Masonic Research Society
Most High of the Craft
Bro. John W. House, Canada
ONE of the
most promising signs of life within the Craft is the deepening interest
of the brethren
in the basic principles of the Order. Likewise architects who plan
in direct relation to the strength of their foundations, Masons are
value of the fundamental truths upon which their moral edifice is to be
naturally, some of the vital truths in our foundation are easy to
are obscure and covered with such huge growths of fungus that they
almost defy estimation
to any but the expert. The outstanding example of this latter class is
of the Most High which stands at the corner.
stone exists is, to a Mason, beyond doubt; but the nature of it is a
matter of much
speculation. The fungus is so thick that nothing short of indefatigable
will suffice to lay the stone bare. Indeed, most men are so occupied
with the philosophies
of the ages under the name of Religion, and modern popular vagaries,
that they are
unable to tell the difference between stone and fungus. Of those who
see the stone,
few look at it from all angles before passing an opinion with decision
Still fewer, in our age of presumption, born of a popular elementary
will accept the help of ancient Past Masters in their estimation of its
and stability. We Masons, by virtue of our initiation, take our stand
latter group, and look to our Alma Mater for nourishment with the
prepared by the great minds of the past.
of symbolic teaching lies in the effort required to arrive at the
truth, and in
this respect Masonry is unexcelled. One has literally to ascend the
in order to enter the sacred shrine of her deepest mysteries. The
search for a correct
estimate of her Most High attains fruition only after much wandering
along the path
of research, but we will take to the path.
At the very
outset, we are hampered in our search by an ancient charge which
forbids every topic
of religious or political discussion. On analysis, this soon
in the eighteenth century, was by no means the comprehensive term it is
denoted then, what the word really means, a system which binds men to a
course of thought and action. It was applied to what we now term
and as such, I think, the compilers of our ritual included it in this
that they showed their wisdom. Taken in the technical sense of the
Masonry and religion are synonymous terms, for both denote a system of
which binds men to a definite course of action. If religion means, what
think it means, viz., anything pertaining to God, then by our own
is an absurdity. Eliminate a conception of a Creator who is the
embodiment of life,
and who takes, or gives to man as he will, and we cannot explain our
How foolish to solemnly declare that the Spirit returns to God who gave
it, if the
mystery of death has not given us a definite conception of God who is
able to give!
Evidently then, the regulation concerning religious discussion cannot
to all discussion concerning religious things, but rather forbids that
which causes dissension among religious bodies.
What Is It?
to understand nature one has need of both a microscope and a telescope.
former he sees the minute wonders of the world, and with the latter he
glory of the heavens. The use of one instrument alone reveals only part
of the Universe.
So it with Masonry. Continual study of the history of the Order tends
the modern interpretation of our symbols, and on the other hand, the
of learning and explaining our ritual dwarfs the comprehension of the
of our system. We must endeavor to use both instruments.
As we survey
the vista of the ages, and linger awhile at each bright vision of our
or as we penetrate the mysterious secrets of our modern Craft, we
that a common factor permeates all. The unsung Watcher of the Nile and
High Priest of Amen, the Cathedral Craftsman and our modern Master
Mason, are all
alike banded together by a bond of brotherhood in the quest of
something they call
Truth. The significance and peculiarity of this word demands our
attention for a
beginning of time philosophers have used the content of this word Truth
as a mental
football, and have invariably ended by kicking it into the metaphysical
losing it there. The Mysteries, however, clothe its ethic with a body
and make it
denote the Creator, in whom is embodied the Ideal of manhood and
nature. As their
God was, so was Truth, and in order to find the real standard of verity
they concentrated all their energies in finding God. They succeeded in
moral nature of the Divine, and appropriated it; but they were baffled
endeavor to lay hold of the very principle of life which was, and is,
needed. Tradition informs us that they once had even this in their
it was lost. They have spared nothing in their endeavor to regain this
have been wholly given to its pursuit in every age, corporate endeavor
centralized in one grand effort to pierce the firmament and wrest the
the Creator Himself, but the Tower of Babel fell, and the principle of
life is still
the All-producing Word has ever been the symbol of this Secret, and of
we find it looming large in all the Mysteries. The pathetic story of
her inability to find the generative organs of her lord Osiris, or the
Adam from the garden in Eden lest he should eat of the Tree of Life,
portray ancient conviction with regard to this. The Hebrew Scriptures,
at the bosom of Egyptian learning, continually use the term Word to
denote the source
of life and wisdom. The idea underlies that well-known phrase "God
there be light,' and light was." The Omniferous Word came into
light immediately was. At the beginning of the Christian era this idea
and we find St. John describing Jesus, who to him was the "resurrection
the life," as the Logos or the Word made flesh.
Function of the Ideal
To the Ancients,
this search for the Ideal in their God was vitally important to their
morality. To them, morality was not an entity per se, but rather the
of a definite cause. They believed that as men contemplated the Ideal,
part of their being, and tended to change them into a likeness of
itself. It may
be noticed here, that contemplation is a dynamic with regard to
morality. This idea
underlies all moral teaching in the Volume of the Sacred Law. A vision
of God precedes
every commission to work, King Solomon places "the fear of the Lord" at
the foundation of Wisdom, the preacher in Ecclesiastes says, "Wisdom,"
which he describes as the knowledge of the Lord, "maketh the face to
St. Paul, the philosopher of the Christian dispensation, conveys this
when he says, "We all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory
the Lord, are changed into the same image from Glory to Glory." The
symbolism, at its beginning, pointed nowhere to morality, but directed
to the glory of God and so enjoined moral action.
to the Craft as it is today, we find a system which can be definitely
its present form to about the year 1717. Whether that date is correct
or not, does
not matter for our purpose, neither is the question of its origin of
any great importance.
It is sufficient to acknowledge that our brethren who gave us our
system, gave it
in such a way as to most adequately reflect the clear light of Masonry.
accept their gift, and proudly declare it to be the genuine article.
are the test of genuine Masonry the world over, and therefore a close
study of the
actual tenets of the system, as we have it, will reveal what our
brethren of 1717
considered the fundamental faith of the Craft wherever found.
When we look
into our system, it is easy to see that our brethren considered that
embraced the ancient ethic of morality. All our work leads us to the
feet of the
Most High who is the embodiment of verity and life, and our morality is
of contemplating His nature. Nowhere is morality enjoined until the
supposed to have found that very quality in the being of the Creator.
we moderns have become accustomed to demand so little of a candidate
that it is
quite possible for a man to go through all the degrees without really
one step in the actual science of the Craft, and in consequence of this
Mason gets things a little out of proportion. Morality is gradually
seat of the Most High in the Center, and in doing so saps its own life
however, taking for granted a man's knowledge of nature and science,
and only enunciating
the results of such knowledge, puts the root of human morality in the
the Most High, and its dynamic in contemplation. A glance at our Ritual
a candidate is simply examined, bonded and prepared for his education
in the mysteries.
At the commencement of light, he is directed to that which is the
of thy Divine nature, after surveying which he dons his working attire,
appropriate tools and commences labor. He penetrates the secrets of
nature and science
and discovers God at the center of all and ruling in justice and
equity. After this
revelation, he finds that he is needing the plumb and level to form his
of morality. As a perfect Craftsman, he enters the confines of death,
a holy confidence that the nature of the Most High is such that when
time and circumstance
permit he will restore to man the principle of life. This inspires the
of his circle of morality in readiness for that day. Everywhere we find
the consequence and reflection of the Divine Nature.
Now the knowledge
of this relationship between morality and the Divinity supplies us with
with which we can enter the secret recesses of the Divine Nature. Since
is a reflection of the Most High, it necessarily follows that the God
can be correctly estimated by a study of the consequent moral system.
good in a study of every faith in the world, and a comparative study
not opinions, leads to some startling conclusions. We declare our faith
to be "Universal,"
and, popularly, that resolves itself into a belief that a Mason can
accept any god
as his God. But is this true? Can a Mason, for instance, accept a
consequent moral system enjoins cruelty and hate, and yet hold true to
brotherly love? If the morality of such faiths as Buddhism,
Confucianism, and so
on, cannot be included in ours without contradiction, the gods from
which it emanates
cannot be the same as our Most High. Again any Volume of Sacred Law
moral directions in contradiction to our system cannot find a place on
Because our brethren of 1813 called the Bible by the vague name of
Sacred Law does
not do away with the fact that that volume must contain our morality.
in it contradicts our system, it ceases to be, for us, the "unerring
of truth and justice."
is a super-religion, infinitely transcending all religious beliefs of
which implies a special super-revelation of the Divine Ideal, our
system must come
from one or all of the existing systems of the world. If it is
universal, it should
be able to penetrate, without contradiction, all the Faiths of mankind,
but it cannot
a part of our moral code is common to all religions and by the addition
of a little
local color a much larger portion could be so synchronized. Elastic
like justice and uprightness are pillars of every great faith, but when
of these words is properly understood, one realizes that they are not
in the same sense. For instance, Justice looms large in the Greek
it does in our Masonic system, but when one hears Plato describe this
"doing good to friends, and evil to enemies," one must admit that it is
not Masonic justice that the Greeks embrace. Other moral precepts
taught by Masonry
not only will not fit all religions, but actually contradict them. Our
chastity, or temperance, would ruin the licentious orgies under the
of Isis, Venus, or Bacchus. Mercy, with which we are commanded to
the lie to the venerable Confucius who, in spite of exhorting his
followers to "apply
the rule of the square to their actions," commands ruthless vengeance.
man," he says, "should not live under the same heaven with one who had
done him deadly wrong." Our positive uprightness is the direct
Hindu negative virtue, so is our universal benevolence to Moslem
Charity denies the selfishness which pervades modern materialism and
The greatest pillar of Masonic morality, viz., universal brotherhood,
of "creed, rank or fortune," cannot fit into any religion but
without doing violence to it. It is sometimes believed that this was a
the ancient mysteries, but that is not true. The level simply
earth, and not living men. It did not even symbolize the common lot of
man in death.
Christ alone, of all the founders of religions, revealed the level of
we understand it. Adherents of other faiths, under the influence of
and communication, are unconsciously allowing its inclusion in their
in doing so they do violence to their own system.
doubt, our morality is Christian, and is only universal in the sense of
that it could be universal. That does not mean that it repudiates all
but on the contrary, it takes all that is good and great from every
faith even as
Christ did, and infinitely transcends them with Love. Then if we would
complete nature of our Most High we should search the mind of Jesus of
It is very
clear that our brethren of 1717 were not at all in doubt about the
whom Masons adore. They show this in four ways, first, by accepting, or
the drama of King Solomon's Temple, secondly, by the specific signs
they use for
the Most High, thirdly, by the expression of their prayers, and lastly,
by the acceptance
of a system of morality which will only conform to the former ideas.
Mysteries provide many dramatic representations of the search for
truth. Most of
them are much more vivid and awe-inspiring than ours, and yet our
an obscure tradition of the Jewish Temple. Evidently they considered
that by so
doing they were taking the system that most adequately fitted their
Truth. At the center of everything, the point from which a Master Mason
is placed a symbol of the divine name. This is not the sign for Buddha,
Jupiter, or a universal principle, but the technically correct symbol
for the Jehovah
of the Jews. The Yod or the Divine Tetragrammaton was used to denote
nature of Jehovah as distinct from the gods of Egypt and the East. That
were aware of this technical significance is very evident by the
exactness of their
details, and yet the choice was made. The later inclusion of the
doctrine of the
Logos, that bright and morning star, shows beyond doubt that it was not
just a case
of fitting the right name into temple surroundings. The various prayers
transcend any that were the outcome of ancient mystic thought. Even
the chant of Iknaton, lacks the very essence of our prayers, the belief
in the personality
of God. Ours are ludicrous if addressed to mere energy, and we who use
foolish. They are evidently molded by minds with a definite conception
If there was any loophole through which uncertainty could squeeze into
it was blocked by the choice of our morality of love. No god, and
certainly no mere
abstraction or force, can inspire such a system, except one the Father
Movement in the American Grand Bodies
Bro. Charles Sumner Lobingier,
Washington, D. C.
became a live issue in the Masonic circles of Nebraska as early as
1889. On May
1 of that year the Grand Commandery meeting at York adopted a
resolution (75) specifying
the Grand bodies recognized by it and mentioning by name and commander,
and Southern Supreme Councils. An attempt was made by a Past Commander
to have consideration
postponed, and after its adoption he announced an appeal (76) which,
was never carried out. The Grand Lodge met on the 19th of the following
Grand Master France declared in his address:
of jurisdiction are universally recognized and adhered to by loyal
Masons of all
two Grand bodies of the
same grade cannot lawfully exist in the same
state at the same time.
the first lawfully
constituted body established in a state and duly
recognized by corresponding bodies, thereby obtains exclusive
jurisdiction in such
territory, and that any other body of the same grade or rite entering
such territory, is in itself unlawful.
propositions have never, to my knowledge, been denied by any
It may be claimed that this Grand Lodge has no right to take any action
to the higher degrees and higher orders of Masonry. However this may
be, many grand
jurisdictions have established a precedent by which it seems to me we
can be safely
on Jurisprudence approved the two propositions quoted above but
expressly declines to enter
upon any discussion
of the history, use or legitimacy of any bodies claiming to confer what
as the Scottish Rite degrees, or to be committed to the recognition of
body, or to the recognition of any body conferring any degrees over
which this Grand
Lodge has no control (78)
was adopted on June 20, 1889. Exactly one month later a new and more
Grand Master, who had meanwhile taken office, issued an edict declaring
that the only legitimate and
Masonic authority of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite within the
Nebraska is that of the Southern Jurisdiction for the United States,
by Bro. Albert Pike; that all others not acknowledging allegiance to
the said Southern
Jurisdiction are UNLAWFUL AND CLANDESTINE, and their creation and
a menace to the peace, tranquility and harmony of the Craft (79),
all brethren within our
Jurisdiction to refrain
from joining any bodies of the so-called "Cerneau Rite"; and if any
already become members thereof, to withdraw from such membership and
On Aug. 6,
following, the members of Nebraska Lodge, No. 1, "the oldest landmark
in the state," adopted a manifesto (81), in the form of resolutions, to
other lodges, protesting against the edict and in effect declaring it
Two weeks later the Grand Master, to use his own language,
suspended the Master and
Wardens thereof from
the exercise of their official functions, took possession of the
and seal of said lodge, and directed the Treasurer of said lodge to
retain all moneys
belonging thereto in his possession, informing him that I would hold
and officially responsible for the same until called for by proper
was a challenge to the followers of Cerneau
who had, some of them, been
highly honored by
the Craft of Nebraska by the election to some of the highest offices
of honor in their gift, and who justly prided themselves that they were
in Masonic circles among us (83).
Such an issue
could be settled only in the Grand Lodge itself, and it was there
settled at the
ensuing session. The Grand Master devoted nearly twenty-three pages of
to the subject, reviewing exhaustively the action thereon of the
various Grand Lodges.
He also recommended
that Alexander Atkinson,
Master; Augustus C.
Osterman, Senior Warden; and William D. McHugL, Junior Warden, be
and disciplined in the manner and to the extent that in your judgment
of their offence merits, all the circumstances of the case considered.
and the action preceding it evoked a long and acrimonious discussion,
as the following
excerpt from the proceedings, relative to a resolution to
sustain and endorse the Grand Master," will indicate:
Bro. Lininger, 3, moved that
the resolution be
referred to the committee on jurisprudence. Bros. Chapman, 6, and
Holmes, 55 addressed
the brethren. Bro. Holmes, 55, moved, as a substitute, that the
resolution be referred
to a special committee whose members shall not be Scottish Rite Masons
‒ ruled out
of order, the motion to refer to a standing committee having
precedence. Bros. Hastings
19, Warren, 2, Chapman, 6. Dunham, 3, Rayner, 75, Crites, i58, Furnas,
11, France, 56, Lowe, 95, Dinsmore, 49, Ehrhardt, 41, Davis, 21, and
addressed the brethren. Bro. Lininger, 3, withdrew his motion. Bro.
moved reference of the resolution to a special committee of five, none
of whom should
be Scottish Rite Masons, which motion was lost. Bros. Owen, 19,
Coutant, 11 Lininger,
3, Wheeler, 1, Lininger, 3, France, 56, Martin, 46. Chapman, 6,
Cleburne, 3, and
Warren, 2. addressed the brethren. Bro. Rayner. 75, offered an
amendment to the
pending resolution; Bro. Warren, 2, moved that all new matter therein
out, and Bro. Rayner erased it; Bro. Wheeler, 1, moved strike out the
which motion prevailed. (85)
recalling the edict, censuring the lodge but restoring its charter, was
by a vote of 336 to 151, and the original resolution of unequivocal
by three hundred and forty-five
(345) yeas to
one hundred and thirty-nine (139) nays. (86)
what was probably the most strenuous contest over Cerneauism of the
many which raged
in the American Grand Lodges.
Territory Grand Master closed that portion of his address devoted to
before the Grand Lodge which held its sixteenth annual communication at
on Nov. 4, 1890, with these words:
Cerneauism has thrown some of
our sister Grand
Lodges and the Craft within their jurisdiction into a state of
confusion which for
a time seemed to threaten their very existence. Let us profit by their
and so legislate in advance that our Grand Lodge may never feel
this clandestine enemy (87)
committee to which this portion of the address was referred, and whose
unanimously adopted, recommended
That the Grand Lodge of Indian
F. and A. M., reaffirm the declaration of Masonic principles set forth
in the address
of Grand Master Bennett, touching Masonic occupancy of the territory
by it ‒ Indian Territory and Oklahoma ‒ and hereby instructs its
it recognizes as legal occupants of the Indian Territory * * * the A.
and A. Scottish
Rite Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States
Albert Pike is the present Sovereign Grand Commander (88).
Grand Master of the Indian Territory Grand Lodge, before its union with
Oklahoma, issued a circular (89), on Oct. 27, 1908, apropos of the
in reply to the Louisiana edicts, and characterized as clandestine all
the state claiming to be Scottish Rite and not owing allegiance to the
Council. The Grand Lodge laws on the subject were directed to be
all Masons connected with such bodies.
Conklin, of California, in 1891, called the attention of the Grand
Lodge, in his
address before it at San Francisco on Oct. 13, "to a spirit of
has sprung up in the state of Ohio," and was, he said,
the legitimate result of a
clandestine and spurious
organization of a so-called branch of Scottish Rite Masonry known as
" Wherever these people have acquired a foothold they have shown the
discord, and the harvest of discontent and rebellion have not been
reaped. Our expression
of condemnation cannot be too emphatic (90).
of the address was referred to the Committee on Jurisprudence which
in agreement with the Grand Master's position but considered it
by existing legislation (91). The report, however, added the following:
Relative to a Lodge of the
Scottish Rite reported
to have been established in Los Angeles under the jurisdiction of a
Council of New Orleans, Louisiana.
advised that such a lodge had been established in that city, the Grand
a circular cautioning our brethren against recognizing or holding
any person connected with that clandestine and spurious body. We
approve the action
of the Grand Master, and are of opinion that no further action need be
this time (92).
