Masonic Research Society
Bro. N. W. J. Haydon,
Associate Editor, Canada
I HAVE been
asked to show wherein Freemasonry of today is neglecting its
to do so justly it is needful that we ascertain just what these
and what responsibilities they bring. In the case of an Institution
like ours, which
has been definitely organized for a specific purpose, and is well over
century in its present form, it should be a fair statement that its
are ties and that they will have become clearly stated in its
Let us take
a first take a look at these Constitutions, for some of us may not be
familiar with them, although we have all been charged to make ourselves
therewith in order that each one might become instructed in the duties
he owes to
the Craft in general. Note the words, the duties, he owes, by reason of
into our ranks, not merely social usages which can be observed or set
aside at pleasure.
We find that
this Constitution is based on certain Old Charges of a Freemason, and
there is documentary
evidence that these Old Charges have existed in writing for nearly six
at least. There are seventy-eight manuscript copies of them known
today, the oldest
dating from the end of the 14th century. Our Masonic scholars have
exercised a great
deal of learning in trying to trace their origins through the customs
of a time when all book learning was a prerogative of one class only
and the great
bulk of the people had to depend entirely on what they were told.
Charges of a Freemason
cover, in six main sections, all the relationships that were expected
to be formed
by the membership of the Craft, among themselves and with their fellow
it is due entirely to the special phrasing of the first that our Order
spread all over the civilized world, has over two hundred years of
beneficial service to its credit, and is likely to last as long as the
and the most important duties of citizenship are subject to human
It may be
strange to some, but it is a fact in our history, that when Freemasonry
in 1717 and the first Grand Lodge established, it was a clergyman, a
divine, who was given the task of "digesting" these old Charges, which
had been the working rules of the Operative Lodges then dying from lack
into "a new and better method." These brethren so changed the character
of our Order that instead of recognizing only the authority of the
of England, and of the English monarch as divinely appointed to that
became possible for men of any religious faith or political party to
to enter our ranks, and to gain our highest honors. All these
contained in the new first section, and our history stands as proof of
that followed this revolutionary overturn of our previous usages.
It is in
considering this first section that I hope to find the substance of
what I have
to say, and I hope the effort will at least cause some to hunt up their
the Constitution and become better acquainted with these Old Charges.
There is a
great deal of reliable as well as speculative literature to be had on
both in book and magazine form, so that no brother need plead ignorance
vital matters because of being denied access to them.
You may well
ask how it became possible for such changes to be made, and in such
wise that both
then and since they have been accepted and justified by their appeal to
that is in us. The answer to these questions is contained in this
with the virtuous of every persuasion in the firm and pleasing bond of
love; they are taught to view the errors of mankind with compassion and
by the purity of their own conduct, to demonstrate the superior
excellence of the
faith they may profess…
is the center of the union between good men and true, and the happy
means of conciliating
Friendship amongst those who must otherwise have remained at a
are pregnant with our successes and our failures, and by our own
we condemned to the extent that we avoid their implications.
Desire for Fraternity
to the first question will be found by a brief survey of English and
during the centuries preceding. The Golden Rule was almost invariably
for political and commercial advantage, might and right, and the spread
of the new
religion was accompanied by deceit, crime, murder and persecution, even
by torture. Civil war, fostered by the grossest ignorance and
credulity, was the
constant condition of church and state, and the records of all parties
in the degree that they had power to enforce their will. Is it any
wonder that men
should have become utterly exhausted by their burdens of war and
have welcomed with joy a method of association made possible by a
of all subjects of political and religious contention? And thus in two
an idea advocated by a few elderly men, of no particular social
all over the world, counted a voluntary membership of over three
from all classes of society, all ranks of learning and all grades of
approaching such an achievement is to be found elsewhere in history!
all these successes what else must we admit, at least so far as this
continent is concerned? Every year members drop out, often for reasons
definitely the result of our present methods. Masonic honors are
those who have no better claims than blatant self-assertion and
their pursuit. The duties of Masonic charity are treated with
indifference by individual
members and left almost entirely to lodges and Grand Lodges. The
practice of Masonic
scholarship is ignored so that an estimate of 10 per cent of our
be over-liberal of the number who concern themselves with more than
and ceremonial. Masonic friendship is at a minimum, because lodge
too large to permit our knowing each other as intimately as we should.
Conditions No Improvement
As for "viewing
with compassion the errors of mankind" in matters of religion and
I ask you to consider the feelings exhibited while the union between
and Presbyterian churches was coming into being, and those made evident
the country during the Scopes' trial in Tennessee. Had these quarrels
even in 1717, they would have resulted in the use of fire and steel
and, if words
could kill, there would be many more widows, orphans and homeless
people on this
continent today than there are, even though government has prohibited
use of lethal weapons.
from President to mayor, causes more poison to be thrown against
intentions by those who will not try to "demonstrate the superior
of the faith they may profess, by the purity of their own conduct." We
are vitally concerned in all these things, many of us directly by our
and all of us by the power of our personal influence, even in our own
or social circles. What are we doing about it?
Is it living
up to our professions to be content with listening to this address, to
its message more or less, as evidence of our intellectual powers, and
then put the
blame on Freemasonry because it is neglecting its opportunities to aid
in the improvement
of humanity, while we continue to walk comfortably along the path of
and most profit to our own concerns? Freemasonry lives amongst us today
we are members of the Masonic Order. It will honor us by its prestige
or stain us
with its disrepute exactly as we try to learn and meet our Masonic
duties or neglect
them. One little swamp mosquito can infect a grown man with yellow
fever, so that
he dies or becomes a permanent invalid. One careless smoker, whether
not, can set the prairie or the timber limit on fire with all the
that are told in our fire loss reports.
criticism alone is of little use, and the physician should try to heal
as well as
diagnose the disease, I will therefore venture to offer a few
suggestions in the
hope that they may be considered worth acting upon. The most important
duty we neglect
lies in the quality of our membership, as proven by our annual loss
for non-payment of dues. A small percentage of this is legitimate and
the lean years that have followed the Great War, but the remainder are
who should not have found a place amongst us, who were not well enough
their proposers and seconders and who were received without sufficient
submit for one thing that the questionnaire used in this Grand Lodge
not bring out the information we need, and that the much more elaborate
by the Grand Lodge of Alberta is also open to improvement. Our attitude
should be positive, not negative; not why should we refuse him but why
admit him? How often do proposers and seconders know an applicant well
make on oath, if need were, the statements they write on the forms
know a man in business and like him, but later he is found to be
selfish and callous
in his home. We know a man socially and like him, but in business he
proves to be
a smooth rascal. Very seldom do we get to know a man under both
Masonic admission implies both, and more, and we profess to "guard our
our authorities warn us to do so constantly. The Society for Masonic
Toronto has brought out a compilation of all the questions asked by
with some of their own, which is worth serious consideration as a
remedy for this
It is not
only too easy for men to join us, but far too for them to make progress
in our ranks.
In Switzerland an interval of a year is imposed between each degree,
of proficiency do not consist in repeating set answers to a few
of which appear to mean anything more to the candidates than so many
words. In that
country Freemasonry is a very serious matter; each applicant is
required to prove
himself by his behavior during a term of waiting before he becomes a
a higher degree, and by submitting in writing, before receiving
understanding of his Masonic experiences. Upon that piece of original
his progress depend. How do you suppose such a method would affect our
numbers? The next opportunity we neglect is our duty towards Charity,
and our attitude
in this respect is pitiable. There are practically no individual gifts,
the rare occasions when a lodge allows the hat to be passed as well as
grant from its funds, and these grants do not compare with those
expected from our
Grand Lodge funds. When we stood in the Northeast Corner we promised to
help distressed worthy brothers, but in practice we ignore our promise,
from lodge or Grand Lodge funds do not touch our pockets directly.
That we are
not poor is proven by our temples, by the frequency and quality of our
We cheerfully pay dues of a size to support such expense, which help no
our caterers, but what sentiments have we heard when it is proposed to
them for the sake of larger benevolence. Recently a little lodge in
its second installation of officers by subscribing eighty guineas
the English charities and an annual report of the Grand Lodge of New
an average voluntary contribution of $4 per member towards their
over and above that required by their annual dues. But one Grand Lodge
(Nova Scotia) supports a Masonic Home; attempts to do so in our other
does not enter here of the merits of a Masonic Home, compared with
as is done in Ontario; the point is that our capacities in this respect
dishonored by shear neglect to cultivate them. We could make a splendid
financing a few scholarships for Masons' children whose education must
by the death of their parents, or by endowing beds in hospitals for the
of poor Masons or their dependents, to whom the costs of a serious
illness or an
operation would be devastating.
A third opportunity
which does not get its share of attention is Masonic scholarship.
flourish and grow fat; jewels, robes and chains of office are in steady
but wealth of knowledge is at a discount. The history of our magazines
is one of
constant struggle against indifference, of enthusiasm for Masonry
a burden of uncollectible arrears, caused by a too liberal confidence
in a professed
desire for knowledge. Of those in our chief seats, who should lead us
to more light,
how many encourage us by example as well as precept?
It is true
that many Masons cannot become well read, for every man's powers are
the proportion of those who study for the love of learning is,
But why should any of us be satisfied merely with those suggestions
that are all
our ceremonies can impart; why need we be content with the narrow
limits of personal
associations? We are told that Freemasonry is like the British Empire
in that on
its limits the sun never sets, yet the small concerns of our lodge are,
most of us, the whole field of our observation. Like Gray's peasants,
many of us
"think the rustic cackle of our burgh the murmur of the world."
We know that
Freemasonry sets no religion over another, prefers no form of
government to another
and, for that reason alone, is it possible for brethren to dwell
together in unity
despite the war of creed and policy outside our lodges. But no member
for that reason, his daily paper, the journal of his profession, or
aid to intelligent citizenship. Is Freemasonry less worth attention
because it is not a source of physical wealth or public honor? Are our
be descended from the "Ancient Mysteries" limited to the once guarded
secrets of the skilled worker in stone, wood and metal?
this, even tacitly, by our indifference towards our literature is to
deny any truth
to the Junior Warden's lecture, is to regard our Senior Warden's
lecture as a tinkling
cymbal and our Past Master's charge as but sounding brass. Why should
we enter our
brethren into the Craft as new-born babes, pass them into the grave
duties of manhood
and raise them into the crown of a future life if these are intended to
more than preliminaries to a pleasant social evening? The church exists
to do this
for us, and does it better with men trained to the task. If we can do
no more, let
us at least cease to be hypocrites, cease to call upon the name of
before we sit down to smoke and listen to stories we do not repeat at
may indeed be one of the Lesser Mysteries; it may be, like the Prodigal
its substance in a far country, forgetful of its origin and careless or
the inherent purpose that has kept it going under many names and
through many centuries.
But it is indeed the portal to the Greater Mysteries, as in the days of
and, if we do not choose to lift our eyes to that bright Morning Star
of daily progress
in Masonic knowledge, then will we continue to stumble amongst mere
of meat and mummery until we too drop out into the N. P. D. class,
death saves us first!
To each is given a bag of tools
A shapeless mass and a Book of Rules;
And each must make, e'er time be flown,
A stumbling block or a stepping stone.
of Anti-Masonry on the Masonic Fraternity 1826-1856
Bro. Erik McKinley Eriksson,
All rights reserved)
IT has been
customary to say that anti-Masonry did not affect the South. If this
be changed to say that political anti-Masonry made little progress in
it would be substantially true. But a glance at the accompanying chart
apparent that every Grand Lodge south of the Mason and Dixon line
suffered at least
in the matter of attendance at the communications. In the cases of some
it is possible to associate other factors with anti-Masonry in
explaining the decline.
In fact, in some instances, other causes appear to have been more
anti-Masonry in bringing about a decline of Masonry in the South.
Effect in the District
It is evident
that the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia was not affected by
enough to curtail its public appearances. This is well demonstrated by
appearances of the Grand Lodge at dedicatory and other ceremonies, at
public processions were held. Such occasions were the laying of the
of a new Masonic Hall in Washington, Sept. 19, 1826, of the First
April 10, 1827, and of the Trinity Episcopal Church, May 31, 1828; the
and memorial service for DeWitt Clinton, March 29, 1828; the laying of
of the first lock of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, May 29, 1829, with
Jackson present; the laying of the cornerstone of the "German Church"
in Washington, Aug. 20, 1833; and the laying of the cornerstone of
Jan. 11, 1836, with President Jackson assisting Grand Master William W.
In 1827 the
number of lodges in the District was augmented by the chartering of the
But in spite of external signs of prosperity it is clear that all was
not well with
the Grand Lodge and the individual lodges internally. One evidence of
this is the
fact that the Grand Lodge proceedings from 1829 to 1844 were not
printed, and were
unavailable until 1881. A proposal in 1832 to consolidate the 10 lodges
into 7 also
indicates that difficulties were being experienced.
A few of
the lodges were especially affected during the period. The first to go
out of existence
was Brooke Lodge, No. 2, in Alexandria. In 1835 Union Lodge, No. 6,
its charter. These two lodges were destined never to be revived. On
Nov. 1, 1836,
Columbia Lodge, No. 3, was authorized to close its affairs, but the
its charter was not accepted until 1838. Meanwhile, in 1836, Federal
1, had given up its charter, jewels, tools and implements but in 1837
restored when the lodge was revived. As late as 1842, Evangelical
Lodge, No. 8,
offered to surrender its charter but the offer was refused, pending an
heal the internal dissensions, which nevertheless, seem to have caused
it to die.
It can hardly be said that prosperity returned to the Grand Lodge of
of Columbia before 1845. In that year a public funeral procession was
held for ex-President
Jackson and a new lodge was chartered. By 1856 there were 50 per cent
in the District of Columbia than there had been at the beginning of the
Maryland it should be remembered that organized political anti-Masonry
headway in the state in spite of the facts that Baltimore was the seat
of the second
Anti-Masonic National Convention and that William Wirt, the
candidate in the election of 1832, was from the state. Nevertheless,
in the jurisdiction were somewhat affected, as the decreased
representation at the
Grand Lodge indicates. In view of the fact that, out of 82 lodges
chartered up to
1826, 49 had by that time either forfeited or surrendered their
charters, it is
a question whether the decline between 1826 and 1839 should be regarded
extraordinary. Judging by the previous record, it is fair to suppose
had there been no special feeling against the, Masons, a considerable
have taken place. It was not until 1845 that a noticeable improvement
began to be
manifested in the Masonic Institution in Maryland, but even thereafter
progress was so slow that by 1856 it had not reached the numerical
three decades earlier.
Craft Unhealthy in Virginia
cannot be considered as doing anything more in Virginia than to
aggravate an already
bad condition in the Masonic Institution. The proceedings for 1826 make
that Masonry in the state was anything but healthy at the time. They
show that out
of 144 lodges which had been chartered, 45 were "dormant," 4 were
7 were under the jurisdiction of other Grand Lodges, 14 were
delinquent, while one
number (59).was not at the time assigned. Only 55 lodges were
but 73 had made returns. During the year there were reported 64
expulsions, 40 rejections and 26 reinstatements.
were made in later years, with, however, an increase in the number of
and dormant lodges and a decrease in the number of rejections,
and expulsions. New charters were issued during the period when
raging most strongly farther north. Between 1826 and 1837, inclusive,
included 3 in 1827, 1 in 1830, 2 in 1833 and I in 1837. During the same
least 3 lodges, long dormant, were revived. It should be noted that in
1837, the time of the annual communications were changed from December
which accounts for the fact that no communication was held in 1838.
With the revival
of 4 lodges in 1839 and 6 in 1840, it may be said that the condition of
in Virginia was improving. But its upward progress was so slow that by
1856 it had
not reached a much higher plane than it occupied in 1826.
Carolina and the Movement
had had little effect on Masonry in North Carolina prior to 1832, but
in that year
some of the lodges were reported in "embarrassed circumstances"
and there was a considerable drop in Grand Lodge representation. At the
14 lodges reported accessions to their membership during the year. In
1833 one charter
was surrendered and 34 lodges were reported as in arrears for dues. The
of 14 lodges showed withdrawals of members but 11 showed that work ‒ in
a considerable amount ‒ had been performed. By 1834 work was at a
only 10 lodges were represented. Delinquent lodges were given a year to
By the time
of the annual communication, Dec. 7, 1835, some improvement was
noticeable in spite
of the fact that both the Grand Master and the Grand Treasurer
submitted their resignations
at the beginning of the communication. The returns showed that work had
in 9 lodges. Nothing was done to punish the delinquent lodges nor was
action taken in 1836. But in 1837 the lodges delinquent for two years
or more were
required to surrender their charters to the Special Grand Lecturers
the time, unless they should make immediate settlement of their
accounts. At the
1837 communication a new lodge was chartered and thereafter reports of
were common. By 1856 the Grand Lodge of North Carolina was practically
large as it had been in 1825.
Carolina Masonry also
As in the
case of so many jurisdictions, Masonry in South Carolina was not in a
condition at the time the anti-Masonic excitement was being created in
and elsewhere. The proceedings for 1826 furnish their own commentary.
Out of 55
lodges on the Grand Lodge list, 5 were extinct, 3 had consolidated with
2 had surrendered their charters, 9 were suspended, 19 others had made
2 numbers (17 and 24) were not assigned, while only 15 lodges were in
Under such conditions it is not to be wondered at that, in the next 15
in South Carolina should have suffered a further decline, under the
anti-Masonic feeling. The lowest point in South Carolina's Masonic
history was reached
when the Quarterly Communication, scheduled for June 29, 1838, at
not be held because only 3 lodges, less than the required quorum, were
From that year until 1844 the Grand Lodge proceedings were not
published. By 1841,
improvement began to be noticeable, and by 1856 the Grand Lodge of
had attained a strength considerably greater than that of thirty years
Troubles in Georgia
In no state
was there less reason than in Georgia to blame the decline in Masonry
during the period after 1826. It is much more reasonable to blame the
internal dissensions among the Masons themselves. For some time trouble
brewing but it did not come to a head until 1827. In that year a
took place in the Grand Lodge. Thirty of the lodges adhered to what was
Milledgeville Grand Lodge, while the rest formed the Savannah Grand
Lodge. In 1829,
the Milledgeville Grand Lodge, having previously given warning of its
action, declared the charters of the 14 lodges that formed the Savannah
to be forfeited. In the following years a rapid decay took place in
both Grand Lodges.
