Masonic Research Society
Shadow of the Vatican
Dr. Leo Cadius
of articles is written by a member of the Roman Church.
still a member of that Church and has no desire to leave it.
do not touch on any matter of faith or doctrine, and while severely
the administration are in no sense an attack upon the church itself.
in writing them is the hope that the abuses he describes and the
foster them may be removed.
in publishing them is to give our readers an intimate inside picture of
working of the ecclesiastical machinery which may help them to judge to
the doubts and apprehensions that exist in the minds of many American
are well founded.
the author's opinion that the reforms he proposes would not only be to
of Roman Catholics but would largely remove the suspicions of so many
non-Romanist American citizens.
among the American non-Catholics a considerable amount of antagonism to
Catholic Church. In the opinion of the average American Catholic this
is due to
inherited blind prejudice, to misinformation concerning Catholic
doctrines and practices,
to sectarian jealousy and similar causes. This is no doubt very
frequently the case,
but not always.
propose to show that non-Catholic apprehension of the growing power and
of the Roman Church in this country is not altogether unjustified.
of her present constitution render her a formidable menace to the
freedom of the
American Republics. They are also an insult to the national
self-respect of the
American Catholics themselves. These objectionable features could be
without doing violence to the original basic constitution of the Church
Roman Catholics consider divine, that is, instituted by Jesus Christ,
and for that
I am optimist
enough to believe that if the Vatican could be induced to make
concessions to the
reasonable demands of modern democracy, national self-respect and
a good deal of the opposition to the Roman Church would vanish. We
might look forward
then to a continuous period of religious peace and mutual good-will,
and that is
what every right-minded person desires. As matters stand at the
present, the American
Catholics themselves live in fear of religious persecutions which will
freedom. Such a thing ought to be avoided. Why not discuss the problem
in all good nature and arrive at a mutually satisfactory understanding
insure for us a permanent religious peace?
Italian Hegemony in
the Catholic Church
to our Catholic textbooks of theology, the Roman Catholic Church is a
an absolute monarchy; we may add the most absolutistic of all
monarchies. All power
and authority is concentrated in one person, the Roman Pontiff, more
the Pope. He is surrounded by advisory boards of his own selection, the
of Cardinals, the various Congregations and Commissions. He is not
bound by their
findings. There is no Synod or Parliament to limit his powers. He may
Ecumenical Council of all the Bishops of the Earth. They may
unanimously pass a
decision or define a doctrine. He can summo jure, by a supreme right,
unanimous decision and force them to subscribe to his own decision
which may be
diametrically opposed to theirs. It is true he is only infallible when
ex cathedra. But he is to be obeyed whether he speaks ex cathedra or
not. Very few
of the papal decrees fall under the ex cathedral class. Most of them
belong to the
non-infallible category. But they are to be obeyed just the same. Any
presumes to oppose them will be excommunicated, if the Vatican finds it
position is therefore assuredly a most favored one. To fill this most
of all offices has been for more than four centuries the cherished
monopoly of a
small body of Italian ecclesiastics, the Italian Cardinals. The Roman
is a world organization, an international body if ever there was one
but its supreme
government is reserved to one race, the Italian.
by which the Italians have kept themselves in power has the merit of
Each Italian Pope, in creating new Cardinals, saw to it that his
the majority in the Sacred College. This Italian majority would upon
of a Pope elect with unfailing regularity an Italian for his successor.
result was then credited to the Holy Ghost, who is believed to have a
voice in the
selection of Popes and Bishops, in fact, to guide and direct that
the facade of St. Peter in Rome, then, the joyful news would be
announced to an
expectant world: habemus papam! "We have again a Pope!" Thanksgiving
would be held in every parish throughout the Catholic world.
non-Italian Pope was Hadrian VI, a native of Utrecht in Holland. He was
exemplary Pontiff, a shining contrast to his immediate predecessors and
successors. He was unpopular with the Romans. This was in 1523.
years during which, in the fourteenth century, the Popes, all
in Avignon, through the connivance of the Kings of France, have been
Babylonian captivity of the papacy.
centuries of uninterrupted Italian domination, beginning in 1523, may
the Egyptian bondage of the Church. It has been a period of tribulation
she has become fettered and gradually stripped of her worldly
possessions in almost
every country. On the other hand, she has been spared the curse of a
by reason of her poverty has advanced spiritually so that, despite the
defection due to rationalism and religious indifferentism, her present
are splendid. It would be useless to discuss the merits or demerits of
monopoly of the papacy. God alone knows on what side of the ledger the
to be looked for. One thing is certain, that such monopoly is unjust
to the non-Italian nations.
As a curiosity
it may be mentioned that the youthful but very energetic and
in the United States has so far been privileged to cast a single vote
at the election
of a Pope. That was the vote of Cardinal Gibbons, Archbishop of
Baltimore, at the
conclave in 1903, in which Pius X was chosen to succeed Leo XIII. It
little whether American Cardinals participate in a conclave or not.
They, like all
other non-Italian Cardinals, must cast their vote for an Italian
candidate or waste
it. Their vote, therefore, has only a complimentary and complementary
is all the power, or shadow of a power, the Holy Ghost, whom the
regards as its flunky.
It is significant
of the incredible mental enslavement of modern Catholics ‒ there
a different spirit in the Middle Ages ‒ that nowhere in the world does
press and Catholic public opinion dare to protest against the Italian
Selection of American
American Catholics have practically no voice in the election of a Pope,
has everything, positively everything, to say in the appointment of
in the case of a vacant bishopric, two ecclesiastical bodies were
empowered to express
a preference for a successor. They were the so-called irremovable
pastors of the
diocese and the bishops of the particular ecclesiastical province. Each
select three names to be recommended to Rome.
when Archbishop Feehan of Chicago died in July, 1902, the twelve
of the Archdiocese chose, by secret ballot, three candidates to fill
The bishops of the ecclesiastical province of Chicago, that is, the
bishops of Alton,
Belleville and Peoria, all in the state of Illinois, forwarded another
list of three
candidates to Rome. Bishop Quigley of Buffalo happened to be one of
candidates. He was selected by the Vatican as Archbishop of Chicago.
was not required to consider these two lists, but quite frequently it
of sending names to Rome has been abolished. The Vatican has thereby
the American common clergy the last semblance of representation. As
American laity, it never had a voice in the affairs of the Church. In
of according the American Catholics more freedom and respecting their
the appointment of bishops, as would be in keeping with the spirit of
the Italian Oligarchy is steadfastly centralizing its power and
tightening its stranglehold
on the American Church.
recommendation, then, does Rome choose the American bishops?
members of the American hierarchy are, no doubt, frequently consulted.
if a bishop of the ecclesiastical province of Baltimore dies, the
Baltimore may succeed in placing his choice in the vacant episcopal
chair. He may,
and again he may not.
American archbishop, now dead ‒ let us call him Mulholland ‒ was
credited with having
filled twenty-one vacancies in the American hierarchy with favorites of
of them were poor episcopal timber, some of them utterly unfit. Hence
humorously surnamed Mulholland "the episcopal abortion clinic," his
being thus delicately designated as abortive in regard to their high
Here is how
Archbishop Mulholland filled a certain vacancy in his ecclesiastical
clergy and the laity of the orphaned diocese forwarded a monster
petition to the
Vatican that the Vicar General, a very able and popular priest, be
The "interference" displeased Mulholland who, moreover, entertained a
dislike for the said Vicar General. He promptly used his strong
influence with the
Vatican to have a certain Father Fullrath appointed. The following
will shed light on Bishop Fullrath's character. Getting worsted once in
with a priest, he was so completely overcome by his temper that he spat
in the priest's
face. Now, even the fiercest anti-Catholic will not harbor so low an
the Catholic episcopate as to consider such a man a typical bishop.
This poor prelate
is clearly insane, not far from a raving maniac. Still, he has been
considerably over a decade to torment his diocese, clergy and laity
alike. He may
afflict them for another decade or more.
orders and associations, notably the Jesuits and the Sulpicians, no
doubt have had,
and are still having, their fingers in the American hierarchic pie.
These two organizations
specialize in educational work. Naturally, they like to see pupils of
theirs ‒ who
are not members of their organization however ‒ promoted to bishoprics.
are an association of French, Canadian and American priests with
Issy, near Paris, France. At the beginning of the present century, over
bishops were believed to be protégés of theirs.
governments, European prelates, European noblemen, European noblewomen,
and nieces of Italian cardinals, European scholars and others are also
to have placed favorites of theirs, usually naturalized American
citizens, in American
story is current among the American clergy. It was at the beginning of
war that a certain important American bishopric adjoining the Canadian
became vacant. The Vatican was about to appoint for the post a certain
prelate of German extraction. The British government got wind of the
intimated to the Vatican that it would regard the appointment of a
to so influential a position right at the Canadian border as a
act. The Vatican yielded and appointed a man of non-German descent. The
government duly learned of the affair and in turn protested to the
Vatican. To placate
the Wilhelmstresse, said German-American prelate was shortly afterwards
to a very important Archbishopric somewhat remote from the Canadian
may be fiction, but it could easily have happened. American Catholics
wrong or unusual in the interference of European governments in the
affairs of the
To sum it
up: American and European prelates and monks, European monarchs,
European scholars, European noblemen, European petticoats ‒ all are
having placed favorites of theirs in American episcopal sees.
one class of people that is utterly innocent of ever having nominated
That class is composed of the common clergy and laity of the American
‒ American Catholics, in short.
But why should
their wishes be consulted? These innocent lambs will welcome with
and brass bands any and every shepherd whom the Vatican has been
pleased to place
over them at the recommendation of some known or unknown Tom, Dick and
Rosina, Peppina and Carmela, or ‒ if persistent and widespread whispers
at the recommendation of Simon the Magician.
of the Chicago Tribune tells me that in the office of that great paper
motto is hung up in a conspicuous place: "See to it that the sucker
get an even break!"
motto could be displayed to great advantage in the Vatican, the seat of
greatest autocracy. An autocracy has always and everywhere bred
suckers. Who could
imagine a Czar, a Kaiser, a Sultan of the olden days, without an
entourage of courtiers
and sycophants? The Vatican, being the most absolutistic and most
of all autocracies, is naturally a paradise for suckers.
of course, know it. Of the good and humble Pope Pius X (who died in
1914) the following
incident was recorded by the daily press: Upon his accession to the
he had his three spinster sisters brought to Rome where he rented for
them an apartment
in the vicinity of the Vatican. A young Italian ecclesiastic
an apartment in the same building. The Pope heard of it and suspecting
to be prompted by ambitious designs, he strictly forbade his sisters to
with him or even to talk to him.
element in the American Church is composed of the Irish Americans. They
everybody knows, gifted with a particularly keen sense of humor. The
system by which American Bishops are selected could not fail to
intimate to Pat
some of its ludicrous possibilities. And thus the following naughty
For the last
fifteen years or so the Vatican has in the matter of the appointment of
Bishops been guided by the advice of Cardinal Simoni. This part of the
by all accounts not fiction, however, but fact. The name Simoni, of
course, is fictitious
as are the other names in this little tale which, let us hope for the
rest, is also
Simoni, residing in Rome, has a spinster sister who presides over his
Signorina Peppina is her name. She has a little pet dog, a French
Zambo. Next to her Most Eminent Brother, there is nothing so dear to
as her little Zambo with his bright and sweet features. "angel face"
calls him in the exuberance of her affection.
other, American ecclesiastics who were anxious to be promoted to a nice
or, if they were already bishops, to an archbishopric, found it
expedient to court
the good-will of Signorina Peppina. In deference to the old admonition,
me, love my dog," they do not fail to extend their ingratiating
to cute little Zambo. They stroke caressingly his fur, tenderly pat him
on his carefully
groomed head, playfully kiss his paw. It is even claimed ‒ a gross
no doubt ‒ that the attitude of this little poodle occasionally decides
If he, for Heaven knows what reason, shows an aversion to a candidate,
or his procurator,
and distrustfully growls at him, his chances are doomed. While the glad
wag of the
tail and a friendly welcoming bark may secure the appointment to the
and prosperous American Archdiocese of Cosmopolis becomes vacant.
of X is one aspirant to the dignity, Bishop Stark of Y another, and
there are fifty
or a hundred more who are believed to have a prospect.
sends Monsignore Cashman to Rome to promote his candidacy, Bishop Stark
Longreen. Cashman arrives first on the ground and pleads his cause with
an effusion of golden eloquence that within a few days he secures the
for his master. Everything is arranged and the cable boy is getting
ready to flash
the important news to the United States that His Holiness, the Pope,
Bishop Murphy of X to be Archbishop of Cosmopolis. Monsignore Cashman
pays a farewell
visit to Signorina Peppina. He carries with him a little box with
stones of the purest ray serene, an envelope containing a substantial
block of thousand
lire notes, and a suitable present for Zambo. All went well so far, but
truly tragic happens. As he is making a deep farewell bow to the
Signorina, he has
the misfortune, big, heavy man that he is, of stepping on the
silky tail of little Zambo who had been frisking and frolicking behind
feet and was at that moment scratching off the effects of a flea bite.
flea bite! The poor poodle emits a succession of high-pitched howls
like so many stabs the motherly heart of Signorina Peppina. The
his most profuse apologies. But the Signorina was disconsolate. And so,
was the Monsignore, for the appointment of Bishop Murphy to the
of Cosmopolis was cancelled.
day on which this indescribable tragedy was enacted, Monsignore
in Rome. He calls at the American College and here learns to his most
that Bishop Murphy had been promoted to Cosmopolis. But his sorrow was
to be short-lived, for the same evening he is advised at the
headquarters of a certain
religious order that the appointment had been revoked. Electrified by
news, he sets out the next morning with hope-swelled bosom to the
residence of Cardinal
Simoni, and, needless to say, does not neglect to pay his respects to
Peppina and her Zambo. For the latter he has a diamond studded collar,
of a Paris jeweler. He acquits himself of his task with so fine and
deft a touch
that he readily obtains the appointment of Bishop Stark.
now Archbishop of Cosmopolis, takes possession of his metropolitan see.
the great city of Cosmopolis like a conquering hero. The valedictorian
from his former diocese ‒ in which he was, incidentally, extremely
unpopular ‒ and
the reception committees from Cosmopolis fill several special trains.
agent has done his stuff. The people of Cosmopolis see in their new
second St. Ambrose, in fact, a very close imitation of Jesus Christ
of thousands line the streets and shout their welcomes to him. The
Mayor of Cosmopolis
and the Governor of the State drop devoutly on their knees before him
kiss his ring. Fifty thousand Catholic men march in parade with flying
followed by a still larger number of pupils the parish schools,
colleges and academies
with flags and scarfs in the national colors. In a great public banquet
Archbishop is feted by the most prominent citizens of Cosmopolis,
colors, races and creeds. All these honors would have been Bishop
Murphy's if his
procurator, Monsignore Cashman, had not stepped on Zambo's tail.
American Catholic ecclesiastics who nurse an ambition to climb higher
in the hierarchy:
Do not step on Zambo's tail.
Church in the United States is divided into 14 archdioceses and 91
of them corporations sole, that is corporations in which all power is
one individual, the Archbishop, Bishop, respectively.
Some of them
are financially strong. I inquired once of an official of one of the
in Chicago about the credit of the Archdiocese of Chicago. ''It is
rated all the
way from fifty millions to two hundred millions of dollars," was the
At another bank I was told that one hundred million dollars was a
Credit, of course, does not mean cash assets. The Archdiocese of
Chicago has debts.
They are covered many times over by the real estate value of the church
credit does not include that of the more than four dozen of religious
and nuns, that are conducting educational and charitable institutions
in the Archdiocese.
Their holdings represent an aggregate investment that runs easily into
title of the Archdiocese of Chicago is: Catholic Bishop of Chicago. It
by a special act of the legislature of the State of Illinois in 1845.
It is a privileged
corporation. The Securities Commission of the State of Illinois has the
investigate corporations operating in that state. But it has no power
the corporation sole know as Catholic Bishop of Chicago. That right is
to the Pope of Rome.
of Chicago has never issued a financial statement. No American diocese
so far as I know. If the clergy and the people want to obtain a glance
financial standing, they will have to petition the Pope. Such petition
been sent to Rome and never will be. Nobody dares to take the
initiative. This applies
presumably to every American diocese. When the Pope picks out
arbitrarily an Archbishop
of Chicago, he appoints him thereby sole custodian of a gigantic credit
estimated at one hundred million dollars. With this credit the new
do as he pleases. He can use it for personal uses. It is all left to
and his discretion. He is accountable only to the Pope, who will not
And if he could be induced to order an investigation, he would no doubt
select the investigating commission.
establishment in 1845, the See of Chicago has had seven Bishops,
1880. Of these seven, two have gone insane, the Bishops O'Regan and
Duggan. In such
a corporation sole there is always a vast financial credit at stake. It
is all risked
on the mental health and business judgment of one individual, the
Bishop or Archbishop.
If I mention
here the Archdiocese of Chicago as an example to illustrate a certain
phase in the
state of the Catholic Church in the United States, it is because I
happen to be
better acquainted with it than with any other American diocese. I have
say about the present Archbishop of Chicago or his predecessors in
that two of them became insane.
As we have
seen, the Pope selects the American Bishops arbitrarily at the
Zambo or of God knows whom. The office of an Archbishop of New York,
or Philadelphia may look like a big "job" to an ordinary mortal. It is
quite a negligible position in the eyes of the Italian dignitaries at
There are over a thousand dioceses in the world and many of them larger
York with its Catholic population of a million and a half, not
including the million
Catholics of Brooklyn. The Pope cannot be expected to know the
individual he chooses
to fill a vacant American bishopric. He has to rely upon the
recommendation of his
advisers, a coterie of Italian ecclesiastics said to be centered around
Zambo wags his tail at a candidate, the latter will qualify for office.
be entrusted at the same time with the very considerable credit of a
corporation sole to do with as he pleases. If Zambo growls at the
will not qualify.
of course, I mean the system. But, for all I know, the little French
be very much of a reality. In an immense concern like the Catholic
Church all possible
things have happened and are likely to happen again.
Rome, previous to the time of the Caesars, a few powerful politicians
leaders would distribute the provinces among themselves and their
a successful election, consuls like Sulla, Cinna, Caesar, Pompey,
divide the spoils: "You take Spain, you Gaul, you Asia Minor, you
and so on.
