Masonic Research Society
of Anti-Masonry on the Masonic Fraternity, 1826 ‒ 1856
Bro. Erik McKinley Eriksson,
IT is inevitable
that the Masonic Institution should have been seriously affected by the
of anti-Masonry which followed Morgan's disappearance. However, during
which have intervened little has been done to determine just what
happened to the
Fraternity, though there has been much generalizing. Anti-Masons, even
at the present
time, glibly dispense the information that organized Freemasonry was
and point to the disappearance of Masonry in Illinois as proof. They
point to the fact that the Grand Lodge of Michigan became defunct for a
that the Grand Lodge of Vermont was practically suspended for ten
years. But setting
forth such facts does not prove their contention for there were
Grand Lodges which did not become defunct and which did not suspend.
have also failed, thus far, to make a thorough study of the effects of
They, too, have been content with generalizations such as
disastrous to the growth and progress of the Institution." What
happened in a few Grand Jurisdictions has been accepted as sufficient
prove that anti-Masonry almost exterminated the Masonic Fraternity in
States. They have pointed to the decrease in the number of lodges
the annual communications as illustrative of the devastation wrought by
movement. But, in so doing, they have failed to consider that there
might have been
other factors than anti-Masonry operating to bring about a decline in
during the period following the Morgan affair.
studies the situation in each Grand Jurisdiction separately he becomes
that anti-Masonry, though a factor of great importance, was not by any
to blame for the low state to which the Masonic Institution fell during
of the thirties. In some jurisdictions Masonry was in a low state
before 1826 due
to internal troubles of various kinds. In the case of most of the Grand
the percentage of lodges represented at the various communications
before 1826 was
not high. The development of anti-Masonry, of course, brought about a
Influence of the Cholera
in explaining the situation, especially in the thirties, there was a
seems entirely to have escaped the historians, and that was the
prevalence of cholera
in the country. During the period beginning about 1830 the whole
western world was
swept by an epidemic of cholera that brought death to many and created
a great fear
among the people. It is impossible to determine just how much effect
had in causing lodges to die because the members feared to congregate.
Nor can its
influence in causing non-representation at the communications of the
be determined. Conversely, it is impossible to think that cholera did
not have a
harmful effect on the Institution, aiding in producing conditions which
been attributed to anti-Masonry alone.
factor that must be given consideration was the financial depression
and panic which
occurred during the period. Whether due to the "removal of the
from the Second Bank of the United States or to manipulations of the
Bank, the fact
remains that, beginning late in 1833 and extending into the spring of
was a widespread depression. Then followed a few years of "good times"
characterized by an orgy of speculation. In 1837 a panic occurred which
the whole country. In some localities its effects were felt well into
of the forties. The resultant difficulty of securing money must be
a factor in aiding Masonry's decline and delaying its recovery. Members
pay their dues to local lodges, and these lodges could not discharge
to the Grand Lodges.
Effect in New York State
Morgan affair occurred in western New York it is obvious that the
effects of the
ensuing anti-Masonic excitement would first be felt there. In New York
was well prepared before 1826 for the coming of anti-Masonry, as has
out. (1) To compare the small representation at the Grand Lodge
the thirties with the representation in 1827 does not tell the story,
for 1827 was
an unusual year in New York Masonic history. A comparison with earlier
a more accurate view. An examination of the Grand Lodge Proceedings as
1817 reveals an unhealthy condition existing at that time in the
in the state. There were 293 lodges on the list but of these only 30
at the annual communication on June 4, 1817. There were 10 lodges
listed as having
"Ceased to Work" while 16 were listed under "Warrant Surrendered."
There were listed 47 suspensions for non-payment of dues and 5
expulsions of un-Masonic
or immoral conduct. At least 17 warrants for new lodges were issued
during the year,
indicating that even that early an over-rapid expansion was taking
In 1818 only
28 lodges were represented, and it was apparent that some action was
Therefore in 1819, the "dead timber" was eliminated and the lodges were
renumbered. So rapidly had new lodge been created that there still
on the list of which 82 were represented. By 1821 the lodges were again
in a low
state. While 79 were represented, 179 others were reported as in
arrears for two
years or more! In 1822 there were represented 110 lodges an in 1823
there were 112
represented. In the latter year internal dissensions came to a head and
Lodge was split. The result was the formation of a City Grand Lodge and
Grand Lodge, whose rivalry in the following years was a factor of prime
in preparing the ground for anti-Masonry.
Lodge tries to outdo the other in chartering new lodges with the result
some localities too many lodges were created to be properly supported.
as a result, unworthy candidates were admitted who were among the first
from the Fraternity after the anti-Masonic excitement began. The
Country Grand Lodge,
the stronger of the two, at its annual communication in 1824, granted
30 new lodges. In the same year, at its annual communication, the City
created 11 new lodges. At the communications the following year the
Lodge granted 46 new warrants while the City Grand Lodge granted 12.
efforts were being made to reunite the Grand Lodges with the result
that on June
7, 1827, they were merged. The interest aroused in the proposed merger
in an extraordinarily large representation, for at the communication of
Grand Lodges there were present the representatives of 228 lodges. It
that, at this merged communication, 14 petitions for warrants for new
granted. It is very evident from this that anti-Masonry had not as yet
the Masonic Institution. Seemingly, Masonry in New York was, in 1827,
at the peak
of prosperity, yet, it should be noted that there were 84 lodges which
no returns since 1822.
Enemies of the
evidence presented it should be clear that anti-Masonry alone did not
the decline in Masonic strength in New York. There can be no question
but that anti-Masonry,
once organized so as to combine religious fanatics and political
as Thurlow Weed, William H. Seward and Millard Fillmore, exercised a
effect on the Fraternity, but it is just as certain that the Masons of
were, to some extent, to blame for their own troubles.
1828, it was apparent that the anti-Masonic movement was having an
effect on the
Masonic Institution. In fact, from the time of the beginning of the
and trials, there had been public renunciations of Masonry by members
New York. A group of these gave encouragement to political anti-Masonry
conventions at Le Roy on Feb. 19 and July 4, 1828.
Effect within the Fraternity
at the Annual Communication of 1828 was only slightly affected, as
there were 130
lodges represented, as compared with 142 represented in the two Grand
1825. However, during the year 1828 only 3 warrants for new lodges were
these were the last for some years. There were 103 suspensions for
dues and 8 expulsions for un-Masonic conduct as compared with 38
9 expulsions in the combined lodges in 1825.
the effects of anti-Masonry, on the individual Masons, on the local
lodges and on
the Grand Lodge began to be more apparent. Early in 1829 occurred the
movement looking to the surrender of the local lodge charters. On Feb.
20, a circular
was issued by 76 Masons of Ontario County recommending to the lodges
of western New York "the expediency of returning their charters." On
13, six lodges of Monroe County, including that at Rochester,
charters to the Grand Lodge in "acquiescence to public opinion."
contrary to a rather general opinion, this example was not widely
followed. On May
5, 1829, delegates from 19 lodges in Cayuga and Onondaga Counties held
Instead of adopting the course taken by the Monroe County Masons, they
drew up an
address disclaiming all knowledge of the Morgan affair prior to
and denying all the charges made against the Fraternity. They declared,
venerate Masonry for its antiquity, we admire it for its moral
principles, and we
love it for its charity and benevolence." The following resolution was
Resolved, That in the opinion
of this convention
it would be inexpedient and improper to take measures for the surrender
charters, and that our brethren be respectfully advised to adopt no
relation to that subject.
was taken by a convention of 114 delegates representing 14 lodges and 5
Chapters of Chenango, Cortland and Madison Counties, held Sept. 2,
figures show that, during the whole period of the anti-Masonic
76 lodges, out of the 484 existent in 1825, surrendered their charters.
fewer lodges were represented at the 1829 Annual Communication than
the previous year. The fact that the dues of 23 lodges were remitted,
many Masons were not paying their dues, though only 22 individuals were
during the year as suspended for that reason. It should be noted in
in 1829 the anti-Masons made unsuccessful attempts to secure the
passage of laws
by the New York legislature forbidding "extra judicial oaths" and
Masons from serving on juries when one party in a case was a Mason and
Grand Lodge Visitors
In 1830 there
was a further decline in the Grand Lodge representation, as is shown by
chart. (2) At the annual communication that year a system of Grand
for each county was inaugurated, it being the duty of each "Visitor" to
visit all the lodges in his district, to examine into their condition
and to receive
the surrender of their charters, jewels and other property if they
wished to give
them up. Action was also taken to remit the dues of delinquent lodges
prescribed conditions which had to be complied with by December, 1830,
to prevent forfeiture of their charters.
At the 1831
session, the Grand Lodge hesitated to take drastic action against
It contented itself with passing a resolution declaring that lodges
which had not
met for a year or more should forfeit their warrants if they did not
June, 1832. A resolution was also passed requiring lodges in arrears
for ten years
or more to make returns by the time of the next annual communication or
In the June,
1832, communication of the Grand Lodge, the threatened drastic action
The warrants of 5 lodges were forfeited because a "citation" of the
annual communication had not been answered; 84 lodges which had made no
since 1822 also had their warrants forfeited. The Grand Secretary was
to demand the warrants of 23 lodges which had not met for over a year.
of procedure was also followed in later communications so that, by
1836, no less
than 338 lodges had had their warrants forfeited by the Grand Lodge; 45
later forfeitures occurred in 1833, 89 in 1834 and 92 in 1835. While
action cleared out the dead lodges, it was not without its
complications, for, out
of all the warrants ostensibly surrendered or forfeited, only 54 had
by the Grand Secretary in 1836. The scattering about of the old
excellent opportunity for the development of clandestine Masonry and
for a time
constituted a serious problem.
Turning of the Tide
So far as
anti-Masonry was concerned, the year 1836 marked the turning point for
Fraternity in New York. At the communication in June of that year, the
James Herring, made a significant report in which he reviewed the
events of the
past ten years. He called attention to the fact that anti-Masonry in
the state was
rapidly dying out and that "the revival of Masonic labors and
to be manifest." As concrete evidence of this there was presented the
of Ark Lodge, No. 160, to be restored, which petition was granted.
Later in the
year two other lodges were revived.
In 1837 Masonry
in New York was well on the road to recovery when its progress was
another split in the Grand Lodge growing out of an attempt to
Masons of New York City for promoting a Masonic procession on St.
John's Day (June
24, 1837) without authority. From this time on, the lack of prosperity
in the New
York Grand Lodge cannot be blamed on anti-Masonry but must be
to the strife among the Masons themselves. However, the Panic of 1837
must not be
overlooked as a factor in hindering the recovery of Masonry in New
York. But in
spite of these factors, additional lodges were restored, and in 1839
the first new
lodge since 1828 was granted a warrant. By 1843 there were 93 lodges in
and the number was increasing rapidly.
the anti-Masonic period in New York, several facts stand out as
Out of 53 counties in the state, the lodges in 29 counties were
in 1836, either through surrender or forfeiture of warrants. Even in
New York County,
where anti-Masonry made little headway politically, only 22 out of 43
alive in 1836. Altogether, there were at that time only 71 lodges left
in the state,
and 14 of these were not in good standing. As a result of the decline
in the lodges
the Grand Lodge resources dropped from $5,301 in 1827-1828 to $1,631 in
It is apparent that hundreds of Masons in the state, if they did not
at least allowed their membership to lapse. But many others dared to
persecutors and kept many local lodges, as well as the Grand Lodge,
alive and functioning
during the period. Great credit must be given to General Morgan Lewis,
of the Revolution, who was Grand Master, 1830-1843, and to James
Herring, the Grand
Secretary, 1829-1845. The leadership of these two men during the period
was of inestimable
benefit to the New York Masons.
York, as has been pointed out, (3) anti-Masonry spread to the
In no state were its effects more noticeable than in Vermont. By 1828
had produced enough effect to reduce the Grand Lodge attendance from 52
to 39 in 1828. When the annual communication was held at Montpelier, in
1829, 40 out of the 68 lodges then under charter were represented. In
only 13 of
them had there been any initiations during the year.
At this communication
two important things were done. One was to elect Nathan B. Haswell of
as Grand Master and Philip C. Tucker of Vergennes as Deputy Grand
Master. The former
served continuously until 1847 with Tucker as his Deputy and then was
by the latter. It was these two men who were chiefly instrumental in
Masonic Institution in Vermont through the period of anti-Masonic
other important action was to issue the famous "Appeal to the
Vermont …" This was a pamphlet of twelve pages, written by Philip C.
and signed by those present at the communication. Two thousand copies
and distributed. The "Appeal" traced the development of the
movement, enumerated the charges made against the Masonic Fraternity
and then proceeded
to deny them in toto. Though the list of signers included many of the
men in the state, including Governor Samuel C. Crafts and ex-Governor
not to mention numerous others, it did not allay the spirit of
complete triumph of the political anti-Masons in the state elections of
condition of Freemasonry became more critical. In the Grand Lodge, on
Oct. 11 of
that year, a resolution was introduced to the dissolution of the Grand
after a heated debate the proposition was defeated by a vote of 99 to
a recommendation was made to the lodges to hold only two meetings each
for good order and discipline and instruction in Masonry, the other for
choice of officers."
with which the presidential campaign of 1832 was fought in Vermont was
responsible for the decline in the representation at the annual
39 in 1831 to 10 in 1832. It was noised abroad that at the next session
of the Grand
Lodge in 1833 another attempt would be made to secure its dissolution.
in 34 lodges being represented. On Oct. 9, 1833, a preamble and
for the surrender of the local charters and the dissolution of the
Grand Lodge was
introduced. Again there was heated debate but when the vote was taken
was defeated 79 to 42.
adjournment of the Grand Lodge, the Grand officers, on Oct. 21, 1833,
an address to the people of the state. They reviewed the history of
Masonry in Vermont
and pointed out that of 73 charters issued since 1794, there were 68
still in force.
They charged that those who sought to secure the surrender of charters
animated by "an honest intention to pacify public opinion," but had
less honorable motives." They denied that the Masonic Institution had
with politics or religion, and closed by warning the people of the
that would be established by the success of the movement to exterminate
Only 7 lodges
were represented in 1834. The chief business consisted of drawing up
six resolutions, including a reaffirmation of a resolution passed at
communication giving lodges permission to surrender their charters, "a
calculated to relieve [those] who wished to retire from Masonry." At
the time of the annual communications was changed from October to
as a result, no meeting was held in 1835.
Emergency Measures Taken
By Grand Lodge
On Jan. 13,
1836, the Grand Lodge met at Burlington, with only nine Grand officers
These proceeded to elect officers and then passed the following
Resolved, That the Grand
Master, Grand Treasurer
and Grand Secretary, with such of the Grand Lodge as may make it
and they are hereby authorized to attend at the hall of such Lodge on
the 2nd Wednesday
of January, A. L. 5837 and adjourn said Lodge to the 2nd Wednesday of
L 5838, and thereafter biennially.
was complied with, and the form of the Grand Lodge organization was
Jan. 14, 1846, when a convention was held at Burlington on the
invitation of Grand
Master Haswell, sent privately to trusted Masons in the state.
attended the meeting on the date set. After the convention had
considered the matter
of reviving the Grand Lodge, the meeting was dissolved, and the Grand
declared to be opened, with ten lodges represented. With this beginning
of the Masonic Institution in Vermont proceeded slowly but surely.
Movement in New Hampshire
Up to 1829,
anti-Masonry had hardly made itself felt in New Hampshire. In fact,
each year from
1826 to 1828 inclusive, new lodges were chartered, so that the total
from 40 in 1825 to 52 in 1828. Three of these were listed in 1826 as
However, in 1829, no new charters were issued. It was reported to the
that some lodges had been seriously affected by the anti-Masonic
was reflected in the decreased representation at the annual session at
June 9 and 10. Thereafter the attendance declined until in 1835 only 13
represented. No action in regard to delinquent lodges was attempted
At the annual session of that year it was resolved that the lodges
should make returns
and be represented at the next annual communication or else forfeit
Grand Lodge met in 1838 it was not ready to enforce its decree in
relation to delinquent
lodges. However, it did revoke one charter while another was
surrendered. In 1839
another charter was surrendered. At the 1839 annual session it was
26 lodges had made no returns for periods varying from six to eleven
it was left to the 1840 annual session to take the action threatened in
26 lodges were declared to have forfeited their charters. Having pruned
branches, the Grand Lodge of New Hampshire proceeded on the road to
rapidly that by 1856 it had become stronger than ever before.
Effect Produced In Maine
Up to 1829
there was no tangible evidence that Freemasonry in Maine had been
affected by anti-Masonry.
Between 1825 and 1829 there were ten new lodges chartered, raising the
48 in the first mentioned year to 58 in 1829. At the annual
communication at Portland,
Jan. 15, 1829, it was reported that three new charters had been issued
past year. However, at this communication, the Grand Lodge
representation was only
23 as compared with 38 in 1828. Further evidence that anti-Masonry was
felt is seen in the fact that 18 lodges were reported to have
as compared with one so reported in 1827.
At the 1830
communication, official notice was for the first time taken of
a report was submitted by a committee on "the subject of the peculiar
of Masons at the present time." The committee advised against the
of a public address for the purpose of vindicating Masonry and urged
Masons to "quietly
let the tempest take its course" endeavoring "to vindicate the
of their profession by a well-ordered life and conversation."
to Stem the Tide
In 1831 the
Grand Lodge by-laws were amended so as to provide for holding the
at Augusta, in the hope that the decline in representation would be
halted. In this
hope the Masons of Maine were doomed to disappointment, for the
until in 1837 only the representatives of one lodge together with the
were present at the annual communication on Jan. 19. At this session
of one lodge was declared forfeited. But the lowest point of Masonic
Maine had not yet been reached. When the time arrived for the annual
on Jan. 20, 1842, not one lodge was represented. Neither was the Grand
so the various Grand offices with the exception of that of Grand
filled by Grand officers pro tem.
