Masonic Research Society
Shadow of the Vatican
Dr. Leo Cadius
of articles is written by a member of the Roman Church.
still a member of that Church end has no desire to leave it.
do not touch on any matter of faith or doctrine, and while severely
the administration are in no sense an attack upon the church itself.
in writing them is the hope that the abuses he describes and the
foster them may be removed.
in publishing them is to give our readers an intimate inside picture of
working of the ecclesiastical machinery which may help them to judge to
the doubts and apprehensions that exist in the minds of many American
are well founded.
the author's opinion that the reforms he proposes would not only be to
of Roman Catholics but would largely remove the suspicions of so many
non-Romanist American citizens.
LET me say
in advance that Zambolinus is a fictitious character.
Not so many
years ago a young, but influential, Italian ecclesiastic came to our
an impecunious young American priest, borrowed two thousand dollars
from a Polish
pastor to entertain the Italian. Zambolinus, by the way, is not of
He worms his way into the good graces of the interesting visitor. He
has a very
attractive financial proposition to make him. Through this Italian who
to have a very brilliant career, Zambolinus obtains a letter of
Signorina Peppina in Rome. He is admitted into the sanctum of Zambo. He
so well how to humor the little French poodle that he becomes his chief
It is for that reason that he is surnamed Zambolinus.
as has been stated, the Pope's chief deputy in governing the Catholic
the United States, Zambolinus, as the poodle's foremost favorite,
figures as the
power behind the throne. Many a clever American prelate has attempted
him in the assertion of Zambo. But none has ever succeeded in eliciting
many friendly wags of the tail from him as has our tricky Zambolinus.
instincts of a Prussian drill master Zambolinus rules his clergy with a
rod of iron.
He walks rough shod over them in utter disregard of the canon law that
them certain rights. There is no appeal against his tyranny. The
protects him. So there is nothing left for the priests, the highly
leaders and educators, but to jump through the hoop as he cracks the
has become rampant where it was formerly unknown. Simony, the sale and
of ecclesiastical offices, such as pastorates, is practiced openly. The
of the Latin has also been changed. In the place of the ancient per
saeculorum wherewith the priests formerly ended the orisons of the High
are singing now in unison: per omrtia shekels
as custodian of the credit of a prosperous corporation sole ‒ built up
the financial sacrifices of the good Catholic working people ‒ is fond
splendor. The draperies in his episcopal residence cost over fifty
his bedroom suite fifteen thousand dollars; his automobiles are insured
five thousand dollars. At a small banquet he gave in honor of a
of the Zambo Brotherhood, the roses alone cost about a thousand
dollars. The hotel
bills he runs up while vacationing at the seashore have become a
in ecclesiastical circles. At great occasions, a galaxy of purple
prelates and papal
knights with cape and sword surround his throne. It surely pays to
court Zambo ‒
as far as this world is concerned. Compare with his the life of a
priest in southwestern Texas who inhabits a hovel, feasts on peas and
and makes his circuit on an old nag or in second-hand Ford.
is not without his commendable qualities. He is an able, vigilant
He shirks no issue. He is prompt, no procrastinator. But by reason of
personal extravagance, his insatiable vain-glory, his ingratitude, his
his lack of veracity ‒ strange traits in a bishop ‒ and, most of all,
of his tyranny, he is detested by his subjects, the people as well as
He must have been the recipient of numerous threatening letters. At any
rarely, if ever, ventures forth into public without a bodyguard of
a dozen or more at times, all furnished by the city of his episcopal
of his unshakable and unbreakable "pull" with Zambo, the domineering,
vindictive Zambolinus is feared by practically the entire American
Knights of Columbus are, so to speak, the secular arm of the American
They carry out its policies. It is obvious that they entertain a great
the wishes of Zambolinus who, through the grace and favor of Zambo, is
of a dictator in the American Church. Under these circumstances, he is
a great potential
factor in American politics: city, county, state and national. He may
not have the
power to nominate presidential candidates, but he should easily command
influence, by exerting a little pressure on the hierarchy, to prevent
of any presidential candidate, on either the Republican or the
whom he dislikes.
It is not
probable that Zambolinus takes much of a hand in secular politics. His
lies in a different direction. But if he wants to, he can hold the
balance of power
in a presidential campaign.
He is a formidable
potentiality in the political life of the nation. This prestige he owes
the symbolical Italian-owned little poodle in Rome; to Zambo, the
deputy of the
Holy Father, of the most absolutistic and most powerful autocrat in the
But let me
repeat that Zambolinus is merely a fictitious character.
Church has made remarkable progress in this country. Thanks to her
and her perfect organization, she can achieve great results with a
of brains, initiative and money. Ample credit is due to her splendid
system of parish
schools. Also the improved facilities of transportation, notably the
have highly benefited the country districts. Magnificent churches,
elementary schools, hospitals have grown like mushrooms out of the
in the last thirty years. An efficient publicity service has been
organized to disseminate
Catholic literature. The Knights of Columbus have developed into a
whose influence is felt throughout the nation. Without going into
we may safely state that the resources and equipment of the Roman
Church in this
country is vastly, nay infinitely, superior to those of thirty or forty
She is also
putting up a fairly successful fight against race suicide. And although
immigration laws favor the Nordic nations, nevertheless she seems to
gain more by
immigration than all other denominations combined.
All in all,
if the Roman Church keeps up her present rate of increase ‒ and there
is no reason
apparent why she should not ‒ we will have to figure with the
probability that in
half a century from now the Catholics will preponderate numerically
over all non-Catholics
combined. In other words, the population of the United States will in a
be Roman Catholic.
means ‒ laugh, kind reader, laugh ‒ that Zambo of Rome will be the
of the American Republic. By Zambo is understood, of course, our
system. For the literal Zambo, the little French poodle, will be dead.
He will be
succeeded by some other Zambo, or Fido, or Caro, some bulldog, terrier,
spitz or mongrel owned by some Italian Cardinal's relative.
We may conjure
up already in our minds the future pilgrimages our presidential
make to Rome to secure Zambo's endorsement. How deferentially they will
paw! How they will shower presents upon him! What generous election
will lay at his feet!
1976 will be the second centenary of the United States. By that time
the population ought to be Catholic, according to present prospects. My
vision tells me that in that year Zambo himself in person will visit
States to grace the Philadelphia exposition. The Atlantic fleet ‒ navy
or air ‒
will accompany him across the ocean as an escort of honor. At the
the official delegates will welcome him. He will enter New York in
President of the United States will reverentially kneel before him to
kiss his paw.
The army will pass before him in parade. On a specially built train,
cardinal red, he will tour the country amid one continuous ovation. All
of our sovereign states and the mayors of our metropolitan cities will
render him homage with bended knees.
King Louis XI of France made his barber his principal adviser. The
King Frederick the Great of Prussia was largely swayed by the instinct
of his two
pet dogs. He distrusted anybody at whom they might suspiciously sniff.
Elizabeth of Russia ‒ oh, well, all history illustrates abundantly that
the most ridiculous things imaginable have happened. The Vatican is the
of all autocracies. Nowhere in the world, with the exception of Ireland
is the Vatican's control as absolute as it is over the Catholics of the
So we may confidently look forward for many a ludicrous stunt pulled
off under Zambo
rule, for many a rare treat for our American sense of humor.
now that the American sense of humor is not sufficiently developed to
thought of having Zambo for a national dictator, what then?
but one answer to that question. The American non-Catholics will have
to see to
it that their Catholic fellow-citizens become emancipated from the rule
In most of
the so-called Christian countries, the pope's power is defined and
limited by the
existing concordates between the Holy See and the respective
agreements guarantee a certain amount of protection to the Church. But,
on the other
hand, they also restrict her freedom. She had to accept them under
duress. The state
arrogates to itself control over her. Union of state and church usually
of the Church.
In the United
States of America the Church is not hampered by these limitations. The
a free hand. It has made the most of this rare opportunity. The result
is that the
American Church with her immense resources, the fruits of the generous
of her adherents, is completely controlled by the masterful Italian
latter arbitrarily selects the bishops and appoints them custodians of
finances. These care-takers are accountable to the pope only. If the
to obtain a glimpse of their financial status, they have to petition
many an American diocese the clergy and the people are dissatisfied
with the financial
administration of their bishop, I have to learn yet of an instance of a
for an investigation being forwarded to Rome. They lack the courage.
are peons, the lay people unaccustomed to have a voice in
Neither the Catholic nor the secular press dare to print a word
displeasing to the
Roman Catholic hierarchy. The state and federal legislators fear it,
in whispers of its power. Money, the financial resources of over one
dioceses, the moral prestige of the sacrosanct bishops, their potential
in politics and business ‒ all these factors combined form an
of protection for the existing hierarchic system. This system, with its
power, the Roman Pontiff holds in the hollow of his hand.
Catholics are far from being pleased with this state of affairs. The
and the thinking part of the laity would like to have a share in the
of their respective dioceses and in the appointment of bishops. Some of
also feel keenly their humiliating status of lackeys to the Italians.
But they are
all tongue-tied ‒ bishops, priests and laymen.
is safe-guarded against all criticism by the reverence due him, in the
mind, as Vicar of Christ on earth. Under the protection of this cloak
he has stripped the young church of America of every vestige of
and home-rule. He selects the bishops as he pleases, the bishops
appoint the pastors
arbitrarily. Thus we have the unworthy spectacle of American priests
their bishops, of American bishops courting Zambo. A Zambolinus
considers the Catholic
Church the greatest democracy in the world. In a way it is. A
and unscrupulous youth who knows how to "work" this Italian Oligarchy,
can easily attain the position of right-hand man of the papal viceroy
and make himself national dictator of the Church, under Italian
of course, many American Catholics who differ from him. In their mind,
constitution of the Church is a slap in the face of democracy and an
insult to American
self-respect. But they are powerless. A bishop or priest who raises his
protest, is promptly crushed. A layman does not feel qualified to pass
in such a matter. But bishop, priest, or layman, he cannot make himself
he tried. For the press, Catholic or secular, is also tongue-tied. And
voiced in a Protestant publication would be interpreted as an
unfriendly act, inspired
by anti-Catholic bias. Thus any protest directed against the
monopoly would be a pebble cast into the ocean; it would not oven raise
as a bubble.
To sum it
up: The Roman Catholic Church in America is helpless in the grip of the
octopus that chokes any and every aspiration of national self-respect
Delivery can only come from the outside, from the American
non-Catholics, if their
interest can be aroused and if they master sufficient courage to meet
I may be
mistaken, but it seems to me that even non-Catholics who are kindly
the Catholic Church and lavish in their praise of her remarkable
consistency and other distinguishing features, feel somewhat
uncomfortable at her
rapidly increasing prestige and power. They are under the impression,
so, that the present constitution of the Roman hierarchy will slowly
develop into a formidable menace to American democracy and national
But in delicate regard for Catholic sentiment and susceptibilities, and
disinclination to meddle in other people's religion, they dare not
suggest a change
of the hierarchic organization.
American non-Catholics who speak openly of a Catholic peril are the
patrons of those
scurrilous sheets that revile everything Catholic, past, present and
stoop to the lowest misrepresentations and patent calumnies. They
usually sail under
Protestant flag, to the deep chagrin and disgust of all fair-minded
however, are right in one thing: There is a Catholic peril.
the Catholics would ever conspire against the government. Nothing is
their mind. The Catholics have always and everywhere been loyal to the
constituted authority. Even to a government that persecuted them and
of their just civic rights.
lies somewhere else. The day seems to be in sight when the Catholics,
by their mere
numerical preponderance, will have it within their power to control the
That in itself would constitute no peril whatsoever. There is no doubt
that a Catholic
President, assisted by a preponderantly Catholic Congress, would
continue the government
along the established lines. Catholic mayors and predominantly Catholic
in New York, Chicago and Boston have not differed from non-Catholic
nor have Catholic governors in Illinois and New York from non-Catholic
With a Catholic
majority in the United States, the power of the Roman hierarchy, now
would be paramount. The priests, moral peons, can be intimidated into
obedience and money to the bishop, where the latter has no right to
I could name two important archdioceses in which the priests, with
gnashing of teeth,
are paying such tribute. Through these peon-priests a bishop can, if he
exact successfully not only money and homage, but even political
obedience of the
Catholic people. The atmosphere of reverence protects him against
Under these conditions, the officials of the city, state and government
can be intimidated
into submitting to the dictation of the bishops. In a preponderantly
the entire system of government, city, county, state and federal, the
system, our state universities, could thus be easily controlled by the
It Might Work
need not necessarily cause any alarm. A broad-minded and just hierarchy
the freedom of conscience, will recognize merit, will encourage the
science and culture, will foster social welfare and economic justice.
is the danger: the American Catholics have absolutely no voice in the
of their bishops. That right is invested in the Italian Autocracy. The
episcopate is completely enslaved, body and soul, by said Autocracy.
Yes, even bodily.
The American bishop proclaims it in his official documents that he is
the favor of the Apostolic See." Through this favor he enters into
of the episcopal residence and of the episcopal revenues. A withdrawal
of this favor
means dispossession for him.
present hierarchic system, in a predominantly Catholic America, the
would be the long distance but actual supreme government of the people
of the United
States. The President and Congress will represent an eviscerated
with no more than a shadow of power.
present hierarchic system, the American candidates for public office
for the favor of the Zambolinuses as the American Zambolinuses are
the favor of the Italian prelates and of their relatives and servants.
present hierarchic system, there will rest with some Italian cardinal's
with some Italian cardinal's secretary, with some Italian Friar Joseph,
whether a Republican or a Democrat shall occupy the White House.
other elections will be mere mock performances.
present hierarchic system, a future President will be enabled to style
M.......... by favor of the Apostolic See, President of the United
States of North
Sam At The
I am acquainted with only about twenty American bishops. That is less
of the American hierarchy. However, I have met priests from all parts
of the country.
From their conversation I have received the following impression of the
of the bishops are men of conspicuous ability and merit. It is for that
they have been chosen by the Vatican. Some of them are men of
But they are not to be found at the top of the hierarchy.
third are mediocre men who owe their dignity to somebody's unsolicited
They can hardly be blamed for accepting the "greatness" thrust upon
and very influential third are men who kissed, figuratively speaking,
the paw of
is in the ascendant. From present indications it would appear that in
from now about four-fifths of the American hierarchy will be members of
Brotherhood. Why not all, or nearly all of them? Because Zambo finds it
to his own
interest to award a bishopric occasionally ‒ usually an unimportant one
‒ to a man
of merit, to a man who has not kissed his paw.
Catholic bishops as a rule do not dabble in politics, at least not
openly, for fear
of arousing Protestant susceptibilities; also for other reasons.
they make use of their potential political power, either in the
interest of public
morality or to hand a plum to a favorite of theirs.
In a certain
American metropolis the Democratic Party intended to renominate a
of the juvenile court. Said judge had proven himself utterly unfit for
Among other things, he had in open session put questions in unprintable
concerning abnormal sexual aberrations to mere children. The Archbishop
of the city
sends word to the party leaders that if they nominated that misfit, he
to all usage, publicly oppose him. They dropped him.
1926 a little celebration was held on the outskirts of an American
honor of the Archbishop. A Protestant United States Senator was one of
speakers. At the close of the celebration the Archbishop, shaking hands
remarked: "Senator, I want to ask you a favor. Could you not get for
the position of -____?"
mentioned is an important federal "job" and from the point of view of
Prohibition a very interesting one. Mr. A. is a well-known Catholic
do my best, Archbishop," replied the Senator.
later Mr. A. received the federal appointment. He is a good and capable
qualified for the position. There is nothing wrong about his
appointment. Many an
office-holder may perhaps owe his position to the recommendation of
bishop. Why should not a Catholic bishop recommend somebody for office?
is the difference: a Protestant bishop owes his power to American
citizens who elected
him bishop. A Catholic bishop owes his power to Zambo, the
representative of a foreign
a factor in American political life. He has been distributing patronage
He has nominated candidates and he has defeated candidates. His power
in leaps and bounds. Slowly but surely the day is approaching when
Uncle Sam will
find himself at the mercy of Zambo.
in all probability be a broad-minded, easy-going master. He will be
strict in but
one thing: He will insist on very strict laws regarding divorce. He may
divorce altogether. Outside of that, he will not interfere with
On the contrary, he will be too tolerant towards vice and corruption.
All in all,
he will be a good-natured, open-minded, congenial master with plenty of
He will give abuse and take abuse. His rule will in many ways resemble
that of the
Tammany Hall of the olden days but with a greater regard for decorum
I have heard
the opinion expressed that Cardinal O'Connell of Boston was the
of President Coolidge. I am fully convinced that this is a "false
But ‒ and this is important ‒ it might easily have been the case. To
whom does a
prelate like Cardinal O'Connell owe his great power and prestige? His
will tell you: "William Cardinal O'Connell, by the grace of God and
the Apostolic See, Archbishop of Boston." He is an appointee, an agent,
the Apostolic See, of the most absolutistic of all autocracies.
If the American
non-Catholics really want to prevent their country from becoming a
they will have to take action. I can see but one course open to them:
the American Catholics from the yoke of the Italian autocracy.
It is all-important
that the rescue crew, that volunteers to engineer this emancipation,
a strictly objective, dispassionate, friendly way. All anti-Catholic
bias will have
to be suppressed. The American Catholics are, after all, well-meaning,
sociable and open-minded, who rather believe in parading their faults
virtues. They are the victims of circumstances. They have been slowly
subjugated by the subtle Italian autocracy.
step should be to arouse the Catholics to a realization of their
Their parish schools offer a convenient handle.
are a valuable asset to the nation and to the church. They teach sound
morality based on the fear of God. They inculcate respect for lawfully
authority. They foster a spirit of loyalty and patriotism.
just one fly in the ointment. These schools are also instrumental,
in creating an atmosphere of servile reverence for the Italian
despises democracy and ignores national self-respect.
A Conflict Of
non-Catholics are aware of this. There exists a widespread propaganda
national ideals in the common schools. The State of Oregon passed a law
private primary schools. The federal courts declared this law
because encroaching on the natural right of the parents to select
they deem best for their children.
of the federal courts might be challenged. In most civilized countries,
included, there are compulsory school laws forcing parents to provide a
minimum of education for their children. According to above decision,
school laws would also infringe on parental rights. Nobody views them
in that light,
however. On the contrary, these compulsory school laws are considered
and in keeping with the spirit of progress.
If a sovereign
state of the Union has the right to prescribe a minimum of elementary
may it not also claim the right to insist that in the parish schools
ideals of democracy and national self-respect be protected?
