Masonic Research Society
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Shadow of the Vatican
Dr. Leo Cadius
of articles is written by a member of the Roman Church.
still a member of that Church end has no desire to leave it.
do not touch on any matter of faith or doctrine, and while severely
the administration are in no sense an attack upon the church itself.
in writing them is the hope that the abuses he describes and the
foster them may be removed.
in publishing them is to give our readers an intimate inside picture of
working of the ecclesiastical machinery which may help them to judge to
the doubts and apprehensions that exist in the minds of many American
are well founded.
the author's opinion that the reforms he proposes would not only be to
of Roman Catholics but would largely remove the suspicions of so many
non-Romanist American citizens.
to say, only a non-Catholic Congressman could introduce the above
‒ let us call it the anti-autocracy bill ‒ into the House: namely, that
government request the Vatican to re-organize the hierarchy in
conformance to the
demands of modern democracy and international justice and to retract
tenets as are obnoxious to the freedom of conscience. A Catholic
this bill would be promptly advised by the Vatican to withdraw it,
of excommunication. He could, however, help the good cause by endorsing
He would have to act at once, though, before the pope had time to
excommunication any Catholic supporting this measure.
American Masons who fraternize with the Knights of Columbus, approached
chapters of the Knights in this matter, they would most probably meet
with a sympathetic
reception. It would be the mission of the Knights to explain to the
secretly of course, that the measure was not intended against the
Church, but was
an act friendly to the Catholics. Its object is to free them from the
yoke of the
absolutistic Italian Oligarchy. Present conditions will inevitably lead
to a clash,
disastrous to the Catholics and hurtful to the nation. Why not tackle
now in an amicable, open above-board manner?
and the state legislatures take the initiative and set the stone
rolling. Let the
question be afterwards submitted to the voters in a practicable and
vox Dei! "The voice of the people is the voice of God!" It was at one
time an honored maxim in the Catholic Church. But that was long, long
of American citizens who accept titles of nobility from European rulers
been the butt of unfavorable criticism in the daily press. The
enactment and enforcement
of a law prohibiting the acceptance of such titles under penalty of
American citizenship would no doubt prove popular. Such a law should
His Eminence the Cardinal. The cardinalate is not strictly a clerical
have held it in days past, frequently in exchange of political or
A cardinal belongs to the nobility. At European courts, he is assigned
of a prince. The titles of Papal Count, Knight of St. Gregory and
in the papal court also might be proscribed as incompatible with the
about the Monsignore? The American priests will laugh at this question.
is harmless. He is a priest who is permitted to wear some of the
insignia of a bishop;
particularly a purple gown. But he has no episcopal powers. He is in
the same relation
to a bishop as "near- beer" is to beer. He looks like a bishop, talks
like a bishop, walks like a bishop, but he lacks the authority and
power of a bishop.
The "kick" is missing. "It is exclusively a matter of millinery,"
to quote the late Archbishop Feehan of Chicago, who refused his clergy
to accept the honor. Formerly it was awarded in recognition of merit.
Of late it
has been distributed so promiscuously as to become the laughing stock
of the rest
of the clergy.
clergy all over the world is getting tired of this ecclesiastical
the Vatican needs the not inconsiderable fees for issuing the
since the Peter's Pence from impoverished Europe has dwindled down to
next to nothing.
Thus a flood of purple millinery has been released on money flushed
is one of the "horrors" of the world war. The country will survive it.
enacted a law proscribing, under penalty of the loss of American
titles of foreign nobility and near-nobility, including the
cardinalate, papal throne
assistant, prothonotary apostolic, the plain monsignore, papal count
and all papal
knighthoods, 95 per cent of the American Catholic clergy would applaud.
do the applauding with mitten-covered hands, though, to muffle the
sound, lest the
Italian taskmasters and their American overseers should hear it.
to say, the ancient and strictly ecclesiastical titles, such as
dean, and the academic degrees should not be affected by such a law.
religious orders, monks and nuns, have to their credit splendid
the dissemination of science and education, sound Christian morality
and civic virtues.
In addition, their good and holy lives, lives of continuous
self-sacrifice and unremitting
devotion to the highest Christian ideals, are in themselves an
inspiration and a
source of edification.
if the American Government should ever find it necessary, for the
American ideals, to go on the warpath against the selfish Italian
may have to consider the advisability of closing all the educational
conducted by these orders. The monks exercise a great influence at the
A timely intimation to them that their schools are imperiled will
induce them to
use pressure on the autocracy. The Jesuits alone own in the United
States over forty
universities and colleges. Some of them can boast of a ve to use
pressure on the
autocracy. The Jesuits alone own in the United States over forty
colleges. Some of them can boast of a very large attendance. For
University in New York has an enrollment of over 6,000 students;
in Milwaukee, 5,000 students. These religious orders would leave no
to save their institutions.
seem, also, to be high time that the legislatures of the American
themselves with the corporations sole of the Holy Roman Church. The
ought to be afforded an opportunity of learning something about the
their church funds.
ought to be abolished. They might be converted into Directorates of
Five, or Boards
of Five Trustees, to consist of the bishop, his vicar general and three
These three lay members could be appointed by a Diocesan Finance
Committee of Fifteen,
seven priests and eight laymen, elected by the diocesan clergy and
laity in secret
ballot. To this Committee of Fifteen the Directorate of Five could be
If a diocese should refuse, by order of the Vatican, to comply with
such a state
law, the State should assume temporary control of the diocesan
finances. There is
an immediate need of a campaign of education to enlighten the American
the papal peril, but such a campaign should beware of two pitfalls.
should steer clear of all anti-Catholic bias. Barring a few
idiosyncrasies, there is nothing wrong with the Catholic religion. Nor
agitation attack the institution of the papacy. It is an essential part
of the Catholic
directed against the usurping Italian Autocracy, such a campaign should
from any aspersion on the Italian race. The latter is in no way
the selfishness of the Autocracy which is even at this very day
opposing the unity
of the Italian people. Every cardinal, when receiving the red hat,
oath to uphold the papal claim to secular power. The secular power
means the disruption
against the Italian Oligarchy ought to be made international. The
should be the temporary establishment of national churches. These
should unite then
into a world church, elect a pope, a Bishop of Rome, who would
up his residence in one of the smaller countries of Europe, such as
or Belgium; or, if parts of Italy joined in the secession, in some
That would give the Roman hotel-keepers and merchants something to
I am fully
aware that I am advocating a schism in the Church. We are living in the
a world upheaval. National self-determination is in the air. Poland,
Lithuania, Latvia and other nations, oppressed for centuries, have
As the reader
may remember, Italy, the pope's own country, entered the world war
its national aspirations. This was the very expression, and the only
used. His Holiness, Pope Pius XI, then known as Monsignore Achille
Ratti, is said
to have been one of the most ardent of patriots. What is sauce for the
to be sauce for the gander. Other people have also national
aspirations. They clamor
for no territorial aggrandizement, as did the Italian government in
1915, but they
have a right to demand a just share and representation in the
government of the
Catholic World Church.
should be submitted to the Holy Father in the form of a petition. If he
to ignore it, the Catholics should emphasize it by withholding the
will, no doubt, shock the pious ears of ultra-Roman American Catholics.
will consult the pages of church history, they will find that more than
faithful had to exercise pressure on the ecclesiastical authorities in
of religion. The conclave of Viterbo, 1268-1271, furnishes an
fifteen cardinals who convened upon the death of Clement IV, were
divided into two
camps, a French and an Italian. The conclave had lasted already over
two years and
still there was no agreement in sight. The people of Viterbo lost
induced the local authorities to shut the cardinals up in the episcopal
The captain of the city, Ranieri Gatti, uncovered the roof of the
palace to see,
if by chance, the inclemency of the weather would hasten the warring
reach a decision. This drastic measure had the desired effect. Theobald
Archdeacon of Liege (he was not a cardinal, not even a priest) was
elected to the
papal chair. He took the name of Gregory X. The conclave had lasted
over two years
and nine months. To prevent the recurrence of so scandalous a delay,
the new pope
promulgated a new constitution governing the papal elections. According
the cardinals were to be kept in close confinement during the conclave.
three days of balloting no decision had been reached, they were to be
one dish at dinner and supper for the next five days. Thereafter, the
menu was to
be reduced to bread, wine and water. This argumentum ad stomachum, or
the stomach, proved a great accelerator. For the next conclave, in
lasted only one day.
If the Catholics
throughout the world want to obtain their just share in the government
of the Church,
they will have to use coercion against the Italian Autocracy. If the
the Peter's Pence should not yield the desired results, there will be
but one alternative
left: rebellion against the papacy. The responsibility for such a step,
a split in the Church, would rest on the selfish Autocracy.
world wants today is peace. What the world is doing today is preparing
more destructive war. Into the recent war the world was plunged by
the coming war, it is going with the eyes wide open. Sane statesmen,
Lloyd George and William Howard Taft, and other thinking observers
unanimous that only a moral regeneration of the human race based on
avert a world catastrophe. Justice, social, economic and international
is the foremost need of the day. The pope is recognized as the greatest
moral force today. How can a world peace founded on justice be
expected, with Social
and International Injustice sitting in the very chair of St. Peter?
of the Roman Catholic hierarchy on principles of justice and fair play
is the key
to world peace. It is the most important problem before the world. It
Privilege that is still occupying the Chair of St. Peter, has no desire
It has to be dislodged by force. The Catholics will have to rise in
will have to renounce allegiance to the Italian Autocracy and elect a
new pope in
a fair international election.
is no doubt most offensive to pious Catholic ears. But, as a French
it, you cannot make an omelette without breaking the egg. You cannot
peace without a just pope, and you cannot seat a just pope without
difficulty could be easily solved, if the pope of his own accord
government of the Church along the principles of international justice
and of democracy
‒ democracy, as far as the original constitution of the Church permits.
a degree sufficient to satisfy the spirit of our times. Mentally
enslaved as our
modern Catholics are ‒ there prevailed quite a different spirit in the
Dante is an illustration ‒ they are too timid to even petition the Holy
such a reorganization. As long as they are willing to submit to his
he will not think of making free citizens out of them.
can only come from the non-Catholics. Our Protestant brethren could
offer up public
prayers that God in His infinite mercy may infuse into the mind of the
pope a sense
of international justice, a gift so urgently needed in the interest of
Mentally emancipated Catholics ‒ there are a few of them ‒ may utter
for the same
purpose private prayers in the secrecy of the innermost recesses of
is still a free enough man and a big enough man to safeguard his ideals
freedom of conscience and national self-respect.
He is still
a free enough man for that. He will not be in a generation or two
he builds his protecting wall now.
Let us assume
now that a movement should be launched to emancipate the American
the yoke of Italian Autocracy in the Vatican. It would gain in
momentum, if a similar
movement was started also in other countries. In Czecho-Slovakia the
ground is well
prepared for it. Immediately after the world war a large organization
priests was formed that aspired to a certain amount of
self-determination. It has
been checked temporarily, but it is far from being crushed.
the nationalistic tendency known as Gallicanism has never been fully
It needs but a spark to flare up again.
it is in Germany where the most important battles would be fought. Of
all the Catholics
in the world, the Germans are intellectually the most emancipated or,
if you prefer,
the least enthralled. That they are enthralled to some extent by the
must be admitted. All Catholics are, everywhere.
aroused to united action by the Bismarokian persecution misnamed the
has, roughly speaking, held its own amid the incessant and
from rationalism, Protestantism, kaiserism and most of all from
socialism. It has
succeeded in keeping about ninety per cent of its adherents loyally
the Church. It has won for itself an honored position in the German
It has acquired valuable experience in social welfare work and in the
of socio-economic justice; so much so, as to prompt Doctor Stoecker,
court preacher, to exclaim: "The Catholic Church has solved the social
splendidly." He meant the Catholic Church in Germany. For in the Latin
she has been, until very recently, conspicuously inert.
from what point of view it is regarded, German Catholicism stands forth
as a practical,
complete, eminently successful philosophy of life. After the
of November, 1918, it was the one solid rock that saved the Empire from
utter ruin. German Protestants have gratefully acknowledged this.
If the German
Catholics can be induced to take up the cudgels against papal
absolutism, it will
mean the death knell of the Italian Autocracy. For by their
achievements they have
secured for themselves a certain prestige among their co-religionists
over that has not been entirely obscured even by the blind hatred of
the world war.
They have not only the intellectual equipment for the task ‒ as for
have many Catholics in other countries ‒ but I believe a certain
In the United
States, the entire daily press and nearly all the large reviews,
magazines and other
periodicals show the most profound respect for the power of Zambo. They
print a word that would displease him.
On the European
continent, particularly in Germany, the vastly larger and more
of the press has been more or less outspokenly anti-Vatican all along.
Catholic who advocates the overthrow of Zambo's throne has to consider
if he can find a little Protestant weekly or a socialistic publication
publish his article. In Europe, with the possible exception of Great
will have the pick of the large publications at his disposal.
greater section of the German press may have been anti-Vatican chiefly
prejudice, it cannot be denied that the Vatican has been guilty of
that irritated even leading German Catholics of the strictest and most
is furnished by the septennate question. In 1887, Bismarck introduced
into the Reichstag
a program of military appropriations to be extended over a period of
(septennate). The Catholic or Centre party which held the balance of
it. The crafty chancellor asked Pope Leo XIII to use his influence with
Centrists. The Pope complied with his request. In consequence, the
were approved, despite the protests of the great Centrist leader,
who opposed the Pope's policy. Windthorst, in his despair, is said to
himself in the following strain: "There we are! we German Catholics
repudiated the accusation that we are being dictated to by the Vatican!
the Pope meddles in a purely internal affair of the empire that has
nothing to do
with religious interests! He wants to prove that our adversaries are
we are Ultramontanes! Is he out to destroy the Centre party?"
was one of the uncomplimentary epithets applied to the German
they were believed to receive their political instructions from across
that is from the Vatican. The Centrists always indignantly denied this
declaring with Daniel O'Connell, the great Irish patriot: "We take our
from Rome, but not our politics."
English publicist, W.T. Stead, based on this one case of papal
interference in German
affairs the rather extravagant claim that whenever the Kaiser wanted an
army, he had to obtain first the Pope's permission.
To this same
Pope Leo XIII, who’s wonderful diplomatic acumen was so highly extolled
by the Catholic
press, is ascribed the remark: "As the Italian race once ruled the
the military might of ancient Rome, so it now rules the world through
Church." He may have been falsely quoted, but he might just as well
that remark. His actions bore it out and approved Catholic theologians
Roman Pontiff a divine right to world rule.
Catholics made a somewhat spectacular change of front at the end of the
Let me quote from a well-written article by Doctor von Boetzlaer in Der
Catholic monthly published in Frankfort-on-Main. In No. 9, vol. XIV
(1921), of Der
Fels Doctor Boetzlaer reproduced the following climax from a speech
the Jesuit Cohauss at the National Convention of the German Catholics
Authority possesses something
enchanting. Where authority appears adorned with purple and crown, a
pervades the multitude; all noise is muffled; reverentially everybody
The faithful Christian beholds in the legitimate Kings something of the
he recognizes the Anointed of the Lord. And because he fears the
Majesty of God,
he also pays to God's representatives on earth the tribute of
Where the fear of God reigns, there also the Kings reign; there they
dignity through the masses of the people. And because we Catholics hold
faith in God, for that reason we are also loyal to our Kaiser. They
us as second class patriots. When the opportunity will arrive when the
totter, it will be seen that we Catholics are not second class, but
patriots. We stand loyally by our Imperial House, because we stand
loyally by the
House of God.
effervescence of the good Jesuit was received with an explosion of
It will be remembered that in 1912 the Jesuits were still exiles from
by order of the Kaiser's government. They were forbidden to establish
houses, to teach, to do parish work. They were tolerated as individual
but subject to expulsion at any moment.
Boetzlaer then recalls the joint pastoral letter of the Catholic
Bishops of Germany,
dated Nov. 1, 1917:
True to its past, the Catholic
people will discountenance
any attack on our reigning houses and our monarchic constitution. We
be ready to defend the altars and the thrones against external and
against the revolutionary powers that want to erect a visionary future
the ruins of the existing order; against those secret societies that
the destruction of altar and throne.
On June 30,
1918, the leaders of the Centre (Catholic) party issued a manifesto
"We believe in a strong
when the Kaiser was still in power. Less than five months later, in
after the flight of the Kaiser, when the Monarchy was abolished and the
proclaimed, Herr Spahn, the leader of the Centre party, endorsed the
constitution with the following declaration:
According to Kant, the Republic
is the best form
of Government. The German Empire is a Republic in which the sovereignty
in the German people. Our political conditions are the result of
The past and the present have been severed by the revolution. But the
has remained undivided. As pillar of our constitution has remained
of the sovereignty of the people.
a rather sudden transition from the "divine splendor of the throne" and
"the strong monarchy" to the adoption of the French atheist Rousseau's
principle of the sovereignty of the people.
American co-religionists, the German Catholics at their conventions and
never fail to assert their "unswerving loyalty and fidelity to the Holy
The American Catholics usually add a paean to the "Paternal heart of
Father that is ever afire with love and solicitude for his children."
last effulgence is not in vogue in Europe. It is an American specialty,
thrown in with the Peter's Pence.
A bill, similar
to the one suggested for our Congress, could be introduced into the
the effect that in the German elementary schools only such religion may
as conforms to national self-respect.
then will be debated whether the Catholic religion conforms to German
Over two- thirds of the members of the Reichstag are non-Catholics.
colleagues in the United States Congress, they entertain not the
of the Vatican. One reason for this lies in the entirely different
political parties in Germany.