On Oct. 17,
1891, the Washington Grand Master issued a warning to "all Masons who
cherish and wish to preserve, our ancient landmarks and the purity of
to the effect
that one Oliver F. Briggs, and
are within our Grand Jurisdiction organizing Lodges, purporting to be
origin, of the so-called "Cerneau Rite," a rite which has not been
by the laws of our Grand Jurisdiction, nor as I am reliably informed,
is it recognized
by the laws of any regularly constituted Grand Lodge of Ancient Craft
the United States, but, on the contrary, I find that it is alleged to
At the ensuing
session of the Grand Lodge, on June 14, 1892, the Grand Master quoted
in his address and added:
Believing that this matter has
nothing to do
with Ancient Craft Masonry, I do not deem it expedient that any action
by the Grand Lodge (94).
to which the address was referred recommended however
that the position taken by the
Grand Master on
the Cerneau Rite be concurred in,
and this was adopted (95). It
was in the same
year (1892) that the North Carolina Grand Master was able to say
Cerneauism has not yet made its
this Grand jurisdiction, though I have reason to suspect that efforts
will be made
to introduce it.
In the absence of Grand Lodge
action, [I] have
determined to interdict it. Now that the Grand Lodge is in session, I
question to you for consideration. In my judgment this Grand Lodge
condemn it (96).
committee to which this was referred reported a resolution which was
no lodge in this Grand
Jurisdiction shall recognize
or hold communication with the Cerneau body or its members, and shall
the establishment of any of its branches in this jurisdiction (97).
At the thirty-fourth
annual communication of the Idaho Grand Lodge, opened at Boise on Sept.
a resolution was adopted after being reported favorably, with one
by the Committee on Jurisprudence, specifying what bodies were
the Supreme Councils of the
Ancient and Accepted
Scottish Rite for the Northern and Southern Jurisdictions of the United
and the various bodies under their jurisdiction,
that any Mason who is hereafter
admitted in this
Jurisdiction into any other orders, as Masonic, whether called the Rite
or by any other name, is acting un-Masonically, and against the advice
of this Grand Lodge (98).
About a year
later the Wyoming Grand Lodge adopted resolutions (99) recognizing the
Rite bodies and providing
That any Master Mason of this
has joined or who shall hereafter join or in any way affiliate with or
any so-called or pretended Masonic body of the Ancient and Accepted
or any other body, commonly known as spurious, other than those
specified in this
resolution, shall be expelled from the lodge of which he may be a
member; that any
Master Mason belonging to a lodge of any other jurisdiction who has
joined, or hereafter
shall join, or in any way affiliate with or recognize any of said
and spurious Masonic bodies, shall not be entitled to receive Masonic
from or be allowed to visit any lodge in this jurisdiction nor to
receive a Masonic
at the twenty-ninth session of the Imperial Council, Nobles of the
a committee was appointed, consisting of William B. Melish, Harrison
Philip C. Shaffer, to codify the laws (100). Their work, which was
adopted two years later (101), provided for the first time that
Scottish Rite applicants
for membership therein must show
good standing in a Consistory *
* * of the obedience
of either of the Supreme Councils for the Northern or for the Southern
of such Rite in the United States and those Councils which are in amity
recognized by, them (102).
On Jan. 18,
1905, at the annual communication of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut,
the Grand Master,
in an address, called for ampler protection against "Clandestine
which, he said,
is rearing its serpent head in
our midst as never
before, and clandestine lodges are springing up in almost every Grand
Thus by the
opening years of the twentieth century, nearly one-half of the American
not to mention a number of other Grand bodies, had passed upon and
On the other hand, as the Iowa Grand Lodge committee reported,
We do not find that any Grand
Lodge of the United
States or elsewhere, or any Grand Master, has ever recognized the
Cerneau body of
the Scottish Rite as legitimate or duly constituted nor do we find that
Grand Lodge or Grand Master has taken any action to prohibit or prevent
of the Scottish Rite degrees by the Supreme Councils of either the
Southern or Northern
Jurisdictions of the United States (104).
seemed, therefore, at the end of its trail. But there were still
to make trouble and they were rallied for a desperate and final
struggle by one,
M. W. Bayliss, a Canadian by origin, having been born Nov. 8, 1848, at
Scotia (105). He removed to Providence, R. I., where, in 1869, he
to have obtained the symbolic degrees in Mount Vernon Lodge, No. 4, and
in 1881, he was appointed a clerk in the Surgeon-General's office at
with a salary of $900 per annum. His name appears first on the roster
of the Peckham
Cerneau Council's Washington Consistory in the list (107) of spurious
the southern jurisdiction issued by Pike in 1884. In the following year
Bayliss writing letters (108) to parties in the south, signing himself
Deputy Inspector General at Large," assailing the Mother Supreme
its officers and seeking to advance the interests of the Cerneau body
by Dr. J. F. S. Gorgas, of Baltimore (109). But he soon fell out with
it and a bulletin
which it issued about 1889, recites:
In December, 1888, charges were
M. W. Bayliss, 33d, for a violation of his several oaths taken in his
and as a Thirty-second and Thirty-third in the Cerneau Rite, and for
He was at once suspended and a copy of the charges with specifications
upon him. He was duly summoned before impartial judges duly appointed
to try him,
but he did not appear, or make defense. And upon these, his own written
to the enemy (which were allowed inspection), he was, on June 15th,
guilty and expelled from all offices, rights and privileges in the
Rite. A copy
of the facts found, and the judgment of expulsion was personally served
on June 18th, 1889.
was for a short time a member of the Council. In June, '87, he failed
of a re-election
and it is now apparent that hatred and treason toward the Rite (he has
sworn to cherish and support) has ever since lurked in his heart (110).
to have signalized his break with the Gorgas body by issuing a circular
which he sets forth its connection with the repudiated Grand Orient of
a result of which, he declares, "this Sov. Gd. Consistory died
We cannot confer Scottish Rite
degrees upon any
except Master Masons in good and regular standing, and it follows that
recognize as Scottish Rite Masons any whom we know to be clandestine
The Grand Lodges to which we
severally owe allegiance
have determined whom we shall or shall not recognize as Master Masons,
and no one
who is not a legitimate Master Mason can be a legitimate Scottish Rite
precisely the position he found himself combatting subsequently in the
time of his
greatest activity; for the burden of his and his followers' contentions
the Grand Lodges had nothing to do with the Scottish Rite and that
there was no
propriety in their attempting to decide between its rival claimants.
his manifesto with an appeal for
such action as would be
necessary to place us
before the Masonic World as Masons loyal and true to Ancient Craft
foundation and mother of all Masonic Rites. Should such action not be
alternative will be left me. I must remain loyal and true to Ancient
and sever my connection with the Rite (113).
action" was ever taken but Bayliss did not sever his connection with
he merely changed from one clandestine body to another. For he tells us
in 1896 (while still a clerk in the Surgeon-General's office, now
a year) he became the head of a body styling itself "the Supreme
the United States and its territories and dependencies (115),
succeeding in that
capacity William H. Hershiser, who had taken the controversy into the
Ohio and had been expelled from symbolic Masonry there. For that body,
only asserted (116) direct descent from Cerneau but put forth the
modest claim that
"all Scottish Rite Masons in this country are wrong except the body I
the honor of representing (117). He continued to find his favorite
in the south, for he testified at the trial of his action against the
I have been doing business in
Arkansas; I have
been doing business in Mississippi; I have done business in Maryland; I
business in the District of Columbia. * * * I have done business in New
have done business in Rhode Island, and in numerous other places (118).
to Arkansas recalls the anomalous fact that the Grand Lodge in which
was once an active worker was among the last and least positive to
upon this important question. As early as 1889, indeed, the Arkansas
discussing Cerneauism in his annual address, held
that this Grand Lodge, in its
executive power, is supreme over the symbolic degrees of Masonry in
and therefore has exclusive right, not only to warn its members against
association, but full power to promptly and forcibly discipline her
review of Masonic history will unmistakably disclose the clandestine
this pernicious growth. They have not only sought to occupy territory
the peaceful possession of others, but they did once, if indeed they do
now, claim authority to charter Blue Lodges (119).
of the address was referred to a special committee of Past Grand
but no action seems to have been taken at that session.
At the sixty-fifth
annual communication of the Grand Lodge, held at Little Rock on Nov.
19, 1907, Grand
Master Trieber reported the existence of a Cerneau body at Pine Bluff
in that state
claiming to be a Scottish Rite Consistory and asked that the matter,
a letter from Bayliss, be referred to the Committee on Masonic Law and
Such reference was made (122) but the committee pleaded insufficient
time and asked
leave to sit during the recess, which was granted (123). It met again
Rock on Feb. 25, 1908, and heard Mr. Bayliss as the Cerneau
representative and George
F. Moore and John Brodie in behalf of the Mother Supreme Council; after
went into executive session (124). The results of its deliberations
were the following
resolutions which were reported to the Grand Lodge at its ensuing
session and adopted:
Resolved, That it is not
expedient for this Committee
or for the Grand Lodge of Arkansas, to take any action affecting the
attempting to determine the authenticity of any organization of which
become members, unless it should appear in point of fact that such
is immoral in its tendencies or subsersive of the principles of
Masonry. * * *
Resolved, Further, that
inasmuch as the southern
jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite Masons has been in active operation
for fifty years to the exclusion of all other branches of the Scottish
is the sense of this Committee that it will be conducive to harmony if
under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Arkansas desiring the
degree should affiliate with the southern jurisdiction. (125)
(125) to have claimed this as a victory; but he was then making his
last stand and
anything short of complete rout was welcome. Moreover in the same year,
Bayliss body suffered the loss, by renunciation, of two of its most
‒ James H. Curtin, who had been Secretary-General (127), and Joseph
Seneschal and member of the Committee on Foreign Relations (128). To
defections, heroic measures were necessary, and they were not, of
to Arkansas. About the same time he was offering to confer degrees in
and there he seems to have changed front; for the Grand Master who was
to by prospective candidates and referred the matter to the Grand
the claim of the Supreme Council of the United States of America, its
and dependencies, to be that it is not a Cerneau body (129).
committee of the Grand Lodge which considered the matter reported
adversely to the
claims of the Bayliss Council (130), and certain passages in the report
the basis of a libel action by the Bayliss Council against the North
Lodge in 1914 in the Forsyth County Superior Court (131). Evidence and
were heard for several days before Judge C. C. Lyon and a jury and the
dismissed the proceeding on the ground that the matter complained of
was of qualified
privilege and that no malice had been shown (132).
same time Bayliss commenced another action for libel in the District of
Supreme Court, this time against the Mother Supreme Council, on account
of an article
on "Recent Cerneauism" (133), which its official organ had published.
To its plea of justification, plaintiff presented a demurrer thus
legal sufficiency. The demurrer was overruled, and after being set for
the merits the cause was finally dismissed in 1915 on motion of
The Texas Grand Master devoted something less than a page to
Spurious Organizations" in his address at the seventy-fourth annual
communication in that state, on Dec. 7, 1909, at Waco, observing that,
yet no effort had been made by such organizations to establish bodies
was led to believe that one would be, and believed "that this Grand
go on record in the most emphatic manner as to what Masonic
organizations and bodies
are legitimate (134). The Committee on Jurisprudence, to which this
portion of the
address was referred, presented a report which was adopted,
that as Blue Lodge Masons we
have no knowledge
of Scottish Rite Masonry beyond the Master's degree, and as a Grand
Lodge we are
not called upon at this time to decide upon questions of regularity
different bodies of another rite, nor claiming jurisdiction over the
Like the Grand Master, we, as individuals, have a decided opinion upon
and regard so-called Cerneauism as spurious and clandestine, but we
advise the Grand
Lodge to keep out of this controversy until the concrete question is
us by an attempt to establish this rite within our jurisdiction. We do
that any member of our Fraternity in Texas will be imposed upon by this
scheme, masquerading under the name of Freemasonry (135).
Bayliss emissaries had been active in Mississippi (136) and the Grand
caused the issuance of a circular warning the lodges that the branch of
represented by the former was clandestine (137). That action was
approved by the
Grand Lodge (138) but it proved unready to follow the ruling to its
For when a member who defied it, by not only retaining membership in
but attempting to organize bodies, was tried and expelled by his lodge,
Lodge, adopting the report (139) of its Committee on Complaints and
aside the action and assumed to restore the offender. The succeeding
however, issued an emphatic and elaborate edict (140) reiterating even
the pronouncement of clandestinism and declaring that the Grand Lodge
"very unwisely" and that the purported restoration gave the offender no
other status than "that of a non-affiliate." This time the Grand Lodge
reversed itself and approved the edict (141). More than that it adopted
report (142) of its Committee on Law and Jurisprudence to which the
had been referred at the preceding session (143), and which included a
resolutions which in effect proscribed Cerneauism and provided the
ceremony of expulsion
for those who should hold any connection therewith (144).
At the annual
communication of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, opened at Nashville on
Jan. 28, 1914,
Grand Master Comstock in his address (145) called attention to the
invasion of Bayliss
representatives, reviewed the action of other Grand Lodges, and
recognition of legitimate higher bodies and legislation against all
report (146) of the Committee on Jurisprudence, to which the subject
had been referred,
embodied resolutions defining the bodies entitled to recognition, among
"the Supreme Council * * for the Southern Jurisdiction," declaring all
others to be "mischievous intruders, menacing Masonic peace and
and announcing that "any member * * aiding or abetting" them "thereby
subjects himself to Masonic condemnation."
to have been the last effort of Bayliss. He died on Feb. 15, 1919, and
the organization which he represented and in fact largely constituted.
in the United States had run its course. On few controverted subjects
have the American
Grand bodies gone on record so generally and so positively. The case
was well summed
up by Grand Commander Richardson when he declared:
nothing plainer than that the verdict of Masonic mankind is against
and no human power can alter or change that verdict (147).
(75) Neb. Grand
Com. Proc., 1889, pp. 1052, 1053.
(76) Neb. Grand Lodge Proc., 1889, p. 13.
(77) Ibid. p. 57
(78) Ibid. 1890, p. 163.
(80) Ibid. pp. 164-166
(81) Ibid. p. 167.
(82) Grand Master's Address, Ibid., 1890, p. 161.
(83) Ibid. p. 167.
(84) Ibid. 213.
(85) Ibid. 215.
(86) Proc. Ind. Ter. Grand Lodge, 1890, p. 15.
(87) Ibid. 46
(88) Reprinted, New Age, Ix, 549.
(89) Cal. Grand Lodge Proc., 1891, p. 11.
(90) Ibid. p. 219.
(92) Wash. Grand Lodge Proc., 1892, p. 32. See this warning quoted in
of the Washington Bodies, Oct. 22, 1891. Off. Bull. Sup. Coun. X,
in N. Y. Council of Deliberation Proc., 1908, pp. 73, 74.
(93) Wash. Grand Lodge Proc., 1892, p. 33.
(94) Ibid. 46
(95) N. C. Grand Lodge Proc., 1892, p. 13.
(96) Ibid. p. 47.
(97) Idaho Grand Lodge Proc., 1901, pp. 50, 54, 55.
(98) Wyoming Grand Lodge Proc., 1902, pp. 66, 67.
(99) Proceedings, 1903, p. 90.
(100) Ibid. 1905, p. 115
(101) Shrine Code, July 1, 1905, Const. Art. X.
(102) Conn. Grand Lodge Proc., 1905, p. 37.
(103) Ia. Grand Lodge Proc., 1889 pp. 327, 328.
(104) These and other biographicai data are taken from the War
through the courtesy of Surgeon General Ireland.
(105) New Age, XVI, 93.
(106) Off. Bull. Sup. Coun., VI, 588.
(107) Reprinted, Ibid. VII 601-607.
(108) New Age, XI, 280.
(109) Ibid 285, 286.
(110) Ibid. 282-284.
(111) Ibid 283.
(112) Ibid. 284.
(113) Testimony in Bayliss v. La. Grand Lodge, New Age, XVI, 609.
(114) Ibid. 89.
(115) Ibid. XVII, 103.
(116) Ibid XVI, 411.
(117) New Age, XVI 89
(118) Ark Grand Lodge Proc., 1889, p. li.
(119) Ibid 22
(120) Ibid. 1907, pp. 19-21.
(121) Ibid. 22.
(122) Ibid 77
(123) Ibid. 1908, p. 48.
(124) Ibid. 48 49.
(125) Testimony. New Age, XVI, 61d.
(126) New Age, IX, 76.
(127) Ibid. 83.
(128) N. C. Grand Lodge Proc., 1909, p. 41.
(129) Ibid. pp. 148-150.
(130) New Age, XXI, 225.
(131) See Letter of A. B. Andrews representing defendant, Ibid. 218, A
of the proceediings is in the Library of the Supreme Council.
(132) New Age, VIII, 464.
(133) Texas Grand Lodge Proc., 1909, pp. 41 42.
(134) Ibid. 152, 153.
(135) New Age, XVI, 486
(136) Miss. Grand Lodge Proc., 1911, p. 15.
(137) Ibid. 105
(138) Ibid. 123-125.
(139) Ibid. 1912, pp. 33, 34.
(140) Ibid. pp. 160, 161.
(141) Ibid. 138-142.
(142) Ibid. 1911, pp. 126, 127.
(143) The outcome was materially aided by addresses (New Age XVI, 492,
598) in behalf
of the report by Melville R. Grant, 33d then recently elected Sovereign
in Mississippi, and Charles F. Buck, 33d, Sovereign Grand Inspector
General in Louisiana
(144) Grand Lodge Proc., 1914, pp. 84-87.
(145) Ibid. 126-129.
(146) Allocution, Trans., Sup. Coun., 1909, p. 66.
of Papal Power in the Catholic Church
Bro. Ferdinand Oudin,
A STUDY of
the Middle Ages becomes in the very nature of things a combined study
of the Papal
system and of the Holy Roman Empire, for the two are inseparable.
During this period
the Pope and Emperor were either at war with one another, or else
to overthrow some other ruler of church or state. Gregory I (the Great)
considered as the first medieval Pope, he was a man peculiarly suited
the world at this transition period. He was the son of Gordianus, a
possessed vigor and administrative ability, and was reared in a time
culture was left in Rome.
In 573 Gregory
served as Prefect of Rome, this was at the time when the Lombards
and all but captured Rome. Desolation was everywhere, and no doubt
were what finally convinced him that the end of the world was near; a
in his sermons and writings, repeatedly comes to the surface.
In 578 Gregory
was sent by Pope Pelagius II to Constantinople, to ask the Emperor for
defend the Roman See. During the eight years there he was still further
in his belief of the coming desolation by the general corruption of the
and the fierce dogmatic discussions among them. His return to Rome in
586 was without
troops, but he brought back with him an arm of St. Andrews and the head
of St. Luke,
which according to the belief of the Church was a far greater treasure.
may be judged from an anecdote, told by himself, according to which one
of his monks
appropriated a small sum, violating his vow of poverty. Gregory refused
man the consolation of the sacraments, and had him buried in a dunghill.
