Masonic Research Society
Charity in America
Bro. E. E. Thiemeyer,
IT is almost
immediately apparent that there are difficulties in the way of any
attempt to compare
English Masonic charitable activities with American. If we should
endeavor to analyze
the latter in the manner adopted by Bro. Gilbert W. Daynes in his
article on Masonic
Charity in England, we would be confronted with the task of writing not
but a book, and a sizable volume as well. In treating the English side
of the question
there is only one Grand Lodge to be considered, but in this country
there are forty-nine
jurisdictions which would require consideration. There are wide
variations in the
amounts expended for charity by the various American Grand Lodges which
attempt at generalization almost impossible. It is necessary,
therefore, that certain
things be taken for granted, and that other matters receive no mention
The purpose of this article is not so much to show what we are doing as
some light upon what we are not doing.
So far as
existing American Masonic charities are concerned they may be grouped
or four heads. By far the most important is the Masonic Home ‒ we are
in the others. Almost every jurisdiction in this country maintains some
an institution for the care of the aged and the orphans. These homes
to fill the same need as the English institutions, but whether or not
they do so
is a matter of considerable doubt. There is not much that can be done
who are approaching the end of their span of life. Their requirements
are, in most
cases, limited. The providing of a comfortable and congenial home, with
for recreation and amusement, is about all that can be offered. It
seems that the
American Mason is as capable of providing this need as is his E1nglish
Capability is not really the criterion, we are as capable of doing
anything in the
way of charity as efficiently and effectively as the Masons of England,
question is, Do we measure up to our capabilities? There is some
question on that
score even in the case of our homes for the aged. It is not necessary
to enter into
that phase of the matter at this time. For the present it may be
granted that our
Masonic Homes, so far as this function is concerned, are equal to those
of the Grand
Lodge of England.
When it comes
to the orphans an entirely different problem confronts us. There is an
to those of our brotherhood to see that their children are fitted to
members of society. The ramifications of that problem are too numerous
analysis. The American Masonic Homes depend largely upon the public
for the education of their charges. This is somewhat different from the
prevailing in the Royal Masonic Institution for Boys, and the similar
girls. These homes are really boarding schools. The children are given
a good education,
even to training in a trade or profession if the student shows ability
particular line. So far as the writer has been able to learn, there is
the kind in American Masonry. It is certainly true that an education is
but it is only an education of sorts. Usually it ends with high school,
and in some
cases a course in a business college finishes the schooling. This is
first class equipment for the struggle for existence which is to
follow. The reason
for this practice is not far to seek. There are too many organizations,
say, or the funds are lacking. Perhaps both of these are true, but one
of the story of why a man could not buy an automobile. He had thirty
to his own confession. The first one was that he did not have the
money, and the
other twenty-nine made no difference.
to the latest proceedings published by two American Grand Lodges, one
of them considered
among the three wealthiest jurisdictions, and the other just about
average on this
score, the total income for Masonic charities, meaning by this, homes
funds, was approximately $650,000. The total membership of these two
is approximately 320,000. In other words, these two jurisdictions
over 10 per cent of the total membership of the Craft in America, and
are above the average in wealth, they may be fairly taken as a
criterion for the
rest of the Masonic Fraternity in America. In order to make the
estimate as favorable
as possible we will take the expenditure of $650,000 as 10 per cent of
spent by all jurisdictions, and adopt the usual estimate of the number
in this country, namely 3,000,000. We then have the interesting fact
Masons spent a total of six and one-half million dollars for organized
an average expenditure of $2.17 per member.
Let us make
a comparison with the English figures. According to Bro. Daynes, the
Masonic Institutions, for Boys, for Girls, and the Benevolent
Institution, had an
income last year of $1,120,000 in round numbers. The United Grand Lodge
has an approximate total of 250,000 members. We thus arrive at an
among the English Masons of almost $4.50 per member. Remember this
fact, it is important,
THE ENGLISH MASON SPENT MORE THAN TWO AND ONE-HALF TIMES AS MUCH FOR
OF THEIR HOMES AS THE AMERICAN BROTHER SPENT IN ALL ORGANIZED GRAND
Are you proud of that?
When we take
all English Masonic charity into consideration the figures are even
The total revenue of the English charities during the last year was
$1,450,000, an average of almost $6.00 per member. At the present time
we are, not
interested in the other funds, but there is food for thought in the
mere fact that
there are such things as the English Benevolent Fund in existence.
of American Masonic Homes in comparison with those of England would,
more interesting if it were interpreted in another way. A country with
as many Masons as the Grand Lodge of England is spending, in caring for
and orphans, approximately four times as much money. There is one other
feature that has thus far been left out of consideration entirely. The
Homes are not supported by per capita taxes automatically deducted from
dues of the members. The funds are acquired chiefly by subscription,
and apart from
any dues paid by the members to their lodges.
of what individual lodges do for their distressed brethren or their
been left out of consideration in both English and American instances.
has confined itself wholly to organized Grand Lodge charity.
In view of
these facts it seems apparent that it is time for an awakening in the
A question may be asked in conclusion: Is American Masonry spending for
of massive temples and costly edifices money that should be spent for
doing this are we not listening to our ritual exhortations to practice
misinterpreting them so that in fact we preach charity and practice
"Understandest Thou What Thou Readest?"
Bro. C. Gordon
two great text books in Freemasonry. They were commended to your
in your Masonic career. Without some knowledge of them you can never
in our art, nor can you share largely in our mysteries. They are the
Books of Nature
and of Revelation.
Book of Nature we may learn much about the character of our Supreme
of a wise and mighty plan present themselves to the enquiring mind. We
the Great Spirit who was the Builder was the Designer as well. The
beauty of the
design bears witness to the spirit of an artist.
immensity of space we learn of His infinite greatness. From the
of natural forces; the sun's power to hold all the innumerable worlds
the irresistible power of the tides; the terrible power of the
such as these ye learn how omnipotent is their Author. From the certain
of day and night, summer and winter; from the regular return of the
planets in their
courses, we learn how orderly is the mind of the Great Designer. From
of the sunset, and the wonder of the snowflake, and the sigh of the
we know that in Him wisdom and strength are combined with beauty. "The
look and the sea's voice and the earth's wonderful breath" all bear the
of the Divine Artist.
of Nature is beyond our limited comprehension. Mankind has proceeded
but a little
way in an attempt to read it. After all the centuries we are still like
just beginning to learn the art of reading. But our efforts receive
Before the dawn of history men in Chaldea and Egypt had begun to study
At last the telescope was invented and turned toward the sky. "I have
farther into space than any other man," said Herschel. "I have seen
so far away that the light from them can only reach the earth after a
of section of Nature's Book was opened for us by the invention of the
Louis Pasteur and others, who were still at work when we were born,
us the infinitely small. In the days of the Hebrew psalmists it was
grand experience, rare no doubt to the Jew of that day, to "go down to
sea in ships and see the works of the Lord and His wonders in the
we live to see even greater wonders in a single drop of water.
in the modern sense, is an entirely new science. The discovery of
radium by Curie
is only the better known of many equally wonderful that have been made
in our lifetime.
Elements and forces entirely new to us must now be taken account of in
of Nature's witness to her Creator, and a restatement of natural
never exhaust the treasures of the Book of Nature. Our little day ends
have fairly begun the task. The multiplicity of interests that have
the division of labor distracts our attention.
Volume Of The
also to be studied the Book of Revelation. "As a Mason, you are to
volume of the Sacred Law as the great Light in your profession." The
Nature shows us God portrayed in the inanimate part of the universe. In
of Revelation we see Him reflected in the mind of man. But the image is
It changes according to the ability of mankind to reflect it. In the
words of Robert
Browning, it "decomposes but to recompose again."
In the early
ages of history the almighty nature of the Deity was uppermost in man's
is realized then as a terrible person who must be satisfied and
costly sacrifice. In that stage of revelation the human attitude to the
is that of fear.
in the course of time the realization that the infinite might of the
controlled according to a purpose. He is not subject to whims nor
He does not act from caprice nor from spite. His purpose is right and
is that of righteousness. With this development in man's idea of God
the problem how to explain what appears to be the unfair treatment
afforded to many
whose lives are apparently exemplary. The inscrutable mystery of pain
to taunt us. But notwithstanding difficulties insuperable men came to
God is altogether upright and holy.
At last the
ideas of might and holiness are supplemented by a discovery of His
mercy. To speak of the dawning consciousness as a discovery is only to
look at the
development from man's side. If you prefer to say that God revealed
about Himself, you imply that the human mind had become sufficiently
receive them. The Divine Master does not pass His apprentices to a
until they have made themselves fit to receive it. The mystery of the
could not have been communicated to those who had not yet been
initiated into the
knowledge of His righteousness. "To him that hath shall be given," for
he alone has the ability to receive.
tenderness is meant His sympathy with and provision for the weak and
His pity for the wayward and the oppressed. The Book of Revelation
proceeds to record
that in the reign of Caesar Augustus came One who penetrated more
deeply into the
mysteries than any before and who assures us that "God is Love."
mind had all through the ages been qualifying itself to perceive new
the Divine countenance. The human character had been coming gradually
to such a
state that it could more adequately receive an impression of the
is ever trying to place itself in proper position to receive an ever
of the Most High. To attain to that proper position is man's part of
the great process.
Always in the mind of the Master there is the desire to enlighten the
Always in the suppliant there has been something to hinder complete
knows how often by a Hand unseen the human race has been guided along
the path of
progress? Achievement is no less human because it has been inspired
from on high.
So we have,
my brothers, these two great Books of Nature and of Revelation. They
but in a tremendously grander style, just what we have tried to express
and psalms and music and ceremonial, viz., the greatness and the
holiness and the
loving-kindness of that Great Spirit in Whom we "live and move and have
being." Freemasonry requires of us a due attention to them both.
is sufficient for proficiency in our art. It may be (let us say it
neither is yet complete. God, we may be sure, has not yet exhausted His
The Great Designer has plans (is it not likely?) that are not yet
outlined on His
Trestle Board. Why should we suppose that He has ceased to plan, and to
and to adorn? Why should we suppose that we have received already all
that He has
to reveal? Because the first degree is wonderful may not the next be
still? This little taste of life has afforded its achievements, its
satisfactions. Here in the midst of numerous hindrances, with a desire
for the better
only faintly experienced, we have never the less enjoyed at least a
glimpse of the
Light Supernal. But awaiting our fitness to appreciate them are all the
that can originate in the loving mind of an Infinite Parent.
On a certain
occasion an officer of a royal household was returning from a
pilgrimage to the
Temple, and "sitting in his chariot he read Esaias the Prophet." There
approached him one who courteously enquired, "Understandest thou what
readest?" His reply was that which comes to your lips as you attempt
great text books in Freemasonry, "How can I except someone should guide
The bewilderment which overwhelms us as our eyes are opened to the
Light, our inability
to comprehend the Heavenly Wisdom, our fear of misinterpreting what
so greatly, these compel one to ask that "someone should guide me."
my brothers, is never lacking. Along a path unknown, led by a Hand
proceeds on its way toward perfection. For the Architect is Himself the
the Author is Himself the Interpreter, God is Himself our Guide.
a curious habit of using tabu names for things of religious import, and
as true of the uncultured savage as of civilized men; or perhaps the
be the other way about, it is as characteristic of ourselves as it is
man. A few samples will suffice to show that this is true. A priest
seems much more
exalted than an elder, which is all the term properly means, and more
so is a bishop
than the simple overseer who was chiefly charged with the finances,
such as they
were, of the early Church. We speak of the font, which is but a spring
and of the chalice when we mean a cup. But perhaps these terms are too
to count. Then what of the Scriptures, which are merely writings, or
which is simply the books?
so universal must surely have an equally comprehensive source in human
things that are sacred or holy, that mean most to us in our inner
lives, are not
easily or lightly spoken of; and as language changes (as every living
constantly doing) conservatism clings to old names for holy things,
till at last
they have become obsolete and we have forgotten practically what they
This instinctive tendency is in itself a wholesome one, but it may
easily lead to
barren formalism, to a complete divorce of religion from common things,
separation of those higher conceptions and ideals that alone make our
and its drudgery and petty interests ultimately worthwhile.
It is in
this way that at the end of the year we celebrate the festival of the
scarcely realizing that we are using a word borrowed from another
means simply "the birth;" and birth is very much a matter of common
‒ a matter of stable and byre, and hovel and slum, as well as of the
the palatial modern hospital equipped with all the resources science
at our disposal. Birth is a thing that concerns us all, as much as meat
and raiment, and houses and lands and cold cash, and sleep and death.
speak figurative]y of the birth of events or ideas, or literally of
of souls clothed in flesh and blood, birth implies ever the relation of
offspring, mother and babe.
and endings ‒ that is for the individual. Endings and beginnings ‒ so
for life as
a whole, which goes on from generation to generation. Are the two
separate, or are
they but different points of view? Does the individual begin absolutely
and end finally as such in death? We do not know, at least not as we
know that two
and one make three, or that day comes with the rising of the sun.
be an ultimate essential difference between knowledge and belief is a
philosophy, but practically there is a plain distinction. We believe
perhaps ‒ or
perhaps not ‒ but we do not know. Now, it seems, we may not know ‒ but
we can believe.
would seem, it has ever been. Prehistoric man buried his dead with food
weapons and ornaments. Why? There is no record to tell us what he
thought or believed,
but what he did tells us silently that, perhaps, in some dim fashion he
a new beginning after the end ‒ a beginning anew. Mors janua vitae,
the gate of life," death is birth into new life. And this was not only
at for man himself, but it was seen to be true also of nature; and,
correspondences and analogies, the guess grew into belief. To say the
first a guess is to say nothing of its truth and validity. All
discovery is born
of guesswork, surmise is confirmed by evidence, conjecture leads to
and so to knowledge, even of the most rigidly scientific type. Man
then believed; perhaps in this case without sufficient proof, that is a
must determine for himself, but at least it seems as if it were in some
In the midst
of winter, when the warm pleasant days were gone like a dream, and the
further and further to the south, and the nights grew longer and
longer, it might
well seem that the end had come, the end of all things, the winter to
by no springtime, the night never to be dispersed by another dawn. How
know? Even though summer they are dead, and of the dead it is not
necessary to had
followed winter before within his memory and that speak evil. They were
the world against which of his fathers, was that proof that it would
both Jew and Christian bore testimony and they had to do? It is not
and he did not know. He fought with any weapon at hand. But looked at
in what wonder
if he resorted to magic to renew the life the perspective of history,
but stages ‒ stages that was necessary to his life, to bring it again
to a new birth?
And when the days did again begin to lengthen, visibly and palpably,
and the sun
to rise higher every day, it was little wonder that here was set the
the new year.
and climates differ. In eastern lands and in the south, the seasons are
same as we know. It is the coming of the rain that is so ardently
causes the earth to blossom and become fruitful. In the north it is the
the sun. Christmas, the birthday of the Lord, is a western feast, that
The heathen Angles and Saxons of Britain, so the Venerable Bede tells
us, kept the
feast and called it modra niht, the night of the mothers.
How strange ‒ and yet is it? We are reminded how all over the ancient
the pantheon of the gods of Olympus, ranged in their ordered hierarchy,
the worship of the nameless Mothers. We hear of them in scattered
stray inscriptions, but no contemporary record has revealed the mystery
of the rites
performed in their honor. In villages and obscure cities they were
here and there they emerged into the light of day, and stood veiled and
with the other deities. Demeter at Eleusis, and Bona Dea, the good
goddess, at Rome.
But of their rites none ventured openly to speak. In Asia was the
worshipped in caves and on rocky peaks ‒ she was one and many, here
Artemis of the Ephesians, many breasted and nurse of all life. Astarte,
Ashtoreth, as her name appears in the Old Testament, the abomination of
What are such as these to us? Once they had living and powerful cults.
over the crude naiveté of primitive thought into a high culture they
their orgiastic rites, rather incitements to evil than expressions of
human needs. The Prophets and the Apostolic fathers denounced them
vehemently. But now they are dead, and of the dead it is not necessary
evil. They were part of the world against which both Jew and Christian
and they had to be fought with any weapon at hand. But looked at in the
of history, they were but stages – stages from which some were already
Let us remember that any cult may deteriorate and decay, even the
highest, and that
other forms of the worship of the mothers were refined and
spiritualized apart from
Christianity. The figures of Isis suckling the infant Horus, and
Krishna in the
arms of Devadetta. Not wholly spiritualized indeed, nor in the minds of
But it is not fair to judge possibility and trend by the conservatism
whether in India or Egypt or modern Europe, whether of heathen cult or
church was not interested in such things as anniversaries. The first
day of the
week commemorated the Resurrection; and the Passover in its Christian
the feast of Easter. Even in the second century and later the
remembrance of the
Birth was not only deprecated but opposed. It was of no importance; the
‒ the showing forth, the revealing or exhibition ‒ of Jesus as the
Christ to Jew
and to Gentile in the persons of the shepherds and the wise men from
the East and
to the multitude at Jordan where John baptized ‒ this first became a
day of observance.