Rome the Italian ecclesiastics distribute American ecclesiastical
corporations sole ad libitum ‒ all for the glory of God.
Fortnightly Review, published by Mr. Arthur Preuss at St. Louis,
sometimes the role of an enfant terrible in American Catholic
journalism. It prints
news that the other Catholic papers prefer to ignore. Mr. Preuss ‒ for
strictly orthodox and rather conservative ‒ may justly style himself
of the neglected truth.
In the number
of Feb. 1, 1924, the Review had the following item:
With a Lesson
middle of December there was filed at the Massachusetts State House a
would take away from Cardinal O'Connell the custodianship of the church
of the Archdiocese of Boston and give the same to a board of trustees,
of the Archbishop of Boston; his vicar general; a member of the Knights
to be elected by the grand knights of the diocese a member of the
of Foresters to be elected by the chief rangers of that organization;
and a woman,
to be a member of the female auxiliary of the Ancient Order of
Hibernians, and to
be elected by the presidents of the various branches.
The two clergymen,
according to the bill, would hold their places permanently, but the
would be elected for terms of two years each. The salary of the
archbishop, as chairman
of the board of trustees, would be $15,000 a year, that of the other
each. Another provision of the bill is that the present corporation
sole shall immediately
give an accounting to the new board of trustees of all church funds and
(See Boston Herald, Dec. 19, 1923.)
which was filed by Senator H. S. Clark upon petition of George F. A.
of Dorchester, a Catholic layman is a plain symptom of dissatisfaction,
not to say
distrust on the part of the Catholic laity of the Archdiocese of
largely, we believe, by the famous Keith bequest.
to the Review, young Paul Keith, son of the founder of the Keith
to Cardinal O'Connell of Boston real estate and personal property
appraised by the
Massachusetts Probate Court at $1,892,056.00. The actual value is more.
seem that some of the Catholics of Boston were curious to find out
whether the Cardinal
had appropriated the money for himself or turned it over to the
will have to wait a long time before their curiosity will be gratified.
introduced by Senator Clark was withdrawn by him shortly afterwards.
The day is
far off on which American Catholics will be granted an insight into
finances. They dare not displease the hierarchy. And each and every
member of their
hierarchy is chosen arbitrarily by a foreign autocrat, the Holy Father
in whose election not a single American citizen had a vote.
Zambo is the Pope's right hand "man" in the administration of the
Church in the United States.
of American Priests
As has been
stated, the Archdiocese of Chicago is a corporation sole created by a
of the legislature of the State of Illinois. The legal status of a
priest is that
of a servant of the corporation sole. The Archbishop can remove him
from his pastorate
as an employer dismisses a servant or other employee. If the pastor
refuses to vacate
the rectory, the Archbishop invokes the law. The civil court will issue
a writ of restitution, requiring the sheriff to eject the pastor. This
of the other American dioceses.
is the Canon Law of the Church that guarantees certain rights to the
clergy. One of these provisions specifies that the bishop cannot remove
without a canonical cause and a canonical procedure. Such causes are
conduct, inefficiency, physical disability, and the like.
of Canon Law is a most admirable collection of laws that every jurist
In Europe it is more or less faithfully observed, because in most
exists an agreement between State and Church. The bishops have to watch
In the United
States it is different. The Church and State are separated. The bishops
as long as they keep in the good graces of Zambo, who is the Pope's
deputy, and consequently the Supreme Head of the Church in the United
far as this country is concerned, then, the Canon Law of the Roman
is a farce. There are cases when it is observed. But these cases are
and exceptions merely prove the rule.
If an American
pastor feels that he has been unjustly deprived by his bishop and
resolves to defend
his canonical rights, he will find that all the chances are against
him. In the
first place, he has to look for an ecclesiastical court of appeal. If
to a diocese, not an archdiocese, then the archbishop of the particular
province is the immediate court of appeal. For instance, if a pastor of
of Columbus, Ohio, which belongs to the ecclesiastical Province of
to appeal, then the Archbishop of Cincinnati, as the metropolitan, is
to appeal to. But if the priest belongs to an archdiocese, for
he has no immediate court to appeal to. It is true, according to Canon
Law an archbishop
is required, upon assuming office, to appoint a judge of appeal for his
Some neighboring bishop would be the proper man for that office. He has
to be approved
by the Vatican and would then be the permanent judge of appeal for that
But no American archbishop has taken the trouble of designating a judge
Nor has the Vatican seen fit to remind them of their duty. Hence a
pastor of an
archdiocese, having no immediate judge of appeal, will have to have
the Papal Delegate in Washington. But the Delegate is a very busy man.
have ever received any satisfaction from him.
between bishop and priest, the bishop defrays the expenses from the
In a prosperous diocese he can appropriate hundreds of thousands of
that purpose, should it be necessary, and nobody is wiser of it. For,
as has been
said before, an American bishop issues no financial statement. He is
to the Pope only, who never investigates. The bishop can, at the
expense of the
diocese, hire the best legal talent both in Civil and Canon Law. He can
services of a detective agency to annoy the "rebellious" pastor.
on the other hand, has to search his own pockets for the necessary
funds for the
litigation. If he is impecunious, as most priests are, there will be no
Few are familiar with Canon Law. The bishops do not encourage the study
of it. If
a litigant pastor makes one false step, overlooks the merest
technicality, the case
is killed. Canonists are scarce: to consult one it is not unusual for a
travel five hundred miles: the bishop can afford to summon one; many a
a canonist for his secretary.
often lasts several years. During that time the bishop resides in
comfort in his
sumptuous mansion and lives on the fat of the land. The ousted priest
the expression, like a stray dog. No pastor in his diocese dares to
take him in
for fear of incurring the ire of the bishop. If the latter is known to
be a favorite
of Zambo, no bishop in the whole country dares to grant him an asylum.
If the Civil
Law should favor him, he nevertheless cannot avail himself of it. For
be he priest or layman, who presumes to cite a bishop in a civil court,
facto excommunicated. A bishop may arraign a priest or layman before
the civil court,
but not vice versa.
He may plead
the case before the court of public opinion, if he can succeed in
Public opinion, however, usually takes it for granted that a bishop is
just and will not discipline a priest without due cause. The general
no idea what peculiar characters have slipped into the hierarchy by
person or by proxy, the paw of Zambo. It would be a miracle if it were
‒ what can you expect under the Zambo system? Still, I am glad to state
my honest opinion, most of the American bishops mean to be just, and
many of them
are even kind-hearted. But some of our highest dignitaries are
by their clergy. The nearer to the Church the further from God is a
good old Catholic
saying that is not without a grain of truth. About these matters the
is left in the dark. The daily press will not hesitate to publish
facts, or even
mere charges, that militate against a priest, but it will not dare to
unfavorable to a bishop.
Servitude of the Secular
clergy is divided into two classes, the diocesan priests and the monks.
constitute about one-fourth of the total. These religious orders are
embedded in the great world autocracy of the Catholic Church. They
elect their own
superiors. But the diocesan priests, and that means the great bulk of
Catholic Clergy, have no voice in the selection of their superiors, the
They have to accept whomsoever Zambo places over them.
To sum it
up, the bulk of the American Catholic Clergy lives in a state of
servitude or semi-slavery.
When the padrone (bishop) is kind, just and prudent, this paternalistic
government works admirably. Nothing better could be desired. But when
he is an arrogant
tyrant, he can mop the floor with his subjects. They will submit to it.
no redress against him as long as he knows how to keep on the right
side of Zambo.
That is not difficult for a strong corporation sole with vast financial
priests are at the mercy of their bishops who owe their powerful
position to the
Holy Father in Rome, the greatest of the world's autocrats. He
appointed them arbitrarily
at the recommendation of Zambo or of God knows whom. These American
well-treated, though often ill-treated, serfs ‒ but always serfs ‒ of
of a foreign autocrat, are the principals of parish schools in which
more than two
million children of America are being educated. These serfs, subjects
of the most
absolutistic of foreign autocrats, are instilling into the minds of
over two million
American children the principles of democracy, equity and national
(To be continued)
Activities of Robert Burns
Bro. Albert Frost, England
FROST, who is P. P. A. D. C. of West Yorkshire, England, and has
attained the thirtieth
degree of the Scottish Rite (which means a great deal more in England
than it does
in this country), is an authority on the life and work of Robert Burns.
the substance of the present article appeared some time ago in the
Record," but it has been re-written and a good deal of new information
As the birthday of the famous poet comes in January, a day much
regarded by all
Scots and those of Scottish descent the world over, the occasion is
were a number of valuable articles on the subject in the early numbers
of THE BUILDER
but there has been nothing in recent years, so the present article
will, we believe,
prove very interesting to our readers.
that the immortal Robert Burns was a "Son of Light" is well known
the Fraternity the world over, but that he was a very zealous and
is not so generally known. From the day of his initiation at the age of
22 to the
time of his death, his interest in the Craft never subsided. Wherever
to be located we find him identified with a lodge, as we shall see
later. The "true
spirit" was evinced in him from the commencement of his Masonic career,
with a fervor and magnetism which were characteristic of his sparkling
He was initiated
in St. David's Lodge, Tarbolton, on July 4, 1781 ‒ a village a few
from Alloway Kirk, Ayrshire, where he first saw the light of day.
Whether the ceremony
was conducted at the Bachelor's Club, or at the Cross Keys Inn,
as Manson's Tavern, is an open question. The brother who had the
conferring the initiatory rites was Alexander Wood, a tailor of
Tarbolton. The minute
recording the event is brief to a degree ‒ "Robert Burns in Lochly was
an apprentice Joph Norman, M". He was passed and raised in the same
October of the same year, the record being likewise brief:
in Lochly was passed and raised, Henry Cowan being Master, James
Humphrey Senr Warden,
and Alex Smith Junr, Robert Wodrow, Secy, and Jas Manson Treasurer and
Taylor and others of the brethren being present.
"Taylor" is an error of transcription and should be "Tyler."
was a "character" in the lodge, possessing a remarkable genius for
Ministers of Religion, and a propensity for expressing adverse views on
subjects. Often did he find himself at grips with Burns, whose opinion
in the "Epitaph on a noisy polemic":
Below thie stanes lie Jamie's
O, Death, it's my opinion,
Thou ne'er took such a bleth'rin' bitch
Into thy dark dominion.
there were two lodges in Tarbolton ‒ St. David's and St. James', which
under the name of St. David's in June, 1781, a month before Burns'
following year Burns and others seceded and reconstructed under a
Charter from "Mother
Kilwinning" St. James' Lodge, the present number of which is 135 ‒
Kilwinning, St. James'." The meetings were held at the Cross Keys, of
Bro. Manson was the Landlord and also the Treasurer of the lodge. If
of this historic building it is but the ruins, which should at any rate
preserved in memory of its glorious past, and particularly so in view
wish expressed so touchingly, and with an almost broken heart in his
to the brethren:
And you, Farewell! whose merits
Justly, that highest badge to wear!
Heav'n bless your honor'd, noble Name
To Masonry and Scotia dear!
A last request, permit me here
When yearly ye assemble a' ‒
One round, I ask it wi' a tear,
To him the Bard that's far awa.'
from all quarters of the Globe turn their faces towards the commodious
which the lodge now possesses, for in it there remains quite a
collection of valuable
relics of the Poet. The old Minute Book containing records in his own
under his own signature. The Chair which he occupied as Master: the
Gavel he used,
and the Apron and Jewel which he wore. The Candlesticks are there, and
an old Tyler's
sword of the period. The Bible he presented to the lodge is preserved;
the possession most treasured is the letter he wrote from Edinburgh in
regretting that it was beyond his power to be present, concluding with
Within this dear mansion may
And withered envy ne'er enter.
May secrecy round be the mystical bound
And Brotherly Love be the center.
of St. James' Lodge called Burns into very early prominence, for within
of joining the Craft he became the Deputy Master, often conducting the
of the lodge:
Oft honour'd with supreme
Presiding o'er the Sons of Light.
attained to the position of R.W. Master is doubtful; it is more than
some local dignitary was the nominal head of the lodge, whilst the
duties were principally
conducted by Burns or some other officer of the lodge. Being so, it is
for the Minutes to be silent on the subject.
companionship of Burns and his unswerving devotion to the Order, became
to the brethren. If any proof of his devotion is wanted take a single
his anxiety to assure the attendance at the Annual Meeting and
were held on June 24 ‒ Lodge Tarbolton, Kilwinning St. James'. Fearing
Dr. Mackenzie would consider his duty to his patients weighed heavier
with him than
his duty to the lodge, Burns addressed to him a note in verse as a
reminder of the
occasion, which had its effect:
Friday first's the day
By our Right Worshipful Anointed
To hold our grand procession
Our Master and the Brotherhood
Would a' be glad to see you.
of his good humor and congeniality is no where better expressed than in
to the De'il." With affected seriousness he narrates the alarming
of collusion with that dreaded personage. The stanza runs:
When Masons' mystic word an'
In storms an' tempests raise you up
Some cock or eat, your rage maun stop
Or strange to tell
The youngest brother ye wid whip
Aff straught to hell.
of eloquence on many occasions were popular diversion at the festival
facetious improvisations a source of wonder and merriment to all the
more particularly to those who came under his magic spell. When in
the poetry which made him famous sprang from his lip and heart like
on the breeze." There is scarcely any side of human nature upon which
not exercise his innate genius. His poems are a library in themselves ‒
be the envy of all psychologists, whose science will never be
some supernatural manifestation.
an insight which is given to few, but even he realized how men can so
misinterpreted. With the very best of intentions one may become the
O wad some Pow'r the giftie
To see oursel's as ithers see us.
It wad frae many a blunder free us.
The social friendly honest man ‒
Whate'er he be
'Tis he fulfils, great nature's plan,
And none but he.
As a farmer
in Mossgiel, Burns was a failure, and he decided to test his fortune in
where he had obtained a post as Book-keeper on an Estate. He took
farewell of St.
James' Lodge, Tarbolton, in a lyric so touching and so noble that by
the time he
got to the last stanza the tears were rolling down the cheeks of the
was sung to the tune, so popular at the time, "Good Night and joy be
a'," and with such a pathos and passion as to produce a profound
Adieu! a heart-warm fond adieu!
Dear brothers of the mystie tie!
Ye favoured, ye enlightened few,
Companions of my social joy!
Tho' I to foreign lands must hie
Pursuing Fortune's slidd'ry ba',
With melting heart and brimful eye,
I'll mind you still tho' far away
a difference of opinion as to who was responsible for Burns being
his intention to migrate to Jamaica. It is however more than likely
that it was
his staunch friend and counsellor Prof. Dugald Stewart who turned his
the direction of the Scotch Metropolis. With such an influential
the brethren of the Canongate Kilwinning Lodge, Edinburgh, he was
assured of a hearty
fraternal welcome. His straightened circumstances were the means of his
Bro. Garvin Hamilton rendering him financial assistance in the
publication of his
_______ the poor man's friend
The gentleman in word and deed.
edition was published in 1786 (Kilmarnock) followed by a second edition
later. So successful was this issue, that Bro. William Creech, the
enabled to hand over to the Poet a sum of money which exceeded his
Smellie was the printer; Alex Nasmyth the painter and Bengo the
engraver ‒ all brother
Masons. By this success the current of his life is turned and he
Takes a share wi' those that
The Mallet and the Apron.
time Burns became a deservedly popular member of the lodge. Hailed and
on one occasion by the Grand Master as "Caledonia's Bard" ‒ he grew in
general favor. Without assuming affecting airs he bore his honors with
His conduct and manners were commendable; his intellectual energies
and he merited the acknowledgments which were showered upon him. He
to speak with an ovation; his forcible and fluent language ‒ almost
‒ met with general approbation.
It was no
small distinction for Robert Burns to be appointed Poet-Laureate of the
his innate genius would have found recognition in any sphere, it is
that many illustrious Freemasons of nearly a century and a half ago
this "Ploughman Poet," by whom they were not only immortalized, but who
in no small measure ennobled and enriched the Order by his many
references to it.
There is a vein running through many of his later productions which
Freemasonry could have inspired, and his association with the
Brotherhood very materially
assisted in the development of his talents.
Of his contemporaries
we know but little. Lexicons and Encyclopedias make little mention of
them. In his
satires Burns himself gives us the best insight into the character of
many of them.
Even Lyon's Freemasonry in Scotland (1) makes but scant reference to
them. Of their
eminence, however, there is no doubt.
who were proud to call Burns their companion and friend are Lord Elcho,
Glencairn, Earl of Eglinton, Earl of Buchan, Sir William Forbes, Alex
and many others whose names bespeak some importance in Scottish
of whom short biographical sketches are to be found in "A Winter With
published in the year 1846.
reproduced from the rare mezzotint is very interesting insomuch as it
may be taken to be a true representation of those present on March 1,
1787 ‒ the
great occasion of Burns' Inauguration, and typically depicts varieties
and of expression and affability, presenting him in the light in which
he was regarded
by his brethren during the time he formed the center of attraction. The
painting is hung in the Freemasons' Hall, Edinburgh, and is well worth
a visit to
Provincial Grand Master of the Southern District at this time, and also
Canongate Kilwinning Lodge, is seen in the photograph presenting the
to Burns, who has been conducted to the Chair to receive it.
and face of Burns are pronounced to be a most faithful likeness; his
and modesty are characteristically delineated. The D.C. is William
of Languages, who gave Burns tuition in Latin, immediately behind whom
Gauvin, a French Tutor of high repute. He taught Burns the French
afterwards expressed his conviction that no ordinary pupil could
acquire in three
years what Burns assimilated in three months. Other Masonic luminaries
are, Grand Master Sir William Forbes on the Master's right; James
John Whiteford; Lord Monboddo. In the forefront is Lord Napier who laid
stone of the College of Edinburgh, in which ceremony the Craft took no
James Boswell, the biographer of Dr. Johnson, is seen with clasped
hands in the
center of the picture, whilst standing to the left is Nasmyth, the
A prominent figure is Francis Grose the Antiquary, who is in
conversation with James
Gregory, the talented Physisian. Scarcely any of these brethren escape
appear that the gathering was more of an informal character typifying a
easy style. Whether in the ordinary lodge meetings the brethren were so
questionable, but if the manner in which the Minutes of the Canongate
Lodge were kept is any criterion, then we should imagine that
informality was the
order of the day, for although it is on record that the W.M. proposed
Burns as a
joining member on Feb. 1, 1787, yet there is no subsequent minute of
to the Poet-Laureateship a month later. The first mention of his having
office is recorded in the Minutes dated Feb. 9, 1815. The omission may
for by the Canongate Kilwinning Lodge not being singular in its
for many years prior to the period of Burns' attendance are brief to a
this may account for the infrequency of the allusions to him who was
not then the
distinguished Poet he afterwards became. It will not, however, be
denied that the
Inauguration did actually take place, as the lodge has unimpeachable
the brethren who were present on the occasion, and saw him wear the
jewel of his
office ‒ evidence of the event.