Let us suppose
that the Reichstag passed a resolution suppressing the Catholic
in the elementary schools unless the Vatican revised the Constitution
of the Catholic
Church along the lines of international justice and national
would the German Catholics who form one-third of the population of the
Would they persevere in their "unwavering loyalty and fidelity to the
See" or would they qualify it to an "Unswerving loyalty in all things
that are just and reasonable?"
that they will choose the latter course. They will repeat the
performance of November,
1918. As they then suddenly discovered that the Kaiser was not the
will also at once discover ‒ what many of them have known all along ‒
that the selfish
scarlet-robed Italian clique in the Vatican is not the Roman Catholic
rather an incubus on the Church. They will petition the Holy Father to
the request of the German government. If he should snub their petition,
take steps towards the establishment of a temporary German Catholic
that would renounce its allegiance to the Pope until he condescends to
the principle of national self-respect and international justice.
If the government
of the United States in the interest of the American ideals of
democracy and national
self-respect forwarded a similar request to the Vatican the Zambo
no doubt raise a tremendous howl. But I am convinced that if the
firm, ninety-five per cent of the American Catholics, after having
their shock, would with a sincere heart endorse the action of the
its palpably just demand, even to the extent of forming temporarily an
National Church. The Zambo Brotherhood would submit with a Scowl, but
it would submit.
That breed is not made of the stuff that is willing to become a martyr
for any cause,
be it religion or country. It caters to the side that is in power.
could be repeated successfully throughout the world, leaving the
in the end isolated. It would probably not require an extraordinary
large sum of
money to launch such a movement.
Autocracy could advance against it no other theological reason than its
dogma, which it however regards as first and foremost: "Jesus Christ
a world church to serve as an instrument for the aspirations of the
to world rule, and as a productive milk cow for an absolutistic Italian
In a large
work entitled Daniel and the Revelation [Lib 1897] the Adventist, Uriah Smith,
on page 161, the papacy of having put fifty millions of Christian
as Waldenses, Albigenses, Protestants, etc., to death. The Catholic
smile at this "mild" exaggeration and, no doubt, the average
reader will also shake his head in wonderment at this strange
In his book,
Concerning the Stability and Progress of Dogma [Lib*], the Jesuit
of theology at the College of the Propaganda in Rome, while admitting
rulers have persecuted and slaughtered heretics, asserts: "There is no
in history of the exercise of the right of the sword by the Church
He means to say that no pope or papal commission has ever ordered the
of a heretic.
and Father Lepicier represent two extremes. The first turns mole hills
religious intolerance into mountains. The latter wants to whitewash the
Lepicier seems to have overlooked a long list of victims of papal
instance, the ex-Dominican Giordano Bruno, who in 1600 was sentenced to
heresy, by a papal tribunal and burned at the stake in Rome by papal
Nor can the Church be absolved from complicity in the execution of Jan
Hus and Girolamo
Savonarola. The latter, incidentally, was not a heretic, but merely an
reformer, or rather, a too daring and too persistent critic of the
abuses of the
papal court. The great historian, Dollinger, in his Prophesies and the
Spirit [Lib*], page 163, comments: On the 23rd of May (1498) he was
to the judgment of the Pope, as a heretic; according to the opinion of
(Dominican) and of his numerous disciples, as a witness to the truth.
was dedicated to him as a sainted martyr and persons who were
at Rome, such as Catharine Ricci and Philip Neri, have honored and
invoked him as
About a quarter
of a century ago the late Jesuit historian, Emil Michael, declared in a
at Innsbruck, Austria: "Scandals among us Catholics must not be
He merely emphasized anew a principle followed by other leading modern
historians, such as Ludwig von Pastor and Johannes Jansen, who in their
works laid bare, with perfect candor, the past errors and misdeeds in
fold. They have not injured the Catholic cause thereby. At any rate the
has seen fit to bestow special honors on them.
the Calvinists erected in Geneva, Switzerland, a monument to Michael
Spanish Unitarian, who was by reason of his religious convictions put
to death in
that same city by the order of John Calvin. In thus honoring the
they intended to expiate a crime perpetrated in a dark, bigoted age by
condemnation of a wrong committed in the name of their religion has no
our modern Calvinists in the esteem of their fellow Christians and of
people. It has strengthened the cause of religious tolerance. It means
a step closer
to Christian unity.
Let us hope
that someday the Vatican will consider it a good policy to follow the
of these Calvinists by rearing a monument in expiation of acts of
perpetrated by Catholics. It would decidedly tend to allay the
apprehension of future
acts of Catholic intolerance, it would promote good will among men, if
erected on the square of St. Peter in Rome a statue of St. John the
the Apostle of Love, with the inscription: "This monument has been
by the Catholic Church in memory of the unfortunate victims of Catholic
in the spring of 1926, the Rev. S. Parkes Cadman, President of the
of the Churches of Christ in America, was quoted by the daily press to
that: "Before Christian Unity can be attained, there will have to be
did not inform us as to what funerals the distinguished gentleman had
in view. He
might have appropriately mentioned Protestant Individualism and Papal
But while Protestant Individualism only hurts the Protestants
themselves by leading
to endless divisions, Papal Absolutism outrages the Catholic flock and
at the same
time menaces the freedom and religious peace of the world. The
government of the
Roman Catholic Church could stand a thorough overhauling in conformity
demands of international and social justice. This reorganization could
without violating a single dogma of the Catholic faith. There is not
prospect of the Vatican renouncing any of its usurped rights. The
that has now for over four centuries monopolized the government of the
no intention whatsoever of relaxing its throttling hold on the Church.
It has recently
stripped the American Catholics of the last vestige of a representative
government. It has only last year deprived the Irish clergy of the
right of nominating
their bishops. The Italian Autocracy is an insatiable glutton for
power. It is ever
tightening its strangling grasp on the Church. It will crush any
Catholic who dares
to protest against it.
the people of the United States, if they want to prevent their country
a papal satrapy, they will have to force their government to take
In conclusion we may adopt the warning of the Elder Cato, Ceterum
censeo omnem autocrattam
esse delendam, for the rest I hold that every despotism should be
Notes on Two Franklin Medals
Bro. J. Hugo
Tatsch, Associate Editor, Iowa
in American Craft history of Colonial times brought in their wake a
number of Franklin
references which bear upon his Masonic activities in France. Among the
several which warrant the title of this brief article.
as is well known, represented the struggling Colonists at the court of
left that country for America in September, 1785, after a sojourn of
eight and one-half
years. He fraternized abroad with his Masonic brethren to such an
extent that he
was elected Venerable Master of the Loge les Neuf Soeurs of Paris, May
and was re-elected for another year. R. W. Bro. Julius F. Sachsel is
the statement that "In the year 1782, Franklin served as Venerable
Master) of the Lodge," which may be correct as far as the word "served"
is concerned; yet I doubt it. The elected incumbent of the oriental
chair for 1781-1783
was the Marquis de La Salle, forty-six years of age when he took office
very evidently capable, physically and otherwise, of discharging the
duties of his
office. A list of officers for 1783,, which carries his name as
him the title of Lieutenant Colonel, commanding a battalion of the
garrison at Vermandois.
Franklin had, however, officiated as Senior Warden at a Lodge of
Sorrow, held Nov.
28, 1778, in honor of Voltaire, in whose initiation 2 he had assisted
April 7, 1778. Voltaire had died May 30, 1778.
depicted herewith was not described by Ernst Zacharias in his Numotheca
Latomorum, a work which appeared in 1840 as a series of eight
pamphlets; but it
is mentioned as No. 36 in Theodore Merzdorf's Die Denkmünzen der
[Lib*] (Oldenburg, Germany, 1851). The next reference to it that I have
to find is its inclusion as No. XII in a list of thirty-nine "Medals of
in an article by this title in Volume VII, "American Journal of
January, 1873, by W. S. Appleton. It is described as follows:
FRANKLIN; bust of Franklin, facing the left.] Rev.
LES MAC.’. FRANC.’. A FRANKLIN M DE LA L DES 9
SOEURS O.’. DE
PARIS 5778. 5829 PINGRET F.; the
masonic emblem of Jehovah in a triangle surrounded by rays, with a
in a circle, and around this a pair of compasses and a square, entwined
branches; above, are seven stars; at the left, a mallet, and at the
right, a trowel.
Bronze, size 26.
is also listed as No. LIX in William T. R. Marvin's The Medals of the
Described and Illustrated (Boston, 1880). The statement is made therein
Provincial Grand Lodge at Rostock, Germany, has a specimen of this
medal in lead;
also that "The obverse of this medal was muled with another reverse,
and published by Durand, 1819, in the 'Series Numismatica.' The die of
reverse cracked, and the Medal is rare." This medal is XI in Appleton's
of Franklin medals.
on to say:
abbreviation M, on this Medal, the Lodge is thought by some to have
the honor of having Franklin for its Master; but we know of no
authority for that
supposition, and it is more probable that the letter is an abbreviation
He was a member of a Lodge in Philadelphia, when he went abroad as
interested in pursuing the subject further will find a full statement
of what is
known in regard to it in the "American Quarterly Review of
Vol. 1, page 217.
As we have
seen, Franklin was Master in 1779 and 1780 of the Lodge of the Nine
Sisters of Paris,
as shown through various sources, but most conveniently through Louis
Une Loge Maçonnique d'Avant 1789: La R. L. Les Neuf Soeurs (Paris,
1897) [Lib 1897]. The account referred to by
in Albert G. Mackey's "American Quarterly Review," is an article by Rob
Morris entitled "Two Well-Known Masons," [Lib 1858] and treats of Washington and
It incidentally gives an interesting account of Voltaire's initiation.
let it be said for our brethren in Germany who may chance upon this
appeared in "Latomia" (Freimaurerische Vierteljahrschrift), Volume XVI,
Part I, page 20 (1859). Still further notes about the Franklin medal
are to be found
in "Latomia," Volume XXV, pages 281-2.
It is in
this last cited issue of "Latomia" that we find an interesting comment
upon the date "5829" which appears on the medal under discussion.
in his Catalog de livres manuscr. et imprim. sur la Fr. M. (Paris,
1856), page 22,
No. 367, gives the date as 1829, which when considering the cutter of
A. J. P. Pingret, who was born at Brussels in 1798, must be correct.
is that the medal is a reissue, otherwise, why would the Masonic date
upon the reverse of the medal? At least, such other restrikes of
medals are known to exist.
Band IV, of the Hamburgische Zirkel-Correspondenz (Hamburg, 1902) lists
as No. 470; it is from photogravure illustrations in this volume that
illustrations are taken. The notes call attention to Merzdorf's error
the date 1778 (5778) in the medal, and state that this refers to the
not to the issue of the medal. It should be said that the name of the
printed as "Firgret" in the Hamburg publication, is incorrect; it
read "Pingret," as given in a previous paragraph. A footnote to Vol. IV
states that the orthography is subject to probable corrections owing to
uncertainty based upon illegibility. The name has been verified by my
of the medal itself, of which the Iowa Masonic Library has a specimen,
with the Bower Collection in 1882. Bro. Bower paid $6.02 for it at the
sale of the
Marvin Collection in New York, June 21, 1881.
of the medal described also appeared on one described as No. XI in
previously cited. It is not Masonic, but is described as follows:
FRANKLIN; bust of Franklin, facing the left. Rev. NATUS AN. M.DCC.VI.
IN AMERICA FOEDERATA OBIIT AN. M.DCC.XC. SERIES NUMISMATICA UNIVERSALIS
ILLUSTRIUM M.DCCC.XIX. DURAND EDITIT. Bronze, size 26.
MEDAL OF 1783
this medal as follows:
Bust of Franklin, facing the left. (This medal is IV in Appleton's List
Medals. See Journal of Numismatics, Vol. VIL, p. 49.) Below in small letters,
BERNIER. Legend, BENJ. FRANKLIN MINIST, PLENT. DES ETATS UNIS DE
On a rocky hill a circular temple, within and near which are Nine Muses
the right, F. B. Legend, DE LEURS TRAVAUX NAITRA LEUR GLOIRE. [From their labor springs their
In exergue, DES NEUF SOEURS. Silver and bronze. Size 19. This Medal is
is in the Library of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia.
I have not
been able to find any illuminating references to this medal, but it is
that it was struck about the time of the treaty of peace between
England and the
Colonies, signed at Paris, Sept. 3, 1783. Franklin was one of the
signers. A medal
commemorating the signing of the treaty was sold at auction in New
York, Oct. 13,
1884, and from a reproduction of it in the Bangs' catalog of that date,
it is apparent
that Franklin is depicted thereon with three other men.
of the reverse of the Franklin medal issued by the Lodge of the Nine
appears on page 155 of the Amiable book cited. The obverse depicts
de Thy, Count de Milly, who succeeded La Salle as Master of the Lodge
in 1783. De
Milly died September, 1784.
Franklin as a Freemanson [Lib 1906],
Friedrich Sachse, Litt. D., Librarian of
the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1906, page 107).
2 The date of
Voltaire's initiation is erroneously given in many instances
as Feb. 7, 1778. This is due to a misinterpretation of the words
of the year 1778." The Masonic year, in this particular instance, began
first, not January first; consequently the second month was April of
computation. My authority for this is Amiable (op. cit. p. 64), who
says, in speaking
of a date: "The original should have said the second month, and not the
since the Masonic year begins March 1, conforming to a very ancient
Compasses; Singular or Plural?
Bro. R. J.
whether the mathematical instrument should be called "Compass" or
when referred to in the Masonic ritual, is one that rises sporadically
in the American
Craft; usually to be answered "yea" or "nay" by some severe
ritualist with all the finality of a pontiff speaking en cathedra. The
seems trivial to many of us, and it may be considered a waste of time
to discuss it. Yet when a triviality is thrust upon us by some
thus it is or is not, as the case may be even the most long suffering
may be stirred
up to rebel, and to refuse the burden of the yoke our own "doctors of
would fasten upon our necks.
it would appear, this question of whether an unaccented duplicate
should or should not be pronounced rests upon the widespread belief
that there is,
or was, or at least ought to be, an absolute authentic and correct
and unalterable in every word, period, semi-colon and comma. There
never been such a thing, and it is impossible to believe that there
ever will be.
In his article
in the January number of THE BUILDER, Bro. Pfrimmer exhaustively and
demonstrated that the general usage of the English speaking world at
of the Anglo-Saxon Masonic world in particular, is to say "Compasses."
But it is not at all likely that a mere counting of noses will convince
abide by "Compass." Nor can we condemn them for this. They may be, like
Athanasius contra mundum, in the right after all, and the majority
wrong. The question
cannot be wholly determined by popular vote. It has been said,
slightingly, of the
great Arian controversy in the early Church that it was merely a
question of a single
iota, the letter "i." It is true that the words homoousios and
are very like each other in form, and differ only by one letter, yet
there is a
very real difference in meaning, the difference between same and
identity and likeness. In our own hairsplitting contest however there
is no difference
of meaning, we are all in perfect agreement about the thing referred
to, the question
is purely grammatical. And the real question would seem to be is anyone
in the wrong?
Excepting, perhaps, those who insist that others are.
has given us the facts concerning present day usages. The Committee on
the Grand Lodge of Montana, to whose report on the question, Bro.
based their conclusion on a survey of the historical evidence. In this
writer agrees with the committee. The Masonic ritual contains many
and obsolete verbal forms, and we may well object to needless
emendations made with
the idea of "correcting" the ritual. The committee says:
In the final
analysis, this Grand Lodge is not called upon to consider the literary
the word. It is interested chiefly in Masonie usage. Our ritual teems
and expressions that have long since passed out of every day speech.
every brother who has any feeling at all for the antiquity of the
agree. It would be well if those authorities who have changed "heal"
"hail" and have invented some modern phrase or other to take the place
of the perfectly correct (if obsolete) phrase, "an oblong square," will
take good heed to this and govern themselves accordingly.
It must be
said to begin with, that an absolutely exhaustive examination of all
to the mathematical instrument the designation of which is in question
a task presenting very great difficulties, and no matter how much time
upon it there would still remain uncertainty whether every reference
had been noticed.
The following series of quotations is to be taken as representative
only, and not
as a complete list. The earliest reference of a Masonic character that
I have been
able to find is the well-known inscription at Melrose Abbey, which may
approximately about the end of the 15th century. There are a number of
versions of it current, due presumably to parts of it being defaced;
is perhaps the most correct:
Sa: gays: ye compas
evyn aboute truith
& laute do: but: doute
be halde: to:
ye: hende qo
may be modernized as
So goes the compass
Truth and loyalty
do but doubt
Behold to the end quoth John
enough the old MS. Constitutions have no references to any implements
but the "mould
square" and rule. The only exceptions so far as I can recall are the
MS., No. 4, mentioned below, and the Melrose MS., No. 2, of date 1674,
letting "loses" ("cowans" or "rough layers") know
.... ye privilege
of ye compass, Square, levell and ye plum rule.
In that group
of documents of uncertain origin and date, which contains catechisms,
or lists of
questions and answers, there are also some pertinent references. The
published in the Flying Post, 1723, tells us that a lodge is composed of
two Wardens, four Fellows, five Apprentices with Square, Compass and
of Freemasons of 1730 repeats the last part of this verbatim. The
MS. has the phrase.
the Square Compass and Common Judge.
Kilwinning MS. No. 4, of about 1730 1740, has three references. The
first part of
the MS. contains a version of the Old Charges and in the legendary
history it gives
the curious detail that Prince Edwin endowed the Fraternity.