The objection against the remembrance. Of the Nativity was that the
the Emperor, who was also a god, were celebrated as a religious
too, in the background lay an unexpressed fear of the parallel between
veiled Mothers of mountain crag and rocky cleft, of the wild maenads
(who were matrons,
not maids) and that gentle mother who brought forth her first born in
at Bethlehem, and laid Him in a manger "because there was no room for
in the inn."
and endings; endings and beginnings. The old Mothers died; they faded
figures of folk-tale and folk- observance, hags, witches, vampires, and
was taken by Mary, the mother of the Lord according to the flesh. Did
Or have they survived in a new and more spiritual avatar? Or did the
from them part and place, as the younger generation ever does from the
they were figures of myth and mysterious ritual, while Mary was a young
Judah, of the lineage of King David, who lived in the time of the
makes no difference; many a real person has become a figure of
tradition and myth.
Perhaps in some degree a mythology grows up about every human being who
But in this case the parallels between the child born to be savior, and
and His mother, and those earlier mothers and their sons that men had
and externalized from their needs and yearnings and their ideals and
too deep and too far- reaching to be denied, and little by little the
the old came back, more or less changed and disguised, and attached
the central figures of the new faith.
It is surprising
when we come to examine closely how little we are definitely told in
Gospels on the subject when compared with the wealth of detail supplied
St. Matthew tells us of the doubts of Joseph and how they were resolved
by an angel
who appeared to him in a dream. He also tells of the magi who had seen
a star and
had come from the east to worship the new-born king. St Luke relates
how the annunciation
was made to the Virgin Mary, and how it was that she and her husband
came to Bethlehem
‒ because of a census ordered by the Roman government. And how the
night of the
birth other angels told it to certain shepherds. Meagre material, it
to serve as foundation for the superstructure erected upon it. The
of the Birth are from the Catacombs; they are not many. Here the mother
seated, with one, two or more figures, representing the magi, offering
is clothed as a Roman matron, while the men are in Phrygian dress.
Phrygia was hardly
"the East" from Palestine, but it was far east of Italy, and so it
In the fresco, a reproduction of which is shown in Fig. 6, there are
gifts. In another fourth century painting, from a tomb, there are four
disposed, two on each side of the seated mother. St. Luke says nothing
of the number
of wise men who followed the star, but he mentioned the three gifts
which very early
took on symbolical import, gold, frankincense and myrrh, and soon it
was taken for
granted that they were three who bore them. It was supposed also that
in their own
lands they were kings; and then the symbolism was carried further and
supposed to be of different racial stocks to represent the better all
languages, and of different ages to represent all states and stages of
In a fifth century relief at Ravenna they have thus become three, but
they are still
all young and in Phrygian cap, cloak and trousers.
relief, now in the Lateran Museum (Fig. 2), which is probably fourth
are shown as three, but other details have appeared. The mother is
seated, the swaddled
babe, absurdly disproportionate in size, lies in the manger under a low
before which stand an ox and an ass. Between the crib and the mother is
man with a crooked staff who is probably one of the shepherds. Behind
"easterners" is an elephantine camel as a further label to designate
they are and whence they came. Thus early did the two main types of
of the mother and the child appear. Perhaps one of the earliest of the
crib is a
fresco from a tomb in the cemetery of San Sebastiano. It is very crude,
the babe alone with the heads of an ox and an ass seen over it. In a
a sarcophagus of about the year 340, the babe lies on what seems to be
a low mound
(perhaps a pile of hay!), by it is a young man with a curved rod in his
who seems to beckon others who approach. Then come the ox and the ass,
the first of what may have been several shepherds. The first only
remains, and the
hands of another behind him holding a branch of laurel. The mother does
in either of these, and in this they are almost, if not quite unique.
even here she may have been shown originally in the parts of the work
Renaissance, representations of the circumstances of the Nativity have
been of three
points ‒ the annunciation to the Virgin by the Angel Gabriel ‒ the
vision of Joseph
is rarely if ever treated; the adoration of the shepherds in which the
in a manger, or naked on the ground; and last the homage of the three
which the mother seated holds the child in her arms. Often the stable
has by this
[time] disappeared, or become a palace, and the Virgin is crowned and
royal robes. But the quaint wood-cut by Durer, shows stable, ox and
ass, and the
exotic camels. Here the three kings are of different ages and races,
being a Negro. In Fig. 5 by the same artist is the Nativity. One
worships at a distance from the kneeling mother, while Joseph draws
water from the
well. The buildings are half ruinous and represent such a wayside
hostelry as presumably
might have been found near Nuremburg in his day. But Durer was not
he reproduced the type, even the dilapidated buildings and the pitcher
were traditional details with a long history behind them, perhaps also
growing on the ruined wall. In the beautiful picture by Tintoretto at
in Venice, the mother seated on the hay in a loft above the stalls
where an ox is
lying, lifts the covering from her babe lying beside her to show it to
shepherds and shepherdesses, while the light from the opened heavens
the broken roof, where the beams make three crosses, a dark foreboding
of the future.
In the painting
of da Fabriano, now in Florence (Fig. 3), another conception is seen.
asleep, the ox and the ass are lying down. The mother alone adores the
the distance the angel is awaking the sleeping shepherds. The stable is
here a cave,
and this was another traditional detail.
The ox and
the ass were appropriate enough. The mother laid her babe in a manger
we are told.
A manger implies a stable, a stable implies the animals. But there were
or other meanings. Two generations ago it would not have been necessary
that every passage in the Old Testament that would bear it was given a
interpretation, was supposed to be prophetic. Perhaps it was so, even
is obvious contemporary meaning enough. In Isaiah is that wonderful
in which occurs the verse
also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the
the calf, and the young lion and the fatling together, and a little
But it is
in the first chapter that it is said
The ox knoweth his owner, and
the ass his master's
crib, but Israel doth not know, my people doth not consider.
So it seemed
that even the ox and the ass came to adore the new-born king, while the
building signified the end of the old dispensation, of the stiff-necked
rejected their Lord. But perhaps there was also a dim memory of sacred
with the Mother. Diana of the Ephesians suckled beasts as well as men.
We can never
be sure when a tradition is wholly dead.
Renaissance onwards, artists observed more or less, according as they
fetters of tradition, the unities of time and space in their
the birth. But by the eighth or ninth century a grouping had become
that persisted even to the fourteenth century and later. Of this the
shown in Figs. 1 and 7 are early and late examples. In them the mother
in the center, beyond her is the babe lying in the manger, behind that
the ox and the ass. Above are angels, one of which on the right speaks
to the shepherds,
whose sheep and goats, which again are made symbolic, occupy the lower
part of the group. Below on the left sits Joseph, generally in an
attitude of depression,
and with an expression of doubt and despondency. Under the mother are
who are engaged in washing the new-born babe. All these details
Often enough the star is shown, sometimes the three kings with their
gifts, as in
Fig. 7, where they are still in Phrygian garb. In Fig. 1 this space is
occupied by the annunciation. The dove is shown descending upon the
who listens to the angel. There is another strange feature about this
which no explanation has been given. The figure which by all analogy
should be Joseph
has horns distinctly showing on the head. By itself it might be taken
had been replaced by Moses, who was often thus represented owing to a
text in the Vulgate. The colossal Moses of Michael Angelo is horned.
But here we
have more than horns, from under the shrouding cloak appears a cloven
the doubt that Joseph had felt concerning the chastity of his affianced
made to symbolize the doubt and fear of the Adversary at the birth of
who was to destroy his kingdom? It is hard to say.
of Pisano had any such thought as this it is another indication that
with the growing
feeling for historic unity this traditional aspect of Joseph was felt
to be incongruous
with the rejoicing at the birth. In the later groups of this type his
is changed, and later his attitude also, though for a while he remains
his corner. But he is now made to look at the mother and child with
wonder and reverence
The two nurses
or midwives have no warrant in scripture, though they constantly
appear. Like the
ox and the ass they seem appropriate enough, but it is to be doubted if
a detail was derived merely from its congruity. It is probable that
they are taken
from the Apocryphal gospels, in some of which two midwives are made to
testimony to the virginity of the mother. But the washing of the
by Giovanni with such loving care and truth to life, recalled another
the Epiphany ‒ the baptism at Jordan.
two other details that appeared very early, one of which is well known,
other has hardly ever been noticed, though artist after artist put it
in. The first
is that the stable became a cave. There are strange compromises in
order to combine a rude or ruined building with a rocky cleft or
grotto. But often
the building disappears entirely. Again we are haunted by the parallel
‒ the mountain
mother, Bona Dea, worshipped in the form of a stone ‒ the earth mother
were offered in a pit ‒ heroes whose mothers bore them in caves ‒
Mithra who was
born of a rock, and whose rites were celebrated in caves.
But it is
impossible to think that the cave of the Nativity derived directly and
from this. Undoubtedly it was introduced as a bit of realism, when
the Holy Land became frequent and many knew as a fact that the
birthplace at Bethlehem
was shown in a cave. Was there any genuine tradition of a real fact
here? Had it
been locally handed down from generation to generation? Again it is
determine, all that can be said is that caves are common in Palestine
and that they
have been, and are, frequently used as stables and sheepfolds. Yet on
hand it is precisely in Asia Minor that the Mountain Mother was
supreme, and the
mystic birth in a cave celebrated for unknown ages.
detail is less persistent as it is less prominent; indeed only by
series of such representations does its presence make itself felt; and
that is the
tree. In Fig. 1 it does not appear in the group, but is shown at the
right in the
form of a genealogical or Jesse tree ‒ showing the ancestry of the
Lord. In many
others it is, and probably the artist thought it no more, a natural
adjunct of the
scene. Yet there it is again and again ‒ Durer puts it in. In very
its presence is more obvious because of the work being more crude. In
Fig. 3 is
the sapling against which the sleeping Joseph seems to lean. Fig. 7
seems at first
sight to be exceptional for its period; in other ivory carvings of the
it occurs again and again, but closer inspection shows on the winding
is probably intended for a budding bush or shrub. And finally, in that
relief mentioned above remain still the hands of a figure holding a
here conceived, doubtless, as the sign of victory. But generally the
the tree of life guarded in Paradise and now again made accessible to
else that other tree which legend said grew from seed of its fruit
planted by Adam,
out of which, in the fulfillment of the ages the cross was constructed.
behind all this there is the disturbing memory of the tree in the
mother cult. The
Asherah, and the green trees on the mountain tops spoken of in
the pine tree of Attys ‒ but what need to go further. Again the
nothing, only it sometimes causes wonder whether true prophecy was
found only in
the pages of Holy Writ.
that is so briefly and allusively told in the Gospel clothes itself
images of our own experience. Tell it to a child and it thinks at once
of such things
as it has seen ‒ a barn behind the house, with horse or cow stalls. And
in the experience
of men at large traditional memory has so predominant a place, that the
of old legends could not but creep in. Barred out consciously at the
door they came
in unobserved by cracks and crevices. The evangelists were interested
the life and death of the Lord; at first, writing as they were for
those who even
if they had not seen him with their own eyes may have had converse with
had, the birth was taken for granted. But later came those who could
that the God- head would have stooped to the material world, who held
that His body
must have been an illusion, an appearance, or at least composed of some
more spiritual substance, and that He appeared suddenly, without
parentage or human
relationship; and then it became necessary to insist that He came into
as every man. As He Himself said, men seek for signs and wonders, and
none are vouchsafed.
Why should they be? The miracles lie in the facts, the common things,
of daily life.
Throughout the ages mankind had looked for a child to be born ‒ a child
grow in strength and wisdom, and go forward and do the things that his
not been able to do. And in the fullness of time the child was born,
who was to
be Savior, the Christ, whose name was to be Wonderful, the Prince of
through the centuries the story has been repeated, and set forth in
sculpture, as the artist was able. Hieroglyphics, picture writing, all
of it, on
different levels. Mnemonics for each to clothe from his own memories.
raising herself on her couch to look at the wonderful baby in its
still all her own; or adoring in the stillness of the night while
Common events in every life, repeated a thousand times every day in
palace and hovel,
yet ever new and miraculous, could we but understand.
an initiation, a bringing to light, a revelation of hidden mysteries.
symbolize it, according to the cultural level either crudely and with
or obscurely and with refined allusions. To enter upon any new path is
in a sense
a new birth, to take new responsibilities, to come into new
relationships, to learn
new truths, to enter upon mysteries. But to be reborn or twice born
death. Here again is a circle, the turning wheel of life ‒ or of the
and birth ‒ birth and death. Wherever we make a beginning one follows
on after the
other, and it matters little where we begin, at least so far as the
concerned. Out of darkness into light. Out of the light of day into the
of the tomb and thence to be reborn to new life. There is initiation
Formally and ritually into the knowledge of formal mysteries; really
so far as we may ‒ so far as we earnestly seek. The Christian is
baptized into the
Way, the washing of water symbolically represents the cleansing from
sin, the entering
on a new life, a new search. It is an initiation ritually, it may be
of one in truth and reality. Initiation is a beginning, in ire, to go,
in. So the Latin conceived it; but to the Greek it was the end, telos,
the consummation, perfection; thus St. Paul wrote of those who were
And he set forth a yet deeper symbolism, that baptism was a ritual
with the Lord, in which the old was left behind, and a new creature
born. But he,
like all teachers and prophets, was concerned with the reality and not
So the shepherds
watching their flocks by night saw the heavens opened and the glory of
heard the angelic choir singing ‒ "Peace on earth, good-will towards
Or as the Vulgate has it, "Peace on earth to men of good-will." To them
comes that peace that passeth understanding, that the world does not
give nor can
it destroy. But other versions have another reading. Peace on earth,
mankind ‒ contentment ‒ eudokia ‒ satisfaction, fulfillment ‒ because a
been born and was lying in a manger. And they rose up and came with
haste and found
Mary, the mother and her child, he that was to come, the Desire of all
The Essenes in Masonic Literature
IN the second
volume of THE BUILDER it was stated, in an answer to a question
regarding this mysterious
sect, that Da Costa was the first (in his sketch of a history of the
mysterious Dionysian Architects [Lib 1820]) to trace the genealogy of
through the Essenes. This is yet another instance to prove how
difficult it is to
discover when a given opinion first arose, and the danger of making
in such cases. Da Costa wrote in the first decade of the nineteenth
first mention of the Essenes in connection with Masonry that the
has been able to find (and it is highly improbable that there will be
much earlier discovered) is in 1730. It is to be found in that rare and
work, A Defence of Masonry, published anonymously in December of the
It has since been proved that the author was Martin Clare, who was
Junior G. W.
in 1735, and who, owing to a careless and misleading utterance of
has been confidently supposed by later writer to have been an early
with the ritual.
of Masonry is obviously written by a man of considerable learning, and
one who was
a forerunner of all the school of students who have sought to explain
of the Craft by references to religious and other customs gathered
from every possible source. Unfortunately he was not an accurate
scholar by any
means, and it seems very probable that he may be ultimately responsible
for a number
of statements which have been repeated time after time but which have
in fact. One example is the account given of the death of Hipparchus
It is not directly connected with our subject, but Josephus (one of our
authorities) describes the Essenes as being like the Pythagoreans; a
however, that is only to be taken as a descriptive analogy suited to
the Roman public
for which he wrote, and not as implying that he thought, or intended to
any connection existed between them. The passage here referred to in
runs as follows:
… there was a false brother,
of this sect [the Pythagoreans], who, out of Spleen and Disappointment
the Bond of his Oath, and committed the secrets of the society to
writing, in order
to bring the Doctrine into contempt. He was immediately expelled [from]
as a Person most infamous and abandoned, as one dead to all Sense of
Goodness; and the Pythagoreans, according to their custom, made a tomb
for him as
if he had been actually dead. The Shame and Disgrace that justly
attended this Violation
of his Oath threw the poor Wretch into a Fit of Madness and Despair so
that he cut
his Throat and perished by his own Hands, and (which surprised me to
find) his memory
was so abhorred after Death, that his Body lay upon the Shore of the
Island of Samos
and had no other burial than in the sands of the sea (1).
If this surprised
the author, it certainly surprises us still more when we find that the
he gives, Book V of the Stiomateis of Clement of Alexandria, says no
more than the
following, and this merely as a casual illustration to the subject he
has in hand:
say that Hipparchus the Pythagorean being accused of writing the
of Pythagoras in plain terms was expelled from the school, a pillar
for him as though for one dead....
in brackets do not appear in the original Greek, but are understood
from what has
immediately preceded this sentence (2).