In 1835 only 16 of the Milledgeville lodges still existed, while
Lodge, No. 1, at Savannah was the only remaining lodge in the Savannah
In 1839 peace was restored in the Masonic circles of the state by
admission of Solomon
Lodge to the Milledgeville Grand Lodge. This action was coincident with
of an extraordinarily rapid development of Masonry in Georgia which was
in 217 lodges being on the Grand Lodge list in 1856.
of the Craft in
of the Grand Lodge of the Territory of Florida in 1830 with 3 lodges as
members is indicative of the general impotency of anti-Masonry in the
it was not until 1837 that the Fraternity began to make any
in the jurisdiction. By 1856 the original number of lodges had
multiplied over ten-fold.
Masonry made considerable progress for a few years after 1825. By 1828
of lodges had increased from 21 to 28. However, many of the lodges were
In 1829 the charters of 10 lodges were forfeited and the charters of 2
were surrendered. At the same time one new charter was granted. During
few years the fortunes of Alabama Masonry were variable. Because of a
the time of the annual communications from December to January, no
meeting of the
Grand Lodge was held in 1832. In 1833 one charter was granted and the
two were granted, while at the same time three charters were forfeited.
time only 12 lodges in Alabama were active, and of these only 3 had
existed in 1825.
point of Masonry in Alabama was reached in 1835 when no annual
held because the constitutional number (7) of lodges were not
2 lodges made returns during the year. On Dec. 5, 1836, only 6 lodges
the annual communication. After adjourning for two successive days, the
reported that “owing to the lapsed state of Masonry, the subordinate
Lodges of this
Grand Lodge had suffered said Grand Lodge to become extinct." Then
a most extraordinary action. The representatives present resolved
a convention and proceeded to draw up a new constitution and by-laws,
omitting the requirement that 7 lodges must be represented to
constitute a quorum.
It was then resolved that the 12 lodges which had been active should be
[sic] on application to the new Grand Lodge. Officers were elected and
on Dec. 8,
1836, the Grand Lodge "opened in due and ancient form."
of what might be said of the irregularity of the procedure, it served
to bring Alabama
Freemasonry through its most severe crisis. From that time on rapid
was made, so that by 1856 the Alabama Grand Lodge was among the
strongest in the
Disturbance in Mississippi
in the chart tell about all that is necessary to say about Freemasonry
after 1825. There was some decline, with the lowest point reached in
reports of new charters began to appear in the proceedings so that by
were two and a half times as many lodges in the state as in 1825. By
1856, the Grand
Lodge of Mississippi was a close rival of Alabama so far as numerical
Suspension of Work in
was not suspended in many of the Tennessee lodges during the whole
period of the
anti-Masonic furor. Throughout the period there were new charters
reports of charters surrendered or forfeited also appeared. Though the
of lodges in the jurisdiction declined during the period, the condition
of the Grand
Lodge never became critical. By 1842 the Grand Lodge of Tennessee was
rapidly so that by 1856 it was to include 258 lodges as compared with
35 in 1826.
been said about Masonry in Tennessee might also be said of Kentucky.
in that jurisdiction were not due to anti-Masonry so much as to a
burden of debt
which hung over the Grand Lodge. This difficulty was removed in 1833
when the Masonic
Hall, which had been heavily mortgaged, was surrendered to the
a short time Masonry in Kentucky was on the up-grade and by 1856 there
lodges in the state as compared with 55 in 1825.
Lodge of Missouri
Lodge of Missouri had been established in 1821 and in 1825 included
only 4 lodges.
Four of its member lodges had been in Illinois but these had withdrawn
to join the Grand Lodge of Illinois, while a fifth withdrew in 1825.
surrendered their charters, leaving only 3 lodges on the list after the
at St. Louis, Oct. 3, 1825. But instead of giving up, the Grand Lodge
persevered so that by 1839 it had increased its membership to 11
lodges. By 1856
this number bad been increased to 170.
Effect in Louisiana
does not seem to have touched Missouri, it appears entirely safe to say
affected Masonry in Louisiana not at all. The prosperity of Masonry
during the period
under consideration was affected by the prevalence of cholera in New
and by a disagreement with the Grand Lodge of Mississippi over the
matter of jurisdiction.
But the chief explanation of the low state of Masonry in Louisiana
during the period
is to be found in the three-cornered fight for supremacy waged by the
of the York, Scottish and French (Modern) rites. Not until after their
were taken care of by a convention which met at Baton Rouge in June,
1850, did Freemasonry
in Louisiana enter on a period of prosperity which was to result in
106 lodges on the Grand Lodge list in 1856.
analysis that has been made it is evident that most of the Grand Lodges
to recover from their depression, brought on by anti-Masonry and other
by the end of the decade of the thirties. The establishment of eight of
Grand Lodges between 1837 and 1856, inclusive, as shown by the table,
is the best
possible evidence that the recovery of Masonry was well-nigh complete.
National Masonic Conventions
of Masonic recovery were to be seen in the Masonic Conventions held at
and Baltimore in 1842 and 1843, respectively. For several years the
of Alabama had urged the desirability of holding a Masonic national
This persistence bore fruit when, from March 7 to 10,1842, a convention
at Washington, composed of delegates from 10 Grand Lodges, New
Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Maryland, Virginia, the District
South Carolina and Alabama. The convention made important
recommendations to the
Grand Lodges. One was the recommendation that Grand Lecturers be
appointed who should
meet at least once every three years to compare their lectures and thus
It was further recommended that certificates should be demanded of
to visit lodges. The custom of taking promissory notes for fees, a
of untold trouble, was roundly condemned. The 1843 convention was
composed of delegates
from 15 Grand Lodges. It undertook to make Masonic work uniform
throughout the country
but in this it was doomed to failure.
not permit a fuller account of the effects of anti-Masonry on the
An examination of the histories of local lodges would reveal many
of information showing what the Masons of that time endured. For
was New England Lodge, No. 4, of Ohio, which for a time held its
meetings in a ravine.
On the other hand it would be shown that there were some lodges which
molested, such as Lancaster Lodge, No. 57, also in Ohio. A more
detailed study would
also reveal the sporadic but only occasionally successful attempts to
from serving on juries. It would allow an account of unscrupulous men
from place to place professing to expose in "lectures" the alleged
of Masonry, illustrating their "lectures" with a demonstration of what
purported to be "The Immolation of William Morgan." It would permit
of the seceding Masons, especially those who hastened to publish
and exposes or who otherwise sought to profit by their renunciation of
It would permit an account of the part played by the press, both for
Masonry. It could be brought out that through the 141 anti-Masonic
by 1832, or through speeches and pamphlets, pressure was brought to
bear on non-Masons
to openly denounce the Masons. Those who would not do so were labelled
or "Masons' Jacks." On the other hand it would be possible to show how
probably five-sixths of the newspapers of the country, if they did not
at least did not become openly hostile to the Institution. It has only
to hint at the part played by defenders of Masonry.
it should be said that, while thousands of Masons withdrew from the
under the pressure of anti-Masonry, some of them to become the
in opposition to the Fraternity, other thousands remained loyal. It
should be said
that the anti-Masonic excitement was not entirely harmful in its
effects on the
Fraternity. The elimination of those who had joined the Institution for
reasons was a direct benefit. Subjected to the great wave of
anti-Masonry, the Masons
were forced to discard objectionable practices and to heal internal
Certain it is that the Masonic Fraternity, purged by the fires of
from the period of the excitement with its membership composed only of
men of the
most substantial type. On such a foundation it was possible to build
the great structure
which even before the Civil War had been raised to a much higher point
in the United
States than at any previous time.
As far as
possible, the proceedings of the Grand Lodges, in the original form, or
have been carefully examined. In learning what proceedings were
the period much use was made of Josiah H. Drummond's Masonic Historical
Memoranda (Brooksville, Ky., 1882).
of the various Grand Lodges which were used had titles as follows (with
in a few cases for some years):
of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of New
… [Reprint] [Lib*];
of the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of New York [Lib*] … 1828-1839;
of the Grand Lodge of the State of Vermont, F. & A. M., From
1794 to 1846, Inclusive
[Reprint] [Lib 1879];
the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of New Hampshire … 1825-1842 [Lib*];
of the Most Ancient and Honourable Fraternity of Free and Accepted
Masons of the
State of Maine, 1825-1840, 1841-1845 [Lib*];
of the Most Ancient and Honourable Fraternity of Free and Accepted
Masons, of the
Commonwealth of Massachusetts … 1825-1839 [Lib*];
the Early Proceedings of the M. W. Grand Lodge … of Rhode Island … 1820
Vol. II [Lib*];
Records of Free-Masonry in the State of Connecticut, 1789-1845
Masonry in the State of New Jersey, and the Entire Proceedings of the
From Its First Organization … 1786-1857 [Reprint] [Lib 1817];
of the Grand Lodge of Delaware … 1825, 1827, 1829 [Lib*];
the Minutes of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of
V [Lib 1900], VI [Lib 1901], VII [Lib 1903]
of the Grand Lodge … of the State of Ohio … From 1808 to 1847,
of the Grand Lodge … of Indiana … 1817-1845 [Reprint] [Lib 1861];
the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge … of Illinois … 1840-1860 [Lib*];
of the Grand Lodge …. of the Territory of Michigan … 1826, 1827 [Lib*];
the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the
Columbia, 1810-1845 [Lib*];
of the R.W.G. Lodge of Maryland … 1826-1844 [Lib*];
of a Grand Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of Virginia …
1837, 1839 [Lib*];
of the Grand Lodge of Ancient York Masons of North Carolina …
1825-1837, 1839, 1840
of the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free-Masons of So. Car
of the Grand Lodge …. of the State of Georgia … [Savannah, 1824-1826],
and Milledgeville, 1827], [Milledgeville, 1826, 1828, 1829, 1831, 1832,
of the Grand Lodge … of Florida … 1830-1859 [Reprint] [Lib*];
of the M. W. Grand Lodge … of Alabama … 1821-1839 [Reprint] [Lib*];
of the Grand Lodge of Mississippi … 1818-1852 [Reprint] [Lib*];
of the M. W. Grand Lodge … of Tennessee … Vol. 1, 1813-1847 [Reprint]
of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky … 1825, 1827-1829, 1832, 1833, 1837,
Record of the Grand Lodge, A. F. & A. M. of the State of
Missouri … 1821-1840
* * *
Most of the
statistics given in the table for 1856 were adapted from a table
contained in the
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Iowa … 1857.
of Freemasonry in various states have been consulted but, generally
have contributed little that was not found in the proceedings. Those
History of Freemasonry in the State of New York (New York, 1912);
McClenachan's History of the Most Ancient and Honorable Fraternity' of
Accepted Masons in New York From the Earliest Date [Lib 1892; Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4]…. (New York, 1892), 4v.;
Standard History of Freemasonry in the State of New York [Lib 1899]… (New York and Chicago, 1899);
Lee S. Tillotson's
Ancient Craft Masonry in Vermont [Lib 1920] (Montpelier, Vt., 1920);
Rugg's History of Freemasonry in Rhode Island [Lib*] … (Providence,
Masonry and Anti-Masonry [Lib 1854]. A History of Masonry, As It
Has Existed in
Pennsylvania Since 1792 (Philadelphia, 1854);
W. M. Cunningham's
History of Freemasonry in Ohio From 1791 [Lib*] … (Cincinnati, 1909);
History of Freemasonry in Indiana From 1806 to 1898
[Lib 1898] (Indianapolis, 1898);
John C. Reynold's
History of the M.W. Grand Lodge of Illinois … up to and Including 1850
[Lib 1869] (Springfield, Ill., 1869);
Smith's History of Freemasonry in Illinois 1804-1829 [Lib 1903] … (Chicago, 1903) ;
Warvelle, ed., A Compendium of Freemasonry in Illinois … [Lib 1897; Vol 1, Vol 2] (Chicago, 1897), 2v.;
S. Conover's Freemasonry in Michigan … [Lib 1897; Vol 1, Vol 2] (Coldwater, Mich., 1897);
Harper's History of the Grand Lodge and of Freemasonry in the District
… [Lib 1911] (Washington, D. C., 1911);
Schultz's History of Freemasonry in Maryland [Lib*] (Baltimore,
History of the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Virginia, Its Origin,
Mode of Development, in Two Lectures … (Richmond, 1854) [Lib*];
Mackey's History of Freemasonry in South Carolina [Lib 1861] … (Columbia, S. C., 1861);
Freemasonry and Its Progress in Atlanta and Fulton County, Georgia,
With Brief History
of the Grand Lodge [Lib*]… (Atlanta, Ga., 1925);
History of Freemasonry in Kentucky [Lib*] … (Louisville, Ky., 1859);
B. Scot's Outline of the Rise and Progress of Freemasonry in Louisiana
(New Orleans, 1873).
* * *
to other works previously cited, the following pamphlets were used:
Anthony, compiler, Review of the Grand Lodge Transactions of the State
of New York,
From the Year 1781 to 1852. Together With Other Facts Appertaining
N. Y., 1869) [Lib*];
of the Committee appointed to inquire into the rise and progress of
in Louisiana, and the accumulation of Rites in and by, the State Grand
Orleans, 1849). [Lib*]
* * *
histories of individual lodges which existed during the anti-Masonic
examined, but space will not permit them to be cited.
acknowledgment is made of valuable assistance rendered by
W. Hamilton, Grand Secretary (Massachusetts);
Wm. L. Boyden, 33d, Librarian Supreme Council, A.&A.S.R.,
Fred W. Hardwick, Grand Secretary (Kentucky);
John A. Davilla, Grand Secretary (Louisiana);
Charles B. Davis, Grand Secretary (Maine);
John F. Robinson, Grand Secretary (Delaware);
Harry M. Cheney, Grand Secretary (New Hampshire);
Chas. Insco Williams, Grand Archivist (Virginia);
William L. Sweet, Grand Master (Rhode Island);
William B. Clarke, Grand Steward (Georgia);
Frank F. Baker, Grand Secretary (Georgia);
C. C. Hunt, Grand Secretary (Iowa), and
J. Hugo Tatsch, Curator, Iowa Masonic Library.
Why I Believe
John J. Lanier, Kansas
of the religion of the modern thoughtful man is neither deism, theism,
is the opposite of pantheism both in etymology and meaning. They come
from the two
Greek words, reversed, pan and theos; pan means all, and theos means
means that all is God and everything is a part of God, theopanism means
is all in all.
The all is
spirit, personality; in all is the manifestation and revelation of
in and as the world of nature and man, it is God revealed to our
senses: and for
spirit, God, to do this he must embody himself as matter.
does not teach that man and nature are self-existent but the continuous
energy, thought, life and personality of God. Should this activity of
‒ were God an inactive God ‒ they would not be. They are not a part of
God incarnate as man and embodied as nature. In other words: God is
is his soul, and the material universe is his body; in an indivisible
space and all time; because God is omnipresent, unchanging, and
spirit as taught in Ps. 139:7-8.
Whither shall I flee from thy
Or whither shall I flee from thy presence?
If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there.
If I make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there.
This is Theopanism
which is found in a saga which Max Muller translates from the wisdom of
a parable, which tells how the gods met in council to discuss where
hide their divinity. One suggested that it be carried to the other side
of the earth
and be buried; but it was pointed out that man was a great wanderer,
and that he
might find the lost treasure on the other side of the world. Another
it be dropped in the depth of the sea; but the same fear was expressed
‒ that man,
in his insatiable curiosity, might dive deep enough to find it even
after a space of silence, the oldest and wisest said: "Hide it in man
as that is the last place he will ever look for it." And it was so
all seeing at once the subtle and wise strategy. Man did wander over
the earth for
ages, seeking in all places, high and low, far and near, before he
thought to look
within himself for the divinity he sought. At last, slowly, dimly, he
began to realize
that what he thought afar off, "hidden in the pathos of distance," is
nearer than the breath he breathes, even in his own soul. "Once man
this deep secret life is new and the old world is a valley all dewy to
with a lark song over it."
Is Man and Nature
times this saga brought a great light to those who sat in the darkness
and the shadow
of death; and when we cease to believe and love this truth the darkness
covers us with the shadow of its gloomy wings. Through the shadow of
such an eclipse
the world passed during what is called the dark ages, but out of which
it has been
passing for the last three hundred years. The moment the world regained
truth that although God transcends man and nature yet he is man and
nature, it bounded
forward by leaps and bounds like a steed of war charging gloriously
The recovery of this truth unmade the medieval ages and made modern
Europe and America
inspiration and mighty impact of the great truth that the world of
nature and the
world of man are alike the visible temple of deity, again came back the
the sacredness of man, and the virgin love and passion of man for
this new inspiration the Bible again became the record of God revealing
as the sheeny luster of green leaves, the laughter of running waters,
of snowclad mountains and the immensity of the sidereal heavens,
with light as with a garment, and walking upon the wings of the wind!
Believe In God?
said, "If an ox could think, his god would be an infinite ox," which
that the First Great Cause can be no less than man is. I am a person,
and no less
than I am can be the author of my existence and being. Therefore I
believe in the
personality of God.
is felt by many to the use of the word personality in connection of the
of the universe, that it implies those limitations which belong to
as we know them on earth. In answer we can only say that we are not
tied to the
use of the word if anyone will invent a better.
