Masonic Research Society
Bro. Silas H. Shepherd,
essential thing for every Freemason to learn is just what Freemasonry
is, and how
it functions. The ritual contains all that is necessary to a very clear
knowledge, but in many cases those who participate in the forms and
the ritual fail to carefully analyze the things they hear and see, and
who assume to teach sometimes fail to fully understand the words and
We are told
that Freemasonry is a "regular system of morality veiled in allegory,
will unfold its beauties to the candid and industrious inquirer." It
been defined as "the subjugation of the human that is in man by the
the conquest of the appetites and passions by moral sense and reason; a
effort, struggle and warfare of the spiritual against the material and
Another very beautiful definition is that it is "a union of unions, an
of men, bound together in their struggles to attain all that is noble,
only what is true and beautiful, and who love and practice virtue for
its own sake."
Many are the definitions that might be quoted to show the high
importance and spiritual
significance of Freemasonry. Methods of expression differ, but every
Freemasonry is agreed that its forms and ceremonies are but a means and
bringing man to a better comprehension of the real purpose of life, and
the qualities of his soul.
read in Masonic books and periodicals that Freemasonry is not a
religion" implies one of several or many religions, and in this respect
is most emphatically not a religion. If we accept the definition of
the outward act or form by which men indicate recognition of a God to
and honor is due, we cannot well deny that Freemasonry is positively
It will be
readily conceded that any person who desires to become a member of the
has little conception of its serious purposes. He is, however, given a
idea in the formal petition he signs, and again in the questions to
which he must
give unequivocal answers. These questions are of first importance. If
are sincere and strictly lived up to, the candidate will not only
become a member
of the organized Fraternity, but will also be a Freemason in its most
sense. He will learn to subdue his passions ‒ fear, hate, greed,
intolerance, anger, envy ‒ and improve himself in the science of
These questions, which every Freemason answers in the affirmative, are
that we believe every candidate ought to not only memorize them but
himself as to whether he is strictly complying with them: Do you
upon your honor, that, unbiased by friends and uninfluenced by
you freely and voluntarily offer yourself a candidate for the mysteries
Do you seriously
declare, upon your honor, that you are prompted to solicit the
privileges of Masonry
by a favorable opinion conceived of the institution, a DESIRE FOR
a SINCERE WISH OF BEING SERVICEABLE TO YOUR FELLOW CREATURES?
Do you seriously
declare, upon your honor that you will cheerfully conform to all the
usages and customs of the Fraternity?
serious obligations voluntarily assumed, and no deviation can be made
retrogradation. We repudiated mercenary motives and declared our desire
What kind of knowledge ought we to expect? Surely not that which
pertains to our
financial, material or physical welfare. The knowledge we can rightly
surely find is a knowledge of our moral and spiritual nature, and is to
in being serviceable to our fellow creatures.
If we have
gone thus far and failed to comprehend the deep spiritual significance
the address of the Junior Deacon to the candidate ought to put everyone
in the proper
attitude for the impressive ceremonies. This also is of such importance
rehearsal of it is greatly to be desired.
"Mr. _____, the institution of
are about to become a member is one by no means of a light and trifling
but of high importance and deep solemnity. Masonry consists of a course
hieroglyphical and moral instructions, taught according to ancient
usage, by types,
emblems and allegorical figures. Even the ceremony of your gaining
these walls is emblematical of an event which all must sooner or later
You are doubtless aware that whatever a man may possess here on earth,
be titles, honors or even his own reputation, will not gain him
admission into the
Celestial Lodge above; but, previous to his gaining admission there, he
poor and penniless … dependent on the sovereign will of our supreme
be any further doubt that Freemasonry is appealing to the soul of man?
ceremonies of reception ought fully to satisfy us, but for the purposes
essay we are only using the monitorial portions. The prayer at the
a candidate might alone give us the very keynote of Freemasonry.
"Vouchsafe Thine Aid, Almighty
the Universe, to this, our present convention. Grant that this
candidate for Masonry
may dedicate and devote his life to Thy service, and become a true and
brother among us. Endue him with a competency of Thy Divine wisdom,
that by the
secrets of our art he may be better enabled to display the beauties of
Love, Relief and Truth, to the honor and glory of Thy Holy Name. Amen."
brethren who established this great nation on the principles of Liberty
placed their trust in God. They placed a motto, "In God we trust" on
coins of the country. Freemasonry stresses not alone a belief in God,
but a trust
in God. No lodge is ever opened or closed without invoking Divine
Bible, that great light in Masonry, is the most conspicuous article of
of a lodge. It is the first thing which is intrusted to the care of the
his installation and he is told that it "will guide you to all truth;
direct your paths to the temple of happiness, and point out to you the
Holy Bible is to rule and guide our faith." The English lodges call it
Volume of the Sacred Law, and Mackey, in his use of it as a Landmark,
calls it the
Book of the Law, because he says it is not absolutely required that
Old and New Testaments shall be used. "Masonry does not attempt to
with the peculiar religious faith of its disciples, except so far as
the belief in God and what necessarily results from that belief. The
Book of the
Law is to the speculative Mason his spiritual Trestle-board; without
this he cannot
labor; whatever he believes to be the revealed will of the Grand
for him this spiritual Trestle-board, and must ever be before him in
his hours of
speculative labor, to be the rule and guide of his conduct."
from the monitorial parts of the verbal ritual are only helpful hints
at the possibilities
that lie hidden in the symbol and allegories. These are only hidden
from those who
fail to follow up their expressed "desire for knowledge" with the
industry and zeal to acquire it. Nothing in Freemasonry is ever hidden
who are worthy and properly prepared. Our hearts and souls are the soil
the seed must germinate. Not only must we be industrious as physical
beings but we must be industrious spiritually if we are to "divest our
and consciences of the vices and superfluities of life, thereby fitting
us as living
stones for that spiritual building, that house not made with hands,
eternal in the
We find three
principal systems of symbolism in Freemasonry. First, the building of a
Temple by the use of symbolic tools. Just as surely as the operative
erect a temporal structure by the tools and implements of architecture,
so we can
erect a beautiful Temple of Character if we will use the tools of our
science as we are taught. No great cathedral was quickly built, neither
can we expect
to erect within ourselves a perfect character without long continued
effort. By the constant practice of the one tenet of Brotherly Love, we
daily progress. Brotherly Love is not only a beautiful ideal, but an
in nature. It is our failure to live in conformity to it that causes
most of the
discord and confusion in the world. We profess to believe in it. We
profess to regard
the whole human species as one family. Unless we practice it we are
failing to practice
Freemasonry. By their fruit shall ye know them.
for the lost word. The quest of the Holy Grail. The endless search for
light which never ceases from the cradle to the grave. The symbolism of
word has taught countless Masons the usefulness of searching for the
Infinite Truth is not comprehensible to our finite minds. As we prepare
by soul development we receive as much as we deserve.
teaches by an allegory of unsurpassed beauty the great lesson that our
but the temporary shelter of our soul, and after passing through the
necessary the dust returns to its Mother Earth and the soul returns
unto God who
was the single object of all the ancient rites and mysteries practiced
in the very
bosom of pagan darkness, shining as a solitary beacon in all the
and cheering the philosopher in his weary pilgrimage of life to teach
of the soul. This is still the great design of the Third Degree of
It is in
the light of this teaching that the Master Mason, raised to the
eminence of that
"Sublime Degree" can look back on the Charges he received as all
Apprentice. Then, the precepts of the Moral Law were symbolically
expounded by authority;
now, in the further light afforded him, he sees the reason for what;
before he took
on trust, and is thereby fitted to guide others in his turn.
to Great Men Who Were Masons
Bro. George W. Baird,
P. G. M., Washington, D. C.
of this article was born at Egremont, near Whitehaven, in England, in
the year 1756.
In 1764 his
father came out to the Colonies and settled in South Carolina, bringing
son. The boy was educated by his uncle, the Rev. William Richardson,
who lived near
Catawba, S. C., and who adopted him and made him his heir. He was sent
to the College
of New Jersey (now known as Princeton University) where he graduated in
had taken up the study of law, but in the summer of the same year
joined, as a volunteer,
in the opening hostilities of the Revolution in company with a number
of his classmates.
Later he received a commission as Lieutenant in a newly organized troop
and, having risen to the command of the squadron, joined Pulaski's
Legion and shortly
after received the rank of Major. At the battle of Stone Ferry, June
12, 1779, he
was badly wounded in the thigh and during his convalescence resumed his
at Saulsbury, N. C., where he was admitted to the bar in September of
the same year.
In the winter
of 1780 he raised another body of cavalry, in the equipment of which he
whole of his private fortune bequeathed to him by his uncle. With this
protected the southwestern part of the state from the British attacks
He was present
with his troops at the battles of Ranging Rocks and Rocky Mount, and
service in assisting General Gates when he was reorganizing his forces
disastrous defeat at Camden. Cornwallis followed Gates to Charlotte,
cooperate with Ferguson (who was killed at the battle of King's
Mountain soon afterwards),
and Davie remained in command of the rear guard and inflicted
on the advancing British forces as they entered the town, retiring
trifling loss. He was promoted to the rank of Colonel of the Cavalry of
and was appointed Commissary General of the Southern Army by General
post he filled most efficiently till the end of the war.
was declared he settled at Halifax, N. C., and began the practice of
law and soon
rose to the highest eminence in his profession. He was one of the
delegates to the
National Convention which framed the Constitution. At this he strongly
the equal representation of states in the Senate and also the taking
the slave population
into account in assigning the number of Representatives sent to
Congress by the
states of the South. He did not, however, actually sign the document,
the close of the proceedings he was called home on account of serious
He was a
member of the State Legislature of North Carolina for a number of terms
up the bill instituting the State University which, after opposition,
in 1789. He gave personal attention to the appointments of the college
was actively concerned in the business of erecting the buildings, of
which, as Grand
Master of Masons, he formally laid the cornerstone.
He was influential
in formation of the State of Tennessee, which had previously been a
part of North
Carolina, and was three times appointed a Commissioner to settle the
between the two states.
In 1794 he
received a commission as Major-General of Militia, and in 1799 was
of the state. Soon afterwards he was sent to France with Ellsworth and
a special mission to the French Directory, the result of which was the
that was signed between the two countries.
Jefferson appointed him as a Commissioner to arrange a treaty with the
Indians, a task he successfully performed.
It has not
been possible to ascertain when and where he was made a Mason, but his
and interest in the Craft is sufficiently proved by the fact that he
was Grand Master
of North Carolina from 1792 to 1798. In person he was a handsome man of
appearance, and of remarkable physical strength, so much so that he was
this among the pioneers and backwoodsmen who formed so large a part of
forces. He was distinctly and unmistakably of the aristocratic type,
yet in manners,
though dignified, he was affable to all. He received the degree of A.
M. from Princeton
University in 1779, and that of L. L. D. from the University of North
1811. He died at his home, "Tivoli," in November, 1820, near Landsford,
South Carolina, and was buried at Waxhaw Church on the Catawba River.
a Tuberculosis Sanatorium
T. B. Kidner
1926, by the National Tuberculosis Association
discussion of the requirements of a modern Sanatorium for the treatment
was published in pamphlet form by the National Tuberculosis
Association. In order
that members of the N.M.R.S. may have full information at hand
concerning the problems
involved it has been thought advisable to reproduce so much of the
would have a bearing on the situation facing the Masonic Fraternity.
left out dealt chiefly with the requirements of female patients and
later on these also will have to be taken into consideration, but the
governing the planning of such an institution are fully covered in what
probably no type of building in which greater changes have occurred in
in its general planning and internal arrangements than a sanatorium for
These changes are largely due to new demands for facilities for
diagnosis and treatment
which have been so markedly characteristic of the institutional care of
during the past decade.
Tuberculosis Association, through its Institutional Advisory Service,
has made many
reports upon individual sanatorium planning projects and has also, from
time, published articles dealing with current tendencies in sanatorium
There seemed to be a need, however, for a comprehensive statement on
and this monograph has been prepared in consequence.
the Size of
sanatorium building scheme, whether it be for a new institution, or for
of an existing one, the first step should be to determine the size of
that is, the number of beds that should be provided to meet the needs
that the proposed
institution is to serve. Several methods of doing this have been
the experience of the past twenty-five years; no one method is
applicable to every
district or community.
In the registration
area of the United States, and in other places where proper vital
available, the usual formula for obtaining the number of beds that
should be provided
in a sanatorium is that for every death occurring annually from
the district to be served by the institution, there should be one bed.
where the vital statistics cannot be relied on, an approximate estimate
of the number
of tuberculosis beds required can be made by using the formula of one
bed for each
one thousand of the population.
a Suitable Site
the number of beds that should be provided, the next step is the
selection of a
suitable site; this is a matter of prime importance.
Tuberculosis Association has recently issued a monograph entitled,
a Site for a Tuberculosis Sanatorium," which goes thoroughly into the
In this the following factors are discussed at length:
Accessibility. "For several
it is most desirable that a sanatorium should be readily accessible
from a center
is exceedingly important to remember that sites remote from centers of
are inconvenient and costly in the matter of obtaining supplies; also
for the transportation
of patients to and from the institution on admission and discharge and,
for short leave of absence or for visits of relatives and friends.
this is of prime importance, it is most difficult to attract and retain
help, professional and general, in isolated places."
Area Required. "The area
for a sanatorium site may be found by allowing one acre of land for
each six patients."
Altitude and Climate. This is
discussed at some length in the monograph,
from which the following paragraphs are quoted:
however, very few specialists lay stress upon altitude and special
climates in the
treatment of tuberculosis. In fact, a great many specialists aver that
it is far
better for a tuberculous person to 'take the cure' in a climate similar
in which he will live after his disease is arrested, rather than in
some high, dry
climate, as his return to his former climate may be trying, or worse.
should be said, however, that in certain form of tuberculosis there is
value in a high altitude, with dry air; but in general sufferers from
today are not being advised to seek an other climate in which to take
Exposure and Topography. "These
factors must be considered jointly, together with the factor of area.
In fact, the
first consideration is that there must be adequate space for the
buildings on ground
that is level, or only gently sloping, and plenty of level space or
walks, on which
the patients may exercise.
In the northern
part of this continent, the patients buildings should be orientated to
S. S. E. but in the warmer parts of the country, the buildings should
to the east, so that the hot afternoon sun will not shine on the
where cold winter winds are experienced, shelter should be provided by
preferably wooded; or, in a flat country, by a windbreak of trees.
Water Supply, Electric Power,
Disposal and Drainage. The conditions and requirements governing any
of institution apply equally to a tuberculosis sanatorium, and need not
Non-Proximity to Disagreeable
Surroundings. A tuberculosis sanatorium should
not be located in conjunction with any eleemosynary institution, or
with a hospital
for contagious diseases. It is notoriously difficult to induce persons
from tuberculosis in the early, recoverable stages of the disease to
enter a sanatorium
which has no stigma attached to it, and the difficulty is increased
the sanatorium is associated in the minds of the public with some
socially dependent persons.
or factory districts are also unsuitable as the location for a
pure air is an absolute necessity in the successful treatment of
Pleasant Surroundings. Pleasant
are undoubtedly an important factor in the treatment of tuberculosis.
is long and tedious, and patients must often lie for weary months, or
looking out over the landscape and the grounds of the sanatorium.
Because of this,
the site should command a pleasant view, and the grounds themselves
should be beautified.
In the planning
of a building for any special purpose, the architect must be guided by
principles common to all buildings.
movement began when it had been shown by the early experimenters in
that tuberculosis was curable by a regimen of rest, fresh air, and
and in essence, a sanatorium is primarily a building so arranged that
of rest, fresh air and good food can conveniently be applied in it.
idea has, however, received many accretions during the experience of
movement, particularly during the last decade. In addition to what
might be termed
the "passive" treatment implied in the formula of rest, fresh air and
good food, a great many other methods of treatment have been introduced
years. Among these might be mentioned artificial pneumo-thorax; special
of treatment of diseases or affections of the upper respiratory tract,
associated with pulmonary tuberculosis; the use of heliotherapy in the
of tuberculosis of the bones, joints and glands; and, more recently,
With regard to the last named, it should be said, however, that it is
to arrange that cases requiring major surgical operations, including
should be removed to a general hospital, although they should be
returned to the
sanatorium for their prolonged convalescence as soon as surgical
must therefore be made for these features of sanatorium treatment.
of the tedious nature of the process of "taking the cure," it has also
been generally recognized for some years past that means must be taken
the intolerable ennui of a prolonged residence in a sanatorium. To that
is now made in all modern sanatoriums for organized recreation and
also for occupational therapy. The latter is in many cases also made
the basis for
vocational rehabilitation after the disease has been arrested and the
assistance in diagnosing the disease also became available a few years
ago by the
invention of the X-ray machine. A properly equipped laboratory is also
for diagnostic and research purposes. A modern sanatorium is,
therefore, much more
of a hospital than were the earlier institutions.
Classification of Cases
For the purpose
of sanatorium treatment tuberculous patients are usually grouped
broadly into three
Bed or "infirmary" cases:
acutely ill, requiring bed care and regular nursing.
Semi-ambulant cases: able to
and to walk to the congregate dining room for meals, but, at first, not
take further walking exercise.