If the Soviets
conducted in this country private elementary schools ‒ as they are
doing in England
‒ in which two million American children were taught communistic and
ideals, would the state or federal authorities have the right to close
I am not prepared to answer that question, but I am convinced that the
Catholics would clamor for the suppression of those schools without
much about the natural rights of the Soviet parents to select for their
whatever education they consider most suitable.
a bill has been introduced recently into the Upper House, demanding the
of the Soviet schools for teaching anarchism and immorality.
no such perversion taught in the Catholic schools. On the contrary, the
ideals are being fostered. But there is being instilled also into the
minds of two
million pupils of the American Catholic parish schools the deepest
the strongest possible attachment, to a foreign absolutistic system:
if not the letter, of the Constitution of the United States surely
ought to empower
the state legislatures and the federal government to employ the means
to protect the American ideals of democracy and national self- respect.
Legislatures and Congress would be acting according to the spirit of
then, if they adopted a legislative measure to the effect that:
organizations or individuals as conform to our traditional ideals of
national self-respect can be authorized to conduct private elementary
question then would be: Does the Roman Catholic Church, in its present
form of government, conform to the American ideals of democracy and
I, for one,
would answer: No!
If the Roman
Catholic Church adopted a representative form of government, as has,
the Protestant Episcopal Church;
the administrative powers be
invested, say in an Upper House of the Bishops
and a Lower House of the common clergy and laity;
the members of both Houses
are chosen, indirectly, through popular vote;
the Pope, the Supreme
Executive of the Church, be elected in a truly representative
form that accords equal, pro rata, recognition to the various
Roman Catholic Church then conform to our established standard of
I would answer:
Let us assume
now that the Federal Government felt authorized to close the Catholic
because the present hierarchic form of government of the Roman Church
does not conform
to our traditional standard of democracy and national self-respect:
what would the
schools being of paramount importance to the Church, more important
even than the
very houses of worship, the American Catholic hierarchy would be
compelled to petition
the Pope that he accede to the reasonable demands of the American
that he reorganize the government of the Church on a representative
the American bishops of their own accord petition the pope to this
being forced by the Federal Government?
but they would never muster sufficient courage to do so. Never, unless
compelled to. They would never, even in the humblest and most
presume to submit to the Holy Father a petition that would displease
him and his
no doubt be an easy matter to convince our Congress that the Italian
with its absolute control over the American Catholic hierarchy, is
a rapidly growing menace to American independence. In fact, it is
already a formidable
a different thing would it be to persuade Congress ‒ or the legislature
of a state
with a large Catholic population ‒ to take action against the menace.
would probably be like that of a well-known Chicago judge. When a
a powerful politician who had been caught in the meshes of the law, was
to his court to be sentenced, he threw up his hands: "Please don't pass
buck to me!" Congress will want to pass the pleasure of taking the
bull by the horns on to some future Congress. However, under pressure,
accept the inevitable.
Here is one
mode of procedure that might be followed: Let a bill be introduced into
requesting the Administration to recommend to His Holiness the Pope,
Rome, Italy, to change certain administrative and doctrinal tenets of
Church that constitute a source of apprehension and anxiety to the
people of the United States. The changes suggested are:
His Holiness the Pope
reorganize the government of the Church on a representative
basis that would accord to the Catholic clergy and the people the power
its ecclesiastical superiors and to share in the administration of the
of the Church, and also would accord to the various nations
constituting the Roman
Church, a fair, pro rata, representation in the Supreme Government of
a government of the United States is aware of the fact that the Roman
its original constitution is not a republic and that the spiritual
powers of the
hierarchy of the Roman Church are not derived from the consent of those
but are derived from the Sacrament of Holy Order. The Government of the
therefore, does not suggest a change that would conflict with the
of the Roman Church, but on the contrary suggests a return to said
original or primitive
constitution and, perhaps, the perfecting of said original constitution
lines of modern electoral methods.
His Holiness the Pope
repudiate the claim of the papacy, as voiced by
approved Catholic theologians, that all civil authority is subject to
His Holiness the Pope
repudiate the claim of the papacy ‒ that the Roman
Pontiff has the divine right to force, under given conditions, the
on people unwilling to embrace said religion.
If His Holiness
the Pope should reject these demands, what then?
Government could, through the regular channels, adopt the following
- Close the Catholic parish
- Demand the withdrawal of the
Papal Delegate in Washington, as, under those
circumstances, his presence in the United States would be a source of
and discomfort to the liberty-loving American people. Moreover, in case
of a great
religious excitement, his safety could not be guaranteed.
- Require of every Catholic
citizen who wants to exercise the right of the
ballot, a two-fold oath:
- that he, the Catholic voter,
repudiates the claim of the papacy that all
civil authority is subject to the Roman Pontiff;
- that he repudiates the divine
right of the Roman Pontiff to compel, under
given conditions, non-Catholics to embrace the Catholic faith.
to say, this oath should also be demanded of every Catholic candidate
- That in every textbook of
United States history used in American schools,
a brief chapter be inserted explaining the reasons why the American
those measures in regard to the Catholic Church. It ought to be made
clear to the
rising generation that the government was forced to take these steps in
of the freedom of conscience and of lasting religious peace.
- Place an "embargo" on the
- Exclude Catholic immigrants.
would be merely the opening skirmishes in the gigantic struggle.
If the American
Government demanded of the papacy the repeal of the absolutist and
that disturb the religious peace of the world in general, and of the
in particular, it would confer a signal favor on the vast majority of
Catholics. Of course, tongue- tied as they are, they could only give
approval. They would, however, come out in the open, if among the more
hundred bishops there were found one man sufficiently courageous to
the action of the government. But this is not to be hoped for.
(To be Continued)
New Mexico Resolves to Carry On
not often that THE BUILDER undertakes to publish news. But so many of
have been profoundly disappointed at the prospect of the complete
failure of the
campaign for the relief of tuberculous Masons that we have felt obliged
space for the good news that has just reached us in the following
M. W. Bro. H. B. Holt, President of the Association.
adopted report and recommendations. Jurisprudence Committee revised
which was also adopted, recommending that the Association change its
name to Masonic
Tuberculosis Association. Also recommended changing Article four of
charter to make
the Association the agent or trustee of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico.
changing Article six to provide for the election of the Board by the
of New Mexico, or the appointment of Board members by the Grand Master,
membership to New Mexico brethren. The resolution also reaffirms the
of the obligation upon the Fraternity to relieve the sick, and the
organized effort is necessary, and that the entire Fraternity should
unite in the
work, and function through the Association. The resolution favors
the effort to arouse the Fraternity, and pledged Grand Lodge assistance
action by other Grand Lodges and Masonic Bodies. It directed the Grand
make the appeal in the name of the Grand Lodge. It also pledged the
of the one dollar assessment on New Mexico Masons. When the Association
the suggested amendments the organization will then be an Association
Masons incorporated by the authority of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico,
by it, to secure aid for and furnish relief to tuberculous Masons, and
their families sojourning in the Southwest, seeking the benefits of the
and also to secure action by Grand Lodges and Masonic Bodies for relief
of tuberculous Masons and members of their families in every state.
H. B. Holt.
spoken of in this communication formed part of the report presented by
as President of the Association to the Grand Lodge. An advance copy of
sent to us, but too late for publication in this issue. We give,
however, the recommendations
below, and will print the remainder of the report in the April number
of THE BUILDER.
taken by this Grand Lodge with reference to this Report will determine
of the National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association.
was sponsored and its Charter applied for and obtained by authority and
of this Grand Body; and there is here presented for determination the
whether or not steps shall be taken to dissolve the corporation, or an
to perpetuate its primary objects through amendments of the Charter,
plan of organization; or, whether or not it is advisable to abandon the
legal entity, and substitute some other agency through which to
relief; or, whether or not this Grand Lodge shall entirely abandon
work except such as strictly relates to brethren of this Grand
If the existing
legal entity is not perpetuated, it will be necessary to consult the
donors of relief
funds as to the disposition to be made of same.
If the existing
corporation is not dissolved, and its Charter is amended as above
complication will arise as to administration and disposition of relief
the possible exception of such as may have been specifically donated
purposes, and as to those it is our belief that authority may readily
to expend them for tubercular relief.
If the movement
in which we have been engaged did not involve the lives and homes of
it would be easy to reach the conclusion that we have done our utmost,
our responsibility is ended; but consciousness of the fact that there
the welfare and lives of so many indigent brethren and members of their
suggests that we should discuss the question from the standpoint of our
is not conceded, and if this Grand Lodge shall determine to "carry on,"
notwithstanding the indifference and apathy toward, and ignorance of,
problem, until, like the importunate widow of the Scriptures (Luke
18:2-5), by our
constant repetition of appeal and argument, we compel a hearing and
by the great body of American Freemasonry, then, as stewards of this
trust, it would
appear to be our duty to point out the way whereby another, and perhaps
effort may be made.
review of the whole great effort to date, reveals the outstanding,
regrettable fact that American Freemasons, as individuals, have not
to consider and act upon our appeal, because Masonic leaders in the
jurisdictions, with few exceptions, have declined to authorize or
permit the circularization
of constituent lodges and their individual members.
of organization contemplated an association of Grand Lodges and other
for relief on a national scale.
has our effort to perfect such an organization failed, but the Masonic
has lost many of its member Grand Lodges; and it is evident that there
is a growing
prejudice against national Masonic associations ‒ no matter how worthy
If this Grand
Lodge shall approve the suggested amendment of our Charter, and if same
as suggested, the existing corporation would thereby become an
Association of Master
Masons, rather than of Masonic bodies; which, however, would still
legal entity or corporation sponsored by and largely under the control
of this Grand Lodge, by virtue of the fact that all New Mexico members
of the Fraternity
are members of the existing Association, and would continue so to be;
of the Board of Governors would be chosen from individual Masons of
who might signify their willingness to serve by reason of their
interest in the
work, and their membership in the Association.
And it is
possible that the future development of the movement may ultimately
result in the
accomplishment of our primary object and purpose.
having a legal entity, so sponsored and directed, this Grand Lodge
would be in position
to appeal to sister Grand jurisdictions and other Masonic bodies, for
aid, and such appeal should emanate from this Grand Lodge; and the
funds of the
Association might ultimately prove sufficient to provide for the
activities of the
Fort Bayard Relief and Sojourners Club, and similar activities ‒
whereby the general
fund of this Grand Lodge would be relieved to that extent.
be determined to recommend the dissolving of the existing corporation,
it will immediately
become incumbent upon this Grand body to determine through what, if
relief work shall be administered.
In the event
of such decision, it would seem advisable to create a more or less
in the shape of an appropriately named committee of five or seven
members, who shall
be appointed or elected ‒ the minority number for a period of two years
majority for a period of three years, and thereafter their respective
to be chosen for terms of three years.
Such an agency,
if created, should be clothed with full administrative and
through the medium of appropriate legislation by this Grand Lodge.
alternative is that of abandoning organized tubercular relief work,
as is strictly required for our own indigent tuberculars and their
the continued maintenance and support of the Fort Bayard Relief and
of this policy would be in line with that advocated and pursued by many
of our sister
Grand jurisdictions; but would be contrary to our conception of the
teachings of Masonry.
We are taught
and understand that all Masons are our brethren, regardless of the
from which they hail, and that it is our duty to respond whenever we
Grand Hailing Sign of Distress.
for our obligations precludes the ignoring of the appeal of any
brother no matter whence he comes.
Masons we are taught to practice charity and to be truly benevolent,
charity is absolutely essential in order properly and adequately to
deal with the
great problem which confronts American Freemasonry today.
We are of
the opinion that this Grand Lodge would do well to consider the first
proposition. Therefore, in order to initiate discussion of the whole
to present the primary proposition in such form that it may be acted
upon, we submit
the following proposed resolution, to-wit:
the President of the National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria
Association has reported
to this Grand Lodge inability to complete organization of the
the lines prescribed in the original Charter, and has suggested that
be so amended as to change the name, method of government, and plan of
BE IT RESOLVED: That this Grand Lodge recommends that steps be taken to
Charter- of said Association, as follows, to wit:
the name of the Association, wherever same appears in the original
Articles of Incorporation,
or Charter, shall be changed so as to read "Masonic Tuberculosis
Article VI, with the exception of the Proviso therein, be amended so as
as follows, to-wit:
All the affairs
and business of this corporation shall be under the control of, and
shall be conducted
by, a Board of Governors chosen by and from the membership of the
each annual meeting and/or of such other and/or additional members as
to time, during intervals between annual meetings, may be named by the
Board of Governors or the executive committee.
And be it
further resolved that this Grand Lodge reaffirms its recognition of the
devolving upon the Masonic Fraternity to make adequate provision for
of worthy brethren and members of their families who are victims of
and its firm conviction that adequate relief can be afforded only
through the medium
of an efficient organization; and that the burdens incident to
relief for indigent brethren and members of their families, victims of
who migrate to the Southwest in search of climatic advantages in the
hope of regaining
their health, should be assumed and borne by the Fraternity at large,
medium of an agency such as that which is here involved, through which
the problem be efficiently and economically handled.
Grand Lodge therefore favors a continuance of the effort, heretofore so
made to arrest the attention and arouse the interest of American
to enlist the financial aid and assistance of individual Masons and of
throughout the United States; and pledges a continuance of its
to the further efforts and work of the Association, and its active
the renewed and continued effort to secure requisite financial
assistance from other
Grand jurisdictions and Masonic bodies.
amendments, if made, will so change the name of the Association as to
made to a "National" Association, and also the opposition to the
of a "National Sanatorium."
also so change the method of government and plan of organization as to
eliminate objections by some Grand Masters to participating in the
the Association or assuming any responsibility for its financial
the proposed change, members of the Board of Governors may be selected
Grand jurisdiction, from among interested Masons who are desirous of
assisting in the work.
of the amendments will be to provide a legal entity, sponsored and
this Grand Lodge, to which other Grand jurisdictions and Masonic bodies
may be induced
to render financial aid, as the result of direct appeals for aid
this Grand Lodge, without becoming committed to continuous
appropriations, but the
support once afforded, would doubtless be continued as long as merited.
And in addition
it will also be possible for the Association to make direct appeal to
Masons for support.
By the adoption
of the proposed resolution, this Grand Lodge will reaffirm and declare
to the movement, and its sponsorship of the Association heretofore
created by its
It is for
us to determine whether or not we shall "carry on" as proposed in the
foregoing resolution, or what alternative course of action shall be
Tubercular Relief In Arizona
was presented to the Grand Lodge of Arizona and was adopted at the
held last month.
To the M.
W. Grand Lodge, F. & A. M., of Arizona:
on Sanatoria reports that progress has been made during the past year
in the effort
to secure cooperation of other Grand Bodies in the operation of the
It now appears
probable that the cooperation and assistance of the Grand Lodge of New
its constituent corporation (the N.M.T.S.A.) (organized for benevolent
purposes to secure financial assistance from other jurisdictions and
for the care of Masons and their families who are suffering from
be secured to assist in carrying on this work which the Grand Lodge of
had in hand for several years, as considerable progress has been made
lines during the past year in conference with Grand Lodge officers of
and other jurisdictions.
therefore recommends that the Grand Master be authorized to continue
with the Grand Lodge of New Mexico and other Grand Jurisdictions and
as may be necessary, to the end that all assistance possible may be
secured by the
Grand Lodge of Arizona in carrying on this work.
of the brethren both in New Mexico and Arizona to continue their
efforts to meet
the need for the relief of tuberculous Masons and members of their
families in spite
of the discouragement of the past year is very good news indeed, and we
all members of the Research Society will desire that the new attack
upon the problem
will be crowne with a successful issue.
Saint Patrick and the Snakes of Ireland
Bro. H. S.
not much that is truly authentic in the tales about Saint Patrick; yet
we may be
certain of some of the events in his life, which were connected with
of driving the "snakes" out of Ireland.
probably held some manner of public office under the Roman governor of
Patrick in his youth was named Sucat, and was apparently born in Wales
A. D. He was captured by Irish raiders on the coast, when about sixteen
For six years he was held a prisoner, during which time he seems to
the language of his captors, and also he seems to have heartily learned
the Druidical religion.
his escape, and reached Europe or Africa in a ship. He mentions
crossing a desert
before reaching Gaul. But that "desert" is probably the symbolical path
of asceticism which is barren of spiritual blossoming until priesthood
attained. In Royal Arch Masonry, the candidates go blind-folded over
desert of ignorance and ancient faiths, all the way from Babylon to
worst is then over.
to have stayed for fourteen years or thereabouts in France. How much of
he put in studying for orders we do not know; but we do know that he
the direction of the Bishop of Gaul, and received the name of
He was commissioned to go to Ireland to convert the poor benighted
heathen to the
true faith, and to counteract the spread of an independent sect of
were working in the southeastern part of the Emerald Isle. Patrick,
into Northern Ireland, thus leaving the sect in question unmolested;
and so it remained
until fused into the Church of England at a later date.
or purposely, Patrick broke the taboos of the Druid priests on May-eve,
or "new" fire was made throughout the locality, by diffusion from a
flame. The Druids were really staging a dramatization of their doctrine
of the manner
in which the Promethean fire, or the blaze of forethought was brought
into the dark
mind- realms of mankind. Patrick's actions were looked upon as
they really were; and thus his conflict with the Druids began. Patrick
won the trial, and the Gospel was spread over the island rapidly. His
mission and hobby was the persecution of the Druids, and the
suppression of their
rites and practices. He broke into their circles and their schools in
He broke into their temples, such as they were, and smashed their
idols, when they
had any. In fact, Patrick and his followers seem effectively to have
Druids from Ireland, if they did not also exterminate many of them,
which is not
at all unlikely.
Legend Of The
It was in
that work of extirpating the Druidical faith, and in driving out the
"Druids," that Saint Patrick gained that strange zoological distinction
of having driven the "snakes" out of Ireland. The Irish peasant,
absurdly imagines that the zealous missionary actually ridded the
swamps and meadows
of literal reptiles, in spite of the fact that small serpents are still
Ireland. In fact, the ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church seem
to have fostered
this view of what Saint Patrick did. They did not understand that the
It was the
Druids who were the "snakes." They called themselves "snakes."
They were proud to call themselves "serpents" and especially "adders."
They had degrees of initiation into their priestly and philosophical
candidates or those of the lowest order seem to have been called
They lived as it were, far down from the sunlighted hill-tops. The
in the swamps and lakes. The "adders" seem to have been the highest
and were the Druids proper. (1) They were supposed to be spotted with
markings of the light of wisdom and purification. They symbolically
lived upon the
hill-tops, and were "Spotted Adders" basking in the sunlight of truth.
Far and wide,
the serpent is called the emblem of wisdom and knowledge. The Druids
themselves as having won the wisdom of the serpents. Even Jesus said:
wise as serpents." But the Druids prided themselves on spiritual and
wisdom, rather than on the carnal wisdom that the serpent conferred
knew his wife." The Egyptians tried to show that the brow of Pharaoh
seat of wisdom by representing the uraeus twined about his head.
of Druidical lore by the name of Davies has translated the poems of a
named Taliesin. In the "Ox-pen of the Bards," this poet says:
I am a singer:
I am a tower:
I am a Druid:
I am an architect:
I am a prophet:
I am a serpent:
I am love...