It may be
noted that prior to the publication of Freemasonry in Scotland (1) an
correspondence took place on the subject of the Laureateship between
and the Secretary of the Canongate Kilwinning Lodge, which goes to show
preferred to go into print with a distinct bias against Burns'
than sift the evidence provided, with the result that not only was
but the lodge also. Why this should have been so is not easily
Lyon had any doubts on the generally accepted connection of Burns with
they could have been removed at the time ‒ instead of which we have a
which so far as Burns is concerned is not impartial; making isolated
that do not convey the actual facts to the reader. The Secretary of the
Kilwinning Lodge, Bro. H. E. Peacock, wrote to Lyon at the time of the
of his History: It is my duty to inform you that there is ample
evidence of the
Poet's association with this Lodge, to which Lyon replied: I recognize
nature of the evidence, but your delay prevents my being able to submit
a slip of
my remarks ‒ the printers being close up to that particular part of my
If this be
the sole reason why Lyon so summarily dismisses Burns from his History
then it is
still more difficult of comprehension.
1st, 1787, Bro. Burns was invested as Poet-Laureate of the Canongate
Lodge, No. 2, Edinburgh ‒ the painting to commemorate the event having
by Bro. Watson, a member of the same lodge.
a Freemason as Hughan must have had sufficient grounds for his
evidence be needed it is provided by the Minutes of Canongate
Kilwinning Lodge under
date Jan. 16, 1835, which state:
It was proposed
by R.W. Bro. M'Neill, Master, and seconded by W. Bro. Turnbull,
that it was expedient that the honorary office of Poet-Laureate of the
has been in abeyance since the death of the immortal Brother Robert
be revived, and that James Hogg the Ettrick Shepherd, on whom his
has fallen should be respectfully requested to accept the appointment
as the highest
tribute to his genius and priorate worth which the brethren had it in
the records contained in that priceless little volume, A Winter With
Burns, be discredited.
The narrative rings so true, and it was so widely circulated at the
time that it
was rather late in the day ‒ 27 years afterwards ‒ for Lyon to doubt
and at a time when very few of his contemporaries were alive.
Ferguson, the hero of the Song of the Whistle (the original manuscript
was sold by auction in Edinburgh in March, 1887, for two hundred and
was the brother who conferred upon Burns the title of Poet-Laureate.
The lodge Minutes
dated March 1, 1787, bear witness to this ‒ signed by himself and also
Deputy Master, and John Mellor, Advocate. J. W., William Dunbar ‒
writer to the
signet, was Senior Warden, and afterwards in some "tattered rhymes,"
himself mentions the Laureateship in the following lines:
Latin Willie's reek noo raise,
He'd seen that nicht Rab crowned with Bays.
I have dwelt
on this aspect of the Poet's Masonic career at some length because my
leave me with the confirmed opinion that the incident is well
notwithstanding this it is a pity that there should have been left room
I may mention that there is in the Library of the Quatuor Coronati
Lodge A Collection
of Masonic Songs and Entertaining Anecdotes by Garvin Wilson,
Poet-Laureate of the
Lodge St. David. This was published in 1788 and dedicated to the Rt.
Hon. and Most
Wor. Lord Elcho ‒ Grand Master of Scotland 1786-1787.
it may be that whilst the office was not officially recognized by the
of Scotland it was a title not uncommonly given as an honorary one to
made the entertainment for the brethren.
Let us follow
the Poet a little further afield. Proud as Tarbolton is that Burns was
yet that pride is shared by others also, Edinburgh probably taking
afterwards Kilmarnock, where he became a joining member of Lodge St.
Whilst it has been stated by one writer that Burns' poem commencing "Ye
of Old Killie" had reference to Canongate Kilwinning Lodge, it will not
be denied that it bears direct reference to Kilmarnock, of which
is an abbreviation. Bro. William Parker is W.M. and proposes Burns as
Member, which is unanimously received. Burns is called upon to make
and that spontaneous effusion is the result:
Ye sons of old Killie assembled
To follow the noble vocation
Your thrifty old mother has scarce such another
To sit in that honoured station.
Ye powers who preside o'er the wind and the tide,
Who marked each element's border
Who formed this frame with beneficent aim
Whose Sovereign statute is order!
of the Kilmarnock Lodge is Tam Samson, a worthy old sportsman, who
confides to Burns
his fears that his end is near at hand, and expressed a wish to die and
on the Moors. On the inspiration of the moment Burns composed the Elegy:
The Brethren o' the mystic Level
May hing their head in wofu' bevel
While by their nose the tears will revel
Like ony bead
Death's gien the Lodge an unco devel,
Tam Samson's dead!
Tam was not
altogether pleased at being numbered amongst the dead, whereupon Burns
added the "Per Contra":
Go, Fame, an' canter like a
Thro' a' the streets an' neuks o' Killie,
Tell ev'ry social, honest billie
To cease his grievin'
For yet, unskaith'd by Death's gleg gullie,
Tam Samson's livin!
years afterwards the worthy Samson lived to revel in the limelight into
Poet had thrown him.
the "Ancient" Lodge at Stirling, but the page in the attendance
bearing his signature is missing, which is taken as conclusive evidence
of his visit.
He was also a joining member of Loudoun Kilwinning Lodge Newmilns ‒ on
of Garvin Hamilton. In October, 1786, he attended a Lodge at Sorn and
later at Irvine.
In 1787 along with his friend Robert Ainslie he was admitted a Royal
at St. Abb's Lodge, Eyemouth ‒ at an "encampment" specially convened to
do honor to the Poet.
lodges he was not an infrequent visitor. The last five years of his
life were spent
at Dumfries, where he was made a Freeman of the Burgh. In 1788 he
became a member
of St. Andrew's Lodge held in that town which he attended with
part in the ceremonies and subsequently attained to the Chair of Senior
His last recorded attendance is within three months of his death. The
that Burns was "the most distinguished brother, the Lodge has been
to receive within its portals."
no mention is made of his decease, it is more than likely that the
a last appropriate tribute to the memory of so distinguished a brother.
he wore and the Gavel he used, together with the Minute Book, by some
got into the auction room. Fortunately they were rescued by the timely
of Sir Michael Shaw Stewart, Grand Master 1873-1881, who presented them
Lodge, where they now form part of an interesting collection of Masonic
uninteresting is the incident of his affection for "Highland Mary" ‒
Campbell. To her memory he subscribed some of his most beautiful
Bible he presented to her was inscribed with his Masonic Mark. After
way to Canada it was sent back home to be deposited in the Monument
erected to the
Memory of Burns on the Banks of the Doon, where it is now to be seen.
Family Bible is in possession of the Trustees of the Monument, by whom
it was purchased
26 years ago (1900) for 1500 pounds, and is now one of the most valued
of Alloway Cottage.
Burns' connection with Freemasonry in Edinburgh was the most
interesting era of
his life. Certain it was that during this period his genius was
rewarded. Of his consummate love for, and interest in, the Order, there
no shadow of doubt, and had it not been for his revolutionary political
expressed whilst being in the Excise, and his disgust of conventional
he would have risen to a great height in the social sphere without the
loss of his
most ardent admirers. There is always the possibility of being wrong in
no matter how convinced one may be that he is right. In Burns' case he
wrong. In any event, he had the courage of his convictions:
A fig for those by law
Liberty's a glorious feast!
Courts for cowards were erected
Churches built to please the Priest.
prematurely at the age of 37, on 21st July, 1796, at his residence in
and his remains were interred in a humble grave. Afterwards they were
to the Mausoleum in the same churchyard. Shortly before his death he
The pale moon is setting beyond
the white wave
And time is setting with me.
A lodge bearing
the name of "Robert Burns' Lodge," constituted before the union in
probably gives some significance to the fact of the monument being
erected to the
Poet's memory in 1820 ‒ 24 years after his death. At Doon Brig, the
his birthplace, the foundation stone was appropriately laid by Sir Alex
"Worshipful Deputy Grand Master, of the most Antient Mother Lodge
at which ceremony the Masonic Lodges in Ayrshire were without exception
A full account of this is given in "Preston's Illustration of Masonry."
A good edition
of Burns' Poems is that published by the Oxford University Press,
edited by J.H.
Robertson, in which they are placed in order of popularity, and it is
that the "Address to the De'il," "Tam Samson's Elegy," and the
"Lament for Earl of Glencairn" are amongst those considered to be his
In the vale of human life
The victim sad of fortune's strife
I thro' the tender gushing tear
Should recognize my Master Dear
If friendless, low, we meet together,
Then, Sir, your hand ‒ my friend and Brother.
(1) This is the short
title. The work is generally cited as History of the Lodge of Edinburgh
Chapel), No. 1, by David Murray Lyon.
A Prayer in the Prospect of
By Robert Burns
Thou unknown, Almighty Cause
Of all my hope and fear!
In whose dread presence, ere an hour
Perhaps I must appear!
If I have wander'd in those paths
Of life I ought to shun ‒
As something, loudly, in my breast,
Remonstrates I have done ‒
Thou know'st that Thou has formed me
With passions wild and strong!
And list'ning to their witching voice
Has often led me wrong.
Where human weakness has come short,
Or frailty stept aside,
Do Thou, All-good ‒ for such Thou art ‒
In shades of darkness hide.
Where with intention I have err'd,
No other plea I have,
But, Thou art good, and Goodness still
Delighteth to forgive.
Burns lived his life as well as made poetry about it and that he was
his own people, not only in the form of a cult since his death, but
his lifetime are two things that are remarkable about him. Primarily a
his songs dealt with life as he lived it and those who heard them
was closely in touch with reality and his verse was not molded in
accord with any
preaching fashion. For this reason, perhaps, it is ageless. He was a
heart, though his behavior caused much scandal among the conventional
He appeals to all who set reality above hypocritical propriety and
and because of this he will probably be read and appreciated as long as
language is spoken.
brief notes on the life of Burns are drawn entirely from the Cambridge
Burns' works. It is in no wise original work but purely a condensation
of the material
contained in the introduction to this volume of his poems. For this
reason, as much
as any other, it must be read with more understanding than is generally
to a biographical sketch. Readers must remember the times in which
the conditions surrounding his life, and then judge, not by present day
but by the standards of the time. It is impossible to make allusions to
of Burns' life in the space allotted and the fairness of the readers
must be trusted
to make up for any lack of explanatory material.
was born on the 25th of January, 1759, and was the eldest of seven
father, William Burness (or Burnes), and his mother, Agnes Brown, came
stock ‒ one a native of Kincardinshire, the other of Ayrshire. William
life as a gardener, and was plying his trade in the service of one
then Provost of Ayr, when, with a view of setting up for himself, he
took a lease
of seven acres in the parish of Alloway, and with his own hands built a
clay cottage. In December of 1757 he married Agnes Brown, his junior by
She was red-haired, dark-eyed, square-browed, well-made, and
was swarthy and thin; a man of strong sense, a very serious mind, the
affections, and a piety not even the Calvinism in which he had been
ever make brooding and inhumane.
peasant lived hard, toiled incessantly, and fed so cheaply that on high
holidays his diet consisted largely in preparations of meal and
vegetables and what
is technically known as "offal". He was, however a creature of the
the noblest ambition of Knox was an active influence in the Kirk; and
schools enabled the Kirk to provide its creatures with such teaching as
desirable. William Burness was a very poor man, but he had the right
he was a thinker and an observer; he read whatever he could get to
read; he wrote
English formally, but with clarity; and he did the very best he could
for his children
in the matter of education. Robert went to school at six; and in May of
1765 a lad
of eighteen, one John Murdoch, was engaged by Mr. Burness and four of
to teach, and accordingly began a little school at Alloway. Murdoch was
pedagogue, especially in the matter of grammar and rhetoric; he trained
to a full sense of the meaning and the value of words; he even made
them turn verse
into its natural prose order and substitute synonymous expressions for
words. One effect of his method was that Robert, according to himself,
absolutely a critic in substantives, verbs, and participles," and,
to Gilbert, "soon became remarkable for the fluency and correctness of
expression, and read the few books that came in his way with much
pleasure and improvement."
had about two and one-half years of Murdoch's tuition when the school
broke up and
Robert and his brother fell into their father's hands, and for divers
says, "we rarely saw anybody but the members of our own family," so
"my father was for some time the only companion we had." It will scarce
be argued that this sole companionship was wholly good for a couple of
but it is beyond question that it was rather good than bad. The elder
with the boys on all subjects as if they had been men and was at great
they accompanied him in the labors of the farm, to lead the
conversation to such
subjects as might tend to increase their knowledge or confirm their
a voracious reader and no book was so voluminous as to slacken his
so antiquated as to damp his research, with the result that before he
was very far
in his teens he had a competent knowledge of ancient history with
something of geography,
astronomy, and natural history. At thirteen or fourteen Robert and
sent to Dalrymple Parish School to better their handwriting. The summer
writing-lessons at Dalrymple, Robert spent three weeks with Murdoch at
over the English Grammer, the others over the rudiments of French. This
he was presently able to read, for the reason that Murdoch would go
over to Mount
Oliphant on half-holidays, partly for Robert's sake and partly for the
of talking with Robert's father. Thus was Robert schooled. It is plain
that in one,
and that an essential particular, he and his brother were exceptionally
in their father and in the means he took to train them.
years form a period of stress and hardship. Shortly before the breaking
up of Murdoch's
school the elder Burns had leased a farm at Mount Oliphant. The land
was the poorest
in Ayrshire, and inasmuch as the venture was started on borrowed money
not progress as well as they might. To add to the difficulties the
died about 1775 and the Burns family fell into the hands of a factor.
to Robert Burns this factor is pictured in the "Tale of Twa Dogs."
the lease had only two more years to run and in 1777 William Burnes
family to Lochile. The nature of the bargain was such as to throw a
money in his hand at the commencement or the affair would have been
The next four years the family lived in comfortable circumstances and
at this place
Robert's gay and adventurous spirit began to free itself. His admirable
talk found fit opportunities for exercise and display. The reaction set
in and he
took life as gallantly as his innocency might, wore the only tied hair
in the parish
and was recognizable from afar by his fillemot plaid. He was made a
accepted Mason", founded a Bachelors Club, and took to sweethearting
his heart and soul and strength. He had begun with a little harvester
and at Kirkoswald he had been enamoured of Peggy Thomson to the point
nights. His love rarely settled upon persons who were richer than
himself, or who
had more consequence in life. To condescend upon one's women is an
ideal to some
men, it certainly was so with Robert Burns. Apparently he held it was
an honor to
be admired by him; and when a short while hence (1786) he ventured to
in rather too realistic a strain, the Lass of Ballochmyle, and was
his impertinence ‒ it was so felt in those unregenerate days ‒ he was,
It is no
more than natural that this period should see the beginning of his
poetry. The wonder
is that so little of it was deemed too good for the fire. His loves
Lochlie years, whether plain or pretty, were all goddesses to him, but
it was not
until after this period that he began rhymiing to any purpose. We are
his Lochlie love affairs were all "governed by the strictest rules of
and virtue, and from which he never deviated until his twenty-third
It was natural
and honorable in a young man of this lusty and amatory habit to look
a wife and to cast about him for a better means of keeping her than
could afford. In respect of the first he found a possibility in Elison
Galston farmer's daughter, at this time a domestic servant, on whom he
say) his "Song of Similes," and to whom he addressed some rather
not to say pedantic, documents in the form of love-letters. For the new
life, he determined that it might, perhaps, be flax-dressing; so, at
of 1781 he removed to Irvine, a little port on the Firth of Clyde,
which was also
a center of the industry in which he hoped to excel. Here he
on what terms is not known, with one Peacock, whom he afterwards took
describe as a "scoundrel of the first water, who made money by the
of Thieving"; here he saw something more of life and character and the
than he had seen at Mount Oliphant and Lochlie; here, at the year's
end, he had
a terrible attack of vapours; here, above all, he formed a friendship
with a certain
Richard Brown. According to him, Brown, being the son of a mechanic,
had taken the
eye of "a great man in the neighbourhood", and had received "a genteel
education, with a view to bettering his situation in life." His patron
died, however, and he had perforce to go for a sailor. He had known
good luck and
bad, he had seen the world, he had the morals of his calling, at the
same time that
"his mind was fraught with courage, independence, and magnanimity, and
noble and manly virtue"; and Burns, who loved him and admired him, not
"strove to imitate him" but also "in some measure succeeded".
Brown was Mephisto to Burn's Faust and "here", says the Bard, "his
friendship did me a mischief, and the consequence was that soon after I
the plough, I wrote the enclosed Welcome." This enclosure, to Moore,
half-humorous, half-defiant, and wholly delightful Welcome to His
Daughter, through which the spirit of the true Burns ‒ the Burns of the
good years: proud, generous,
whole-hearted, essentially natural and humane
‒ thrills from the first line to the last.
to Lochlie in March, 1782. The prosperity of the preceding years was
coming to a
close and through a quarrel that went to the courts the elder Burnes
Thus was the quarrel ended and with it ended the career of William
Burness. He died
in February of 1784. Robert and Gilbert secured another farm ‒ Mossgiel
‒ in Mauchline
Parish, two or three miles from Lochlie in the late days of 1783 which
to show that in spite of the serious state of the affairs of their
father, the family
credit was not impaired.
had paid his children wages during his tenancy of Lochlie and the elder
presenting themselves as his creditors for wages due, were enabled to
secure a certain
amount of "plenishing and gear" wherewith to make a start at Mossgiel.
