
member and every
way qualified to promote the designs of our Institution.
of Candidature was signed by William Hanbury (1728), Cromwell Mortimer,
M. D. (1728),
Peter Collinson (1728), Mark Catesby (1733), Sir Hans Sloane, Bart.
(1685, and P.R.S.
1727-1741), Charles, Lord Cadogan (1718), and Martin Folkes (1714, and
Oglethorpe was duly elected on the 9th November, 1749, and was admitted
a week later.
Such interest as he had at first in the Society must have subsequently
as on the 9th June, 1757, he was in arrear with his Subscriptions, and
of the Society show that, as a consequence, he was "Ejected out of the
In the later
years of his life Oglethorpe was the friend of Johnson, Boswell,
and Reynolds, several references being made to these friendships by
Boswell in his
Life of Dr. Samuel Johnson. Even before he became acquainted with the
was an ardent admirer of his works. In May, 1738, Johnson published his
and according to Boswell,
One of the
warmest patrons of this poem on its first appearance was General
"strong benevolence of soul," was unabated during the course of a very
long life though it is painful to think, that he had but too much
reason to be cold
and callous, and discontented with the world, from the neglect which he
of his publick and private worth, by those in whose power it was to
gratify so gallant
a veteran with marks of distinction. This extraordinary person was as
for his learning and taste, as for his other eminent qualities; and no
man was more
prompt, active, and generous, in encouraging merit.
In 1768 Boswell
published his Account of Corsica, and shortly afterwards he tells us
that the General
called on him and said, "My Name, Sir, is Oglethorpe, and I wish to be
with you." Continuing Boswell tells us:
I was fortunate enough to be
found worthy of
his good opinion, insomuch, that I not only was invited to make one in
respectable companies whom he entertained at his table, but had a cover
at his hospitable
board every day when I happened to be disengaged; and in his society I
to enjoy learned and animated conversation, seasoned with genuine
virtue and religion.
I may mention that James Boswell was certainly a Freemason under the
and was one of those who subscribed to Wellins Calcott's Candid
Masonry, published in 1768.
between Boswell and Oglethorpe no doubt brought the latter into close
Dr. Johnson, and from 1772 onwards there are several references by
Boswell to Dr.
Johnson dining with the General. For instance, on Friday 10th April,
being amongst those present, an interesting discussion on duelling took
General asserting that "undoubtedly a man has a right to defend his
He also took part in a controversy concerning apparitions, and quoted
from his military
experiences. Then, again, at a dinner in April, 1778, we learn that
Oglethorpe declaimed against luxury." The last recorded occasion was in
when Boswell states that "the General said he was busy reading the
of the middle age." Some two years later, on the 1st July, 1785,
Oglethorpe died at Cranham Hall in Essex.
in his History of England, refers to Oglethorpe as "a gentleman of
character, brave, generous and humane." Robert Wright, when summing up
General's life in his Memoir, before quoted from, states:
Oglethorpe's was no selfish
sympathies were not absorbed by his own schemes; he was ever ready to
worthy, in whatever form was best suited to their wants or desires. Few
merit were published in his time to which he did not subscribe in many
several copies, and while he liberally contributed to public charities,
benefactions were considerable.
we take leave of a man and a Mason whose life was one of singular
variety and usefulness,
and throughout which the principles and tenets of the Craft shine forth
works were consulted:
Britannica Boswell's Life of Johnson,
of England in the 18th Century [Lib 1887-90; (8 Volumes –
Men and Manners of the 18th Century [Lib 1898;
of General James Oglethorpe [Lib 1867],
the Historical Society, 4th Series, Vol. VI [Lib*], and A.Q.C.
Vol. XI [Lib*].
from the Records of the Royal Society was kindly supplied by
the Assistant Secretary of the Royal Society.
The Degrees of Masonry; Their Origin and History
By Bros. A. L.
Kress and R. J. Meekren
the visit of Dr. Desaguliers to the Lodge of Mary's Chapel, and his
a brother, fully "qualified in all points of Masonry," Murray Lyon says
that the fact that the members of the lodge and the learned Doctor
… so thoroughly understood each
other on all
the points of Masonry, shows that either in their main features the
secrets of the
old Operative Lodges of the two countries were somewhat similar, or
that an inkling
of the novelty had already been conveyed into Scotland.
of course, however unlikely it may seem, supposing a novelty to have
this case some of those present who had received it might have
assisted; but it
is all guess-work, and guess-work founded on conjecture at that, for
there is no
proof that any new degree had then been invented. The very first known
to an invention is that in Dr. Stukeley's diary, under Dec. 28 of the
year, 1722, where he speaks of making two friends members of the Order
of the Book,
or Roman Knighthood. (1) Even if the Master's part was deliberately
seems no reason that has so far appeared to make us suppose it was done
1721, the date of this occurrence.
advances another argument in the following passage:
Some years ago, and when
unaware of Desaguliers'
visit to Mary's Chapel, we publicly expressed our opinion that the
system of Masonic
Degrees which for nearly a century and a half has been known in
Scotland as Freemasonry,
was an importation from England, seeing that in the processes of
advancement conformity to the new ceremonial required the adoption of
postures, etc., which in the manner of their use the country being then
were regarded by our forefathers with abhorrence as relies of Popery
weight this psychological consideration may have is all against the
a novelty from England, so at least it seems to us. The country was not
in 1721 than in the years before that. There is really far more
likelihood of "genuflections"
having survived in an old secret ritual to which each individual was
separately and to which he got accustomed in the corporate atmosphere,
than in the
acceptance of such ceremonies by the Craft en masse, or at least by
lodges, as an
importation from another and prelatical country. In saying this we are
advancing any alternative hypothesis, but only that, without the
premises imagined by Lyon, the natural conclusion from the facts cited
this, that whatever the Masonry of London in 1721 may have been, it was
like that of Scotland to enable a member of the premier Grand Lodge to
his way into" the "head lodge" (as the Schaw Statutes call it) of
the Northern Kingdom. Gould (3) says of the incident that it
… may mean that Desaguliers
passed a satisfactory
examination in all the Masonic Secrets then known in the Scottish
the words italicized [i.e. in all points of Masonry] may simply import
phrase that the two parties to the conference were mutually satisfied
with the result.
whether so intended or not, to throw a cloud of innuendo over what in
fairly clear. The phrase in the minute book is sufficiently in line
with our present
terminology to make very good and obvious sense. Gould's two
mean the same thing, in which case one was only a paraphrase of the
other and hardly
worthwhile, or else they imply, the one that Desaguliers may have been
of Masonic secrets unknown in Mary's Chapel, or that other
those included in our phrase, "strict trial and due examination," were
taken into account (such as, for instance, his known position in the
and that actually there may have been little or nothing in common,
speaking, between them. Gould, in a number of places, both in his
History and in
various essays and articles on the subject, insists on the difference
and Scottish Masonry at this period, and it might almost seem that his
here was to lessen the force of a record that implies there was no
in ritual matters. Certainly the natural implication of the whole
record is that
Desaguliers was formally and Masonically examined; such an examination
be in a mode that would also satisfy the examinee of the right of the
to question him. And finally the phraseology used does not indicate the
recognition of any deficiency of Masonic information in Mary's Chapel.
to depend entirely on Lyon for his estimate of the esoteric side of the
Craft, and it is now necessary to see what the considerations were from
latter drew his conclusions. The first in order, and one that he dwells
is the following provision in the Schaw Statutes. These it mart he
formulated by the King's Master Mason in his official capacity, and had
of law; although like all such regulations they were based on the
customs and usages
of the trade; and it may be added that the various provisions run
to those of the Old Charges. The passage in point is as follows:
Item, that na maister or fallow
of craft be ressauit
nor admittit wtout the numer of sex maisteris and twa enterit
prenteissis, the wardene
of that ludge being ane of the said sex and that the day of the
ressauyng of the
said fallow craft or maister be ordlie buikit and his name and mark
insert in the
said buik wt the names of his sex admitteris and enterit prenteissis,
and the names
of the intendaris that salbe chosin to everie persone to be alsua
insert in thair
buik. Providing alwayis that na man be atmittit wtout ane assay and
of skill and worthynes in his vocatioun and craft (4).
On this Lyon
The presence of so many masters
intended as a barrier to the advancement of incompetent craftsmen and
not for the
communication of secrets with which entered apprentices were
unacquainted, for the
arrangement referred to proves beyond question that whatever secrets
in and by the Lodge were, as a means of recognition, patent to the
sentence seems somewhat obscure, but we take it that here the "intrant"
is the candidate for the mastership, and that it means he already knew
He goes on to say:
The "trial of skill in his
the production of an "essay piece," and the insertion of his name and
mark in the Lodge book, with the names of his six "admitters" and
were merely practical tests and confirmations of the applicant's
… and the apprentice's attendance at such an examination could not be
than beneficial to him because of the opportunity it afforded for
To this one
is inclined emphatically to dissent. Presence at an examination may
help a prospective
candidate in several ways to prepare to pass one himself, but not very
much in gaining
skill and knowledge and the apprentice's instruction was in the hands
of his intenders.
This could hardly have been "professional" instruction, which he would
receive in due course working for his master. Another point, in the
clause of the
statutes referred to the requirement of the essay and examination comes
a proviso, and might be taken quite naturally as referring to a prior
that had to be met, more especially as it is laid down at greater
length in a preceding
clause. Further, the reference to intenders does not read as if it
referred to those
who had instructed him as an apprentice, who were now being discharged,
but as appointed
to instruct him as a fellow of craft. But in what should he need
he had just passed an examination as to his professional fitness?
to this again (6) after having given some typical excerpts from the
minutes of Mary's
Chapel ranging from January, 1600, to March, 1603. He notes that in
such of these
items as refer to the passing of fellows and masters that the custom of
agreed with the old Statutes of 1598. Then a little later he makes the
The attendance of apprentices
in the lodge during
the making of a fellow-craft is confirmed by the minutes of Nov. 26,
10, 1606, Feb. 24, 1637, and June 23, 1637. This fact demolishes the
by the representatives of the Grand Lodge of Scotland at the Conference
on the Mark
Degree, held at London in April, 1871 viz., that apprentices "were
at the constitution of the Lodge" for the reception of fellows of craft
masters, but "were not present during the time the business was going
of these four critical entries is given by him, which runs as follows:
Tertio Martij 1601. The qlk day
prenteis sum tyme to Thomas Weir, present warden and frieman and burges
is admittet and ressavit in fallow of craft of the massoun craft, and
he's dewitie in all poyntts as effeirs, to the satisfaction and
contentment of the
dekyn, warden, and haill Mrs. of the said craft undersubscriving and
upon the haill premisses the said Blais Hamiltoun askit and tuik
me notar publico underwritten the scribe. Ita est Mr. Gibsone no'rious.
and marks of those present, other than the secretary, are not given.
received from the latter a legal instrument or certificate of the fact
that he had
been admitted a master, which would entitle him to the freedom of the
trade in the
city of Edinburgh. The point of the entry from Lyon's point of view
must lie, not
in its form, which is quite normal, but in the fact that it can be
that some one or more of those who signed it or appended their marks
can be shown
to have been at the time only apprentices. Thus if the name of such an
be found in an earlier minute which records his being entered as an
and again in a later one as being received as a fellow, then it would
when he attested the intervening record he was an apprentice and
present at the
proceedings. He does not mention however the name or names in point.
it is not obvious how such records, whether few or many, demolish the
to above. To do so logically requires an unexpressed premise. Put
formally the argument
N. or M. was an apprentice. He
signed the minutes.
an apprentice was present during the whole proceedings of the lodge.
It is obviously
a non sequitur as it stands, and requires the introduction of some such
Everyone signing the minutes
was present in the
lodge throughout the whole proceedings.
this would be a pure assumption, though of course it might be in any
a true one. Nevertheless the fact that Masonic lodges all over the
the United States (and in the United States before 1830 or thereabouts)
in theory the presence of all grades when the lodge is formed and
opened, and that
those of a lower degree retire when there is any work to be done in a
and return when that is concluded, it would seem that the theory of the
representatives at the Mark Degree Conference is not disproved by these
though they do not, of course, establish it. But it remains a
assertion is made by Lyon in favor of his thesis, and that is that
sometimes elected to the chief offices Deacon or Warden of the Lodge of
He cites no record but seems to promise it later on in his work, though
have been unable to discover. Gould however (8) refers to an account in
Magazine for 1863 of this old lodge, as a reference in support of the
and in another place (9) he states that the Earl of Cassilis was
elected a Deacon
(principal officer) though not received as a Fellowcraft till the next
gentleman distinguished himself, by the way, at the battle of Marston
for King Charles I. Ashmole was also in the Royalist service, acting as
Master at Oxford, the Royalist headquarters, while Col. Mainwaring, who
with him at Barrington, was in the Parliamentary forces. The possible
of these and like facts Robert Moray or Murray, for example, was
initiated by some
members of the Lodge of Edinburgh at the siege of Newcastle a few years
curiously enough, never been emphasized. There may have been other and
reasons than mere curiosity, or desire for good fellowship, that
men of high social position in stormy political periods to seek to
with a widespread fraternity. However, returning to the subject in
hand, it certainly
seems that the election of an earl, who had just joined the lodge, to
position was at least exceptional, and probably a purely formal honor.
that an active deputy was also elected to do the work. There have been
a lady has been appointed honorary colonel of a regiment, but it is not
to be supposed
that she would know very much about its administration and discipline.
of the apprentice was by the nature of the case subordinate, and his
preside over a lodge would be exceptional even if the question of
degrees be left
entirely out of consideration. Each such case would have to be judged
on its merits.
Gould insists very strongly on the differences between the Masonries of
kingdoms, and we believe there was a great difference; but it lay
rather in their
organization and their relationship to the body politic than in the
whatever these may have been. The lodges in Scotland seem to have taken
and functions, to a varying extent, of gilds, a status and function
that was really
foreign to their original character and purpose, and this led to all
kinds of compromises
and complications. Thus it seems that grown men, though fully competent
and actually employing other men, and even having apprentices of their
own, in some
cases ranked only as Entered Apprentices (10). Such individuals could
apprentices only in a purely formal sense, and were in fact small
the "freedom" of the city. When matters got into such an abnormal state
the further anomaly of choosing an apprentice to preside does not seem
We have then to consider its real bearing on the claim that receiving a
craft" involved no further esoteric ceremony.
In the two
cases cited by Gould (11) the latter was where a nobleman was chosen,
in his absence, and a deputy elected to do the work. This hardly seems
a safe instance
to build on. In the other we are told that apprentices were "not
chosen to preside pro tem, when the Deacon was absent. This again is
and could hardly be so unless there were a definite record of an
as Deacon or Warden when other apprentices were received as fellows.
certainly be an amazing anomaly in any case, whether there were secret
just one more point to be made before we pass on from the consideration
views; and that is why did the Schaw Statutes, and other regulations
based on them,
insist that no one was to be received as a fellow without at least six
two apprentices? Lyon's suggestion as to the masters is possible enough
practical point of view, but there is no practical reason for the
there. The supposition that it was for its educative value is simply
Lyon was unacquainted (at least he gives them no consideration) with
of ritual evidence that have come down to us. It certainly seems that
merely embodied a ritual requirement. If so it is quite impossible to
say what the
presence of apprentices really implied from the bare record that they
Summary Of Lyon's
We have given
so much space to Lyon because his conclusions have been largely used by
proponents of the single initiation hypothesis in its various forms.