Higher than Personality
I am quite
content to believe with Mr. Herbert Spencer "that the choice is not
personality and something lower than personality, but between
personality and something
higher," and if you will, I am ready to call that Great Power the
which is above human personality, but I cannot call that Great Power
Every word we use is weak and unfit. In speaking of that Great Power we
but he is an inadequate word, for it implies limitation of sex. "They"
is misleading because it suggests the possibility of the divergence of
if "he" and "they" are inadequate and misleading words, "it"
is still more so, for we cannot think of that power which is behind all
which humanity must depend upon as being a mere abstraction or a
neutral and will-less
Account of Life
We have seen
the advance of religion, pointing humanity from age to age forward and
higher ideals and larger life. All these things, we say, are due to the
of one mighty force, that unseen power, that will within the world,
recognized in one form or another by the clearest and profoundest
seeing all this we cannot speak of that power and that will as being
rather than "he." Hence, I cannot but believe that the true account of
life is, that it is an education of beings who think and will and love
by a being
who thinks, wills and loves; and, until some better phrase is found, I
this an education of persons by a person whose personality is as much
theirs as the consciousness of a human being is higher than the
a plant, and in comparison with whose love our love is but the faintest
of God and Man
the personality of man and belief in the personality of God stand or
When faith in the personality of God is weak, or is altogether wanting,
as in the
pantheistic religions of the East, the perception which men have of
their own personality
is found to be in an equal degree indistinct. The feeling of
individuality is dormant.
The soul indolently ascribes to itself a merely phenomenal being. It
as appearing for a moment, like a wave on the ocean to vanish again in
essence whence it emerged. Philosophical theories which substitute
or an "unknowable" for the self-conscious Deity, likewise dissipate the
personality of man. If they deny that God is spirit, they deny with
that man is a spirit. The pantheistic and atheistic schemes are in this
consistent in their logic; but out of man's perception of his personal
arises the belief in a personal God. On this fact of our own
personality the validity
for the argument of theism depends.
the Unity of
I see, that which I hear, that which I think, that which I feel,
changes with each
moment of my varied existence. I who hear and see and think and feel am
conscious self, whose existence gives unity and connection to the whole.
comprises all that we know of that which exists; relation to
all that we know of that which seems to exist. And when from the little
man's consciousness and its objects we would lift up our eyes to the
universe beyond, and ask to whom all of this is related, the highest
still the highest personality; and the source of all being reveals
himself by his
name, "I Am."
a Personal God
So here we
have before us a theory of the universe; time-honored, coherent,
august; and abstract criticism is powerless against it; futile unless
by some positive hypothesis to take the place of what it seeks to
that, after all, the universe is a fact, and some account of it needs
be true. What
then are the positive hypotheses which are offered us as substitutes
for a personal
God? There is Hegel's Idea. There is the Blind Will which Schopenhauer
substitute for the Hegelian Idea. There is the Supra-Conscious
which Hartman sought to improve upon Schopenhauer's Will. There is the
of Fichte, Matthew Arnold's Eternal-Not-Ourselves that makes of
one of these notions is conceivable apart from personality.
derived by abstraction from the various functions of personality and
from their source they become not merely hypothetical but absolutely
words, mere words; full of sound and fury, signifying nothing. We feel
as we peruse
them that their authors and adherents alike have unconsciously
abstractions, and to this surreptitious reintroduction of personality
plausibility is really due.
looks at first sight more solid. But materialism is in precisely the
since matter regarded by itself is another meaningless abstraction. We
only at first hand within our own bodies, and there and there alone we
of it, and can view it from within. But matter in our own bodies is in
unity with personality. And we have no reason to suppose that matter
or can exist or there is such a thing as matter unsustained by spirit.
is true of matter is more obviously true of energy and force. Thus no
can be offered as a substitute for a personal God, which is not an
personality, and therefore demonstrably unreal; or an abstraction
personified, and therefore demonstrably untrue.
professes to rest upon physical science, but physical science makes two
which may be very briefly summarized and which are incompatible with
position. In the first place it takes for granted that the universe can
or in other words is intelligible. This assumption or conviction is so
universal that it easily escapes notice altogether. But it involves the
conclusion that the universe is a work of mind since we cannot
to any source but intelligence. Thus the initial presupposition of
is metaphysical, and carries us at once beyond the region which the
science assumes that our perceptive faculties are trustworthy. But our
faculties do not stand alone. They are inseparably bound up with our
our will, as part and part of our personality, and the conviction of
must by consequence imply that our other facilities are equally as
our other faculties as inevitably lead us to see moral purpose in the
our reason to see rational arrangement; and here again we are beyond
the limit of
what the agnostic knows. To accept these conclusions is to abandon
reject them is to make any kind of certainty impossible, and reduce all
to mere opinion; in her words, to abandon science. In fact to deny
divine is to
deny human personality, and that is what the agnostic really does.
fail to understand how radical and revolutionary these teachings of
Jesus are: "No
man hath seen God at any time." John 1:18. "He that hath seen me hath
seen the Father for the Father in me. The works that I do the same
shall ye do."
statement, "No man hath seen God at any time," destroys all the
in the Old Testament, as for instance, in the second chapter of Genesis
is represented as appearing to Adam and Eve and walking in the garden
with them. Not only in this chapter but wherever similar things are
taught in the
Old Testament, Jesus' answer is. "It is mythology. No man hath seen God
religion is not a mythological religion. The proof of it is that his
reproduced in the life of humanity. In a sentence it is: Man is the son
the highest, final and only true revelation of God there ever has been
or can be,
is man. He who hath seen the perfect man hath seen God, and he who doth
God in such a man will never find him at all.
Is God Like?
every person wants answered is, What is God like? Jesus answered this
he said: "No man hath seen God at any time, he that hath seen me hath
is Spirit, and no man hath ever seen or can see spirit, mind, thought
only as these
reveal themselves in material form ‒ God must be like the highest
revealed to man in material form; if not, God must be forever unknown.
revelation of God is man himself ‒ an invisible spirit clothed in a
Of all men so revealing themselves Jesus is, we believe, the most
of God. Therefore the historic Jesus is the unveiling of the divine
nature in human
history. The inner reality of the universe has looked into human eyes
eyes of Jesus Christ.
the Godhead as unveiled in the personality, teaching and Spirit of
Jesus. He is
the personality of God incarnate. He is the source and origin of the
He and his religion are historical, not mythological. It is the
himself in human lives.
tendency which in the name of history seeks to show that Christianity
is an electric
religion, having its origin in various aspirations and tendencies,
cults and philosophies,
in the first century of our era, fails to do justice to the personality
as constituting the magnetic center which attracted all these things to
It is interesting
to note that Sir James Frazer, who, whatever his personal attitude
may be, is as a student of religion surely unrivaled in the width and
his knowledge, is perfectly clear as to the relation of the personality
to Christianity. He says:
"The historical reality both of
of Christ has sometimes been doubted or denied. It would be just as
question the historical existence of Alexander the Great and
Charlemagne on account
of the legends that have gathered around them. The great religious
have stirred humanity to its depths and altered the beliefs of nations
from the conscious and deliberate efforts of extraordinary minds, not
from the unconscious
cooperation of multitudes. The attempt to explain history without the
of great men may flatter the vanity of the vulgar, but it will find no
the philosophic historian.
"The reason for Christianity's
the various mystery-cults, which were the most influential of its
rivals, is that
the Lord of the Christian religion is a historic personage, whereas the
these cults are mythological."
and satisfactory proof that the Christian religion is historical and
is that it is reproduced in human life, which in the nature of the case
in mythological religions whose origin is not historical human
experience but the
imagination of great poets ‒ Homer, for instance.
and final test of the religion of Christ is "the works that I do, the
shall ye do!" The Christian religion can be reproduced in my experience
your experience. If it cannot, it is not a historical but a
and will vanish from the earth as all mythological religions have done.
will never vanish because God does reproduce himself as Son in us.
of the Christian religion is that God is Spirit who embodies his life
as the cosmic
universe and incarnates his personality as man, for "that which hath
was life in him and the word was made flesh." God is personal spirit,
principle and essential life of the Cosmos, and is incarnate as Lord,
There is but one personality in the one God of the universe, and that
partially incarnates itself in all men and perfectly as Jesus.
in the New Testament, Jesus is not the Great Exception but the Great
the Great Power we all have it in us to become. In him we find the
the law of our own Being, and the more clearly we see this the more the
life will assert itself in us. If we look at Christ in this way, we
shall find that
we are dealing with a Living Fact inherent in the ultimate nature of
man, and which
is therefore reproducible in everyone.
esteem and value nothing so much in this world as a real friend. Such a
one is as
it were another self, to whom we impart our most secret thoughts, who
our joy and comforts us in our affliction; add to this, that his
company is an everlasting
pleasure to us.
Territorial and State in Florida
Bro. Philip C. Tucker,
JACKSON, of the United States Army, was made Governor of the Provinces
of East and
West Florida by President James Monroe March 10, 1821. And the exchange
was made by Governor Don Coppinger, of East Florida, to Lieutenant
of the United States Army, as Representative of Governor Jackson, at
San Augustine, and by Governor Don Calleva, at Pensacola, to General
person, with fitting ceremonies.
Masonic Lodge chartered in the territory that I can find any record of,
was La Esperanza,
No. 47, of San Augustine, by the Grand Lodge of South Carolina. Its
of those of Spanish birth who had been members of San Fernando Lodge,
No. 20, on
the roster of the Grand Lodge of Georgia, which had been suppressed by
government in 1810, and whom had, in 1820, joined with others in
virtues Lodge, No. 28, on the roster of South Carolina. Desiring a
lodge to work
in their native tongue they now petitioned for a charter. This was
the understanding that it was a revival of San Fernando Lodge, No. 20.
It only lived
a year when all its membership removed to Havana, Cuba, voluntarily
charter to its mother Grand Lodge.
to have been another lodge in San Augustine at this date but of it we
have but the
following record from the report of the Master of Jackson Lodge, of
That on the
23rd of June, 1825, occurred the death of Thomas Penn, Worshipful
Master of Montgomery
Lodge of St. Augustine, and that Jackson Lodge buried him with Masonic
We have no
record of its mother lodge or other officers.
On the rolls
of the Grand Lodge of South Carolina for 1824-5-6 were the names of
virtues Lodge, No. 28, La Esperanza Lodge, No. 47, both of San
and Good Intentions Lodge, No. 17, of Pensacola"; and of No. 17 we have
On the 24th
of December, 1824, a dispensation was granted by the Grand Lodge of
open a Masonic Lodge at Tallahasse, Fla., to be named Jackson Lodge,
The petitioners were Robert Butler, Robert W. Williams, Isham Green
Van Ervain, E. R. Downing, R. D. Jouralman, David Thomas and D. B.
organized June 3, 1825, incorporated by the Territorial Legislature
Dec. 7, 1825.
General Robert Butler was its first Master and served for four years.
on its roster most of the leading men of the territory of that day:
William P. Duval,
the first Governor of the state, and Richard Keith Call, the second,
were both among
its charter members.
lodge organized in the territory was Washington Lodge, No. 1 (on the
rolls of the
Grand Lodge of Georgia), Nov. 9, 1827, at Quincy, in Gadsden County,
county was named after General James Gadsden, Aide to Gen. Jackson, and
negotiated "The Gadsden Purchase." His name is among the early members
of Jackson Lodge, of Tallahassee.) It was organized on the 24th of
with Henry Yonge, M. W. Master, Francis A. Cash, Senior Warden, and
Henry Gee, Junior
Warden, receiving its charter the same year.
was Harmony Lodge, of Marianna, Jackson County. Bro. George F.
Bartzell, G. S. Warden
of G. L. Florida, stated to Bro. Andrew Scott, an old citizen of
and a member of the Grand Lodge of Florida, "that the original charter
Lodge was granted by the Grand Lodge of Tennessee." He was doubtless
as he was familiar with the early history of Jackson County and a
often honored by his Masonic brethren. There are no records of this
lodge in existence
prior to 1838 and the records of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee are also
while the copies of the letters of the Grand Master of this Grand
the original charters to their respective Grand Lodges, were destroyed
Grand Lodge building of Florida was wrecked in the great storm of 1858
of the Grand Lodge
lodges, Jackson, Washington and Harmony, all of the Ancient York Rite,
met at Tallahassee
Fla., in convention on July 5, 1830, and duly organ ized "The Grand
the Territory of Florida," with John Pope Duval as Grand Master; James
Deputy Grand Master; John Lines, Senior Grand Warden; Henry Gee, Junior
Thomas Munroe, Grand Secretary, and Isham Greer Searcy, Grand Treasurer.
of the Craft was slow during territorial days, the country being a
A few sparse settlements existed along its eastern cost, adjoining the
and at its western boundary and others sprang up along the boundary
line of Georgia
and Alabama. The Indian troubles too prevented settlement.
1834, when the Grand Lodge convened at Tallahassee, there were no
minutes or records
available for action of that body, as its Grand Secretary General Isham
was absent in the field in service against the hostile Indians and had
no time to
prepare them and was too distant to forward then to the capital.
permanent lodge chartered was Hiram, No. 6, at Monticello, 1836. Its
very feeble at first, being dormant in 1845 when the State Grand Lodge
but revived in 1846, and has since held its own on the rolls.
No. 8, was chartered in 1839, at Pleasant Grove, near the boundary line
In 1842 it was removed to Bainbridge, in Decatur County, Ga. That
an invasion of rights so, in January, 1843, at the regular session of
Lodge, it unanimously voted to surrender jurisdiction if Georgia would
lodge upon her roster. This being accepted as a solution it was voted,
that No. 8 should never be appropriated for another Lodge, and that its
should be always entitled honorary membership in the Grand Lodge of
is still a standing regulation. The lodge is still active.
that worked temporarily under dispensations, were never chartered,
dormant, so that in 1845 there only existed seven lodges in all, and
two of them
received their charters in January of that year. These seven lodges
No. 1, of Tallahassee, Fla.; Washington, No. 2, at Quincy, Gadsden Co.,
No. 3, at Marinna, Jackson Co., Fla.; Franklin, No. 6, at Apalachicola,
Co., Fla.; Madison, No. 11, at Madison, Madison Co., Fla.; St. Johns,
No. 12, at
St. Augustine, St. Johns Co., Fla., and Dade, No. 14, at Key West, Dade
of the Grand
On June 23,
1845, a special communication of the Territorial Grand Lodge was held,
Jesse Coe presiding, to organize a state Grand Lodge and amend its
and to provide for the erection of a Grand Lodge building at
was duly performed, and news of the death of Ex-President Andrew
Jackson at his
residence at The Hermitage, in Kentucky, on the 8th, having been
received at Tallahassee
on the 24th, proper resolutions were passed and a eulogy pronounced by
Butler, Past Grand Master. (He was an honorary member of this Grand
Lodge.) On the
same date, the first General Assembly of Florida met at Tallahassee to
the new state Government under the act of the United States Congress
the admission of Florida as a state into the Union.
prospered and throve until the blight of civil war overcast the Union.
sister states of the South, Florida joined the Confederacy. Sections of
were invaded, battles were fought and skirmishes took place within her
Her industries were of agricultural nature, and her means of marketing
was by sea; no railroads existed of any great extent so that the
blockade of her
sea coast paralyzed all industry, while most of her adult males were
absent in other
states fighting with the armies of the South. Grand Lodge regularly
held its stated
communication, but many lodges were dormant, their lodge rooms
destroyed by invading
armies and their membership scattered.
1866, there were 53 lodges upon the rolls, but only 24 there
represented and but
30 made full returns, with less than 1500 names upon their roster many
of the brethren
were from recent camp or northern prisons, still clad in gray uniforms,
side with those in blue of the force who had occupied the state after
All met as brethren with the determination to put their shoulders to
the wheel of
progress and work for the Craft's advancement.
In 1858 the
Grand Lodge suffered a serious loss when a severe storm wrecked the
building in Tallahassee, destroying many early records. But they soon
edifice and drove bravely forward. As the state advanced in population
developed and railroads were constructed; the Craft grew with leaps and
1869, a resolution was adopted that the regular communication be held
on the east coast, instead of at Tallahassee, in western Florida, where
it had always
met previously. This was duly carried and in 1870 that city was
declared its regular
meeting place and steps taken to erect a temple suitable for its needs.
A lot was
bought in 1891 and the cornerstone laid with fitting ceremonies in 1892
The structure was ready for use in January, 1893, and duly dedicated.
also taken in that year towards the establishment of a Masonic Home and
on the initiative of Past Grand Master Albert W. Gilchrist and the
nucleus of a
fund formed. The bonded indebtedness on the temple having been paid by
1894, a fitting
celebration was held and a history of its erection written by Deputy
On the 75th
anniversary of the organization of the Grand Lodge a musical program,
instrumental, was rendered and an historical address delivered by Most
Samuel Pasco, Past Grand Master.
Builder of the New Temple
1907, the facilities of the temple at Bridge and Forsythe streets,
proving inadequate to the growing needs of the Order a resolution was
at the annual communication to sell the building and lot and use the
purchase another at Main and Monroe streets on which to erect a modern
fireproof seven-story building. This was carried and provisions made to
to the amount of $110,000 to meet the expense. Committees were
appointed to carry
out this project. Contract was let Dec. 14, 1907, the cornerstone laid
1908, Grand Master Elmer E. Haskell officiating. The building was
finished and dedicated
Jan. 20, 1909.
In 1918 the
Masonic Home and Orphanage funds having reached proportions where it
safe to purchase a property for that purpose, a suitable building was
found in St.
