The National Masonic
Modern Operatives and
Bro. C. Walton Rippon,
very glad to present this article to readers of The Builder. Bro.
Rippon is on the
same side of the controversy as Bro. Springett and we will welcome any
of these claims. If all that can be said for them is brought together,
will be able to judge for themselves.
THE two articles
by the editor in the November and December issues of THE BUILDER are
to the memories and reputations of these English Masons of repute in
their own country,
and contain some discrepancies. On page 332 we are told that Stretton
was a "north
of England Civil Engineer," and on page 367 that "he was apprenticed in
a large engineering works in the north of England" and "was not
as a stone mason but as an engineer." Now Leicester is in the north of
and Stretton's life work was done in the neighborhood of that town.
A civil engineer
in England is not necessarily, and in many instances is not in fact, a
mechanical engineer; he lays the "track" or designs the canal on which
the other runs his trains or propels his boats. In a paper read at
Lodge 2429, Leicester,
on the 4th of January, 1910, Stretton says:
October, 1866, when 16 years of age? I was articled, at my own request
to a Civil
Engineer, a premium being paid for my training. Part of the instruction
was to have
a month's practical work with stone masons in a stoneyard.
the following May the writer and five other 'premium apprentices’ were
sent to a
stone mason's quarry and yard."
practical jokes had been played on them and 15 / (about $3.50) gratuity
money handed to the leading craftsman, who threw it on the ground with
"Freemasons don't drink Cowan's money," they were advised by a foreman
to leave the yard. The owner said to the boys, "They [the workmen]
your money, and if you wish to learn anything about Masons' work, you'd
the Worshipful Society of Free Masons."
step towards obtaining membership was to fill up a form of application,
a copy of
which he gives. This being completed was posted up at the door of the
and the candidates were in due time advised to attend on the following
High Twelve [noon], bringing no valuables and only sufficient money to
pay the fees.
The routine was divided under the following heads:
- DESIRE to become a member.
- CONSULTATION with the
- APPLICATION to the
Super-intendent; form filled up and handed in.
- NOMINATION; proposed, seconded,
and supported by five other members.
- CONSIDERATION by the officials.
- COMMUNICATION of provisional
- APPLICATION at NO. 1 StoneYard
at High Twelve.
- EXAMINATION by Surgeon.
- INTERROGATION as to age,
Character, and trade knowledge.
- with FREEDOM to follow at the
end of Seven Years.
the end of the month's training in the stoneyard, as arranged with the
we had to terminate our time, and there seemed no way of obtaining
the seven years' bond. It was explained that we were bound for seven
that period we must serve, but as there was at that time insufficient
work in the
yard, we must be placed on the 'Journey list,' and travel the country,
job where we could find one, and making application to any 'Free
Masons' Arms' in
case of distress. We were sworn as 'Journeymen,' paid our fees, and
were bound over
to return to the yard, to be 'made Free' at the conclusion of the seven
inn-keeper of every Free Masons' Arms was sworn as a 'Serving Brother,'
'at certain intervals' he could enter the lodge his wife was also sworn
as a 'Mason's
Dame,' so that she could serve in the lodge as a waitress when
required. She might
act as nurse to any Mason who was ill, or had met with an accident, and
was specially provided for in her 'oath.' "
In a second
paper read at the meeting of the same lodge, Sept. 25, 1911, Stretton
the forms of application covering the degrees above the Fellowcraft,
those of the
two earlier being set out in the first mentioned paper.
in the First Degree provides for branding with the mark of a traitor,
and after the mention of twenty-four hours goes on "so that my soul
rest by night or by day." The traitor's mark was derived from the
be mown down from right to left against the sun, and thus to go against
is fatal. The double-ended scythe was the branding mark of the traitor,
was cut on both cheeks. If you take the marks on both cheeks and Cross
form a reversed Swastika; going against the sun. The Operative
that unless a body be properly buried in peace, with the proper
to the rank of the Mason, that the soul will have no rest by night or
by day; and
this has always been regarded as a terrible punishment for any Mason.
W. Bro. Dr. Carr also furnishes a paper the lodge meeting March 25,
1912. In this
he speaks of the neck cord or C--T--being removed when the candidate is
free." In the Second Degree he received an additional sign in which he
the Sq--L--& P-R--. In a paper given to the Lancashire College
of the Societas
Rosicruciana Anglia in November, 1912, W. Bro. Carr says:
amounts to a practical certainty, that in the Ritual of the Operative
existing today, we have the same Ritual as that which existed among the
two centuries ago, and from which the Speculative Ritual was then
derived. The evidence
in favor of this view seems so accumulative, and so increasingly
weighty, that it
amounts to such proof as would accepted by an average man, in the
conduct of his
own business affairs, and the ordinary matters of daily life."