And it may
be as well to briefly summarize his position. He insists that the legal
for the presence of apprentices when a fellow or master was received is
there were no ritual secrets involved peculiar to the higher rank which
to the lower. This is really the chief foundation of his argument. He
from the bare and laconic references in the early records of the old
from the fact that in some cases individuals has apparently "made
single handed, that the ritual or ceremony must have been of the barest
character, consisting (we judge, though has does not definitely say so)
of the administration
of an oath of secrecy and the communication of a word, which may also
accompanied by a grip, and possible a sign or signal of some kind. He
the effect of the few minutes that seem to hint at something more as
although he uses the equally exceptional cases, of men ranking as
chosen to preside in the lodge, to support his own contentions. He also
a psychological argument based on the Presbyterian prejudices of the
would tend to make them object to "genuflexions"' and other like ritual
elements, as Popish and superstitious, and that in consequence they
would not have
employed anything of the kind in their form of "entering apprentices,"
or "making masons," though he does not seem to think that this
would have tended to hinder the adoption of such ritual practices
England in the eighteenth century!
we go next to William James Hughan. It must be remembered that all the
we have mentioned were partially contemporary with each other. It does
so far as we have been able to discover in their work, that Oliver ever
with Lyon and Hughan, but he did with Mackey and Albert Pike, and these
brethren were in touch with them. The views of all four were thus,
out more or less in communication with each other before they were
name is associated chiefly in connection with the manuscript
Constitutions or Old
Charges. Although sundry copies had been previously published in the
in full or in part, he was the first to issue a critical edition of as
many as were
then known. In a paper read before Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1897 he
says that he
and Lyon had been working on this subject for over thirty years, and
that it was
their considered judgment that
… until the second decade of
the last century
 there was but the one simple ceremony never were brethren
required to leave
the lodge because a higher degree was to be worked for which they were
but whether Apprentices, Fellow Crafts or Master Masons, all were
to be present, irrespective of any notion of Degrees whatever. In other
far as we can determine, in the light of duly authenticated facts
distinct and separate
Masonic degrees are never met with, alluded to, or even probable, prior
He goes on
to say that he believes in the great antiquity of the Fraternity, in
of the Freemasonry of today with that of the Middle Ages, but insists
antiquity or continuity of Freemasonry is one thing, and that of
Degrees quite another."
In which statement all must agree. The paper referred to contains a
summary of the
argument and the kind of evidence on which his opinion is based. In
matters of this
kind reference to the original documents is really essential for
with the best will in the world to be fair and impartial a writer's
evidence will be colored by his own views. This we painfully realize in
fairly summarize the arguments of these brethren with whose conclusions
we do not
his purpose as being that of examining "the chief arguments in support
alleged antiquity of two or more distinct Masonic ceremonies," so that
sense it is rather critical than constructive. His criticism can be
handled when we reach the arguments on the other side, at present we
will pick out
the evidence offered for his own view that has not already been
mentioned in presenting
Lyon's argument. Yet, as Dr. Chetwode-Crawley pointed out in
discussion, his conclusion
does seem to rest more on lack of positive evidence for, rather than
evidence against, which makes it very difficult to summarize his
argument. He says:
As to the proof of the
existence of two or more
separate degrees in England, prior to the last century, where is it to
Certainly not in any of the "Old Charges" which were the common
of the Lodge Company, or Fellowship, and were more Specifically
addressed to the
Apprentices though all grades were addressed therein: "Brethren and
included all the craftsmen in the Lodge when the scroll was read; an
of the text of any or either of these ancient documents exhibiting the
three classes were then recognized and usually termed Apprentices,
Fellows (or Journeymen)
and Masters; the last of the trio sometimes meaning a Master Mason
(being a skilled
workman or employer) and at other times the Master of the Lodge,
according to the
context, and as illustrated in my "Old Charges of the British
Regulations reminded the senior brethren of their duties as well as
neophytes. Had there been distinct degrees during the 17th century, it
is not easy
to explain such a uniform silence thereon in all these scrolls,
the later versions containing the "New Articles," first met with about
two hundred years ago. (13).
extract the negative character of the argument can be seen. The
assumption is that
had there been two or more secret ceremonies appropriate to the two or
that are mentioned, they too would have been distinctly spoken of. This
but hardly certain, especially as there is only the barest allusion to
esoteric, other than trade secrets, in any case. So little, indeed,
that it would
be even possible to argue, except for some of the latest documents,
very close in
date to the period in which degrees do appear, that there was
of this sort implied. Another point that might be made is that these
seem to have been used in some places after the critical period, and it
argued if used then in conjunction with a degree system why not before?
could of course be countered by saying it was in such cases due to the
consequent to a period of transition.
to the initiation of Robert Moray at Newcastle, by certain members of
of Mary's Chapel, present with the army at Newcastle in 1641. The
minute runs as
At Newcastell the 20th day off
May 1641. The
quilk day ane serten nomber off Mester and others being lafule
conveined doeth admit
Mr the Right Honerabell Mr Robert Moray, General quarter Mr off the
Armie off Scotlan,
and the same bing aproven be the hell Mester off the Mesone of the Log
quherto they heaue set to ther handes or markes. (14)
part of this may be modernized and Englished thus:
The which day a certain number
of Masters and
other [members] being lawfully convened, did admit [as] Master the Rt.
Robert Moray, Quartermaster General of the Scottish army, and the same
by all the Masters of the Masons of the lodge of Edinburgh they have
their hands or marks.
on this by saying that
The title of Master, thus
conferred, was complimentary
only, not a "degree," for even at the "making of masters" then,
and for many years subsequently, the presence of two Apprentices was
make the ceremony complete.
he refers to the provisions in the Schaw Statutes that have been
in dealing with the position of Murray Lyon.
He then goes
on to the initiation of Elias Ashmole at Warrington some five years
later. The entry
in the diary is as follows:
1646, Oct. 16, 4:30 p. m. I was
made a FreeMason
at Warrington, in Lancashire, with Coll. Henry Mainwaring of Karincham
no further allusion to the Craft till 1682 when he attended a lodge at
in London on March 11, having received "a summons to appear" the
day. He says:
Accordingly I went, &
about noone were admitted
into the Fellowship of Free Masons, Sir William Wilson Knight, Capt.
Mr. Will: Woodman, Mr. Wm. Grey, Mr. Samuell Taylour, & Mr.
I was the Senior Fellow among
them (it being
35 years since I was admitted). There were present beside my selfe the
no need to give these names here, but he concludes by saying they all
… at a Noble dinner prepaired
at the charge of
the New accepted Masons.
this Hughan remarks:
Ashmole was made a Freemason in
1646, and other
gentlemen were likewise "accepted" in 1682, whatever that may mean;
as we read later on of other receptions at Alnwick, Scarborough York,
there is not the slightest reference to more than one ceremony, neither
do we ever
meet with entries of meetings at which Apprentices were excluded
because of not
being eligible for a higher degree.
And he goes
on to say that "we know there were visitations" by members of English
and Scottish lodges between the two countries so that there "must have
some common basis to work on." From which it would follow apparently
being no more than one degree in Scotland there was only one in
England. This however
is not explicitly stated, and it is obviously not conclusive. A
Scottish E.A. might
visit an English lodge today and be present all through the proceedings
were no work in a higher degree.
It will be
noted that Hughan says that certain "gentlemen were 'accepted' in
Ashmole speaks of them as the "New accepted Masons," but he previously
said they "were admitted into the Fellowship of Free Masons," and in
next sentence uses the same word of himself. What is obvious is that
a Fellow when he was "made" in 1646, and that the candidates on the
occasion were also made, or admitted Fellows. But Hughan says that to
were two ceremonies performed on the same occasion, two degrees
conferred at once,
"is wholly fanciful."
He then refers
to the lodge at Chester mentioned by Randle Holme, and the "Accepcon"
discovered by Conder in the records of the Mason's Company of London,
but we get
only further instances of individuals being "made" or "accepted."
He quotes Conder as authority that in the records of the Mason's
Company the term
master often described "one able to undertake work as a Master of his
Craft," and that
There is no evidence of any
attending the position of Master Mason; possibly it consisted of
and a different oath from the one taken by the apprentice on being
entered and presented
by his Master.
on this Rylands (also a member of the Mason's Company) said in a note
to this article:
made free the man became a member of the Company and a fellow of the
this term is never used in the Books at the same time he was "admitted
a Master," Mason understood, as he was not Master of anything else. (17)
This is important,
as it shows that the impression these two authorities had gained from
study of the records of the London Company was that Mastership, if it
were not merely
another name for the same status as Fellowship, was the necessary
to become a Fellow.
to Hughan, he next refers to Plot's often quoted account (18) and the
by Aubrey respecting the "adoption" of Sir Christopher Wren (19) in
as in the records of the Mason's Company there are no references to a
As both authors were non-Masons this does not seem to carry much
weight. The next
reference is to the Alnwick minutes and orders, the latter dating from
1701. The fifth of these requires:
Thatt noe mason shall take any
he must] enter him and give him his charge within one whole year after.
And the ninth
There shall noe apprentice
after he have served
seven years be admitted or accepted but upon the Feast of St. Michael
Sept. 29, was the day these "orders" were confirmed and is called the
"Gen (11) Head Meeting Day." Hughan says that the minutes, which run
1703 to 1757, contain:
Not even a solitary reference
to Masonic degrees,
the "admittances" (or Initiations) from first to last being recorded in
the customary manner.
He adds that
this lodge (which was to the last operative in character) never
independence though "there was undoubtedly a common bond" between it
lodges under the newer regime. As for example a visitor was present at
on Christmas Day 1755 from Canongate Kilwinning Lodge of Edinburgh,
long after the
three degree system was established elsewhere. The inference does not
to support Hughan's opinion.
remarks, in his History, that throughout the entire series of the
with the obscure exception of the twelfth of the "Orders," there is
from which, taken by themselves, even "by the greatest latitude of
it could be inferred that secrets of any kind were communicated to the
of this lodge. It would almost seem that this proves too much. If no
are referred to at all, except in one rule which might well be
understood as referring
only to trade and personal affairs, how is the absence of degrees
supported by these
records? The apprentices were "entered and charged," the fellows were
"made free and admitted," that is definitely recorded, but no hint is
given as to what was implied by these phrases. It seems open to any
The point is quite important; the records have to be interpreted in any
such interpretations are inferences. No one inference is more
than another if made with due regard to logic.
History of Freemasonry, Vol. 3, p. 40, note 6. [Lib 1884, Vol 3]
History of the Lodge of Edinburg, p. 153 [Lib 1873].
(3) Gould. Op.
cit., Vol. 3, p. 17, note 3.
(4) Lyon. Op.
cit., p. 10.
(5) lb., p. 17.
(6) lb., p. 74.
(7) Ib., p. 73.
(8) Gould. Op.
cit., Vol. 3, p. 56, note 3.
(9) Ib., Vol.
2, p. 15.
(10) Lyon. Op.
cit., p. 31.
(11) Gould. Op.
cit., Vol. 2, p. 14 [Lib 1884; Vol 2],
and Vol. 3,
Quatuor Coronatorum, Vol. 10, p. 127 ]Lib 1897].
(13) lb., p.
(14) Lyon. Op.
cit., p. 98.
entries are given in full by Gould. Op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 264, and
also Concise History, pp. 112 and 116 [Lib 1904].
Hole Craft and Fellowship Masons [Lib*].
Vol. 9, p. 36 [Lib*].
Concise History, p. 119. See also the larger History.
(19) Ib., p.
gives the Alnwick Statutes in full. History,
Vol. 3 p. 14, et seq.
Masonic Sketches and Reprints [Lib 1871], American
Edition p. 112. Also Gould, Concise History,
p. 191 and the larger work Vol. 3, pp. 23 and 153.
The Legend of the Cross
By Bro. Charles
H. Merz. Ohio
is no symbolism of the cross to be found in the early degrees of
Ancient Craft Masonry,
probably because it was regarded by the inventors of these degrees only
in its character
as a Christian sign, yet we find it referred to under the name of the
or "rood" in the Halliwell MSS. of the 14th century. The early
Masons made frequent allusions to it and in the high degrees it forms
what interpretation be given to it, it must always prove an interesting
that the cross had any other relation than that pertaining to the
Jesus illustrates a prevailing lack of historical knowledge. Far back
in the twilight
of the pictured history of the past, the cross is found on the borders
of the River
Nile. A horizontal piece of wood fastened to an upright beam indicated
of the water in flood. This is one, so-called, origin of the cross.
has been revered by every nation as an emblem of life and regeneration.
evolution in religion. It is the product of time, beginning with one
thing and ending
with another. It is found in Peru, Egypt, India, Assyria, Chaldea,
of a man seems inseparably connected with the cross but this figure was
addition. It had its origin with the Hindus who portrayed the god
Vittoba as a man
crucified in space. The Secret Doctrine states that not one of the
actually suffered death on the cross, that crucifixion is a spiritual
and not a
physical fact in nature, symbolizing a sacrifice.
Christians revered the cross as the way of the truth and the life. They
had no knowledge
of a crucified Saviour. Jesus was worshipped as the lamb. In the course
the lamb was pictured as leaning against the cross. About the year 680
A. D. it
was decided to substitute the man for the lamb. It is stated that the
on the cross was one crucifix presented by Pope Gregory to Queen
Lombardy. It is certain that while the cross as a sacred or mystic
from the remotest antiquity, and its use as an instrument of punishment
less ancient, there was no connection between the two before
cross of many shapes may be resolved into four primitive forms:
The Greek cross found on
tablets, on Egyptian and Persian monuments, and on Etruscan pottery.
The crux decussata or oblique
vulgarly called St. Andrew's cross, no less common in ancient
The Latin cross or crux
immissa, found on monuments, coins, and medals, before
The tau cross, crux commissa,
a mystic symbol of very ancient origin, probably a phallic emblem,
thought by archaeologists
to be the oldest form, the Greek cross being its double.
The crux ansata, the tau cross
with a circle, as in the hands of the Egyptian divinities the symbol of
extant many legends of the cross. The Talmud, held by the Jews in as
as the Bible; contains hidden in its depths innumerable pearls and many
treasures. At the same time it contains many passages whose conceits
It presents many strange mixtures of history interwoven with fiction,
as well as
many curious illustrations of the Masonic system.
Mediaeval legend will prove interesting and instructive:
Adam was weary of life and
longed to die. Calling
his son, Seth (Sut, Set or Typhon), he said: "Go to the gates of Eden
St. Michael to send me some of the oil of mercy God promised me when he
out of Paradise." Seth replied, "I know not the way." "Go by
the valley that lieth to the eastward," said Adam. "There is a green
along which you will find blackened footprints, for where my feet and
the feet of
your mother trod in leaving the Garden, no grass has since grown."