Peterburg, Fla., originally erected for hotel use and offered at a
satisfactory. It was accepted and the dedication took place on 7th of
Legislation by the Grand Lodge has satisfactorily cared for its
mortgage indebtedness since.
At the last
annual communication, 1925, the number of lodges on the roll of the
was 250, while the individual members of the Craft numbered 26,871.
Lodges in the 17th Leicestershire Regiment
Bro. R. V. Harris, Associate
Editor, Nova Scotia
reference to this historic regiment and its lodge is to be found in the
Gazette Dec. 12, 1783, in which we find the following advertisement:
The brethren of Lodge Unity,
No. 18, held in
H. M. 17th regt. of infantry, intend holding their festival of St. John
and dining at Mrs. Dawson's tavern, near Cornwallis's barracks. Any
wish to dine with them will give in their names to Qr. master serjeant
on or before the 23d inst., as no application can be taken after. By
order of the
master. DAN. WEBB, Secretary.
Friday, 12 Dec'r 1783.
We have not
been able to determine the location of the Cornwallis barracks nor Mrs.
At the St.
John's Day dinner of St. John's Lodge, No. 211, we note the presence of
from Lodge 18, and again at the meeting of that lodge on Jan. 5, 1784.
At this time,
and after 1781, the several lodges in Halifax were accustomed to hold a
Communication" for the discussion of matters of common concern. At an
meeting held on Dec. 16th, 1783, at the Golden Ball, we find present
Mr.; Humpage, S. W.; Cassady, J. W.; Webb, Secy." of the "17th Regt.
Lodge 169 and 18 in Pensyla Lodge Night ye first of every month." At
meeting the Master and Wardens of Lodge 90, in the 33rd Regiment, were
being Opened, The Worshipful Master acquainted the Body, that the
Occasion of Assembling
the Communication at this time, was an information of the arrival in
Town of Two
Lodges of Free Masons, who were strangers to us, viz. one in the 17th
and the other in the 33rd. And that he had Ordered the Secretary to
Summon the Masters
and Wardens of those two Lodges to attend, that we might see, and be
concerning each other’s authority, as Freemasons, to the Mutual
all the Lodges here, and for the promoting of harmony among the Masons
in this Town.
And the said Brethren attended accordingly and produced their
which were read and found to be legal and good to the full satisfaction
body. The Warrant of St. John's Lodge, No. 211, (of Halifax) was in
produced, and Read to the aforementioned Brethren, with which they were
And the Lodge
was clos'd in harmony, until the third Monday in January, 1784, Then to
the Lodge Room of No. 156.
however, was not represented at the January or March meetings, 1784.
record of the lodge in Nova Scotia is in the form of three parchment
in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia, which, because of
interest, we quote in full:
We, the Right Worshipful
Captain, &c. of
The Royal Arch Excellent Lodge of Masonry, Unit No. 18, held in his
Regiment of Foot & on the Registry of Pennsylvania.
These are to Certify that the
Bearer hereof Our
Trusty and well Beloved Brother John North (1) was by Us Installed a
of Lodge Unity, No. aforesaid and was by Us Initiated into the Sublime
Royal Arch, Excellent Masonry, he having with due Honour and Justice to
Craft, Justly supported the Amazing trials of Skill & Valour
attending his admission
into Our said Royal Arch Excellent Lodge.
We therefore Recommend him as a
faithful, Worthy Brother.
Given under our hands &
Seal of Our Lodge
at, Lodge Room in Halifax this 1st day of May, 1784. George Cockburn,
. 1st.) Wm. Boyer, K. John Gale, S. Daniel Webb, R. A. C,. William
G. Ward William Page 3rd.
Wm. Davidson, G. Secretary SEAL
To this seal
is attached a faded ribbon upon which is impressed a wax seal depicting
united by an arch, surmounted by a Royal Crown. Between the two pillars
on the ground, is a pyramid of five steps. Beneath the Arch is a
blazing sun. The
inscription around the edge of the seal is "Lodge Unity" "Royal Arch.
17 R. No. 18." Beneath the ribbon and the seal is a print of the seal,
in lampblack. John North's signature does not appear anywhere on the
certificate (2) bears the same date (May 1, 1784) and was issued by an
of the Knights of the Red Cross, held under the sanction of Warrant No.
Unity in His Majesty's 17 Regiment of Foot, and on the Registry of
to "our trusty and well beloved Brother Sir John North" who was "by
Us installed and Dubbed a Knight of the Ancient and Honorable Order of
the Red Cross."
It is signed by "George Cockburn, K., Henry Cassa 1st G., Daniel Webb,
G., and William Davidson Secretary."
is red wax dropped on a wide green ribbon resting on a pink one, both
into the left-hand margin. The seal shows three spans of a bridge upon
the center one, is erected a tau cross, the upright of which has a
it, a star to the right of the upper part of the serpent, and a hand
sword to the left. The tau rests on the serpent's head and above the
tau are the
letter I.H.S. Around the edge of this seal are the words, "Lodge Unity
18, 17th Regt." Under the seal and ribbon, the same design is stamped
ink or lampblack on the certificate, and on the outer fold the neatly
certificate indicates that Bro. John North had received further light
In the name of the Most Holy,
undivided Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Ghost.
By the C. G. and Grand Wardens
of Lodge Unity,
No. 18, held in His Majesty's 17th Regiment of Foot & on be
Registry of Pennsylvania.
We do hereby certify that the
Bearer hereof Our
Trusty and Well beloved Brother, John North, was by Us Installed and
Dubbd A Knight
of the Most Noble and Right Worshipful Order of Knights Templars, he
fortitude and due Honour, justly supported the Amazing trials attending
We therefore Recommend him as a
Faithful & Valiant Brother.
Given under our hands &
Seal of our Lodge
at Our Lodge room at Halifax, this 30th Day of June, 1784. George
Cockburn, C. G.
Daniel Webb, 1st G Warden Henry Cassady, 2d G Warden Wm. Davidson, G.
and wax seal of this certificate is missing but the usual black
on the certificate itself. It shows a skull and above two cross bones.
skull are the words "17th Regt.," and below the cross bones the words
"No. 18." Above the whole design are the words "Memento More."
John North's signature does not occur on the parchment.
As the seals
on these certificates all bear the number 18, it is evident that the
have all been engraved after the lodge had been rechartered by the
Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania in 1777. It is also evident that the lodge at that time
must have conferred
the Royal Arch, Red Cross and Knight Templar degrees. We know from
that up to this time, 1777, the lodge had not worked, and from the same
learn that their military activities and martial vicissitudes did not
exercise of Masonic functions between their departure from Philadelphia
and April, 1784, a month before the first certificate issued to John
it is conceivable and not improbable that they acquired their knowledge
degrees from their military brethren in the nineteen other regimental
wintered in Philadelphia in 1777-8, it is more probable that they
knowledge of these ceremonies from Ireland between 1772-4.
reference to the Lodge in Nova Scotia is in the Minutes of the
at Halifax July 28, which record the presence of Bros. Webb and
Humpage, of Lodge
18, at this meeting.
of No. 211, Bro. Geddes of 155, Bro. Kelley of the Union Bro. Hill of
Bro. Webb of No. 18 and Pro. Middleton of No. 90 were appointed a
Committee to see
that proper attention be paid to any sick Brethren, as occasion may
to continue in that office until the next regular stated Communication.
the 17th Regiment was transferred to Shelburne, a new town then coming
about 150 miles southwestward from Halifax. Here about 10,000 people,
from the American colonies, were busy establishing themselves in new
At this time Lieut. Col. Johnston was the officer commanding the
Halifax for Shelburne, the following letter was addressed to the Grand
Halifax, N. S. 27th August
1784. Sir, The Various
Vicissitudes of Fortune as well as that of War having prevented us from
Sooner & Oftener, than we have done to you, & now as we
have some Recess
from the Fatigues of War & the Multiplied Miseries that attend
it, as well as
the Probability of Our remaining some time longer in America, We should
highly Culpable of the Greatest, as well as the most Enormous
Impropriety were we
to Omitt acquainting you with the Most Material Occurrences which have
our Arrival in the Western Hemisphere, Viz. from the year 1775 to 1784.
And sir, we have in the first
Place to inform
you (for the Information of the Grand Lodge) that the 2 first years
after we Arrived
in America we had no Opportunity of Calling a Lodge together. Our
Requiring a Constant & almost perpetual attendance. That in the
year 1777 a
Ship loaded with the Baggage of the Regiments (on her Passage from New
York to Philadelphia)
in which was our Lodge Box, which Contained our Warrant, Jewels, Fund
Other Necessary Apparatus belonging to Our Lodge, was Captured by the
was then left Distressed, no warrant to work under & berefit of
implement, as likewise Our Fund in which every Pecuniary Matter of our
Deposited. We, was then in a Dilemma scarcely to be Described. One
left, to make Application to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, which
being done there
still remained a Difficulty to Combat with namely a Sufficient
the Legality of Our request, It not being in our power to Convince them
thro' the loss of our Warrant, as formerly mentioned. We was then under
of Conveening all the Military Lodges then in Philadelphia (to the
number of nineteen)
to Convince the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania of the Propriety of Our
accordingly granted us a Warrant under which we worked since the Above
And as We think it Necessary
you should be acquainted
with the form of our said Warrant we do herewith send you enclosed a
Copy of it
for your Satisfaction.
In the Year 1778 we had the
be Captured at a Place Called Stoney Point ‒ or Hudson's River ‒ the
fell into the Hands of the Enemy, & in Consequence Our Lodge
Box likewise. We
again lost every Article belonging to Our Lodge as before, but
fortunately Our Warrant
(by some means unknown to us) fell into the hands of a Worthy Brother,
one of the
American Generals, whose name is Samuel Parsons who generously Returned
it to Us,
accompanied by ye Enclosed very Polite Letter, which we do Ourselves
the Honor of
Transmitting to you. ‒ ‒ We were imprisond at that time in Philadelphia
which Miserable situation we remained till Christmas in the Year 1780.
At Our Exchange
& return to the British Army, we were immediately Employed in
& on an Expedition to Virginia was again Captured with Lord
17th October 1781. Since which Period we had it not in Our Power to do
till April 1784, but we have the happiness to Inform you, that We have
every point of Masonry with the Greatest Regularity since the time
These sir, are the Most
since Our Departure from Europe-We now have to request in what Manner
it would be
most Suitable to Correspond with Our Mother Grand Lodge, so as to Make
of Cash, to the Grand Charity fund, to pay all Back dues and any other
that the Grand Lodge may have to make;
We likewise Humbly Crave a
Renewal of our old
Warrant, No. 169 if Vacant – Likewise we wish that we Could have the
Names of Our
Present Lodge No. 18 Registered in the Books of the Grand Lodge.
These sir, are our Wishes
& most Sanguine
Expectations which We humbly Request you will be so kind as to Grant.
at Shelburne the brethren of Lodge 18 found themselves among Masonic
and civil, and before long Lodges 3, 4, 5 and 10 were chartered by the
Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia.
seems to have existed for a time between the brethren of Unity Lodge,
No. 18, and
No. 3, known as Parr Lodge, but this difficulty was cleared up as
appears from the
following letter from the Grand Secretary to the Secretary of Unity
Halifax, 22d Jany 1785.
Sir & Brother.
I have it in command from the
Grand Lodge to aquant you, that the Proceedings and resolutions of the
18 held in his Majesty's 17th Reg. of Foot the 29th October 1784, for
all Brotherly intercourses or Communications from those Brethren, whose
rendered a proceeding of that kind so absolutely necessary, hath been
that Right Worshipfull body, and received their highest approbation.
And at the
same time I am ordered further to inform you, that, since the period
Parr Lodge hath made full satisfaction to the Grand Lodge for their
and are immediately coming under their Warrant from this R.W. Grand
is returned to them by this conveyance, You will therefore from after
the time of
their Installation (which I have reason to suppose will soon take
them as Brethren. It is to be wished that the others would follow the
Parr Lodge & that peace, Harmony & Brotherly love might
the whole of that Settlement. You will be pleased to lay this before
Lodge, and assure the Worshipfull Master, Wardens & Brethren
that the Grand
Lodge have the highest confidence in your Lodge, that will on all
every service in their power for the just support, honor &
Cement of the Craft.
Wishing you all health
& prosperity, I have
the Honor to be, Sir and Bror
Your ever affectionate Brother
and very Humble
Servant, J. Peters, Gr. Secrety.
Bror Wm Davidson, Secy No 18
out of the way the brethren of Unity Lodge participated in the
Institution of Parr
Lodge on Feb. 9, 1785, when the ceremonies were conducted by R.W. the
Walter, D. D., Past Grand Master of New York, and Unity Lodge was
Daniel Webb, Master; Henry Gillett, P. M.; John Chamber, P. M.; William
S. W.; Eliphat Humpage, J. W., and William Davidson, Sec'y.
At the institution
of Solomon's Lodge, No. 5, in December, 1784, Unity Lodge was
represented by Bros.
Cockburn, Webb, Humpage, Davidson, Ash, Ayres and Chambers. At the
of Hiram Lodge, No. 10, in March, 1785, we find Bros. Daniel Webb,
Humpage, S. W.; William Davidson, J. W., and Henry Cassady recorded as
and its lodge remained at Shelburne until August, 1786. During this
corresponded with the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, the following letter
UNTO THE RIGHT WORSHIPFULL THE
GRAND WARDENS &c &c OF ANTIENT YORK MASONS HELD IN THE
STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA.
"Right Worshipfull Brethren. We
Master & Wardens of Lodge Unity No. 18 held in This Brittanick
Regt. of Foot, & under Your Register ‒ having heard a Report
which is spread
through this Province of Our Warrant being by you Cancelled &
that one of the
same Number has been Granted to a Lodge in Pennsylvania.
We, have taken this method of
that we have wrote to Our Mother Grand Lodge in Scotland, willing to
obtain a Duplicate
of Our Antient Warrant No. 169, without as yet receiving any Answer,
& we not
Expecting that Our said Warrant No. 18 would have been Declared Void,
till we might
have Obtained the Duplicate of our said antient Warrant; We, therefore
you will be so Obliging as to Inform us whether or not there is any
the very Disagreeable Report so Industriously propagated in this
Province, if there
is, we shall Instantly Desist from working under Our Present Warrant,
till we Can
Obtain a property Authority from Scotland or England.
We should think ourselves
peculiarly happy if
at the same Time you send an answer to this that you would likewise
us an account of all Back dues from our last Settlement, to this
present time, in
Order that the sum due, may be Remitted to you by the earliest
We, should have Often Wrote to
you had not our
unsettled situation as a Military Lodge Prevented us by being
Constantly in Motion
from one Place to Another; however we took the first Opportunity of
Writing to you
(at the Conclusion of Peace) from New York, to which we received no
The strongest Reasons induces
us to think that
some Irregular body of Masons (Probably within Your District) are
our Antient Warrant No. 169, if you would be so kind as to make Enquiry
Different Grand Lodges of the United States of America, respecting the
would be a Lasting Obligation & ever gratefully Remembered
while a Lodge exists
in His Brittanick Majesty's 17 Regiment of Foot if a Discovery is made
sent to us.
As an addition to your many
kind & obliging
Favors. We have farther to Request you should do us the honor of
Our Worthy friend & Brother General Parsons, the high sense
have of His Unexampled
Goodness, in restoring to us our Warrant which happy for us fell into
we likewise beg leave to return the General Our Grateful &
sincere thanks for
the very Polite Letter Accompanying the Same. His Generous Sentiments
be Remembered by every Brother of No. 18 with the Gratitude due to such
We have the honor to be, Right
with the Greatest Defference and Esteem Shelburne Barracks, 28th March
&c. &c. &c. Daniel Webb, Master.
To the Right Worshipfull Willm.
Ball Esq. or
(pro tempore) Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
W. Humpage, S. Wardens E. Humpage,
J. Wardens Wm. Davidson
reply was sent to the brethren of the 17th Regiment of Foot at the
PHILADELPHIA August 11th, 1786.
Your much esteemed favor of the
28th March last
duly came to hand and was laid before the Grand Lodge at their last
when I was directed by them to advise you that they were very happy to
you & to find that you continue united together in love
The Grand Lodge not having for
a long period
of time heard from you, and supposing that the Lodge in consequence of
the war had
dissolved did grant a Warrant of the same number which you work under,
but at the
same time did not nor do they yet consider the same vacated and they
to consider you as under their jurisdiction.
The books of the Treasurer
having by some means
during the war got lost He is unable to make the statement of your
the Grand Lodge, they therefore request that you would ascertain the
same from your
Books as near as may be calculating as dues to the G. L. five shillings
Initiation and 4/ per annum from every member.
Every possible attention shall
be paid &
diligence used to find the Warrant mention'd to be lost and if found
they will take
great pleasure in transmitting it agreeable to your desire.
The Grand Lodge happy at all
times to render
you every service in their power have directed that a lettter be
written to our
worthy Brother General Parsons in your behalf, on the subject of his
politeness to you.
The Grand Lodge will be pleased
to hear from
you from time to time and you have their best wishes for the welfare
of your Lodge.
I am Brethren with every
respect & Esteem,
A. H., Secy. of the G. L. of Penna. The Worshipful Masters, Wardens
of Lodge Unity No. 18 held in his Brittanic Majesty's 17th Regt. of
Foot at Shelburn
Barracks. (A. H., the Secretary, was Bro. Assheton Humphreys.)
Lodge of Pennsylvania seems to have made inquiries respecting the
for Lodge 169, for in the records of the Massachusetts Grand Lodge held
at the Bunch
of Grapes, Boston, September, 1787, we find a letter from the D. D.
Master of Pennsylvania
"Requesting information (if any could be given) of a warrant granted to
officers of the 17th British Regiment of Foot supposed to be lost
within the United
and its lodge left Nova Scotia for England in the fall of 1786, and on
application to the "Ancients" Grand Lodge of England for a new Warrant.