II died in 590 and the Romans rushed into the monastery where Gregory
brought the news that Gregory was to be his successor. He felt himself
the task and fled, but being the ablest man in Italy he was brought
back to Rome
and made Pope. He was a strict disciplinarian and did much to correct
of his clergy, and on occasions would direct the movement of troops
that he sent
out against the Lombards. Much of his time and ability was needed to
vast Papal incomes and expenditures, for there were now immense estates
scattered all over Italy, Gaul, Dalmatia and Africa; some of these were
to the Papal See by himself, for, as mentioned before, he came of a
An estimate of these holdings sets them at anywhere from 1400 to 1800
Gregory, however, deserves his title, "the Great," for his enormous
was used by him for the furtherance of the Church through charity and
of the corruptness of the Church, however, may be seen through some of
in one of them he says: "I hear that no one can obtain orders in your
without paying for them." This refers to the practice of simony which
at so early a period was prevalent among the higher clergy, many of
whom had been
ambitious laymen who had purchased a bishopric and then lived a vicious
life by extorting illegal fees. In 599 he issued a letter to all the
bishops to have women in their houses and ordering priests, deacons and
to separate from their wives. Information came to him that the clergy
and Corsica were very corrupt and that Januarius, Metropolitan at
intemperate and avaricious, so Gregory gave orders for the latter to
appear in Rome
and stand trial.
in Italy were anything but suitable for the development of a spiritual
so Gregory found that if he wished to succeed in some measure to reform
and especially his clergy, he would have to resort to force. He
governors, and a considerable part of his correspondence was with
stirring them to action and outlining campaigns. His almost fanatical
convert everyone is illustrated by his instructions to the Archbishops,
the rents and taxes of those pagans who would not renounce their gods,
this did not suffice, he enjoined physical persecution; slaves were to
with "blows and tortures" while free tenants were to be imprisoned, "In
order that they who disdain to hear the saving words of health may at
least be brought
to the desired sanity of mind by torture of the body." Here he
the medieval age. While he denounced simony he did not deem it
inexpedient to grant
the pallium to Bishop Syagrius of Autun when requested to do so by the
Queen of Austrasia, and withhold it from the learned and devout Bishop
of Vienne who had gained her dislike for having upbraided her improper
Gregory, usually so well informed, could not help knowing the character
of the woman
whose influence he attempted to win, and it is not surprising that
and vice continued among the Frankish priests and monks.
Now it was
not only the Pope who meddled in secular affairs, as often as not the
King or Emperor
would interfere with those of the Church. The Archbishop of Salona, a
very lax prelate,
died and the Pope tried to fill the vacancy by having the archdeacon, a
priest, elected. But neither the clergy nor laity desired a change of
the episcopal palace and procured an order from the Emperor permitting
them to elect
their own favorite. Gregory charged bribery and excommunicated the new
In another case the Emperor wanted to replace an invalid bishop with a
man, to which Gregory refused his consent.
zeal for the extension of the Christian faith led him to establish the
in England. It is said that in his early days he saw a number of very
youths among some slaves that were brought to Rome. They looked so
he decided to convert the land, "Angel-Land," from which they came. He
purchased a number of these youths and trained them as missionaries to
their home land and preach the Gospel. He also, through the friendly
with Gaul, gained entrance to the court of Ethelbert, King of Britain.
To this court
he sent a mission of monks under St. Augustine, who in a few years
King, changed the temples into churches and had the King's subjects
them to attend Mass.
12, 604, Gregory died, having striven hard during his life to correct
of the clergy and laity but with little success. He did, however,
the Papacy, making it a power that under proper leadership might have
good in the world.
pass by without much change, then Zachary, a most genial and diplomatic
the Papal policy. At this time the strife between the Lombards and the
of Italy raged especially strong; the Pope stood to gain nothing by
aiding the Dukes,
the rightful Lords of Italy, so made overtures to Liutprand, the King
of the Lombards,
and loaned him his small army to aid him in suppressing the obstinate
received in return four towns as patrimony, enriching the Papacy
Intervention in Gaul
later came the notorious intervention of the Pope in the secular
affairs of the
Franks. Pippin, the mayor of the palace, turned to the Pope for moral
his designs on the throne of Childeric III. Zachary was not slow to see
and so went much farther than the request called for and ordered the
Franks to elect
Pippin their King. This act established Rome's claim that she conferred
on the father of Charlemagne. Zachary's act was further strengthened by
Stephen II, who in 753 went to France and induced Pippin to "take up
of the Blessed Peter and the Republic of the Romans" and anointed
his sons, pronouncing an anathema on all who would displace the family
from the throne. The grateful Pippin swore to secure for the Popes the
"divers cities and territories," and the exarchate of Ravenna. This act
is historically known as the "Donation of Pippin," and a latter renewal
of the same as the "Quiercey Donation."
We may now
pass directly to the Pontificate of Hadrian I, who diplomatically
patrimonies for the Papacy. In 773 Charlemagne came to Rome to
Hadrian made hurried though elaborate arrangements for the reception
of his illustrious guest. In the Libei Pontificalis is a detailed
this visit, in which we are told of the great piety of the Emperor; the
tells us that on the Wednesday the Pope and King met in the presence of
of St. Peter and that there Charlemagne assigned to St. Peter and his
forever the larger part of Italy, as we know it today. On this is based
claims to the temporal power in Italy.
Pope as a Temporal Ruler
of Hadrian's rule was so taken up with looking after the temporal
rights of his
See, that little time was left for spiritual duties. He was really more
Pope. In the meantime the other prelates were not all in accord with
plans. We hear that shortly after Charlemagne's return to France, Leo,
of Ravenna, had seized the cities of the Archate, turned out the
by the Pope and by the use of troops took over the rule of the
did a good deal for art and charity, but this mostly in the confines of
the whole, his vast resources were used in laying the foundation for
material grandeur of the papacy, and in supporting armies in the field
it against his rivals. He also is one of the first to establish
his nephew Paschalis, a dissolute and brutal man, to one of the chief
It was this Paschal who soon after Hadrian's death attempted, on the
floor of a
church, to cut out the eyes of Pope Leo III, Hadrian's successor.
successor to Leo III, occupied the papal throne for only one year. His
however, was such that Charlemagne came to Rome to judge him on serious
He acquitted the Pope, who shortly after, on Christmas morning in the
surprised Charlemagne by placing an imperial crown on his head. So now
could also claim that they made Emperors.
Pope as Overlord of
seven Popes were men of more or less mediocrity, showing alternate
flashes of spirituality
and violence, but in general they indicated a papal degeneracy until
858, when Nicholas
I became the wearer of the tiara. He was the son of a Roman notary, and
educated according to the standards of his day. His was a gradual rise
lowest rank in the church. His service had been such as to make him
and so upon the death of Benedict III he was unanimously chosen to
On Sunday, April 24, 858, he was consecrated in the presence of Emperor
Soon after his ascension to the papal chair he showed that a different
type of Pope
had come to rule the church. He took his office very seriously, and
himself God's representative on earth. To him all creatures were equal,
beggar or king, bishop or monk, and he felt himself to be responsible
to God for
every wrong committed on earth. He gave kings their right to rule and
them his subjects; and leading bishops, no matter how powerful, were
obey him or be deposed. No council or diet must be held without his
left to the Emperor the rule of men's bodies, but he controlled their
his credit be it said that he regulated his own life as well as that of
near him with the same moral strictness. Then also the conditions were
such as to
require the rule of such a master. The prelates were many of them court
members of princely families, arrogant and avaricious, who set up a
sort of feudal
aristocracy in the church, and oppressed priest, monk and people, even
against the very prince whose vassals they were. Nicholas I was the
right man for
the times, who did much to improve the morals of the world. But no
matter how beneficial
the centralization of spiritual power or how religious his purpose may
it cannot be gainsaid that at times he resorted to principles that set
precedent for more unscrupulous successors. He died in 867, having
stern justice according to his light for nine and one-half years.
pass over the next century giving our attention to the tenth, that
forever branded "the iron century." It may be considered as opening
Pope Sergius III, who reigned from 904 to 911. Many causes united
toward the decadent
conditions of this century. It was an age of violent characters,
constantly growing number of small principalities, the heads of which
were in bloody
rivalry. The Papacy's nominal independence from worldly princes, with
to protect itself without their aid, caused the Popes to dangle the
before the eyes of the rulers of Italy, France and Germany, trying to
find a monarch
who would protect the Church but not govern it. All this of course led
intrigue and revolting practices. The morals were at their lowest. It
that a nephew of Bishop Arsenius abducted the daughter of Pope Hadrian
II and being
pursued, murdered her and the Pope's wife. On one occasion the Pope had
one of his
officials blinded and caused the widow of another official to be driven
naked, through the streets of Rome.
iron century these corrupt families came more into light and the
domination of the
Papacy by the immoral Theodora and Marozia are just one of the many
corruption. Liutprand, Bishop of Cremona and an attaché of the court of
a frequent visitor at Rome during the time of Pope John XI, says that
all-powerful, that she was "a shameless whore" and mistress of John X,
in whose promotion to the See of Ravenna and later to that of Rome she
That her daughters, Marozia and Theodora, were more shameless than she,
Pope John XI was the son of Marozia and Sergius III, an unscrupulous
man who resigned
from a bishopric, returning to the rank of deacon, thereby bettering
of receiving the Papacy. He ruled as Anti-Pope in 898, was driven from
charged with responsibility of the death of his two predecessors.
condition did not obtain only in high places, but judging from what
of Verona says, existed along among the lesser luminaries. Writing of
he tells us, that they dress gorgeously, ride out to hunt on richly
horses, returning at night to sumptuous banquets, with dancing girls
with whom later they retire to beds inlaid with gold and silver.
vices John X may have had, he was not neglectful of his duty to the
when he heard that the Saracens were still devastating Italy he formed
a great league
to combat them, and marshaling his own Roman militia, he rode at their
Alberic of Camerino. There had been many fighting Popes, but John X was
to take the field in person.
later years there was considerable strife between the Papacy and the
called his brother Peter to Rome and gave him so much power that it
nobles and former supporters. In 928 the Pope was taken from the palace
into prison, where he died the following year, whether of natural
causes is not
of Faith and
As we read
the history of the Middle Ages we are continuously confronted by
men, stained with vice, proclaim full and sincere devotion to a
religion that never
departed from the purity of its moral teachings. This leads us to the
that such persons have been either fools or hypocrites. Yet so to
be erroneous, for we know that a man's action little conforms to the
laid down for his guidance, and that he can hold to a belief without
doctrines. So though his thoughts are influenced his actions are not
them. This condition of mind was of course more apparent during the
men were more impulsive, more violent and reckless. Then also the moral
of low order, so that what today would be a heinous crime, was then
not actually condoned.
though all believed in the rights of the Empire, none would yield to
if they ran counter to their own passions or interests; but resistance
to the Pope,
the Vicar of God, was considered a mortal sin that few would care to
in order to strengthen the imperial prerogative and give it a practical
it became imperative to prop it up with the authority of feudalism,
with a king
at its head who with the support of feudal lords might combat the
Popes. The Pope,
however, considered himself above earthly rulers so it became
imperative that Pope
and Emperor be in accord. This condition led to continuous strife;
Pope being the stronger would select and crown an Emperor, at other
times the Emperor
holding the upper hand would place a Pope on the throne.
of the turbulent reign of Pope John XII will illustrate this condition.
Emperor and King of a feudal monarchy, could not enforce his regal
his capital, Rome; he could only rule it as Emperor. Here he never was
insult or revolt, so when after his coronation he returned to North
Italy to subdue
Berengar and his son Adalbert, Pope John XII, a restless youth of 25,
his allegiance, negotiated with Berengar and even sent envoys to induce
Magyars to invade Christian Germany. Of his action the Emperor was soon
but affected to despise them. On his return to Rome he found the city
and defended by a party that was furious against him, for John was not
but the heir of Alberic and as such the head of a strong faction of
nobles and a
temporal prince of Rome. They, however, could not withstand a siege,
and John fled
into the Campagna to join Adalbert.
John XII Tried and
a synod in St. Peters and elected himself temporal head of the Church.
He made inquiries
into the character of the Pope and the assembled clergy brought in a
accusations. Bishop Liutprand, who acted as interpreter for the
these in his writings, most of the accusations having to do with
breaches of canon
law, but he tells us also that
of Narmia and John, cardinal deacon declared that he had defiled by
of vice the pontifical palace; that he had openly diverted himself with
had put out the eyes of his spiritual father Benedict; had set fire to
All present, laymen as well as priests cried out that he had drunk to
solemnly assured by the clergy and people that Pope John XII had
committed all these
crimes and even greater ones, the Emperor had a letter despatched to
the charges, and asking him to appear at Rome to clear himself by his
But John refused; so then at a later deliberation over which Otto
presided the Pope
was deposed by the assembly because of his reprobate life, and with the
consent Leo, the chief secretary and a layman, was raised to the
After several revolts John XII returned to Rome but his career was soon
what was said to be a blow on the head given him by the devil.
now chose a new Pope, Stephen IV, in defiance of the Emperor. Otto
the republican form of government and entrusted the governing of the
city to his
nominee, Pope Leo III, to act as viceroy, and who was not presumed to
set up any
claims to independence. Leo also confirmed the Emperor's veto on Papal
which the citizens had yielded in 963.
and Anti-Popes followed each other during the next 30 years and saw the
lower and lower into corruption from which Pope Gregory VII, better
known as Hildebrand,
endeavored to lift them. That feudalism which was encouraged by the
Papal See, and
which saved Europe from the barbarians, began now to inject itself into
The spiritual offices became inheritable property of the ruling houses,
from religious duties. Bishops practically became barons in cope and
kings looked upon them as officials bound to serve them. Fortunately
for the Church,
at this time a strong reformatory movement developed, usually referred
to as the
"Cluniac Reformation"; it had found its beginning in the Monastery at
Cluny, Burgundy, and rapidly spread through the Benedictine monasteries
the empire. These various monasteries, through their abbots, who were
to the arch-abbot of Cluny, formed a unity of organization that
exercised a control
over a large portion of the religious world. This organization under
of Rome began teaching a doctrine of the high power of the Apostolic
ideal was the separation of the Church from the State, the Pope to be
source of jurisdiction, the universal bishop, no cleric was to have any
his own that were not derivative from the authority of the chair of
this reformation Hildebrand was closely associated and from it sprung
of conflict between Pope and Emperor. Then also the Pope's decree of
the clergy caused another great upheaval.
Supremacy of the Pope
To what heights
of power the Papacy had risen during Gregory's VII Pontificate may be
contemplating the abjectness of Henry IV who opposed the decrees of
simony and lay investitures, writing an accusatory letter to the Pope
in which he
demanded his abdication from the Papal throne. This letter was
delivered at the
great synod held at Rome in 1076. It caused a tumult. Henry was
deposed in turn. The war thus declared between Pope and king waged for
but gradually the simoniacs deserted the king's cause and he finally
had to plead
for the Pope's pardon. Henry had to humiliate himself; for three days
barefoot and fasting in the snow, outside the castle gate, in the dress
of a penitent.
The Pope admitted him on the fourth day, and the king threw himself at
with the cry, "Holy father, spare me!" The ensuing peace, however,
of religion, originally mild and loving, was now gradually assuming a
of extravagant and fervid devotion. The zealots sought the
establishment of a heaven
on earth, where the Pope acted as the Vicar of God, the immaculate
the angelic hosts and the Church heaven itself. The layman from the
was thus subordinated to this Papal system. The Empire, the Church, the
was to be governed by this great theocracy of which the Pope was the
head. The "Sachsenspiegel,"
the ancient code of the Empire, says:
God sent two swords on earth
for the protection
of Christendom and gave one to the Pope, the spiritual; to the Emperor,
was compiled at a later date, to fit in with the Papal scheme and to
earlier law, the sense of which was completely charged; thus
God, now the Prince of Peace,
left two swords
here on earth on his ascension into heaven, for the protection of
of which he consigned to St. Peter, one for temporal, and the other for
rule. The temporal sword is lent by the Pope to the Emperor. The
is held by the Pope himself.
of all the rulers of earth to a supreme Pontiff and the combining into
community all nations, was a grand and sublime idea; but as Henzel said,
unfortunately for its
realization, the ecclesiastical
shepherds allowed too much of earthly passion and of sordid interest to
them in their elevated and almost superhuman positions.
of Papal power was reached during the Pontificate of Innocent III. The
Popes who occupied the chair of St. Peter between the death of Gregory
and the election of Innocent were for most part men of high character
upon false Decretals, letters, canons and charters, that were accepted
the Church, to enforce their claims of the right to dispose of earthly
as well as to control the entrance into Heaven.
Rule of Innocent III
between the Popes and the Romans had now lost its ardor, the nobles
the Popes with greater respect. Then also Peter's chair was occupied
mostly by men
of illustrious Roman families. From one of these came Lothario de'
Conti di Segui,
whose mother belonged to a family which included several cardinals. He
educated in liberal arts, theology and canon law. On January, 1198, he
the Papal throne, taking the name of Innocent III. During his eighteen
he supervised the affairs of the world, nothing of importance occurred
that he did
not intervene in. During this time there was hardly a secular ruler
down to baron that he did not excommunicate, and most of the countries
were at one
time or other placed by him under an interdict. His work as he saw it
was the ruling
of the world, and his prodigious energy and high ability brought the
Papacy to its
highest pinnacle. He had a strong dislike, almost hatred, for the
Germans who would
not bend under his yoke. He sent men and money to cities located in
under the rule of the German Emperor, to be used in their fight against
also followed precedent in adding to his realm by inducing Constance,
widow of Henry,
to make Sicily a fief of the Roman See, and compelled this country to
tribute to the Pope and give feudal service when called upon. Innocent
the French adventurer Walter de Brienne, who had married a daughter of
Sicily, and who claimed Lecce and Tarentum as his wife's legacy, to
troops and help wage war more effectively against the Germans. During
pontificate the struggle for the imperial crown was waged by the
followers of Phillip
of Swabia and the supporters of Otto of Brunswick. Into this struggle
entered seeing a possibility of eliminating the Hohenstaufens who he
foes to the Papacy; while Otto professed loyalty to Rome. When the
finally came to settle their differences at the point of the sword, the
and declared that only he could be the judge as to who should be
Emperor. He sent
warning to the German prelates not to choose an Emperor that was not
In the meantime Otto had himself proclaimed Emperor at Cologne in 1198
that he would defend the Papal possessions and in 1201 he was
proclaimed by the
power that the Papacy built up was attainable only by undermining the
and the success of the Roman Pontiff in this can be traced to the
of the great vassals of the crown, who being unable to assert their
under the Empire, confederated with the Pope, whose power as Italy's
might serve to counteract that of the Emperor. Had the unity and power
of the Empire
been maintained under the Emperor, civil and mental liberty would
reached a much higher plane sooner than was obtained under the Papal
so, as Menzel says:
By the destruction of the
Hohenstaufen, the Popes
at the head of the Italians gained a complete victory over the emperors
now had been at the head of the nations of Germany but the means of
which they made
use in the pursuance of their schemes were exactly contrary to the
tents of the
religion they professed to teach, nor was their vocation as vicegerents
upon earth at all compatible with the policy by means of which, leagued
they pursued their plans in Italy, and continually injured, harassed
the Germans as a nation. For this purely political and national
purpose, means were
continually made use of so glaringly unjust and criminal that the
measure of offense
was at length complete and called forth that fearful reaction of German
known as the Reformation.
- Histoire de la
reformation by D'Aubigne.
Great Reformation [Lib 1843 ; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4])
- Romanism in the
Light of History [Lib 1914] by R. H.