Seth found the gate guarded by
an angel with
a sword of fire, but he was allowed a glimpse of Paradise. He saw a
which the water rolled in four mighty rivers. Before the fountain was a
tree, bare of leaves and fruit. Around its trunk a terrible serpent had
itself, burned the bark and devoured the leaves. Beneath was a
precipice that reached
to the depths of hell. The only human inhabitant was Cain, who strove
to climb the
tree to re-enter Paradise, but the roots, as if instinct with life,
the murderer, even penetrating his flesh. Appalled, Seth raised his
eyes to implore
mercy and gazed at the top of the tree. Its head reached into heaven,
were covered with flowers and fruits, and, most beautiful of all, a
was listening to the songs of seven white doves circling 'round him,
and a woman,
more glorious and lovely than the moon, bore the child in her arms. The
the oil of mercy, telling Seth that it could not be bestowed until
5,500 years had
elapsed, but, in token of future pardon, he gave him three seeds from
the Tree of
Life, and commanded him to bury them with his father.
When Adam heard the message, he
laughed for the
first time since his transgression, and said: "Oh, God, I have lived
Take my soul from me." Adam died the third day after Seth's return, and
sons buried him in the Valley of Hebron. The seeds produced three
marvelously became one, yet were distinct in nature. This sapling Moses
plucked as his rod. As the prophet was punished for his
presumptuousness in not
calling upon God when he smote the rock the second time, he was not
carry the rod into the Promised Land, so he planted it in Moab.
moved by an angelic vision to transplant it to Jerusalem, sought for it
before he found it. On his way to the Holy City, divers miracles were
were healed, lepers cleansed, etc. The monarch planted it in that part
of his garden
to which he repaired for private devotions. He begirt it with twenty
rings of sapphire
and built a wall around it. In time the tree became gigantic, and
to use it as a column in the Temple but cut it as they might, the
that it became miraculously either too long or too short for their
purpose. In anger
it was thrown aside. A woman named Isbylla sat upon it to rest.
Suddenly her clothes
took fire, and she prophesied that Christ should hang upon that beam.
the Jews beat her to death and then threw the beam as a footbridge
across a stream
that it might be trampled underfoot. When Balkis, the Queen of Sheba,
she refused to walk over it, but worshipping it, took off her sandals
the stream. And she declared to Solomon that upon that holy wood the
Savior of Adam
and his posterity would suffer. Thereupon Solomon commanded that the
be overlaid with silver, gold and jewels, and placed it over the
doorway of the
Temple which faced the rising sun. Solomon's grandson, Abijah, coveting
stripped the adornments from the wood, and, to conceal the theft,
buried the beam
in the ground. A spring welled forth from the spot, which in after
times was known
as the Pool of Bethesda, and the angel to whom was committed the care
of the sacred
wood at times "troubled the water," and the tree, giving forth its
healed the sick.
At the time
of the crucifixion of our Lord, the wood floated to the surface, and
from it the
cross was formed, in which were four species of wood, the palm,
and olive. When St. Helena, the mother of Constantine, visited
Jerusalem, the spirit
having infused into her the wish to discover the cross of our Lord, she
the wise men and Elders of the Jews, who, much fearing, sought
anxiously among themselves
what this assembling could mean. One of them, Judas by name, said: "I
that she wishes to learn where is the wood of the Cross upon which
Jesus was crucified,
but beware lest ye reveal it, for as soon as the Cross shall be found,
our law will
be done away. I have learned from my forefathers, one of whom,
Zaccheus, was the
father of Stephen."
But the Jews
agreed upon no account to reveal where was the wood of the Cross. But
when the Empress
terrified them with threats of death by fire, they pointed out Judas as
a just man
and the son of a prophet who was skilled in their law and traditions.
The old man
being obdurate, St. Helena commanded him to be cast into a pit, to
he disclosed the truth. He endured the agony of hunger for six days; on
he yielded and led the Empress to Calvary. Upon the sacred mount was a
Venus that Satan had subtly caused Hadrian to build in order that when
came to that spot to worship, they might be charged with adoring the
Judas, having prayed, the earth trembled and a fragrant odor was
diffused. St. Helena
commanded the pagan temple to be destroyed and the ground ploughed up.
began to dig vigorously, and at the depth of twenty feet he found three
They could not, however, distinguish the Cross of Christ from that of
And about the ninth hour, a dead man was carried by and Judas laid the
the second cross upon the dead man, but he moved not. Then he laid the
upon him, and he came to life. Judas was converted by this miracle and
Bishop of Jerusalem. St. Helena desired the nails that held our Savior
to the Cross,
and Bishop Quirlachus, having prayed, the nails immediately appeared
upon the ground,
glittering like gold. The Empress adored them and placed one in the
crown of her
son, Constantine; another was forged as a bit or placed upon the bridle
of his war
horse in verification of the Prophet's words: "In that day shall be
bells (bridles) of the horses: Holiness to the Lord." (Zech. xiv20.)
nail she reserved for herself, but, being in a dangerous storm in the
she threw it into the sea, which until that time had been a whirlpool.
there was a fourth nail which was placed in the statue of Constantine.
she divided; part she sent to her son, and the rest she enclosed in a
and left it at Jerusalem, and she appointed the Feast of the Invention
of the Holy
Cross to be celebrated every year. Chosroes, King of the Persians,
subdued all the
kingdoms of the East. Coming to Jerusalem, he fled, terrified, from the
of the Lord yet he carried away the portion of the Lord's Cross left
there by St.
Helena. Wishing to be adored as a god, he built a tower of gold, silver
stones, and placed therein images of the sun, moon and stars. Giving up
to his son, Chosroes, he enthroned himself in the tower as the Father,
the Cross on his right in place of the Sun, and a cock for the Holy
Emperor Heraclius came with a mighty army to recover the Cross. They
met by the
Danube, and the two princes fought on the bridge, agreeing that he who
should dispose of the army of the other. Heraclius, commending himself
to God and
the Cross, won the fight and immediately the whole army of the Persians
and were baptized. Heraclius offered to Chosroes that, as he had
revered the Cross
after a fashion, his life should be preserved. Refusing this, Heraclius
beheaded him, but because he had been a king, he ordered him to be
buried. The tower
was destroyed, but the gold and precious stones the Emperor gave to the
the tyrant had destroyed. Heraclius took the Cross to Jerusalem. As he
entered the gate, the stones of the gate descended and closed the gate
like a wall.
The angel of the Lord appeared, holding the sign of the Cross, and
the King of Heaven went to His passion by this gate, He went not
arrayed as a King
on horseback, but humbly upon an ass." Then the Emperor took off his
and took the Cross of our Lord and bore it humbly to the gate. The gate
the precious tree of the Cross was reestablished in its place.
Editor in Charge
St. John of
WE wish to
draw especial attention to the article on an earlier page by Bro. R. J.
The Order of St. John during the centuries has been known by many
names. As most
of our readers know it still exists in three acknowledged branches,
while a fourth
also claims continuous descent.
thing is that the Papal Order and the Protestant Bailiwick of
Brandenburg are both
hostile to Freemasonry. The first because it is papal, the second
because it is
aristocratic, and the German aristocracy are now engaged in an
apparently in order, first, to excuse the failure of their oligarchy in
of the war, and second, to aid a national-royalist movement with the
aim of reestablishing
their privileged position. Yet the Order began with a group of men who
to the far from pleasant task of caring for the sick. It was only by
force of circumstances they became a military order. And though this
come they never forgot, as the Templars did, their original purpose. To
the sick and protect the weak and helpless.
The new Order
of St. John of which Bro. Newton tells us makes no pretentions to
was founded under analogous circumstances to the older one. Those who
it saw numbers of pilgrims seeking health, destitute and helpless, and
together to aid them. Being all, or nearly all, Masons they were
familiar with the
story of the ancient Knights of St. John, and thought, appropriately
to emphasize the example of those truly Christian men of eight hundred
they might adopt the same name; for really to them, as Masons, it had a
began to be seen that the effort to meet the tubercular problem in the
through an official organization was likely to fail, we have received
many correspondents asking if it would not be possible to form some
association that would not be hampered by the precedents and traditions
our Grand Lodges in so strictly. Owing to the self-abnegation of the
Order of St.
John we hardly knew of their existence. As Bro. Newton tells us, the
to stand aside and give the N.M.T.S.A. a clear field. Now that they
have taken up
their task again we cannot see how better those brethren who have been
can help than by affiliating with it.
and purpose is both Masonic and Christian in the widest sense. Among
the many societies
and fraternities that exist for social purposes, for amusement or for
aims at service. Service to those who need it most. It is organized to
in any possible way with existing means for combatting sickness; and
while it aims
in the future to found its own hospitals, it plans, to begin with, to
collected to assist needy brethren to obtain treatment through existing
What may be done in the future remains to be seen, but something can be
through even the smallest contributions.
* * *
A Plea For Unity
of the universality of the Craft on its practical side, that of
perhaps the most highly controversial of any question before us today.
It is not
only a matter of disagreement, but of disagreement with heat. For this
is apt to be avoided and passed over, except by those who hold extreme
do not care whether they disturb fraternal good feeling or not.
for unity issued by a very influential group of Masons in Holland
consideration. The "Great East" of the Netherlands is Masonically most
respectable, in age and in its Constitution. It is fully recognized by
Grand Lodges, and if any of our American Jurisdictions fail to do so it
any adequate reason. Yet insistent as the Masons of Holland are upon
which we regard as a sine qua non, they are more tolerant than we are.
far better than we can the conditions under which the Masons of other
have labored and suffered and they are not prepared to excommunicate
have paid no attention to the character and qualities of the men to
whom we deny
the name of Mason, we have stood rigidly upon the letter of our
the law. We have been ready to believe the worst slanders their enemies
about them, we have refused to take any steps towards a reconciliation.
curious thing of all, looked at objectively, we have been very much
glory in this attitude.
Masons of Europe have maintained a most dignified attitude. They have
and described in most unflattering terms. They have never responded in
have been refused all fraternal amenities, yet they have never refused
an Anglo-Saxon Mason in distress. They have done it without any
question. It was
enough for them that he was a Mason.
is, are we really satisfied with this situation? Could not some way out
to heal the breach of unity? Our histories praise the efforts of those
the schism between the Ancients and Moderns a hundred years ago ‒ in
the face of
the bitter opposition of extremists on both sides. Will historians of a
years hence have cause to praise us ‒ or not?
* * *
of the advantages and disadvantages of restricting the membership of
Mason to one lodge only have been debated pro and con from several
of view. In our opinion the objections to plural membership are not
the one chiefly dwelt upon by those who oppose it is the difficulty it
in compiling Grand Lodge statistics. In fact it comes down to one
that of being able to tell exactly how many men are members of the
Order. Far be
it from us to decry the value of exact knowledge in such matters, but,
as statistics of all kinds certainly are in their place, it does
as if those who object upon this ground are seeing the matter out of
They would hardly, we presume, be prepared to maintain that the primary
the Masonic Institution is to produce statistics, or that the chief
Grand Lodge machinery is to compile membership lists. These things are
very secondary, and while they naturally and properly bulk very largely
in the minds
of those whose official duty it is to keep the records, yet even these
would hardly be prepared to say that the higher objects of Masonry
should give way
and be subordinated to them. And besides this it is far from clear that
any insuperable difficulty in devising means to keep exact tally of the
plural membership may be permitted; but we do not wish to go into that
the question here.
Lodge of New York at its last communication accepted the report of a
had been investigating the question and enacted certain amendments to
its code recommended
by the committee, the effect of which is to enable a New York Mason to
two (but not more than two) lodges in the state at the same time. The
seemed to feel that to belong to three lodges at once might be, in some
way, a source of some kind of danger. Still a step forward (or
greater freedom has been taken. In by far the greater number of cases
desiring to affiliate with a second lodge will be moved by a desire to
in his mother lodge, and to have at the same time the privilege of
the place of his residence. But though this will probably be the
for a time, it is possible that it may open the door to that bogey of
brethren, the "class lodge."
seems to have been unfortunate in that it has been assumed that the
it had was that of lodges graded according to the standards of
"four hundred" or its local equivalent. The class lodge in this sense
we actually have with us, more or less, in every large center of
as it is not so called it is not recognized as such. The class lodge is
of Masons who have some special bond of interest. Men, as a rule, do
not group themselves
according to social rank, and the kind who do are not likely to be
in name. The class lodge in the sense of the term in which it is
intended to be
understood, can hardly exist where Masons cannot belong to more than
one lodge at
a time. Most members of class lodges (where they exist) are also
members of other
lodges. Most of them join their class lodge by affiliation, and retain
with their mother lodge. A physician can affiliate with a lodge of
architect with an architects' lodge, but equally the railroad man, the
the carpenter, might also have lodges of their own. There is no more
harm in such
interests drawing Masons together in lodges than outside them, so long,
proviso is important, as they are not obliged to belong only to the
if they would enjoy the privilege.
expect that objection will persist in view of the unfortunate
associations the name
has been given in the minds of most American Masons. There is one kind
lodge, however, that no one has yet objected to, and that is the one
study and research. No more than any other kind of class lodge can the
lodge exist unless dual membership at least is permitted. They have
in different states where this was not allowed, but in no case
the Constitution stood in the way, or not enough Masons could be found
willing to dimit from their old lodges to join the new one. But with
the door is opened wide, and we are looking forward, as one of the
first and most
important results of the action of New York, to seeing a Research Lodge
there that may worthily emulate the labors of those in other parts of
A pamphlet on "How to Organize
a Study Club" will be sent free on request, in quantities to fifty
Purposes Of A Study Club
AT a recent conference of
and educators held in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, a detailed report of which
in a forthcoming number of THE BUILDER, Study Clubs were quite
There was a wide divergence of opinion as to what should be expected of
though there was very little of a tangible nature that developed in the
This was not due to the fact that no decision could be reached, but to
that this particular phase of the question was not the principal theme.
as were brought to light were merely incidental.
The purposes and ambitions of
Study Clubs are
more or less clearly defined. The aim most generally accepted and most
is, of course, to teach the members of the group something about
are other less appreciated purposes which will come in for their share
of the discussion
a little later.
The first thing to be
considered is the fact
that, generally speaking, in a newly organized Club the members are in
be termed the kindergarten stage of Masonic knowledge. They have, to
begin at the
very beginning. Before the Club can hope to accomplish very much along
it must acquaint its members with the fundamentals. The usual beginning
is the symbolism
of the ritual, leading into the history of some of the symbols, the
and the jurisprudence and philosophy of the Craft. When a point has
where all of the members know the basic facts in these subjects we are
branch out and do something else.
As a matter of fact a great
many Study Clubs
die at this point, simply because they lack initiative to find other
fields to conquer.
There is plenty to be done and it is only a question of finding the
suited to the needs of the individual organization. Some things
suitable in large
lodges would be impracticable in a smaller group. It cannot be hoped
that any brief
article could suggest all possible ways in which the Club could serve
All that can be desired is to make some suggestions that will assist
of Study Clubs in finding their proper place and in enabling them to
In the first place, there will
be in any group
a few men, perhaps only one or two, who will be interested in delving
into the more
recondite phases of research. Such members should be encouraged. Their
will be of benefit to the Club and will enable those who, through lack
of time or
inclination, find it impossible to go into the deeper phases of the
learn more about the Craft without doing a vast amount of reading and
more advanced students should be given opportunities to present their
the Club at large. Let them read papers at some of the meetings. Such a
will help to avoid the danger of falling into a rut and developing a
cut and dried
routine which might grow boresome. If they are in need of material the
Masonic Research Society is ready and willing to help if they will only
what they want. If they care to submit their manuscripts to us for
will be glad to consider them.