… wt squares of go!d and
compasses of silver
tipt wt gold & perpedieular plums to be pure gold yr trowals of
silver wt all
yr other instruments conform
in this MS. are followed by a catechism and in this we are informed of
in the lodge which are
… ye square, the compas
& ye bible.
we learn that the master is known by his "habit" of clothing which is
… yellow and blew meaning the
compass we is brass
perhaps not directly relevant to the question, the curious sheet of
Institution of Wrightship which was discovered with the MS. catechism
Institution of Freemasons may be mentioned. The Wrights were a Scottish
and had a fraternal organization remarkably like that of the Masons.
all the crafts connected with building other than Masons. This MS. has
2. Practical or
Rule, Sqre, and
Sqre, Plumb and
In the records
of old Scottish lodges we find two entries of interest in the present
In the minutes of the Lodge of Dunblane of 1720 and later we are told
brothers were made fellows of the Craft and
… passed from the squair to the
seems to have been used fairly regularly for a few years and then
dropped. (1) The
other is from an inventory of the property of the Lodge of Peebles in
tow and compass (2)
We now come
to those printed works that purported to give the Masonic ritual of the
what value they have in this connection is doubtful, but for
completeness sake some
of them may be quoted. The earliest is Prichard's Masonry Dissected,
in 1730. The following are the references in point:
E. A. Q. 23 … the compass
extended to .
A. 38 Bible, compass and square.
A. 39 Bible to God, Compass to
the Master …
A. 71 In a yellow jacket and
blue pair of breeches.
N. B. The yellow jacket is the compasses, and the blue breeches the
M. M. A. 5 From the square to
In later editions of this work
a long list of
toasts was added among which appear the two following:
To all that live within Compass
May every brother learn to live
within the Compasses
and watch upon the square.
In 1753 the
Mason's Confession appeared in the Scots Magazine. This is a confused
the usages of operative Masons in Scotland in the first part of the
In describing the form of taking the oath the "confessor" says "he
is made to kneel," a posture that he had come to regard as popish,
and sinful, and that "the open compasses" were pointing to his breast.
There is one other reference which occurs in some questions and answers
What's a Mason's
A yellow cap and blue breeches
(meaning the compasses).
In 1760 appeared
The Three Distinct Knocks, an anonymous work purporting to give the
the "Ancients." In 1762 another work, called Jachin and Boaz [Lib 1797], was published which claimed
give the ritual of both the "Ancients" and "Moderns." Both these
works, as Masonry Dissected [Lib 1730] seem to have been very
they were reprinted again and again. Jachin and Boaz was really nothing
a reproduction of the catechisms in The Three Distinct Knocks, with a
of the ceremonies of the "Moderns" prefixed to it. In this there are
references to the instrument in question. The first is in a
the Regalia" that follows an "Advertisement." It is really an
of the frontispiece, an emblematic Masonic design. We find the
The compass and square, to
square our actions
The plumb level. compass and
plumb rule …
Then comes an account of the
arrangement of a
lodge and its officers
… to the Master's ribbon hangs
a rule and compass
… the other officers carry the
… the grand officers' aprons …
carry the rule
and compass, the emblems of the order, and finally that the Bible is
… with the compasses laid
thereon, and the points
of then covered with a … square.
A diagram is given representing
the lodge and
in thee explanation appears
B. Past-Master, with the sun
and compasses, and
a string o cords.
In the account of the ceremony
we are told, first
that upon a stool
… are placed the rule and
and then that the candidate
… a pair of compasses
to which we are told in a note that the "Ancients"
… used a
sword or spear, instead of a compass.
comes the Catechisms from The Three Distinct Knocks. In these are three
only, as follows:
E. A. Bible, Square and
Compass. ... the Compass
to keep us within bounds with a men
F. C. … supported by the points
of the compasses,
forming a square …
M. M. … both points of a pair
of compasses …
in an appended account of the installation of officers there is the
of their jewels:
The Master … has the rule and
compass, and square
hanging to a ribbon round his neck …
The Senior and Junior Deacons
have each … the
compass hanging round their necks.
The Past Master has the
compasses and sun, with
a line of cords about his neck.
works were all reprinted dozens of times. There were others of a
but as copies have not been at hand they may be allowed to pass, and we
can go on
to consider some books that have a real claim to authority. The first
Preston. We find, in his Illustrations of Masonry, the form compasses
one in the Installation Ceremony, where we are told that
… the Sacred Law, with the
square and compasses,
the constitutions, the minute book, the rule and line…
and the rest
of the working tools are "separately presented to him." The other two
references are each in an order for processions, one for laying a
the other for dedicating a lodge. In almost identical phrase we are
told of the
Bible, Square, and Compasses on
a crimson velvet
great antagonist Laurence Dermott chose the other form of the word. One
only has been discoverable, and that is in the clever skit on the
in Ahiman Rezon that he for some reason or other chose to call a
In this he says:
… some of the young brethren
made it appear that
a good knife and fork in the hands of a dexterous brother, over proper
would give greater satisfaction, and add more to the rotundity of the
the best scale and compass in Europe.
America we find that Thomas Smith Webb in his Freemason's Monitor
the same form as Dermott, Compass, while Jeremy Cross, Webb's pupil, in
Chart as consistently says Compasses.
one more work to be examined, and it is rather illuminating. This is
Key, a ritual in cipher published in 1802. In it we find the following
The figures refer to the number of the question and answer.
E. A. 95
… a pair of compasses extended …
96 Why were
the compasses extended … As the compasses were then . .
160 The bible
compass and square …
so is the compass and square when united…
the compasses to the Grand Master in particular
164 Why the
compasses to the Grand Master … The compasses being the chief
In the answer
to question 183 we find compasses twice, and in that to 217, the
compass, appears, as it also does in the M. M. 26. It is quite possible
are other references that have been overlooked, for it is exceedingly
easy to miss
them. But certainly enough have been adduced to show quite conclusively
had not the faintest idea that one form was right and the other wrong.
is the impression produced by the whole collection of references that
here given. The shorter or singular form of the word would seem to have
favorite, but from the time the Masonic Institution emerges into the
light of historical
record the plural form has also been used apparently quite
indifferently and with
no sense that it was incorrect.
be possible to let the case rest at this point, and claim Masonic
freedom to use
either form of the word at will by virtue of ancient and well-founded
But it may be possible by going a little further to reach a positive
in the matter. Bro. Pfrimmer consulted most of the standard
of course all say, what everyone knows, that it is correct to say
in ordinary speech. This does not, however, touch the position of those
that "Compass" is the correct Masonic usage. The editors of Webster's
Dictionary seem to have a sneaking wish to assert that common usage is
this case. This attitude is more than balanced by that of the New
whose editors consistently use the common plural form in every
reference they themselves
make to the mathematical instrument. Under the head of "Compass" there
are five long columns of close print in small type. The derivation of
the word is
first discussed. Its origin is not certain, but is supposed to be from
cum, with, and passes, a stride or step. The prefix however may be only
and not the preposition. The root meaning seems to be that of
measurement, and if
so, the instrument got its name from its use as a measuring appliance.
name for it, however, is not compassus, but circinus.
the different meanings of the word are taken in order under numbered
Thus I. Measure, proportion, regularity, etc. II. Artifice, skillful
III. Mathematical Instrument. Under this appear a long list of
beam-, calliper-, hair-, elliptic-compasses and the like. The
instrument is then
described, and it is said that with this designation the word is "now
in the plural." No preference is expressed for either form, though as
noted the editors consistently use the plural themselves.
follows a long list of quotations, the use of the singular form, then
of the plural
and last of the phrase "a pair of compasses." The earliest appearance
of the word is in a MS. of date 1340:
A tour faire
of yuory … craftely casten with a compas.
quotation given with the singular form is from Emerson's Essays:
Defined by compass and
quotation with the plural form is from Eden, 1555;
We took oure compases and began
to measure the
use of the compound phrase is singular in more than one sense, it is of
Have a payre of compasse
aptelye made for to
draw the circles.
Now the brethren
who argue this question seem generally to have forgotten that it is not
phenomenon in our language. There is no need to look for such reasons
as that suggested
in the Montana report that the plural form of compass came into use to
the instrument from the mariner's compass, when that became generally
known in Western
Europe, for there is a small but well defined group of words which are
or invariably, used in the plural, while the object denoted is
singular. These things
can all be preceded by the phrase "a pair of," such as pincers, tongs,
scissors, trousers, breeches, corsets and the like. Some of these words
old, others are of more recent origin. The older ones were originally
used in the
singular form, the modern importations, such as pantaloons and trousers
have taken the plural from the first, apparently to conform with the
is common to the things designated by this group of names, they consist
of two parts
identical or very similar in shape. An examination of the history of
some of these
terms may afford some further light on our own problem. It may be noted
"pair of" business is especially an idiom of the English language,
not entirely unknown in others. As for example in French, Ciseaux,
a plural form, of which the singular means a chisel. According to the
ciseaux may be preceded by une paire de, a pair of, though it is seldom
in actual use. But other words, which in English are plural, are always
in French, as pantalon, calecon, corset. Compas is also always
singular. Why the
English language should have come to dwell on the duality of such
objects is rather
mysterious, but the fact is patent, and its final development lay in
period between Middle and Tudor English though it began a good deal
have seen that the first appearance of the plural form "Compasses" was
in the sixteenth century. Let us now look at the history of some of the
of the same kind.
and in point of time, bellows is one of the first. It goes back to
times. In Old English it was Blaest-bel, which is to say "blastbag." In
the eleventh century it was belg or bylg the last letter not being our
exactly, for it changed into beli and bely. Chaucer about 1390 used it
in both singular
and plural. After 1400 it became belies and bellis, and in 1500 belwes,
Some people still say "a pair of bellows," and according to our usage
it is not inappropriate for the fireside appliance.
B's we find also breeches. This is another ancient Teutonic word, bred
Old English, in old Norse brok and braekr. In 1100 it is still brek,
breche in 1380, and Caxton as late as 1480 has breche. But breches
appeared as early
as 1205, and Wicklif also had the plural brechis, while in 1500 it had
a much older word than might have been supposed. It is still singular
in 1299, but
this perhaps is not so strange as it was equivalent to corslet. In 1387
has corsetts, Caxton has corsettys, although the singular form, corset,
to be used, like compass, right down to the present time. Now, owing to
of Paris on the nomenclature of feminine garments, it bids fair to
plural form altogether. Callipers need not be more than touched upon.
a distinguishing epithet for a special kind of compass, they have
become quite independent
in the speech of the men who use them. In 1588 we have calleper
compasses, in 1627
we are told that "Compasse callipers" are "like a paire of compasses."
The bow-compasses of the draughtsman may be spoken of shortly as
which is a parallel development, though it has not got beyond the
and is hardly an established usage.
words only will we consider, both interesting as having taken the
plural form very
early, and that the corresponding words are used in the plural in some
The first is the ill-omened gallows. In Old English it is galga and
and plural respectively. In middle English the plural form prevailed
and the singular
became unusual; in the thirteenth century it was galwes, Caxton has
and "a pair of gallows," the latter form of course referring to the two
upright posts. Coverdale, in 1535, goes back to the singular form,
gallow of fiftye cubites." Shakespeare has "gallowes," but Robertson
in 1693 again goes back to gallow. The German form of the word, der
Galgen, is plural,
the French gibet is however singular.
word is tongs. This in German is die Zange, a plural form, and in
French, les pinces,
or tenailles, both also plural. The Old English is tang. We have tong
in 725, tang
in 1000, tonge in 1250. Wicklif has toenge, but the Venerable Bede, as
as 800, has tangan, a plural form, and the Durham roles, contemporary
have j par de Tangs and later we have 1412, tangos; 1500, taingis;
and so late as 1816, tangs.
It will be
noticed that with the older words of this group the change in usage
to plural comes roughly between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries,
and some later. We cannot be certain that the records always give us
even the approximate
date of the change, but it is probable that they do so closer in
respect to the
words of everyday use as tongs and breeches for example, while on the
a specialized instrument like the compasses would be less frequently
It may be noticed also that "tongs" which appears to be perhaps the
to take the plural is also found to take the plural in other languages
at least in French and German. Words of this dual nature that were
the period of transition took the plural form from the first, of which
and its colloquial abbreviation pants, may be taken as an example.
nothing unusual in the use of two words, or two forms of a word, for
the same thing.
It is a phenomenon of all languages. At the same time there is usually
for the use of one form rather than another, though not at all
necessarily the same
reason in every case. It may be no more than euphony or economy of
effort, or it
may be to denote a distinction or contrast of meaning or for the sake
English is a strongly accented and highly rhythmical language. Those to
is their mother tongue seldom realize the fact unless they have given
to the subject, but it is so. We all alter the length of the vowels and
unstressed syllables according to the context in which words and
phrases are put.
We do it instinctively and unconsciously. When a foreigner, or a child
to read, is told the pronunciation of the common demonstrative "the,"
with a long vowel, and proceeds to use it thus in a sentence it sounds
All of our common words have many slightly different pronunciations
their place in the sentence, and this quite aside from the elisions,
and others merely slovenly, that are in constant use. For example, the
of our newspapers make out that the average American says "lotta"
of "lot of." There is no doubt "lotta" is easier to say; one
has only to try it to see. It is good usage to say I'll for I will;
don't for do
not, even shan't for shall not. But there are countless other incipient
that we all make on occasion that are never represented in spelling. It
an endless and hopeless task to try to do so. If now we go to the
earlier in which the compasses are mentioned in one or other form, it
will be found
at least by those with an ear for rhythm and accent that to use the
other form in
that place is often not so euphonious, would take a little more effort
to say or
would not run so smoothly. In some cases this is not apparent possibly
context might make a difference in these but there are some definite
enough to illustrate
the point. "Square and Compass," or "Bible, Compass and Square"
are smoother and easier than the plural. But not in "The Holy Bible,
and Compasses." Here the rhythm demands the last syllable. Browne's
were the compasses extended?" is smoother than the singular form would
though "The Compass extended" is better standing by itself. It all
on the rest of the context and where the stresses come.
Now the Masonic
ritual in America, in spite of the revising, improving and general
has undergone for a hundred years past at the hands of committees and
of the work, Grand Lecturers, and like authorities, is still in great
part an oral
tradition, or at least took its form as an oral tradition. And it is
oral transmission that this instinct for quantity and accent will have
Much of our ritual is of the nature of free verse, it has an
and rhythm. The newer portions, composed on paper, have not got this
rhythm at all,
and sound heavy and dull by comparison. The suggestion that finally
all this is that when we say "compass" (as most of us do on occasion)
we are not using the singular form of the word at all but an elided
that if we spelled it with accuracy we should write compass'.
may be thought of this suggestion, and it is nothing more, it does seem
are justified in drawing the conclusion that both forms of the word
have been used
by Masons for the last two hundred years and more, and that we may all
to use both according to our own feeling for euphony without shame or
fear, as in
all probability most of us have been doing without realizing it.
(1) History of
the Lodge of Edinburgh [Lib 1873],
(2) 0p. cit., page
A Mission in Syria
Bro. John W.
Missionary work has been going on out there in the land of the Bible
for over a
century and although the educative features have been working only for
years, it is only in recent years that big strides have taken place
along this line.
The pleasant and wholesome memories of service as a physician with the
the American Expeditionary Forces were still so fresh in mind that "the
to Syria was happily and wholeheartedly received. It seemed a grand and
opportunity to do more good in medical work, for a greater number of
to serve mankind has always found willing listeners those willing to
to act and sticklers for performing the same "for the good of the
For this reason there are many preachers, teachers, doctors and
free-givers of the
wherewithal (cash) in the service of Missionarying. It is correctly
"Missionary work is the most worthy of causes here on earth." However,
there are several types of Missionaries. Some are quite sincere; some
are only superficial;
whilst others are "gold diggers." The latter two classes cast discredit
upon any service.
few venturesome souls who have not at some time been called crazy,
other harsh words. When folks, friends and relatives (especially the
informed that we were "turning Missionaries" they objected with spoken
and written words of advice, scorn, and criticism few praised the
of those offering discouragement didn't even know where Syria was; some
it Assyria, others spoke of cannibals, heathens and pagans as native
Asia Minor; some even wrote letters of reference for us to carry to
and influential" friends at Moscow and Hong Kong, in case we got into
trouble. All of which goes to show that our education is too often
concerning the other fellow's country, also concerning his religion and
Missionaries were seen and studied from the time we stepped on board
the S. S. Bragga
until we stepped off the Madona a year later; for on the Bragga there
were old and
new workers en route to their respective stations in Syria, Palestine,
and Cypress. Missionaries were not exactly strangers to us, but we had
them in action on their own stamping ground; we had heard their talks
and read their
letters, concerning "the handicaps, drawbacks, need of clothes, food,
etc., etc.," to the home-folks. But here began opportunities to see to
bottom of things, to see below the superficial. The reader must already
that it is impossible for anyone to see Syria without seeing the
they are an important part of the population of that country.
And Syrian Americans
On the same
boat there were many Syrians (Moslems, Druz, Jews and Christians) going
either a visit, a wife, or on other business. One Syrian Durzi, who had
American property owner for twenty-five years, he owned practically the
town in which he lived, had made the trip back to Syria six times, for
and five children had never been to America. From the start our little
with all first-class passengers and some of the others playing games,
talking as most healthy sea-voyaging people do. The Missionaries stayed
on the upper
deck aloof, stiff, and reserved. This segregation of themselves was
just a repetition
of the old mistake of sectarianism and congregationalism.
Saturday night on the boat the Bulletin Board carried nothing referable
to the morrow;
this seemed odd, for there were three full-fledged Christian Protestant
ministers aboard. With the consent of the captain, who was delighted,
services at 9 a. m. in the dining room collection for the French
and orphans" was billed. A quartet was rounded up and one parson was
to "work." The church was crowded and the captain's and purser's caps
were filled with shekels. The ice was broken and the services on the
Sundays were well worth while.
Port Of Joppa
We saw the
Orient for the first time when the anchor was dropped, on a Saturday,
at Jaffa (Joppa),
the old Phoenician city which is now a part of Palestine, ruled by
There is no harbor there, so the Oriental boatmen came out to sea to
take off the
cargo. There was a wind and the sea was choppy. Their style of boat has
much since Jonah's accident with the whale in that same end of the
Sea. The boats were and oar and sail-propelled and manned for the most
part by Mohammedans.
