Masonic Research Society
Table of Contents
Bros. Erik Mckinley Erikson
and J. Hugo Tatsch
the second article on the subject of anti-Masonry and the Morgan
Affair. Bro. Tatsch
needs no introduction to readers of The Builder; Bro. Erikson is
Professor of American
History at Coe College, Cedar Rapids Iowa. He has recently published in
of the Grand Lodge of Iowa a series of valuable articles on the
of the period.
IT has been
a common error for Masons to say that nothing had occurred up to 1826
to mar the
progress of Freemasonry in the United States. The impression is given
that the tidal
wave of Anti-Masonry which featured the period from 1826 to about 1840
by the Morgan Affair of 1826 ‒ that it came without warning like a bolt
out of a
clear sky. It has been shown, however, in "The Rise and Development of
in America, 1737-1826," (1) that anti-Masonry had begun to develop
this country and that the evidences of opposition to the Fraternity
apparent just prior to the Morgan episode.
the importance of this incident should not be discounted too much, for
it was the
disappearance of William Morgan, through the machinations of some
misguided Masons in Western New York, that gave the enemies of the
definite basis for their attacks and made possible the most highly
movement this country has ever witnessed.
this anti-Masonic movement with its baneful influence on religion and
its devastating effect on the Masonic Institution, it is desirable to
what the Morgan Affair was. During the period of the "excitement" a
mass of literature was poured from the press dealing with both the
and the Masonic sides of the question-material characterized generally
by a display
of passion and prejudice. The same may be said of most of the writing
that has been
done on the subject in more recent years. But it is now one hundred
Morgan so mysteriously vanished, and since the people who lived through
period have passed from this earth, it should be possible to approach
scientifically, and carefully examine the great mass of evidence in an
arrive at the truth regarding one of the most controversial incidents
the efforts that have been made during the past century to ascertain
the facts about
William Morgan, most of his career is still shrouded in mystery. What
is known of
him prior to his appearance in New York can be briefly stated. He was
born in Culpepper
County, Virginia, in 1775 or 1776 (Rob Morris gives Aug. 7, 1774, as
Just what he did during about the first forty years of his life is not
known. On one hand it was claimed that he was engaged in piratical
the Gulf of Mexico with the notorious Lafitte, and incidentally fought
in the battle
of New Orleans; on the other it was asserted by the anti-Masons that he
held a captain's
commission in the United states Army and served brilliantly with
Jackson in the famous victory over the British, Jan. 8, 1815.
evidence, from the War Department or elsewhere, in support of either
was never produced, nor is there evidence to corroborate Colonel
William L. Stone's
statement [Lib 1832] that Morgan was merely a
private soldier in
the army during the War of 1812.
he was married in Washington County, Virginia, to Lucinda Pendleton,
daughter of a respectable Methodist minister. Two years later, J. Ross
relates, Morgan removed to Toronto and then to York in Upper Canada,
where he worked
on a farm for a time and then was employed in a brewery. The burning of
left him without employment and induced him to remove, in 1823, to
York, where he took up the trade of an operative mason, an occupation
in which he
apparently had been engaged prior to his sojourn in Canada. During the
he moved on to Batavia, New York, but worked at his trade wherever
It therefore happened that he was in Le Roy, New York, in 1825, where
in ingratiating himself with certain Masons, notably James Ganson.
record has ever been discovered to show where or when Morgan was made a
is evident that he convinced his Masonic acquaintances that he had
taken the first
six degrees. Robertson makes it clear that Morgan was not made a Mason
as he seems to have claimed. It is a commentary on the laxness of the
chapters of that time to note that Morgan was allowed to visit various
Batavia and neighboring towns, and that on May 31, 1825, he "was duly
and was exalted to the degree of Royal Arch Mason" in Western Star
Chapter No. 35 at Le Roy, merely being vouched for by some Mason,
Evidently, nobody at the time suspected Morgan of being an impostor.
this, as related in Stone's Letters, Morgan was disappointed in his
of employment on a contemplated Knights Templar building at Le Roy, and
to Batavia with a feeling of resentment, a feeling that was soon to be
In 1826, a few Royal Arch Masons of Batavia petitioned the Grand
Chapter of the
state for a charter to establish a chapter in the village and Morgan
to sign the petition. This displeased some of the petitioners who had
growing disapproval Morgan's dissolute habits.
of the character of Morgan are very conflicting, varying from the
of the Anti-Mason, Samuel D. Greene, to the denunciatory descriptions
by Rob Morris,
the Masonic writer, who spent about forty years seeking information on
Affair, and who interviewed about one hundred persons who were
acquainted with Morgan.
That he was a heavy drinker there can be no doubt. However, he was not
in the legal sense of the word, which at the time was applied only to
were intoxicated more than half the time. He neglected his family and
demonstrated his instability of character. On occasion he displayed,
the Anti-Masonic writer, Stone, a disposition that was "envious,
and vindictive." In view of this knowledge of Morgan, the original
for a chapter secretly destroyed the petition and secured a
dispensation from the
Grand High Priest and Deputy Grand High Priest by a petition from which
was omitted. (2) When he learned what had been done, Morgan was
and resolved to secure revenge by exposing the secrets of Masonry.
the Other Protagonist
that there was in the village of Batavia, a printer named David C.
since 1811, had published the "Republican Advocate." Prior to coming to
Batavia, Miller had taken the Entered Apprentice Degree at Albany, New
had not taken the following degrees because, as Rob Morris claimed, the
was unwilling to "advance" him further. Whether this were true or not,
it is evident that Miller had a strong dislike for Masons, a dislike
that was increased
by an incident that occurred shortly before the Morgan abduction.
a quarrel with Miller, some men who had been his political friends
new journal in Batavia styled the "People's Press," which soon
most of the printing business from the "Advocate" office. According to
Henry Brown, a fellow villager, and author of a well-known contemporary
account of the Morgan Affair [Lib 1829], Miller chose to regard
as "an object of Masonick persecution." It is evident, therefore, that
he was in the proper frame of mind to offer himself as the publisher of
alleged expose'. Further, as Stone said, "a similarity of tastes and
had brought him and Morgan into the relations of intimate association,
and it was
but natural that they should discourse to each other of their private
least, seems to have possessed the idea that the publication of a
would result in great financial gain, and accordingly threw his
energies into the
project. Probably as early as March, 1826, Morgan and Miller took into
John Davids, a Batavian, and Russell Dyer of Rochester, and in August a
Canadian with much needed capital, named Daniel Johns, was added to the
of the various sources dealing with the subject makes it clear that no
made by the partners in the infamous affair to conceal their project.
On the contrary
it was evidently part of the scheme to excite the Masons and thereby
sales for the exposure Morgan was preparing. Morgan himself boasted in
and elsewhere of his intentions, and Miller, through his newspaper,
the public intimations of what was contemplated. When Morgan, on Aug.
deposited with the clerk of the Northern District of New York, the
of Masonry, for the purpose of securing a copyright, there could be no
and Resentment of
the Uninstructed Masons
"more respectable and intelligent portion of the Fraternity gave no
to the matter, some Masons were considerably agitated and began
scheming to prevent
the publication of their secrets. On Aug. 9, 1826, some Mason [probably
G. Cheseboro] caused to be published in a Canandaigua paper a warning
saying, "Morgan is considered a swindler, and a dangerous man." This
was soon reprinted in the newspapers of Batavia and elsewhere. Though
much was later
made of this notice by most anti-Masons, stone's opinion was that it
in accordance with the long existent Masonic custom of inserting
in newspapers "to put the brethren on their guard against unworthy and
was one of the prominent Masons who sought to allay the excitement, and
end published, on Sept. 1, 1826, in a Batavia paper called "The Spirit
Times," an article signed "A Brother," in which he urged that the
matter be disregarded, as the Fraternity could not be injured by the
publication of secrets. The advice was disregarded and the more rash
on with their plans to frustrate Morgan and his associates. As Brown
stated in his
A more rash, foolish and
impolitick measure was
never devised. Had Miller and Morgan been left to themselves ‒ had the
printed without any efforts to prevent it ‒ and had the Masons
manifested no anxiety
whatever, on the occasion, it would have fallen of its own weight,
still born, from
the press; and the author and publisher, as such, never been heard of
however, it seems, as well as religion, was destined to have its
officious and intermeddling
the Anti-Masons freely claimed (without any legal basis for their
claim) that it
was the plan of the Masons to murder Morgan, the evidence in the case
does not warrant
any stronger conclusion than that they intended to bring about a
separation of Morgan
from Miller, and secure possession of Morgan's manuscript. As early as
there were signs of discord between Morgan and his partners, which may
the Masons concerned to think that they could persuade Morgan to give
up his plans
and leave the village. Both stone and Morris agree that negotiations
on between Masons and Morgan, but whether or not the latter agreed to
his manuscript and accompany the Masons away from Batavia is one of the
points in the affair which can never be definitely decided.
Attempt to Burn Miller's
were such negotiations carried on, but attempts were made to secure or
papers as were in Miller's possession. On the night of Sept. 8, 1826, a
men assembled in Batavia for the evident purpose of securing entrance
office by force, but attempted no action when they found the place was
Two nights later the building was set on fire but the flames were
making any headway. Masons were charged with incendiarism and it was
that Miller himself had started the fire to create excitement. A few
on March 7, 1827, a group of twenty prominent Masons, including Henry
Mix, Frederick Follett and J. S. Ganson, offered a reward of one
for the apprehension of the supposed incendiary, but the reward was
On the very
morning preceding this fire, the first definite step in the actual
of Morgan occurred, when Nicholas G. Cheseboro, a Mason of Canandaigua,
a warrant for the arrest of Morgan on a charge of petit larceny. Taking
Holloway Hayward, a constable, and several others, Cheseboro proceeded
where, on the morning of Sept. 11, 1826, Morgan was placed under arrest
It happened that Morgan a few weeks before had been placed in "jail
because of his debts, that is, he had been released on bail on
condition that he
would not leave Batavia. Miller, who had furnished the bail, objected
to the law
officer's contemplated action in taking Morgan away. But the officer
objection (properly, as was later decided in court) on the ground that
was for a criminal offense and therefore it was permissible to take
Morgan to Canandaigua.
Morgan himself made no objection to leaving Batavia.
Became Of Morgan
happened to Morgan after he left Batavia probably never will be
evidence at every step is of such a controversial nature that it is
draw conclusions which will satisfy everybody. But by sifting out the
in the numerous books, pamphlets, newspaper accounts and reports of the
investigations and court trials, it is possible to set forth the rival
to give such facts as have been definitely established.
be questioned that Morgan was taken to Canandaigua, where, on Sept. 12,
he was arraigned
before a magistrate and acquitted of the charge of having stolen a
shirt and cravat
while in the village a few months previously. He was immediately
rearrested on a
debt charge and placed in jail but was released that evening. Then he
closed carriage and was transported, willingly as claimed on one side,
as claimed by the Anti-Masons, to Ft. Niagara, passing through
Rochester and Lewiston
and reaching the fort, then without a garrison, on Sept. 11, 1826,
where he was
confined in a magazine. What happened to him thereafter is still an
fruitless efforts of Mrs. Morgan to find her husband at Canandaigua, it
abroad that Morgan had been kidnapped and concealed. Rumors began to
there was a widespread conspiracy to suppress Morgan's book and that
was a result of this conspiracy. On Sept. 18, Miller definitely
charged, in his
newspaper, that Morgan had been abducted. Accordingly, a public meeting
at Batavia on Sept. 26, 1826, and a committee of ten was appointed to
and attempt to learn what had happened to Morgan. This Batavia
committee was the
first of the notorious "Morgan committees," which were practically
groups of men organized in the various counties of northwestern New
York. The most
active committee was that in Monroe County, which included in its
Weed [Lib 1883; see Vol 1, Vol 2] and which, at first, probably
more than any other agency to stir up Anti-Masonic feeling in western
Other noteworthy committees were those in Genesee, Livingston, Niagara
counties. These various committees met together at Lewiston and Ft.
in 1827 and were thereafter frequently denominated the "Lewiston
Masons participated in the activities of these committees, at least in
that of Monroe
County. But when it was charged that they were reporting all that
the committee "to the Chapter, meetings of which were held
the meetings of the investigating committee" (to quote Weed), they
and left the non-Masons to conduct the investigations as they pleased.
direction of the "Morgan committees" evidence was collected and
to grand juries, in attempts to have suspected Masons indicted, not
only for kidnapping
but also for murder.
and His Story
charges largely on the statements of Edward Giddins, a professed
testimony the courts refused to accept, the Anti-Masons began to assert
had been drowned in the Niagara River. They even fixed on the night of
1826, as the date of the alleged murder. They sought desperately to
evidence, and under the direction of Weed and others, the lower part of
River and the adjacent part of Lake Ontario were thoroughly dragged,
the vain search
for Morgan's body extending over several months. The hope of finding
about died out when, on Oct. 7,1827 (over a year, it should be noted,
disappearance), a body was washed up on the shore of Lake Ontario at
The coroner took charge and after a brief inquest, ordered the putrid
body to be
buried. When the news reached Rochester, Batavia and other points,
there was great
excitement. Representatives of the Morgan committees hastened to the
by Thurlow Weed, had the body exhumed and secured a second inquest.
examined and, on Oct. 15, the coroner's jury returned a verdict that
the body was
that of William Morgan. This verdict was returned in spite of the fact
of the clothing on the body was Morgan's.
the desired verdict, the Anti-Masons made capital of it. The body was
taken to Batavia,
accompanied by a great parade. As the news spread, hundreds and even
people flocked to Batavia to attend the funeral of the "Masonic
stone related it, "A funeral discourse was preached, and at the close
solemn services, the body was once more committed to its kindred earth,
tears of the widow, and the curses of the people, deep and bitter,
against the Masons."
Third Inquest on Monro
But the triumph
of the Anti-Masons was short lived. It happened that in September,
1827, a Canadian,
named Timothy Monro, has disappeared and it was suspected that he had
in the Niagara River. When his family and friends heard of the events
on the American
side of the river, they hastened to Batavia where, on their insistence,
was again disinterred and a third inquest held on Oct. 29, 1827. Mrs.
identified every item of the clothing found on the body, and this
other evidence, caused the coroner's jury to return a verdict that the
that of Timothy Monro, and that he had been accidentally drowned on
Sept. 26, 1827.
It was on this occasion that Thurlow Weed was accused of remarking that
was "a good-enough Morgan until after the election."
did the Anti-Masons fail to discover the body of Morgan, but they
in their attempts to establish judicially the fact that Morgan was
fact certainly stands out in bold relief though they continued to
that they knew when, where and by whom Morgan was murdered.
were never able to even secure an indictment for murder, though they
to the utmost to do so. It would be a wearisome task to rehearse here
of these efforts as contained in the reports of grand jury
investigations and court
trials. An analysis of these shows that between 1826 and 1829 inclusive
year being the last in which indictments could be secured under the
statute of limitations)
there were at least fourteen grand jury investigations of the Morgan
that forty-three men were indicted. None of these was indicted for an
serious than conspiracy and kidnapping, which, under the New York law
in 1826, was
merely a misdemeanor and not a felony. Some of these individuals were
than once. The first of the "Morgan trials" was held in January, 1827,
at Canandaigua, and the last in the Niagara Special circuit Court in
No less than eighteen separate trials of alleged kidnappers were held,
different persons were tried, some of them more than once, but the net
the conviction of only six Masons, and all of these for complicity in
Convictions for Complicity
It is of
interest to note that four of these convictions were secured in the
when John C. Spencer, who shortly afterwards became a leading
Anti-Mason, was counsel
for the defense. On the advice of Spencer, three of the men, Nicholas
Colonel Edward Sawyer and Loton Lawson, entered a plea of guilty and
from Judge Enos T. Throop (the later Governor) as follows: Cheseboro,
one year in
the Ontario County jail; Lawson, two years in jail, and Sawyer, one
month in jail.
John Sheldon elected to stand trial but was found guilty and sentenced
months in the same jail.
conviction was not secured until August, 1828, when Eli Bruce, who had
as sheriff of Niagara County by Governor DeWitt Clinton on Sept. 26,
1827, was found
guilty of aiding in Morgan's abduction, and was sentenced to serve for
and four months in the jail at Canandaigua. In the following May, John
who at first fled but voluntarily returned, was convicted and sentenced
to one year
and three months in the same jail. (3) Colonel William King, who fled
but later returned voluntarily to face trial, died suddenly, on May 28,
he could be tried. Burrage Smith, who fled with King, died before he
and so he did not face trial. David Hague (or Hogue) also died before
he could be
tried. A few other sentences were imposed in connection with activities
on against Morgan's partner, Miller, (4) while several others were
contempt of court in connection with the trials.
accomplish the things they had hoped to bring about, the Anti-Masons
denunciations on the Masons without discrimination. Their failure to
convictions they attributed to "Masonic interference" and "influence,"
and they complained that the state government did not sufficiently
the facts show that Governor DeWitt Clinton, before his sudden death on
1828, though he was the leading Mason (5) in the United States at the
what was in his power to do in apprehending the alleged conspirators
writers as Weed and even Masonic writers as Morris and Robertson assert
Clinton was cognizant of, and gave his sanction to, the plans to remove
Batavia, and even furnished funds for the purpose. On the other hand,
while advocating in his Letters the abolition of Freemasonry, defended
such charges, and pointed to the Governor's record as evidence that he
in apprehending the Morgan abductors.
As soon as
the Batavia committee wrote informing him, on Oct. 2, 1826, of the
in the locality over Morgan's disappearance, Clinton issued a
proclamation, on Oct.
7, calling on all officers to do their duty, "to pursue all proper and
measures for the apprehension of the offenders, and the prevention of
and requesting "the good citizens of this state to cooperate with the
authorities in maintaining the ascendency of law and good order." He
"compensation" for any expenses that might be incurred in securing the
punishment of offenders. On Oct. 26 the Governor issued a second
rewards up to three hundred dollars "for the discovery of the
This proving ineffectual, he issued a third proclamation, March 19,
"One Thousand Dollars for the discovery of the said William Morgan if
and if murdered, a reward of Two Thousand Dollars for the discovery of
or offenders, to be paid on conviction."
Clinton also wrote to the governors of Upper and Lower Canada asking
be made to learn whether or not Morgan was being forcibly detained in
the Earl of Dalhousie, the Governor of Lower Canada, and P. Maitland,
of Upper Canada, complied with the request, and reported that they had
satisfactory evidence regarding Morgan. This information Clinton passed
on to the
Batavia committee. Later, Governor Clinton removed Eli Bruce, a Mason,
office of Sheriff of Niagara County, when he failed to defend himself
filed with the Governor, that he had taken part in Morgan's removal.