It was a family venture, in whose success the Burnesses were interested
severally, and to which each one looked for food and clothes and hire
got a yearly fee of 7 pounds apiece); and, as all were well and
in farming work, and had never lived other than sparely, it was
reasonable in them
to believe that the enterprise would prosper. That it did not begin by
was no fault of Robert's. He made excellent resolutions, and what was
more to the
purpose, he kept them ‒ for a time. He "read farming books" (thus he
himself ), he "calculated crops", he "attended markets"; he
worked hard in the fields, he kept his body at least in temperance and
and, as for thrift, there is Gilbert's word for it, that his expenses
his income of 7 pounds a year. It availed him nothing. Gilbert is said
to have been
rather a theorist than a sound practician; and Robert, though a skilled
cared nothing for business, and left him a free hand in the conduct of
Luck, too, was against them from the first; and very soon the elder's
revealed to him, and he had other than farmer's work to do. Robert
could do his
work, and prided himself on the straightness of his furrows; he was,
cut out for a successful farmer except, it may be, under certain
He was bursting with intelligence, ideas, the consciousness of
capacity, the desire
to take his place among men; and in Mauchline he found livelier friends
opportunities than he had found elsewhere. Being a Scot, he was
theologian; being himself, he was inevitably liberal-minded; born a
peasant of genius,
and therefore a natural rebel, he could not choose but quarrel with the
Kirk ‒ especially
as her hand was heavy on his friends and himself ‒ and it was as a
that the best of his anticlerical work was done. Then, too, he was full
and they must out of him; his call had come, and he feel to obeying it
diligence. It is from Mauchline, too, that his affair with Betty Paton
done with, and, to anticipate a little, his affair with Jean Armour
in the wind, he starts on his career as amorist at large.
In the November
of 1784 Elizabeth Paton bore him a daughter ‒ "the First Instance", so
he wrote above his Welcome, "that entitled him to the Venerable
of Father." The mother is described as very plain-looking, but of an
handsome figure; rude and uncultivated to a great degree, with a strong
understanding, and a thorough, though unwomanly, contempt for any sort
withal, so active, honest, and independent a creature that Mrs. Burns
had Robert marry her, but "both my aunts and Uncle Gilbert opposed it,"
in the belief that "the faults of her character would soon have
Thus it was that the marriage was not concluded.
It was at
Mossgiel that the enormous possibilities in himself were revealed to
it was at Mossgiel that he did nearly all his best and strongest work.
once made, he stayed not in his course, but wrote masterpiece after
with a rapidity, an assurance, a command of means, a brilliancy of
makes his achievement one of the most remarkable in English letters. In
all of his
work, however, he had the good sense to concern himself with the life
he knew. The
way of realism lay broadly beaten by his ancestors, and was natural to
he followed it with vision, with humor, with inspiration and sympathy,
art; and in the sequel he is found to be one in the first flight of
after Milton, Chaucer, Shakespeare.
Paton's child was born in the November of 1784. In April of that year,
a few weeks
after the general settlement at Mossgiel, he made the acquaintance of
mason's daughter, Jean. She was a handsome, lively girl; the
into love on both sides; and in the end, after what the dates prove to
a prolonged and serious courtship, Jean Armour fell with child. Her
discovered, Burns, after some strong revulsions of feeling against ‒
not Jean, one
hopes, but the estate of marriage ‒ gave her what he presently had
to call "an unlucky paper," recognizing her as his wife; and, had
been allowed to drift in the usual way, the world had lacked an
and a great deal of silly writing. This, though, was not to be. old
Armour ‒ "a
bit mason body, who used to snuff a guid deal, and gey af'en tak' a bit
‒ is said to have "hated" Burns; so that he would "reyther hae seen
the Deil himsel' comin' to the hoose to coort his dochter than him."
contemporary of both Armour and Burns; and in any case Armour knew
Burns for a needy
and reckless man, the father of one by-blow, a rebel at odds with the
of whom, in existing circumstances, it would be vain to ask a
So he first obliged Jean to give up the "unlucky paper", with a view to
unmaking any engagement it might confirm, and then sent her to Paisley,
to be out
of her lover's way. In the meanwhile Burns himself was in straits, and
he had half
a dozen designs in hand at once. Mossgiel was a failure; he had
resolved to deport
himself to the West Indies; he had made up his mind to print, and the
Edition was setting, when Jean was sent into exile. Worst of all, he
seems to have
been not very sure whether he loved or not. The tangle which resulted
doubt on his part is interesting, but too lengthy to be detailed here.
by the deserter finding himself deserted and his pride, inordinate in a
was cut to the quick. In effect, his position was sufficiently
distracting. He had
made oath that he would not marry Jean; then he had practically married
he found that nobody wanted her married to him ‒ that, on the contrary,
he was the
most absolute "detrimental" in all Ayrshire; when, of course, the
became the one thing that made his life worth living. He tried to
persuade old Armour
to think better of his resolve; and, failing, ran "nine parts and
out of ten stark staring mad." He took occasion to refer to Jean (to
Brice; 12th June, 1786) as "poor, ill-advised, ungrateful Armour";
that he could "have no nearer idea of the place of eternal punishment"
than "what I have felt in my own breast on her account"; and finally
himself to this purpose: "I have tried often to forget her: I have run
all kinds of dissipation and riot . . . to drive her out of my head,
but all in
vain." Long before this, however ‒ as early, it would seem, as some
March ‒ his "maddening passions, roused to tenfold fury", having done
all sorts of dreadful things, and then "sunk into a lurid calm", he had
"subsided into the time-settled sorrow of the sable widower", and had
lifted his "grief-worn eye to look for ‒ another wife". In other words,
he had pined for female society, and had embarked upon those famous
with Highland Mary.
known about Mary Campbell, though she forms an interesting episode in
the life of
Burns. The speculation and theorizing which have run rampant concerning
interesting reading, but one cannot advance one theory and reject the
will not permit of this, and it is sufficient to say that they were
By this time
the end of Mauchline, and of much besides, was nearer than he knew.
to press in the May of 1786, the Kilmarnock Volume was published at the
end of July.
Most of, if not all, the numbers contained in it were probably familiar
to the countryside.
Some had certainly been received with "a roar of applause"; Burns, who
was not the man to hide his light under a bushel, was given to
multiplying his verses
in MS. copies for friends; he had been "read into fame" by Aiken the
so that Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect was, in a sense, as
as book could be. Its triumph was not less instant than well-deserved;
issue, six hundred copies strong, was exhausted in a month. But Burns
to himself, and he was ever punctiliously exact and scrupulous on the
score of money,
was but 20 pounds in pocket by it; the Kilmarnock printer declined to
strike a second
impression, with additions, unless he got the price of the paper in
for some time it seemed that there was nothing but Jamaica for the
Bard and Local Hero though he were; so that he looked to have sailed,
and again on the 1st September, and at some indeterminate date had
his chest thus far on the road to Greemock", and written that solemn
song ‒ far and away the best, I think, and the sincerest thing he left
‒ The Gloomy Night is Gathering Fast.
But for one
or another reason, his departure was ever deferred; and, though on the
(some ten days, it is surmised, after the death of Mary Campbell), he
writing that, "ance to the Indies he was wonted," he'd certainly
to "mak' the best o' life wi' some sweet elf," on the 18th November, "I
am thinking for my Edinburgh expedition on Monday or Tuesday come
In effect, an "Edinburgh expedition" was natural and inevitable.
the capital on the 28th November, and was hospitably entertained by
Richmond ‒ to
the extent, indeed, of a bedfellow's share in the clerk's one little
room in Baxter's
Place, Lawnmarket. Through Dalrymple of Organefield he got access to
and others ‒ among them Harry Erskine, Dean of Faculty, and that
pompous ass, the Earl of Buchan, and Creech, the publisher, who had
tutor, and who advertised the Edinburgh Edition on the 14th December.
He saw everybody
worth seeing, and talked with everybody worth talking to; he was made
"heavenly Burnett" and her frolic Grace of Gordon, and welcome by the
ribald, scholarly, hard-drinking wits and jinkers of the Chrochallan
He moved and bore himself as easily at Duglad Stewart's as in Baxter's
Creech's shop, with Henry Mackenzie and Gregory and Blair, as at that
meeting of the St. Andrew's Lodge, where, at the Grand Master's
bidding, the brethren
assembled and drank the health of "Caledonia and Caledonia's Bard ‒
Burns." To look at "he was like a farmer dressed to dine with the
his manners were "rustic, not clownish"; he had "a sort of dignified
plainness and simplicity."
What is really
wonderful is the way in which Burns kept his head in Edinburgh Society,
prepared for the inevitable reaction. Through all the "thick, strong,
incense smoke", he held a steady eye upon his future. In the long-run
suffered a certain change. The peasant at work scarce ever goes wrong;
and idle, he is easily spoiled, and soon. Edinburgh was a triumph for
it was also a misfortune. It was a center of conviviality ‒ a city of
talk and goodfellowship, a city of harlotry and high jinks, a city,
above all, of
drink; a dangerous place for a peasant to be at large, especially a
peasant of the
conditions and the stamp of Burns. He was young, he was buckishly
given, and he
was ‒ Burns.
some months in Edinburgh he began to estrange himself, not altogether,
but in some
measure, from the society of his graver friends. . . . He suffered
himself to be
surrounded by a race of miserable beings who were proud to tell that
they had been
in company with Burns, and had seen Burns as loose and as foolish as
It is evident that the distractions and the triumphs of Edinburgh
work which the mistakes and follies of Dumfries were to finish ten
edition floated ‒ Burns cleared about 450 pounds from it ‒ he fell in
M'Lehose; he instantly proposed to "cultivate her friendship with the
of religion". This affair lasted for some time and seems to have been
of these years which was wholly honest and straight. It must be
confessed that this
was due to the woman and not to the man.
in 1788, Jean Armour ‒ brought some time in the preceding summer "pop,
at my feet, like Corporal Trim's hat" ‒ was expelled from her parents'
and took refuge at Tarbolton Mill. There Burns found her on his return,
he removed her to a house in "Mauchline toun," to the particular joy,
a short while after, of Saunders Tait. A very perplexing series of
follow. The Edinburgh widow and the reunited Jean Armour occupy his
Some time after 7th March, 1788, he escorts Jean to a place of
seclusion, and the
affair is closed when he marries her on April 7th.
he had taken Ellisland, a farm in Dumfriesshire, of Miller of
Dalswinton, with an
allowance from his landlord, a worthy and generous man, of 300 pounds,
for a new
steading and outhouses. His marriage at last made formal and public on
the 5th August,
1788, the bride and bridegroom appeared before the Session,
acknowledged its irregularity,
demanded its "solemn confirmation," were sentenced to be rebuked, etc.,
and were finally "absolved from any scandal" on the old account. It was
not until November, however, that Burns and Jean set up their rest in
and even so, they had to go, not to their own farmhouse, it was not
ready for them
until August of 1789, but to a place called "The Isle," about a mile
from it. By the end of July, 1789, Burns had resolved to turn his
holding into a
dairy farm to be run by Jean and his sisters, and to take up his
gaugership in earnest;
and on the 10th of August he learned from Graham of Fintry that he was
exciseman for that district of Dumfriesshire in which Ellisland is
work was hard for he had charge of ten parishes and must ride two
a week to get his duty done. He developed into an officer at once
humane and vigilant
and it is told of him that he could always wink when staring would mean
to some old unchartered alewife (say), hiss first year's "decreet" ‒
share, that is, of the fines imposed upon his information ‒ was worth
or sixty pounds.
He was unable,
however, to overcome the amorous ways of his youth and while he married
the April of 1788, Anne Park bore him a child just ten days before Jean
of his second son (in wedlock) ‒ on; the 9th of April, 1791. Jean was
and while no one knows what became of Anne Park, it is; known that her
nursed with Jean's own. It is furthermore worthy of note that Anne Park
is the last
of Burns' mistresses who has a name. It is known that this was not the
he kept up his trick of throwing the lyric handkerchief till the end.
his last illness he is tenderly solicitous about his wife, be it
the deathbed songs for Jessie Lewars are the best of those closing
the sequel, it may fairly be said for Ellisland that Burns and Jean
were happy there,
and that it saw the birth of Tam o' Shanter and the perfecting, in the
to Johnson's Museum, of the Vernacular Song. The last we know, was
but he had assistants, and they did him yeoman service.
of the Dumfries period is one of decadence; and, even if it were told
would tell us nothing of Burns that we have not already heard or are
not all too
well prepared to learn. In a little town, where everybody's known to
there is ever an infinite deal of scandal; and Burns was too reckless
and too conspicuous
not to become a peculiar "sock-shoy" for the scandal-mongers of
That he fought against temptation is as plain as that he proved
incapable of triumph,
and that, as Carlyle has wisely and humanely noted, the best for him,
conditions being impossible, was to die.
has naught to do at this grave-side; and to most of us now it is
history that while
there was an infinite deal of the best sort of good in Burns, the bad
in him, being
largely compacted of such purely unessential defects as arrogance,
and a turn for self-indulgence, this last exasperated by the conditions
his lot was cast, was not of the worst kind after all. Yet the bad was
to wreck the good. The little foxes were many and active and greedy
enough to spoil
a world of grapes. The strength was great, but the weaknesses were
time and chance and the necessity were ever developing the weakness at
time that they were ever beating down the strength. That is the sole
possible. And to the plea, that the story it rounds is very pitiful,
there is this
victorious answer: that the Man had drunk his life to the lees, while
the Poet had
fulfilled himself to the accomplishing of a peculiar immortality so
that to Burns
death came as a deliverer and a friend on the twenty-first of July,
1796. This sketch
may well be concluded with the following verses from his own Epitaph:
Is there a man whose judgment
Can others teach the course to steer,
Yet runs himself life's mad career
Wild as the wave?
Here pause ‒ and, through the starting tear,
Survey this grave.
The poor inhabitant below
Was quick to learn and wise to know,
And keenly felt the friendly glow
And softer flame;
But thoughtless follies laid him low,
And stained his name.
Reader, attend! Whether thy soul
Soars Fancy's flights beyond the pole,
Or darkling grubs this earthly hole
In low pursuit;
Know, prudent ‒ cautious, self-control
Is wisdom's root.
Bro. S. Pfrimmer, Indiana
the little library of Pisgah Lodge, No. 32, Corydon, Indiana, the first
May, 1927, browsing through the annual reports of the Grand Lodge of
came across Past Grand Master Gay's Review of the proceedings of the
of Montana for 1925. Bro. Gay wrote with seeming enthusiasm and
approval as follows:
"The splendid report on the subject of 'Compass or Compasses?' is given
Bro. R. J. Lemert, which concludes with the following recommendation
which was adopted:
"This is perhaps the ancient
the Square and Compass, and we should not destroy or becloud it by over
to conform to the etymologies of the outer world. Much of the most
of our institution has been lost forever through the honest but
of amateur ritualists. Let this Grand Lodge not add to the confusion
"For these and other reasons,
the committee was not willing further to burden the Grand Lodge, it was
that the word 'Compass' be once again given sanction in preference to
wherever it appears in our work, written or unwritten."
At once the
question arose, why should Reviewer Gay refer to this action of the
of Montana with such enthusiasm and apparent approval? Upon inquiry, I
that the Grand Lodge of Indiana had a few years ago adopted a ritual
the word "Compass" instead of "Compasses," but a record of this
action had failed to appear in the Grand Lodge report. This at once
opened up a
field of investigation. I had been giving the degree lectures for
always using the word "Compasses" and had never had its correctness
I did not know what practice prevailed in the Masonic world and for the
of discovering this I wrote to the Grand Secretaries of the Grand
Lodges with which
Indiana has fraternal relations. I have received sixty-eight answers.
Of these sixty-two
Grand Secretaries answer that the word in use in their Grand
Jurisdictions is "Compasses."
Six say "Compass." I am giving a list of the Grand Jurisdictions with
answers and comment, if any:
"Compass" is the nautical instrument for steering.
Connecticut the preferred terminology is the plural, Compasses
word "Compasses" being the method of description in the English
Monitor gives it Compasses
is called in this Jurisdiction
Masonic Emblem referred to is known under the Irish constitution as the
am well aware that the best authorities sanction the word "Compasses",
and I am personally of the opinion that the same is the only correct
Although the authorities seem to be nearly all against us
always in all work
invariably give it in the plural, Compasses, as distinctive from a
The great Oxford dictionary supports this usage
this survey, the compiler turned his attention to Masonic dictionaries
volume of Oliver's Universal Masonic Library (30 volumes) is a Masonic
In this dictionary, the word "Compasses" only is used, and this seems
to be true in all of Dr. Oliver's writings, so far as I have been able
Mackey, in his monumental work, Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry, seems
use the word "Compasses." The following quotations from this work are
given under the heading:
COMPASSES. As in Operative
Masonry the Compasses
are used for the admeasurement of the architect's plans, and to enable
him to give
those just proportions which will ensure beauty, as well as stability
to his work;
so, in Speculative Masonry, is this important implement symbolic of
that even tenor
of deportment, that true standard of rectitude which alone can bestow
here and felicity hereafter. Hence, are the compasses the most
of virtue, the true and only measure of a Mason's life and conduct.
SQUARE AND COMPASSES: These two
been so long and so universally combined to teach us, as says an early
square our actions and to keep them within due bounds," they are so
seen apart but are so kept together either as two great lights, or as a
once by the Master of the Lodge, now by the Past Master.
The Bible, square and compasses
said to constitute the furniture of a lodge.
GREATER LIGHTS: The Bible, and
the Square and
L. Boyden's Little Masonic Dictionary says,
COMPASSES: one of the most
prominent of the emblems
SQUARE AND COMPASSES: the badge
of the fraternity.
The furniture of a lodge, the
Bible, Square and
GREAT LIGHTS: the Bible, Square
H. Merz, author and editor of the Sandusky Masonic Bulletin, in his
Ask Me, Brother, says the furnishings of a lodge are
The Holy Bible, Square and
The word "Compass" may be used
to indicate the cardinal points; as a geometrical instrument, the word
is always "Compasses."
One of the
important products of Masonic learning in the last century was Bro.