Ambulant cases: able to take a
certain prescribed amount of exercise daily,
which is increased as the patient's condition improves.
classification into three groups has also various sub-classifications,
according to the practice of the institution concerned. Some of these
will be indicated
later on in the course of this article.
planning in recent years, the accommodation for patients in these three
usually been provided in the following proportions:
cases (not less than) ‒ 40 per cent
cases ‒ 35 per cent
cases (not more than) ‒ 25 per cent
It is noteworthy,
though, that in recent years there have been many complaints from
of a shortage of beds for infirmary cases and several leading
authorities are in
favor of making the proportion of infirmary beds considerably higher
than 40 per
In view of
this, most of the sanatoriums planned in recent years in this country,
U. S. government institutions, have provided for patients who have
reached the semi-ambulant
stage of treatment a type of accommodation that is of a modified
If it should happen at any time that the accommodation for infirmary
cases is overtaxed,
it is then possible to give such cases proper care in the quarters
foregoing classification in mind, it is convenient at this point to
remarks on the "flow" or progression of patients through a sanatorium.
In good sanatorium
practice it is usual to keep all newly admitted patients under
observation in bed
for a week or two, for diagnosis and classification; the reception and
section being almost always a part of the infirmary section.
If a patient
is acutely ill, he is placed in a single room. When a patient improves
he is usually removed to a two-bed room. Later, he is assigned to a
internal unit, in most modern sanatoriums usually a four-bed ward, and
at that stage
is generally able to walk in a dressing gown to a local dining room
near the ward
and take his meals.
If he continues
to progress he reaches the stage in which he can put on his outer
clothing and walk
to the main congregate dining room of the institution to take his
meals. He is then
classified as a "semi-ambulant" case, and is transferred to the section
provided for patients in that stage of treatment.
his walks to and from the main dining room may be the limit of his
but little by little this is increased until he becomes an "ambulant"
case, and is again transferred to other quarters.
a tuberculosis sanatorium it should therefore be borne in mind that as
of the disease abates, and the patient progresses towards recovery, he
in a physical manner, so to speak, from one part of the sanatorium to
This is important,
for two reasons. In the first place, the accommodation can be
as the patient's condition improves, which has a bearing on the cost of
and the equipment. In the second place, tuberculosis specialists attach
from a psychological standpoint to this progression through the several
quarters, as a patient looks forward to his transfer to another section
as an evidence
of his progress towards recovery.
to Be Provided For
Administration; medical and
Patients' quarters; advanced,
and ambulant cases.
Service buildings; dining
rooms, kitchen and bakery, store-rooms.
Ice plant and refrigeration.
Laundry and sterilizing plant.
Garage; repair shops, etc.
Quarters for staff and
Assembly hall for religious
exercises and recreation, with rooms for occupational
to the foregoing, if the institution is isolated from public
facilities, it is necessary
Sewage disposal system.
It is not
necessary to provide separate buildings for each of the things
enumerated; in fact,
in a small sanatorium they are often provided for in two or three
Even in comparatively
large institutions, experience has shown the wisdom of certain
will be indicated in succeeding sections of this article.
In the early
days of the sanatorium movement, structures of the flimsiest type were
and that unpleasant term "shack" came into use in tuberculosis
construction and was, unfortunately, only too appropriate in most cases.
buildings of the flimsy type of construction, formerly considered quite
for the housing of patients ill with tuberculosis, are no longer
important point is that the "open ward" type of plan, which has been
up in modern general hospitals, has also been abandoned in all first
sanatoriums for tuberculosis, small internal units being now employed.
it may be said that the outstanding characteristic of recent
construction is that the planning of the buildings in which patients
has been modified from former practice so as to provide greater comfort
for the patients, as well as facilities for various modern forms of
One of the
most important points to be stressed is that in regard to acutely ill
require "infirmary" care, the accommodation provided in a first class
sanatorium for tuberculosis differs scarcely at all from that provided
in an up-to-date
general hospital, except that adequate provision for open-air sleeping
must be made.
The auxiliary rooms for infirmary cases, such as the nurse's duty room,
kitchen, the toilet and bath accommodation, the utility or utensil
room, are similar
to those which are found in a modern general hospital. As a patient's
improves, however, the accommodation provided may be progressively
simpler in type.
the most important point to be insisted upon is that the patients must
not be subjected
to fire hazards. The National Board of Fire Underwriters reported some
that in the two years preceding the date of the report 870 hospital and
fires had occurred in this country. Buildings in which patients are
therefore be fire-resisting. Bed-ridden patients should not be housed
on the second
story of a frame building. In fact, that part of a tuberculosis
sanatorium in which
infirmary cases are housed should, as stated above, be of the type of
that would be selected today for a general hospital.
type of general layout be adopted, it will generally be found that the
arrangement is to plan the central building of a sanatorium group as a
unit for medical and general administration, and a reception hospital
Medical Administration. The
rooms should be provided for medical administration: An office for the
examination rooms (one for each fifty patients); eye, ear, nose and
and treatment room ("head room"); X-ray suite; dental room; simple
room (for minor surgical procedures); laboratory (north light
open decks for sun treatment; two rooms for artificial light treatment;
room and medical library.
General Administration Offices.
should include general business office; office for superintendent;
for visitors (entrance hall) toilets for visitors (each sex).
It has been
found to be convenient to have the medical superintendent's office and
business office arranged one on each side of the main entrance hall,
forms the waiting room for visitors.
fireproof, sanatorium infirmary buildings, the more seriously ill
bedridden) are often housed on the upper story, as this affords greater
the lower stories. When a patient's condition improves somewhat, so
that he can
walk to the bathroom, he is transferred downstairs.
the characteristic features of the care and treatment that must be
infirmary cases, and for new cases kept in bed for purposes of
observation, in addition
to a proper bed in a suitable room?
such patients must be fed, a fact that will guide the architect in
floor diet kitchen, always remembering that the travel of a nurse or
and fro between the diet kitchen and the patients' bedsides must be
that are "bedfast" will, of course, require the usual personal
necessary for such patients, which will guide the architect in locating
duty room, with its equipment of bedpan sterilizer, utensil sterilizer,
rack, slop sink, laundry tray, worktable, and supply cabinet.
of course, is a sine qua non in treatment, and provision must be made
in the form
of porches for open-air sleeping for all but the more serious ill
the latter, properly arranged windows of the awning type, with a vent
in the wall
opposite to afford thorough ventilation, will provide all the fresh air
It should be possible, however, to wheel even seriously ill patients in
to an open porch occasionally.
patients who are able to leave their beds, bathroom and lavatory
be provided near their quarters.
It is also
a good plan to provide, next to the floor diet kitchen, a small dining
patients who are able to leave their beds and put on a dressing gown
may take one
or more meals daily. Patients appreciate greatly the break in the
afforded, the effect on their progress is good, and the labor of tray
paragraphs deal only with "creature comforts," and attention must now
be given to the various medical features of diagnosis and treatment
that must be
provided for infirmary cases.
the rooms for medical administration, due regard must be given to the
they must be conveniently accessible for bed cases, who may often
require to be
wheeled to one or other of these rooms in a cot or on a wheeled
stretcher. It must
also be remembered that walking patients from the semi-ambulant and
quarters will use these rooms. Because of this last-named condition the
rooms should be so located that patients from other units of the
not enter a patient's corridor in the infirmary (central) unit when
coming to it
examination rooms are provided, it is convenient to arrange one on each
room should be equipped with a simple lavatory bowl in one corner.
suite should include a combined office and interpretation room, with
space for filing
current plates or films; a dark room for loading and developing, and a
Practice varies greatly in different institutions with regard to the
use of the
X-ray apparatus, but for sanatoriums up to, say, one hundred beds, it
be found satisfactory if the machine room is equipped with a modern,
combination machine which can be used both for radiographic and
For institutions of greater bed capacity it is usually more convenient
a separate room for fluoroscopic examinations, although for economy and
it should form a part of the X-ray suite. A couple of dressing cubicles
provided and a w. c. for gastro-intestinal work. The X-ray suite should
not be in
a basement but should be, preferably, on the main floor near the rear
room should be large enough to take a standard chair and instrument
cabinet. A small
laboratory should adjoin it, and should be equipped with a sink with
hot and cold
water, space being provided near the sink for a work bench.
For the various
minor surgical procedures which become necessary in sanatorium routine
operating room should be provided. The room should be well lighted
a window on its north side (not a skylight) and should also be properly
with electric lights over the operating table for work at night or on
Adjoining the operating room should be a preparation room, equipped
with a small
"bank" of sterilizers, two surgeon's scrub-up sinks and a hopper sink;
space being allowed also for cabinets to hold sterile and unsterilized
Dressing rooms for the surgeon and the nurse are necessary, but the
latter is often
combined with the nurse's work room adjoining the preparation room.
ear, nose and throat room should have a small dark room adjoining, but
institutions provision for darkening the room itself by an opaque
enclosed in a boxed casing, is often made. A lavatory bowl should be
should have north light, but considerable latitude is allowable in its
There is no objection to its being placed in the basement, for example,
the basement is well out of the ground.
should be located on the main floor, near the rear entrance, for the
of ambulant patients.
for heliotherapy is often made in the form of open decks on the roof of
building. On each deck there should be a covered portion for “air
are used in conjunction with the direct exposure of the patients to the
can be used both for the infirmary cases and for patients from other
units. In several
recent examples, however, in addition to the decks, open balconies or
been provided, adjoining the rooms of the more seriously ill patients,
windows have been installed, so that patients can be wheeled out for
It must always be remembered that patients undergoing this treatment
nude, so that the decks and balconies must be so arranged that the
be overlooked from rising ground or other buildings.
A room should
be provided for artificial heliotherapy. Outlets for electric current
the several types of lamps used in artificial heliotherapy should be
the walls. This form of treatment is so new that definite standards as
to the number
of lamps that should be provided are not available, but in the
erected by the U. S. Veterans' Bureau it was decided to provide outlets
in the proportion of one lamp for each ten patients.
heliotherapy is resorted to chiefly in cold and cloudy weather, when it
is not feasible
to expose the patients on open decks, extra artificial heat should be
rooms where it is applied, as the rooms should be well ventilated. The
of ventilation for such rooms is to admit fresh air by open windows and
a vent for the escape of the vitiated air on the opposite side of the
the necessity for extra heat.
of oversight and control the rooms for artificial heliotherapy are
in the center of the building, between the open decks on the roof.
room, with toilet facilities, should be provided near each deck. In
where heliotherapy is being employed, shower baths are also provided.
It is well
to provide that not less than 20 per cent of the beds in the infirmary
a sanatorium be in single rooms; 30 per cent in two-bed rooms and the
small wards of not more than four beds each.
above, it is not usually considered necessary to provide special
porches for patients
who are seriously ill, but porches should be arranged for about 60 per
cent of the
patients in an infirmary section. It should be possible, though, to
wheel any patient
in his cot to a porch. Doors should therefore be not less than 3 feet 8
and corridors 8 feet wide.
might be written on the subject of porches for open-air treatment in
of which several kinds have been devised. In general, porches are of
(a) those which adjoin a room or ward, but are so arranged that direct
can enter the room or ward; (b) the continuous porch which extends
along the front
of several rooms or small wards.
of the former type of porch (structurally, more expensive) point to the
of direct sunlight in the ward afforded by this arrangement, as against
porch. It should be pointed out, however, that where continuous porches
front of the rooms are provided, the patient spends most of his time on
the room in the rear being used chiefly as a dressing room. If the
patient is bedridden,
the nurse or attendant wheels his cot into the room when the patient is
In extremely cold weather, the patient may sleep at night in the room;
but in modern
institutions adequate thorough ventilation is provided and the patient
fresh air in the room without discomfort.
warm climates, porches for tuberculous patients should always be
of the kind usually referred to as the "awning" type, that is, pivoted
at the sides and opening outwards, are much better for tuberculosis
than ordinary double-hung sashes and windows of the casement type.
type of window be selected, however, alike in porches and in rooms, the
should always be provided with a sash over a transom bar, to allow of
being admitted without subjecting the patients to a direct draught. The
the transom should be operated by a device not under the control of the
It is also advisable to glaze this sash with "cathedral" or
glass of a soft amber color, which, being less trying to the eyes, adds
to the comfort
of the patients.
Rooms and Features
fixtures for infirmary patients should be installed in the following
bowls ‒ 1 to 8 patients
‒ 1 to 10 patients
‒ 1 to 15 patients
are not suitable for infirmary patients.)
outdoor clothing and suit cases it is usual to provide a storage room
at some convenient
point in the building, probably in the basement. For the rooms
confined entirely to bed require only a standard bedside table with
but as soon as patients are able to walk, to the bathroom, a simple
which to hang the dressing gown, etc., should be supplied.
and hospital superintendents are in favor of the built-in wardrobe or
while others prefer a piece of furniture. At present, the tendency
seems to be towards
to be mentioned a few other auxiliary rooms that are common to all
types of hospitals
and that must not be omitted in the infirmary section of a tuberculosis
On each floor
there should be a nurse's office, furnished in the usual way, and
annunciator of the patients' call system.
each thirty patients a linen room or closet, to hold not more than two
should be provided. The equipment should consist of shelves not less
inches deep in the upper portion, the lower shelves to be about thirty
the uppermost wide shelf to form the working table. A room six feet
be sufficient. Outside light is desirable. The location should be as
possible for the beds which are to be served from the closet.
are very satisfactory as far as bed patients are concerned, but are not
where the patients are ambulant, as various odd things are sometimes
the chute by the patients. For the latter it is better to provide in
room, or other convenient place, a receptacle for soiled linen and to
send it by
an orderly or attendant at regular intervals to the laundry.
brooms and cleaning materials, equipped with a slop sink, must be
provided on each
floor. In many institutions these closets are too small to contain the
and materials and it is well to make them of generous size.
In all infirmary
units of more than one story, an elevator large enough to take a
stretcher must be provided.
do not consider it good practice to include a morgue in the hospital
unit, and believe
it is better to locate it in some inconspicuous place near, or in the
such as the institution garage, or, in some cases, the laboratory
building in institutions
where it forms a separate unit. A room for a mortuary chapel is
but it should not be made a prominent feature of the building group;
in a previous section, a patient is usually classified as
when he is able to dress and walk to the main dining room. At first
this may be
the full extent of his exercise, the rest of the day being spent in a
on a porch or in an open ward. Such patients can be conveniently and
housed in one-story or two-story buildings of the "pavilion" type, the
sleeping quarters being usually a modification of the open ward type of
recent examples, however, two-bed rooms, with a continuous porch in
been provided for patients in this stage of treatment. This not only
privacy and comfort for the patients but permits of infirmary patients
for in case of an overflow from the infirmary section.
of the buildings or units for semi-ambulant cases is important. In the
as these patients have only recently passed from the infirmary stage of
they should not be required to walk very far to the main dining room.
For the same
reason enclosed walks should be provided between their quarters and the
unit. A warm, well-lighted and properly ventilated day or sitting room
for the nurse in charge is necessary, but a call system is not required.
that infirmary cases may be cared for when necessary it is well to
provide a diet
or distributing kitchen, with very simple equipment.
It will seldom
be found necessary, however, to include a utility room, since infirmary
that may overflow from the infirmary section proper into this section
certainly have reached the "dressing gown" stage, and will therefore be
able to use the bathroom.
fixtures for semi-ambulant patients should be provided in the following
bowls ‒ 1 for each 4 patients
‒ 1 for each 6 patients
‒ 1 for each 10 patients
‒ 1 for each 10 patients
closets should be separated from the lavatory and bathroom, but one
should be installed near the water closets.
need not be installed if the plugs are omitted from the regular
lavatory bowls and
a, simple mixing faucet (single spout for hot and cold water)
may then be performed in running water and the same bowls used without
It was formerly
a common practice to locate next to the lavatory and bathroom in a
congregate dressing room for the patients, but it was found in many
that such a room formed a congregating place for purposes other than
that for which
it was designed, thus adding to the work of supervision. In cold
weather, male patients
would often gather in the warm dressing room, with all windows closed,
cards in an atmosphere vitiated with tobacco smoke.
in most modern sanatoriums, it is customary nowadays to provide small
or space, near each patient's bed. Where the porch is a continuous one,
in its rear are generally used as dressing rooms; each for one or two
Another very satisfactory method is to provide individual dressing
cubicles in a
warm corridor at the rear of a combined room and porch.
A linen room,
a janitor's closet and a store room for patients' baggage should also
A rear walk
or low terrace, at grade, should be provided at the rear of the
patients may recline on cure chairs in the shade during very hot
weather. Some storage
space for the cure chairs should be provided.
earlier in this article, the accommodation for sanatorium patients can
more simple (and less costly) as the time of discharge from the
who have reached the ambulant stage of treatment, and are on "full
very little medical and nursing care is necessary. A strict
is, however, enforced in most sanatoriums for patients who have reached
and are undergoing the prolonged period of convalescence usually
the physician pronounces the disease "arrested."
It is therefore
very necessary that, alike in the location of the buildings for
and in the planning of their internal arrangements, ease of supervision
requirements for the housing of ambulant patients are that they shall
with comfortable living quarters, including a day or sitting room;
porches for open-air
sleeping and, of course, proper toilet and bathing facilities.
of the pavilion type are quite suitable for ambulant patients, and may
be of one
or two stories. The earlier pavilions were usually mere, open shed-like
but for some years past, as in all types of hospital and sanatorium
trend has been towards the provision of more comfort and privacy for
in a tuberculosis sanatorium.
led to the advocacy of detached cottages, each housing from two to four
for patients in this stage of treatment. There are, however, two rather
objections to the cottage type of housing in public sanatoriums. First,
initial cost; and second, the great difficulty of supervision of the
and successful attempt to combine the two ideas of the cottage for a
of patients, and the building for comparatively large groups, was made
by the U.
S. Public Health Service several years ago. A building pavilion was
"the cottage idea in a congregate building." A number of these
that were erected have proved very satisfactory, alike to the staff and
the U. S. Veterans' Bureau has designed another type of building that
great comfort and privacy for the patients and provides for ease of
for the nurse in charge of the building should be provided.
for plumbing fixtures specified previously in this article for
will also serve for the ambulant patients' building.