But while he
was thus performing his duties as Governor, Clinton remained loyal to
Institution. In his letter to the Anti-Masonic Batavia committee, on
Jan. 8, 1827,
after reporting that he had written to the Canadian officials, he made
one of the
best defenses of Masonry that appeared during the period. He said:
I am persuaded, however, that
the body of Freemasons,
so far from having any participation in this affair, or giving any
it, reprobate it as a most unjustifiable act, repugnant to the
principles, and abhorrent
to the doctrines of the fraternity. I know that Freemasonry, properly
and faithfully attended to, is friendly to religion, morality, liberty
government; and I shall never shrink, under any state of excitement, or
of misrepresentation, from bearing testimony in favor of the purity of
which can boast of a Washington, a Franklin and a Lafayette, as
and which inculcates no principles, and authorizes no acts, that are
not in perfect
accordance with good morals, civil liberty and entire obedience to
the laws. It is no more responsible for the acts of unworthy members,
than any other
association, or institution. Without intending, in the remotest degree,
or improper allusion, I might ask whether we ought to revile our holy
because Peter denied, and Judas betrayed?
did the Governor lend his support to the effort to apprehend the Morgan
but the state legislature, after receiving a petition from the Lewiston
also took action to aid in the prosecutions. In 1827 it approved the
offer of a
reward for the apprehension of offenders in the Morgan case, and on
April 15, 1828,
enacted a law providing for a "special counsel" to conduct the cases
the state. Daniel Moseley of Onondaga County was first appointed to
fill the office.
When he resigned on March 3, 1829, to accept a judgeship, John C.
converted counsel," received the appointment. Unable to secure
he resigned early in 1830, and sought to fasten blame on Governor
Throop for not
cooperating. He was succeeded by Victor Birdseye, who held office until
act creating the office expired in April, 1831, because of the refusal
of the legislature
to renew it. In view of the fact that these special prosecutors failed
the Morgan mystery, and in spite of their strenuous efforts, could not
it is reasonable to conclude that the charges that Morgan was murdered
on mere hearsay evidence.
find Morgan's body and failing in their efforts to secure judicial
his alleged murder, the anti-Masons sought to prove their contention by
by various individuals that they committed the murder. Even today some
"confessions" are paraded before the public as proof of Morgan's
An examination of the several "confessions" proves nothing except the
perversity of human nature. They exhibit such glaring inconsistencies
that it is
not possible to accept any of them as giving a true account of Morgan's
alleged confessions of at least five individuals to be considered. The
by R. H. Hill of Buffalo, who, on Oct. 16, 1827, shortly after the
what proved to be Monro's body, confessed that he had murdered Morgan
his throat. He was placed under arrest and was removed to Lockport for
case was presented to the grand jury at the next session but the jury
indict him, and ordered his discharge on the ground that he was insane.
alleged confession was that of Richard Howard, reported by the
Mason and expose author, Avery Allyn. Allyn, in March, 1829, made
Howard had confessed "in February, or March, 1827," at a Masonic
in St. John's Hall in New York city, that he was one of the assassins
Allyn further asserted that the Masons had furnished funds to pay for
to Europe. This alleged confession, coming indirectly through such a
person as Allyn,
without satisfactory supporting evidence, can be given no credence.
Valance's was the third confession which arrests attention. It did not
print until 1849, when it appeared in pamphlet form, allegedly "As
by John L. Emery, of Racine County Wisconsin, in the Summer of 1848,"
Valance was on his death bed. According to this confession, Morgan,
fastened to his body, was taken in a boat by three men and was pushed
into the Niagara River by Valance. The latter said that he had been a
and was selected by lot to aid in the execution of Morgan. It is to be
Valance's confession that it does not agree with any of the others and
unsupported. Certainly it does not harmonize with the "confession" of
Samuel Chubbuck, who shortly before his death, June 4, 1881 stated that
with John Whitney and Colonel William King, had, on the night of Sept.
dropped a weighted "parcel" into the Niagara River, the "parcel"
being Morgan's body. J. Ross Robertson, the historian of Canadian
Masonry, is inclined
to accept Chubbuck's "confession", but there is no more reason apparent
for accepting it than any other "confession".
widely heralded "confession" of the murder of Morgan is that of John
In fact, there are two alleged confessions by Whitney, the one related
and the other of a decidedly contradictory nature, told by Rob Morris.
for Weed, he told his version of the Whitney "confession" too many
exhibiting important discrepancies in his various stories. In 1875,
1879 and 1881,
Weed gave out his alleged Whitney "confession" in newspaper interviews,
and again, on Sept. 28, 1882, he told the story under oath for
publication in the
New York "Sun." A version of the "confession" was also contained
in a letter written Sept. 9, 1882, at the request of the secretary of
Christian Association, and read at the national convention at Batavia
on Sept. 14,
1882, when the Morgan monument was dedicated. Weed's Autobiography,
1884, also contains the "confession", but in this case some glaring
Weed alleged that in 1831, in the presence of two witnesses, Whitney
him that Morgan had been abducted with the intent of turning him over
Masons who were to settle him in Canada. After he had been taken to Ft.
the Canadian Masons refused to receive him. At about that time a large
Masons assembled at Lewiston to install a Royal Arch Chapter (6) and,
as a result
of the Masonic enthusiasm generated by the occasion, five Masons,
John Whitney, [Richard or Henry?] Howard, Samuel Chubbuck and George
impelled to leave the meeting, go to the fort, take Morgan in a boat,
him overboard into the Niagara River. Weed then related that he
intended to get
Whitney's signed confession, and visited him at Chicago in 1860, while
the Republican National Convention. He left Chicago without securing
confession, and when he wrote from Europe in 1861, he learned that
Whitney was dead.
(7) The fact remains that Whitney did not die until 1869, and this fact
"discovered" after his story had been published in the newspapers, for
in his Autobiography, he changed the date of his letter to Whitney to
discrepancy between the newspaper accounts and the Autobiography
account is enough
to cause Weed's story to be questioned. It is rather remarkable that
have been so careless as to fail to secure a written confession from
the opportunity offered! As it is the confession is entirely
unsupported, and as
Weed was trying to justify the prominent part which he played in the
movement, the alleged confession cannot be accepted.
is another reason for rejecting Weed's version of the Whitney
and that is because Rob Morris published another Whitney "confession"
which is in strong contrast to Weed's account. According to Morris,
not promise, in 1860, to furnish Weed with a written confession, but
Weed with violence if he did not desist from telling lies about him.
Morris and Whitney
of Morgan's disappearance, as Morris claimed that Whitney told it to
him in 1859,
was substantially as follows: When the agitation among the Masons
of the rumors that Morgan was about to publish the Masonic secrets,
Nicholas G. Cheseboro formulated a plan for getting Morgan away from
carried out the plan with the help of a few other Masons. Whitney
to Morris, that Morgan agreed to depart, and the matter of having him
devised as a means of getting him out of the Batavia "jail limits." It
was asserted that Morgan was a willing party to all the transactions,
that no force
had to be employed, and that he was taken to Ft. Niagara which was
difficulty on Sept. 14, 1826. After that he was taken across the river
by Whitney, Eli Bruce and Colonel William King, in a boat rowed by
and Edward Giddins, at the time engaged in operating a ferry near the
details of Morgan's disposal were developed with two Canadian Masons,
who are unnamed,
Morgan giving his assent to everything. For a few days Morgan remained
in an empty
powder magazine of the fort until, on the night of Sept. 17, the two
after him and conveyed him to the Canadian side, and, on the next
him "to a point near the present city of Hamilton." Here Whitney
(according to Morris) that Morgan was left after signing a receipt for
dollars and agreeing to remain in Canada until given permission by
King, Bruce or
Whitney "to change his location." After the excitement over Morgan's
began in New York, preparations were made to bring Morgan back, but he
this version of Whitney's "confession," like that related by Weed, is
entirely unsupported. While it is at least as worthy of acceptance as
the Weed version,
one would be justified in rejecting it, providing he also rejected
The historian must reject both of these alleged "confessions," together
with the "confessions" of Hill, Howard, Valance and Chubbuck.
Mystery Still Unsolved
Thus it is
evident that the disappearance of Morgan remains yet to be explained,
and the probability
is that his ultimate fate will always remain an unsolved mystery.
Perhaps in the
future, stories (8) will be exhumed from the musty records of the past,
how Morgan was murdered or how he fled to Smyrna in Asia Minor, or went
and became a merchant, or went out west and became a chief among the
lived and died as a hermit in Northern Canada. But an examination of
the tales will
reveal that they belong to the mythology that early developed around
that they have little in them worthy of acceptance.
It is a sufficient
commentary on the character of the Anti-Masonic leaders that they
continued to freely
assert that Morgan had been put to death by the Masons, though they
knew full well
that they had failed to prove their case. The shrewd individuals who
for the development of Anti-Masonry were not inclined to be scrupulous
on that point!
They had found something that would appeal to the passions of the
people and they
made the most of it. Incidental to their main design of organizing what
to be a powerful Anti-Masonic political party, these leaders kept up as
possible the excitement over Morgan's disappearance, encouraging the
of Masons who were ministers and church members, and seeking to prevent
serving on juries or holding public offices. It seems to be a
that anti-Masons, disguising their ulterior motive of securing
political power for
themselves under a pretense of righteous indignation at a "murder" that
they could not prove, sought to annihilate the Masonic Institution,
means possible. How nearly they succeeded will be made clear later.
Persistence of the Accusations
leaving the "Morgan Affair" itself, there is one more point that should
be mentioned, and that is the fact that the charge that the Masonic
responsible for the "murder" of Morgan persists to the present time.
this phase of the subject merits special attention, it may be briefly
when the original Anti-Masonic leaders laid down their mantles, their
taken by a number of comparatively obscure individuals who have kept
to the present day. Not content to repeat in public addresses and to
pamphlets and through the columns of such periodicals as the "Christian
the absurd and self-contradictory charges against the Masons, these
attained the height of the ridiculous when, in 1882, they dedicated a
William Morgan at Batavia.
of such a monument was suggested as early as 1828, but nothing definite
until after the "National Association of Christians Opposed to Secret
was organized at a convention held in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, in May,
organization, which, in 1874, was incorporated in Illinois under the
name of "The
National Christian Association," undertook to make itself the successor
the Anti-Masonic party of the earlier period. It took advantage of
by the publication of Weed's versions of the alleged Whitney
between 1875 and 1882 to raise the money for erecting the monument. On
1882, the anniversary of Morgan's departure from Batavia, in connection
fourteenth annual convention, held at Batavia, Sept. 8-13, "The
Association" dedicated, to the accompaniment of eulogies of the
and condemnations of the Masons, a cylindrical granite shaft surmounted
by a noble
appearing figure purporting to be Morgan’s. Tablets bearing
inscriptions were placed
on each side of the base. The inscription on the first tablet, placed
on the south
side, reads as follows:
Sacred to the memory of William
Morgan, a native
of Virginia, a Captain of the War of 1812, a respectable citizen of
a Martyr to the freedom of Writing, Printing and Speaking the Truth. He
from near this spot in the Year 1826 by Freemasons, and murdered for
Secrets of their Order.
one passes by the Batavia cemetery on a New York Central train, he may
monument close at hand. It promises to stand for many years, a source
to those who do not know the history of the "Morgan Affair" and of
to the informed that such credulity could exist as to make possible its
with the inscription quoted-words which Rob Morris denounced as "words
- J, Hugo Tatsch,
THE BUILDER, Aug., 1926, (2) The Grand
Chapter, meeting at Albany, Feb. 6-10, 1827, approved this action and
Warrant to Lucius Smith, William Seaver, Henry Brown and others to hold
"by the name of Batavia Chapter, No. 122." Cf. Proceedings of the Grand
Chapter, 1827, pp. 265, 268.
- The complete
list of those indicted was as follows:
Elisha Adams, Noah Beach, Jerimiah Brown, Eli Bruce, John Butterfield,
G. Cheseboro, Samuel M. Chubbuck. Chauncey H. Coe, Francis H. Cummins,
Darrow, William Dover, Willard Eddy, Nathan Follett, James Ganson,
David Hogue, Holloway Hayward, Henry Howard, Hiram Hubbard, Ezekiel
B. Jewett, William King, James Lakey, Loton Lawson, Elihu Mather, Henry
William Miller, Asa Nowlen, Blanchard Powers, Moses Roberts, Edward
Scofield, Timothy Shaw, John Sheldon, Harris Seymour, Norman Shepard,
William R. Thompson, Orsamus Turner, John Whitney, Parkhurst Whitney,
Wright and one other.
- Of these the
following were brought to trial: Adams,
Beach Brown, Bruce, Chubbuck, Coe, Darrow, Ganson, Gillis, Hayward,
Ezekiel Jewett, Lakey, Lawson, Mather, Maxwell, Miller, Roberts,
Sheldon, Shepard, Turner, both Whitneys and Wright.
- On Sept. 12,
1826, Miller had been arrested by a posse,
headed by a constable named Jesse French, on a warrant sworn out by his
partner, Johns, who had deserted him a few days earlier, and who was
recover a sum of about forty dollars which he had advanced to Miller.
was taken before a magistrate at Le Roy but was released when Johns
failed to appear
against him. It was alleged that French attempted unsuccessfully to
when he started back to Batavia. For participations in these
was sentenced in April, 1827, to serve a year in jail, and two
Wilcox and James Hurlburt, received sentences of six months and three
- From 1806 to
1820, Clinton was Grand Master of the New
York Grand Lodge; from 1799 to 1802 he was Grand High Priest of the
Arch Chapter of New York, and from 1816 until his death he was General
Priest of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States. At
of his death he was also Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of New
terminology used is that found in the early Proceedings.]
- According to
the newspaper accounts. The Autobiography
version states that it was an Encampment of Knights Templar which
Masons to Lewiston.
- The authors are
indebted to Bro. R. I. Clegg of Chicago
for securing a copy of Whitney's burial record from the office of the
Cemetery Co. This copy shows that Whitney died on May 2, 1869, at the
age of seventy-four
- Rob Morris said
he had been told at least twenty stories,
all of which purported to account for Morgan after his disappearance.
excitement the anti-Masons circulated a portrait
purporting to be that of Morgan at work on his manuscript. There is
it was fictitious. There are marked similarities between the
figure portrayed and DeWitt Clinton; certainly the portrait was not
of the "Morgan Affair" are combined with narratives
of its aftermath, such as the development of religious and political
The general histories of the United States hardly mention Morgan. Brief
may be found in various Masonic histories, such as in the fourth volume
Freke Gould's History of Freemasonry [Lib 1884] (New York,
1889), 4 v., and the seventh volume of
Robert I. Clegg's revision of Mackey's History of Freemasonry [Lib*]
7 v. In the second volume of J. Ross Robertson's History of Freemasonry
… (Toronto, 1900 [Lib 1900, Vol
2]) is found some interesting material,
account of Chubbuck's alleged "confession."
on original research easily accessible to Masons include:
J. Hugo Tatsch's "An American Masonic Crisis: The Morgan Incident of
Its Aftermath," in Transactions of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 2076
[Lib 1921], Vol. XXXIV
(1921), pp. 196-209;
[Erik McKinley Eriksson's] The Morgan Affair," in Masonic Service
Speakers' Bulletin, No. 9 (1922), Emery B. Gibbs' "The Anti-Masonic
in The Builder, Vol. 4 (December, 1918), pp 341 348.
J. C. Palmer's
Morgan and Anti-Masonry [Lib*] (Washington 1924) is a small
compilation included in the M.S.A. Little Masonic Library.
McCarthy's "The Anti-Masonic Party," [Lib 1902] in American
Historical Association Annual Report for
1902, Vol. pp. 365-574, gives but brief consideration to the "Morgan
The most useful
account of the "Morgan Affair" by a Masonic writer
is Rob Morris' William Morgan, Or Political Anti-Masonry, Its Rise,
Growth and Decadence
[Lib*] (New York 1883). This book of 398 pages contains a wealth of
is poorly organized. It is to be greatly regretted that Morris was not
modern historical methods. Another interesting and useful work is Rob
Masonic Martyr [Lib*]. The Biography of Eli Bruce … (Louisville, Ky.,
A very useful
contemporary Masonic account is Henry Brown's Narrative Of
The Anti-Masonick Excitement [Lib 1829] western Part
Of The State Of New York, During the
Years 1826, '7, '8, And A Part Of 1829 (Batavia, N. Y., 1829)
Huntington's The True
History Regarding Alleged Connection Of The Order Of Ancient Free And
With The Abduction And Murder Of William Morgan … [Lib 1886] (New York,
1886) is also a book with a strong Masonic
O'Reilly's American Political Antimasonry [Lib*], With Its "Good-Enough
Morgan" … (New York, 1880), 55 pp., is a highly impassioned pamphlet
against Weed by the man who was editor of the "Rochester Daily
Other works on
the subject by Masonic writers include A. P. Bentley's History
Of The Abduction Of William Morgan … [Lib 1874] (Mt.
Pleasant, Iowa, 1874); John Riggs Crandall's
The Morgan Episode [Lib*] (a brief pamphlet published by The Committee
Of The Grand Lodge Of The state Of New York, 1907); and Peter Ross'
Craze," [Lib*] in the Miscellany Of The Masonic Historical Society Of
Of New York, 1902, pp. 5-29, This last work contains a lengthy
anti-Masonic side the
more useful sources are William L. Stone's Letters On Masonry And
Addressed To The Hon. John Quincy Adam's (New York, 1832) [Lib 1832], The
Autobiography Of Thurlow Weed (Boston, 1884),
edited by Harriet A. Weed, and its companion volume, The Memoir Of
[Lib 1883; Vol
2] (Boston, 1884), edited by
Thurlow Weed Barnes. Also of considerable value is William H. Seward:
From 1801 To 1834 With A Memoir Of His Life. And Selections From His
[Lib 1877] (New York,
1891), edited by
Frederick W. Seward.
circulated pamphlet, first published by order of the "Morgan
Committees," and still being circulated by present-day Anti-Masonic
is A Narrative Of The Facts And Circumstances Relating To The
Kidnapping And Presumed
Murder of Wm. Morgan … [Lib*] (Rochester, N. Y., 1827), 84 pp.
mention chiefly because of its rarity and because of its publication
in Europe is a 256-page book entitled Free Masonry Exposed: A Narrative
Of The Seduction
And Murder Of William Morgan, For Threatening To Divulge The Pretended
Free Masonry. With An Account Of The Trials, Acquittal, And
Condemnation Of Many
Of Those Implicated In The Horrible Transaction [Lib*] (Glasgow,
summaries of the "Morgan trials" are contained in Frederick
Whittlesey's "Report On The Abduction And Murder Of William Morgan"
and John C. Spencer's "Report On The History Of Judicial Proceedings"
[Lib*] [relating to alleged offenders in the Morgan Affair], contained
in the Proceedings
of the 1830 and 1831 anti-Masonic national conventions, respectively.
anti-Masonic sources are Samuel D. Greene's The Broken Seal; Or,
Reminiscences Of The Morgan Abduction And Murder [Lib 1873] (Boston,
1870) and a pamphlet entitled Appeal Of Samuel
D. Greene … (Boston, 1834), 64 pp.
pamphlets used are Trial of Parkhurst Whitney, Timothy Shaw,
Noah Beach, William Miller, and Samuel M. Chubbuck … [Lib*] (Lockport,
N. Y., 1831),
63 pp.; Confession Of The Murder Of William Morgan As Taken Down By Dr.