The wind blew hard and threatened to blow off their scant clothing,
banded caps (fezes) and knee-length shirts; a few of the boatmen,
wore the baggy trousers, such as you see on our Shriners during
parades, only not
nearly so clean; all were barefooted. Some passengers amused themselves
coins into the sea and watching the boy divers recover them. English
in demand but a United States quarter of a dollar was discarded, after
and bitten, as being "counterfeit," fort it was explained, "The bank
would not pay on it." It was different with a silver dollar, it seems
well-known in Asia Minor.
to the baggy trousers, they don't quite reach to the ankle; the crotch
below the knees; the upper legs and girth have yards of material; a
pulls them together and holds them up when properly tied; a wide and
sash, for a belt, hides the knots, loose ends, wrinkles, etc.; then
there is an
immense pocket at each side of size sufficient to carry a big family
wash in. The
reason I know so much about these garments is because I borrowed a pair
from a servant
of the Yankee Consul to wear at a masquerade one night a few months
that party someone asked me the question "Doctor, why are the Moslem's
so large?" All my guesses did not come close, for the answer was,
is a belief that when Mohammed comes the second time he is to be born
of man, hence
men were taking off cargo that day a boxed-up touring car slid into the
sank; but on Sunday, the day following, naked divers with ropes and an
windlass reclaimed it from its watery grave, in plain sight of all. As
in union they shouted in tune, "Y Allah ! Y Allah !" ("Oh, God!"
so the Missionaries said, but the Syrians "It is the same as 'Heavho!'
sailing slowly, because we were not to arrive before daylight, up along
the lights from light-houses were plainly visible; especially was this
true of that
on Carmel; that historic mountain where Elijah, to the disgust of King
up his, and Baal's, false prophets. After Mount Carmel came Tyre and
Sidon and after
them Beirut, the capital of Syria. The morning was clear, and the lofty
Mountains, where Solomon got the cedars from King Hiram to build the
dominated the landscape. To the new-comers it was a never-to-be
that beautiful panorama was indescribable no one can blame Missionaries
life there. There were no docks or big-ship-wharfs there so the anchor
and boatmen came to the ship's "side stair," or ladder, and there took
off the passengers and their possessions.
newcomers is quite a jolly occasion everywhere; it seemed to be an
affair in Beirut that morning, judging by the number of representatives
mission fields, Near East Relief Organization, mercantile game and
were on hand to welcome those from "the home land."
bag and baggage, a little wet on account of being splashed by
The boatmen, like cab drivers, were out for "fares," and like taxi
they worked by "fare and foul" means. The boatman sent out for us
get us but another one did. The story came out later that he had
in" when the boatman who was to get us received our description. That's
example of how cute and industrious the native is he is not at all
dumb. When he
had landed us and got our luggage and group into cabs (arabias) and was
much?" his answer, then new to me but later I found quite
"Whatever you think, Effendi." The amount offered was less than half he
then demanded, stating that he had broken his back lifting and carrying
one of our
wardrobe trunks. Finally the matter was left to a third party, the
the A.U.B., who, by the way, was paying all expenses. He simply told
the man, "Here
is your fee." He took what he gave him, salaamed, thanked him profusely
departed. It was our first lesson in economics in Syria.
we slept under bed-mosquito netting, in one of the A.U.B. college
the first time in our lives; but gladly missed the rocking of the boat!
the netting mosquitoes and sand flies would literally have eaten us up.
As it was
our hands were badly bitten, because we were careless with them,
letting them lie
against the net so that all the insects had to do was to stick their
and take their fill they sure did like foreign blood by the way they
went to it!
And Home In
assigned us by the University was the twenty-four-room house in which
Dr. H. Graham
had lived and held his medical office for many years. The "tram"
just in front of the door, was called "Graham." The house faced the
blue Mediterranean Sea. It was difficult to keep our children seated at
during meal times for the dining room overlooked the street and the sea
and if they
weren't stretching their necks to see a camel-train go by on the street
O looky, there comes a French battleship!" Syria, since the World War,
like all the rest of its kind in Syria, was rung by a long wire or rope
hanging down alongside the door the bell jingle-jangling away off
somewhere in the
middle or back part of the house, and the door was opened from upstairs
by a rope
room of the house was sixty by twenty-five feet, which made a nice
place for the
children to play and their elders to dance in. Am not sure that it was
for the latter prior to our occupancy, but all of Madam's parties were
by the community. Some came, "only to look on," but they could not keep
their feet quiet when the music got under way.
We had arrived
in Beirut at the tail end of "the five dry summer months," during which
time not a drop of rain falls and at the time when insect life is most
especially fleas, moths and mosquitoes; the latter hatch out in the
(Berikehs) used for irrigation, in the damp soil, and the pools by the
attack night and day and all the year necessitating the mosquito
netting for beds:
our house "the Ark" for, she said, "it contained a pair of nearly
every creature that Noah took aboard his ship, viz., fleas, mice,
flies, moths, bugs, cockroaches (some two inches long; we caught them
in mouse traps!),
cats (not pets), scorpions, lizards, dogs, centipedes, spiders (as big
and other animals too numerous to mention."
morning she would not leave her bed until two ten-inch lizards had been
under her bed; and just when they had climbed well up on the wall where
be good insect catchers (no one should kill these friendly reptiles)
for "Help !" and was found standing guard, just in front of her chamber
door, over a six inch centipede, which became a total wreck after a
shoe was Stamped on it. We never put on our shoes thereafter without
their interiors for spiders or centipedes.
unpacking, buying additional furniture, employing and breaking in
were all problems mostly for the wife. And servants should be trained;
when she found the "Femme de chambre" using the dishrag to wash the
crockery, she made her stop it. When a U. S. lady first goes out there
ways are not to her liking, so she goes at things "lickety-split" to
them American-like; which is quite right, for if sanitation was 100 per
Syria there would be far less sickness with its complicants and end
problem is not any nearer solution in Syria than in any other land;
wages are not so much, the upkeep bill is; for one thing each servant
has many cousins
who visit and must be fed. Dicron, an Armenian lad, whose father (a
and mother were killed in Turkey, was Madam's house boy; he did all her
interpreting and errands.
was Armenian it was quite natural that all the other servants were
tried to have a Syrian table-maid, and did have one for two weeks, but
odds were against her so she resigned. But not until she taught us a
few of the
Arabic names for the table utensils and most of the foods. We enjoyed
many of the
native dishes but the cook's attempt at pie brought peals of laughter
from the whole
family and made for indigestion. The crust was almost an inch thick and
had one of the few "modern" bathrooms; few people had American tubs;
all baths were wash tubs. Ours consisted of a tub and a large copper
the ones in which our grandmothers used to make plum jam and apple
butter, set so
that half was in the bathroom and the other half in the kitchen. One
the cook made a fire under said kettle, heating the water to desired
through a faucet, it was run into the bath tub. The maid and cook
washed our two
lads the first Saturday their mother not knowing anything about it
but never again! Those young men had "Never suffered such indecencies
stranger giving us baths," and "If we got to stand for such stuff we
was the fuel for cooking and is toted from door to door by the charcoal
on his little ass, or wee donkey, some of them not much larger than a
servants was the laundress, the cook's mother, who came on Mondays and
on Tuesdays maybe. She sat on the floor of the wash house with a high
three feet across by ten inches deep in front of her. The water was
heated in another
big kettle over a wood fire, the clothes were wrung by hand. The
natives did most
of their own washings in the sea, also their bathing. After our
wash-lady had finished,
she heated up the bath tub water and "cleaned up." The native irons for
ironing clothes have a lid which can be lifted and the hollow part
filled with red
hot charcoal, which will retain heat for hours. They preferred these to
irons which Madam took to Syria.
Fauna Of The
To the rear
of the house was a big garden in which there were beautiful flowers and
fruit. There was also a spacious yard for hanging out the wash, and for
baseball games, also a chicken-run at the back. Chickens recall the
fact that Madam
and her servants did not do well with them. When visiting the Druz they
a dozen hens and roosters Dicron brought her some more, and she went
into the business
as they do in Southern California and was just as fortunate. She got
but was out money and chickens. Possibly it was the "pip" that carried
them off, if that's the disease that "takes them during the night and
no dead chickens behind."
As to other
live stock, the two rabbits died. They were gifts from the cook's
brother, a junior
medical student wanting, quite naturally, to get on the good side of
The mother rabbit died in child-birth, the father presumably from a
Jeanne's dog "passed on" one night in spasms due to too much strychnine
in his meat diet. It came in over the garden wall he was a noisy pup at
cat enveloped Grandma's canary, a gift from my Arabic tutor.
bugs, however, thrived well. They seemed to prefer foreign (Frangi)
than the home brew; and whoever says bugs don't have individuality
what he is talking about, for in the matter of appetite fleas and
bedbugs rush madly
from me to my wife and literally chew her up, whilst flies and
care much for her, but dearly love me; and she can pet spiders, while a
of one looks real enough to me; and if one toddles across the floor I
from chair to table without being conscious of how I got there.
electricity only part of the time, so candles had to be kept on hand.
(trams) and automobiles were becoming numerous, but the streets were so
one could not break the speed limit without "breaking a leg" or
The ill smells,
the dirt and filth in the cities and villages, which shock the
newcomer, are not
noticed by the one who has become oriented. In America my wife could
never eat butter
that was not fresh, but eight months after she was in Syria she smacked
after taking a bite of butter that was so strong it could have thrown
Lewis. Today, looking back, she says, "I sort of miss the Syrian
of North Syria just wrote, "There have been changes here in the past
years but the young ones don't see them, and it is impossible to make
so we must go slow and gradually then we forget to keep going."
of life are soon forgotten and only the pleasant memories stick; so it
was in no
time at all that we were relishing goat and garlic scented
with some of the American kind mixed in; sleeping scratchfully with
ideas and other
night biters; and talking Arabic with plenty of American accent. As
Syria is mandated
by France everyone tries to speak French, but Arabic is the language of
It should be remembered that the teaching, in all departments, in the
of Beirut is in English.
A tutor was
furnished who taught me Arabic from six to seven p. m. each day, with
that in four months I could conduct a medical consultation and write
in Arabic. Necessity forces one to do many things and it is the first
in learning a language. Arabic is certainly different from any language
I ever attempted.
It is full of strange gutturals, has a novel syntax and there is a big
between the written language and the speech of ordinary conversation,
being the "Common," the former the "High Arabic." One should
speak the language of the country in which he expects to live or carry
speak Arabic really well. As stated, it is important to be well
the native language, for example, the Arabic words for dog and heart
alike to the foreigner. An American Missionary praying in Arabic,
before a group
made up for the most part of Moslems, prayed that "God would turn the
(he meant hearts) of these folk to God." Dog is a favorite term of the
for the "unbeliever."
It is said,
"Exactness is not in the Syrian vocabulary." One evening while making
hospital ward rounds with Adjunct Professor Yennikomshion he promised
the fluid from a man's chest "before the students the next morning."
my chagrin when the next day I found that he had withdrawn the fluid
the students had arrived." He had been speaking English for twelve
interpreted the remark to mean "before their arrival," instead of to
in front of the students."
are worse than the Irish with the use of blarney. Several tried to "kid
into believing that I spoke Arabic very well after I had been there but
which gives one an idea how easily one may be misled if he is willing!
is kind and politie some are to be admired; others well, it is the same
first week there were quite a number of social functions for the "new
which taxed one's memory for faces and names, especially the latter.
there were Faiz Abd-ul Malak and Yakub Abd-ul Masih, the first two
names on the
senior class roll in medicine. The fact that the first name meant
the King" and the other "Slave of Christ" helped to differentiate
a little, but it took usage to get correctness.
festivities were taken on by Madam, the one naturally best fitted to
She said, "You will need every ounce of steam to put over your work,"
and I did. During the first week she had over one hundred callers; and
more jealous about visiting and returning calls over there in that
than on a United States Army Post. For a long time she was in disgrace
had failed to make a "call" on a certain lady upon her (the lady's)
receiving day. Madam had called on another day but that did not count.
first week there the Missionaries of Beirut were returning to the city
summer mountain (Lebanon) homes, fifteen to twenty miles distant.
During the summer
this is the practice, the college is closed so there are no duties for
Many enjoy a jaunt to and through Europe. The hospital is closed down,
all but one
pavilion, which liberates four-fifths of the nurses and doctors to
however, takes no vacation.
The Tuberculosis Campaign
Presented to the Grand Lodge of New Mexico
of the National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association, I submit
account of our stewardship together with some observations upon the
and the present status of Masonic tubercular relief and the efforts to
national Masonic organization for the relief of Masonic brethren and
their families who are afflicted with tuberculosis.
is one of the few states of the West and Southwest upon which is
imposed a great
and increasing burden incident to the relief and care of tuberculars,
who come from
every part of the United States seeking climatic advantages.
than a generation, and in fact for over one hundred years, consumptives
migrating to the Southwest, seeking alleviation of their suffering and
lease on life. Because of this migration there has developed one of the
and most tragic problems of relief, calling for united and concerted
to that which was carried out for the relief of war sufferers in Europe
of America joined in contributing for the relief of the homeless, sick
the magnitude of the problem of relief for tuberculars sojourning in
Although the subject has been investigated by the United States Public
and the National Tuberculosis Association, and the results of the
by the Federal Government as "Public Health Reports," nothing has been
accomplished, and no concerted plan has been adopted for the relief of
In 1913 and
1914 the first survey of the Southwest was made by the Public Health
the result of an incomplete survey of the situation by the
on Tuberculosis." It was estimated that there were probably 30,000
in West Texas, 27,000 in New Mexico, and 20,000 in Southern California.
was made for Arizona and Colorado. Shortly before this, the National
Association officially stated:
It is probable
that not less than 10 per cent of the people in this territory have
themselves, or have come to the West because some member of their
family has had
population of the "Tuberculosis Triangle" is estimated to be three
people, and if the aforesaid percentage applies today it enables us to
the Southwest is called upon to solve a tremendous problem in the care
who are indigent.
Health Service Survey also revealed that migration was apparently
the time of the survey.
In 1920 the
National Tuberculosis Association sent investigator to six cities of
Colorado Springs, Phoenix, Los Angeles, El Paso and San Antonio. In
these six cities
it was found that within a period of one year some assistance had been
some charitable agency, to 7,319 tubercular indigents. With those sick
9,315 others, members of their families, who were also objects of
a total of indigent, or partial indigents, of 16,734, supported wholly
or in part
by public charity. Included in the group there were 5,347, under
sixteen years of
age, living under conditions most conductive to infection because of
years, when danger of infection is greatest. That this danger is real
is shown by
the fact that one-tenth of the sick were children under four years of
In 1920 there
were 1,635 tubercular recipients of aid in the city of Denver, one to
inhabitants. A total of $129,000.00 was expended for relief, equivalent
to a per
capita tax of over fifty cents on each inhabitant of the city.
In that year,
in Colorado Springs, there was one indigent tubercular to every 78 of
and the cost for their care represented a per capita tax of $1.00.
were similar in the other cities mentioned, with Phoenix bearing the
having one indigent to every 58 of the population, and spending $1.75
for their care.
other part of the country bears a similar burden for the care of sick
who are non-residents,
nontaxpayers and who have not previously contributed to the upbuilding
of the community
which now cares for them.
Is it fair
or just to the communities of the Southwest to impose this burden upon
aid from other states, or the Federal Government?
In 1925 the
same investigator was again sent by the National Tuberculosis
Association to several
of the cities mentioned, to check up the findings of the 1920 survey.
of the second study revealed that migration had increased during the
four or five
intervening years. In the 1920 report, the following statement appears:
None of these cities has
anything like adequate
provision ‒ medical, relief or institutional ‒ for caring for the
whether resident or non-resident. From what can be learned from the
records it would
seem that there is no attempt at a coordinated policy or program of
of the tuberculous anywhere.
In 1925 the
investigator said, "After four years, that statement is still true."
Aspect Of The Situation
At the 1926
Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico there was adopted
to the by-laws providing for the creation of a standing "Committee on
Boards of Relief" charged with the duty, among other things, of
with the Masonic Relief Association, and with other similar
associations, with a
view to evolving the best methods for dispensing Masonic relief.
of Masonic Tubercular Relief, upon a broad national scale, has been
study by the New Mexico Grand Lodge for a number of years.
It was first
considered by the Grand Lodge of Texas, at the December, 1921, Annual
when a committee of three was appointed to study the subject, in
suggested, similar committees to be appointed by the Grand Lodges of
and Arizona, with a view to evolving a comprehensive program, upon a
for the relief and hospitalization of Masons and members of their
At the February,
1922, Communications of the Grand Lodges of Arizona and New Mexico such
were appointed, and the three committees thus named organized as the
Sanatoria Commission" of the three Grand Lodges.
with recommendations, was submitted to the three Grand Lodges involved
next Annual Communications in 1922 and 1923. The basis of the report
was an estimate
made by the National Tuberculosis Association, that at that time, with
Masonic population of 2,500,000, there were probably 4,700 deaths from
annually, and approximately 42,300 living cases.
In 1926 it
was estimated by the same Association that any group of 3,250,000
over twenty years of age, will sustain an approximate annual loss of
from tuberculosis, and the approved ratio of nine living cases, for
shows approximately 38,681 living cases among adult males alone. There
3,250,000 Masons in the United States. Applying the multiple of 5
indicates a total
Masonic population, or family, of over 16,000,000 persons.