The day room,
the baggage storeroom, the janitor's closet, and the rear terrace at
as recommended for the semi-ambulant patients' quarters, will also be
as patients who have reached this stage of recovery are able to go out
in all weathers, considerable latitude is allowable in the location of
As remarked earlier, however, ease of supervision must always be
the buildings should be well in sight of the central unit.
unit of a tuberculosis sanatorium usually includes the main dining room
patients; a dining room for the staff; a dining room for the help;
kitchen and bakery,
with storerooms and three-section refrigerator for daily supplies; a
and a dishwashing room.
If the contours
of the site permit, it is convenient to arrange rooms in the basement
for the bulk
storage of supplies.
the service unit, two things must be borne in mind. First, that most of
for the patients in the infirmary section is prepared in the central
must be conveyed easily and rapidly to the patients. Second, the unit
must be so
located that it can be reached conveniently, under shelter, by the
convenient location is directly in the rear of the central unit, to
which it should
be joined by an enclosed walk or corridor. Very often it is located on
of the axis of the central building. If, however, as in several recent
the architect adopts the open rear court type of plan for the general
of the several units, the service building is located at one side of
the court and
is balanced on the opposite side by the community building.
The capacity of the patients' dining room should be equal to the total
semi-ambulant and ambulant cases provided for in the plans.
staff dining rooms, it is not so easy to determine the capacity since
varies in different institutions. In some sanatoriums the members of
staff have a separate dining room; in others, all the personnel of the
grades, including matron, nurses, dietitians, laboratory technicians,
therapists and clerical employees, share one dining room.
As a rough
approximation, it may be estimated that in the ordinary public
the professional personnel will number about eighteen per cent of the
of the institution. It should be added, though, that for small
percentage of personnel is usually higher, which is one of the reasons
public sanatoriums are not economical.
of non-professional grade may roughly be estimated at 22 per cent of
the bed capacity;
although local conditions must, of course, always be considered in
personnel of all grades.
All the dining
rooms should be light, airy and attractive; particular care being
necessary in these
respects in the patients' dining room. Small tables, to accommodate
from four to
six patients each, are now almost universally provided; rather than the
tables for a large number of patients formerly used in institutional
Space. It is convenient and advisable to provide near the entrance to
dining room a "congregating place," or room, where the patients may
a few minutes before the hour for serving the meal. Simple toilet and
should be provided in conjunction with the congregating space.
Service. In planning the serving room, the possibility of the so-called
or self-service method being used should be borne in mind by the
superintendents are divided in their views as to the desirability of
plan, some being enthusiastic advocates of its adoption and others
being quite against
it. It is advisable, however, in planning the serving room that the
for the possible adoption of the cafeteria plan without expensive
In the past year or two, in some institutions where the cafeteria
system has been
installed, it was necessary to cut openings in solid partitions to
provide for the
and tableware used by the patients must be sterilized. The dishwashing
be located, primarily, to save walking, but it must be well ventilated
and, if at
all possible, an outside room.
In most modern
sanatoriums, separate dishes and tableware are provided for the staff
and are washed and kept in a special serving room and pantry adjoining
the bakery, and the storerooms for the daily supplies require no
being generally similar to any other institutional layout.
for female help are often provided on the upper story of a service
is a convenient and economical arrangement.
Rooms. If, as is very desirable for purposes of economy and control,
the rooms for
the storage of supplies in bulk are in the basement of the service
unit, a proper
grade entrance should be arranged. Near the entrance there should be a
for the storekeeper or other officer whose duty it is to receive and to
In the majority
of public sanatoriums, perishable supplies are purchased in bulk and
stored in the
institution. Refrigeration must therefore be provided in the storerooms.
For the daily
supplies for the kitchen, a three-section refrigerator is necessary.
kitchens in the infirmary section will also require a small ice box,
but this presents
no problem today, now that small electrically-operated refrigerators of
size are available at moderate cost.
Heating Plant and
It is convenient
to arrange one combination unit to include laundry, heating plant and
location of such a unit will be governed chiefly by two considerations;
direction of the prevailing winds; and, second, the levels of the
to be served by the heating plant. Consideration must also be given to
of hauling coal to it without passing the patients' buildings, so as
not to disturb
the inmates by noise and dust.
should be planned so that soiled articles cannot come in contact with
Two doors should therefore be arranged; one for the incoming and one
for the outgoing
articles. Inside the incoming door should be a clear space for sorting.
this space should be the sterilizer (large enough to take a mattress),
of the laundry machinery following in order, so that articles are
in regular route to the final tables where they are folded and placed
in the clean
receptacles for return to the main linen room of the institution.
It is scarcely
possible in these days, when the use of the automobile is so general,
the car capacity of a sanatorium garage. In a sanatorium having a
capacity of, say,
one hundred beds for patients, a four-stall garage should suffice for
cars; including a truck and an ambulance. If, however, the institution
is at some
distance from a railway, or other means of public conveyance, it is
usual to maintain
a bus service at certain intervals between the institution and the
at which a public conveyance is available.
In an institution
so situated, there is also the problem of providing shelter for the
cars owned by
the personnel, often a considerable number. Obviously this latter
be considered in the light of local conditions.
for the engineer, the carpenter, and the painter, are necessary and can
be placed with the garage.
for male help are often provided in this unit.
the subject of personnel quarters, it is most important to remember
that it is becoming
increasingly difficult to attract and retain institutional personnel of
and reliability. This difficulty is often aggravated in the case of a
sanatorium by the unfounded fear that the disease may be contracted by
contact with the patients.
A great deal
of attention has been given to this matter and steps have been taken to
the difficulty. More comfortable and homelike living quarters are being
for all grades of personnel and, most important of all, the personnel
first-class modern sanatoriums are quite apart from the patients'
The medical director should be given a modern, family house, preferably
entrance to the grounds. The quarters for assistant medical officers
should be similarly
located. In this connection, it is well to note that the number of such
is laid down in the standards for sanatorium administration promulgated
by the American
Sanatorium Association. To be rated as a Class A sanatorium according
to these standards,
the institution must employ one assistant resident physician for every
up to 150, and one for each seventy-five patients beyond that number.
If the bed
capacity of the sanatorium is such that several assistant physicians
will be required,
it may be anticipated that at least one of them will be a married man,
must be made accordingly.
standards of the American Sanatorium Association call for one nurse to
patients. The superintendent of nurses, the matron and nurses in charge
of the children's
unit, and other female employees, such as the laboratory technicians,
the occupational therapists and clerks, will also reside with the
above, it is no longer considered good practice to house the personnel
in the same
building with patients; and this is particularly to be borne in mind in
quarters for nurses. The nurses' home of a sanatorium should be located
from the patients' buildings and, preferably, near the entrance to the
It is necessary
that nurses be housed far enough away from the patients' quarters to
give that sense
of detachment from duty which is imperative for the relaxation and rest
of the nurses;
also, to allow of the nurses and staff engaging in social recreation
the sick patients. A location near the entrance to the grounds is
nurses returning at night from leave will not require to pass the
which is an important consideration.
expenditure can be made by sanatorium authorities than in providing
homelike quarters for the nursing staff. It is therefore recommended
that each nurse
be given an individual bedroom. The superintendent of nurses should
have a small,
private suite of sitting-room, bedroom and bath.
baths should be provided in the proportion of one for each six nurses;
bowls, one to four persons, or, better still, an individual lavatory
bowl in each
bedroom. Toilet rooms should always be separated from lavatory, and
sitting-room is necessary; also, opening off it, two small semi-private
which a nurse could receive a visitor with some amount of privacy.
the difficulty always experienced with fine laundry work when sent to
laundry, a simply equipped laundry should be included in the nurses'
home so that
the nurses can care for their own fine work. The equipment should
include as a minimum
a double laundry tray, a wringer and two ironing boards with electric
dryer is also convenient. In a large institution more equipment should,
Superintendent. In most sanatoriums, a man is employed to look after
of the buildings and grounds. A house, planned for a married man and
be provided at some point in the grounds away from the sanatorium
for this officer.
In large institutions, special buildings for male and female help
often provided, but in most cases quarters are arranged in some of the
buildings. As indicated earlier in this article, quarters for female
help are often
provided in the service unit and quarters for male help in the heating
some recent plans quarters for male help have been arranged in the
for the care and treatment of tuberculosis can be considered complete
it has adequate provision for the organized recreation and
entertainment of its
patients; also of its employees. Provision should also be made for
for these features of sanatorium treatment is often provided in a
building." Such a building should include an assembly hall which can be
for religious exercises, concerts and entertainments, including moving
for occupational therapy should include a well-lighted shop for simple
work in arts
and crafts, and classrooms where instructions in ordinary school
subjects can be
given. The size of the shop and the number of the classrooms will
depend upon the
number of patients. A storeroom for supplies must also be provided.
library is also often placed near the assembly hall and the
rooms, as these several activities are usually in charge of one person.
the community building, due regard must be given to the facility with
which it may
be reached from other units.
hall should be planned to accommodate at one time at least 50 per cent
of the patients
and 50 per cent of the personnel. In some institutions, a considerable
seats must also be provided for visitors, but this is a variable factor
and no general
statement can be made as to their number.
Plant, Water Supply
and Sewage Disposal
It was remarked
in the early part of this article that it is necessary in planning a
to include these features if the institution is isolated from public
the type of installation required for these very necessary adjuncts to
does not differ from the type suitable for other kinds of institutions,
it is not
necessary to make any extended remarks on the subject.
It is deemed
well to point out, however, that it is usually more satisfactory,
except in very
large institutions, to purchase electric current than to produce it in
supply of pure water is, of course, absolutely necessary and great care
taken to insure it. If at all possible, the sanatorium should be
supplied from some
public water system, but if this cannot be arranged, every precaution
must be taken
to provide water in adequate quantity and pure quality to meet present
needs. In considering the quantity of water necessary, it is
to remember that the supply must be adequate in amount and pressure to
protection from fire.
It is also,
of course, a great advantage if a sanatorium can be connected with a
system, but if this is not possible, a modern, individual disposal
plant can usually
be provided without difficulty. In view of public sentiment, special
must be taken regarding the disposal of the effluent.
* * *
B. Fish, Grand Master Grand Lodge of F. and A. M., Sarasota, Florida.
gives me great pleasure to announce to you that both the Grand Council
and the Grand
Chapter appropriated a small amount for the National Masonic
L. French, Congress of the United States, House of Representatives,
seems to me that through the Grand Lodges of our states adequate appeal
can be made
for the approval of a reasonable comprehensive program that might
include the donation
of possibly one dollar per capita per lodge to this particular purpose
a lesser annual per capita contribution for the maintenance of certain
the overhead that would need to be sustained.
sometimes beard complaints of lack of interest and attendance in lodge
To the extent to which this is true we must charge ourselves as being
adequate program for service that will appeal to Masons. A lodge either
or nationally does not die that has work to do. It dies when the work
has been completed."
H. Gibson, Grand Master Grand Lodge, A. F. & A. M., Boise,
to assure you that our jurisdiction is vitally interested."
Olson, Secretary Boulevard Lodge, No. 882, A. F. & A. M.,
erection and endowment of a hospital of this character will meet a
and I sincerely hope that your efforts in this will meet with
the present we have two members of our lodge who are in New Mexico on
suffering from tuberculosis. One of these is located at Albuquerque,
he has so far been of no expense to the lodge, the cost is great for
him and his
funds are being rapidly depleted. He is asking us if we can find some
for him that would not be quite so expensive."
Fable About Frederick the Great
Bro. Cyrus Field Willard,
whose arguments we have been considering, also tries to throw discredit
as well as on Albert Pike. Frederick Dalcho was a doctor born in
England who afterwards
became an Episcopalian minister and was regarded in Charleston as a man
and of very high standing. He was Lieutenant Grand Commander and on a
which drew up the circular letter which our Supreme Council sent to all
bodies of the world. It made the official assertion in 1802, only
after the Constitutions of 1786 had been signed and ratified, that they
Supreme Council for America under these Constitutions, and that they
had been drawn
up under the authority of and signed and ratified by Frederick II, King
an official document issued by our Supreme Council. It is worthy of
such. Lantoine calls it "the discourses of Dalcho," but this is a false
statement of the facts. Only sixteen years after the adoption of the
they knew the facts better than Lantoine at this late day, who
the old falsehoods which Pike branded as such.
said after reviewing all the circumstances that he was convinced that
was the head of the Rite, and I must say that in approaching the
to be as fair as possible, yet in the main prejudiced against the idea,
I have been
obliged, by the evidence taken from official records in America, to
accept the fact
that Frederick was the head of the Rite we now call Scottish from 1762
to the time
of his death.
Scottish Rite in America
At a celebration
on Sept. 20, 1785, the members of the Philadelphia Lodge of Perfection
procession to their new lodge room in Black Horse alley, which then was
followed by speeches and a banquet. It is this ceremony to which Col.
refers to in his famous letter to Frederick, King of Prussia. An
of this ceremony is given in the Pennsylvania Journal of Sept. 24, 1785
in Sachse's Ancient Scottish Rite Documents [Lib 1915] wherein the several toasts
the first being to "The Sublime Lodge of Perfection this day
while the second is to "Our Illustrious Brother the King of Prussia,"
and the third is to "Our Beloved Brother George Washington, the
Master of America." This shows there was a reason for Frederick being
instead of Washington, immediately after the toast of the Lodge of
being considered the head of the Order to which the lodge belonged. It
is to be
noted that it was then a matter known to the newspapers, that Frederick
was the head of the Rite, as shown in the printing of the toast
that of the Lodge of Perfection and before that to George Washington,
that is, the
one to "Our Illustrious Brother the King of Prussia."
What is the
reason that the Scottish Rite persisted in America and was carried back
and the rest of Europe from which Stephen (not Etienne) Morin brought
it in 1761?
The excesses of the French Revolution, the frenzy of fear that
possessed the aristocracy
and propertied classes from the publication of Thomas Paine's "Rights
in answer to Burke's denunciation of that revolution, the fulminations
of the Jesuits,
the Abbe Barruel and Prof. John Robison, against the Illuminati and
which caused the passage of the "Secret Societies' Act" in England and
Scotland from which Freemasonry was barely exempted, the revulsion of
Germany and elsewhere on the Continent against the Illuminati, the Gold
the Rite of Strict Observance, the Clerks of Lax Observance and the
other Masonic degrees and systems, swept away, to a great extent, all
but the three
degrees. It was in America alone that the Scottish Rite was preserved
these troublous times to be later re-introduced into France and
elsewhere in the
We have three
authentic official sources of information, at least, to show that the
of the Rite was at Berlin. They constitute documentary evidence that
cannot be controverted
for June, 1920, page 160, printed a facsimile of the Charter of the
Lodge of Perfection," instituted at Albany, N. Y., on Dec. 20, 1767, by
Andrew Francken, who was deputized by Stephen Morin. Copies of the
minutes of this
lodge were printed in William Homan's "History of the Scottish Rite,"
which says that Dr. Stringer, who was later the Deputy Grand Inspector
that district, gave notice that the founder (Francken, then at
had written him to instruct the lodge to send to Berlin a list of their
"with their qualities." The secretary evidently knew the address of the
person in Berlin to whom this list was to be sent, for it was not
given. In Pike's
"Historical Inquiry," p. 129, it says:
In the old minute-book of the
Grand Lodge of
Perfection at Albany, N. Y., the lodge is required, under date of Sept.
to prepare reports, etc., for transmission to Berlin.
This is exhibit
number one, and is from the official records of a Lodge of Perfection
that Berlin was the headquarters to which its reports, list of members,
to be sent.
In the facsimile
of the Charter of the Chapter of Prince Masons (P.R.S.) at Kingston,
is, or was, in the Enoch T. Carson collection, and which Chapter was
Stephen Morin on April 30, 1770, and of which Henry A. Francken is
given as the
first member and which is signed by Morin, it is expressly stated in
itself that it is issued in conformity with the Regulations adopted by
Commissioners at Berlin, Prussia. This is official document number two.
Letter of Solomon Bush
is taken from the records of the Sublime Lodge of Perfection at
given in Sachse's "Ancient Scottish Rite Documents," and which records
are still in the possession of the Scottish Rite bodies of that city.
This is the
famous letter of Col. Solomon Bush, Thrice Puissant Grand Master of the
Lodge of Perfection, who writes an official letter for the lodge in
1785 to Frederick,
King of Prussia, as the head of the Order to which the Philadelphia
Lodge of Perfection
belonged. [Sachse, Anc. S. R. Documents, page 80.]
In this letter
to Frederick, as head of the Order to which the lodge of which he was
he, as Master, said that he was enclosing with this letter, "Agreeable
rules of the Grand Councils, a list of the members of our lodge in the
form." These words "in the prescribed form" are the strongest possible
evidence not only that Col. Bush knew what the form was, that was
the Supreme Council of which Frederick, King of Prussia, was the head,
that the Philadelphia Lodge of Perfection knew that it was connected
with an Order
whose headquarters were in Berlin. It is identical in its purport with
by Francken to the Albany Lodge of Perfection to send a list of its
Col. Bush, the Revolutionary hero, well known in Philadelphia, where he
captured by the British, was a Deputy Grand Inspector General of the
Order for Pennsylvania,
as is stated in his recital of his standing in that letter, and known
to Frederick as one of his leading officials in America working under
him, and he
necessarily would know who was the head of the Order, of which he was
one of the
leading officials in America. At this very time, Baron von Steuben was
(much of the time trying to get Congress to settle his accounts) and
he, as a military
man, would know his comrade in arms with the romantic history, and as
former Adjutant General and likewise a Mason, would have quickly
Bush if Frederick had not been the head of the Rite to which the
of Perfection belonged. It is incredible to believe that a lodge could
not know where its main headquarters were and who was the head of the
Order to which
it belonged. On Nov. 2, 1785, the records of the lodge, as given by
Documents], read as follows:
On Motion that a Committee be
appointed to write
to the Grand Council at Berlin and Paris, informing them of the
this Sublime Lodge and of the names of the several Members who compose
and their several degrees. It was ordered that the following be a
that purpose, viz.: Charles Young, John Vannost, P. Lebarbier Duplissis
Thrice Puissant, and such Committee were earnestly requested to have
prepared against the next meeting that the same may be signed by the
& transmitted as soon as possible.