Emery, Of Racine County, Wisconsin, In The Summer of 1848, Now First
Given To The
Public (New York, 1849), 24 pp., purporting to be the confession of
Henry L. Valance
and A Supplementary Report Of The Committee Appointed To Ascertain The
Fate Of Capt.
William Morgan (Rochester, N.Y., 1827).
interesting information relative to "Morgan trials" and other
phases of the subject was gleaned from various newspapers and
periodicals of the
period, including: "The Craftsman," 1829, 1830, published at Rochester;
the "American Masonick Record," 1827-1832, published at Albany; "The
Masonic Mirror and Mechanic's Intelligencer," 1824-1828; "The Amaranth
or Masonic Garland," 1828, 1829; and "The Masonic Mirror," New Series,
1829-1833. The last three were published at Boston by Charles W. Moore
Sevey. Moore rendered great service to the Masonic cause at the time.
1842 to 1873, he edited the "Freemason's Monthly Magazine," at Boston.
of exposes, including that by Morgan which was published,
is included here as this phase of the subject will be dealt with later.
numerous other sources, dealing with special phases of the anti-Masonic
that will also be cited later.
wish to make special acknowledgment to Bro. William L. Boyden,
librarian of the Library of the Supreme Council, Ancient and Accepted
33d Southern Jurisdiction, Washington, D. C., who placed valuabie
malerial at their
proposes the following inquiry: "It is said that every lodge has six
three immovable and three movable ‒ the Square, Level, Plumb, Rough
Ashlar and Trestle Board. Now which of these do you consider the
immovable and which
the movable jewels?"
Masonic Convention, held at Baltimore, in May, 1843, decided that the
were the immovable jewels. They are the permanent and unchangeable
jewels of the
lodge, and can never be taken or removed from their proper places, to
be worn by
officers of inferior rank, or who are acting in any other capacities
indicated by the jewels. They belong permanently and immovably to the
chairs or offices. The Square, removed from its proper position, or out
of its true
angle, is no longer a Square, and the same is true of the Plumb and
are some of the reasons we have heard urged in support of the decision
of the Convention,
which we believe now to be the general practice of the country. We are
free to admit
that we do not attach much importance to the reasoning; nor do we think
essential whether the first or last three be considered the immovable
is desirable, however, that there should be uniformity, and as the
the question in the manner stated, the lodges have very properly, as a
felt bound to abide by that decision. ‒ The Freemasons' Monthly
Magazine, Vol. VII
Ye Old Refreshment
Bro. William L. Boyden,
Washington, D. C.
of having refreshments in the lodge dates back to the days of the
when they celebrated their annual meetings with a feast. Toulmin-Smith,
in his history
of English gilds [Lib 1870], says that the day of the
feast was usually
the day of the saint to which the gild, if it had a saint's name, was
"It was then that the brethren and sistern being all assembled, gave
alms, and feasted together, for the nourishing of brotherly love."
Plot, in his Natural History of Staffordshire [Lib 1686], printed in 1686, referring
customs of the county, among them being that of "making Masons," says:
are admitted, they call a meeting (or Lodge as they term it in some
places … and
entertain with a collation according to the custom of the place: this
proceed to the admission of them.
In the diary
of Elias Ashmole, referring to a lodge meeting which he attended in
London, in 1682,
We all dined at the Half Moon
Tavern in Cheapside,
at a noble Dinner prepared at the Charge of the new accepted Masons.
from Bro. John T. Thorp's article on Masonic Convivialities, in the
of the Lodge of Research, No. 2429, Leicester, England [Lib*]:
We are justified in assuming,
from very early times a feast formed a part in some cases no doubt, a
part, of the proceedings at the periodical assemblies of the Masons. Of
refreshments consisted in these very early times, we have now very
of judging. The fare varied probably, according to the position and
wealth of the
members, from the "Noble dinner" of Ashmole, to the humble bread and
supper, following in one case by port wine and rum punch, and in the
other by ale,
brandy and pipes.
It is quite
probable that the custom originally arose in a veritable necessity, for
many members of the early lodges came considerable distances, on
horseback or on
foot, to attend the meetings, and it was an absolute necessity that
be provided with some refreshment on their arrival, or before setting
out on their
return journey. The Junior Warden's "call off" then was of practical
and significance, and not as in later times very frequently a mere
quotation in Plot's book and from other sources, it would seem that the
partook of their refreshments before they entered upon their "work,"
not as in later days, after the work was over.
In the olden
days most of the lodges met in taverns or inns, the landlord generally
being a member
of the Craft, and he usually attended to the "inner man," serving the
refreshments either in the regular dining hall or set it out in the
The Stewards of the lodge had the arrangements in charge, and it was
direction that the banquet, dinners or other meals were provided. Bro.
his history of Old Dundee Lodge, London [Lib*], referring to the period
1763, gives an idea of the lodge at refreshment:
It is easy to reconstruct the
scene: the tables
(having six leaves) set out on trestles in the middle of the Lodge; at
brethren were seated on chairs at these tables, but as the membership
forms were provided in place of the chairs as being more convenient and
a larger space for the ceremonies but it will be remembered that, as
our Lodge room
from 1763 to 1820 was 44 feet long by 25 feet wide, and 15 feet high,
plenty of room available for these tables.
Thirty yards of bordered green
cloth were purchased
(1790) to cover same with, and on these tables were placed the bowls of
punch, bottles of wine, rum, Hollands, brandy, sugar, lemons, nutmegs,
and for the smokers, "churchwardens," screws of tobacco (called
and pipe lights were supplied; it being remembered that smoking and
also allowed in Grand Lodge for many years. When food was served, white
napkins, and knives and forks were laid our own charlady (a Mrs.
Benning in 1801)
assisting to wash and iron the napery for our brethren.
Some of the
lodges had regulations in their by-laws with respect to eating and
drinking in the
lodge. St. John's Lodge of Boston as early as 1733 had the following
III. No brother or brothers
shall set any victuals
in the lodge room while the lodge is open without the leave of the
Master or Wardens,
nor call for any liquor or tobacco without leave as aforesaid.
Lodge, No. 291, Highbridge, had this by-law in 1793:
VI. That the Stewards do keep
an account of all
food or liquor brought into the lodge each night, and demand the bill
in due season
and that the whole night's expenses do not exceed one shilling and
(visiting fees and nights of making excepted) and that the bill be
night before ten o'clock. Any liquor brought into the lodge after that
be paid for by the person ordering the same, and if the Steward
neglects his duties
(as above) he shall pay all extra expenses himself.
It is evident
that refreshments were often provided at the funeral of a deceased
brother, as witness
the following from Richmond Lodge, No. 10, Richmond, Virginia, under
date of May
The Steward's bill amounting to
… including refreshments
for the funeral of Bro. Robert Mayo, ordered to be paid.
One of the
rules of the old Grand Lodge at York, in 1725, provides:
4. The bowl shall be filled at
the monthly lodges
with punch once, Ale, bread, Cheese, and Tobacco in common, but if
shall be called for by any brother, either for eating or drinking, that
so calling shall pay for it himself besides his club.
It was probably
to prevent a too liberal after-dinner indulgence at the common expense
Lodge of Edinburgh, in arranging for the annual festival of 1741:
Resolved, that in place of
tickets each brother
at his entry to the Chapel shall pay one shilling sterling for eating
and ale or
small beer, and to pay for what wyne or punch they think fitt to call
for; and that
the theasurer [treasurer] furnish coall and candle on the public
expenses of the
A lodge in
Pennsylvania evidently had to "go slow" on expenses, for while it
had ale or beer as a matter of course, a motion was made Dec. 14, 1763,
Bro. Phoenix is desired to
supply the lodge with
a good cheese & one bag of Buttered biscuit.
In the Royal
York Lodge, London, the early reference to the lodges' gastronomic
confined to vague mentions of refreshments and supper; but at a Lodge
held in December, 1785, the Secretary throws off his reserve and
confides to posterity
the solid fact that the brothers agreed
to sup on Saint John's Day at
half after 7 on
pickled pork, leg of mutton and fowls.
1796, the following payments are noted:
House Bill 3 15s 5d, Brandy 1s
6d; an other bottle
3s 6d, total 4 5d. Cook 2s 6d, maid 2s 6d; waiter 5s; Tyler 5s, total 4
of Emulation, London, evidently had a special treat, for under date of
1789, the Secretary records:
The thanks of the lodge were
drank with the Honours
of Masonry to Bro. Delamore for his handsome present of a fine Turtle
had just been partaking of.
Here is another
lodge that evidently had to curtail its refreshment expenses, namely,
Lodge, No. 4, Providence, Rhode Island, for in 1805 it was
Voted that Bro. Steward be
requested to procure
a tin cheese box.
from one of the old minutes of Jerusalem Lodge, London, contains the
The Brethren, This evening
(This being Election
night for Master, Wardens & Treasurer) having been Geenteely
Bro. Haughton with Roast Chimes, Fowls and Turkeys, Boiled Fowls
Pudding Pies &c,
they collected 1 shilling Each being 42 Present which was disposed of,
10s 6d; Cook 10s 6d; House Maid, 10s 6d; Barr Maid 7s 6d; 1 Boy 2s; 3
At the annual
feast of Old Dundee Lodge, London, June 23, 1748, there were eleven
two visitors present. Here is the expense of the menu:
18 lbs. at 4 1/2d
veal, 15, at 4 1/2d
6 Qts.; Pease 6 Qts
seem to us that some of the old lodges were unusually harsh with their
it came to a matter of eating. The Lodge of Felicity, at London,
enacted this by-law:
22nd. That no member whatsoever
shall be allowed
the Privilege of eating anything in the Lodge Dureing Lodge Hours
(without the Master's
leave) penalty a bottle of wine.
Lodge, Poughkeepsie, New York, Oct. 3, 1785, Bro. Brooks was fined to
of one shilling, for not attending lodge and keeping the keys of the
Albany, New York, on March 19, 1800, passed the following:
Resolved, That some brother be
appointed to procure
refreshments for this Lodge consisting of good brandy, spirits,
crackers and cheese,
for which he shall collect one shilling from each member and visitor
the same, and, for every neglect, he shall forfeit and pay the Sum of
25 cents into
the Treasury unless a reasonable excuse can be given.
Kilwinning Lodge, No. 53 (formerly the Old Lodge of Dumfries),
Scotland, had as
one of its by-laws:
16th. That any member, within
the District of
Masonry who does not dine annually with the Lodge upon St. John's Day,
one shilling for his dinner, or be expelled.
As time went
on the lodges for various reasons began to economize. Old Colony Lodge,
Massachusetts, Jan. 10, 1793
Voted, Not to have any
refreshments but liquors
and crackers and cheese.
of St. Andrew, Boston, Nov. 28, 1809:
Voted, that the refreshments
for the ensuing
year be tongues and bread.
St. James' Lodge, Scotland, resolved that "a fourpenny pie and a bottle
toddy" shall be the fare of each brother at the feast of St. John, and
owing to the lack of funds, it was resolved that every Mason be
furnished with "a
4d pie and a bottle of ale for every two."
Lodge was one of the first of the Masonic bodies in Boston which
habitual use of refreshments. Except on rare occasions the practice has
been entirely suspended. Early in that year its discontinuance was
agreed upon for
four months, and at the expiration of that term refreshments were
another period of four months. At the close of the year the office of
was virtually abolished, and the by-law demanding a fee of visitors
custom was discontinued in Massachusetts Lodge about 1822, both solid
In Corinthian Lodge, Concord, Massachusetts, March 24, 1823, Bro. Asa
the following resolution which was unanimously adopted:
That this Lodge abolish the
practice of using
refreshments, (except it be on some special occasion) at our regular
Lodge, Reading, Pennsylvania, in 1818, wanted to turn over a new leaf
to the use of liquors, for a motion was then made
That no spirituous liquors
should be brought
into the Lodge in the future.
was amended at the next stated meeting, Feb. 4, 1818, so as to provide
That no fermented or spirituous
butter, or beef nor any other kind of refreshment except water, should
into the Lodge in the future.
Some of the
brethren visiting Washington Lodge, Philadelphia, Dec. 12, 1819,
evidently did not
like the looks of the "eats," for the Secretary says:
After the Lodge had closed and
the brethren had
retired to the banquet room, seven of the visiting brethren refused to
the refreshments prepared for the occasion, and, after demanding their
(which was promptly returned) they retired.
provisions for refreshments adopted by Alexandria Washington Lodge, No.
22, at Alexandria,
Virginia, on Dec. 26, 1789, is the following:
4th. That the "Caterers," for
being shall be restricted to the following articles, viz.: good
spirits, loaf sugar,
best cheese, superfine crackers, or bread, and dried venison mutton or
and that the said "Caterers" shall forfeit and pay the sum of three
for every neglect of duty.
brethren of the lodge had an understanding that each one in his turn
was to provide
refreshments for the lodge at his own expense. Under this arrangement
Bro. William Hodgson's "turn" to provide an entertainment on the 25th
of May, 1793. Bro. Hodgson was a well-to-do member and much was
expected of him,
and hence on this occasion a goodly number of the brethren were present
of an anticipated rare treat; but Bro. Hodgson, not having the fear of
before his eyes, neglected to make provision for the evening, and on
being made the brethren waxed wroth, and showed their displeasure by
It appearing that William
Hodgson, whose duty
it was to furnish refreshments for this night, hath neglected the same
he had received due information thereof the Secretary is ordered
forthwith to communicate
to Bro. Hodgson, the displeasure which the Lodge feels in consequence
of his delinquency,
together with the earnest solicitations that he may he more mindful of
in the future.
of Strict Observance
Bro Burton E. Bennett,
of the Strict Observance grew out of what is known as Templarism.
commenced to grow up in France soon after true Freemasonry was
was about 1725. However, no Grand Lodge was established till 1752. It
is not till
then that we are on sure footing. What went before can only be
Strict Observance as a separate system was formed Germany and dates
from about 1748.
It was produced by a process of evolution. The Strict Observance, and
Knights Templar Masonry, as well, cannot, even, be reliably understood
something out the Crusades, and with the three great orders that they
the Teutonic Knights, the Hospitallers and the Knights Templar.
were a series of wars carried on Western Europe to recover the Holy
Land from the
Moslems. They began in the 11th century and extended over a period of
hundred years. The Christian Crusades utterly broke down in 1449, and
in 1453 Constantinople
fell before the Mohammedans. It has ever since remained under Moslem
rule, as has
the Holy Land, and all of Asia Minor, till the end of the Great War.
of the time of the Crusades the Church of Rome largely governed the
The Crusades mightily changed European History.
In one sense
of the word the Crusades were a continuation of the age-old fight of
the East against
the West, and while, apparently, the West started it, and it was
carried on offensively,
still it was really defensive ‒ the Christian world trying to stem the
the Moslem hordes. It was a religious war ‒ a war between the Christian
Infidel. It was an attempt of the Roman Church, as a temporal power, to
the world with the sword, just as the Moslems were trying to do. It
Moslems nearly succeeded in their aim. They took all of Asia Minor, all
Africa, Sicily and other Mediterranean islands and even Spain in the
took a great part of Eastern Europe and reached as far West as Vienna.
Here in 1683
they were finally stopped. But for the Crusades it is possible that
they might have
entirely overrun the Western World and suppressed the Christian
religion, or, at
least, absorbed it entirely within their system. The impartial student
comparing the civilization of the Moors in Spain with that of the
Church and its
Inquisition, which replaced it, must decide that the former was, by
far, the preferable.
The civilization of Medieval Europe certainly had little to commend it.
taking a broad survey there can be no question that it is a mighty
the West prevailed over the East, as it always had before, and that the
religion of Christ was not replaced by the religion of Mahomet. No
great, can permanently stand before the onward progress of the Western
of the Aryan people, their intellect has become too great for this; too
stand at the perpendicular. The Hejira took place in 622. Omar took
637, and in Moslem hands it remained till the end of the first Crusade.
of the Sepulchre was fanatically destroyed in 1010. In 1071 the
captured Jerusalem. Till then pilgrimages to the Holy Land were fairly
especially so up to the final separation of the Eastern and Western
1054. Now not only were the native Christians persecuted, but the
Causes of the Crusades
It has been
stated that the purpose of the Crusades was to recover the sepulcher of
the Infidel. The underlying causes, however, were deeper and far
greater. They were,
(1) the desire of the Papacy for conquest, (2) the desire of the
to open up trade routes to the East, (3) the desire of the Byzantine
recover their lost territories and (4) the desire of princes to carve
out of the East.
who overran the Roman Empire had hardly become settled among the ruins
caused, and commenced to repair them, when Scandinavian pirates sailed
rivers and sacked and plundered their towns just as they had sacked and
the mighty cities of the Empire. Some of these pirates finally settled
down in Northern
France and established the Dukedom of Normandy. In 1066 the Norman
the Bastard, conquered England and established his kingdom of England.
In 1090 the
Norman Duke Roger conquered Sicily from the Moslems and established his
there. The Norman Duke Godfrey was one of the commanders in the first
July 15, 1099, Godfrey took Jerusalem, and while the shrieks of the
dying were heard
and the rivers of blood still gurgled and eddied, he founded his Norman
of Jerusalem. The traders, the princes, the Emperor and the Pope
God for the successful termination of so glorious a cause. But the
the purpose of conquering the world for Christianity, and extirpating
was a complete failure. However, good came out of them ‒ incalculable
helped to dissolve feudalism, to develop trade, to build up cities and
knowledge. It would be foolish to say that they were the cause of all
they certainly contributed toward it.
all, by far, they show the strivings of man for an ideal, for the
immortality, as nothing on this earth has ever done before or since;
to answer the age-old question as it has never been done before nor
since ‒ can
mortality be shaken off for immortality, can the finite be merged in
Orders of the Crusades
produced the Teutonic Knights, the Hospitallers and the Knights
Templar, and thus
Templar Masonry, and so, in one sense of the word, they are the cause
of the Strict
Observance. The Teutonic Knights of St. Mary's Hospital of Jerusalem
was one of
the three great religious and military orders produced by the Crusades.