It is hard,
however, to think that the author of the Defence deliberately
fabricated the additional
details. He cites also Iamblichus and Porphyry, both of whom wrote
lives of Pythagoras.
The latter, unfortunately, has not been accessible, so that it has been
to see if anything to the point is to be found in it. Iamblichus,
say something of a certain Hipparchus, it was not an uncommon name.
This is in a
rather lengthy rebuke or exhortation addressed to him by one Lysis,
lt is reported that you
philosophize to everyone
you may happen to meet, and publicly, which Pythagoras did not think
fit to do.
And these things indeed, O Hipparchus, you learnt with diligent
assiduity, but you
have not preserved them … [from the vulgar or common herd presumably].
you will abandon these [practices] I shall rejoice; but if not you will
in my opinion …
of the speech has nothing more to the point but merely goes on to give
for not teaching the esoteric parts of philosophy without strict
proving of character beforehand, and Hipparchus is not again mentioned
Nevertheless the beginning certainly does sound like an official
a veiled threat of condign punishment. In another place Iamblichus
tells us that
any disciple or student who failed to "make his grade," or who was
unsuitable for other reasons, either intellectual or moral, was loaded
of gold and other wealth from the common treasury and dismissed from
after which a pillar was raised for him as if he were dead, and if they
afterwards they pretended he was a stranger. This form of rejection of
disciple would most likely be used for the expulsion of an offending
Still we have here no suicide, or leaving the body on the seashore. A
on, however, there is a brief remark on a person called Hippasus, who
was said to
have belonged to the school, and "divulged and described the method of
a sphere from twelve pentagons," in consequence of which he perished in
sea, as an impious person, but obtained the renown [i.e. in the profane
having made the discovery.
charitable supposition, and inherently the most probable, too, is that
in the Defence was written without verification of the references, and
different passages had been confused in the author's memory. His
in writing might also excuse some departure from his authorities, if
of that he really intended (as seems certain) to convey a special
meaning to the
initiated. But however legitimate this might be in itself it was
dangerous, as the
event has proved; for unlearned and careless and enthusiastic writers
and recopied it as literal fact. In any case it shows the necessity of
accepting what he says later on about the Essenes.
is all comprised in one paragraph of some length, and as authority for
made the Vita Contemplativa of Philo [see Lib 1922; and Lib 1895] and the Antiquities of the
of Josephus [Lib 2014] are cited. Curiously the most
of the Essenes given by Josephus is not in this work, but in the Wars
of the Jews;
and in the Antiquities he refers to this account as a reason for not in
describing the sect at length; which is another indication that Clare
memory. But the matter in the last part of the paragraph is all taken
and does not deal with the Essenes at all, but with the Therapeutae of
course, it has been often asserted that they were one and the same
with the Essenes, but the fact remains that Philo speaks of the Essenes
in Palestine and the Therapeutae in Egypt, and gives no indication
he regarded them as the same. Besides, the Therapeutae admitted women
to their society
which the Essenes did not, and further, they anointed themselves with
oil in the
usual Oriental manner, while oil was regarded as a defilement by the
therefore seems impossible to suppose any close connection between the
The passage of especial interest in the paragraph under discussion is
the italics are in the original:
But before he was receiv'd as
Member, he was first to bind himself by solemn obligations and
Professions, to do
Justice, to do no Wrong, to keep Faith with all men, to embrace the
Truth, to keep
his Hands clear from Theft and fraudulent Dealing, not to conceal from
any of the Mysteries, nor to communicate any of them to the Profane,
though it should
be to save his life; to deliver nothing but what he received [of these
presumably] and endeavour to preserve the Principle that he professes.
and drink at the same common Table, and the Fraternity that comes from
place are sure to be received there; they meet together in an Assembly,
is laid upon the Part between the chin and the Breast and the Left-hand
straight by their side.
is very specific, and very exciting. Let us follow it up and see what
has been done
with it by later writers. The Defence was reprinted with the second
edition of Anderson's
Constitutions in 1738 [Lib 1738], and thus its contents were
though the original work practically passed out of existence. One
was perpetuated, which definitely proves that the editor, James
Anderson, did not
verify the author's references; nor have we seen that it has been
The author of the Defence cites Josephus' Antiquities, Book VIII,
Chapter 2, for
the account of the Essenes mentioned above. As a matter of fact this
us about the wife of Solomon, his wisdom and riches, and his
treaties with Hiram of Tyre for the building of the Temple, while the
made to the Essenes comes in a much later chapter and, as already
noted, his principal
account of them is in another work altogether. The other authority
given is Philo's
Vita Contemplativa but no specific reference is given (3).
In his Lexicon
of Masonry [Lib 1869] Mackey has the following
statement, under the
Philo, of Alexandria, who in
two books written
expressly on the subject of the Essenes has given a copious account of
and manners, says that when they were listening to the secret
instructions of their
chiefs, they stood with "the right hand on the breast a little below
and the left hand placed along the side." A similar position is
by Macrobius to Venus when deploring the death of Adonis...
He does not,
however, give any reference for this last statement. The first part is
not a literal copy of the passage in the Defence any more than of
Philo. We now
learn, also, that the attitude was one employed by the Essenes, and
assumed by inferiors
when listening to their superior, and that they are standing. Also that
is now laid on the breast, whereas before it was on the part between
and the chin, which one would naturally take to be the neck.
was published in 1855; in the article on the same subject in the later
this passage was deleted for some reason, though otherwise the account
Perhaps in the meantime Mackey had looked up the original! Before
coming to that,
however, we will give another quotation from a well-known English
John Yarker. In his Arcane Schools [Lib 1909] (page 157) he gives us yet
development ‒ he says:
When addressing their Chiefs
they stood with
their right hand below their chin, and the left let down by the side.
are now dignified by a capital letter! But the phrase "let down by the
is peculiar, and reminds us of that in the Defence, "and the Left-hand
down straight by their Side." It is not quite a natural way to describe
attitude in the modern usage of the English tongue, and it looks almost
as if Yarker
had followed Mackey, but with the Defence version in his mind at the
Yarker gives no references at all, but he goes on to say that "a select
of the Essenes were termed Therapeutae," which is simply baseless
hazarded in favor of a theory, though again it is possible he took the
someone else. It is only a step from saying the Therapeutae were the
same as the
Essenes to saying they were a higher degree. Whatever the arguments may
for the hypothesis that the latter were an Egyptian branch of the
from the Hebrews resident in that country, and they are certainly far
to say the least, as we have seen there is no shadow of reason for
a select class or inner circle of the sect. Rather the reverse seeing
It is now
high time to go to the original and see what Philo actually did say. He
the Assembly of the Society, at which, as has been said, women were
though separated by a screen from the men, just as was customary in the
Church at a later time. He says:
On the seventh day the various
members meet for
common worship. They arrange themselves according to age, sitting on
the right hand between the chest and the chin, but the left tucked down
flank. The senior recluse then delivers an address to which all listen
did look this up it is no wonder he so completely dropped his earlier
But then he should have said so and exploded the fairy tale. It would
to know who first adorned the tale by inserting in the account given by
of the Defence, which is accurate enough so far as it goes (though
its omissions) the detail that Philo was describing a posture taken, or
made, while standing? It was not like Mackey to have drawn on his
such a case. So far no earlier version has come to light, but in view
of the difficulty
that dogs every attempt to discover the real origin of any assertion or
of this kind, this is in no way conclusive that Mackey was the culprit;
it is most
probable he copied it from someone else.
instance to show how easy it is to make a slip, no less an authority
Freke Gould, in the first chapter of his Concise History [Lib 1904] (it remains unamended in the
Edition), makes the following statement:
That two members of this
singular sect, on meeting
for the first time, at once recognized each other by means of signs,
and as the
paragraph in which this occurs begins:
The references to the Essenes
by ancient authorities
are brief and unsatisfactory. We learn, however, that, etc.,
natural]y concludes that the points in the summary that follows had
in these brief references of ancient writers. Bro. W. Wynn Westcott in
on the subject before Quatuor Coronati Lodge (5) says that "in a recent
(1915) Gould admitted that he could not give "any original authority
statement." If he had been able to do so it must have been from some
hitherto unknown to students. It was evidently a case of "Homer
the reiterated statement copied by one uncritical writer after another
Essenes would naturally be thought of by Masons seeking to find traces
of the lineage
of their Fraternity was really inevitable. The articles in THE BUILDER
by Prof. Strauss are proof enough, for he built up his hypothesis
of the fact that it had ever been advanced before. If, as he maintains,
name in their own country was Banaim, Builders, he has produced another
one that, so far as we know, Bros. Yarker and Rosenbaum alone among
have touched upon, and Yarker did not develop it at all. He got the
from de Bunsen, who so far as the present writer is aware was not a
Mason. It is
supposed by this last that a tradition passed from the "Egyptian and
Gnostics" into Christianity, and that "it had the doctrine of a
development which transformed them into living stones, hence
or builders, that is of a bodily temple, and therefore they neglected
temple of Jerusalem."
he had in mind the allusions of St. Paul to building, and living
stones, and to
Christ as the "headstone of the corner." The coincidences are indeed
and they have been freely used in framing the rituals of the various
on the three symbolic degrees. But returning to Gould's statement about
where did his idea that they had secret signs for recognition come from?
a sect of the Hebrews at about the time of the beginning of the
Christian era, but
they were more than a sect, for they were organized in an ascetic or
This at least seems quite clear. Also they had apparently a form of
including a baptism and an oath. They wore a white garment, by Masonic
called an apron, but which was probably a loin cloth, and carried a
paddle or hatchet.
This latter was probably very small and easily portable; its use (for
who do not know) is given in the Book of Deuteronomy in Chapter 23,
verse 13, though
there it is described as being part of the spear, the weapon of the
probably an enlargement of the butt. Besides this they had grades; a
imported "figuratively," which is of course taken to mean by allegories
and symbols; and finally they aided and assisted each other, and
were welcomed and greeted as if well known.
of all these points is too attractive an analogy to Freemasonry not to
supporters; and in the manner only too frequently exemplified,
inferences were drawn
and glosses freely inserted in the text, which were then copied as if
it all came
from the original.
Let us now
consider the peculiar attitude or gesture described by the author of A
Masonry; his interest in it is evidently that he supposed it to have
significance (as perhaps it did) and that it might have been used as a
recognition, like the bending of the ankle by which Lucius in the
Golden Ass recognized
the priest of Isis. Add to this the statement of Porphyry that
… though meeting for the first
time, the members
of this sect at once salute each other as intimate friends (6),
and the thing
was done. Nothing more was needed than to put the two together and we
conclusive ‒ to the uncritical ‒ that the Essenes had signs and tokens
same as Freemasons. The trouble is that the second statement quoted
whatever about the means of recognition but is confined solely to the
way in which
stranger members were received. It does not exclude such private means
but neither does it imply them or require them; while if there were
there is no reason whatever to suppose that one of them was the
attitude taken in
the assembly, squatting Oriental fashion, on the ground, the knees
drawn up, the
left arm under the outer garment down by the side, and the right hand
up near the
left shoulder ‒ if anyone doubts the description let him try it by
on the floor with a dressing gown wrapped round cloak wise. Whether a
or not, it is a very natural one.
of all this we cannot dismiss the Essenes entirely, as at least a
subject of interest
to Masonic students. Though it is really impossible to make out any
between them and Freemasonry ‒ an institution indigenous to
so far as anything is certainly known of it ‒ nevertheless Essenic sect
twofold interest of being a fraternity possessing certain mysteries and
native to the country in which Masonic traditions and myths are
centered. The Essenes
come on the stage for a little while and then vanish. It cannot be said
that they existed before we first hear of them, but it would be very
that they had no antecedents. Even if their organization was not much
the record we have, we may yet on socio-psychologic grounds almost
some previous institution on which it had been modelled, and from which
had filtered down more or less directly. To pursue this speculation
the limits of the present article, but it may be recalled that the late
Simpson in a work (7) published nearly thirty years ago, advanced the
that the Book of Jonah was based on the myth or narrative version of an
rite, and collected references that tend to show that such rites may
from early times among the Hebrews. Whatever may be the final judgment
on this hypothesis,
it is at least a very interesting one, and as the book in question has
out of print the subject might well form the basis of some future
it may be pointed out that the final reasons for disbelieving in any
between the Freemasons and the Essenes lies in the very considerations
been taken by the advocates of the theory as pointing to its
probability. The traditions
of the Craft all point to the Holy Land, Jerusalem, the Temple, to
and sacred teachings, while its mythical heroes bear Biblical names. If
were a real inheritance it would be impressive. Unfortunately, the
we can trace the mysteries of Masonry, the poorer they become in this
the richer in elements that belong to ritual survivals of a Western
The conclusion is obvious that the Hebrew element is largely
adventitious, and it
is almost completely demonstrable that by far the greater part of it
has been borrowed
and adapted during the strictly historical period of Freemasonry, or
since 1730. This however can only be dogmatically asserted here, the
be sought in the story of the evolution and development of the Masonic
rituals and their symbolism, whenever that can be written.
- As the Defence
of Masonry is professedly a reply to
Masonry Dissected, the best seller of the day (it had run through four
in the preceding three months) we may suppose that Martin Clare so
framed this passage
as to administer a sound slap to Samuel Prichard, who describes himself
on the title
page of his pamphlet as "late member of a Constituted Lodge." The
story told by Laurence Dermott of the fate of one Tom Tadpole, whom he
to be the author of The Three Distinct Knocks, and the unhappy end of
gentleman that wrote the pamphlet entitled Boaz and Jackin" who "in a
fit of jealousy cut his throat on Thursday, the 8th day of September,
seem to have been actuated by similar motives. These are related in a
note to the
"Address to the Reader" in Ahiman Rezon.
- For the text of
this passage and the translation the
writer is indebted to his friend (and brother) Prof. F.G. Vial. B.D.,
has made an especial study of the works of Clemens Alexandrinus
- The passage
intended is apparently in chapter 3, but
it gives very little information.
Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics [Lib 1908] v.
- A.Q.C., Vol.
28, p. 73. [Lib 1915]
- Gould, History
of Freemasonry, Vol. 1 [Lib 1884], p. 28, note
5 (Yorston Edition).
- Simpson, The
Jonah Legend [Lib 1899]
Joshua Ben Joseph
has already appeared in the "Banner of Israel," but Bro. Strauss
it as an important link in the development of his researches as set
forth in the
two articles on the Essenes which appeared in THE BUILDER for May and
and has obtained the permission of the publishers of the above-
to reproduce it here. It will, we believe, be interesting as it views
from a point of view that is probably unfamiliar to many of our readers.
is assembled in the synagogue at Nazareth. The law, the books of Moses
on the altar. The adult members of the congregation are called up by
to assist according to custom in the reading of the law. Now the name
ben Joseph resounds clear and distinct, and there steps forward a
figure in human
form, clad in the garments of the men of his time.
he look like? What was the outward appearance of that figure which came
at the call of Joshua ben Joseph? Thousands of artists have exercised
trying to conjure up a figure, a face that would correspond to the
the minds of millions of the being which has become their guide, their
hope and refuge and which when on earth answered to the call of Joshua
were pious Jewish people. Mary, his mother, presented herself at the
Temple in Jerusalem
for purification according to the prescribed ceremonies after the birth
of a son;
she presented her son for redemption within the prescribed period. At
the time of
his "bar mizva" ‒ a ceremony scrupulously observed by orthodox Jews in
our own day ‒ the boy is brought to the Temple in Jerusalem. After this
which in a way corresponds to the Christian practice of confirmation, a
boy is recognized
as a member of the congregation; he has a vote, a voice in the
assembly; from now
on he is responsible for his own actions. This fact readily explains
of the Gospels in regard to the parents of Jesus when relating the
of Joshua ben Joseph, the Messiah, or Jesus, the Christ.
spent the years between his twelfth year, the time of his "bar mizva,"
and his thirtieth year, which marked the beginning of his career as
guide of the human race and the Light of the World? Traditional Jewish
him join the Order of the Essenes.
If the knowledge
of the whereabouts of Jesus between his twelfth and thirtieth year were
to the sons of men, it would have been given.
relating the life of Jesus deal mainly with his acts that took place
thirtieth and thirty-third year. In these annals we are presented with
a most graphic
account of the sayings and doings of a most extraordinary being who was
up and down the hills and valleys of Judea, "doing good," healing the
sick, exhorting to righteousness and proclaiming the glad tidings that
of God is at hand, that it has come.
to the question, "Art thou he that should come, or do we look for
he points to the fulfillment of the signs that were to mark his coming.
to the definite question, "Art thou the Messiah?" the answer is, "I
given to the world of the life of Joshua ben Joseph, known the world
over as the
Lord Jesus, or Jesus of Nazareth, give us a very brief account of his
we have four separate records, these present in but a slightly
a few details in the life of the most wonderful being that ever visited
in human form. There are some things in connection with these records
strike a thinking man as strange, very strange even when considered
from the human
of man is selfish; our own personality projects itself often
even against our will, into our thoughts and works. The writer of a
book wants first
of all to impress his personality upon the minds of others. Now, the
attitude do we find in the writer or writers of the Gospels, the
Jesus. In place of self-glorification we find self-depreciation and a
that has no analogy in human history. It matters not whether the
Gospels are the
work of his immediate disciples or the work of their followers.