It was not
until 1844 that Freemasonry in Maine may be said to have definitely
started on the
up-grade. At the annual communication at Augusta on Jan. 18 there were
19 lodges. Among these were one which had surrendered its charter in
1836 and the
one whose charter had been forfeited in 1837. As the representatives of
allowed to vote this amounted to virtual restoration, though formal
did not take place until later. It was decided to again hold the annual
at Portland Action was also taken to restore such lodges as desired it.
satisfactory progress toward complete recovery was made, though quite
first. When the Grand Lodge, on July 4, 1845, broke the ground for the
and St. Lawrence Railroad," it was evident that the spirit of
Maine had melted away.
J. Hugo Tatsch, THE BUILDER, August, 1926.
This chart will appear at the conclusion of the
Erik McKinley Eriksson, THE BUILDER, December,
(To be continued)
Anti-Mason on Masonry
David Barnard thus expressed himself in 1847 in a letter to a religious
of the day:
Masonry is a harlot. For the
Bible and the Shaster,
Christ and the Koran, are equally indifferent to her. Masonry does
teach and bind
by solemn oath and under awful penalties to keep secret both murder and
he propounded the following theses on the subject, which he undertook
and prove: "That Freemasonry is profane and blasphemous; that
with the laws of both God and man, and is in its principles and
that Freemasonry is Deism, and its secret and avowed purpose the
[Masonic Review, March, 1847]
Bro. C. H. Briggs, P.
G. M., Missouri
takes up the discussion of the question that was introduced in the
under the heading of "A Lay Brother's Conception of God." M. W. Bro.
writes from what is generally known as the "Fundamentalist" point of
He is a prominent Minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church and a Past
of the State of Missouri, for which in this matter he therefore speaks
IN his petition
the candidate states that "he is a firm believer in the one living and
God." The open Bible is before him when he is obligated. He is told
is one of the Great Lights; that it is God's inestimable gift to man ‒
that it is
to be the rule and guide of his faith and practice. He is also taught
that no Freemason
should ever engage in any great or important undertaking without first
the aid and blessing of Deity. He is taught that the All-Seeing Eye
inmost recesses of the human heart and will reward us according to our
oath with which he concludes and binds each obligation is a solemn
appeal to a personal
God to whom he acknowledges his accountability. Some ten or twelve
years ago Prof.
Leuba of Bryn Mawr College told us that half the professors in the
and Colleges of this country do not believe in a personal God. When a
a religious paper referred to him as an atheist he indignantly denied
but said he did not believe in a personal God who answers prayer.
He would not be an eligible candidate in Missouri. Freemasonry is
founded upon a
firm belief in the God of the Bible. Each Freemason is left to his own
of the teachings of the Bible concerning God, but when he rejects the
of the Bible concerning God it is time for him to retire from the
Order. In the
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, 1888, pp. 46-49, we find a
case in point.
A brother was expelled from Montrose Lodge, No. 408, for "denying the
authority of the Holy Bible," for "Non-belief in the existence of
His own statement at his trial was that he did not believe any part of
Scriptures or Bible as a revelation from God ‒ that he did not believe
in the God
of the Bible. Judge Noah M. Givan, Past Grand Master, presented the
Report of the
Committee on Appeals and Grievances sustaining the action of Montrose
Lodge in expelling
the brother and this "Report was adopted by a rising vote with entire
and great enthusiasm." The report quoted with approval Mackey's
"it is a landmark that 'a Book of the Law' shall constitute an
part of the furniture of every Lodge." Mackey defines the "Book of the
Law" as "that volume which, by the religion of the country, is believed
to contain the revealed will of the Grand Architect of the Universe."
It may be
urged that Mackey and the Grand Lodge of Missouri are narrow, that
other Grand Jurisdictions
may hold that the Bible is only a symbol, and in no sense
authoritative. There may
be a breadth at the cost of power. Someone has defined the Platte as a
mile wide and one inch deep." The last time I crossed the Platte at
Nebraska, in July, 1925, I saw only sand in its channel. Mackey says:
In all Lodges
in Christian countries the "Book of the Law" is composed of the Old and
New Testaments; in a country where Judaism was the prevailing faith the
alone would be sufficient, and in Mohammedan countries, and among
the Koran might be substituted.
reasoning is sound, it is Masonic. It is essential that we have a "Book
the Law" which contains a revelation of God. As I have already said
is left to his own interpretation of the "Book of the Law." His belief
in God does not depend upon Nature only, but he believes in a God who
himself to men. He is required to pray to this God, and he owes his
to the "All-Seeing Eye Whom the Sun, Moon and Stars obey, and under
care even comets perform their stupendous revolutions," and who
the inmost recesses of the human heart, and will reward us according to
traditions lead us back to Solomon's Temple, the first permanent
by human hands to the worship of the one true and living God. King
in a God who reveals his will to men. He believed in a personal God who
in his children. He believed in prayer and we have in the Bible a
which he offered at the Dedication of the Temple and which is a part of
of the General Grand Chapter of the United States in the Most Excellent
Men who have
only vague and misty conceptions of God are welcome to build on their
a more sublime system of morals than that of Freemasonry if they can,
but let them
be consistent and not demand that we shall forsake the Rock on which
has always rested. But they tell us they cannot reconcile Genesis with
We can. We are acquainted with many Oriental Legends of Creation. They
are of interest
only to scholars and can never be made popular. But from the East there
poem which is immortal. Before he is brought to light the Entered
these words: In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And
was without form and void: and darkness was upon the face of the deep.
And the Spirit
of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said "Let there be
and there was Light."
The man who
does not believe this is not a proper subject for advancement in the
Freemasonry. He may be an excellent Theosophist, a sincere Buddhist, an
Worshipper and withal a moral man, but he cannot be a Freemason in the
of that term. The poem from which we have quoted reveals the
processes until Man made in God's image stands forth to fulfill his
mission of winning
dominion over the things God had made.
It is only
the shallow thinker who sneers at Genesis as unscientific. Can modern
earlier traces of vegetable than of animal life? And yet we are
confident that vegetable
life is older than animal life, because animal life feeds upon
vegetable life. Genesis
is scientific in that it tells us that vegetable life preceded animal
comes it that Moses was a geologist three thousand years in advance of
Freemasons who believe that in the Bible we have God revealed can
that the God who gave Moses on Nebo's lonely height a view of the Land
could have unfolded in panoramic form creative processes to the
inspired seer chosen
to give Genesis to mankind.
given in the first Chapter of Genesis is the exact order unfolded by
as an angel might have viewed it from a standpoint beyond our world,
the slow unfolding
of the mighty drama which found its culmination in man. That poem which
book of Genesis is more than three thousand years old and gives us all
we know of
the origin of the world and of man.
He who accepts
the teachings of Freemasonry that God is revealed in the "Book of the
finds no difficulty in believing that Divine inspiration gave that
to the author of Genesis. He who does not believe in inspiration and
yet wants to
be a Freemason may try to fit a round peg into a square hole, but I
those who cannot adjust their theories of evolution to the teachings of
concerning the Bible. Perhaps no term in common use today is more
evolution. To say you are an evolutionist conveys no definite meaning
indicate the kind of an evolutionist you may happen to be at that
We may apply to evolution what Mark Twain said about Geology, which he
told us was
a very interesting science because it gave such wholesale returns from
investments of fact. This is not a treatise on evolution. We are
interested in it
here only as it bears upon Freemasonry. But in this connection Bryan's
challenge may well be considered: "Of the million species of life that
claims to know today show me a single instance where you have ever
crossed the line
between species and produced a new and fertile species."
I am waiting
for that challenge to be fairly met before I reject the account of
in Genesis. The great American philosopher, Josh Billings, in his
lecture on Milk
put the problem in about these words, "The mule is half hoss and half
and there kum to a stop, Nature discovering her mistaik." For thousands
years men have been using mules and still have to cross the ass with
the horse to
get a mule. And that useful animal still remains "without pride of
or hope of posterity." In their eagerness to explain things without God
are often as easily convinced as was the Irishman when he found a
marked "U.S." "Sure it is mine. It has my initials, 'U' for Patrick
and 'S' for McCarty." In a sketch of Edison in a magazine a year or two
we were told how he explained the origin of life in our world. "It must
come as a spark from some other world." So Tyndal in that famous
in 1874 prolonged the "vision backward across the boundary of
evidence" to discern in matter "the promise and potency of every form
or terrestrial life." He admits the lack of evidence and throws no
the question "How came that promise and potency there?" He only
counsel by words without knowledge. He was consistent with his
which Darrow holds today, when he told the inmates of a British penal
that they were where they were because of offenses against the social
they could not help committing and society could not help punishing
them. That was
Darrow's plea for those Chicago criminals two or three years ago ‒ that
forces coming out of the past had driven them to their crime.
believes in a personal God who is a free spirit, and who has made man
in his image
‒ a free spirit who is responsible to God for his conduct. The
cannot be harmonized with Freemasonry. Harry Emerson Fosdick in the
Journal a year or two ago tried to adjust the relations between
evolution and religion.
He succeeded to his own entire satisfaction but I could not discover
began in his long chain of life. Evolutionists are fond of ridiculing
call the Carpenter theory of Creation, but even that seems more
rational than what
I must call their Hermit Crab theory ‒ that God-if there is a God ‒
slow development of life until the human body was evolved and then
it an immortal spirit. Here is where evolution is weak. We may concede
physical structure has been developed from the lower orders of life and
his body is subject to the same general laws of birth, growth,
nutrition and decay.
We even think we see reason developing in the higher orders of animal
when we come to man's moral nature there is a chasm which no theory of
can ever bridge. Conscience, the sense of right and wrong in choices,
of the spiritual realm, the sense of God and the things of God ‒ all
man from every other form of terrestrial life and confirm the record of
given us in Genesis, which Freemasonry has always accepted, and which
it will surrender
to plausible theories unsustained by evidence.
reported that Darrow before going to meet Bryan in Tennessee went to
Museum to hunt up proof of evolution especially as shown by prehistoric
of the horse. Not long before an Eastern College professor told us that
proved evolution. The modern horse has one toe to each foot. We have
of the two-toed horse, the three-toed and the four-toed, and at last a
horse hardly a foot high. Here is the proof cries this wise man. "Tell
the marines, the sailors won't believe it." The modern horse may have
developed from that little animal with five toes to each foot, this was
within the lines of species which we all recognize, and not development
Embryology is the strongest argument offered for evolution but when
it only proves the harmony of the Creator's work:
One God, one Law, one Element
And one Far-off
Divine Event To which the whole Creation moves.
his "Study of Zoology" said:
So definitely and precisely
marked is the structure
of each animal that in the present state of our knowledge there is not
evidence to prove that a form in the slightest degree transitional
between any two
of the groups, Vertebrata, Annulosa, Mollusca, and Coelenterata either
has existed during that period of the earth's history recorded by the
A few years
ago Dr. T. H. Morgan of Columbia University said:
We are teaching too much on the
subject of evolution
and comparative anatomy. The result has been that the young student
loses his faith
in God and theology. This tendency is very prevalent in Western
is time to call a halt in our emphasis upon the theory of evolution. We
that its sole foundation is comparative anatomy and that the data which
basis is questionable.
God Make Man?
Brother" in giving us his "Conception of God" uses this language:
The Bible says somewhere that
God created man
in his image and likeness. I do not think so, but I think that man
created God in
his image and likeness.
In this he
agrees with Col. Robert G. Ingersol, who used to say "An honest God is
noblest work of man." Ingersol's sneer was as shallow as it was
Man never made an honest God. Referring to the Greek Pantheon, Bishop
Kansas City used to say "There was not a gentleman on Olympus." Men are
incapable of making gods nobler and better than themselves. Our "Lay
is dreaming when he says:
If we desire to trace the rise
of religion we find first that man worshipped forces which he did not
We come later to idol worship and the anthropomorphic deities.
evolutionist who thinks man has developed from the amoeba, must of
course find the
origin of religion in the lowest and crudest superstitions. But he is
question. If we accept the Bible as a revelation of God, which is a
truth in Freemasonry, we have an account of man's creation, and we find
him a worshipper
of the one true and living God. If we reject the authority of this
Law" we are in absolute darkness concerning beginnings.
has a consciousness of personal identity continuous for at least
(except as interrupted by sleep), but there lies back of that a period
years of which he has no knowledge in the strict sense of that word. He
what his parents have told him and is content.
So our knowledge
of human life in this world is made known to us in history, more or
Paleontology and Archaeology may throw much light upon the ages behind
us, but no
art or skill of man can lead us back to beginnings. No less devout and
a Bible scholar than Dr. George Adam Smith told a group of young
the Twenty-third Psalm could not have been written by David because it
too lofty a conception of God for that benighted age. The trouble with
him was that
as an evolutionist he was adjusting the facts to his theories instead
his theories by the facts.
of evolutionists that religions began with the lowest superstitions and
refined and improved until Monotheism came late in human history
processes is not only unproven, but is contradicted by the history of
Every great religion the world has ever known is loftier intellectually
morally in its earlier stages than in its later history. I need not
trace at length
the history of Brahmanism, Buddhism and Mohammedanism ‒ they all show
of human nature to corrupt rather than to improve religions. The
mission of the
Hebrew people was not to give Monotheism to the world, but to preserve
revelation of God which was dying out all around them. When Abraham
left Ur of the
Chaldees, all around him were men who shared the same faith in God ‒
his own kindred,
Pharaoh in Egypt, Abimelech, King of Gerab, and Melchisedec, King of
of the Most High God. These leave no successors that we can trace in
in God. When Moses is closing his career the only trace we can find of
is a torch going out in the darkness, a back-sliding prophet who loved
of unrighteousness – Balaam, the son of Beor, who was slain among the
in Moses' last campaign.
In the rotunda
of the Congressional Library at Washington there are some great bronze
the leaders of the world's intellectual life. One honors a Jew who was
the world's greatest expert in religion. His letters, still extant and
reveal a fuller knowledge of Judaism, Christianity and Paganism than we
the writings of any other man. Writing of men who corrupt religion he
When they knew God they
glorified him not as
God, neither were thankful: but became fain in their imaginations and
heart was darkened. Professing themselves to be wise they became fools,
the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like to
corruptible man, and
to birds, and four-footed beasts and creeping things.
I have said
man never made an honest God. He cannot create characters better than
Shakespeare does not give us a character that in moral elevation is the
Saul of Tarsus. Milton's Satan in "Paradise Lost" is a demigod. Byron's
Satan in Cain is a "Brocken" shadow of Byron. The Nazarene cannot be
into fiction. Wallace's attempt is the weakest part of Ben Hur [Lib 1922]. The only perfect pictures of
Devil in the world's literature are found in the Bible. One is in the
of Genesis, one in the Book of Job, and if you want another you can
find it in the
record of the temptation of Jesus given in the Gospels. Beecher said
the Book of
Job is the greatest drama ever written. It is the boldest flight of the
and men are introduced as characters and all sustain their parts. There
like it in literature. One of the speakers throws out this challenge,
thou by searching find out God?" That challenge man has never met. God
only because he is revealed. Telescope, microscope and spectrum
analysis deal with
matter only. God is a Spirit. Man has a body, but he is a living soul
made in the
likeness and image of God. Hence he can know God for God can reveal
himself to his
holds that the Bible is God's inestimable gift to man. Man has never
God. But he to whom God is revealed finds confirmation of his faith on
To him "The heavens declare the glory of God and the firmament showeth
handiwork." Kepler as he grasps the great laws which govern the
heavenly bodies cries out, "I am thinking God's thoughts after him." We
know God through the Bible or we do not know him. All human
him which are not based upon a revelation he has given us and which we
find in the
Bible, are but guess work.
made American institutions. The leading spirits in those strenuous
times were members
of our Fraternity. The judicial oath with which men are inducted into
as jurors, or as witnesses, make a legal conveyance of real estate, or
to a tax assessor, are man's solemn appeal to Almighty God to whom he
his responsibility. When Washington was inducted into office as
President the oath
of office was administered by Chancellor Livingstone, Grand Master of
and Washington kissed the Bible brought from St. John's Lodge. While
State are separate in this country, yet our Constitution recognized
is of two classes. Astronomy, Chemistry, Geology, Biology are terms we
use to classify
what man has learned by the study of Nature. Here man is left to his
process and here he is fulfilling the Divine command given at the
beginning to win
dominion over the earth and nature. He can weigh worlds, measure
harness steam and electricity, but he cannot discover God. God is known
he is revealed and Freemasonry finds in the Bible the revelation of God
Freemason is left to interpret for himself.
Fact or Fable?
Bro. A. L. Kress, Pennsylvania
THE BUILDER doubtless are aware, from Bro. Willard's articles in the
November issues and my translation of Lantoine's article in the June
Masonic writers are not agreed as to Frederick the Great's exact
the Scottish Rite. Whether or not he ever was its head is an historical
which probably has little appeal to most Masons, even those who belong
to the Rite.
Practically, the question has not the least bearing on the present or
of that body. Bro. Willard asks, if we find Frederick was head of the
of it? I, in turn ask, if we find he was not, what of it? The answer to
‒ nothing. However, there are some of us who appreciate that from
there has been too much "romancing" in Masonic history. To us such
as this have an historical appeal. For my part, I do not know if
Frederick was its
head or not. I suspect he was not. I am open to conviction that he was,
on the basis of what Bro. Willard offers as evidence. It is clear that
he must be
held not to have been it head unless positive proof is shown that he
was. An historical
inquiry or discussion, so long as it is impersonal and friendly, should
I am unable
to get the distinctions between Bro. Willard's brand of research and my
own to which
he takes exception. In his case he simply quoted from an American
writer while I
translated from a French writer. He presents no new facts, no personal
In this respect, his article carries no more weight than Lantoine's.
a disinterested person, his disparaging remarks concerning Lantoine and
characterizes as Lantoine's "alleged history," hardly strengthen Bro.