Law of Masonry, and in an inserted Dictionary of Masonic terms uses the
from the Grand Librarian of the Grand Lodge of England, the oldest
Grand Lodge in
the world, says:
In reply to your letter, the
use of the word
"Compasses" (in the plural) by Freemasons of the English Constitution
is in no way a use peculiar only to the Craft. It is the proper English
of this particular instrument used by many professions and trades
besides its symbolic
employment by Freemasons. The word "Compasses" is, however, really an
abbreviation, for colloquial conveniences of the full name which is "a
of Compasses", just as the word "Scissors" describes, for shortness
sake, a "pair of Scissors", another instrument which like the Compasses
consists of more than one distinct part and so may rightly be
denominated in the
of Grand Master's Lodge, No. 1, in the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge
So far as my observation and
research have gone
the word "Compasses" is always used and not "Compass."
of St. John's Lodge, No. 1, Boston, Massachusetts, reputed to be the
in America, writes that they use the word "Compasses" and he presumes
they have always done so.
Vibert, Editor of Miscellanea Latomorum and Past Master of Quatuor
The facts are pretty clear.
Compass in the singular
means for us the Mariner's compass. The emblem is the Compasses.
We now turn
to "the etymologies of the outer world." Chamber's Encyclopaedia has:
COMPASS, Mariner's is the name
given to the instrument
by which sailors are enabled to steer their course on the ocean and out
is given, but no reference to the mathematical instrument.
COMPASSES, instrument for
transferring and marking
off distances, or for drawing circles. etc.
Encyclopaedia has four pages devoted to "Compass" ‒ not once referring
to the mathematical instrument and follows this with
COMPASSES, a mathematical
instrument for transferring
or marking off distances (and for this purpose often called "dividers")
or for drawing circles. The common compasses or dividers are composed
of two rods
or legs joined together by a pivot joint at one end and pointed at the
COMPASS, MARINER'S: an
instrument to ascertain
directions at sea by means of the attraction of the earth for a movable
a set of magnets.
space is given to a discussion of the subject, but no reference is made
to the geometrical
instrument. But this is followed by another heading:
instrument used for describing
circles, measuring lines, etc.
and Wagnalls Standard Encyclopaedia says:
COMPASS or Mariner's compass, a
used to indicate the direction of a ship with respect to the magnetic
N. and S.
continues for four columns. No reference is made to the architectural
COMPASSES, instruments for
transferring and marking
off distances or for drawing circles, etc.
letter was written to the Editor of the Standard Dictionary:
Under the word "Compass" in the
Dictionary, you provide for thirteen definitions. You use twelve of
them in defining
things other than the mathematical instrument. After the number 7, you
Compasses." And then in regular alphabetical order you say, "Compasses,
noun, plural. An instrument consisting of two branches or legs, etc."
Are we not justified in
concluding that you mean
that "compasses" is one of the few nouns that have no singular? Chamber
International, Funk and Wagnalls, The Americana, Mackey's (Masonic)
as well as Oliver's (Masonic) dictionary, all confirm this view. While
the Century and Stormonth's dictionaries practically do so.
I shall be greatly obliged to
you for a reply.
the Editor replied:
Yes, compasses and scissors are
words in the
same class. "Compass" singular has a totally different meaning.
Dictionary defines "Compass" under 10 headings. Under number 8, it says:
A mathematical instrument for
or for measuring figures, distances between two points, etc.; commonly
consist of two pointed legs, etc. and then quotes Milton ‒
"In his hand He took the Golden
prepared In God's eternal store, to circumscribe This Universe and all
Dictionary devotes 10 headings to the definition of "Compass." Nine of
them refer to other things than the geometrical instrument. After
number 8 it says:
8 (usually plural). An
instrument for describing
circles transferring measurements, consisting in its simple form of two
branches or legs, joined at the top by a pivot; called also pair of
have generally one pen or pencil point, those with two sharp metal
points for measuring
are specifically called dividers.
Then in regular
alphabetical order comes this:
COMPASSES, noun, plural. An
instrument for describing
curves, measuring, etc.
Masonry, Originally Synonymous Terms
Bro. H. L.
Haywood's pamphlet, The Walrus and the Carpenter [Lib*], which is
included in the
Dollar Masonic Library, gives us a glimpse of the mathematics of
of the Forty-seventh problem of Euclid and its reputed discoverer, the
Bro. Haywood says:
more substantial evidence to show that he founded a School of
mathematics to make
special studies of the righted-angled triangles. That theorem which
showed up in
Euclid as the forty-seventh proposition was attributed to him ‒ in
to establish ever enduring fame for any man. This proposition, you will
that the sum of the squares of the two shorter sides of a right-angled
is equal to the square of the hypotenuse. For ages before Pythagoras
had known on the basis of a rule of thumb that any triangle, the sides
are in units of 3, 4, and 5 is a right-angled triangle; it is possible
generalized this into his own theorem.
of this theorem in the history of mathematics, and even in the history
thinking in general, cannot be exaggerated. "No proposition in the
mathematics has had such a distinguished history," writes Bertrand
one of the greatest of all living mathematicians. "Everything in
and subsequently in physics, has been derived from it by successive
at once becomes intensely interesting, and important to every Master
symbolism of Masonry being so closely connected with the mathematical
I wrote to the Department of Mathematics of a number of Universities
asking what name they applied to the geometrical instrument used in
Here is the result so far as obtained:
of Arizona ‒ A pair of Compasses. A pair of Dividers. This is not a
of Arkansas ‒ Compasses.
University ‒ Compasses.
(England) University ‒ Compasses.
of California ‒ Either but Compasses more common.
‒ Dividers or Compasses
University ‒ This is known as Compasses, i.e., an instrument often
but "Compasses" is scientifically correct, the magnetic needle, a
or space being a Compass. The above is also referred to often as a pair
of Colorado ‒ Plural drawing instrument for measuring, describing
Agricultural College ‒ Compasses. Dartmouth
of Delaware ‒ Compasses. Compare the word scissors.
University ‒ Compasses. See Funk & Wagnalls, or any other good
of Georgia ‒ Compasses. R. P. Stephen.
‒ Usually plural.
University ‒ Dividers
of Illinois ‒ Pair of Compasses. Not Compass.
University ‒ Compasses.
University ‒ Dividers or Compasses.
of Kansas ‒ Compasses.
of Kentucky ‒ Compasses.
of Maine ‒ Compasses.
of Manitoba ‒ A pair of Compasses.
U. S. Military
Academy ‒ Pair of Compasses or Compasses.
Institute of Technology ‒ Compasses.
of Michigan ‒ I prefer the plural Compasses, or a pair of Compasses.
of Minnesota ‒ This looks like a pair of Compasses.
of Missouri ‒ Compasses.
of Montana ‒ Compasses. See dictionary.
Academy ‒ Compasses. (See Webster.)
of Nebraska ‒ Compasses.
of Nevada ‒ Compasses.
of North Dakota ‒ Compasses.
of Notre Dame ‒ An instrument used in drawing, for describing arcs,
is called "Compasses". An instrument used in surveying, for determining
courses and directions from a magnetic needle is called "Compass".
College ‒ Compasses.
‒ The term applied to the above is Compasses or a pair of Compasses.
University ‒ Compasses.
of Oklahoma ‒ Compasses.
of Oregon ‒ Compasses
of Pennsylvania ‒ Pair of Compasses.
University ‒ Compasses (or Dividers).
‒ If used in drawing, "a pair of Compasses". If used in measuring, "a
pair of Dividers".
Institute ‒ Compasses.
of South Carolina ‒ Compass
of Southern California ‒ Compasses.
of Tennessee ‒ Compasses.
of Utah ‒ Compasses.
of Vermont ‒ Compasses.
of Virginia ‒ Compasses.
‒ I would call the above "Compasses" or "a pair of Compasses."
University of Washington ‒ Compasses is technically correct. I prefer
the term "a
pair of Compasses".
University ‒ Compasses.
University ‒ A pair of Dividers or Compasses.
‒ (Pair of) Compasses.
‒ Pair of Compasses or Dividers.
is given in dictionaries and by mathematicians as synonymous with
excerpts are taken from Brothers and Builders, Bro. Joseph Fort Newton,
form a fitting conclusion to this article:
Altar of every Masonic Lodge, supporting the Square and Compasses, lies
Bible. The old, familiar Book, so beloved by so many generations, is
of Sacred Law and a Great Light in Masonry. The Bible opens when the
it closes when the Lodge closes. No Lodge can transact its own
business, much less
initiate candidates into its mysteries unless the Book of the Holy Law
upon its Altar. Thus the book of the Will of God rules the Lodge in its
as the Sun rules the day, making its work a worship.
Bible lies open upon the Altar of Masonry, and upon the Bible lie the
Compasses. They are the three Great Lights of the Lodge, at once its
and its chief working tools. They are symbols of Revelation,
Redemption, teaching us that by walking in the light of Truth, and
obeying the law
of Right, the Divine in man wins victory over the earthly. How to live
is the one
important matter, and he will seek far without finding a wiser way than
us by the Great Lights of the Lodge.
and Compasses are the oldest, the simplest, and the most universal
symbols of Masonry.
All the world over, whether as a sign on a building or a badge worn by
even the profane know them to be emblems of our ancient Craft. Some
years ago, when
a business firm tried to adopt the Square and Compasses as a
trade-mark, the Patent
Office refused permission, on the ground, as the decision said, that
can be no doubt that this device, so commonly worn and employed by
Masons, has an
established mystic significance, universally recognized as existing;
by all or not, is not material to this issue." They belong to us, alike
the associations of history and the tongue of common report.
in our Ritual, as in the public mind, the Square and Compasses are seen
If not interlocked they are seldom far apart, and the one suggests the
that is as it should be, because the things they symbolize are
interwoven In the
old days when the earth was thought to be flat and square, the Square
was the emblem
of the Earth, and later, of the earthly element in man. As the sky is
an arc or
a circle, the implement which describes a Circle became the symbol of
or skyey spirit in man. Thus, the tools of the builder became the
emblems of the
thoughts of the thinker – and nothing in Masonry is more impressive
than the slow
elevation of the Compasses above the Square in the progress of the
whole meaning and task of life is there, for such as have eyes to see.
In our study
of the Square we saw that it is nearly always linked with the
Compasses, and these
old emblems, joined with the Holy Bible, are the Great Lights of the
Craft. If the
Lodge is an "Oblong Square" and built upon the Square (as the earth was
thought to be in olden time), over it arches the Sky, which is a
circle. Thus, Earth
and Heaven are brought together in the Lodge ‒ the earth where man goes
his labor, and the Heaven to which he aspires. In other words, the
light of the
Revelation and the law of Nature are like the two points of the
which our life is set under a canopy of Sun and Stars.
Bro. L. F. Strauss, Massachusetts
IN the May
number of THE BUILDER last year appeared an article entitled The
Essenes; in July
was published Freemasonry and the Essenes. These two articles
constitute a kind
of introduction to this one. In Freemasonry and the Essenes attention
to Masonic terminology and nomenclature of Hebrew-Aramaic origin. A
of this list may be of interest; furnish food for thought.
Lord; used by the Jews in place of Jehovah,
the name of God.
‒ The Lord is exalted.
Kings iv, 3
Rezon. Derived from a very old and obsolete
Hebrew word and used
as title to a book of instruction in the Grand Lodge of York. [Actually
appears as the title of the Constitutions of the "Ancient" Grand Lodge
in London, compiled by Lawrence Dermott. Ed.]
To this list
of Masonic terms we will add the word Ain Soph, one of the most
in the Zohar (crown of the Kabala). This term Ain Soph was referred to
in an article
entitled the Freemason's Vision of God, by W. W. Covey Crump, a
clergyman of the
Church of England and Master of Quatuor Coronati Lodge. This also
appeared in THE
BUILDER for last May.
is, what means, what is contained in the Kabala? We will give a brief
the "idea" as reflected in the minds of recognized "authorities."
Dictionary, abridged definition: Esoteric Theosophy.
Britannica: An interesting exposition is here given; four lengthy
pages. But ‒ in
the opinion of Strauss ‒ after reading these four pages, the average
the scholar, will know as little or as much as before. This selection
of the information
given in the Encyclopedia Britannica may be of value to the innocent
In the Middle Ages, especially
during the first
period of the Renaissance and again at the period of the Reformation
was something of a factor, especially in the minds of Pico di
Reuchlin, Cornelius Agrippa, Theophrastus, Paracelsus, Robert Fludd,
Through Mirandola's power of persuasion Pope Sixtus wanted Kabala
taught to divinity
students of the Holy Roman Catholic Church.
given in the Encyclopedia Britannica should be of interest to students
and Theology, and to seriously minded members of the Order of Free and
Article in the Catholic
little scratched will serve" (Bacon-Shakespeare). We will give a few
application has greatly
varied in course of time and it is only since
the eleventh and twelfth centuries that the term Kabala has become the
appellation for the system of Jewish religious philosophy which claims
to have been
uninterruptedly transmitted by the mouths of the Patriarchs, Prophets,
ever since the creation of the first man.
of its doctrines recall
to mind those of Pythagoras Plato, Aristotle,
the Neo Platonists of Alexandria, the oriental or Egyptian Pantheists
and the Gnostics
of the Earliest Christian Church [Capitalization is by Strauss].
Brockhaus and Meyer: one-fourth of a page. Contents ‒ Negation.
Encyclopedie: In the opinion of Strauss this Encyclopedia is the
fairest, the best,
the most impartial published in Europe or America. On our "subject" we
find six large pages.
Caballe dates in reality, as we will see later, only from the
thirteenth or fourteenth
centuries. But its origins are very ancient.
"Does not date in reality only from the thirteenth or fourteenth
and then "But its origins are very ancient"? Should not origins
a kind of beginning?
of the Jews is found already in the Old Testament, and the foundation
of its metaphysical
theory and the colors in which it is clothed. Everyone knows what an
is played by Wisdom in the different books of the Bible in Proverbs,
the Book of
Job, the Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Siraeh and in the Wisdom of
Solomon. [The last
two mentioned being in the Apocrypha.]
One of the
most striking proofs of the influence exercised by secrets, doctrines
ideas upon the Jews of Palestine towards the end of the second Temple
by the sect of the Essenes. The Glory, or the Word, which under the
Plato and the Stoics became with Philo the famous Logos or the Word…
are by Strauss.]
was earlier considered as a very ancient work. It was usually
attributed to Simeon
ben Jochai (2nd Cent.) but today there is no doubt that it was born in
the end of the thirteenth century, etc., etc.
name Zohar saw then the light of day, but contents, doctrines,
propounded were transmitted
orally centuries B. C.
Encyclopedie gives a very lengthy and learned exposition of the
doctrines, the idea
found in the Kabala. Time and space does not permit here an elaborate
or a critical view.
Universal Ilustrade Americana Europea says of the Kabala that it was:
oral tradition among the
Jews that explained the sense of the Holy Scriptures.
In the ancient Jewish
literature the whole body of religious doctrine with
the exception of the Pentateuch.
the beginning of the tenth
century of our era the cabala was considered
as a secret science, a system of Theosophy.
Encyclopedia devotes four full pages and, strange as it may seem, gives
presentation of the case. Nueva Encyclopedia Italiana. Two pages.
not deliberately unfair, principle of hypothesis is strongly
not of sufficient value (opinion of Strauss) to be given space in THE
time in the mind of the reader.
Americana: Presentation free from bias. Four pages.
the mystic law of the Jews and the practice based thereon.
considered the Cabala antedates by many centuries the work devoted to
of its theorists and the inculcation of its practices, etc., etc.
are plentiful in both the Apocrypha and the pseudo-Epigrapha, notably
in the Enoch
books and the Testaments of various Bible heroes pointing to the
currency of Cabalistic concepts at the time these extra canonical books
the late pre-Christian, and Christian Gnosticism of the early Christian
may be looked upon as its predecessors.
The Neo Platonic
and Pythagorean character of the book's theorizing is evident. To some
the affirmation of the treatise seemed too strongly anthropomorphic.
posited between God and Universe a Mediator the PRINCE of the WORLD, to
imputed all acts of creation and to whom they referred the corporeal
of God found in the Bible....
the main contentions of the Kabala are these: God is unknowable in His
He is the EN SOPH the limitless, infinite. He is the HIDDEN OF ALL
HIDDEN. He is
the negative as far as he is cognizable by man, etc., etc
[Capitalization is by
gives quite a philosophical interpretation: A knowledge, an
understanding of the
real, the inner, meaning of the Kabala cannot of course be expected.
of Religion and Ethics, edited by James Hastings. Six large pages.
admonition of Sirach not to see that which is too wonderful for thee,
seem to imply a tendency to Esoteric doctrines on the part of the
denies the "Creatio ex nihilo" and the possibility of knowing God,
is fair, free from "conscious" bias; good intention but Christian
‒ "Fundamentalism" ‒ color the vision.
The New International
The designation for a mystical
system of philosophy,
which arose among the Jews at the beginning of the common Era, as a
the sober and austere form assumed by Rabinnical Judaism. It attained a
after the twelfth century, spread among Christian scholars in the 15th
centuries and still prevails among the Jews of Eastern Europe though
now dying out,
"a little scratched," therefore will not serve.
what is the Kabala?
Strauss became a member of the Ancient or Modern "Order of Free and
Masons," when he studied and examined carefully what had been presented
his physical ears; when he ‒ did what is generally expected from a
scholar ‒ such
as he is supposed to be ‒ made some extensive researches; Strauss
rubbed his eyes
to ascertain whether he was dreaming or was really awake. Next he
examined his intellect
and then scrutinized his "NOUS" (Supraconscious self) to make sure that
everything was all right in the upper story of L. F. Strauss.
Masonic symbolism taken, borrowed, "stolen," from what might be called
the innermost shrine of Judaism. A shrine, the existence of which, in
of Strauss, was no longer known or recognized, was in fact, decried and
by official Christianity. L.F. Strauss, through strange exceptional
course of events
had been made to see that what is called Christianity may be likened
unto a jewel
taken from this innermost shrine or unto a child reared and trained for
by the Builders, the Guardians of this Shrine.
As L.F. Strauss
had intimated in previous articles, a society and organization known in
as the Essenes, but whose real name, whose self-designation was Banaim
means Builders or Masons) was the Builder, the Providential Guardian of
of secular, half-informed critical historians, make Jesus an Essene;
John the Baptist
is universally recognized as a member of these Essenes, John the
himself a member of this order by his presentation of the Gospel. The
informs us that he had sat at the feet of Gamaliel, a distinguished, a
member of this brotherhood. In Paul's presentation of the figure of
there stands revealed a definite knowledge and a willing, joyful,
Essenic, that is Kabalistic, Weltanschauung philosophy, theosophy
cannot be a doubt in the mind of a careful unbiased student that St.