- Crises in the
History of the Papacy [Lib 1916] by J. McCabe.
- The Church and
the Roman Empire [Lib 1907] by A. Carr.
- The Papacy and
Modern Times [Lib 1911] by W. J.
- The Holy Roman
Empire [Lib 1911] by James
- History of
Germany [Lib 1899; Vol
4] by Wolfgang Menzel.
- Empire and
Papacy in the Middle Ages [Lib 1892] by Greenwood.
- Italy [Lib 1898] by J.S.C.
Dr. Leo Cadius
IN the April,
1927, number of THE BUILDER I find on page 126 a review of Ian
Ferguson's book The
Philosophy of Witchcraft. The following observation of the author on
of thought by the Church is quoted:
The dim stirring of the
intellect was evident
in the speculative fields of astrology, a subject with heretical
for which Galileo was to die.
On this passage
the reviewer comments:
Galileo of course did not die
of anything but
of a "slow fever" in old age, many years after his condemnation by the
Inquisition, not for speculative astronomical theories, but for
venturing into the
realms of theology and attempting to prove his scientific doctrines by
He was indeed most leniently treated, and the imprisonment to which he
amounted to no more than residence in the household of a Cardinal who
was his warm
In the Catholic
Encyclopaedia (under Galilei) the English Jesuit, John Gerard, is not
quite so lenient
with the Roman Inquisition. Says Father Gerard:
… Then followed a decree of the
of the Index dated 5th March, 1616, prohibiting various heretical works
were added any advocating the Copernican system. In this decree no
mention is made
of Galileo, or of any of his works, neither is the name of the pope
though there is no doubt that he fully approved the decision, having
the session of the Inquisition, wherein the matter was discussed and
thus acting, it is undeniable that the ecclesiastical authorities
committed a grave
and deplorable error, and sanctioned an altogether false principle as
to the proper
use of Scripture.
a Jesuit condemns the action of the Roman Inquisition, while a
minimizes its culpability, it would seem that broad-mindedness,
and good will are fairly progressing. One feels encouraged to hope that
a few more
sharp angles in religious controversy that have caused friction and
strife may be
cleared away, or at least be rounded off and smoothed down. I shall
several pronunciamentos by recent popes that have aroused great
the Roman Catholic Church. They will continue to engender distrust and
her until the Vatican, in a Syllabus of Papal Errors, expresses its
The Syllabus of Pope
This is a
collection of errors condemned by this Pope and issued on the 8th of
It had been prepared during the twelve preceding years by three
of theologians. These errors had been dealt with and proscribed singly
by the Pope
in his various Encyclicals, Consistorial Allocutions and Apostolic
Syllabus is a resume, in skeleton form, of these objectionable theses.
As the then
papal secretary of state, Cardinal Antonelli, explained in his
it was published chiefly for the guidance of the Catholic bishops some
by chance, may never have read above Encyclicals and other papal
in his Enchiridion [Lib 1854 (Latin)], warns that in order to
obtain the true sense
of the Syllabus, it is necessary to consult the respective papal
which each condemned proposition is taken. Interpreted apart from the
Syllabus is bound to be misunderstood. As a matter of fact, countless
misunderstood it Gladstone and other discerning minds among them.
It may be
a propos to suggest here that non-Catholics who are not theologians are
on slippery ground when they enter the field of Catholic theology and
Even Protestant theologians will do well to watch their step. Our
may often be lacking in ordinary common sense, and also in the ability
the larger aspects of a problem. But they are trained dialecticians and
at home on the wide field of theology. A scholar who is not familiar
grounds, nor trained in Aristotelian philosophy, takes his chances in
a theological controversy with them.
I fully agree
with Hillaire Belloc, the distinguished English Catholic literateur,
is bound to be a conflict between the Vatican and the Washington
it comes, the Federal Government will make a bad mistake if it neglect
the services of a few Catholic theologians. (No, I am not offering my
I disclaim being a theologian!) Without them, it is almost certain to
issue, aggravate unnecessarily a situation precarious enough, and
at an impasse. While, if the subject is broached cautiously, with the
of Catholic theologians, the Government may count on the support of the
Catholics and the Vatican will have to yield.
Obscurity of the Syllabus
A very common
error in regard to the Syllabus is the following: the Pope condemns
therefore, it would seem, he holds that the opposite is the truth. This
is not the
case. A man who disclaims being a pro-German, does thereby not declare
be the opposite, that is, an anti-German. He may be a neutral. The Pope
proposition 55: "the church and state should be separated." From this
many have inferred that he insists on the union of state and Church.
This is a hasty
conclusion. He merely maintains that Church and state do not
necessarily have to
be separated. The Lutherans in Germany and in the Scandinavian
countries, the Anglicans
in England, the adherents of the Reformed Church in Holland and
cordially agree with him. For these denominations are supported by the
Church and state has invariably hampered the free development of the
frequently it meant the servitude of the Church under the state. The
is possessed of a perfect organization, of an extraordinary vitality,
of an inexhaustible
spiritual fecundity. She has a genius for creating, by her symbolism,
ecclesiastical seasons, and external practices, a religious atmosphere
religious interests tower over all other considerations and gradually
phase of national life. A free Church in a free state has always ended
in the triumph
of the (Roman) Church and her ascendancy over the state. American
who fear that the papacy is aiming at the union of state and Church in
are haunted by an imaginary specter. They will soon be wishing that the
some means of checking the rapidly growing power and prestige of the
It is true,
hoary theologians of the old school are still hugging the dream of an
married to an ideal Catholic state. But their bubble has burst.
of St. Paul has happily expressed it in declaring that this dream has
to the limbo of defunct controversies.
In the first
three centuries of the Christian era, the time of the persecutions, the
figuratively speaking, lived under ground in the catacombs. After that,
with Constantine, came the period of union of state and Church. The
and other Christian rulers usurped all sorts of rights and prerogatives
in the government
and affairs of the Church. She had to submit under duress.
In the United
States, she is completely free from interference by the state. She
this splendid isolation. The Vatican may look calmly forward to an
triumph in this country, to the richest pasture in its entire history.
If some people
fail to see it, it may be due to the fact that nobody is so blind as he
not want to see.
If the papacy
is opposed to the separation of state and Church in some countries, as
in Austria, it is because there the state has confiscated the major
portion of the
vast possessions of the Church, accrued mostly from the offerings and
of the faithful in the course of many centuries. From this confiscated
the state is doling out a pittance for the support of the Church. A
state and Church would imply a discontinuance even of that scanty
allowance, a complete
spoliation of the Church. Naturally she objects to that.
In such a
state, like Austria, the Church also quite reasonably objects to the
equality to the Protestant denominations, that is, by subsidizing them
own confiscated funds.
intolerance, however, it is that in Catholic Spain Protestant houses of
are prohibited from having steeples, a disability the Catholics are
to in the German Protestant state of Mecklenburg.
For the rest,
be it readily admitted that the Vatican has claimed unwarranted
itself that are prejudicial to the freedom of conscience and to the
of the state. However, as it happens, the Syllabus advances no such
the correct interpretation of the Syllabus it is necessary that before
proposition be supplied its contradictory, namely: "it is not true that
for instance, that Church and state should be separated.
Light of Reason Proscribed
block to many has been the proscription of proposition 14:
Everybody is free to adopt and
profess that religion
which he, guided by the light of reason, holds to be true.
Is the condemnation
of this thesis not clearly tantamount to a denial of the principle of
of conscience? It would seem so. In reality, however, it has nothing to
a person's civic right of choosing his own religion. It is as purely a
speculative theology, as is the controversy between Presbyterian
had been advanced, in 1848, by a Peruvian priest, Vigil, a rationalist,
in his Defensa.
He held that human reason, uninfluenced by what Christian positivists
call the light
and facts of Divine Revelation, is a sure and safe guide to religious
theory had been dwelt upon by Pope Pius IX in his Apostolic Letter
of June 10, 1851; also in his Allocution Singulari quadam of Dec. 9,
1854. In the
latter, the Pope advises that in the search for religious truth we
using our reason, also pray to God for light. Mere reasoning, unaided
may not lead us to the right goal. The Syllabus, therefore, merely
theory anew. Every Protestant fundamentalist will subscribe to the
of it. It has absolutely nothing to do with the individual's civic
right to select
whatever religion he prefers.
Syllabus A Blunder
Here we see
where the fatal blunder of the Syllabus lies: it should not have
propositions in their bald, naked form. A safer way would have been to
them in a more elucidated form which indicated their objectionable
features or fallacies.
For instance, the thesis of Vigil might have been condemned by the
proposition: "It is an error to hold that human reason, unaided by
and disregarding the facts, and light of Divine Revelation, is a safe
guide to religious
truth." Vigil's thesis could then have been appended to this
would have been clear then that its proscription did not touch the
question of the
freedom of conscience.
be the soul of wit, but it may also lead to confusion and
remember the famous remark of the German Chancellor Bethmann-Holweg, in
1914, that the treaty of 1839, guaranteeing the neutrality of Belgium,
scrap of paper." What the Chancellor meant to say, according to the
version, was this:
In the treaty of 1839 the
pledged itself to strict neutrality. But by entering a secret alliance
it has violated its pledge and rendered the treaty of 1839 a scrap of
in its ordinary sense, the thesis of Vigil: "Everybody is free to adopt
profess that religion which he, guided by the light of reason, holds to
states a true enough principle. What the Syllabus objects to is the
had injected into the expression "the light of reason."
But it is
exactly because the thesis on its face value enunciates a true enough
that the Syllabus blunders in proscribing it in this bald form.
Illustration of the Method
Let me offer
an analogy. Three plus one is four. From this plain truth a Mr. Wag
draws the conclusion
that three apples and one pear make four apples. He is stating a
fallacy. But it
would assuredly be an odd procedure on my part, if I went to disprove
by starting out: "It is not true that three plus one is four," even if
I then appended a paraphrase explaining in what sense it is not true,
three articles of one kind plus one article of another kind do not make
of one kind. This is what the Syllabus has done in several cases.
to the question of the freedom of conscience, let us assume, for the
sake of argument,
that the Pope, in proscribing the thesis of Vigil, meant to deny a
right to choose whatever religion he preferred. Could an American
criticize the Pope in that? Let us see. The Mormons adopted and
professed, in the
light of their reason, a religion that encouraged the practice of
Sam soon induced them to see that practice in a different light.
as we have seen, the thesis of Vigil does not bear on the question of
of proposition 55, regarding the separation of state and Church, might
worded as follows: It is an error to hold that Chruch and state must
word "necessarily" would have implied that the Vatican does not always
insist on a union of state and Church.
to be misunderstood is proposition 80:
It is an error to hold that the
pope may and
must reconcile himself with, and adapt himself to, Progress,
Liberalism, and Modern
In the Catholic
Encyclopaedia, under Syllabus, the Jesuit, A. Haag, defines the
[This thesis] is to be
explained with the help
of the allocution Jam dudum cernimus of 18th March, 1861. In this
pope expressly distinguishes between true and false civilization, and
history witnesses to the fact that the Holy See has always been the
patron of all genuine civilization, and he affirms that, if a system
de-Christianize the world be called a system of progress and
civilizabion, he can
never hold out the hand of peace to such a system. According to the
words of this
allocution, then, it is evident that the eightieth thesis applies to
and false liberalism and not to honest pioneer work seeking to open out
to human activity.
and Canon Law
that has been objected to is that of the following thesis:
In the case of conflicting laws
enacted by the
Two Powers [the state and the Church] the civil law prevails.
reports are true, the Calles government in Mexico has expressed its
to permit the Catholic clergy the exercise of its pastoral functions
conditions, one of them being that the clergy get married.
two-thirds Catholic, has a union of state and Church. Both the Catholic
Churches are supported by the state. Let us suppose now that the
in the Bavarian diet passed a law demanding that the Protestant clergy
under penalty of being prohibited from the exercise of the functions of
Would that law rightfully prevail over the law of the Protestant Church
her clergy to be married? May the state enact any law it sees fit? Or
is there a
limit to the authority of the state?
of National Churches
It is an error to hold that
withdrawn from the authority of the Roman Pontiff and altogether
Catholic Church is an international organization, a world Church. A
in the Protestant Episcopal Church favors a union (fusion) with the
How can the latter continue as a world Church, if each nationality is (
free to separate itself completely from the main body and its central
does not advocate the use of external force, say a league of Catholic
compel a nation, for instance Poland, to remain within the Roman
theologians may have, in theory, claimed for the papacy the right to
force to compel submission to the Holy See. However, as it happens, no
claim is advanced by the Syllabus.
insistence on a one and undivided world Church in union with the Roman
no challenge to religious freedom. Unjust, obviously, is the system by
Italians have for over four centuries monopolized the supreme
government of the
world Church. Unjust also is the over-centralization of power by which
arrogates to itself the right of nominating the bishops in the United
as long as the American Catholics, who are more Roman than the Pope
pleased to make a door mat out of themselves, the Pope naturally wipes
It is an error to hold that the
Matrimony is only something accessory to the contract and separate from
In this many
have seen a challenge to the sovereignty of the state. The issue,
however, is purely
theological. It does not touch the right of the state to enact marriage
does it question the validity of civil marriage.
catechism teaches that the marriage contract, or exchange of conjugal
the essence of the Sacrament of Matrimony. The officiating priest acts
as the official
witness of the Church and as the minister delegated by her to impart
to the couple. He does not confer the Sacrament on the couple. The man
by exchanging the marriage vows, confer the Sacrament on each other.
contract is the Sacrament of Matrimony, and the Sacrament of Matrimony
is the contract,
and not a mere accessory to the contract. The blessing of the Church is
Roman View of Protestant
require a long dissertation to cover the practical aspects of that
doctrine in reference
to the spiritual life of the faithful. The Roman Church holds that a
couple, that is when not disqualified by a divorce or any other
a Sacrament, be the marriage contracted before a minister or a civil
cause célèbre, fully reported in the newspapers, is a case in point. It
that the annulment of the Marlborough marriage by the Sacred Rota
implied a discourtesy
to the Anglican Church and an affront to the sovereignty of the state.
denominations have made their marriage regulations without consulting
Church. The latter cannot be expected to consult the three hundred
in passing and enforcing her marriage regulations. At the time of the
the Pope refused King Henry VIII of England an annulment of his
marriage to Queen
Catherine. The Anglican Church granted that annulment. The Vatican has
reason to view with favor the findings of an Anglican matrimonial
court. The Vatican
has a long memory.
the injured sovereignty of the state, it must be remembered that the
Duke and Duchess
of Marlborough had obtained a divorce from the state. Each contracted a
under the laws of the state. These two (second) marriages the Anglican
she declares them invalid. But the parties are no longer under her
having become members of the Roman Church, which for a certain reason ‒
reason solid or not does not matter here ‒ recognizes them as valid.
How can a member
of the Anglican Church that rejects these two marriages contracted
under the laws
of the state, accuse the Roman Church, that recognizes these two
marriages, of putting
up an affront to the sovereignty of the state? I am unable to follow
For the rest,
though it is not to the point, most of the American Catholics who have
the Marlborough case seem to be under the impression that the Sacred
Rota in Rome
has sadly blundered in granting the annulment. They fail to see how the
could for more than twenty years have remained under duress and force
up marital relations. They do not grasp certain fine distinctions drawn
by the Roman
lawyers. Vatican prestige has been impaired.
Secular Power of the
then, does not encroach on the reasonable rights of the state, nor on
of conscience of the non-Catholics. There is one proposition, however,
of which tends to restrict unjustly the freedom of conscience of the
This is the condemnation of proposition 75:
The abrogation of the civil
power) which the Pope possesses would be very conducive towards the
prosperity of the Church.
the Pope lost his civil authority. Who will deny that the Church since
gained immensely in power and prestige? Not necessarily because the
Pope is deprived
of the secular power, but somehow or other the Church has gained, in
leaps and bounds.
Maybe Dollinger was right, after all, in calling the secular power the
heel, the weak spot, of the Church.
Jesuit, Hugo Hurter, in the eighth edition of his Compendium Theologiae
[Textbook of Dogmatic Theology, Vol. I, No. 153 [Lib*] ] ‒ it is
in American seminaries-maintains that the Pope in promulgating the
ex cathedra. Hence the Syllabus is endowed with dogmatic force. A
who holds that the papacy is vastly better off without the secular
a sin against faith. This is a rather sharply peppered morsel to force
patient throat of the faithful. It is one of the many instances of the
of our ruling theologians to multiply dogmas.
is supposed to confine itself to matters of faith and morals. Even on
it is narrowly circumscribed. What has the civil authority, the
possession of Central
Italy, to do with the teachings of Christ? It is interesting to note
here that in
the opinion of Cardinal Newman, as quoted by Governor Smith, the
Syllabus has no
Pius IX is
said to have been a kind, guileless soul, an unassuming aristocrat, a
of character, but gifted with a sense of humor and ready wit, as is
by the following little pleasantry. During a conference with the French
the Pope, taking snuff, offered it to the distinguished diplomat. "Holy
this is a vice I have not got," the Frenchman declined with a
it was a vice, you would have it all right," the Pontiff retorted.
sense of humor seems to have been asleep when he inserted proposition
75 into the
Syllabus. For he surely was sufficiently familiar with Church history
to know that
the administration of secular power has been the occasion of an almost
carnival of graft, corruption and scandal. Unscrupulous ecclesiastics
privileged noble families had fattened on it all along. It is one of
the most unedifying
chapters in the long history of the Church.
power continued to be a source of graft and scandal to its very last
day. The man
to whom Pius IX entrusted its administration was his secretary of
Antonelli. The Cardinal, who was descended from an impoverished family,
his death a fortune of about eight million dollars, an immense sum for
Nobody knows how many more millions he may have quietly disposed of
before his death.
There hardly existed any doubt that the great "statesman" in
the secular power did not forget his own pocketbook. The Jesuits have
criticized for antagonizing this financial genius who in his policies
was an absolutistic
outside the Church
Let us select
one more example to show what a misleading document the Syllabus really
is. It proscribes
We may at least hope for the
of those who live outside the true Church.
By true Church,
of course, is meant the Roman Catholic Church. Does the condemnation of
not clearly imply that only Catholics can go to heaven? It would seem
so. In reality,
however, it does not mean to assert any such thing. It does not at all
state that all non-Catholics are excluded from heaven. This is evident
context of the above mentioned allocution Singulari quadam.
to Catholic doctrine, anybody may save his soul who lives up to his
convictions. God will judge everyone by the light that has been given
him. A Protestant
ruler who, misguided by an erroneous conscience, puts 50,000 Catholics
for the sake of their religion, honestly believing that he is doing a
God, may go to heaven, provided that in everything else he obeys the
language labors under one great defect: it has no fixed consistent rule
For example, the "oo" is pronounced differently in food, in flood, and
in floor. This inconsistency has elicited from a Frenchman the bon mot:
writes "ass" and pronounces it "donkey." Of the Syllabus of
Pope Pius IX it may be said that it says "pepper" and means "salt."