From my knowledge
of Dr. Carr, after working with him in several degrees up to the time
of his death,
from conversations with him in his own house relative this matter, from
he showed me and the facts that he was a graduate of an English
University, a member
of one of our legal schools, the Inns of Court, a Provincial Grand
Warden in the
Craft and the Mark Degrees, attaining Grand or Provincial rank in
others, I say
without any hesitation that he was absolutely incapable of lending
himself to any
attempt to mislead his brethren. Bro. Stretton also was Provincial
of Leicestershire, and President of the local Society of his
and any attempt to mislead men who knew his antecedents and working
life would have
been met with ridicule and exposure.
like Bro. John T. Thorp and the Rev. Canon Covey-Crump (amongst others)
anyone they do not hesitate to say what they think and certainly to
to anything which they consider misleading. Could Stretton sketch his
career, giving details of every step, over a period of 42 1/2 years
from his entry
to his attaining the position of Solomon, before his professional and
without incurring ridicule and refutation if the whole of it were
fabrication? I cannot conceive of the possibility.
of the article to which Bro. Rippon takes exception desires to say how
he was to express the opinion that the evidence he has been able to
to indicate that Bro. Stretton may have been the originator of the
Society and their Rituals; more especially as latter was now unable to
himself. But the question has much more than a personal aspect. Masonic
has suffered too much in the past from the fogs and mists of fable
make students willing to allow a new myth to be created. It follows
that these claims
should be thoroughly criticised before they become a tradition. It is a
no documentary evidence has yet been presented to indicate that the
had any existence prior to the time that Bro. Stretton told us about it.
would also like to thank Bro. Rippon for his correction of a very
His own knowledge of England is almost entirely confined to the part
south of the
Thames and in writing he loosely thought of all the rest as north,
the "North of England" has a quite definite geographical delimitation.
The term "gentleman apprentice" was also rather loosely used. "Premium
apprentice" or perhaps "indentured apprentice" would be the proper
terms to be applied, the other is a colloquial expression current among
‒ at least in the South of England. ‒ Ed.]
The Northeast Corner"
Communicated by the tubercular
of New Mexico
IN the letter
accompanying this article Bro. R. J. Newton, Secretary of the Committee
The brethren here believe that we must prove the need for the work the
Association proposes to do by facts and figures and by citations of
I am frank to admit that the situation is worse than I believed it to
be and I think
that the publication of such ‘case histories’ as I found in the files
of the El
Paso Relief Bureau and Temple Lodge Albuquerque, will be a revelation
to the Fraternity
…“ And what Bro Newton had told us personally some months ago was bad
care of its own." That is the Masonic tradition.
Next to the
legend of the fidelity of the Master Builder stands the deeply grounded
a Mason, in distress, will always be succored by his brethren.
it. The profane world believes it more strongly than Masons themselves.
women believe it even more implicitly than the men.
faith well-founded? Certainly the teachings of the Craft for some
stressed the duty of fraternal aid and assistance to the brother in
need ‒ but are
these teachings put into practice? Were they in the past? If so, is
Masonry of today
less mindful of its duties and obligations?
This is an
age of doubt, of skepticism, of challenge. No existing institution is
free of criticism,
or will escape the hammer of the iconoclast. Political doctrines,
forms of government, the claims of science, every institution of man,
and even that
Book itself which has been the inspiration and guide of millions must
acid test, must answer the question, "What is your real value, your
and net worth, to the world of men today?" That net worth will, in
determined. The thought or thing, no matter what it be, that does not
to the practical and spiritual needs of mankind will be discarded,
junked and thrown
upon the scrap heap of the world. That which is good in it may be used
another form, but the thing itself will pass from the sight and sound
like all other institutions, cannot escape this inquisition. Thinking
that we are now undergoing the judgment. It is not a judgment of the
but rather is it a trial by members of the Fraternity itself, who seek
to know if
we are meeting our obligations, to the world, to each other and to
are asking if we practice that which we preach and if not, why not?
can bring an indictment against the Craft and prove that it is
delinquent in its
duties. But no Mason can truthfully say that Masonry is doing all that
it can do
and all that it should do to make the highway of the world a smoother,
road for men to travel and to make this a safer, saner, happier world
for our children.
It has often been said that we can prove anything by the Bible. So we
by examples of practical charity, or by failure to do acts of humanity,
is perfect, or imperfect. That it meets its obligations, or that it
fails to do
Tuberculosis Association has made several estimates of the number of
Masons in America in the last few years. With a tuberculosis death rate
of 141 per
100,000 living men, over 20 years of age, any group of 3,000,000 would
annual loss of 4,230 lives. This does not include such tuberculosis
deaths as are
ascribed to other causes. If there are nine living cases to every death
by the National Tuberculosis Association, then there are nearly 40,000
of tuberculosis needing treatment in America today.
of consumptives go west every year, in the belief that the climate of
region will arrest their disease, and that many of them become in time
public charity, in whole or in part, has been proven by investigations
of the United
States Public Health Service and the National Tuberculosis Association.
migration is increasing has also been proven by an investigation made
by the National Tuberculosis Association. That there are many Masons
unfortunate sick has been shown by two incomplete investigations of the
Sanatoria Commission of the Grand Lodges of Texas, Arizona and New
Mexico, and by
the Tuberculosis Sanatoria Committee of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico,
Masonic relief workers of El Paso have recently estimated that there
are 600 non-resident
sick Masons in that city and Albuquerque Masons have listed 200 cases.