It was founded
during the third Crusade, and was the last one formed. Its hospital was
by Germans. Very early in the history of the Order its members were all
and they have remained so ever since. It was never a universal Order,
like the Templars
and the Hospitallers. It was strictly national in character. Like the
Orders it began as a charitable society, passed into a military one and
reached sovereign power. In 1291 it was expelled by the Moslems from
the Holy Land.
In 1309 it established itself in what is now Marienburg, West Prussia.
It had begun
its work, however in Eastern Germany a hundred years before for the
purpose of subduing
and converting the heathens. The Knightly Order of Dobrzin, founded for
of conquering the heathen Prussians, was merged in the Teutonic Knight
as an Order organized for the same pose, was merged in it years before.
finally became a governing aristocracy, holding its lands in Eastern
a fief of the Pope of Rome. The Grand Master became in reality a king
with the Pope
as Emperor. However, the monarch, if such it may be called, a limited
one as a council
of brethren had to be consulted in all affairs. The state was really
and the government was ecclesiastical in character. The country was
as the States of the Church in Italy were governed before 1871, when
power of the Pope was abolished. The greater part of their subjects
were the conquered
Prussian heathens from whom the present peasants are descended. They
bound to the soil. 0f course their souls were now safe, but the only
if right it could be called, that they obtained through their
conversion, was the
right to work for the Knights, their masters, and fight for them in
time of war.
reached its height in the latter part of the 14th century. Its very
it down. Its neighbors envied its wealth, and wanted its territories.
Years War weakened it. Poland finally got West Prussia, and while East
left to the Knights, Poland became its overlord. Lutherism gave it its
When the Hohenzollern Albert, Grand Master of the Order, turned
Protestant, he secularized
its territories into a Duchy under Poland. Later on all of the country
East of Germany
was secularized and the Order confined wholly to Germany. The German
became a Prince of the Empire.
still continued on in its conservatism, always claiming its old rights.
itself from its still large revenues from its estates in different
parts of Germany.
During the French Revolution, however, it was deprived of all of its
went to the different principalities in which they were situated. It
in 1809, but in 1840 it was revived in Austria under the patronage of
of Austria, and so continued down to the ending of the Great War.
Knights of Malta
known officially as "Knights of the Order of the Hospital of St. John
was founded at Jerusalem during the first Crusade. It has been known
also as "Knights
of Rhodes", and as the "Sovereign Order of the Knights of Malta."
It was at first a charitable Order, while the Templars was from the
first a military
one. With the fall of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem in 1291, the
to the island of Rhodes. In 1522 the Turks finally took Rhodes, and the
removed to Malta. Here they remained till 1793, when Napoleon took
Malta, and added
it to the French Republic. This ended it as a sovereign power. While
had to leave Malta, shorn of their old power and great wealth, they
on in different countries. The Knights took with them from Malta their
relics ‒ chief among them being the hand of St. John the Baptist, the
image of Our Lady of Pherlemon, and a fragment of the true cross.
Some of the Knights went to Russia and elected the
Emperor Paul I Grand Master, and the then
Grand Master, Hompesch, resigned in his favor. A chapter of the Knights
the Pope of Rome authority to name a Grand Master, which he did. When
Master died the head of the Order was called a Lieutenant Grand Master
when Leo XIII restored the ancient title of Grand Master. The Order of
and St. Lazarus were united to the Hospitalers in 1782.
house of the Order was in France. It is still occupied by the Order. In
Germany it is now called the "Sovereign Order of Malta." Applicants for
knighthood must have sixteen quarterings of nobility and in Austria,
Great War, also, the consent of the Emperor. The Grand Cross of the
Order is a gold
white enameled Maltese cross surmounted by a crown. There are two
of St. John of Jerusalem, branches of the parent Order ‒ one in Germany
other in England. These chapters joined in the Reformation, but for a
continued their contributions to the head of the Order.
members of the Order must be Protestants of noble birth and belong to
Church. The Grand Cross there is a Maltese cross of white enameled gold
black eagles between the arms. Since the Great War the Order has worked
restoration of the monarchy. In 1924 von Hindenburg officiated at the
ceremonies of the Knights of St. John, but after he was elected
president of the
German Republic he told the Knights that he "resigned his functions."
In 1925 as president of the republic he forbade the former Kaiser’s
son, Eitel Frederick,
to officiate at the knighting ceremonies and ordered that they be held
in a small
chapel at Sonnenberg, instead of in the monarchist church at Potsdam,
the Order was never formally suppressed, and in 1888 Queen Victoria
granted it a
charter. In 1889 King Edward VII, then Prince of Wales was made Grand
Great Britain, as in Prussia, the sovereign is the head of the Order,
and the heir
to the throne Grand Prior. In England it is an aristocratic Order, but
not to the
extent that it is in Prussia. While members do not have to be
Protestants they must
believe in Christianity. The Grand Cross in Great Britain is, of
course, the gold
white enameled Maltese cross, but between the arms are placed two lions
unicorns. The first photograph ever taken of a chapter in session
appeared in the
London Graphic of Sept. 13, 1924. It was one of a meeting of the Priory
at Powis Castle, Welshpool. It shows Knights and Esquires on the steps
of the castle
in full regalia, including the Right Honorable Lord Kylsant, Sub-Prior
who deputized for the Prince of Wales, who is Grand Prior.
(To Be Concluded)
you abate anything from the full rights of men to each govern himself,
any artificial positive limitation upon those rights, from that moment
organization of government becomes a consideration of convenience
Bro. Frederic E. Manson,
Committee on Lectures the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania is carrying on a
of Masonic education, utilizing 100 lecturers who follow approved
and Bulletins dealing particularly with Masonic history symbolism and
with special reference to the Pennsylvania Ritual. These Bulletins are
by the R. W. Grand Master, and are used in the Subordinate Lodges, more
as text-books. Bulletin No. 6, "Masonic Objection," written by Past
Bro. Frederic E. Manson, chairman of the Committee on Lectures,
matter of so much importance that it seemed desirable to give the
benefit of it
to members of other Jurisdictions. At the request of The Builder the
through its chairman, has most kindly given permission for its
WHAT constitutes a "Masonic Objection" is not clear to many members of
the Craft. Consulting the Ahiman Rezon they find that to a petitioner
may regard "unworthy" they may make objection orally, by written
or by blackball. Referring to the Digest of Decisions they discover no
except those implied in Article 412, which refers to intoxication,
Article 179 relating
to legitimacy of birth, and Article 596, which pertains to literacy.
they determine whether a petitioner is "worthy" very largely on absence
of information to the contrary, or regard him "unworthy" because of
concerning him which may or may not be based on fact, and for which no
one in particular
may be responsible. Too frequently brethren deem petitioners "unworthy"
because of purely personal reasons which do not deserve Masonic
less consideration. Masonic objection may seldom be predicated on
Ahiman Rezon and Grand Masters in their edicts assume that as brethren
ritualistic work and traditions of the Craft, they should not need
either "Masonic Objection," or "Masonic Reason." Such assumption
is entirely reasonable for Masons are pre-supposed to know Masonry and,
do not, their ignorance is not the fault of the Grand Masters, much
less of the
Ahiman Rezon. It is because of lack of such knowledge that the
are made. These observations begin with the form of petition with which
should be thoroughly acquainted.
out a petition to a Masonic lodge for initiation and membership every
states his age, place of birth, place of residence, and length of
asserts that he is free by birth, i.e., that he is born of lawful
wedlock and under
civil law is the peer of his fellows.
he declares that he applies not because he has been solicited, nor is
mercenary or improper motives, but because he has conceived a favorable
of the institution, and desires knowledge.
he declares his belief in a Supreme Being, without which no man ever
should be made
If in making
these several statements the petitioner has deliberately
misrepresented, he himself
has created cause for Masonic objection.
we dismiss consideration of the form of petition let us remember that
is required to sign it. Possibly brethren have thought that signature
identification of the petitioner, as he has stated that he has or has
before; or evidence of authority for all statements made. But it is
of his literacy. No illiterate man is regarded as eligible to
Pennsylvania there has been no ruling regarding illiteracy, other than
that of Grand
Master Henderson, the Grand Lodge of England has officially commented
on the inability of candidates to write. Among other things it said:
who cannot write is consequently ineligible to be initiated into the
Similar rulings obtain in other Grand Jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania a
must sign his own name to the petition, and should do so in the
presence of his
might be made from the form of petition were it proper to do so in
print; but consideration
should be given to the report of the Investigating Committee, charged
the petitioner's character, position in society, and fitness to be made
three specifications ‒ "character," what the man really is; "position
in society," his ability to afford Masonry without financial injury to
or anybody else; and "fitness to be made a Mason," his moral and
condition in detail. Here may or may not be grounds for further Masonic
and the committee's report should fully assure the lodge one way or the
for any reason it fail to do so, any member possessing positive
responsible for the welfare of the lodge.
reputation is confused with character. Reputation is not necessarily
what a man
is, more frequently what people think he is, perhaps from his words and
these may be misconstrued, misinterpreted, even misrepresented because
of some peculiarity
of the man on the one hand, and of prejudice of his fellows on the
reputation if subject to criticism should beyond a reasonable doubt be
in justice to both the petitioner and Freemasonry, as to whether or not
his true character. Only when this cannot be done may there be reason
investigating committees do report in favor of the petitioner, and
the blackball, the latter assume tremendous responsibility, to both
Freemasonry; indeed, may violate their own Masonic obligations.
in society has been stressed as financial, rather than social or civic.
man who cannot afford it should be initiated into Freemasonry, even a
man of unimpeachable
moral character may not promise to be a desirable member of the lodge.
his social and civic standing is important, too; his attitude toward
for progress and uplift, his service to his fellows, his influence upon
A man who is generally recognized to be of little consequence to
society may reasonably
be adjudged of little consequence to Masonry, for Masonry demands
all this the committee is charged with determining the candidate's
to be made a Mason," a phrase of greater purport than appears on the
it. He may pass every test previously discussed and not that which this
and continues to impose until he may be raised a Master Mason. It is
emphasize the landmarks as regards age, sex, soundness in all members,
of his senses; it is well, too, to stress dependence on God as well as
Him, ability to control his tongue, to yield obedience, and to keep
as well as to protect the chastity of the other sex. But gaining
the tongue of good Masonic report," he must give assurance that he will
under such report, else he discredits the Craft. He must reasonably be
to keep all his covenants, else he dishonors the Fraternity.
in the obligation of the Third Degree there are prohibitions each and
of which is basis for Masonic objection, indeed makes objection
every member of the Craft.
Record of the Candidate
the question arises as to whether or not a candidate's character,
position in society,
etc., in the past, if not what they should have been, should be taken
even though he has reformed and become a good citizen. Here is
opportunity for charity
but judgment should direct charity. It depends very much on what the
record is and
how complete the reformation has been, also on whether or not, if the
has been complete, initiation and membership would prejudice the Craft.
cases of this kind have occurred in our own Jurisdiction, and they have
of on their merits. In another Jurisdiction the "present fitness" of
petitioner was debated in "open" lodge. When justice to all concerned
can be tempered with mercy, Masonry may exercise charity.
It must now
be obvious that definition of "Masonic Objection" or "Masonic Reason"
lies in Masonry itself, not in the Ahiman Rezon, nor in the edicts of
Masters. Consequently it must appear to every thinking Mason that if he
to understand the terms he must know what Masonry is, what its purpose,
usages and traditions. In previous Bulletins these matters have been
it can here be said that no member of a Masonic lodge can create a
to a petitioner, the objection must have been created, directly or
the petitioner himself. What is more to the point, any brother who
attempts to do
so lays his Masonry open to question. Ordinary personal differences
have no place in the lodge, nor those between brethren and the profane.
has any "right" to raise Masonic objection that is not inherent in
Masonic law and tradition, and cannot be protected in any assumed right
‒ only in
such right as Masonry itself gives him. It is Masonic right with which
Master's edict is concerned and none other.
Right of Objection
if a Mason expects protection in his exercise of any Masonic right he
and not by proxy exercise the right; that is, he cannot ask a brother
Mason to act
for him for any reason whatever. While the brother so acting may not be
by the Master or by any member of the lodge, the fact remains that he
has in thus
assuming responsibility for another violated Masonic ethics, possibly
obligations of a Master Mason. A Mason who knows a petitioner to be
has an obligation to himself, to his lodge, and to Masonry in general
he can and should discharge. Only by discharging his obligation himself
can he claim
protection of his right of objection.
One of the
most unethical uses of the right of objection is when a member assumes
prejudices of a brother member against a petitioner, and worse when he
him from becoming a Mason because of the dislike of a friend not a
member of the
Craft. In doing either the one or the other he forfeits not only
protection of right
of objection, but also the right itself, laying himself open to charges
for a Masonic offense. Yet Masons sometimes so far forget Masonic law
as to commit
this offense, which in several cases has resulted in their expulsion
no Mason has any right, much less protection in assumption of right of
when he predicates protest against a petitioner on any personal
or animosity to or regarding him, that would not, if impartially
the petitioner's character, standing in society, or fitness to be made
To make this clear let us cite a case from a sister Jurisdiction. "A"
who was a Mason and traded with "B" got behind in his payments and was
"dunned" for settlement. "B" had applied for initiation and
membership in "A's" lodge, and when the ballot was declared was found
to have been blackballed. When the Junior Warden so announced "A"
his gratification in such manner as to attract attention, and later
that he had kept "B" out of the lodge. Charges preferred, "A"
was tried and suspended, but appealed to the Grand Master, who in the
his decision sustaining the lodge said:
grievances that do not impugn character can in no way be distorted into
reason for objection. They belittle the Mason more than they injure the
In this case the brother further proved his own unworthiness when he
injury to the petitioner, and violated the secrecy of the ballot, to
of his lodge and the Craft as a whole… For these and other reasons the
denied and the lodge sustained.
the right to object, a contributor to a Masonic magazine of national
held that "it should be exercised only with the greatest caution and
comprehensive at once of the petitioner, the lodge, the Craft, and the
declaring that "moral as well as Masonic law imposes tremendous
on the brother who exercises it" ‒ "responsibility, however," he
goes on to say, "which should be assumed if the petitioner is
of possible consequences to self." In concluding his article he says
of the Craft need not, however, be at a loss to know when they should
responsibility, and when they should not, for from the presentation of
to the lodge, to the moment of balloting, test after test of the
fitness of the
petitioner can and should be applied, tests with which every Mason
should be familiar."
once said that "if members would make proper distinction between the
and 'unworthy,' Masonry would gain strength more rapidly than it does,
or other some men gain membership who should not, and some are denied
it who should
have it." In this observation there is a great deal of truth, as will
by members of any lodge. Generally speaking the "unworthy" are admitted
because of their popularity in the community, and the influence of
the lodge. On the other hand, "worthy" petitioners are kept out of the
lodge frequently because they are unknown to members, or because they
and unostentatious, living quietly, perhaps very much to themselves,
of valuable service if presented opportunity to render it. Too little
in both cases is given the petitioner when his name appears in the
notice ‒ too
little consideration sometimes to the disadvantage of Masonry, one way
Under such circumstances there can be no discrimination such as should
Masons observe their obligations.
more than a fraternity ‒ it is an institution because it has purpose
to the well-being of society as well as to that of its members. Any
of Masonry displays ignorance. An institution with such purpose has to
and quality of material in perpetuation is of vastly greater importance
for quality can in the end accomplish more than quantity in promoting
and moral progress. Masonry should be able to continue to boast that
are carefully selected, and this it will do only so long as the
are admitted through its portals as certainly as the "unworthy" are
back. The great objection any Mason can entertain and maintain is that
in the personnel of its membership, and this is insured against only
desiring admittance are carefully investigated, closely scrutinized,
by every standard that Masonry demands they shall measure up to. And
this will be
done only when Masons understand the basis for "Masonic Objection," and
the significance of "Masonic Reason."
Wardens in Haberdashers' Company
The use of
the terms Master and Warden as designating the presiding officer of a
is not uncommon. Of the two Master is found more frequently and Warden
It is indeed rare to find both, particularly in the sense in which they
to the Masonic Craft. The following quotation represents one of those
and while it has doubtless been pointed out in the past, it will do no
harm to again
make reference to it.
I, page 75, of Boswell's "Life of Samuel Johnson, LLD.," [Lib 1807, Vol
of 1925, J. M. Dent and Sons, Limited, publishers, there appears in a
interesting reference to the Haberdashers' Company of the city of
writes that Dr. Johnson had been offered the Mastership of a school
founded by one
William Adams, but that it was necessary for him to acquire the degree
of Arts before he could receive the appointment. The time at which the
took place was during the year 1738 and during the summer months. This
made relative to the school. "William Adams, formerly citizen and
of London, founded a school at Newport, in the county of Salop, by deed
November, 1656, by which he granted the 'yearly sum of sixty pounds to
and learned schoolmaster, from time to time, being of godly life and
who should have been educated at one of the Universities of Oxford or
and had taken the degree of Master of Alts, and was well read in the
Greek and Latin
tongues, as should be nominated from time to time by the said William
his life, and after the decease of the said William Adams by the
the Master and Wardens of the Haberdashers' Company of the city of
London) and their
successors.' The manour and lands out of which the revenues for the
of the school were to issue are situate at Knighton and Adbaston, in
of this quotation in showing a parallel development between the
and that of the Masons' Company of London is questionable, although the
to in the quotation is 1656. The first edition of Boswell's "Life" was
published in London on April 20, 1791, and evidently did not contain
as Boswell say that "I, in my first edition, suggested that Pope must
by mistake, written Shropshire, instead of Staffordshire. But I have
obliged to Mr. Spearing, attorney-at-law, for the following
second edition appeared on July 1, 1793, and was the last in which
as editor. It would appear then that the note itself was written
these two dates. It is possible, therefore, that the use of the term
and Wardens" is merely a coincidence; on the other hand it occurs in a
evidently taken directly from the charter of the school.
Bro. John Heron Lepper,
who hails from the County of Down has every right to boast that he
comes from no
mean Masonic province, for not only does it possess the oldest
warranted lodge in
Ulster, to-wit., St. Patrick's, No. 77, Newry (whose charter dates from
also has produced some of the names that will be forever held in honor
by all students
of Masonic history and antiquities, to mention but two, the late Bro.
F. C. Crossle
‒ whose son, Bro. P. C. Crossle, is an apt illustration of the adage
that the "apple
does not fall far from the tree" ‒ and Bro. John Robinson, of Comber,
happily, is still With us. The author, therefore, who has the courage
to set out
to tell us something new about Freemasonry in Down knows beforehand
that his work
will be liable to criticism both on its own merits and in comparison
with what has
already been done by other well-known Masonic writers.