Origen, two of the most prominent Church-fathers, and some other
leaders of primitive
Christianity had been initiated into Essenic Kabalistic wisdom.
table upon which this article is written lies a book recently
discovered, and considered
a treasure, by L.F. Strauss. A treasure, because this book is in a way
a star witness.
In its presentation of Masonic lore this book affirms, confirms, the
main view and
interpretations of L.F. Strauss. The author of this book is Albert
Pike, in whose
memory a Masonic monument has been erected in Washington. The title,
Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry [Lib 1871].
by Albert Pike is a great work, a wonderful, a most marvelous
presentation of the
garb, the dress in which were, are, clothed the doctrines, the ideals
and Modern Freemasonry. Albert Pike in the opinion of L.F. Strauss had
entered the outer court, but his mental eye had been opened, he had a
vision of a glorious temple, and even of an inner shrine, which, in the
of L.F. Strauss, Albert Pike had actually tried to enter.
in this book makes many favorable references to the Essenes; in one
place he has
even given the name, the word Banaim, without seeming to recognize its
and relation. He refers to the connection of our two Johns with the
Order of Essenes,
its teachings and activities.
by Albert Pike contains with appendix more than a thousand pages. In
article a full presentation of the "case," the Weltanschauung, of our
author (a recognized leader in Freemasonry) cannot of course be given.
We will also
state that on some points the belief, the philosophy, the
Weltanschauung of L. F.
Strauss is somewhat different from the interpretation given by Albert
latter's references to some Graeco-Roman sages, especially to
an inner and outer smile, in the mind and upon the lips of L. F.
us, however, in the work of Albert Pike, are his many references to the
now under consideration, the Kabala. In a way this Kabala constitutes
furnishes the basic principles of the Masonic doctrines, ideas and
to the reader. As this book contains, as already stated, more than a
a few quotations only can be given.
- Kabala consecrates the alliance
of the Universal reason and the Divine Word.
- Kabala contains a doctrine of
logical, simple, absolute....
- Kabala contains a source of
- Kabala furnished the material
for the Roman de la Rose.
- KABALA gives to MASONRY secrets
- Kabala an entire perfect,
unique theology in the secret traditions.
- Kabala in active realization,
the magic of words, is "Hermeticism."
- Kabala taught the unity of God
and embodied a pure Philosophy.
- Kabala teaches the emanation of
all from infinite light. .
- Kabala the Ancient of Days
existed before everything... .
- Kabala the Hebrew traditional
- Kabala the supreme Being in the
Unknown Father. . . .
- Kabala the Key of the occult
sciences and gave birth to the Gnostics.
- Kabalistic doctrines known to
- Kabalistic and Hermetic Rose
- Kabalistic books furnished the
doctrine of the Hermetic philosophers.
Philosophy, whose principles and teachings, ideas and ideals, in the
Strauss are in accord with the doctrines given in Kabala, existed
(again in the
opinion of Strauss) thousands of years before the Kabala was conceived.
this world of ours (again in the opinion of Strauss) existed much
longer than the
average man imagines. Continuing quotations from Pike:
- Kabalistic doctrines concealed
under its emblems in the Apocalypse.
- Kabalistic doctrine, like
Masonry, tends towards spiritual perfection
- Kabalistic doctrine of
emanation, the origin of the Christian Trinity.
- Kabalists have chiefly studied
the question of the nature of Deity and the
beginning of the Universe…
- Kabalists' opinion concerning
souls is Platonism and comes from the Chaldeans…
- Cabalistic clavicules, Ezekiel
and the Apocalypse have occult explanation.
- Cabalistic expressed the
perfect number, 10, by a Tau cross....
gives us also numerous references to the Zohar (in a way the crown of
These references are too lengthy and too significative to be given in
with our Bro. R. J. Meekren, L. F. Strauss was given the information
that Bro. Pike
had obtained his knowledge about Occultism and the Kabala largely from
whose nom de plume was Eliphas Levi.
L. F. Strauss to investigate Eliphas Levi, and Strauss was pleased and
to his informant.
After a brief
investigation he will say this: Eliphas Levi was one of the few
favorites of Fortune
who had come near the ideal expressed by Nietzsche in Also Sprach
(German) / Lib 2013 (English)], near the position in store
for the members of the Genus homo, near the position recognized by the
the Philosophers, the Prophets of the race; of which position Bulwer
us a vivid glimpse in his strange book entitled Zanoni [Lib 1888]: a position to which
refers in some of his writings. [See Sonnets [Lib 1878], translated by J.A. Symonds
Civitas Solis.] This Campanella spent thirty years of his life in a
prisoner of "Our Holy Father the Pope" and the Holy Inquisition.
the theology, the doctrines enshrined, stored up in this position,
could be given
or to a selfish untutored world in a form veiled, very much veiled. The
Origen definitely informs us, when called upon to choose, preferred to
selves in too veiled a manner rather than too plainly or openly.
Bruno has seen far and deep. Had expressed himself too openly? And was
punished by "Providence"?
one of the greatest of seers, was, harmless; because his vision is
beyond the reach,
above the understanding of the multitude and the intellectual critics.
by Maurice Bucke, contains most valuable information for those already
La Clef Des Grands Misteres [Lib*], is a most remarkable presentation
of a wonderful
world, of a subject usually called Occultism, Mysticism, occasionally
Our author presents his ideas, his interpretation of this strange world
hundred and fourteen pages.
Levi" had glimpses of a superworld which glimpses disclosed to him a
strange and wonderful; but he, in the opinion of Strauss, was not a
did not fully realize the meaning and interpret correctly the
significance of the things he saw with his inner eye. A few extracts:
important from first part:
God Himself creates Himself
eternally, and the
Infinite which He fills with His work is an infinite and incessant
"infinite," like most people's clothes, covers a multitude of "sins",
or rather misunderstandings, errors, mistakes.
part of this book is devoted to a something our author calls a
supplement, and is
entitled Articles Sur La Kabbale.
A few excerpts
which Strauss thinks of interest:
Dogma is derived from, based upon the Kabala, but carefully veiled and
God, expresses an ideal unknown in itself but well known under the
which man makes, conceives, and expresses under the name, God.
which is the Mother of Exact Sciences, does admit a doubt when
authorizing a hypothesis
and speaking the religious sense and the name by which Man expresses
his idea of
the Infinite and the Invisible, the Kabala, we declare predicates His
existence because the verb indicates Being, as reflection indicates
between the real Being of God and the human conception or idea, to
which is given
the name Adonai or Jehovah…
It is for
this that the Kabbalists have distinguished the real being of God from
of him in the [mind] of man.
was born a member, a son of the Catholic Church. He remained a good
of course, in the eyes, the judgment, of Our "Holy Father the Pope."
of his views will not be endorsed by American Protestants.
Protestantism, for instance, is
able to produce
enthusiasm only rarely and in isolation.
Protestantism is a religious
than an affirmation.
Predilection, prejudice, ideas
our mind during our childhood, continue as a force, as a factor, in our
our interpretation, even in the mind of an Eliphas Levi.
Men who are too good or too
are disabled [lit. out of the conflict].
Sad but true!
set in the concourse [put where all can see] but those who find her are
to silence, otherwise everything would be ended.
It is for
this that it is as said by the Christ, "I speak in parables that seeing
should not see, and hearing they should not understand. Otherwise they
converted and would be saved."
is considered, by our Editor, to have been the teacher, the guide of
our good brother
and recognized leader, Albert Pike. Ergo, the words of both should be
to the brothers of the Order of Free and Accepted Masons and to the
readers of THE
What will, what would be, the benefit derived from the reading of the
works by these
great authors for the large majority of living members of the genus
homo, even if
or when these readers are also members of our Masonic Society?
presented, the ideas, the doctrines, the subjects discussed are so
strange, so mysterious,
so incomprehensible to the mere intellect. We are here reminded of the
Wer den Dichter will verstehen muss in Dichter's Lande gehen. Who would
understand must travel to the poet's country. In fact, in the opinion
of L. F. Strauss,
the ideas, the doctrines, the subjects presented by Eliphas Levi, or
are about as strange, as mysterious and incomprehensible as are, to the
of our brothers, the ceremonies, forms, and nomenclature used in our
this opus and modus operandi? What justification, what purpose? We
declaration by Plato and Origen. But have we not also the words of the
in the sermon on the Mount, "Do not give that which is holy to dogs.
pearls before swine;" and the words of the Apostle Paul: "You are still
babes and cannot stand strong meat" (or shall we say "drink?"). Why
for revelation, for publication had not yet come. In correspondence
with our editor,
this brother was informed that Arthur Waite (in the opinion of Strauss
a great writer,
a great student, a great theosophist, a good Mason) had secured in his
mind, an improved appreciation, a higher valuation, of our present
has written many wonderful books of interest to searchers after Truth
of special value to members of Masonry. Will here recommend: The Secret
in Freemasonry [Lib 1911; Vol
1, Vol 2], The Occult Sciences [Lib 1891], The Real History of the
and The Secret Doctrines of Israel, i.e., The Kabala [Lib 1902].
Juive [Lib*]. A "great" work, two large volumes. La Kabbale Juive
a learned exposition of Mysticism, in general, and Jewish Esoteric
particular. A brilliant description of a most marvelous temple. Our
the opinion of Strauss, even saw an inner shrine which he, our
half of the second volume is devoted to a learned, a scholarly
refutation, of the
claim of Masonry, to a connection, a relation, with La Kabbale Juive.
La Kabbale Juive, the divinely revealed wisdom that has furnished to
the Holy Roman
Catholic Church some of its most important dogmas and doctrines! How
What a presumption! we must here, of course, take into consideration
that our noble
Frenchman was born a Catholic, wished to be considered a faithful son
of his Church,
and did not want to offend Our Holy Father, the Pope, in his official
article is intended as a kind of introduction to a subject ‒ the
Kabala. L. F. Strauss
here wishes to call again attention to the three other introductory
in THE BUILDER, one in the month of May, the other in July, the third
in the December
For the benefit
of the forgetful reader, or new readers of THE BUILDER, the writer
wishes to emphasize
a few points: the nomenclature, the symbolism, used in the Masonic
Lodge, is taken
from a something called The Kabala.
known in history by the name Essenes, are the fathers of this Kabala.
name of these Essenes was Chasidim, the self-designation was Banaim,
or word means in English, Builders, Masons.
recall, reflect: Maha Banaim.
As a kind
of "reference" to the reliability, the trustworthiness, of this Kabala,
Strauss will reiterate: The heliocentric doctrine "quoted" in the July
number was an integral part of the Essenic secret doctrines.
of evolution which contained features recognized by William James, but
not elucidated on account of not yet being scientifically established,
a part of Essenic teachings.
In the textbook
not yet written, this kind, this form, these basic principles of
evolution ‒ wie
die gute Mutter schafft ‒ as Goethe said ‒ will be given in the
textbooks, the school
books of future generations.
astronomical progress made possible and assured acceptance of
and prevalent theories of the doctrine of evolution ‒ although
by some unbiblical ‒ so, the progress made in modern astronomy, the
the doctrines of Theodor Fechner (whose main work has been translated
whose strange metaphysics the Encyclopedia Brittanica calls the master
key to "Modern
Thought." (This should read "future" thought in the opinion of
Some features in the doctrine of Relativity make possible and advisable
of some of the secrets, some of esoteric doctrines enshrined in a work
Kabala, the fountainhead, the textbook of Free Masonry.
So in a subsequent
article L. F. Strauss intends to give in plain language, with simple
highly interesting Kabalistic doctrines.
Meekren, Editor in
BOARD OF EDITORS
LOUIS BLOCK, Iowa
ROBERT I. CLEGG, Illinois
GILBERT W. DAYNES, England
RAY V. DENSLOW, Missouri
GEORGE H. DERN, Utah
N.W.J. HAYDON, Canada
R.V. HARRIS, Canada
C. C. HUNT, Iowa
CHARLES F. IRWIN, Pennsylvania
A. L. KRESS, Pennsylvania
F. H. LITTLEFIELD, Missouri
JOSEPH E. MORCOMBE, California
ARTHUR C. PARKER, New York
J. HUGO TATSCH, Iowa
JESSE M. WHITED, California
DAVID E. W WILLIAMSON Nevada
Vatican and Its Shadow
the New Year and the new volume of THE BUILDER by presenting the first
of "The Shadow of the Vatican." Our readers will now be able to judge
for themselves what the character of these articles really is. There
seems to be
no object in repeating what was said on this subject last month as to
that have led us to publish them, but it may be as well to insist once
we take no responsibility for the author's statements. We are satisfied
is in a position to know what he is talking about, and we have every
assurance that he is a man of probity and honor, but this does not
absolve our readers
from making their own judgment upon his work.
in his Church upon which he strongly animadverts seems, according to
items, to have been removed, formally at least, and that is the Italian
in the College of Cardinals. We say formally for the fact that the new
now place the Italian Cardinals in a bare minority will obviously not
power of control. But it is a step towards an administrative reform,
and it is not
impossible that the shadow of these articles has gone before, and had
to do with the inauguration of the new policy. This is not at all
will not venture to say improbable) as they have been read in
manuscript by several
influential churchmen, and have been much talked about privately.
We say again
that it is our belief that the revival of administrative autonomy in
and especially, of course, in America, in the Roman Church, would
remove as a consequence
most of the features that rouse the apprehensions of Protestants and
generally. As things now are this Church is not only extra-national,
but is also
highly centralized and ruled absolutely from a foreign country; and
not only in matters of faith and doctrine, which in itself might be
also in matters of administration down even to minor details. And this
it is that
inevitably makes everyone who does not accept the Papal claims either
or temporal affairs justifiably suspicious.
is one thing that must be constantly borne in mind and that is that
is one for the action of the citizen and not of the Mason. It is the
of Freemasonry in regard to religious creeds that is the chief count in
against it, for this neutrality is felt to be more dangerous than
as such must never be tempted to leave this impregnable position. As
must act as their duty dictates according to the best information they
* * *
have taken the trouble to read the pages of the Northeast Corner during
will have gathered that the obstacles confronting the National Masonic
Sanatoria Association have been increasing rather than diminishing, and
more and more insurmountable as time went on. As the Grand Lodge of New
the prime mover in the formation of the Association it was felt by the
Governors that before any final steps were taken a full report of the
should be presented to the Grand Lodge at its next communication.
of action are possible, but it seems obvious that with the general
refusal of the
other Grand Lodges of the country to cooperate it will be useless to
try and continue
along the present lines and trying to meet the need through the agency
of an official
circumstances it will be best to defer all comment until after the
report of the
Association has. been considered by the Grand Lodge of New Mexico. But
it may be
as well to recall here what THE BUILDER undertook to do in support of
and the reasons for so doing. When the Association was organized the
was the essential one of bringing the situation to the attention of the
Fraternity and making the need for some action in the matter as widely
possible. Two avenues were available, and both were attempted. The
first was the
regular official channel of correspondence with the Executives of the
The other, intended to gain the support of the members of the Craft at
which no official action could be either decided or continuous, was the
the Masonic Press.
comparatively few of the Masonic periodicals of the country were
willing to give
much space or emphasis to the subject. An occasional paragraph would
and there; gradually to become more and more infrequent, until latterly
of the subject has been entirely dropped with very few exceptions. In
we are merely stating a fact without the least intention of making any
We presume for one thing that, as in the case of the Grand Lodges, the
failed to convince the editors and proprietors of the various Masonic
The reasons for this failure are doubtless complex. They may be the
same as those
which caused the majority of the Grand Lodges to withhold support or
they may be
quite different, we do not know, and not knowing do not presume to
judge. We suspect
however that they were widely different in different cases. Another
into the situation. Of only a few Masonic periodicals can it be said
that they have
a truly national circulation, and of those few we believe that there is
that THE BUILDER is most evenly distributed throughout the whole
that, its readers comprise the most thoughtful and influential members
of the Craft.
therefore, once the need was made clear, that it was our duty as Masons
to use our
exceptionally favorable position to support the movement, and it was
for this reason
that we placed a certain amount of space in our pages at the disposal
of the N.M.T.S.A.
so that their message could be fully presented to our readers in any
way that seemed
to them most fitted to produce results. For the contents of the
the Editors of THE BUILDER have no responsibility, other than the
general one of
giving this opportunity to the Association to approach our readers. We
supported the work in its general aspects in the editorial columns, and
time to time emphasized those features of the problem that seemed to us
So far as
we can gather from letters received during the whole period that the
has been a regular department of THE BUILDER, a majority of our readers
this action. Indeed if the proportion of our correspondents who favored
it to those
who did not is at all representative of our readers as a whole it would
not be too
much to say that the latter form a minority quite negligible in point
And such objection as has been offered has not been disapproval of the
T. B. Campaign
itself or of any doubt of the pressing nature of the problem, but
solely on the
grounds that it was not appropriate in a magazine expressly devoted to
of this we concede. We can only repeat what we said on this point at
the very first,
that though this is not a matter of research, yet we are all Masons
before we are
students, and our Masonic duties have the prior claim upon us. It
seemed then, as
it seems now, a matter of obligation that we should do whatever lay in
to help. And in any case, if this subject has proved to be of interest
to any substantial
number of our readers, it would be justified on that score alone, even
if they were
not a majority. It is hardly possible to make everything that appears
in THE BUILDER
of equal interest to every one of our readers. Any reader of any
inevitably find some of its contents dull or uninteresting, and the
ideal is to arrange it that everyone may find something that appeals to
him in each
the subject we may add that we have received unofficial information
that the work
of the N.M.T.S.A. has at last borne some definite fruit. We understand
that at the
recent meeting of the Grand Lodge of Texas an assessment of twenty-five
capita was levied for the relief of tubercular Texas Masons. Restricted
as this action is it is yet a great step in the right direction and we
the Texas brethren on having taken it. If only every other Grand Lodge
this example and proceed to make adequate provision for their own
problem will be solved in what after all may prove to be the most
Providing of course that the tubercular Masons now in the "Tuberculosis
are transported back to their own states as soon as provision has been
them. This is essential, for it must never be forgotten that the
problem is not
an academic one, but that hundreds of our brethren are slowly dying of
privation in the Southwest and that the pressing and urgent need is to
some adequate relief. If the means so far suggested to this end will
others must be devised.
National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association
by Authority of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, A.F.&A.M.
ALBUQUERQUE, N. M.