On Nov. 5,
1785, there was the following entry:
The Thrice Puisst., as one of
the Committee appointed
at our last meeting to write to the Grand Council at Berlin and Paris,
the lodge that the said Committee had gone upon the business but were
ready but would make report the next meeting.
On Nov. 8,
1785, there is the following in the minutes:
The Committee appointed to
write to the Grand
Council at Berlin and Paris reported a draft of a letter to the Grand
Berlin, which being read the same was approved and the Secretary was
make out a fair copy of the same to be transmitted to the Grand Council
alone is proof positive that the headquarters for the Lodges of
at Berlin and that they were subordinate to the Grand Council at that
city. On Dec.
7, 1785, there was the following minute:
At a Sublime Lodge of
Perfection held at Black
Horse Alley; fair copy of the letter to the Grand Council of Berlin was
by the Secretary agreeable to the order of the last Meeting. Which
being read the
same was ordered to be entered upon the Minutes and is as follows:
the letter on the Minutes.]
four different entries, on different meeting nights and more than a
in which it is four times asserted that the letter is to be sent to the
of Berlin. Why should anyone doubt that this lodge knew the body to
which it owed
person who has read the peculiar phraseology of the Scottish Rite
diplomas, patents, such as those to Morin, Francken, Hays and Forst,
and will carefully
read the above letter, cannot help but admit that Col. Bush knew that
was the head of the Order of which he was the Deputy Grand Inspector
"Illustrious Chief of the Grand Council of Masons," "In what manner
shall I express myself to the glorious and renowned Frederick," "Your
generous Presidency over the Two Hemispheres at the Great East of
"Our Great Thrice Puissant and Grand Commander," "Beloved Brethren
in Council convened at the Great East in Berlin," "remote as we are
the Great East of Berlin," "Great Light of Berlin," "Most Respectable
Sovereign," repeat over and over that there was a Grand Council at
which the Lodge of Perfection at Philadelphia was subordinate, and the
Frederick as its head.
Value of the Evidence
It is affirmative
official documentary evidence whose effect cannot be destroyed. It
positive documentary evidence to the contrary, of equal force, to
official statements of these three different bodies of the Rite at
Jamaica and Philadelphia, who were subordinates of this great secret
of which Frederick was the recognized head. Edgar Alien Poe in his
in the Rue Morgue" goes into the almost overwhelming percentage or
probability when three persons testify to a fact. Here are three
official and documentary
statements, besides a world of tradition and hearsay evidence, that the
the Rite was in Prussia, and in one case Frederick, King of Prussia, is
saluted and distinctly addressed as such in an official communication
from a subordinate
Lodge of Perfection. There is no documentary evidence that he was not.
no difference whether there ever was a reply to this letter. The fact
was written to Frederick as the head of the Order to which they
belonged and was
entered in full on the minutes of a Lodge of Perfection, which minutes
are now in
existence and in the possession of the Scottish Rite bodies of
in his Historical Inquiry, page 170, says, in regard to the
Constitutions of 1786,
something which may be again quoted as to these minutes:
In law, documents of great age,
found in the
possession of those interested under them, to whom they rightfully
belong and with
whom they might naturally be expected to be found, are admitted in
proof, to establish title or facts. They prove themselves, and to be
be disproved by evidence. There is no evidence against the genuineness
In the same
manner, there is no evidence that Frederick was not the head of the
Rite of Perfection,
changed into the Scottish Rite by the Constitutions of 1786, and there
documentary evidence that he was the head. In the June issue of THE
161, it is said in Lantoine's article, "Certain discords which
arose in Germany in 1782 inspired him with fear lest Masonry become the
anarchy." This is a condensation of a statement in the Constitutions of
itself. Pike, in his Historical Inquiry, page 158, quotes the preface
to the Constitutions
at some length, from which we may only take the following as from that
"Recent and urgent
of late have reached us from every quarter, have satisfied us of the
of erecting a strong barrier against that spirit of intolerance,
and anarchy, which late innovators are busily laboring to introduce
among the brethren
‒ which by changing the nature of the true art of Freemasonry,
to lead it astray and thus may bring the Order into general contempt
and lead to
its extinction. And we, advised of WHAT IS NOW PASSING IN THE
cannot but admit the existence of this urgent and pressing necessity."
these passages faithfully describe the condition of things existing in
in Germany in 1786, the perversion of its forms and ceremonies to the
the Illuminati and the disturbances and troubles called by the latter
Order in Bavaria
and elsewhere; as well as the supposed and firmly believed, possession
of the Rite
of Strict Observance by the Jesuits. A forger after the French
never have thought of assigning these particular reasons.
mystification and alleged swindling which took place in Germany, in
the suppression of these orders in Bavaria, and all the disturbances
relates in detail, thoroughly disgusted the Germans, and the French
Napoleon completed the work. They now look with shame on the higher
reminders of their former disgrace, and wish to deny that there was
else in Germany but the three degrees. It is folly to stick one's head
in the sand,
ostrich-like, and deny historical facts. Gould had the assistance of
scholars, and he says the "Premier Chapter of Clermont" was organized
in Berlin, in 1758, and exists there to this day, as an adjunct "To the
Globes" Grand Lodge. Perhaps Lantoine can explain this, as the Grand
attempted to explain the origin of the Nuremberg alleged Masonic
the Rising Sun," which was organized, with its approval, as a Grand
recent years by men who were not only not representing constituent
lodges but some
of whom were not even Masons.
In THE BUILDER
for May, 1920, page 120, there is a quotation from Albert G. Mackey
Royal and Select Masters Degrees in which he said:
The degrees belong of right to
the Supreme Council
of the 33rd Degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, and the claim
to them has
never been abandoned by that body. At the establishment of the Grand
Princes of Jerusalem in Charleston, S. C., on the 20th February, 1788,
M. Myers, Barend M. Spitzer and A. Forst, Deputy Inspectors General of
II of Prussia. Myers deposited in the archives of the Council certified
the said degrees from Berlin in Prussia. Copies of these degrees are
in the archives of the Supreme Council.
was the Secretary of this Supreme Council, he should know. His honesty
been questioned, so far as I know.
Dove was an honored Protestant minister in Richmond who was for years
of the Grand Lodge and of the Royal Arch Chapter. In the book, Jews and
before 1810 [Lib 1910], by S.Oppenheim, page 50, it
is stated that
he was one of those who received the higher degrees from Joseph M.
Myers. Dove says
in his History of the Grand Lodge of Virginia:
"It was fortunate for Masonry
Da Costa and Myers who had been appointed through Frederick the Second
on the mission
of Masonic propagandism in America, 'were Israelites and well-educated
no need for further quotation. Books could be written with the hearsay
and tradition that Frederick II, King of Prussia, was the head of the
became the Scottish Rite on May 1, 1786. We have given written
that cannot be denied.
to the writer that we will have to form in America our own school of
by the prejudices and theories that sway the French, German and English
It is hard to understand those Masonic writers who only accept what
they want to
believe and try to belittle and get around official documents to the
motto should be, "Follow the Truth," no matter where it leads. If we
from the official records, that Frederick II was the head of the Rite,
that is now
the Scottish Rite, to which the bodies belonged, what of it? Why try to
it; away? What is the motive?
We are slowly
obtaining more information on all Masonic subjects, and much more is
due to come
out in the next few years if we approach these subjects in a spirit of
only seeking to know the facts and without desiring to bolster up some
theories or prejudices. Above all, let us not denounce those facts as
which we do not want to believe or that are against us.
Rose Croix Chapter at Arras
Bro. A. L. Kress, Pennsylvania
to time reference is made to a legendary Rose Croix Chapter supposed to
founded by Prince Charles Edward Stuart at Arras, France, about
of the Jacobite legend in Freemasonry as well as writers upon the
history of the
"higher degrees" are particularly prone to cite the traditional account
given by Thory. This appeared in THE BUILDER May, 1925, page 148.
be of interest to set down here what another French Masonic historian
has to say
about the thing. J. E. Daruty, in his excellent "Recherches sur le Rite
[Lib*], 1879, page 174 (footnote) says, in referring to Thory's version
of the charter:
"But this text presents several
from that of the copy discovered by M. le Comte du Hamel, whose
be doubted since M. le Comte d'Hericourt ‒ a distinguished archeologist
who in a
letter printed April 9, 1853, by the Athenaeum Francais, No. 15, has
refuted the objections raised to his proposal ‒ tells us 'some
in the city of Arras have identified their fathers' signatures at the
the paper and these signatures are identical with those found among the
preserved in the departmental archives.' The text reproduced by Thory
date Thursday, 15th day of the 2nd month 1747… This date is erroneous;
1747, falls on Saturday; the date given by du Hamel, on the other hand,
with the calendar of 1745, the 15th of April, 1745, corresponding with
the day given,
Thursday. Two other established facts, moreover, prove Thory's date an
the copyist: 1st, he says himself this Scottish Jacobite Chapter was
formed in 1745;
2nd, May 28, 1845, the Chapter of Arras, Valley of Paris, celebrated
anniversary of the founding of the metropolitan chapter. Finally we
know from Bro.
Woodford that Charles Edward Stuart had been made a Knight Templar
Sept. 24, 1745,
at Holy Rood Palace, Edinburgh, and from 'A Winter with Robert Burns,'
[Lib 1846] page 54, that the same day he
elected and installed Grand Master of the Royal Order. If the charter
was actually dated 1747, the prince would not have failed to add these
those he enumerated and to pose as installed Grand Master. He was
content to say:
'We, Charles Edward Stuart, pretender king, etc., and in this quality
the Chapter, etc."'
we have a case where two French historians do not agree. Each claims to
an authentic copy of the famous charter but the two copies are far from
The best advice we can give present day writers who are tempted to
repeat one version
or the other is to consider the legend as a sort of pious fraud, unless
can produce facts to substantiate the story. As far as we are
concerned, we should
be satisfied with nothing less than a photostat copy of the original
it is in existance. Thory said it was carefully guarded in the archives
of the Lodge
La Constance at Arras. Any document which purports to show such titles
as Knight of the Eagle and Pelican were in use in 1745 or 1747 can be
suspicion. We have a right to expect something more from our brothers
who wish to
write Masonic history today, than that they shall indiscriminately
substantiation, such 18th century tales as this.
Bro. William M. Stuart,
heir presumptive to the Scottish Earl of Stirling, participated in the
insurrection of 1716, and when the cause failed fled to the colony of
where he arrived in 1716. Here he married the widow of David Prevoost
the father of a son, born in New York City in 1726.
William Alexander, achieved fame in American history and was present at
one of the
most dramatic episodes in the bloody story of the Republic. He
participated in the
French and Indian War and later accompanied General Shirley to England,
resorted to law in order to have the title Earl of Stirling restored to
he was unsuccessful in this, it was generally conceded that it was his
he was almost invariably addressed as Lord Stirling.
to America in 1761, married the daughter of Philip Livingston and built
at Baskenridge, N. J. For several years he was a member of the
of New Jersey, and in 1775 was appointed colonel of the first regiment
When the revolution broke out he espoused the cause of America and was
by Congress, in March, 1776, a Brigadier-General of the Continental
Line. He was
at that time fifty years of age and a Master Mason.
William Howe made his descent on Long Island, in August, 1776, with
British troops, Lord Stirling was placed in command of the right wing
of the American
army, under General Putnam, which, from the heights of Brooklyn,
endeavored to defend
the approach to the city in that direction. Putnam's entire force did
the leaders of the American army in and about New York City at this
time were Masons.
Washington's affiliation with the Craft is too well known to need
General Nathanael Greene, who, until he was taken ill, commanded the
Long Island, was a Mason. His successor, Israel Putnam, was of the
John Sullivan, who commanded the left of the army on Brooklyn Heights,
the first Grand Master of Masons in New Hampshire. General Hand,
center, was a Mason. We have already noted that Lord Stirling, who led
right wing, was a brother of the Mystic Tie. The regiment of picked men
which bulks large in this story, was commanded by Colonel Smallwood, a
battalion of this organization was led by Major Mordecai Gist, later
Master of a
military lodge, and eventually Grand Master of Masons in South
Nathan Hale, of the 19th Continental Foot, at about this time
dispatched on the
trip that was to earn for him immortality, had recently been made a
Mason in St.
John's Regimental Lodge, one of the ten military lodges in the American
Masons were on guard at this time of national peril.
the morning of Aug. 27 General Putnam was informed that the left wing
of the British
army, under the command of General Grant, was advancing up the road
that led from
the Narrows along the shore of the bay. Accordingly Old Put at once
Stirling with a force of 1500 men to oppose this offensive. Stirling's
of three regiments from Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland, commanded
by Colonels Atlee, Haslet and Bro. Smallwood. It was three o'clock when
started and by daybreak it had crossed a creek which empties into
Gowanus Bay, and
to the west of what is now Greenwood Cemetery met Grant's advance
the dusty road.
formed his line with Atlee on the left of Martense's lane, while the
rest of his
troops he placed at the right of the main road on the slope of a little
stationed two fieldpieces in position to sweep the road and waited for
leader advanced his troops to an orchard about one hundred and fifty
Stirling's line and began volley firing. His cannon also opened upon
and the mists of early morning were soon obscured by clouds of powder
parties were eventually driven back and he then formed his heavy
columns on the
slopes of the hills, about six hundred yards away, and continued the
by artillery. He did not display any great desire to close, and many of
soldiers in the American army attributed his hesitancy to fear. An
afterward wrote concerning this part of the battle:
stood upwards of four hours with a firm and determined countenance in
their colors flying, the enemy's artillery playing on them all the
while not daring
to advance and attack them, though six times their number and nearly
this officer realize that Grant's mission was merely to amuse
Stirling's men until
such time as the British right should force the pass held by Bro.
surround the entire American army and work ruin to the patriot cause.
That the British
were not entirely successful was owing to some other things over which
As the young
American soldiers stood there in their pride and looked scornfully upon
the most conspicuous part of the line was the Maryland regiment
commanded by Colonel
Smallwood. This corps was garbed in smart uniforms of scarlet and buff,
wore their hair long and twisted into a queue which they kept well
were better armed and better drilled than most of the ragged patriot
they shaved EVERY DAY. Hence this regiment, composed as it was of young
the best families of Maryland, had been scornfully dubbed "The
In the eighteenth century "Macaroni" was the equivalent for the modern
were the flower of Maryland, and though they well knew the contempt in
were held by the yeomanry of New England, they stood this hot August
the slope of the little hill, their colors flapping in the breeze,
their drums throbbing,
and waited like gentlemen unafraid for the attack of the enemy.
Many of those
men were Master Masons, and it is but anticipating a little to state
that in the
battle of Long Island, American Unity Regimental Lodge alone had two
and eight taken prisoner, including the Worshipful Master, while in the
invading army twenty military lodges were represented. Masonry was much
on both sides during the war of the Revolution.
And so while
the sun climbed toward meridian and the day grew hot the desultory
Stirling and Grant dragged along. Then about noon Stirling heard off
left a tremendous burst of cannonading and musketry. Heavy masses of
up into the clear sky. The roar of battle came nearer, converging
Creek which was behind his line.
was not only being flanked, he was being surrounded.
If he were
to lead his force from the trap in which it had been placed he must be
it. It was obvious that the American left had been rolled up and
only course was now to march his brigade across the creek which was
spanned by a
bridge and a milldam, and which could be forded at low tide. The tide
was now beginning
to come in.
some detachments to skirmish with Grant and cover the retreat, Lord
his little force back along the road down which he had advanced that
his columns started he heard toward the northeast two timed cannon
shots ‒ a signal.
And as he came in sight of the old Cortelyou house, which was near the
Bower's Mill, he saw the sheen of scarlet, a forest of bayonets. He was
cut off from the creek!
leading his division along a cross road, had attained Stirling's rear,
signal for Grant to advance, and himself was marching straight toward
column. Stirling acted with promptness. He knew that the occasion
demanded a sacrifice.
If he could drive Cornwallis back up the road and clear the entrance to
most of the surrounded brigade could escape across the creek. Could
mortal men roll
back that overwhelming force in front? If any were to escape, it must
at least be
tried. Already Grant's men were charging.
gave his directions to the various colonels, then, turning to the first
of Smallwood's Maryland regiment, which battalion was commanded by Bro.
said, as he waved his sword toward the dense masses of Cornwallis'
forward ‒ charge!"
With a loud
shout the despised Macaronis leveled their bayonets and advanced with
close behind the horse of the dauntless brigadier. Their gaudy uniforms
in the fierce sunlight, some of the boyish faces were drawn and white,
but upon all was the look of resolution begotten of that indefinable
of Cornwallis halted, deployed into line. Came a burst of fire and a
cloud of eddying
smoke that for a moment concealed the ranks of the King's Grenadiers.
Many of the
Macaronis crumpled and sprawled grotesquely in the dust. But "Forward!"
shouted Lord Stirling. "Gentlemen, charge!"