Willard's case. The whole tenor of Lantoine's history is one of
the points on which Bro. Willard rests his case? Briefly they are:VV 1.
could have dictated and signed the 1786 Constitutions. VV 2. Frederick
as head of the Rite because:
The Albany Lodge of Perfection
instructed, in September, 1770, to transmit a list of its members to
The charter for a Chapter of
Masons at Kingston, Jamaica, Circa 1770, stated it conformed to
by nine commissioners at Berlin.
A toast was drunk to Frederick
in a Lodge of Perfection at Philadelphia,
Sept. 20, 1785.
Solomon Bush addressed a letter
Frederick, as head of the Rite, from the Philadelphia Lodge of
Perfection in December,
1785. (The Constitutions are supposed to have been signed by Frederick
in May, 1786.)
Mackey said Myers et al., were
of Frederick II.
Dove said Da Costa and Myers
had been appointed through Frederick.
I might say
here for the benefit of students of the Scottish Rite that this Isaac
Da Costa apparently
first appears on the scene of American Masonic history at Halifax, N.
S., in 1760.
In that year he wrote the Master of St. Andrews Lodge at Boston. (See
G. L. Mass., 1733-1792, p. 442.)
this is all the evidence, if it can be called that, known to
substantiate a tradition
current in the last half of the eighteenth century that Frederick of
head of the Rite of Perfection. Even the most enthusiastic advocate of
must agree it is rather meagre data on which to establish such an
fact. Incidentally we can rule out the statements of Mackey and Dove as
repetition, as second-hand evidence and so incompetent.
memoirs and other accounts of Frederick's last days seem to disagree as
how active he was in the year 1786. Suppose we accept Bro. Willard's
data that Frederick,
so far as his physical condition, could have presided over a convention
the 1786 Constitutions, and that he could have been head of the Rite of
What of it? He could have written the Declaration of Independence or
De Rohan in 1786 after the Diamond Necklace affair. But we know he did
proofs imply something more than possibilities. Admitting that the
Lodge of Perfection
at Albany was instructed to send a list of its members to Berlin, does
any connection of Frederick? It does not. As far as Solomon Bush's
to Frederick, of which Bro. Willard calmly tells us, "it makes no
whether there ever was a reply" to it or not, no critical writer would
of accepting it as establishing as a fact Frederick's headship. It
makes all the
difference in the world whether there ever was a reply. The Duke of
wrote another famous letter to the hero of a Masonic fable, Charles
he understood the latter was head of the Rite of Strict Observance. The
between his letter and Bush's, however, was this: each understood a
figure was head of a pseudo-Masonic Rite. In Charles Edward's case he
letter and replied that he had nothing to do with it. Frederick never
letter and never replied. Who knows what he might have said!
build up a hypothetical case that there was a General Grand Master for
States around 1780-1790 who was George Washington, from actual Masonic
resolutions, letters, etc. A far better case could be made for him as
for Frederick. But we know Washington was not. Apparently Bro. Willard
realize how isolated early Masonic lodges were and how credulous our
were. He should realize that he has against him the weight of critical
He quotes Gould in part for his own purpose. Why not go further and
where he says (Vol. III, p. 383, Am. Ed. History):
According to the legend …
Frederick the Great
… in 1786, revised the regulations, transformed the 25 degrees into 33,
his personal authority in the Supreme Council of the 33d. Previous
spared me the pains of proving that all this is pure fiction…
Bro. A. E.
Waite, of Ramsgate, England, is unquestionably the greatest student and
of the high degrees. In his New Encyclopedia, under Frederick, he
his headship of the Rite as fiction, and as such says it has been
abandoned by the
Ancient Accepted Rite for England. But it will be better to quote his
It is certain that he
[Frederick] was made a
Mason surreptitiously during the life of his tyrannical father; that he
sympathetic towards Masonry when he ascended the Prussian throne; that
at the foundation
of the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes he became its patron; … and that
as a general
result no difficulties impeded the growth of the Order within his
dominions … But
his active interest had ceased if indeed he could be said to have had
the fact that it seemed worth his while to join in secret because it
been so highly displeasing to his father had the fact come to be
known.... His was
the last type of mind to be concerned in Masonry on its own merits.
that Frederick the Great is of very moderate importance from any
Masonic point of
view, and if some Supreme Councils still produce him in the Chair of
Degree represented by the Grand Master therein, the fact is of no
makes for nothing. The case of the forged Charter is much too bad for
its long lost
cause to find a forlorn hope therein. Finally the Scottish Rite at its
and in America, is much too important to need that dubious aid. I
believe that any
claim on the Charter has been abandoned long since in England. Its
title to existence
as the custodian of the Rose-Croix Grade is a living thing, and even if
the Great ‒ false poet and shallow moralist ‒ had inscribed the
upon him with his own hand, it would be merely a scrap of parchment at
My own opinion
on the subject is as follows:
facts are presented to
prove Frederick's headship, the story must be
facts must consist of
either the authentic original of the 1786 Constitutions
signed in his own hand or else some official document emanating from
his official connections as head of the Rite.
"certifications" with which one is confronted
in early documents of the Rite of Perfection are entitled to little or
from present day historians. In other words, they often were
for a purpose.
fact that Frederick's death
brought no notice from Lodges of Perfection,
no expression of sorrow, is significant.
As I understand
it, the National Masonic Research Society exists for exactly the
purposes Bro. Willard
states in his conclusion ‒ to develop a school of American Masonic
to offer a medium through THE BUILDER for the exchange of Masonic light
determine the truth about our Order. I can cheerfully go along with
in his frank wish to get at the facts on any Masonic subject. The
question of Frederick's
relation with the Rite could be dealt with differently than any writer
it up with the 1762 and 1786 Constitutions. An article from Bro.
Willard, or some
other student of the Rite, which would trace these documents concisely,
chronologically, would prove interesting. If we are to develop an
of Masonic research, let us begin by throwing into the discard the
tales of bygone writers and re-examine for ourselves, original
documents and facts
if we can find them. There is too much "hash" in American Masonic
too much dependence on secondhand knowledge. Frederick, fact or fable,
is a good
place to start.
the experience of human life in history goes to show that mankind will
not be obedient
long to any law of self-restraint and self-denial unless it is imposed
conscience by a supernatural authority they believe divine."
from life," said the statesman orator Cicero, "as from an inn, not as
Who Were Masons
Bro. George W. Baird,
P. G. M., District Of Columbia
TELLER was born in Granger, N. Y., on May 23, 1830. His forbears were
his father a farmer in comfortable circumstances who provided him with
education. Bro. Teller graduated from Alfred University, N. Y.; was
the bar in 1858. In 1861 he journeyed to Colorado and resided there
until his death
on Feb. 23, 1914.
his prominence as a legislator his biographers usually lay much stress
political career. He was in his early days a Democrat, but declined the
of an appreciative clientele and refused to become a candidate for
after Colorado was admitted to the Union. From 1862-1864 he was
the Colorado Militia. In 1876 he was elected to the United States
Senate on the
Democratic ticket and served his country in this capacity until 1882,
at which time
he reluctantly surrendered his seat in the Senate to accept the post of
of the Interior under President Garfield. After Garfield's
assassination he continued
in office under President Arthur. In spite of his unwillingness to
leave the Senate
he gave his new post his undivided attention, and his administration is
to have been a decided success.
He was retired
from his seat in the Cabinet on March 3, 1885, and the next day resumed
in the Senate. He served as Senator from Colorado until 1909 and held
posts, including the Chairmanship of the Committee on Pensions,
Patents, Mines and
Mining, as well as membership on several other committees. He was
regarded by his
constituents as the best advocate of the silver miners and an authority
lands. His party politics suffered a change in 1891 and his re-election
was on the
Republican ticket. In 1896 he withdrew from the Republican National
was returned to the Senate in 1897 as an independent Silver Republican.
generally neglect to mention that Henry M. Teller was not only a
also a prominent Mason. He joined the Craft in Colorado and upon him
the honorary 33rd Degree. He also served a term as Grand Master of
Masons in Colorado.
We are told
that Bro. Teller was a good politician. He was easily approached, a
and quite capable of reaching decisions without delay. That he enjoyed
such a long
term in office speaks well for the service he rendered to his
thing that can be said with certainty relative to Bro. Teller's
ancestry is that
he came from Dutch stock which had long been in New York. It seems
that Wilhelmus Teller, who was born in Holland in 1620 and migrated to
in 1639, was the first member of the family to set foot on American
soil. This early
settler had such an interesting career that even a presumption of the
of Henry M. Teller makes it worth repeating. Shortly after Wilhelmus
in New York he was sent to Fort Orange by Governor Kieft where he
served as a corporal,
and was later elevated to the position of "watchmaester" of the fort.
Except for brief periods, one of which was occupied with a trip to his
he lived in Albany from 1639-1692. During the year 1692 he moved to New
continued his business as a trader of more than fifty years standing
until his death
one of the early proprietors of Schenectady in 1662 and although he
there permanently he was one of the five patentees mentioned in the
patent dated 1684. Records show two residents named Teller who were
it seems that Bro. Teller's record in public life and his career in the
him to a seat in the Masonic Hall of Fame.
Bro. F. Benson, Illinois
have doubtless encountered structures similar to the one illustrated on
the writer recalls one not very far from a town in central Missouri. It
distance from the road at the foot of a steep cliff which formed the
bank of a quiet
stream. Among the natives it was known as the old lime kiln, and formed
for hiking and picnic parties. The subject of the present article is
more than that
however; and while its usefulness may be principally as a marker and
for the members of the community, it was never intended for such a
as the burning of lime. In present day usefulness it may resemble the
but there the similarity ceases. This great stone monument, for such it
a prominent place on the summit of South Mountain, near Boonsboro, Md.,
further in that it was erected to occupy a commanding position. This
virtually built in one day, July 4, 1827. At 7 o'clock in the morning
of a day almost
a century ago, all the inhabitants of Boonsboro ‒ there could not have
many of them, for the town contained only twenty-nine houses two years
in a body to a point then known as Blue Rocks to celebrate the
anniversary of the
Declaration of Independence. Some of the men had fought in the
the Stars and Stripes, and doubtless it was to some one of these that
the idea of
the monument occurred. At any rate, when the day was done, a pile of
feet in circumference and fifty feet high was left as a mark of the
of the community. Thus was erected the first monument to the memory of
It is true that work on the Washington Monument in Mount Vernon place
was commenced some years earlier, but the shaft was not completed until
the old cairn-like structure on the summit of South Mountain enjoys the
reputation of being the first memorial to the first President of the
mountain height the monument overlooks three counties, including a part
historic trip up the Potomac; the scene of the famous tragedy of John
battlefield of Antietam, and a portion of the old National Road.
Originally a white
marble tablet bearing the inscription, "Erected to the memory of
July 4, 1827, by the citizens of Boonsboro," was set in the side. This
has since disappeared and efforts to trace it have met with failure.
left its imprint on the work of a loving community and today the
in ruins. It fell into decay during the first half century of its
the citizens of Boonsboro restored it in 1882, but a short time
afterwards a stroke
of lightning wrecked it. A movement for its restoration was initiated
and the matter
was brought before Congress, but no action was taken and at the present
first Washington monument lies a shapeless pile of stone.
no need to remind readers of THE BUILDER that Washington was a Mason.
if such there be, who are not familiar with the details, it may be said
was enrolled under the banner of the, Ancient Craft in Fredericksburg
being initiated an Entered Apprentice on Nov. 4, 1752; passing to the
Fellowcraft on March 3, 1753, and raised Aug. 4 of the same year. From
he took an active part in the affairs of the Fraternity. When Lodge No.
39, of Alexandria,
Va., which had been working under a charter from the Grand Lodge of
concluded to unite with the Grand Lodge of Virginia, "General
appears in the charter of the Alexandria Lodge, No. 22 (Virginia
Charter), as Worshipful
Master. His influence was felt not only in his own jurisdiction, but in
the territories of colonial America. In the voluminous correspondence
to us may be found letters to and from most of those who enjoyed
were interested in the general welfare of the Fraternity. Another
who was Grand Master of Massachusetts carried on correspondence with
him, and at
his death addressed letters of condolence to Martha Washington. Paul
a recognized position in the hearts of all Americans and doubtless
enjoyed the friendship
and brotherly love of General Washington. He it was who signed, as
the fraternal address sent by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts to Mount
March of 1797 on the occasion of Washington's definite retirement from
been an unfortunate tendency to elevate Washington to a level far above
Doubtless some of the incidents related in popular story books and
equally authoritative have some foundation in fact, but the national
hero is constantly
treated with a reverence and awe which has withdrawn him behind a veil
This seems to be a kind of survival from the days of hero worship, but
time has come when worship should give way to respect and veneration,
when we should
admire a man for his actual accomplishment without creating a mythology
The deeds of George Washington speak for themselves. There is no reason
them with fables. In the phrase of the day, he was a success, both as a
and a statesman, but more than that he was a man, and a Mason.
That in his
own time he was not supposed to be of entirely different clay from that
human beings is shown, perhaps more clearly than would otherwise be
the fact that Feb. 22 was not celebrated as a national holiday until
after his death.
There is reproduced herewith a photographic copy of the proclamation of
Adams which created the holiday we now annually celebrate. The
the proclamation as it appeared in J. Russell's Gazette, Boston, Jan.
Of more interest to the Masonic public perhaps is the photograph of a
the same paper, reading:
Grand Funeral Procession
is hereby given, that the Grand Lodge
of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in ample form, will pay due
to the memory of the preeminently enlightened ornament of the Craft,
Washington, on Saturday, the 22nd of February, 1800.
solemnities will commence at 10 o' clock
a. m., and all Free and Accepted Masons in the Commonwealth, and all
sojourneying therein at the time, are hereby invited, and enjoined to
the same. The Brethren are to be clad in plain white aprons, and to
wear white gloves.
grand procession will move from the Old State-House,
in Boston, at half past 11 o'clock, to the Old South Meeting House,
where an eulogy
will be pronounced by the Hon. Br. Timothy Bigelow; after which the
will be deposited under the stone chapel, with ancient honors.
officers of lodges are requested to bring
with them their respective jewels, shrouded in black crepe.
15th of January, A. L. 5800.
By direction of the Most Worshipful Samuel Dunn, Grand
Master of Massachusetts.
Dan'l Oliver, Grand Secretary.
a commemorative service, the actual obsequies having taken place in
the previous year. Just what the "funeral relict" here spoken of may
been does not appear.
It was after
his death that his people awoke to a realization of what he had been,
a month elapsed before this proclamation was promulgated bidding
always the birthday of the Father of his Country.
on Masonic Education
Bro. F. H. Littlefield,
Executive Secretary, Missouri
during the past year, and particularly since the opening of the winter
Masonic educational work in various grand jurisdictions, forcibly
correctness of the viewpoint of the National Masonic Research Society
educational work is primarily a problem for each grand jurisdiction and
educational movement can be really successful unless it is developed
effort of the individual Freemason and the subordinate lodge, fostered
by a definite policy on the part of the Grand Lodge.
differences in Masonic usage, teaching, ritual, etc., among the 49
of this country have made it apparent to thinking men of the Craft that
be accomplished except along the lines noted. In other words, there is
panacea for the present Masonic condition of lack of genuine Masonic
the great majority of the members of the Order.
and heavily increasing demands in the past several months made upon the
Masonic Research Society for educational material and letters received
results accomplished, unmistakably bear out the belief of the guiding
the Society that-effort within the grand jurisdictions under the
referred to produces the greatest return.
corroborative of these views are the results in the grand jurisdictions
California, Ohio, Oklahoma, New York, Pennsylvania and others which
could be named
within which educational work is being carried on along the lines
proof is embraced in the splendid report made at the last assembly of
Lodge of Ohio by Bro. C. S. Plumb, of the Ohio State University,
chairman of the
committee appointed to make a survey of Masonic education in that grand
It is a masterly review of what has been accomplished and what is in
well as a historic resume of educational effort in Ohio.
It is made
perfectly clear in this very able report at its very beginning that in
education is no after-thought, nor is it a following after a fashion of
Injunction upon the subordinate lodges in behalf of educational work is
in an article of the Constitution which emphasizes the necessity for
lodges being supplied with useful books and enjoins upon such
introduction into the meetings, as often as is possible, of lectures
on Masonic polity and the various arts and sciences connected therewith.
strong, too, has been the effort in recent months in California under
of Bro. Reynold E. Blight, to stimulate the desire for further light
jurisdiction and similarly gratifying evidences are to be found not
only in the
several jurisdictions already mentioned but still others as well. Very
indeed is the machinery provided for instructing the Craft by
York, Oklahoma and other Grand bodies, and there is no question but
that the near
future will bring to the surface further indications of progress in
many other grand
jurisdictions. In Michigan, in North Dakota, in South Carolina much
is to be found of what can be done in a jurisdiction thoroughly alive
to the possible
accomplishments of sincere effort.