This Warrant, No. 237, was dated Jan. 24, 1787, for a lodge to be held
Kent, where the regiment was then in garrison.
with this lodge the following advertisement, which appeared in La
Gazette de l'Ile
de Jersey for Dec. 22, 1787, is of interest. The Gazette, it may be
the first newspaper to be published in Jersey. Its first issue is dated
To The Free-Masons.
The Brethren of Lodge Unity No.
237, held in
his Majesty's 17th Regiment of Foot, on the Registry of the Grand Lodge
intend celebrating the festival of St. John the evangelist at the house
of Mr. John
Waters in Mont Orgueil Castle, on Friday the 27th inst. Any antient
who wish to participate in that festivity with them will give in their
writing to Brother Oyers, Bridgefoot Barracks, on or before the 24th
By order of the Master. Th.
Gavin, Secl etary.
N. B. Dinner on the table at half past four o'clock.
evidently lapsed in 1792. While stationed in Ireland in 1802, another
921, was warranted in the 17th Regiment by the Grand Lodge of Ireland.
was exchanged in 1824 for the vacant number 258, under which the lodge
1847. Since that time there has not been a lodge attached to the
the interesting record of Freemasonry in the 17th (Leicestershire)
Regiment, a virtually
continuous record of a hundred years; a record of warrants from the
of Ireland, Scotland, Pennsylvania and England. What influences
radiated forth from
the lodge room in that hundred years will never be known, for the
records are scattered
to the four winds of heaven.
John North's name is the only
of the above which does not occur in the muster rolls of the 17th Regt.
period mentioned. It is probable that he belonged to the 33rd Regt. or
Corps stationed in Halifax at the time.
The oldest Red Cross
evidence of any kind of the degree itself known to exist is believed to
dated Aug. 1, 1783, issued by St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 40, at
Charleston, S. C. In
the present case it would seem clearly established that the degree was
in Philadelphia as early as 1777-8.
History of the Grand Lodge of
I. page 344.
to the Craft
the following communication came into our hands we confess to having a
of doubt as to its bona fides. In consequence certain inquiries were
resulted in convincing us that the writer was all that he claims to be,
in addition he is an exceptionally well educated and intellectual man.
given is of course an assumed one. Ed.]
being a basic tenet of Masonry, permit me to call your attention to a
class of people
whom your organization might help without incurring a heavy sacrifice.
I mean the
I am a Roman
Catholic priest. There are a good many of my confraters who would like
to quit the
priesthood. They are discouraged from taking that step by the problem
a livelihood. Their vocational training is of little value for
industrial and commercial
for their desiring to leave the priesthood are various.
is one of them. It means the repression of a strong natural instinct.
it is accompanied by a loneliness that may become exceedingly
worries form another. Parish work usually implies an unceasing appeal
for the erection or maintenance of church, school, rectory, school
and for the current expenses. Since the World War, with its inflated
also, a veritable epidemic of diocesan "drives" has set in, for a new
seminary, cathedral, orphanages and what not. Sacerdotal life is just
begging performance, necessitating at times high pressure methods,
The Peter's Pence has become a national Derby, the American bishops
each other. The one who sends the fattest purse to Rome wins the prize.
He may expect
to rise in the hierarchy, with the cardinal's hat as the ultimate goal.
have to squeeze the money out of the people. Many a pastor becomes worn
bishops are prudent, just and kind there are others who lack in these
Some are unreasonable tyrants. The canon law is no protection against
them. An American
priest is at the mercy of the bishop.
Catholics have no voice in the appointment of their bishops. They have
whomsoever the Italian autocracy, known as the Vatican, place over
them. Money has
nearly always talked rather loud at the Vatican. Many an American
no other attainments to his credit than a sinister dexterity in
courting the Italian
autocracy ‒ sometimes by soothing its itching palms with the right kind
– is promoted to a prosperous bishopric. It is exactly that type of man
who is most
liable to prove a tyrant.
In the thinly
populated districts in the South and West, where the Catholics are few
and far between,
many a priest has to struggle with hopeless poverty. Take the case of a
confrater in South Dakota whom I recently met. The church and rectory
in the windswept prairie. The nearest railroad station is thirty-seven
His widely scattered congregation consists of about twenty families,
of them poor homesteaders. Of course he cannot afford any household
help. He himself
has barely enough to eat. He cannot keep any chickens, dog or cat, for
when he goes
away to make the rounds in his second-hand flivver there is nobody
nearby to feed
the animals. "I am the only livestock around my place," he jocosely
This is a lonely, dreary life for a cultured young gentleman who has
years to college and university. He has no prospect of obtaining a
in the next decade or two. For the large diocese has only two or three
forms a vivid contrast to the luxury some of our bishops and pastors in
cities are rolling in. This social maladjustment could be easily
rectified by an
interdiocesan exchange of the clergy. Before an assistant pastor in a
metropolis is promoted to a pastorate, let him first serve three years
in the southern
and western missions. It will be a valuable experience for him in every
our episcopate has not thought of this.
To be alone,
one has either to be a saint or a fiend, an old adage avers. To be a
saint is not
so easy. Nor could every saint sustain prolonged solitude. He is likely
moody and gradually drift into insanity. To be a fiend is not
congenial, least of
all to a man with a sacerdotal training.
Such a dreary
existence easily leads to despondency. Despondency again often entails
of moral courage and strength; thus such a solitary priest is in danger
from the pinnacle of spiritual idealism into the very depths of moral
Corruptio optimi pessima, "the corruption of the best becomes the
says the old maxim. He becomes a moral derelict, possibly behind a
facade of respectability
and virtue. He tries repeatedly to climb out of the mire, only to slide
the reason be, for which a priest wants to quit the priesthood, it
would seem to
me a worthy charity if American Freemasonry, the largest and most
in the country, assisted him in finding a suitable position as teacher
at a college
or high school, or some such occupation.
When a priest
steps out of the presbyterate there is automatically a steel curtain
set up between
himself and his Catholic relatives and friends. Not that they would
hate or reproach
him. But it would cause mutual embarrassment to meet again. It is
honor to have a priest in the family. It is a mortification or stigma
to have an
ex-priest. He will even stay away from the funeral of his parents to
Thus a priest
who renounces the priesthood suddenly finds himself all alone in the
world. He will
appreciate a kind lift from good fellows in the new environment.
Such an ex-priest
should not be expected to denounce the church and defame his former
Those defrocques who have stooped to such a course are almost
invariably bad eggs.
who has become dissatisfied with his calling and is anxious to
relinquish it is
rarely ever an asset to his church. It will be to the best of all
concerned if he
step out of the priesthood altogether. I trust that every Catholic
bishop will support
me in that.
I am not
familiar with the inner workings of the Protestant ministry. I suspect,
that there are some ministers who for various reasons would like to
ministry to pursue some secular avocation. It would he all around for
the best if
the desired change were facilitated and accelerated.
is the suggestion: Could not American Freemasonry establish a bureau
call it the
Clergy Redemption Bureau ‒ that would assist such prospective
ex-priests and ex-ministers
in finding suitable secular positions? Said bureau could send out
circulars to the
clergy offering help to such as contemplate quitting the ministry. It
them of the strictest secrecy.
about 25,000 Catholic priests in the United States. I hazard the guess
a couple of hundred of them would avail themselves of such an offer.
one ex-minister and a typist would probably constitute a sufficient
conduct such a bureau. The annual upkeep would probably not exceed ten
dollars. This expense should assuredly not prove a heavy burden on an
of the size and wealth of American Freemasonry.
If the plan
works in the United States it might be given a trial also in other
would be a well educated class of people who, moved by the highest
ideals, had in
youthful enthusiasm embraced a noble calling. Somehow they have become
or for other reasons no longer desire to be identified with it.
seest the great Prelates with splendid mitres of gold and precious
stones on their
heads and silver croziers in hand; there they stand at the altar
beautiful vespers and masses, thou art struck with amazement…
upon the vanities and rejoice in these pomps, and say that the Church
was never so flourishing as at present… Likewise that the first
prelates were inferior
to those of our own times. The former, it is true, had fewer gold
mitres and fewer
chalices, for indeed what few they had were broken up to relieve the
needs of the
poor; whereas our prelates for the sake of obtaining chalices will rob
of their sole means of support.
thou know what I would tell thee? In the primitive Church the chalices
were of wood,
the prelates of gold; in these days the Church hath chalices of gold
Meekren, Editor in
Was The First Masonic
F. IRWIN, one of our Associate Editors, has been for some time at work
on the enormous
task of collecting everything possible of Masonic interest connected
with the military
efforts of the U.S.A. in the Great War. Completeness is perhaps hardly
to be hoped
for, even approximately, but so far Bro. Irwin has collected a
of material and has thousands of names indexed of Masons who served
is at present preparing an article on the earliest Masonic Clubs or
formed in connection with the Military and Naval forces of the country,
question he wishes to decide is which of these has the honor of being
He has, therefore, asked us to make a last appeal through THE BUILDER
who may have information in any way bearing upon this point. It will
better for those answering to write to him direct. His address is 127
Wilmerding, Pa. We hope that any of our readers able to throw any light
particular subject will respond ‒ and "do it now." Even if they have
to say on this question Bro. Irwin would be glad to have any Mason who
the military forces of the country to write to him so that he may have
addresses, and this more especially in the case of those who have or
had any official
positions in clubs and similar organizations. The request naturally is
to those who are at present in correspondence with Bro. Irwin.
* * *
that there will be very few who will read the communication that
appears under the
title of "An Appeal to the Craft" and not feel some sympathy for the
although it will probably seem strange that it should have been
addressed to American
Freemasons. The first thought on reading it is very naturally that it
is some kind
of hoax, yet a second reading would alone raise doubt from the evident
of the writer. Without breach of confidence we may say that he
submitted to us papers
and other MSS. which fully explained his position. It is not that his
no place for him, for he has held positions of importance, and might
again if he
so desired ‒ on terms of submission, but that he has come to feel that
no place for him in the Church, at least in any official capacity. He
has not "lost
his faith," he does not want to give up his religion, but he can no
work with what may be called the political machinery of the
We have said
that the writer is an intelligent widely read and well informed man,
yet he shows
a subtle but fundamental misapprehension of Freemasonry. This gives
rise to a number
of reflections. In spite of the shuddering interest that many Roman
to take in the Institution, in spite of all that Roman Catholic authors
about it, they do not seem to understand it. One point especially, the
organization. Romanist writers constantly assume that Freemasons the
are parts of a great machine with some central governing council by
is directed everywhere, something in fact like the Jesuit Order, at
least as depicted
by its opponents. It is the strength of the Craft (and paradoxically in
a weakness) that it is not a machine, hardly an organization in any but
superficial sense, but simply a number of men, who have been through a
(of initiation) and who are obligated to friendship and brotherhood and
and charity to all the world. So little is it an organization that
except in most
flagrant cases there is no discipline, and it is left to the conscience
to perform what he has voluntarily promised. Potentially wealthy as the
of the country is taken as a whole, there is no organization that could
what the writer suggests. The difficulties that have obstructed the
course of the
movement to aid our own members who are victims of tuberculosis is
of this. If we cannot help those we have specifically and categorically
to aid in their need to the limit of our ability, it is obvious that
this can be done.
there is in this misapprehension something else. We are used to being
either calmly or courteously, or with contumely and abuse, by members
of the Roman
Church. Why should they take the trouble to do this? It would seem that
condemnation is something like fear. When French-Canadian children will
street to avoid passing close to a Masonic hall it is because they
believe the devil
has a place and habitation there. The extravagant absurdities of Leo
swallowed not by ignorant school children but by the leaders and rulers
of the church.
If it were once realized, as is so patent from within, that Freemasonry
of any general campaign or subtle working for some, for any, defined
they would cease to fear, and so cease to notice us. Freemasonry is
anything like this because such methods and such objects are absolutely
to its principles, traditions, tenets and teaching.
belief of those outside may also humble us a little. It is believed
that we do the
things we profess, that we not only preach brotherly love, relief and
practice it also. A little shame would do us no harm ‒ if it lead
collectively to that self-improvement which can only exist in good will
to our fellows.
* * *
AS we intimated
last month the ruling bodies of the Craft move very slowly. This is a
of all organizations and should not be quarreled with for it is in the
things. Still less should the zealous and devoted brethren who fill
influential official positions be blamed. It is very hard, without
the worst methods of propaganda, to make those who have not seen with
eyes and heard with their own ears to realize fully the need. And in
spite of all
that has been said certain complete misconceptions remain. One of the
Masonic journals of the country, so far as the quality of its contents
said that it doubted whether the problem of Tuberculosis was one
properly to be
dealt with nationally, and in others we have seen the question of
disease, cancer, also raised. If there be any idea in the minds of the
anywhere that to deal with Tuberculosis will logically lead to a cancer
we feel that a most important and fundamental difference should be
pointed out and
emphasized ‒ a difference that makes the first a national problem
indeed, and that
is simply the patent fact that the Tubercular subjects seek health by
to the Southwest. If there be any migration of those afflicted with
cancer or other
diseases it is to the nearest large city where they may hope to find
surgical and medical treatment. The point of the problem is this, we
have said it
before and expect to have to repeat it again owing to the difficulty of
presenting the matter in mere printed words ‒ the point is that three
in the United States who are among the weakest financially and in
numbers are striving
to care for the necessitous brethren from all over the country, and
those jurisdictions that are strongest numerically and wealthiest
this does not make it a national problem, if any one will deny that
this makes it
a national problem, we shall feel like giving up in despair. We should
like in any
case to have the arguments ‒ if anyone takes the position by which it
we promise to give them the fullest publicity.
If, and it
is undoubtedly the fact, the climate of the Southwest is favorable to
the cure of
tuberculosis, physicians who publicly argue that some other part of the
is just as good, send members of their own family so afflicted to the
it will follow naturally that the purely local cases will be very few,
bear this out. The brothers who need aid are from other parts of the
without exception. It is therefore not only a question of helping a
brother in need
and likely to die, but of helping good Masons, who are nobly and self
doing all they are able, to do their duty ‒ and are well-nigh crushed
by the burden.
Justice demands that they be assisted, and for this reason it is
necessary to emphasize
again that this is pre-eminently a case for national action.
* * *
Chief Justice Approves
William H. Taft has handed down a "decision" which will be of interest
to every member of the Masonic Fraternity in the United States. The
is the court of last resort and the Chief Justice has the last word on
In a letter
to Herbert B. Holt, Grand Master of New Mexico, and President of the
Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association, Chief Justice Taft wrote as
follows: I am very
glad that the Grand Lodge of New Mexico is devoting its energies to the
of National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria in those states that enjoy
the air and
environment that are so useful in combating the white plague. The
greatly reducing that scourge of human kind has been demonstrated. It
is most humane
and generous of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico to make the effort which
it is making
in this direction. I commend the movement and sincerely hope it will be
* * *
Taft believes that if it is constitutional for the Federal Government
to spend money
to save hogs and cattle, it is also constitutional to spend money for
of human life. In a speech at Albany, N. Y., March 18, 1910, be said:
We have an
Agricultural Department, and we are spending $14,000,000 or $15,000,000
a year to
tell the farmers by the results of our research how they ought to treat
and how they ought to treat the hogs and how they ought to treat the
the horses, with a view of having good hogs and good cattle and good
is nothing in the Constitution especially about hogs or cattle or
horses; and if
out of the public treasury at Washington we can establish a department
purpose, it does not seem to be a long step or a stretch of logic to
say that we
have the power to spend the money in a bureau of research to tell how
we can develop
good men and good women. Some of our enthusiastic conservators of
have calculated how much the life of each man and each woman in the
worth to that community. I do not think it necessary to resort to that
calculation in order to justify the saving of human life, such as can
by the results of research and advice that will proceed from a properly
bureau of health.
of the National
Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association
To Open the “Door of
Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association offers to the Masonic bodies
of the United States, A GREAT OPPORTUNITY for immediate action to
and hospitalization of migratory tuberculous Masons and sick members of
has an opportunity to buy the Tuberculosis Sanatorium formerly operated
by Dr. R.
B. Homan, in El Paso, Texas. The property is favorably located. The
has a capacity of nearly one hundred patients. This building also
contains the dining
rooms, kitchen, etc.
another brick building containing twenty-four patients' bed rooms and
also four small cottages for patients. In addition there is a small
employees and a four-room bungalow for nurses, or which may be used as
Building was recently completely repaired and renovated, at a total
cost of approximately
$50,000. The other buildings will need repairs to make them serviceable.
Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association can immediately begin its
work of relief
and hospitalization in the Main Building. Later, the other buildings
can be put
into service when needed and when funds are available.
is to be sold to the highest bidder under foreclosure proceedings, and
result of the sale cannot be foretold, the price is not expected to go
An additional sum of about $10,000 will be required for equipment.
will provide for repairs on other buildings. For a total of $100,000 we
an institution that will hospitalize one hundred patients, at an
average cost of
about $1,000 per bed, while new construction would cost from $2,500 to
children may be cared for in the Main Building until the two-story rear
is ready for occupancy. It is planned to provide for children suffering
tuberculosis, in addition to caring for those with pulmonary
tuberculosis. It is
difficult to secure hospitalization for these children in Shrine or
because of the length of time required for their treatment.
bodies, and organizations affiliated with, or whose membership is based
and Masons, will each contribute a part of the purchase price, the
can very quickly be secured.
is made to all such bodies, and organizations, to "buy" a part of the
sanatorium, so that the total amount needed for purchase and equipment
be secured and the sanatorium opened AT ONCE.
has been adopted of naming patients' rooms, sleeping porches, beds and
rooms, or units, of the Sanatorium for Masonic and other bodies, or
contributing the proportionate part of the purchase price of same.
or signs will be placed over the door of each room in recognition of
made, or in memory of some departed Masonic brother, or some other
average cost of operating a tuberculosis sanatorium is $1,000 per
annum, in order
to insure the best of care and treatment for patients $1,200 a year, or
month, is a safer estimate for the first year of operation.