There will doubtless be new
members coming on.
These men will be fresh and will have to begin at the bottom. The older
can assist them in making a start. An occasional meeting, as many as
by the influx of new members, can be set aside for a discussion of more
phases of Masonic Study. Even the members who have been over the same
find many new things cropping up. There will be additional discussion
doubtless bring to light questions which have not been raised before.
One large lodge in a central
western state has
a Study Club meeting each week. One meeting each month is devoted to
Apprentice Degree, one to the Fellowcraft and the balance to the Master
All of the candidates are invited to attend the meetings devoted to the
have just attained. This may work very well in a large lodge where
there are five
or six or more candidates each month. A variation of the plan could be
to a very small body. As an illustration let us go to the other
extreme. In a small
country lodge where perhaps there are only one or two candidates each
year, as these
candidates progress up the Masonic ladder, Study Club meetings could be
to the degree they had attained. All variations between these extremes
One advantage of such a plan lies in the fact that each candidate is
into the Study Group. He gets the habit early in his Masonic career and
a real prospect for membership.
A question and answer service
might be maintained.
The lodge bulletin, if one is published, will furnish a medium for
or they can be answered in open lodge. Members of the lodge will
questions which cannot be answered on the spot. These can be referred
of the Study Club for report. There are a vast number of Masons who
in their minds, but who do not ask them because they don't know anyone
who can give
them the answer. These queries will come to light if the brethren are
members of the Study Club will be glad to investigate and report back
at the next
meeting of the lodge. A Master willing to devote a small amount of time
to a service of this sort will find attendance bettered because of an
interest in the meetings. There is something new coming up every
evening. The brethren
generally will soon become interested in these discussions, and not
only will the
lodge prosper through this new interest, but the Study Club will gain
A variation of this scheme is
to invite the members
of the Study Club to present programs before the lodge. Either one
consume the whole time allotted, or several short talks might be given.
are plentiful and there is no danger of draining the well dry.
While it may seem that we have
from our original topic actually we have not. The illustrations cited
methods by which the Study Club may increase its field of usefulness.
They are all
illustrations of how a secondary aim of Study Clubs can be carried out.
as the members of the group become sufficiently proficient they should
on a campaign of assisting their less informed brethren along the path
followed. More precisely, the Study Club should first teach its own
then become a center for the teaching of others.
It is an old axiom that one
cannot teach everything
he knows. A man's knowledge of a subject must be greater than his spoke
word about it. As the Study Club progresses, and a it sets out upon its
of teaching, it must be born i mind that the teaching group must keep
ahead of the
pupils Don't, therefore, lose sight of the fact that you must progress
in the Study
Club as well as in the lodge. Vary your field, when you seem to have
subject begin on something else. No one person can hope to know all
that is known
to the human race, and no one Mason can hope to know all there is to
Masonry. Masonic Research is one way of seeking after light ‒ like the
search of the fraternity, the quest is endless.
An Appeal for
1924, several brother Freemasons belonging to the jurisdiction of
Lodges met together in The Hague in order to discuss the following
1. What is it that keeps
Freemasons, who are
spread over the whole world, divided?
2. In what manner can the
dissension be altered
led to the compiling of an appeal, translated into four languages, and
the members of the gathering, in which they submitted for
consideration, a solution
of the two points which have been and still are the principal cause of
viz., recognition of the Grand Architect of the Universe, and the
by Freemasons in regard to political and religious questions.
in no way commissioned by the Grand Lodges to which the Brothers
belonged, and although
their gathering was in no way of an official character, they
in view of their earnest endeavors, to be allowed to take the liberty
their appeal before all the recognized Grand Lodges for their
to be able to depend on their support.
occupy too much time and space to give in full all the replies we
received to this
appeal. Much, very much enthusiasm on the one hand, doubt and a
on the other. Both answers were greatly appreciated. Others apparently
it not worth the trouble even to acknowledge receipt of the summons and
Why not? It was not egotism which caused us to make these endeavors!
Are not Brotherhood
and Tolerance the two great signs which distinguish Freemasonry from
societies which exist on ethical, philosophic and philanthropic
grounds? Then why
not stretch out a helping hand to those who because of the apparent
lack of forbearance,
apparent lack of brotherhood, want to try to alter it into an
appeared, on the one hand, from the answers received from the Grand
the need of more unity and combination was generally recognized, whilst
at the same
time, on the other hand, practically no help could be hoped for from
in order to obtain a solution as we had hoped. The objections appeared
principally upon the following:
Did some of the Grand Lodges, members of the
Internationale, think that we had encroached upon the path of the
A.M.I., and that
the attainment on the desired union ought to be left to that society?
Were they of the opinion that our endeavors
would be in opposition
to the Ancient Landmarks?
these two objections is just.
underestimating the value of the steps taken by the A.M.I., the
originators of the
appeal intended that their endeavor should support the efforts of the
creating unity between the Grand Lodges. The fact of the meeting of the
having no official character is sufficient to prove that there was no
competition with the A.M.I. It is clear, therefore, that there must be
This is also
the ease with the objections in regard to the Landmarks.
None of the
originators had the slightest intention of meddling with them in the
again a misunderstanding.
therefore say that because the support of the Grand Lodges cannot with
be relied upon, a fresh endeavor to attain the ideal must immediately
The writers of this letter do not think so. The object, viz., the unity
of the members
of the Order, is too important.
however of the experience gained, as outlined above, we conclude that
the way in
which we went to work was not the right one. At least it is clearly
shown that it
was a mistake for us to first approach the boards of the Grand Lodges
with a view to obtaining their support. We forget that these bodies are
their own rules and statutes, and if they thought that the appeal was
in any way
in conflict with those statutes and rules, no matter how sincere the
object of the
appeal, they could not give their support.
to us, however, that the desire to attain concord between the Grand
Lodges is paramount
throughout the whole of the Brotherhood of Freemasonry. How could it be
Wherever a desire for unity expresses itself, no matter in which walk
of life, the
Brotherhood of Freemasonry cannot remain behind. The harmony among
brethren of all
countries must be advanced, should Freemasonry not wish to be
considered a lie.
We now think
it advisable to follow another path, viz., that we, together with some
foremost Brothers in other countries, gird up our loins to grow by
more acquainted with the reasons that prevent today the effectuation of
the so hoped
for concord between the Grand Lodges and with all that may unite us, in
get a better view of the road the Grand Lodges have to go in the future.
everywhere in the world the opinions about these subjects are different
manner in which they are treated is different too. The cause may be
looked for in
the difference in nationalities, national characters, history and the
of the members of the Order. Everyone has the same ideal but the point
they view the ideal is different, according to the race to which they
country in which they were born, the surroundings among which they were
It is as if each one takes a different road, yet all these roads lead
to the same
are reciprocated in the words of Anderson: that "a mason is obliged by
tenure to obey the moral laws and if he rightly understands the art he
be a stupid atheist, nor an irreligious libertine," and also "although
in ancient times masons were charged to be of the religion of that
country, it is
now thought more expedient only to oblige them to that religion in
which all men
agree, leaving their particular opinions to themselves."
If the Order
takes this principle and builds thereon it will become a center of
unity by quickening
friendship between people who would otherwise remain divided. Vide
Anderson in his
Constitutions of 1723.
the efficiency of the Constitutions may be altered, yet the quoted
words hold their
full power; we ought to take their meaning in and revive it among the
of Freemasons. Alas, on the contrary a great many of them do not
meaning any more. Partly hence the lack of agreement among us.
of that discord is the fault which has gradually arisen in some Grand
making the Order and the Lodges subservient to special politic
interests and special
religious dogmas. For the sake of harmony among us, it ought to be
avoided. If there
is anything what tends to disharmony in the lodges, discussions on
political subjects will do. The Order is great enough to respect every
religion as well as regarding polities (in the sense of party
polities). But because
of this, because the members must be free to exercise their own
opinions in this
respect, such subjects ought to be kept out of the lodge, in any ease
it ought never
to influence any resolution passed in lodge. They ought to be
prohibited in lodge.
We wish to
recommend the above to your earnest consideration.
If you, like
us, are convinced that unity must obtain instead of the dissension
present, we would request you to give your whole-hearted support to our
towards this end. In our opinion the best way to obtain unity are
efforts to induce
in words and in writing the positive idea of Freemasonry to the
all Freemasons spread on the surface of the earth, that little by
little the hearts
of the brethren may approach each other more and more.
in the first place, we would request you to work with us, insofar as to
power in your Masonic circle to lead the thoughts of your fellow
the bridging over of that gulf which keeps the brethren divided, so
that this Masonic
idea may obtain more and more supporters, which in the end must lead to
in peace and happiness among the peoples of the earth.
urgently request you to take the necessary steps to arrange for the
to be considered and answered by one or more eminent united brethren in
to be selected by you:
Ought not the Order of
Freemasonry which is spread over the surface of the
earth to set the example for the Building of a Temple of Humanity
founded on Love,
Harmony and Justice?
What must and what can be done
to counteract the dissension which exists
also internationally in our own community?
What must and what can be done
to give Freemasonry which has "Brotherhood"
at the head of its ideals a prominent place in the growing community of
of peace outside the Tessellated Border?
Would you be prepared to give
us active help by:
these questions to be the subject of consideration in the lodges in the
of your Grand Lodge and, if possible, giving same your personal
us as briefly but at the same time as completely as possible of the
result of such
bring to your attention, that the questions mentioned above may be
answered in as
detached a way as possible, also that narrow national views should not
the only decisive ones, in order that a conclusion may be drawn which
Freemasons in all countries.
In this way
we hope to establish through our agency an international, intellectual
contact, however without putting anyone under the least obligation or
in any way. We suggest that discussions on these points will meet other
asking your attention, f. i.: What is the real value of our symbols and
in regard to our work? Are rituals and symbols only accidental or do
the starting point of our work? Is there any practical aim to be
pursued by all
Grand Lodges in order that in the future human society may be ruled by
idea of Humanity?
forming the replies received from you into a sort of pamphlet to be
sent to the brethren in all countries We do not believe it impossible
that our effort
may involve the issuing of a periodical to be published regularly
though on unfixed
dates, apt to imbue the hearts of the brethren with the ideal of the
KAPPERS, Merchant and Consul, Amsterdam.
Rev. A. E.
F. JUNOD, Late Ministered Wassenaar near The Hague.
A. F. G. BOLKEN, Amersfoort.
ALTING, Late Director of the Civil Service of the Dutch East Indies,
A. J. HOOIBERG,
Librarian of the Great East of the Netherlands The Hague
to whom your letters maw be addressed.
from The Fortnightly Review of St. Louis, Mo., for May 1, 1928, will
of interest to readers of THE BUILDER. The Fortnightly Review is an
high class Roman Catholic periodical of a religious and literary
item here reproduced should not be taken as representative of the
of its contents.
title [Masonic Satanism] M. Pierre Colmet, in La Revue Internationale
Secretes (Paris, Nov. 13, 1927, Vol. XVI, No. 46), quotes from a
issued by Charles Bernardin, member of the Conseil d'Ordre of the Grand
France and Master of the Lodge "Amis de la Verite" at Metz, through the
Masonic journal Acacia, a passage in which that worthy asserts that one
of his best
friends, a monk who died three years ago in good standing in the
became a Freemason in his youth, and not only continued his affiliation
Masonic sect after his ordination to the priesthood, but rose to high
the Order, and did not hesitate to deliver consecrated hosts to
Freemasons for purposes
priest," says M. Bernardin, "was no fool; quite the contrary… Whom did
he deceive? The Church. No doubt about that? Us? And why?" He adds that
object in pointing out this ease is to encourage his fellow Masons to
records of the Masonic Order for traces of other renegade priests who
the Church and incurred excommunication by affiliating with Freemasonry.
who is an Anti-Masonic author of note, prints this horrible story under
"Satanisme Maconnique." He finds it not at all incredible in view of
similar cases for which he says there is authentic proof. He refers to
cases, among them that of the Abbe Boullan, whose life has lately been
by the Librairie Chacornac, of Paris, under the title, L'Abbe Boullan,
sa Vie, sa
Doctrine et ses Pratiques Magiques [Lib*]. Boullan was the prototype of
Johannes," a character in Huymans' Labas [Lib*].
the circular letter of M. Bernardin, M. Colmet points out two
first, this prominent Freemason's open avowal that consecrated hosts
are still sought
for by Masons and that he (Bernardin) himself did not hesitate to
from the apostate monk to whom he refers; secondly, that in spite of
he professes for his ecclesiastical accomplice, he did not fully trust
him. M. Colmet
thinks that this distrust was founded not on the character of the
but on the suspicion that the hosts he gave to his Masonic friends for
of "ritual profanation," were not validly consecrated. "He suspected
this wicked priest either of having drawn back before this terrible
abuse of the
sacerdotal power and to have merely pretended to give up the body and
blood of his
God, or perhaps, of not having had, because of his unbelief, the strict
necessary for the efficacious use of the sacramental formulas."
so-called "Black Mass," at which these hosts are supposed to be used,
still takes place under the auspices of the Grand Orient of France is
according to M. Colmet (who cites as his authority the venerable
founder of the
Revue Internationale des Societes Secretes, Monsignor Jouin), by the
of a dying woman, who positively declared that she had attended several
performed by apostate priests, for which she herself had furnished the
that the reason why hosts were stolen from Catholic churches for this
purpose was that the Masons themselves do not trust those priests.
thing points to a dark chapter in the history of human perversion, and
if the statements
quoted above were not based on such good authority, we should hesitate
to take notice
In the number
for May 15, appears a letter signed Sacerdos, part of which we quote
"great fakir" alluded to is presumably Leo Taxil, whose real name is
to have been Gabriel Jogand. The extraordinary hoax he perpetrated has
been forgotten, but we believe La Revue Internationale des Societes
have had his inventions in mind.
of Sacerdos, addressed to the editor of The Fortnightly Review, says:
In your article of May 1 on
you wind up by saying: "If the statements quoted above were not based
good authority, we should hesitate to take notice of them."
this, I could not help thinking of that great fakir (I do not recall
his name) who
wrote years ago several volumes on "The Three Point Brethren." [Lib 1885 (French)] You remember what great
his writings caused, and how he was finally exposed. It seems that
horrid tales make the rounds about Satanic cults and Masonic secret
I remember, when I was a boy going to high school, a somber,
in a side alley was pointed out to us as being the gathering place of
as a temple wherein the devil was worshipped. We would avoid passing
and when we did pass it, a shudder would go through me.
years ago, the daily papers were writing about a house in the city of
devil worship was practiced. Even the pictures of the place were
published and some
of the scenes inside. At that time I was preparing for a trip to
Europe, and I copied
the address of that particular place and took it along, with the
picture of the
place. When I was in Paris, I made it a point to investigate. But I
could not find
the address given in the paper. I inquired in the neighborhood, and no
or had ever heard of such a place. So the whole thing must have been a
of the letter describes a Montmartre Cabaret with the lurid name the
Heaven and Hell." It seems to have been a silly and disgusting place
to take in and take the money of visitors to Paris seeking thrills in
underworld provided especially for their benefit. It of course has
to do with Freemasonry.
in the January number of THE BUILDER, of Bro. J. S. M. Ward's
discussion of the
descent of the Freemasons from the "Companions," in the collection
From Labor to Refreshment, is another one of the "cock-sure"
by one who is as equally guilty of inaccuracies as the one he accuses
of that fault.
in his Concise History of Freemasonry [Lib 1904], page 60:
The literature of the
Companionage that has sprung
into existence since 1839, seems to me remarkable in itself, and when
the allusions to the society of much older dates a problem is
presented, its possible
derivation from the same sources of origin as our Freemasonry, which
to slumber in the present, will yet, I hope and believe, be partly if
solved in the future.
is Ward correct in asserting that Freemasonry came to us through the
as Gould intimated, but he is also right in saying that they had the
Legend of Hiram.