Thus he identifies
himself as a Druid with the serpents. In the "Battle of the Trees," the
same bard also says:
I have been a spotted adder on
the mount …
I have been a viper in the lake …
Drest in my priest's cloke
And furnished with my bowl.
is apparently speaking of the initiations through which he had passed
in being made
a Druid of high order. Evidently, he passed through something analogous
to the degrees
of primitive secret societies, or of Freemasonry. The Druids are well
known to have
had at least three degrees which were conferred most solemnly at night.
and lowest was the Eubates, the second, the Bards; and the third, the
candidate went through a symbolical death, being buried in the West,
and then was
resurrected in the East in the Third Degree. There were probably other
had to be passed, too.
in their rituals staged the idea of "world renewal," and they taught
doctrine of reincarnation of the soul, as a means of spiritual
salvation. They taught the immortality of the soul, and the final
the dead. These ideas were beautifully symbolized by means of a small
or by a colored glass egg, which, as an emblem and a silent promise of
a new life,
was hung about the neck by a chain.
he saw one of those eggs, and he tells what he heard concerning it. He
says it was
covered with a membrane or integument; but he seems not to have
examined it further
than to state that the membrane was studded with small cavities. They
eyes by which the Druid saw and knew all things. Pliny does not state
was a golden, a glass, or a vitrified-clay egg within the covering.
few of them were really of gold. Many of the glass ones were of several
Pliny describes the one he saw as an "involved ball"; and by that we
he means that it was a sphere or egg enclosing several other eggs
after the manner of the Babylonian conception of the universe, world
The egg was
supposed to be produced in the froth of a knot of serpents, and from
them it shot
forth or was tossed up. At such a moment, the plucky man would snatch
the egg or
catch it in his cloak, and ride off at full speed, with the snakes in
thief had only to cross running water to make himself safe, because the
could not or would not continue. The egg was also said to send its rays
to a distance.
It was called a "Token of Life," and "the splendid product of the
adder." These statements have reference doubtless to dramatic events in
rites of passage. The egg in the cloak is no doubt the candidate
in his own cloak. It is he who is shot forth, tossed up, or as he would
in radiant wisdom by the concerted teachings of the closely knitted
knot of brethren
who circle about him in single file, circumambulating like a snake.
water that he crosses has reference to baptism, whereby symbolically
accomplishes a new birth. Then having come to the status of the
men," the adders no longer pursue him, for he is on a par with them.
a finished mental and spiritual product of the esoteric teachings of
the tyro becomes a splendid jewel, a radiant ball, or a golden egg, a
Then he is entitled to wear the golden egg, as the insignium of his
as a Mason wears his emblem. The egg is his proof offered to others
that he has
been shown the secrets of Life in its fullness of immortality,
power and influence. All in all, the ideas were most noble and poetical
The one unquestioned
good that Saint Patrick did accomplish was the suppression of human
the remnant of it that the Druids in Ireland practiced. Their rites of
renewal" involved the symbolical representation of the destruction of
souls, by the tossing of a basket- full of criminals all ablaze into
the sea, from
off a cliff. After ten years labours, Saint Patrick went to Rome for
the first time.
He came back with several parcels of holy bones, and with them, he
cult of cadaver worship into Ireland. Even though the Cross superseded
egg as a symbol of Irish religion, we have nevertheless retained the
egg in its
brightly colored form, as the emblem of the resurrection, and which is
especially upon children on Easter Sunday. Easter was a great fete-day
Druids, but not with the early Christians. So after all, the "Splendid
of the Adders," was not wholly extirpated from the Emerald Isle, even
Patrick did succeed in driving the "snakes" out of the land.
contrast between adders and vipers is not borne out by the zoological
facts. They are both names for the same species of viperinae. [Ed.]
2. It would
probably be well to offer some proof for the bald statement in
the foregoing text, where it was asserted that the candidate fleeing
with the stolen
egg, is not pursued farther than the stream, because therein, he is
a baptismal rebirth, lifting him spiritually to the status of the
The following quotation seems to substantiate the writer's
interpretation. It is
taken from Conway's "Demonology and Devillore," [Lib 1879; Vol
1, Vol 2] N.Y., 1889,
Craft," an African who resided for some time in the kingdom
of Dahomey, informed me of the following incident which he had
The sacred serpents are kept in a grand house, which they sometimes
leave to crawl
in the neighboring grounds. One day a negro from some distant region
one of these animals and killed it. The people learning that one of
their gods had
been slain, seized the stranger, and having surrounded him with
brushwood, set it
on fire. The poor wretch broke through the circle of fire and ran,
pursued by the
crowd, who struck him with heavy sticks. Smarting from the flames and
rushed into a river; but no sooner had he entered there, than the
and he was told that, having gone through fire and water, he was
purified, and might
emerge with safety."
for Druidical honors seems to have purified himself by a baptism
in water alone, for no mention appears to be made of any requisite
baptism by fire.
In the one case, the offender emerges from the stream, forgiven for
a "snake's" egg; and in the other case, he is forgiven for having
a snake. In either case the snakes are sacred.
The Dionysiac Artificers; a Masonic Myth
Bro. David E.
W. Williamson, Nevada
writers, especially in recent years, have adopted the assumption that
Dionysiac Artificers of Ionia were an organized brotherhood of
architects and builders,
the forerunners of the Craft if not its actual founders. It is
to discover in absolutely none of the Greek and Roman authors of
antiquity a single
mention of them in connection with the structural arts. Misled by their
to verify the pretentious footnotes cited in Alexander Lawrie's History
the first edition of which appeared in Edinburgh in 1804 and the second
in 1859, some very eminent brothers here and abroad have been made the
an imposture that in the interest of truth should be exposed.
suggestion of the Dionysiac Artificers as a possible fraternity of
was made by Professor John Robison, a Scotch mathematician, secretary
to the Royal
Society of Edinburgh, who in 1797 published a book entitled Proofs of a
Against All the Religions and Governments of Europe, Carried on in the
of the Freemasons, Illuminati, etc. [Lib 1798] His purpose was probably
in some way, but so far as the book itself was concerned on its face it
was an attack
on Freemasonry's interference with government and included English
well as that on the Continent in its indictment. In his second edition
his statements about the Craft in Great Britain. On page 20 of Proofs
of a Conspiracy
Professor Robison says among other things:
We know that the Dionysiacs of
Ionia were a great
corporation of architects and engineers who undertook, and even
building of temples and stadia, precisely as the Fraternity of
the building of cathedrals and conventual churches in the Middle Ages.
Dionysiacs resembled in many respects the mystic fraternity now called
as a scholar at a time when the classics were essential as part of the
of an educated man, must have been aware that as architects and
engineers the Dionysiac
Artificers were unknown to the ancients. At any rate he limited himself
out pretended points of resemblance and he did not go so far as to say
Dionysiac Artists and the modern Freemasons were the same. It remained
History of Freemasonry eight years later to take Robison's statement as
for a long chapter in which the unqualified assertion was made that the
identical. Lawrie was a bookseller in Edinburgh in 1804 and because of
of his book (as Robert Freke Gould, Masonic historian, suggests), he
Grand Secretary of the Craft in Scotland. But he was not a man of
the very learned air of his production led to the general belief that
he had employed
someone else to write it. On May 9, 1863, Notes and Queries (London)
statement that at the sale of the library of Dr. Irving, a note in the
hand-writing was found in a copy of the History in which it was stated
had asked Irving to write it and on his declining had employed David
who afterwards became famous through his discovery of the diffraction
for which he was knighted, was a young man at the time, a recent
graduate of the
University of Edinburgh, who was supporting himself by furnishing
articles to encyclopedias
and current magazines, and, if he was the author of Lawrie's History he
regarded it as an occasion for a jeu d'e'sprit, for he certainly knew
and Roman writers. But a single putative note is hardly sufficient
Brewster had anything to do with it. Nor is it necessary to assume that
of the book was a man of great erudition, for the Dionysiac idea was
ready to his
hand in Robison's Proofs of a Conspiracy and the classical quotations
available at Lawrie's own book-shop in Lempriere's Classical Dictionary
[Lib 1853], which had been first
in 1788 and of which there had been many editions.
of the History in which the Artificers are discussed appears on its
face to be a
very learned affair, with copious footnotes. It treats of the Dionysia,
of Bacchus, by way of introduction, tells of how they were interwoven
of Ceres and gives some particulars of the Eleusinian mysteries at
references to Plutarch and Herodotus. Then it says:
As Bacchus was the inventor of
theatres, as well
as of dramatical representations, that particular class of Masons, who
in the erection of these extensive buildings, were called the Dionysian
who possessed the exclusive privilege of erecting temples, theatres,
and other public
buildings in Asia Minor. They supplied Ionia and surrounding countries
apparatus by contract; and erected to Bacchus, the founder of their
Order, the magnificent
temple at Teos. These artists were initiated into the mysteries of
and consequently into those of Eleusis. (History, page 25.)
For the statement
that they were employed in the erection of extensive buildings and were
Artificers, Aulus Gellius, lib. xx, c. 4, is given as the sole
to sustain the rest of it the especial references that would carry
weight in regard
to "the magnificent temple at Teos" are to Strabo, lib. iv. Let us
turn to Aulus Gellius, whose work is called Noctes Atticae, using the
copy of the
original as published by Teubner at Leipzig in 1903, the text edited by
Hosius. Here is book twenty, chapter four, to which Lawrie refers his
Unseemly and shameful fondness
and lust of players;
and words written upon it by the philosopher Aristotle.
youth, pupil of the philosopher Taurus, had as companions in his
pleasures and pastimes
some comedians, tragedians and flute-players. They call this race in
artificers of Dionysus. To lead the youth away from fellowships and
with stage players, Taurus sent him these words copied from Aristotle's
General Problems and ordered him to employ himself daily in reading it:
"For what reason are the
for the most part worthless? Because, with as little as possible of
studies and barely sufficient skill, they form a fellowship to share in
of living and because they are in difficulty most of the time on
account of their
incontinence. Each is skilled in providing unskilled thines."
it will be noted, is solely about shiftless and dissolute actors and
yet it is the only citation made by Lawrie to sustain his statement
that the Dionysiac
Artificers were employed in the erection of extensive theatrical
buildings ! The
fraud practiced upon the reader by Lawrie is at once apparent, but the
rest of his
statement may well be quoted here in its essentials. On page 27 of his
resumes his theme thus:
About a thousand
years before Christ, the inhabitants of Attica … sailed to Asia Minor,
the inhabitants seized upon the most eligible situations and united
them under the
name of Ionia in compliment to the majority of their number, who were
the province. In a short time the Asiatic colonies surpassed the mother
in prosperity and science. Sculpture in marbles and the Doric and
were the result of their ingenuity… For these improvements the world is
to the Dionysian Artificers, an association of scientific men who
exclusive privilege of erecting temples, theatres and other public
Asia Minor… These artists were very numerous in Asia and existed under
appellation in Syria, Persia and India. About three hundred years
a considerable body of them were incorporated, by command of the kings
who assigned to them Teos as a settlement, being the city of their
goes on to say that they had words and signs of recognition, were
divided into lodges,
and each separate association was under a master and presidents or
they had a general meeting once a year, used utensils in ceremonies
which were exactly similar to those that are employed by the Fraternity
and that the richer provided for the less fortunate brothers.
Therefore, says Lawrie:
We are authorized to conclude
that the fraternity
of the Ionian architects and the Fraternity of Freemasons are exactly
In their internal as well as external procedures the Society of
the Dionysiacs of Asia Minor… We are authorized to infer not only that
existed before the reign of Solomon, but that they assisted this
monarch in building
that magnificent fabric which he reared to the God of Israel.
ancient author to whom Lawrie's History refers for these statements and
mentions the Dionysiac Artificers is Strabo. The first footnote in the
says: Strabo, liber iv, and two other footnotes repeat it ‒ Strabo,
liber iv. Book
iv of Strabo never mentions them, but is principally a description of
European lands, Britain and the Alpine regions. All that Strabo has to
them is found in his fourteenth book, chapter 50, 29, and it is as
in Bohn's library]
Next to Colophon is the
mountain Coracium, and
a small island sacred to Artemis, to which it is believed that the
hinds swim across
to bring forth their young. Then follows Lebedos. Distant from Colophon
This is the place of meeting and residence of the Dionysiac artists
about) Ionia as far as the Hellespont. In Ionia a general assembly is
held and games
are celebrated every year in honor of Bacchus. These artists formerly
Teos, a city of the Ionians next in order after Colophon, but on the
of a sedition they took refuge at Ephesus- and when Attalus settled
them at Myonnesus,
between Teos and Lebedos, the Teians sent a delegation to request the
to permit Myonnesus to be fortified, as it would endanger their safety.
to Lebedos and the Lebedians were glad to receive them on account of
their own scanty
nothing in this about a fraternity of architects and engineers or
about their having the exclusive privilege of erecting theatres temples
buildings and nothing to justify the idea that they were stonemasons or
any sort; yet it is the reference made by Lawrie and out of it Prof.
also must have drawn whatever he knew about the Dionysiac Artificers.
in Lawrie's History name Herodotus, Anacharsis Plutarch, Livy, Gillies'
of Greece, Chandler's Travels in Asia Minor, Chishull's Asiatic
Antiquities by the Society of Dilettanti, Josephus' Antiquities and
The Anacharsis on whom he relies is the hero of Barthelemy's fictitious
en Grece, and the archaeological lore of the French numismatist has
by modern scholarship. Anacharsis was published in 1789 as admittedly a
fiction and was a widely read work in the original French. Gillies'
History of Greece,
published in 1786 [Lib 1786; Vol 1, Vol 2], was really a political
for the Whig party in Great Britain and, though once widely read, never
value as history. Chandler was a classical scholar and an able man, but
the settlement of Ionia and not Dionysiac Artificers in the places
the footnotes given by Lawrie, except with reference to their
settlement in Teos,
in which Chandler, as would be expected of a scholar, follows Strabo,
whom he illuminates
by the knowledge gained in his own wide travels. Chishull is not
mentioned in any
encyclopaedia and the writer cannot trace his works. Of Herodotus, Livy
Lawrie quotes them only in connection with the Dionysia, the Bacchic
and the worship of Dionysus, and not as authority for any statement,
the Artificers, with which as an obvious matter of fact they have
nothing to do.
But, if the
Dionysiac Artificers were not builders, what were they? Precisely the
tragedians and flute-players" of whom Aulus Gellius speaks in his
as already quoted in this article, and they continued as such in
without much change, spreading in the early years of the Christian era
to many parts
of the Roman Empire outside of the region where they lived in Strabo's
in the Journal of Egyptian Archaeology for July 1924, on "The Castanet
of Arsinoe," Professor W.L. Westermann of Cornell University says:
Among the members of the
Dionysiae guild at Ptolemais
we find listed a cithara player, a singer to cithara accompaniment, a
flageolet player for tragic performances, and trumpeter (page 143).
reference to Dionysiac Artificers that the writer has been able to find
Aristotle's Rhetoric, iii: 2,10, where, speaking of deducing a metaphor
from a higher
class if it is desired to cry it up and from a lower if it is wished to
cry it down,
he gives this example:
And someone speaks (of the
courtiers of Dionysus)
as Dionysian parasites: they, however, call themselves artificers.
translated "parasites" is in the original kolakoi, meaning "flatterers,
fawners," and that rendered by "artificers" is technitai, which is
interpreted in Liddell and Scott's Lexicon: "theatrical artists,
as well as actors." Concerning the passage quoted from Aristotle,
his translation of the Rhetoric says:
Dionysokolakas: This term, by
which the tribe
of flatterers seem to have been exposed to ridicule on the stage, was
borrowed from the name of the patron of the theatre Dionysos; they,
proper to change one theatrical appellation for another more
respectable and dignified
themselves by the name technitai. This, as well as the corresponding
artifices, seems to have been commonly applied to actors, musicians,
one reference to the Dionysiac flatterers or parasites in Polybius
21, 8) [Lib*], where they are found in Egypt, not building temples or
but enjoying the bounty of the pleasure-loving Egyptian general
he (Tlepolemus) had complete control of the exchequer, he spent the
of the day in playing ball and in matches with the young men in martial
– and directly he left these sports, he collected drinking parties and
greater part of his life in these amusements and with these associates.
part of his day which he devoted to business he employed in
distributing, or I might
rather say in throwing away, the royal treasure among the envoys from
the Dionysian actors, and more than all among the officers and soldiers
of the palace
word translated "actors" is the same technitai that Buckley translated
as "artifices" The English is rendered in this quotation from the
edition of Polybius [Lib*], London, 1889, edited by E. S. Shuckburgh,
M. A., from
the Hultsch text.
writers are cited in Frazer's Pausanias and have been drawn to the
by Bro. R. J. Meekren, editor of THE BUILDER. They are Pausanias and
says (book 1, chapter 2, 5) of Dionysus the Minstrel:
We know from Athenaeus that the
of Dionysus" had a precinct in which sacrifices and libations were
Corpus Inscriptorum Graecorum he finds that one of the two priests of
Minstrel was chosen from
the guild, partly religious,
called the "artists of Dionysus."
It is Athenaeus
who quotes Poseidonius (Poseidon. apud Ath. 212 D), and Poseidonius
gives a graphic,
if brief, picture of the noisy doings in the precinct to which Frazer
Greek is crabbed, but he tells to men, women and children expecting
forth pell mell, altogether, to the temple; even the poorer men, to
at the common tables fees are collected; youths growing their first
beard and the
artificers of Dionysus, and all behaving with arrogance and jeering at
... Rich and poor they parade in procession which is a sacred affair,
in shirts of bright colors that drag along.
two inscriptions in the Corpus Inscriptorum Graecorum, as published by
scholar and antiquarian Philipp August Boeckh, which he restored. The
perhaps is the one that forms the basis for Frazer's deduction about
of Dionysus the Minstrel being selected from the artists of Dionysus,
but the inscriptions
are very defective and Boeckh does not pretend to certainty, owing to
lacunae. Transcribing the uncial Greek into English letters, the first
spoken of, one found on the lower front of an interior gate at
Ammoehosti near Salamis
(Famagusta), is as follows:
OLYMPIADAT … …
… … … … .
… … … … .
… … … … … .
… … … … .