Springs, Phoenix, Los Angeles, San Antonio and the smaller cities and
Some of our
Northern and Eastern brethren have said that the sick should not go
there are plenty of hospital beds in the North and East for them. This
is not entirely correct for only five states, Connecticut,
New York and Rhode Island have a sufficient number of hospital beds for
according to the standard of the National Tuberculosis Association, of
bed for every annual death from tuberculosis. But the following states,
in the order
named, furnish half of the migration of consumptives to the Southwest:
New York, Missouri, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Indiana, Kansas,
and Minnesota. Only two of these states have adequate hospital
facilities, New York
and Minnesota, and New York is second in the number of tuberculosis
the West. As a Past Grand Master of New Mexico said, "The North and
have the hospital beds, but we have the hospital patients."
But no repetition
of figures can convince Masons and Masonry of the number and needs of
the sick as
strongly as the citation of actual cases. One man killed before your
eyes is more
shocking to you than to read of a thousand killed in battle. For the
of the Craft there is submitted a limited number of "case histories" of
brethren all of whom are, or were, victims of tuberculosis and
the Southwest. These are not selected because they are worse than
others. They are
typical of many. These are but a few of the known cases. This issue of
could be filled, if the space were at our disposal, with similar
histories of Masonic
"lungers" and what happened to them when they took their stand in the
northeast corner of the Southwest, waiting. Some of them still wait ‒
but many waited
This is the
challenge to American Freemasonry today. By the way we meet it will the
three million Freemasons determine if the Craft has the vision and
talent for spiritual
leadership which can make it the greatest force for good in America in
to come, or if we shall someday read upon the walls of our Temples,
weighed in the balances and art found wanting."
one of these members of our Grand Lodge of Sorrow, what would be your
you say that "Masonry always takes care of its own?" Consider some of
these cases and try to put yourself in their place.
Man Branded As Faker
2. Grand Lodge of Scotland. Claimed he was shipped to Albuquerque by
Association, Cincinnati. Temple Lodge, Albuquerque, expended $66.09 on
relief and advised home lodge and asked for refund of this amount.
a year the home lodge replied: "It is not customary for us, when
relief, to reclaim it from the applicant's mother lodge. It is with
we came to the conclusion some time ago that we warn the Relief
America from advancing money to this brother, as he has now traveled
over a considerable
part of the states and obtained relief rather freely." All of which may
true but the fact remained that the brother was consumptive and was
such for admission by the U. S. Public Health Service and sent to Ft.
Receiving no compensation, had no money and no clothing fit to wear.
Club, Ft. Bayard, outfitted him with clothing and gave him small amount
Cure’ Promised ‒ Cost
10. Grand Lodge of Kansas. Applied for help within short time after
arrival at Albuquerque.
Confined to bed at cheap hotel with bad cold. Had funds for ten days
body, Albuquerque, arranged for treatment in sanatorium for $70 monthly
home lodge asking them if they would pay expense. If not, would they
transportation home? They agreed to pay for return home and to try to
get him into
tuberculosis hospital there. Brother then refused to go home because a
guaranteed to cure him in three months. Home lodge agreed to pay him
for three months. Patient planned to take small cottage with another
sick man and
"batch" it. Died suddenly within three weeks. Home lodge paid extra
incident to final illness. Buried at Albuquerque.
Gave $250 ‒ Masons
16. Grand Lodge of Arkansas. Anthony Lodge, No. 48, New Mexico, wired
home lodge about brother's need of hospitalization. Brother was living
40 miles from El Paso, very sick and having slow hemorrhages. Hard
pressed for money.
Anthony Lodge "got no satisfaction" from home lodge secretary, but it
is believed that as a result of these communications home lodge asked
El Paso Relief
Bureau to investigate patient's condition. Previous to this the
secretary of home
lodge had drawn on the brother for the amount of his dues and he was
very much worried
about his inability to pay and feared suspension. After receiving
report dues were remitted and lodge contributed $50 for hospital care.
home lodge of Elks contributed $250 for hospital expense. Patient died
Will Pay For Winter’s
30. Grand Lodge of Illinois. Applied for aid shortly after coming to
stating that his home lodge was helping him some. Needed medical
was secured for him and three months' rest ordered. Money advanced for
lodging by Temple Lodge which was reimbursed by home lodge, which also
"Do not know what we will be able to do for Bro. ___ I am sure that he
stay there (Albuquerque) this winter, if possible, but our lodge is out
and the members have been caring for him out of our pockets but so many
of the members
do not live around here and lots of them poor that it is uphill work to
going, however we are going to do the best we can. He is worthy but has
his means on a sick sister who died with the same trouble and he cannot
Small Son in Deadly
34. Grand Lodge of Oklahoma. Temple Lodge, Albuquerque, found brother
living in two-room shack with no one but thirteen-year-old son to care
Son also worked long hours in grocery store to support father. Brother
sick for several years and had never had proper care. Was in serious
shack filthy and patient had not had a bath for six weeks. No chance
and boy endangered because of dirt and filth and poor nourishment.
in Methodist Sanatorium at reduced rate and home lodge notified. They
had been helping
out of lodge funds and contributions. Assistance also given by Masonic
of Oklahoma. Brother is steadily improving and has chance for recovery
if can be
kept in institution for another year.