Contributions of $25,
$50, and $100 or more are asked to pay expenses of hospital care for
one or more
weeks or months.
of $1 or more will help to "carry on" this work of salvaging sick men,
women and children.
Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association also asks American
Freemasons to contribute
funds for home relief; for hospitalization of patients in other
and if necessary and for transportation of patients and members of
and other incidental expenses of the work of relief and hospitalization.
Association also asks funds for the general expenses of its operations,
educational work among American Freemasons and their families, to
as to the nature, cause and prevention of tuberculosis. This
educational work is
recommended by the National Tuberculosis Association as one of the best
for the prevention of the spread of tuberculosis. "Prevention is better
was operated by Dr. R. B. Homan, of El Paso, under lease, until he
built his own
institution. This Sanatorium had a national reputation as one of the
hospitals of the Southwest. While it has not the modern features of a
erected at present costs, yet splendid results in the treatment of
secured in this hospital up to the time of Dr. Homan's removal two
funds are secured to erect a larger, modern Masonic Tuberculosis
building will continue to render great service as a receiving hospital,
or as an
infirmary for the advanced cases, who may thus be segregated from the
and hopeful cases, or may be used for both these purposes.
estate consists of approximately eleven acres of land situated in the
city of El
will have several distinct advantages. First, it will be possible
during the first
year of operation for the Association to secure without cost as to
the services of a large and complete medical staff, representing all
the profession. Second, the thriving city of El Paso will afford
employment to members of patients' families and patients themselves may
or part time employment, when physically able, and yet remain under
of the sanatorium for some time after discharge.
Building of the institution is three stories high, built of tufa clit
and brick and is semi-fire resisting. It is steam heated and has
service. The building is "L" shaped and practically all bed rooms have
floor contains a large reception hall, office rooms, a large assembly
room, dining room, kitchen, storage rooms, etc. There are also nine
six of them having glazed sleeping porches.
floor has thirty-three patients' rooms, twenty-two of them having
floor has twenty-three patients' rooms, seventeen of them having glazed
patients' rooms are equipped with private or connecting baths.
one hundred patients can be cared for in this building when operated at
This is a
two-story brick building located in the rear of the Main Building. It
patients' rooms, each with a sleeping porch and bath, etc. It is
will require repair and renovation before it can be used. It is planned
to use it
for the care of women patients, relatives of Masons and for women
members of the
Eastern Star. Children suffering from bone and pulmonary tuberculosis
be cared for in this building.
frame cottages are located in between the Main Building and the Second
These cottages need repair and renovation.
brick bungalow, located near the Second Building, will likewise need
This can be used for housing the nurses, or as the superintendent's
is estimated to be worth an amount considerably in excess of the price
it is anticipated it may be purchased.
have been spent in discussion of this great problem of relief and
of Masonic tuberculars, while many vainly hoping for help, have died.
If we, in
our various Masonic organizations, and as individuals, will spend five
action, we can, through this institution, actually begin this great and
work of Masonic brotherhood.
contributions direct to the Secretary of the National Masonic
Association, Alpheus A. Keen, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of New
at the Masonic Temple, Albuquerque, New Mexico. However little it may
be it will
help to save a brother's life.
* * *
Unable To Help Sick
86. Grand Chapter of Alabama. Applied for relief to Masonic Bureau, El
he wrote home chapter several times, without reply. Bureau wrote
chapter for help.
Commandery remitted dues and advised that they were in very bad
After several months, chapter sent $10 and wrote that it was all they
could do at
present and all that bad been authorized. "Will ask the chapter to
to the limit, but the chapter meant nothing to him before he was taken
now that he is unable to work it is the first Order he calls upon." The
had been advised that the Companion was unable to work account of his
Lodge Helped ‒ Patient
93. Grand Lodge of Georgia. Brother afflicted with tuberculosis, also
rheumatism. Home lodge assisted him over long period, sending him to
and supporting him at El Paso. Wife also tubercular and left him to
Brother improved under treatment and finally secured employment at
lodge advanced $783 total and brother had begun to repay same.
Bros. A. L. Kress and
R. J. Meekren
IN the Study
Club last month we discussed the probability that an apparent confusion
in the early
references to the ashlars as jewels of the lodge was due, at least in
part, to a
technical expression of working masons having been later understood in
general sense by non-operative brethren which resulted in an actual
The original finished test-block becoming the "rough ashlar," the stone
in its native state as taken from the quarry, and the partly worked, or
stone becoming t h e later "perfect ashlar," the stone squared and
and ready to be set and adjusted by the implements of the Fellowcraft.
dent, the terms in question are variant forms of the same word, which
a verb, to strike or beat, and as a noun the marks or indentations
caused by blows.
A stone worked with the "bush hammer" or "claw tool" shows a
surface covered with fine parallel indentations. Though such a surface
is far from
being a true plane it may nevertheless, if well-wrought, be a quite
close approximation thereto for the comparatively coarse trying and
for ordinary stone work ‒ it would not have done for such work as that
of the Great
Pyramid for example, where the thickness of the joints of the casing
was no more
than that of tissue paper, but such work was not done by the Mediaeval
not because they were unable had it been demanded, but because it was
in their style of architecture, in which fine jointing of the stones
part. Before all things they were practical men, and believed as fully
production experts in economy of labor. It is always to be noticed in
capitals and carving, that the work is carefully designed to involve
of cutting away of the stone. It therefore did not concern them to work
of the joints any finer than was required for stability in the erection.
be well worth while to find out, if anyone interested were in a
position to do so,
whether dint or dent is ever used in this sense by stone masons in
Scotland or the
north of England at the present time, or during the last century. It
may be noted,
however, that the New English Dictionary under "Dent" gives the
fifteenth century quotation from Trevisa:
"After many manere castynge,
seem by the context to confirm the supposition that "to dent" was used
as a technical term, though it gives no indication of the process to
which it was
applied. Casting is proper only of metals, planing would naturally
refer to wood
work, hewing might be either of wood or stone, and if the latter,
have been so intended also. The finishing process above described is
the only one
known to us to which the term would be at all applicable. Another
obsolete use of the word is given, namely, "to smooth," but not in the
usual sense of making a smooth surface, but that of neutralizing the
of an acid. The analogy underlying this use may however be that of
strength of the acid or corrosive fluid, and thus to be equated with
such a phrase
as "by dint of arms," for example.
is also possible and one not so far removed as to be incompatible. The
tells us that the "dinted ashlar" was not only used "to adjust the
square" but also to "make the gages by." Gage or gauge, in old French
Iauge or Jauge, is a very comprehensive word, and is applied to all
kinds of measuring
appliances, and to a considerable extent to special or standard
It is not now often, if ever, used for a graduated rod or scale for
linear distances in terms of some unit of length, such as the foot or
though it is so used in modern Speculative phraseology. This may well
be a survival
of what was once common usage, but we have not been able to find any
examples confirming it. A Scottish form of the word is Gadge. The
the Mystery both inform us that … Square, Compass and Common Gudge" are
to a just and perfect lodge; while the famous Haughfoot Minute of 1702
(1) and the
Chetwode Crawley MS. both speak of a "Common Judge." These references
must be to some measuring implement of very general application in
order to account
for the epithet "common" being applied to it in the first of these
In the passage from the Confession quoted in a preceding article (2)
the five points in the Square, we find the Handrule and the Gage given
as the fourth
and fifth, respectively. The Rule is essentially a straight-edge, but
usage the term is usually applied to a measuring rod, such as, for
instance, a two-foot
rule. But of course the most natural and obvious form of an instrument
measurement is a straight-edge marked with feet and inches or whatever
it may be.
We are, however, inclined to think that rule or hand-rule here means a
pure and simple, as such "rules" are very necessary in stone-cutting
they take a form not at all convenient for measuring purposes. If so,
we must conclude
that "gage" in Scottish operative usage was a measuring rod or scale.
of standards of measurement does not often come to our notice in
Rulers and yard-sticks and tape measures are so abundant and accurate
that we accept
them just as we do many other things civilization gives us. The immense
scientific knowledge, of care and skill, that lies behind their
preservation and reproduction is realized by very few. It is a far cry
time when twenty-five men, taken at random as they came out of church
Mass on Sunday morning, were made to stand in a row each with his toe
heel of the man in front and the whole distance covered taken to be
feet, and accepted as a standard for the regulation of yard-sticks and
and so on in the neighborhood. Yet this and kindred methods were used,
much more nearly accurate than might be supposed, being based on the
averaging differences. In England there were Royal Standards from very
but they were far off ‒ at Winchester or London ‒ and not easily
that local standards of all kinds were in use. It is therefore not
in a permanent working lodge of Masons there should have been a
standard unit of
measurement; and if there were also, as we have concluded, a standard
it would be the most natural thing to incise the unit of length upon
it. With one
edge marked in feet and inches it would be possible to make a measuring
of any stick or piece of lath for a given purpose, or enable new-comers
gages for themselves if their old ones varied from the local unit. The
might thus be taken as meaning "indented," in the sense of having a
scale of feet and inches engraved upon it. However upon the whole,
though the evidence
of the Confession seems to point to something of this sort, and though
probable enough in itself, the term seems more likely to have been
the method of finishing the surface of the stone.
We are now,
perhaps, in a position to solve provisionally the problem raised by
of the word "rough" to designate the ashlar. While "dinting"
may possibly have been a technical term for finishing stone, to dint or
general usage implied the injuring of a surface by accidental or
as indeed it still is. We suggest therefore that the change may have
through the term "dented" being misunderstood by non-operatives by
taken in the common sense of the word, the whole answer having become a
formula to them; and that someone, in trying to reproduce what he had
another word that to him appeared to mean the same thing. But whether
this was the
way in which the error arose or not it seems quite certain that an
error there was,
and that the Confession must be taken as better representing the
original. We shall
find later on further confirmation of the use of the word "dinted" as
a qualification of the ashlar.
of this group of "jewels" now comes up for more extended consideration.
A great deal has been written on the subject and much ingenuity
displayed, a good
deal of which we can only think misplaced. Mackey in the article
to takes "Thurnel" to be derived from tournell, old French for a
or small tower. He says, speaking of the "pointed cubic stone" of the
French charts: On inspection, it will be at once seen that the Broached
has the form of a little square turret with a spire springing from it.
And he goes
on to quote Parker's Glossary of Terms in Architecture to the effect
or broche denotes
… a spire springing from the
tower without any
intervening parapet; and so concludes that the mysterious phrase simply
Spired Turret" and adds:
It was a
model on which apprentices might learn the principles of their art,
because it presented
to them, in its various outlines, the forms of the square and the
cube and the pyramid.
said about this, however, as a method for instruction in the art of the
the better. (3)
have taken up the idea and elaborated it, chiefly along symbolic lines.
are unable to follow them; our attempt to elucidate these survivals is
the general hypothesis that their origin is to be found in a real craft
and not in a mystical, philosophical school of occultism somehow mixed
up with Operative
Masons, or masquerading as such. On this general theory we are forced
the idea that any elaborate object such as this should have been made
men for purely symbolic purposes. One great characteristic of Gothic
work is its
honesty and frankness. Nothing is put in merely for decoration or
because it would
look well; the ornament is all made out of the essential parts of the
and as has been remarked by many writers on the subject the more
important the member
structurally the more prominently it was emphasized by moulding and
would not be unnatural for such men to symbolize and moralize their
tools and their
methods of working, but it does not seem at all in keeping to suppose
dragged in such an artificial and, in a sense, purely gratuitous symbol
would have been. Besides, the fundamental point has not been touched ‒
stone was to be worked on, not examined or studied ‒ and the work was
of a kind
that was, in some places at least, called broaching.
is still a process used in mechanical engineering, and a broach is a
used for forming holes in metal; chiefly for holes of angular or
as the drill is better for circular ones.
pointed out long ago (4) that in Scotland the term "broached work" is
used for stones that are rough hewed, and that there is a tool, called
Thurmer or Turner, which is used "to broach" with. It is apparently the
same thing that is called a Pricket or Prichet in some parts of
England, and in
America is sometimes called a Point. It is a chisel drawn out with four
of two, and brought, not quite to an actual point, but nearly enough so
only a cutting edge of from three-sixteenths to one-quarter of an inch
It is purely a "roughing out" tool, and is used especially in working
granite. Speth therefore suggested that the Broached Thurnel was really
and it must be admitted that the suggestion is a very attractive one.
is that to accept it we have to suppose another error in both Prichard
and the Confession.
This we should be quite content to do if it affected the former only,
but the author
of the Confession, as we have said before, is so close to the operative
of his day, and is so explicit in his statement that it was for the
learn to broach upon," that in him such a mistake seems highly
little doubt that the real solution of the mystery is that advanced by
(5), which is that Thurmal or Dornal is derived from Ornel, the name of
kind of soft white building stone." The New English Dictionary gives
examples of the word from old documents, as for example one of date
Fraughtage of x tonne of ornell
fro london vn
to ye College.
It was sometimes
spelled Urnel, and a record of 1348 is quoted:
Eidem pro ijs pedibus de Vrnel
emptis pro eodem
in grosso xv. s.
suggested that Dornal came from the French d'Ornaulx, "of Ornal," but
we are inclined to think that Bro. Dring's theory is more probable,
that the "d"
sound was carried over from the preceding word by prothesis. Broached
ornal or urnal,
could very easily become broached dornal when transmitted orally. And
it is very
easy for a "d" sound to be changed to "th," especially in Scottish
dialect. We are inclined to this supposition because other instances of
thing have happened. Bro. Dring himself quotes a very amusing instance.
brother wanted to identify the plant called Vacacia, and must have been
aback when it was explained to him that it was a "sprig of Acacia" that
was referred to and not "of Vacacia." The broached dornal or thurnel
on this hypothesis be a piece of "ornal" roughed out and ready to be
a partly worked stone in short.
curious notions of the technique of building have been derived by
based not on any knowledge of the occupation but purely on the
allocation of working
tools in the different degrees. It seems very curious that such absurd
ideas should ever have been seriously advanced, when it would have been
to obtain information on the subject. Yet such "explanations" are to be
found even in the works of those who are regarded, and justly, as
the Craft. The Speculative Entered Apprentice is given a two-foot rule
and a common
gavel-or in England a mallet and chisel. From this it has been inferred
‒ of course the interest was purely symbolic ‒ -that the stones were
cut by the
Apprentices, while the Craftsmen stood round with plumb square and
level to set
them as soon as they were finished ‒ this process of setting or laying
-again for purely symbolical reasons ‒ to be much more skilled work
cutting the stones. One would suppose that if the unfortunate
apprentices had only
gage and gavel to work with that the Fellowcrafts would not find the
true or easy to lay-except as rough or rubble work. Finally the master
trowel and spreads the mortar. Perhaps this bold invention of a
technique is not of very great importance, yet it would have been
possible to have
based the symbolism on facts had there been any desire to seek for
them. At least
to any one with practical knowledge the whole effect of the moral
teaching is lost
in the contemplation of the ludicrous absurdities involved on the
The worst is that this is all comparatively recent. In the earlier
rituals the Apprentice
alone was given tools, and these included a square. This procedure was
to what must have been operative practice. To give the Apprentice his
was as appropriate as to give him an apron, but before he could pass
Fellow he had
to learn the whole craft, to use all the tools. To give them to him
be meaningless. Technically, of course, the "marking off" and "roughing
out" a stone is no task for a novice. When we consider all the factors
have to be taken into account, the natural bed of stone, the best way
to get most
out of it and so on, it is seen to require much skill and experience,
not unnaturally seems (to the purely speculative mind) the proper place
Apprentice to begin.
the first tasks he was actually given were such things as running
tools to the smith, bringing beer for the men, and cleaning and tidying
such duties would hardly fit into a symbolic scheme! As a matter of
the "claw tool" or bush hammer to finish the surface that had been
wrought by a skilled craftsman would be the kind of mason work he would
our best authority says that on this stone he was to learn how to
which we have taken to mean the process of roughing out. A
consideration of the
method by which a stone is worked down to a plane surface may help us.
for cut or carve work is always of such an internal structure that it
inclined to break along certain planes. It would not be good to "work"
otherwise, and would be rejected as waste, or used for foundations or
But the blocks,
as broken out of the quarry, are only very approximately square, though
to make the lines on which they should be cut fairly obvious. The first
to obtain a basis to work from. Usually what are to be the ends will
have the largest
excrescencies knocked off with the hammer or common gavel, by eye, so
as to make
it possible to mark a straight line with a straight-edge and chalk; or
perhaps if the stone were white. Then with mallet and chisel a draft or
rather erroneously spoken of as a "bevel" by Masonic writers, is run
the end; that is, a narrow flat surface is worked, the line drawn being
to the depth, and the width no greater than is needed to give a resting
the straight-edge; a little wider than the chisel edge as a rule. The
this cut is finished with some care till the straight-edge will touch
it all along.