… … … … … …
TECHITON … … … … … … … … . .
measurements and surmises from other inscriptions, this is restored by
that it could be translated:
In (such an) olympiad, a sacred
gift (of such
a woman) from the king of the same birth, the commander of the army,
the chief priest of lower Cyprus, the chief clerk, the Dionysian
inscription discussed by Boeckh is equally unsatisfactory. Both appear
to be a statement
of the officials and corporate bodies that have contributed toward the
of a gate or monument and the Dionysiac technitai are mentioned in each.
from Pausanias by Frazer, book one, chapter two, 5, and book seven,
describe the city of Teos and Lebedos, and one sentence in the former,
by Bro. Meekren and forwarded to me by him, is of importance because it
Strabo's statement about the general meeting to the extent of telling
of the building
where the preparations are made for the "processions which are
and at other intervals."
quotations already made, it should be unnecessary to point out the
imagining that these strolling players, the Dionysiac Artificers, were
on the Temple of Solomon as expert stonemasons or in any other
capacity. If they
ever had been domiciled in Tyre or anywhere on the Syrian coast, the
certainly have been stated by Strabo, but he is specific that their
were in Ionia and he enumerates the cities in which they lived from
time to time.
There is no record of the Ionians as a people before the eighth
century, B.C., and
Homer uses the name but once. As King Solomon's temple was built in the
of the tenth century, B.C., and as the first mention of the Dionysiac
is found in Aristotle, who flourished in the fourth century, it is
to do more than call attention to the fact that the temple had been
and built again before the guild of Ionian actors ever was organized.
statement on this point, therefore, it must be said as Robert Freke
Gould said of
him in connection with assertions about the Sinclair deed in Scottish
look in vain for any corroboration of this assertion, for it is simply
to time there have appeared references to the work of Hypolito Da Costa
in an effort
to support the belief that the Dionysiac Artificers were really ancient
Da Costa published in London in 1820 a small book entiled: Sketch for
of Dionysian Artificers. What it has to say about the Artificers
the statement in Lawrie's History even to the very words and the only
to the subject is that from Strabo, which is the same that is made by
Da Costa, who had some reputation as a Masonic student, was a victim of
deception, as many others have been since his day.
Bro. A. J. B.
IN 1887 appeared
a book, now long out of print, entitled The Real History of the
Now, forty years later, comes another work by the same hand, that of
Edward Waite, the well known student of occultism and mysticism, whose
and beautifully written books would alone make a library on these
subjects. In the
new volume, The Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross [Lib*], he takes up the
"as one who can speak now, not only with different and much further
on the internal side, but as one who has travelled various paths
belonging to its
sacred world." Bro. Waite is acknowledged to be an authority, not only
but on those subjects pertaining to sacramental religion and higher
of which he has studied devotedly throughout his life, and which are
the theme of
his many books. There is an interrelationship between Bro. Waite's
works, and the
volume under review is not only a history of the Brotherhood of the
but another step towards that height to which he has so zealously and
directed his course ‒ "the Life Which Is Hidden With Christ in God."
At the outset
the claims of the mythical precursors of the Order are dealt with in no
manner. Those put forward on behalf of Raymond Lully and Count von
that made by Karl Kieswetter as a direct descendant of the last chief
of the Brotherhood,
inspire no confidence; those asserting the association with the Order
Cornelius Agrippa and Dr. John Dee are set aside, and the contention
advanced by Mrs. Henry Potts, W.F.C. Wigston and Harold Bayley that
was connected with the Brotherhood is disproved by analytical and
Gould (not C.F. Gould as appears on pages 80 and 435) in his Concise
Freemasonry [Lib 1904] writes that Benedictus
Figulus affirms the
existence of an association of physicians and alchemists in the
the object of which was discover the Philosopher's Stone. Bro. Waite
says this may
be true, but that Bro. Gould has been misled by the story that this
body was merged
in the Rosicrucian Order about 1607. The Militia Crueifera Evangeliea,
by Simon Studion in 1586, and acknowledged to be an occult evangelical
is found to be identical with the record of the later body in respect
and symbolism, though distinguished from it by its distinct Second
Three witnesses are produced in support of its claim as a forerunner of
of the Rosy Cross and critically examined ‒ Professor J.G. Buhle, who
information from Wirtembergisches Repertorium der Litteratur, which in
derived from Simon Studion's Noametria, an unprinted book described as
a brief introduction
of all mysteries in Holy Scripture and the universal world, and
containing the first
intimation of the Rose and Cross in symbolism; C.G. von Murr, the
author of an essay
on the True Origin of the Rosicrucians and Masonic Orders [Lib 1803], published in 1803, and
Fischlin. Bro. Waite adds in an appendix that "The Militia was no more
a field in which the Order may have sprung up."
the author is persuaded that the philosophical and theosophical
position of the
Rosy Cross belonged to Christian Kabalists, who believed the Zoharic
bore testimony to the fact that the expected Messiah was Christ; but he
that Heinrich Khunrath, an illuminated Christian Kabalist of the
period, casts no
light on the historical origin of the Rosy Cross, nor is any basis
found for the
alleged connection with it of Jacob Bohme, the German theosophist. In
a book ‒ La Prophetic du Comte Bombast [Lib*] ‒ published in 1701,
drawn to the fact that Dr. Francois Allary, to whom the publication is
describes the nephew of Paracelsus as being a Chevalier de la Rose
Croix, a title
"which is so familiar in High Grade Masonry after 1754," and it is
"not a little curious in 1701, from a Masonic standpoint, when it is
certain that there were not even three Masonic degrees."
all the evidence, Bro. Waite discovers no trace of the Society prior to
century and expresses the view, under reserve, that the Rosy Cross was
in 1604, that the Naometria of Studion was its first memorial, in the
sense of a
precursor, and that its doctrine was held in common by many
theosophists at the
end of the sixteenth century.
to a consideration of the official publications of the fraternity, Bro.
it is certain that prior to 1614 (the probable date of the first
of the Fama Fraternitatis [Lib 1614]) the peculiar set of notions
the prevailing atmosphere which characterized Rosicrucian documents are
to be found
in the writings of Valentin Weigel, a Lutheran mystic, who Gottfried
was the founder of the Order, and also in those of Egidius Gutmann,
Arnold as a member. Weigel died in 1588 or many years before the Rosy
been heard of, and Gutmann, Bro. Waite maintains, was not a member,
though he may
be considered as a precursor of the Order in that he represented its
Fraternitatis, which contains the legend of the mythical founder of the
‒ Christian Rosy Cross ‒ relates the circumstances under which the
Order came into
being and accounts, after its particular fashion, for the
of secret knowledge from East to West, was originally issued
accompanied by a reply
thereto by Adam Haselmeyer. Haselmeyer claimed to have seen the
in 1610 though it was in existence fifteen years earlier if the
evidence of Julius
Sperber is accepted. The fraternity is described as being versed in
and pure Kabalism, and as possessing a hidden art of healing and the
secret of the
transmutation of metals, but the author finds "the root of all was in
written memorials, which were a heritage from the past." The Universal
which was bound up in the original issue of the Fama, and as a result
at the beginning as an official document, was the work of an Italian
Frajano Boccalini, and in Bro. Waite's estimation has no title to
as a Rosicrucian publication.
Fraternitatis was followed by the Confessio Fraternitatis R.'.C.'.,
the first date in Rosicrucian history ‒ 1378, the year of birth of
Cross ‒ but it is found to be an unsatisfactory document, though
or less to the expose promised in the Fama.
Rosicrucian document ‒ The Chemical Nuptials of Christian Rosencreutz
[Lib 1690] ‒ is an allegorical romance
woven about the legendary founder of the Order, and does not contain
to its history. Bro. Waite now supports the view that this singular
work was the
production in his early youth of Johann Valentin Andreae, and has
revised his former
opinion set forth in his earlier book that it was incredible as a
It was published in 1616, and he considers it unquestionably a
contribution to the
of Professor Buhle that the series of publications was part of an
planned by Andreae is examined at length and the conclusion is reached
is nothing to justify the alleged authorship by Andreae of the Fama and
nor to support the claim that he was even a Rosicrucian, though it is
Andreae was one of a close corporation from which the tracts emanated.
the documentary evidence before him, Bro. Waite finds in the Fama an
of a design which developed subsequently under the protection of the
namely the spiritualization of alchemy, and in this design he traces a
of the Lullian philosophic system.
of the Fama created considerable stir in Germany and the Confessio
production of much literature, not only in support of the movement, but
to it. This literature is discussed under four heads: (1) the letters
of those seeking admission to the Order, in response to the invitation
in the Fama; (2) independent tracts on various branches of occult
science and philosophy
dedicated to the Brotherhood; (3) critical tracts in examination of
principles, and (4) dubious and palpably fraudulent documents.
chapter is devoted to the Kentish philosopher ‒ Robert Fludd ‒ and his
with the Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross, to which he was drawn by its
of the basis of philosophy and the supreme secret of medicine. He wrote
of the early Rosicrucian pamphlets in 1616, and in his later works
Brotherhood to be working under the impulsion of the Holy Spirit and to
with spiritual virtue and the higher Divine Grace. He thus
spiritualized the Order
even as he did Alchemy ‒ in which the Philosopher's Stone became the
Power of God.
The writings of Robert Fludd are found to be of some importance as a
of the Secret Tradition in Christian times, and a development at large
of the Rosicrucian
philosophy. A commentary on the debated question as to the actual
existence of the
Rosy Cross as a corporate entity is obtained from Fludd's last work ‒
et Alchymiae Fluddanae [Lib*] ‒ where he "puts on record his personal
that all persons whatsoever may and shall be accounted as true Brethren
of the Rosy
Cross if they are rooted firmly in the Christian faith, confirmed in
of themselves, and consciously built up on that cornerstone which is
Bro. Waite affirms his belief that Fludd was acquainted with Studion
and was by
him brought into the circle of adeptship, but that the Order was not
formed by him,
though he may have belonged to something at work under that name.
of Maier, the great German alchemist, with the Brotherhood is then
taken up. His
first publication was issued in the same year as, if not earlier than,
(1614), and as no mention appears in it of the Rosy Cross, Bro. Waite
he was not then connected with the Order. His entrance into the debate
late to give the quietus to those who suppose that he visited England
to spread its claims, though there is no question that he travelled
there as an
alchemist. Maier comes to the defense of the Rosy Cross in 1617, when
his Silentium Post Clamores [Lib 1617], and he espoused its cause
his death in 1622. After dealing with the history of the Order in
and Holland, in the course of which Bro. Waite examines the many
pamphlets put out
by its apologists and assailants, the reader is brought back to a
renewal of interest
in the Order in England following the publication in 1650 of two tracts
Vaughan writing under the pseudonym ‒ of Eugenius Philalethes. The
mendacious histories of the Order involving Elias Ashmole, Vaughan and
by contemporary and later writers receive energetic condemnation ‒ "a
number of lying witnesses being driven out of court, carrying with them
of their mischievous and idle fictions." The connection of Elias
the Brotherhood is dismissed as a legend, unsupported by any evidence,
is conceded that his contributions on the subject of Alchemy are a
Just as in
England, Rosicrucianism fell into a state of somnolence, so in Germany,
is heard of the Order during a period of at least seventy years, or
when Sigmund Richter published the Laws of the Brotherhood. A change is
in its form and spirit, and the Society divided into two branches
the Rosy and the Golden Cross under an Imperator. The first trace of
observances also appears in the use of a very simple form of acception
… to the method of conferring the Liveries still prevalent in certain
of London," "probably not unlike the mode of making an Enter Apprentice
and communicating the Mason's Word in Scotland," and recalling "exactly
the procedure indicated by some of the Old Charges of English origin."
publication of Richter's Laws [Lib*] in 1710 until 1777 there is no
to the nature of the secret workings of the Holy Houses, but in the
a new epoch in the Golden and Rosy Cross opens with developed
ceremonial forms and
under Masonic auspices. Bro. Waite gives an abstract of the Legend of
and finds it to vary but slightly from that of the Secret Tradition in
Legend is notable otherwise as formulating for the first time, and on
of the Order itself what may be called the once familiar and even
which represented Speculative Freemasonry as emerging from a
The Order was also Christian and maintained the doctrine of the Blessed
but after a detailed examination of the rituals and instructions of the
emerges with considerable clearness that the concerns of the Golden and
in the year 1777 notwithstanding the spiritual and religious atmosphere
it was encompassed, had no other purpose than the physical medicine of
men and metals."
the revival of interest in the Rosy Cross, Bro. Waite refers to the
revival of Freemasonry
in 1717, which he contends, was due, not so much to the formation of a
or to the fact that Freemasonry came into public favour, but to the
in its ritual. These developments, he says, "must, and can be only, in
present state of our knowledge, relegated to post-1717, and most
probably are the
work of the period between 1724 and 1726." Just as mere vestiges of
are found in the operative documents of the Masonic Fraternity, so does
find corresponding vestiges in the Rosicrucian laws of Richter. "There
no borrowing one from another, since neither had aught to lend." There
the natural parallel between the Apprentice Mason who learned the
mystery of his
trade and the Novice of the Rosy Cross, who acquired Hermetic secrets,
as both were
communicated under a pledge of secrecy. This, then, "is how Masonry
relation to the Rosy Cross, until the former had earned its titles … by
magic of Rites" and the Rosy Cross passed under its banner.
grade entitled Rose Croix is first heard of in France in or about 1754
obedience of a Council of Emperors of the East and West, being numbered
in its sequence of twenty-five grades.
It was the
only grade that had any Rosicrucian complexion and the author finds its
after a hundred years without trace of the Rosy Cross in France, one of
unlikely things that ever occurred in Masonic history. The belief is
it came from a Rosicrucian source, and that it stands at the present
day as it stood
then "the Christian answer to Masonry, the Christian intent and meaning
upon the Craft grades, their completion and their crown." "The Rosy
is for the eighteenth degree of the old Rite of Perfection precisely
it was for Robert Fludd, namely the Cross of Calvary steeped in the
blood of Christ" and Bro. Waite says, "there is no question that the
degree in its valid and orthodox form as the Word discovered and
on the Rosicrucian claim to possess the key of Masonry, to be actually
et origo and to deliver its final message.
occult personages in France during the second half of the eighteenth
century ‒ the
Comte de Saint Germain, Cagliostro and Martines de Pasqually, and the
put forward by their respective protagonists are discussed. The
survival of the
Order in Germany during the same period is followed up and the
connection with it
of Frederick William II, and his chief advisers, Bischoffswerder and
in review. The reorganization of the Brotherhood in 1777 did not,
undesirables and malcontents, and as a result other Rites and Orders
in the likeness of the original and advancing corresponding claims.
were the Initiated Brethren of Asia, which was active in Austria and
the Fratres Lucis. Both lapsed gradually and passed out of sight at the
of the nineteenth century.
Cross is followed to Russia which it entered upon the auspices of
and, with Masonry, became identified with Martinism. It appeared to
connote a purely
spiritual movement, centers about the person of N. Novikoff, and ends
in 1792 with
his arrest and imprisonment by the Empress Catherine II. An interdict
was laid on
all Masonry in 1797, removed by Alexander and applied again more
rigidly in 1822,
but, Bro. Waite adds "we know that suppressions of this kind do not
which have anything vital in them, they disappear from public gaze, and
find a place
in catacombs or in the very crypts of palaces" and he believes, from
which have reached him, that the Rosy Cross was still subsisting in
the war, though he surmises that it has degenerated into the older
of the Rosicrucian mystery is entered upon in 1794 when a certain Comte
a resident of Mauritius, received Dr. Sigsmund Bacstrom into a Societas
The document recording the reception is epitomized and the conclusion
is drawn from
its analysis that this sodality is not to be identified with the Golden
Cross, but is attributable to the system of which Richter was the
spokesman or even
to some earlier development.
attending the formation of the existing Rosicrucian Society ‒ otherwise
Rosicruciana in Anglia are examined, and an analysis is given of the
The Star Rising in the East [Lib*], the product of a Major F. G. Irwin,
a similar society in the West of England about the year 1874 and which
passed out of existence a few years later. In the opinion of Bro. Waite
of these societies reflect anything from the past of Rosicrucian
the results of his exhaustive enquiry, the author concludes that "there
several schools within the general circle of the Order… (1) those of
workings, activities and fruits of the magical paths in their
distinction from the
Higher Magia … (2) those which confessed only to dedications in
like the Reformation of 1777 and (3) those for which the Kentish
stood up a most valiant champion more than a hundred years before."
various associations and sodalities which have claimed the generic
in the early 17th Century, rose up in their day, advancing their
and they died also in their day." "It is above all things probable that
their connection one with another was in the bond of union furnished by
name and a certain consanguinity of intention, whatever the intention
Traces of spiritual intent are discovered in the disjointed progression
of the Order,
and reflections of the speculative theosophy of the Zoharic and
are found in its doctrine. But the links are broken everywhere, "that
remains, however, is the Rosy Cross, a body of Christian symbolism,
and clothed in various forms."
Bro. Waite takes the position that "Though many associations sprang up
and concurrently under the implied and expressed claims connoted by the
denomination, though their history is chequered enough, though that
which is called
originally the House of the Holy Spirit may have been occasionally a
den of thieves,
the sacramentalism of the sign remained, and ‒ again in the natural
things ‒ it was antecedently and above all things probable that there
about (1) a reversion to the one only and valid message of the sign;
(2) a desire
on the part of some who knew and were of the elect that the Rosicrucian
the Holy Spirit should become or again be consecrated to the Holy
Spirit of God.
It is this transformation which has come to pass in fact. The old
of Life in Kabalism has become the Tree of Life in mystical experience
on the ascent
of the soul to God. The light of the Rosy Cross under such new birth in
the light of the world in Christ. The path of the progress through the
Grades and Worlds is the path of the soul's return to that center from
came forth, or even to God who is its end. After this manner is
by sanctity, the key and secret of all being the translation of ritual
The term and crown of all is a great mystery of attainment… The new
spirit has changed
not the old name, which is of catholic and perfect meaning in the world
but it has changed the body of the thing and has given it a robe of
"The Rosy Cross is not a Rite in Masonry, and does not demand now, as
once, a Masonic qualification of members, yet the key of Masonry is
there, for it
is a mystery of new life, of figurative or mystical death, and after
there is a Great Mystery of Raising. But it is all in the light of the
Sun in Christ
shining at the zenith-altitude in a heaven of soul, no longer in the
and penumbral rays of the Craft Mason, which have been called darkness
Such is the
lofty spiritual note upon which Bro. Waite reaches the end of another
path in his
of the difficulties engendered by the successive transformations which
of the Rosy Cross has undergone, the mass of myth and legend which
origin, and the hindrances created by the extravagant claims of earlier
Bro. Waite has given a remarkable and valuable contribution to our
Editor in Charge
Review Of The
IT was, in
July, 1926, that THE BUILDER definitely assigned two pages every month
to the N.M.T.S.A.
for the forwarding of their campaign to inform the Masonic Fraternity
of the facts
about the tubercular situation and the crying need for a real solution
of the whole
problem. The management of this department has been entirely in the
hands of Bro.
R. J. Newton of New Mexico, under the direction of the Executive
Committee of the
Association. We mention this last because we gather that had Bro.