Taxed For Non-Resident
39. Grand Lodge of Louisiana. Wife of brother applied to Relief Bureau,
for help. Brother unable to work and she was needed at home to care for
three children. Emergency relief given and home lodge asked to
contribute $25 monthly
for support of family. Secretary at once sent $25 and promised to bring
lodge for action. Home lodge refunded money advanced for emergency
relief and sent
additional $25. Later wife fell and broke both arms which made bad
Home lodge took up collection for brother and appointed committee to
visit his (blood)
brothers to seek their help. Later family became practically destitute
due to brother's
inability to work and home lodge gave further assistance and named a
take case up with Grand Lodge. Wife later got job in store leaving sick
man to care
for three children. Some little help given by his family. Finally
appealed to Grand Lodge of Louisiana for help reciting all the facts
two-year history of family. At this time they were about to be evicted
and it was
necessary to put father in county hospital, children in a home and the
then able to take care of herself. Another appeal to home lodge brought
brother died in hospital and his family had his body returned for
the wife and children remained in El Paso. It developed that two other
of this patient were patients at the county hospital for some time
before and during
his illness. El Paso County tax-payers and citizens were taking care of
from another state, whose relatives were able to pay to have body of
one of them
shipped home for burial.
Work with Lighter
41. Grand Lodge of Michigan. Home lodge forwarded $50 to Temple Lodge,
and asked for investigation and report on this brother who seemed to be
good condition but troubled with pleurisy which made it impossible to
do heavy work.
He had secured light work at $10 per week which will help in his
a Temple ‒ Can't Help
45. Grand Lodge of Tennessee. Home lodge requested El Paso Relief
Bureau to make
investigation of physical and financial condition. Brother found to be
formerly, but in debt for living and medical expenses about $120 with
$4 on hand.
Emergency relief given and home lodge notified that he would need $50
at least six months. Second letter required to get answer. Secretary
was instructed to send Bro. $10 each month to help pay his expenses. We
to do more but we are under a very heavy expense just now, in fact for
ten years, we have just about completed our new Temple at a cost of
and we have borrowed quite a great deal of this and of course we have
to pay this
back in monthly payments and just can't pay out very much other than
this. We have
two more brethren in a hospital and keeping up several charity cases."
Bureau Helped ‒ Home
48. Grand Lodge of Ontario, Canada. Brother, a health-seeker, applied
for and received
help from Relief Bureau, El Paso, while seeking employment which was
find. Total of $78.92 advanced him and reported to home lodge which
made a refund
For Help ‒ Wired
50. Grand Lodge of Georgia. This brother, wife and babies, living with
by a brother-in-law, who was not a Mason, but a consumptive himself and
Entire income of family of 13, $100 monthly. Brother's wife sufferer
baby sick and all children down with measles at one time. Living in
and all children endangered because of two consumptives living in
with them. Six months' old baby found by physicians to be tuberculous,
to close association with sick father. Appeal made to home lodge for
relief by El
Paso Relief Bureau absolutely disregarded. No attention paid to
home lodge secretary replied to Bureau's appeal for assistance and sent
"Collect." Later secretary wrote claiming that sick man who was unable
to work and was being supported by a consumptive brother-in-law and had
was supporting relatives back home, therefore needed no help for
Bureau again fully explained circumstances but still no help
finally made appeal to Grand Lodge of Georgia to compel home lodge to
for sick brother. No help secured. Brother and his wife then placed in
and after some time he is able to do some light work. The
brother-in-law died of
tuberculosis and this brother is now helping his family in addition to
support his own.
All Lodges Were Like
53. Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. Brother applied for help to Relief
Paso, which was given and refunded by home lodge. Secretary said, "Our
is interested in his welfare and is anxious that he recover his health
his family join him so that they may enjoy life together again. The
El Paso are away ahead of us here in the east in having that Employment
Bureau as we have nothing of the sort here."
To East Will Cost
57. Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. Investigation made by Temple body,
at request of home lodge disclosed fact that brother quite sick and
unable to work.
Wife working half-day. Selling jewelry to get money needed for living
wishes to go back east to secure funds to live on in New Mexico, but
mean speedy end for him. Facts reported to home lodge.
Brother to Suffer or
59. Grand Lodge of Indiana. Brother had been living in small New Mexico
came to El Paso hoping to secure light work and to live cheaper. Voice
and unable to work, apparently would not be able to for some time to
was sending him $25 monthly and expenses $50 to $60. Home lodge asked
Bureau to contribute balance of support. Home lodge secretary replied
had been helping the brother and sent small check for emergency relief
to take up with lodge. "We certainly do not wish any of our membership
into office of Bureau with three cents, entire cash on hand the day
this check arrived.