Disciples or followers
sink completely into the background before a great luminous figure that
and stands today, as the Light of the World.
Joshua ben Joseph must have towered above his contemporaries can be
seen in the
self-related actions of his chosen disciples. How little they could
How crude, how small, was their mental, moral and spiritual capacity
by themselves alongside their Master! The much praised Peter ‒ what a
The sons of Zebedee thinking most of all of their own place in the
no reason to suppose that this self-depreciation was intended, or that
was conscious of any self-depreciation. One aim can be distinctly
that is, to present the Master in as truthful a light, in as graphic a
is not natural, is not human, and must be looked upon, when considered
from a human
standpoint, as a factor in a super-human that is a divine guidance in
of the narratives which we call today the Gospels.
with this, I wish to emphasize the fact that "the things of the Spirit"
are "spiritually discerned." The natural man receiveth them not, is
incapable, unfitted, to grasp the inner meaning of life, the essence of
the relation of man to his God. From this it follows that in order to
benefit from, or to have an insight into the message revealed in the
discernment is an absolute prerequisite.
Levi once said before the Congregation Keneseth Israel: "About 1897
(it is not known at what part of the year) there was born in Nazareth,
Jewish parents, one Joshua ben Joseph, or Latinized, Jesus. At the age
he appeared in Jerusalem and saw enough to leave an indelible
impression on his
mind. Nothing is later heard of him till the age of about thirty. He
in the role of a reformer opposed to the formalism of the Pharisees and
of the Sadducees. He traveled around after the manner of teachers in
his belief in Moses and the prophets and his conviction that heaven and
pass away but no jot or tittle of the law would. He appeared to have
been a believer
in the mission of Israel to be a blessing to humanity."
sees in Joshua ben Joseph an ideal man. We use once more the words of
who, after referring to the execution of Joshua, or Jesus, for which he
Roman governor, declares: "Thus thro' the hatred of the Roman governor
was condemned to an ignominous death, one of the noblest teachers in
of the brilliant glories of the Jewish people; but he was a man, an
ideal man, he
was not God, he was godly. He was not the Son of God, but the son of
God as all
men are… Do we reject him? Never as a pious reformer, as a conforming
Jew, as a
brother worthy of profound esteem, respect and love. Do we then accept
as a God, the Son of God, or the Messiah."
here states the position of millions of Jews. It is the position based
reason, the conclusion formed by human intellect unaided by the
spiritual eye. Yet
even human intellect can see, or can be made to see and in fact has
Let us look
with the mental eye at the successive visible scenes following the
Joshua ben Joseph.
the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered." How well do these
Zachariah describe the situation. The Rabbi has suffered a most
No miraculous interference had prevented the execution of the Great
Teacher as some
of his disciples had confidently expected. Their cause was
irretrievably lost. The
man in whom they had so much confidence was defeated.
last human anchor, was gone. Despair, black despair, filled their
hearts. We read,
"The disciples fled," eager to seek a place in which to hide their
there took place a miracle, the only undisputed miracle in all annals
of human history,
indisputable, on account of its visible effects in our own day. A
coward is changed
into a hero, a small band of trembling fugitives into a troop of
heroes, who went
fearlessly to the four corners of the earth and conquered a hostile
power had wrought this miracle? Let us give the explanation and
by Jewish intellect: "That the movement did not end with the
gave birth to that belief in the risen Christ which brought the
together and founded Christianity, is due to two psychic forces that
had come so thoroughly into play. First: the great personality of Jesus
so impressed itself on the people of Galilee as to become a living
power even after
his death. Second: the transcendentalism or other-worldliness in which
doing saintly men and women, of the common classes in their longing for
lived. In entranced visions they beheld their crucified Messiah
expounding the Scriptures
for them, and breaking the bread for them at their feasts, or even
when they were out on the lake fishing (1).
was not the living but the departed Jesus that founded the church (2)."
now arises, what produced these "psychic forces that never before [or
afterward] had come so thoroughly into play?" Could these "psychic
which revolutionized the world, and overcame the Roman Empire, have
the unspiritualized intellect, cannot help but recognize a force which
before had come so thoroughly into play." What generated this force?
has the rationalist to this question? The effect of hallucination? But
a Hindu yogi tries to satisfy hunger through conjuring up a picture of
was not the living but the departed Jesus that created the Church." The
Jesus! How could the "departed" Jesus have done this when "dead,"
if he had been a man, a dead man? Will some rationalist answer this
place in the Jewish Encyclopedia we read: "There are utterances of
originality and wondrous power, which denote great genius. He certainly
had a message
to bring to the forlorn… to the lost sheep of the house of Israel (3),
to the outcast,
to the lower classes, to the 'Amharez,' to the sinner, to the publican;
the whole life is in reality a poetic imagination, in him the Essenic
agree with the writer in the Jewish Encyclopedia when he says: "To
the mental and moral greatness of Jesus, his wonderful career, the
need not recur to the hidden ways of mysticism; a careful study of his
environment will readily account for that extraordinary phenomenon." We
not forget that he was the child of an extraordinary people, a people
that had been
set aside thousands of years before for a great specific purpose; a
people at whose
start its legislator held up the ideal: "Ye shall be unto me a kingdom
and an holy nation. Ye shall be holy: for I the Lord your God am holy."
stated, up to the time of his execution, there is nothing in the life
of Joshua ben Joseph that human reason cannot explain, or explain away.
point, the crux of the question comes when the unprejudiced and sincere
the situation that took place after his execution. These scenes cannot
away from the rationalist's standpoint because their effects are
not only in the nineteen hundred years which have passed and gone, but
seen and felt all around us, they are manifest in the hundreds of
millions of human
beings to whom no name is dearer and sweeter than the holy name of the
whose profane pronunciation they call blasphemy.
As I am writing
these lines I wonder what it was that caused the writer in the Jewish
to say, "It was not the living but the departed Jesus who created the
Now if such were the case could there be any other explanation than
that he had
triumphed over death and was at the seat of power? Must not then his
been from God? Must he not have been the Messenger promised to our
of years ago; must he not have been in truth the Messiah who was to
become the Light
of the World?
Encyclopedia, Vol. 3 [Lib 1912],
(2) Ibid, Vol. 3, p. 169.
(3) Matt. Ch. 10, V. 6.
A Curious Masonic Watch
Bro. G. M. Reade, Minnesota
a good many brethren have had their attention drawn to "Masonic"
that are now being supplied by those firms that manufacture and supply
jewels and so on. The advertisements would lead anyone to suppose that
an entirely new idea; and perhaps so far as the designers and
concerned it may be. However, this is not so. Our eighteenth century
very partial to these Masonic watches. In those days mass production
was yet unknown,
and each watch was an individual work of art and craft, made entirely
by hand. Many
of these designs were most elaborately wrought. The old watch and clock
no pains upon their work, and it made no difference whether it was on
or the interior working parts. In some old clocks the very wedges that
frame together were filed into ornamental curves, and engraved with
too small to be seen without a glass, while the wheels instead of
and plain spokes were cut out into beautiful and fanciful patterns of
filed out with the true artist's care.
still persisted in the eighteenth century, and in watches of the period
plate, or "cock" that protected the movement was highly ornamented with
pierced designs and engraving. It was only natural that some should
designs, either specially to order, or to attract Masonic purchasers.
of the illustrations gives a good idea of a watch of this type. There
of such movements to be found in museums.
illustration shows a watch which is perhaps now quite unique, though
it had a mate. It is in the possession, or rather in the care, of one
of the lodges
in Belfast, Ireland. The present owner is the great-grandson of the man
it was made, a Bro. Edwards who was an aide de camp to General Stopford
in the Peninsular
War. It was made by a watchmaker named Bannerman, who apparently had
left his work
bench and listed for a soldier. Whether he made it during the campaign
or not does
not appear, but it is possible. Nor do we know if he was a Mason. Bro.
the face himself, and gave Bannerman the order to make the watch for
him to this
after their return home, that Bro. Edwards was at a Masonic banquet at
then Duke of Suffolk was also present, and the latter happened to see
and said, "Halloo, Edwards, what have you there?" Bro. Edwards handed
it to him and told him about it and at the Duke's request a second
watch was made
identical in every respect. These two were the only ones. Whether the
still in existence is unknown.
of the emblems is very skillfully and appropriately done, and the
putting the sun
in the place for "high twelve" is very ingenious, while outside the
circle below "low" six is the crescent moon and stars.
is as follows: In the center is the circle and parallel straight lines.
is represented by the main pivot for the hands. Below is the letter "G"
and above the volume of the Sacred Law. The first figure is a single
column of the
Doric order, with what appear to be flames issuing from the capital.
This may refer
to the pillar of fire in the wilderness. In the margin above it is the
is represented by the two brazen pillars of the porch of the Temple,
network and surmounted by globes. Above it is the square ashlar. The
been chipped and cracked here and the ashlar is not easy to make out.
Three is made
of the three burning tapers or lesser lights. The margin has here been
so that the emblem above is lost. Four is made of a Doric column and a
pair of calipers.
The object above is unrecognizable. Five is the square, and in the
margin are the
"emblems of mortality." Six is composed of the Charter or Warrant in a
roll, a dagger or sharp instrument and a Corinthian column. Below is
the moon and
stars. Seven is ingeniously formed from the compasses and ladder with
principle rounds." The margin is broken here, too, so that the second
is missing. Eight consists of the folding twenty-four-inch rule or
gauge, and a
two-legged derrick from which is suspended a perfect ashlar by means of
Though partially broken, we can see plainly the sprig of Acacia and the
Nine is made of three columns, Doric, Ionic and Corinthian, the two
The two black marks in the margin are indecipherable and appear to be
holes in the enamel. Ten is built up out of a long-handled "setting
a gavel and a chisel. The emblem above appears to be the beehive.
Eleven is composed
of the square, level and plumb, and above them the 47th Proposition of
as before mentioned, is symbolized by the sun, above which is the
If the second
emblem at figure ten is really intended for the beehive, and it looks
like it in the original than in the reproduction, we have two symbols
now no longer
in use in Great Britain but which have always been in use in America,
being the trowel. On the other hand there are the lewis and chisel
which are still
explained in the former country but which seem never to have been known
The Land Of Behest
AT this season
of the year the thoughts of all Christians are directed toward a little
on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It is scarcely two
long and from East to West probably does not average more than
only does the Christian world revere this almost insignificant area on
surface, but it is the Holy Land for the Jew, Greek, Moslem and
Geographies call it Palestine, our Old Charges or Manuscript
to it as "The Land of Behest" and add that it is now called the Country
It is indeed
remarkable that one of the world's smallest countries should have been
of so many nations for thousands of years, and that for its possession
shed the blood of countless multitudes. All this has been done for
one faith, but many. The paradox lies in the fact that, in spite of its
this country was the birthplace of the Prince of Peace. To this event
Christians owe the fact that their eyes are turned toward the Holy Land
present season. Whether Jesus the Christ was actually born on Dec. 25
we do not
know, and after all does it make any difference? The Nazarene lived and
humanity Modern Freemasonry should be existing for the same cause. The
Christmas has come to be considered an occasion for rejoicing and for
of good will toward all. It is the time of year when we dream of
of peace on earth and good will towards men. It should not be necessary
Mason to have such a season since the practice of this virtue should be
a part of
his endeavor the year round, but it hurts no man to be reminded
there are others on this mundane sphere and that a part of his thought
directed towards them.
little town of Bethlehem," the birthplace of Christ, and so the
of Christianity, lies a short five miles to the southward of the Jaffa
Gate to the
Holy City. A splendid road passes through the Plain of Ephraim, and
well, where tradition says the "three wise men" stopped to water their
camels and saw reflected in the water the star which led them to the
manger of the
Christ-child, comes into view. Farther along is the Tomb of Rachel, the
Jacob and the daughter of Laban. This spot is one revered by Jew,
Mohammedan alike. Then comes Bethlehem, which means "House of Bread,"
and which besides being the scene of the Nativity was the childhood
home of David
and the scene of the beautiful story of Ruth, his great-grandmother.
illustration is somewhat deceptive, as at a casual glance Bethlehem
seems to lie
in a valley. In reality it is upon a hill in the center of a gigantic
cup, and the
"Little Town" overlooks several valleys, one of which is still known as
the Field of the Shepherds.
feature of a visit to Bethlehem is the Church of the Nativity, built
about 330 A.
D. over the cave reputed to be the very stable in which Christ was
born, and on
which spot the Romans had formerly built a Temple to Jupiter. The
outside of the
church is very simple and plain, but on the inside there are forty-four
columns, taken from the pagan temple that earlier stood on the site.
has the appearance of being very old and the pagan columns lend dignity
to the whole. Steps lead down to the grotto now called the Chapel of
and where the manger is still shown. The cave is about forty feet long
wide and ten high. It has stone walls and a marble pavement. Near the
altar is a
silver star in the pavement with the Latin inscription Hic de Virgine
Christus natus est. It was in this cave, so the tradition says, that
the angel warned
the Holy Family to flee to Egypt.
Not far from
Bethlehem are the pools of Solomon which, as the picture indicates, are
preserved, though the masonry shows indications of their great age. The
of the country is plainly visible in this illustration.
itself is sufficiently interesting to warrant an article of its own. It
named Salem, and later Jebus. Doubtless its present name is derived
from a combination
of the two. It is built on two hillsides and the valley between, with
all about it.
site has seen some eight cities, so that the streets upon which Christ
in some places a hundred feet or more below the present level but the
lines remain. The two hills on which the city stands are Mount Moriah
Zion, each about 2500 feet above sea level. The place is a natural
present population is about seventy thousand, of which probably
are Jews, ten thousand Moslems, and fifteen thousand Christians, the
of whom are Greek Orthodox. All of the modern section, more than half
of the city,
both in extent and population, is outside the walls which fenced the
These walls are in splendid condition and built of a yellow limestone,
as well the material for most of the old houses of the city. The walls
forty feet high and from twelve to fifteen feet thick, level on top
with watch towers
at short intervals. Some of the rocks were actually put in place by the
Solomon, Herod and Agrippa. Of the eleven gates only six are open, the
been walled up many years ago.
gate called "Golden," one finds his way to the holiest of the many holy
places in the city. Mount Moriah is venerated by the three religions
which are prevalent
among the inhabitants of Jerusalem. Surrounded by a rock wall and
thirty-six acres it composes about one-sixth the area within the city
has been a place of religious sanctity for thousands of years. Here
about to sacrifice his son Isaac when he was shown the ram caught by
its horns in
the thicket; here David built his palace and erected an altar unto the
here, too, King Solomon built that Temple, which has been marveled over
generations. To this spot was conveyed the cedar from Lebanon which
formed so large
a portion of the structure and which was floated down the sea coast to
carried overland to the seat, of building operations on the Mount.