It represents the result of twelve years of arduous labor by three
of theologians. It is true, the (third) commission that drew it up in
form, appended to each proposition the true meaning of it and referred
to the respective
papal document dealing with the subject. But it should have been
foreseen that the
Syllabus might someday be broadcasted in its naked form ‒ with or
without evil intent
‒ and be misconstrued and create prejudice against the Church. As a
matter of fact,
even the average priest has difficulty in arriving at the true sense of
the explanatory paraphrases and the respective papal documents are
obtain. An explanation of the Syllabus appeared serially about two
years ago in
the Catholic periodical Our Sunday Visitor. I do not know whether it
has been reprinted
in booklet form.
Effects of the Syllabus
We do not
know whether the Syllabus can boast of any noticeable success in
crushing the errors
of pantheism, rationalism, communism and other anti-Christian
doctrines. But we
do know that in its inevitably misleading form it has confused millions
Well meaning, intelligent people could not help waxing wroth at what
seemed to them
the flaunting intolerance and defiant arrogance of the papacy.
of conscientious toil our Vatican theologians spent on equipping an
arsenal of weapons
for the use of the enemies of the Church. One wonders whether things
could not have
been managed differently. If not, would it not have been the lesser of
to consign the Syllabus to the fire instead of promulgating it?
has stirred up a considerable amount of hatred of the Catholic
religion. Such hatred
often leads to discrimination against Catholics in business, in the
to lucrative positions, in the political and academic career. God alone
number of innocent Catholics whose prospects of prosperity and
been blighted by this unfortunate document which even today is still
and by intention, the Syllabus is an inoffensive document that respects
of conscience and the just rights of the state. In practice, it has
to be a glaring misrepresentation of the Catholic faith. It is called
of Errors. It is ‒ de facto, not de jure ‒ a colossal error itself.
It was a
wise custom of the Middle Ages to assign to the rulers a court jester.
character opened their eyes to many a salutary truth that nobody else
dared to make
them acquainted with. It might have proved a great benefit to the
Church, if the
popes had employed such a mentor. The right kind of a court jester
might have prevented
a great harm to the Church if, on the even of Dec. 8, 1864, he had
stepped up to
His Holiness and said: "Holy Father, let me promulgate that Syllabus."
(To be continued)
"Reformation" and "Protestantism" are inherited by the modern
historian; they are not of his devising and come to him laden with
of all the exalted enthusiasm and bitter antipathies engendered by a
period of fervid
religious dissension. The unmeasured invective of Luther and Alexander
has not ceased
to re-echo, and the old issues are by no means dead.
of controversy is, however, abating, and during the past thirty or
forty years both
Catholic and Protestant investigators have been vying with one another
to our knowledge and in rectifying old mistakes; while an
of writers pledged to neither party are aiding in developing an idea of
and nature of the Reformation which differs radically from the
We now appreciate too thoroughly the intricacy of the medieval Church;
range of activity, secular as well as religious, the inextricable
the civil and ecclesiastical governments, the slow and painful process
divorce as the old ideas of the proper functions of the two
institutions have changed
in both Protestant and Catholic lands, we perceive all too clearly the
of the reformers, their distrust of reason and criticism ‒ in short, we
much about medieval institutions and the process of their
to see in the Reformation an abrupt break in the general history of
Europe. No one
will, of course, question the importance of the schism which created
between Protestants and Catholics, but it must always be remembered
that the religious
questions at issue comprised a relatively small part of the whole
compass of human
aspirations and conduct, even to those to whom religion was especially
a large majority of the leaders in literature, art, science and public
their way seemingly almost wholly unaffected by theological problems.
[James Harvey Robinson.]
Meekren, Editor in
Vatican and Its Discipline
by Dr. Leo Cadius (which we need hardly say is an assumed name) will be
believe with a great deal of interest. The author informs us that he
preferred to have published it in a Roman Catholic journal, but that he
none in America that would dare to present so frank a criticism of the
and methods of the Vatican, and that it is for this reason he has
the courtesy of a Masonic periodical to give it publicity."
matter fits in so well with the series of articles that we have
planned, that it
was felt advisable to make room for it, and we trust that the authors
of the articles
it has temporarily displaced will accept our apologies for the delay
arises in the statement made by Dr. Cadius which seems worthy of
which is that apparently free criticism is impossible in the Roman
Church. The difference
between free and unfree institutions and countries is always marked by
or absence of free speech and free criticism of rulers and their
* * *
Sin of Freemasonry
whose letter we reproduce in this issue, has broached an aspect of the
Question" that we raised last month which in the article was taken for
The subject is complex, and so much obscured by prejudices and
confusion of thought
that it is obvious that it can only be treated in broad outline,
for further discussion. We therefore make no apology for having made
assumption, even if in the event it be judged a mistaken one.
raised is really one of fact, and yet unfortunately not on that account
at all easy
to determine, at least in such wise that all will be satisfied. The
this, is it, or is it not a fact that, according to the rules and
the Confessional, a Roman priest has no right to demand the revelation
of any secrets
known to a penitent as a condition of giving absolution? It seems as if
be comparatively simple to find out what the answer is, yet there are
of difficulties in the way of establishing it. For one thing there is
of distrust and suspicion with which most Protestants regard the whole
for another the general non-accessibility of authoritative evidence on
Roman Catholics when questioned tell us that they are bound only to
sins, not to reveal secrets, whether their own or those of other
people. But most
Protestants believe quite simply that this is not the truth.
normal people at least, do not tell lies merely for the sake of doing
so. The underlying
assumption, then, must be that the Romanists not only wish to put the
as favorable a light as possible for external consumption, but have
conceal. All witnesses being thus suspected, it follows that the only
apparently, is to go to the works of Roman Canonists, Theologians and
to the various manuals and the rules and regulations governing the
however, we again meet obstacles, for most people insurmountable. Aside
fact that these are all written in a language unknown to a great
majority of people,
most of them are difficult of access. They are not as a rule to be
found in public
libraries nor to be obtained of booksellers. And besides all this they
technical, as hard indeed to understand, for those not trained in
of presentation, as a work on advanced chemistry or the higher
be to the ordinary intelligent reader. To what source then are we to
proportion of the Fraternity are personally acquainted with some priest
of the Roman
Church, perhaps with more than one, and it may be have at some time
very question in conversation. The answer has probably been that to
insist on the
revelation of a secret belonging to others would be to cause the
penitent to commit
another sin, providing that such secret was not in itself sinful. This
enough, but suspicion once aroused knows no bounds. The proviso may
cover a good
deal. Freemasonry is a condemned institution, its secrets are sinful,
must be confessed. The reply that the sin consists in becoming a member
of the forbidden
society and not in having knowledge of its formal and ceremonial
not be convincing at all. Most Masons who read, perhaps some who do
not, know of
John Coustos, who in 1743 was imprisoned by the Inquisition at Lisbon
tortured in an attempt to force him to reveal these secrets. He was
told that such
revelation was required as evidence of good faith. Would not a similar
made today of a Mason seeking reconciliation with the Roman Church? The
this is strenuously denied will probably do no more (for so suspicion
confirm the belief that it would be.
that the enquirer consults such means as are readily available as to
of Confession; as for example the various encyclopedias. These tell us
the penitent is encouraged to confess all faults, the only ones for
is obligatory are those classed as "Mortal sins." But again rises the
question, would not Freemasonry be regarded as a mortal sin? Naturally
it is not
found in the formal list, Pride, Avarice, Anger, Gluttony, Un-chastity,
and so on,
but it might be included under Indifference spiritual apathy ‒ or
It has been stated, apparently on good authority, that the sin of being
is one reserved to the bishop, that it is too serious to be reconciled
by a priest,
except of course in articulo mortis, at the death bed of the penitent.
so reserved must surely be as deadly as anger or gluttony ‒ or so it
in the layman's eyes.
Thus it seems
that we arrive at an impasse. We cannot believe the only people who can
about it, and thus we either believe the opposite of what they say, or
a state of suspicious doubt. Perhaps the only thing to do is to try and
get a fresh
point of view. We are all familiar with wholesale denunciations of the
its doctrines, organization, methods and objects. Most people discount
of thing quite heavily, yet, it has some effect on them. A little
may help. If we take such denunciation as entirely true then the Roman
but a "Synagogue of Satan," an organization of evil men working purely
for evil ends ‒ there is no good in it at all. But common sense simply
this. Our Roman Catholic neighbors are on the whole as decent people as
are Protestant; it is impossible to include them in such a sweeping
Our fathers had a better method, they admitted the virtues of "Papists"
but they held that these very virtues became sin in view of the
and "error" of the Roman Church. The argument sounds strange to us, but
was quite consistent once the premises were granted. We, however, do
not grant them,
and so we have no right to the conclusion. We, rightly let us hope,
hold that life
and actions are of greater weight than using the proper formulas to
beliefs and so must allow our antagonists the merit of their personal
and virtuous lives. Neither have we the logical right to judge them by
sheep ‒ if at least we would not have them judge us by ours.
this lead to? Perhaps our thoroughgoing suspicions may have taken us
too far; perhaps
after all we should give some credit to what Roman Catholics tell us of
institution. Let us remember how consistently, and ludicrously, they
How they imagine a great world-wide machine constantly seeking to
religion, or to replace it by some false "liberal" theistic creed worse
than no religion at all. They refuse to believe what we say; every
make becomes, under the influence of their suspicions, merely added
proof of what
they believe of us. Is not the parallel possibly instructive?
Let us consider
the circumstances under which the question we began with would arise.
two quite distinct cases. The Romanist, who in disobedience to the rule
of his Church,
becomes a Mason, and the Mason who becomes a convert to the Roman
Church. The latter
is comparatively simple. Freemasonry in his case is merely a part of
the life of
general sinfulness from which he has turned, and which is all removed
The first case is more complex. In his defection and disobedience the
committed a very grave, that is, mortal sin, which he must confess in
order to obtain
absolution and reconciliation. How does one confess the sin of
would one confess the sin of anger, or of gluttony? We are told that it
is not necessary
for the penitent to say who he was angry with, or when he ate too much,
he gorged himself on. Would not admission of the fact that he had been
of the forbidden Fraternity, and was sorry for it and had left it, be
Or would he have to tell all the secrets as evidence of good faith? In
sins of a
sexual nature we are told that the priest is forbidden to ask even the
the parties concerned ‒ even as evidence of real contrition. On what
there be any difference in the two cases?
When we trace
the history of the Papal ban on Freemasonry, the circumstances strongly
the probability that it was in the first instance due to quite other
grounds. It was occasioned by the formation of a lodge in Rome when the
a temporal sovereign. His government of the Papal states was autocratic
in the highest degree, and his objection to the Masonic lodge was the
that all despots have to any kind of oath-bound secret society. Being a
ruler as well as a temporal one, he backed the political act of
suppression by spiritual
anathema. And the despotic rulers of Roman Catholic countries availed
of the latter to supplement their own political prohibition of Masonry.
It was most
probably for political reasons that the attempt was made on different
to force individual Masons to tell all they knew about their Society ‒
where it existed was always as much political as religious, if not more
so. In fact,
as articles to be published in THE BUILDER will show, though
camouflaged under the
appearance of religious and doctrinal controversy, the opposition to
Rome has always
received its driving power from political, national and economic
motives. None of
which could possibly have had any effect but for the constant tendency
of a worldwide
international organization, with the traditions of Imperial Rome behind
it, to mix
politics with religion, and to use the latter to further ends inspired
by the former.
all our question remains unanswered, and we can only say that our
readers must come
to their own conclusions as best they can, though we hope this
discussion may in
some sort assist them. Our own conclusion, whatever it may be worth, is
a confessor would really have no right to, demand the revelation of
as the condition of reconciling a penitent Roman Catholic guilty of
this sin; but
that possibly some individual priest might seek to satisfy his
curiosity by insisting
upon it. What would happen in such a case would depend probably on the
and intelligence of his penitent ‒ his knowledge of his rights under
the Canon law
of the Church.
* * *
a small, but we believe, very important meeting was held at Detroit. It
by the brethren entrusted with the direction of Masonic education in
aided and abetted by those concerned with the same task in New York,
of course was Bro. H. L. Haywood, former editor of THE BUILDER.
was absolutely informal and unofficial, and nothing in the way of
contemplated, no arrangements even being made to call another one,
present felt that it had been so helpful that other like meetings
should be called
in the future if at all possible.
circumstances no resolutions could be passed, and no formal conclusions
at. The results were largely intangible, but not for that less
valuable. It is really
almost a general rule that the greatest values are intangible. There
was an interchange
of ideas, and experiences, discussion of methods and objects, and the
of personal contact with others engaged in the same work. It made us
wish that some
means might be evolved whereby members of the N.M.R.S. could be brought
periodically, if not nationally at least in local or regional meetings.
no doubt that enthusiasm would be increased and much good result
is one of the things that must be kept in mind and perhaps the future
it to pass.
* * *
Matter for Research
A MUCH respected
brother, and one who has been a faithful member of the Society from its
recently expressed his opinion in conversation that THE BUILDER in
taking up the
T.B. campaign was exceeding the proper limits of a research journal.
In an editorial
article as long ago as March, 1926, we touched upon this point,
admitting that such
advocacy was not specifically a matter for the Research Society to deal
we said, and repeat, that such advocacy requires no apology, as we are
before we are students, and that the problem is one that all American
of obligation bound to consider, including members of the Society and
we feel inclined to go further and to insist that it is a subject
proper for Masonic
research. In the nature of things the larger part of the field of such
is quite closely connected with some aspect of the history of the
is of course a much wider subject than lists of dates and bare
the order of events and succession of persons. Still though the
so largely, there are other things open to and needing investigation,
in order that
we may know what to do, and how to do it, in respect to present day
problem is one that needs such investigation. First it has to be
there is a real need. Though we do not take responsibility for the
North East Corner,
we believe that the facts that have been presented there have
established at least
a prima facie case for the existence of the problem.
If this be
so, there is next the question how it is to be met. In such a complex
naturally vary, and it is only by open discussion that these opinions,
and the respective
arguments in their favor, can be constructively criticized. THE BUILDER
is not committed
to any mode of approach. We are satisfied, however, that a problem
exists, and that
the Craft must find a solution or be stultified. We have lent such
we have been able to the N.M.T.S.A., because the need seemed urgent,
and this was
the only definite move to meet it.
there is no doubt that in the minds of a number of brethren, many of
them in positions
of great influence, there exists a feeling of opposition. Let us say to
we would be most glad to offer our pages to any expression of such
it can be shown that there is really no problem, that the number of
Masons is negligible, that there is no call for special assistance in
that the problem is local and not national, or if there are any other
or statements of facts which would present the matter from another
throw new light upon it, we certainly hope that some presentation of
this side of
the case will be made. Then in the light of what has been said pro and
without first-hand information may come to their own conclusions.
* * *
and the Deity
By Bro. N.W.J.
In view of
the discussion that has been proceeding in THE BUILDER on the subject
of the Conception
of God, initiated by the article of a "Lay Brother," the following
from an address by Bro. Rabbi Isserman of the Holy Blossom Synagogue,
may be interesting:
teaches that revelation was, and is, limited to no one people; that God
reveal Himself to Israel only ‒ that He did not speak only to the
sacred men of
the Jews. That is a narrow notion of God, which makes Him partial to
any of His
children, which makes Him reveal Himself to one and not to others.
God is not
niggardly and miserly. To all peoples does He reveal Himself. In all
lands has He
made Himself known. To all men has He sent prophets ‒ to the Chinese,
and Laotse; to the Hindoos, Buddha and Krishna; to the Persians,
Zoroaster; to the
Mohammedans, Mahomet; to the Jews, Moses; and to the Christians, Jesus.
God is the
property of all mankind. His Spirit is found in the Bible, but it is
found in the
sacred literatures of other peoples in the psalms of the Babylonians,
in the texts
of the Egyptians, in the Vedas of the Hindoos, in the Gathas of the
in the Holy Law of the Buddhists. All peoples have Bibles ‒ all people
‒ to all people revelation came.
be recognized, the beauty of all faiths. We should know that God
strives to make
Himself articulate among all peoples. We should be ready to welcome to
fine Mohammedans, Buddhists and Hindoos as we should fine Christians.
is a contrivance of human wisdom to provide for human wants. Men have a
these wants should be provided for by this wisdom.
of the National
Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association
by Authority of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, A. F. & A.M.
MASONIC TEMPLE, ALBUQUERQUE, N. M.
It has been
reported that $115,000 was collected for the relief of Masons who were
because of the great Florida hurricane.
is now being made for help for Masons who are in distress because of
And yet in
neither disaster has it been claimed that the lives of any Masons, or
of Masons, were lost. The National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria
called the attention of the Craft to the fact that it is estimated by
Tuberculosis Association, the outstanding authority on the subject in
approximately 4,309 Masonic lives are lost each year from tuberculosis.
and larger number of relatives of Freemasons die every year of
Association estimates that there are nine living cases for every annual
Association has compiled a list of 2,225 tuberculous Masons and 814
of Masons, of which number 1,693 Masons and 321 relatives were in the
Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association has made an appeal for
$65,000 with which
to buy a Tuberculosis Sanatorium located in the city of El Paso and for
funds with which to operate the hospital.
was sent to every Grand Master, every State York Rite body, to all
bodies, to all Shrine Temples, Grottoes and to State Eastern Star
to this appeal, which was for immediate action, has not been
the officers of these bodies will wait to submit it to their respective
out the strange fact that Freemasonry can function promptly to relieve
due to property loss caused by flood and hurricane and yet cannot
function to relieve
distress caused by sickness which endangers life itself. It cannot
function to render
aid to Masonic families, whose homes will be broken up by
It cannot act to save a brother, who for lack of such action will lose
contribution of only five cents per capita of American Freemasonry
would buy the
El Paso Sanatorium and pay operating costs for one year. This
institution will care
for about one hundred patients. It will furnish a practical working
example of the
plan for hospitalization of Masonry's unfortunates. Men and women
tuberculosis, and cared for in a Masonic hospital, will have their
and will return to their families. In a very short time it will be
if there exists a need for additional beds. If so, plans can then be
made for meeting
that need, in the Southwest and in other parts of the country.
Missourians, need only to be shown. If they find that the expenditure
of some few
thousands of dollars will save Masonic lives, will restore fathers to
and will save the Fraternity from assuming the support of children who
be orphaned by tuberculosis, then American Freemasonry will contribute
funds to provide for hospital care for all of Freemasonry's unfortunate
everywhere, will urge upon the officers of Masonic bodies a prompt and
response to the appeal for funds with which to buy and operate the El
it may yet be possible to carry this plan of the National Masonic
Association into effect.
* * *
Is Your Life Worth?
been said about the loss of lives due to tuberculosis, that ancient
enemy of the
human race. The number of those who die and of those living who are
the dread disease has been told and retold. But such figures make
One dead child run down by an automobile before our eyes makes a deeper
upon us than the tale of a thousand slain by some gruesome epidemic, if
are dead in some remote place, or if they are scattered over a wide
in many cities and towns.
another angle to the loss from tuberculosis which may make a greater
appeal to some
minds. That is the money loss. Just what is the economic loss to
America from a
death caused by tuberculosis?
Life Insurance Company has recently carried some national advertising
in which an
average American family is pictured, a father, mother, two boys and a
caption reads, "Broke ‒ but Worth $79,100." The advertisement reads, in
part, as follows:
As a useful American, Dad, at
30, can figure
himself as actually worth $31,000 today ‒ for that is the present value
of his future
earnings less his personal expenses. Dad is one of thousands who are
a week ‒ an average Dad with average health and average expectation of
Dad is frequently sick or if he dies young, he will be worth less than
With better-than-average health and longer life, he should be worth a
more. His family will be better protected, better nourished and given a
chance for future success if Dad keeps well.