Newton been permitted
he would have answered directly with facts and figures and names and
criticisms levelled against the Association and its aims. The Executive
in the spirit of Masonic amity, did not wish to hurt anyone's feelings,
to the point of demonstrating that such critics were mistaken or were
the facts. The motive was one that we must sympathize with, and even
it is more than possible it was mistaken. One cannot make omelets
eggs. It is hard to move numbers of men, harder still to move official
making many uncomfortable at the very least. Many of us are
uncomfortable and ashamed
that the problem exists at all, or that it should have been allowed to
grow to such
proportions with no real effort to meet it, and still more so at the
difficulties that have been put in the way of amending the situation.
had received communications from New Mexico on the subject, as
presumably had the
other Masonic periodicals of the country, and while sympathetic had not
upon to take any particular part in the campaign. We confess this
freely. It perhaps
will in part account for the fact that the Masonic press has really on
given so little support to the movement. It was not until Bro. Newton
came to St.
Louis and told those of us here personally about the situation,
including some things
almost incredible, things that could hardly be published, that it
became clear that
Masonic obligation bound us to do whatever we could, and to use THE
BUILDER as a
means of communicating the facts to the Craft. The obligation lay upon
of the Society and the Editors of THE BUILDER in their character as
Masons. It lay
equally on the members of the Society. However uninteresting, dull or
the pages of the Northeast Corner may possibly have seemed to some of
it was, as we conceive it, our duty to publish these facts and appeals,
duty of our readers to consider, and act upon them as opportunity
served. The fact
that members of the N.M.R.S. are students, and THE BUILDER a research
concerned as such in matters of passing moment, does not absolve it or
the primary Masonic obligations, and we do not apologize for having
used to this
end a channel of communication designed for other purposes. Nor, so far
as we are
able to gauge the feelings of members of the Society, is any defense
for with almost no exceptions our correspondents have expressed the
and concern in the movement.
N.M.T.S.A. was first organized it seemed to be a long step towards
solving the problem.
Questioning was expected. The Grand Lodges and the Craft at large had a
be shown," to have the facts laid before them and the need
the new Association would be actively opposed did not even occur as a
But it has been; and the opposition has been strong enough to bring it
to a standstill.
And this because, it may well be, it was not forced to come out into
the open. We
do not now intend to discuss this opposition, but its strength, or its
it would seem, in the very natural and human dislike of lodges, of
perhaps even of Grand Lodges, to admit that they had failed in meeting
towards their own members stricken with tuberculosis. Those who had
who had sent sick brothers to the Southwest and said they could do no
who had suspended absent brethren for non-payment of dues, who might
have been found
to be sick and destitute had inquiries been made, did not like to have
brought home. We can all see that they would not like it, and that the
would be to doubt the facts presented, and to seize upon any side
issues which could
be criticized, and in doing so obscure the real object in view.
This we say
is the natural reaction. No one likes to be told of mistakes or errors,
of being remiss in duty. And when any of us are charged with such
instinctively defend ourselves; the lines such defense will naturally
be precisely those upon which the N.M.T.S.A. has been criticized and
has not criticized hitherto, but it has never undertaken to support the
blindly. So long as there seemed some hope that this particular effort
it did not seem to be conducive to the end in view to do so, for this
was the only
thing to be considered. Besides we fully admit that "hind sight is
foresight," and that we did not see things that are now fairly clear.
may be advisable to discuss the conduct of this attempt in order that
the next effort
may avoid the snares and pitfalls in which the first seems to have got
For we must repeat, though this attempt may have failed, the problem
every state growing steadily more acute, and American Masonry must find
or stultify itself.
thing – It seems only a trifling detail, but such trifles sometimes
have far reaching
effects – the name the Association adopted was against it. Not only was
it too long
and too clumsy to be used conveniently in either speech or writing, but
an opening to the opposition by seeming to insist upon what was really
question. Had it been called "The Masonic Tuberculosis Association," or
even "The Masonic Tubercular Relief Association," it would, we believe,
have been much better, and might have made a material difference to the
In conversation, in giving addresses, in writing letters, the name was
too cumbersome. Even when initials only were used it was awkward. It is
that the adoption of a short title with a swing to it, a title that was
a "slogan" or rallying cry, would have helped to turn the balance from
failure to success. At least those who know anything of advertising
will not be
inclined to minimize this possibility.
But the more
definite defect of the name was that it concentrated attention, not
upon the need
of relief, but upon one particular method of affording it. In other
words it would
seem that it was a mistake to have included the word "Sanatoria." The
project to provide one or more of these institutions for the treatment
Masons was open to reasonable objection from several directions. It was
and is a
thing about which there could be diverse and opposing opinions. It has
chief point of attack on the part of critics, and in criticizing this
means to the
end, the end itself has been forgotten. Again, a perfectly natural and
to do, one that might have been, and perhaps ought to have been,
back at least, it would appear to have been almost inevitable that this
would arise. Then the vexed question was raised whether there be any
in the climate of the Southwest for the treatment of the disease. Many
say there is not, others believe there is. Where doctors disagree
laymen can take
their choice, and the doubt thus raised offered another excuse for
Jurisdictions which already have public and private sanatoria of their
own, or were
planning to have them, naturally felt that they were not called upon to
building or buying other institutions elsewhere. These Jurisdictions
are not many,
but they are influential out of all proportion to their number. Their
for a great deal to make or mar the success of the Association. It made
that the spokesmen of the latter disclaimed any intention to force the
into adopting this one plan of action; there was the word "Sanatoria"
in its title to outweigh all protest and explanation.
opened the way for another objection. It was said that to start
hospitals for tuberculosis
would lead to demands for hospitalization of other diseases. Cancer was
mentioned in this connection. This argument is very plausible, and we
have no doubt
helped to lead many to an adverse conclusion who did not stop to
consider that cancer
patients, or people suffering from most other diseases, do not leave
to gain health, or at least do not migrate to one particular locality.
It was also
forgotten that tuberculosis is an infectious disease, which the others
been mentioned are not. The effectiveness of this objection lay in the
of the essentials of the problem by confusing it with the means
proposed to solve
it. If it were merely a question of curing the tuberculous why should
alone be provided for? The fact that three relatively weak and poor
are by force of circumstances being made to bear an undue proportion of
of the whole country was lost sight of ‒ though it is the crucial
point, the very
heart of the situation, the thing that makes it a national and not a
considerations which led to it are worthy of the greatest respect, it
to have been a grave tactical error not to have replied to objections
as they arose.
It is well enough to turn one's face to the smiter as the Gospel bids
us ‒ but not
when we are engaged in defending the rights and claims of others. We
absence of adequate open reply under attack was also misunderstood by
was made capital of by others. Naturally, to those who did not know,
taken to mean that there was no defense. A long letter was sent out by
Master, formally to the Grand Master of New Mexico, in effect it was a
letter to the Grand Masters of the country. It was a very able
presentation of all
the arguments against national action, and especially against the
took, and made the most of all the confusions of the real issue, such
as those we
have touched on. The central need for action was dismissed lightly as
It was an exceedingly able forensic, ex parte, argument against the
of the T.S.A. This letter had a tremendous effect, it is not too much
to say that
it was devastating. Why? Because it was unanswerable? Not at all;
with the facts could have answered it, but the Executive Committee
thought, so we
understand, that it might lead to unfraternal recrimination if its
exposed. But in the meantime the influential Masons of the country were
to assume that no defense could be made. We are inclined to think that
the turning point. Had the charges been met, for they amounted to that,
still some hope of success.
we believe, it was again done from a desire not to hurt anyone's
feelings, was the
omission of names, dates and places. There have been published in the
Corner many brief records, each one a condensed tragedy. They were
from the records of the Association. The names of lodges and
withheld. Naturally everyone said, "Well that couldn't happen in my
that wouldn't be permitted in our jurisdiction." As a matter of fact
from all over the country. In a few cases they were challenged, but
with one exception
every statement was made good.
Lodges at least, possibly others also, must be credited with making an
find out how many of their members were among these tubercular
they sought their information through official channels. Naturally
produced negligible results. How many lodge secretaries know anything
members, their health, wealth or even, often enough, their whereabouts?
Let us be
fair, how can they know? There are very few lodges whose secretaries
whole time to the work, and it would take all one man's time to keep in
with all the members of even a moderately large lodge, as lodges go in
It followed that this method of gaining information was foredoomed to
Credit is due to the Jurisdictions that made inquiry, they at least
were in the
van, they recognized a duty, but it was most unfortunate they were so
What is the
answer to the problem! For one thing it shows the enormous difficulty
coordinated official action, whether through some connecting
organization or informally.
The answer may be to take a short cut and meet the need by an
organization of individual
Masons. We know that thousands of Masons want to have something done,
and if it
cannot be done officially the next best thing is to do it through some
that is. not official, that is composed of just Masons, Masons who do
put into practice the principles and precepts of the Fraternity.
* * *
Change of Plans
THE preceding article was written when it
seemed as if there was no prospect of usefully
continuing the work of the N.M.T.S.A. or its corporate existence. A few
the Editor of the Masonic Chronicler of Chicago, whose editorial
articles are always
worth reading, deplored the prospect of such an "ignominous failure for
Charity" and expressed the wish that "some miracle might happen"
to save the project. At almost the last moment the miracle seems to
The brethren who have sacrificed so much for this work have conquered
discouragement, and instead of recommending the dissolution of the
have made plans to continue the work along somewhat different lines.
The same considerations
expressed above seem to have led them to similar conclusions, and the
of the Association, Bro. H. B. Holt, in his report to the Grand Lodge
of New Mexico
suggests the amendment of its constitution in such wise as to make it
of Masons under the supervision of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, and
also to change
its name to the Masonic Tuberculosis Association. These recommendations
found on another page. We hope to give the report in full next month,
it has reached
us too late for insertion in this issue.
from the report, that the one dollar per capita tax paid by the
brethren of New
Mexico, has almost entirely paid for the expenses of the publicity
disposes of the rather cruel insinuation that has been made in some
the Executive of the N.M.T.S.A. appealed for funds for the relief of
and spent them in advertising. As Bro. Holt says, the New Mexico
brethren had a
perfect right to spend their money as they thought best, and it is not
easy to say
that they were not right. At least it is now-a-days the accepted
procedure to advertise
any need for relief in a large way, and in making this decision they
were in the
best company. In any case the campaign has been most economically
managed, and the
running expenses have been kept down to the lowest possible figure.
thing that is proposed is that the reorganized Association shall take
up the management
of the Tuberculosis Camp at Oracle, Arizona. Hitherto this has been
open only in
the summer time. It is hoped to make it more useful by providing
which has hitherto been lacking, and perhaps increasing its capacity.
will doubtless present themselves, and we feel confident that this new
meet the approval, and receive the support of the members of the Craft.
* * *
One of the
most recent developments in the field of Masonic Educational activities
is the recent
edict of Grand Master Will H. Fischer of California. The plan for the
Education in that jurisdiction constitutes something of a radical
the practice which has been in vogue for a number of years past. The
of the new movement may be summed up in the following brief paragraph:
has come to bring into our lodges some up-to-date information
concerning arts and
sciences of modern civilization, and to interpret for the benefit of
bearing of these arts and sciences upon the affairs of modern life.
alone, although of extreme importance, will not hold attendance up to
level. Masters universally desire a good attendance record. Careful
this program is the one certain way to secure an increasing attendance
and an increasing
interest on the part of new members.
from this, and from the subject which has been announced, "The
that the intention is to bring into the lodge extraneous material. It
will be interesting
to watch developments and to learn of the success of the plan.
At this distance
it is impossible to judge why such action seems necessary. We can
readily see the
value of discussing matters that have some bearing on the Masonic
still are divorced from the cut and dried research that is being
carried on by Masonic
students. There are dozens of such topics which might be mentioned. Why
not a series
on Masonry in Business; Tuberculosis and Masonry, or better, the part
in Combatting Contagious Diseases; Masonry and Education; Masonry and
the sense of working with established charities)?
need of the Fraternity today, as I see it, is something to link it with
affairs ‒ something to make it a vital and integral part of a man's
There is a need for encouraging the practice of Masonry outside the
lodge. A program
with this aim in view should be successful and would accomplish the
without divorcing Masonry from the educational activities. It would be
program rather than two separate ones as California seems to propose.
The Northeast Corner
National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association
by Authority of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, A.F.&A.M.
ALBUQUERQUE, N. M.
NEWTON, Editor, Manager N.M.T.S.A.. Las Cruces, New Mexico
Jessup Newton, New Mexico
has a man or woman who has to work for partial or entire self-support
no nourishment in fresh air and sunshine. The consumptive has that in
but that simply tends to emphasize the need for plenty of nourishing
food. A sick
man might get along for many months of the year in the Southwest
without a permanent
shelter. And for the same months his need for clothing would be small.
He may even
recover without medical guidance; but he cannot get along without food
and his quest
for it, or means to get it for himself, and for the wife and small
too often accompany him, is the supreme tragedy of his hopeless
existence. For this
reason the average "lunger" fights a losing fight from the date of his
do not consult a doctor after their arrival or at any time during their
the Southwest. Their home physician told them all they needed was fresh
write to him for advice and he gives them "absent treatment" which
no account of the effect of altitude or of their actual condition. Some
have spent several years in the Southwest with no appreciable gain in
So much for
their physical condition and their needs. What kind of reception awaits
the land of fresh air and sunshine? With the exception of an
intelligent few who
have made arrangements in advance for care and treatment in a
sanatorium, the consumptive
must find a place to stay after his arrival in his chosen city or town.
without much money may find it easier to get accommodations than his
if the latter shows any visible signs of his disease, because hotels
houses which cater to the well-to-do cannot give shelter to a
condition is apparent, and every new arrival is, in a sense, under
demands of healthy guests make it impossible for a sick man to gain
to remain long in most hotels and boarding houses. This is even true of
lodging places with any number of regular guests.
In many resort
cities, the advertisements of rooms for rent, specify "no sick." In one
city an ordinance requires segregation of the sick and well, and
which propose to care for consumptives must record that fact and not
boarders. However, in many boarding houses though every guest may cough
never find a case of tuberculosis. They are all suffering from hay
rheumatism, heart disease, stomach trouble and other ills.
are compelled to resort to "light housekeeping rooms" and will live,
eat and sleep in one room often with one or more members of their
cleaning and disinfection after removal of such cases is practically
hesitancy about accepting consumptives in hotels, boarding houses and
extends to hospitals, except those exclusively for the treatment of
The same reason is given, the objections of other patients suffering
illnesses to the presence of consumptives.
his financial condition the average consumptive is compelled to resort
to the cheaper
restaurants and live on the coarsest and commonest foods. The "good
food" prescribed by his physician is beyond his reach.
In the business
world the same condition exists. It is common for an advertisement for
help to specify,
"No invalids nor sick need apply." Other employees resent the presence
in their midst of a recognizable case of tuberculosis. The searcher for
work" finds strong competition for every possible job and also finds
to be much "lighter" than the work. Willingness to work for mere
is manifested by many more than can be employed. The ambition of most
cases to "rough
it" on a ranch cannot be achieved, because such work is strenuous and
by Mexicans to a large extent.
is another factor in the miseries of the average "lunger." He is not
and is made to feel that in every place frequented by healthy people.
this he is driven to solitude or to the society of others ill like
himself, or to
the society which preys upon his kind if they have any means. It has
said that "homesickness has slain its thousands."
method of caring for the tuberculous sick in some places in the West
and among a
certain kind of public official is to "pass them on" to the nearest
city. A consumptive can always get a railway ticket to some other point
if he will
only use it. This relieves the town of his present residence, of any
of handling him. The injustice done him and the community to which he
is sent is
not given consideration. It is also true that this method is practiced
and organizations of cities and towns in other parts of the country,
and the practice
of "dumping the sick" on the Southwest has brought forth loud protests
from many places.
In the report
of the National Tuberculosis Association of the 1920 study of Denver,
Phoenix, Los Angeles, El Paso and San Antonio, Miss Whitney said: "None
these cities has anything like adequate provisions ‒ medical, relief or
‒ for caring for tuberculous persons whether resident or non-resident."
the 1925 report this statement was repeated, with this addition: "After
years that statement is still true." If this is true of these six
it necessarily follows that it is also true of every city and town of
was asked at the conclusion of the report: "Are these cities going to
to meet this increasing and continuing burden? If so, how? If not, what
is to be
done about it?"
This is the
question that now concerns the Southwest. Burdened with a present large
of indigent tuberculous men, women and children from other states, and
train adding to that burden, "What is to be done about it?"
have been provided for pay patients and with some exceptions are
In nearly every city you will hear of some doctor who has become rich
a tuberculosis sanatorium. Capital is always quick to take advantage of
and if the need existed for more pay institutions, doubtless they would
But the great, real and continuing need is for more sanatoria to care
for the sick
who cannot pay their way. "What is to be done about it?"
the Southwest of being uncharitable, callous or indifferent to the
the sick and their needs would be unjust to the best people of the
Many of them have traveled the rough and rugged road, this Via
Dolorosa, and have
great sympathy for the sick and they are willing to and do extend a
By far the larger portion of the monies expended in Southwestern cities
by private charitable agencies is spent for relief of non-resident
In the city of El Paso an average of $1,000 a month for thirty-four
months was expended
by the Masonic Relief Board for the care of non-resident tuberculous
what the grand total expended in all cities and towns of the Southwest,
agencies, institutions, fraternal and other organizations and by
is insufficient to meet the demands and the need.
What Is To Be
Done About It?
some who have advocated state quarantine laws against consumptives. Of
mean the, indigent cases only. This would not be a quarantine against
against poverty. Publicity was the panacea offered by tuberculosis
proposed to and did broadcast the story of the hardships of the
in the Southwest and warned the sick person not to go to the Southwest
or she had at least $1,000 or the equivalent of support for one year.
this campaign of education "boomeranged" for the sick man without money
construed this as an endorsement of climate. He figured that it meant
that the tuberculosis
societies believed that climate was a good thing for the man with some
it was equally good for him. In spite of all this publicity, the
Association, in its latest report, conceded that migration is on the
propounded by Miss Jessamine S. Whitney, statistician of the National
Association, who made studies of the indigent migratory consumptive
that Association in 1920 and 1925, "Are these cities going to be able
this increasing and continuing burden? If so, how? If not, what is
going to be done
about it?" remains unanswered to this day.
probably no single solution of this problem. It will take the work of
both public and private, to meet the need. Hospital care for these
is the primary requisite, preferably hospital care in their home
states. With the
exception of Connecticut, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York and Rhode
state has anything like adequate provision for its consumptive
to the standard set by the National Tuberculosis Association of one
for every annual death.
always be migration and nothing can stop it. Hospitals must be provided
in the Southwest
for these people, because the lack of such sanatoria, in years past,
has meant the
sacrifice of many valuable lives.