AND BOARD OF GOVERNORS
HOLT, Past Grand Master, President
ELSER, Executive Secretary
JOHN W. BOWMAN,
NEWTON, Editor, Manager N.M.T.S.A.. Las Cruces, New Mexico
Jessup Newton, New Mexico
article is reprinted from the "Journal of the Outdoor Life." It is a
presentation of the problem by one who is thoroughly familiar with all
Whether national or local sanatoria are the better means for meeting
the need, or
whether a combination of both, the point that it is necessary to grasp
is that it
is a national and not a local question. If every state and every city
to took after its own people, the need would be met of course, but what
is to be
done with the sufferers already in the Southwest?
PLACE a ruler
upon the map of the Southwestern United States and draw a line from San
to Denver, 815 miles; then a second line from Denver to Los Angeles,
and a third line from Los Angeles back to San Antonio, 1220 miles, and
enclosed within a vast triangle approximately 350,000 square miles of
and valleys, high tablelands, or mesas, and deep canyons, deserts and
valleys, ranging from sea level to peaks more than two miles high. This
is the "Tuberculosis Triangle," famous throughout the whole world, as
the "Promised Land" of health and healing to the unfortunate victims of
the Great White Plague.
the days of the gold rush to California and, in fact, more than a
century ago, the
migration for health began. It is continuing and increasing today. The
of many men who later became prominent in the history of the Southwest
they came as health-seekers. The pioneers of this pilgrimage sought the
climate of Southwest Texas and the old Spanish city of San Antonio, and
as the passing
of years brought settlements and safety throughout the entire
those who followed after them pushed on to the Pacific Coast and spread
the whole of this vast area, until today there is scarcely a town in
New Mexico, Arizona, Southern California and Colorado, which has not
its quota of
that tuberculosis is curable prevailed five hundred years before
wrote that, "phthisis, taken early, can be cured." The belief that
of climate is beneficial existed at least as far back as the first
century of the
Christian era. Celsus, a Roman writer who lived in the first half of
the First Century,
A. D., author of a comprehensive encyclopedia, of which only the eight
medicina have come to us, in which he gives an account of the whole
of the time, recommended change of climate and life at sea. Galen, a
Greek physician, born about A. D. 130, long the supreme authority in
advised a dry hill country. Another writer of ancient days said, "If
a phthisis go into a high mountain, take a cow and live on the fruit of
a deeply grounded belief in this country, among sick and well, that
can be cured, or their lives prolonged, if they will go to the
Southwest. That popular
faith in the healing virtues of the climate of the "Tuberculosis
is well-founded, is proven by the experience of many thousands who are
in this and region. Concrete evidence of the restoration to health of
exists in the cities and towns they have built in the Southwest, for
and development of many communities from sleepy Mexican villages, or
into live and hustling American municipalities is largely due to the
who, having recovered their health, had sufficient intelligence to
the confines of the "Tuberculosis Triangle."
Many of these
cities and towns with a real appreciation of what has made them grow
have capitalized the experiences of their citizens and advertised their
as their greatest asset. While this advertising and publicity is
addressed to the
wealthy and the well-to-do, it has equal drawing power for the poor and
and has helped to develop and intensify a problem that has assumed
and that is becoming more serious every year.
man with tuberculosis, and most of them are poor, believes that if the
the Southwest is good for his well-to-do brother of this "Grand Lodge
it is equally good for him. So he sets forth with the high hope and
is symptomatic of tuberculosis, and often with a wife and several
children, to "chase
the cure." He proposes to seek "light work" or to "rough it,"
little realizing that there are fifty or more candidates for every
job, and that ranch work is strenuous and impossible for a man who is
the hospital and the grave. So they start out like the seekers of the
pot of gold
at the end of the rainbow, and to most of them the search is fruitless.
to grief and after a year or more of suffering, prolonged beyond the
time they would
have lived at home, for it is hard to die even of tuberculosis in the
they come to journey's end in a ward of some county hospital or poor
they find shelter f or the last few months or weeks of life.
Number of Tuberculosis
have come in a century of migration will never be known. How many come
How many are now living in the Southwest? No one can say. Estimates can
but they would be only estimates. Even the number of those who die
cannot be given,
for complete and accurate death records are not kept in all places. In
made by the United States Public Health Service in 1913 and 1914, facts
from health authorities, county and municipal officials, charity
and every agency having any contact with the tuberculous. Definite
be secured only about those who, because of indigency, were forced to
some agency for help and who were a liability to Southwestern cities
Little information could be gathered about those who were an asset to
those who brought capital and new life into the business of the
It was estimated,
by the Public Health Service investigators, that there were 30,000
in Western Texas, 27,000 in New Mexico and 20,000 in Southern
California. No estimates
were made for Arizona and Colorado. Just prior to this survey the
Association estimated that 10 per cent of the population of the
Southwest was tuberculous,
or had come to the West because some member of their family was
afflicted. The number
of deaths of tuberculous migrants does not give any real idea of the
number of living
cases in the Southwest for hundreds and thousands go home to die.
the death records by the Public Health Service investigators in
1913-1914 of three
principal cities showed an increasing number of migrants coming to
each year during the preceding ten years and led to the following
"The actual number of cases
increasing, and this in spite of the dissemination of information
curability of the disease in other climates and the erection of large
for its treatment in the East."
later Miss Jessamine S. Whitney, an investigator for the National
came to the same conclusion. This would seem to indicate a continuous
the number of sick coming to the Southwest during the past twenty years.
On Feb. 6,
1926, the United States Census Bureau stated that the approximate
the territory embraced within the "Tuberculosis Triangle" on Jan. 1,
was 2,912,000. If the estimate made by the National Tuberculosis
than ten years ago is applied to the present population of the
there would be more than 300,000 people living in this territory
because they or
some member of their families have, or have had tuberculosis.
consumptive has been divided into four classes by one of the writers of
Health Reports. The consumptive of wealth and ample means is placed in
class, for he often becomes an asset to the community in which he
locates. The second
class is composed of those who have only moderate means, and who, if
may also become, in time, productive citizens of their adopted city.
both those who are indigent when they arrive and those who may become
their arrival, are placed in a third class, and the fourth class is
the tuberculous tramps.
the first and second class may again be divided into three subdivisions
doubtful and favorable cases. The hopeless, rich or poor, should never
journey. But who is competent to say which cases are hopeless when
city and town has a number of more or less prominent citizens who
proudly tell you
of their coming to the Southwest "on a stretcher" and who have
their health. The doubtful cases may do well, if no unforeseen
or financial, arises, while the favorable cases might have fared
equally well at
Of the indigent
cases there can be only two classes, doubtful and hopeless, for chances
are in direct proportion to the amount of aid which may be extended to
by some agency and also to his physical condition. Within the
Triangle" there is an economic Triangle and its three points are money,
and climate. He who wins into the first Triangle of tuberculosis must
also be able
to enter into the second, for without money and intelligence to use it
of no avail.
of the first and second class do not enter into this tragic problem
a change of circumstances they "graduate" into the third and indigent
class. They have contributed much to the building up of the West. Their
and intelligence have built cities and towns.
those who claim that this influx of capital and of people more than
cost of caring for the indigents who come. This might be true if a
be struck somewhere and the profits, if any, devoted to the care of the
While this is the oldest part of the country in history, it is new in
and lacks the public institutions supported by general taxation that
are long established
entities of northern municipalities. It also lacks the
financed charity societies to aid the public welfare work. Therefore,
the care of
these cases is a problem that defies solution.
(To be continued)
on "How to Organize and Maintain a Study Club" will be sent free on
in quantities to fifty
and By-laws for Study Clubs
been numerous requests in recent months for a draft of a Constitution
suitable for adoption by Study Clubs. In answer to these correspondents
we are publishing
herewith such an outline. It is a modification of the Constitution and
an organization now functioning and comes well recommended by the
brethren in that
that it is short and permits of much elasticity is very much in its
favor. It must
be borne in mind that a Study Club should not be overburdened with
and general organization. It must be flexible and informal to as great
as is possible.
The name of this Club shall be ................
To seek further light in Masonry.
Sec. 2. To
study and familiarize ourselves with the Allegoric and Symbolic meaning
of the Masonic
Ritual and the history of Freemasonry from such books as authorized and
from constituted authority.
See. 3. To
report on assigned topics which will be followed by discussions at
The membership of this Club shall be limited to all Master Masons in
of the ______ Masonic District, who are desirous of gaining further
Sec. 2. All
Masters and Past Masters are Honorary Members of this Club.
The officers of this Club shall be a President, VicePresident,
Study Director and Assistant Study Director.
DUTIES OF OFFICERS
The President shall preside at all the meetings.
Sec. 2. The
Vice-President shall assist the President and preside in his absence.
See. 3. The
Secretary shall keep a faithful and accurate record of the proceedings
of all the
meetings. Attend to all the correspondence of the Club. Receive all
from the members and pay same to the Treasurer and take his receipt
Sec. 4. The
Treasurer to receive all moneys from the Secretary and pay out same by
the President with the vote of the members present.
See. 5. The
office of the Secretary and Treasurer may be combined until such time
as their duties
Sec. 6. The
Study Director and Assistant Study Director shall assign Study Topics
questions for discussion.
Each application for membership shall be accompanied with a fee of
Sec. 2. The
dues of the Club shall be ten cents per month per member payable at
See. 3. Additional
funds of this Club may be derived from assessments, if, when, and as
by a two-thirds majority vote of the members present.
The place of meeting shall be at the .......... in unless otherwise
a majority vote.
See. 2. The
regular meetings of this Club shall be held on the ____ of each month.
shall be called to order at 7:30 p. m. and closed at 9:00 p. m.
See. 3. Special
meetings may be called at the order of the President. Special meetings
not to exceed
more than one in any calendar month.
The election of Officers shall take place at the .......... regular
meeting in December
and they shall be installed the same evening.
Robert's Rules of Order shall govern the business procedure in this
This Constitution may be amended only at a regular meeting and by a
of the members present, provided such amendment be presented and read
at the regular
meeting next previous to being voted upon.
It is quite
possible that in most places even this form of constitution is more
the need will call for. For example, the President and Director might
in many cases
profitably be combined as well as that of Secretary and Treasurer.
Article IX is
quite possibly unnecessary; the business of the Club outside of the
study and research
work will naturally be very slight, and no questions of order will be
at all likely
to arise. In regard to the discussions on topics assigned no rules are
but those of the ordinary courtesies of debate. They must naturally be
as free as
possible to give everyone the fullest opportunity of contributing his
quota to the
discussions. This is the end to be constantly kept in view, that every
to take his part in the proceedings, and nothing calculated to hinder
* * *
Lodge of Saskatchewan, through its Committee on Masonic Study and
Research, is continuing
the work which began so auspiciously this fall. The outline program for
of the present season was published in full in THE BUILDER. We have the
outlines for all of the topics, including January, on file in this
office and will
be very glad to furnish them to those who were interested in this work.
be well to publish these more detailed outlines in full in this
department but their
nature makes it inadvisable to do so.
are valuable aids to Study Clubs who find themselves confronted by the
what to study, though it must be borne in mind they are prepared to
meet the needs
of a specific Grand Lodge and may need some modification before being
for use in a subordinate lodge owing allegiance to some other Grand
we congratulate the Grand Lodge of Saskatchewan upon the efficiency of
Study and Research Committee.
* * *
We are just
in receipt of advice from the Glendale Masonic Research Club that the
Master of one of the two lodges interested in this organization has
seen fit to
appoint members of the club on the Lodge Committee on Masonic
Education. This may
constitute a tip for the Masters of other lodges.
wire organization has accomplished much in the seven months of its
the plan calls for a presentation of their latest activities in a
of THE BUILDER.
reviewed in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of
at the prices given, which always include postage. These prices are
a matter of precaution) to change without notice; though occasion for
very seldom arise. Occasionally it may happen, where books are
that there is no supply available, but some indication of this will be
the review. The Book Department is equipped to procure any books in
print on any
subject, and will make inquiries for second-hand works and books out of
REFRESHMENT [Lib*]. Edited by J. S. M. Ward, M. A. Published by The
Press, Ltd., 161 New Bond St., London. 1926. Cloth, table of contents,
of this book," the editor informs the reader, "is to indicate subjects
which will appeal to various types of men, and to show how such
subjects can conveniently
be compressed into a reasonable space." The purpose has been
and the subjects dealt with range from an enquiry as to whether the
are extinct to a discussion, contributed by Bro. V. S. Stevens, of the
Brotherhood in Freemasonry, with two pieces of fiction thrown in for
W. A. Wigram, D. D., contributes two papers, one concerning the Ancient
in Modern Greece, and the other dealing with the migration of
as well as a review of Bro. Ward's book, "Who Was Hiram Abif," [Lib*]
which has already been dealt with in these columns. "What Is
is the title of another chapter in which W. Bro. H. V. Watch, of
develops an effective parallel between the teachings of the Craft and
mysteries of nature and science.
Bro. R. V.
Harris, the Historian of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia, is responsible
for an article
on the Early History of Freemasonry in Canada, and although it contains
a mass of
dates and facts the writer has succeeded in presenting his information
in an interesting
and connected narrative. We notice one slight error, Lieut. Guinnett,
Provincial Grand Master of Quebec, held his commission in the 47th
the 27th, an error which can safely be attributed to the printer. In
Lodge No. 156, warranted in 1755 by the "Moderns" in the 8th or King's
Regiment, was the first military lodge warranted by that body, does
disregard the lodge established by it in 1750 and attached to the 31st
it did not actually possess a documentary Warrant? Bro. Harris refers
to the service
held in the Recollet (not Recollect) Church on the installation of the
Duke of Kent
as Provincial Grand Master of Lower Canada, but so that an incorrect
not be drawn from this fact it should be borne in mind that this
was the property of the Recollet Fathers, was used jointly by the
Roman Catholic communities at that period.
To turn to
Bro. Ward's own contributions to the volume. Bro. Ward is an enthusiast
in the endeavor
to connect the modern Craft with the past, and in searching for the
links" catches at every straw to bolster up his ingenious theories. He
to be a disciple of that early school of Masonic writers whose works,
in the light
of modern criticism, are no longer acceptable, and the strained
parallels and overdrawn
coincidences which he puts before the reader with such frequency are
not only unconvincing
but irritating. It is to be regretted, too, that a writer of his
permit himself to fall into those inaccuracies which, with but little
care, he could
In his discussion
of the descent of Freemasonry through the Companionage, Bro. Ward
relies on the
Livre du Compagnonnage [Lib 1841; (Vol 1 only)], published by Perdiguier in
1841 (this was
the second edition, not the first, which appeared a year earlier), but
the claim that it possessed the Hiramic Legend. His quotation from
Gould in rebuttal
of the belief that the legend was introduced into the Companionage from
does not carry conviction, and Bro. Ward's witness-in-chief
(Perdiguier, 3rd Edn.
1887) himself expresses the view that it was borrowed from the Craft,
Leon (1901) gives the whole text of the legend, which is clearly taken
from a French
translation of a contemporary English Lecture. Bro. Ward tells us that
is really the greeting known to all Master Masons, but the similarity
is not very
profound, nor is it conceded that the guilbrette was actually given to
companion. Much is made of the "howling" at the funeral of a companion,
but this was not a practice confined to the Companionage, nor was it
common to all
three branches for the Sons of Solomon (which included the Masons) did
at all. No reference is made to the use of soubriquets to designate the
classes forming the Companionage, and with this practice in mind, the
use of the
word "Louveteaux" as applied to sons of companions loses the
which it is suggested it possesses.
Passing of the Operatives" Bro. Ward strongly sustains the contention
a few years ago by Bro. Clement Stretton, and rejected from lack of
the Modern Operatives possessed and had worked continuously from the
era the original rites of the Craft. The production of a Minute Book of
Operative Stone Masons' Society, founded in 1832, is not evidence of
existence of the Operative Ritual, and will fail to convince the
critics of the
merits of Bro. Stretton's views as Bro. Ward scornfully anticipates.
* * *
[Lib*]. By Ben Ames Williams. Published by E. P. . Dutton &
Co., New York. Cloth,
570 pages. Price $2.65.
it may be said that readers of fiction are divided into two classes:
those who read
solely for the story and those who seek the motive which may lie beyond
page. In other words, there are readers of lines and others who
endeavor to read
between the lines. Unfortunately the readers in the latter class are as
few as the
worthwhile books which are at present being produced for them.
It is this
last group who will find welcome relief from the usual type of best
seller in Ben
Ames Williams' Splendor. I seriously doubt the possibility of Mr.
becoming a member of the most popular class, though more readers who
of enjoying the work would help to subject it to this distinction and
elevate the plane of American fiction.
as it appears in print is nothing as compared to the unprinted
background from which
it rises. I have always admired Mr. Williams as a spinner of yarns, and
he has told
his tale with the usual facility in the work under discussion. It is
more of a character
sketch, better, a group of such sketches, than a tale, though it has a
is ample and well worked out. Perhaps not in precisely the same station
nor under the same conditions have each of us seen this drama of life
we all know the characters in the tale as friends. Mr. Williams has
of them with such clarity that they are easily recognized. Doubtless
in no small measure, to the enjoyment of the book.
so many phases of the book which are worthy of more than passing
mention that another
volume could be written in describing it. Among other things there is a
of and a tribute to the world of journalism such as has appeared before
all too rare. The period in which the action takes place ‒ from about
1870 to the
present day ‒ is one which is interesting because of the revolutionary
have taken place. The newspaper world felt this transition; it was
transportation systems, and in modes of private travel as well ‒ the
bicycle and the automobile. The family life of the world at large was
materially by the change iii lighting equipment, from gas to
things there are, but we have accepted all of this as a matter of
course, and it
is only when we have a rare moment of contemplation that we realize the
which have taken place in the past half century.
a certain Splendor in this march of progress. Mr. Williams has
presented it in an
intangible way, the more charmingly because of the intangibility. One
sees the hero
of his tale as a son of a blacksmith, enjoys with him the sparks which
the anvil into the neutral gloom of his father's shop, and becomes a
part of this
childish splendor. We continue to live through the trials, and
tribulations of an
ordinary, it might almost be said mediocre, existence; through youth
with its ambitions,
love and marriage; through a fatherhood, the joys of which are marred
by death and
a frustrated ambition; through manhood and its joys in the life of the
and its grief as they part for college, and later marriage. One cannot
see a renewal of the more youthful happiness in the joys of
grandchildren. But behind
all of this stalks the terror of a decline ‒ comes the day when there
is no longer
forward progression in the business world and a backward step sets in.
nothing unusual in all this as it is pictured on the pages of a book,
it all is a certain something, which comes to mind time and time again.