Let me say
at once that my friend, Bro. W. G. Simpson, has been justified in his
former book on the Saintfield lodges (1) was full of delightful and
at the lodge life of a century ago – his new book, which is the
occasion of this
article, (2) is something more. As the Masonic history of a district
for a particular
epoch it could hardly be surpassed. All that a reviewer can do is to
offer a few
indications of what may be found in it and to advise students to read
the book for
text of Bro. Simpson's excerpts has been drawn from the old minute
books of three
Comber lodges, omitting the most famous of all, Temple of Fame, No. 46,
as he rightly
considers that there is only one living Mason who should meddle with
of that fine old Lodge; but while awaiting what Bro. John Robinson may
give us on this subject, we shall find something to go on with in the
relating to Lodges 133, 136 and 165.
of the minute books of the period, many of the entries are
yet, sometimes, even in their meagerness sufficiently picturesque:
Aug. 9, 1830
‒ "Lodge in due form. Worshipful in the Chair. Expended 4d. each and
Nov. 9, 1835
‒ "Nobody here but my father and Alexander M'Morran and myself W. R. a
a single word in the lists of members tells a story-"Certified,
Died, To America." In this connection I cannot refrain from quoting as
a passage from the minutes of a famous County Antrim Lodge, No. 615
150 years old now), showing what hopes and sentiments some of these
carried with them:"Oct. 3, 1832. N. B. Brother William McCalmont has
it to be inserted in the lodge book that if ever he finds himself worth
Dollars he will remit 30 on purpose to treat his brethren of Lodge 615
to a dinner."
word America is a great temptation to digress and give my readers other
of early fraternal communication between the Constitutions on either
side of the
Atlantic, but that story must wait while we return to Comber.
To my mind,
the most valuable portion of Bro. Simpson's book is that dealing with
one of the
Comber Lodges which was originally chartered as No. 887 by the
Lodge of Ulster. It subsequently returned to the true fold and received
warrant. Its great interest to the Masonic historian, however, lies in
that in its minute book we have documentary evidence of the "Seton"
being "healed" on becoming regular. I have not come across any other
of such a practice being recorded in writing, though doubtless it was
as the Antients and Moderns reciprocally "healed" one another in the
times of the Masonic split. It is a great feather in Bro. Simpson’s cap
put this discovery to his credit.
lodge has preserved, as well as its early minute books, many other
from the early days, before the governing bodies of the higher degrees
into being in Ireland. Thus we find that among its effects are, "two
Royal Arches of the wood"; the lodge chest, over a century old; the
used in processions and painted with symbols; a dinner plate with
of a rather late date, 1846; and the fine old decorated Master's chair.
the book would be well worth possessing for the reproductions of the
charts and seals.
find here some light on the difficulties that beset our bygone brethren
the torch of Masonry alight. One of the old lodge rooms is still in
here will be found plans and photographs of it.
roof is 8 feet high in the centre, and slopes to a height of only 2
feet from the
floor at each side wall…. The lodge room measures 15 ft. 6 in. by 15
labour it was illuminated by a rude, unpainted, wooden chandelier of
each furnished with a tin socket for a candle."
In this wretched
apartment was placed a Master's chair similar to a canopied four-poster
bed, 7 feet
high. It too had its painted symbols, including Adarn and Eve (minus
discomfort must have been the rule rather than the exception in the
century among the country lodges; yet they preserved the flame pure and
and passed it on to us. Honor to their memory! And may we be worthy of
of poor simple Masons had their ideals. In the year 1814, some years
Grand Lodge of Ireland had made illiteracy a bar to initiation. Lodge
No. 136 adopted
the following by-law:
"Ordered that no Candidate be
the lodge who has not received the Benefits of whatever Place of
Worship he belongs
to and in no Case shall a Candidate (be) admitted who cannot Read the
we get a smile at some long-vanished custom, not essentially Masonic,
to the period and place. Thus we find in the year 1821 the fees of
by the newly elected officers varying from one pint of "the wine of the
from the Master down to "one-quarter naggen" from the Junior Deacon.
enough, the Ensign who was a more junior officer than the last named
had to provide
one-quarter pint; perhaps, as his duties consisted in carrying the
banner on St.
John's Day processions, he was expected to stand more ‒ perhaps he was
his greater capacity ‒ but such conjectures are merely futile!
reproduction of the smoke seals used by these lodges almost tempts me
digression. They will be particularly interesting to any one of my
readers who is
acquainted with Bro. Sachse's works on Pennsylvanian Freemasonry [Lib
1908/19; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] or within reach of the Grand
museum of that state. The migration of Masonic symbolism is a branch of
hardly touched as yet; that is, as regards certain concrete, known
if collected and put in juxtaposition might warrant conclusions being
I have in my mind while writing these words one elaborate Masonic
design which crops
up in use in places so widely removed as London, Philadelphia and the
North of Ireland
between the years 1759 and 1800, nor, so far as the evidence I have
does the American lodge appear to have copied the other districts. But
it is only
by a careful collation of such Masonic designs that we can arrive at
any real knowledge.
Bro. E. H. Dring's monumental essay on the English Tracing Boards
[Lib*] is an instance
of what has been done. Masonic seals still await such an inquirer, and
some material in this book to go on with.
curious of all these seals are those used in connection with the degree
Priest, which used to be most popular in Ireland but has now become
Manuscript rituals of the degree are fairly common ‒ I possess
transcripts of some
twenty collected in various parts of Ireland ‒ and from one of these
gives us the by-laws of the Union Band held in Comber.
only one of the many "side degrees" which used to be conferred in the
Craft lodges in those days. Chapter and verse are quoted here for the
of the following: Ark, Wrestle, Black Cross, White Cross, Knights of
Architect, Knights of Mount Seni (Sinai?), Knight of the Elysian
Shades. I have
chosen these out of many as being now extinct in Ireland. A certificate
some of these degrees and granted to Samuel Jamison in 1811 by Lodge
No. 649, Raffry,
County Down, will be found quoted here. The original is now in the
the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, one of many interesting Irish
by that body.
months ‒ for till the year 1875 Irish Lodges installed their officers
on St. John's Days ‒ these lodges elected a committee, one of whose
functions was to decide disputes arising between the brethren ‒ for it
upon as a crime to go to law with a brother before attempting such a
means of accommodating
the difference and to try those who were accused of committing a breach
Masonic duty. Some typical instances of such a committee's proceedings
here. The following may serve as an example:
Oct. 23, 1815, Betwixt John
and John Jamison Defendant
In Brother Crossens John
Jameson had a Herring
Preparing to eat on the fire Br. Robt. Clark Catched the Herring
afterwards a Dispute
took place Concerning It and on the Road going home it was Renewed
struck him several
times without any offence John Shields threw him down on the Road told
him he Would
not Strack him but Would take Care of him another Way but he still
It is our undivided opinion
that Br. John Jamison
is to be obsolved from all the Benifits of masonry for the space of one
six months after this Date 23 of October 1815 and after he Clears off
all Just Debts
that Belongs to this Lodge and at that Date he is to be Restored.
thus under sentence by his lodge committee had, of course, the right,
often exercised, of appeal to Grand Lodge. The latter body usually
matter to three neighboring lodges for their report, unless when there
to be a standing county committee in existence when the matter went
before it. As
regards the County Down committee, Bro. Simpson has been fortunate
enough to obtain
from that sound Masonic scholar, Bro. W. Jenkinson, of Armagh, who has
made a special
study of these early county committees, a valuable note on the
attended the formation of such a body in the county by the Grand Lodge
For this and much else the reader may be referred to the book itself.
be easy to lengthen this article by further extracts relating to the
processions and attendance at funerals, but that is not necessary.
Enough has been
written already to show that this is a book which will interest all who
make a study
of oldtime Masonic customs.
Just as one
of the lessons tacitly inculcated by our beloved Order is that no man
for himself alone, so the Masonic student soon finds that his knowledge
of the history
of his own Mother Constitution tends to become short-sighted and biased
by acquaintance with what was happening simultaneously in other
disturbance in any one part of the wide sea of the Craft will cause
on its farthest shores. The greater the original disturbance the
easier, of course,
to trace the effects elsewhere: the clash of Antient and Modern is felt
Dublin senses the shock of the American anti-Masonic campaign. Great
as these are demonstrable of proof; still it may be asked what possible
the proceedings of a handful of Irish lodges meeting a century ago have
trans-Atlantic Masonry? It does not follow that because we cannot point
to a visible
ripple that one did not reach that length, though I think that the tide
westwards lets us assume the existence of such ripples as an axiom.
on one side, however, every reader of this book can be safely promised
a great deal
of entertainment and information about a Masonic Jurisdiction on which
has been written. That this is not due either to lack of new matter or
authorship Bro. Simpson's book is an ample proof.
- The History and
Antiquities of Freemasonry in Saintfield,
CO. Down, Ireland. [Lib*] 8 vo. Demy, 96 pages, 2 plates. Post free 2/8
Olden Time in the Comber District, County
Down Ireland [Lib*]. 8 vo. Demy, 92 pages 8 plates. Price 3/8 post
free. The whole
profits to be devoted to the Irish Masonic Charities
these works were privately printed, and it is possible that the stock
Inquiries may be made to Bro. S.H. Kingham. The Academy, Saintfield,
through the Book Department of the National Masonic Research Society.
to Great Men Who Were Masons
Bro. George W. Baird,
P. G. M., District Of Columbia
one of those who signed the Declaration of Independence, is one of the
of that illustrious group of men of whom we can say positively and
he was a Freemason. That there were more than nine is indeed highly
weight must be given to the statements of earlier writers to the effect
or more of the number were members of the Craft, for they seem based on
memory then still existing. So few membership rolls and lodge records
down to us from the Revolutionary period that positive documentary
proof is generally
most difficult to find, even when the facts known all point in that
of the Signers of the Declaration should be sacredly cherished by their
and yet how little is known of them individually. The patriotic orator
audience off its feet with his fervid eloquence, but how many of them
know or care
that three of the men to whose leadership this country so largely owes
lie in unknown and neglected graves in Philadelphia? And how many
Masons know that
one of the three was their brother in the Craft? One of Penn's
that he died in North Carolina in September, 1778, but none mention
where he was
In a series
of articles on the memorials to our great men and brothers it is
somewhat like playing
Hamlet with the Prince of Denmark absent to write of one to whom
neither his friends
and relatives nor yet his countrymen thought to erect a monument. But
more, for that very reason, should the name of John Penn be recorded
of the Grand Lodge of Carolina for 1912 (page 752) gives the facts
known about our
illustrious brother. He was born in Caroline County in Virginia on May
His family was well connected and in comfortable circumstances. In
spite of this
it would seem that his education was badly neglected after his father's
like most men of mark this handicap was not to keep him down. He had
industry, and set to work to make good the deficiency. He studied law
in the office
of Mr. Edmund Pendleton and in 1762 set up in practice for himself, in
soon became very successful. In 1774 he moved to Granville, N. C.,
where he found
a larger field for the exercise of his abilities. He succeeded Richard
the Continental Congress of 1775, through which circumstance it was
that he was
concerned in the famous Declaration.
He was out
of Congress for two years but was returned again in 1778 by a good
the occupation of North Carolina by the British troops under Cornwallis
he was placed
in charge of public affairs, providing what means were possible for
the population. He was also receiver of taxes for the Federation, a
Miss Susan Lyme, by whom he had three children. He is said to have
sweet, persuasive eloquence and no small share of public confidence"
effect at the bar were distinguished for their force and pathos.
in his "Annals of Philadelphia" tells of a challenge for a duel given
and received between John Penn and Mr. Laurens, a striking instance of
of social customs. Even in that day this occasioned general surprise
that one of
such an amiable and lovable character should have been involved in such
It shows the power that the point of honor then had. However, the
affair was arranged
with satisfaction to all parties, and they never met in conflict.
has been investigated, but apparently his family had no connection
that of William Penn, the colonizer of Pennsylvania, though the
latter's son by
his second wife bore the same name as the subject of this account.
[At the last
minute Winfield's History of Caroline County has come to the writer's
in which it is stated that John Penn died at his home in Granville
Carolina, and was buried near Island Creek, and that in 1874 his
remains were removed
and buried in Guilford Battle Grounds, a few miles from Greensboro,
those of John Hooper. The spot is said to be marked by a stone on which
inscription is to be found:
and John Penn, delegates from North Carolina, 1776, to the Continental
and signers of the Declaration of Independence. Their remains were
in 1874. Hewes' grave is lost. He was the third signer.
has not been able to verify this statement, which is doubtless
reliable, nor to
secure a photograph of this monument.]
Bro. Robert I. Clegg,
Associate Editor, Illinois
the Roman era was once much more liberally employed than it is today.
In the scientific
world and in university training the language is still favored, though
it has long
been designated as dead. In pharmacy most of us are familiar with its
use on the
prescription blanks left by the doctor when some ailment or another
health. Latin is also commonly used by the Roman Catholic Church
uses of the language have declined nevertheless, though here and there
as in the
above instances we find it still of service.
As a means
of international communication among educated men a revival of the
been proposed. Even the simplification of the language in grammar and
many new words to the vocabulary have been urged to fit Latin for
present day conditions.
How practical this project might be is not now my purpose to discuss.
use of Esperanto, the international auxiliary or secondary language,
would be preferable.
This would not involve the alterations incident to changing over and
the Latin, mangling it into something foreign to itself, and thus bring
language of the Roman Empire of old into harmony with the latest
demands and conditions
that prevail with the inventions and industries of our own times.
by the way, is used by a Masonic Lodge in Paris, and similar
been proposed for London and elsewhere. Mention was made in the
the Masonic Year ‒ 1926, published by the Masonic History Company,
of the Roman Eagle Lodge of Edinburgh, Scotland, which formerly worked
and kept the records in Latin.
Bro. A. H.
Mackey, of St. David's Lodge in the same city, the Lodge, by the way,
of which the
famous novelist, sir Walter Scott, was a member, told me of the curious
that in the early days the work was translated into Latin for those who
English but had an acquaintance with the language of ancient Rome.
made to this matter in the Masonic Year, Brother Mackay has very kindly
respective items from the old Minutes and has thoughtfully added a
number of explanatory
notes. The incident throws much light upon Lodge conditions in
Edinburgh, a city
of culture and renown, and also suggests the fame that Freemasonry then
in other lands on the Continent of Europe.
Worshipful" was and is yet a term of respect applied to the Masters of
in Scotland. The expression "Writer to the signet" means in Scotland a
member of a society of law agents. They have the exclusive power to
writs, charters and so forth to be issued by governmental authority.
as used by Brother Mackay, is an abbreviation of the term "Writer to
from the Minutes of Lodge St. David, Edinburgh, No. 36:
"Emergency 13th Septr, 1783.
"James Hewit, S. W.
"R. W. Wa. Ferguson.
"Alexr. Ferguson, J. W.
"James Brown, T.
"Dpt. Master Wardens and
"The Lodge being convened on an
and the R.W. being in the Country, Br. W. Ferguson took the chair and
That Fabian Gordon, Esqr., Colonel of Horse Carolus Gordon, Esqr.,
Major of Foot,
Stefanus Dziembowskie, Esqr. Captain of Foot, all in his Polish
and Joseph Bukaty, Esqr., Secretary to the Polish Embassy at London,
to him to be made Masons and Members of this Lodge, and as he is
with them all, he recommends to his Brethren to grant their request,
unanimously agreed to, they were introduced in the order above
mentioned, when the
ceremony was performed by the R. R. Br. John Maclure, Grand Chaplain,
into Latin by Br. John Brown, M. D., as none of them understood English
"The Brethren were entertained
in the most
Elegant Manner by Vocal & Instrumental Music, particularly by
the whole Band
of the 21st Regiment, with French Horns, Cor-de-Chasse Trumpets,
(Signed) "Wa. Ferguson, O. M."
Worshipful Master in 1783 was Brother James Home, Writer to the signet,
probably residing at his country seat of Linhouse during the vacation
of the law
courts in Edinburgh.
officer, Brother Walter Ferguson, was R.W. Master of the Lodge in 1754.
to him in "Sir Walter Scott as a Freemason" in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum
Vol. xx. [Lib 1907])
Colonel in the Polish Army and "Royal Prussian Brigadier in the
was the son of Alexander Gordon, who emigrated to Poland, and grandson
Gordon, of Coldwells, in the Parish of Ellon, Aberdeenshire. He was
in Poland and came to Scotland to pursue the process of being legally
heir to his grandfather. The Colonel took possession of the estate
formally in order
to sell it to James Keay, writer, Edinburgh. for 1650 on 23rd
September, 1783, the
deed being recorded in Edinburgh on that same day.
(Karol.) Colonel Polish Army, commander of the free town of Cracow. Son
Gordon, Collector of Customs, Cracow and Judge of Czerniechow, and
grandson of John
James (Polish) "Marquis of Huntly."
Dziembobski. Captain of Foot. Not identified.
Bukaty, Secretary to the Polish Embassy at London, was probably a
relative of Brother
Francis Bukaty, Polish resident Minister there, representative in
London of the
Grand Lodge of Poland in 1784, and a member of the Sun Fire Offlce
Lodge. (See the
American New Age Magazine for September, 1906, page 250.)
the Rev. John McClure, initiated in Canongate Kilwinning, Edinburgh,
No. 2, on 3rd
June, 1752, became an Honorary Member of Lodge St. David in December.
1754. He became,
on 30th November, 1758, the first Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge of
and continued in that office until his death in 1787. It is recorded of
throughout a long life he maintained "the character of a good man and
Mason, being considered the oracle of the Craft in Edinburgh."
Brown, known as the founder of the Brownonian System of Medicine, was
Right Worshipful Master of Lodge Roman Eagle, Edinburgh, No. 160,
chartered in 1785.
As an incitement to his students, many of whom were members, he caused
of the Lodge, and the Minutes, to be written in Latin.
"A Masters Lodge, 18th Septr,
"James Hewit, S. W., p. t.
"Robt. Thomson, J. W., p. t.
"James Brown, T. "
John Armour, S.
"R.W. Wa. Ferguson.
"The R. W. having appointed
James Ferguson and Alexr. Ferguson to be Past and Dept. Masters, and
and Dickson to be Wardens, represented to the Lodge, That the four
had been extremely diligent in learning the apprentices' part. and as
in this Country was to be short, they were anxious to be promoted to
Degrees and for that purpose he had ordered this Masters' Lodge to be
hoped their request wou'd be granted and their Entries having proved
giving it in English and then translating it into Latin, so the Most W.