Much of the
enclosed area is now open, but it is all paved, and there are beautiful
standing in the open court. A magnificent marble pulpit is erected in
which is used for services on certain feast days when the mosque is
for the accommodation of the vast crowds, sometimes numbering more than
These buildings and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre suffered much
damage in the
recent earthquake. The Mount is some 2400 feet high and still rises in
terraces as it did in Solomon's time, and these are yet designated the
the Gentiles, the Court of the Israelites and the Court of the Priests,
is centuries since the Temple worship ceased. Near the northwest corner
of the enclosure
stands a beautiful minaret on the site, it is said, where the Roman
St. Paul from the mob. This spire is plainly visible in the left and to
of the accompanying illustration. At the opposite corner is a
now known as the "Stables of Solomon." It is reached by a short
and has over a hundred massive stone columns. If built by Solomon, it
used by him as a storehouse, but there is no doubt that it was actually
a stable by the Crusaders. Inside this area is the Mosque El Aksa. It
a Christian Church and is the largest single structure in Jerusalem,
by 184 feet.
of greatest interest on Mount Moriah at this time is this Mosque of the
It is built over the rock which was probably used as a threshing floor
times by Orman the Jebusite, and which marks the site of offering on
hill. The rock is directly under the great Dome of the Mosque, and
still is in its
original position and natural state, being in fact the apex of Mount
is about six feet high and sixty feet long by twenty to forty feet
the rock is fenced off by a high wooden railing and a circular grill or
iron erected by the Knights Templar, which no one is permitted to
enter, the grooves
across the face to carry the blood from the sacrificial offerings of
are still visible. It was from this rock that the Prophet Mohammed,
sitting on his
favorite horse, ascended to heaven, horse, rider and all. The
for the veracity of this statement. It is also believed by the
followers of the
Prophet that Gabriel will stand on this rock and blow his trumpet on
and that all souls will immediately rush there to be judged by Mohammed
Under it is a cave, in which is a well, called by the Moslem the Well
was built about the year 700, but it was enlarged by the Crusaders who
was King Solomon's Temple. It was while occupying the Temple that some
of the Crusaders
formed the Order of Knights Templar. It was again enlarged by the
1600. The Dome of the Rock stands on an irregular platform some ten or
high, with marble steps leading up from the Cardinal Points, and
beautiful arcades, over a pavement of marble mosaics and flagstones.
has eight sides and is a perfect octagon set in a circle 177 feet in
side measures sixty-six feet seven inches in length. The lower portion
of the building
is covered with marble slabs and the upper with glazed and colored
in the Persian style of the sixteenth century, while on the frieze are
from the Koran. The dome is one hundred fifteen feet high, nearly as
large as the
dome of the United States Capitol, and is of a greenish copper color;
it is surmounted
by a crescent of gold. The building on the inside, on account of the
work, gives one the impression of being circular. The roof and walls on
are covered with glass mosaics and beautiful arabesque carvings. The
roof is supported
by marble columns, probably taken from the temple built by Herod, and
is of marble, but covered with very rich Turkish rugs. There are also
carved arches over the metal doors, and the light filters in through
windows, which gives a soft and mysterious illumination to the
interior, and especially
is this light pleasing as it falls on the marble pulpit.
of the Rock is regarded as a perfect specimen of Byzantine Architecture
been copied in many parts of the world. In the Temple area there are,
to the buildings mentioned above, Moslem schools and dwellings, and
there are several
altars in the open court.
is regarded by the Moslems as so sacred that neither dogs nor smoking
within it. It is said that no Jew will enter this section lest he might
the sacred ground which the sanctum sanctorum of King Solomon's Temple
One is inclined to think of this spot on the day that the Queen of
Sheba, from the
Southland, with her great retinue, paid a visit to the wise and
King Solomon. She presented him with 120 talents in money, many
and great stores of spices, but the wily old King only put a little
more gold dust
in his flowing hair to make it sparkle in the sunshine, poured a little
on his robe of state, exhibited proudly his gold chariots, diamond
crown, many warriors
and servants, gave the "old lady" a big feast, wished her a pleasant
back home, and bade her a fond farewell, for with his seven hundred
wives and three
hundred concubines he was as satisfied to spend his last years on the
as he had been to pass his first years as a ruler wisely. That is,
judged by our
modern ideas concerning morality.
City, in fact the entire country of Palestine, is rich in Biblical
lore. There is,
perhaps, no more interesting place in the world, but above all the
modern Palestine the fact that it was the birthplace of Christianity,
with all that
that means, stands out most forcibly.
Editor in Charge
The Study Club
brother, who shall be nameless, being sufficiently familiar with the
to treat it with undue levity, insists that it is pure waste of time to
as nobody ever reads them. At times we fear there is more painful fact
in the assertion. Another brother recently complained of the change in
Club Department, saying that from a sort of post-graduate course it had
to the kindergarten level, apparently not having read what we said
about it last
month. Surely the advanced students owe a fraternal duty to those
brethren who are
in the kindergarten class, to use his term, and to assist them to
light by easy stages. At least, we frankly admit, without the financial
of those in the kindergarten and the elementary grades we should not be
in a position
to do much for the post-graduate students.
As we said
last month, the new departure is an experiment, and if not successful
will not be
continued. In fact the department would probably be eliminated. The
for advanced articles is in the body of the magazine. We may add, for
of those who were interested, that the authors of the Study Club
the past two years intend to continue the series. The next subject to
be taken up
will be the Lights of the Lodge. We gladly forgive our critic in this
of our gratification in finding that there was one member of the
Society who read
the Study Club articles with interest and appreciation.
* * *
IT may be
as well to explain once more what these articles are and what the
purpose of the
author is in publishing them. He is, as we have said, a priest of the
He is one of those – of many, so he believes – who are dissatisfied
with the administration
of the affairs of his Church in this country, with the autocratic
methods of its
rulers, and the abuses and intrigues to which they give rise. He is
for the members of his Church with the hope that perhaps some redress
may be found.
His criticisms must therefore be read as those of a friend however
severe they may
seem. It may be well to repeat that we are fully satisfied that he has
motives, no axe to grind, no grudge to satisfy. He is not one who has
to feel that he has been passed by in preferments, or that he has
suffered any personal
injustice. We have no hesitation in saying that we believe that his
object is simply
what he says it is, the faint hope (for it is very faint) that his open
may lead to some crystallization of the latent discontent that he
believes to exist
among the members of his Church in the United States, which will lead
to a relaxation
of the present Italian domination, to something more of
self-determination and to
a reform of the worst of the abuses of which he complains.
then, being addressed to members of the Roman Church by one of
have we to do with it?
would have greatly preferred to publish them in some Roman Catholic
but unfortunately that was out of the question. He, therefore, tried
press and found that that was equally impossible. He was given to
it would not do to offend the Church, of which it seems the press of
States is mortally afraid. It is a serious allegation, but one that has
before, more than once. And we can say that facts have come to our
the manuscript was first submitted to us, that go to show that not only
daily newspapers afraid to publish anything that might offend the Roman
no matter how true it may be nor how much the interests of the public
it, but that even the more weighty and serious magazines and reviews
have the same
fear. Furthermore, the author found that it would be difficult to
publish it in
book form unless he took all the expense and risk upon himself and
acted as his
own publisher. That was the situation so far as he was concerned, and
he bad practically
given up hope of his work ever seeing the light of day.
Now a man
can write an article or a book criticizing the Methodist, or the
or Christian Science, or the system of public education, or the Army,
or the Navy,
or the Government, and he will have no special difficulty in finding an
a publisher to accept it. Any institution in the country, and the
can be freely criticized – but the agents of publicity fear to touch
is fairly simple. Leaving aside those periodicals and publishing houses
controlled by Romanists, there is a fear, justified or not, that the
the Church in question will act as a unit to injure the business of
in any and all of the many ways that this can be done by concerted
is no need to enumerate them here, it is enough to say that it needs
to see that the financial effects might be serious.
It may be
that in certain quarters religious intolerance still survives. There
may be Protestants
in this country who still believe Romanism to be idolatry, and who
apply to it all
the prophetic denunciations of the Old Testament, and the Apocalyptic
ones of the
New concerning the Scarlet Woman, and Babylon the Great, but truly we
do not think
there are very many, or that they have much weight. If there be any
the minds of non-Romanists, and there is evidently a good deal, it is
to such situations as the one just described. It is not religious
intolerance that exists, the Roman Church is not viewed with
apprehension as a church
or a religion, but as a potential political power with aims quite
alien, even if
not necessarily opposed, to those of the state.
Let us say
here as distinctly as possible, for the benefit of those who read
we are not here asserting that it is so, all we say is that many
believe it to be
so. That is the situation from the public point of view.
is our position in the matter as Masons, as an organ of Masonic
editorially last May that
… numbers of Masons in this
country think and
take for granted that Freemasonry is an anti-Roman Catholic institution.
it. Regardless of the fact that there is no warrant for such an opinion
in any ritual,
code or constitution in any Grand Lodge in the United States,
regardless of the
fact that every Mason who has any knowledge of what Masonry is or
stands for, knows
that it is not so, it is yet true that a very large number of the
members of the
Fraternity simply take it for granted that it is anti-Roman. And this
matter within the purview of any organization engaged in Masonic
that is the situation from THE BUILDER'S point of view.
not quite all. It may be objected that it would have been sufficient to
repeated once again that Freemasonry in religious matters as in
politics is neutral,
that tolerance of all opinions and beliefs is incumbent on the Mason.
But this has
been done scores and hundreds of times. Every Masonic orator says it on
occasion; every Masonic journal repeats it every so often; and, such is
of the human mind, often enough the very brethren who in one situation
Masonry is anti-Romanist will in another applaud these same sentiments
or even give
utterance to them.
When a man
seeks medical advice concerning some symptom, a persistent pain in the
us say, or a sore that will not heal, the physician is not content to
give him an
opiate or a salve. He makes a full examination of his patient's
It may be the symptoms betoken the advance of some serious disease. It
that merely repeating that Masonry is tolerant and neutral has only a
The underlying causes of the situation need inquiring into.
takes no sides in the discussion, nor are we responsible for the
opinions of the
writers of the articles we have published. Our part was merely to make
sure that they knew what they were talking about and kept within the
limits of courtesy
and fair criticism. We have rejected a number of other articles that
did not in
all respects meet these requirements or were not relevant to the
problem. The address
of Theodor Masaryk that appeared in the October number did in places
verge on the
savage, and is perhaps also not entirely just, but it is at least by a
up in the church he attacked, and who, by his own confession, sought to
it. Our chief reason for reproducing it was to exhibit how largely this
of twenty years ago has been falsified in the event. He thought the
Church was in
a decline, that the then comparatively recent formulation of the dogma
Infallibility was going to be increasingly detrimental to it. Instead
been a revival, especially since the war; the Church is becoming, it
more aggressive; and internally, Ultramontanism, the Italian dominance,
than ever. It is precisely that centralization, that autocracy of Rome,
rise to the abuses and tyranny which Dr. Cadius (and others) hold to be
to the spiritual activity of his Church, and that also inspires many
with the fear that the Roman Church is a sort of army of occupation
a foreign country. A revival of nationalism, of some measure of
of the Church in different countries, would seem to be calculated to
complaints of the one party and the apprehensions of the other.
Bro. A. J.
M., whose letter appears in the correspondence columns, is inclined to
the relevance of the two articles on schools and marriage in the
Province of Quebec.
This rather brings home the fact that THE BUILDER is to an extent not
an international journal. We must grant that from the Canadian point of
are not particularly et propos, because conditions are rather different
believe that it is those who have the least contact with Romanists who
most, and who are most intolerant. There is no doubt that Protestants
non-Romanists in the Province of Quebec are less concerned about
and far-reaching plans to dominate the country than those of Ontario,
do not live so intimately with their Roman Catholic fellow-citizens.
And there is
a moral to be drawn from this fact. Familiarity is said to breed
contempt, but it
also leads to friendliness. One cannot well go on suspecting and
whom one finds in daily life to be kind and honest neighbors – at a
can imagine anything. Furthermore, as the two articles mentioned show
and it could easily be confirmed with a wealth of evidence, the
Quebec feels perfectly secure. The Roman Church does not interfere with
him or his
concerns, he is perfectly free in the pursuit of happiness and
wellbeing in his
own way. Whether it would continue so if Quebec was a sovereign state
or not is
another question, but a purely academic one, and communities are not,
as such, interested
in academic questions.
between Canada and the United States is that the Roman Church is in the
practically identified with the French Canadian people. Canada is
engaged in the
difficult and idealistic experiment of harmonizing two races and two
two languages, each of which necessarily must modify the development of
but neither of which has any right to dominate or obliterate the other,
the power to do so. It is doubtful if the British statesmen, who a
hundred and more
years ago were responsible, had realized the difficulties whether it
been attempted; but whether blundered into or not the experiment was
In a Roman
Catholic country, the state must inevitably in some way recognize the
recognizing it, it to some extent controls it. Even in republican
France the government
makes reciprocal arrangements with the Church, and it has a real power
and modifying the temporalities of the Church, which is all that the
state is interested
in. But in such a democracy as the United States the position is quite
The state cannot recognize any church, and therefore cannot exert any
its affairs. If, therefore, and the whole question lies in this "if,"
the members of any church or any society, act as a disciplined unit
leaders in all public affairs they may easily obtain the influential
holding the balance of power. It was precisely the apprehension of such
that led in many quarters to condemnation of the Ku Klux Klan quite as
much as alleged
acts of overriding the laws and usurping quasi-judicial powers. But if
American organization may be judged and condemned on this ground, why
not one that
is governed and controlled by a foreign authority? It all depends on
on a question of fact; do the members of the Roman Church act as a
It is on
this question of fact that Dr. Cadius will, we believe, throw some
light. He presents
a picture of the working of the Church from within. Such an account
will give much
more direct information than any amount of observation from without.
of course will still remain how far it is an accurate picture, and just
it may have on the problem as a whole. We are not judging or thinking
of the N.M.R.S. nor for Masons generally. All we can do is to provide
as seems relevant to the question, and to exercise such care as we can
authors are responsible.
A final question
may be asked. Supposing that on investigation it is found that the
and the disquiet felt by so many have some real justification, will any
have been made towards removing that erroneous opinion existing among
members of the Craft that Masonry is as an institution hostile to
Romanism? It must
be confessed, the issue in that event would appear doubtful. But that
helped. If a man's eyes are troubling him, his physician may find that
it is not
new glasses he needs but a course of treatment for indigestion. Clear
solve the question; but it is necessary to think before one can think
Masons must learn to distinguish between their obligations as Masons
and their duties
as citizens, and not lay the burden of the latter upon Freemasonry as
inclined to do.
It had been
our original plan to begin the publication of this series of articles
in the October
number of THE BUILDER. It would seem that a word of explanation is due
to our readers.
Certain obstacles arose, and the date was set on to November.
hindrances were not all removed in time to get it into that issue. It
better to defer it to the beginning of the coming year, for the obvious
the whole series would thus be in one volume.
this delay very much, but it may be that some advantage will arise from
series will all be in one volume, and it has been decided to make the
longer than was originally planned so that the conclusion will appear
if any, later than was originally intended.
* * *
for the mysteries of Freemasonry are supposed to be men of mature age,
intelligence, of good character, and sufficient ability to at least
earn their own
living and expend their earnings at their own discretion for themselves
families, if they have families. Seeing that these are qualifications
for the candidate, one would suppose that Freemasons in general form a
body of mature
men, of reasonable intelligence, and so on, down to being able to spend
money at discretion. Very quaintly, however, it is being asserted in
and the chorus seems to be growing, that when these mature men of
etc., etc., are gathered, organized, or congregated into a lodge that
they no longer
have these qualities, and that consequently their powers of discretion
limited by new laws, regulations, decisions and rulings in addition to
already have. In other words, we are in the presence of a new Landmark
in the making.
Lodge funds are to be used only for Masonic purposes.
advanced sounds very well. Money paid into the lodge treasury in the
way of dues
and fees is "in the nature of a trust fund." If it be dissipated by
for non-Masonic purposes, however innocent or worthy in themselves,
what is to happen
when a need arises for the exercise of relief – when some brother falls
requires assistance ‒ when he dies and his family are left destitute?
very few unfortunately, like the wise virgins in the parable do make
for future contingencies. Some put aside all initiation fees, others a
of their receipts, others budget a certain sum each year to go into a
such purposes. But here is the amazing thing. Masonic funds being as it
in the nature of trust funds cannot be used except for Masonic
purposes. A contribution
to a hospital, to a local or national charity, to a fresh air fund is
But banquets, entertainments, cigars, furniture, fixtures are Masonic.
A lodge may
spend all its money without reproach for these and their like. It may
even go into
debt for them, and the surveyors of Landmarks say not a word. But
outcry if any misguided lodge were to borrow money to contribute to
or benevolent cause.
what business is it of anyone else what the members of a lodge choose
to do with
their own money? They are free to fix what amount they please for
annual dues. A
minimum sum they must have to meet the amount due to the Grand Lodge,
they may choose to add to that is their own affair. And it being their
it is equally their own affair how they spend it ‒ whether on Masonic
cigars or un-Masonic charities. Has the exercise of benevolence to
those in distress
become an un-Masonic action? Is it un-Masonic for a group of Masons to
engage in a charitable action?
of lodge reserves is another matter entirely. If a Grand Lodge enacted
constituent lodges should set aside a certain amount annually for every
the lodge, or so much for every candidate initiated, that would be a
Most Grand Lodges, however, have deemed it better to have a collective
Grand Lodge control. But outside of such specific inaction it really
seems an unwarrantable
interference with the plain rights of a lodge to rule how it shall
expend its own
money; especially to forbid it to spend it for charitable or benevolent
in the world but in America has such dictation ever been dreamed of. In
countries Masonic lodges frequently contribute to such objects, and it
most proper that they should. A lodge whose members collectively act in
will not be likely to fail in its obligations to distressed brethren.
National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association
by Authority of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, A.F.&A.M.
ALBUQUERQUE, N. M.