The next step is to mark off the opposite end, and the problem is to
get the second
draft in the same plane as the first when the intervening surface is
not only rough
but also, of course, higher than the line worked. Two straight-edges
are used ‒
usually boards about an inch thick, three or four feet long and four
inches or so
wide, the two edges planed true and parallel. One of these is rested on
of the draft already cut, the second is held against the other end of
by one man, while another from the distance of a few feet "sights" over
the upper edge, the man holding it moving it according to directions
until it coincides
with the line of the other. Then the mark is made and the second draft
is run. This
when being finished is not only tested for straightness but also for
The workman keeps stepping back and sighting until he is satisfied that
straight edges are in line. If they are not, one end of that further
away will be
hidden when the other end is visible. It is a simple device, but one
that is capable,
with care, of very accurate results. The next steps are comparatively
that has to be done is to mark the sides in line with the ends of the
already cut, and then work down to it. This done, there is a narrow
ledge all round
the stone cut down to the plane required. From this, by means of the
can be marked out for the corners, which when done will determine the
the sides and ends. It is usual, however, to finish one surface before
This finishing consists of two processes, a roughing out and a
and it is the roughing out that was probably meant by broaching or
apprentice put on to this work would have the drafts to guide him, and
his work as he proceeded by simply laying a straight edge across it.
that seems legitimate in view of all these considerations is that the
which comes nearest to a real operative tradition said that the jewels
of the lodge
consisted of a square pavement, or floor upon which plans could be
drawn full size
in chalk or charcoal; a carefully finished stone with accurately cut
with its surfaces exactly perpendicular and horizontal, and possibly
standard units of length, for adjusting or making the measuring and
by; and last a roughed out or partly worked stone which was to be the
introduction of the Apprentice to the technical manipulations of the
Gould's Concise History, p. 189
and also Essays, p. XXI [Lib 1913].
THE BUILDER, Feb., 1927, p. 56.
Since this was written a
Agricole Perdiguier on the Compagnonage has come to our notice, in
which he describes
the methods by which the Compagnons instructed the junior members in a
kind of trade
school. It is possible that he has rather heightened the effect in his
in order to glorify the organization of which he was a devoted member,
but it is
not likely that what he says is without foundation in fact. His
description is not
very definite, but he speaks of a kind of erection that was used as a
model or concrete
illustration of different kinds of moldings, jointings and so on. One
gets the impression
that it was something like an elaborate gothic pinnacle, or like the
bases on which
market or churchyard crosses were erected. He notes that it was
criticised by some
as useless as such work was then no longer used, so that it would
appear to have
been a survival. The passage certainly appears to give some support to
idea, if we suppose that a cubic block surmounted by a pyramid was a
of such a structural model. We do not think, however that it affects
advanced in the article, though it seems possible that the actual form
the Broached Thurnel in France may have been due to an infiltration of
the working masons and their methods in that country.
A.Q.C. XII, p. 205. [Lib*]
Ibid, XXIX, p. 261. [Lib 1916]
reviewed in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of
at the prices given, which always include postage. These prices are
a matter of precaution) to change without notice; though occasion for
very seldom arise. Occasionally it may happen, where books are
that there is no supply available, but some indication of this will be
the review. The Book Department is equipped to procure any books in
print on any
subject, and will make inquiries for second-hand works and books out of
Franklin, the First
Phillips Russell. Published by Brentano's, New York. Cloth,
illustrated, table of
contents, index, 326 pages. Price, $5.25.
says that Benjamin Franklin was the first civilized American "because
American period eminent for narrowness, superstition and bleak beliefs,
he was mirthful,
generous, open-minded, learned, tolerant and humor-loving. Because he
was the first
American man of the world in the sense that he was the first American
The excuse for the title of this work, if excuse be needed, is amply
the study of Franklin presented by the author.
It is in
form a biography, but it is more than that. We have here a study of the
of the man who made the American Revolution possible, at least so far
as the essential
facts and financing was concerned. There is no need to dwell on
the various incidents are sufficiently well known to the average
American to make
such a recapitulation needless.
may well have his name inscribed in the hall of pseudo-saints in which
will be found
statues of Washington, Lincoln, Paul Revere and other patriotic heroes.
He is generally
classed with them and as often suffers from that imaginative elevation
for the fables that have grown up around so many of America's great
men. This particular
point has often been emphasized, but as long as our textbook writers
believe that an individual must be a godlike man before he is a
for educational purposes we shall suffer from the same fallacious
pictures of such
individuals as we have in the past.
of the present volume is to be congratulated on his treatment of
Franklin as a human
being. He smooths over none of his defects, and pardons none of his
is, however, an attempt to show that in his erotic moments Franklin was
up to, or down to, as one prefers, the standards of his age. This
to make the work more than an image of the man, it tends to assist in
the age and the work becomes a study of the 18th century as a result.
To those readers
of THE BUILDER who have seen Prof. E. E. Boothroyd's recent articles in
on this period and found them interesting, Mr. Russell's book will come
as a most
entertaining confirmation of the evidence presented by our contributor.
of this kind serves as indirect *evidence to support the assertion of
scholars that the Hiramic Legend must be older than the Grand Lodge and
by no small
period of years, on the ground that it was spiritually impossible that
have been invented then.
of Masonic interest is entirely aside from the main interest Masons
in Frankliniana, namely, that the first civilized American was a member
of the Craft.
This point is totally neglected in Mr. Russell's work which is,
The biographers of Franklin have not made any to do about it and
lay more stress on such things than non-members. Nevertheless Masonry
bulked largely in the life of a man who retained an active interest
over such a
long period, that it is curious it should not have been at least
It is certain
that those who read this book, and everyone should, will feel that they
a genuine understanding of Franklin, the man. They will feel too a
regret that almost
150 years separate us from the time of his death, for they will feel
that they would
like to shake his hand and perhaps comment on his life's work in terms
of no less
complimentary than the simple, "Well done, thou good and faithful
* * *
William L. Boyden. Privately printed. Cloth, index, 71 pages.
This is a
compact little book, giving authentic information upon a subject that
has had much
eloquent attention by Masonic speakers though usually among students,
curiosity than satisfaction. From of old there has existed a conviction
in the Fraternity
that about all the signers of the Declaration of Independence were
brethren of the
Craft. That by far the greater number of the Presidents and
also Freemasons was also a tradition as frequently and confidently
many. For years these claims have been allotted much more prominence
than was given
any detailed enumeration of the existing records to support such broad
Many who have done research service have found inquiries of this kind
awaiting them, as from time to time there came forward the exceptions
curious who, not satisfied with the sweeping assertion of Masonic
desirous of getting the dates and some real knowledge of the places
where each of
these well-known persons got his degrees in the Craft. Now it so
happens that even
when we know that a brother has taken the degrees we may not be sure
when and where
these were given him. A President, Andrew Jackson, was also Grand
Master of Tennessee.
Obviously he got the degrees somewhere and yet this certainty has
to be backed up only by a probability that he received the Masonic
light at Nashville,
in Harmony Lodge, No. 1, say some time between October, 1788, and March
In the latter month and year he visited a lodge at Knoxville and was
as a member of Harmony Lodge, No. 1. When questions of this sort are up
it is well to allow for the loss of lodge records by various causes and
attention being paid formerly to even getting all the facts into
evidence. Generally speaking there is every likelihood that the records
will never catch up with the procession and keep pace with the facts,
documents of old lodges suffering from the assaults of corroding
causes, the destruction
by fire, war and flood, as well as the negligence that omits to
or to treasure books of record, even the lodges involved have
themselves in several
instances disappeared. To meet and combat such situations was the task
by Bro. William L. Boyden. He has given in this useful and timely
handbook the Masonic
records, in a condensed form, of the Presidents of the United States,
and signers of the Declaration of Independence, who were members of the
His research leads him to conclusions not at all comforting to the
circulators of sweeping claims. For instance, Bro. Boyden starts in his
with the unusual assertion:
current for years, that fifty of the fifty-six signers (of the
Declaration of Independence)
were Freemasons is absolutely without proof, and no one has yet been
able to even
approximate this number by the slightest evidence in support of the
furthermore says nothing of the possibility that Washington was a Royal
The apron presented to him bears emblems suggestive of that important
our Institution. His lodge worked the degree at a very early date in
Colonial times. But these circumstances, suggestive though they be, are
not as conclusive
as we could desire and they do not weigh sufficiently to get any place
in Bro. Boyden's
book. For some unexplained reason the detailed particulars of Bro.
Adlai E. Stevenson's
Masonic career are not easy to get. Bro. Boyden is not the only student
difficulties in the way. This former Vice-President of the United
States was Master
of two lodges, member of a Chapter, a Council and a Commandery, but the
records of initiations, affiliations, etc., are, to say the least,
some Illinoisan Freemason will supply these details of so prominent a
public life and in the Craft; he was Grand Orator on Oct. 7, 1896, when
he in that
capacity addressed the Grand Lodge of Illinois.
record given by Bro. Boyden of the beloved and sagacious Franklin omits
items of any consequence that now occur to me. One is that he was a
visitor to Lodge
St. David at Edinburgh, Scotland, on Oct. 10, 1759. The entry on the
‒ which I have had personally the pleasure of examining, thanks to the
of Past Master Alex M. Mackay ‒ is as follows: "Br. Franklin, Secretary
the Grand Lodge of Philadelphia." See also in this connection the note
by Bro. A. M. Mackay to Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, page 270, part 3,
volume XXI, 1909
The statement that Franklin, in 1776, affiliated with Masonic lodges in
elaboration at least to the extent of telling us what were these
lodges. In fact
Freemasonry in France has been so closely in line with principles and
advocated by Franklin, that this similarity suggests an influence
worthy of more
exhaustive investigation than thus far it has received. Bro. Boyden
election in 1782 of Franklin as Worshipful Master of the Lodge of the
at Paris, but on page 136 of Amiable's history, "Une Loge Maconnique
1789," [Lib 1897] we are told that he was
Master on May 21, 1779. On page 145 of the same work, we learn that
Worshipful Master for two years, his authority having been renewed in
1780. In May,
1781, the Marquis de LaSalle took the place of Franklin as presiding
he in turn was succeeded by the Comte de Milly. The reference by Bro.
Franklin's election in 1782, does not have the support of Louis
but it does have the endorsement of Bro. Julius F. Sachse's treatise on
Franklin as a Freemason," [Lib*] pages 5 and 107. However these are
and only mentioned to illustrate how perplexing a problem is this
subject that is
commonly so lightly undertaken and voiced but to which Bro. Boyden
brings a refreshing
and an astute research. May it prompt and encourage further study in
the same direction.
* * *
Story of Philosophy
Will Durant. Published by Simon and Schuster, New York. Cloth, table of
index, illustrated, 577 pages. Price, $5.25.
of preceding generations have always been of interest to the general
scholars have tried to reconstruct the life of a given period from the
of contemporary authors. Both fiction and non-fiction have come in for
of consideration. This is, generally speaking, a delightful occupation
but there are many of us who do not feel the inclination to follow such
and prefer to rely on others for such information as we desire. It is
that both novelists and scholars will include in their writings
something of philosophy.
Such implicit philosophies are generally the reflection of the thought
of the age.
Mr. Durant has strayed from the general practice and has taken the
or better, the outstanding philosophers of each period as subjects for
of Philosophy. By means of the examples he gives we are assisted in
relative to the type of thought prevalent at different periods in the
the world, in spite of the fact that the work itself confines its scope
to a discussion
of purely philosophical events.
a multitude of readers who have seen the names of Socrates, Plato,
Francis Bacon, Spinoza, Voltaire, Kant and others mentioned in the
course of their
reading. Doubtless many of them have wondered what it was they said and
resolved to read at least something about them. If they have ever
attempted to follow
out their resolution they realize how difficult it is to find out what
it was all
about. Mr. Durant has solved the problem for such as these in a very
clear and intelligible
account of the different schools with a critical discussion and a brief
which compares the theories of several philosophers. In addition to
this the author
has given a brief biographical sketch of each man who forms the topic
which adds greatly to the interest of the book.
has the happy faculty of writing on a subject often thought too heavy
consumption in such a manner that everyone can understand it, and what
is even more
important it is made sufficiently interesting for everyone to enjoy
of the easy style it is not to be understood that the book is one for
business man who finds his most enjoyable relaxation at such dramatic
as are advertised as glorifying the American girl, etc. It does,
however, form the
healthiest sort of reading for the man who prefers to spend his
to improve his own mental makeup and who seeks real inspiration for the
work. The book is not one of applied philosophy, but it would be great
work out the applications.
* * *
AND ESSAYS OF THE MASONIC EDUCATION AND RESEARCH CLUB OF REGINA,
by the Peerless Printing Co., Ltd., Regina, Sask. Paper, table of
shows, perhaps more clearly than would be possible by any other means,
that might be accomplished by any study club. It is composed, as its
of a number of addresses delivered before the club from its inception
in 1924 through
1926. Because the group is one which is made up, not of Masonic
scholars but of
ordinary Masons who profess to a desire to know what the Craft teaches
and its history,
the contents of the volume illustrate clearly the kind of information
the average member of the Fraternity craves.
that the club is not composed of scholars should not be taken as in any
derogatory one. It is meant as no more than a distinction between the
who delves into the depths of detail to clarify one particular point
all, has no particular interest for the average Mason, and the scholar
type, namely, those who make an effort to collate the opinions of the
and present them in an intelligible manner for the education and
those desirous of knowing more about a given subject. Both types of
essential in any scheme of education and both do work which must be
contained in the present volume cover almost every branch of Masonic
touch on history, symbolism and philosophy, and range from a discussion
of the advantages
of Masonic education to a lecture on Hiram Abiff. They are short,
concise and entertainingly
presented. They are not of the wild fantastic type one too often meets
in a Masonic
lecture, and are based upon the works of the soundest Masonic scholars.
there is no documentation it is evident that authorities of generally
have formed the basis of the discussions.
some small errors, quite pardonable seeing that the organization is
new, and its
members do not have access to all that has been written on Masonry, and
pardonable when one enters into the spirit of the occasion and realizes
papers are written for the amusement of the audience rather than for
of research students. The reviewer has found no error whose importance
to warrant a close analysis of the problem involved and none that might
conclusion drawn, and none that are likely to lead the reader far
is one that is to be praised and the Education and Research Club is to
on its first publication. We hope there may be many others.
* * *
Science to God
Floyd L. Darrow. Published by The Bobbs-Merrill Co., Indianapolis.
of contents, index, illustrated, 299 pages. Price, postpaid, $2.65.
between the so-called Modernist and Fundamentalist factions which seem
the center of the stage in religious circles today has, perhaps, caused
to wonder about God. The Fundamentalist denounces the Modernist as an
Modernist denies the charge, and as strongly denounces the
Fundamentalist as one
who is blind because he will not see. Whatever side of the controversy
the reader will find in Mr. Darrow's book an explanation of the God of
is, to the mind of the writer at least, incontrovertible evidence that
has a God. The arguments are sufficiently strong to warrant the
assertion that there
can be no refutation, unless one calls a dogmatic reliance on the Bible
is aside from the question and there is no need to enter into a
discussion of the
Bible here. Let it be said that the author shows that even to science
be a God and that science is unintelligible without God. He says
further that the
God of Science is one which in the minds of thinking men is more
powerful and more wonderful than that pictured in, to use his term, the
of the Bible.
forms one of the strongest pleas for religious toleration it has been
to read. No Fundamentalist denies the existence of the solar system or
universe, yet he dogmatically asserts that we must believe in the Bible
as it is
written and as literal history. This is the same attitude as was
expressed by the
Church in relation to Galileo, Copernicus, Kepler, Priestley and many
have assisted us in coming to a true understanding of Divinity.
is fanatically prepossessed with the dogma of religion he cannot help
some lasting good from Through Science to God.
* * *
Philosophy of Witchcraft
Ian Ferguson. Published by Geo. G. Harrap & Co., Ltd., London.
of contents, bibliography, 216 pages. Price, $2.10.
of us interest in witches ceased when the Halloween period no longer
it the urge to engage in the mischievous pranks of childhood. Fairy
tales, in which
witches play an important part, fascinated us at one period, but the
and was completely lost. The history of the witch is not generally
known, and neither
is the philosophy. Witch trials and burnings are known to have token
even today one sees a reminder of the Salem persecutions in the form of
adorning one of the main thoroughfares of that colonial city.
In the work
now under consideration we find a treatment of the subject somewhat
that followed by Miss Murray in her Witch Cult of Western Europe. Mr.
with the history only incidentally. He alludes to the various stages of
only because he desires to give his general thesis a chronological
order. To him,
history is the calendar by which time is recognized in the development
attitudes. It is the thoughts of the people which elevated the witch to
she once occupied, and when tumbled her from her high pedestal into the
Medieval persecution which forms the major interest in his discussion.
comes, in magical religions, to occupy the place of ruler of the tribe.
in large measure, due to faith in the efficacy of his charms. Belief in
powers to subdue the wrath of the gods. Because of this faith early
was forced to adopt certain of the rites of primitive religions in
order to satisfy
the wants of the people. Mr. Ferguson traces in interesting and
the change in thought which finally resulted in witches being
considered the agencies
through which Satan worked. The witch idea is carried down to the
present day and
spiritualism and mysticism come in for their share of discussion.
One is inclined
to judge that the picture drawn of the Middle Ages and the misery of
the lower classes
is too sweeping, though the author draws it largely by quoting from
is one apparent slip that sounds strangely. In speaking of the stifling
by the church, the author says:
The dim stirring
of the intellect was evident in the speculative fields of astrology, a
heretical boundaries and for which Galileo was to die.
course did not die for anything but of a "slow fever" in old age, many
years after his condemnation by the Inquisition, not for speculative
theories, but for venturing into the realms of theology and attempting
his scientific doctrines by Scripture. He was indeed most leniently
the imprisonment to which he was condemned amounted to no more than
the household of a Cardinal who was his warm friend.
some caution it is a very useful introduction to the subject, it is
and makes exceedingly interesting reading.
* * *
Pike's Year Book
by Claire C. Ward. Published by Macoy Publishing Co., New York. Cloth,
A SHORT pithy
saying for each day of the year forms the contents of this book. They
might be classed
as proverbs, or could rank with the early morning Scripture reading
which was common
not so very long ago. They would form a splendid adjunct to this custom
provide the reader with a thought on Masonry with which to start the
are taken from Albert Pike's Morals and Dogma and are published by
the Supreme Council A. and A. S. R. They should prove of value to Craft
as Scottish Rite Masons. The pen from which they come is sufficient
their Masonic applicability.