Wm. Little Esqr. Subt. G. M. of Scotland had voluntarily offered to
assist Br. John
Brown, M. D., and Br. Clark, of St. And'ws Lodge, and accordingly the
took up above three hours was performed in very Elegant Latin, and the
fees of the
whole were paid to Br. James Brown, Treasurer, after which these new
who are to set out for Poland in a few days having requested that the
give them Certificates of their being made Masons and Members of this
this request was new and contrary to the practice of the Lodge, and had
in former cases, yet there was a distinction in this case, the Brethren
who never were, nor probably wou'd ever be again in Scotland, and that
certificates might be a means not only of increasing Masonry, but also
of extending the authority of the G. Lodge of A., therefore it was
to and the same were wrote on Vellum in the following words:
"To all the Brethren of the
honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons, Be it known that the
Fabian Gordon, Esqr., Colonel in his Polish Majesty's Army, has been
received a Brother in the Royal Lodge of St. Davids, Edinburgh, and
a Member thereof, and has passed through the different Degrees of
and Master Mason. In testimony whereof the Common Seal is hereto
appended and we,
the presiding officers of the Lodge, have subscribed these presents at
this 18th day of September, 1783 years, and in the year of Masonry,
Wa. Ferguson, M.Ja. Ferguson, Past M.; Alexander Ferguson, Dept M.,
Orator. To the left side-James Hewit, Senr W.; Robt. Dickson, Junr W.;
Treasr; John Armour, Secty. At the foot ‒ Wm. Charles Little, Subt. G.
M. of Scotland.
A large Mason Seal by Deuchar in a White Iron Box appended by a White
"Wa. Ferguson, O. M."
Past Master, Captain James Ferguson, was a son of Brother Walter
Ferguson, the presiding
officer. (See reference to him in "Sir Walter Scott As a Freemason," A.
Q. C., Vol. xx. [Lib 1907])
Charles Little, eleventh Laird of Liberton, Advocate, was Substitute
of Scotland, 1782-83. He was Depute Master of Lodge St. David during
the years 1784-85-86.
In 1787-88-89 he was R. W. Master of the Roman Eagle Lodge, Edinburgh,
and in 1791 R. W. Master of Lodge Edinburgh St. Andrews, No. 48. His
Bro. Brigadier General Robert Gordon Gilmore of Liberton and
C.V.O., D.S.O., is a Past Grand Master Mason of Scotland, Grand
in the Supreme Council 33rd Degree, and Past Grand Sword-Bearer in the
of the Royal Order of Scotland.
J. Meekren Editor-In-Charge
IT is an
established rule among all Freemasons that no religious questions can
in the lodge. Contrary to generally accepted belief in America, this is
true of those countries where Masonry is supposed to have political
aims and an
anti-religious bias as among ourselves. That is the law, and it is to
be found in
the Constitutions and regulations of all Masonic Jurisdictions
throughout the world.
Whether it is always obeyed in spirit and letter is another question
We fear that sometimes, even in enlightened America, the danger line of
is sometimes very closely approached by zealous brethren in the
presence of a sympathetic
When a hard
question arises it is often to be found that a solution may be obtained
to first principles. It may therefore be useful here to recall the
of this rule in the first edition of Anderson's Constitutions. The
passage is very
well known of course, but it may not be amiss, nevertheless, to quote
words. They are found in Article VI of the Charges of a Freemason. The
to the behavior of Masons, and the first section deals with their
behavior in the
lodge, the second with that after the lodge "is over and the brethren
It is in this second section that the allusion is found, a point worthy
We are told of the brethren enjoying themselves, "with innocent mirth,"
of refreshments, both edible and potable apparently, of the avoidance
of all excess
or of doing anything that might "blast our harmony and defeat our
purposes." For this reason no "private piques or quarrels" may be
…. far less
any Quarrels about Religion or Nations or State Policy, we being only
of the Catholic Religion above referred to; we are also of all Nations,
Kindreds and Languages, and are resolved against all Politics, as what
conduced to the welfare of the Lodge, nor ever will.
Religion here spoken of is the statement in the first Charge,
and Religion," which runs:
A Mason is oblig'd by his
Tenure, to obey the
moral Law; and if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a
nor an irreligious Libertine.
Masons are obliged only
… to that Religion in which all
Men agree … that
is to be good Men and true, or men of Honor and Honesty, by whatever
or Persuasions they may be distinguished.
versions, both Anderson's second edition and others, some changes were
made in this.
An explicit reference to Christian Masons in Christian countries was
added for one
thing, and yet the essential meaning does not seem to be changed.
reference to Christian Masons does not bar non-Christians, for it is
said that Masons were to be found in all countries, "even of divers
The context making it quite clear that religions other than
Christianity are meant.
also made in the sixth Charge. While the original language of Anderson
retained all through, even as he had loosely quoted and incorporated
passages from the old Manuscripts, yet an important difference appears.
regarding the introduction of religious and political questions is made
to the lodge and not to the informal gathering after it was over "and
not gone." In this we may see a distinct evolution. The earlier rule is
form and substance little more than a by-law, a purely private affair.
are to be avoided because they are liable to disturb the harmony that
among Masons when met together. The later transpositions and additions
seem to indicate
that it was felt that such a rule was hardly general enough, or even
to have a place in Constitutional law. At the same time it had come to
due doubtless to the fact that by this time the Craft was beginning to
make a stir
in the world, that there was a wider aspect from which the matter
should be considered.
It was coming to be important to consider the relationship in which the
stood to society and to the state. Not only must harmony be maintained
brethren of different political opinions, and belonging to different
but the outside world must be assured that Masonry had no political or
aims or purposes. To do this it was constitutionally impossible for any
such nature to be taken, because no questions or proposals referring to
subjects could ever be introduced, much less discussed or acted upon.
those of old Japan and Tibet being exceptions, have ever objected to
having intercourse with those of other countries. Few religions bar
from all communication with those not of their faith. A Mohammedan will
give a Christian
hospitality, no church dreams of disciplining its members for buying or
walking or talking, with those outside the fold. Even close
companionship and friendship,
though it may be discouraged and deprecated, cannot well be forbidden
And this because all these things are neutral, they imply no
consequences in loyalty
or belief. It seems obvious on reflection that Freemasons, or at least
at the period when the Craft became definitely a purely Speculative
deliberately endeavored to make it neutral in the same sense, neutral
as to politics
and questions of state, neutral as to creeds and dogmas and the
of the different sects and churches. Very largely the effort was
some churches and some governments refused to believe in the reality of
attitude, and acted according to their fears and suspicions, whether
real or pretended.
But in spite
of all, there are positive relationships in which the Craft stands to
Among ourselves there is the declaration of a belief in God, and the
the Bible upon the altar of the lodge. The first is, of course, a creed
at its minimum.
No candidate is, or may be, asked why he believes, or how he conceives
so long as in some sense satisfactory to his own conscience he can use
of the simple formula it is enough. Yet the statement is certainly
in a sense dogmatic.
seems to be more difficult to reconcile with the religious neutrality
Even if we allow the Old Testament alone to be used in a Hebrew lodge,
the possibility that once only the Books of the Gospels were used, the
in part or as a whole is incompatible with the reception of followers
of many other
forms of faith and belief, to whom it is no more than any other book.
But the difficulty
clears when we remember that though in the various versions of the
ritual the candidate
is exhorted more or less definitely to reverence it, and is informed
that it is
the rule and guide of faith, yet nowhere is any particular mode of
set forth concerning it, nor any definite belief about it demanded of
enter the Order. It is presented to them as one of the three chief
sources of illumination
in Masonry, but under such circumstances and in such a context that we
say, however much more it may be to the individual, it is in the
first and always a symbol. There is surely no need to dwell on this in
to Masons it is the Volume of the Sacred Law, the Trestle Board of the
of the Universe. As each Mason is free to have his own conception of
God, so is
he also free to interpret this symbol for himself.
sects and denominations of the Christian religion have in the past been
opposed to each other, and though a reign of outward tolerance is now
more or less
established, yet it is very largely only a state of armed neutrality or
hostility. The differences between them may be of such vital importance
as to warrant
this state of affairs; on that we, as Masons, can express no opinion;
but it certainly
does seem to be a general rule that the more convinced a man is that
his creed is
right the more certain is he that all others are wrong, and the
follows, that if his way and practice leads to salvation then all other
lead astray, if not to perdition. But with all this, Masonry has
nothing to do,
and necessarily so, for otherwise it would have to have its own
its own creed and become in fact, what many of its enemies profess to
a secret religion itself. It would have to be this or else break up
each part (if it lived) being restricted to members of some particular
communion, and by that restriction cut off from all fraternal
intercourse with the
therefore irreligious? Some of its opponents have said so, but the
only be answered if we strictly define our terms. If by religion we
particular sect, then, in that sense, it would be irreligious. But
those who make
the accusation do not put it in this way, they are guilty of the
fallacy of using
a word in two senses and assuming that what is true in one is true also
in the other.
What such people really mean is that Masonry does not require the
beliefs that their
own religion demands, and that therefore it is contrary to all
religion. But in
the general sense of the word, Freemasonry is, as the Constitutions
in so far as it requires those essential elements found in all the
of religion at least; those essential points about which all good men
while it requires nothing of those things upon which good men differ.
again, if anyone chooses to interpret "good" in such a way as to be
only to adherents of his own creed he is at liberty to do so-as we are
to discuss the matter further with him.
has raised the question, and it is largely in response to his request
article has been written, in what sense it can be said, to use his own
the "Bible is the foundation of Masonry," and how far Masons are, as
bound by what it says. The difficulty had been raised in his mind by a
whether it was right and proper for the executive committee of a lodge
to meet on
Sunday. It would have been easy enough to have replied that it was
really a relative
matter, depending entirely upon circumstances, and not one of
principle. That even
if it is said in the ritual that our ancient brethren, conceived as
working on the Temple, did consecrate the seventh day of the week to
of God, yet Christians celebrate the resurrection of their Lord on the
of the week, and that there is not a word in the New Testament to
the law of the Sabbath was to be transferred from the seventh to the
while there is that, on the other hand, that implies that real religion
is not concerned
at all with days and seasons, and meats, and rites and ceremonies. It
was the Master
himself who said that the "Sabbath was made for man and not man for the
making it forever clear that no ritual or ceremonial observance was to
to stand before even the material and physical welfare of men. It would
easy, too, to have pointed out that even if it were right for Christian
apply the rules of the Sabbath to Sunday, Jewish Masons could not be so
nor could those of other beliefs be bound by either rule if their own
did impose it upon them. It would have been easy to have said this and
let it pass,
but it seemed more satisfactory to go so far as possible to the root of
Men are always
prone to tithe mint, anise and cumin; many of us think that because we
do not grow
these herbs in our gardens that this has no application to our own
we are all of us inclined to do exactly the same kind of things that
our Lord denounced
in the Pharisees, who were very good men according to their lights. In
observances men easily forget the "weightier matters of the law," or as
Hudibras has it, to
Compound the sins they are
By damning those they have no mind to.
It is so
much easier to follow some superficial rule than to change the motives
of life and
conduct. In a recently published book of exploration in New Guinea, the
incidentally gives us to understand that he is an atheist) speaks of
the work of
the missionaries. He has the greatest respect for them, for their lives
work, whether Romanist, Protestant or Church of England; yet he cannot
out a tendency to regard the putting the male converts into trousers
and the female
into chemises and petticoats as being an important factor in
have said much the same thing. When one thinks of St. Paul, who was all
all men if haply he might win some to Christ, one wonders what he would
Probably if it would have helped him to get into closer touch he would
on a loin cloth and shell necklaces himself.
But the Bible
is the rule and guide of faith and the foundation of Masonry. Let it be
let us see what it tells us. Says the prophet Micah:
shall I come before the Lord and bow myself before the high God? Shall
I come before
him with burnt offerings, with calves of a year old?
he answers his own question as to this matter of ceremonials and
He hath shown
thee, O man, what is good; and what doth the Lord require of thee, but
to do justly,
and to love mercy and to walk humbly with thy God?
is higher authority yet. It was Christ Himself who declared that to
love God and
your neighbor was the fulfillment of the law; and after the parable of
Samaritan we can be in no doubt as to who is our neighbor ‒ just anyone
our help. "Pure religion and undefiled," says James, the servant of
"is this; to visit the fatherless and the widow in their affliction and
keep himself unspotted from the world." This then is the religion that
holds by; no more than this; the religion in which all good men agree.
simple, and yet it is a basis of union upon which each may work
according to his
of the National
Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association
by Authority of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, A.F. & A.M.
OFFICERS AND BOARD OF GOVERNORS
HERBERT B. HOLT, Grand Master, President
JAFFA MILLER, Vice-President
RICHARD H. HANNA, Vice-President
ALPHEUS A. KEEN, Secretary
FRANCIS E LESTER, Executive Secretary, Las Cruces, New Mexico
JOHN W. TURNER, Treasurer
ARIZONA ‒ Lloyd C. Henning, Holbrook.
ARKANSAS ‒ Claude L. Hill, Grand Master, Booneville.
CONNECTICUT ‒ Fred A. Borland, Past Grand Master, South Manchester.
FLORIDA ‒ Cary B. Fish, Grand Master, Sarasota.
IDAHO ‒ Will H. Gibson, Grand Master, Boise.
KENTUCKY ‒ G. Allison Holland, Grand Master, Lexington.
MINNESOTA ‒ Albert F. Pray, Grand Master, Minneapolis,
MISSISSIPPI ‒ John R. Tally, Grand Master, Hattiesburg.
MISSOURI ‒ Wm. W. Martin, Grand Master, Daniphan
NEW JERSEY ‒ Benjamin F. Havens, Junior Grand Warden, Trenton.
NEW MEXICO ‒ Herbert B. Holt, Grand Master, Las Cruces.
NORTH CAROLINA ‒ Dr. J. C. Braswell, Past Grand Master, Whitakers.
OKLAHOMA ‒ Gilbert B. Bristow, Past Grand Master, Roosevelt.
RHODE ISLAND ‒ Howard Knight, Past Grand
SOUTH CAROLINA ‒ Charlton DuRant, Grand
SOUTH DAKOTA ‒ L. M. Simons, Grand Master, Bellefourche.
TENNESSEE ‒ Andrew E. McCullagh, Grand Master, Maryville.
TEXAS ‒ Dr. Felix P. Miller, El Paso.
UTAH ‒ Fred M. Nye, Ogden.
VERMONT ‒ Christie B. Crowell, Grand Master, Brattleboro.
NORTH DAKOTA ‒ Dr. J. S. Lamont, Dunseith.
WASHINGTON ‒ Morton Gregory, Grand Master,
Masonic Temple, Tacoma.
WlSCONSIN ‒ Fred L. Wright, Past Senior Grand Warden, Milwaukee.
WYOMING ‒ Frank S. Knittle, Grand Master, Casper.
ORDER OF THE EASTERN STAR, GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER ‒ Mrs. Clara Henrich,
Grand Matron, Newport, Ky.
ROBERT J NEWTON Editor Publicity Director N.
M, T. S. A. Las Cruces New Mexico.
* * *
Forty-Six Years to
newspaper man passed away in San Antonio, Texas, last year. He was for
editor and publisher of the Texas Freemason and was active in Masonic
up to the date of his death. Bro. Leonard A. Heil was superintendent of
Cemetery at San Antonio, and as he had recovered from tuberculosis he
was much interested
in the effort to provide sanatoria for sick Masons. He wrote an account
of his experience
for publication some time before he died which is now printed for the
Bro. Heil figured that he had prolonged his life just forty-six years
time set by his physician for him to die, and always considered this a
upon his doctor, whom he out-lived by many years.
1877 I was working in the State Printing Office, Topeka, Kan., as a
My lungs were bad and getting worse. Nothing I could do seemed to
benefit me to
the doctor said that if I went to Southwest Texas I might live two
years more. Of
course, a man in my condition and age – 34 ‒ wanted to prolong life as
long as possible,
and so I came to Texas in November, 1877, landing in Austin, where I
to edit a greenback paper. The end of January, 1878, I landed in San
was employed as foreman of the job office of the San Antonio Herald,
then the leading
daily. Then next month I went into the counting room and remained there
Herald went into the hands of a receiver. My health was not much
improved, but not
much worse, and in the fall, October, 1878, 1 went to work for the San
as traveling correspondent: as I was not considered fit for office
work, the management
telling me that they could not afford to pay my funeral expenses.
that time there were no railroads west of this city and only one to the
Southern Pacific. There were few ranches and few fences, the ranges
being open with
water holes for the stock. I doubted my strength to stand a horseback
consulting Dr. Amos Graves, at that time the leading physician in this
said that he would fix up something for me, with the instruction that
to slide off the horse and take a swig of the concoction, and when
rested to climb
aboard of the animal and make another step of the trip. Well, I SLID
times, and finally reached St. Hedwig, a small hamlet 20 miles
southeast of San
Antonio. The next morning I was so sore and stiff I could hardly sit on
but made Laverina, 10 miles farther. From that time I began improving,
and the trip
was over 200 miles before getting back to town, much improved. I wrote
a week for the paper, giving the physical condition of the country, its
etc. This I kept up for about three years, often traveling 50 or more
miles a day,
and my improvement was certain, though gradual.
to the motif of this letter. I have seen few who came here for the
benefit of their
lungs (and if not too late, and it is rather hard to say just what may
too late) who have not been benefited. But they must live practically
In that consists the virtue of this climate. Its mildness permits one
to live out-of-doors.
No one can hope to be benefited suffering with tuberculosis and stay in
the house. It takes pure and fresh air to cure that disease. My
observation is that
anywhere in Southwest Texas, where it is dry, not swampy, and the water
is beneficial to persons suffering with lung troubles, and if they come
they can hope for improvement, if not complete recovery. I consider
curable, as I have seen many cases cured, but if benefited the patient
where the improvement is experienced, for to return to the locality
where the disease
is contracted, a relapse is almost sure to take place, and usually it
death. The conditions which caused the disease will renew it.
now in my 82nd year, and my friends say that I do not look over 65. My
good as it ever was since 17, when I first contracted lung troubles
from a severe
cold in Albany, N. Y., in 1860. My army life during the Civil War
helped very much,
and if I had remained out of a printing office I would probably never
have got down
with the terrible scourge, the White Plague, but once down I could not
off while in the North, and couldn't have done it here had I not taken
D. Hamrick, Past Grand Master Grand Lodge of Georgia, F. & A.
will be my pleasure to assist and urge the Grand Master to comply with
that much good may come to the Craft at large. The real work of our
be carried home to the hearts of the great Fraternity and then much
good will be
accomplished, but until the personnel of the Fraternity have been
educated to such
Mr. E. A.
McHan, Grand Secretary, Grand Chapter, R. A. M., Macon, Georgia.
be glad to give him all the assistance in my power.