Later got $30 from sister and asked Bureau to hold lodge check until
made him monthly allowance of $25 and their support had much to do with
condition. Later brother went to Tuscon, Arizona, for the winter but
his monthly remittances be sent through Relief Bureau. Came back to El
Paso in spring
as his throat was giving him trouble. Relief Bureau helped him get
was compelled to quit work to care for a bed-ridden mother and could
send him no
more money. Facts reported to home lodge. Patient has failed in last
and throat is worse. Relief Bureau wrote, "Brother is still holding up
head and making a fight that certainly wins the admiration of all with
whom he comes
in contact." Returned home much against home lodge's wishes to help
Months Care Might Have
62. Grand Lodge of Virginia. Home lodge requested investigation of
and financial condition, which was made by El Paso Relief Bureau.
Brother in need
of care for next six months or would have complete breakdown. Trying to
unable to hold permanent job. Wife entered hospital to complete course
Home lodge advanced $50 for emergency relief.
Is Masonic Charity.”
63. Grand Lodge of Ohio. Home lodge had been helping brother for three
or four years.
He was trying to make a living by carrying papers with help of
As he grew worse, was unable to continue all of his route and became
debt to employers account using collections to pay living expenses.
Home lodge paid
up indebtedness to publishers and advanced $25, making total of $800
they had given
this brother. Inquired as to amount needed to care for him. Advised
that wife and
boy working, but nurse needed for few months as brother was sinking and
soon. This expense was paid and when brother died $500 was paid by the
Orphans' Fund, the home lodge secretary having paid this brother's dues
this insurance for his widow and child. Masonic funeral given in El
Paso and Relief
Bureau aided widow in collection and investment of insurance money.
her position and boy is carrying paper route. Home lodge wrote, "This
is very grateful for the wonderful service you have rendered. It shows
that El Paso
has a Relief Bureau that is a real organization and that is a credit to
Home lodge also requested special attention to the son of deceased
Help Sick Brother
66. Grand Lodge of Nebraska. Brother patient at Methodist Sanatorium
for help as his means were exhausted. Had been sick for four years.
Said that he
had been main support of father and mother until he broke down and that
now helping him. Asked for help from home lodge. Temple Lodge,
them and they replied that they had been helping him, and had
contributed $100 to
return him to Southwest after he had come home on a visit. Prior to
that had been
making monthly contributions, amount not stated. Secretary reported
lodge had no
funds now but would take up a collection at next meeting and would ask
to aid, which aid was given.
Not To Help a Sick Brother
69. Grand Lodge, District of Columbia. Wealthy home lodge sent this
brother to Albuquerque
apparently with no restriction on his expense account and he proceeded
their generosity and charity by extravagant living, contracting bills
things and calling upon them for considerable sums from time to time.
Albuquerque, endeavored to restrict him and to induce home lodge to do
attitude is shown by the statement, "We do not want you to run out of
or be obliged to call on resources other than ours." Probably expended
on this brother who did not show proper appreciation of their fraternal
By Home Lodge
and Grand Lodge ‒ Dies
71. Grand Lodge of _____ (name withheld). Home lodge sent this brother
at their expense July 3, 1922, and requested Temple Lodge to "look
welfare" and "advance him such pecuniary assistance as may be
which they would refund, such assistance to continue until advised
Lodge placed brother in Presbyterian Sanatorium and complied with
request of home
lodge in every way, sending bills and statements for expenses,
condition. In September, 1922, brother was moved to a private boarding
physician dismissed in order to reduce expenses. On Nov. 8, 1922, home
Temple Lodge that they would be compelled to discontinue paying any
for expenses incurred by the brother.
are of the opinion that a lodge ought to extend temporary relief to
we do not think that the Order could be expected to keep a member
feet it would be impossible for most lodges to do so, and if it was
done in one
ease it would create a precedent that would be difficult to continue."
home lodge also notified the brother that their support would be
then asked the Grand Secretary of New Mexico to take up with the Grand
_____ the matter of securing further aid for this brother who had been
New Mexico by his home lodge and then abandoned to the care of Temple
appeal was made just prior to the 1922 meeting of the Grand Lodge of
and was considered by the Grand Lodge at its annual communication and
the adoption of the following: "Your committee are of the opinion that
lodge in this Grand Jurisdiction should look after its own indigent
members to the
best of their ability, and it is not incumbent upon this Grand Lodge to
to a subordinate lodge as to how it should disburse its Charity fund,
so long as
such lodge does not repudiate any just obligations made by the lodge.
And that as
this Grand Lodge has no charity fund of its own, there is no way to
take care of
any ease of this nature, except by placing such brother in the Old
We therefore offer the following: Resolve, That Grand Sec. be
authorized to forward
a copy of the above to the Grand Sec. Of New Mexico and that no further
taken by this Grand Lodge."
on this appeal to the Grand Lodge of ______, Temple Lodge continued to
this brother. On Jan. 1, 1923, the Grand Secretary of ______ advised
the Grand Secretary
of New Mexico of this action, which he promptly reported to Temple
action in this case is covered in a letter from Temple Lodge to the
home lodge which
shipped the brother to Albuquerque:
the meantime (Nov. 6 to Jan. 2) Bro. ______ was here without funds and
to leave his room to try to make arrangements for his support. In feet
date that he received your letter stating that you would not be
any further expenses on his behalf, he went from bad to worse. His
us that it was impossible for him to aid Bro. in his recovery if he
the same state of mind, that of utter despondency.
could not possibly have complied with your instructions and set this
to shift for himself in his condition. We felt that we were duty bound,
in the name
of humanity if for no other reason, to take care of him. This we did
until he asked
that we send him home before he died, as he felt that he could not last
but a short
time here, under the existing circumstances."
months after the receipt of this letter the home lodge reimbursed
Temple Lodge $232.94
balance of money expended on this brother.