It has indeed
been most encouraging to those in charge of the affairs of the National
Research Society to receive from practically all parts of the country
of the growing, the accelerating increase in interest in Masonic
merely among individuals but among groups of Masons as well, and also
in the Councils
of the governing bodies of the Craft.
of the Study Club movement, for such we must continue to call it until
name is provided, will one day provide interesting material for a
series of articles
or perhaps a book, and while it would be very difficult to ascertain
when the first group of Masons arranged to meet together at intervals
for the purpose
of improving themselves in Masonry by reading and discussing books on
it is to the brethren of Cincinnati, Ohio, we believe, that the real
credit of initiating
the modern Study Club movement is to be assigned. An account of this
was given by
Dr. T. M. Stewart in an early number of THE BUILDER, while another Ohio
Robert I. Clegg, Vice-President of this Society and a member of the
of THE BUILDER, has been particularly prominent in the movement. In
in everything else, the fundamental law holds good, that in the long
run it is impossible
to get something for nothing. Either you pay for what you get, or else
do get proves to be worth nothing. Knowledge (and this includes Masonic
for there is no exception to the rule) is not a kind of liquid that can
out of one vessel into another. The part of the recipient is just as
active as that
of the instructor if he is to profit by what is taught, otherwise it is
poured on the back of the proverbial duck. And here it is that we come
the rock bottom elements of the situation. The first and well-known
factor is the
need for instruction, for more light, together with the fact that more
are the thoughtful and zealous members of the Craft realizing it. If
more than a wonderful system of gymnastics, veiled in signs and
illustrated by steps,
grips and words, as a well-known formula has been wittily paraphrased,
it is time
that the brethren were being shown. If there is any meaning, anything
forms it is time that Craftsmen set out to search for the secrets that
lost. But how is the search to be prosecuted? Several directions have
and it will be worthwhile to consider the reports that have been
brought back. The
simplest is that of meeting together and propounding questions and
trying to answer
them. It is obvious, however, that, if all are on the same dead level
little progress can be made beyond an acute realization of the lack of
And if no other expedient is tried discouragement soon sets in and the
to an untimely end. The second way is that of lectures and addresses,
some progress may be made there are rocks ahead on which the laudable
may well suffer shipwreck. Whether the lecturers are chosen from within
or come from outside they will usually fall into one of two classes. If
more or less eloquent and pleasing speakers they will rouse a certain
interest and enthusiasm, but sooner or later it will be felt that no
is being made, and like the good seed that fell by the wayside, the
sprang up so easily will soon wither and die. If on the other hand the
knows his subject and really has something to say it will probably be
heads of his hearers, for in order to understand and benefit by it a
of elementary knowledge at least is necessary. For example, suppose the
at two conventions got mixed, and that an audience of engineers were
given a paper
on the proper methods of auditing municipal accounts, while the
being told about the results of the latest experiments in testing
of steel for structural purposes. The absurdity of the situation is
the average Mason it must be confessed, even if he has a real thirst
when listening to one who has more to say than the platitudes and
form the stock-in-trade of so many speakers is very much in the same
a schoolboy still in the first arithmetic listening to a professor of
lecture a class of post-graduate students.
It is for
this reason that these two methods generally fail when tried without
work or preparation. It is not possible to jump to the top of the tree
at a single bound, and it may seem quite unapproachable. Yet with a
ladder, it is
not hard to take the first step, and having taken that to take another,
till at last the summit is attained.
work therefore has to be done, and it is better done systematically.
Here it is
that the courses of study that have been prepared by the National
Society have their place. They form a veritable ladder by which the
may safely climb to gather the fruit of the tree of knowledge.
are definitely adapted to the policy for which the National Masonic
has always contended. They are available to the individual member of
to study groups voluntarily formed, to subordinate lodges and even for
the use of
grand jurisdictions. They provide the basic qualifications upon which
be pursued, with references to thoroughly established works of the
and the application is left entirely to the conditions prevailing in
locality. Such application is not made by the course as prepared by the
Masonic Research Society but is left entirely to the known principles,
and fundamentals of each jurisdiction. Because of this fact we believe
movement inaugurated twelve years ago by this Society is showing in
manner that the methods then outlined are not merely correct from the
standpoint, but from the practical as well, and leave no opportunity
of view which might come from a system calculated to apply to all grand
In Dr. Blackmer
the Research Society has lost a zealous and untiring supporter, and the
a student of much more than ordinary qualifications. A resident of St.
many years, he was born in Vermont, and received part of his education
attending Stanstead Wesleyan College for one year, and taking his
in Montreal in the Bishop's College Medical School, which was
with that of McGill.
thirty years Dr. Blackmer was a member of the faculty of Barnes Medical
in St. Louis, holding the chairs of medical jurisprudence and
obstetrics. In the
course of his professorial duties he wrote and revised several medical
Masonic work published by him is "The Lodge and the Craft," [Lib*] a
valuable textbook of Masonry, which might be shortly described as a
the Monitor of the three degrees. Besides this there are manuscripts
for works of
a more recondite character on the origin of Masonic symbolism, which we
will someday be published. They have been bequeathed, we understand,
his extensive collection of Masonic books, to the library of Forest
No. 578, of which he was a charter member and a Past Master. Of his
many other affiliations
it is not necessary here to speak; one feels that perhaps, owing to his
his merits were not fully appreciated, at least so far as granting the
honors of the Craft imply appreciation. To those who knew him he was
liked and respected,
and it is with a real sense of loss that we here record that a brother
and a scholar
has gone from us.
A good Mason
could not forget God. No man could be a Mason unless he promised to
help the poor
and necessitous. Schemes of philanthropy were the very jewels of the
other Order so stressed personal morality? Members were pledged to that
solemn vows. Of course, they were not exempt from criticism and just
As in every other institution, even the Christian Church, there were
those who disgraced
the Order to which they belonged. They were not all Israel who were
The Order was better than some of its members, and needed no defense,
but some of
the members needed to be reminded of the great principles for which the
should never become common. Its perpetuity and its value rests upon the
and personal morality of its membership and a daily exemplification in
of its cardinal virtues. Let us heed well the points of fellowship and
put forth the hand to save a falling brother, but to assist him to rise
planes of life and usefulness.
in the Provinces of East and West Florida
Bro. Philip C. Tucker,
History of the Floridas began in 1768, at the time of the struggle
Moderns or English Rite" and "The Scottish or Antients" for supremacy
in the American Colonies. The Grand Lodge of Scotland, sitting at
Edinburg in that
year, upon "A Petition received", commissioned, as "Provincial Grand
Master for the Southern District of North America", James Grant,
Commander-in-Chief of his Brittanic Majesty's Forces in the Provinces
of East and
West Florida, March 15, 1768. And granted to him and Associates, a
charter for "Grant's
East Florida Grand Lodge", to be constituted and erected at St.
East Florida. This was just one year before Dr. Joseph Warren of
was commissioned by this same Grand Lodge, Provincial Grand Master for
forty miles thereof.
was duly erected and continued to function there regularly until 1783
or the spring
of 1784, when "The Floridas" (which, by the Treaty of Ghent between
and Spain, had been exchanged for the Bahama Islands) passed into the
of the latter country, whose laws were inimical to the Fraternity; so
Grand Lodge of East Florida" fell into a moribund state through the
from the country of all its members. The only records of this lodge in
are those preserved by its only child, "St. Andrews, No. 1," of West
now in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. This lodge was
May 3, 1771, upon a petition from "Francis Dowman and ten other
who had been members of Lodge No. 108, of the Registry of the Grand
Lodge of Scotland,
held in his Majesty's 31st Regiment of Foot (then in garrison at St.
Florida, but soon to leave that Province).
was signed by James Grant, Grand Master Mason, for the Southern
District of North
America; William Drayton, Esq., Deputy Grand Master Mason, for the
of North America; Alexander McKenzie, Grand Warden; Frederick George
Esq., Junior Grand Warden; and "The Seal of the Grand Lodge" was
thereto in the presence of David Yates, Esq., Grand Secretary, and John
Clerk. This lodge had been duly erected at Pensacola, in West Florida,
and had functioned
there regularly until the invasion and reduction of that place by
in 1781, forced its members to flee to the Colony of South Carolina,
where, in the
city of Charles Town, they found harbor. From that city they wrote as
"Grant's Grand Lodge of East Florida":
February 9, 1782, Charles Town,
To the Master, Wardens and Brethren, etc.
That we have
our Charter and Minute Book, with records from our first meeting; and
Master, John Simpson; Master Thomas Underwood; Junior Warden H.
Steward Thomas Pashley; the Secretary, George Boles; and Tyler William
our Lodge and twenty-eight members are with us, and we wish to erect
upon these shores.
and Wardens of St. Andrews Lodge, No. 1, late of West Florida "Grant's
Florida Grand Lodge" then in session at St. Augustine, East Florida,
on the 14th of March, 1782,
Authorizing them to constitute
and hold a Lodge
at Charlestown, South Carolina, under your Charter until such time it
God to restore you to the ancient seat of your Lodge in West Florida,
have the Master and a sufficient number of members to form a Lodge.
John Forbes, Deputy Grand
David Yeates, Senior Grand Warden.
Henry Young, Temporary Grand Warden.
John Nagle, Grand Secretary.
of Florida remained Spanish Territory until 1819 and colonization from
territory of the United States was always discouraged under the
of Philip II which prevailed under the Spanish Crown. Still there was a
from that section, and among them were men who laughed at the
Under Spanish Rule
as 1806, the Grand Lodge of South Carolina chartered a lodge at St.
the very eyes of the garrison) by the name of "St. Fernando", as the
quotation from a letter written to Past Deputy Grand Master, Gad
Humphries, in the
late fifties show:
It sticks in my mind that it
was instituted two
years before my initiation, which took place in 1808, and that its
warrant was issued
by the Grand Lodge of Georgia. And I think Samuel Betts was its first
written by Bro. Segui, a native of St. Augustine, Fla., then living in
was suppressed in 1811 by the Spanish Government. Past Grand Master,
in his address on the History of the Grand Lodge delivered in 1905,
Bro. Segui has confused two
Lodges, as he and
Bro. Wm. O. Girardieau in 1862 recovered from the family of the late
Esq., of Oldtown near Fernandina, Florida, the Charter, Jewels and
Aprons of St.
Fernando Lodge dated 1813, of the Roster of the Grand Lodge of Georgia.
when this later lodge was suppressed, was made the custodian of its
and after his death his family cherished them until, fearing their loss
the ravages of Civil War, presented them to the Grand Lodge of Florida
Pasco and Girardieau.
of both the Grand Lodge of South Carolina and Georgia of those early
days have been
lost, and, therefore, these facts cannot be corroborated.
Transfer to the United
Floridas became United States Territory, through purchase from Spain in
Masonic spirit soon revived. News of the transfer of government
prompted some of
the brethren of the extinct lodge of St. Fernando of St. Augustine to
Grand Lodge of South Carolina for a charter for a new lodge. This was
1820, under the name of "Floridian Virtues Lodge, No. 28, of St.
and was duly erected, Squire Streeter being chosen as its first
It received "An Act of Incorporation" from the Legislative Council of
the Territory of Florida at its second session held at St. Augustine
of July 2, 1823, with Squire Streeter, Worshipful Master; Antonio
Grand Warden; and John Whalen as Junior Grand Warden.
Masonry was introduced into the Provinces as a distinct Order, by a
by DeWitt Clinton, Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter of
Masons of the United States, to Squire Streeter, Ede Van Ervan, Daniel
William Robertson, C. Zully, Ant. I. Triay, George Murray, Caleb
Stewart, James L. Tringle, and their associates, named "Union Mark
Lodge", dated March 25, 1822, at Albany, New York.
Brown, P. G. M., remarks "That it is a Masonic curiosity in that the
Grand Chapter of the United States should assume the authority to
recognize an "independent
Mark Masters Lodge in another jurisdiction". The right to "Mark and
under the Old Customs was often conferred upon "Blue Lodges", and the
following letter written from Charles Town, South Carolina, September,
the Worshipful Master of St. Andrews Lodge, No. 1, late of West
Florida, to the
Grand Lodge at Pennsylvania, Pa., shows that this authority was enjoyed
Bro. John Troup had been a long
time since "an
Antient Master Mason" and has some months since been raised to the
degree of "Royal Arch Mason" and a Knight of the Red Cross in our
late St. Andrews of West Florida.
George Carter Master.
us to the end of the days of the separate Provinces of the Floridas, as
in 1822 having increased to 5000 American born males, Congress of the
organized it into a Territory of the first grade with duly organized
General Andrew Jackson had been appointed Governor of the Provinces
March 10, 1821,
and in June the exchange of flags between the Spanish Governor Generals
had been accomplished so that it had become a part of the Republic. A
the growth of Masonry under this flag will be taken up in a future
Bro. James J. Tyler,
M. D., Ohio
W. BAIRD states in THE BUILDER, July, 1925, page 205, regarding Abraham
‒ "In 1788 he joined the famous Ohio Company and settled in Marietta,
he died May 29, 1819. He is interred in the cemetery at Marietta with
many of his
pioneer brethren; but as far as I have been able to discover no
memorial has ever
been erected to Whipple himself."
the latter days of this famous Mason, David Fisher, his great-grandson,
a paper published in the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society
Vol. 2, page 172:
At the capture
of Charleston, S.C., in 1778, Whipple was taken prisoner and with his
remained such to the close of the war, because the British saw no way
their commerce from the bold seaman. At Chester, Pa., where he was
confined as a
prisoner, he hired a house for the use of his sick men, and in 1786
to refund his expenses, stating that, in order to perform this act of
he had been obliged to mortgage his little farm. He says: "The farm is
gone, and having been sued out of possession, I am turned out into the
an advanced age, feeble and penniless, with my wife and children,
destitute of a
house or home I can call, my own, or have the means of hiring. This
arisen from two causes, viz.: In France, Charleston and Chester I
expended in the
service of the United States three hundred and sixty guineas, besides
the sea stores
for a number of gentlemen sent by the commissioner in France to the
in my care, for which I have received nothing; and secondly, my having
the United States from June 15, 1775, to December, 1782, without
receiving a farthing
of wages or subsistence from them since 1776. My advances in France and
amount to nearly $7,000 in specie, exclusive of interest. The repayment
or a part, might be the means of my regaining my farm, and snatch my
misery, want and ruin." The result of this petition was his being paid
his expenditure in France only, and this payment in "Continental" paper
money, which he was obliged to dispose of at eighty per cent discount
to keep his
family from suffering…
1788, he emigrated to Marietta, and after "Mad Anthony's" peace with
Indians in 1796, he removed to a farm of about twelve acres on the
a few miles from Marietta, sixty-three years old, broken in health,
with no other
means of support. He and his aged partner lacked even comfortable food
In 1811, when he was seventy-eight years old, he was granted a pension
of $30 per
In 1802 he
commanded the first rigged vessel (the St. Clair) built on the Ohio,
and had the
honor of conducting her to the ocean.
Whipple lived to be eighty-five years of age, dying May 29, 1819; his
the year previous.
He was not
present, June 28, 1790, when W.M. Jonathan Heart of Fort Harmar
Union Lodge, No. 1, at Campus Martius, Marietta.
Ward, who had the honor of entertaining the Marquis De Lafayette in his
Marietta when that famous General was traveling down the Ohio in 1825,
white marble monument over the grave of Abraham Whipple in the old
on which can be read the inscription:
to the memory of
COMMODORE ABRAHAM WHIPPLE
whose name, skill and courage
will ever remain the pride and boast of
In the late Revolution he was the
First on the sea to hurl defiance at
gallantly leading the way to wrest from
the Mistress of the ocean, her scepter,
and there to wave the Star-Spangled
He also conducted to the sea the first
square-rigged vessel ever built in Ohio
Opening to Commerce
resources beyond calculation.
Meekren, Editor in
we have had a number of requests for prayers suitable both for the
of the lodge, to be used alternatively to those that are to be found in
and other manuals in use by members of the Craft, and also for special
It would be very useful if such forms could be collected and we suggest
who have such material at their disposal would send us copies, with
where possible, regarding authorship or origin.
* * *
in the advertisement on the inside front cover we are taking a new step
in the organized educational work of the Research Society. A new
Syllabus of study
has been carefully prepared in the light of twelve years' experience in
It is so arranged that it will serve equally as a guide for the student
alone as for an organized Study Club, Research Association or lodge
to use it. Besides this we are now in position to give much more
assistance to such
groups than has been possible in the past.
We will have
more to say on this subject later, but one point may be insisted upon
that is the elasticity that the new plan will allow. The Research
Society is not
undertaking to teach or interpret Masonry, but only to act as a guide.
in view is to bring the student to the point where he can judge for
fact and opinion, and learn how to use the sources of information for
is based upon a number of books very widely known in the Fraternity
are generally considered to be authorities in their several
departments, and the
list given may be added to if so desired. It follows that there cannot
be any conflict with the arrangements of any Grand Body that is
work within its own jurisdiction for the Syllabus can be adapted in any
to fit in with any special requirements.
been one defect in the Study Club of the past – the lack of any close
between the local groups and the Society. In future it is to be made a
the Study Club, or other bodies that take up the course, shall become
members of the N.M.R.S., or better, that every individual in them do
the same. Such
membership will provide a link through which more complete cooperation
can be brought
demand in the Craft at large for more light than is afforded by the
in the lodge is very encouraging, although during the past twelve
months and more
it has resulted in an increasing burden on the staff of the Society. It
has at last
reached such proportions that additional assistance has become
We are very glad to announce that Bro. E. E. Thiemeyer has been
Editor and will from now on take this work especially in his charge.
name will be quite familiar to readers of THE BUILDER as he has
very valuable articles to its pages. The range of scholarship and
thought these displayed will be a full guarantee of his ability to
out this important work.