Grand Lodge Committee was discontinued after the 1924 meeting. Another
appointed at the 1926 Annual Communication submitted a report in
recommending that Texas take care of its own in existing hospitals, and
homes. Twenty-five cents per capita was levied, to provide a fund for
San Antonio, El Paso and some of the other communities of the state
have many sojourning
sick Masons from other states, Texas has no plan for aiding them.
a Convalescent Camp at Oracle, about forty miles from the railroad,
where it has
cared for a very limited number of ambulatory cases, but does not
always have a
resident physician or nurse. The Grand Lodge of Arizona deserves great
doing its utmost to care for both its own afflicted members and for
impressed with the solemn obligation devolving upon American Freemasons
organized relief for its tuberculars, and realizing the imperative
action, in 1925 the New Mexico Grand Lodge took the initiative, and
through a duly
authorized committee chartered the National Masonic Tuberculosis
and inaugurated an intensive publicity campaign to acquaint American
and American Freemasonry with the purposes of the organization and the
a view to securing cooperation and financial assistance from all
and Masons, regardless of jurisdictional lines.
to the publicity campaign a survey was instituted to ascertain, if
number of Freemasons and members of Masons' families afflicted with
who were sojourning in the Southwest.
submitted at the Chicago meeting of the Sanatoria Association, in
disclosed a record of 1,693 Freemasons and 321 members of their
families in the
Southwest; and, in addition, there were found 532 Masons and 493
relatives of Masons
sick in hospitals in other states, a total of 2,225 Masons and 814
Masons, or a grand total of 3,039.
It is certain
that those figures would not begin to represent the real total number
either in the Southwest or in the remainder of the country. What
percentage of those
cases were indigent is unknown.
has received many letters from all parts of the country seeking
admission to our
"Masonic Sanatorium," which is still non-existent. Assistance has been
extended to a limited number. The primary object, believed to have been
sound business principles, was first to acquaint the Fraternity with
the facts and
convince them of the necessity for cooperative organized effort, in
order most effectually
to deal with the great problem and thereby secure the measure of
requisite for consummation of a comprehensive program for home relief
and hospitalization in existing local sanatoria and the ultimate
building of Masonic
For Publicity Campaign
Lodge of New Mexico is proud of the fact that with the total of its
per capita assessment for tuberculosis relief paid in, in 1928, the
submitted at this Annual Communication shows that the Masons of New
paid practically all of the overhead expense of the Association and of
to induce American Freemasons to join in this movement. Surely no one
criticize New Mexico Masons for spending their own money in the effort
the organization of the Sanatoria Association by inducing other Masonic
cooperate in the accomplishment of the great humanitarian objects
the Grand Lodge.
thus took the leadership and the initiative in Masonic tubercular work,
by a sincere belief in the ideals and teachings of the Order, confident
Craft would rise to the great opportunity for real service and a
of Masonic principles. The writer of the Missouri Review of the
of Grand Lodges" appropriately summarized the situation in the
appearing upon page 149 of the Appendix of the 1926 Proceedings of the
of Missouri, to-wit:
Sanatoria Association of New Mexico is, perhaps, the most significant
the Masonic public, and unless we are very much mistaken this
enterprise will soon
capture the imagination of the entire Fraternity. If it succeeds in
doing this we
may look for the largest outburst of philanthropy the world has ever
known in this
or any other country.
Thus we initiated
the movement, which has been largely financed by the New Mexico Grand
In the first
year of operation twenty-six Grand Masters were persuaded that the
and that the efficient handling of the problem demanded comprehensive
of effort, and they evinced their interest and approval by accepting
the Board of Governors, or by appointing some interested brother for
At the Annual Meeting in Chicago, November, 1926, the Association had
high-tide or peak of the organization work designed to create an
be governed by leading Masons from each and every Grand Jurisdiction,
of the activities of which would be national in fact as well as in name.
leaders have criticized the plan for the government of the Association,
that its affairs would not be under direct Masonic control. It is
difficult to understand
how the enterprise could be more directly or effectually under Masonic
through the medium of a Board of Governors consisting of one duly
authorized representative from each and every Grand Jurisdiction.
Others have decried
the magnitude of the enterprise and expressed the fear that it could
not be successfully
the solution of which is involved, is of such vast magnitude, both from
and economic standpoints, as to call for and demand an organization of
and scope provided for by the plans of the Association. If the leaders
thought and action in the various Grand Jurisdictions would forget
lines, if the scales would fall from before their eyes and enable them
the project, and if they would permit the rank and file of Masonry to
in their respective jurisdictions, the financial aspects of the problem
In my Annual
Address, as Grand Master, to the Grand Lodge of New Mexico in February,
discussing this movement I made the following observations:
My faith in our Fraternity is
strong enough to
cause me to believe that if given the opportunity, through the sanction
of the Masonic leaders of the several Grand Jurisdictions and the
officers of all
other Masonic bodies, every American Freemason will gladly contribute
at least $1.00
per year for the relief and hospitalization of our brethren and the
members of their
families who are afflicted with tuberculosis.
for the financing of this work and for salvaging Masonic lives and
homes in such
manner rests primarily upon the Grand officers and leaders of American
and upon the officers of all Masonic bodies.
In the name
of our sacred and binding obligations and in the name of our afflicted
from whom is emanating the Grand Hailing Sign of Distress, I implore
leaders of thought and action to extend to our brethren this
opportunity to practice
the, great teachings of our Fraternity and to aid in financing this
of dollars are garnered in the treasuries of Grand Lodges and
and more millions in the treasuries of other Masonic bodies, and in
those of organizations
affiliated with or claiming some connection with Freemasonry. These
growing into more millions. Why this great accumulation of wealth? For
purpose is it designed? Is it for the construction of costly temples or
the Craft adequately to finance some great work for the relief of, and
service to, the Fraternity and humanity?
continue to levy assessments for the erection of great Masonic edifices
while closing our purses and shutting our eyes to the distress of our
brethren and turning a deaf ear to appeals for funds in aid of a relief
designed upon a national scale, the financing of which would require
of but the insignificant sum of $1.00 per annum by each American
not a comparatively small portion of the accumulated and hoarded wealth
of the Fraternity
be annually contributed to a general fund to be administered as a
sacred trust by
the Sanatoria Association, organized by the Masons and controlled and
representatives of each Masonic Grand Jurisdiction, for the benefit and
our afflicted brethren, and their families? Are not the lives of
those of their wives and children, more valuable to the Fraternity and
than mere wealth alone? Aye, are they not wealth itself?
I quote the
words of the poet, Goldsmith, in his beautiful "Deserted Village":
"III fares the land, to
hastening ills a
Where wealth accumulates, and men decay."
the 1926 Chicago Meeting, acting under authority there conferred, an
made for contributions, upon the basis of fifteen cents per capita of
Before Masonic bodies had time to act upon the appeal, we had an
purchase a Sanatorium in El Paso, Texas, in first-class condition, for
cents on the dollar of its real value.
including furniture and equipment, would have been $75,000.00. Our
was shortly supplemented with a full statement concerning the
opportunity to acquire
a "going hospital," wherein immediately to commence our work of relief.
were made to every Masonic Grand body, including the York Rite bodies,
Rite, the Shrine, the Grotto, and the General Grand Chapter of the
Order of Eastern
Star. The response was negligible, because shortly thereafter the great
flood became a menace, and the brethren of the states directly affected
to make plans for the relief of those who were, or would be, in
distress. More than
$500,000.00 was contributed to flood relief, and the cause of Masonic
relief was lost sight of in this dramatic disaster. Freemasons
to aid flood sufferers and to replace property losses, but would not,
or could not,
visualize the necessity and duty and obligation to respond to an appeal
in the effort to save Masonic lives, Masonic families and Masonic homes.
In my address
as Grand Master in 1927 to the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, the following
were made, in discussing our first appeal:
phase of our problem affords an interesting study, and provides
convincing and conclusive
evidence of the importance and value of salvaging the health, the lives
of our tubercular brethren; but the controlling and actuating motive is
be our obligation.
for funds with which to finance the work will demonstrate, during the
whether or not American Freemasonry has a soul. It will demonstrate
whether or not
we observe the letter or the spirit of the law; for "Faith without
appeal for funds, upon the basis of fifteen cents per capita, calls
upon each American
Freemason to contribute at least the price of one good cigar for the
and relief of his sick brethren. The cost of attempting to collect this
each individual would be prohibitive. Hence, we ask that each Masonic
that amount from its treasury, in which event there will be no expense
If there are no available funds in the treasury, we ask that each
Masonic body circularize
its membership, either constituent lodges or individual members, asking
contributions. We believe that such action will produce average
in excess of fifteen cents per capita.
the ensuing year, contributions from all Grand Lodges average fifteen
capita, the total sum contributed will equal $487,500. With this amount
it is proposed
to construct an initial or first hospital unit of one hundred bed
capacity, at an
estimated cost of $250,000; to set aside $100,000 for the first year's
expense, and an equal amount for home relief work and hospitalization
sanatoria, pending completion of the Masonic Sanatorium; to continue
and publicity campaign and to carry on the administrative work.
upon this subject concluded as follows:
Some Grand Jurisdictions are
wealthier than others
and are financially able to care for their own members, whether they do
According to our conception of Masonic obligations, they are binding
upon us, no
matter where a needy brother may be found; our obligations are not
limited by state
lines or by any other boundaries. We are, or we should be, one common
Shall we continue as forty-nine separate organizations, not interested
in each other's
problems, and not interested in our own brethren if they wander from
Or shall we unite as one family to care for those who have fallen by
who are down and out through no fault of their own?
organization has been perfected and a plan outlined, a design has been
the trestleboard, whereby succor and relief may be afforded to our
If they are longer neglected their blood will be upon our hands.
It has fallen
to our lot to speak for these brethren of our "Grand Lodge of Sorrow."
They are a great inarticulate mass, scattered in thousands of homes
great, free and wealthy land of ours. They cannot personally make their
the Fraternity. Therefore, in their name we have made a plea to the
Masons of America,
to stretch forth their hands to aid our fallen brethren and to assist
them again, to stand among us as men and Masons.
In the great
true heart of American Freemasonry is to be found the answer to our
varied have been the reasons assigned by the various Grand
Jurisdictions which have
declined or failed to join the organization or to respond to the
appeals for cooperation
and financial assistance.
Against National Organizations
It has been
demonstrated that numerous Masonic leaders are fundamentally opposed to
organization of this or any other character, and believe in zealously
the sovereignty of each Grand Jurisdiction, and limiting Masonic relief
every and any character strictly within the confines of their several
coupled with the assertion that they will take care of their own
their own borders, if they will stay at home, and that they will even
of their own, thus afflicted, who may migrate to more favorable
climates in the
hope of obtaining relief; but as to the latter assertion, our
experience has demonstrated
that its complete fulfillment is the exception rather than the rule,
and I am confident
that this statement can be corroborated by the experience of other
within the confines of the great "Tuberculosis Triangle." It is
by some opponents of the Sanatoria Association that the admittedly
advantages of the arid and semi-arid Southwest are not essential to the
and cure of tuberculosis, but it is a noteworthy fact that statistics
that more than half of the tuberculars who have migrated to those
regions were advised
so to do by their local physicians.
It is not
my purpose to discuss or argue with reference to the two schools of
this subject. Suffice it to say that the basic and primary purpose and
the Association was not the establishment of sanatoria in any
of the country, but to arouse the Fraternity to a realization of the
and imperative necessity to organize upon a broad national scale to
deal with the
great problem. It should be remembered that tuberculosis is an
infectious and communicable
disease wherein it differs from certain other diseases to which the
is heir and the death toll from which is great; and it should also be
that tuberculosis is a great menace to the children of the brethren or
may be afflicted with the disease and that it is highly important to
public as to the best means not only of prevention but for cure.
of the project urge that the movement is a departure from the
of the Order, chief among which is training the individual Mason to
charity, apparently outside of the Fraternity.
to me that one of the fundamental teachings is Service; and that the
the service demanded by the magnitude of the tuberculosis problem is
such as to
render it imperatively necessary to organize upon a basis and scale
with the magnitude of the situation now confronting the Masonic
One of the
greatest difficulties encountered has been that incident to the
succession in the
leadership of the various Grand Jurisdictions. Grand Master Charles F.
the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia, aptly said:
and men change with them. Grand Masters come and go, with varying
ideas, of the
relative values of matters in which our Fraternity is concerned. What
to me may not be so regarded by my successors, but we have the
that the policies, and ultimate purposes of Freemasonry are fixed, and
the efforts of all are directed towards the same worthy end.
It is not
my purpose here to challenge the sincerity of any brethren whose
from mine or from those entertained by my intimate associates in the
the affairs of the Association. For them as men and Masons I entertain
respect and fraternal regard, but from my viewpoint it seems deplorable
Freemasonry cannot unite in this great cause; and contemplation of the
apathy and indifference, and inability or unwillingness to envision the
a broad national standpoint, "maketh the heart sick."
which we had an opportunity to purchase in El Paso and which should now
be in operation
as the "First National Masonic Sanatorium," was purchased by a Catholic
Sisterhood, and is now rendering service as a Catholic Sanatorium.
It has been
said that the establishment of a Masonic Sanatorium in the Southwest
a standing invitation for migratory consumptives. The answer is:
Suppose this were
true; are we not organized for the great fundamental purpose of
largely and expeditiously as Possible to the relief of our tubercular
members of their families afflicted with the dread disease, in the
effort to salvage
and restore them to health, activity and economic production at the
date? Time will not permit an elaboration of the economic features of
Suffice it to say that upon the basis of statistics of the Metropolitan
Company of New York the total economic loss from the death of 4,309
who die each year is over $93,000,000.00.
observations indicate the impossibility of an immediate successful
of our work of organization along the lines originally planned and as
our charter; but "Rome was not built in a day," and it may well be that
several years must elapse before our hopes are fully realized.
as a result of the campaign of education there has been stimulated in
a marked degree of activity in the line of tubercular relief work.
not recognized or admitted. The facts are thus laid before the Grand
Lodge and your
advice and counsel are solicited as to the best method for attaining
the great objective.
abandonment of the movement would be tantamount to admitting that
function outside of jurisdictional lines, or upon a national scale;
that its protestations
are as "sounding brass and tinkling cymbal"; that it does not practice
what it preaches; that it has been "weighed in the balances" and found
wanting, and that it is incapable of that degree of cohesion and
efficiently and effectively to deal with the existing situation.
is on trial, and will stand or fall according to the final answer to
our sick brethren,
standing in the "Northeast Corner," pleading for help, which has been
so long withheld and failure to render which has resulted in the death
of so large
a number while we have debated among ourselves.
more Masonic lives will be sacrificed, how many more Masonic homes will
before the sleeping giant of American Freemasonry arouses to meet the
need and to
fulfill our sacred obligations?
What is your
answer, what do you advise and what will you do?
upon you to answer this question, I should like to state that there is
a real and
insistent demand, on the part of Masons and Masonic magazines and
New Mexico should continue the effort to secure action for relief of
brethren. Foremost in the ranks of our supporters, who counsel us not
the fight, stands THE BUILDER of St. Louis. For several years these
friends of our
cause have devoted two or more pages each month to articles telling the
our efforts and the need, and in addition they have always given us
support. The nation-wide interest in the movement is due, in no small
their splendid efforts, which it is our pleasure and duty to here
Bro. F. H.
Littlefield, Executive Secretary of the National Masonic Research
of THE BUILDER, and the editor of THE BUILDER, Bro. R. J. Meekren, urge
us to "Hold
the Fort," and continue this work, adapting our plans, as far as
without the sacrifice of principles, to meet the objections made to
L. Stockwell, former President of the Masonic Relief Association of the
and Canada, and Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of North Dakota, and
of many other Masonic positions of trust and influence, writes as
While I do
not want to urge the, New Mexico brethren to take on any proposition
cannot handle, I do hope that you will not give up without making one
effort to get the attention of the Craft in this country.
Chronicler, a Masonic newspaper of Chicago, recently published a long
in which it mistakenly announced that the National Masonic Tuberculosis
Association would be dissolved. It reviewed the situation in the
need for cooperative action to meet the situation and our efforts to
meet that need,
and concluded with the following statement:
It is a sorry
task to have to record so ignominious a failure for Masonic charity. It
to have to contemplate a situation in which cooperation in so worthy a
work as that
of saving to Masonry a large number of afflicted brethren apparently is
lacking. It grieves one to know that the Fraternity the country over is
to see the brethren of these three states struggling with their
and not off er a helping band; all the more so as part of the burden
to almost everyone of the Grand Jurisdictions of the United States. It
is no wonder
that the National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association throws up
in defeat and intends next February to ask the Grand Lodge of New
Mexico for its
dissolution. Would that some miracle might happen between now and then
to save the
project and insure support for its grand and glorious work.
Report Of The
In the last
number of THE BUILDER we gave the recommendations presented to the
Grand Lodge of
New Mexico by Bro. H. B. Holt on behalf of the N.M.T.S.A. which
amendments to the charter of the Association. These recommendations
in the regular course to the Committee on Jurisprudence, which made
and additions. The recommendations as adopted by the Grand Lodge of New
The President of the National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria
Association has reported
to this Grand Lodge inability to complete organization of the
the lines prescribed in the original Charter, and has suggested that
'be so amended as to change the name, method of government, and plan of
Be It Resolved, That this Grand Lodge recommends that steps be taken to
Charter of said Association, as follows, to-wit:
the name of the Association, wherever same appears in the original
Articles of Incorporation,
or Charter, shall be changed so as to read "Masonic Tuberculosis
sub-paragraph (1) of Article IV be amended so as to read as follows:
(1) To act
as an agent or trustee for and in behalf of the Grand Lodge of Ancient,
Accepted Masons of New Mexico, to receive and administer funds
contributed, or acquired,
for the relief of Freemasons, and members of their families, or others,
from tuberculosis, or who may be in distress from other causes; and,
for any and all of the objects and purposes herein enumerated.