And so along
the road with trailed arms ran the flower of Maryland. They struck the
Bayonets crossed, gunbutts thudded, oaths, grunts, yells sounded
the fog of dust and powder smoke men lunged, fell, retreated a pace,
to the attack. But the pressure of the heavy British line was too much.
the road the Marylanders were forced, disputing every inch. They
rallied and charged
again more fiercely than before. When they started their first attack
400 strong; but not now. Back on a hill within the American line His
General Washington, gazed anxiously through his glass. "Good God!" he
murmured, "what brave men I must lose this day!"
had noted Stirling's danger before the brigadier became aware that he
surrounded, but could not warn him. The commander-in-chief had thought
would surrender his entire brigade when he saw there was no hope. But
now that swirling
cloud of dust, interspersed with points of gleaming steel, in the road
Greenwood hill gave evidence what manner of men were those who were
the doughty brigadier to save the rest of the detachment.
regiment and the Pennsylvanians, taking advantage of the fierce
to splash across the creek into which the tide was setting fast. The
mostly attained the American line, covered with mud and slime, their
flag in shreds,
but bringing with them a few prisoners.
Back on the
south side of Gowanus Creek the fight of the Macaronis still continued.
strove with the troops of Cornwallis in front, the bullets of Grant's
men were sweeping
into their backs. Outnumbered ten to one, they still fought that their
And now they
succeeded in forcing Cornwallis back. The way to the bridgehead was
this avenue of escape surged more of the fugitive brigade. It began to
look as though
Cornwallis would be driven clear off the field. Around old Cortelyou
house men lay
in grisly heaps. The Marylanders were paying the price. But they paid
regret. And they exacted full toll in return. Never had the regulars of
met on the field of battle men like unto these youths known to their
To the hard
pressed Lord Cornwallis came reinforcements. His incipient retreat was
men surged forward. Fierce, inflamed faces burst out of the smoke all
Gist's battalion. Lord Stirling, who had been encouraging his men with
action, now roared in tones heard above the turmoil that the soldiers
to their own safety and effect their retreat if possible. The fierce
had been raging over twenty minutes. Most of the brigade had made their
the field. But now the entrance to the bridge was again closed by
masses of scarlet.
the road over which they had surged many times the remnant of Gist's
toward a patch of woods that seemed to offer sanctuary. They attained
dressed their line. The erstwhile brilliant uniforms were torn and
dust and blood, bayonets were bent or broken, youthful faces disfigured
and bruises. They were few now, but still undismayed. Taking stock of
they raised a cheer and again charged with the bayonet at the
young, these American soldiers, full of enthusiasm and love of the
cause. They came
of the oldest and most honored families in Maryland ‒ a proud state.
They were overpowered,
outnumbered many times, but they served the purpose for which their
called them. They could foresee their fate, but determined to make a
fine end. Never
again should the British say that Americans would not fight.
And so with
resolution writ on their boyish faces and cheers on their lips, they
and again most gallantly into the ruck of scarlet and steel. Some were
a cornfield and there bayoneted, fighting desperately to the last. Back
on the hill
within the American lines Bro. Washington gazed sadly at them through
and marveled withal at their courage.
At last Lord
Stirling, having done all that was humanly possible, sought out the
De Heister and surrendered. Of the 400 men he had led on that forlorn
lay dead on the field of honor while every survivor was wounded!
was the first battalion of "The Macaronis'' mustered out.
Masonry Doing For Intellectual Progress?
This is a
question more frequently asked than Masons generally suppose, and in
this age of
vigorous thought and mental activity, when every association of men is
the acquisition of knowledge, it becomes a question of great moment to
There is something more needed than mere ceremony, venerable and
imposing as it
may be, to commend the Order to the favorable regard of the present
and utilitarian age. Cui bono, to what good? That is the question
the social and intellectual progress of the age requires a response.
school teacher were to sit all day, and every day, at his table,
with his compasses, drawing right lines with rule, or building up
with peculiarly shaped blocks of wood, without one word of explanation;
he at the same time repeated a certain formula of words ‒ always the
same ‒ as explanatory
of his problems, what would be the result on the minds of his pupils?
not very soon conclude that their teacher was the fossilized remains of
automaton, and of fully as much use as the green bird in the cage which
words it hears other repeat?
is certain, if Masonry does not keep pace with humanity, in its moral
achievements, it will be left behind in the general progress of our
race, or stowed
away in some collection of the curiosities of antiquity. We do not say
it is necessary
for Masonry to change its essential or distinctive features; this it
need not ‒
cannot ‒ do, but it must adapt itself to the altered condition of the
it, and make its power and influence felt in other ways than hewing
stone and squaring
recurs, what shall we do? Shall we go on to confer degrees, open and
close our lodges
‒ traveling on the same perpetual round ‒ maintaining the form but
the spirit of the Order? Or shall we catch the inspiration of the age,
off the incubus that has weighed us to the earth, start anew in the
race for usefulness
suffer the noble energies with which nature has gifted us to waste and
useless indolence, the tremendous power for weal that our brotherhood
to slumber in inactivity? No! Shall we not rather gather all the powers
of our soul,
all the strength and confidence that a noble fraternity can give, and
with an earnest
will and self-sacrificing devotion, bend them all to the great purpose
intellectual progress and the moral improvement of our race? [The
J. Meekren Editor-In-Charge
Problems to be Solved
ON a following
page will be found a statement of the President of the N.M.T.S.A.,
purpose of the approaching meeting of the Board of Governors of the
and the questions that will have to be discussed and in some measure
a definite policy can be adopted. It will be seen that they are many,
and reed much
careful thought in order to arrive at the best, that is, the most
all arises the scope of the relief to be attempted. That decided the
ways and means. Much is to be said in favor of local treatment and the
use of existing
agencies, one great advantage being that relief can begin at once
outlay. On the other hand there is the consensus of expert opinion that
treatment is more efficient and successful. In addition to which is the
effect of having institutions of our own, which is always great and not
by any means
to be ignored.
It is very
possible that a combination of the two is the better way. A point has
by a prominent Mason, who we hope will be at the meeting, which might
later on if not foreseen and provided for, and that is the allocation
of beds in
any sanatoria to be erected (or the distribution of relief, if that
method be employed)
as between different jurisdictions. Of course the Craft should be as
one in such
a matter, as theoretically it is, but actually it is divided into many
units, most of them officially very punctilious about their rights and
as such. What if one helped less than others and wanted more assistance
own members? It would be only the present state of affairs spread over
a wide area.
Up till now the three jurisdictions who have fewest cases of their own
trying to relieve those of the rest of the country. It would seem
however that the
only really fraternal way is for all to contribute pro rata, and to
as it is needed, regarding Masonry in this matter as a solid unit
the N. M. T. S. A.
the greatest problem of all, the finding the necessary means. Without
that the whole
thing must remain visionary, a scheme on paper. This question is
doubtless the one
that everybody concerned will have considered most carefully and
not be touched on here. Only we feel that there is no doubt whatever
that the great
majority of Masons will gladly contribute each his share if they all be
that it is well and economically applied to the end in view.
* * *
effort in the modern manner of writing poetry, generally and
"free verse," appeared in the Northeast Corner for October, the
sheet of the N.M.T.S.A. Whatever judgment might be passed upon it as
art, so far
as the Craft in this country is concerned, it has a certain "kick":
I USED to
AT YOU and make poor
JOKES AT your expense
WHEN YOU marched by
IN A PARADE, with your
TIN AXES on your
YOUR MODEST uniforms and
I FELT VERY superior and
SOMETHING LIKE that
PHARISEE OF old who
THOUGHT HIMSELF better
THAN OTHER men for you
WERE ONLY the
WOODMEN OF THE WORLD
AND I a Freemason and
I THOUGHT of you as
JUST a cheap imitation
OF THE greatest and
OLDEST FRATERNITY in the
WORLD, THE Ancient and
ACCEPTED ORDER of Free
MASONS, THE noblest
BROTHERHOOD of all.
BUT NOW I hang my head
IN SHAME and I want to
PUBLICLY apologize to
YOU AND TELL the world
HOW YOU ARE taking care
OF YOUR consumptive
BRETHREN IN a great
SANATORIUM in San Antonio,
SOME OF whom are also
MASONS AND our brethren
WHOM WE have neglected
AND YOU are restoring
SICK HUSBANDS and fathers
TO WIVES and Kiddies
WHILE WE Freemasons are
SPENDING MILLIONS of DOLLARS
TO BUILD marble palaces
IN WHICH we meet just
ONCE IN A while. . .
ago the writer attended the funeral of a member of his lodge, an old
and much respected
Past Master. There was a large attendance though it was a cold and
day in Northern Vermont. The deceased was not only a Mason but a member
fraternal organizations. There was in addition to the Masons a large
Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias, and with them a little handful of
the World, who took the place of least honor in the procession. It was
that many of us even knew that they were established in the vicinity;
and the present
writer's feelings were exactly those described in the quotation above.
had sent a magnificent wreath and two other Masonic lodges had sent
So also had the Odd Fellows and the Knights of Pythias. If the Woodmen
any they were so insignificant they were not noticed.
brother was a well-to-do farmer who in his later years had retired to
live in a
little country village. The writer learned afterwards from a near
during his last illness it was Woodmen who arranged to come every day
and do chores,
shovel snow, get in wood, feed the horse and cow, go errands to the
store; and at
the last it was Woodmen who took turns to sit up at night with the
dying man and
give his wife some time to sleep. Not a single Mason went to see him;
not one offered
of course some reason for this. The Woodmen's organization was right in
the other bodies were all in the town some seven or eight miles away.
were bad and so on. Still we had little reason to feel superior and
scorn the "tin
axes" and blue overalls. We also apologize.
* * *
ago, it was last March to be precise, we suggested that one thing a
in the tuberculosis campaign could do was to write to his Grand Master
influential members of his Grand Lodge. Since then a good deal has been
question has entered, what in the profane world would be known as the
field of "live
politics." It is now realized apparently by the rulers and leaders of
both official and unofficial, that there is a crying need, a need that
if not now
a disgrace, will be certainly if it continues, and there appears now to
be a well-grounded
hope that something will be done. The Masonic press of the country has
part, very few of our periodicals have ignored the matter altogether,
even the smallest,
while many have devoted considerable space to the subject.
Yet the battle
is by no means won, the problems of finance, and perhaps still more of
remain to be solved, and at every step there will be occasion for the
and the inert to say it is impossible to go on. On the meeting to be
held on the
nineteenth of this month a great deal depends. The Board of Governors
of the Association
is very largely, or almost entirely, an official organization, as
reference to the
list on a following page will show. Fourteen of the twenty-five are
Masters, six are Past Grand Masters, and three are Grand Wardens. Now
it is obvious
that men in official positions, and burdened by the responsibilities of
cannot act with the freedom they might otherwise wish to do. They
cannot agree to
go further than they feel sure of the backing of their own Grand Lodge,
of the members of the subordinate lodges of their respective
is where the individual brother can do much to strengthen their hands.
no more than to write a letter expressing belief in the necessity of
and promise of support. A member of the Board who goes to the meeting
fifty or a hundred such letters cannot but feel differently about
Instead of having to pull those behind him, he will already feel them
the surmounting of the final obstacles.
* * *
DO they come
true? Sometimes, perhaps. One much discussed school of psychology
as fulfillments of wishes that the world of reality denies, and that
when one comes
to think of it is very much what we mean in common usage when we speak
are not all of one sort. The visions of poets and prophets are not to
classed with the confused phantasies of the night, yet they too may be
for what might be if men and the world came nearer to the heart's
that the Divine will might be done on earth as in Heaven.
comes a strange story, one that raises wonder. Brief and bald as it is
like the motif of a fairy story or a romance. One would like to know
this man with a fantastic dream; but probably he was only a little
128 be goes by in the lists of the N.M.T.S.A., and he hailed from the
streams of Maine. A contrast rather to the bare rocks and mountains and
valleys of the land of his search. Thus runs the record:
lived in Arizona for 35 years, living in the open for the most part,
in hopes that some day he would strike it rich and be able to build a
to take care of afflicted Masons. Died destitute in a hospital in
Phoenix in August,
1926. Arizona Lodge, No. 2, gave him a Masonic funeral, bearing all
prospector seeking gold and health, dying at last destitute. It might
more in keeping had he died alone in the desert and that, like Moses,
no man should
have known his sepulchre.
Had he struck
it rich his vision might have been made a reality, who knows? Wealth
often enough, and we all too easily forget. And if it had been so it
brought a beautiful dream down to earth and clipped its wings, and
enclosed it in
a shell of bricks and mortar to be part of the commonplace every-day
often greater than success, it depends on the aim in view. The way to
great achievements has been paved with failure and defeat. This
pilgrimage in the
desert for thirty-five years has brought him to the Great Asylum ‒ and
he has entered
into silence. There are other sources of wealth than the gold of the
sands and the
silver in the rocks. Will the tale prove an "open Sesame" to the hearts
of his brethren? If it were so then might his dream after all at last
of the National
Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association
by Authority of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, A.F. & A.M.
AND BOARD OF GOVERNORS
HERBERT B. HOLT, Grand Master, President
JAFFA MILLER, Vice-President
RICHARD H. HANNA, Vice-President
ALPHEUS A. KEEN, Secretary
FRANCIS E LESTER, Executive Secretary, Las Cruces, New Mexico
JOHN W. TURNER, Treasurer
ARIZONA ‒ Lloyd C. Henning, Holbrook.
ARKANSAS ‒ Claude L. Hill, Grand Master, Booneville.
CONNECTICUT ‒ Fred A. Borland, Past Grand Master, South Manchester.
FLORIDA ‒ Cary B. Fish, Grand Master, Sarasota.
IDAHO ‒ Will H. Gibson, Grand Master, Boise.
KENTUCKY ‒ G. Allison Holland, Grand Master, Lexington.
MINNESOTA ‒ Albert F. Pray, Grand Master, Minneapolis,
MISSISSIPPI ‒ John R. Tally, Grand Master, Hattiesburg.
MISSOURI ‒ Wm. W. Martin, Grand Master, Daniphan
NEW JERSEY ‒ Benjamin F. Havens, Junior Grand Warden, Trenton.
NEW MEXICO ‒ Herbert B. Holt, Grand Master, Las Cruces.
NORTH CAROLINA ‒ Dr. J. C. Braswell, Past Grand Master, Whitakers.
OKLAHOMA ‒ Gilbert B. Bristow, Past Grand Master, Roosevelt.
RHODE ISLAND ‒ Howard Knight, Past Grand Master, Providence.
SOUTH CAROLINA ‒ Charlton DuRant, Grand Master, Manning
SOUTH DAKOTA ‒ L. M. Simons, Grand Master, Bellefourche.
TENNESSEE ‒ Andrew E. McCullagh, Grand Master, Maryville.
TEXAS ‒ Dr. Felix P. Miller, El Paso.
UTAH ‒ Fred M. Nye, Ogden.
VERMONT ‒ Christie B. Crowell, Grand Master, Brattleboro.
NORTH DAKOTA ‒ Dr. J. S. Lamont, Dunseith.
WASHINGTON ‒ Morton Gregory, Grand Master, Masonic Temple, Tacoma.
WlSCONSIN ‒ Fred L. Wright, Past Senior Grand Warden, Milwaukee.
WYOMING ‒ Frank S. Knittle, Grand Master, Casper.
ORDER OF THE EASTERN STAR, GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER ‒ Mrs. Clara Henrich,
Grand Matron, Newport, Ky.
ROBERT J NEWTON Editor Publicity Director N. M, T. S. A. Las Cruces New
Herbert B. Holt, of New Mexico, president of the National Masonic
Association, in reference to the meeting of the Board of Governors of
at the Hotel Sherman, Chicago, on Nov. 19, at 10 a. in., which is to
plans and policies of the Association in carrying on its work, makes
We have called
this meeting at this time and place in order to save time and expense
for our Board
members and others interested in this movement. The contemplated annual
of Grand Masters, and the meeting of the Masonic Service Association,
to be held
in Chicago during the same week, will bring together the leaders of
Jurisdiction. The problem of Masonic tubercular relief will doubtless
in both of these gatherings and the members of the Sanatoria
Association Board who
are charged with the duty of planning for relief of our consumptive
a national scale, and for the financing of that work, will have the
benefit of the
views and opinions of Masonic leaders from all parts of the country.
to determine the size of our problem, one of the first things we shall
have to decide
is just how far we shall go in the care of sick Masons and members of
Shall relief be limited to Master Masons only or shall we also aid a
in the care of his sick wife or a sick child? Shall we help him in the
care of a
sick relative who is dependent upon him for support?
shall this relief work take? Shall we give relief in the home, shall we
our sick in existing institutions, or shall we limit our work to the
of Masonic Sanatoria and the care of our sick therein?
If we give
home relief, how shall it be administered? Shall we, where necessary,
compensation to sick Masons and their families to add to the family
income the few
dollars needful to give the patient nourishing food, to help pay the
rent and take
care of other needs? Shall we arrange for him to secure medical
attention by the
physicians of tuberculosis clinics? Shall we secure for him the
services of tuberculosis
visiting nurses, employed by tuberculosis societies and health
we also secure physical examination and medical attention for the
members of his
family, especially the children, to safeguard them against the
development of the
arrange with existing tuberculosis hospitals for his care and treatment
for same? Shall we also arrange for hospital and institutional care for
of his family to save them from tuberculosis?
If we determine
to build one or more Masonic Sanatoria, where shall they be built? What
the approximate size and cost of same? How much will it cost to operate
If we undertake
all or part of the work as outlined above, how much will it cost, and
we raise the money to carry it on? How much will it cost each
and what is the most economical way of securing his assistance for his
How can the large sums needful for Masonic tubercular relief be
from the 3,250,000 American Freemasons, living in forty-nine Grand
at a minimum of expense for collection?
the principal questions to be answered by the members of our Board.