This is shown
conclusively in Les Origines Compagonniques de la Franc-Maconnerie by
M. Henri Gray
of Paris, and published in L'Acacia, the organ of the Grand Orient of
I have translated into English and for which I have vainly sought a
As so few
Masons know anything about the "Companions" I may quote, from my
as translator, the following passage:
The Compagnonnage was and is a
several trades, existing today in France, which is mystical in its
so secret in its nature that it existed for centuries in France, almost
Since 1725, when Freemasonry is said to have been established in
France, it has
lived there alongside the Masonic bodies, practically unknown to most
of the Masons
of that country.
"Compagnonnage," according to the French dictionary, means
while the word "Compagnon," from which it is derived, means "companion,
associate, colleague, fellow, journeyman or trade-unionist."
the regular second degree of Masonry is called the degree of the
and hence corresponds to our Fellowcraft Degree.
to time as knowledge of their existence leaked out they were exposed to
of Church and State. Some of their practices were condemned, as far
back as 1541
by an edict of Francis I. It is therefore not strange that the reviewer
Ward's work should be ignorant of the historical fact that the Faculty
of the Sorbonne
(Theology) in 1655, in their printed condemnation of the acts of the
of France as sacrilegious, brought out the fact that the Companions
claimed to have
been organized by King Solomon himself at the building of his Temple
and the Companions
of the rival and seceding bodies, the Children of Maître Jacques and
those of Pere
Soubine, brought the charge against the Children of Solomon or
(Masons) that it was they who killed Hiram and in proof of their
clad in white gloves "in token of their own innocence."
fact is that the Freemasons of France do not prepare their candidates
as we do in America, but the Companions do so at the present day.
If we consider
the term "Companion" as used in the Royal Arch, with the statement of
Dr. Oliver that the Royal Arch was brought from France by Andrew
in 1730, the year Gould says he was in London to receive membership in
Society and his degree of D.C.L. at Oxford, we may get some idea of
If we could only get hold of Father Helyot's monumental work, Histoire
Monastiques, Religieux and Militaires [Lib 1715], which Gould says Ramsay read
which appeared when Ramsay was in Paris publishing his "Life of
we might find the source of many of the higher degrees, so-called,
which later appeared
in France and which Ramsay is said by French historians to have
contained an account of the Companionage and the condemnation of the
in his work says:
Strictly speaking all ancient
brotherhoods, etc., that are not in possession of the Solomonic legend
are not to
be confounded with the Companionage.
reason, he concludes the Regius poem is of Germanic origin, since
of the Rite of Solomon while the Four Crowned Martyrs' bodies are of
the North of
Europe and did not possess the legend of Solomon and of his Temple, the
of the Masonic society.
points out on page 88 of his Concise History in relation to the
statement of Perdiguier
that he thought the story about Hiram was a Masonic invention:
be borne in mind that Perdiguier was neither a Freemason nor a
stonemason of Solomon
… Also a propos of chien [dog], a title bestowed on all the Companions
he [Perdiguier] says, "It is believed by some to be derived from the
it was a dog which discovered the place where the body of Hiram,
architect of the
Temple, lay under the rubbish, after which all the companions who
the murderers of Hiram were called chiens or dogs."
the Hiramic Legend imbedded in the customs of the warring bodies. In
the Old Charges,
from the time of Charles Martel and King Athelstane, down to the great
fire of London
in 1666, the French Companions composed of stonemasons, carvers and
over to England bringing their legend of Hiram. They were an
organization of the
South of France where the Pointed Arch (the Gothic Style) was
introduced by Foreign
Companions from Palestine, as Prof. Hayter Lewis, P. M. of Quatuor
points out in Gould's Concise History. Henri Gray says in this regard:
Those who are authors of books
on the Companionage,
studies and works of history on the subject, and who are not members of
of Freemasons have reached the conclusion that in ancient times the
and Freemasonry were one and the same thing. The specialists in the
history of labor
and the working classes, like M. Levasseur for example, who do not
at all with the mysterious side of the two societies, think the same
also. For them
the mystery is only the form. That which is more serious to them is the
for which the workers have been led to form secret associations. Among
there does not seem to have been a single doubt as to the identity, in
of Freemasonry and the Companionage.
He has also
tersely described the Companionage by a definition which fits the
is a society of workmen who connect its legendary formation back to the
of the Temple of Solomon and of which the most ancient members were the
And he as a Freemason adds, "On these two points the Companionage holds
interest for us."
might be said on the subject and it is the hope of the writer that
someday his translation
of Henri Gray may be printed, as there are many facts therein which are
to English speaking Freemasons, especially the Masons of America who
their conceptions of Masonry largely from the work of English writers.
It was the
Companions of France who brought their legend of Hiram to England,
the strike at the building of the Cathedral church of Orleans in 1287,
church authorities tried to catholicize the workers of France, and the
from Italy and Greece, many of whom were non-Christians, left the work.
had to travel about fifty miles to be in English territory which at
that time extended
from Normandy down to Marseilles, diagonally across France, when Edward
I was King
of England, the king who Ramsay said had brought the Masons back from
with him. There is a prolific field here which has been well cultivated
C. F. Willard, California.
I have re-read
what I said in my review of Bro. J. S. M. Ward's article in Labour and
on the subject of the Compagnonnage, and I do not find any "cocksure
as stated by Bro. Willard, or evidences of dogmatism, which perhaps
would be a kinder
expression to use in a discussion of a Masonic subject.
stated that Bro. Ward supported the claim that the Compagnonnage
possessed the Hiramic
Legend, and within the narrow limits of a brief review, examined some
of the evidence
put forward by him. While such an examination may have leaned towards
there was no definite opinion expressed by me. Indeed, in view of Bro.
"How long before the year 1840 the legend of Hiram (or Adonhiram) had
currency among the stonemasons of the divisions … must remain a matter
(Con. Hist. Rev. Edn., p. 42), and "whether, in 1839-41 it was of
or comparatively modern date, is a point on which opinion may possibly
(Ibid. p. 44), I would hesitate to dogmatize. Whatever may be the value
of the review
it has fulfilled a purpose in directing attention to this most
and drawing a useful contribution from Bro. Willard.
emphatically supports Bro. Ward's assertion that Freemasonry came to us
the Compagnonnage, but he is unfortunate in his quotation from Gould's
to support his own statement that this authority intimated such was the
"its (i.e., the Compagnonnage's) possible derivation from the same
of origin as our Freemasonry" is not the same thing at all.
I was fully
aware of the condemnation of the organization by the Doctors of the
1655, but the fact that the Companions claimed to have been organized
by King Solomon
at the building of the Temple does not prove the existence of the
any more than the legend of the Craft in the M.S. Constitutions does.
as to legend save that as to its origin, appears in the Sorbonne
One of the
difficulties which beset the enquirer into the question of the
possession of the
legend is that pointed out by Bro Vibert, of distinguishing "between
to Hiram as the architect and builder, and the definite narrative with
are familiar and which alone constitutes the Hiramic Legend."
Legend does not seem to be definitely mentioned as being in the
possession of the
Compagonnage until after the establishment of Freemasonry in France.
Mere was a
legend of a murder, and, as it was almost an invariable thing, from
very early ages,
and among all peoples, to connect a tragedy with every building of
fact or in legend, as pointed out by the late Bro. Speth, it would be
indeed, if the Compagnonnage, from the very nature of its personnel,
and its claim
to originate from the building of the Temple, had not such a legend.
narrows itself to this, who was the victim?
Goblet d'Alviella says "it is not inadmissible that a fellow, initiated
chance into some Masonic lodge, would impart to his "companions" the
that he has learned the real name of their first Master, and that this
name is Hiram
or Adonhiram; but the new name would only be accepted if there was a
to which it could attach itself. The science of Mythology teaches us
are much more easily altered or exchanged than legends. The hero
varies, the myth
remains." Might not this previous legend have been that of the murder
Jacques? Against this view, however, there is the evidence, apparently
in the opinion of Bro. J. E. S. Tuckett, that Hiram and Jacques both
play some part
in the legend of the foundation of the Compagnonnage. But even a story
to one might, he says, in process of time, became transferred to the
refers to the fact that the mode of preparation in France differs from
in America. The French Masons, however, prepare much as the "Moderns"
did in 1760 and probably earlier, and the fact that the "Companions" of
today conform to our method, if this be a fact, is of no value to our
for they may have borrowed from the Craft. What would be of value is
of the custom in each body prior to the introduction of Freemasonry
is unhappy in quoting Dr. Oliver's statement that the Royal Arch was
France by the Chevalier Ramsay in 1730, for in The Freemason's Treasury
xlvii, p. 298) Oliver himself admits that the supposed evidence on
which that assertion
was founded is groundless. He is, however, inaccurate in stating that
that Ramsay had read HeIyot's Histoire. What Gould did say was this:
Helyot's great work … was published at Paris. The third volume contains
of the Order of St. Lazarus of which Ramsay was a Knight. Who can doubt
read it?" (Hist., Vol. 3, p. 343, Yorston Edn. [Lib 1884, Vol
to the last paragraph of Bro. Willard's communication I confess myself
at a complete
loss to understand precisely what he means. What difference could it
have made in
the year 1287 if the Companions did only "have to travel about fifty
to be in English territory?" The argument seems to require us to
that the English were non-Catholics, but surely Bro. Willard does not
mean to imply
this. While it is probably true that there were in remote corners, and
many survivals of paganism, yet everyone was professedly a Christian,
and all Christians
in Western Europe were "Catholics." And though it is also undoubtedly
true that the Church then, as now, suspected all secret organizations,
and was quick
to impute heresy, there would have been no greater liberality in this
English rule than under French.
A. J. B. M.
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No. 4. The Royal
Somerset House and Inverness Lodge
[Lib *] By
Dr. A. W. Oxford. Published by Bernard Quaritch, London. Cloth, table
illustrated, appendices and index. 316 pages. Limited edition,
published by subscription
mention of No. 4 on the rolls of the Grand Lodge of England should
cause every Mason
to pay attention, if nothing more. Practically everyone knows that four
and "revived the Quarterly Communications" which grew into the present
Grand Lodge organization. Naturally, therefore, when No. 4 is mentioned
wonders whether this was one of the Four Old Lodges. The answer is that
it was and
is. It was the fourth of the four, the one which met at the Rummer and
in Channel Row, Westminster. It subsequently moved to the Horn, and
came to be known
as the Old Horn Lodge, No. 2, after the demise of the lodges originally
Nos. 2 and
3. On Jan. 10, 1774, it was united with, and took the name of, the
Lodge, which was founded in 1762. At the Union in 1813 it again became
No. 4 and
has held its original number to the present day. Prior to this it was
numbered 4, 5, 4, 3, 2. Though it might be proud to have been listed as
No. 2 and
to bear that designation today, what could be more appropriate than
that 217 years
after the Union of the Four Old Lodges that No. 4 has its original
number. In spite
of the fact that this is largely a matter of chance (the vagaries of
numeration are too complicated to be noted here) certainly Royal
and Inverness Lodge is more fortunate than Antiquity, No. 2, which
in the peculiar position of being the oldest of the Four Old Lodges,
and still not
enrolled as No. 1.
of Antiquity leads us to note the fact that the present Nos. 2 and 4
are the only
ones of the four original lodges which are still in existence. Some
years ago Bro.
W. H. Rylands wrote the first volume of a history of No. 2. More
the past year in fact, Bro. Firebrace has produced the second volume,
and the intention
is to reprint the first volume which from the first has been very
scarce, in sufficient
number to enable those who have the second volume only to complete the
it is that we have had a history of the other of the Four Old Lodges
which is still
working. It is most fortunate that No. 4 should also decide to give its
to the world.
We have seen
that the Old Horn Lodge amalgamated with that of Somerset House in
1774. It maintained
its identity under this name, with fourth place on the roll, until Nov.
when it was united with the Royal Inverness Lodge, which had been
1815, and its name was changed once more. By permission of H. R. H. the
Sussex, the then Grand Master, it became Royal Somerset House and
its present title. The lodge is acting by "immemorial constitution," a
privilege it shares with Antiquity, No. 2, and Fortitude and Old
12. Its history from the earliest days is, therefore, a part of the
history of Freemasonry.
here be said that Dr. Oxford intends his work primarily for the members
of the lodge.
As a result, we are told, it is written in a form quite different from
what it would
have been adopted had the intention been to cater to the general
reader. The present
writer has no idea what different form Dr. Oxford may have had in mind,
be that he would have adhered more closely to the existing minutes of
Such a plan would have given Masonic students generally the opportunity
exactly from the minutes, instead of from Dr. Oxford's resume of those
There would have been advantages in this, but it would of course have
by a distinct loss of readability. As the work stands it is intensely
It avoids the constant repetition which makes the reading of actual
minutes so dull.
In fact, the reviewer found the work of such absorbing interest that he
in one sitting. A unique experience, with any other Masonic work of
and standard of scholarship.
the first extant minute book of the lodge begins in 1783. This leaves a
in the early years of the history that must be filled in from other
history of the lodge, and of Somerset House Lodge up to the time of the
in 1762, and from there to 1783, has been reconstructed from the
records of the
Grand Lodge and other sources. The resume of the minutes from that date
been mentioned as of great interest. Included in the work is a list of
of the lodge taken from various sources. There will be occasion to
of these later.
date of the formation of No. 4 is unknown, but Dr. Oxford thinks it was
than 1712. It could not, of course, have been later than 1716 because
we find the
Four Old Lodges holding a preliminary meeting in that year at which it
to revive the Quarterly Communications and Annual Feast the following
year. At first
the lodge seems to have met on the third Friday in each month; a little
date was the second Thursday.