By Their Sick Brother
74. Grand Lodge of Iowa. Disabled ex-service man receiving $100 monthly
Wife employed and getting along nicely until wife contracted pneumonia,
sick and brother had to undergo minor operation, all of which resulted
of over $400. Home lodge advanced $300, to pay bills, which with
by Temple Lodge, Albuquerque, reduced indebtedness to about $50. Home
to be kept advised as to brother's condition and future needs.
Helps Family of
76. Grand Lodge of Mississippi. Step-son of a brother who died in 1913,
tuberculosis in El Paso. Wife and niece also tuberculous. An ex-service
small compensation which was temporarily held up for some reason and
family in want.
Mother came to Relief Bureau with watch fob, Masonic emblem with name
of lodge thereon, only evidence of dead step-father's Masonic
Bureau advanced $10 for emergency relief and wrote home lodge which
destroyed in 1914. Relief Bureau then wrote Grand Secretary of
Mississippi who replied
that father died in 1913, in good standing. Home lodge and Grand Lodge
in advancing $100. Young man died in very short time thereafter but
this money helped
very much in last days of illness. Wife will receive pension of $30
returned home to Mississippi. Mother and niece now under care of
Paying Back Money
80. Grand Lodge of Texas. Brother working for the railroad and becoming
continue was placed in Hotel Dieu. Mother came to El Paso as boy was to
operation. Family unable to bear extra expense and home lodge appealed
$100. Operation successful and patient improved. Home lodge contributed
$50 to take care of further expense. Patient had to come back to
at later dates. The home lodge advanced him money directly and he is
be paying back money advanced.
86. Grand Chapter of Alabama. Applied for relief to Masonic Bureau, El
he wrote home Chapter several times, without reply. Bureau wrote
Chapter for help.
Commandery remitted dues and advised that they were in very bad
After several months, Chapter sent $10 and wrote that it was all they
could do at
present and all that had been authorized. "Will ask the Chapter to
to the limit, but the Chapter meant nothing to him before he was taken
now that he is unable to work it is the first Order he calls upon." The
had been advised that the Companion was unable to work account of his
Saw Child's Picture
91. Grand Lodge of Missouri. Brother very ill and later died of
El Paso. Only request was for a picture of his little girl and Relief
lodge in town where divorced wife lived to get one from her. After some
with former wife picture secured and sent but came after his death.
attended to all details of funeral and assisted members of family who
came to him
just before he died. Home lodge wrote, "This lodge thanks you sincerely
the kind treatment given our late brother in his last illness and the
given to his family."
Insurance Paid ‒ Protected
99. Grand Lodge of Louisiana. Brother very ill at Government hospital
and wife came
to El Paso to be with him before death. Needed money to pay life
insurance for wife's
protection after death and to help pay for her expenses while with him.
sent $100 at once. Brother died and Relicts Bureau took care of all
details of shipment
of body and care of widow.
of the M.S.A.
of the Masonic Service Association co-operated with a similar committee
of the New
Mexico Grand Lodge in an investigation of the condition of tuberculous
the Southwest. A report of the work, which has not yet been completed,
to the recent Chicago meeting of the Masonic Service Association and
time was given to the consideration of this Masonic relief problem. The
adopted resolutions, recognizing the seriousness of the problem, and
National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria Association as the proper
agency to administer
relief. An appeal was authorized to all Grand Jurisdictions for funds
for the organization
work of the Sanatoria Association. The first response to this appeal
was made by
the Grand Lodge of Texas, which contributed $1,000 for development of
interferes neither with religion nor politics, but has for its
foundation the great
basic principles of the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man;
no Atheist can be a Freemason. It strives to teach a man the duty he
owes to God,
his neighbor, and himself. It inculcates the practice of all virtues
and makes an
extensive use of symbolism in its teachings.”
Bro. Henry Baer, Ohio
in the last quarter of the eighteenth century by sturdy pioneer
settlers to a wilderness
country, the territorial part of Virginia long the favorite hunting
grounds of northern
Indian tribes, the story of Freemasonry in Kentucky forms what is
probably the most
interesting and colorful account of any Grand Lodge Jurisdiction in the
Beginning with first settlement, virtually every step of the early
history and progress
of the State seems linked with the Fraternity. While much has been
written of general
historical nature, but little, strangely enough with such a fertile
field in which
to labor, has ever appeared in the latter connection, and nothing at
all of its
Masonic story during years of settlement preceding the formation of its
Grand Lodge. This last is due, case of so many other Grand
Jurisdictions, to the
loss of early records, where any were kept, and adherence to "Ancient"
Constitutions which imposed the utmost secrecy upon the Craft, and
forbade any secret
code or written record of whatever nature under penalty of expulsion.