* * *
Majority Is Always
HAD we been
asked to make a generalization on the subject, either from the lessons
or personal experience, we should have said "The majority is never
subject always to the proviso that such sweeping generalizations are
never right ‒ except very approximately.
was observed in one of our exchanges, and the conflict between the
and the uncompromising statement gave food for some serious thought. It
one of that maxim of successful store-keepers: "The customer is always
and the unvoiced addendum "especially if he be wrong."
of democracy has produced a dogma, "Vox Populi Vox Dei," but it is to
be feared it is largely a myth. Does anyone seriously believe that the
of any given group of people, especially when they outnumber the
remainder by only
one or two, is granted plenary inspiration, and made infallible as his
believe a certain Bishop and Pontiff to be when he speaks ex Cathedra?
to be ascribing a magical power to numbers such as the Cabbalists never
of. How can anyone believe it who has sat on a large committee
appointed to arrange
some matter or draft some regulation, and after discussion in which no
able or willing to understand what the others meant, has seen it come
to a muddled
compromise through sheer fatigue. When things are really done in an
is almost invariably because someone has thought the matter out
has secured support for his ideas from influential members, forming a
has "swung" a majority. Or else it is due to an able and competent
officer who keeps everyone to the point, and checks all excursions into
and herds the mob (without their realizing it) into the way he thinks
is the foundation for the semi-religious dogma above referred to? Some,
and their followers for example, would say none. They insist that all
is just "the bunk." They say this of course because they do not believe
in democracy - if the principles underlying the latter were true their
and practice would stand condemned. The real answer would be, that (it
is what mankind
is always doing) a sacred principle, to be devoutly accepted as of
faith, has been
projected from a purely practical way of getting things done - no more
divine in itself than the method of carrying bricks up a ladder in a
hod, or removing
earth in a wheelbarrow. It must be remembered that democracy as a form
organization is a pure-bred mongrel, a thorough-going compromise. There
extremes, autocracy and anarchy; and both are very stable. Let a
community, or a
group get into one or other of these conditions and it is exceedingly
hard to get
it out again. Democracy is a balance between the two which tries in
according to conditions, to combine advantageous features of each and
to avoid the
disadvantages of both. No perfect way of doing this has yet been
is no doubt that with a race of perfect men anarchy would be the ideal
form of organization.
There would be no need for government, laws or regulations, for
everyone would do
what was right and think of others as well as himself - But we are far
– very far. Despotism is efficient, for that reason armies and ships
are so ruled.
They have to be, or come to an inglorious and untimely end.
does democracy try to do? The cynic might say, make a mixture of oil
and there would be some truth in it. Really democracy is only workable
who have attained considerable powers of self-discipline ‒ who are
really on the
way to that ideal where anarchy would be the most efficient state. That
at least. Democracy in theory aims to allow everyone to have a voice in
going to be done, and yet ensure that in spite of this something will
be done. As
in practice it is impossible to get everyone to see things in the same
way it is
necessary to arrive at approximations. And as in most questions to be
every-day matters of ways and means, and rules and regulations, some
decision, is generally better than none, it is a practical way out of
the maze of
conflicting views to decide by counting noses, or "Ayes," or the "usual
sign of voting," and that the minority should acquiesce and loyally
it. It is the chief rule of the game, tacitly accepted by all who
undertake to play.
it comes to weightier matters, matters of conscience, of morals, or
the distant future, the majority is almost invariably wrong; because
have not thought about it, because they accept things as they are and
as they are
used to them, because they cannot see much beyond their noses, their
focused on their own affairs close at hand. It therefore happens that
men have always
had to stand out against the majority, to fight it, to go down
fighting, to be licked,
and condemned as cranks, rebels, uncomfortable, impossible,
disturbers of the peace and the commonwealth. Their reward will be to
have a future
generation erect monuments to their memory and make glowing speeches
So as it
is all a matter of compromise, one who is in the minority can adopt one
of a number
of attitudes. If the matter is one of expediency only, then accept the
decision and try to make it go - and to avoid the temptation to say "I
you so" if it doesn't. If it is a matter of conscience, protest and get
If somewhere between, and things in this world are seldom clear cut
printed labels stuck on them, then some attitude between the two may be
It depends on the circumstances ‒ and the man. But a democratically
can only run by “the loyal acceptance by its members of the chief rule
of its existence,
which is that the decision of the majority must be acted upon as if it
On the other hand, it is well to realize what we are doing, and not to
and false gods of "sacred principles" which have no real existence, and
are only the enlarged shadows of that lubricant of social and corporate
* * *
IN a recent
number of one of our South African contemporaries, the Masonic Journal,
in Johannesburg, there is an article by Bro. B. H. Allen which touches
closely. Perhaps the evident misunderstanding of the position of
therein apparent might have been ignored, only he quotes THE BUILDER as
referred to is very brief and may even have been further condensed in
so that we cannot be sure that it fairly represents the author's
meaning. He says,
or is made to say:
I have seen
articles in THE BUILDER which make no attempt to deny that the Order is
for political purposes, and openly advocate the admission of women.
If this is
really what Bro. Allen intended we should very much like to have
chapter and verse,
as we have no recollection of anything published in our pages that
could be fairly
so described. There are brethren, not only in America, who seem to
think that Masonry
should "do something" or "stand for something," with a more
or less hazy idea of political action in their minds, and it would be
proper for us to publish articles on the subject should it at any time
come to be
of sufficient interest or importance. Likewise there exists in America
in the world) a "Co-Masonic" Order, which receives women to membership,
and we might be perfectly justified in publishing articles about it.
who should jump to the conclusion in such case that the Fraternity in
was contemplating political activity, or the admission of women, would
and quite ludicrously mistaken.
of the National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association
Incorporated by Authority of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, A. F.
MASONIC TEMPLE, ALBUQUERQUE, N. M.
AND BOARD OF GOVERNORS
HOLT, Grand Master, President
RICHARD H. HANNA, Vice-President
JAFFA MILLER, Vice-President
ALPHEUS A. KEEN, Secretary
JOHN W. TURNER, Treasurer
FRANCIS E. LESTER, Executive Secretary, Las Cruces, New Mexico
ARIZONA ‒ Lloyd C. Henning, Holbrook.
ARKANSAS ‒ Claude L. Hill, Grand Master, Booneville.
CONNECTICUT ‒ Fred A. Verplanck, Past Grand Master, South Manchester.
FLORIDA ‒ Cary B. Fish, Grand Master, Sarasota.
GEORGIA ‒ Dr. J. P. Bowdoin, Past Grand Master.
IDAHO ‒ Will H. Gibson, Grand Master, Boise.
KENTUCKY ‒ G. Allison Holland, Grand Master, Lexington.
MINNESOTA ‒ Albert F. Pray, Grand Master, Minneapolis.
Mississippi ‒ John R. Tally, Grand Master, Hattiesburg.
Missouri ‒ Wm. W. Martin, Grand Master, Doniphan.
MONTANA ‒ Dr. W. J. Marshall, Missoula.
NEW JERSEY ‒ Benjamin F. Havens, Junior Grand Warden, Trenton.
NEW MEXICO ‒ Herbert B. Holt, Grand Master, Las Cruces.
NORTH CAROLINA ‒ Dr. J. C. Braswell, Past Grand Master, Whitakers.
NORTH DAKOTA ‒ Dr. J. S. Lamont, Dunseith.
OKLAHOMA ‒ Gilbert B. Bristow, Past Grand Master, Roosevelt.
RHODE ISLAND ‒ Howard Knight, Past Grand Master, Providence. SOUTH
CAROLINA ‒ Charlton
DuRant, Grand Master, Manning.
SOUTH DAKOTA ‒ L. M. Simons, Grand Master, Bellefourche.
TENNESSEE ‒ Andrew E. McCullagh, Grand Master, Maryville.
‒ Dr. Felix P. Miller, El Paso.
UTAH ‒ Fred M. Nye, Ogden.
‒ Christie B.
Crowell, Past Grand Master, Brattleboro.
WASHINGTON ‒ Morton Gregory, Grand Master, Tacoma.
WISCON ‒ Fred L. Wright, Past Senior Grand Warden, Milwaukee.
WYOMING ‒ Frank S. Knittle, Grand Master, Casper.
ORDER OF THE EASTERN STAR, GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER Mrs. Clara Henrich,
Grand Matron, Newport, Ky.
ROBERT J. NEWTON, Editor, Publicity Director N. M. T. S. A., Las
Cruces, New Mexico
Will The Door Be Opened?
from tuberculosis, or who have a sick member of their immediate family,
interested in the project for hospitalization of Masonic consumptives.
been reading for some time in the Masonic and daily press that a
movement is under
way to build a Masonic Sanatorium and too often they have gained the
that the institution already exists. With that idea uppermost in their
write applying for admission, confident in the belief that the
Fraternity will help
them in their hour of need.
Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association is receiving letters from
in all parts of the country. A few of them are quoted to give an idea
of the need:
A New Jersey
I write as
a prospective inmate of your sanatorium. I am a retired minister. Is
a going concern in the sense that it is open to outside Masons? I do
not ask anything
from a free fund. Should I go to you I will pay my own way with the
that it is confined to $1,000 a year, or at that rate till cured, or
flood. I am willing to spend $2,000 for a cure. I presume that my lodge
me some help.
I am writing
to make application for the admittance of a sister of a Master Mason to
In sending the application for admittance, please state how soon it
will be before
the sister is admitted. Also let me know just what the cost will be for
for six months. I am asking this so as to be prepared to take care of
the cost for
A North Dakota
My son is
not a Mason, but I want to place him in some hospital. He has had
examinations and advice were to the effect that I was tubercular and
that I may
need treatment and a change in climate. I shall be pleased to have some
sent me. regarding the sanatorium as to location, requisites for
becoming a patient,
I have been
directed to write you regarding any facilities for the accommodation of
afflicted with tuberculosis that may be provided or available in the
West, and how
I should proceed to obtain such benefits as may be offered. I have only
but acute infection which requires immediate steps to check or control.
I have been
advised to give up my position immediately and take measures to obtain
a cure while
this may be accomplished if acted upon promptly. I am a man of family
and have been
dependent upon my salary for living and have no means of consequence to
rest cure recommended.
A young man
of this city has some tubercular trouble and his family is not able to
do very much
for him. He has been very active in the De Molay organization of this
of these DeMolay boys is in my employ and he states they are very
anxious to do
something for him. I would thank you to let me know whether we could
get this young
man into the sanatorium. If so, what would the expense be?
kindly send me the rates and conditions of your sanatorium? I am a
Mason and at
present in the ____ Sanatorium.
I have just
learned that there may be some chance of my receiving treatment… . I
have just recently
had a set-back, having a light hemorrhage, and feel that it is
to enter some institution as soon as possible. I am no longer able
take care of myself, having been sick for quite a while, and the
members of my lodge
have been very nice to me. They took care of me in a Convalescent Home
here in El
Paso two months, March and April. During that time I made such good
I tried to go back to work but had to go back East to find work. Went
back and rested
a month and started to work and only worked ten days and started a
doctor there advised me to return at once to this country and go into a
as soon as possible. I must do something as soon as possible. I am
short of funds and realize I must save as much time as possible. How
soon can I
be given consideration, or treatment, should my lodge sanction or
of one of the members of one of our local lodges tells me that she will
go to a tuberculosis sanatorium for treatment. I will appreciate it if
advise me of such an institution and the cost of treatment and hospital
An Iowa brother:
I am writing
to seek such information as is available concerning your institution
An Ohio brother:
Are you receiving
Masonic brethren for tuberculosis treatment, and what are your rates
governing the admission of afflicted brethren? I am writing this as one
of the trustees
of ____ Lodge. We are at present maintaining a brother at Asheville, N.
I have a
son about 24 years old and a daughter 20 years old who are afflicted
with lung trouble,
which has developed within the last two months. I am anxious to get
them some place
where this trouble can be stopped before it gains too much headway.
brother, a physician:
I have under
my care the son of a deceased brother Master Mason who has active
the lungs. The family are interested in getting him into a Masonic
treatment. This young man needs immediate hospital care.
A Texas brother
I am in pretty
bad condition with lung trouble and just recently have been spitting up
am going to have to go some place for a rest cure, and was wondering if
a Masonic Sanatorium I can get in. I have a mother and widowed sister
with two small
children dependent upon me and have lost so much time the past two
years on account
of not being able to work regularly I haven't got anything saved up.
have a married sister in San Antonio that will take care of my mother
if I could get in a sanatorium some place. I think I would be able to
leave it and
get a job out in the mountains of New Mexico telegraphing in two or
time at the most. I have a regular job here as dispatcher but this
climate is too
much for me. Would appreciate an early reply advising me if there is a
place I can
get into and if so what steps I will have to take.
I have a
son at El Paso; he has been sick for some time. I have sent him money
to time until now I do not know what to do for him ‒ I am financially
My son is of age, but he is not a Mason. I want to get him in this
hospital if possible.
If he can be admitted give me the procedure in the case.
that is uppermost in the minds of many Masonic consumptives today is,
will the doors of the Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatorium be opened?"
to that question must be given by the healthy, happy, well-to-do
They hold the keys to this "Door of Hope" in their hands.
* * *
Cases from Arizona
Advise Him to Come Southwest
104, Grand Lodge of Montana:
now living at Eugene, Ore., but coming to Phoenix upon advice of
lungs affected. Needs the high, dry climate of this country. Proper
is what he needs beyond a doubt.
‒ Son Also
106, former citizen of New York State.
is tubercular, thirty years old, living on the desert ten miles from
He is a Protestant, sent here from Rochester, N. Y., by the Elks and
His mother died when he was three years old and his father passed away
ago with asthma and T. B. His grandfather was a Mason, but his father
be on account of his 'health. The Associated Charities of Phoenix are
two dollars a week in order that he may have a little to eat.
‒ Wife Will Support Boys
126, Grand Lodge of Kansas.
at Camp Curio, health seekers' camp on the desert about ten miles from
Came to Arizona this spring, 1926. Worked for a while on laundry wagon;
way has had to stop work; has appealed to Arizona Lodge, No. 2, and
with their assistance
is endeavoring to secure financial aid from home lodge. Has wife, two
8 and 12 years, whom the wife could support if husband has
he needs very badly. Same Old Story ‒ No Masonic Hospital Brother No.
Lodge of Connecticut.
Came to Phoenix
suffering with T. B. contracted in the mills of the East. His wife was
of support all the time he lay sick. He fought bravely for his life but
the battle and died after twelve years or more of sickness. He
have had proper hospitalization and undoubtedly would have recovered in
such a case.
On the Road
143, Grand Lodge of Kentucky.
Came to Phoenix
in May, 1925, suffering with T. B. Received some aid from Arizona, No.
2, as well
as relatives in Kentucky. Arizona sunshine arrested his T. B.
sufficiently by May,
1926, to allow him to do light work.
T. B. and
144, Grand Lodge of Oklahoma.
Scottish Rite and Shrine. Here for his wife's health, she being a T. B.
in Phoenix about Aug. 1, 1926. Has not asked for financial assistance.
Mrs. ____ needs hospitalization.
Case ‒ No Hospital
145, Grand Lodge of Michigan.
Came to Phoenix
in June, 1926, for his health; has wife and one child with him here.
Has not asked
for Masonic aid as yet but has very limited means. Needs
Bros. A. L. Kress and
R. J. Meekren
We now have
to take up the second of the three jewels mentioned in the two lists
that we have
been considering, namely that given us by Prichard and that found in
Confession. It may be well to quote them again for the sake of clarity,
as the last
two installments of the series we were led into a discussion of
methods in order to obtain a fuller understanding of the place of the
then, said that the "movable" jewels were "The Trasel Board, the
Rough Ashlar and the Broached Thurnel." The Confession that the jewels
lodge are the "Square Pavement, a dinted Ashlar, and a Broached
It is the Ashlar that now falls for discussion.
It will be
recalled (1) that among what may be called the primary versions of the
that remain, the two just mentioned are alone in offering any
explanation of the
purpose of the things spoken of as jewels; and just as we came to the
that the Trasel Board and the Square Pavement were ultimately the same,
so in this
case, too. Prichard calls the Ashlar "rough" while the Confession says
it was "dinted," but both alike say it was used for making and testing
the working tools of the Craft. The first saying "it is for the Fellow
to try their jewels upon," evidently referring to the "Square, Level
Plumb Rule" which had in an immediately preceding clause been spoken of
the "Movable Jewels," while the Scottish version says it is "to adjust
the square and make the gages by."
Now a rough
ashlar ‒ in the sense at least of a stone in its native state as taken
quarry ‒ is an impossible standard for such a purpose, so that we may
assume some error or confusion in Prichard's account. What seems to be
is some kind of test block set up in the stone shed, or the "working
of the Mystery, by which the wooden instruments, all more or less
likely to get
out of truth, might be tested and adjusted; or new ones expeditiously
In the Study
Club for January of last year (2) an operative regulation was quoted
from the Melrose
MS. No. 19 of the Old Charges, to the effect that no Master or Fellow
was to let
any "Lose" or Cowan, "know ye privilege of ye compass, square, levell
and ye plum-rule." In the context it was clear that this meant the
of using these implements; the devices and short cuts of what would now
"shop practice." But the probability is that not only did the
include the knowledge of their use, and the right to use them without
but also, as in the case of the "moldsquares" that were discussed last
month, (3) of how to make them, or, at the least, of how to "adjust"
forty years ago when machinists and fitters were still accustomed to
own tools instead of buying them, no laborer was allowed to use or keep
perhaps a hammer and a cold chisel or so. If he acquired them in any
way they would
mysteriously disappear. No skilled man would ever dream of showing him
how to "true"
a square, nor even allow him to watch the process; and if he ever
undertook to try
to make one for himself, as did occasionally happen, the news flew
through the shop and there was a buzz like that of angry hornets in
‒ and always, in some way or other, his enterprise was brought to an
writers have laid considerable stress upon the 3:4:5 triangle as a
operative secret and a few seem to suppose that it would be used in
making the squares.