At the time
of the revival the membership of No. 4 was 71, as compared with 22 for
at the Goose and Gridiron, 21 for that at the Appletree, and 15 for
that at the
Crown AleHouse. Perhaps it is not strange, therefore, that No. 4 seems
to have played
a most important part in early Grand Lodge affairs. Aside from this
however, the character of the membership of No. 4 seems to have been an
factor in its dominance of the new organization. The first list of
not more than two who were, or might have been, operatives. The balance
high social rank, peers, officers of the Army, Magistrates, members of
several of them connected with the Royal Household, and one of them the
the Court of Sweden. Perhaps, therefore, it is not strange that three
of the most
famous men in Masonic history held their membership in No. 4. George
Master in 1718 and 1720), the Rev. J. T. Desaguliers (Grand Master in
1719 and Deputy
Grand Master in 1723-4-6), and the Rev. James Anderson, who produced
the first two
editions of the Book of Constitutions in 1723 and 1738, respectively,
were all members
of the lodge which met at the Rummer and Grapes in 1716. In later years
the name of Thomas Dunckerley, who played a prominent part as the
founder of Somerset
House Lodge in 1762 on board H. M. S. "The Prince," on which he was
On June 24,
1727, the Grand Master nominated Payne, Folkes and Sorrel, the first
and third being
members of No. 4, "to be three of the Committee of Seven for Managing
of Charity." At the same time he nominated Nathaniel Blackerby to be
was also a member of No. 4. This office he held until April 6, 1738.
for his resignation is very interesting and is quoted in full.
It was proposed
and carried that the Treasurer should give and find security for the
money in his
charge. "The Treasurer then stood up and thanked the Brethren for the
they had done him in continuing him so long their Treasurer, but told
he could not be insensible to the Indignity offered him in the above
and the ill-treatment he had met with in the Debate and that he
resented the same
in the highest manner. And then resigned his office of Treasurer and
send next morning to the G. S. a Draught on the Bank for the Ballance
in his hands."
He was never again present at Grand Lodge.
No. 4 was
not slow in showing its confidence in its old member, for the London
of April 22, 1738, states that "On Thursday last there was a numerous
of Persons of Distinction of the Society of Free and Accepted Masons at
held at the Horn Tavern in New Palace Yard, Westminster, when his Grace
of Richmond having resign'd the Mastership of the said Lodge, by the
of all the Members present, Nathaniel Blackerby, Esq. (the late
Treasurer of the
whole Society, formerly Deputy to the Lord Kingston, when Grand Master,
to his Grace the late Duke of Norfolk) was chosen Master of the Lodge."
accounts were not quite in order, for his successor reported on April
that the balance handed over to him included "promissory Notes 16.18."
It was "ordered that the Treasurer do cause Application to be made for
payment of the said Notes for 16.18."
On June 30,
1739, "the Treasurer informed the Lodge that he had caused Application
made for the Payment of the Notes for 16.18 mentioned in the Minutes of
Q. C. And thereon found that the same were Promissory Notes under the
hand of Br
Batson payable to Br Blackerby the late Treasurer and were taken by him
past instead of so much money due to the Gd Charity."
member of No. 4, had been Deputy Grand Master from 1731 to 1734.
this controversy the attendance of the lodge officers at Grand Lodge
was very irregular,
and owing to this non-attendance "at the general meetings of the
the lodge was off the roll for four years, being restored in 1755.
many other points one would like to discuss which are raised in this
history. To even mention them would occupy altogether too much space.
of No. 4 is so closely interwoven with the History of Modern
Freemasonry that the
field opened by this single volume has contact with almost every branch
only three hundred copies of the work available. Brethren who are
desirous of adding
what will be an almost priceless possession to their libraries have
need to hasten
if they would not find the supply exhausted.
* * *
The Quest Of The
Arthur Edward Waite. Published by the Theosophical Publishing House,
(4to.), table of contents, 176 pages. Price, $3.85.
of Kinghood in Faerie," so runs the second title. It is not a fairy
but a story of faerie, which is not quite the same thing. It is the
story of a mystic
quest, and itself a mystery because of its many meanings, and meanings
It is an allegory, if one will, but not an allegory with a simple
Preeminently is it one that each must read as he can, and interpret
his own knowledge. It is worth reading for its beauty alone; like a
song in an unknown
language, the melody alone may give pleasure, or bring tears ‒ while
yet the words
may he far more than the music if one but knew them. It may be that
youth will not
have experience enough of life to fully understand the story that is
told. Age may
have lost the power of vision. Who then may interpret it? Perhaps the
old who have
remained young at heart, possibly youth to whom sorrow has too early
knowledge of the years. But, one would judge, prosperous middle-age
as hardly as a rich man can enter the Kingdom of Heaven.
has, during a long life, patiently investigated every path that gave
leading out of the present world of material things ‒ the world of
desire and decay
and death ‒ into what is beyond. All the schools of occultism, magic
and everything parallel or analogous to them. He has written of them
so that the very list of the titles of his books is amazing. He has
the meticulous accuracy of the scholar but concealed it under a style
of the highest
literary art. He has written mystical poems with much of the same
quality as this
book of Quest, which indeed is a poem in prose. It may be, seeing that
in one of
his most recent works he intimated that the task he had set himself was
least so far forth as a man may hope to finish ‒ it ‒ may be that,
he has told the story of his own seeking. Indeed it could hardly be
else, in some
sort at least; yet it is not very significant, for the truth of life
is wide and many faced, and can only be told in allegory and symbol.
Then if the
tale be true for the teller it is true for the hearer also, each seeing
Be this as
it may, it would he absurd, both in the strict sense of impossible and
sense of ridiculous, to attempt to explain or interpret such a work as
who have loved will understand, those who have had sorrow will know,
for love and
sorrow each impose a quest.
may be said of the means used to the end. They are simple, like the
singing of a
bird. That is much; it were better if one knew the language of birds,
but for that
one must taste the dragon's heart, as in the ancient tale of Sigurd.
This tale has
some power of gramarye, it takes us straight into an enchanted land,
far from the
sordid world of every day. Far? "To him who can open a door which leads
to Faerie the end is everywhere" and "There is no Faerie but Faerie,
it is not there but here." And yet again, "From over the way, from
over the way, out of a great distance, to those who are meant for
Faerie at the appointed hour."
is produced largely, it would seem, by a certain inconsequence of
or instinctive, which continually intrudes upon the story, like
leitmotives in the
music of Tannhauser or Parsifal. Description largely of English
landscape, it might
seem, by or near the narrow sea, and this, as by some spell, leads
the voice of the nightingale did an earlier poet, to those
… magic casements
on the foam
Of perilous seas in faerie land forlorn.
land is not forlorn or perilous, even though it has
a darksome forest of fir-trees
… an worn chapel,
bidden in a little hollow, overgrown There also flourished the deadly
be monk's hood, with other plants of bale, exhaling unhallowed incense
in the dews
it is a bright and beautiful country, as when in the beginning of the
quest we are
told that the Prince was
…moving presently through the
middle place of
a woodland, where the linden whispered secrets and beneath it were
which answered in light and shade. Many secrets are held in the deep
of Faerie. He came in his faring to a clear and shining pool. A host of
in Faerie congregated about the marge.
… he went betimes through the
forest to visit
the Haunted Well. Who follows the lizard's track shall come to the
but he found that the well was dry, and all that he saw was a green
among the stones… . It was, a bright, bright day, running with golden
hours. O tales
told by the throstle and birds that chant legends: there was singing of
and the wind, full of scented secrets,. whispered and crooned among
and dappled shadows on grasses. It might have been eventide when
silence fell for
a space, and then the shrill voice of a lark pealed in the empyrean
in its ecstasy. There are worlds beyond wells in Faerie, and wells in
of song. A fountain deeper than these unlocked in Prince Starbeam's
heart and flowed
over in saving tears. So opens the heart in Faerie, and so in other
They prepared the body of the
Master for his
cold bridal of the grave. "Lay me not down at the West: I would look to
East in Faerie." Was it Death on a white horse which rode through the
chase in the light of the setting moon? Was it Death that rode in
it Death in radiant armour that passed from the room of death, with
on stone stairs? Who brought the ghostly to the old porch of the House?
the Banners before, which flowed and plunged in the mist? And whither,
of your mercy,
turns the Path of Souls which leads to the Bright Land under a Bright
Sky? Is this
the World of Faerie or do we look for another?
a Magic Ring the Prince is pursued and hunted by enemies:
But yesterday and today and ‒
as it seemed ‒
forever the chase went on. I have heard that he hid among bracken while
riders passed; I have heard that he crossed the water; there are rumors
and rescue, whether on lake or sea. I have heard of wooded valleys, and
in the valleys of silence… There are houses in lonely woods and grey
towers by very
secret meres which keep the memory of his presence…
But at last
the fugitive came
… to the bleak shore of the
lonely ocean, when
heavy clouds covered the face of heaven. The receding tide took out the
sea, a penetrating mist began to fall…
ending of the Quest They were following a narrow path which went up a
O storied hills and mountains far away; at the hill top they saw
distance the lights of a long promontory going out into the sea. In the
moonlight they went down that hill and they came to the Dream Tower,
the place of
sleep and vision, the sleep and trance of Faerie… . O path of dreams
and path of
knowing of dreams; who tells in the morning glory a dream by the light
of the moon?
description. The Prince
… passed through the forest as
one who goes unawares
but straight to the destined place… . Wait until the trees of the
forest begin to
speak in the heart… He heard the leaves as they whispered; he heard and
He knew that he moved on the threshold of strange new things to come.
glory of bindweeds shook their bells at him, telling of secret ways and
thought in the forest. He knew not the hour or the day, except that the
the end stood at his door of life… O the wild light, the wine light,
the light of
the earth and air: they tinctured and scented his way. The wisp light,
light through lattice work of leaves wrote words of strange meaning as
through glens and hollows. The air that breathed through lattices was
air that brought
a message; the message contained a secret; the secret needed a key; but
was in the heart of the pilgrim.
But it is
enough and more. Those for whom the book is written will understand. To
out passages is not to know when to stop. Yet one must conclude:
For the Lion and the Lamb are
at peace in Faerie,
the Dove is in the Eagle's nest; there are golden waters, rivers of
waters of gold,
footmarks of enchantment, wings for rainbow flight; there is a Spirit
of the woods
beside me clothed in green samite, singing through a herb garden of
this is the very end ‒ I bear my faithful witness ‒ to the Quest of the
and the Way of a Crown in Faerie.
* * *
Past and Present
Charles Guignebert. Published by the Macmillan Co. Cloth, analytical
table of contents,
507 pages. Price, $3.85.
is Professor of the History of Christianity in the University of Paris.
and previous work guarantee the quality of the present volume in regard
Nothing is said about a translator on the title page, so that we may
it was either written in English in the first place, or that Prof.
his own translation. An occasional phrase or sentence here and there
the last supposition out, where the construction is not really English
nor yet quite
like a too literal translation from a French original. But there are
very few of
these places, and in general the style is decidedly vivid and graphic,
considering the subject of which it treats.
of the author is that of the critical school, which treats the
phenomena of Christianity
quite objectively and without belief in its divine character or origin.
Christians seldom make the distinction, this attitude is quite
different from that
of the enemy of the church, or of religion. The latter uses the
critic's work as
an armory where he finds his weapons ‒ but so also does the Christian
if he be abreast of the times. This does not mean that the critic is
or even right at any time, for that matter.
author endeavors to explain away everything of a supernormal character
he is yet
very sympathetic in his treatment. One supposes that his general
be that religion in some form is a psychological necessity for mankind
and that, as being so purely human and natural, no man should scorn it
even if he
has peeped behind the scenes, and knows the strings and rods which move
on the stage. An Olympic attitude, which will annoy some religionists
than the bitter attacks of professed atheists and self-styled
is divided into three parts. Many Protestants might feel like condoning
one for the sake of the last. The first part deals with primitive
the person of our Lord, his character and work, as reconstructed by the
and then the transformation of an insignificant Jewish sect into a
through its fertilization by Hellenistic philosophy and theosophy. It
the "Creed and the Church." The second part treats of the Mediaeval
under the heading of "Theology and the Papacy." The last takes us from
the Reformation to the final triumph of Ultramontanism in the Vatican
author, though it must not be for a moment supposed he ignores or is
regarding Protestant and other non-Roman churches, does regard things
from a viewpoint
in which the Roman Church is central and perhaps most important. This
is only natural,
and perhaps inevitable under the circumstances. Everyone is limited and
his own environment in some degree. Which is equally true of critics as
who have not some acquaintance with the progress of Biblical criticism,
of religion, much of the Introduction, and the first part of the book,
rather incomprehensible and perhaps disturbing. It is not easy to
accept the objective
attitude towards things which really count in our own lives. However,
we must allow
for the presumed basic metaphysical premises of the author, that there
any divine element in any form of religion. This being done, the
picture drawn may
help even the most ""fundamental" believer to distinguish between
essentials and non-essentials in his own inherited system of beliefs.
are social organisms, they do grow, evolve, decay and die. They have
to each other which are concealed in the traditional attitude that "my
is the only true one and every other is utterly false."
all this, to the present reviewer (here revealing objectively his own
the account given of the life and death of the Carpenter's Son seems
much like a
blind man writing a treatise on optics. If the great majority of men
color blind, their descriptions of things seen would be found lacking
in an essential
element to the abnormal individual who was not. As his, contrary-wise,
fantastic and absurd to the majority.
of Christ as a Gallilean of the lower class, uneducated but with an
urge to take
up the role of a prophet in order to announce the immediate coming of
the Day of
Jehovah, the Day of Vengeance on the enemies and oppressors of Israel,
has its own
difficulties. These are not concealed by the author, though he does not
them. So also, his reconstruction of the steps by which a reforming
sect of Judaism grew into the Catholic Church again presents other
We must be frank. There are difficulties every way we turn. That is one
at least about the crucified Nazarene ‒ no explanation seems fully
satisfying It is something like a mathematical expression, containing
quantity. We can write it in many ways. We may transform it so that a,
b, or c,
or x, or y is the incommensurable, and take our choice. But whatever we
do the surd
remains somewhere. After all it may be that the explanation arrived at
by the early
Hellenistic Fathers and the Doctors of the Church is no more
than that of the most thorough going rationalist. It all depends on our
conceptions of the universe. If we take it to be an order or system in
is no place for the divine, for leading or guidance or even concern, on
of a supreme intelligence or personality, then we must make the
do as best we can. It would seem that too often the critics, who are
do not see this at all. For one thing, most of the defenders of
are equally oblivious to such considerations, and insist on
more strenuously, sometimes, than upon the essentials.
part of the work covers the ground that is more or less familiar to
has read anything at all about Church History, though the author has
with exceptional clearness the purely human and social tendencies which
caused the development of the papacy. The tendency of every religion,
as with every
other social motive, is to evolve an organization, or we may say, an
living principle of a religion, the emotions experienced in common, the
or visions of some communicated to others, crystalize into a body of
may later be systematized into a formal creed. Then ritual will
develop, and a hierarchy;
and inevitably all these external things, which form the body of the
taken as of divine origin, and necessary. Just as a man thinks of his
hands or feet
as part of himself, even though he may know quite well that his body
began in an
undifferentiated gerin cell, and that he may lose limbs and organs and
to live and work without any deficiency in his personality. So in a
is the simple believer and the mystic who are the source of its life,
the organization may develop and harden to the point where it is
the finger nails and epidermis of a man, or the scales of a snake or
fish, or the
shell of a mollusc. These are the products of living activity, but
there is no life
in them and they have become inert, and subject to mechanical forces
and laws only.