* * *
Masonic Who's Who
by Dudley Wright. Published by A. Lewis, London. Cloth, illustrated,
have need to inquire about men of prominence, Masonically, will welcome
book by Bro. Wright. There are many who wish to know the affiliations
of great men
who are Masons as well as of great Masons. The present work is an
attempt to fill
the need, and deserves the hearty commendation of the Craft.
It is natural
that some errors and omissions would creep into a pioneering effort of
It would also, quite naturally, be expected that the American list
would be largely
deficient, and so it is. American Masons will as a result find the work
in its present
state of little assistance. The English list is fairly complete but
even this has
very curious omissions.
that the page size as well as the type size be reduced may not be out
It certainly would make the work more easily handled, and as it is
reference small type would riot cause undue strain.
however, be nothing but praise for the industrious brother who has
acted as editor.
We must express the hope that the next edition will be published in the
and that many of the inadvertent omissions will be filled.
* * *
of All Denominations [Lib 1915], prepared by M. Phelan.
Published by the Cokesbury
Press, Nashville, Tenn.
Australia [Lib*], by Knut Dahl. Published by Houghton Mifflin Co., New
and Unpleasant in the Order of the Sons of Italy in America [Lib*], by
Published by the Mandy Press, New York.
Giants in Contrast [Lib*], by Chesla A. Sherlock. Published by the
Box and Correspondence
Bro. A. H.
Norris, of Pennsylvania, wanders too far afield for me to follow him in
journal. His objections to the Old Testament are not new ‒ I met them
ago and am ready to discuss them with him if he can find a religious
cares to thresh over that old straw, but I cannot ask THE BUILDER, "The
Age," or "The Shrine Magazine" to open its columns to the theological
issues Bro. Norris raises.
I agree with
him that the action of the Grand Lodge of Missouri does not bind
New Mexico, but he seems to have entirely overlooked my quotation from
all lodges in Christian countries the "Book of the Law" is composed of
the Old and New Testaments; in a country where Judaism was the
the Old Testament alone would be sufficient, and in Mohammedan
countries, and among
Mohammedan Masons, the Koran might be substituted.
is that American Freemasonry requires a belief in the one living and
true God, and
recognizes the Holy Bible as one of the Great Lights. It gives no such
to any other book. But I cannot agree with him when he says, "Granting,
argument's sake, that the God of the Bible is the God of Freemasonry,
it is obvious
that we must first know what the God of the Bible is before we can come
to any conclusion.'
refuse to follow him, in a Masonic paper, into that theological
which he would lead us.
I have read
the Old Testament many times. I am sorry for the man who can read it
not find in it a nobler conception of God than man had reached in any
be ere the New Testament was written. But Freemasonry does not attempt
definitions but leaves each Freemason free to interpret the Bible for
C. H. Briggs
I fully agree
with Bro. Briggs' opinion that the point raised in my article could
hardly be made
the subject of a controversy in the pages of THE BUILDER. I will even
my question as to how he would explain the lower and primitive (not to
conception of God to be found in parts of the Old Testament was
than serious. That he himself would explain, or explain away, the lower
in the light of the higher I took for granted, my point was precisely
and reconciliation is needed, that once we try to give a meaning to the
phrases we find ourselves in the presence of problems and difficulties.
word I should like to add, in regard to the quotation from Mackey.
Since when and
by what authority was this eminent brother constituted the supreme
arbiter in Masonic
doctrine? It is a fact that in lodges in India, under the Grand Lodge
which falls under his definition of a Christian country one would
candidates may be obligated on one of several sacred books according to
of faith. This being permissible by English Grand Lodge usage seems to
me to bear
out the position of a "Lay Brother," as indeed, taken at its face
does also the last sentence in Bro. Briggs' letter.
‒ A. H.
* * *
I do not
offer Mackey as authority for Pennsylvania but he is good enough for
adopted his language by the unanimous vote of its Grand Lodge.
later the Grand Lodge took similar action. The New Age for March, 1927,
G. Mackey was Secretary-General of the Supreme Council, Ancient and
Rite of the Southern Jurisdiction, when Albert Pike became Grand
had many facilities for knowing while writing his celebrated History of
his assertions are entitled to the greatest weight.
I did not
know before that any one questioned the correctness of his statement
In this country
all the degrees in the Lodge, the Chapter and the Council, and the
Order of High
Priesthood and the Order of the Red Cross in the Commandery, are
founded on Old
Testament history or tradition. Abraham and Melchisedeck, Moses and
King of Tyre, and Hiram, the builder, Jeremiah and Gedaliah, Zedekiah
Belshazzar, Cyrus and Artaxerxes, Darius and Zerubbabel all move before
us in more
striking dramas than any other ancient book unfolds. What England may
do for lodges
in India is of small importance to us.
C. H. B.
* * *
of the Grand Lodge of Missouri referred to simply makes that Grand
Lodge the authority
instead of Mackey, and such action is binding only on Missouri Masons.
has placed his own indefinite interpretation on this and thus becomes,
the interpretative authority for the Grand Lodge of Missouri, which
nothing. The permissive use in India merely shows at least that there
higher than a P. G. M. of Missouri, for other interpretations. It would
to learn what construction would be placed upon the passage by the
Grand Lodge in
session. If the city lodges of St. Louis and Kansas City, and even the
in the more enlightened districts of the state, could overcome the
character of the Ozarks, I venture the opinion that Bro. Briggs would
with the minority. As for the Biblical characters mentioned by Bro.
are entirely aside from the question, as they have nothing to do with
A. H. N.
Briggs' letter was submitted to Bro. Norris, and the latter's reply to
However interesting and important the question of the authority of
may be, or the source from which it is derived, it certainly is not the
at issue, and the chairman must therefore call the meeting to order. ‒
* * *
Boston Tea Party
Was the Boston
Tea Party a Masonic lodge called from labor to refreshment?
‒ H. H. Limes,
conveyed by this question is that the Boston Tea Party was the work of
lodge. One might even infer that the lodge had been opened in due form
calling off from labor adjourned to conduct a party, returning to the
and closing in regular form.
I do not
think that anything like this was the case. Though there is available
no list of
names of the persons taking part in this famous episode, we have reason
that several members of the Fraternity were involved. It is a tradition
of an old
lodge in Boston that all of the preliminaries were arranged in the
Tavern and that the directing genius was Joseph Warren. Paul Revere was
of this lodge as were several other American patriots. It seems
reasonable to suppose
that Samuel Adams, John Hancock, Joseph Webb, Thomas Melville, Adam
Henry Purkett were participants as well as the two previously
was at the time Master of this lodge and certainly if he took part in
it he was
not objecting to any of the other members assisting.
it may be safely concluded, however, that while a number of Masons took
this protest against unjust taxation that they did not act officially
If their ideals were sufficiently high to protest against unfair
certainly were sufficiently high to prevent them as Masons from taking
part in a
purely political demonstration. Whatever part they played it seems must
have been as private citizens and not as a Masonic Lodge.
* * *
Knights of St. John
I was very
much interested in your review of the pilgrimage of the English Knights
of St. John
in the March, 1927, BUILDER. The Knights of St. John, or as we
generally know them,
the Knights of Malta, are now attracting a good deal of Masonic
It is not
generally known to those Masons who have received the Masonic degree of
Malta, that the Order of Malta holds in its bosom two other noble and
orders, to-wit: The Order of the Holy Sepulcher and the Order of St.
wealth of these orders was given to the Knights of St. John of
Jerusalem as part
payment for the turning over to the Pope of Rome of a brother of the
Sultan of Turkey
by Pierre D'Aubusson, Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes (another
name of the
Knights of St. John, or Hospitallers) in the latter part of the 15th
Master D'Aubusson also received a cardinal's hat and the privilege of
of the religious offices of the Order without control of the Papacy.
It has been
stated that Knights of the Holy Sepulcher are still made at Jerusalem
by the Superior
of the Franciscan order.
Knights of Malta were formerly created in what were known as Councils
The Knight of Malta, now as a Masonic degree, is the last one conferred
in a Commandery
of Knights Templar. It was stricken out in 1856, but reinstated in 1862.
To even the
casual student it seems strange to see an order incorporated in one
that it destroyed,
and even occupying an insignificant place in it.
ought to know that Masonic Knights of Malta are not descended from the
of Malta any more than is Ancient Craft Masonry descended from King
Solomon or the
Scottish Rite from Frederick the Great.
Burton E. Bennett, Washington.
* * *
We used your
"Syllabus" for the first time at our last meeting. Bro. Schmalzel, who
handled the first lecture or section, put in lots of hard study on the
and gave to the fourteen members present what he had found in the
books, and in
his own words, which is of course a better way than reading from the
of all, the one who delivers the lecture gets a great deal out of it
the ones listening get only parts of it. Everyone present was much
the hour and quarter taken up. The second lecture has been assigned to
for our meeting Feb. 25, to be handled in the same way.
to the brethren that in my opinion each one of the members should
purchase at least
one, better two, of the books used in the outline, and as each
assignment is made
study over the part of the text to be covered in the lecture and be in
to express an opinion on questions that might come up for discussion. I
brethren to subscribe to a good MaS6nic periodical and suggested THE
you assist me in this by mailing to each of our members one sample copy
It was of
much interest to me to learn that the Benson Group was the first to
outline of study. That being the case we will have to make sure that we
do our part.
C. M. Quinn, Benson, Ariz.
* * *
Benito Juarez, former President of Mexico, a Mason? If so, will you
me why certain religious organizations hold a common belief that Benito
the hemlock in compliance with a penalty exacted of him by Masonic
I would like
to know the truth regarding this matter.
Carl Lagerfelt, California.
of the scanty information available on this subject, the above query
to a prominent member of the York Grand Lodge of Mexico. The following
is gleaned from his reply:
Juarez was a member of the Mexican Masonic Fraternity. Inquiry among
Mexicans proves nothing as to the exact cause of his death. It is
rumored that he
was poisoned at a banquet, but there is nothing certain about it. He
may have suffered
from an attack of acute indigestion, apoplexy, etc. The fact that he
was 66 years
old and had experienced a very strenuous and dangerous life would seem
to the latter conclusion as the most tenable.
was an intelligent and bitter enemy of the Roman Catholic Church, and
it is very
likely that the poison theory of his death is due to church propaganda.
* * *
Washington A Tubercular
one hundred and seventy-five years ago, George Washington accompanied
Lawrence to Barbados as nurse and companion, Lawrence being a victim of
of consumptives to a milder climate has been going on for many years.
It will continue
in spite of efforts to stem it by publicity as to hardships
because of lack of money.
* * *
One of the
largest and richest, at least potentially rich, northern jurisdictions
appealed to for aid for a tuberculous young woman, a member of the
Order of the
Eastern Star. Her brother, a Mason, is also tuberculous and is
receiving some help
from his Masonic lodge.
to secure help for the sick woman from the Grand Lodge, the brother's
Eastern Star chapter, have been unsuccessful. The Grand Master of the
I have checked
all the information concerning Miss and her brother, ____, and found
the facts to
be as they represented them.
the Grand Master has no funds from which to draw for the relief of such
am referring all of the data to the Board of Trustees of the Masonic
Home, in order
to determine if there is any ruling which will permit them to spend
for the relief of such a case.
the receipt of this letter the National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria
had arranged to pay about two-thirds of the cost of hospital treatment,
woman to pay the balance as long as she is able to do so. Recently the
letter was received by the Association from her:
to yours of Jan. 20, I wish to say that words are inadequate to express
for the aid the Association is giving me in this unequal struggle. And
I hope the
help is coming from a (name of her native state) contribution, as I
feel it isn't
right that Masons in the Southwest should provide hospitalization for
other states. However, it is my earnest desire that Masons and Eastern
the eastern states will respond to the great work the Masons in the
doing for tuberculosis.
It is with
the deepest of regret that this has occurred, but I sincerely hope to
be able to
refund to the Association all that is now being expended for my care,
to be used
in helping another in similar circumstances, for without this help I
could no longer
hope for a recovery.
This is a
beautiful institution, and I am happy here, as I have been accustomed
to a Christian
environment most of my life.
physical condition, my case is classed as moderately advanced, but on
my physician reported an improvement.
I am very
grateful to you and God for this blessing of fraternal love.
* * *
In THE BUILDER
for July, 1915, at page 168, appeared a poem entitled "Building the
at Twilight." Is it possible to find out the name of the author? If so
very much like to have it, as a number of people are interested in it.
H. S. R., Iowa.
was referred to Bro. W.P. Matheney who has been making a collection of
He states that he has seen this poem in a number of different places,
with any indication as to its authorship. We would be very glad if
there be any
among our readers who know where this poem originated to have them
History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
Supply Co., 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 594. - 24.5 MB.
A History of Freemasonry in New
Ros99 / auth. Ross Peter. - New York : The Lewis Publishing Company,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 878. - 28,1 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 021 - 1908
Ars08 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1908. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 437. - 34.8 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 029 - 1916
Ars16 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 418. - 20.3 MB.
Collected Essays &
Papers Related to Freemasonry
Gou131 / auth. Gould Robert F. - Belfast : William Tait, 1913. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 313. - 14.3 MB.
Early Records 1794-1846
Ver79 / auth. Vermont GL of. - Burlington : The Free Press Association,
1879. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 424. - 24.6 MB.
Freemasonry in Dist of Columbia
Har11 / auth. Harper
Kenton N. - Washington DC : R Beresford, 1911. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 554. -
Freemasonry in Illinois
Smi03 / auth. Smith John C. - Chicago : Rogers & Smith Co,
1903. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 152. - 4.3 MB.
Freemasonry in Illinois Vol 1
War97FI1 / auth. Warvelle George W. - Chicago : The Lewis Publishing
Company, 1897. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 781. - 43.2 MB.
Freemasonry in Illinois Vol 2
War97FI2 / auth. Warvelle George W. - Chicago : The Lewis Publishing
Company, 1897. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 768. - 43.2 MB.
Freemasonry in Indiana
McD98 / auth. McDonald Daniel. - Indianapolis : Grand Lodge of Indiana,
1898. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 538. - 33.9 MB.
Freemasonry in Michigan Vol 1
Con97FM1 / auth. Conover Jefferson. - Coldwater : The Conover Engraving
and Printing Company, 1897. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 607. - 39.8 MB.
Freemasonry in Michigan Vol 2
Con98FM2 / auth. Conover Jefferson. - Coldwater : The Conover Engraving
and Printing Company, 1898. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 513. - 32.5 MB.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 1
McC91NY1 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 4. - Volume not Found.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 2
McC92NY2 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1892. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 649. - 16.8 MB.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 3
McC93NY3 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1893. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 636. - 17.3 MB.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 4
McC94NY4 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1894. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 656. - 18.6 MB.
Freemasonry in South Carolina
Mac61 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - Columbia : South Carolinian Steam
Power Press, 1861. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 567. - 33.2 MB.
Grand Lodge of Illinois
Rey69 / auth. Reynolds John C. - Sptingfield : H G Reynolds, 1869. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 585. - 16.5 MB.
Grand Lodge of Indiana
GLo61 / auth. GL of Indiana. - Shelbyville : Grand Lodge of Indiana,
1861. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 499. - 29.4 MB.
Handbook of All Denominations
Phe151 / auth. Phelan Macum. - Nashville : Smith & Lamar, 1915.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 192. - 7.6 MB.
Masonry and Anti-Masonry
Cre54 / auth. Creigh Alfred. - Philadelphia : Lippincott, Grambo
& Co, 1854. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 326. - 21.0 MB.
Masonry In Vermont
Til20 / auth. Tillotson Lee S. - Montpelier : Capital City Press, 1920.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 193. - 11.0 MB.
Minutes Vol 01 - 1779-1801
Pen95GP01 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 1 : 12 : p. 514. - 12.3 MB.
Minutes Vol 02 - 1801-1810
Pen95GP02 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 2 : 12 : p. 524. - 17.5 MB.
Minutes Vol 03 - 1811-1816
Pen95GP03 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 3 : 12 : p. 507. - 12.6 MB.
Minutes Vol 04 - 1817-1822
Pen95GP04 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 4 : 12 : p. 503. - 16.4 MB.
Minutes Vol 05 - 1822-1827
Pen95GP05 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 5 : 12 : p. 506. - 12.1 MB.
Minutes Vol 06 - 1828-1839
Pen95GP06 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 6 : 12 : p. 526.
Minutes Vol 07 - 1840-1848
Pen95GP07 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 7 : 12 : p. 558. - 12.3 MB.
Minutes Vol 08 - 1849-1854
Pen95GP08 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 8 : 12 : p. 541. - 13.6 MB.
Minutes Vol 09 - 1855-1858
Pen95GP09 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 9 : 12 : p. 519. - 14.3 MB.
Minutes Vol 10 - 1859-1864
Pen95GP10 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 10 : 12 : p. 602. - 16.1 MB.
Minutes Vol 11 - 1865-1874
Pen95GP11 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 11 : 12 : p. 495. - 30.6 MB.
Minutes Vol 12 - 1875-1880
Pen95GP12 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 12 : 12 : p. 510. - 19.6 MB.
Origin of Freemasonry in New
Hou17 / auth. Hough Joseph H. - Trenton : Joseph H Hough, 1817. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 750. - 22.8 MB.
Une Loge Maçonnique d'avant 1789; La R.L. Les Neuf
Ami97 / auth. Amiable Louis / ed. Alcan Felix. - Paris : Ancienne
Librairie Germer Bailliere & Cie., 1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 416.
- 22.8 MB - French.