In certain special circumstances this formula might be convenient in
a right angle approximately on the ground, as for foundations, though
in most cases
other methods would be better. The qualification, approximately, is
as apart from the fact that the most refined and delicate measurements
only within certain limits, there are in this particular method
of error. Three different measurements have to be very accurately made,
very accurately applied. On the other hand there a number of ways of
line perpendicular to another which may be found in any elementary
Geometry and which all have the advantage that no measurements have to
be made at
all as they depend entirely on drawing circles of any convenient
radius. It has
only to be tried to become perfectly obvious. And if practically a
inconvenient mode of drawing one line at right angles to another it is
a perfectly impracticable way of making one edge at right angles to
any attempt to make a square will show.
This 3 :
4 : 5 triangle, too, has also been loosely spoken of as if it were the
as the forty-seventh proposition of the first Book of Euclid. It is of
one very special case covered by this famous proposition. It is hardly
to be doubted
indeed that the properties of a triangle with sides that bore this
to each other were known ages before Pythagoras. What he was so elated
was not the particular and special case, but the general truth that in
triangle, no matter what were the lengths of the sides, the square
erected on the
hypotenuse was equal in area to the combined area of the squares on the
When it comes
to making material objects with angles of a certain size, geometrical
quite unsuitable, for they are intended only for drawing lines on a
The normal methods for obtaining a concrete angle, edge or surface,
depend on the
use of some other object, already manufactured, as a gauge or standard.
and at the beginning, of course, some standard has to be fashioned
aid, and speaking generally the various ways in which this may be done
the same as the methods of testing its accuracy when it is made. Even
of geometrical figures depends on the use of some object with a
straight edge by
which right lines may be ruled.
indeed lies at the foundation, both of all the constructive arts and of
sciences; and it will aid us to realize its importance to craftsmen who
had to make
their own measuring and testing appliances to understand the principle
it, or a plane surface, may be corrected to any required degree of
we take a piece of thin card and cut it across with a pair of sharp
then try the edge thus produced against a ruler, we will find that it
a complex series of curves that we have produced; and if we go on
trying to cut
a straight line "by eye" it will be found that though it may be
to come closer to the straight line represented by the ruler, that very
variations from it still remain. We may arrive at a closer
approximation by noting
the places where the card touches the ruler and cutting them away with
until the limit of accuracy practicable by this rather crude method is
we have no standard to begin with. Let us take the piece of card and
cut it as nearly
straight as can be managed without any guide, and lay it on a piece of
using it as a ruler draw a line along the cut edge. Then if we turn the
card over and apply the edge to this line the inequalities will at once
By a process of cutting away the places where the edge is too "high" it
will be possible by continued trial to rule a line with the card in one
and turn it over and draw another and have the two lines coincide, if
is not too sharp. Though this line on close examination will be found
some places than others. If the card be replaced by some other
material, such as
a thin piece of wood or a piece of sheet metal, it is possible in this
appropriate means to "work the edge," to produce a ruler of any desired
degree of accuracy.
It is not
necessary to suppose that this was the actual method employed, it is
only an illustration
of the principle underlying the testing of a standard straight-edge.
And where an
edge or surface can be tested it becomes possible to remove
inequalities and thus
make a closer approach to the theoretical straight line or plane. The
thing in every possible method is the comparison of one approximation
and the final result, no matter how far and how carefully the process
is always a mean or average between the errors either in different
different parts of the same surface.
Now all the
principal testing tools of the mason depend on the "straight-edge" or
"rule," which is in and by itself a very fundamental one in this craft.
The square consists of two straight edges at right angles to each
other, the level
and plumb-rule are straight-edges in combination with a line and
in the one case at right angles and in the other parallel.
Points of the Square
Two of the
curious questions and answers relative to the square in the confused
Operative Masonry in Scotland given in the Confession might be in part
as embodying this idea. They were quoted in the Study Club article for
of last year. (4) The first passage seems to show a distinct
appreciation of the
fact that the essentials of the level were to be found in the square.
It may be
as well to reproduce the significant part of the second one. We are
told there are
five points in the square, which are as follows: The square our master
is one: the level's two: the plumb-rule's three: the hand rule's four:
and the gage
possibly be thus explained, the square used for its normal purpose is
point. If a plumbline be hung on top of the "blade" of a square the
can be set level by adjusting it so the line will coincide with the
edge of the
instrument. In the same way the blade can be used as a plumb-rule. It
can also obviously
be used as a straight-edge, if that be what is intended by the term
And finally, should we venture to suppose, pace Mackey, that the edge
of the square
was sometimes graduated in feet and inches, it would serve also as a
gage or measuring
instrument. Of course the interpretation of such a cryptic utterance as
from any living tradition will always be no more than guesswork. It
would be possible
to interpret it quite plausibly, by assuming the word square to be used
in two senses
– i.e., the word "square" in the question, "How many points in the
square?" might refer to the "form" of the lodge; and in that case
the answer would simply enumerate the working tools present or
it. The only reason for preferring the first, and, it must be
confessed, more complex
explanation, is that it fits in fairly well with the explanation that
gives of the previous question and answer, where it is said that the
pins driven into the wall give both square and level.
A word may
be said here regarding the accompanying cut in which are collected
of mason's working tools from different sources and over a wide range
We have already discussed the rather dogmatic assertion made by Mackey
in his Encyclopedia
about the true form of the mason's square. Not only will it be seen
that the square
with limbs of unequal length is found represented from Roman times to
the end of
the 16th century ‒ it did not seem worthwhile to look for later
examples ‒ but we
must say also that so far we have not come across a single case,
earlier than the
purely emblematic jewels and designs of the eighteenth century in which
are equal, with one exception, the famous brass square found in the
of Baal's Bridge, which, whatever it was, was not an actual working
there seem to be any reason in the nature of things why a square with
marked upon it should be proper for a carpenter but taboo to a mason.
does not make a summer, but in Fig. 11 there is represented an
It does not definitely appear however that Peter Ashton was a Mason,
a person of some local importance in his day and place.
square-headed form of compasses, of which two examples are shown,
in different places and periods. The level from Strasburg is
essentially of the
same type as that shown in the hands of Elias Dryham on a previous page.
the Level and
We have said
that all these implements were made of wood. It is of course possible
were occasionally made with a metal blade, and that the level and
sometimes have had metal fittings, such as, possibly, a guard to keep
bob from swinging loose, or clamps to re-enforce the joints, but such
would make no essential difference to the character of the appliances.
was simply a piece of wood, with a hole cut in one end to give the
room to swing freely while yet the line hung close to the side of the
wood. It is
still used by bricklayers and masons in Europe and is generally about
long and four inches wide. The level took a greater variety of forms.
One that was
very common was triangular; sometimes it was made like the letter A.
it was simply a short plumb-rule mortised into a straight edge like all
T. When it took this form it was frequently braced on each side, thus
both the T and the triangle. Sometimes the braces were curved, thus
prototype of many modern Senior Warden's Jewels. A very unusual and
form is shown in the illustration, already referred to more than once,
reproduced last month. (6) In this the plumb-line is suspended from a
the form of a miniature arch.
If in making
a plumb-rule a line be drawn along the board parallel with the edge,
and the cord
suspended at a point on the line at the top, it is obvious that when it
with the line previously drawn that the edge of the instrument is
But the line may not be truly parallel. In order to test it, we set up
or a post by it, and when this is in position we turn the rule upside
down and suspend
the cord as before. If it coincides with the line again the instrument
and our post set truly plumb. But if not the variation is double the
by halving this distance a point is obtained that should be correct.
The post or
stone can then be reset to the new standard and the process repeated
until as high
a degree of accuracy has been reached as we please, or as is
The adjusting of the level is done on the same principle, only all that
is to turn the testing edge of the tool end for end, the error then
doubled as before. When the plumb-line marks the same point in either
instrument is "set." It is obvious that if there be a horizontal or
surface at hand these tools could be very readily adjusted and
corrected. As they
were always subject to many risks of injury through rough usage we can
it might have been very useful to have a carefully squared stone
level and plumb for the purpose. In all machine shops standard surface
straight-edges are kept by which those in everyday use "at the benches"
may be periodically tested, and if necessary, "trued up."
two implements, the plumb-rule and level, we have obtained our straight
have only to discover a certain point with which the swinging
plumb-line must coincide
to give the desired result. With the square we have a more complex
task. There are
two edges which must not only be quite straight, which in itself is not
but must also be at right angles to each other, which adds very
the difficulty. We say two edges: the modern tool has four, both the
outside edges being "trued." That of the medieval masons seems
to have had only the inside angle square, the outside being obviously
The square shown in the hand of William de Warmington is an example. An
one was shown last month. (5) Naturally it adds to the difficulty of
the task to
get four straight edges into this particular relationship, and for the
we may judge only the inside angle was required. A carpenter would find
angle in many cases more useful than the inside, and it is very likely
that he made
his own square to suit his special requirements; for it is very
possible that the
mason's tools were frequently made by the carpenters working on the
same job ‒ there
would always have to be carpenters to do the wood work, make centers
for the arches
and so on. Still though they may often have done this for their
yet the masons would have had to be able to do it for themselves, in
their own fashion,
if the need arose. A carpenter would of course use his plane to get a
but the mason would naturally have no tools for working wood. However,
always more ways than one of doing a thing. As an example a case may be
an elderly, highly skilled machinist who made himself an inlaid
bookcase in his
spare time. One day he showed it to a carpenter of his acquaintance,
and the latter
greatly admired the very exact fitting of the many tiny pieces of wood,
highly amused when told how the work was done. The machinist having no
with carpenter's tools had used a file!
Now the mason
who wanted to make a true straight edge out of a piece of wood would
have an obvious
means of doing it, if there were at hand a worked stone with a flat
could rub the edge down on the stone. If the piece of wood were fairly
to begin with and not too thick this would be a much more expeditious
might be supposed and would give very satisfactory results.
would be made of a thin strip of wood, the blade, mortised into a
the stock. The latter would have its edge made quite true before the
blade was inserted.
When this was put in it could be tested in the same way as we did the
piece of card,
only, as the angle has to be "right" as well as the edge, the procedure
will be to apply the stock to the edge of a flat surface (such as that
of the standard
block we have supposed that the ashlar might have been) and to draw a
it would be turned over and another line drawn from the same starting
process gives not only the error in the edge, but the divergence from a
angle. By cutting, scraping or rubbing, the thin edge of the blade can
worked down so that a second line drawn on reversal will coincide with
The edge of the blade is then straight and the angle true.
- THE BUILDER,
October, 1926, pages 314-5.
- THE BUILDER,
January, 1926, page 27.
- THE BUILDER,
January, 1927, page 25.
- THE BUILDER,
February, 1926, page 56.
- THE BUILDER,
January, 1927, page 25.
page 25. It appeared as an illustration
to the article by Bro. N.W.J. Haydon on St. Alban's Abbey in the August
1925, page 239. In addition to the level specially mentioned in the
test of the
present article the exceptionally large pair of compasses in the hands
of the Master
of the work is to be noted; as also the peculiar form of the square.
to be intentional and not merely carelessness on the part of the
artist, for in
all the other technical details close observation is evident. The
of the square seems to be a right angle however, only not parallel with
one. In the one shown in the hands of the effigy of Master William of
of some two centuries later, this is not the case, the outer angle
obtuse. This is reproduced from the same article.
of the statue of Elias Dryham is from a photograph very kindly sent to
us by Bro.
record we have of any lodge located at Nauvoo is to be found in the
of the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1842, where we find, under the head
Brethren, the name of Timothy Foot, Nauvoo, U. D. Then in the Grand
is the report that he had issued a dispensation to George Miller,
Master, John D.
Parker, S. W., and John N. Scovill, J. W., and others to form a new
lodge in the
city of Nauvoo, Hancock County, Ill.
to have been objections to this action of the Grand Master, especially
on the part
of Bodley Lodge, No. 1, of Quincy, but it is not very easy to find out
what grounds. From various reports we may gather however that there was
a too great
desire to increase membership with little regard for the quality of the
and probably springing from this a tendency to interfere with the
secrecy of the
is the only return ever made by the lodge. It is unique in the
of rejected applicants. The Mormon prophet's brother appears as Senior
other members of the Church of Latter Day Saints, as Heber C. Kimball,
of Nauvoo Lodge,
Held at Nauvoo
on the first and third Thursdays in each month. George Miller Master.
‒ Senior Warden. Lucius N. Scovil Junior Warden. William Clayton ‒
Sec'y pro tem.
Newell K. Whitney ‒ Tr. Charles
Allen ‒ S.D. Heber C. Kimball J.D. William Felshaw
‒ Steward. Hyrum
‒ Steward. Samuel Rolf ‒ Tyler. Past Masters ‒ Asahel Perry, Daniel S.
Peck. Master Masons ‒ 243. Fellowcrafts ‒ 4. Entered Apprentices ‒ 9.
Dead ‒ Vinson
Knight, M. M., on the 31st of July, 1842; E. P. Merriam, M. M., on the
of September, 1842; Wm. Wrightman, M. M. on the 24th day of September,
‒ Daniel Avery, 44 years of age; 5 feet 11 inches high; a stout,
athletic man; dark
complexion; dark skin; dark eyes; heavy beard; hair partially gray;
nose of the
aquiline form; slow spoken; a farmer; resides in Nauvoo; June 16, 1842.
44 years of age; occupation, a farmer; 5 feet 7 or 8 inches high; thick
complexion; light hair; blue eyes; quick spoken and not plain; resides
on the 7th day of July, 1842.
West, 34 years of age; 6 feet high; well proportioned; round shoulders;
blue eyes; dark complexion; moderate speech; thin face; occupation, a
and joiner; resides in Nauvoo; on the 7th day of July, 1842.
41 years of age; 5 feet 6 or 7 inches high; light complexion, blue
eyes; black hair;
by trade a boot and shoe maker; resides in Nauvoo; on the 21st day of
John C. Bennett, M. M., about 38 years of age; 5 feet 7 or 8 inches
high; dark complexion;
dark eyes; Roman nose; lost his upper front teeth; quick spoken; good
by profession a physician; residing in New York; for gross unMasonic
the 8th day of August, 1842.
initiated was certainly a very large one for the time and place, and
for a new lodge. It is interesting to note that in one of the committee
it is suggested that the lodge is altogether too large, and if
continued that it
should be divided into three or four.
the number of those who cultivate their minds and adorn them with true
and who are industriously occupied in their search after truth, is
small. In general, nine-tenths of those who are styled "Freemasons,"
no right to the name beyond the titles they acquire.
It is truly
a privilege equally rare and valuable, to have acquired distinct ideas
to have penetrated the mystic darkness which surrounds us, and to have
eyes to see
the Light invisible to the mass, which "shineth in that darkness."
really existed a lodge, whose members were all men of superior genius
enlightened philosophers, who never advance a step without full
them, and who preserve as a precious deposit the pure and unalterable
truth, by the discovery of which the human mind becomes capable of
it would be the most respectable body of men of which we can well
a lodge would indeed deserve the title of true elect; of adepts, in the
of the word; of oracles, if not infallible, at least most worthy of
to, by those over whom credulity, error, superstition and prejudice do
in truth, if we judge at first glance, that the idea we have just
not altogether destitute of reality. There are philosophical Freemasons
a species of firmament, consisting of stars of different magnitude,
with here and
there one shining with unusual brilliancy. In fixing our attention upon
luminous region, we find this brilliancy obscured by nebulous stars and
The number of those glittering with borrowed rays, is almost infinite.
of light and ofttimes mischievous exhalations, form a deceptive
is soon dissipated. It is no easy task, therefore, for the new
initiate, among the
larger number of guides who present themselves, to discriminate between
deserve to be listened to or followed, and those who do not. He in the
that many so far from meriting the title of chiefs, possess scarcely
necessary for good subalterns. In the midst of this anarchy and
confusion, a considerable
time must necessarily elapse before he can make choice of worthy
is aristocratic, its aristocracy is that of the mind and of moral
worth. In this
sense, it knows not how to be democratic. "All are not Israel that are
"many are called, but few are chosen." The throng of false brethren, of
the half-instructed, of showy yet superficial minds, of plagiarists, of
as well as of the crafty and unprincipled, serve to confuse and
well-intentioned plans and "works" of the wise, good and true, to
all Masonic government and laws, engender and perpetuate corruption and
which is treason, and saps the foundation of the venerable fabric."
If we bring
Freemasonry back to aristocracy, or (to resume our former figure),
the firmament of Freemasonry, exclusively those stars that shine with
proper luster, with the substantial light of wisdom, enduring power,
and the beauty
of virtue, shall we not then finally have what we seek for? Will we
then have secured
respectable repositories of the genuine and solid science and royal
art, which they
change not nor adulterate in any respect, but which they preserve with
communicate to "the faithful and accepted" of the "holy empire"
as integral and pure as they themselves possess it? So we fondly hope
believe. ‒ The Freemasons' Monthly Magazine, Vol. VII (1847).
reviewed in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of
at the prices given, which always include postage. These prices are
a matter of precaution) to change without notice; though occasion for
very seldom arise. Occasionally it may happen, where books are
that there is no supply available, but some indication of this will be
the review. The Book Department is equipped to procure any books in
print on any
subject, and will make inquiries for second-hand works and books out of
TWO NEW BOOKS
OF MASONIC FICTION
Wnt. M. Stuart, P.M., Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Co., New
York, N. Y.,
1926. Cloth, 264 pages. Price $2.15.
Through the Ages
J. S. M. Ward, M. S., P. M., etc. The Baskerville Press, London, 1926.
pages; illustrated 10/6
IT is remarkable
that two books of most excellent Masonic fiction should appear
occurred in December, when the Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Co.,
of New York,
produced Bro. Wm. M. Stuart's Hand to Back, and the Baskerville Press,
brought out J.M.S. Ward's Told Through the Ages. Each volume consists
of Bro. Stuart is well known to readers of American Craft periodicals,
as his entertaining
tales have appeared in contemporaneous journals for several years. He
has also written
much for non-Masonic publications. Bro. Stuart is a Past Master of
No. 65, Canisteo, N. Y., and an active participant in the community
He is also a member of the Society of Colonial Wars, something which
of his stories and articles will suspect from the entertaining accounts
he has written
of Freemasonry in the Revolutionary War. The story of the American
Craft in the
building of the Great West is now receiving his attention, and we can
stories during the coming months.
of the stories show an intimate knowledge of the United States Postal
readily explained when we bear in mind that the author is also
postmaster of his
town. It is his faculty of making the background realistic which makes
feel that the characters, places and occurrences are actually real. One
he is living through the incidents related.