Grand Master is deeply interested in the matter and has had several
the paper regarding the matter and I have also had some articles myself.
hope to interest Masons in the state so that we shall be able to give
to the National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association "
C. Davenport, Grand Master Grand Lodge, A. F. & A. M.,
also to congratulate you and the brethren of New Mexico on the work you
on behalf of the above mentioned enterprise.
been considering carefully the work of the Association, and I believe
it will result
in a great amount of good."
* * *
of the National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association
that members of the National Masonic Research Society may be fully
informed as to
the scope and constitutions of the new organization to combat
tuberculosis, we are
reproducing in full the Articles of Incorporation by which it becomes a
It will be seen that provision is made for the representation of the
and all other Masonic bodies. If these, or a majority of them, will
only take the
matter up, it will become in actuality what it is planned to be, a
to meet a national need.
hertofore, to-wit, on the 18th day of February, A. D. 1925, during the
Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted
New Mexico, there was adopted a recommendation embodied in the report
of the Committee
on Grand Master's Address that proper steps be promptly taken to
provide a legal
entity to raise and administer funds for the development of National
Sanatoria and conferring upon the incoming Grand Master authority to
take all necessary
steps to develop such undertaking; and
pursuant to such action by the Grand Lodge, the said Grand Master duly
a Committee on Masonic Tubercular Sanatoria, with authority to act; and,
at a meeting of such committee held at Las Cruces, New Mexico, on,
22, 1925, there was adopted a resolution in substance providing for and
the incorporation under and in accordance with the provisions of
Sections 1055 and
to 1061, inclusive, of the New Mexico Statutes Annotated, Codification
of a National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association to be vested
with all powers,
rights and privileges prescribed in and by the aforesaid statute;
for the purpose of executing the aforesaid expressed desire and will of
Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of New Mexico, and acting
and authority emanating from such Grand Lodge, conferred upon us
by the Grand Master of such Grand Lodge, we, the undersigned, do hereby
agree to unite and associate ourselves as a body corporate under and in
with the provisions of and to be vested with all of the powers
authorized and conferred
by, the aforesaid statute; and do hereby adopt the following
The name of the corporation
shall be "NATIONAL MASONIC TUBERCULOSIS
The location of the principal
office and place of business of the corporation
shall be at the City of Albuquerque, County of Bernalillo, State of New
and the name of the designated agent of the corporation, upon whom
process may be
served, is Alpheus A. Keen, of Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Branch offices may be
established at such other place or places as may be
designated by the Board of Governors or Executive Committee of the
The term for which the
corporation shall exist shall be in perpetuity.
The corporation is organized
for, and shall be devoted to, benevolent, charitable,
scientific and literary purposes and the establishment and conduct of
and other educational institutions, facilities and libraries for the
training, education, improvement and mental, physical, moral and.
of those who may become its beneficiaries: for all of which purposes,
shall be as follows, to-wit:
To act as an agency, or
receive and administer funds contributed, or acquired for the relief of
and members of their families, or others, suffering from tuberculosis,
or who may
be in distress from other causes.
To secure hospitalization for
sick, and employment for the well; and to render service of any kind
the need and the ability of the corporation.
To acquire, erect, establish,
and operate Sanatoria, Hospitals, and other institutions for the care,
and education of Freemasons and members of their families afflicted
in any form, or suffering from any other disease, and who may be
relieved by institutional
To acquire and hold such real
and personal property as may be necessary or proper for the furtherance
of its objects,
or convenient for its uses and purposes; and to sell or mortgage the
To acquire and own lands and
lots, and to improve, cultivate, rent, sub-divide and mortgage or
alienate the same;
and to construct, erect and operate water plants and storage dams, and
acquire and develop irrigation facilities and water supply for such
lands, and other
property of the corporation.
To acquire, erect, establish,
and operate hotels, bath houses and other buildings, structures,
equipment, and to establish and maintain training schools and out-door
sports and facilities for the training, benefit and pleasure of its
members of their families, and of its employees, and to acquire,
and carry on such agricultural, industrial, mercantile or other
equipment as shall be appropriate for the purpose of providing
and employment for the patients and employees in and of the
and enterprises under the control of the corporation, and for the
members of their
families, and such as may be deemed necessary for the advantage and
To do and perform such other
acts and things as may be calculated to aid in the prevention,
treatment or cure
of tuberculosis among Masons, or their families, or others, or to
provide for the
care and treatment of such persons who may be afflicted with other
ailments or diseases;
and to take such other and further action as may be deemed necessary or
to contribute to the relief of those thus afflicted.
To disseminate among the
of America, and their families and others, scientific knowledge and
as to the causes and methods of treatment for the prevention, relief
and cure of
tuberculosis; and as to the purposes and objects of the corporation.
Generally, to do whatever may
essential to the accomplishment of the aforesaid purposes and objects
and to the
encouragement and promotion of works of humanity and charity, for the
poverty, sickness, distress, suffering and danger; all of the
activities and operations
hereunder to be devoted to the aforesaid purposes and objects, and to
relief of sickness and distress, and the education and betterment of
the exclusion of personal or private gain or profit.
The corporation shall be
To sue or be sued in any court
To make and use a common seal.
To adopt by-laws for the
of its affairs, which, together with all amendments thereto, shall be
in the office of the State Corporation Commission of New Mexico, in
To take and hold real estate
property by lease, purchase, gift. devise or bequest, and to use or
occupy, or to
sell or mortgage the same; also to acquire and hold other real estate
property which shall have been bona fide conveyed to it, by way of
in satisfaction of debts or purchased at sales under judgment or decree
for such debts.
To do and transact all
to possess and exercise all powers and privileges connected with or
convenient to the attainment of the objects set forth in this
Certificate of Incorporation,
or such as may be incidental to any or all of the aforesaid purposes
To purchase, lease or otherwise
acquire, in whole or in part, the business,
good will, rights, franchises and property of every kind, and to
undertake the whole
or any part of the assets or liabilities of any person, firm,
association or corporation
engaged in, or authorized to conduct any business similar to any
to be conducted by this corporation, or owning property necessary or
its purposes, and to pay for the same in cash, in bonds of this
otherwise; and to hold or in any manner dispose of, the whole or any
part of the
business or property so acquired, and to exercise all the powers
necessary or incidental
to the conduct of such business.
In accordance with law, to
its debts, property, assets and franchises, with any other like
association or corporation,
created either under the laws of New Mexico, or those of any state or
of the United States, in such manner as may be agreed upon by the
bodies of such corporations.
To acquire by purchase,
or otherwise, and to hold, sell, assign, transfer, mortgage, pledge or
dispose of, the stocks, bonds, or other obligations of any association
formed for or then or theretofore engaged in or pursuing any one or
more of the
kinds of business, purposes, objects or operations hereinabove
indicated, or owning
or holding any property of any kind herein mentioned, or of any
association or corporation
owning or holding the stocks and or obligations of any such association
To conduct business, have one
or more offices or agencies, and to purchase,
mortgage, lease and convey real estate and personal property, or any
estate or interest
therein in any part of the world, but always subject to local laws, and
to the general
purposes and objects for which this corporation is formed, and to keep
of the corporation outside of New Mexico as are not required by law to
be kept within
Without in any particular
limiting or restricting any of the other purposes,
objects and powers of the corporation, it is hereby expressly declared
that for the purchase or acquisition of property, business, rights or
or for additional working capital, or for any other object in or about,
inconsistent with, its business or affairs and its general purposes and
and without limits as to amount, the corporation shall be empowered to
and to raise, borrow and secure the payment of money, in any lawful
the issuing and sale or other disposition of bonds, warrants,
negotiable and transferable instruments and evidences of indebtedness
of all kinds,
whether secured by mortgage, pledge, deed of trust or otherwise, to
make and perform
contracts of every kind and description; to issue bonds and other
payment for property purchased or acquired by it, or for any other
object in or
about and not inconsistent with, its business; to mortgage or pledge
bonds or other obligations or any property which may be acquired by it,
any bonds or other obligations by it issued or incurred; and in
carrying on its
business, or for the purpose of attaining or furthering any of its
objects or purposes,
to do any and all other things, and exercise any and all other powers
or hereafter may be permitted by law.
The foregoing clauses shall be
as objects and powers, but no recitation, expression or declaration of
or special powers or purposes herein enumerated, shall be deemed to be
but it is hereby expressly declared that all other lawful powers not
therewith are hereby included.
Any and all of the rights,
or restrictions in this Certificate of Incorporation, granted and
or imposed, may be enlarged, amended, altered, changed in any manner
and to any
extent, or repealed by a Certificate of Amendment, in accordance with
the laws of
the State of New Mexico.
The business and operations of
this corp3ration, and of the institutions
which it may establish and control, shall at all times and for all
each and every branch, be under the jurisdiction and control of a Board
to be composed of members, one for each state, one from the District of
and from each of the territories of the United States, who may be
appointed by the
Grand Master of each Grand Jurisdiction, elected by the Grand Lodge of
Jurisdiction, or selected by the Board of Governors, or its Executive
also of members-at-large who may be appointed respectively by the
of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the United States
the General Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters of the United
States of America;
the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of the United States of
America; the Supreme
Council of the Thirty-third and Last Decree of the Ancient and Accepted
Rite of Freemasonry for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States
the Supreme Council of Sovereign Grand Inspectors-General of the
Last Degree of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry for
Masonic Jurisdiction of the United States of America; the Imperial
Council of the
Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine for North
America; and the
General Grand Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star, or elected by the
of such organizations, or such members-at-large may be selected by the
Governors or its Executive Committee.
PROVIDED: Until the first
meeting of the Board
of Governors, and thereafter if so authorized by such Board, the
as hereinafter named, with such additional members as they may elect or
and their successors in office who may be elected or appointed by the
Board of Governors
from time to time, shall have and exercise all of the powers conferred
Board of Governors by this Certificate of Incorporation, the Laws of
and the By-Laws of this corporation, when said Board of Governors is
not in session,
subject to suc1h restrictions and regulations as may be imposed by said
This corporation shall have the
right to organize subsidiary, state, county
and local branches, societies or committees, for the more complete
of the purposes for which it is created and organized; and may grant
or franchises to such subsidiary branches or organizations, and the
and operation of such subsidiary branches shall at all times be under
and supervision of the Board of Governors, or its Executive Committee,
and regulations to be thus prescribed for their guidance and government.
The officers and members of
this Association shall be: the Chairman and members
of the Board of Governors, the Chairman and members of the Executive
honorary Presidents, the President, Vice-President, Secretary,
Secretary, and such other officers, employees, committees and members
as may be
provided for and authorized by the Board of Governors, or its Executive
and the members of the Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons
of New Mexico,
and of its constituent lodges; and of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch
New Mexico, and of its subordinate Chapters; and of the Grand
Commandery of Knights
Templar of New Mexico and its subordinate Commanderies; and of Santa Fe
Perfection, No. 1, and of its co-ordinate bodies; and of Ballut Abyad
the Ancient, Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine; and of
the Grand Chapter
of New Mexico, Order of the Eastern Star; together with such persons as
money, services or anything of value to further the work of the
The first officers and members
of the Association, of its Board of Governors,
and of its Executive Committee, who shall serve until their successors
chosen, and their respective residences, shall be and are as follows,
Chairman of the Board of
Chairman of the Executive Committee
Roswell, New Mexico
Vice-President ‒ Richard H. Hanna ‒ Albuquerque, New Mexico
Vice-President ‒ Herbert B. Holt ‒ Las Cruces, New Mexico
Secretary ‒ Alpheus A. Keen ‒ Albuquerque, New Mexico
Treasurer ‒ John W. Turner ‒ Silver City, New Mexico
Executive Secretary ‒ Francis E. Lester ‒ Mesilla Park, New Mexico
Neither this corporation, nor
any of its subsidiary branches, shall have
any capital stock or pay any dividend to any officer or member; but all
derived from operations hereunder shall be used to further the
and objects of the incorporation.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, we have
hereunto set our
hands and seals, this 31st day of October, A. D. 1925.
HERBERT B. HOLT,
ALPHEUS A. KEEN,
JOHN W. TURNER,
FRANCIS E. LESTER.
* * *
Mr. E. M.
White, Missouri Consistory, No. 1, El Jebel Temple, Denver, Wheat
Institutions are in every state for the care of the Tuberculars. The
has a fine Sanatorium in Colorado Springs as well as the Modern Woodmen
of the World,
and I as well as hundreds of other Masons have wondered why the Order
had no place
to take care of Masons stricken with T. B. "
Dr. L. R.
Jones, Lingle Lodge, Lingle, Wyo., Fort Lyon, Colo.
a Mason and as a physician limiting my practice to tuberculosis I wish
to ask to
be considered as an unqualified advocate of the plan."
H. Cameron, United States Senate, Arizona:
You are sponsoring
a most worthy cause, and from my heart I send thanks and appreciation
for the courageous
and brotherly way you are going about it to arouse interest of our
throughout the country, whom I hope will heed your call and come
generously to your
aid and thus help our afflicted brethren
De Maistre, Franc-Macon
[Lib*] By Paul Vulliaud. Published by Emile Nourry,
Paris. May be purchased through the Book Department
of the National Masonic Research Society, 1950 Railway Exchange
Building, St. Louis,
Mo. Paper, 250 pages. Table of contents.
THIS is a
biography of a very remarkable man, of whom it may be safe to say not
Mason in a thousand has ever heard, and doubtless a goodly percentage
of this minority
who know of him would be unaware that he was a member of the Craft.
From the way
he writes, it would seem that Mr. Vulliaud is not a Mason himself, for
with the tone of an outside observer. He begins his work with the
Count Joseph de Maistre, a genius of haughty and paradoxial character,
provoked the most extreme judgments." When it is known that he was,
part of his life, a most enthusiastic Mason, a member of the
Martinistic Rite, and
yet at the same time one of the most powerful and thorough-going
defenders of the
Papal system, out-heroding Herod in fact, and claiming, and backing by
(his premises once granted) that the Pope is superior to all temporal
that all people should be ruled by kings and princes with despotic
power, and all
kings and princes should be the obedient servants of the Pope, the
Mason may go further than saying he was paradoxical and assert he was
change and circumstances with them. De Maistre was born in 1754, and
died of paralysis
in 1821. A native of Savoy, of an ancient and noble family, he entered
of the state at an early age. The invasion of the kingdom by the French
armies drove him into exile from which he did not return till after the
end of Napoleon
and the restoration of the Bourbons. During his exile, he served his
king in various
capacities, at one time being envoy extraordinary and minister
St. Petersburg (as it was then). During this long period it was that he
of his books, some of a mystical character, others highly polemical. He
warring against republicanism, liberal philosophy and the current
of the period. One of his best known and most talked of pieces was his
the executioner as the chief pillar of society. He was nothing, if not
Despotism ecclesiastical and civil entails punishments, punishments to
must be severe, they need agents to carry them out, the hangman and the
of the Inquisition were therefore not only necessities of the social
to be esteemed in virtue of their usefulness. All this is to be found
in the ordinary
works of reference. What Mr. Vulliaud has done is to give us a very
and critical account of the man himself. The most difficult problem to
how he could have reconciled his ardent championship of papalism with
enthusiastic regard for Freemasonry. It is true that after 1809 he
Fraternity, and was convinced apparently by the works of Barruel,
and the rest (of whom Mrs. Nesta Webster is the true descendant and
in our own time) that Masonry was but part of a deep conspiracy, a
wheel in an occult
machine, intending to destroy all religion, all morality and all
Protestants as well as Romanists, Republics as well as Monarchies.
But it must
be remembered that the Bull, In eminenti, had been issued by Pope
Clement XII in
1738, and reinforced by that entitled Providas of Benedict XIV in 1751,
before de Maistre was born. It was a capital offense for a man to be a
the Papal States as it was in Spain. It is true that according to the
jurisprudence of Rome, that a Papal edict does not take effect until it
promulgated in a given country, yet it seems strange that a man such as
who though a layman was more ecclesiastically minded than most priests,
have considered himself bound by such solemn denunciations from the
of authority of the exceeding harmfulness and wickedness of Masonry,
even if technically
it had not yet the force of law. One is inclined to suspect that his
love of despotic
authority was altruistic; intended only for others and not for himself.
saw in Freemasonry, as he received it, an esoteric and mystical school
definitely Christian and in no way incompatible with the faith of the
that is Roman, Church. He was one of those, apparently, who are
attracted by this
sort of thing as naturally as a duck seeks the water. The author gives
us a penetrating
critical account of Martinism, based on the examination of all
of information, both what has been published and what still remains in
He is not very much impressed by the value of its teaching, but we can
from what he tells us how those seeking mystical illumination would be
by it, and analogous systems. Freemasonry was still a novelty in
Europe, its mystery
aroused curiosity, wonderful things were ascribed to it, and it is easy
to see how
those looking for what Bro. Arthur Waite calls a "secret tradition,"
Theosophic, Alchemistic, or otherwise, should have come to knock at the
the lodge, and that when they found only a fraternity based on the
fundamental precepts of morality and wisdom, should have supposed that
only the preliminaries, and that higher grades possessed the wonderful
which they longed. Supply follows demand, and with this idea current in
such "higher" grades naturally came into being. To the Duke of
one of de Maistre's princely correspondents, to all of whom he was fond
advice apparently, he says: "Our mysteries contain something great and
worthy of mankind," and he seems to have been for a long time convinced
the Craft was quite compatible with Christianity as understood by Rome,
that it might form a means whereby the warring sects of Christendom
could be brought
back into the fold of unity again-unity would, of course, for him, have
communion (and submission) to the Pope as head of the Church. It,
to be, he thought, a government, and a government modeled on that of
the Papal hierarchy.