To this latter
provision the Masons in Kentucky have steadily seemed to cling. It was
more than a half century after a Grand Lodge had been established that
and last, extensive account of Freemasonry in the State was compiled
by Rob. Morris when he served as Grand Master in 1858. This was a
of facts carefully gathered and authenticated through years of
and much of the following was drawn from this source. Inasmuch as in
there was a necessary relation between civil and political conditions
of a country
and its Masonic history (and none more so than in Kentucky) it is
to first set forth certain facts relative to the early settlement and
In the middle
of the eighteenth century Christopher Gist, intrepid backwoodsman and
was sent out by a group of Virginians who had formed a land buying
as the Ohio Company, to explore the country west of the Allegheny
the Ohio River in the face of great dangers he made examination of this
beautiful region as far as the Falls, where later Louisville was built.
southward he returned by circuitous route through the wonderful Blue
and virgin forests of Kentucky. Moved by his wondrous tales of
other adventurous spirits made trips westward during the next two
decades and explored
the territory to the east, north and south. Chief among them were
Daniel Boone and
Simon Kenton, the most celebrated Indian fighters and pioneers of the
century. From the year 1775 settlement of the country began and by 1779
hamlets of Harrodsburg, Boonesboro, Limestone (Maysville), Louisville
had been established as well as several scattered trading stations.
these and subsequent years there was much fighting of a desperate
the Indians of the north, who, angered at the invasion of their "happy
grounds" by the whites, watched every cabin and conducted numerous
the settlements and stations, killing and scalping men, women and
off stock and burning their cabins until the territory became known as
and bloody ground." History records that between the years 1777 and
fierce and bloody battles were fought, in which members of the Craft
the Kentuckians in every instance being overwhelmingly outnumbered, but
severe punishment upon their savage foe. The greatest disaster
occurring to the
settlers was in 1782, when after a force of 500 Canadians and Indians
led by Simon
Girty, a renegade white, had unsuccessfully laid siege to Bryan's
Stations, a force
of one hundred and eighty-two Kentuckians who had set out in pursuit
and badly defeated at the Blue Licks with a loss of a third killed and
prisoners. For some time, however, General George Rogers Clark,
noted hero, had in retaliation been conducting raids against the tribes
to the north
destroying crops and laying waste their towns. After a final expedition
to the Miami
towns of the Ohio country in 1782, following the Battle of the Blue
Licks, no large
body of Indians ever again invaded Kentucky. Many minor but bloody
fought in the territory from 1788 to 1793, when roving bands of savages
down upon isolated stations and cabins and took further toll of
History estimates that in the nearly twenty years of terror and
bloodshed at least
1,000 were slain and many carried away into captivity. Undoubtedly the
dangers, hardships and vicissitudes ever known to pioneer existence
by these early emigrants in the "dark and bloody ground," who could
for no assistance from the colonies, engaged as they were in the War of
and perforce fought a lone fight.
close of the Revolution in the spring of 1783 ensued a rush of
emigration from beyond
the Alleghenies and the eastern half of the territory soon became quite
Plans were laid as early as the following year for a separation from
Mother country, and the formation of a state. For various reasons it
was not until
June 1, 1792, however, that the independence of Kentucky was won and a
the first in the Mississippi Valley, with Colonel Isaac Shelby, hero of
in the Revolutionary War, as Governor.
At the beginning
of this decade furious fighting had again broken out with the Indians
from Kentucky, conducted similar warfare against the settlers in the
Ohio and Indian
Territories. With the scenes of battle now shifted northward large
forces of Kentuckians
led by General Charles Scott, a hard two-fisted fighter of the
with militia and regular troops in the several ensuing engagements. A
administered to the enemy at Fallen Timbers, Toledo, Ohio, in 1794 by
the army of
General "Mad Anthony" Wayne, assisted by 2,600 mounted volunteers from
Kentucky under Scott, finally brought an end to savage warfare in this
part Freemasonry played throughout these trying times has never become
it is believed not to have been a negligible one. No records from those
in Kentucky have ever come to light nor is it thought any were kept in
when "Silence and circumspection" were Masonic virtues practiced much
more literally than now. Whether Daniel Boone was a Mason has often
From the fact that in 1845 there was a turnout of Masons in full
regalia who participated
in the ceremonies attending the re-interment of his remains at
Frankfort; that the
Grand Lodge of Kentucky later contributed $50 toward the erection of a
in that city; and further, that several lodges in the state have been
named in his
honor; conclusions might be drawn that he most probably was a member of
but like so many of the old-time brethren never stated or left record
of his affiliation.