NEWTON, Editor, Manager N.M.T.S.A.. Las Cruces, New Mexico
IN my Annual
Address to the Grand Lodge of New Mexico in February last, in
discussing this movement
I made the following observations:
in our Fraternity is strong enough to cause me to believe that if given
through the sanction and cooperation of the Masonic leaders of the
Jurisdictions and the officers of all other Masonic bodies, every
will gladly contribute at least $1.00 per year for the relief and
of our brethren and the members of their families who are afflicted
for the financing of this work and for salvaging Masonic lives and
homes in such
manner, rests primarily upon the Grand officers and leaders of American
and upon the officers of all Masonic bodies.
In the name
of our sacred and binding obligations, and in the name of our afflicted
from whom is emanating the Grand Hailing Sign of Distress, I implore
leaders of thought and action to extend to our brethren this
opportunity to practice
the great teachings of our Fraternity and to aid in financing this
of dollars are garnered in the treasuries of Grand Lodges and
and more millions in the treasuries of other Masonic bodies, and in
those of organizations
affiliated with or claiming some connection with Freemasonry. These
growing into more millions. Why this great accumulation of wealth? For
purpose is it designed? Is it for the construction of costly Temples or
the Craft adequately to finance some great work for the relief of, and
service to, the Fraternity and humanity?
continue to levy assessments for the erection of great Masonic edifices
while closing our purses and shutting our eyes to the distress of our
brethren and turning a deaf ear to appeals for funds in aid of a relief
designed upon a National scale, the financing of which would require
of but the insignificant sum of $1.00 per annum by each American
not a comparatively small portion of the accumulated and hoarded wealth
of the Fraternity
be annually contributed to a general fund to be administered as a
sacred trust by
the Sanatoria Association, organized by the Masons and controlled and
representatives of each Masonic Grand Jurisdiction, for the benefit and
our afflicted brethren and their families? Are not the lives of
those of their wives and children, more valuable to the Fraternity and
than mere wealth alone? Aye, are they not wealth itself?
I quote the
words of the poet, Gray, in his beautiful "Elegy in a Country
"Ill fares the land, to
hastening ills a
Where wealth accumulates, and men decay."
the Chicago Meeting, acting under authority there conferred, an appeal
for contributions, upon the basis of fifteen cents per capita of
Before Masonic bodies had time to act upon the appeal, we had an
purchase a Sanatorium in El Paso, Texas, in first-class condition, for
cents on the dollar of its real value.
including furniture and equipment, would have been $75,000.00. Our
was immediately supplemented with a full statement concerning the
acquire a "going hospital, wherein immediately to commence our work of
were made to every Masonic Grand body, including the Scottish Rite, the
the Grotto, and the General Grand Chapter of the Order of Eastern Star.
the great Mississippi Flood became a menace, and the brethren of the
affected were compelled to make plans for the relief of those who were,
be, in distress. More than $500,000.00 was contributed to Flood Relief,
Cause of Masonic Tubercular Relief was lost sight of in this dramatic
Freemasons contributed liberally to aid flood sufferers and to replace
losses, but would not or did not visualize the necessity and duty and
to respond to an appeal for aid in the effort to save Masonic lives,
and Masonic homes.
In my aforesaid
address to the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, in discussing our first
appeal the following
observations were made, to-wit:
phase of our problem affords an interesting study, and provides
convincing and conclusive
evidence of the importance and value of salvaging the health, the lives
of our tubercular brethren; but the controlling and actuating motive is
be OUR OBLIGATION.
for funds with which to finance the work will demonstrate, during the
whether or not American Freemasonry has a soul. It will demonstrate
whether or not
we observe the letter or the spirit of the law; for: "Faith without
appeal for funds, upon the basis of fifteen cents per capita, calls
upon each American
Freemason to contribute at least the price of one good cigar for the
and relief of his sick brethren. The cost of attempting to collect this
each individual would be prohibitive. Hence we ask that each Masonic
that amount from its treasury, in which event there will be no expense
If there are no available funds in the treasury, we ask that each
Masonic body circularize
its membership, either constituent Lodges or individual members, asking
contributions. We believe that such action will provide average
in excess of fifteen cents per capita.
the ensuing year, contributions from all Grand Lodges average fifteen
capita, the total sum contributed will equal $487,500.00. With this
amount it is
proposed to construct an initial or first hospital unit of one hundred
at an estimated cost of $250,000.00; to set aside $100,000.00 for the
operating expense; and an equal amount for home relief work, and
in existing sanatoria, pending completion of the Masonic Sanatorium; to
the educational and publicity campaign and to carry on the
upon this subject concluded as follows, to-wit:
Jurisdictions are wealthier than others and are financially able to
care for their
own members, whether they do or not. According to our conception of
they are binding upon us, no matter where a needy brother may be found;
are not limited by State lines or by any other boundaries. We are, or
be, one common brotherhood. Shall we continue as forty-nine separate
not interested in each other's problems, and not interested in our own
if they wander from their homes? Or shall we unite as one family to
care for those
who have fallen by the wayside, who are down and out through no fault
of their own?
organization has been perfected and a plan outlined, a Design has been
the Trestleboard, whereby succor and relief may be afforded to our
If they are longer neglected their blood will be upon our hands.
It has fallen
to our lot to speak for these brethren of our "Grand Lodge of Sorrow."
They are a great, inarticulate mass, scattered in thousands of homes
this great, free and wealthy land of ours. They cannot personally make
to the Fraternity. Therefore, in their name we have made a plea to the
America, to stretch forth their hands to aid our fallen brethren and to
raising them again, to stand among us as men and Masons.
In the great
true heart of American Freemasonry is to be found the answer to our
varied have been the reasons assigned by the various Grand
Jurisdictions which have
declined or failed to join the organization or to respond to the
appeals for cooperation
and financial assistance.
been borne in upon our minds the conviction that jealousy upon the part
leaders of the Masonic Service Association has engendered a spirit of
or lack of sincere, genuine cooperation. It has also been demonstrated
Masonic leaders are fundamentally opposed to a national organization of
any other character, and believe in zealously safeguarding the
sovereignty of each
Grand Jurisdiction, and limiting Masonic relief work of every and any
strictly within the confines of their several jurisdictions, coupled
with the assertion
that they will take care of their own tuberculars within their own
borders if they
will stay at home and that they will even take care of their own, thus
who may migrate to more favorable climates in the hope of obtaining
as to the latter assertion, our experience has demonstrated that its
is the exception rather than the rule; and I am confident that this
be corroborated by the experience of other Grand Jurisdictions within
of the great "Tuberculosis Triangle." It is contended by some opponents
of the association that the admittedly superior climatic advantages of
and semiarid Southwest are not essential to the treatment and cure of
but it is a noteworthy fact that statistics have revealed that by far
percentage of tuberculars who have migrated to those regions were
advised so to
do by their local physicians.
It is not
my purpose to discuss or argue with reference to the two schools of
this subject. Suffice it to say that the basic and primary purpose and
the association was not the establishment of Sanatoria in any
of the country, but to arouse the Fraternity to a realization of the
and imperative necessity to organize upon a broad national scale to
deal with the
great problem. It should be remembered that tuberculosis is an
infectious and communicable
disease, wherein it differs from certain other diseases to which the
is heir and the death toll from which is great; and it should also be
that tuberculosis is a great menace to the children of the adult
brethren or parents
who may be afflicted with the disease and that it is highly important
the public as to the best means not only of prevention but for cure.
of the project urge that the movement is a departure from the
of the Order, chief among which is training the individual Mason to
charity. It seems to me that one of the fundamental teachings is
service; and that
the character of the service demanded by the magnitude of the
is such as to render it imperatively necessary to organize upon a basis
commensurate with the magnitude of the situation now confronting the
One of the
greatest difficulties encountered has been that incident to the
succession in the
leadership of the various Grand Jurisdictions. Grand Master Charles F.
of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia, aptly said:
and men change with them. Grand Masters come and go, with varying ideas
of the relative
values of matters in which our Fraternity is concerned. What seems
me may not be so regarded by my successors, but we have the comforting
that the policies and ultimate purposes of Freemasonry are fixed, and
the efforts of all are directed towards the same worthy end.
It is not
my purpose here to challenge the sincerity of any brethren whose
from mine or from those entertained by my intimate associates in the
the affairs of the association. For them as men and Masons I entertain
respect and fraternal regard but from my viewpoint it seems deplorable
Freemasonry cannot unite in this great cause, and contemplation of the
apathy and indifference, and inability or unwillingness to envision the
a broad national standpoint, "maketh the heart sick."
which we had an opportunity to purchase in El Paso and which should now
be in operation
as the "First National Masonic Sanatorium," was purchased by a Catholic
Nursing Order, and is now rendering service as a Catholic Sanatorium.
It was financed
in short order, without fuss or feathers; there was an immediate and
to the call for the requisite funds.
It has been
said that the establishment of such a Masonic Sanatorium would
constitute a standing
invitation for migratory consumptives. The answer is: suppose this were
we not organized for the great fundamental purpose of contributing as
expeditiously as possible to the relief of our tubercular brethren and
their families afflicted with the dread disease, in the effort to
salvage and restore
them to health, activity and economic production at the earliest
Time will not permit an elaboration of the economic features of the
it to say that upon the basis of statistics of the Metropolitan Life
of New York the total economic loss from the death of 4,309 American
who die each year is over $93,000,000.00.
observations indicate that the prospects for the successful
consummation of our
work of organization are not encouraging at the present time; but "Rome
not built in a day" and it may well be that several years must elapse
our hopes are fully realized.
as a result of the campaign of education, there has been stimulated in
a marked degree of activity in the line of tubercular relief work.
not recognized or admitted. The facts are thus laid before your
your advice and counsel are solicited as to the best method for
attaining the great
objective. Your members have studied and worked upon relief problems,
and by virtue
of their knowledge and experience should be able to offer invaluable
of the movement would be tantamount to admitting that Freemasonry
outside of Jurisdictional lines, or upon a national scale; that its
are as "sounding brass and tinkling cymbal"; that it does not practice
what it preaches; that it has been "weighed in the balances" and found
wanting, and that it is incapable of that degree of cohesion and
to dealing efficiently and effectively with the existing situation.
is on trial, and will stand or fall according to the final answer to
our sick brethren,
standing in the Northeast corner, pleading for help, which has been so
and the failure to render which has resulted in the death of so large a
we have debated among ourselves.
more Masonic lives will be sacrificed, how many more Masonic homes will
before the sleeping giant of American Freemasonry arouses to meet the
need and to
fulfill our sacred obligation?
What is your
answer, what do you advise and what will you do?
The Study Club
on "How to Organize and Maintain a Study Club" will be sent free on
in quantities to fifty.
Committee and Its Work
Lodge of Saskatchewan, through its Committee on Masonic Study and
been bringing to the attention of the Craft in that jurisdiction
relating to the Craft degrees. The last year was devoted to the Second
preceding one to the Entered Apprentice ceremony and the present season
is to carry
the work through the Third Degree.
for the current year is quite comprehensive and is reprinted below to
readers to know what is being done in that locality as well as to
Study Clubs in the arrangement of programs. References, as recommended
by the Study
and Research Committee, are included for convenience.
‒ Opening Third Degree. Review of previous degrees.
Ward's M. M. Handbook, p. 16.
Meaning of Masonry, p. 124.
‒ Preparation, Exception, Prayer, Circumambulation.
Sanderson's Examination, p. 79.
Mackey's Symbolism, p. 141.
Street's Symbolism, p. 144.
Obligation, Points of Fellowship.
Sanderson's Examination, p. 81.
Street's Symbolism, p. 155.
‒ The Legend of the Degree.
Ward's M. M. Handbook, p. 74.
Mackey's Symbolism, p. 228.
Haywood's Symbolism, p. 268.
Address of M. W. Bro. Thornton given in full in the book of Essays
the Regina Masonic Research Club.
MARCH ‒ Sprig
of Acacia, Eccl. xii, The Lost Word.
Sanderson's Examination, p. 91.
Mackey's Symbolism, p. 249.
Street's Symbolism, pp. 157-161.
Haywood's Symbolism, p. 256.
Ward's Moral Teachings, p. 57.
APRIL ‒ Apron,
Ward's M. M. Handbook, p. 62.
Street's Symbolism, p. 145.
MAY ‒ The
The qualifications of a M. M. or when is a man a M.M.
Ward's M. M. Handbook, p. 106.
Mackey's Symbolism, p. 86.
JUNE ‒ Closing
Third Degree. Summary of the Symbolism of the Third Degree.
Ward's M. M. Handbook, pp. 101 and 106.
Sanderson's Examination, p. 58.
further recommends that each of the above subjects be consulted in
books are kept by the Grand Lodge and are recommended by the Committee:
Sanderson's Examination of the Masonic Ritual.
Haywood's Symbolical Masonry.
Wilmhurst's Meaning of Masonry.
Moral Teachings of Masonry.
As a guide
to the method of treating the various subjects the Committee has
supplied the following
outline covering the November topic: "The opening of a lodge in any
is of the greatest importance, for, depending entirely upon how well
that duty is
performed will the work of the degree be appreciated and become of
Although lodge work is carried on by the assembled brethren we should
that the meaning is personal and individual, each degree only adding to
that of the former degree, reaching its climax when the candidate
the valley of the shadow of death to behold that bright and shining
meaning of which the Master is at some pains to make plain to the
Master Mason who
henceforward is expected to follow that light implicitly.
back then to the First Degree we discover that: The candidate is
the lodge ‒ is admitted to a lodge already opened by the method used in
He is in darkness (without knowledge) and is to be trained or taught
that the degree
is only a preparatory school in which is exhibited symbolically all
he must avoid, and also those he must practice and emulate in order to
be in a fit
and proper state to be advanced to the Second Degree and permitted to
the secrets and hidden mysteries of nature and science; and it may be
by the experience expressed by all ancient initiates ‒ without true
the laborer labors in vain, for nature does not give up her secrets for
less noble than for the highest benefits of mankind.
learned that the purpose of all nature is for the benefit of mankind
and that even
man must sooner or later pass through another great and mysterious
change to another
life the opening ceremony of the Third Degree prepares all his mental
to pass through the ordeal; an ordeal that is beautifully told but of
its real significance
the raised or resurrected Master Mason alone can tell for no two
receive quite the
same impression yet once assembled with their brethren the result would
be the same.
will at once be apparent to the student who analyzes the motive of each
a detailed opening of the lodge in each degree is the only one that can
be of value
to the 'seeking' Mason, for the reason that the mind is raised by
complete and successive
stages to an appreciation of the final epoch and transition to another
come out of the turmoil and strife of our everyday life, to rush into a
contemplation of the higher and sacred truths which Masonry attempts to
its members is impossible without the three steps of opening which are
of inducing that peaceful, quiet and contemplative attitude necessary
Any brother preparing a paper on this subject should first read one or
more of the
following books: The Meaning of Masonry by Wilmshurst; The Magic of
Masonry by Powell;
Ward's M. M. Handbook.
letter sent to all lodges by the Committee on Masonic Study and
the following suggestions for arousing interest in the programs.
might be possible for neighboring lodges to adopt similar programs and
then on one
or two meetings arrange a fraternal visit, the visiting lodge giving
the paper and
the home lodge leading in the discussion.
a paper is given it is important to get a discussion on the topic as it
acknowledged that this does as much if not more good than the paper
itself. In order
to facilitate this work it is suggested that a copy of the paper be
given to the
Brother, who is to lead the discussion, a few days before the actual
gives him a chance to emphasize the points that appeal to him, to look
up any references
he may wish, and be in a position to offer the friendly criticism that
is essential too to have a 'question box' at each meeting and your
prepared to take care of any questions that come up which cannot be
any brother present."
of Masonic Education in the Jurisdiction of Saskatchewan seems to be
most ably handled.
The above outline of their program for the coming year is
comprehensive, and the
material furnished with it seems to carry a number of concrete
might be adopted to advantage by many American Grand Lodges.
reviewed in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of
at the prices given, which always include postage. These prices are
a matter of precaution) to change without notice; though occasion for
very seldom arise. Occasionally it may happen, where books are
that there is no supply available, but some indication of this will be
the review. The Book Department is equipped to procure any books in
print on any
subject, and will make inquiries for second-hand works and books out of
FREIMAURERISCHES LESEBUCH, Eine Einführung in das
Band II, by Dr. August Horneffer. Published by the Verein Deutscher Freimauer,
Leipsig. Boards, analytical
table of contents, 183 pages.