Article VI be amended so as to read as follows:
All the affairs
and business of this corporation shall be under the control and
management of a
Board of Governors chosen by the Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and
of New Mexico, at its next Annual Communication, and annually
thereafter; and in
the interim between Annual Communications the Grand Master shall have
to fill vacancies in such board, and to appoint additional members
until the first meeting of the Board of Governors, for the creation of
is herein and hereby made, and thereafter, if so authorized by such
board, the Executive
Committee hereinafter named, or the duly appointed and designated
the members of such committee, shall have and exercise all of the
upon the Board of Governors by this Certificate of Incorporation, the
Laws of New
Mexico and/or the By-Laws of this corporation when said Board of
Governors is not
in session, subject to such restrictions, limits and regulations as may
by such Board.
And Be It
Further Resolved, That this Grand Lodge reaffirms its recognition of
devolving upon the Masonic Fraternity to make adequate provision for
of worthy brethren and members of their families who are victims of
and its firm conviction that adequate relief can be afforded only
through the medium
of an efficient organization; and that the burdens incident to
relief for indigent brethren and members of their families, victims of
who migrate to the Southwest in search of climatic advantages in the
hope of regaining
their health-should be assumed and borne by the Fraternity at large,
medium of an agency such as that which is here involved, through which
the problem be efficiently and economically handled.
Grand Lodge therefore suggests the foregoing proposed amendments to the
of Incorporation, or Charter. of the existing corporation, and when
shall have been adopted-favors a continuance of the effort heretofore
made to arrest the attention and arouse the interest of American
to enlist the financial aid and assistance of individual Masons and of
throughout the United States; and pledges a continuance of its
to the further efforts and work of the Association, and its active
the renewed and continued effort to secure requisite financial
assistance from other
Grand Jurisdictions and Masonic bodies.
And Be It
Further Resolved, That the Most Worshipful Grand Master of this Grand
be, and he hereby is, authorized and directed, in the name of this
Grand Lodge to
make such appeals for contributions as from time to time may be
required or deemed
necessary for the accomplishment of the objects and purposes of the
receive such contributions, and disburse the same through the aforesaid
for the furtherance of its objects and purposes, and shall report his
acts and doings
relative thereto to this Grand Lodge at each Annual Communication.
And Be It
Further Resolved, That when the aforesaid proposed amendments shall
any and all funds which have heretofore accrued, or which may hereafter
this Grand Lodge, to and for the use and benefit of the National
Sanatoria Association, shall be paid over to, or covered into, the
treasury of said
Association under its new name, as designated in the amendments to such
of Incorporation, and thereafter, until otherwise ordered, the annual
now levied for said National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association
levied for said Association under such new name.
unanimously recommends the adoption of said report and all the
as hereinabove amended and set forth.
Editor in Charge
page will be found the report of the President of the National Masonic
Sanatoria Association to the Grand Lodge of New Mexico. We received
the March number of THE BUILDER went to press but too late to do more
the recommendations made. This report in a sense must be regarded as
the swan song
of the N.M.T.S.A., in the passing away of which the Masonic
is to be born. Let us hope, to change the metaphor to another fabled
bird, to enter
like the Phoenix upon a renewed life in which more definite results
will be achieved.
however has not been without achievement. There can be no doubt that
the local interest
in the tuberculosis problem that is showing itself in various
the country owes a great deal to the campaign of the organization
founded by New
Mexico, and for which the Masons of that Grand Lodge have paid out of
contributions to the cause. For it may as well be repeated again, in
has failed to note the fact, that New Mexico contributed to the, funds
of the N.M.T.S.A.
practically the whole amount that was expended for organization and
purposes, leaving the funds contributed from elsewhere to be devoted to
of temporary relief.
to be at the present moment, however, a distinct reaction everywhere
idea of combined action. This is, we believe, unfortunate. The Grand
Lodges of the
United States, sovereign and independent as they are, have necessarily
in common, problems that could be most efficiently solved by combined
such things observe the law of the pendulum. At the close of the war,
of the Craft in its divided state was so impressed on the leaders of
the Craft that
everywhere there was a desire to find some way to coordinate the work
of Grand Lodges
and to concentrate the latent power of the Fraternity. But now the
ideals of independence
are having their turn, and there is some danger of their being allowed
to run to
last month in our summing up of the situation that in view of the fact
that it seemed
at present out of the question to secure official cooperation in the
cause that it might be well to try to secure individual support, by
making the new
organization a body of Master Masons, and not a group of Grand Lodges.
We were greatly
gratified, when we received the advance copy of the recommendations
made by Bro.
Holt, that this plan had occurred to others, and that the executive of
proposed that the amended constitution should provide for this. We want
it quite clear that we in no way wish to blame the brethren of New
Mexico, but a
comparison of the amended recommendations as passed by the Grand Lodge
presented by Bro. Holt will show that the reaction has set in with them
one familiar with all the circumstances can possibly blame them for
withdraw within their own boundaries; but we cannot help feeling it is
and much to be regretted. Bro. Holt's proposals made it clear that any
contribute to the fund of the new M.T.A. and thereby become a member of
it. It is
true that the amendments proposed and adopted do not bar this, but they
to stress the fact that the M.T.A. is to be an organization especially
of the Masons
of New Mexico; that its control will be entirely in the hands of the
of New Mexico, in that its executive will not be elected by its
members, but appointed
by the Grand Lodge.
this may make little difference at the moment, but it does seem to bar
out a line
of possible advance, one that at least has not yet been tried. We
such information that has come to us, that there are many Masons who
would be glad
to support the movement. As long as it has moved in the superior cycles
Lodge orbits, the individual has felt that it was not his place to
stress in the past has all been laid upon the membership of Grand
Bodies as such,
although the Constitution of the Association distinctly, though not
provides for individual memberships. Article VIII provides for the
all Master Masons of New Mexico, in virtue of their contributions to
funds, paid through the Grand Lodge, but the final clause adds with
mentioned are also included.
… such persons
as may contribute money, services or anything of value to further the
work of the
It does not
say so, but we presume that such persons are eligible for membership,
not that it
is automatically conferred upon them. Article VII also provides for the
of branches, local societies or committees, which the Association has
power to recognize
or regularize by charters or warrants. These two articles remain
unchanged, so in
spite of the control of the Association now being vested solely in the
through its appointive power; there is nothing to prevent the admission
of Masons generally, nor the establishment of committees, branches and
in other states. We trust, therefore, that the natural discouragement
of the brethren
in New Mexico will not lead them to neglect the possibilities that here
that as yet there has been no very definite attempt to realize.
original difficulty still stands in the way must be admitted ‒ the
refusal of many
Grand Masters to permit the lodges in their jurisdictions to be
would be the obvious and easiest way to bring the matter to the
attention of the
whole Craft in the U. S. A. But there are other ways of obtaining the
though less direct and slower in operation might in the long run prove
and that is to work through those individuals who have expressed their
and made contributions.
For the benefit
of those who would like to compare the original and amended
the Charter of the N.M.T.S.A., we remind our readers that the latter
in full in THE BUILDER for September, 1926. The original
last month, and the amended ones will be found on another page in the
In view of
the changes thus made the Northeast Corner department is to be
R. J. Newton, who has done so much for the cause, and who was editor of
responsible for what appeared in the pages devoted to the work of the
has ceased to be actively engaged therein. In plain language his task
has come to
an end with the change of plan. He was engaged largely as publicity
as the reorganized Association does not intend to continue the
there is nothing further for him to do. But his interest in the cause
though no longer an official of the organization we know that he does
to cease his efforts to further this great work.
As for THE
BUILDER, while the regular appearance of the Northeast Corner thus
comes to an end,
our pages will always be available for any articles or communications
upon the general
subject. We know that a great many of our members are keenly interested
in the problem,
and feel as we do that it is nothing to be proud of that the Craft as a
proved so im potent in meeting this need, and for this reason, if for
we shall keep them informed of all developments in the situation as
* * *
the daily press of Philadelphia has published accounts of the making of
John S. Fisher a Mason "at sight" by the Grand Master, assisted by most
of the Grand officers of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. The natural
been to raise once more the questions, what, how, why and by what right
done? A number of our correspondents have written about it, and one or
asked us to say something more on the subject. It was discussed from
of view in THE BUILDER for February, 1925, and at page 204 of the same
a communication from Bro. Sir Alfred Robbins, Chairman of the Board of
of the United Grand Lodge of England, in which it was shown that
is even more democratic than our own, in that not one letter of the law
relaxed even for the most exalted persons. There was a later
communication in the
following volume (page 177) from. Bro. Haydon, which affords a ray of
light in the
obscurity, in that it gives some tangible evidence as to the time and
place of the
first appearance of the doctrine that this power pertained of right to
of Grand Master of Masons.
is much misunderstanding as to what is implied by making Masons "at
is only to be expected. Naturally the newspapers get it all wrong. One
procedure is impressive and the act is to permit the candidate, to be
the Order without passing through the usual form of passing from one
degree to another.
This is excusable
enough in a non-Mason, but what shall we say of the good brethren who
seem to think
that the Grand Master takes a profane into a retired corner and says,
power invested in me I make you a Mason" and proceeds to administer an
and communicate secrets? This is really not at all exaggerated, absurd
as it sounds.
In actual fact the making a Mason at sight, as it is carried out today,
the same ritually as the normal procedure, the difference lying in the
features that all the usual time intervals are dispensed with, the one
and ballot, and those between the degrees. Perhaps too the ballot is
‒ as to this we have no information. Even so, we presume, though it
would be very
embarrassing, that any brother present could object if he thought fit.
other difference is that the lodge in which the work is done is formed
or temporarily, for the purpose, and ceases to exist as soon as its
is done. The candidate thus being left in the position of an
or rather of a Mason whose lodge has returned its charter.
has shown that this is now impossible under the Grand Lodge of England,
there the Grand Master is shorn of the powers of dispensation that
to have been generally allowed to inhere in his office at the first in
and still do in most American jurisdictions, even where the making at
is expressly denied. Bro. Haydon pointed out that the first appearance
of the power
in formal terms was in Dermott's Ahiman Rezon, in which he probably
what was implicit in Irish usage. American Masonry undoubtedly received
from this source.
of the Grand Master, where it still survives, is a complex one. It is
made up of
a number of different powers, most of which are normally exercised
American Grand Masters. The first is the power to grant a dispensation
for the formation
of a lodge, and to recall it when granted. If he can grant such a
others, he can grant it to a group associated with himself. So in
respect to the
dispensing with the constitutional intervals of time. A hundred years
ago, and less,
such dispensations were very frequently granted, sometimes for very
Applications were acted upon, the candidate balloted for and initiated
all at the
same meeting. Earlier still, in the eighteenth century, lodges
with these intervals at their own discretion. At first without any
all. It was only when the risk of such proceedings became evident that
it was forbidden.
Thus the Grand Master is only doing on very special occasions what
every lodge did
once whenever it so pleased.
But the history
of the privilege seems to reach back further still, to the days when it
inherent right of any Master to gather a group of brethren and form a
the purpose of making someone a Mason. So it would seem that this much
privilege is a case of survival and gradual restriction, till one
Master Mason only,
in any given jurisdiction, is allowed to exercise the right once
possessed by all.
However, one change has been made, doubtless through lack of clear
of the antecedents of the privilege. The "making a Mason" properly
no more than initiation, while now passing and raising seem always to
These additions really make the old phrase distinctly a misnomer. In
the old lodges
of Scotland it was very usual for five or seven members to make a Mason
but he had later to be received and passed a fellow at a regular
meeting of the
lodge. In fact, in one or two lodges this procedure would seem almost
to have been
the normal one.
Thus it appears
that this right is a picturesque survival of the long distant past, and
seem to be a great pity to demolish it where it still exists. It can do
But naturally great care should be exercised in choosing the candidate
is exercised, and to us it appears that no one actively engaged in
should be chosen; at least not until he has entered the elder statesman
has won the respect and admiration of his opponents as well as of his
The Study Club
on "How to Organize and Maintain a Study Club" will be sent free on
in quantities to fifty
Organization Of A Study Club
been said from time to time about various methods of forming Study
Clubs. One of
the difficulties which arises early in the career of any Club is the
matter of internal
organization. What officers should we have, what committees, and dozens
of similar character find their way into the office of the National
If we think
for a few moments, it will be easy to see that a Study Club should be
as little machinery as is possible. The machinery should be simple and
at the same
time elastic. There are two reasons for expressing such a view. In the
the risk of meetings running to interminable length due to a great
amount of time
being occupied with routine affairs is lessened materially. The second
much more important, however. Study Club meetings are intended
primarily for the
study of Masonry. If too many formalities are injected into the
will not be that feeling of freedom to speak which it is essential
in all such gatherings. The new members will feel backward about
views on the subject under discussion. There are others who do not feel
when on their feet before any sizable gathering. Such men will sit by
and say nothing
unless some effort is made to draw them out. It should be an ambition
Study Club to encourage these members to speak, to make them feel at
ease, and thus
to place them in a position to assume their rightful station in the
will do a great deal to help this situation.
be as little routine business brought before the meetings as is
possible. Just as
soon as Study Club meetings begin to last until the late hours of the
will notice a considerable falling off in members. If the meetings are
too frequently and are so managed that only interesting programs are
will always be a good attendance and a thoroughly interested
there is recommended a corps of officers composed of a President, a
a Secretary-Treasurer, a Study Director, a Librarian when necessary.
might well form an Executive Committee, with enough lay members, to
avoid the danger
of a deadlock in Committees. Other than this no officers should be
of the President and Study Director might be combined, but that plan
has some objections.
If the President has no more to do than preside at the meetings of the
Club as a
whole and the Executive Committee when in session, there is the
advantage that be
has his mind free to watch the progress of the meetings and to observe
who have or have not spoken. He can judiciously encourage those who lag
say a few words, and gradually bring them into the regular discussions.
be his sole duty aside from the formal ones which are naturally
really needs no special mention. He should assume the duties of the
the absence of the latter, and should cooperate by being of any
seems necessary. It would be well if he could assume all duties which
might be delegated
to him by the President. In other words he should be thoroughly
the right-hand assistant to the presiding officer.
duties of the Secretary-Treasurer are too well known to make an
necessary. It would be as well for us to consider the advantages of
two offices in Study Club work. The funds handled are usually so small
is no need to burden a separate individual with their care. It often
the Treasurer is not needed at all since the lodge from which the Study
its members pays all expenses. In such cases there is absolutely no
need for a Treasurer.
In any group, however, which is self supporting there must be dues, no
nominal. There should be some officer to care for the funds, and since
usually very small the Secretary can conveniently fill both offices. He
greatest need for funds, for his notices, stationery and other
has shown that it is best to combine these two offices.
Director will probably be the hardest worked member of the
organization. Upon him
devolves the duty of planning the programs, of seeing that interest is
and of securing or assigning the topics for discussion. The members of
should be willing to cooperate with him in every possible way. He, on
hand, should see that he does not usurp too much of the time of any one
as a whole, when first organized, should arrange to adopt a definite
study. They should consult with some competent authority and ascertain
procedure to follow. Clubs generally are most interested in symbolism,
is usually the starting point. The National Masonic Research Society
a course of study covering this phase of Masonic research. It is
arranged in convenient
outline form with topical references. Each group of references should
material for one evening's discussion. We are always glad to furnish
Whatever subject is adopted the Society stands ready to prepare outline
for Study Club work.
then, that there is one source from which such information can be
is nothing to do but decide the course to be pursued. With this
the job of the Study Director is very much simplified. All that is
for him to assign the topics in rotation, seeing that every member has
That is the routine work.
more to the office than just that, however. There will be questions
need investigation. The Study Director should assign these questions to
members to report at the next meeting. Some of them may be sufficiently
to warrant a whole meeting being given to their consideration. Decision
matters should be left with the Director. Where special investigation
and the references are not readily obtainable the National Masonic
may be consulted.
It is very
important that the Study Director be left a wide latitude in all
matters as soon
as the Club has adopted a definite program. Unless he is given a free
hand his work
is likely to be hampered and the results less noticeable. It is usually
for the members of the Club to offer all cooperation possible and to
all tasks that may be assigned to them. Even more important is the
each member doing his particular task promptly and to the best of his
Committee should be permitted to handle all business affairs of the
Club. They should
endeavor to work out all details and to make the necessary
recommendations to the
Club in such a way that a minimum of time will be occupied in the
suggestions are followed out the Club will function efficiently and
There will be no occasion for friction and the maximum of results
should be accomplished
with a minimum expenditure of effort.
The Ark of the Covenant
H. Merz, Ohio
THE Ark of the Covenant is a legitimate
appendage to the Third Degree, although it is also
mentioned in many of the higher Orders. The Helvetian Ceremonies
provide that "In
the middle of the procession is carried the Ark of the Covenant,
covered over with
a veil of blue, purple and crimson silk. It is carried by four of the
that can be found in the whole company. The age of the Masons and not
of the lodge
is here to be observed. The furniture of the ark is the Old Testament,
a pair of compasses, etc."
The ark was
a kind of chest or coffer, placed in the Sanctum Sanctorum, with the
of stone containing the decalogue, written with the finger of God, and
the most sacred monument of the Jewish, or any other religion. Along
with the ark
were deposited the rod of Aaron, and the pot of manna. At the east end
synagogue the modern Jews have a chest which they call "aron," or ark,
in which is locked up the Pentateuch, written on vellum in square
of the ark are somewhat meager. We learn that it was made of Shittim
wood. It is
supposed to have been the wood of the burning bush, which was once held
in Royal Arch Chapters. The Shittim wood had a very close grain and was
of receiving a very high polish. From its aromatic qualities it was
the attacks of worms and decay. We are told that it was made by Aholiab
under the direction of Moses. It was appropriated to such a sublime
all persons were forbidden to look upon it or touch it under penalty of
penalty which fifty thousand men of Bethshemesh suffered for this
The ark was
overlaid within and without with pure gold. In size it is described as
three feet nine inches long, two feet three inches wide and of the same
depth. On the side it had two rings of gold, through which were placed
shittim wood, by which, when necessary, it was borne by the Levites.
covering was of pure gold. The covering was called "kaphiret," from
"to forgive sin," hence the English name of "mercy seat," as
being the place where the intercession for sin was made.
bearing much resemblance in principle to this ark, have been found in
ancient and modern nations.