Mother's contribution to the
family wealth ‒
her time and energy, to say nothing of her love and devotion, her care
of the home
and the children and her work in molding their characters ‒ can never
in money. But at a very conservative estimate, the money value of her
be at least half that of Dad's ‒ $15,500.
four-months-old baby boy is
worth $9,500 this minute, while big Brother, seven, and little Sister,
worth $16,000 and $7,100 each as future productive citizens.
Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association asked the statisticians of
Life Insurance Company to make an estimate of the economic loss to
by the death of a tuberculous Freemason and of the total loss caused by
of four thousand three hundred and nine Freemasons, which is the
loss to the Fraternity from this one disease.
to this request gave the figure of $21,600 as the average economic
value of each
life lost by tuberculosis and the total economic loss as over
is a letter written by Alfred J. Lotka, Supervisor of Mathematical
Research of the
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, in which he sets forth the method
used in arriving
at these estimates:
The figure of $21,600 for the
average value of
the lives lost by tuberculosis in the United States is based on two
sets of data.
First, the deaths actually reported in five-year age groups from birth
to the end
of life, according to the United States Census Bureau. As a matter of
1924 figures were used at the time, as the 1925 figures were not yet
They have since become available but their use in place of the 1924
have no appreciable influence on the result.
Second, a scale of values of a
man at several
ages of life developed in this Bureau was computed on the basis of the
case of a
man who at his maximum earning capacity earns $2,500 a year. The value
of such a
man to his family was computed as the present worth of his future net
that is to say, total earnings minus expenditure on his own personal
A series of articles was published in our Bulletin on this subject, and
receive a set of the Bulletins in question together with this letter.
values thus computed to the deaths from tuberculosis at the several
ages of life,
the figure $21,600 is obtained as the average value of a person thus
figure was given to Mr. Drolet on the express understanding that it was
estimate and on page fourteen of his address the figure is, in point of
stated to be a tentative estimate.
Perhaps it will be proper to
draw to your attention
that the value of a man thus computed is the value of his dependents,
wife and children,
who benefit from his net earnings. The term, "value of a man," is vague
unless it is stated in regard to whom that value is considered; his
value to his
employers, or to his employees, or to his competitors, are all
concepts and would have distinctly different quantitative measure. You
reference made to this point in the opening article of the series in
of November, 1926.
* * *
in the United States Insufficient
In the discussion
of the subject of Masonic relief and hospitalization of tubercular
suggestion has been advanced that sick Masons should be cared for in
If there were a sufficient number of tuberculosis hospital beds in the
this plan might be worthy of adoption. In a paper read before the
meeting of the
National Tuberculosis Association, at Washington, on Oct. 5, 1926,
Godias J. Drolet,
Statistician of the New York Tuberculosis and Public Health
a statement showing a great shortage of hospital beds in this country.
is quoted from his address:
as far as known, the extent of the tuberculosis situation in the United
we can now study more usefully the record of the present facilities and
to the latest list of sanatoria and hospitals made by the National
Association, we see that in the 48 states and the District of Columbia
now a grand total of 73,715 tuberculosis beds available; 53,510 being
5,479 for the insane in state institutions; 1,325 for prisoners in
institutions, and 13,401 for those under the care of the Federal
the Veterans' Bureau and the Army and Navy Departments, or for Indians.
of beds available in each state is shown on table 4, where they have
at the same time with the number of tuberculosis deaths. We have also
on the basis of a bed for each death, the shortage remaining or the
excess of beds
in certain older communities as well as in health resorts. From this
we find that there is still a shortage in the United States of more
beds. In only 11 states are there sufficient tuberculosis beds,
according to this
several states where more than 1,000 beds are still needed. Among these
mentioned Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky,
Missouri, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia ‒
most of them,
as may be noticed, in the South. Furthermore, in many states the
would be considerably higher were we to remove, as not available for
several important Federal institutions, which figure in this study.
in certain communities where they might well afford more and find it an
in saving lives, we should not wish to have it accented too
complacently that only
one bed is needed for each death. For instance, there are sections of
where morbidity is higher than elsewhere or where cases run a more
and are in greater need of institutional facilities. Again, the
figuring of beds
on the basis of mortality ignores the fact that nowadays we ought to be
find cases in the earlier stages of the disease and that sanatorium
the country, instead of hospital care in the city, is in continued and
demand. We may, therefore, well need yet a still greater number of
for the more timely treatment of favorable cases.
* * *
Words of a Prophet
of the Report of the Committee on Foreign Correspondence of the Grand
Lodge of Missouri
has this to say about the national movement for relief and
hospitalization of Masonry's
The Tuberculosis Sanatoria
Association is, perhaps,
the most significant movement before the Masonic public, and unless we
much mistaken, this enterprise will soon capture the imagination of the
If it succeeds in doing this, we may look for the largest outburst of
that has ever been witnessed in this or any other country.
* * *
No. 5. Husband,
bank clerk, out of work. Been sick two years.
No. 6. Husband just lost one eye. Now out of work. Been sick five years.
No. 7. Landlady says patient told her did not know where his next money
Bros. A. L. Kress and
R. J. Meekren
we had arrived at the problem of what was the origin and explanation of
which in the three Catechisms we have named the Grand Mystery Group,
and the Examination,
is named as one of the jewels of the lodge, which all, with variations
agree that they are
Three, Square Ashlar, Diamond
again referred to in the Examination and also by Prichard in the
at length last month [page 153]. It will be noted that the Examination
in this verse
retains the same order as in the catechetical answers, while Prichard,
for the sake of the rhythm, puts the Diamond first. It may be of some
to note this: the consensus of the evidence is that the Ashlar was
The bearing that this point has on the final argument will appear later.
In the previous
article we gave several possible explanations of the term Diamond (or
to the Institution MS.) none of which seem at all satisfactory. The
to be made is little more than a conjecture, and we only offer it
reference to the tables on page 165 it will be seen that the square
the place of the Dinted Ashlar of Group I and the Perpendashlar of
Group III, and
the Square we interpreted as equivalent to the Square Pavement of the
Diamond therefore comes in the place occupied by the Broached Dornal of
two. We, therefore, for lack of any better derivation, suggest that
Diamond is another
corrupt form of Dornal in spite of the fact that it is a very
to take and that intermediate forms are not very obvious. It has
already been suggested
that the "Porch, Dormer," mentioned by Prichard (and others) is derived
from this expression and Brobed (or Brohed) Mall, but each of these is
to the conjectured common original than Diamond. We must suppose that
"broached" was first dropped by forgetfulness in oral transmission, or
perhaps by carelessness of some copyist, if (as may be possible) a link
particular tradition was a written document, and that then "Dornal"
by itself was subject to further changes. It would be most likely quite
to non-operatives, and probably to working masons too by that time; so
final rationalization into a diamond is not incredible. The fact that a
is actually a precious stone would naturally have an effect, as it
would fit in
with the tradition that it was a stone that was spoken of, and also
agree with its
being called a jewel. It is always easy to substitute a known word for
is strange or even unfamiliar. Uneducated people in England are still
to be found
who say "sparrow grass" for "asparagus," and in the old Catechisms
themselves we have an example of this sort of thing. The unknown word
which is mentioned twice in the Examination and appears again in the
Essex MS. (where
it is called the "Universal Word") reappears in the Trinity-College MS.
as "Match-pin." Under all the circumstances the suggestion then that
Broached Thurnel here reappears in the disguise of a Diamond does not
unworthy of consideration.
however has been made by Bro. E. H. Dring which it seems necessary to
This is that "dinted," or "dented," as a descriptive of the
ashlar, and the "diamond" are all corruptions of "perpend."
The argument is as follows:
syllable or dominating sound in perpent or perpend is the second, pent
and it is this sound that has always caught the ear of brethren. The
being unfamiliar and the unaccented first syllable being slurred over
wrote down indented or dinted…
And in regard
to diamond the same writer thinks it is
… entirely due to an editorial
attempt to correct
a corrupt form of "perpend,"
the doggrel verse from Prichard
With diamond, ashler and the
which he thinks "clinches the question."
Now in regard
to "dented" or "dinted" ashlar as derived from an elided form
'pend ashlar, there seems on the face of it a good deal to be said; and
it would make no difference to our tentative classification, for we
have been led
by another path to equate the dinted and perpend ashlars, each being
and finished stone. But we fear we must question the whole argument.
seem to agree that the first and not the second syllable is the
accented one, and
we submit further, which anyone may test for himself by varying the
in the phrase "perpend ashlar" it would be very unnatural, and contrary
to the genius of English speech, to accent the second syllable. From
which it results
that the slurring or elision, if it occurred, would be in the second
lead to such forms as "perp'n ashlar" or possibly even "perp' ashlar."
Such a form as this last could well have been the basis of an attempted
making it read "perfect ashlar," as p and f are very easily
for deriving diamond from the suggested corruption 'dend ashlar, is
although we must admit that the transition in itself from 'dend to
diamond is no
greater jump than from dornal, perhaps even less. But this conjecture
has to meet
the objection that all lists spoke of a rough stone and a worked stone;
is the perpend stone, then in the lists where it appears we would have
stones. The quotation which clinches the matter for Bro. Dring is
really quite inconclusive,
for as we have seen the consensus of the documents which speak of a
the square ashlar first, and as we have already noted the different
in Prichard has no weight as it seems entirely due to the rhythmic
of the attempt at versification. Besides p is not easily or naturally
d, as it may be for f or v.
that so far our argument has been accepted, we have now left
unexplained only the
"Danty Tassley" and the "Blazing Star," to which Group IV was
reduced (3). The former certainly does look like a corruption of
and might well be taken to mean such an indented ornamental border to a
as was spoken of in the Study Club last month. If so, then Group IV of
table would have to be interpreted as referring to something quite
the three preceding ones; it would, that is, be a description of the
floor as a
whole, the square pavement with its indented tesselated border and the
pattern in the centre, diamond or star shaped. This is so plausible
that it has
long been accepted, officially one might say; and as we have seen, in
appears as the "furniture" (in later works the "ornaments")
of the lodge. But another explanation is also in the field, advanced by
authority than Albert Mackey (4). Prichard's "Indented Tarsel" is
to have really been a tassel, and explained by a reference to the
looped and knotted
cord with tassels at the two ends which appears at the top of the old
and which later became the four tassels at the corners of the English
dented, or indented, does not, however, seem a particularly appropriate
for the rounded bends and loops of a cord, though Mackey accepts it.
works that appeared much later in England, and which are obviously
from the French, speak of a "lacy" or "laced tuft." This seems
very puzzling at first, though a tuft might be the same thing as a
what had operative Masons to do with tassels, or lace?
we go to the French works we find, corresponding to what Prichard says
to the "furniture" of the lodge, the following question and answer; the
substance of which was included as the last item in Group IV of our
D. Combien y-a-til d'ornements
dans la Loge?
D. Quels sont-ils?
R. Le Pave mosaique, l'Etoile flamboyant, et la Houpe dentele'e,
Q. How many ornaments in the
Q. What are they?
A. The mosaic pavement, the flaming (or blazing) star and the laced (or
tuft (or tassel).
All His Glory [Lib 1822], a work published in England
in the year 1766,
which is obviously little more than a translation from French works
later than the
one above quoted, does actually have
The Mosaic Pavement, the
indented tuft and the
as the ornaments
of the lodge, and another work published in the same year has
Mosaic Pavement, Blazing Star
and Indented Tuft,
however, as "furniture," as Prichard does. In the answer to the
question, however, blazing is changed to flaming star as in the
quotation from the
in 18th Century French might possibly have meant laced, in the sense of
or trimmed with lace, or more likely indented or toothed. As indented
more inappropriate when applied to a tassel than to a cord, the
translator, we presume,
chose the other meaning in spite of its utter lack of significance.
to accept Mackey's view, as we suppose his revisers do at least, seeing
article stands in recent editions without change or comment, may be
did the cord and its two tassels come from originally? Of course it has
places probably been equated with some recollection of the "cable tow,"
"cable rope," or "tow line," through a series of growing
The French forms, as we have seen, came originally from England, and as
Thurnel was turned into a Pointed Cubical Stone, so the Indented Tarsel
houppe dentelee (5). We are really back at the beginning and can
discard the tassels
entirely, as well as the lace!
So far attempted
explanation has all been along the line that Danty Tassley was a
corruption of Indented
Tessel or Tassel. Let us suppose instead that this was itself an
attempt to rationalize
the more meaningless form; that is, let us assume that danty tassly is
and see what can be made of it. In the tabulation it would seem as if
it ought to
correspond to the squared stone. Let us write it a little differently,
assly. It begins now to look like our old friend the dinted ashlar. As
of the English word in its many forms is from the French aisselle,
assly is really
nearer the original than asher, astler or ester, all of which variants
we have already
come across. Dinted in Scotch dialect would be "dintit" or "dentit,"
as the English inflexion, "ed," marking the past tense, is represented
in North Britain by "it," or in older spelling "yt." An example
of this use of "y" in place of "i" is found in the quotation
from Trevisa, cited in a previous article (6), where the very word is
The change from the "i" or "e" of the first syllable into "a"
is a very easy one to make, especially in a case such as this where
unintelligible phrases were passed along by word of mouth (7).
for the third item the last of our groups falls into line with the
others. But it
must be confessed that the Blazing Star is, so to speak, a very hard
nut to crack.
In the earliest
designs and charts intended to depict Masonic symbols a five-pointed
star is to
be found, in a few cases it is represented as having seven points, and
in some others,
eight. The French design already referred to, which is one of the
earliest if not
actually the first known to us, shows a five-point star with flames
the re-entering angles, and the letter G in the center. (The last
feature is quite
common in later designs.) Mackey describes it as a straight pointed
on one with wavy points. Other examples show a circle of rays all about
it. It sometimes
appears in the form of a pentagram, but is probably in such cases not
so much intended
as the "Blazing Star" but as a mnemonic for the number five, or an
to the F. P. of F.
Star appears in more modern designs it is very frequently a six-point
of two triangles, or based on the hexagon; sometimes it has seven
points. In spite
of all this profusion of pictorial evidence there is nothing to lead us
it is older as a concrete symbol than the allusions to it in Prichard
[Lib 1730] and the Sloane MS [Lib 1872]. Like the diamond among the
on the coffin lid shown on page 136 last month, it is simply putting an
into pictorial form.
So long as
Danty Tassley was supposed to be an indented border to a square
pavement, the star
could be accepted as an ornamental design for the center. But since it
that the former may in reality be the squared ashlar, this explanation
of the star
begins to look very dubious; and in any case what has a star, blazing
or whatever else it may be, in common with a pavement and an ashlar?
And when we
come to think of it "blazing" is a very curious epithet to apply to a
thing with which the lodge had to be furnished. It is barely possible
that it was
not blazing in the sense of burning, but the other word which remains
English as a pioneer's term for marking a new path or trail. To blazon
is to publish
or describe. The same Flemish gilds which spoke of their festival
as land-jewels (lantjuweelen (8)) also called their banners "blazons."
It is hardly probable, however, that this had anything to do with it,
it is thrown
out merely as a passing suggestion.
What is required
to make Group IV fit in with the rest, as it seems it should, is to
phrase in the sense of some kind of stone ‒ which to fall into its
right place should
be a rough or partly worked stone. It seems rather a hopeless thing to
Had only the Trinity College MS. survived no one could possibly have
"Maughbin," an utterly unknown word in derivation and meaning, from
which, though equally meaningless in fact, is actually a compound of
good English words. In fact, the Blazing Star presents even greater
for it lent itself quite easily to symbolic interpretation as Matchpin
did not. All we can suppose is that it may be another rationalization
of some corrupt
technical term; and this leaves us quite helpless, unless by chance the
original phrase, or some intermediate form, should turn up somewhere in
to exhaust all possibilities it may, however, be noted that if the
Diamond in Group
III be a corrupt form of Dornal then all the lists except those in this
mention the Broached Thurnel. Supposing that Group IV did actually come
same source as the others, and boldly assuming that Blazing Star is
from this phrase, is it possible to imagine any feasible intermediate
which it may have passed? It is not impossible for one thing that "Br"
should be turned into "Bl" ‒ some races and many children find
in properly pronouncing "r" after a consonant and substitute "l"
in its place. One corruption of "broached" is "boasted" in which
the liquid sound has been dropped altogether. If then Thurnel could
have taken some
such form as Tarnel there might conceivably have arisen some such
phrase as Boasted
tarnel, which would in repetition be very apt to lose the "ed" by
and become perhaps Boast' arnel. Final syllables, when not stressed,
are also very
easily dropped, and this would bring us to Boast' arn, which is near
enough to our
unexplained term to be its origin under the circumstances of
transmission by oral
tradition. However, this is all no more than the purest and most
and probably worth as much, and no more, as such speculations usually
are ‒ that
We have stated
that Prichard's catechisms were compilations. The result of the present
certainly emphasizes this. Under the names of jewels and furniture we
no less than three variant forms, and yet another that is unclassified;
all of which
are related to forms found elsewhere. In the whole group of documents
go variously under the names of jewels, furniture and ornaments. The
last term probably
arose from an interpretation of the fourth group which explained them
as the parts
of an ornamental flooring, it is to forms of this group that the term
always been restricted. Furniture would arise naturally as a
description from the
requirement that the lodge had to be furnished with them. Jewels seem
to be their
original and proper appellation. We must confess, though, that we are
far from being
fully satisfied with the result of the discussion at the outset as to
interpretation of this term, or what the ideas may have been that were
in the minds
of those who first employed it in this connection.
one more point to be considered before taking leave of the subject. We
and those of our readers who have the advantage of being able to refer
to the text
of the documents can easily verify it, that in most cases, almost
in the more archaic forms, the jewels are mentioned in close connection
lights. These last require consideration on their own account, but
there is one
more quotation, which, obscure as it is, seems to give us a sidelight
on this juxtaposition,
and perhaps to point to its not being altogether fortuitous. In the
Sloane MS. we
is the Mast'rs place in the lodge?
The east place is the Master's place in the
lodge and the jewell resteth
on him first and he setteth men to work; w't the m'rs have in the
forenoon the wardens
reap in the afternoon.
a statement that the lodge stood East and West. It seems probable from
connection that the "jewell" here spoken of is the sun. Especially as
elsewhere the Master is placed in the East "waiting at the rising of
to set his men at work." This opens up an entirely new vista, the
of which must be reserved for a later occasion.
It will be
remembered that in a preceding series of articles on "The Form of the
we saw reason to believe that the earliest times lodges were held in or
specially marked enclosure out of doors, and that this marked-out space
was a "long
square," and oriented "due east and west." As a result of the present
discussion it emerges that there were three things of sufficient
importance or value
to be regarded as necessary furnishing for a "just and perfect lodge,"
and the first of these is a square floor or pavement, the others being
Is there more in this than appears? The importance of a standard test
be seen, but why mate it with an unwrought stone? Was the whole thing a
echo of the immemorial consecrated area and the two sacred pillar
stones? It is
a curious coincidence at least.