In a religion the organization ceases to be spiritual and becomes
secular and worldly.
It is precisely as it reaches this stage that those who benefit by it
are most insistent
as to the divine, origin of the whole machine; which in a sense is true
the divine governance of the universe be granted ‒ only at this stage
of the status quo (and their privileges under it) conceive divine
operation in the
most mechanical way. The author says the church
… ought not to have let her
be confined and cramped in formulas that were too abstract and
her organization should have preserved some elasticity and not have
become set hard
and fast in a uniformity incapable of adapting itself readily to the
of the men of different nationalities who constitute the Christian
body. Just the
contrary however occurred.
This is put
hypothetically as if it had been a matter of conscious decision and
choice. In reality
of course it is a natural development, apparently an inevitable one.
evolve as unconsciously as the living organism grows.
by step the papacy developed, becoming a true monarchy, tending "more
toward narrow centralization" with "pretensions without limit and an
beyond control." That revolt against the system which we call "The
was very incomplete and one-sided in many ways, precisely because it
was a revolt,
and was developed in a state of war. Protestantism, to group, as the
"quite artificially, all the various churches born of the opposition to
pontificalism" turned to polemic rather than to seeking for truth for
sake, and tended to react from everything distinctive in the older
of its value. The counter-Reformation of the Roman Church, resulting in
of doctrine by the Council of Trent, reacted again from Protestantism,
and as the
author judges the result, succeeded in so hardening and crystallizing
system that no real growth or development was thenceforward possible.
was established to guard the mental innocence of the faithful from
and a catechism prepared "which states the faith in accurate, if not
formulas, accessible, if not intelligible to all."
on Liberalism is most interesting and valuable. It sums up the
"clericalism" and all free search for truth, whether in science or
This opposition, constant and violent, has produced the natural result.
be foreseen that constantly meeting the church as an obstacle the
liberals and the
scientists would be led to pause and ponder over her, make a tour of
and put her solidity to proof; in other words, that they would verify
of the pretensions made by theology to tell the sole truth and to
impose it everywhere.
scientists and liberals are also human, and they, like the Protestant
before them, also reacted ‒ and rejected truth and error together. Many
of the theoretical
conclusions of scientists as to the nature of the universe, as many
Biblical critics, are ultimately based on the unconscious and
that there is and can be no divine influence in the world.
In the last
chapter the last state of the Roman Church is discussed. This will
perhaps be the
most interesting in the whole work to the general reader. The author
The official church is
dominated by the letter
and by superstition; she has become incapable of holding her own
them and she no longer seems to believe that any attempt to do so is to
This is, indeed, equal to submission to her own death… As a matter of
fact the orthodox
systematic theology does not receive any solid support from the
majority of the
faithful, who cling to the practices of religion alone, and no longer
try to comprehend
words ignorance is the rampart behind which the Roman Church defends
of doctrine, and everything else so far as possible, on the part of the
believers, while the clergy have to be trained in an atmosphere from
which the "air
and light from the world without" are carefully excluded. For deprived
means of re-adaptation to modern knowledge the Church
… can do no more than reassert
itself. It does
so by publishing in an incessant stream books of apologetics more or
less well composed,
which [however] are hardly read by any but those who have no need of
of death that be sees is only spiritual. He is fully aware of the great
of the Roman Church, of its forward movement all over the world.
She has modernized
her ways … taking as her pattern the measures usually adopted in
She makes use of aggressive newspapers which feel no scruples
charity and delicacy… She has put her confidence in the influence of
and so, in addition to her own journals she directs or inspires
of all kinds carefully edited to suit all stages of development and
she has her own electoral policy and her political directives. She
takes a hand
in the great game played by the various parties centered round every
In particular she tries to retain her influence in the education of the
to recover it where she has lost it.
of course, with the keenest appreciation of the fact that her strength
lies in the
ignorance of the great mass of her members.
specially of France and European countries, but he adds:
The hour is approaching when
the battle will
be waged as eagerly in England, the United States and all countries in
'Church feels herself menaced by state schools which are laic and
is, as he says, one of the most interesting of post-war world
phenomena. It has
secured Catholics "more consideration and gives them better standing"
and has strengthened their political position greatly.
is flattering and it may be of practical importance to an extent it
would be risky
to exaggerate, but what advantage does Catholicism itself derive from
it? Are its
dogmatic assertions re-established by it in their full value in the
a greater number of human beings?
It is, in
other words, spiritually dead or dying, but remain a huge and powerful
the sheer inertia of which will carry it for a long time yet. This is a
that the believer in Christianity will not be wholly ready to accept
he may reject the peculiarly Roman dogmas The Spirit moves "where it
and its influence and power are incalculable.
It is too
bad that so important a work should be disfigured by so many annoying
of lack of careful editing. There are a few typographical errors; as
was born in 1586, is said to have been executed as a heretic in 1919!
But the mistakes
specially alluded to, and which are hardly excusable, often make the
sense of the
passage obscure. As on page 391 there is an unwanted preposition in the
"express alike of the economic wretchedness …" On page 435 we have, "It
is well to remember that Voltaire, who minded the appelation
carefully, nevertheless, after the devotional needs of his Ferney
The sense of the passage seems to demand that the phrase "who minded"
should be understood as "who delighted in" or "gloried in."
There are also many places where a plural subject has a singular verb
or vice versa,
and other like evidences of lack of care in the final preparation of
These disfigurements should be remedied in the second edition, which it
to be hoped will be found necessary, as it is a work that should have
the very widest
* * *
The Symbolism Of
The Gods Of The Egyptians
Dr. T. M. Stewart. Published by the Baskerville Press, London. Cloth,
table of contents,
illustrated, index, 120 pages. Price, $4.25.
in all its branches is a subject of intense interest to all Freemasons.
for this are not so deeply hidden as it may seem at first thought.
Quite early in
the Masonic ceremony the candidate is taught that the Fraternity is a
system of morals, veiled in allegory, and illustrated by symbols."
the thinking candidate begins to wonder about the symbolic import of
Even the older members of the Craft are seeking the symbolic light. No
is so frequently heard in gatherings of Masons as what is the meaning
of this or
that portion of the ceremony.
is true it is not surprising that any book dealing with the subject of
is welcomed by the members of the Craft at large. One of the beauties
by symbols lies in the fact that the individual is entitled to
interpret the lessons
according to his own views. This is also one of the principal dangers
of the method,
for symbols, while they may be subject to individual interpretation,
must be construed
along certain well defined lines. Variation within certain limits is
but the basic boundaries must be known and care exercised not to
overlap the limits
of propriety ‒ symbolic propriety.
us to another point, and one which is of particular importance in
Bro. Stewart's work. There is a school of Masonic scholars of which
Bro. J. S. M.
Ward is perhaps the foremost exemplar which believes that Freemasonry
has its roots
in the initiation ceremonies of primitive peoples. This group of
workers finds evidence sufficient to satisfy themselves of the
existence of Masonry
from the most remote times. They find resemblances not only in Ravage
but in the religious rites of the Chinese, Hindus, Egyptians, Hebrews,
other races of higher cultural development.
while not explicitly stating such a thesis, implies the existence of
among the Egyptians. He uses freely the wording of the Masonic ritual
the symbolism of the Egyptian gods. This is most unfortunate, since it
lead the unsuspecting reader to fall into a trap which is only too much
in the path of the unwary. As an illustration of what is meant by the
may the writer cite from an incident from personal experience? At a
a few years ago the principal speaker, a clergyman, made the assertion
teaches us that Freemasonry descended from the Egyptians. The writer
any Masonic student to produce one bit of evidence that will withstand
of historical criticism and that will prove Masonry's descent from the
and just for the sake of argument the Greeks, Hebrews, Hindus, Chinese,
primitive races may be included. That there is a lot of inferential
be admitted; by following the comparative method, so fruitful in
anthropological research, we are led to suspect that there may be some
the assertion that Masonry comes down to us from the most remote
there is a wide difference between saying that Masonry may have evolved
out of the
dim past, and flatly stating that it has developed through countless
ages and that
history proves this development.
can be inferred, and much good result from the inferential method of
with all members of the anthropological school of Masonic research,
Ward and Bro. Stewart, we find fault, and a serious fault at that.
is presented, for the most part fairly, though the present writer has
where quotations were not quite accurate, but even that may be passed
over at this
time, we are all liable to err. But granting that the facts are as
stated, the conclusions
drawn are not presented to the reader with that fine distinction
probability and certainty which characterizes the true scholar. Why
should men who
are indulging in research in fields where all conclusions are to some
at the best, and where any opinion is based only upon partial evidence,
definite and conclusive proof can never be obtained, express their
views as facts
instead of as probabilities? What right has any one to say that the
is known to savages simply because they happen to make a sign closely
a Masonic sign, or because they have a rite of circumambulation which
ours? Numerous instances equally as pointed could be cited as
illustrations of what
in his book now under discussion has developed a symbolic system about
of the Egyptians which is in accord with Masonic teachings. But by the
use of Masonic
language in defining his symbols, a practice greatly to be deprecated,
he has given
the impression that Masonry is descended from the Egyptians. There is
no doubt but
that there are parallels in Masonic symbolism and Egyptian teachings,
but that is
no reason for assuming, or even appearing to assume, that the religion
of the Egyptians,
which seems to have consisted of a symbolic searching after spiritual
and which according to Dr. Stewart consisted of three grades, which he
is identical with Masonry and this is true no matter how closely the
resemble each other.
that from very remote ages one of the chief characteristics of human
has been a seeking after immortality. Races and peoples have conducted
in very different ways, they have been striving to reach the same goal,
and it is
not at all surprising that there has been a constant duplication of
widely divergent systems of symbols, but with many varying symbols
the same meaning, and still further with the same things adopted by
to convey the same meanings. It is not surprising that the serpent,
locality, has been made the symbol of death and resurrection, or
rebirth. All snakes
enter a period of lethargy, shed their skins and come forth as
seemingly new creatures.
Is there any reason for believing that the Egyptians, or any other race
a hold on the sum total of human intelligence, that they were the only
ones to discover
a significance in this natural phenomenon? It seems much more
reasonable to presume
that the human mind working along the same lines arrived at the same
in different parts of the world. Lack of communication and interchange
would account for much in the way of duplication of symbols.
space has already been devoted to a discussion of matter somewhat
Bro. Stewart's book. The work is valuable to the student of symbology,
not so much
for anything new that it brings out, but because it does give in
form the symbolic system of the Egyptians. This system is developed
lines. Bro. Stewart is of the opinion that the Egyptians were
that all of the minor gods were merely manifestations of the one
Just how he reconciles this theory with the fact that all of the gods
is hard to understand. It looks to the present writer as though the
system was comparable
with that of the Greeks. That it was polytheistic and that one
was merely the ruler, the chief, or king of the other gods. Even Dr.
in spite of his assertions of monotheism, bears out this view.
and like reasons, the reviewer would hesitate to recommend the work to
who is not in possession of a clear critical faculty, and some general
of the subject as a guide. The work is too valuable to be ignored, and
at the same
time too misleading to be read without caution and due attention. It
must be read
with an open mind and in a sufficiently leisurely manner to enable one
the value of the work. The evidence adduced must be weighed carefully
and one must
question every assertion of fact. Only by doing this can one separate
from the chaff and gain arty benefit from the reading.
Der Gedankenkreis Der
[Lib*] (Ideals for the Apprentice.) Alfred Unger, Berlin. Cloth, index, 203 pages. Price,
bound in paper.)
presents the latest information, gives a good picture of the German
We have here a graphic account of interest to ordinary readers, as well
as to the
most. learned psychologist, scientist and even philosopher. Some
features of the
picture presented are highly interesting, deeply instructive and
to be widely distributed.
besides a number of philosophical observations and idealistic
eighteen orations by leading German Masons, delivered on festive
occasions to the
German members of the Craft. Our orators in their mental flights again
reach those lofty heights from which are seen, alongside the material,
mercenary struggle of the genus homo upon the physical plane, some
and landscapes, in which the inner eye recognizes the country promised
by the Religious
Teacher to those that love Him, keep His commandments, do their duty,
their House for their future domain.
Some of our
German orators remind their audiences that for building successfully
must ward off the allurements of Lust, Greed and Pride; must overcome
of three vicious Highwaymen.
stated our book contains eighteen orations, and places before the
reader a judicious
selection of the ideals of German thinkers, leaders in the realm of
The best oration ‒ in the opinion of the critic ‒ is by Bro. August V.
This brother, in his oration entitled "The Ideals of the Mason," gives
as his leading question, "What is the destiny of man?" and answers: "To
become like unto God." We are here reminded of the Master's answer, "Is
it not written in your law, I said Ye are Gods?"
are two sides to most questions. This statement brings ante oculos the
Charles Crane, the father of the well-known living Masonic orator, the
Crane. Charles Crane, in answer to frequent declarations by the present
"There are two sides," never failed to answer: "Yes, a right side
and a wrong side."
In this our
book we meet a few strange exemplifications of German presumption. We
read on page
deutsche Freimaurerei steht nicht auf der fast beschämend elementaren
die in America:
German Freemasonry is not at such an almost shamefully low level as
that of the
teaches that good, bad, high, low are relative terms, belong to the
realm of subjectivity.
We are here reminded of the most popular song in Germany: Deutschland, Deutschland
Germany above everything. In one lecture the audience is treated to a
part of the
song, Deutsche Sitte, Deutsche Treue, Deutscher Muth und Deutscher
costumes, German manners, German courage, German song.
may become pride. Pride, even national pride, constitutes a fall, a bow
to our third
Highwayman, to the one that gives the fatal blow.
by Bro. Reinhald Taute Gera constitutes another most vivid illustration
are two sides," and the answer, "Yes, a right side and a wrong side."
We are given
instructive features, elevating thoughts and logical reasonings, but we
that Masonry has a Christian foundation only, demonstrated by the fact
Bible is presented as the Great Light. How then can we admit as Masons,
Le monde est une chose bien étrange, says Moliere.
the lodge it is always the Old Testament that
is presented to the hands of the candidates, and should not these
reflect? Consider: not only the Old but also the New Testament was
written by Jews,
Israelites, Hebrews, Semites. "A name, what's in a name? A rose by any
name would smell as sweet." Strange, the fact that Jesus (Joshua ben
the Apostles, Paul, the two Saints John were Jews, seems altogether
unknown in the
Christian world, seems hidden in the deepest "subconscious
even of Protestant Ministers, Bishops, Cardinals and Popes.
of the other side: By some of our German orators, the year 1717 is
given as the
beginning of Freemasonry. This supposition constitutes a kind of
parallel to the
reasoning which makes Luther nailing his "protest" in the year 1517,
beginning of Christianity.
* * *
Sketch of St. Alban's Lodge
Bro. Henry T. Smith. Privately printed for the Lodge. Paper,
illustrated, 44 pages.
IN this small
brochure we find another of the short lodge histories which are
popular. These works will doubtless be of inestimate value to the
of the future.
interesting feature of the present work is the fact that the first
Master of St.