The ark is
described as being surrounded with a golden rim or cornice, which was
a crown, is reference to the ornament that was worn by monarchs as a
symbol of their
dignity. This fillet of gold served also to support the mercy seat,
the lid or cover of the ark. The propitiatory was not made of shittim
with gold, like the ark, but consisted of one plate of pure beaten
by two cherubim, formed out of the same mass, and was so constructed as
to fit exactly
the inside of the crown, that no interstice might be perceived.
In view of
this rather indefinite description of the ark, it is interesting to
learn that two
London artists, George Dennison and Frank Ingerson, have designed a
of the "Ark of the Covenant" for Temple Emanuel in San Francisco. The
design which appeared in the New York World some months ago is here
Bronze, gold, old cedar and exquisite jewel colored enameling makes up
piece of craftsmanship. Recent research has thrown much light upon
and its furnishings, and our cherished ideas on many subject are
changes. Correspondence with the Rabbi of Temple Emanuel discloses the
this ark has been reconstructed according to accurate descriptions, and
it is therefore
of particular interest to the Masonic student. The ensigns of the
of Israel are found on front and two sides of the ark, and the double
Seal of Solomon is depicted on the front. The design is so different
from all ordinary
ideas of the ark that it is singularly striking and beautiful.
Library Activities in Los Angeles
years past a number of the lodges in Los Angeles have been building a
in that city. Bro. Thomas S. Southwick, a member of Pentalpha Lodge,
No. 212, is
librarian and has long been actively associated with the work. The
of what has been accomplished during the past calendar year has been
the report of the librarian which has just come to our notice, and
which was previously
published in The Masonic Digest.
goes to show what a very important function a library has in raising
level of Masonic knowledge. In fact no sustained effort along these
lines can be
carried on without one. Lodges elsewhere might profit by the example.
Lodge Committee on Education, under the direction of Bro. Reynold
Blight, has greatly
stimulated the interest in study clubs and individual reading. As a
has been such a demand for books on special subjects that it has been
to purchase many extra copies of the same title. During the past year,
we have purchased
160 books in this way. Many volumes have been donated to us.
have shown an interest in the Library as never before, and every day
there are requests
from bibliographers on Masonic topics, not only from our local
students, but from
those of other counties. Special clubs have come to us from San
Santa Barbara and Riverside. Many brethren have expressed their
the assistance the Library has given them, and several letters from
have been received commending the work we are trying to accomplish. One
of our students
stated that he had received more benefit from the Library in three
months than he
had in twenty years of lodge attendance.
the lodges do not appreciate the Library sufficiently to give the
and moral support as they should, but as time passes and the brethren
acquainted with Masonic books, we believe the value of our collection
and its influence
for good will be adequately recognized by all.
of literature on hand requires more space. Our present shelf room is
should have larger quarters or possibly a building of our own. We hope
in time to
add more books on travel, general history, poetry, the arts and
make for civilization, and miscellaneous matters to our collection.
seems to be the most popular study. Esoteric Masonry has an attraction
and it is always interesting to the earnest student. Frequently all of
on symbolism are in use outside the Library. We recommend on this
subject the works
of Mackey, Finlayson, Lawrence, Buck, Haywood, Stewart and Ward.
and The Religion of Freemasonry [Lib*], both by the Rev. Joseph Fort
read and re-read by very many of our borrowers. There are few, even
among the students
of Masonry that have caught more than a glimpse of the real meanings of
and these two books, the most popular of all Masonic titles, present
a dynamic, vital spiritual force, uplifting humanity throughout the
world, and suggesting
to our inner consciousness the desirability of building up a temple
that is eternal
in the heavens.
library was organized in June, 1926, by Los Angeles Lodge, No. 42,
No. 212, and Southern California Lodge, No. 278, which lodges have
to its financial support to the present date.
It has an
equipment of tables, chairs, book-cases, pictures, etc., and has over
feet of filled book shelves. The books are classified as follows:
200 volumes; Masonic Research, 125 volumes; Masonic Magazines, bound,
Masonic Miscellanea, 650 volumes; Foreign, mostly Masonic, 120 volumes;
(100 years or more), 50 volumes; Religious and Philosophical, 280
Books of the East, 14 volumes; Education, 44 volumes; California, old,
all others, mixed, 1280 volumes. Also 11,385 reports of Proceedings of
bodies, bound into 2088 volumes.
of Proceedings, one of the largest and most valuable in the country,
has been made
possible by the kindly cooperation of many of the Grand Secretaries, is
about 2600 annuals of all those issued in the U. S. A. since 1733. Some
2600 annuals were never printed, owing to the Civil War and
The value of this collection cannot be estimated; one hundred thousand
not duplicate them.
of foreign jurisdictions, 144 bound volumes and many unbound.
To make them
durable and more useful to students, we bind them as soon as we have
to make up a volume.
For the convenience
of many brethren we have several hundred books in our branch libraries
in some of
every lodge in the city and vicinity borrow our books, and occasionally
of outside counties.
We loan daily
25 or more for students' use, and many others for general reading.
of the Library, at present, are offered without cost to any Master
are planning to incorporate under the name of "The Masonic Library of
California," and a proposition is being thought out for an endowment.
is now supported by forty-four Masonic bodies, who extend an invitation
to the other
forty-four lodges to join them in the support of this educational boon
to the brethren.
We have suggested
the affiliation fee of one cent per member per month as a minimum,
until it reaches
the maximum of five dollars per month.
be recognized as the Masonic educational center of the Southwest. Most
of us are
only in the kindergarten class of Masonic philosophy and need more
have before us in our Library the source whereby we may graduate into a
perfection of our Masonic life, if we will only take the trouble to
seek for it.
is used chiefly by the younger members of the Fraternity and this
interest on the
part of young Masons will produce intelligent and better Masons. If all
clubs, which have been the means of bringing so many to the Library,
were to cease,
there would still be a large number of interested patrons, desiring to
better acquainted with our principles, to warrant its fullest
development. It is
to be hoped that everyone will use their influence to this end.
reviewed in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of
at the prices given, which always include postage. These prices are
a matter of precaution) to change without notice; though occasion for
very seldom arise. Occasionally it may happen, where books are
that there is no supply available, but some indication of this will be
the review. The Book Department is equipped to procure any books in
print on any
subject, and will make inquiries for second-hand works and books out of
Harry Emerson Fosdick. Published by, the Macmillan Company, New York.
of contents, bibliography, indices, colored frontispiece, 294 pages.
IF you purchase
Dr. Fosdick's book in the hope that you will find another book of
travel of the
usual type you are doomed to disappointment. The book is a travelogue,
but of a
very different sort from those usually met. The author has departed
from the general
run of such works in that his book is not the log of a trip, but rather
sketch of Jerusalem with comments on the present condition of the
which history was made. It is arranged chronologically, from a
than a travel viewpoint. The plan adopted is something of a relief from
and contributes largely in making this work one of the most interesting
Palestine it has been my pleasure to read.
certainly an advantage in this systematic treatment. It gives an
present a picture of Palestine from the dawn of civilization to the
in concise, form and in a manner which makes one believe he is reading
which might happen today instead of centuries ago. The descriptions of
in its present state, with Dr. Fosdick's gift for picturing Biblical
a strong tendency to unconsciously roll back the curtain of time and
help one to
live in the days of Nebuchadnezzar, the Philistines and even of Christ.
To say that
all of the vividness of this book is due solely to the plan is to be
Fosdick is an entertaining writer, though he occasionally shows the
his profession and is inclined to become oratorical in spots. The
lapses are not
numerous enough to be bothersome to the reader, in fact, to some
extent, they add
to the charm of the book. This is particularly true when he enters into
description of some locality, impressive of itself and teeming with
reflects the enthusiasm of a talented speaker living again in a spot
which has endeared
itself to him. It makes one feel almost as though he were listening to
Doctor expound the history with which he is so familiar upon the very
the technical side the book is a scholarly and thoroughly masterful
of the subject.
So many people
have a smattering of Palestinian history that to discuss any of the
by Dr. Fosdick would be useless repetition. Even so the present work
will give these
readers an opportunity to piece their knowledge into a systematic
pattern and give
the proper prospective to the whole.
When it comes
to the Palestine of today there are few equipped to discuss the subject
We hear much of Zionism and of what the Jews are doing in Palestine
today, but we
know little of the situation as it relates to the Arabs and Moslems in
Land. Dr. Fosdick devotes a chapter of perhaps a little more than
to this question. It is one on which he has, first-hand information and
as one who has seen the situation. The dangers which lie ahead of this
are discussed in cold impartiality as well as the benefits to be
derived from its
success. The book would be valuable if all other material were omitted.
all Jews should read it, all Christians should be acquainted with the
for the Moslems who may read this, they too should be acquainted with
The question of the future of the Holy Land is interesting to all
adherents to these
three faiths. Britain has avowed its support to the Zionites, it has
the security of existing religions in the Holy Land. There is a problem
that should be interesting in its solution. It is a question of methods
to be followed
‒ certain practices will doubtless lead to the downfall of Zionism
unless they are
stopped. This is true in spite of the well known vim, vigor and
vitality of the
Grundgedanken Der Freimaurerei
Im Lichte Der Philosophie.
By Otto Heinichen. Published
by Alfred Unger, Berlin. Third enlarged edition. Paper, 138 pages.
Price, paper, $1.00; cloth, $2.35.
Principles of Freemasonry in the Light of Philosophy is the title of
little volume. And that means, gentlemen, that we are going to have
for luncheon. We trust that your stomach is sound and logical. The menu
not in French, but in German. For the convenience of those who are not
with the "Schönste Lengwidsh" we shall translate it:
Faust Cocktail (Cauda Gallorum Mephistophelis is the botanical name).
of Transcendentalism a la Fichte.
realism boiled in parapsychic research. Driesch sauce. Goethe chips,
Puree of mental values.
of Pure Reason en casserole. Nietzsche kohl in Zarathustra sauce. Chopped nature realism.
a la Windelband.
Categorical Imperative mit whipped Indeterminism cream.
Primitive Phenomena. Nontotalism. Permissorial Liberty.
the Schopenhaner Glee Club
plenty of good substantial food at this luncheon. It is well cooked and
But the drinks are, despite their suggestive alluring names, soft. No
kick in them.
The banquet is dry, bone-dry.
It is a good
many years since metaphysics, transcendentalism and similar delicacies
to us on the school benches. We have not tasted them since. It is
a decided awkwardness that we follow the author of the Grundgedanken
into the realm
of the abstract. In the darkness of our mental obtuseness we walk
slowly; inch by
inch we grope our way down into the caverns of sub-consciousness and up
to the dizzy
heights of Nietzsche's Superman, of whom, incidentally, only a moldy
Often we pause to wipe the beads of perspiration from our brow as one
after another is stuffed into our bag of fresh philosophical knowledge
Gaul is divided into three parts," said Julius of old. So are the
And as in the case of ancient Gaul these three parts differ very much
In the first,
and very short chapter, we learn that Freemasonry stands on two legs:
the one is
the liberty of conscience, the other is symbolism. Liberty of
conscience is not
to be understood here in the common acceptance; civic freedom to choose
religion. It means here the absence of dogmatism or, to be more exact,
of dogmatism to a minimum; for it cannot be avoided altogether, neither
nor in science nor in philosophy, not even in agnosticism.
two very short but powerful legs rests the body or trunk, the second
comprises three-fourths of the book. It consists of three sections with
Masonry and Science.
Masonry and Ethics.
Masonry and Religion.
section ends in a disagreement with the Apostle St. Paul who in his
Letter to the
Hebrews speaks of Faith as an unwavering expectation of what we hope,
that does not doubt what it does not see. Heinichen frankly declares
that he sees
therein a double error. To quote: "To suppress doubt and to dictate to
these are the two greatest sins against the holy Spirit of Reason."
thereby enters the field of theological controversies. Anglo-Saxon
Masonry is not
interested in them. It neither endorses the Letter to the Hebrews nor
does it reject
it, or any part of it. It is neutral about it.
the legs and the trunk of the Grundgedanken, we come now to the brief
which represents the head that sits on the torso: it is a resume of the
cites Goethe and Kant extensively. With them he asserts the existence
of God and
the immortality of the soul. He also believes in the supernatural. He
is on the
whole a clear, cautious reasoner who skillfully substantiates his
book contains multum in parvo. It is intended chiefly for non-Masons.
If they are
not afraid of making an excursion into the field of metaphysical
will find themselves rewarded by an excellent exposition of the aims of
‒ of continental Freemasonry.
* * *
STANDARDS OF DEMOCRACY
Henry Wilkes Wright. Published by Appleton & Co. Cloth. Table
of Contents, 300
pages. Price, $2.15.
before us is written by a professor of philosophy and social ethics in
of Manitoba. It is probably intended rather for students than for the
requiring close attention to get the author's meaning. His English is a
a work of this class; he is quite accurate and discriminating in
setting forth his
views; and his vocabulary is amply adequate. At times he rises almost
flights of imagination which are very fine indeed.
In his preface
he admits a threefold complexity in man that renders generalization
all efforts to discover the natural laws by which his social relations
The human organism is a three-in-one complex ‒ a system of physical
energy, an individual
life, and a self-conscious person. To unfold and determine accurately
to which these three phases interact upon each other and upon the
and their reactions from reciprocal forces and external stimuli is
stupendous undertaking. But despite the magnitude of the task, he
the field with confidence by positing two axioms: First, that rational
and will inherently possess a general uniformity of perceptions and
which enables every normal person of mature years to apprehend and
arrive at similar
conclusions respecting the main fundamentals of life; or, in simpler
but less scientific
language, "to see things alike." Second, that this normal intelligence
and will always expresses itself in bodily movement in a manner
to the motor responses of distinct to external stimuli. By this he
not meant that the conceptions and judgments of intelligence in the
to conscious action, which is admitted as a matter of course, but that,
has freed itself by the processes of experience and thought from direct
upon external stimuli, it still expresses itself in incipient movements
of the larger
muscles, or still other slighter movements more or less imperceptible
mechanisms like that of the speech organs.
In the first
chapter he treats of the meaning of democracy and defines it,
preliminarily to further
discussion, as "the fullest and freest and most comprehensive type of
association made possible by the intelligence and will which is common
to all men."
Again, it means the opportunity for all persons to participate in a
It means equality, not in a mathematical distribution of physical
comforts and pleasures,
but in the enjoyment of those goods which are common and indivisible.
that the proposed conception of democracy is rather normative than
as the motor responses of human individuals are originally determined
and reflex, while intelligence acts independently of external stimuli,
and yet is
closely related in its operations to unconscious instincts, he devotes
chapter to instinct and intelligence.
the author does not say so, he evidently regards intelligence and
instinct as intimately
related, notwithstanding that at first blush they seem to belong to
Advancing psychological science however has brought them into the same
through the study of mind in response to stimulus, the method of study
While denying its conclusion that it can dispense with consciousness in
sense, and vigorously opposing this conclusion with more or less
he credits behavioristic psychology with the discovery of the fact that
expresses itself through mute and mostly invisible movements of the
organs of oral
and written speech, gestures, changes of facial expression and slight
of the larger muscles, all of which movements have come to symbolize
previously expressed and understood through verbal language. Instinct,
being after a brief existence accompanied by consciousness, is guided
of the stimulating cause, and as experience gathers around the motor
reorganizes the scheme of reaction to the stimulus in accord with the
of the future as well as the present, instead of meeting it impulsively
moment only. Hence the author's first conclusion is, that the functions
and intelligence are reciprocal. Instincts are inborn patterns of
to men and many animal species for making adjustments to environment
the continuance or promotion of life. Intelligence directs instinctive
so that they may subserve and promote the welfare of the individual
during the whole
of his life including the future as well as the present.
is not confined in its operations to the simple direction of
It correlates and classifies instincts, bunching them together in
with the power of enlisting them in the accomplishment of its own
the instrumentality of a sentiment called the self-regarding sentiment
‒ as we understand
it, a sentiment which shapes our movements not only and alone with
our own choice or convenience, but also with reference to our being a
unit in a
larger class, i.e., the association in which we live. Intelligence thus
the position of servant in the beginning to that of master and
controller of instinctive
action. As a second step in the discussion the author therefore
concludes that intelligence,
by virtue of its capacity to generalize and classify instincts and
able to evoke, organize and direct a number of instincts.