E. H. Dring
Evolution and Development of the Tracing
or Lodge Board. A.Q.C. xxix [Lib 1916], page 259 and
325, note 1. On page 307 a letter from
Prof. Craigie, editor of the New English Dictionary, is quoted. Craigie
the "dinted" ashlar as equivalent to broached ashlar, which supports
conclusion drawn from our tabulation of results in the last article.
the New English Dictionary the modern technical
term is "parpen," perpend being noted as obsolete. The present Scots
form is pairpal, representing an older parpal. In the numerous
variations of the
word given it would seem that the dental ending is not original, and
may have been
introduced for euphony when commonly combined with a word beginning
with a vowel,
such as ashlar. The following are instances of some of the forms:
1429 Pro xxxii
ped' de perpoynt,
lxxxij et di' fott of perpendaschler vyd.
1470 Yone perpall wall....
1558…to big (build) within the said church parpall walls of stone.
1579…they were squared parpine, as thick as long.
1688 Perpin are less than the size of ashlars.
1712...making a parpin.
1756 The ashler … is parpin ashler.
1781...is sawed out … into … perpen-ashlar.
error was allowed to pass the proof reading
in the last article. Prichard gives the form "Indented Tarsel", not
Tessel," as appears in the table at page 155. We must ask our readers
Encyclopedia [Lib 1914], vide Tarsel
and Tessellated Border.
So the 1745
edition of the L'Ordre des Franc-Masons
Trahi [Lib 1781]. As the
varies in the different editions it may be as well to give the exact
The later editions of this work do not, except for such minor
materially from the first.
April, 1927, page 120.
investigation embodied in these articles the
authors desire to acknowledge their indebtedness to Bro. Dring. In the
cited he makes the equation of Dinted Ashlar and Danty Tassley. We have
given him credit for having first arrived at the true origin of the
and he is also entitled to that of first pointing out that the perfect
properly a perpend. This last point, however, came to us first
Bro. W. L. Songhurst in the form of a bare statement, which led us to
look up the
word in various dictionaries. We also had interpreted Danty Tassley as
before having any opportunity to consult Bro. Dring's important, and in
making, paper. We have differed with him in some matters, in most of
which we believe
he has directly or indirectly been misled, in company, it is to be
feared with other
Masonic scholars, by the supposition that the later editions of
were amplified with matter taken from French workswhereas in reality,
if there was
any influencing at all it was the other way about. For as we have
pointed out [THE
BUILDER, March, 1927, Page 90], the second edition, published a few
the first, in the same year, 1730, contained all the matter that these
suppose to have been borrowed or assimilated after 1770. As the
works extant are later than 1740 Prichard could not well, in 1730, have
by them. For the rest we feel that our independent interpretation of
as the same thing as the Dinted Ashlar is an additional argument for
even if we have not the honor of being first to propose it.
A. Q. C. xiii [Lib
1900], page 79.
brief account was written for THE BUILDER by a Russian Mason now living
with many others of his countrymen. For very good reasons it is not
his name should appear. It has been generally supposed that Masonry was
in Russia, and it is very interesting to learn that it survived in some
a century of prohibition and persecution.
tradition claims that the first Russian Free Mason was Peter the Great.
He was initiated
by Sir Christopher Wren in one of the English Lodges in Amsterdam.
There are, however,
no documents to prove it.
of Russian Freemasonry can be divided into three periods.
I. ‒ 1731-1771.
Membership is confined to foreigners residing in Russia, a few officers
of the Guard
and a few Statesmen. The tendency is mystic, the influence negligible.
II. ‒ 1772-1794.
There are Three Mason's bodies.
group ‒ St. Petersburg ‒ work: selfperfection, moral uplift, struggle
ideas of Voltaire. Disappears about 1780.
Rite ‒ St. Petersburg ‒ Prince Gagarine, Grand Master – joins on to
shares its fate.
National L. ‒ Moscow ‒ led by Novikoff and Schwarz working under a
of the Moscow Rosy Cross. Fraternity and of the Order of the
Martinists. This group
exercised a very strong influence of its period and of the future in
and was a potent intellectual factor in contemporary society. It
itself to educational and charitable work and carried these on a vast
it fell under the general ban on Freemasonry imposed by Catherine II in
III. ‒ 1801-1822.
Irregular Russian G. L. "Wladimir to Order" in 1810 fell under the
Jurisdiction. This G. L. as such had little influence, but counted many
people among its members.
As a reaction
against the influence of Higher Degrees there was founded in 1814 in
the auspices of the Grand Orient of France and out of the federation of
L. L. a new Grand Lodge, "Astree."
At the end
of Napoleonic wars and with the return of the army to Russia this M.
body grew to
the extent of having 40 Lodges under its jurisdiction.
influence these Lodges turned their attention to politics and ended
in the turmoil of the attempted revolution in December, 1825.
whole of the XIX century Russian Freemasonry remains if not completely
least entirely hidden and entirely negligible
of interest in spiritual matter which coincided with the beginning of
the XX century
brought about a revival of interest in Freemasonry.
A few prominent
Russian intellectuals joined French Lodge. Professor Bajenoff joined in
Paris the L. of the S. R. "Les Amis Reunis".
‒ the world famous electrician was the founder of the Lodge "Cosmos" A.
A. S. R., in Paris.
in Paris, about fifteen rising Russian politicians joined French L. L.
return to Russia these Bro. of whom the greater part had joined L. L.
G. O. of France, formed two L. L. ‒ one in St. Petersburg, "The Polar
and one in Moscow. These L. L. were installed with great ceremony in
by two representatives of the G. O. of France.
Up to 1906
six L.L. were founded.
interval in their activity occasioned by police restrictions these L.L.
in 1911. They worked under the G. O. of France, had practically no
Ritual and had
an avowedly political aim in view, namely that of the overthrow of
was a "Supreme Council" (?) ‒ an exclusively administrative body whose
members were elected for three years.
organization had no regularity and enjoyed no recognition abroad.
it had about 42 Lodges, chiefly composed of members of the "Cadet"
revolution in March, 1917, was doubtlessly inspired and manipulated
from these Lodges.
All the members
of Kerensky's Government belonged to the Masonry.
Bolshevik revolution the greater part of the members of these Lodges
After a long
spell of inactivity they at length succeeded in forming again under the
of the G. O. of France a new "Polar Star" Lodge in Paris. This up to
claims but few members and enjoys no recognition outside of the G. O.
Its President is Bro. W. Avksentieff, who is also the President of the
Party and a former Minister of the Kerensky Government.
existed in Russia English, Italian and German Lodges as well as an
of the Martinists.
New Research Journal
month is marked by the appearance of the second number of The
published by the Masonic Research Society of West Virginia. There is
always will be a field for Masonic periodicals of high standards and no
compliment could be paid to the editors of this new publication than to
they are to be congratulated upon the quality of their magazine. It
helps to fill
a gap that is at the present time altogether too wide. THE BUILDER is
welcome The Mountaineer Mason into the Masonic publications' field and
for its continued success.
reviewed in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of
at the prices given, which always include postage. These prices are
a matter of precaution) to change without notice; though occasion for
very seldom arise. Occasionally it may happen, where books are
that there is no supply available, but some indication of this will be
the review. The Book Department is equipped to procure any books in
print on any
subject, and will make inquiries for second-hand works and books out of
Story of the City Companies
P. H. Ditchfield. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. Cloth,
contents index illustrated, 325 pages. Price, $5.25.
we are inclined to speak with reverential awe concerning the Landmarks
of the Fraternity.
Strange as it may seem, present day Freemasonry is inclined to supplant
ancient of these traditions with modern innovations. There is
apparently a growing
tendency on the part of Freemasons generally to lose sight of the fact
that as an
institution the Fraternity has an existence which antedates the union
of the Four
Old Lodges. Innovations brought into being by the founders of the
system and by their successors are now hallowed with two centuries and
more of age
‒ nevertheless they were at one time "innovations in the body of
It is, therefore,
with the utmost interest that we read of the Great City Companies of
today are found to occupy positions in a way analogous to Freemasonry,
in that they
are no longer trade gilds in the Medieval sense, but which,
nevertheless, are carrying
on as they did centuries ago. In the work under review the Mason's
but a scanty notice, naturally enough. In the first place it was one of
companies, and in the second its records are very incomplete. It may,
assumed with comparative safety that its aims and ideals were not very
from those of the other companies. The migratory character of the work
of its members
would doubtless account in large measure for its lack of prestige.
interest to present day members of the Craft is the fact that Charity
was a most
important feature of their work. Further that education formed then, as
still, a feature of their work second only to the relief of distressed
the Company. In actual expenditures of money the educational
by the Great Companies were more important even than the relief of
in the earliest days the interest in education was confined solely to
teach the apprentices of individual companies the secrets of their
trade and that
the branching into general fields came later. It seems, at any rate,
that one of
the principal duties which these Companies assumed was the
enlightenment of their
members, first in trade secrets and then in general knowledge. In
America, and the
present day in other countries as well, general education finds
in the public schools and privately endowed institutions. That phase is
beyond the active interest of any company or fraternity although the
of London still have a great interest in this kind of work and some of
most notable schools are Company institutions. On the other hand
our Speculative Craft has been sadly neglected. Here one of our most
has been shunted to a side track and is handled in much the same way as
pick up a hot iron. Reading the Story of the City Companies one becomes
that Freemasonry does not hold in as high regard as some of our
would have us believe the Ancient Landmarks of the Order.
of similarity would be ample recommendation of the present work to
There are other features which add to its importance, however. The
the Companies give us a new perspective into the life of our ancestors.
pictured a London utterly different from that of today and the insight
customs which, like our "Landmarks," have in most cases been continued
to the present day, forms a feature worth more than passing notice.
is splendidly printed on heavy paper and in a type reminiscent of the
printers. The style is readable and the book not too long. Dr.
Ditchfield is to
be congratulated on his work and to the publishers is due the credit
for the attractiveness
of the volume.
* * *
of the Holy Royal
Arch, The Supreme Degree in Freemasonry
F. DeP. Castells. Published by A. Lewis & Co., London. 291
this book, the reviewer looked twice to see if by chance the title page
name of Dr. Oliver. For the dear Doctor at his worst never wrote more
history than that which Bro. Castells inflicts on us in his latest
book. The reader
emerges from it dazed, bewildered and in this case with a distrust of
hypothesis. For bow can anyone put any dependence in anything a Masonic
say when that writer in three separate places cites the shopworn,
of some Jews in Rhode Island holding a lodge in 1658? Not content with
only he says: (p. 100.)
Mason wanted to ignore the record at Rhode Island because he could not
Masonry prior to 1717. But the original document was traced and neither
nor its style could be questioned. It had every characteristic of
truth; it was
written with no ulterior purpose; it harmonised with all the facts of
while incidentally, and quite undesignedly it accounted for the evident
If Bro. Castells
has any information to prove what he says he will do American Masons a
by letting us in on his secret.
theory is that the Royal Arch is derived from Kabalistic sources; that
is largely a Hebrew product (p. 112); that as early as the 15th century
Arch was part of the Third Degree (p. 169); that because we [i. e.,
call it the Holy Royal Arch of Jerusalem it proves ipso facto its
that the three degrees are the outgrowth of the Royal Arch and beside
it are comparatively
modern. He says, "This we fear will come as a shock to many of the
exponents of the Craft." I doubt if Bro. Castells realizes just what a
it is to some of us. Still we could manage to stand it if only his
assures us that "all along we have refrained from theorizing. We have
fables and romance; we have scrupulously avoided building on mere
simply bold up to the brethren the Mirror of History that they may
judge for themselves"
(p. 8-9), and yet he makes statements like the above and like this one:
Now the suspicions
of many writers centre on Chevalier Ramsay, whom they consider the
inventor of the
Royal Arch… Ramsay himself seems to have been a strong believer in the
Arche as the non [sic] plus ultra of Masonry; but alas! for Gould and
has nothing to say in support of the Modern theory that our Supreme
in France; he simply does not know whence it has come, although if
have thrown any light on the problem it was Ramsay.
Ramsay ever say he was a believer in the French Royal Arch or that he
had even heard
of it? How could he know anything about it when it was probably not in
in France at least, when he died?
I have said
Bro. Castells' style was exasperating. Nothing else describes it. His
open with "presumably," "probably," "far more likely,"
"or at least." His conclusions are loosely drawn and usually
by his evidence. As an example: Take for instance the Mason Word.
Whatever it may
be the mere fact that the Masons of the eighteenth century said that it
was as old
as the Tower of Babel, or at least the time of Solomon implies that it
the book is of no value, since one cannot depend on the author's
Some of his symbolic interpretations are however ingenious, and from
of view his work may merit some consideration.
[Lib*] By Alfred Abendroth. Published by Alfred Unger,
Berlin. Paper, table of contents, 215 pages.
THIS is a
valuable contribution to human knowledge. The book presents to the
reader a recapitulation
of the salient features in human history and the unfolding of
philosophy and history;
a scholarly interpretation of mental, moral and spiritual aspects in
of Man in his ascent to the realm of the Super-man.
are two sides to all things, even in the moral, mental and spiritual
large, large majority can see one side only and the student of life
with Ralph Waldo Emerson, who when speaking of his teacher Plato,
"A man was born who could see both sides."
belongs not to the class of Plato. Some features in our book are of
the psychologist demonstrating ad oculos the force of predilection and
how love and bate can and do shape the opinion and sway the judgment of
and well-meaning scholar. Our author is an Aryan, a Teuton, a German.
this Aryan, Teuton, German with highest attributes and potentialities,
in the human but also the cosmic realm. As an illustration, the
translation will serve:
The latest investigation of
race and language
derives the Greek Aristos (Best), as also the word Aryan, from Alder
This establishes the inherent right to rule over all other peoples and
finally to become the link to a new race, to the Super-man, to
Scientific research has
established the fact
that the figure of Christ is a symbol of the rising and setting of the
25th newly-born Sun, the common property of the "Aryan" race, and that
the Lamb of God which carries the sins of the world from the beginning
of time is
a personification of the ideally constituted "Aryan" whose test or
is the salvation of the human race, etc. In the conscientious and
of this, his Divine Mission, he has received and is receiving nothing
as his reward.
has a fine religious sense, but his Teutonic Philosophy makes him an
the various religious creeds as established today. He recognizes,
however, the figure,
the personality of Jesus of Nazareth, as the highest, the noblest
of "Beauty, Wisdom and Strength." One of the features here is
"Jesus of Nazareth is thought by some to have been or rather to be a
Hebrew, an Israelite, in short a Semite," and our author writes:
The first followers of
Christianity and Jesus
himself were colonists of the Northern part of Palestine, of the
of Galilee, whose inhabitants belonged to the great Phoenician and
Indo-Germanic, Aryan stock. Galilee always remains foreign and strange
to the real
The most noble Aryan Hellenism
and pure Christianity
constitute the two poles of Humanity and of Civilization.
presents in glowing language (too lengthy for translation) the
disclosed in the teachings of Jesus and concludes, "We see that these
are filled with the most beautiful, the most humane principles, etc.,"
The latest scientific
investigation has established
the fact that these doctrines were the property of the Setret Order of
and these Essenes occupy the same religious position as the
Mysteries and the Neoplatonists.
visu! Most wonderful to behold, to the mind of an Aryan author, a
trying to draw a truthful picture of human life and history, and of the
of Freemasonry upon human destiny, there appears the Secret Order of
additional interest to every Freemason should be this fact: The real
name of these
Essenes, that is, the appellation by themselves, for themselves, of
Banaim, which term in English means "Builders." The Roman Pliny calls
these Essenes, or rather "Banaim", "The Most Wonderful People on
next gives us a wonderful exhibition, a brief recapitulation of the
Science, Philosophy and Religion, a brief outline and scholarly
the leading doctrines of Descartes, Leibnitz, Newton, Kant,
and the contributions in these realms by men who belonged to the Order
While the eyes of our author are German, these eyes have pity but never
contempt for anything that is Non-German, Non-Aryan.
of the book presents another surprise to the psychologist. Our author,
such a strong
nationalist, would naturally be expected to be, if not a royalist at
least a conservative.
But no, our author advocates a new arrangement of society and
by the name of Socialism. He presents the reader with the most
of the future: The Socialistic Cooperative Commonwealth. He proclaims
of the ideals presented by Thomas More, William Morris, Edward Bellamy
and of the
doctrines and principles enunciated in the works of St. Simon, Karl
Marx and Bernard
is certainly of interest and should be translated, for while in the
opinion of this
critic our author did not enter the inner shrine of either Religion or
yet he presents valuable hints which might enable some to find and
enter this inner
der Katechismen der Johannisfreimaurerei
[Lib*] Vol. IV. By
Robert Fischer. Edited by Ernst Paul Kretschmer. Published by the
des Vereins deutscher Freimaurer. Cloth, 12 mo., table of contents, index, 157
book, the last volume of Bro. Fischer's "Explanations of the Catechisms
St. John's Freemasonry," presents us with a most scholarly position of
of its principles and contributions to civilization, and with sketches
Masonic personalities. It gives us the period, in some instances the
of the founding of various lodges in different parts of Europe,
France, Sweden and Germany. Strange as it may seem, the United States
are not mentioned.
takes what seems to this critic a strange and false attitude towards
the Order of
Knights Templar and the Essenes. He writes, page 70:
The acts of the higher grades
were based upon
the tradition that Freemasonry is the Spiritual continuation of the
Order of Templars
and that in the Order of the Templars there existed a secret doctrine
a free and liberal interpretation of Christianity…
For the tradition that the
doctrines of Freemasonry
are connected with the Order of Essenes there exists today no proof…
of the author is negative; he has no proof!
of Relativity in some respects is a modern discovery, but some aspects
have existed since the beginning of time. Proof has no reality; proof
belongs to the realm of subjectivity. What constitutes conclusive proof
to the mind
of one man is not even evidence to the mind of another. The force of
the cogency of a logical argument depends upon the degree and the kind
of the individual.
the highest authority of science
at the time, in the year 1830 decreed that for the theory of evolution
no proof, decided in favor of the negative furnished by Cuvier and
against the positive
evidence presented by Godfroi St. Hilaire.
we have the axiom: If A equals B and B equals C then A equals C. Some
kinds of human
mind may ask and in the experience of the present writer have asked,
in this connection calls attention to the fact that two tunes not
from one another may be definitely distinguished from a third.
In the opinion
of the reviewer there is a most intimate, a most far and deep reaching
between Essenism, the Knights Templar and the Order of Freemasonry.