To list and
describe each story in detail would deprive interested brethren of the
which comes from reading something new. Let it suffice to say that the
laid in colonial America, the Far West, in the Philippines and in
as are also familiar to the resident of an average American community.
all distinctively American, and as such will meet with a hearty
response in the
hearts of American Masons.
is the first collection of Masonic stories to be offered to the reading
many years, and I predict that their popularity will exceed that
enjoyed by High
Twelve and Low Twelve, by Bro. Edward S. Ellis, P.M. ‒ two volumes
which are always
dispatched by librarians when Masonic stories are asked for.
venture into the field of fiction comes as a surprise, but a most
it should be said, to those who know him as a leader of the antiquarian
Freemasonry. His Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods is recognized as the
treatment of the subject covered, even though more conservative
brethren do not
accept all of his premises or conclusions. He has also written other
have enjoyed a wide distribution, and as Secretary of the Masonic Study
of London, has edited some interesting Transactions containing articles
on the archaeological
study of the Craft.
book is unique. Beginning with "At High Noon," a tale of the
Age, 100,000 B.C., one is carried through ancient Egypt, Babylon,
Britain, the Roman Empire Roman Saxon Norman and medieval England, down
later centuries into the present era with a series of stories which are
Any Mason, interested in the legendary and authentic history of the
have his emotions stirred by the capably written tales, and will
receive an urge
to refresh his knowledge of the ancient times in which the scenes are
volume brings memories of youthful days when barn lofts or herb-hung
the rendezvous of bookish inclined school-boys on rainy days, as they
Ivanhoe, The Talisman and other books by Sir Walter Scott, and the less
but equally interesting historical novels of George Alfred Henty. Just
authors have blended fact with fiction, so has Bro. Ward taken well
of history and surrounded them with a texture of skillfully woven
the familiar incidents stand out in life-like settings, giving the
effect that one
beholds when looking at photographs through a stereoscope. Again I am
mention some of them, but I forbear, because I wish the reader to enjoy
of feeling which came over me when I first lost myself in the volume.
(Tell it not
in Gath, nor whisper it in Askalon, but I was missing from church the
the book fell into my hands.)
is fortunate in having such a book available. It will whet interest in
and research and will lead to further exploration of the "untrodden
Masonic research," to borrow W. Bro. Gilbert W. Dayne's expression.
much will have to be presented to convince the majority of recognized
Freemasonry, as we know it today, goes back of the XII century, it is
true that workers in the more ancient fields have the good will of
those who may
not agree with them ‒ a display of Masonic ethics as it should be. Yet
where we may stand on the specific questions, we all agree that Told
Ages is an interesting, fascinating and stimulating volume, and we
bespeak a generous
distribution and a wide reading for it.
* * *
Birth and Growth of
the Grand Lodge of England, 1717-1926
W. Bro. Gilbert W. Daynes. Published by the Masonic Record, London.
table of contents, illustrated, 187 pages. Price, postpaid, $2.10.
Fraternity the world over should feel a vital interest in the United
of England for at least one reason. The mere fact that something over
years ago, two hundred ten to be exact, there was held in London, at
Tavern, in Charles street, Covent Garden, a meeting of the members of
lodges, and that this gathering laid the foundations upon which is
built the present
Masonic organization, should be adequate reason for an interest in
From this modest beginning have grown all the Grand Lodges of the world
strictly speaking, the Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland, and their
are independent in origin. It is true of the United States, and
possibly of other
countries as well, that there is no widespread knowledge of what the
is or was. A vast majority of Masons know nothing about the history of
jurisdiction to say nothing of the premier Grand Lodge of the world.
be truthfully said that the blame is entirely theirs. In extenuation
there may be
one excuse advanced. The Craft as a whole has never had a clear and
of English Grand Lodge history. The information has been available for
it is true, but it has been locked between the pages of massive
volumes, or buried
in the depths of articles from which the story has had to be rebuilt
and bit by
bit pieced together to make a unified whole. Scholars have taken the
pains to acquaint
themselves with the essentials of English Masonic history. The ordinary
feels inclined to put forth the necessary effort. Unsatisfactory as
such an excuse
may sound, it doubtless accounts, in large measure, for the lack of
this subject which is prevalent in the Craft today.
for the Order as a whole it can be stated without fear of contradiction
excuse cannot be advanced in the future. Bro. Gilbert W. Daynes has
cause for our ignorance, and it is to be sincerely hoped that the
take it upon themselves to destroy the all too evident effect. The
Birth and Growth
of the Grand Lodge of England is a short treatment of the story which
is both scholarly
guarantee of the scholarship displayed is to be found in Bro. Daynes'
in Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 2076. It must be confessed that a heavy
upon the shoulders of those men who are today following the trails
blazed by such
as Gould, Speth, Rylands, Hughan and the others. But in this case the
task has been
made even more difficult. Bro. Daynes is one of the junior members of
Q. C. inner circle and has not only the reputation of those who have
but of those who are still spreading the gospel of light to uphold.
There can be
no higher tribute paid to the scholarship of this work than to say that
has lived up to the best traditions of No. 2076. It might appear from
the book is one of those heavy works which, in the hands of the layman,
and uninteresting reading. Such is far from being true. With surprising
author has struck a balance between scholarship and popularity which
offers a clear
refutation of an oft repeated fallacy that a scholar cannot write for
of his readers. In less than two hundred pages Bro. Daynes has told his
in itself should be a guarantee that there is none of the involved
often makes the work of a scholar painful reading to the novice. The
with almost startling rapidity and every paragraph contains something
seem from what has been said that the book was faultless. This,
however, is not
entirely true. The errors are few and far between, and fortunately do
a type of mistake too often found in modern Masonic works. There is a
class of Masonic
writers who might be called pseudo-scholars although it must be
confessed that this
is rather a harsh designation; they are students beyond doubt, but they
have a failing
for seeing more than the evidence warrants. Such mistakes might be
of commission so far as scholarship is concerned. On the other hand
the most painstaking investigator will trip up where really he knows
he fails, in his work, to give due notice to the opinions of others or
is so firmly
convinced that his idea is correct that he neglects entirely the other
side of the
argument. This type of error is as likely to be misleading as the
other, but since
it represents a neglect of evidence it might be termed an error of
is in the latter category that two errors found in Bro. Daynes' work
may be classed.
Neither is particularly serious, and even if the uninformed reader is
from the straight and narrow path, he will have no great difficulty in
greeted the writer when be read on the first page that:
if one would consider its
and trace its development through the Operative Masons of Medieval
England to the
present day, it is necessary to hark back many hundreds of years, and,
the mists of antiquity, seek for its birth certainly before the Norman
and who knows how much earlier. (The italics are ours.)
the opinion of the writer Bro. Daynes is entirely correct in this
have been opinions expressed which would cause it to be considered a
bit too positive.
The earliest objective proof of the existence of the Masonic
the Regius MS. is dated circa 1390. When the age of the Fraternity is
this date our evidence becomes inferential. Doubtless space was a major
with the author; the early Craft history was outside his thesis and may
largely for his dogmatism and brevity. One or possibly two short
have made the statement less positive and still left room for his
readers to reach
other than this particular conclusion.
read somewhat farther along, that in 1725 there is
… clear evidence of three
degrees being worked,
but certainly not universally. The minutes of the Philo Musicae et
Societas refer to certain Brethren having been 'Regularly pass'd
December, 172'4, and February, 1725, and is the earliest known
reference to the
three distinct degrees.
was read two or three times in an effort to follow the argument to the
without success. In the first place, it is fairly common knowledge that
in the early
days Master and Fellowcraft were synonymous terms. The phraseology
would, as a result,
seem to indicate Second Degree rather than Third. That, however, is a
The writer has carefully read the minute mentioned, and there was
as to whether or not it did mean three degrees. The text indeed does
refer to Entered
Apprentice, Fellowcraft and Master, but there is no evident distinction
being "pass'd Master" and "pass'd Felloweraft."
this there is Gould's essay on the subject (A.Q.C. 1903 [Lib*]). A
forecast of what
was to come appears in his paper on The Degrees of Pure and Ancient
What is now
generally regarded as the earliest evidence of the degrees of Masonry
communicated in three distinct steps will be found in the minutes of
et Architecturae Societas, London, which commence on the 18th of
and terminate on the 23rd of March, 1727… It will be sufficient … to
ask the reader
to hold his judgment in suspense as to whether the documentary evidence
by the records of the Musical Society is conclusive on the point of
degrees having been worked in 1725, the inclination of my own judgment
quite a contrary effect. Also … it will be convenient to remark that if
steps of Masonry were known and practiced by any lodge or set of
brethren in 1725,
there is not a particle of evidence from which we might infer a
priority of communication
to a probationer either of what is now the first degree or the second.
on Freemasonry, p. 214. [Lib 1913])
of Bro. Gould on Philo-Musicae et Architecturae Societas is devoted
a disclaimer of such a three degree system.
It may be
well to quote from the above essay. The liberty of avoiding certain
peculiarities has been taken for convenience:
Old Regulation XIII –
‘Apprentices must be admitted
Masters and Fellowcraft only here [i. e., in the Grand Lodge], unless
by a Dispensation.
At the close of 1724, or very
early in 1725,
four brethren were 'Regularly Pass'd Masters in the Lodge of Hollis
is the reference in the minutes to which Bro. Daynes refers) ; and in
17215, 'A Lodge was held consisting of Masters Sufficient for that
Purpose in Order
to Pass [certain brethren] Fellowcrafts.'
… Next to be cited is the
following law enacted
by the Grand Lodge: November 27th, 1725. ‒ 'A motion being made that
such part of
the 13th article of the General Regulations (see above) relating to the
Masters only at a quarterly Court may be repealed, that the Master of
with the consent of his Wardens and the majority of the Brethren, being
may make Masters at their discretion. Agreed Nem Con.' (Gould, Essays
be profitable to follow Bro. Gould's arguments, but it will have to be
an expression that he makes, in the writer's opinion, a case which
cannot be overridden
without so much as a comment. A few conclusions that become apparent on
will not, however, be amiss. The fact that a private organization was
and Master work outside Grand Lodge may be waved aside with the
assertion that this
body was not regular in its working. They were censured for the
practice and their
treatment as clandestine may or may not have had some influence on the
of the Society. It seems strange that a lodge of Masters would have to
to pass Fellowcrafts if they were two distinct degrees. The phrasing of
to Old Regulation XIII would seem to indicate that Fellowcraft and
the same thing even in November, 1725, eight or nine months after the
date of the
minute. If, however, two degrees were meant at this time, the Grand
Lodge had granted
power to subordinate lodges to make Masters, and held unto itself the
power to make
Fellowcrafts. This would not seem strange if the Fellowcraft Degree was
in the system, but why should subordinate lodges be permitted to make
and Masters, the lowest and highest grades, while the intermediate
be conferred only at Quarterly Court? On the surface it seems
criticism has run to some length, we must not lose sight of the many
of Bro. Daynes' work. Praise is due to him for the careful manner in
which he has
avoided the confusing of "Ancient" and "Modern" in his discussion
of the two Grand bodies. The common practice of Masonic scholars is
to beginners, and if my own experience is an index, the novice gets
out of the discussion until he begins to think sub-consciously of the
when each term is used. Even then the effort, though slight, must be
made to keep
them straight. The expedient adopted by the present author is most
simple and might
well be accepted by those who will follow. The "Modern" Grand Lodge is
called the premier Grand Lodge in all cases where confusion might arise.
this subject of the two Grand Lodges it is well to add that Bro. Daynes
avoids giving the impression that the "Ancient" Grand Lodge was a
body. It has been a common practice among American writers to consider
them as something
closely approaching clandestine, and the attitude is generally taken
that the premier
Grand Lodge made great concessions in recognizing them. The author
makes it very
clear that there were in existence old lodges, survivals from the
which had never joined with the first Grand Lodge. It seems evident
that it was
from these bodies and some Irish Masons that the new Grand Lodge was
such conditions the "Ancients" can hardly be called clandestine. They
had never relinquished their rights to govern themselves to the premier
and consequently were just as regular as the four Old Lodges which
formed the above
organization. That they were recognized as such is clearly shown by the
passed by Grand Lodge to the effect that no Masons, members of new
be recognized as regular unless such new body was constituted by the
This opinion is coming into more and more general acceptance today, and
it is a
tribute to the fairness of Bro. Daynes that he has taken some pains to
assertion with evidence, even in a work where the simple statement may
allowed to pass on a plea of lack of space.
the growth of the United Grand Lodge of England from its inception in
author has devoted the greater part of his work to a discussion of
The rise of the premier Grand Lodge, followed by the Grand Lodge of
together with a discussion of the controversy between them is carefully
covered. The so-called Grand Lodge of All England and the Grand Lodge
South of the Trent come in for their share of the discussion.
Opportunity is found
to carry to some length a description of the difficulties experienced
by Lodge of
Antiquity and the development of what is now No. 2 on the Grand Lodge
a kind of Grand Lodge in agreement with the Grand Lodge of All England
from the period from 1717 to 1730, approximately speaking, there is
period in Grand Lodge history which holds more interest than the years
the Union in 1813. Bro. Daynes has given a concise but adequate
description of the
events which took place immediately preceding the Union and has
included a most
interesting description of the actual meeting at which the Union
1813 to the present day the book has been divided into several
in preference to following an exact chronological table. The history of
literature, clothing, charities, etc., is discussed separately and
To the writer it seems that this arrangement is most satisfactory. It
with the necessity for carrying all of the details relating to these
mind through the entire discussion. It has the further advantage to
those who are
interested particularly in only one or two phases of this development
the information in one place.
If the American
Craft will give The Birth and Growth of the Grand Lodge of England the
it merits, the present cordial and friendly relations will be more
There will be an understanding of the English Craft such as Masonry on
of the Atlantic has never before enjoyed. We can recommend the work in
terms, for we believe that it is one that no Masonic student can
to neglect or to be without.
* * *
THE OLDEN TIME IN THE COMBER DISTRICT
92 pages, illustrated. Price, postpaid, $1.40.
AND ANTIQUITIES OF FREEMASONRY IN SAINTFIELD, COUNTY DOWN
96 pages, illustrated. Price, postpaid, 80c.
printed by the author, W. G. Simpson, P. M., etc.
IT is exceedingly
interesting to discover the marked differences that existed in the
in different countries. Such differences of course still exist, but it
to suppose that this is due to the other people having made
and having departed more or less from "the original plan." This naive
attitude of mind receives something of a shock when the fact is brought
as far back as we can go there always were those variations, and that
it is very
doubtful if the Masonry of any country has made greater changes in what
received than any other.
In this picture
of eighteenth century Irish Masonry we see quite distinctly that the
Craft in the
Emerald Isle bore quite a different complexion from that in either
England or Scotland.
And this quite apart from any ritual differences that may or may not
On the whole
the average Freemason in Ireland was a much poorer man in worldly goods
English brother, and this in itself made a good deal of difference in
The same comparison might be made between Scotland and England, yet
had its own strongly marked character. To generalize, which perhaps is
safe, it may be said that the old Scottish lodges bad a strongly marked
character, which gave them a tradition of independence and
they long retained ‒ the Grand Lodge in actuality seeming to be rather
than a Sovereign body. English Masons having put a "noble brother" in
the position of Grand Master all the Craft seemed concerned only to
show him (and
his position) respect and obedience. Irish lodges were apparently much
much more inclined to discover grievances yet they had not that spirit
that seemed to make it so easy for the old Scottish lodges to sever
with the Grand Lodge and go their own way calmly and soberly until the
made overtures to them and offered inducements for reunion.
is the most southeasterly of the Province of Ulster, and the district
to which Bro.
Simpson's investigations particularly refer lies about fifteen or
twenty miles south
of Belfast. Ulster was "colonized" in the time of James I of England by
settlers from Scotland, and it is very possible, as the author thinks,
as it existed then in North Britain was introduced by the newcomers.
records upon which these works are based do not go back further than
the last decades
of the eighteenth century, when the Grand Lodge organization had become
much in these old minutes that is very reminiscent of American
the connection is probably indirect, the fact may be taken as
belief that the Grand Lodge of "Ancients" in London was very largely of
Irish origin and followed Irish customs. Among these family
resemblances may be
put the great vogue of the Royal Arch, Knights Templar and other
degrees now obsolete.