It is impossible
for northern and eastern states to build institutions in southwestern
of constitutional limitations. On the other hand, the Federal
Government can and
should make some provision for these unfortunates, in existing federal
in additional federal hospitals to be built, and in existing public and
groups of people should care for the members of their own groups. The
of America have one of the finest sanatoria in the world at Colorado
there are many similar and smaller sanatoria established by churches
and other organizations.
If every such group in the country would adopt a plan for
hospitalization of its
sick, the number of available hospital beds in the country would
speedily be doubled.
the great Masonic Fraternity has taken up the problem of hospitalizing
Masons. The Grand Lodge of New Mexico organized the National Masonic
Sanatoria Association and is enlisting the help of other Grand
the effort to build one or more Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria.
to the hospital care of cases, large sums are needed annually to give
and home relief in the Southwest. This money will have to come from
to supplement the contributions of the people of the Southwest.
need for a great central organization which will act as a clearing
house for all
relief agencies in the "Tuberculosis Triangle" and co-ordinate the
of such agencies. Its influence among them would be in proportion to
help it could give in the solution of their problems. There is little
these social workers would welcome such an addition to their forces,
for they are
fighting a hard fight and in addition to the burden of work for
they have a large and increasing problem with the indigent Mexicans.
We are pleading
particularly for the white man, the American citizen, born and raised
in this country,
who through no fault of his own is down and out, a stranger in a
strange land, sick,
homeless and helpless. He is a victim of our imperfect civilization, a
of our insanitary city, the inevitable result of the failure to
other victim of tuberculosis.
The Study Club
on "How to Organize and Maintain a Study Club" will be sent free on
in quantities to fifty
in this Department we discussed various methods of sustaining interest
Clubs after they had become functioning bodies. The discussion was
upon the assumption that a given objective varied sufficiently to avoid
of monotony or routine creeping into the meetings would accomplish the
If we do secure and maintain a maximum of interest the problem of new
not so important. There comes a time in the history of every
organization when new
members are essential to its welfare and progress. No matter how
meetings are made certain of the original membership is going to drop
are numerous causes for this situation. Among them might be cited the
impelled last month's article. Loss of interest ‒ a dying out of the
which first prompted the members; leaving the city; and a multitude of
that could be cited. There are two problems which confront every Study
this situation arises. First, how to secure new members to keep the
and second how to interest the novices once they have joined.
phases of the question are inseparably linked with the problem of
article pointed out the manner in which new members might be brought to
though this was accomplished indirectly. It might be stated that any
by the Club would be a successful aid to increasing the membership.
There is something
more to the problem than finding this activity however.
Club has certain well defined characteristics. In most cases it is an
activity. As such it does not obtain general recognition among the
members of the
lodge or lodges from which its membership is drawn. Before it can hope
in size it must do something to bring it to the attention of the lodge
as a whole.
There are several ways in which this might be accomplished. The
meetings of the
Study Club should be set sufficiently far in advance to permit of their
in the lodge Bulletin, or included with the announcement of lodge
membership of the lodge as a whole should be invited to attend the
to join the Club. A small percentage of the membership will take
advantage of this
situation ‒ frankly, not enough to accomplish the desired result.
than just this is necessary. Occasional meetings with well qualified
add more to the occasional attendants. The publication, as suggested
of a Question and Answer column in a local Masonic periodical will help
necessary publicity. The presentation by the Study Club of programs
before the lodge
is another method of keeping the Club before the membership as a whole.
If the members
of the lodge can be made to realize that the Club is really for their
will be willing to help in its activities. What will help more than all
is for the members of the Study Club to talk about the work they are
the opportunity presents itself and don't forget to add an invitation
the next meeting.
It is not
so difficult to get new men into the Club as it is to keep them there
are members. A Study Club is a progressive organization. When it is
everyone is on an equal footing as a rule. No one knows very much about
even though every member does know the ritual from memory. Even those
they know something will often find that what they do know is
inaccurate, or even
wholly wrong. These men develop along certain lines, most of them at
about the same
rate. They have been together for several months, learned many things
they did not
know before, and which are unknown to those who come in as new members.
danger in this condition lies in the fact that soon they will be
discussing in their
meetings things which are beyond those new to the subject. When this
stage is reached
it will perhaps be well to increase the number of meetings though
may be obtained in other ways. In any event, the only way to maintain
of those just on the threshold of Masonic knowledge is for the older
act as instructors to the younger ones. Every other meeting might be
set aside to discuss the more elementary problems for the benefit of
those not so
will do good for the older ones as well as the newcomers. It is hard to
how much that one hears slips by. New things will develop; new light
on old subjects and the review will help to fix more firmly the lessons
earlier. So far as the new member is concerned, he will know that he is
over the rough spots and that the members of the Club are trying to
help him along
instead of leaving him to flounder through the maze as best he can. He
the higher level sooner for having the path made smooth and before very
will be keeping pace with the rest.
it is necessary to show again the value of the systematic study of
it is studied along some prescribed line, the older members have a
knowledge that does not fit together. They know more than the younger
men, but it
is so poorly arranged in their own minds that there is no chance for
them to be
of real assistance to the beginner.
If some course
of study such as the Syllabus of Masonic Study published by this
Society is followed,
a certain point in the education has been reached. It is an easy
matter, in the
course of a few review meetings, to cover the ground again and help the
to reach the point at which the older members are working. The new ones
the texts and with help cover the ground much more rapidly than could
members with no local assistance.
It is only
natural to suppose that the deeper issues will come up for discussion
It would be very unfortunate if the work of Study Clubs was confined
to what might be termed the grammar school of Masonic education. The
of such problems will hardly find a place in the average Study Club;
they should not appear therein, but because it frequently requires much
thought to bring such subjects to a place where they can be clearly
When a Study
Club finds itself with a number of such advanced students it will find
willing to help the younger men along. Occasionally they will have a
paper to present,
usually in some special field in which they have found particular
essays can be read when occasion arises and it may even be possible for
scholars to group themselves in a smaller circle, an adjunct of the
Club, for the sole purpose of working out more difficult problems.
brings us to problems which will be solved of their own accord. There
is no need
for discussing them at this time. The principal purpose of this article
is to suggest
some way in which the beginner in Masonic study can find himself and
in a Masonic Study Club. That he should be compelled to do this of his
is as absurd as that a child should be expected to acquire an education
assistance. Just as it is the duty of parents and teachers to instruct
generation is it the duty of those versed in Masonic lore to assist in
of his less informed brethren.
The Good Will Tour of Bro. Lindbergh in Central
Bro. Jose Oller, Panama
AS a member
of the Masonic Fraternity and in my capacity of member of the National
Society, I have been making known in this country the good works and
every day is rendered by the Society to the Fraternity in general, and
the journal which is received by some of the brethren here.
In 1923 I
was Grand Master of this jurisdiction and I wrote an article on
Freemasonry in Panama,
in which I was glad to associate M.W. Bro. A. D. H. Melhado and the
then Grand Secretary
Bro. Victor Jesurun. The article was published in the September number
of that year,
in THE BUILDER, by the courtesy of Bro. Haywood. Since that time I have
new data about Freemasonry in Panama, and have something more that
and enrich that work. I am still compiling more on the subject, for a
in the near future.
On the occasion
of the presence in Panama of Bro. Colonel Charles A. Lindbergh, who is
of one of the St. Louis lodges, I took part in his entertainment in
here. In connection with this I have written a few words about his
visit to this
city, and I am glad to enclose herewith two photographs showing the
gift made especially for him on this occasion.
Charles A. Lindbergh, of world fame and renown as the first man to
cross the Atlantic
Ocean alone by air in his famous plane the Spirit of St. Louis from New
Paris in May, 1927, was good enough to accept the kind invitation of
Chiari, President of the Republic of Panama, to include Panama in his
tour to Central America. The. city of Panama is located at the Pacific
of the Panama Canal, and is the capital of the Republic of Panama. Bro.
who is a Master Mason and a member of Keystone Lodge, No. 243, of St.
was fraternally received and entertained by the Grand Lodge of Panama,
at an emergent
communication on the morning of the 10th of January, 1928; he was
greeted by his Panamanian brother Masons, in whose names the Most
Leslie Sasso, Grand Master, presented him with a most significant gift,
describe hereunder and publish a photographic copy of, for the interest
of the Craft.
representing the world, is made of twenty-five pieces of Panama native
not including the two pieces representing the North and South poles,
which are made
of a native cedar called "amarillo." The twenty-seven pieces forming
entire sphere were put together with a very fine white glue, and each
point at the
ends is protected with brass screws, solidifying in this manner the
The part that appears in relief over the smooth surface represents the
of the inhabited world, and the smooth surface represents the oceans
and seas. The
relief is one-quarter of an inch thick as an average. The measurement
of the globe
outside, without taking into consideration the part in relief, is
in diameter, while the inside diameter is of twelve inches, and
the hollow, thus giving the globe itself a thickness of five-eighths of
Over the lower part of the globe in the inside rests a hatter's block
made of light
mahogany covered with blue velvet. The interior of the upper half of
the globe in
its concavity is also covered with blue velvet to which is combined a
color hem that unites in the center point at the top. At the right and
Atlantic Ocean there is a carved shield over which there is in
basrelief the following
dedication sentence: To Brother Colonel Charles A. Lindbergh, the
Masons of Panama.
which represents the Holy Bible, is made of a variety of selected
while the covers are of mahogany of a special and beautiful
variegation; the part
representing the leaves of the Holy Bible is made of "amarillo," which,
with its light gold color, gives the impression of the real body of a
part is in the form of a drawer of singular construction, covered in
with blue velvet at the bottom. In this drawer is deposited a sheet of
upon which is written in Spanish a few appropriate words of greeting to
Charles A. Lindbergh from his brother Masons of Panama. The souvenir
the signatures of the Masons of this jurisdiction that could be located
short time. The message of greeting on the parchment reads as follows.
from the Masons of the Republic of Panama, to Brother Colonel Charles
on the occasion of his visit to this country, on his renown aeroplane
SAINT LOUIS. Panama, January 9th, 1928.
of the book, which represents the binding, is of a red wood known by
the name of
"red cacique." This wood is also of a very fine quality. The Masonic
on the back of the book are made of various pieces of wood, viz.: the
and the letter "G" from "naranjo," and the square and borders
are of walnut wood. These are inlaid over the "red cacique" half-round
surface of the binding, in the upper part of which there is in
bas-relief the word
S:. Biblia in Spanish, meaning Holy Bible.
measures seventeen inches long, is ten inches wide and three inches
high. The sphere
is fastened on the book by means of two good sized brass screw bolts.
piece of work was executed by Mr. Juan Jose Lugo, cabinet maker of the
city of Panama.
globe was placed a very fine Panama hat as an additional gift for Bro.
Masonic scope of the gift is, as conceived by its designer, the writer
of this article,
that the world rests on the Bible; covenant between spirit and matter,
in the quality;
the material world being in need of the spiritual realm in order to
while in Panama, paid a tribute to the Liberator of South America,
by presenting a wreath of flowers to the monument of this
After being entertained by the Panamanian government, and in our best
he left for Havana, previously to which he went to Bogota, capital of
of Colombia, and to the city of Caracas, capital of Venezuela, South
he was received with great enthusiasm. His good will tour has been
a very great success.
Why Imported Books Cost So Much
George P. Brett
has been published as a pamphlet by the well known Macmillan Company.
first in the New York World in November, last year, and its subject
matter was commented
on editorially under the heading of "A Tax on Learning.”
Some of our
members have asked, and probably many others have wondered, why
imported books are
now sold at prices so high that they are almost prohibitive. This
doubtless be of considerable interest to all book buyers, and for this
have obtained permission to reproduce it. By making the facts known it
may be possible
to create a body of public opinion on the matter that will lead to the
this unnecessary bureaucratic obstacle to the advance of learning.
the great increase in pleasurable occupations that has come about in
the last dozen
years or so, pastimes which were previously unknown or enjoyed only by
few, reading still holds its place as the one resource always to be
for the great majority of our people.
of this truth, it is only necessary to point out the enormous increase
and circulation of our popular magazines, notwithstanding which the
among the books of the moment still hold a foremost place.
rather a pity that the publishers and the booksellers, aided by the
have fostered this craze for the reading of the best seller, valueless
as many of the books of that class are for the information, interest,
or even pleasure
of hosts of their readers. To many of us the rereading of an old and
would give greater satisfaction.
It is not
surprising, however, that the public has turned for its "pleasures of
to the best seller of the moment, as, until the last few years, there
has been absolutely
no guide to the quality and value of the ten thousand or more new books
poured unceasingly before the public from the presses of the
this has been remedied by the laudable work of the American Library
in publishing, from time to time, lists of the most worthwhile
appraising their values so that any discriminating reader may, by
lists, be informed as to whether a book of any class among the
of the day is really worth his while or not.
there is no such guide to the large class of more serious and
books which form so large a part of the output of our best publishing
the extension of the American Library List to include such professional
books would be of the greatest use to the student and the scholar if
the list were
made complete and authoritative, as is the case with the list of books
books of this class, many of them of great importance (I may mention,
Professor Whitehead's well known works on the "Principles of Natural
and the "Principle of Relativity With Applications to Physical Science"
are as necessary to the student, the professor, and the directors of
institutions as are the tools of his trade to the carpenter, the mason,
or the clerical
worker, notwithstanding which the circulation of such books in recent
not kept pace, largely owing to their cost, with the growth of our
in the development of science and education.
Many of these
books which are so necessary as the tools of his trade to the special
educational worker are the productions of foreign scholars attached to
universities of Great Britain and other countries, and such books,
owing to their
small circulation and their appeal only to students and scholars, are
in this country and are usually imported in small quantities for those
to whom their
use is necessary.
and others who need such books in their work are seldom gifted with
goods in abundance and are often in receipt of most moderate salaries
with modern standards. It accordingly follows that the price at which
are sold is a most vital matter from the standpoint of those who use
In the year
1903, an attempt having been made by the Custom House appraisers to
the dutiable value of books imported from abroad, which would have
resulted in considerable
increases in their prices to students, the importers of such books in
New York appeared
before the Board of General Appraisers in an effort to have such books
dutiable at the then prevailing rate of 25 per cent on the cost of the
the importers rather than on the advanced and fictitious cost advocated
of the appraisers before whom these books were entered for assessment.
After a long
controversy, which was carried on partly in the newspapers and partly
with the Custom
House officials, the case was referred for final action to the Board of
Appraisers, who, after hearing fairly all the evidence, decided that
be admitted into this country at the cost to the importer for the
purposes of the
assessment of duty; and the practice of so admitting these books at the
the importer plus the then existing duty of 25 per cent prevailed from
a period of nearly fifteen years, with the result that books necessary
to the student
and the scholar were not advanced in price, as would otherwise have
and were sold at a much lower price than is possible today.
In the year
1913 a new Tariff Bill was enacted in which Congress, evidently with
intention in mind of reducing the cost of such books to students and
the duty on them from 25 per cent to 15 per cent. That it was the
intention of Congress
to reduce the duty on these classes of books mostly or solely is
evidenced by the
fact that in the new bill many other classes of books which are
the American publishers' and printers' point of view were raised from
rate in various ways.
the action of Congress in reducing the duty met with objection on the
part of the
Treasury, and in 1918-19, through its Board of Appraisers and Customs
question of value of the imported books on which the new duty of 15 per
be assessed was again raised, and, notwithstanding the arguments of the
-arguments which convinced the Board of General Appraisers in the years
‒ the Customs Court declared that the duty should be assessed not upon
of the books but upon a fictitious price, which in many or most cases
and in some cases more than double the actual cost of the books to the
the effect being that the books in question now paid a greater amount
of duty under
the reduced rate as authorized by Congress than was previously paid on
at the higher rate of 25 per cent and the prices of these books to
others were of necessity greatly increased.
no reasonable excuse for this successful attempt on the part of the
its Customs Court, to nullify the deliberate intentions of Congress,
and the students
and others who use books to which this new ruling applies apparently
soon at the attempt of Congress to reduce their burdens. As has been
above, books imported from abroad now cost these consumers more in
relation to their
foreign price than was the case before the duty was nominally reduced
from 25 per cent to 15 per cent.
under a strictly narrow legal interpretation of the wording of the
Tariff Act, backed
by a report from a customs agent which was biased, incomplete, and
is perhaps warrant for the ruling which was put into effect, it seems
that common sense should govern the matter, as was the case in 1903,
a merely technical, narrow, legal ruling on the actual words used, the
of Congress having been to reduce the duty, whereas the ruling of the
above referred to actually increases it, and the benevolent intention
has been frustrated by the bureaucratic methods of the Treasury.
somewhat high-handed ruling was made there seemed little doubt that it
was a war
measure, and I accordingly, while appearing by attorneys at the hearing
Customs Court, made little serious effort to influence or combat the
decision, especially as the increased duty, as is always the case,
could be handed
over to our customers by the simple process of raising the prices.
It is time,
however, that we went back to the saner view of this matter that
prevailed for fifteen
years, between the years 1903 and 1918, especially as the increased
by the Treasury was not large, the sums involved being tens of
than millions of dollars, and no appreciable increase of revenue
that these imported books, as I have already said, fail to sell as well
largely on account of their increased prices, undoubtedly points to the
students and others are doing without, as best they can, books which
to them in their daily work, and a relief from this condition is
to be desired.
the Order of the Temple
We have received
advance notice of what will undoubtedly be a most valuable work for
in the Order of Knights Templar, whether Masons or otherwise. It is
de l'Ordre des Templiers [Lib*]. The author is M. Dessubre, and there
will be a
preface by Albert Lantoine. It is being published by the firm of
The edition is a limited one of five hundred copies. If ordered
beforehand the price
is 40 francs. It contains bibliographical details, not only of printed
also those in manuscript that have never been published. It should be
in every Masonic
reviewed in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of
at the prices given, which always include postage. These prices are
a matter of precaution) to change without notice; though occasion for
very seldom arise. Occasionally it may happen, where books are
that there is no supply available, but some indication of this will be
the review. The Book Department is equipped to procure any books in
print on any
subject, and will make inquiries for second-hand works and books out of
of the Rosy Cross
Records of the House of the Holy Spirit in its inward and outward
history. By Arthur
Edward Waite. Published by William Rider and Son. Illustrated, index,
For an account
of this work see the article by Bro. Milborne on page 78 of the present
Tradition in Alchemy; Its Development and Records
[Lib*]By Arthur Edward Waite.