* * *
Admiral and Others
Peggy Temple. Published by E. P. Dutton & Co. Illustrated, 138
story by twelve-year-old Peggy Temple, comes as a refreshing breeze to
reader, tired of the sameness of much present day fiction. The youthful
with a gay abandon no seasoned writer would dare give himself up to,
and her very
original little tale is enlivened and enriched throughout by her quaint
her delightfully absurd, though wonderfully alive, characters.
family, consisting of Jack and Mary (the parents), Milly and Tim (the
are entertaining an odd assortment of guests at their home ‒ Sunflower
Cornham. There are the Admiral and Mrs. Derbertson, the Honorable Mrs.
and George Hazelham, an old friend of Jack.
blustering sort of person, the Admiral, and meddlesome to an alarming
develops a mild case of chickenpox, and the family is trying to keep
the news from
their guests. The Admiral is suspicious, however, and in trying to
room, to see for himself, bursts in upon Mrs. Paperie Arnolds, who,
secure in the privacy of her bedroom, has tossed her wig upon the floor
and is "lying
inelegantly on her bed." Poor little Mrs. Derbertson sees her husband
hastily from the irate lady's room and reproaches him gently: "I don't
it my dear … it's not what I hoped of you, Henry," and watches him
away with a "rather curious little smile on her rather obstinate little
go on quoting delicious bits endlessly. The Admiral no sooner finds out
has chickenpox than he insists it must be smallpox, and sends for the
the medical officer, and a skin specialist. He is so unpopular with
when they find they have come on a fool's errand, that he thinks it
best to run
away until the affair blows over, and he has to be searched for like a
Despite the ignominy of hiding in boot-cupboards and dodging his
pursuers, the Admiral
maintains his arrogance to the end of the chapter, and his closing
every bit as aggressive as his opening ones.
little story. Not the work of a prodigy, yet the subtle humor and
make it an extraordinary bit of writing for one so young, and perhaps
it is safe
to prophesy there will be other tales from the pen of this youthful
* * *
Pope of the Sea
1927] By Vincente Blasco
E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. Cloth, table of contents, 362
pages. Price, $2.65.
OF all modern
writers perhaps none can lay greater claim to distinction than Ibanez
question is the foremost exponent of Spanish literature. His works
approach the "best seller" class in popularity though they are on a
higher plane than the books usually belonging to this class.
effort from his pen is one of the most enjoyable bits of modern fiction
it has been
my pleasure to read. There is an indefinable charm in the style,
perhaps due in
no small measure to the capability of the translator. Too frequently a
work of fiction
loses the characteristics of the author when it passes from one tongue
To one who has read Ibanez in the original there is immediately
apparent a feeling
that the same masterful expression has been instilled upon the
translator of this
present volume and that the subtlety of expression which characterizes
has come over to the English version.
is very simple and could be told perhaps in a quarter of the space
occupied by the
present work. The plot is only an incident, a distraction from the
Pedro de Luna, the Pope of the Sea. It is the means by which the plot
to a climax and one of those rare instances where an incident so far as
concerned forms the major interest of the novel.
of this Medieval Pope, the last to be elected during the Babylonian
the Church of Rome, is as fascinating as a melodrama. It is interwoven
lives of two very modern young people in a most intriguing manner. The
to be encountered in writing such a tale are enormous. To carry us from
and Spain of the present century back to Avignon and the Medieval
constantly between the two, and maintaining the interest of the reader,
is a task
that should be set before none but a master. How well Ibanez; has
task cannot be told. The book must be read to appreciate it. Suffice it
to say that
the author has proven his reputation and added another masterpiece to
highest recommendation that can be given to the present work is that it
if not superior, in every respect to The Four Horsemen of the
Apocalypse [Lib 1918].
* * *
for the Working of
the Ceremonies of the Craft Degrees of Freemasonry
by Samuel Smith, P.M., P.D.G.W. Published under the auspices of the
Lodges of Scottish, Freemasonry' in Natal, South Africa. Limp cloth, 29
THIS is a
severely practical little book and should be very useful to lodge
has appropriate selections for every part of the ceremonies where music
can be used
with effect, including those of installation, which selections, it may
have been made with great taste and judgment. A very useful feature is
of blank ruled pages for writing down other tunes. Though inexpensively
has one great virtue that many music books do not possess ‒ it will
stay open at
the place required. It is a very praiseworthy production, and both Bro.
the Scottish Craft in Natal are to be congratulated on its production.
of the sale of the work are to be devoted to Masonic charities of Natal.
* * *
Short History of Orient
Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, No. 79, G. R. C., Toronto
adds another link to the constantly lengthening chain of histories of
bodies. It is entertainingly written and there is much that will be of
future historians of the Royal Arch in Canada. Had we been supplied
of this character relating to the history of early lodges both in
England and America
doubtless the work of modern historians would be much simplified. It is
to know that so many lodges, chapters, etc., are printing short
histories of their
* * *
[Lib*], by Leslie Reed, published by E. P. Dutton & Co., New
York. Price $2.15.
A New Translation
of the Holy Bible [Lib*], by James Moffatt, published by Geo. H. Doran
the Mind in History [Lib*], by Henry Osborn Taylor, published by The
New York. Price $2.40.
California [Lib*], by Alberta J. Denis, published by The Macmillan
York. Price $3.75.
Box and Correspondence
Iowa Masonic Library
of this is librarian of the Scottish Rite Bodies of this city.
have any objection to informing me as to who is the owner of the 35,000
library mentioned in your circular; where it is located; if any printed
of it exists which can be procured?
W. B. S., California.
referred to is that at Cedar Rapids, Iowa. It is now in course of being
and it is, we understand, the intention to print the catalog when the
work is completed.
You will find the Curator, Bro. J. Hugo Tatsch, ever ready to assist in
possible with information should you care to write to him
* * *
Red Cross of Constantine
On page 31,
of the January, 1927, issue of THE BUILDER, is an inquiry from E. E. G.
about the Red Cross of Constantine. I suggest that the proper person to
should be referred is Philip C. Shaffer, 1337 Spring Garden St.,
who is Grand Recorder of the Grand Imperial Council of Pennsylvania.
I could give
more data, but Bro. Shaffer by virtue of his office is the proper one
it. I may add that Bro. Geo. W. Warvelle of Chicago, Ill., is now
of the Order.
Hiram E. Deats, N. J.
* * *
Situation in Mexico
I have read
with interest the two articles in the May issue of THE BUILDER, and
a good part of the last thirty years on or near the Mexican border my
might be interesting to some of your readers.
with we cannot compare Mexican Masonry with that in the United States,
about as much difference as there is between the average American and
Mexican. Our Masonry is supposed to be and usually is strictly
in Mexico it is in practice usually political.
the condition of Mexico under the Dictator, Diaz, that country as a
enjoyed a greater measure of peace and prosperity, security,
development and general
progress under his iron rule than during any other period of her
cannot change his spots and it really does not seem to make much
your Mexican is a Mason or a Catholic so far as his political
activities and policies
are concerned. They usually exploit rather than build. If you wish to
or accomplish anything, you generally have to see someone or use some
and energy built Mexico's railroads but do not own them now. Foreign
brains developed her mines but they found a way to take them too; her
were developed in the same way and you see what is happening to them.
Constitutions of 1917 were not the crystallization of the ideals of the
people. Probably not more than a half dozen interested individuals had
to do with the drafting of that document; it may mean nothing or
probably depends on the expediency of the occasion. Judging the future
by the past,
why not suppose that the wealth, lands and property of the Church has
the interested attention of those in power? Religious freedom or
does not enter into it except indirectly, as means to an end.
Calles has undertaken a pretty big job and it remains to be seen how
far he gets
with it. It appears that the wisest and most successful rulers of past
not interfere with the religion of the people. The British Empire the
of modern colonizers, probably owes its success to this policy. While
of course, accuse President Calles of doing this, it does to all
intents and purposes
work out that way in practice.
always been a certain amount of intolerance, if not fanaticism, in all
Any of them given absolute power would no doubt use it. Religious
tolerance in this
country as far as it goes is probably due to the fact that no church or
no question but that policy of the Church in Mexico has been mercenary
and has not
worked toward the education or enlightenment of the masses; but to be
we must have something better to offer in its place. Has its influence
bad? What would the average Mexican be without any religious or Church
The human heart craves spiritual solace, but can you imagine the
sitting down and reading his Bible and getting any spiritual comfort?
Will it not
have to be prepared for him in a different way? I will say that I have
but feel that Masonically we should keep out of the quarrel.
R. J. W., Colorado.
* * *
Language of Stonemasons
to the communication on this subject in THE BUILDER for last month we
give the following
letter from a well-known Irish Masonic student:
"I have never heard of the
mentioned by Donn Byrne, nor have I ever met with any representative of
red-eyed fraternity who appeared to be full of suspicion toward an
"If the statement has any
I suppose it is bound to have or the author would not have made it and
up with exemplifications as be does in the next paragraph after the
by Bro. Dyer (pity Bro. Dyer stopped short of it, but in case you have
it I give it, it helps), I do not believe the reference is to
"However you may inform Bro.
Dyer that I
have cast a very wide net in the Ulster Press, and if I catch anything
I will gladly
pass it on."
benefit of those who have not seen it we give the further quotation
from the National
Geographic Magazine referred to above:
The interesting part of this
is: that in England,
besides the Gypsies, there are tribes of itinerant tinkers who use many
reversed Irish words in their jargon, which is not Romany. "Lapac" for
a horse is the Irish "capall"; "rohob" for road is the Irish
"bohor"; "ees" is the Irish Saoi, a magistrate. This dialect
is called by themselves "Shelta," which I suppose is "Celtic."
These English have otherwise nothing Irish about them.
that Bro. Simpson may be able to discover further information on this
* * *
Serious Side of the
matter of your recent editorial entitled "A Serious Question" is indeed
worthy of discussion and investigation. If someone is at work on it, I
have a suggestion
to make as to a phase of the problem that seems to have been completely
in your first presentation. Whether or not my point has any bearing on
question, it is a point that I am sure will be prominent in the minds
of many who
hear of Masons converted or returned to the Roman Church.
a widespread belief that the requirements of the Roman Church include a
of very great thoroughness ‒ that the priest asks what he will and the
answer truthfully and fully in order to receive the absolution for
which he seeks.
However much this may be evaded by the writers in the Roman Church, the
throughout the country that the priests thus learn not only the private
of their flock but also the secrets of any society to which the
may have belonged.
as you say, may be mostly "official secrets long since betrayed," and
their revelation may be nothing to cause alarm. Nevertheless every
Mason knows there
is good reason why he should not go to Confession to a Roman priest.
that any brother may withdraw from the Fraternity legally and formally,
has no relation
to this matter. It is a matter of grave concern should a brother Mason
secrets he has obligated himself to keep, no matter if it has been done
before him. Regardless of other men's actions he violates his vows. It
is not legal.
You write "On what may be called the legal … aspect of the case there
for protest." In case of a Confession, I think there is reason to
It is an indignity, it is a betrayal. No suggestion of baseless fears
or the infiltration
of religious or political antagonism is going to relieve our hearts of
of such a betrayal. It should not be treated lightly nor evaded.
I look forward
with considerable interest to your future discussions.
F. F. G., Minnesota.
raises an issue that was only touched on in the editorial referred to.
does need further elucidation, and this we hope to be able to give
later on. We
have also given the point more extended notice on an earlier page.
* * *
Matter of Obligation
and the Grand Lodge of New Mexico have been active for some time in
urging the members
of the Masonic Fraternity to finance the erection of a hospital in the
New Mexico for tuberculosis patients among the members of the
invocation of the different Grand Lodges in this matter has thus far
not shown any
results that make this noble deed a possibility. Being myself a
Freemason and having
taken the matter up with many brethren who without exception approved
I take the opportunity to manifest in this article my Masonic opinion
on this matter.
of this country are morally obliged to assist our suffering brethren.
It is, furthermore,
our honest duty to erect a hospital where these poor unfortunate
brethren, or members
of their families, can be taken care of and cured. It is not a temporal
forces us to help these unfortunate humans, it is a moral law, the law
our Order has been erected, that obliges us to erect a hospital in
order to manifest
our Masonic ability. It is the duty of the Grand Lodges to take this
matter up and
secure the necessary funds right now in order to uphold the moral
standard of the
Order. Charity is the first virtue of a Freemason, and the building of
hospital is nothing else but an act of Charity and Virtue. I
congratulate both THE
BUILDER and the Grand Lodge of Now Mexico, for asking the Masonic
financial assistance in their noble work. Whom should they ask? Who is
to respond to their call? Nobody but we Freemasons of this great and
the United States of America. Why are the Grand Lodges so unresponsive?
been building Masonic Temples that have cost millions of dollars. Are
we not able
to build a hospital for tuberculosis patients?
It is the
general belief among Masons that the brother who obtains the Third
Degree is a Master
Mason. I doubt it. My opinion is this: when a brother has obtained the
he has only the foundation whereupon he, the newly raised brother, must
moral Masonic building. This moral Masonic building is called CHARITY.
charitable work a brother becomes a Master Mason, he then has done his
as a Master Mason. Now you Freemasons of this great country are you
Masons? Show the world that the Masonic Order is a true Brotherhood, by
these our brethren who suffer with one of the most fatal diseases known
Here is another
point which must not be overlooked: We Masons believe in God, the
Architect of the
Universe. We thank Him for everything He has given us. In this country
a spot of God's earth created by this God we believe in, to cure
owing to its climate. This spot of ground I am speaking of cannot be
used by tuberculosis
patients unless we Masons who believe in God erect a hospital there
unfortunate humans can make use of, in order to treat them in
conformity with the
discoveries of medical science. Now then, brethren of the Masonic Order
in the United
States of America, is our belief in God merely verbal, or is it both in
in deed? If we believe in God in deed, we are enforced by obligation to
now, and show the world that Masons believe in God in deed, and not
alone in words.
Of course a hospital cannot be erected or purchased without funds. If
bear in mind that we have in this country over three millions of
Masons, and that
if every Mason donates only twenty-five cents, we would have $750,000.
would be enough to erect a hospital and there would be enough money
left, the interest
of which would take care of the upkeep of the hospital. The individual
advance the money to be paid by their members and collect it later from
is, however, not possible unless the different Grand Masters take this
immediately. Will they do it?
it profit, my brethren, though a man say he hath faith, and have not
faith save him? If a brother or sister be naked, and destitute of daily
one of you say unto them, Depart in peace, be ye warmed and filled;
ye give them not those things which are needful to the body; what doth
Even so faith, if it had not works, is dead, being alone. Yea a man may
hast faith, and I have works: Shew me thy faith without thy works, and
I will shew
thee my faith by my works. Thou believest that there is one God; thou
the devils also believe, and tremble. But wilt thou know, 0 vain man,
without works is dead?
hear in THE BUILDER from Grand Masters and Grand Lodges answers in
favor of this
A Freemason from Missouri.
* * *
and the 1842 Convention
I have read
with great interest Bro. Eriksson's article on "The Effects of
on the Masonic Fraternity." It is the most thorough and comprehensive
I have ever seen. I would not have missed it for a great deal. I am
in the subject as my grandfather was Deputy Grand Master of Vermont
time and was elected to the Grand Mastership of that state in January,
father being one of the first candidates raised to Masonic light in his
its resumption of labor after enforced suspension for a period of ten
this cause. Both bearing the same name as myself, who am third to wear
one minor fact that Bro. Eriksson omitted, not that it is of much
for historical accuracy), that is, that the Grand Lodge of Florida was
not in attendance
at the Convention of 1842. Bro. J. P. Duval, P. G. M., and J. G. Jones
from this lodge, and in 1843 Bro. Thomas Hayward, Grand Lecturer,
attended as a
Philip C. Tucker, Florida.
* * *
In view of
the numerous ‒ and to the critical student, preposterous ‒ claims that
advanced in current books and Craft magazines about the origins and
Freemasonry, it is refreshing to read W. Bro. Lionel Vibert's paper.
Before Grand Lodges," [Lib*] which appeared in the Transactions of the
of Research, Leicester, England, in the volume for 1923-4. (This should
not be confused
with his able little book, Freemasonry Before the Existence of Grand
published some years earlier.) I recommend it to you for republication
in THE BUILDER,
as I doubt if many American Masons will have access to it otherwise.
J. Hugo Tatsch, Iowa.
of Bro. Tatsch is certainly a very good one. The paper is one deserving
Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
AQC Transactions Vol 013 - 1900
Ars00 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1900. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - 18.4 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 029 - 1916
Ars16 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 418. - 20.3 MB.
Crises in the History of the
McC16 / auth. McCabe Joseph. - New York : G P Putnam's Sons, 1916. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 480. - 19.3 MB.
Empire and Papacy
Gre92 / auth. Greenwood Alice D. - New York : Macmillan & Co,
1892. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 240. - 11.9 MB.
Den54 / auth. Denzinger Heinrich. - Wirceburgi : [s.n.], 1854. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 459. - Latin - 15.0 MB.
Freemasonry Before the
Existence of Grand Lodges
Vib10 / auth. Vibert Lionel. - London : Spencer & Co., 2010. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 163. - 0.5 MB.
Freemason's Secrets Sloane MS
Hug721 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : Geo Kenning, 1872. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 22. - 1.0 MB.
Germany Vol 1
Men99HG1 / auth. Menzel Wolfgang. - New York : The Co-Operative
Publication Society, 1899. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 478. - 25.0 MB.
Germany Vol 2
Men99HG2 / auth. Menzel Wolfgang. - New York : The Co-Operative
Publication Society, 1899. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 455. - 23.2 MB.
Germany Vol 3
Men99HG3 / auth. Menzel Wolfgang. - New York : The Co-Operative
Publication Society, 1899. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 456. - 23.3 MB.
Germany Vol 4
Men99HG4 / auth. Menzel Wolfgang. - New York : The Co-Operative
Publication Society, 1899. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 434. - 23.4 MB.
Abb98 / auth. Abbott John S C. - New York : Peter Fenelon Collier,
1898. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 673. - 25.4 MB.
L'Ordre des Francs-Maçons Trahi
Per81 / auth. Perau
Gabriel L C. - Amsterdam : Unknown, 1781. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 133. - 4.7
MB - French - Not Searchable.
Pri30 / auth. Prichard Samuel. - London : Charles Corbett, 1730. - 20th
Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 35. - 1.7 MB.
Romanism in the Light of History
McK14 / auth. McKim Randolph H. - New York : G P Putnam's Sons, 1914. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 282. - 5.5 MB.
Solomon in all his Glory
Lyn22 / auth. Lynd Robert. - London : Grant Richards Ltd, 1922. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 247. - 6.6 MB.
The Catholic Church and the
Car07 / auth. Carr Arthur. - London : Longmans Green and Co, 1907. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 229. - 10.7 MB.
The Four Horsemen of the
Iba18 / auth. Ibanez Vicente B / trans. Jordan Charlotte B. - New York
: E P Dutton & Company Inc, 1918. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 492. - 16.0
The Great Reformation Vol 1
DAu43GR1 / auth. D'Aubigne Merle J H. - New York : Robert Carter, 1843.
- Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 393. - 17.7 MB.
The Great Reformation Vol 2
DAu43GR2 / auth. D'Aubigne Merle J H. - New York : Robert Carter, 1843.
- Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 402. - 21.0 MB.
The Great Reformation Vol 3
DAu43GR3 / auth. D'Aubigne Merle J H. - New York : Robert Carter, 1843.
- Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 506. - 25.5 MB.
The Great Reformation Vol 4
DAu43GR4 / auth. D'Aubigne Merle J H. - New York : Robert Carter, 1843.
- Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 507. - 24.8 MB.
The Holy Roman Empire
Bry11 / auth. Bryce James. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1911. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 637. - 30.9 MB.
Bar11 / auth. Barry William. - London : Williams and Norgate, 1911. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 260. - 8.6 MB.
The Pope of the Sea
Iba27 / auth. Ibanez Vicente B. - New York : E P Dutton &
Company, 1927. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 365. - 17.4 MB.