They need and
they ask the advice and assistance of their brethren in the solution of
We invite our interested brethren to communicate their views on these
All such correspondence should be addressed to Francis F. Lester,
by George W.
George W. Graham, Chairman of the House of Representatives Committee on
and Past Grand Master of Pennsylvania, writes as follows:
You ask for
an expression of opinion upon the plan which the Grand Lodge of New
Mexico has inaugurated
for the relief and hospitalization of consumptive Masons.
I think the
need for such aid is pressing. I regard the plan as most commendable
and well worth
the support of the Masonic fraternity throughout the country.
Ariz., Has Tuberculous
Grand Lodge of Illinois.
No. 2, recently made a report to the National Masonic Tuberculosis
on the number of T B Masons and relatives of Masons in and about that
also gave a brief report on the condition of a limited number of them.
We give a
few of these. reports as follows:
for Lack of Hospital Care
Grand Lodge of Illinois.
wife was ordered to go to the hospital for an operation on her lungs to
cure. He was unable financially to send her and appealed to his home
refused him the help needed. Arizona Lodge, No. 2, Phoenix, came to his
furnished the necessary funds. She had the operation at St. Joseph's
never rallied. Proper hospitalization would have undoubtedly saved her
for her husband
Help for Him
Grand Lodge of Iowa.
Phoenix about Dec. 1, 1925, in a wheeled chair, being in the employ of
Express service out of Omaha, Neb., he was able to secure R. R. passes
and wife. Resources gave out Jan. 15, after wife became ill, and were
by Arizona Lodge, No. 2, and after considerable wiring to his lodge and
Charity Fund of Iowa, Arizona Lodge, No. 2, finally got them on a basis
of $35 per
month from the Grand Charity Fund of Iowa which, together with the
for Mrs. ____ at the local telephone office, made, it possible for them
The climatic conditions improved the brother's health considerably and
now gone to Colorado where he expects to try to do his old work and
retain his seniority
rights. Recent word states that he will have to return to Phoenix in
order to get
the benefit derived from Arizona's dry climate and sunshine. Several
hospitalization would no doubt effect a cure.
T B Wife
and T B Brother-in-Law
Grand Lodge of Missouri.
Wife T B.
Came about Jan. 1, 1926. Have a daughter 10 years old. Also accompanied
his wife and two children. Brother-in-law not Masonic but a T B, Bro.
main support of whole family. After using all his own resources, making
by disposing of everything, relinquishing insurance (industrial)
carried up n himself,
wife and child, finally appealed to Arizona Lodge No. 2, who assisted
further assistance from his home lodge until Arizona, No. 2, finally
was able to
get employment for him.
Supports Illinois Brother
Grand Lodge of Illinois.
Came to Phoenix
in the fall of 1922. Wife and two minor children, he suffering with T B
and no resources.
Appealed for Masonic charity through Arizona Lodge, No. 2, who in turn
immediate needs and took up matter with Maywood Lodge who failed to
respond to the
appeal. Arizona Lodge. No. 2, with the help of county assistance,
Masonic influence, supported family until June, 1926, expending $600 of
Lodge funds even though Bro. ____ was a member of Illinois.
Temple, Could Not Help Mason's Daughter
No. 142 Grand
Lodge of Tennessee.
She was a
daughter of a Mason, who was a member of Lodge No. ____ Tenn. Appeal
was made to
this lodge for financial aid for her and was refused on account of
the building which has to be done and therefore did not have the money
to send for
her assistance. An appeal was made to the Grand Lodge of Tennessee
hoping that she
might be placed in the Orphan's Home which they maintain in that state.
Grand Lodge replied that so long as she was over 21 years of age, she
was not an
orphan and therefore their Home, according to their laws, could not
take her. Some
one had to give her aid as she was destitute, and it fell to Arizona
2, who spent over $600 on her case. None of this, of course, has ever
War Veteran in Need
Grand Lodge of North Dakota.
man Canadian forces. Had conducted shoe repair shop at Wickenburg,
Ariz., past year
or more before coming to Phoenix about Jan. 1, 1925. Resources gone.
Arizona Lodge, No. 2, Masonic medical aid secured and financial
from Grand Lodge North Dakota. With the assistance of local lodge and
who are lawyers, have been trying to secure hospitalization and pension
lodge but to date have been unable to secure definite results.
Care Saved Him No. 141,
came to Phoenix in January, 1924, and was able financially to enter St.
for treatment and rest. Improved enough so that in June, 1926, he went
to work for
the Southern Pacific R.R.Co. His case one of arrested T B, due
undoubtedly to proper
hospitalization. Has a wife and five children.
letter needs neither introduction nor explanation. It is from a brother
has been through the mill himself. He was aided and assisted in his
battle for health,
not by the fraternal organization to which he belongs, as might have
but by his employers.
now on foot to establish a National Masonic Tubercular Sanatoria
New Mexico is the most commendable and humanitarian undertaking ever
the Masonic fraternity, and, incidentally, is in line with the
teachings of our
I know from
personal experience of the vital necessity of such an institution for
brethren. Other organizations have long seen the necessity of having
and have maintained them for a number of years, so why can't we do
ago my health commenced to fail, and, after consulting one doctor after
was finally told that I had T. B. From time immemorial, the word
seemed to carry with it a "death sentence". It is needless to go into
detail and explain how I and my family felt after the so-called "death
was pronounced. The atmosphere immediately turned into one of gloom.
When my employers
with whom I had spent the best portion of my life heard of the trouble,
advised me to go to a sanatorium with the assurance that my expenses
would be taken
care of by them. The mere assurance of this on their part was the means
to strive to get well in spite of all odds. It was a great relief to
especially in view of the fact that I was told that if I expected to
make any sort
of progress, I MUST NOT WORRY. It is this worry over money matters for
treatment of tuberculosis that has killed more T. B. patients than the
Sanatorium treatment, while long drawn out, has thus far proven to be
the most successful
method of combatting this disease. The old idea of roughing it in the
in the mountains has proven to be wrong. One needs just the other
good food, good climate, pleasant environments, freedom from all cares
and a happy
frame of mind, such as is usually provided in sanatoriums.
thousands of brethren who come out to the great Southwest in search of
through lack of funds and the necessary comforts they should have,
fight a losing
battle. The majority of these lives can be saved by just such a
procedure as is
now contemplated, and with an organization like the Masons, the
go over with a "bang".
no question in my mind but what it will be brought to a successful
the matter is brought to the attention of the Masonic brethren
throughout the United
States. No Mason can conscientiously call himself a Mason if he is not
with this noble undertaking. Let us, therefore, get together, brethren,
this thing through, and lastly, let us also not lose sight of the fact
that to aid
and assist a distressed worthy brother is a duty incumbent upon all
H. A. W., California.
Bros. A. L. Kress and
R. J. Meekren
IN view of
the facts brought forward in the first part of this article [THE
page 314], it begins to appear very probable that at the revival and
of Masonry two hundred years or so ago there was a process of
collection and compilation
going on in different places analogous to that, which according to
scholars, produced the many parallel passages found in Old Testament
the more expanded and composite accounts of ancient Hebrew legends. In
our own particular
case it would seem that different versions of what were sometimes
and sometimes "furniture", were placed side by side, or rather in
and that in order to obviate the appearance of mere duplication they
different interpretations; and finally in the last stages called
definitely by different
names. There is no need to suppose that this was done all at once, or
by any one
person, or that it was done consciously. There is no need to suppose
concerned had any other object in view than that of attempting to
and to 'recover what they supposed to be the original meaning. To
confirm this is
the fact that Prichard in his "Master's Part" makes mention of another
set of jewels, as follows:
the Master jewels?
Dormer and square pavement.
the entering into the Sanctum Sanctorum, the dormer the windows or
the square pavement the ground flooring.
English printed works a parallel and almost identical passage occurs,
by the demand:
and in the
explanation the pavement is said to be:
… for the
High Priest to walk on.
point in this is that we here have not only the "square pavement" which
appears in all the lists of jewels now being discussed, excepting only
but that the two words "Porch, Dormer" which appear in juxtaposition,
resemble very closely in sound the unexplained "Broached Dornal." It is
not in the least impossible, considering the extraordinary
transmutations that occur
in an oral tradition, that we have here another attempt at
rationalization. If so,
we might assume that mention of the ashlar was in time omitted under
of the idea that the jewels should be in threes. We have already seen
in the case
of the Examination version that there is reason to think that three
things had been
made into four through a misunderstanding, so that such a change would
have a perfect
assumption that Masonry Dissected is a compilation rather than an
we see that Prichard appears to bear witness also that a "square
was one of the jewels of Masonry. It is quite possible therefore that
list was derived from a source in which appeared the square pavement
a "trasel board." What the exact derivation of "trasel" may
be is not easy to determine, but it may very well be a form of
a common pronunciation of "trestle." The dictionaries give us the
form "trestle board" as meaning a drawing board or table, which is the
exact equivalent of the French planche
which appears as early as 1745. It is now quite
generally held by the foremost Masonic students in England that early
works had a great influence on the evolution of the ritual of the
Moderns, and it
may be that the term "tracing board" is a translation of the French
Although "trasel" and "tracing" have such a similarity in sound
that it may be possible to thus account for its adoption. However this
may be, while
"trestle board" is actually a technical term of sufficient importance
to be inserted in a standard dictionary of the English language,
though clear enough in meaning, seems to be an artificial, and, so to
speak, a purely
"speculative" technical term; although it must be admitted that we have
a very early and undoubtedly operative use of the phrase in the Fabric
York Minster, where in an inventory of the year 1399 "… ij tracyng
are mentioned. From this it does not seem at all impossible that the
have come down through certain lines of the Masonic tradition, and that
"planche á tracer" of 1745 and later was really a literal translation
of it, instead of being its origin as has been supposed. On the other
hand the "trestle
board" might in the first place have been simply the table in the lodge
round which the officers and brethren sat when there were no "makings",
or even (as in some cases it would appear) when there were. It is very
to decide, only our contention that it was put in place of the floor or
seems probable in any case.
and Chetwode Crawley MSS, give no explanation of the jewels, but as the
explicitly states that the pavement was used by the Master to draw his
draughts" or plans on, we will not be assuming too much in supposing
Freemasons would understand this to be its use. There is not a little
show that details and plans of the different parts of a building were
by medieval Masons. One of the present writers has seen the same method
by some country stonemasons when putting up an addition to an old stone
Canada. The spring and plan of two arches were drawn with a chalked
line and trammels
on the floor of a nearby building; and from these drawings wooden
made for the angles of the different stones. There was here no
tradition of course;
it was a simple way of doing without architects' drawings ‒ and fees.
an obvious device it has doubtless been invented and reinvented
hundreds of times.
But with the advent of the professional architect and his scale
drawings on the
one hand, and the dying out of the operative element in the lodges on
it may well have come about that what was quite simple and
came to be a difficulty, just as the term "oblong square" exercises
good brethren today. To the non-operative a pavement would be a
simply, a thing "to walk on," and so a drawing board was substituted in
its stead. And this notwithstanding the fact that the diagram of the
its emblems was still being drawn on the floor of the tiled chamber
where they met.
No longer by the Master, though, for in most cases this responsible
task seems to
have been passed on to the Tyler of the lodge.
In an earlier
article [BUILDER, December, 1925, page 376] the question of the
of symbolism on the proportions and plans of medieval buildings was
and reasons given for thinking that in general purely practical
taken into account in making them. We have now to take up the question
of the technique
of the operative Freemasons in order if possible to see what
significance the "square
pavement" might have had for them. The issue has been to a very
extent clouded by ingenious attempts to base the plans of the buildings
by them upon ideal geometrical constructions, as well as by an
suggested by modern ritual statements and practices.
buildings were planned upon an ideal geometrical figure, such as the
triangle or pentagon, is very possible, and even probable, and it is
that some more or less fit such schemes by pure coincidence; but on the
is the opinion of those, who by their special knowledge are best fitted
that ancient buildings, and Gothic buildings in particular, were
planned in this
respect precisely as buildings are planned today, entirely with a view
to the purposes
of the structure and the conditions of the site.
When it comes
to details, such as the designs of canopy work, panels, window tracery
and the like,
there is no doubt that they are in many cases evolved out of geometric
of which the equilateral triangle and the vesica piscis is the most
Examples are given in Figs. 1 and 2. According to Caesarianus, (1) the
Milan cathedral fits into such a triangle whose sides are divided into
The intersections made by lines joining these seem to give most of the
points in the design. Yet even so there are so many discrepancies that
it is hard
to think that the architect regarded it as an absolute canon of design.
W. H. Rylands, in a paper written more than thirty years ago, quoted,
with approval, the attempts of Mr. Edward Cox to show that the plans of
buildings in the north of England were based on the pentagon, or rather
form of pentagram. (2) The constructions shown to demonstrate this are
and do not strike one as being very convincing. Some reason can be seen
a symbolic plan for a church, but why it should be applied to such a
practical set of buildings as a castle is very difficult to appreciate.
Klein (3) believes that the vesica piscis was the unit of design in the
of Gothic architecture, though he admits that the earlier Norman work
and the later
perpendicular style did not follow it. He points out that in the full
of the third proposition of Euclid we get two equilateral triangles on
sides of the same base, which in the accompanying diagram (Fig. 3) are
by the letters ABC and ABD. This gives a rhomb, or diamond, inside the
formed by the two intersecting arcs, which are drawn from the centers B
and A with
the radius AB. If a rectangle be drawn about this figure it is found to
remarkable properties. In the first place its diagonals are exactly
twice the length
of the shorter sides, and in the second, if it be divided in three
parts by lines
parallel to these, in the figure FG and HI, each of the three
rectangles thus formed
is similar to, and possesses all the properties of, the original one,
length of the sides of the triangles inscribed within them is just
the height of those first drawn. These secondary rectangles can of
course be themselves
divided in the same way, and so on indefinitely. The original rectangle
divided into four by the intersecting axes AB and CD, and each of these
also similar figures, and can be subdivided again into four, as shown
in the upper
half of the diagram, or they can be divided into three. And all these
can be carried on indefinitely without any further construction other
lines through the intersections already made, as can be easily
demonstrated by trial
and a little experimentation.
Thus we have
a basic figure that is characterized by the ratios of two and three,
with all their
multiples and combinations. If one side of the basic rectangle be taken
as a unit,
it cannot only be divided into two, three and four parts, but also into
twelve; so that supposing it to be a foot in length it could thus be
inches. It must be acknowledged, however, that there are simpler ways
seems to suggest that plans were first sketched on paper or parchment
that had thus
been divided up into triangles and rectangles, in the same way that
squared paper, and that these sketches were then enlarged to the full
size by using
a larger unit. In this way, if intersections were used for the
in the plan certain proportions would be automatically obtained which
would be common
to all buildings so designed. It must be admitted that it is an
hypothesis, and there is a great temptation to accept it. It seems to
offer us a
clue to a real operative secret, and what is more, it would give us an
of the "diamond" as one of the jewels of the lodge. For that being the
basic figure from which all such designs were evolved it would serve as
symbol for the technique.
As has been
said above much Gothic detail is obviously based on the equilateral
to the supposition that it was the universal and exclusive rule there
objections. In the first place, though the shorter sides of the basic
are in a numerical ratio to the diagonal they are incommensurable with
ones, being in the ratio of one to the square foot of three. This would
difficulty of course in making the full size drawings, for the
would be at proportional distances from each other, but when the actual
begun upon the stone it would need either two units of measurement, a
long and a
short foot as it were, or else the abandonment of a standard of
every dimension being taken directly from the drawing ad hoc; for the
horizontal measurements could only be expressed in approximate
fractions in respect
to perpendiculars, or vice versa. Neither alternative would be very
though being purely aesthetic it may not seem perhaps of equal weight,
is that to
base all designs upon one set of geometrical proportions would
a mechanical and monotonous effect, utterly and entirely foreign to the
Gothic architecture, which above all others is distinguished by
freedom. For example, there are many cases where doors and windows and
of the interior of the building seem to be equilateral (there are of
that obviously are not) which upon measurement turn out to be just a
or less, but with enough difference to make it certain that it was so
not merely an error in setting out the work. Such variations show
either that the
builders deliberately sought to avoid monotony for artistic reasons or
they did not have any rule at all and did things just as it happened;
supposition is fatal to the hypothesis.
are not the only objections that can be raised. While in theory any set
will determine the position of a given point or line, yet in practice
it is far
more convenient to have them consist of straight lines perpendicular to
for then all angles made by their intersections will be equal; just as
it is much
more convenient to have them divided into equal parts so that one unit
will serve. Further the main lines of a building are of necessity
perpendicular; which is true even of a pyramid though the fact is
masked by the
profile; and it is therefore in the nature of the case simpler to have
lines of the drawings, the base and center lines, parallel to these
A method based on triangles must give spaces "neither oblong nor
or if the horizontals and perpendiculars are put in, there will be four
lines instead of only two, an unnecessary complication. Rather
we are forced to the conclusion that as an actual technical method this
is not practical, and most unlikely to have been employed by men, who
they may have been, were first of all and all the time very skillful
In 1610 an
order regarding rates of wages for different classes of men mentions "a
which can draw his plot, work and set accordingly." This does not tell
much, but it is evidence that even so late as the seventeenth century a
mason was expected to be able to make his own working drawings. From
get a little more light. Articles xii and xiii of the Steinmetz
speak of executing carved or proportioned work "from the ground plan"
(aus dem grund) and of "making extracts from the ground plan." In the
accompanying illustration (Fig. 4) which is taken from the tomb of
Master Mason of the church at Caudebec, who died in 1484, we have the
of the ground plan of a church. In December of last year the BUILDER
an elevation of a design of one of the bays of Cambrai cathedral [page
the sketch book of Villars de Honnecourt. The two parts of the drawing
exterior and interior respectively. In the former the buttresses have
not been shown
higher than the cornice of the aisle, in order apparently not to
the representation of the clerestory window. Another design here
5) appears to be that of the front of a large church. This last was
drawn upon vellum
that was used later for other purposes, the design being effaced.
information is by no means as full as might be desired, yet it may be
deduce certain conclusions. First of all the last fact mentioned
reminds us that
drawing materials were neither plentiful nor easily obtained, and were
as much as possible. Then it must be remembered that though in the
course of centuries
great developments took place in the style and methods of building,
still from the
point of view of the individual the change was so gradual as to be
Everyone in the Craft was accustomed to the style in use, all were
trained in a
common tradition and skilled in a common technique. While this might
vary a little
from one place to another, and still more in different countries, yet
so much would
be common to all, would be taken for granted and understood, that the
need for detail
drawings such as are used today would not arise. A country carpenter
even yet needs
no plans to put up a barn or a shed. His employer tells him how long
and how wide
it is to be; he may make some sort of sketch on the back of an envelope
odd piece of paper so as to keep them in mind, but for the rest he
plans as he goes.