Published by Alfred
A. Knopf. Cloth, Analytic Table of Contents, Appendix, Index, xxii and
knows that there were such people as alchemists, and that they sought
stone, or a sovereign elixir by which gold and silver might be made
from baser metals
and life indefinitely prolonged; and it all seems a fantastic mixture
and knavery that would be quite impossible in our day and with the
of knowledge that characterizes our culture. It is probable too that
even well-read people, have a hazy idea that alchemy was a product of
and eighteenth centuries and was a kind of illegitimate by-product of
movements begun in the Renaissance and liberated in the Reformation. It
as something of a shock to find out that its literature is almost as
old as Christianity,
beginning apparently in the third and fourth centuries and continuing
till it was
eclipsed by the rise of the modern science of chemistry.
much other curious information of the same kind the reader may glean
from Bro. Waite's
pages; but this is not what he has set out to tell us. The present work
is one in
a series, the last in the series he tells us, and thus can only be
judged as a part
of the whole ‒ as another wrought stone added to the edifice begun, now
ago. Bro. Waite's preoccupation is with mysticism, and in many previous
list is a very long one ‒ he has investigated secret mystical
from the Kabbalah to Freemasonry. Wherever there was said to be an
or any group or organization composed of those who had known, or who
those ineffable experiences that are the basis of mysticism, there has
labored with the endless patience of the scholar, and with the pen of a
has written what he has found for those who can understand. He has
even in the most unlikely places; in the fancies of modern magic, and
and mystifications of occultism as well as in the works of the mystics
therefore that only incidentally does he tell us of what alchemy was
it came, and how it was transmitted from generation to generation and
to country. Yet, though only incidental to his purpose it happens that
it was necessary
to treat it in considerable detail for the purpose in view.
It has been
said, that there was really no difference between chemistry and
alchemy, that the
latter was but the chemistry of its day and merged into the modern
science in due
time. The founders of our chemistry began as alchemists; men such as
and Boyle, for example, were in the transition stage, starting from the
conceptions and working from them by truly scientific methods. It may
well be asked, what has chemistry and its forerunner to do with
adventures of the
spirit in heavenly things and visions that may not be uttered? And here
it may be
said at once that, for the author's main purpose the present work is in
negative. It is in short an examination and criticism of a claim that
the true purpose
of the alchemists had nothing to do with physical things, but with an
of the soul; and that all the paraphernalia of processes and vessels
were but a set of fantastic symbols and allegories. He takes, first of
writers of the last Century as protagonists of this mystical theory.
who published A Suggestive Inquiry Into the Hermetic Mystery in 1850
[Lib 1918], in England, and General E.
who, seven years later, gave to an unheeding public in America his
Remarks on Alchemy
and the Alchemists [Lib 1857], apparently in ignorance of
Mrs. Atwood and
her work. The interpretation of alchemical literature suggested by
these two writers
is first examined and criticized on its own grounds, and then the whole
is discussed, beginning with Egypt and the Byzantines, through Syria,
and the Arabians
to Mediaeval and Modern Europe, to see how far the literature bears out
As has been
intimated the result is mainly negative. It is demonstrated that from
the alchemists, with some exceptions at the last, were not seeking
in alchemy, but the secrets of the transmutions of material substances,
of metals. They were, as Bro. Waite puts it:
Self-educated seekers at the
dawn of physical
science, they tried all things that came their way, and bought their
hardly, without a band to guide. Among martyrs of science, they may
deserve to bear
their palm. Unenlightened and unequipped, they laid the foundation of a
and lifesaving knowledge.
he adds that we may find also
… that their furnaces were
"on a peak in Darien," and that through the smoke of their coals and
chemicals they beheld illimitable vistas, where the groaning totality
advanced by degrees to perfection. "A depth beyond the depth and a
the height" opened beneath and above them, and glimpses of glorious
in all the kingdoms overlighted their barbarous language and
strange symbols, The explanation is not that they were spiritual
masters … But in
those days a world of wonder opened wherever any quest began, because
it was ever
pursued in a great unknown, the unmeasured Cosmos of Nature, where
never a plummet
could sound the vast abysses and never a shaft of thought penetrate the
The occasional greatness of alchemical literature is accounted for in
while at the same time its intimations of spiritual realities are
their proper limits.
is a long one, but though from an early chapter in the book, it gives
a summing up of the result of the investigation in its main outlines.
naturally arises bow it came about that a mystical interpretation of
have arisen. That it was popularly supposed to be connected with
sorcery and witchcraft
we can understand well enough; or that alchemists may have dabbled in
and the Kabbalah seems quite natural. To the ordinary intelligent
reader these things
all seem to be very much in the same class ‒ but this does not explain
how the theory
arose that it bad no concern with metals, except the figurative gold of
The answer seems to lie in a curious impasse to thought created by the
of the subject, from the beginnings of it down to its conclusion.
Excepting a mass
of spurious works made to sell in the latest period, and some other
there is, it appears, a prevailing note of sincerity running through it
spite of himself a man's work bears the tokens of his honesty, or his
lack of it,
for those who can see, and these tokens of honesty are here apparent.
books assert not only an unwavering belief in the possibility of
but also its attainment. Now how can men go on, generation after
and sincerely asserting that to have happened which is impossible?
Fraud and gullibility
are explanations that do not meet the case at all on a critical
the possibility that they were speaking of something quite different
ostensible subject of discourse might seem to be the solution.
general possibility is made more plausible by the fact, as appears in
work, that some of the later alchemists, and those who were
in the subject, did understand it mystically. Not, however, exclusively
so to speak, additionally so. Boehme and Vaughan, one not a practiser
of the art
at all, and the other apparently only a dilettante, took it in both
senses, as being
true on different planes according to the old Hermetic maxim, "As above
below." The Rosicrucians, and later, certain Masonic rites and degrees,
to have sought both the physical and the spiritual Stone at the same
time; and (in
the latter case at least) do not seem quite to have known just which it
wanted most. It might be said in their defense that they supposed the
found, would unlock all doors.
may arise in the reader's mind, quite apart from the author's purpose.
Here we have
presented to us a panorama of a persisting search down through the ages
by men of
many nations and of all ranks and degrees. Not fools, not blind
dreamers and nothing
more. Many of the most notable minds in the history of our civilization
among them. They experimented persistently. At hazard doubtless, but
even at hazard
and on false principles how was it they accomplished so little in the
way of chemical
discovery? These alchemists were men of equal intelligence and gifts to
and physicists today, why then did they not do something, attain
something in their
age long search? It is a puzzling problem and raises a suspicion, that
out in other matters, that nothing can develop till the time be ripe.
may be a more direct cause too. For some reason, and it is one of the
of the subject, every alchemist who wrote on the subject felt be was
under an un-evadable
obligation to write in cryptic and symbolic language, to say nothing
to make it impossible for anyone to understand who did not already
know. And more
than this, it seemed that none would tell another seeker plainly of
what he had
himself discovered. Every man, therefore, had to begin absolutely at
and rediscover everything for himself. When with Academies and Royal
began to plainly communicate what they had found to their fellows,
and continued at an ever accelerating rate. Why did it take so long to
team work was the only way to conquer Nature? The answer does not yet
a few typographical errors, all of an obvious kind, only one calls for
page 286 "of" is put for "or." The others are chiefly the insertion
of letters that do not belong.
students with a leaning towards the occult, this, and we may add, the
of Bro. Waite, should certainly be read. There are so many blind
leaders of the
blind in this field. Bro. Waite combines with his other qualifications
and painstaking scholarship. The reader can be assured that he will not
be led astray
by mis-quotations, by guesses in the guise of facts, or enthusiasm
running far in
advance of knowledge.
* * *
Volume II. Published by the Macmillan Co., New York. Cloth, 402 pages.
of Ossining, New York, is the railroad station for two institutions of
divergent character. The one is the state penitentiary at Sing Sing,
the other is
the Roman Catholic mission house of Maryknoll, the headquarters of an
American society that trains missionaries for China and Korea.
society was organized in 1911 by a southern priest, the Rev. Thomas
after having labored for over twenty-five years, in North Carolina,
decided at the
age of sixty to devote the eve of his life to mission work in China. He
the society, went to China, and there succumbed to the hardships of his
He is buried near Hongkong.
grew and flourishes, spiritually if not temporally, and is sending band
of enthusiastic priests, brothers and nuns to the Celestial empire and
Kingdom where they have established numerous missionary centers. These
of Christian civilization send occasional reports to the headquarters
From these communications The Maryknoll Mission Letters have been
arranged, the first volume of which appeared in 1923, the second in
unveil to us an interesting picture of present day conditions in China.
written in a happy vein. Genuine undiluted American optimism and humor
every page. They are far from being sad reading. When the missionary
good pot luck, a well cooked chicken or goose, and fairly comfortable
he enjoys these rare treats and says so. When he has to go without his
night rest, or has to sleep on the crowded deck of a dirty junk amid a
jam of not
over cleanly peasants with the tail of a crated pig tickling his nose,
nevertheless to see something funny in the situation. And a holdup by
a forty mile hike over muddy roads are not without their charm. There
is no cloud
for him without its large silver lining.
plenty of clouds, to be sure. The country is torn by a seemingly
endless civil war
and is infested by bandits. The terms soldier and bandit are usually
there. The looting and burning of villages and towns are not uncommon
And there are the abominations of heathenism. To mention but one: when
mother discovers that her new born babe is a girl, or a crippled boy,
she will just
as likely as not throw it into the alley to leave it perish.
rectifies things as best he can, to the full extent of his very limited
‒ probably nowhere in the world will a dollar stop more misery than in
China ‒ and
where he cannot help for lack of men and money, he simply resigns
himself to the
inevitable with as much equanimity as possible. He has to keep up, and
succeeds in keeping up, his optimism and his sense of humor. This
is as necessary for him as is his daily bread amid those uncongenial,
surroundings. It braces him up. The game is young, he says. As our
schools and free
dispensaries, our orphanages and other charitable institutions increase
our facilities to accomplish good also expand.
Letters are entertaining, cheering, instructive and exceedingly
edifying. In this
age of flapperism and of jazz, of selfishness and of crime waves, of
and all sorts of dangerous experimentalisms, they are refreshing and
Some of the Letters betray a remarkable felicity at diction and power
The reader feels himself almost an eye-witness to the scene. We express
that the book will have a very large circulation, that the admirable
zeal and enthusiasm
of the brave missionaries will never abate and that the good Lord will
work and make it prosper most abundantly.
* * *
Vicente Blasco Ibanez. Published by E. P. Dutton and Company, New York,
395 pages. Price $2.50.
of mind over reverse circumstances is the theme of this book. It deals
lives of a peculiar group, we may almost say race of people known as
who live on the outskirts of Madrid, in the Cuarto Caminos. From these
derived the name of the book, "The Mob." They were a poverty stricken,
famished horde, gathered at the feet of Spain's capital who feed upon
refuse and filth.
of the members of this group to develop the main theme of the story,
proceeds to make of the book something more than a novel. He makes of
it a kind
of sociological discussion of the conditions in Spain showing the
class distinction. Isidro Maltrana, the character with whom we are
the varied circumstances of his life, has had the fortune, or
way one cares to judge after reading the book, to have gained an
superior to his companions in the Cuatro Caminos. He must have
inherited his capacity
for learning from his father who was not a rag-picker but followed the
of a brick-layer. But the shiftless part of his nature he inherited
from his mother's
side. His mother dies early in the story but there is Mariposa, his
who gladly takes it upon herself to look after "the wise man," as
is called. This dirty old woman lives like a pig in a hut which she
her two horses. But we are not so much concerned with her as we are
In the beginning his actions seem to be losing efficaciousness, his
life seems to
be surrounded with confusion, and he is striving for a clue to some
the book this character holds our pity. There is little for him to do;
and eager studies have annulled his will. He had spent his life finding
thousands of beings thought throughout the centuries, and when the
of life called for action, he was weaponless, with no strength to keep
He contributed spasmodically to a newspaper in the city. But the
members of the
staff accused him of "possessing the poison tree of knowledge." They
him a free hand to write whatever came into his head, but when he
articles on Ruskin and an article on beauty, Nietzsche and imperialism,
harmonies and discordances between socialism and the doctrines of
Darwin and Haeckle,
they could not restrain themselves any longer. Months afterwards in the
rooms they still laughed about those columns.
It was always
thus with the unfortunate Isidro, his mind was above his surroundings
but he lacked
the necessary means to place himself in the proper environment. He was
first an ardent lover of Hellenism; he wanted to see things in their
charm; he wanted
to invest human life with a kind of aerial ease, clearness and
radiancy. He wanted
to make it full of what Ruskin would call sweetness and light. With
this end in
view he persuaded the beautiful Feli, daughter of the ferocious
trapper, or poacher,
Mosco, to run away with him to live as man and wife in El Rastro. For a
couple live in the shabby apartment of a religious fanatic, Brother
are very happy. Isidro writes a book for which he receives an amount of
enough to appease their wants for a while. But with the knowledge that
he is to
become a father there comes a sudden drop in his exuberant love of
life. He felt
that the leaded cloak of the years had fallen on his shoulders and he
saw the poverty
in which he lived in a blacker and sadder light.
found existence harder and more difficult every day. The weariness of
their activity and to add to their discomfiture Brother Vicente learned
illegal relationship and asked them to leave his house. Black despair
They became just another two of the "mob," seeking only a roof and
food to keep them from starvation. They moved to Cambroneros, a section
of the city
inhabited by gypsies. In this heterogeneous population the gypsies
formed a world
by themselves, an independent society within the miserable horde
It is interesting
to note here the author's knowledge of gypsy life. It is one of the
chapters in the book, showing the quaint customs and traditions that
nomad race. Ibanez shows them to be a people of fiery imagination who
live by continual
lying and stealing. But these people are kind-hearted and prove very
the poor couple.
of the story from here on are depressing and the action moves very
proved unable to cope with the reverses of fortune and finally sent
Feli to the
community hospital. He then spent his days wandering about the streets
seeking work. He was afraid to go to the hospital and inquire whether
or not he
had become a father because Feli had asked him to bring her flowers and
not afford to buy them. "Poor mutilated fly!" They had pulled off the
wings with which he was born and an evil fate amused itself by pushing
and shouting: "fly!" He finally went to the hospital however and found
that he was the father of an ugly little boy, greatly resembling
himself. Feli died
a few days later.
It was this
event that rejuvenated Isidro's soul and here is where the theme, the
mind over reverse circumstances, manifests itself. From the steps of
dirty little hut, where he had taken his son to be cared for, be spent
in contemplation. Looking down on the capital it seemed to him
and triumphant, crushing its surroundings with the aid of its
greatness. It could
not see the famished mob gathered at its feet. It was beautiful and
Isidro mentally examined that avalanche of misery and from his
reached the conclusion that what the mob needed was leaders. He decided
the serfs of poverty like himself, instead of cowardly lowering
themselves to the
mighty, offered in their service what they had learned, endeavored to
horde," that conditions would change.
But it was
not only this awakening to facts that changed Isidro's life, it was his
his son. This iron love made of him another man. He decided to succeed
so that his
son could march on without getting dirty. Thus the mind is victorious.
So ends the
book leaving the reader much food for thought and contemplation. In
sordid conditions Ibanez has focused his lens so that no detail is left
It is a good story, not quite so powerful, perhaps, as The Four
Horsemen of the
Apocalypse, but certainly fully as interesting.
DER SCHRIFTSTELLER DER EINSTIGE GENERAL DER
INFANTERIE ERICH LUDENDORFF ALS
"WAHRHEITSSUCHER" IM LICHTE DER DEUTSCHEN PRESSE VERSCHIEDENSTER
[Lib*] Compiled by Ernst Paul Kretschmer. Published by Adolf Forker,
Leipsig. Paper, 96
pages. Price one mark.
IT is a somewhat
lengthy title for a booklet of 96 pages and it means "The writer, the
Infantry General Erich Ludendorff as 'Seeker after Truth' in the light
of the German
press of the most divergent political creeds. A little anthology
arranged by Ernst
Paul Kretschmer of Gera." It is, as the title indicates, a selection of
of the German press concerning General Ludendorff's booklet of 82 pages
Freemasonry. Said booklet is entitled, Vernichtung der Freimaurerei
ihrer Geheimnisse, that is, "Annihilation of Freemasonry through the
of its secrets." It appeared in Munich in August, 1927. Ludendorff
is the publisher, a Munich bookseller acting as distributor. Within
27,000 copies were disposed of, by November 50,000 copies; in November
edition of 25,000 copies was in print.
From a long
list of absurd charges Ludeneorff raises against Masonry we select a
brings its members into conscious subjection to the Jews … It trains
them to become
venal Jews … The higher-ups in German Masonry are forever lost to the
… German Masonry is a branch of organized international Masonry the
of which are in New York. There also is the seat of Jewish world power."
to him, America's entry into the World War was brought about by the
Jewish society of the Benai Berith and the Masonic Grand Lodge of New
three bodies conspired together to ruin Germany and Austria Hungary.
Yes, yes, the
Jesuits entered into an unholy alliance with Jews and Freemasons to
Hungary, the only extant Catholic world power! It was due to the
intrigues of these
three accursed organizations that the Central Empires lost the war.
and the Czar Nicholas both lost the throne, Ludendorff avers, because
In the Odd
Fellows he recognizes an organization made up of Jewish Freemasons.
At the end
of the war a certain Dr. Wichtl, of Vienna, published a book with
against Freemasonry. Ludendorff refers to Wichtl's book as a Masonic
No wonder the socialistic Volkszeitung of Bremen comments:
The "Revelation" betrays an
in matters of history that borders on the fabulous. And such a mixture
and credulity comes from Ludendorff, a man who for several years was
in Germany! A horrible disclosure, showing what imbecility sometimes
rules the world!
Quartermaster-General of the German armies does not fail to call
attention to the
heinous oaths through which Masonry imposes silence and obedience on
If a Mason is caught divulging one of the secrets of the Order his
tongue and his
entrails are torn out!
help pitying the German papers that, owing to Ludendorff's prominence,
to comment on these absurdities and to refute them. In reply to his
the German Masons are hirelings of the Jews they point to the fact that
two-thirds of German Masonry belong to the Grand Lodge of Prussia to
Christians are admitted. They cite the names of distinguished Germans
who were members
of the secret craft: King Frederick the Great of Prussia, Emperor
William I, Emperor
Frederick II, Grand Admiral von Tirpitz; famous writers like Goethe,
Herder, Rueekert, Kleist; heroes of the wars of liberation (from
Bluecher, Stein, Gneisenau, Scharnhorst and others. They were all
tools of a nefarious Jewish sect! As are also, in Ludendorff's opinion,
Briand, Herr Stresemann, President Coolidge and other noted
It is not
probable that of the 80,000 Masons in Germany a single one lost a
over the threatened annihilation of the Order. Ludendorff has given
them a welcome
opportunity to vindicate the Craft before the German public and to
remove many an
inveterate prejudice. Nor have they omitted to mention that thousands
of them served
under him during the war and risked their lives at the front while he,
directed the movements of the armies at a safe distance from the front.
it keenly that this same man should now defame and vilify them as
traitors to their country.
a proud, tall cedar of the Lebanon has fallen. The former
one of the most brilliant military leaders and organizers in all
history, has stooped
to become a defamer of a well-deserved class of his fellow citizens.