Alban's Lodge (1913) is now a Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of
is also a Catholic.
* * *
The Records of
Antiquity, No. 2
are informed that the reprint of the first volume of the Records of the
Antiquity No. 2 is very shortly to go to press. The second volume by
Bro. C. W.
Firebrace was reviewed in THE BUILDER in July of last year. By
subscribing now Masonic
students and libraries can make sure of obtaining copies. We understand
who have not purchased copies of the second volume may obtain the two
when the reprint
is issued for 4-4-0 net. This, with duties and carriage, will probably
cost to American subscribers approximately $30. It is needless to
of the Society that this is an opportunity that will not occur again,
and that the
complete work will inevitably increase in value in the future.
For a long
time any proof of Schiller's affiliation with Freemasonry has been
in 1911 the Masonic press published a letter of Sept. 9, 1929, in which
of the lodge in Rudolstadt regret the discontinuation of their lodge,
been honored by Schiller's membership in it. However, the records of
do not show anything in regard to Schillers initiation, yet this cannot
as denial. But Franz Luedke in the "Literary Echo" furnishes a new
of Schiller's Masonic affiliation. It is a poem, which the poet Anton
born in 1746, published on the occasion of Schiller's death, and which
in its caption
refers to the passing away of the Masonic Brother Schiller. Klein, who
in Mannheim, was business manager of the palatination "German Society,"
with which Schiller was affiliated in 1784. He induced Schiller to
Carlos" in iambic meter, and may have interested him for Freemasonry,
Schiller's Letters About Don Carlos show that the poet was much
with the ideals of Freemasonry.
[Translated from Auf der Warte by Bro. R.I. Clegg,
The Question Box and Correspondence
Concerning A Title
1925, THE, BUILDER advertised Gibson's "Builders of Man or the Story of
Craft." My publishers at once wrote to Gibson whom we had threatened
proceedings for this infringement of my title. He replied that he knew
your advertisement. I wrote to you on July 1, 1925. As a result a
printed in the August number, on the last page.
I am more
than surprised to see that in the May, 1928, number you have again
title and repeated the advertisement of Gibson's book with the title he
to withdraw. I must ask you once more to correct the advertisement.
is dead, but that is no reason why THE BUILDER should try to unload
of his book under a description which infringes my rights.
Lionel Vibert, England.
referred to appeared on page 256 of Vol. XI, and ran as follows:
received information of an error in the title of a work given in our
in the June number. When the book was first published it was under the
given in our catalog, The Builders of Man: The Doctrine and History of
or the Story of the Craft. The secondary title was later changed to the
of the Craft.
our apologies to Bro. Vibert. The repetition of this slip is as
annoying to us as
it is to him. It was due in the present instance to the preparation of
for the advertisement from an uncorrected catalog card. The personnel
of the Book
Department having been completely changed since 1925 there was no one
with any recollection
of the matter.
to the Society, however, we must add that the Book Department has no
stock to unload.
As Bro. Vibert explains, the publishers changed the title page of the
work in consequence
of his threatened action. So far as can be discovered no copy of this
the title objected to by Bro. Vibert, has ever been sold through the
publishers are, we suppose, a reputable firm, and would have called in
copies of the work in its first form; and we are quite sure that the
author, a Clergyman
of the Church of England and an Honorary P. G.S. W. of the Grand Lodge
was quite innocent of any intention of infringing upon the copyright of
Mason. At this time, it is impossible to find out exactly how the
but most probably the title was taken in the first place from the
announcement, and no one ever noticed that it did not agree with the
of the book, which naturally is always referred to by the short title
Builders of Man. It is, by the way, a very valuable work in its own
field, and has
not had the attention it deserves.
* * *
I have read
with pleasure, as usual, the April number of THE BUILDER. I believe I
offer further information regarding the question of Bro. L. D. of
the French Masonic Obediences. There is indeed some error in the reply.
It is possible
that the Grand Lodge of Missouri has refused to recognize the Grand
Lodge of France
because the latter does not work with the Bible, but in the case of
though this may be the motive advanced, it is not the real one. The
Bible on the
Altar does not constitute a [universal] landmark, because French
never officially used it, which nevertheless did not in the past
relations between it and the other Masonic powers of the world. And
the United Grand Lodge of England, rigorist as it is, exchanges
with the Grand Loge Alpina of Switzerland, the lodges of which, for the
part, do not use the Bible.
caused all this trouble in the relationship of French Freemasonry with
that of Anglo-Saxon
countries was the suppression in 1877 by the Grand Orient of the
the glory of the Grand Architect of the Universe." Rightly or wrongly
action was taken in other countries to have been a declaration of
atheism. And although
the Scottish Rite continued to observe its ancient traditions without
it on the housetops," American ignorance concerning conditions in
confounded both the same condemnation. But I would not speak of
for it is evident that your Masonry numbers among us members many who
of the difference which exists between the Grand Orient and the Grand
Lodge of France.
Still the great majority of American Masons evidently know nothing of
Little by little, however, information is spreading, and the Grand
Lodge of France
(Scottish Rite), which invokes the Grand Architect of the Universe and
its lodges (though without making it obligatory) to use the Bible, is
not only recognized
by the Grand Lodges of the States to which you allude but also, by
others. The following
is the list of its official relations with America: In Canada, the
Grand Lodge of
Manitoba; in the United States, the Grand Lodges of Alabama, Arkansas,
the District of Columbia, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Minnesota,
Jersey, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Texas, Utah; in all
other jurisdictions come to make an honest and impartial investigation,
little doubt that they will join these mentioned, to the end that
may be completely re-established between the two countries.
counts among French Obediences the National. Grand Lodge, and you
remark that it
is recognized by the Grand Lodge of England. How should it be otherwise
is but a daughter institution in disguise, planted in our territory?
Lodge calls itself National in order to impress Masonic powers in other
In truth, except for the titular Grand Master and a few Frenchmen who
to aid the illusion, its lodges are composed of foreigners, English in
a very large
majority. I do not wish to attack this Grand Lodge, we are too tolerant
wish it any harm, but it is a little unfair upon its part to call
And this has no other purpose than to mislead Masons in other
countries, for here
it deceives no one. On this point, as upon every other point mentioned
in this letter,
it is easy to furnish proof.
in the United States some Grand Lodges, as that of California, which
themselves to be taken in by the professions of this Grand Lodge. The
it is recognized by the Grand Lodge of England, and puts the Bible on
has seemed to them sufficient reason for this, when in reality there
were more important
questions to consider; the nature of its working and its quality as
this status of a French Obedience it in reality does not possess. In my
the Grand Lodge of France should refuse relations with Grand Lodges
it, for it is in reality what you call Clandestine.
that the Grand Lodge of England refuses to recognize the Grand Lodge of
because the latter refuses to sever its relations with the Grand
Orient, which it
considers schismatic. The Grand Lodge of France, though it has steadily
to follow the errors of the Grand Orient, is not able to consent to
break with it.
This would be a fatal action in the face of the attacks to which
Masonry is subject
in France by the Catholic Party. Above all ritual questions stands that
of the "front"
that must be maintained against an implacable enemy, an enemy our
not fail to embolden and strengthen. We do not desire that the Clerical
France should reduce French Freemasonry to the point to which Fascism
the Freemasonry of Italy.
wish I could make the Masons of your country realize this situation. I
do not despair
of this, and the time will come, I hope soon, that all your Grand
Lodges will render
justice to the loyal attitude of the Grand Lodge of France to the
Freemasonry as it has received them.
Albert Lantoine, France.
* * *
The Grand Lodge
to the item in the April number of THE BUILDER, page 128, under the
Freemasonry," I submit the list of American Grand Lodges that are in
relationship with the Grand Lodge of France. In addition to those you
Alabama, California and Manitoba, there are: Arkansas, District of
Louisiana, Maine, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, Oregon, Rhode Island,
Texas, Utah and Kentucky.
Louis Goaziou, Colorado.
* * *
The Ark of the
Covenant with Israel
with the above heading in THE BUILDER for May reminds one of Dr. Albert
comment on a book written by a Frenchman: "He gives us some new things
some true things, but his new things are not true things, and his true
not new things."
tells us that the serpent of brass which Moses made "was worshipped
time of the Exodus until David established his capital at Jerusalem and
to be worshipped there until at least 700 B. C."
statement in II Kings, eighteenth chapter and fourth verse that
in pieces the brasen serpent that Moses had made; for unto these days
of Israel did burn incense to it, and he called it Nehushtan" hardly
the sweeping claim that it was worshipped from the Exodus to 700 B. C.
means "a piece of brass."
says "the most reasonable and satisfying explanation as to what the Ark
is that in it was the bones of Joseph." We can concede that this is new
not that it is true.
of Joseph were taken out of Egypt and the Ark was made in the
articles are named as having been deposited in the Ark, but not the
bones of Joseph.
he says of Joseph, "He had become a god to Israel." We admit that this
is new but do not believe it is true. There is no proof that the
spiritualized Joseph into their great God, Yahweh, whose symbol was his
Of the Ten
Commandments he says there are two statements "in the Bible that
each other." Here we must join issue. The two accounts in Exodus and
differ slightly in verbiage but are in no sense contradictory. He says,
Bible scholars agree that the Ten Commandments in their present form
date from some
five hundred years after the time of Moses." Here again we dissent.
scholars may hold that view but there is no general agreement to that
them. There are strong commonsense statements that are a sufficient
answer to the
critics that are trying to minimize the work of Moses and assign the
to a period later than the days of David.
The Pentateuch does not name
The term Lord of Hosts is not
in the Pentateuch.
Music formed no part of the
day Jerusalem was a Jebusite stronghold. He conquered it and made it
of his kingdom. When you tell me that the so-called Five Books of Moses
long after Jerusalem became the glory of Israel, the Holy City of God's
and yet its very name does not appear in these books you are presuming
on my credulity.
term Lord of Hosts runs through Old Testament literature. These five
do not contain it are certainly older than those portions in which it
appears. Further David was known as the "sweet singer of Israel."
instrumental and vocal, became prominent from his day in the worship
the Israelites. We are asked to believe that there were literary
forgers long after
David's day, so skillful as to invent a ritualism which they falsely
form hundreds of years earlier in the days of Moses, and to give it an
kept, out of it all reference to music which was then so prominent in
My answer is "tell it to the Marines, the Sailors won't believe it."
C. H. Briggs, Missouri.
* * *
In the Question
Box Department in the April, 1926, issue of THE BUILDER, under the
Cable Tow," the opinion is given in the last paragraph that the
given in the ritual makes the symbolism apply to the strength of the
What is meant by the expression "the strength of the obligation"?
definition of the word "obligation" most applicable in one sense is
imposed by promise." But it seems to me that when we speak of the
taken at the altar we do not mean the "duty imposed." A connection has
been made between the candidate and the Fraternity. The obligations
the promises made by the candidate whereby a duty is imposed upon him.
set of promises made a strong tie (connection); the second set doubles
making the tie stronger, and the third set makes a three-fold tie. The
as you use it seems to convey the idea of "contract" or "promise."
of the ritual, leaving out the question of position, seems to apply not
to the strength of the promises made as to the bond or tie that binds
to the Fraternity.
A. E. T., Manila, P. I.
Bro. A. E. T. quotes we acknowledge was rather hazy and indefinite. The
was the binding power or nature of the obligation. The word itself
binding," obligare in Latin is to tie up, and ligamentum is a band,
string. It would thus have been more definite, and perhaps more
accurate, to have
said simply that the C. T. was a symbol of the Obligation.
not however quite see the force of our correspondent's remarks about "a
imposed by promise." The duties are imposed by the promise or vow after
individual has made it. This does not at all affect the voluntary
nature of the
act of promising or vowing; but once that act has, been performed the
rests upon him and imposes these duties. Nevertheless we do not think
is any real difference between us, we are merely trying to say the same
in his own way.
* * *
The Shadow Of The
May I ask
whether the important articles by Dr. Leo Cadius, published this year
in THE BUILDER,
are to be made available in pamphlet or book form? I believe that these
should be given the widest circulation possible, as they are a
testimony from inside
the Church as to the conflict between its principles and purposes and
T. M. B., Massachusetts.
* * *
very much like to obtain a copy of the Symbols and Legends of
Freemasonry by J.
Finlay Finlayson, which is now out of print. If any reader has a copy
of this work
he would like to dispose of I should be glad to communicate with him.
C. E. Martin, c/o THE BUILDER
* * *
Set Of The
Builder For Sale
I have all
copies of THE BUILDER, of which 1915, 1916, 1917 are bound. All in good
Force of circumstances make it necessary for me to dispose of these.
any reasonable offer.
Charles Miller, California.
interested may address Bro. Miller in care of THE BUILDER.
* * *
I am trying
to complete a set of the American Freemason, founded and edited by Bro.
If any readers of THE BUILDER have in their possession copies of this
that they would be willing to dispose of, I should be very glad to hear
M. A. Barr, Muscatine, Iowa.
History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
Supply Co., 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 594. - 24.5 MB.
A Memoir of General James
Wri67 / auth. Wright Robert. - London : Chapman and Hall, 1867. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 429. - 19.2 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 010 - 1897
Ars97 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC, 1897. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 306. - 63.8 MB.
Histoire des Ordres Monastiques,
Religieuses et Militaires
Hel15 / auth. Helyot
Pierre and Bullot Maximilien. - Paris : Jean Baptiste Coignard, 1715. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 649. - Illustrated - French - 66.3 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 1
Lec87HE1 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
Company, 1887. - Vol. 1 : 8 : p. 647. - 17.6 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 2
Lec87HE2 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
Company, 1887. - Vol. 2 : 8 : p. 720. - 19.8 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 3
Lec88HE3 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
Company, 1888. - Vol. 3 : 8 : p. 618. - 16.6 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 4
Lec82HE4 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
Company, 1882. - Vol. 4 : 8 : p. 575. - 18.6 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 5
Lec87HE5 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
Company, 1887. - Vol. 5 : 8 : p. 623. - 17.2 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 6
Lec87HE6 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
Company, 1887. - Vol. 6 : 8 : p. 630. - 17.8 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 7
Lec90HE7 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
Company, 1890. - Vol. 7 : 8 : p. 493. - 14.6 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 8
Lec90HE8 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
Company, 1890. - Vol. 8 : 8 : p. 673. - 20.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
Les Freres Trois Points
Tax85 / auth. Taxil Leo. - Paris : Letouzey et Ane, 1885. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 430. - French - 19.4 MB.
Masonic Sketches and Reprints
Hug71 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : George Kenning, 1871. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 158. - 4.2 MB.
Men and Manners in the 18th
Hal98 / auth. Hale Susan. - Meadville : Flood and Vincent, 1898. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 329. - 13.8 MB.
The Life of Fraincois de Salignac
de la Motte Fenelon
Ram23 / auth. Ramsay Chevalier Andrew M. - London : Paul Vaillant,
1723. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 342. - 12.0 MB.
The Lodge of Edinburgh
Lyo73 / auth. Lyon David M. - Edinburgh : Blackwood and Sons, 1873. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 480. - 17.4 MB.