In somewhat the same way, in spite of the much greater complexity of
the work, we
may suppose the master mason who contracted to put up a porch or a
window by "task
work" needed only to get the dimensions of the ground plan and to see
of the elevation made by the Master of the Work to make whatever
he might need to carry out his job. So long as it fitted into the rest
of the structure
it was sufficient, the details were left to him. Of course it would
have been quite
natural if the Master of the Work wanted to see them, and perhaps make
but it does not seem that he always did. For instance, at Westminster
of the arches seem to have been let out "to task" and different masters
took contracts for them. In some the moldings are continued right down
to the capitals
of the supporting columns, while in others a seating block is used from
moldings rise. Mr. W.R. Lethaby, in Westminster Abbey and the King's
[p. 132], explains the difference as follows:
If we design an arch section
having deeply indented
hollows and bring two of these together, as they would be at the
a capital, then the bearing surface may at this point seem dangerously
Now a seating at the springing of the arches will swallow up the
hollows of the
moldings until the arches have diverged far enough to be of any desired
strength. That this feature is not used throughout we may explain best
by the fact
that portions of the work (like so many arches) were done by task work.
the masters thought this seating desirable and others did not.
Mason in charge of this work apparently did not care which way it was
this devolution of design doubtless often went further still. The
for the contracting master might be left to fill in the minor details
of the work
actually done by them.
church was in a way very like a living organism. Given certain
the rest of the design followed in its main lines by a sort of inner
Not that it was done by any rule or formula, still it always kept
limits. It is quite possible that such a sketch as that reproduced in
Fig. 5 was
all that was required, even in the case of important buildings. Many
well have been able to cut the stone for a pillar or an arch with
nothing more to
guide them than the chief measurements of height, width and thickness
of the wall.
An existing contracts seems to show that this was still true even so
late as 1630.
In it Thomas Bates agrees to build a "chapell in the Chirch Yarde of
on the hill." It was really an addition to the church and built against
south side of the chancel. It was to be
… eighteen feet wide withenne
the walls and as
high as hit nedes resonably to be with V faire and clenely wroght
windows at the
Est end with iiii lightes, iii windows on the south side each one of
and on the west side in the best way to be devised and iiii botras
on the south side with a great arch in the west end. And the chapell to
[battlemented] above like to the little closet in the Castel of Chester
with a corbyl
table longying thereto and at eyther end iii honest fynials … and the
Thomass shall by ov'sight of Maester John Asser make the chapell and
thereto in masoncraft honestly.
John Asser" evidently acted as supervising architect on behalf of the
but Thomas was to do the work with no more guidance apparently than the
mentioned in the contract.
Quoted by Bro. S. Klein from
Hawkins Gothic Architecture. A.Q.C. XXIII, 119
[Lib*].(2) A.Q.C. VIII, 91. [Lib 1895]
A.Q.C. XXIII [Lib*], 116 et seq.
Gould, History of Freemasonry.
III. [Lib 1884; Vol
Bro. J. Walter Hobbs in
of the Merseyside Association for Masonic Research [Lib*], 1923-24, page 36.
- In what ways has
phraseology led to misinterpretations of
- Supposing buildings to have
been planned on some geometrical or symbolical
figure, what may the purpose of the designer presumably have been?
- To what extent did ancient
buildings actually conform to an ideal plan, geometrical
Howey. Published by Rider & Co., London. May be purchased
through the Book Department
of the National Masonic Research Society, 1950 Railway Exchange
Building, St. Louis,
Mo. Cloth, index, table of contents, illustrated, 406 pages. Price,
reputation of snakes in general would seem to preclude any possibility
ever having enjoyed a popularity which might cause them to be
worshipped. A present
day contradiction of this statement is to be found in the enjoyment of
in the stories of mythical monsters belonging to the serpent category.
who has not thrilled to the story of Perseus and the Medusa, or St.
George and the
Dragon has either not reached his teens or remains unborn. It is a
biological teaching that the embryo goes through all the stages of the
of its race, and it may with equal truth be said that the human child
through many stages of the mental evolution of man. The child's
enjoyment of these
serpent myths may be classed as that period in his existence which
the period in racial development when serpent worship was a dominant
factor in the
religious history of mankind.
worship was a widespread practice needs no proof. The ethnical
religions offer ample
evidence to remove any doubt on that score. There are serpent myths
India, Egypt and the Mediterranean world, not forgetting the New World
prominent of these fables are here collected in one volume and their
pointed out. So far as the present reviewer is aware, this is the first
has been made in this direction. Frazer's Golden Bough has long been a
for relig4ous myths, and Mr. Howey's work might have attained a similar
in the narrower field he has chosen. The value of his collection is
hard to estimate,
however. It would be undoubted except for one thing, either he was too
ever hope for such success, or his book was written for purely popular
There is not a single documentation in his whole volume except for
and not always in these cases. There is no special reason for doubting
as he does refer to the authors from whom he selects his material, and
at the end of each chapter seem sufficiently complete, but while he was
his sources it would have been a simple matter to have included book
page numbers, and the extra labor involved would have been very small
the added usefulness that would have been gained.
this very important point, there can be nothing but praise for the
book. It is splendidly
printed, the cuts are appropriate, and the style very readable. A book
in the subject could enjoy and from which he could learn much.
* * *
a Study of the Mystical
Philosophy of the Brahmins and Buddhists
C. Fuller. Published by William Rider & Son. May be purchased
through the Book
Department of the National Masonic Research Society, 1950 Railway
Louis, Mo. Cloth, table of contents, illustrated, 140 pages. Price,
IT is an
illusion, common to most occidentals, that the Orient is peculiarly
rich in mysticism,
and various brands of "really and truly" occultism. An illusion,
knowledge of oriental peoples shows them to be, in the mass and in
their daily lives,
as pre-occupied in the same kind of things as are the inhabitants of
They, too, are buying and selling, making, saving, spending-seeking
riches or pleasure
or power, according to their individual opportunities. The Chinese, for
are as practical and matter-of-fact as the German or Anglo-Saxon,
though it must
be admitted they stand rather higher in their aesthetic appreciations.
But so it
is also with the Arab, the Persian and the various races inhabiting
India. At bottom,
when we get under the strange appearance of totally different social
and religious beliefs, men are much alike everywhere, and exhibit much
an illusion has arisen is very natural. The Orient was far away, even
in these days
it is separated by language and tradition. The unknown can always take
on the forms
and glamour of far-off landscape. And then so many apostles of the
occult, not trusting
altogether, apparently, to the authority of their gospels in
themselves, have sought
it externally in claiming derivation from mysterious sages in far-off
any other conveniently inaccessible locale. As a matter of fact, the
had its full share of genuine first hand mystics; and in this respect
there is little
to choose between east and west when all the facts are given due weight.
there is one great outstanding difference between the mysticism of
Orient and Occident.
The latter persists in ascribing reality and value to individuality,
denies it altogether. But that perhaps is too sweeping a statement.
India is the
home of the doctrine of the unreality of personal identity, and it has
thence largely under the influence of Buddhism.
A first hand
study of the mystics themselves shows two things that are common in
to all, with almost no exception. One is the striving after, at times
of, unity with that Reality that lies at the back of things, which most
mystics too) call God; and the other is the way in which the mystical
themselves on the pattern of the beliefs and prepossessions of the
The visions of the western mediaeval mystics crystallize round the
the faith ‒ The Eucharist, the Person of Christ, or of His Virgin
of the Jews and Mahommedans round the idea of a sovereign and solitary
Deity, ministered to by hierarchies of angelic beings. Those of
depend on the Scriptures, especially the apocalyptic passages.
Swedenborg, one of
the greatest, has a symbolism peculiarly his own, as solid and material
as the details in a story by Defoe. Perhaps the fact that he had spent
years actively and practically as a scientist and engineer before he
began to see
visions bad something to do with it.
As this seems
to be in the nature of a law, that the experience which makes a man a
fluid, and takes a form appropriate to his previous experience, as
takes that of a mold, we may take it as a clue in seeking the reason
for the peculiarities
of "Oriental," that is Hindu or Buddhist mystical philosophy. It will
need some knowledge of the history of religion to make the point clear.
peoples might possibly have achieved a belief in one God had they not
up by the advent of Christianity. As it is, the occidental belief must
back to the Hebrews. It is now generally granted by those who have
studied the subject
that the conception of Jehovah as Creator of heaven and earth and Lord
developed under the influence of prophetic teaching out of a tribal
to the Semitic invaders of Palestine some thousand years before Christ.
Persian dualism may have had is uncertain, but doubtless there was
the monotheism of Christianity and Mahommedanism descends lineally from
the Hebrews. The great prepossession of those among whom it originated,
chief interest in developing it, was not speculative and metaphysical,
was quite different in Hindustan. There the Aryan invaders brought in a
of deities of their own, that are supposed to be related to the "gods
of Europe, and they picked up quite a number more from the aboriginal
These were in time ranged in a hierarchy, and finally under the
influence of philosophy
were conceived as being but forms or agents of an all-embracing
them. Something the same sort of process was in operation in Greece
before the general
mix-up of religions brought about by Roman domination over
Occidental mystics therefore (this is of course only sketching it in
with bold and
approximate outlines) have always been limited by the conception of
and individuality in God, so that whatever the degree of ecstatic union
by the seer he always retained something of his own personality. But in
underlying philosophy was Pantheism; as the Divine had no limits of
there was nothing to hinder the entire submergence of the devotee's own
in the Godhead. When the seer attained the highest levels of vision he
himself. Mr. Fuller in his book says something very like this himself:
the Non-existent, is little removed, if at all, from the Christian
heaven with its
angelic Hosts. And the reason is, that the man who does attain to any
of these states,
on his return to consciousness at once attributes his attainment to the
representation of God. He attempts to rationalize about the
super-natural, and describe
what is beyond description in the language of his own country.
does not really seem to be a process of rationalization, at least not
in the sense
of conscious thinking. The greatest mystics have always used symbols
is all they could do-and the greatest of them have all said with St.
Paul that what
they had seen and heard could not be uttered.
we gather, does not think much of Buddhism. He likens it to Luther's
from the Roman Church. That it painfully tried to be something
different from what
we may perhaps call Brahmanism, but nevertheless, remained essentially
thing. He criticizes Gautama, or his disciples, for raising the
came desire?" – the equivalent of the occidental problem of the origin
But though Buddhism has no satisfactory answer, as a philosophic system
it has at
least the credit of discerning the difficulty. To Mr. Fuller the
question is meaningless-all
such metaphysical considerations are but a part of Maya, the great
illusion of the
Cosmos-or Chaos-whichever it be.
who wish to know something definite of Yoga, and its curious, and (to
mind at least) rather repulsive symbolism based on a wholly mythical
system of physiology,
the book will be very useful. Though the Author takes something for
granted in the
way of acquaintance with other mystical systems, he can be easily
followed. He is
apparently a full believer in the efficacy of the "exercises," which
it would seem, whether the would-be Yogi believes or not; nevertheless
he has made
a competent study of the subject and his opinions merit respect even
do not win assent.
* * *
Readings in Masonic
J. Hugo Tatsch, Curator and Associate Editor of the Iowa Masonic
Library, and Associate
Editor of "The Builder." Published by the Torch Press, Cedar Rapids,
May be purchased through the Book Department of the National Masonic
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. 59 pages, table of contents,
boards, 85 cents; paper, 50 cents. Special prices quoted for twelve or
in preparing this little work has had in mind the needs of the average
is frightened by the very sight of the larger books written upon the
he says in his Foreword, "With all the literature at the command of the
but little has been written in elementary form." This need it was that
to the preparation of a series of articles suitable for the neophyte,
first published in the Bulletin of the Grand Lodge of Iowa. It was in
mind that thus collected they would serve as an elementary text book
for a study
modestly disclaims any originality, calling himself a compiler only.
But in such
a condensed work compilation requires the exercise of a great deal of
to some extent the compiler must choose according to the opinion he
prefers in debated
questions. On the whole we believe the work has been very fairly and
of the book is not that of a consecutive narrative in chronological
order, but certain
topics are treated in the different chapters which to some extent
overlap in point
of the periods treated. The first chapter, for example, is a brief
account of what
is known, believed or claimed of the origin of Freemasonry.
and third attempt to give some account of the historical background of
beginning with the Dark Ages after the fall of the Roman Empire and
London in the 18th Century. . Naturally it is impossible to give any
but the slightest
sketch of such an extensive period in a matter of nine or ten pages.
it would be easy to criticize details; but bearing in mind the purpose
in view and
the limits of the treatment there is really little to object to. Such a
intended to excite a desire to know more, and further reading will
correct any misapprehensions
that may have arisen. London was a rough place in the early 18th
century, but we
doubt if there was more danger to life and limb and purse than in many
author comes to purely Masonic history he is wholly admirable, and
seems to have
extracted the very marrow of the matter in his brief outlines. One
point might be
touched on. Bro. A. F. Calvert is quoted as stating that "Where
were detected" between Ancients and Moderns at the time of the union,
Moderns" adopted the method of working in use by the "Antients."
This opinion is quite generally held, but there are good reasons for
inaccurate. In regard to the essentials supposed to have been
in 1730 the Moderns completely capitulated, but in return the Ancients
gave up their
form of ritual and adopted that (modified by these essential changes)
been used by the Moderns. The system of lectures in use in the United
the Ancient work very closely. The lectures now in use in England are
and on comparison are obviously no more than modifications of those
used by the
When a Study
Circle is being started in an entirely new field there would be no
better text book
to begin with than this; and a lodge could hardly do better than
present a copy
to the newly-raised Master Mason where it is desired to do something
more for his
instruction than the bare ritual explanations of the forms and
* * *
Hidden Life in Freemasonry
[Lib 1926] By C. W. Leadbeater.
the Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, Madras, India. Cloth, 6 by 8
pp. and index. Illustrated. Obtainable from the Theosophical Press,
of Masonic History
C. W. Leadbeater. Published by the Theosophical Publishing House,
India. Cloth, 6 by 8 1/2, 362 pages and index. Illustrated. Obtainable
Theosophical Press, Chicago, Ill. $3.25.
HERE we have
two books which are rather startling to those unfamiliar with the
of that group of Theosophists who hold forth at Adyar, Madras, India,
leadership of Mrs. Annie Besant. This internationally known lady, whose
in cap, baldric, toga and sword graces one of the volumes with the
V. Illustrious Bro. Annie Besant, 33d," has written an introduction
recommending The Hidden Life in Freemasonry to Freemasons who wish to
knowledge to their zeal."
C. W. Leadbeater, who also poses as a Mason of the Thirty-third Degree,
in his first chapter:
When I was initiated into
Freemasonry in this
life, my first sight of the lodge was a great and pleasant surprise,
for I found
that I was perfectly familiar with its arrangements, and that they were
with those which I had known six thousand years ago in the Mysteries of
naturally holds to the well-known doctrine of reincarnation, but goes a
than the average Theosophist by claiming to have accurate information
of some of
his previous existence on this mundane sphere. "The only one of these
lives of mine with which we are here concerned," he says, "was lived
four thousand years before Christ in the country which we now call
introduction ‒ from which the critical Masonic student can draw his own
– we acquire some startling information. We are told that the present
head of the
Masonic Craft in the occult world is a personage often spoken of as the
S. Germain; he is also known as the Prince Rakoczi. He was interested
in the third century, A. D., when he was called Albanus, residing at
York) England. Initiation took place in Rome, while he was in military
the Mithraic Mysteries were also known to him. Mr. Leadbeater connects
Master" with the St. Alban familiar to Masonic students who have read
of the Old Charges; in fact, we are referred to the Watson MS. of 1687
Albanus had an interesting
In later years he took mortal form as Proclus,
in Constantinople, 411 A. D.; in 1211, he was born as Roger Bacon; in
1375, he was
Christian Rosenkreutz. Hunyadi Janos, the famous Hungarian, housed the
spirit of our Grand Master about 1425; still later he was a monk by the
Robertus. The vivid imagination of Mr. Leadbeater does not cease here:
Bacon (1561) is claimed as the name and personage of our "Brother"
who are opponents or proponents of Grand Lodge rule will find some
information about such bodies in The Hidden Life in Freemasonry. "There
a Grand Lodge [which] convened at Memphis and worked a different ritual
of the lower grades." Grand Lodge bureaucrats will rejoice to know that
always took council with their prototypes in Ancient Egypt; "important
were always discussed in Grand Lodge itself." There were really three
Lodges, and numerous other lodges, which resembled those of modern
times; so we
to Mr. Leadbeater, our more conservative savant's of modern Freemasonry
are on the
right track when they attribute Masonic origins to the Roman Collegia
and to the
Comacines. In fact, all theories advanced by both conservative and
seem to have Mr. Leadbeater's endorsement; perhaps I am too carping a
pointing this out. But the coincidence is at least worthy of mention.
chapters of the book will please such of our brethren who revel in
who take keen delight in their pretensions to Masonic knowledge not
given to the
profane. I have in mind certain itinerant lecturers who will divulge
in tyled meeting at so much per session; what was it Barnum said? (I
forget!) Anyway, critical scholars who wish to enjoy some light reading
‒ call it
fiction if you will ‒ can derive much amusement from this book; those
who take the
volume more seriously will not be injured by it, as the author's
are not supported by proof such as our Quatuor Coronati members and
associates in other research organizations demand before they will give
consideration to such preposterous claims.