It is ephemeral;
it has no lasting quality; it cannot be mirrored in cold black letters;
a warmth, a satisfaction, a joy in the life we see. This is Splendor.
* * *
ON BUDDHISM. WHY I BELIEVE IN BUDDHISM [Lib*]. By Alice Leighton
VISIT INDIA AND TIBET? [Lib*] By Basil Crump. Privately printed.
without knowing much about the subject are interested in Buddhism will
material in small compass in the first two of these little pamphlets,
of which has a number of illustrations ‒ chiefly of different art types
of the Buddha
from various oriental countries. The author has especially studied the
cult in China,
where according to the ordinary authorities, it exists only in a
debased form. She
however presents an entirely different picture.
In the second
pamphlet her subject leads naturally to a revelation of part of her own
experience. Like so many other devotees of this religion she was
it, apparently, by the works of Madame Blavatsky. Dissatisfied with an
presentation of Christianity which she, in company with thousands of
repellent, and not inclined to look for the underlying reality and
truth in her
hereditary faith, she found eventually a spiritual home in the system
Sakya Muni. The upholders of narrow and unspiritual dogmatic systems
have much to
answer for, even though they are so certain that their orthodoxy is the
to salvation. On the other hand if the earnest seekers after truth
would work as
hard to find out the truth about Christianity as they do to master
they might find that what they sought for was right at hand. Still it
is only too
natural to reject the gold when it is presented in the form of an
to throw away the chaff without stopping to sift out the good grain.
pamphlet contains a discussion of the claims that have been made at
that Jesus, previous to his three years' ministry in Palestine, had
and Tibet; and had thence derived much, if not all, of his teaching.
rejects the Tibetan part of the story entirely, on the authority of the
Sven Hedin, with whose views he seems to agree. In regard to India be
to leave the question undecided, admitting the case is not proved, but
feeling that it may be true nevertheless. This is only natural, as if
figure of the Christian religion could be shown to have been taught by
schools of the far east, Christianity could be made out to be only an
or secondhand version of the true religion. This conclusion would not,
necessarily follow, even if the truth and antiquity of these legends
beyond reasonable doubt. And that they ever will be, or can be, seems
tone of the pamphlet is to be commended. Too many writers of the
of thought indulge in mere assertions, just as so many Masonic writers
‒ and still do. Mr. Crump however does endeavor to limit himself to the
and to go no further than it warrants. But in reality the problem he
is very complex, and it is possible to account for the traditions
their historical truth.
* * *
FOR THE ARCHBISHOP [Lib*]. By Willa Cather. Published by Alfred A.
Knopf, New York.
Cloth, 303 pages. Price $2.65.
meets Republicanism, or more precisely, when Monarchy meets Democracy,
likely to be a struggle; not merely a wrestling match where the pinning
of the shoulders
for a matter of five seconds or so constitutes a victory, but a
matching of grips
where victory means life, and defeat, oblivion. Such was the stage
which was set
for Monsignor Jean Marie Latour, when he was sent as a missionary
priest to the
New Mexican wilderness of 1861. The territory which was to constitute
or diocese, had for centuries been under Spanish control, and was
part of the Episcopal see of Mexico. There was no mere battle, but a
war, in which
the first victory only foreshadowed other struggles to come. The first
task to confront
Father Latour was to establish himself in his new charge. But there is
no need to
tell the story, let those who may be interested seek information in the
is less of a tale than the picture of a character; and one sometimes
the two-fisted, hard-drinking, heavy-weight champion of the Lord,
Valliant, should have been the hero instead of the gentle Monsignor
latter seems out of place in the roughness which surrounded him, and
have been better qualified for a village cure in his native Auvergne.
The will of
God, published through a committee of Cardinals, ruled otherwise
however, and it
was not until late in life that Father Joseph donned his own mitre.
we shall have the story of how he carved his diocese from the
wilderness to the
north; and what a story it will be!
On the whole,
however, there is little complaint that can be made of the story given
us. If, at
times, Miss Cather falls into the attitude of a highly devoted member
of the Sodality
of the Blessed Virgin, it is not often enough to be irritating, and her
as a skillful story teller overshadows it all. The writing throughout
is in her
best style; simplicity without ornamentalism and yet relieved of
characterize the technical side of the work. As a piece of writing it
is her best
* * *
[Lib*]. By William Lyon Phelps. Published by E.P. Dutton & Co.,
New York. Cloth,
49 pages. Price $1.10.
THE pot of
gold at the rainbow's foot, which, in many cases, symbolizes happiness,
has no real
place in this short essay by Dr. Phelps. It will take no more than an
hour to read,
but one can spend many pleasant days contemplating the material of
which it is composed.
Coupled with Dr. Phelps' definition, which is really not a definition
but a description of a happy person, and which reads as follows: "The
person is the person who thinks, the most interesting thoughts" should
one, "The City of Happiness is in the state of mind." The elaboration
of the first of these definitions composes the subject-matter of the
is in Dr. Phelps' most pleasing style. No further recommendation should
The Question Box and Correspondence
I received from the readers of THE BUILDER the last year helped me to
have a year
of much joy.
I am still
flat on my back but free from pain.
time most of the post offices will use what are known as pre-cancelled
kind with cities names printed over the face of each stamp.
I would be
happy to have you and your friends save them for me. All I ask is that
they do not
peel them off the wrapping paper or cut into the perforation teeth at
James H. Cooke, P.O. Box E, Carmel, Cal.
this letter was not received in time to insert in the December number,
so that we
fear the stamps on Christmas parcels this year, unless already saved,
been permanently filed in the W.P.B. or its domestic equivalent.
However, we are
very glad to know that readers of THE BUILDER have remembered Bro.
the past year and trust they will not forget him in 1928.
* * *
give me any information concerning the time when, and circumstances
introduction of the Holy Bible as the Great Light in Masonry?
C. J. W., California.
beginning of last century, Webb placed the Bible with the S. and C.
under the two
heads of Great Lights of Masonry and Furniture of the Lodge. Browne's
published not long before Webb's Monitor, spoke of it only as part of
as also Preston in his Illustrations of Masonry. A work published in
might be described as an illicit ritual, has in its account of the
address by the Master to the Candidate in which the Great Lights
include the Bible,
but in the appended lecture or catechism, these are called Furniture,
and the Great
Lights are said to be what have since been called lesser lights. Lesser
not mentioned, so far as we recall, before the publication of Webb's
three "Fixed Lights" are spoken of which seem to have been explained as
three windows to the lodge, E., S. and W. In 1730, another illicit
again of the Furniture as in the 1760 Lecture, the Great and Fixed
Lights are also
Great Lights were spoken of in France, and presumably elsewhere in
Europe, but not
the Fixed Lights nor the Furniture. About 1730 in Scotland, or
precisely, in the
old Lodge of Dumfries, there is some evidence that the B. S. &
C. were described
as the three pillars of Masonry. A description also of the Bible as the
or support of the ladder of the Theological Virtues is also met with,
in the latter
part of the 18th century.
the Holy Book was not the Bible but the Book of the Gospels ‒ or
possibly the New
Testament. There are indications that this was also the original
practice in the
British Isles, especially before the Reformation. But it is very
possible it persisted
in places into the 18th century.
or pre-Grand Lodge Masonry the candidate was probably required to take
two or three
oaths or solemn promises. The first was to abide by and keep the
This he promised with his hand on the book as they were read to him.
to be a loyal law-abiding citizen, and to aid and assist his brethren.
was an obligation to secrecy. This last was probably in quite a
different form from
the others, and the book may not have figured in it at all.
been suggested that the book on which the first oath was taken was the
Book of Charges
itself, this however needs more evidence, as it does not seem very
probable in itself.
it would seem that the Bible, or the Book of the Gospels, whichever may
used, was introduced first not as a symbol but simply as an additional
to the oath. That once admitted as part of the necessary furniture of a
finally came to be regarded as the Great Light was under all the
but the process has never yet been fully traced.
* * *
I am in receipt
of your kind letter of July 21 and will say that I will be pleased to
letters you mention published in THE BUILDER, and the sooner the better.
Only a couple
weeks ago I received a letter from the secretary of Michigan
Consistory, A. &
A. S. R., dated April 28, 1927, and a letter from the secretary of Zion
1, enclosing a letter from the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of
June 20, 1927.
of these letters I think ought also be published for the information of
Masons. For that reason I enclose copies of these two letters and
submit them to
you for publication with the letters that have already appeared in THE
to the statement in the first letter I would like to add that I heard
from a man
last week, that the Grand Lodge of Sweden is in fraternal relations
with the Grand
Lodge of New York, U.S.A. If such be the case ‒ and that can be
‒ I would like to know why is not and can not the Grand Lodge of
Michigan be in
fraternal relation with the Grand Lodge of Sweden. It seems to me that
Lodge of Michigan should have the same right to such fraternity as the
of New York.
Eric H. Peterson
L. Smith, Secretary.
I am in receipt
of yours of the 29th instant with copies enclosed of letters from Bro.
Eric H. Peterson.
is that the Grand Lodge of Michigan is not in fraternal relations with
Lodge of Sweden, in fact then are very few if any of the Grand Lodges
in the United
State that are in fraternal relations with the Grand Lodge of Sweden
I do not see any way to help Bro. Peterson out. It is unfortunate,
indeed, the condition
he is in if he is going t continue his residence in Sweden. Of course,
if he comes
back to this country or removes to any other country where we hav4
with their Grand Lodge, he could speedily be taken care of. I very much
situation he is placed in, but as above stated, I know of no way to
help him out.
and fraternally yours,
Lou B. Winsor,
of F. & A. M., Michigan.
It is true
that ALL FREEMASONS do not recognize each other as FREEMASONS. Whether
or not Freemasonry
fails because of this is a debatable question. No doubt that is the
and is yet, and it is gradually working to that end. It is something
akin to the
saying of the great Roosevelt, who said, "I do not believe in war, but
the other fellow does not believe as I do?"
is also true that "All Grand Jurisdictions of Freemasonry in the world
take it as their duty to communicate with each other and to recognize
But suppose one or more Grand Jurisdictions does not so think? The
either is helpless, is it not? I am sure that the spirit of Americanism
take, and no doubt has taken, steps to be in fraternal relationship
with all Grand
Jurisdictions throughout the world. Here is where the great "slogan" of
"Brotherly Love" comes in on the part of our great American
Brotherly love for all mankind is the basic principle upon which
is founded. BUT suppose our brotherly love is not acceptable? Does that
Freemasonry here in America? There is no doubt that Scottish Rite
Masonry of Michigan
and the United States desires fraternal relationship the world over.
Love" to all mankind does not entitle us to visitation in other
where we have no fraternal correspondence. We may have charity for our
but he may refuse our admission to his household. . . .
Sov. Cons., Valley of Detroit.
Lodge of New York appears to be in fraternal correspondence with most
of the European
Grand bodies with the exception of those in Latin countries and
and Sweden. Consequently it would seem that Bro. Peterson's informant
was in error
on this point.
* * *
The Knights of
Malta and the Order of St. John
to the article in the December issue of THE BUILDER about the Knights
I am a member of the Knights of Malta, as well as a member of the
Research Society, and I thank you for the space you have given in THE
information about the Knights of Malta. However, I will say that I have
anyone addressed as His Eminence, which is the first question asked.
The next question
raised is to the proper title of address of the members in the United
only one I have ever known given is Sir Knight Companions for the
members, and Sir
Knight Commander and so on for the officers.
officers are addressed as Grand Sir Knight. I enclose an application
has some history of the Order on it, any of which you are welcome to
well as anything in this letter. Any further information that I can
give you will
be glad to do so.
R. P. Myers, Pennsylvania.
has misunderstood the subject of Bro. Bennett's questions. The further
that immediately follows will show that the latter has found the answer
himself, at least in part.
historical notes on the form sent by Bro. Myers it is claimed that the
of the Order is the sole legitimate existing "Language" and that the
Order of the Knights of Malta was instituted by the Scottish Branch of
"Language." The claim may be based on facts, but we would warn our
that it would hardly be safe to accept it without satisfactory
evidence. The American
Order even if legitimately descended has apparently been affected by
Order of Knights of Malta as it has practically the same officers, with
the same functions. The existing branches of the Order of St. John,
and Protestant both, do not have these officers and have nothing like a
of initiation. Bro. Bennett says in his letter that:
of Malta, known officially as "Knights of the Order of the Hospital of
John of Jerusalem," is the oldest military order in Europe. It was
is governed by what is known as a Grand Master. It consists of seven
of which are in Europe and one in the United States. The American
chapter was recently
established in New York City with ten charter members. Cardinal Hays,
of New York, is the head of the chapter.
stated that the American chapter is the first one to be established in
are two Protestant branches of the Sovereign Order of Malta, one in
one in Germany. None can become members in Europe of any of the
branches of this
Order except nobles of long and high degree. It is the most exclusive,
and the most
important military order in the world. The doors of the oldest and
highest of the
European nobility open as if by magic to all members of the Knights of
a degree known as the Knight of Malta is conferred in a Commandery of
of the Roman Catholic branch of the Knights of Malta is to raise funds
uses. The Great War has caused such great changes in Europe, especially
old nobility, that the Grand Master of the Order, with the sanction of
of Rome and his advisers (probably at their suggestion), thought it
establish a chapter in the United States, to elect to it American
so as to obtain funds for charitable purposes, and thus making them
of the old European nobility.
letter has been received from Bro. Bennett with additional information
the advertising the Order of St. John seems to be obtaining recently.
of the Order of Malta, or reference to it, is lately being made in many
It is surprising how widespread this is, it almost reaches the plane of
I took up the December National Geographic Magazine, and in the leading
"Pageant of Jerusalem," was the following:
a car, we rode down the Bethlehem road toward the citadel. On the
right, high above
the Opthalmic hospital, flies the flag of the Venerable Order of the
St. John of Jerusalem. [Also known as the Knights of Rhodes and the
Knights of Malta.]
Eight hundred years ago noble knights and occasionally fair ladies set
England, France, Germany, Austria and other parts of Europe to wrest
the Holy Land
from the Saracens, and under the flag of the Knights played a great
part in the
history of the city.
the Grand Priory in the British Realm is living up both to the
traditions and motives
of the Order: Pro Fide (for the Faith) and Pro Utilitate Hominum (for
of Man). It maintains the eye hospital to which people come from all
parts of Palestine,
Transjordiana, Syria and even Irak."
* * *
Masonic Club, Hawaii
from a small group of Masons, isolated in the midst of the Pacific
Ocean, is exceedingly
interesting. It could be wished that brethren nearer home would make as
of their opportunities to make an advance in Masonry.
hours "as the ship flies," but seven days by steamer from San
in the vast waters of the Pacific, are situated the Hawaiian Islands.
In this group
of Islands is the Island of Oahu, and as a possession of the United
Glory flies on the tropical breezes. Following this beautiful flag, as
of Master Masons do, there is a group of Flying Hirams stationed on a
called Luke Field in the heart of Pearl Harbor.
brothers, isolated from the larger portion of Oahu Island, dwell in
unity as Master
Masons and have formed a club known as the "Luke Field Masonic Club."
They meet once monthly at a dinner and discuss subjects of interest and
good fellowship of their brethren.
membership numbers sixty or more members, and enjoys the prestige of
having as a
member the Past Commander, Major P. E. Von Nostrand, 32d, and Post
Leon E. Sharon, 32d.
this remote district this brotherly companionship out of military
be appreciated by all. The Editor's articles in THE BUILDER have
served, on several
occasions, as excellent subjects for discussion and general comment.
officers of the club are:
Bro. O.R. Kelsey; Vice-Presidents, Bro. Boyd Ertinne and Bro. Alfred
the Secretary and Treasurer is the present writer.
Wallace H. Williams.
* * *
And Sigma Chi
Bro. G. N.
Black did not find the reply to his letter by E. E. T. particularly
helpful as he
was already aware of the facts stated therein. He still thinks that
there may have
been some connection between the members or some of them, of the Danish
kors (Holy Cross) in the Island of St. Croix and the founders of the
Sigma Chi Fraternity,
and he would like to get into communication with any members of the
latter who are
interested in seeking for its origins. This Danish lodge was instituted
in or about
the year 1775, and its history is quite fully treated in a paper by
Bro. Rasmussen in A. Q. C.,
with Robert Burns
Mar46 / auth. Marshall James. - Edinburgh : Peter Brown, 1846. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 174. - 6.8 MB.
Also Sprach Zarathustra
Nie93 / auth. Nietzsche Friederich. - Leipzig : C G Nauman, 1893. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 513. - German - 64.8 MB.
Buc01 / auth. Bucke Richard M. - [s.l.] : E P Dutton
(sacred_texts.com), 1901. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 321. - 9.5 MB.
Le Livre du Compagnonage Vol 1
Per41 / auth. Perdiguier Agricol. - Paris : Pawuerre Editeurs, 1841. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 458. - French - 20.9 MB.
Morals and Dogma
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston : Supreme Council AASR, 1871. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 895. - Formatted & Indexed by rhm - 7.6 MB.
Real History of the Rosicrucians
Wai87 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : George Redway, 1887. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 456. - 18.1 MB.
Sonnets of Buonarroti and
Sym78 / auth. Symonds John A. - London : Smith, Elder, & Co,
1878. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 212. - 2.9 MB.
The Doctrine and Literature of
Wai02 / auth. Waite Arthur E. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
Company, 1902. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 528. - 30.2 MB.
The Occult Sciences
Wai91 / auth. Waite Arthur E. - London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner
& Co Ltd, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 297. - 13.1 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 1
Wai11 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
1 : 2 : p. 474. - 19.1 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 2
Wai111 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p. 478. - 19.6 MB.
Thus Spake Zarathustra
Nie13 / auth. Nietzsche
Friederich / ed. Manis Jim / trans. Common Thomas. - Hazleton : PSU Hazleton, 2013.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 341. - 1.0 MB.
Lyt88 / auth. Lytton Edward B. - London : George Routledge and Sons,
1888. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 352. - 14.9 MB.