One of the
traditional habits of these brethren was that of appearing in public
This was of course also an early custom of the Senior Grand Lodge in
one very soon discontinued and forbidden. The Grand Lodge of Ireland,
always much influenced by what was done in England, similarly ordered
to the indignation of the country lodges. Really one cannot see what
there could have been ‒ the procession habit has survived in the United
Canada both. Lodges take charge of the funeral ceremonies of their
and not infrequently go to church as a body. The habit of "walking,"
would be too strenuous for American Masons. It appears that Masons in
at least "made a day of it" on the twenty-fourth of June, the feast of
St. John the Baptist. They assembled early in the morning and opened
Absentees, without reasonable excuse, were fined. Several lodges might
marching with fife and drum and in full regalia, to a common rendezvous
would go to church, after which they would repair to some suitable
place for refreshment,
which seems often enough to have been a picnic. The affair was a public
and the procession was accompanied by a crowd of the uninitiated of
It really seems that it would have been better to have regulated rather
forbidden this undoubtedly very ancient custom. Some of the lodges
would march as
much as twenty miles in the day!
lodges were strong on the administration of justice as they understood
it. It was
customary to "chose" committees at the election of officers whose
were to "roole and govern the lodge." It is not said whether the Master
and Wardens were necessarily members of these committees or not, but
throws light on the pre-Grand Lodge organization of Masonry. These
legislative, administrative and judicial functions. Cases of a more
were brought before a board consisting of the Masters of several
lodges, which would
indicate the probability that the Master was ex officio a member of his
committee. But his present sacro-sanct position had not then been fully
for he like any other member of the lodge was liable to fine and
censure, and even
to temporary deprivation of office.
Just as there
was rebellion at the suppression of public processions, so was there at
of the formation of a Grand Chapter, and the prohibition of the old
the Royal Arch on the authority of a Craft warrant. One can sympathize
feeling that these lodges had that their ancient privileges were being
with. Doubtless the growth of central authority has made for
outward propriety and a greater approximation to uniformity of usage,
but many desirable
things may have been lost in the process.
of the Irish Craft direct or indirect to that of the United States make
small as they are in compass, very interesting to the American Mason,
and the abundance
of firsthand information they contain will be of much value to the
in the early customs and their origins of our Fraternity.
* * *
Harold G. Moulton and Leo Pasvolsky. Published by the Macmillan
Company, New York.
Cloth, table of contents, index, 435 pages including appendices. Price,
deals entirely with government debts incurred during the recent war.
have not attempted to discuss the future of debt settlements or to make
as to the capacities of the various governments to pay. It is a concise
endeavoring to show the present status of debts and how they
originated. It covers
a wide field and includes not only American settlements, but the
foreign powers as well. There is collected in the appendices a valuable
documents treating with reparation and other debts. These instruments
in their entirety and would form a valuable guide to the understanding
of war debts
by themselves. The additional data supplied by the authors makes the
to anyone who cares to read it.
present a vital problem in government today. There is probably no
question as controversial
as this one and since the United States is the principal creditor it is
of the utmost
importance to the people of this country. It is not only an interesting
but one which everyone is duty bound to investigate. The present work
gives an answer
to almost any question that might arise and aside from making
is a valuable book for reference.
* * *
LETTERS OF THOMAS JEFFERSON
G. De Roulhac Hamilton, Editor. Published by the Houghton Mifflin
1926. Cloth, index, table of contents, frontispiece, 299 pages. Price,
a man writes are often a most valuable index to his character; this is
of those he writes to intimate friends and members of his family. This
of letters of Thomas Jefferson has for its principal object the
portraying of the
man as he was and makes, as a result, an interesting character study of
one of the
outstanding personages of early American history. Incidentally it
furnishes no little
information about the period in which Jefferson lived.
interest are the letters to Mr. and Mrs. John Q. Adams. The long
friendship of Jefferson
and President Adams was interrupted by a quarrel which was afterwards
and a revival of friendly relations resulted. The progress of this
break and its
healing are clearly traced in this work of Mr. Hamilton.
covers almost every phase of life during the period, literature,
and family relations come in for their share of consideration. The book
is of interest
to Masons because of the numerous letters it contains which were
written by Mr.
Jefferson to outstanding characters of the time who were members of the
* * *
the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Ireland [Lib*], by J.
and Philip Crossle, published by the Lodge of Research, Dublin.
of God [Lib*], by Ernest H. Short, published by the Macmillan Co., New
and Manners of the 18th Century' [Lib*], by A. S. Tuberville, published
by the Oxford
University Press,New York.
Introduction to the History of Religions [Lib 1926], by Theodore Robinson,
by the Oxford University Press, New York.
or Civilizations [Lib*], by E. H. Goddard and P. A. Gibbons, published
by Boni and
Liveright, New York.
Year Book [Lib*], by Claire C. Ward, published by Macoy Publishing Co.,
Franklin, the First Civilized American [Lib*], by Phillips Russell,
Brentano's, New York.
Hand to Back,
a Collection of Masonic Stories [Lib*], by William M. Stuart, published
Publishing Co., New York.
the Ages [Lib*], by J.S.M. Ward, published by the Baskerville Press,
Refreshment [Lib*], by J.S.M. Ward, published by the Baskerville Press,
Erlauterung der Katechismen der
Johannis-Freimaurerei, Vierter-Teil, Historisch-dogmatische,
Darstellung, etc. [Lib*], by Robert Fischer, published by Verlag des
Aus der Werkstatt des Engbundes [Lib*], privately
printed by the Lodge Baldwin
zur Linde, Leipsig.
Der Verein deutscher Freimaurer und Seine Gegner
[Lib*], by O. Bischoff, published
by Verlag des Vereins deutscher Freimaurer, Leipsig.
und Freimaurerei [Lib*], by Alfred Abendroth, published by Alfred
Life of Pythagoras [Lib 1918 (Abridged)], translated by Thomas Taylor,
John M. Watkins, London.
of the West [Lib 1926], by Oswald Spengler,
published by Alfred A.
Knopf, New York.
Tradition in Alchemy [Lib*], by A. E. Waite, published by Alfred A.
Knopf, New York.
Box and Correspondence.
First Grand Masters
an error in the article by Bro. Tyler in the January number of THE
BUILDER. On the
first page, toward the bottom of the first column, it is stated that
was the first Grand Master of Ohio. This is most emphatically not so ‒
Putnam, of American Union Lodge, Marietta, was the lucky individual to
exalted post when the Grand Lodge was formed in January, 1808. Here is
line-up of our earliest Grand Masters: General Rufus Putnam, elected
Governor Samuel Worthington, elected January, 1809; General Lewis Cass,
I was rather
startled when I read the story of good Bro. Tyler and saw what he had
to say with
reference as to who was elected first Grand Master of Ohio. Therefore I
to write these few lines, calling your attention to the same. While but
small misstatement, I feel that you appreciate anyone taking enough
time to bring to your attention such errors, however slight.
with regret that I note the error in my article in the January number
of THE BUILDER.
I agree with Bro. Baer that errors should not be permitted to creep
articles. What I intended to convey was that "General Lewis Cass was
Grand Master of Ohio and the first Grand Master of Michigan."
carefully brought this out in previous articles: (1) "Michigan's First
Master," Masonic News, September, 1925; (2) "An Early Ohio Masonic
THE BUILDER, Vol. 10, page 357; (3) "Turhand Kirtland," THE BUILDER,
1925, and January, 1926. In the number for January, 1926, is a cut of
Putnam carrying the information that he was the first Grand Master of
Lodge of Ohio.
Baer's letter he states, "Here is the correct line-up of our earliest
Masters: General Rufus Putnam, elected January, 1808; Governor Samuel
elected January, 1809; General Lewis Cass, elected January, 1810-11-12."
is in error as the second Grand Master was Governor Samuel Huntington ‒
of the lodge at Warren, Ohio.
James J. Tyler, Ohio.
* * *
Is The Matter With
in THE BUILDER for last October entitled "Towards the East," was of
interest, in that it expressed what is, to the writer's mind, a very
i.e., "What is the matter with Masonry?"
has been making a study of Masonry for more than a quarter of a
century, one year
of that time being spent in the Orient among many tongues and many
peoples. He has
had the pleasure of receiving all the degrees in both Rites save that
of the 33d.
He has been visiting, meeting and talking to and with Masons of high
and low degree
for many years. "The greatest Masonic School" he ever attended was two
years spent in the U. S. Army during the recent Titanic struggle "To
World for Democracy," in which school he came in closer contact with
with Masonry than was ever his privilege before.
and chief reason for the apparent general apathy is that Masonry is not
as it should be taught; the Institution has become a diploma mill,
indulgencies" in lodge hardware, for the principal purpose of gaining
strength and financial ability to erect temples of stone and bronze.
reason is that the foremost and most potent thought today in the mind
of those who
seek admission is, "What can I get out of it and what will it do for
reason is, this is a material age in the thought-force of the world at
humanity is selling this birthright for a mess of pottage and two doves
for a farthing.
In the next
place it is the writer's opinion that not one man in a million ever
the lessons intended to be taught by Masonic teachings and obligations.
state of teaching is in keeping with Priestcraft, Ritualism and
few there be who see the light and seek to travel toward the East, but
seriously handicapped at every step.
not now, neither indeed has it ever been, a handmaiden to the church.
It never has
been a hot-bed of fanaticism, and whenever and wherever the crumbling
Christendom have laid their blighting fingers upon the structure of
teachings and activities have been lulled into a somnambulistic sleep.
method of imparting the real meaning of Masonry to the candidate within
is changed, so long will the status of the rank and file be no more
We have "kidded"
ourselves into a mild condition of "fearthought" regarding the ravages
of Roman Catholicism. When we teach the oncoming Masonic brotherhood
that the church
in every name and form extant upon the face of the earth today is, in
its last analysis,
the sworn enemy of the real teachings of Masonry, then we shall begin
to see the
light. We must not forget that there has never been in any age a time
in which there
could be a homogeneous mixture of clericalism and Masonry. Those of us
studied this question know full well that clericalism is a political
the subterfuge of creed and dogma to delude its multitude of benighted
We cannot pass on to the other fellow something we do not possess.
us within the portals have never seen or recognized the light, how can
its teachings today is not altogether a constructive force, only partly
so long as we kow-tow to the "Reporters for the spiritual kingdom" and
be led, directed and governed thereby, we shall continue to meet at the
the moon, pay dues and close in due and ancient form. How can we
advance when from
the throne of central hierarchy there is handed down our prepared
thought with directions
thereon "to take ye all of it, and while these retire let others come"?
The truth of the matter is Masonry is asleep at the switch and is being
surely brought under the dominant rule of a central ecclesiastical and
hierarchy. The writer has no hesitancy in giving as his opinion that
reached its acme in this century as to its effectiveness, and there is
to blame" except those on the inside who have been taught for
"fear God," and incidentally everything else, including man. How can we
reasonably expect anything different from what we have?
THE BUILDER. It is doing much good among those who read and think
which, in all probability, is less than 5 per cent of the mass mind of
May it continue to grow and in the last analysis the harvest be an
A. J. C., Texas.
* * *
In a recent
issue of THE BUILDER my attention was arrested by an article entitled
Spiritual Significance of Masonry," by Bro. Silas H. Shepherd (October,
which, as a Master Mason interested in diffusing light and information
to the Craft,
I desire to comment.
I have not
the slightest doubt of the author's sincerity and good intentions, but
has failed altogether to depict the “spiritual significance” of
Masonry, I do not
think it fair to the Craft that they should be left with this erroneous
The article simply iterates and reiterates what almost every Mason has
read or heard
said heretofore. It tells him what he should do, at least it nearly
does so; but
it does not tell him how it is to be done. The reference made to the
of gaining admission being emblematic of an experience that all "must"
go through sooner or later, probably refers to death. It is quite
obvious that even
this statement, as it stands, contains no spiritual explanation nor
It might be a fact that one should maintain his integrity and the duty
that he owes
to his co-creatures even unto crucifixion. Jesus has already set this
He has already demonstrated the truth and fact of resurrection. But, to
everyone "must" go through the experience of death is simply holding
to a false and erroneous belief and keeping Masons in darkness. Because
refers to death as an enemy. It also says that it shall be overcome.
the truth of this. Even Masonry itself, symbolically, teaches that the
dispensation demonstrated the resurrection. Proving that life is not
death, but by overcoming death. Why not, therefore, explain life and
this article states that Masonry not only stresses a "belief" in God,
but a trust as well. And again it says that Masonry does not attempt to
with the peculiar religious faith of its disciples, "except so far as
to their belief in God," and what necessarily results from that belief.
we trust, do we merely believe, or should we know? What are the
results" from a belief in God?
It is impossible
to merely, believe a fact. A fact is the Truth. God is a fact. God is
from a trust which might be a blind faith. God is knowable to spiritual
There is no other discernment because God is omniscience. Intelligence
is the cause of discernment, and discernment is the proof of
Since God is spirit, He can only be discerned spiritually. When a fact
there is no place for trust nor belief. The Master, Christian, Essene
or Mason said,
"The spirit of God is within you." Anything so intimate as to be within
us, we should know something about it, shouldn't we?
in the article it says that "we must be industrious spiritually," but
it doesn't tell us how this is to be accomplished. Here again the
reader is given
a message without any direction. Certainly these things were not the
the writer thereof, and certainly to say that something must be done
and not to explain how it is done, conveys no “spiritual significance,"
is the title of the article under which this statement is made.
is said that our bodies are temporary shelters for our souls, and after
through the "experience necessary" (here again it is vague), the dust
returns to its mother earth and the soul returns to God who gave it.
Here is evidently
entertained the old erroneous belief that man is a product of mud, to
which he must
return. What a delightful mission man would have if such were the fact.
What a wonderful
incentive to follow all these instructions given in this article upon
out of the glorious reward of returning to mud or dust. Since this
to admit that "soul is not matter nor mud," and seems to give soul
quality as distinguished from that which is said to return to dust,
then since there
is but one spirit there must be but one soul. Otherwise, has anybody
out whether God had enough souls to go around, and what would happen if
ran short of souls, or didn't happen to get one back again? This
question in itself should make apparent immediately the ridiculous
the infinite being contained in the finite. What are we going to do
with the proposition
that man is the image and likeness of God, admitting that God is spirit
Spirit's likeness must be necessarily spiritual, and that spirit is
everlasting, and that its image and likeness, or its reflection, can be
into a mass of mindless matter or mud and be returned to dust? How are
to explain this? The answer is that you are not going to. You can't.
declare that the Bible is the rule and guide of our faith, just as is
the article referred to. If this be true, if we really mean this, then
not know something about the Bible? It might be said that the Bible is
of creation, the truth about God, the Creator, and man's relation to
with the essence of the rules whereby to demonstrate and put into
practice the One
Infinite principle. Certainly these truths should be taught to the
I have often wondered why so great a body as Masonry did not institute
course and have authorized brethren to go abroad and expound and
explain the spiritual
significance of Masonry, because, unless a man understand a law by
which he agrees
to be governed, how is he going to conduct himself lawfully? What would
of a man who said that he knew the multiplication tables and then was
tell you the product of twice two? You would at once hold that man in
What then do you suppose is the general regard toward a Mason who does
Doesn't it leave him an unprepared prey for his enemies? Is the
justice toward its perpetuation by permitting this vital thing to go
Masons know the Ten Commandments and live accordingly? How many are
there that know
the Sermon on the Mount, grasp its spiritual import and demonstrate its
How many who are holding office in Masonic organizations today have
through a most ruthless and selfish desire to glorify their egotism?
have no other gods before me." Don't these men make their quest for
glory their god? Masonic organizations all over the country are
and making a god out of money. The Masonic Fraternity is being bled for
it will possibly yield. This is dangerous. Bad material is allowed to
their trust is not with God but with money. This is the thing that
reduced the Roman
Empire to nothing. Nothing is always the natural state of false
a great deal more that might be said, but if we have come to the point
our brothers by interpreting Masonic symbols and allegory, according to
Significance," then let us do it in fact and not mislead them further.
Frank C. Hickman, Michigan.
* * *
and Sunday Observance
I am glad
to inform you that I have had much pleasure reading THE BUILDER. I
should like to
again impose on your generosity by asking questions.
- What is the duty of a Master
Mason in regard to the Sabbath Day?
- Is it all right for the General
Purpose Committee to meet on Sunday to transact
get a satisfactory answer from our elder brothers. The Holy Bible is
of Masonry, therein we are taught to keep sacred the Sabbath and our
consecrated the Sabbath for the worship of God.
Can you get
a worthy brother to give us something in THE BUILDER on the subject? In
it is, I believe, very important for us as Masons to respect the Word
of God and
John R. Jones, Canada.
propounded by Bro. Jones is of a distinctly religious nature and as
such could not
be satisfactorily answered by any one brother to the satisfaction of
all. Many Grand
Lodges have ruled that lodges could not meet on Sunday except for the
conducting a funeral or for attending church in a body. There seems to
be no reference
to committee meetings.
of the variety of religious beliefs represented in the membership of
Fraternity it would be impossible to state just what a Mason's duty on
is. We could hardly expect a Mahommedan, for example, to have the same
a Christian. Neither could we expect the same attitude on the part of
Jew and Gentile.
face of these difficulties, and the fact that our ritual teaches that
the only religion
of the Fraternity is an "unfeigned belief in the one living and true
it would appear that a Mason's duty in this respect is to follow the
his church, whatever that may be.
Rob26 / auth. Robinson Theodore H. - London : Oxford University Press,
1926. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 262. - 4.5 MB.
Wal22 / auth. Wallace Lew. - New York : Harper and Brothers, 1922. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 658. - Illustrated - 44.7 MB.
Collected Essays &
Papers Related to Freemasonry
Gou131 / auth. Gould Robert F. - Belfast : William Tait, 1913. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 313. - 14.3 MB.
The Decline of the West
Spe26 / auth. Spengler Oswald A G. - New York : Alfred A Knopf, 1926. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 981. - 37.7 MB.
The Life of Pythagoras
Iam18 / auth. Iamblichus. - Krotona : Theosophical Publishing House,
1918. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 89. - 1.8 MB.