Reader" is highly interesting and instructive. In it we are given
glimpses into the German Weltanschauung, there is no real equivalent
for the word
in English; the German world-view, way of looking at things, may serve.
is made up of a selection of speeches and addresses made by leaders in
of German thought and life, by scientists, philosophers and statesmen.
a statesman may speak like a scientific philosopher, and conversely a
may be scientific and even statesmanlike.
of psychology will find much valuable material, material that
constitutes a striking
body of evidence for the supremacy of the subjective over the objective
"things are not what they seem"; that is, things exist for the
as they impress themselves mediately through his prejudices,
according to his understanding, upon the inner man, the ego, or,
according to Prof.
Freud, the superego.
special interest are two addresses, the one by Kaiser Wilhelm I in
1853, when he
was fifty-three years old, and the other by his son, Kaiser Frederic I,
at the age of fifty-one. What a contrast! The latter is sufficiently
brief to be
quoted in full:
We must not
rest in our search, our examination and exploration. We ought not to
support the traditional simply because it has become valuable, and dear
to us, as
a heritage, because it has become a cherished habit. As far as we are
we should ever be mindful of the principle, not stagnation but progress.
contrast is presented to the reader in an address by Johan Gottlieb
Fichte in 1803,
and a discourse by Dr. Horneffer, the editor of the book, in which he
a set of ideas or doctrines. Fichte says:
in the eyes of a Freemason, the earthly purpose is to the eternal, the
purpose, so is the profit, interest and advantage of the state in which
Mason) lives to the profit and advantage of the whole of humanity… . In
his (a Mason's)
inner being, patriotism and internationalism are inwardly united, the
two are in
a definite relation. Patriotism actively constitutes internationalism,
constitutes the idea, the ideal. The first is appearance, the second
the inner side
of the appearance, the invisible in the visible world.
presented by Dr. Horneffer are very widely different:
and Humanization are one and the same thing. There is no abstract
of Nazareth stood above patriotism as an ideal only in so far, and
because, he was
more than human. In so far as he was human he was a child of his time.
people internationalism must be conformed to patriotism… .
reason we German Freemasons are opposed to political equalization just
as we reject
human equalization. God has made us Germans…
here represents, mirabilissime dictum, the general attitude, the
standard, the ideal
of a large majority of the human race, but in the opinion of the
this was not the ideal of the founders, the pioneers of our
organization, the Fraternity
and Society of Freemasons; and it was not the ideal of, nor is it in
the teachings of Him from whom we learned to say, "Our Father, Who art
For if He is our Father, then all human beings are brothers in fact;
and of this
He gave us one great lesson, one great example when He washed His
* * *
INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF RELIGIONS [Lib 1926]. By T. H. Robinson, D. D.
by the Oxford University Press (Milford). Cloth, 244 pages. Price,
THIS is an
admirable book for those interested in the origins and the comparative
religions. There is an increasing body of seekers after true knowledge
to the knowledge of dogmatic assertion. The latter of course has its
varies in proportion to the truth it contains. But a true student
satisfied under any tutelage which precludes investigation and
Dr. Robinson is not dogmatic. He is meticulously careful in avoiding
of preference. One feels that he is bent only on eliciting facts,
to speak for themselves.
is more in the book than facts; there is the correlation of them. The
of material follows a plan that is both logical and natural. One cannot
it is also chronological because, in dealing with the primitive ages of
it is not always possible from the evidence to state the time-order of
progress; in the strictly historical periods other considerations carry
than mere chronology. In order to illustrate this latter point, let us
turn to the
concluding chapters of the volume (vii-ix). Chronologically, Islam is
monotheistic phenomenon. Yet it is not by any means the most
significant in wealth
of content, or in evolutionary power. Islam is a static religion.
author treats of Islam first, and reserves the place of honor to
the climax in an age-long spiritual pilgrimage (pp. 178-207; 208-244).
No one nurtured
in the bosom of Christian civilization will quarrel with him for that.
have browsed among the pages of Frazer's Golden Bough and read
Idea of the Holy will be interested in the author's treatment of the
beliefs which group themselves about such words as mana, psyche and
and spiritus. The discussion arises in the course of a masterly review
of the various
types of theory which are based on the available facts of primitive
30-46). In this section the author also separates clearly the belief in
of life after death from the religion of primitive man. Monotheistic
the two in close conjunction, belief in the continuity of life here and
grave depending upon belief in God. But the evidence seems to indicate
these two lines of thought, or better, instinct, were collateral and
of one another.
Hebrew history and prophecy are the special province of Dr. Robinson,
of the monolatrous conditions of pre-exiled Israel does not appear
many scholars will accept his affirmation as descriptive of the
religion of the
masses, the teaching of Amos and Hosea is undiluted monotheism (pp.
it may be said that the book is lucid, eminently readable (with
of humor) and strongly to be recommended not only to beginners in the
study of religion,
but also to more advanced students who desire to see the subject of
presented in a concise yet panoramic form.
* * *
HOW TO WRITE
[Lib*]: A Book of Helpful Suggestions on Various Phases of Writing.
the Corona Typewriter Company, Inc., Groton, New York. Price, $1.25.
if you follow its suggestions carefully, will make money for you."
most enticing sentence with which to open a volume!
compels me to admit that it is one of the best little books I have ever
the subject. Above all, it is intensely practical; it tells in simple
and well chosen
words just what you wish to know. It is the sort of book which every
prays his contributors will read before burdening him with manuscripts
such as I
have seen in my day.
contributes a chapter on "Developing a Style." It is as terse and to
point as his own well-read editorials. Ray Long, now vice-president and
of the International Magazine Company, which publishes, among others,
as "Good Housekeeping," "Harper's Bazaar" and the "Cosmopolitan,"
presents a chapter, "The Writing of Fiction," which prompts one to drop
his work and start right out on one of those fine ideas which come in
of the night but which fall so flat after the next morning's breakfast.
articles are illustrated by practical examples, and leads one to the
"How to Prepare a Manuscript," so that it will possess the ear marks of
a professional writer and have a better opportunity of acceptance.
book closes with a bibliography of literature on writing. The titles
ones, really selected with care, and not put in merely to fill the
is recommended to all writers, especially to those of the Masonic
Craft, even though
contributions to Masonic literature are not productive of the money
which is promised
in the introduction of How to Write. But perhaps efforts to produce
may be good practice for manuscripts of a more remunerative nature,
for, after all,
it is continuous practice which develops a writer. Even Masonic scribes
occasionally for their labors; I speak from experience!
* * *
THE ROYAL ROAD TO ROMANCE
[Lib*]. By Richard
Halliburton. Published by The Bobbs-Merrill Co., Indianapolis. Cloth,
table of contents,
illustrated, 3,99 pages. Price, $5.25.
that Mr. Halliburton's first book was published two years ago may be
for not noticing it in review columns of the press. It would doubtless
be more timely
to make mention of his later work, but it is of so little importance
the earlier effort that the preference is given to The Royal Road to
interesting and thoroughly enjoyable book.
a Princetonian, enjoys the plague of the wanderlust. The choice of
words may be
criticized in the above sentence, particularly by those who are plagued
by the same
desire for wandering, but in this case the word "enjoy" describes the
sensation more nearly than any other. The author had the craving for
actually satisfied it and therein does he differ from most of us.
can be told in few words, but the author consumes a volume of almost
400 pages and
not one of them should be omitted. The present writer would not object
if the narrative
were carried to twice its length. It is no more than the adventures of
a young collegian
filling the interval between school and the business world with a
voyage around the world," to use a phrase of his predecessor, Harry A.
of Franck and Halliburton differ in many ways. Their itineraries are
not the same,
and their observations show marked differences in character. Franck is
of life and his tale palls at times because of his minute descriptions
though the tale is interesting nevertheless. Halliburton, on the other
a romanticist and revels more in the beauty of a landscape than in the
of its people. Both are keen observers; both are college men, and both
desired ends. Their aims were different and their tales vary
accordingly, but this
is not the time for such comparison. To enumerate all of the bright
spots in the
journey of Halliburton would require more space than is available. It
to forget his ascent of the Matterhorn, possibly because when the
summit was reached
Halliburton was awed by the scenery while his companion was engrossed
in the more
prosaic thought that there was one place in the world where it was
possible to spit
a mile. Paris is interesting primarily because it recalls places and
not for any unusual happenings in the tale. The visit to Andorra, a
in the heart of the Pyreness, is a fascinating bit of narration, and
anecdotes enough to satisfy anyone.
All of this
is overshadowed by the night spent on top of the Pyramid of Cheops. A
you may think, but none the less a stopping place on the Road to
Romance. It is
no more than a way station however, because we are enthralled by the
beauty of the
Taj Mahal and a night spent in its gardens. Romance must have been in
the air that
night, but for the satisfaction of a craving for romance could anything
more healing than the Valley of Kashmir? There is the romantic ballad,
one of the
Indian Love Lyrics, you must know it, the Kashmiri Song, it is one of
the most romantic
bits of music I know, and from Halliburton's descriptions the country
lives up to
follows the established rules of storytelling, and leads to a climax in
not before the author has had many interesting adventures in the South
midwinter ascent of Fujiyama alone is the most thrilling adventure of
all and in
some ways the, most romantic.
So far as
the book itself is concerned there is little to say, except that it is
up to the
standard set by the narrative. It is well bound and printed on a good
paper. The illustrations are well done and copious in quantity. The
Royal Road to
Romance is a book everyone should read and it is suitable for
* * *
CORONATI, Vol. xxxviii [Lib 1925], Parts I and II .
Coronati Lodge and its Secretary and Editor, Bro. W. J. Songhurst, are
to be congratulated
on the progress being made in catching up with the arrears in
publication, due to
the war and the consequent period of depression. At the present rate of
the normal state of affairs may soon be looked for. During the year
1925 W. Bro.
J. Heron Lepper was Master of the lodge, which, it is needless to say,
is one of
the highest honors in the select circles of Masonic scholarship. We
trust that many
of our readers will make the acquaintance of the valuable History of
the Grand Lodge
of Ireland, recently reviewed in THE BUILDER, of which he and Bro.
are the joint authors.
paper in the two parts under review is one by Bro. Boris Telepneff on
in the reign of Alexander I. The history of the Craft in Russia is very
and any new light upon it is very welcome. The first definite
point seems to be the Provincial Grand Mastership of Gen. James Keith.
He was appointed
in 1740 by his brother, the Earl of Kintore, then Grand Master. He had
been in the
service of Russia for some years at the time of this appointment.
reign of Catherine II, Masonry seems to have flourished greatly, in the
circles especially. There are rumors that Paul I, who succeeded
Catherine in 1796,
was a Mason, but they are unsupported by any real evidence. It was at
that the Knights of St. John were driven from Malta (1798) by Napoleon
and an attempt
was made to reestablish them in Russia. Paul I took up their cause, and
to have made all the Masters of Lodges in Russia promise him personally
open a lodge without his permission, and in return made them Knights of
thus became dormant, or at least concealed any activity that may have
Alexander followed Paul there were great hopes that the lodges might be
to resume their labors because of the new Emperor's known liberal
1803 the prohibition against secret societies was relaxed in the case
of the Masonic
Fraternity, and Alexander himself became an initiate.
two tendencies manifested in the Craft. One towards Christian
mysticism, the other
following French liberalism, and presumably also the skepticism that
went with it.
To these were added the Swedish system, which derived directly from the
Strict Observance. This, as is well known, was an exclusively Christian
and still is for that matter. The government found this apparently a
and favored it accordingly while the lodges under French influences
those lodges which were approved were under strict supervision; all
to furnish lists of members, times of meetings, and so on. Bro.
that this had the effect of driving some of the more liberal lodges
Strict Observance, with its absolute subordination, enslavement it
be called, of the Craft degrees to the higher grades did not appeal to
and Germanophile element, with the result that Schroeder's rite was
This and Fessler's rite were at one in seeking to return to the
of Masonry and restoring directive power to the Craft proper. The
result was much
dispute between the opponents of the "High Grades," and those who
them in their privileged position. The disagreement reached such a
pitch that in
1815 two Grand Lodges were formed out of the members of the Directorial
Vladimir, which before this was at least nominally the ruling body of
It is impossible to give even a sketch of the story of these two
bodies. The one
holding by the Swedish Rite was more cohesive, but much the weaker
The other attempted no supervision of its constituents, who were free
to work as
they saw fit. Bro. Telepneff points out the gradual deterioration that
set in, both
in spirit and in the quality of membership. The final result was that
became thoroughly dissatisfied with the developments and some even
their fears to the government and advised the suppression of the whole
It would seem that the lodges did not actually become political
centers, but they
did, apparently, in many cases, serve as stepping stones or
antechambers to secret
societies of a revolutionary type. The Emperor, after much hesitation,
a decree closing all the lodges, and in August, 1822, the last meeting
to hear the edict read and to act upon it and thus pass out of
existence. The real
reason for this was not the decree, but the fact that the spirit had
the Russian Craft and only the shell remained to crumble at the first
of the ritual will be interested in a very full account that is quoted
Russian author A. P. Stepanov of the form of admission in 1817 in a
It tallies closely with the briefer accounts given by Tolstoi in some
of his works,
and is parallel to French forms of the same period.
paper was one by Bro. Geo. W. Bullamore on the Antiquity of the Third
was pretty severely handled in the ensuing discussion, especially by
In his method, however, there does seem to be some justification for
The facts are all pretty well known by this time to all students of
and those new ones that have occasionally turned up in recent years are
of the same kind as some one or more of those previously known. The
problem is very
much that of the archeological expert who tries, for example, to
reconstruct a Greek
vase from a miscellaneous heap of pottery fragments. In museums such
can sometimes be seen where the pieces are fastened to a core of
plaster or other
material, and many of the fragments perhaps do not even touch the
We have a number of isolated scraps of evidence and the problem is, to
pattern into which they will all fit. Items that really connect exist,
are many that stand by themselves; and presumably reconstruction will
hypothetical, and depend on the imagination and preconceptions of the
that Bro. Bullamore exhibits, and it has affected many besides him, is
that of trying
to find evidence for things that developed later than 1730 before that
aside his suggestions regarding the Knights Templar, he seems quite
hold that "Mark" Masonry existed, at least in the form of a class of
he denominates "Mark Fellows," and he quotes Bro. Vibert's surmise:
That in operative
days the mark was not selected or conferred without some sort of
in open lodge.
we may indeed surmise, as the minutes of Mary's Chapel and other like
The newly entered Mason selected his mark, and it was "booked," and a
fee was paid to the Clerk for doing so. As the author of the Confession
The day that
a prentice comes under the oath he gets his choice of a mark to put
upon his tools,
by which to know them… . Hereby one is taught to say to such as ask the
where got you that mark? A. I laid one down and took up another.
alludes to the fact that the fee for registration was "one mark Scots."
Here we have a simple formality, but hardly a ceremony. The most
to account for the use of "Mark Masonry" is that it was a deliberate
to preserve the custom of choosing a mark, once universal and as much a
procedure as registering the apprentice's name, but which with changed
had gradually lapsed.
theory seems to be that there were three kinds of Masons, each with a
and ceremonies and secrets of its own, the plain Masons, who seem to be
as the layers; the Mark Fellows, who were stone-cutters and carvers;
and the Masters
who were architects. By an amalgamation of these elements he would
account for our
present three degrees. To revert to our illustration of piecing broken
it seems rather like increasing the size of the core in order to find
all the fragments far enough apart so that no one could say positively
intervening part is not conceivable that would connect them. Naturally
way to disprove such a reconstruction is to find some other arrangement
the pieces closer together, and perhaps puts some of them in actual
is made in the paper of the introduction of the chisel in the 12th
undoubtedly marked an epoch in technique, but the use of the chisel
does not mean
that the axe or gavel-hammer was discarded. It continued to be used for
out the work and would form part of every mason's kit. Early ornament
was not worked
with the axe but with the pick, and in effect the pick was chisel and
one ‒ only it needed far greater manual skill, just as the adze needs
far more skill
than the plane. On the other hand work could be done with the chisel
be practically impossible with the pick, so that, as has happened in
a new tool lessened the skill of hand necessary but opened new avenues
thing only can be touched on: in his reply at the end of the discussion
advanced some evidence that seems on its face to indicate that the
mentioned in most of the Old Charges, upon which the oath was taken,
was not the
Bible, nor even the Gospels, but the book or roll of the Charges
itself. This opens
up a new question altogether, and one that needs further discussion.
In Part II
there is a paper by Bro. W. J. Williams on Alexander Pope, and another
by Bro. J.
Heron Lepper on Irish Ambulatory Warrants with the rather romantic
title of "The
Poor Common Soldier." Both are of very great interest. It may surprise
people to learn that Pope was a Roman Catholic and even more to learn
that in addition
he was a Freemason. However, as Bro. Lepper stated in the discussion up
a hundred years ago, the majority of Masons in Ireland were Roman
Bro. Williams pointed out in his paper, the Grand Master was himself a
in the year that the name "Alexr. Pope" first appears in the list of
of the lodge at the "Goat at the Foot of the Hay Market."