Let it be
said, for fear I may be misunderstood, that I have no quarrel with
believe the Theosophical teachings; I made my entrance into the Craft
as a Theosophical
student many years ago. However, I believe in mixing common sense with
let us keep Theosophy and Freemasonry in their proper fields.
of these two works, Glimpses of Masonic History [Lib*], is a companion
The Hidden Life in Freemasonry. Mr. Leadbeater tells us that there are
of Masonry: the authentic, the anthropological, the mystical and the
authentic embraces the group which sprang up after 1860, and which
able brethren as Gould, Hughan, Speth and others of Quatuor Coronati
Lodge and their
fellows; the anthropological is represented by Albert Churchward and
the mystical school embraces A. E. Waite and W. L. Wilmshurst; the
"is represented by an ever-growing body of students in the Co-Masonic
and is gradually attracting adherents in masculine Masonry also." This
is elaborated with a liberal sprinkling of nebulous stardust.
who delight in "ancient mysteries” ‒ whatever they may mean to them ‒
find the chapters of this book very alluring. The Egyptian, Cretan,
and Mithraic mysteries are described in detail; unfortunately, I cannot
the accounts are dependable or not. There is such an absence of
and such an atmosphere of self ‒ assurance that I hesitate to venture
my own humble
opinion. Apparently I am among those outside of the Temple of Masonic
from medieval times to the present day, the author has made good use of
authorities of the authentic school; there are liberal references and
interest in the volume, and also its value insofar as students of the
school are concerned, lie in Chapter XII, "The Co-Masonic Order." It is
a brief account, and one which I recommend for publication in the
volumes of THE
BUILDER for the information and edification of the Craft.
who are intrigued by the "mysteries" of Freemasonry will feast their
upon this volume, for it condenses the essentials of this dubious
subject in a masterly
way. The information is entertaining, to say the least; its
presentation on a night
when labor is light may be a pleasant innovation, ever though it may
have a soporific
effect on the "average" Mason.
* * *
Lights of Crescent
J. Hugo Tatsch, P. M. Privately printed by Crescent Lodge, No. 25, A.
F. & A.
M., Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Edition limited to 1600 copies. Paper,
illustrated, 63 pages.
says in his preface, "That lodge histories are no longer the recital of
in chronological order, but rather a presentation of outstanding
opinion that evidently inspired the title of this little work. It is
chronicle is not history, not in the modern sense of the word at any
rate. The historian
must first endeavor to see the course of events as a whole, and then to
them as a living drama, showing how the present always has roots in the
cannot be understood without reference to its past.
Lodge is certainly to be congratulated in having numbered in its recent
two such able students and writers as Bro. I.E. Morcombe and Bro.
Tatsch. Very curiously
they seem to have exchanged places, Bro. Morcombe leaving Iowa and
to go to California, and Bro. Tatsch leaving California for Cedar
Rapids to take
up the departed historian's task.
probably interest members of the N.M.R.S. is the part that the lodge
played in the
creation of the famous Masonic Library. The lodge certainly shares
largely in the
honor due to the Masonic bodies of Cedar Rapids, in what a Grand Lodge
1883 calls the "noble and generous offer" of a free lot eligibly
and a contribution of $1,000. Four other places had offered land, and
as well, but the next highest offer was only $3,500. In a current
phrase this action
certainly put Cedar Rapids "on the map" for the whole Masonic World,
though doubtless a heavy burden at that time, must ever remain a
of pride to the good brethren there.
Lodge has had members in three wars ‒ the Civil War first. In this Bro.
as Colonel of the 29th Iowa Infantry, was able to preserve the library
Pike from the devastation of war in Arkansas. This collection is now
part of the
other great Masonic Library in this country, the Scottish Rite Library
D. C. Later members were in the Spanish American War and the War in the
while the honor roll of the lodge contains many names of those who
fought in the
is published principally for the members of the lodge, but students
Iowa history may, perhaps, if not too late in making application, be
able to obtain
a copy. Though only bound in paper covers, the little book is very well
on a good quality of book stock. The printing leaves nothing to be
the work as a whole does both author and printer great credit.
Box and Correspondence
Symbolism of Salt
seems to have aroused a great deal of interest among readers of THE
we have received many letters on the subject since it was first mooted
in the February
number. The two here given seem to have special interest, if for no
than the distance that they have respectively come from east and west.
One is from
a brother in China, and the other from the Grand First Principal of the
Grand Chapter of County Down in Ireland.
in THE BUILDER on the ritual use of salt have been most interesting,
the one in the issue of last month [June, page 192]. I venture to send
you a copy
of the ritual used by our District Grand Royal Arch Chapter in the
consecration and dedication of our latest subordinate chapter. You will
that in the fourth round of the consecration the ceremony used is
the same as that employed by the Craft Lodge in Sutton as described by
Bro. L. F.
Robert H. Wallace, Ireland. In the ritual
referred to, the three Grand Principals carry vessels of corn, wine and
a Past Grand officer has one of salt. There are four processions and at
the Grand Chaplain repeats the following passage from Leviticus:
every oblation of thy meat offering shalt thou season with salt;
neither shalt thou
suffer the salt of the covenant of thy God to be lacking from thy meat
with all thine offerings thou shalt offer salt."
Grand First Principal receiving the salt says:
scatter this salt upon the Chapter as an emblem of Hospitality and
I pray that Prosperity and Happiness may attend this Chapter until Time
letter is as follows:
In the Question
Box of the February number of THE BUILDER there is a query as to salt
as a symbol
at the laying of a foundation stone for a Masonic Temple at a place in
You say that you have not any English formulary at hand, and in this
I would like therefore to state that salt is not one of the substances
the corn, wine and oil used at the laying of foundation stones
according to the
the consecration ceremony of a new lodge salt is actually prescribed.
Item 35 of
this ceremony reads: The Consecrating Officer sprinkles salt, the
symbol of Fidelity
and Friendship, saying: "I scatter salt on this lodge, the emblem of
and friendship, and may prosperity and happiness attend this lodge
until time shall
be no more."
I trust that
this bit of information may be useful to you and the brethren at large.
‒ C. Van der Klaauw, Harbin, China.
* * *
in the article "The Precious Jewels," in the October number of THE
that in America the usage is to describe the Square, Level and
Plumb-Rule as the
immovable Jewels is, I think, too wide. Here in Quebec, as you probably
they are called the moveable Jewels, "being worn by the W. M. and his
and transferable to their successors in office on their installation,"
ritual puts it. The Rough and Perfect Ashlars and the Tracing Board are
Jewels. The reason is not given in our ritual, but in the London West
I find it is "because they lie open and immovable in the lodge for the
to moralize upon."
I am in agreement
with your statement that the description used in the United States is
form, and I would suggest as an explanation that it came to you through
who were the great missionaries of Freemasonry, while we derive our
form from the
"Moderns." I do not think there is any question that the changes in the
ritual by the "Moderns" were very extensive, and that when Dermott
of "the apron being worn upside down, so that the wearer tripped over
he intended to call attention to their far-reaching character.
In the Lodge
Boards used here to illustrate the lectures, the Plumb-Rule is
associated with the
Doric Column, emblematic of the S. W., and the Level with the
of the J. W. The Boards axe, I believe, a modification of the Harris
in 1846 by the Emulation Lodge of Improvement. As the Plumb-Rule is now
appropriate to the J. W., and the Level to the S. W., it has occurred
to me that
possibly even the Jewels worn by the officers were transposed by the
Perhaps you can inform me if such was the case.
I was delighted
to find that you found my reference to my Jamaican visit sufficiently
to insert in this issue of your magazine, which I find gets more
‒ A. J. B. MILBORNE, Quebec.
is catching us up on a colloquial usage, that though obviously
inaccurate is so
convenient that it now has world-wide currency. Of course Canadians are
entitled to the general term American as are the people of the United
North America ‒ so also are Mexicans. But the people of these two
distinctive and euphonious designations proper to them, the people of
States have not. So though logically as indefensible as to exclusively
term Europeans to Germans say, sheer convenience has forced its general
to Quebec, our correspondent is right of course. With the exception of
of Lodges that follow the "American" type of ritual, the so-called
or "Webb" work, Quebec, and Ontario, too, follow the English type, with
some modifications. The explanation of the immovable Jewels be gives is
nearly all the lectures in this group where such still exist.
inclined to think that the suggestion regarding an interchange of
the Wardens is not borne out by facts. The very earliest known
reference to insignia
of office, which takes us back to 1730, allotted them as today, and in
known to us has it been otherwise. It would seem that the arrangement
in the "Chart"
or "Lodge Board" spoken of was simply the artist's vagary.
the authors of the article in question must apologize for, and that is
form of statement regarding the original grouping. It was intended to
say that the
description peculiar to the United States was not the original one, and
so far as
can be discovered was invented by the Baltimore Convention. It is
to apologize for the oversight in the final proof-reading respecting
the date of
this convention, which was 1843.
* * *
three months in the State of Utah I naturally came in contact with many
and was told by several brethren whom I met that Joseph Smith, the
founder of Mormonism,
was a Mason. Would you please enlighten me as to the truth of this
W. R. D., Indiana.
H. Goodwin gave a full account of the connection of Joseph Smith with
Order in his articles on Mormonism published in THE BUILDER, 1921, pp.
36 and 64,
which was further discussed in the 1924 volume, pp. 323 and 363.
among the founders of Mormonism four were Masons, Bennett, Kimball and
and Hyrum Smith, Joseph's brother. They managed to secure a
dispensation to form
a lodge. In this Joseph was apparently made, passed and raised. A
number of other
lodges were formed, the membership apparently being composed entirely
of the Mormon Church. From the first grave irregularities occurred, and
as a result
the charters and dispensations of these lodges were revoked. They seem,
to have continued a clandestine existence for some time after this.
no doubt that the secret ceremonies of the Mormon body were largely
and, one would
say, unintelligently, borrowed from Freemasonry. After the revocation
of Grand Lodge
authority from these lodges, the Mormon leaders not unnaturally became
* * *
Question of Authorship
In a recent
number of the New York Masonic Outlook I quoted a poem said to have
by Bro. Robert Burns on the Master's apron. I attach a capping giving a
of this short poem. [The portion referred to is included in the copy of
publication of this article the authorship of the poem has been
questioned. I am
told that it does not appear in any of the standard works supposed to
complete writings of Burns.
I have examined
all the sets I can discover, and have taken the matter up with the New
Library, and they are unable to find this poem in Burns' works. I do
find it in
the Little Masonic Library and Burns is given as the author.
I have not
the slightest recollection of where I originally got this poem.
Librarian suggests that the Grand Lodge Library at Cedar Rapids, Iowa,
some further light on the authorship of this poem. It sounds like Burns
and I believe
he wrote it.
A. D. Gibbs, New York.
was referred to Bro. Tatsch, Associate Editor of THE BUILDER, and his
reply is as
from Bro. Gibbs indicates that a very thorough search has been made
authorship of the poem attributed to Burns. An examination of the
Concordance to the Poems and Songs of Robert Burns," edited by J. B.
1889, fails to reveal anything under thirteen dominating words in the
was published in the Quarterly Bulletin of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, Vol
V, No. 5,
suggest that this inquiry be sent to Miscellarea Latomorum, as in that
way it will
reach the competent scholars of England and Scotland.
from the Iowa Quarterly Bulletin is as follows:
Burns, "the poet-laureate of Masonry," was perhaps prouder of that
than of all praise otherwise bestowed. As an example of his work, which
his sentiment of love for the fraternity, we append the following:
"There's mony a badge that's
Wi' ribbon, lace and tape on,
Let Kings and Princes wear them a',
Gie me the Master's apron;
The honest Craftsman's apron,
The jolly Freemason's apron,
Bide he at home, or roam afar,
Before his touch fa's bolt an' bar,
The gates of fortune fly ajar,
'Gin he wears the apron!
For wealth an' honor, pride an' power
Are crumbling stones to base on;
Fraternity should rule the hour
And ilka worthy Mason!
Each Free Accepted Mason,
Each Ancient Crafted Mason.
Then, brithers, let a halesome song
Arise your friendly ranks along,
Gudewives and bairns blithely sing
Ti' the ancient badge wi' the apron string
That is worn by the Master Mason!"
Bulletin, Vol. V, Number 5, page 103.]
* * *
the following questions regarding the Scottish Rite:
1. Are the
pass-words of the Scottish Rite degrees taken from the Bible?
furnish me with a list of books on the Scottish Rite and Scottish Rite
E. E. G.
the pass-words of the Scottish Rite degrees are intended to be derived
Hebrew, but it is doubtful whether a Hebrew scholar would recognize
them as such.
A great many of them are corruptions of real words and others are made
up of real
Hebrew words but put together in a way that is foreign to the genus of
to the second question, our catalog contains practically all the books
in print respecting the Scottish Rite degrees. There are not very many
* * *
Knights of Malta
Can you give
any explanation of the following from the Boston Traveler under the
of Malta Honor Cardinal"?
Bali grand cross of honor and devotion has been conferred on Cardinal
by the order of the Knights of Malta, one of the most exclusive orders
in the Catholic
church, in recognition of the silver jubilee celebration in connection
25th anniversary tomorrow, of his consecration as a bishop."
I know of
the Knights of Malta as a Knights Templar degree and as an independent
Protestant fraternity but this is the first I have heard of an
body of that name.
L. M., Massachusetts.
is doubtless much confusion among the Craft in general concerning the
orders, and this question gives an opportunity to clarify much of the
these organizations. There is a great wealth of material that could be
one might well easily write a book on the subject. Directly answering
it may be stated that there is a Catholic Order of the Knights of
Malta. It is older,
in fact very much older, than the "degree" in the Masonic Knight
system. It was originally the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, but when
captured the Holy City the Knights moved to the Island of Rhodes, where
unmolested for a considerable period. It was here that the designation
Rhodes was applied to the Order. The Turks at a later data occupied
Rhodes and the
Knights were forced to find a new domicile. Malta was the location
the Order became known as the Knights of Malta. Here they remained
captured the island, at which time they journeyed to Rome and have
since been under
the protection of Catholic authorities.
Order of the Knights of Malta came to be incorporated in the Masonic
system is difficult to understand. The Knights Templar and the Knights
were hereditary enemies, and were as much, if not more, interested in
other as they were in repelling the infidel.
information on this subject, those interested may be referred to the
St. John of Jerusalem in the Encyclopedia Britannica; the article by
E. Bennett on the Rite of Strict Observance in the September number of
and that of Bro. L. de Malczovich, Templaria et Hospitallaria beginning
204, vol. xvii, of A.Q.C. [Lib 1904] and continued through the
volumes. [Lib 1906; 1907]
* * *
Can you inform
me through the Question Box of THE BUILDER of what sex are the
Cherubim? In Ezekiel
41:19 it would appear that they were of the male sex, yet in all
representations I have even seen of same, they appear to be decidedly
form. If they are of the male sex, can you inform me when and why the
was used to depict them in illustrations?
F. H. F., Sydney.
a great deal could be written on the subject of the Cherubim, there
seems to be
no doubt, as you point out, that the Bible regards them as being of the
It also appears to regard those beings which are usually called angels
as also being
of the male sex. The two were by no means the same.
a little difficult to say off-hand when the idea that angels were
female first began
to develop. The pictorial representations of angels during the middle
showed them as being of the female sex, but rather, as John Ruskin
that the representations that make them obviously female in form are
and the tradition has no weight of authority behind it whatever.
with Robert Burns
Mar46 / auth. Marshall James. - Edinburgh : Peter Brown, 1846. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 174. - 6.8 MB.
Ancient Documents Relating to
Sac151 / auth. Sachse Julius F.. - Philadelphia : [s.n.], 1915. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 337. - 21.7 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 004 - 1891
Ars91 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1891. - Vol. 4 : p. 305. - 80.7 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 006 - 1893
Ars93 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1893. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 311. - 20.3 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 007 - 1894
Ars94 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. - 83.6 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 008 - 1895
Ars951 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1895. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 358. - 94.0 MB.
The Hidden Life In Freemasonry
Lea26 / auth. Leadbeater C W. - Adyar : The Theosophical Publishing
House, 1926. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 255. - 1.5 MB.
The Jews and Masonry in the
United States Before 1810
Opp10 / auth. Oppenheim Samuel. - New York : The Jewish Historical
Society, 1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 104. - 2.9 MB.
The Rights of Man
Pai17 / auth. Paine Thomas. - London : W. T. Sherwin, 1817. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 232. - 13.9 MB.
The Scottish Rite
Hom05 / auth. Homan William. - [s.l.] : The Northern Masonic
Jurisdiction of the USA, 1905. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 239. - 8.5 MB.
Let06 / auth. Lethaby W R. - London : Duckworth & Co, 1906. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 394. - 8.6 MB.