And how does
Hindenburg, the idol of the German people, stand in regard to Masonry?
On July 14,
1926, he granted an audience to representatives of the Old Prussian
lodges. He expressed
his pleasure in receiving the assurances of their loyalty. He added
that there was
a Masonic tradition in his own family, his two grandfathers, both of
of the wars of liberation (from Napoleon) having been Freemasons.
* * *
Isobel Holbrook. Privately printed.
is, according to the author, largely based on two books by W. Marsham
House of the Hidden Places [Lib 1895], and The Book of the Master
published nearly thirty years ago and both very difficult to obtain.
dealt with the Great Pyramid and the "Book of the Dead."
It is needless
to say that the title "Book of the Dead" is one used by Egyptologists
for their own convenience, to denote a tremendous collection of
funerary texts found
carved on the walls of Royal Tombs, painted on coffins and written on
very few cases was the whole used, there were four versions each with
These consisted of so-called chapters, each of which is really an
these might come in any order. The collection as a whole is very
ancient, and some
of its parts were ancient when the collection was first put together.
So much for
the opinion -of those whose training and work gives them the best
to be heard.
pamphlet treats these texts as a ritual of initiation, and the Pyramid
as a temple
for the ceremony. Like so many other works of this class there is an
and spiritual value aside from anything historical. The attempt to
of the funeral texts by referring them to the chambers and passages of
is very ingenious, and the lessons inculcated are above reproach. Some
especially Scottish Rite Masons, may find this version of the ageless
of initiation of interest, and some things might be used as
illustrations of Masonic
teaching. But it is only right to insist that there is no probability
at all that
the Pyramid was a temple of initiation. What the component parts of the
texts were is impossible to say. They may in the dim prehistoric past
have had some
connection with initiatory rites, perhaps parts of them were used in
at a later period, as passages of Scripture are with us, but that as
they compose a connected ritual is quite untenable, and there is no
that in historic times their value was purely magical, they ensured a
to the deceased.
* * *
PERSONALITY [Lib*]. By William Brawn. Published by G. P. Putnam's Sons,
Cloth, Table of Contents, Index, 330 pages. Price $3.75.
to obtain a synoptic view of personality, as considered from the
the various sciences. It is in the nature of an interim report on the
the material furnished by psycho-pathology continues to flow in an
and the working out of its philosophic implications is a task that
cannot be hurried.
Enough is now known to warrant the drawing of provisional and tentative
* * *
OF A STATE [Lib*]. By T. G. Masaryk. Published by Frederick A. Stokes
Co., New York.
Cloth, Frontispiece, Table of Contents, Index, 453 pages. Price $6.35.
historical interpretation both of the process of Czecho-Slovak
redemption from Hapsburg
servitude, and of the war as a whole. Wider in range than any "war
yet written, it is a comprehensive examination of the philosophy of
and social life by a philosopher-statesman whose principles experience
It deserves not only to be read, but to be studied throughout the
* * *
[Lib*]. By Charles Guignebert. Published by the Macmillan Company, New
Table of Contents, 507 pages. Price $4.75.
lines of thought in this book may be best understood by remembering
that it is an
endeavor to describe and account for the formation, successive
final destruction not only of dogmatic assertions of religions in
general, but of
one particular religion, studied as a concrete reality. It is above all
their significance, consequences and connections that it deals. It is
tries to delineate the main outline of Christianity so as to show that
not only in its dogmas, but also throughout the ramifications of its
undergoes the process of evolution.
* * *
ITS MEANING AND EFFECT [Lib*]. By Alfred North Whitehead. Published by
Company, New York. Cloth, Table of Contents, 88 pages. Price $1.65.
defines symbolism thus: "the human mind is functioning symbolically
components of its experience elicit consciousness, beliefs, emotions
respecting other components of its experience." His thesis is "that
is an essential factor in the way we function as a result of our direct
* * *
OF THE SOUL [Lib*]. By Katherine Tingley. Published by the Woman's
Theosophical League, Point Loma, California. Cloth, Frontispiece, Table
291 pages. Price $2.15.
textbook which can be highly recommended to those interested in the
* * *
AS MAN TO
MAN [Lib*]. By Conde B. Pullen. Published by the Macmillan Company, New
Table of Contents, 302 pages. Price $2.65.
constitutes a series of definitions of the dogmas and principles of the
Church explained in a discursive manner by the editor of the Catholic
The Question Box and Correspondence
In the May,
1927, issue of THE BUILDER a question was submitted by C. B. R., of
relative to the symbolism of the Wardens' Columns.
In the reply
it is held that outside of the position of the columns in "calling off
on," there is no symbolism attached thereto.
as the lodge is said to be governed by the Master and Wardens acting
it not be said that the columns are symbols of their authority in the
that the "fasces" were the badge of the authority of the Roman
or the sceptre, the ceremonial emblem of authority borne by a
referred to as the "royal mace"?
are generally alluded to as the Wardens' Columns, but are they not
in sets of three, one being for the Master? How does this third column
the scheme? Should it be raised on the Master's pedestal at the opening
of the lodge
and remain upright until the lodge is closed, or should it be lowered
second section of the Third Degree?
A. E. T., Manila, P. I.
confess to being uninformed as to the "Warden's Columns" being
furnished in sets of three, but would feel that if this be the case it
quite confidently asserted it was an innovation brought in by
manufacturers of lodge
furniture and has neither antiquity nor any authority behind it. If it
been introduced (and we suppose it has by implication from what Bro. A.
E. T. says)
it is still, fortunately, very far from common. There is no doubt that
the two columns
represent first the two pillars of the porch of K. S. T. and second,
that they mark
the stations of the Wardens, and in a sense the office of Warden
itself, as the
gavel may be said to represent that of the Master. It does not work out
for the Wardens have gavels or mallets too. But in processions the
his gavel, while the Wardens carry their columns only. The only excuse
the Master a column (against the consensus of ancient usage) would be
to make the
three refer to the principal supports of the lodge, referred to in the
the First Degree, the pillars of Wisdom, Strength and Beauty.
* * *
I have been
informed that in the United States the installation of the officers of
a lodge are
frequently conducted in a public way, with ladies and others present,
who are not
Masons. I should like to know if this is true, for it seems very
How can the Master of a lodge be installed except in a lodge, and if it
is in a
lodge, how can those not Masons be present?
E. H. S., Canada.
opens up several points on which it must be confessed we have not at
hand much definite
information. In the first place it is an undoubted fact that, in some
at least (we do not know how many), public installations are permitted.
is based on the fact (alleged) that there is nothing secret in the
ceremonies. In a sense this is largely true, practically the whole of
are openly printed in Monitors and Codes, with the exception only of
the modes of
salutation, and so on, which are only alluded to. On the other hand, it
argued that on the same grounds a candidate might be given the charge
as that too is printed at length in the same manuals.
there is a certain respectable precedent. Dedication and installation
analogous in character, and when Freemason's hall was dedicated in
London in 1776
ladies were present, and other non-Masons too apparently. However, in
the Grand Lodge was opened in another and closely tiled room, and
entered the hall
in procession. Later the ladies withdrew and the hall was tiled while
(which nevertheless were quite fully described in printed accounts)
These done, the ladies were re-introduced, and at the end of the
Grand Lodge retired in procession and was closed in form in the place
where it was
opened. It would seem that only in some such way can the public
officers be carried out. Still, in the United States there has been a
to degradation in these ceremonies, the distinctively Masonic and
secret part has
been progressively curtailed and forgotten, in some states at least,
until at last
the idea has arisen that there is nothing secret in it at all. The
have also suffered from a parallel degradation to an even greater
extent. We hope
when occasion serves to be able to obtain more definite information
upon this very
* * *
greatest interest I have read your editorial in the last copy of THE
relation to Recognition and I agree with you that the question ought to
up by the different Grand Lodges and that undoubtedly for practical
reasons it should
be advisable that the American Grand Lodges make the first step to
attain a general
international understanding in relation to it. The absurdity of the
is evident and undoubtedly not in accordance with the idea, underlying
of an universal brotherhood.
As an illustration
of the correctness of your editorial I will relate an incident of which
in the latter
days I have got knowledge but although I am not committed to any
secrecy as far
as the incident regards I omit the names.
A short time
ago a young Danish Mason addressed himself to the officers of a Masonic
California handing them a letter from the Worshipful Master of a Danish
lodge in which the California lodge was asked to do the Danish lodge
the favor to
confer upon the young Danish Mason the Second Degree, as he had had to
before, according to the rules, it had been allowed to do it.
from the Worshipful Master was backed by a letter from the Secretary of
Grand National Lodge, of which according to the letter King Christian X
Master, certifying that said Danish lodge was a lodge of good standing
Grand Lodge, working according to the Swedish Rite, and asking the
brotherly to comply with the request of the Worshipful Master.
I cannot relate what decision the Grand Lodge of California is going to
I don't think that it can comply with the request on account of certain
in the rites, which undoubtedly the Worshipful Master has overlooked ‒
and in reality
this is irrelevant as the point is, that a Danish Grand Lodge, working
to the Swedish Rite, recognizes an American lodge while the Swedish
working according to the same Rite does not recognize another American
the same good standing. This needs no commentary.
by a Swedish Mason, now a citizen of the United States, throws some
upon this confused question. The following is part of a letter from a
who seems to have a different view of the general state of affairs. We
return to true Masonic doctrine in this matter, that fraternal
relations exist till
formally broken off, would remove at least some of the perplexing
that surround the subject.
I can explain why many American brothers are refused as visitors in
lodges of Swedish
Rite. I have, long before the war, seen an article, I don't remember
that in the United States the Old Charges were considered a landmark,
and that many
Grand Lodges had taken notice of the fact that the Swedish Rite
declined to acknowledge
this landmark. In consequence, a considerable number of American Grand
black listed the Swedish Grand Lodges, thus refusing their members as
I saw a list of the relations of the American Grand Lodges and, as far
as I remember,
more than half of them did not recognize the Swedish Rite. Of course,
Rite, in return, does not recognize them. The American Grand Lodges
were quite right
in acting so, for the Swedish Rite has nothing in common with the
but the name Freemasonry. Their doctrines and principles are in most
opposite. They have, therefore, always endeavored to conceal their
striven to maintain their connection with the English Grand Lodge
which, to a small
Continental Obedience, is the door opening out to the wide world. By
means of interrelationships
of Royalties the English Grand Lodge has hitherto been prevented from
the question of whether the Swedish Rite should be placed inside or
outside of Freemasonry.
P. A. F., Denmark.
* * *
I am interested
in the question submitted by Bro. J. M. Lowndes, of Wyoming, in the
of THE BUILDER for 1926, in regard to the proper way to place the
up the question of placing, I desire to call attention to the fact that
to be a difference of opinion on the part of the different
jurisdictions as to what
the lesser lights really are. In some jurisdictions the lesser lights
are said to
be the sun, moon, and the W. M., of which the lights ("lights" meaning
the candles or electric light bulbs attached to the stands) are the
while in others attention is directed to these actual "lights" with the
statement that they are the lesser lights and represent the sun, moon,
and W. M.
The latter expression may be intended to mean the same as the former,
but it certainly
does not convey the same meaning as it is stated.
three paragraphs of your answer to Bro. Lowndes' question are clear, at
believe that I have interpreted them correctly in the diagrams
numbered 1 to 5. Diagrams Nos. 1, 2 and 3 depict the three ways
described in the
second paragraph of your answer. Diagram No. 4 is the radical departure
the third paragraph of your answer is devoted.
two paragraphs of the answer were no doubt perfectly clear to Bro.
as neither his question, as stated, nor the answer give the Wyoming
am I familiar with either the Wyoming or the Oklahoma practice, it is
to me how the lights were shown on the "old French charts."
4 of your answer states that the lights are placed in the N. E., S. E.
and S. W.
corners and that this arrangement applies equally to Wyoming, Oklahoma
and the old
French charts. The "corners," however, are not clearly located. My
No. 5 is based on the supposition that the lights are grouped around
Is this correct, or do your "corners" refer to the lodge room?
described five different groupings. There is yet another way of
grouping which I
have shown in diagram No. 6. The lights are grouped about the altar,
one light in
the N. E. corner, another in the N. W., and the third in the S. W.
corner. The corners
refer to the altar itself. This manner of placing the lights is the
the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands which
closely the ritualistic procedure of the Grand Lodge of California.
of the lights, I have been led to believe, is common to a majority of
Lodges in the United States. Is that a fact?
of the groupings depicted are now in use in the United States?
A. E. T., Manila, P. I.
impossible to reproduce the diagrams sent by Bro. A.E.T., but we
can reconstruct them from the description referred to. One careless
into the reply to Bro. Lowndes in regard to the usage Bro. A.E.T.
refers to as No.
4. Instead of "northeast" it should have been "southeast quarter"
of the lodge room, i.e., southeast from the Altar. The question was
dealt with very
fully by Bro. Atchinson in THE BUILDER for September, 1918, who gave
arrangements actually in use in the United States, a fact that had
escaped our attention.
have been made clearer too that the old French Charts and plates do not
same arrangement, nor is any one of them really exactly the same as the
method. This because in the eighteenth century the altar or pedestal
was in the
East in front of the Worshipful Master, while the lodge proper was held
to be the
diagram on the floor to the west of this pedestal. The candles were
placed at the
corners of the diagram, sometimes two in the west (S. W. and N. W.) and
one in the
East (sometimes S. E. and occasionally N. E.) or again sometimes two in
and one in the S. W. In representations published in England during the
the lights are arranged in a triangle with its base somewhat north of
line of the diagram, and the apex in the South.
this as the original usage it is possible to see how the English and
diverged. As the officer (and brethren) moved back from the diagram the
be taken with them because they had always marked their stations.
might be left in the middle of the room because that was where they had
It would depend on which consideration seemed most important. Then when
got modified into a carpet or board or chart, and the pedestal was
moved away from
the Master to the center of the room and became the altar, the candles
arrange about this last. The one thing that was constant throughout was
arrangement permitted the interpretation that on light was toward the
to the South and one to the West, without too obvious incongruity. The
need thorough investigation, and it is hoped that in the not to distant
"Lights of the Lodge" will be fully discussed in THE BUILDER.
* * *
Century Work Reconstructed
In your February
issue you run an illustration of an eighteenth century lodge. It may
to know that Science Lodge, No. 50, at Sandusky, Ohio, has been doing
in full costume for some ten years past. The work was dramatized by the
has been given in a number of cities in Ohio and Michigan.
I am enclosing
one of our programs. It might interest your readers to know that we
have been doing
this work for so many years. I believe Bro. Morcombe was the first to
do this work
but I have never seen his play.
C. H. Merz, Ohio.
very pleased to publish the above letter. It shows that the
possibilities of reproducing
in a dramatic way the usages of our predecessors have occurred
more than one quarter, and should be proof of the practicability of
this way combining
a most interesting entertainment with instruction Bro. Merz sent with
a copy of a program, from which it would appear that his reproduction
of an 18th
century lodge, When Temples Were Inns, is very similar to that arranged
Milborne in Montreal. If any of our readers know of other
reconstructions put on
in their lodges we should be glad to have the particulars.
* * *
May I be
permitted to point out an uncorrected misprint in my review of Albert
recent book in the February BUILDER, as it completely reverses what I
say. I the next to the last paragraph on page 60 I wrote "The
have not been distinguished for a wide tolerance in the past; at that
would be more accurate to describe them as most intolerant." I am made
however that they were most tolerant."
to say I do not wish to reflect in any way upon the Presbyterian
at that time was regarded by all religions as a vice, not as a virtue.
It was a
pandering to evil. The Calvinist standpoint is logically as exclusive
as that of
the Roman Church. Granted that either on is right it follows that
S. J. C.
* * *
Order Of De
Many of our
members are keenly interested in the Order of De Molay for boys. We
have been asked
on behalf of the Grand Council to give publicity to its new address.
Order of De
Molay, Frank S. Land, Grand Scribe, 201 East Armour boulevard, Kansas
Whereto all concerned give good heed.
History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
Supply Co., 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 594. - 24.5 MB.
Demonology & Devil Lore
Con79DD1 / auth. Conway Moncure D. - New York : Henry Holt and Company,
1879. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 445. - 13.8 MB.
Demonology & Devil Lore
Con79DD2 / auth. Conway Moncure D. - New York : Henry Holt and Company,
1879. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 485. - 14.8 MB.
Fama fraternitatis (English)
Ros14 / auth. Rosenkreutz Christian. - 1614. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 14. -
History of Ancient Greece Vol 1
Gil86HG1 / auth. Gillies John. - London : A Strahan and T Cadell, 1786.
- Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 702. - 39.6 MB.
History of Ancient Greece Vol 2
Gil86HG2 / auth. Gillies John. - London : A Strahan and T Cadell, 1786.
- Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 759. - 42.7 MB.
House of the Hidden Places - A
Clue to the Creed of Early Egypt
Ada95 / auth. Adams W. Marsham. - Santa Cruz : sacred-texts.com, 1895.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 90. - 0.8 MB - Illustrated.
Lempriere's Classical Dictionary
Lem53 / auth. Lempriere John. - London : Henry G Bohn, 1853. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 760. - 76.4 MB.
Proofs of a Conspiracy
Rob98 / auth. Robison John. - New York : George Forman, 1798. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 457. - 2.2 MB.
Real History of the Rosicrucians
Wai87 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : George Redway, 1887. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 456. - 18.1 MB.
Remarks upon Alchimy and
Hit57 / auth. Hitchcock Ethan A. - Boston : Crosby, Nichols, and
Company, 1857. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 307. - 12.0 MB.
Silentium Post Clamores
Mai17 / auth. Maier Michael. - Frankfurt : [s.n.], 1617. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 146. - Latin - 23.5 MB.
The Chemical Wedding of
And90 / auth. Andreä Johann V / trans. Foxcroft E.. - [s.l.] : Unknown,
1690. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 70. - 2.9 MB - Digital Text.
The Hermetic Mystery
Atw18 / auth. Atwood Mary A / ed. Wilmshurst Leslie. - Belfast :
William Tait, 1918. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 688. - 38.7 MB.
The History of Free Masonry
Bre04 / auth. Brewster Sir David. - Edinburgh : Alex Lawrie, 1804. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 363. - 13.7 MB.
The Principle of Relativity
Whi22 / auth. Whitehead Alfred N. - Cambridge : Cambridge University
Press, 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 202. - 4.2 MB.
The Principles of Natural
Whi19 / auth. Whitehead Alfred N. - Cambridge : Cambridge University
Press, 1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 213. - 4.1 MB.
Ursprung der Rosenkreuzer und des Freymaurerordens
Mur03 / auth. Murr Christoph G von. - Sulzbach : printed by I
E Seidel, 1803. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 161. - German - 7.9 MB.