Mr. Vulliaud pertinently asks if he was not transgressing the Masonic
according to its statutes,
forbids all religious
or political discussions, or, at least, has never ceased to so affirm.
it is true, no Mason observes the rule.
it is difficult, and always has been, for individual members of the
Craft, or groups
of them, to always clearly distinguish between what is constitutionally
and what is not. Still more difficult is it for those outside. The
not in making broad statements, but in practically separating the
rights as a man and a citizen to discuss and work for any religious or
cause he may choose, and his duty from abstaining from all this in his
In groups of Masons all of one mind politically or religiously, the
in proportion, and in such a case it will be very hard indeed for the
the outside to see the difference, and hard enough for those on the
inside to maintain
As has been
already noted, after 1809, de Maistre turned against the Fraternity on
that it had become an anti-religious, revolutionary organization,
though it is not
clear that he formally severed his connection with it; and even in 1810
he was invited
to a Masonic reunion at St. Petersburg, and seems to have been inclined
"in order to see," what was going to be done, we suppose. But he seems
to have been finally convinced by the successors of Barruel and Robison
of the enormities
of the Craft, although previously he had very acutely controverted
Even later than this he wavered at times in his opinion, it would seem,
in writing to the Czar Alexander he said that he did not know if the
“sect is really
organized, if it forms a society, properly speaking, with its laws and
or whether it be only the result of a crowd of men who all desire the
A statement of very great significance.
arises as to whether the breach between Masonry and the Church was
One would almost be inclined to think that it was not. It must be
the first official action on the part of the Papacy was really in its
a temporal power. The Papal States, like most European governments of
were despotically ruled. It was the Pope as a temporal ruler who was
the secrecy of the lodges, and not so much in his capacity as a
Though naturally ecclesiastical censures accompanied the temporal
that Freemasonry had been left alone, or that the suspicious rulers had
Napoleon did later, and had a nominee of their own chosen as Grand
Master, the Craft
in Europe would either have retained its character of complete
indifference or neutrality
to all contentious questions, or else it might have tended to split up
national groups with little or no fraternal intercourse, much as the
of Denmark and Scandinavia has done. But once it was condemned by the
being not only a religious, but irreligious, and suppressed by various
as being liberal and revolutionary, two reactions inevitably followed.
the reluctance they may have felt towards it, Freemasons were
into a position in which they found themselves regarded as enemies to
that were. And the public effect this would have was to lead precisely
and revolutionaries to seek to join it, with the result that more and
more of its
membership came to be composed of men of this class of mind. It would
that Rome has in Europe, and elsewhere, created an enemy where she
might have made
On the other
hand, it may be argued that the tendency of Freemasonry, so far as it
has had an
influence on men, is always toward freedom, freedom in the state, in
in religious and philosophic opinion. One must suppose, that this being
Rome could not do anything else but oppose it, for freedom has always
be the one thing she cannot patiently endure.
* * *
Masonry and Catholic
the Rev. Michael Kenny, S. J. Paper, 30 pages.
By Lucian Johnston. Paper 24 pages. Published by the International
Society. May be procured through the National Masonic Research Society,
Exchange Bldg., St. Louis, Mo.
pamphlets should be very interesting to Masonic readers. Though they
from rather different standpoints, at least the author of the second
tries to consider
his subject fairly, and without animus against individual Masons, yet
reached are very much the same. Mr. Johnston prefaces what he has to
say by observing
that in his experience the average American Mason is not especially
hostile to the
Roman Church, and is rather puzzled to know why the latter should
His trait is an attempt to make the causes for this opposition quite
plain and clear,
and in a friendly way "to try and show them why the Church is justified
condemning their Society in spite of their tolerance and frequent
kindness to her
own members." And he goes on to say that possibly one reason is that
American Freemason aforesaid "does not really know what is real Masonry
kind that is so irreconcilable with [Roman] Catholicity." Both writers
this point, the Rev. Michael Kenny in a "Postscript" speaks of the
but decreasing number of Masons unacquainted" with Masonic purposes.
he speaks of the candidate in the 30d being informed that in the first
he had been "intentionally misled by false interpretations" of the
Mr. Johnston says that he finds "from a perusal of Masonic writers"
his suspicions were correct, and typographically emphasizes the
statement that "the
average Mason is ignorant of the real aim and meaning of Masonry" and
"the highest Masonic authorities assert that the majority of Masons are
and purposely kept in ignorance of the inner secrets." And again "The
amazing thing about this ignorance among the great mass of Masons is
that they are
deliberately kept in ignorance by those higher up." On the same page he
Morals and Dogma in support of this contention. "Part of the symbols
there [in the symbolic degrees] to the initiate; but he is
by false interpretations."
due respect to the author on account of his kindly tone, and his
attempt to judge with candor and reprehend without malice, the writer
wish to hurt his feelings for the world, but all this is, to a Mason,
for words. Yet one can easily see how such statements will almost
misunderstood by the profane. What those outside cannot appreciate is
is rather an Institution, a Fraternity, than an organization. They fail
if indeed they know, that every Grand Lodge is a separate independent,
entity; that Chapters, Commanderies, Grand and Supreme Councils are
the Grand Lodges only in a numerical sense, or as a sequence by which a
successively qualified to join new societies and orders if he wishes.
in a symbolic progression the official interpretations must claim to be
deeper, or more recondite, to offer any plausible reason for their
you are going to have systems of degrees the later, or higher in order,
something new even if they have to go very far afield to get it. Mr.
of the Supreme Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite issuing commands to
million Blue Lodge and Scottish Rite Masons, quite unaware that any
attempt on the
part of a Supreme Council to interfere with the affairs of the Blue
simply operate to prevent whatever it wanted being done, besides
raising a very
serious conflict; one which might, indeed, easily end in the Scottish
banned altogether in that particular jurisdiction. While even in the
tiny attempt to issue orders outside of the ritual requirements inside
Councils and Consistories would disrupt it as swiftly and effectively
as a charge
outsider, reading Masonic books and periodicals, and especially the
finds it so difficult to appreciate is that there are no creeds, no
de fide in Freemasonry. This is especially hard for the Romanist to
as he is to an organization which sets forth an elaborately detailed
system of dogma
within which his thoughts and opinions and judgments are strictly
can be no concerted action political or otherwise among Masons because
no machinery for deciding on a policy and no means of exacting
obedience to it from
the members. Masons as such are not bound to obey anybody, or anything,
moral law. The most obscure Mason in the country is on the same level
in this regard
as the most prominent "Ruler" of the Craft. Neither is there any
teaching, outside the simple precepts of common morality, and even they
so much taught as enjoined. Symbols are employed, and official
given, which are indeed so superficial and almost banal that they can
the most superficial minds. The 18d or 30d or other degrees may offer
but these are no more authoritative than the earlier ones. The opinions
the youngest Mason are as good as those of Pike, Mackey and Churchward,
most quoted by our present authors. But they have not the position in
Bellarmin or St. Thomas Aquinas, for example, have in the Roman Church,
to be supposed. They carry weight only as other members of the Order
to accept them. Any Mason can make his own interpretation, is free to
it, write about it, and remain in perfectly good standing even if he
these authorities and expresses his opinion that they were all wrong
know anything about the subject.
both insist that Freemasonry is Freemasonry and that being all one
thing our own
brand is party to the crimes and misdemeanors (alleged) of that of
France. Mr. Johnston
ends one stage of the argument with the following statement:
The conclusion as to the
absence of any real
difference between American and French Masonry or of any real rupture
is put beyond all doubt by the unity of all Freemasons all over the
occasional and unessential differences.
make some good brethren either furiously angry, or else helpless with
those especially who will not even allow the name Freemason to the
He quoted earlier than this a statement in the Encyclopedia Britannica
history could be as fully written by non-Masons as by Masons, and from
to the conclusion, by a confusion of thought, that non-Masons are as
well able to
state the present state of Masonic thoughts, feelings and relationships
as the Mason.
The absurdity of this can be appreciated if we change the subject. A
need not be a member of a man's family to do his work well, he may know
his subject than the latter's grandchildren do, but (unless a member of
or an intimate friend) he does not know whether the cousins and second
on friendly terms, or have quarreled, or simply have lost track of each
existence. To have an outsider tell American Masons that really they
have no differences
with the Grand Orient of France, that they are all one and the same
seems preposterous. A man had no quarrel at all with his mother-in-law
ejected her forcibly from his house and threw her belongings out into
after her. What more could he do?
It is possible
that more space has been given to these tracts than they really
deserve; to fully
discuss them (were it worthwhile) would run to greater length than the
for these misunderstanding misstatements (in Mr. Johnston's case at
least, we feel
sure they are most sincerely believed), these nonsequiturs and
fallacies in argument
abound on every page, almost in every sentence, and for this reason
they make exceedingly
interesting, and may we add, instructive reading.
Box and Correspondence
and the Bible
In a recent
book review in THE BUILDER the writer says "Fundamentalists may
the idea of evolution because it cannot be reconciled with the Bible,
but even so
man came from somewhere, and the evolutionists' explanation of his
origin is as
capable of proof as that of the fundamentalist, possibly more so." I
with the writer that the idea of evolution cannot be reconciled with
As for proof the fundamentalist asks no better proof than the Bible
the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." This ought to be
for every Freemason who heard this Scripture quoted when he was
initiated and was
taught "that the Bible is God's inestimable gift to man and is the rule
guide of our faith and practice." Any theory of evolution which cannot
with the first chapter of Genesis is un-Masonic and should not disturb
Freemason. The Bible does not try to prove the existence of God: it
assumes it and
dismisses the atheist with the declaration, "The fool hath said in his
'there is no God.' "
"Twenty-six letters in due
Suffice for all of Shakespeare's varied verse
The elements of Nature's alphabet
As few and simple spell the universe
Can they by chance together hurled
Compose a hamlet or create a world?"
One is as
unthinkable as the other. Evolution is not susceptible of proof.
not favor it: it only shows the harmony of the Creator's work.
"One God, one law, one element
and one far
off divine event
To which the whole creation moves."
ago Bryan threw out this challenge, "Of the million species of life
claims to know today, show me a single instance where you have ever
line between species and produced a new and fertile species."
this to a college professor one day and remarked that scientists had
never met this
challenge. "They will do it yet," was his reply. I am waiting for them
to do it. In this connection let me quote from Huxley's Study of
Zoology: So definitely
and precisely marked is the structure of each animal that in the
present state of
our knowledge there is not the least evidence to prove that a form in
degree transitional between any two of the groups, Vertebrata,
and Coelenterata either exists or has existed during that period of the
history recorded by the geologist."
truth is: science has nothing to do with beginnings and it is sheer
to try to dignify the wild guesses of evolutionists with the name of
T. H. Morgan of Columbia University said a few years ago, "We are
too much in the subject of evolution and comparative anatomy. The
result has been
that the young student loses his faith in God and theology. This
tendency is very
prevalent in Western universities. It is time to call a halt in our
the theory of evolution. We must remember its sole foundation is
and that the data which forms its foundation is questionable."
make merry over what they call the Carpenter Theory of Creation. It is
reasonable than their Hermit Crab theory which represents the Creator,
is a Creator, watching the slow unfolding of life until at least a form
into which he can slip an immortal soul and call it “’Man.” However
theories of evolution may be in accounting for man's physical
structure, they cannot
account for conscience ‒ the moral nature. Here is a chasm which no
theory of evolution
can ever bridge.
C. W. BRIGGS, Missouri.
very glad to publish this letter of M. W. Bro. Briggs. However there
Christians according to their lights who, with a good conscience, are
as well as good Masons. English-speaking Freemasonry, as is well known,
demand more of a man than belief in God, and does not ask whether he be
Jew, or Mohammedan. He may even be a Theosophist or a Free Thinker.
the Bible in a Masonic lodge must be, as most authorities explicitly
assert, a symbol
only and not necessarily an object of faith.]
* * *
Senior Deacon and the
May I correct
an error in the May BUILDER? In one of your answers in the Question
Box, pp. 159-60,
on which side of the candidate should the Senior Deacon walk, you say:
is nothing essential about it one way or the other." But it is
the S. D. be on the candidate's right so that during the perambulation
brethren and the officers may convince themselves that the candidate is
and truly prepared."
D. D. B., New York.
to the query in THE BUILDER for May as to the proper side for the
to take his position in conducting the candidate, there is in Iowa a
In the E. A., on the left side, grasping him by the left hand in the
peculiar grip. In the F. C., on the right side, and in the M. M., on
the left. I
always thought it was tied up thus because in the E. A. the left side
is and the
right in the F. C. preparation.
As I recall,
everywhere I have visited it was done the same way, though I may be
A. L. K., Pennsylvania.
These two letters taken together seem
be in themselves a sufficient justification for the opinion expressed
on page 160
of THE BUILDER for May that there is nothing essential about the method
to be adopted.
* * *
A. Thompson and
In my study
of the Great Seal of the United States, I find that Charles A.
Thompson, the first
Secretary of Congress, and William Barton, of Philadelphia, were
many of the designs that appear on both sides of the seal, and that
these bear strong
marks of being Masonic.
Can you tell
me anything about these two men as far as their belonging to the
H. V. S., New Hampshire.
ago I prepared an article on the Great Seal of the United States, which
in the January and February issues of "The Sojourner," which paper I
articles I made considerable research regarding the reverse side of the
I am unable to definitely state, however, that Thompson and Barton were
but the fact that both these gentlemen retained and preserved the
proposed by Monsieur Du Simitiere and improved by Thomas Jefferson,
that there is some reason to believe that they were.
‒ Geo. F. Unmacht, Washington, D.
Lodge and Its
I am endeavoring
to get the Masonic history of five brothers who were connected with the
of Pythagorean Lodge, A. F. & A. M., of Marion, Mass. Would you
kindly ask through
your Question Box if any brother can help me?
like to know where and when they were initiated, passed and raised, and
information in regard to their Masonic connections, especially whether
held any offices in other lodges. The only information I have at
present is as follows:
one of the brothers to whom Dispensation was granted, Aug. 20, 1861.
as a charter member.
J. E. Davenport,
ditto; held office of Junior Warden under Dispensation.
Norton, ditto, but held no office; died March 13, 1862, aged 66 years,
John D. Allen,
one of brothers to whom Dispensation was granted; Worshipful Master
charter member July 15, 1863; J. D. 1863-1866; Tyler 1869-1874 and
1859-1880; died May 26, 1904. (Born in Rochester, Mass., Feb. 9, 1815.)
Douglas, one to whom Dispensation was granted and a charter member;
died in March,
even a clue to some lodge that might know of these brothers, will be
R. D. Macafee, Marlon, Mass.
* * *
day I was reading a book on Turkey entitled "Forty Years in
by Bro. Sir Edwin Pears, and in it there was reference to Freemasonry
in that country,
and I enclose herewith an extract containing what the author has to say
on the subject
in connection with the Young Turk Party and the Revolution.
be too much trouble if you published in THE BUILDER some time a brief
as to Freemasonry in Turkey? Is there a sovereign Grand Lodge there,
and if so is
it recognized by the other Grand Lodges of the world? What is the
status of such
individual lodges as may exist?
I. V. Gillis, China.
referred to is given below. We have not any definite information to
hand as to recent
developments in Turkey. Shortly before the war a Grand Orient was
formed by a number
of lodges holding warrants from the governing bodies of France, Italy
Turkish Freemasonry has had a number of truly admirable men in its
ranks but uncertainty
as to its origin and rumors of political activities have led to a
of recognition on the part of English speaking Grand Lodges.
from "Forty Years in Constantinople," by Sir Edwin Pears, Chapter
pages 258, 259: "I do not know that anyone in particular was aimed at
the committee was labeled as consisting of atheists, Jews and
probably influenced unfavorably a few of the lower elements of the
used in connection with Young Turkey never appeared to me to have an
objectionable meaning. As a Mason myself, I can assert that very few
indeed of the
Party were Masons before the Revolution. The fact which lent vividness
to the term
as revolutionary was that in the Italian Lodge in Salonica some members
of the Committee
bad been accepted, and, according to general repute, employed the lodge
as a means
of keeping the movements of the revolutionary body from the outside
world. The cry
that the opponents of Abdul Hamid were Freemasons had indeed the effect
a great many Turks to desire to become Masons, and indeed gave
Freemasonry a lift
in the country such as it had never had before. The Revolution,
however, would not
have made much progress if its supporters had been limited to Jews,
Freemasons. The cry that the revolutionary party consisted of them was
only in name. I doubt whether it did the cause of Young Turkey any harm
except perhaps among the adherents of the Roman Catholic Church."
* * *
Origin of Degrees
you tell me where the first three degrees of Masonry derived the name
and what is the symbolism of it in Masonry and from whence did the name
J. B. L.,
be briefly answered by saying that the designation was derived from the
in the lodges as a binding to the white apron and for other
decorations. But the
question then arises, why was the color blue selected, and that is very
being easy to answer. In some places (as Scotland) each lodge chooses
its own color,
and in the eighteenth century, or at least in the first part of it,
this seems to
have been general. Nevertheless there seem some indications to show
that blue was
used by Masons as well as white (in their gloves and aprons). When the
were organized the color red, or red and crimson, or purple, was
adopted and it
then became an easy way of designating the bodies. The Masonic Order of
was at one time often called in the same way, "Black Masonry," because
originally the Knights wore black aprons. The term Blue Lodge is a
and because of its convenience has persisted without any clear logical
* * *
I have asked
many of our brethren concerning the origin of the Dueguard of the First
Degrees, but none of them have been able to enlighten me on this point.
wrote to Bro. Haywood, of the Masonic Outlook, and he suggested that I
I shall be
grateful for any information you can give me on this subject.
P. S., New York.
by origin you have in mind how they came into our present ritual. Up
until the closing
years of the eighteenth century they were not so distinguished. The
"Due guard" and "Sign" were used interchangeably as designating
the same thing. In fact, the specific actions which we in the United
distinguish as the DG of the EA and FC degrees were not finally so
1843. You must understand that many changes have been made in our
ritual by well-meaning
brethren who have sought to rationalize it. That is, they have tried to
a logically consistent system.
what is now the EA sign was called the EA's "due guard or sign." What
are now the EA and FC DG's were unknown or at least not used as such.
only one sign each in the EA and FC degrees. Sometime about 1800 (the
date is indeterminate)
it occurred to someone to incorporate one movement or action to be
known as the
due guard, and the other as the sign. These were as follows:
In the EA degree, what is now
the due guard was
then termed the sign and what is now the sign was called the due guard.
FC degree, the two were given almost as now, except they were never
MM degree, the due guard was given with the right hand only.
a convention was held at Baltimore, Md., to agree on a uniform ritual.
things, they reversed the procedure in the EA degree. What was then the
they made our present sign and vice versa. In the MM degree they
adopted the use
of both hands in giving the MM due guard.
defined a due guard as a position and a sign or a movement. Up till
1843 there was,
as we have shown, no distinction. I might say the expression "due
comes from a passage in the old rituals where, in opening the lodge,
said, " Brethren, please to guard yourselves as Masons."
* * *
find my check for $2 for use in the tuberculosis work among Masons.
I have a
brother who recently found he has an arrested case of T. B. He could
in thinking of these active cases, "There, but for the grace of God,
is small but I am hoping it will be duplicated by all the brothers
world and this unfair burden thus lifted from the shoulders of our
brothers in the
J.R. DEWEY Iowa.
Board of Education has caused a classic essay to be immortalized in
type. It's about
frogs, and was written by a young Norwegian. It runs as follows:
a wonderful bird the frog are! When he stand he sit, almost. When he
hop he fly,
almost. He ain't got no sense, hardly. He ain't got no tail, hardly,
he sit he sit on what he ain't got, almost."
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