It was the
late Bro. Chetwode Crawley who first suggested that the Alexr. Pope of
referred to was the well-known poet. Bro. Daynes, who always proves
himself a most
vigilant critic, points out that Bro. Williams has not brought us at
to certitude on the point. Pope is not a rare name, nor yet is
is no proof that the Freemason was also the poet. But Bro. Williams, in
said he had merely taken the suggestion for whatever it might be worth,
from Pope's writings that, whether a Mason or not, he freely satirised
and its members.
paper adds a lot of new information regarding military lodges, many of
to America at one time or another, and were very influential in shaping
that Freemasonry took in this country when it declared itself
independent. A very
interesting argument is offered that the lodge Parfaite Egalite
the Grand Lodge of France, as belonging to "the Regiment of Walshe" may
have had some documentary proof of its claim to have been constituted
in 1688. Originally
this was an Irish regiment in the service of James I and which later
James II against William of Orange in Ireland. From thence what was
left of it went
to France and entered the service of the French King. As Bro. Lepper
says if students
of Trinity College in Dublin were joining the Fraternity in 1688 why
not (and indeed
a fortiori) the soldiers?
concludes with the account of the annual summer outing of the lodge in
1925 by Bro.
Lionel Vibert. This time the visit was made to Dorset, which is a
country rich in
antiquities of all periods, from prehistoric times to those that in
but of yesterday. The members of the lodge who made the pilgrimage
seem, as usual,
to have had a very interesting and enjoyable time.
* * *
IN THE PILLORY
[Lib*]. By John Bond. Published by the Fellowship Forum, Washington, D.
illustrated, table of contents, 76 pages. Price $1.10.
strange that anti-Catholic propaganda so often falls into the same
errors as pro-Catholic
publicity. That such is the case is strikingly illustrated in the
There is no need to go into great detail, but the underlying principle
of all propaganda
seems to be the publication of facts, expurgated to meet certain needs.
words it is generally impossible to say that a bit of pro-something or
publicity is fallacious in its premises if the propagandist knows his
The facts may be absolutely correct, founded upon the best of
and yet be so written as to give a false impression. This is, of
course, not deliberate
lying, but it is the very essence of the science of propaganda.
In the Pillory
is clearly an illustration of this type of publication. The book is
devilishly clever in its construction, and doubtless will succeed in
John Bond is by far the best writer on the staff of The Fellowship
Forum. He has
a way of telling the truth, as far as he goes, and the result is far
than the blatant criticism so often seen in the pages of some
periodicals. The book
deals with the Pope Alexander VI, Roderigo Borgia. The reputation of
is too well known to require much comment. Their dissoluteness is known
hand and when it is expressed in modern English the effect is enormous.
is gained immediately that any organization which permitted such
license and immorality
is, and cannot help but be, as immoral at the present time. That is
Bond wants to convey.
is said I should like to make the statement that I hold no brief for
the Roman Church,
but I do like to see fairness in criticism.
It has been
said that we cannot understand a man until we know the times in which
There is the secret of Bond’s book. Instead of telling anything about
standards of the fifteenth century, he proceeds to allow us to judge by
of conduct. That Alexander VI was worse than even his times seems
it does not appear that he was very much worse. There have been other
who had illegitimate children, others who poisoned those who stood in
and doubtless others who indulged in the Bacchanalian orgies which
Alexander VI. These were not so severely criticized, and their
escapades are not
so well known. The mediaeval period was steeped in this sort of thing.
should be read by everyone. It is interesting, but it needs an
of the period to modify the effect of the horrors depicted. It must
also be remembered
that the "Counter-Reformation" was really a great reformation in the
church, even if not on lines that Protestants would approve. It would
also be possible
to argue that if it had occurred earlier there would never have been
However, in the nature of things, when the corruption had so completely
the central organization, the impulse to reform could only be supplied
which made the revolt labelled "the Reformation" a necessary antecedent.
* * *
THE SON OF
MAN AND THE NEW NATIONS [Lib*]. Published by the Danite Publishing Co.
WE are not
familiar with the precise creed of the Danite organization, and it is
not easy to
fathom the meaning of this pamphlet. It seems to be rather eclectic,
the Bible, especially the apocalyptic parts, Revelations and the more
But with this is apparently material drawn from the Kabbalah, Alchemy
mystical schools, including Astrology. Vegetarianism seems to be also
part of the
creed which would there parallel Buddhism. The end of the world, or day
seems also to be looked for, though not exactly in the traditional way
while California it seems is to be the center of a new world order in
* * *
OF THE REPUBLIC [Lib*]. By Claude G. Bowers. Paper, 36 pages. Twentieth
American Novels, by William Lyon Phelps. Paper, 28 pages. The Foreign
of the United States, by Paul Scott Mowrer. Paper, 34 pages. A Study of
Drama on the State, by Walter Prichard Eaton. Paper, 32 pages.
Published by the
American Library Association, Chicago. Price, 35c each.
reading courses, each prepared by a recognize authority in the special
are component part of a much larger group of pamphlets published by the
Library Association under the general heading Reading With a Purpose.
It is the
design of each of these courses to sketch briefly the field to be
covered and to
suggest certain books which will enable one to gain a working knowledge
of the subject
without following the haphazard practice so common among readers
is no intention upon the part of the compilers of these reading
curricula to limit
the list to those books of which mention is made, but merely to suggest
from which to begin a systematic study of any particular subject. It is
to suppose that anyone who read the books prescribed will find
references to other
works which will encourage him to delve deeper into the subject he has
strong recommendation for following these courses is the moderate price
of the books recommended and the fact that all of them will be found in
public library. It is not necessary to buy the texts, though it does
that anyone having a real interest in any of the subjects will want to
books which are mentioned in the course, as well as others which may
The average total cost of the books to which reference is made is
and $25.00 for each course.
The Question Box and Correspondence
Club In Arizona
Club, located at Whipple, Ariz., was organized Dec. 1, 1920. Its
of Master Masons who are patients at this U. S. Veterans' Bureau
Hospital, and who
are suffering from tuberculosis, ex-patients, physicians at the
hospital and a few
subscribing members from brethren who reside in Prescott. Patients in
come from all states of the Union, and only about 5 per cent from the
State of Arizona.
fee is $1 and dues are 50 cents per month. Patients not drawing
those whose financial conditions will not permit, pay no dues.
of this club is extended to all sick or disabled Master Masons, whether
of the club or not.
of this club is to care for their more unfortunate brethren, distribute
speak words of cheer and perform those acts of kindness and brotherly
their home lodges are unable to do on account of their distance from
this, it is necessary to have funds with which to work. The various
in this state and from afar have contributed from time to time to this
present our funds are low, and we are taking this method of appealing
to you for
no salaried officers in this club and the following statement for the
July 1, 1926, to June 30, 1927, will give you an idea of bow our funds
Balance carried over $118.79
Dues collected 163.00
Dividends from defunct bank 130.18 $640.48
Stationery and printing 46.75
Entertainment, charities, etc 388.91
Balance 16.97 $640.48
is sponsored by Aztlan Lodge, No. 1, Prescott, Ariz., and has upon
been given the approval of the Grand Lodge of Arizona, whose officers
members of this club.
the unhappy, to sympathize with their misfortunes, to compassionate
to relieve the distressed, and to restore peace to their troubled
minds, is the
great aim we have in view.
If this work
appeals to you, if you believe in it, if you want it to be done, may we
from you at an early date?
C. W. BANGS,
W. H. MARSHALL, Secretary.
* * *
In your July
issue W.B.S. asks in regard to the origin of the Teutonic Cross, which
used in the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry.
Cross is known in heraldry as the Cross Potent. It is also known as the
Jerusalem, although the latter is usually shown with four small crosses
in each angle.
Potent acquired the name Teutonic Cross through its use by the German
The Teutonic Order was organized in Jerusalem about 1190. Their dress
was a mantle
with a Cross Potent embroidered in gold. Emperor Henry VI gave them the
Potent. Later King John, of Jerusalem, added to this a Double Cross
Then Emperor Frederick Il added an Imperial Eagle in an escutcheon in
of the cross.
is described in heraldry as "A Cross Potent, sable (black) charged with
Cross Double Potent, or (gold) and surcharged with an escutcheon argent
bearing a Double-Headed Eagle sable (black)."
‒ J. H.
* * *
I do not
see what object is to be gained by "attacking" the R. C. Church. I feel
that the Masonic Order and the R. C. Church are so diametrically
opposed that there
can never be any rapprochement between them, and the antagonistic
attitude of recent
articles will do much to disturb that neutrality which has existed
between the R.
C's and Anglo-Saxon Masonry for some years. I cannot help expressing
the fear that
politics may possibly be at the bottom of this anti-Catholic campaign
and, if such
is the case, then it strikes me as not only a very dangerous movement,
to the principles of the Order as a non-political institution.
not, I am sure, think that I would bar all references to Roman
Catholicism in a
Masonic journal. In a research magazine I think that they should be
the contacts made between the two organizations in their historical
aspect, or in
the exposition of divergence in their respective dogmas.
I do not
see what the article on the Quebec school question or that on the
laws has to do with Masonic research, though, of course, of great
I think the first article dealt very fairly with the subject, but the
dangerously critical of the Quebec Bench. To attempt to deal adequately
paper would necessitate looking up some of the recent annulment cases,
be much better handled by a lawyer, but I will make a few general
headed "The Limits of Ecclesiastical Authority" is a true statement of
the case, but I do not agree with the writer's conclusions that the
gradually acquired quasi-civil authority.
a tendency among those unfamiliar with the Code ‒ particularly amongst
to the Province ‒ to criticize it in other particulars besides
marriage, but familiarity
with it engenders respect. This has been my own experience.
in the Code concerning impediments to marriage reads … the other
according to the different religious persuasions … remain subject to
the rules hitherto
followed in the different churches and religious communities.
that a very recent decision annulled a marriage between two of the
because of an impediment recognized by their Church.
of marriage confers certain civil rights upon the parties contracting
remain, even if the marriage is not, recognized by the various
(not necessarily R. C.). For example, unless a contract is made before
the parties become common as to property (i.e., on the death of one of
the other takes half of the estate. This is putting it roughly).
Surely, if persons
find themselves married in the eyes of the law by a marriage
unrecognized by their
Church, it is but equitable that they should be able to sue for an
that marriage, and the civil rights created by it.
of declaring marriages null and void ab initio has always existed in
since the promulgation of the Code in 1866, and the grounds, as I have
are not confined exclusively to Roman Canon law, nor is it true to say
Courts still occasionally grant annulments of marriage for reasons
other than those
recognized by the State." Further I find no reference in the Code to
influence" or "duress" as grounds for annulment.
can be raised to a marriage being annulled “on a number of grounds
other than those
recognized by the rest of the Dominion?" Quebec is a sovereign state in
of marriage, the provinces retaining control at the time of
185 of the Civil Code reads: "Marriage can only be dissolved by the
death of one of the partners; while both live, it is indissoluble."
no action for divorce can lie in the Quebec courts. If a petition for
to the Federal House, it is granted on division only, the R. C. members
I have developed
criticism of this article more than I intended, and am afraid that my
not very well ordered.
‒ A. J.
is part of a letter to the Editor. As our correspondent suggests that
author of the article referred to may not fully appreciate the
situation, we may
say that Prof. Vial is a native of the Province of Quebec; that he was
educated in Quebec city, where the English speaking residents are a
very small minority,
and that he has a very wide acquaintance with French Canadians both in
country, and that there is no one who is less likely to "attack" the
Church. Neither is THE BUILDER attacking it, as we have once more
explained in the
editorial columns. At the same time Bro. A. J. M. gives another point
of view that
* * *
BUILDER has given to its readers a good deal of information about the
Malta and since one branch of Masonry confers this degree, it may be of
to Masons to know the correct way to address the Master of the parent
stem of the
Knights of Malta. This is especially true since recently the Pope of
Rome has introduced
into this country this most exclusive order which in Europe admits only
high and long degree.
Up to the
17th century the members of the college of cardinals were addressed as
Illustrious" and "Most Reverend." In the forepart of the 17th century
Pope Urban VIII ordered that the cardinals (princes of the church), the
of the Holy Roman Empire and the Master of the Order of Malta, should
have the title
of "Eminence" and should be so addressed.
In 1806 the
Holy Roman Empire was dissolved as it was feared that Napoleon would
Holy Roman Emperor. This left this title of honor only to the members
of the Sacred
College and to the Master of the Knights of Malta.
As the Knights
in this country belonging to the Roman branch are mostly millionaires
equal to the members of the oldest European nobility, should their
Master, and themselves
by courtesy, personally be addressed as "His Eminence"? Burton E.
letter has reached us from Bro. Bennett containing a newspaper clipping
of an Associated
Press report describing the marriage of Princess Anna of France to
of Savoy on Nov. 5 of this year. The point of interest in the present
is that the bridegroom is said to have been in the uniform of a
Lt.-Col. of Artillery
and "wearing his many decorations, chief of which was the Order of
and the Order of Malta."
to the question raised as to the proper title of address of the members
of the Order
in the United States we have no information at hand. If any of our
the answer we should be pleased to insert it as a matter of curiosity.
* * *
seem that in my recent articles I have failed to make my position
clear. Bro. R.
J. Meekren on page 304 of the October BUILDER says: "It would seem in
that Bro. Briggs really holds that only those professing belief in the
one of the Protestant denominations are properly eligible to Masonry."
to say I do not hold any such opinion. Freemasonry has nothing to do
with the creeds
‒ we leave these to the churches. All I insist upon is that a man shall
was initiated in Cooper Lodge, No. 36, at Boonville, Mo., in December,
1879, I had
stated in my petition that I was a firm believer in the one living and
Early in my Masonic career I was taught that no man, especially a
ever engage in any great or important undertaking without first
invoking the aid
and blessing of Deity. I was told that in the beginning God created the
the earth, that the Holy Bible was one of the Great Lights, that it was
gift to man, and it was commended to be the rule and guide of my faith
Since then I have served as Worshipful Master, High Priest and
Commander. I was
elected Grand High Priest in 1894, Grand Master in 1899, and am now
of the Grand Commandery of Missouri. I have been President of the
Anointed High Priests of Missouri and Sovereign of St. Andrew's
Conclave, No. 11,
Red Cross of Constantine, have been a Royal and Select Master since
and a member of Ararat Shrine since June, 1889, and for a number of
years a 32 degree
Scottish Rite Mason. I have attended five Convocations of the General
of the United States, have visited Grand Lodges of other states and
seen the Masonic
degrees conferred in other Grand Jurisdictions and have yet to learn
that the instruction
given me when I was initiated has become obsolete.
But on the
contrary the Grand Lodge of Missouri has always stood by these
the past year I installed the officers of seven lodges. In each
instance I required
the Master-elect to admit "that it is not in the power of any man or
men to make innovations in the body of Masonry.” The man who does not
fundamentals ought not to petition a lodge for admission.
be many good men who do not believe what Freemasonry teaches. Let them
of their own. Let them found the Grand Imperial Order of Snollygosters
in every good fellow who does not like to retain God in his knowledge,
is good enough and broad enough for me. I am not willing to accept any
of Human Brotherhood which has not as its basis the Fatherhood of God.
On that rock
Freemasonry builds and stands secure.
‒ C. H.
* * *
It is a striking
coincidence that the college fraternity to which I belong bears a
in symbolism to the Lodge of the Holy Cross, of the Island of St.
West Indies. The fraternity "Sigma Chi" founded in 1855 at Oxford,
uses a white cross as its main emblem. This without its academic and
is a facsimile of the main emblem of Lodge of the Holy Cross,
instituted at the
aforesaid location in 1779.
‒ G. N.
the coincidence is certainly striking and perhaps Bro. Black is
entitled to draw
the conclusion that there may be some connection between the lodge and
fraternity, I am inclined to think that he is carrying the symbolism a
bit too far.
I too, am a fraternity man, though not a member of Sigma Chi. I
years ago hearing Dean Thomas Arkle Clark of the University of
Illinois, one of
the best known and most thoroughly posted men in the field of college
make reference to the fact that a great many colleges used a cross in
one form or
another as a part of their emblem. It was his opinion that the cross
symbolized the crucifixion. A student of symbology will agree that this
likely in a Christian country. Perhaps Bro. Black is as familiar with
badges as the writer and it will not be necessary to mention more than
Omega, Sigma Nu, Phi Delta Theta, the last uses a sword which is no
more than a
modified cross, to call to mind the similarity. It is perhaps
the Sigma Chi cross and that of the lodge are the same, but I am firmly
that a better and more likely source for the symbolism would be the New
and not the lodge at St. Croix.
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History of Freemasonry
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