But the function
of intelligence is expanded still farther. It engages effectively and
in the reorganization of the activities, whether instinctive or
habitual, by which
the ultimate ends are realized; in common parlance, in pursuit as well
as in the
final possession of the ends sought. In doing this it endows the
with certain qualities which give it a distinct character and location
in the world
of objects. These qualities reflect the permanent interests of the
a unitary center of activity which seeks to maintain its own existence
and to obtain
its own satisfaction.
chapter considers the possibility of realizing the social ideal in the
of the highest communal satisfaction, and asks: Does humanity
constitute a community
organized upon a different and higher plane than that of natural
author believes that his basic axioms of community of human
intelligence and will,
and intelligent motor responses and reactions, open up possibilities of
social life and an enriched social intercourse. But he admits that
are for the most part academic and unrealized; that in the present
society they have not even developed into a generally recognized ideal,
only a more or less casual idea which, as Mark Twain said of the
weather, is much
talked of but nothing done about it. And he "reaches the heart" of the
inquiry to which he has devoted himself in the present volume in
question: Are there any motor activities arising out of these two basic
that, either single-handed or in any measure of combination, are
capable of bringing
home to the individual the infinitely varied content of unrivaled
this technical statement into every-day vernacular, is it possible by
directed by human intelligence to establish the kingdom of heaven here
And he thinks it is possible.
forms of human association through which the perfect society is
ultimately to develop
are then considered, of which there are three ‒ exchange of ideas
laboring together for a common purpose (cooperation), and the mutual
enjoyment of the esthetic (imaginative sympathy) in contemplating the
beautiful and the powerful, thus covering the fields of science, art
From these premises and all that has preceded in the general
discussion, the objective
of human association being the greatest good to the race as a whole ‒
the objective being to enable every member of the community to
in those community benefits which are not susceptible of division and
separately to individuals, but whose enjoyment is enhanced by the fact
are the subject of common enjoyment to all, the moral character of the
itself extends the province of human association entirely beyond the
laissez faire, and the purely material or utilitarian view. The ideal
of the "perfect
society" is therefore the ideal of democracy, for no less comprehensive
and cooperation than that of all persons on terms of strict equality
to all its members that full and free participation in a common good
demands; and the author therefore believes that there is no reason for
the efforts to realize it as Utopian and hopeless.
the foundations for moral standards in democracy the author naturally
emphasizes education as the principal factor, and this must take place
different directions; toward intellectual alertness and intellectual
competence and loyalty, and imaginative sympathy. These three are
separate chapters in detail, and interestingly treated; but after all,
simply that we have heard long ago about the threefold education of the
heart and the hand. No doubt the author's analysis and definitions are
and psychologically scientific than the familiar slogan and therefore
to specialists in sociological studies, but the lay mind apprehends the
much more easily. The book concludes with a chapter on Democracy and
in which he arrives at a conclusion that will meet with universal
humanity at large, and that is, that the family circle and the domestic
are, after all, the foundation upon which the realization of the
ideal depends, for the simple and obvious reason that the individual
gets his initial
outlook upon the social world and his primary experience of personal
from the family life into which he is born, and therefore that the
family must remain
the foundation of civilized society and the cornerstone of democracy.
reviewer finds much to commend and agree with in the book. Granted the
premises upon which all such works are founded ‒ namely, that the
sociology can be reduced to an accurate science through a biological
reasoning ‒ it seems to us that the author has made out a strong case
his thesis. Every reader will, of course, determine this for himself.
whatever may be the solidity of his logical foundations or the lack of
it, his exposition
of individual morality and standards of conduct is in line with the
of modern thought. It would be impossible if attempted, to give an
of his discussions in detail, or to note many minor points upon which
we would differ,
and we have no hesitancy in pronouncing it a masterly exposition of the
of social morality from the psycho-biological viewpoint.
we have arrived at conclusions generally similar regarding the
supremacy of society
over the individual through a cosmological, rather than a biological
is an infinite and eternal energy operating throughout all time and
space, so far
as we can see or judge, which manifests itself to our senses in
that appeal to that common intelligence of humanity which the author
takes for one
of his premises. This energy displays a supreme perfection of
as man can never hope to attain. This supreme intelligence must be
the human mind cannot conceive of intelligence without purposiveness;
is apriori in the human babe as soon as it begins to ask questions. To
a thing is, is to ask an explanation of what it is for. Keeping this in
beholding life everywhere in countless forms, we find always the will
to live and
to reach out for more life, for enhanced satisfaction, and observing
the life processes,
we see that this will to live not only aspires to higher life for the
but for the offspring, and in most forms of animated life and even in
of vegetation ‒ the individual will freely sacrifice its own life for
that of future
generations. There is a purpose of some kind underlying every life; and
in all the
gregarious types of animals, the flocking together even though it be
and social, serves the purpose and is so used, of protecting the life
of the herd,
and especially that of the young. Man, with his superior intelligence,
have perpetuated his species except through some form of association,
of course, with the family, but families must have been associated very
man's appearance upon earth for mutual protection as well as from the
The distinguishing feature, biologically considered, which sets man
apart from the
lower animals is his ability to recall past events and organize his
for the guidance of his future actions. But he made very slow progress
had devised some means of perpetuating the memory of his experiences
it down to future generations; and this was finally accomplished
through the visible
signs which we call writing.
As to whether
the perfect society will ever at any time be realized is with this
reviewer a matter
of serious doubt. But he believes that wonderful progress has been made
millenniums of man's existence, and will continue to be made in the
so much through the development of sociological science by the learned,
but by and
through a kind of intuitive intelligence ‒ broader in its nature than
and yet largely lacking in that self-conscious thought which lies at
the basis of
scientific inquiry. Each generation has made, and each generation of
will, in a general way, make more or less progress in solving the
problems of life
for the future. Much more could be said along this line, but the limits
already reached, merely stating our basis for standards of morality is,
promotes more life, higher life, more exquisite life in the race is
right; and whatever
hinders, retards or operates unfavorably to such enlargement of life
for the race
is wrong; and that the trend of society is more and more in the
direction of recognizing
its truth with each succeeding generation.
* * *
FASCISM AND DEMOCRACY
Francesco Nitti, Translated by Margaret M. Green. Published by The
New York. Cloth, Table of Contents, Frontispiece, Index, 224 pages.
conveys something of the intent and content of the book. It is a
of the comparative merits of the various forms of government
predominant in world
affairs at the present time.
OF DESTINY. By Walter Lippman. Published by the Macmillan Company, New
Table of Contents, Illustrated, 244 pages. Price $2.65.
of the men of destiny who are taking part in the affairs of modern
is limited to Americans of the present day and does not include any who
The Question Box and Correspondence
Gen. Warren and
any definite information in regard to the Masonic affiliations of
Warren and Joseph Reed?
Frederick Hooker, N. Y.
we are unable to find any reference to General Joseph Reed as a Mason.
This is not,
of course, conclusive evidence that he was not a member of the
Fraternity, but this
field has been so thoroughly covered that it is hardly likely that a
man of General
Reed's prominence has escaped investigation.
Warren was a Mason, a member of the Lodge of St. Andrew in Boston. The
him to have been received as an Entered Apprentice on Sept. 10, 1761,
the degree of Fellowcraft on Nov. 2, and admitted to membership on Nov.
26. On Nov.
30, 1768, Joseph Warren was chosen Master. The records on May 30, 1769,
Joseph Warren, Master of St. Andrew's, was made Grand Master of Masonry
See also the article by Bro. Baird in THE BUILDER, Vol. VIII, page 372;
X, pages 78 and 110.
* * *
letter was received from Bro. Hunt, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge
and deals with the attitude taken by that jurisdiction in this
to your letter I take leave to quote from our Grand Lodge Proceedings.
In the Proceedings
of the Grand Lodge of Iowa for 1911, page 381, I find that the
was adopted by Grand Lodge. I quote from the report only that portion
to the question you raise: "As your Committee is informed, this Grand
is in fraternal accord with all legitimately organized Masonic Grand
Bodies of the
world, with, perhaps, two or three exceptions, as to which there may be
doubt as to legitimacy, and as to one or more of which there may be
In making this statement, as to so general a recognition of Grand
Bodies, we must
not he understood as saying that this Grand Lodge has taken affirmative
to such recognition, but it is in active fraternal accord with such
to as great an extent as if there had been in each case an express
Your Committee, in this connection, chance the statement that as to all
constituted Grand Lodges recognition is presumed until in some manner
question, when the facts essential to legitimacy must be made to appear.
said that recognition is presumed in particular cases it seems
important to place
some defined meaning on the word ‘recognition,' so as to know how much
in its presumption. So far as we know no specific meaning has been
applied to the
term as employed in Masonic parlance, and we are left to state our own
which is that a simple recognition is an acknowledgment, and, as
applied to Grand
Lodge recognition, it is an acknowledgment of the conditions or facts
to a legal recognition, as, that it is a properly constituted Grand
Lodge. If not
properly constituted, it cannot legally be recognized. If properly
it may or it may not be recognized, depending upon the will and wishes
of the lodge
taking the action, for recognition of a legally constituted lodge is
and other facts than those pertaining to its legitimacy may be
paragraph quoted indicates that in the case of undoubtedly clandestine
as the Thomson Organization, such recognition is not presumed.
I take the
following from a report adopted by Grand Lodge in 1922. See Proceedings
year, page 154: "Your Committee on Recognition of Masonic Bodies
the fact that Masonry is or should be universal. While we do not deem
it best to
endeavor to name every Grand Lodge that we would consider as regular
we believe that when there is only one Masonic governing body in a
country or territory
that such Masonic body should be recognized and its members permitted
to visit in
Iowa lodges, unless for good and sufficient reason we refuse
recognition, or unless
the legitimacy is questioned or denied. When there is more than one
claiming jurisdiction we would suggest that recognition be withheld
until such time
as the Masonic standing shall become unquestionable."
I take the
following from a report adopted by the Grand Lodge of Iowa in 1925. See
of that year, page 163: "Our Grand Lodge is in fraternal accord with
organized Masonic Grand Bodies of the world with but few exceptions. In
on Fraternal Correspondence you will find the Grand Lodges in the
and other English speaking Grand Bodies which we feel we are
recognizing as legitimate
Grand Bodies through the active fraternal accord with such Grand
Bodies. It has
been our theory and doctrine that to all legitimately constituted Grand
recognition is presumed until challenged in some way."
In two of
these reports, there is an indication, or rather, statement, that a
Lodge should be able to trace its descent from the Grand Lodges of
However, we have never gone to the extent of saying that we, would not
a Grand Lodge whose lodges could not so trace their descent. We have in
recognized Grand Lodges whose lodges were organized by Scottish Rite
do claim, however, that a Grand Lodge to be entitled to recognition
must have supreme
authority over the Masonic degrees in their own jurisdiction.
You may be
interested to know that the M.S.A. has a committee working on this
Conference of Grand Masters recently held in Washington, recognizing
of this subject, also ordered a committee to make investigation and
report at a
C. C. Hunt,
* * *
I am enclosing
a clipping from a Pittsburgh paper, which states that Governor Fisher
of this state
was made a Mason at sight, March 7, 1928. Would like to have you
publish same in
THE BUILDER as well as anything you wish to add on the subject. For
has not been long since I read several articles in THE BUILDER on the
Making Masons at Sight.
spoke about William Howard Taft having been made a Mason at sight; he
it was like coming down through the roof when the Tyler was asleep. As
most of us
think that everyone should pass the ballot as well as travel the road,
be Governor or a common workman, would like to see you give a good
article on the
R. P. M., Pennsylvania.
says in a sub-head that this was a "rare honor" conferred on the
It states that:
dispensation of the Grand Master of the lodge of Pennsylvania, the
was made a "Mason at sight," an honor said to be but rarely conferred.
This ceremony waives formalities in the awarding of the first three
is vague and it is evidently written by a non-Mason. "Making a Mason"
does not by itself imply more than Initiation, so it is not clear if
is an E. A. or a M. M. "Waiving formalities" may be properly understood
as those of petition and investigation, but the phrase seems in the
mind of the
writer to imply omission of part of the ceremonies.
Bro. R.P.M. refers to were a series of briefly expressed opinions on
by brethren of more or less prominence in the Craft. They appeared in
number of THE BUILDER for 1925. A wide difference appeared in these
are probably irreconcilable as they depend more on feeling and point of
on pure reasoning.
add that wherever a Grand Master has the power to grant a dispensation
for the formation
of a lodge, to dispense with the statutory interval between petition
and between ballot and initiation, he obviously has the power, by
three rights at one time in his own presence, to congregate a number of
form them into a lodge and proceed to initiate the candidate selected
for this honor.
It seems that it can be properly called an honor, and for that reason
he exercised except where no question as to the fitness of the
recipient could possibly
* * *
If a Master
or Past Master of a lodge will wear his ring with the square open
towards his body
and others wear theirs with the compasses open towards theirs, then
will be in the same relative position as they were in giving and taking
At least it is so in this jurisdiction.
the brother ‒ who neglected to give either his name or address ‒ has
what was said on this subject in the February number on page 64. So far
as we know
what our unknown correspondent says is true for most jurisdictions, but
confess that we fail to see the point exactly.
following queries were on the same sheet, but we have answered them
convenience of indexing:
* * *
In what jurisdiction
(if any) are the lesser lights displayed in all three degrees?
the Grand Lodges of the British Empire the custom is, we believe,
only to display them in the Second and Third Degrees, but to light them
opening of the lodge, and to keep them burning till it is closed. The
are always candles, electric and other imitations being severely
frowned upon. In
the United States, on the other hand, it is quite general to light them
the work of the First Degree, and often only for the few moments while
being explained to the candidate. But we have very little definite
hand upon this particular point and would be glad to have any readers
send us the
usage in their own lodges, and also any variations with which they may
* * *
Grand Jurisdictions, if any, besides Missouri, have refused to
Masonry because they have removed the Holy Bible from their altar?
L. D., Missouri.
can be more easily answered by saying that practically all the English
Grand Lodges, both of America and the British Empire, refuse
recognition to French
Freemasonry. There are a few exceptions. It must be remembered that
there are three
"obediences" in France besides the Co-Masonic Droit Humain, these are
the Grand Orient, the Grand Loge and the Grand Loge National. The
latter is recognized
by the Grand Lodge of England. The Grand Loge is recognized by Alabama,
and in Canada by Manitoba. There are, we believe, one or two others
is much ignorance regarding French Freemasonry, the Grand Loge and the
are not to be judged together. The former has made no essential changes
in its rituals.
So far as the Bible is concerned it is not correct to say it was
removed from the
altar as from the first it never formed part of the furniture of French
It must be remembered that the Bible is not regarded in the same way in
in Protestant countries, and its presence or absence would never have
same thing to French Masons as it does to us.
* * *
that in the various jurisdictions there are different ways of wearing
especially in the Second and Third Degrees. Why is this so, and what do
one of those minor points upon which there is no general agreement. In
the rank to which a brother has attained is designated by the apron
First Degree it is plain, while in the Second there are two rosettes
placed in the
lower corners. The Master Mason has a third rosette on the flap or bib,
Past Master replaces the rosettes by three "levels" or inverted T's.
is hardly symbolism, though perhaps there might have been some
significance in the
last mentioned device. But there is a real difference between a
designation or mark
of distinction and a symbol ‒ or if the former be called a symbol it is
one of the
very lowest denomination, and would be in the same category as letters
when used as distinguishing marks.
the earliest method of distinguishing the rank of Masons was in a
of wearing the apron. This first appears definitely about 1760, when in
(of rather doubtful authority it must be confessed) we are told that
had to wear his apron wrong side out so that the bib was concealed. The
wore his with the bib turned up and fastened to a button on the vest.
aprons were provided with a buttonhole for this purpose.
are reasons for thinking that in France members of those higher degrees
special privileges in Craft lodges (which, it would seem, were often
turned up a corner of their aprons if they did not happen to have with
jewels and other insignia of their exalted rank. It is barely possible
was the origin of the triangular aprons used in so many of the
or Ecossais degrees.
form of apron used by operative Masons, whether of linen or leather,
was large enough
to really cover all the parts of the clothing likely to come in contact
work. Such aprons are still worn by both masons and carpenters in
Europe. It is
quite common when a man is moving about for a corner of the apron to be
into the string in order to get it out of the way and leave more
freedom to the
legs. It does not of course signify anything as to status, it is simply
of individual convenience. Thus on an early occasion of the laying of a
stone by the Grand Lodge of Scotland it was recorded that the
"in due form, with the right corner of their aprons tucked up." As the
procession was composed of all grades of Masons there was no question
in this. It may have been done as following operative custom, but this
lead us to the same conclusion.
earliest American usage there is no doubt that rosettes and other
employed. Later the custom seems to have been that the Master Mason
turned up one
corner of his apron, and the apprentice the flap. Some jurisdictions
this in their instructions but qualify it by saying the Master does not
do so, as a general practice, either for convenience or uniformity or
reason. This leaves in practice no distinction between the Fellowcraft
Other jurisdictions have therefore modified their ritual by transposing
of the Second or Third Degrees, or else by making the Fellowcraft turn
up both corner
a good deal has been written on this subject at one time and another,
it does not
seem that all the information bearing on the subject has yet been
would be well if brethren in a position to do so, looked for any
evidence of a variation
or change in their own jurisdictions. If we knew what actually has been
of the usage in different States we would be in a better position to
changes were made.
* * *
A BOOK WANTED
Department has had an inquiry for Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid,
Smith. If any of our reader have a copy they wish to dispose of, we
would like to
hear from them.
* * *
I am trying
to complete a set of the American Freemason founded and edited by Bro.
If any readers of THE BUILDER have in their possession copies of this
that they would be willing to dispose of, I should be very glad to hear
M. A. Barr, Muscatine, Iowa.
Quarterly Review of Freemasonry Vol. 1
Mac58 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : Robt. Macoy, 1858. - Vol. 1
: 2 : p. 605. - 4 Issues in one Volume - 44.0 MB.
Daniel and the Revelation
Smi97 / auth. Smith Uriah. - Battle Creek : Review and Herald
Publishing Company, 1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 816. - Illustrated - 35.1
Jachin and Boaz
Ano97 / auth. Anonymous. - London : Printed for R. Newberry, 1797. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 82. - 6.8 MB.
Pri30 / auth. Prichard Samuel. - London : Charles Corbett, 1730. - 20th
Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 35. - 1.7 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Lodge of Edinburgh
Lyo73 / auth. Lyon David M. - Edinburgh : Blackwood and Sons, 1873. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 480. - 17.4 MB.
Une Loge Maçonnique d'avant 1789; La R.L. Les Neuf
Ami97 / auth. Amiable Louis / ed. Alcan Felix. - Paris : Ancienne
Librairie Germer Bailliere & Cie., 1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 416.
- 22.8 MB - French.