Unofficial information is at hand that General George Rogers Clark held
in the Order. A Virginian by birth he came to Kentucky with the first
1775, moved there a year later and became famous in the Indian wars
He was a brother of William Clark, a noted explorer, who with
in 1803 set out to cross the Rockies and became the first American to
view the Pacific
Ocean. Both William Clark and Merriweather Lewis were Masons. That
held membership in the Fraternity is recorded in Masonic history.
was born in Virginia and coming to the Blue Grass country in 1785 soon
identified with its history and affairs, serving as Governor of the
state from 1808
to 1812. In Peters' Masons as Makers of America Scott is listed with
the many others
of Washington's generals who were enrolled in the Craft. It is also
Colonel Isaac Shelby first Governor of Kentucky, was a Mason like so
many of the
early pioneers of the West; but as in case of Clark this has not been
by whom Freemason was first brought to Kentucky will likely never
Even such an indefatigable student as Rob. Morris was unable to unearth
of a definite nature in years of research. Assuredly, however, it had
with earliest settlement and was thereafter no longer to be confined in
the long strip of land east of the Alleghenies. In the beautiful
language of Morris:
emigrant whose slow moving wagon surmounted those barriers brought some
of Masonry from the east to the west, some family tradition, some
incident of a
charitable character to relate to his children when they should arrive
wildwood home; and this was the germ which was to expand into a great
came from Virginia, North Carolina, Pennsylvania and Connecticut
possessed of light
and knowledge of the Institution. Among their scanty books were to be
'Ahiman Rezon' [Lib 1825] of Pennsylvania or one of the
of Dermott or Anderson; and when they were set down amid the
cheerlessness of the
forests far from the pleasant influences of schools and churches and
gatherings of their former homes, what wonder that thoughts of their
homes, of fraternal circles at labor and at refreshment possessed their
the keenest desire! What wonder that the faintest suggestion of the
of a lodge within ten, or twenty or thirty miles of the log cabins was
ardor, or that signature and influence and open purse were offered
to perfect the idea! Such elongations of the Masonic cable-tow were
as those displayed by the emigrant Masons in the 'dark and bloody
for the 'social joy' connected with the 'great design'.'
pioneer brethren who felt the need of that fraternal society and
friendship to which
they had been accustomed and was not to be afforded by their isolated
the wilderness were those residing in or near Lexington Town. As early
as 1785 a
little band of eight settlers from this vicinity began planning the
Masonic Lodge. In consequence a petition was later forthcoming to the
Grand Lodge of Virginia praying that a charter be granted to organize a
in due time was favorably acted upon and a warrant issued these
brethren under date
of Nov. 17, 1788, to form Lexington Lodge, No. 25, naming Colonel
Anderson as first Worshipful Master. Colonel Anderson, a Virginian and
soldier of the Revolution, was a brother-in-law of General George
having married the latter's sister. With the arrival of this charter
set aglow in a little log structure and sent their flickering rays into
of the wilderness, the first Great Lights of Masonry to be erected in
country. The next lodge to become established was at Paris by virtue of
emanating from the same source under date of Nov. 25, 1791, which was
Lodge, No. 35. Then after a lapse of several years came the
constitution of Georgetown
Lodge, No. 46, on Nov. 29, 1796, at Georgetown; Hiram Lodge, No. 57, on
1799, at Frankfort, and Ahraham's Lodge at Shelbyville, under
dispensation in the
year 1800 and later known as Solomon's Lodge, No. 5. The warrants or
for the formation of these last three lodges likewise were of Virginia
As in other
pioneer states of the early West the first legislators and principal
of Kentucky were nearly all of the Craft. Indeed, the first
appointments of Governor
Shelby for Fayette County, wherein was erected Lexington Town, were
of Masons. Silent testimonial of the influence of Masonry in those days
to be noted in the Seal of the State. This shows within a circle two
with hands clasped in an attitude of Brotherly Love. Further, what
appears to be
the letter "G" is to be seen in the inscription at either end of the
"United We Stand ‒ Divided We Fall," a most appropriate and fitting
for this state.
close of the eighteenth century in view of the long and tedious journey
attendance upon the Grand Lodge meetings in the Mother Jurisdiction,
the seats of
the Kentucky lodges and that of the Grand Lodge of Virginia being more
miles apart and the fact that the Grand Charity Fund could not be
extended to any
brother or Mason's family in the State nor could the work of the lodges
by the Grand Master for this reason, it was deemed expedient by the
Lexington Lodge that in order to promote the welfare of the Craft a
be formed in Kentucky. Invitations were accordingly sent the other four
a meeting arranged to take place on Sept. 8, 1800, in Masons' Hall
lodge to be represented by its delegates. These assembled on this date
and an organization
was effected with John Hawkins as Chairman of the Convention and Thomas
Clerk. Resolutions were then passed by the fifteen brethren present
that a Grand
Lodge be established in the State and that a respectful address to the
in Virginia be drafted setting forth the several reasons actuating the
seeking separation from its jurisdiction.
On 16, 1800,
representatives from the five lodges met in the same place for the
purpose of opening
a Grand Lodge and holding its First Grand Communication; James Morrison
Lodge, as the oldest Past Master present, taking the chair and
officers. After charters or dispensations had been surrendered and the
of all approved, an election of officers was held. As a result the
chosen as the first Grand Officers of the newly-formed governing body
in due and ancient form: William Murray, Master of Hiram Lodge, Grand
Macgregor, Master of Lexington Lodge, Deputy Grand Master; Simon Adams,
Abraham's Lodge, Grand Senior Warden; Carey L. Clark, Past Master of
Lodge, Grand Junior Warden; James Russell, Grand Secretary; John A.
Treasurer; Thomas Hughes, Grand Senior Deacon; Nathaniel Williams,
Deacon; Samuel Shepard, Grand Pursuivant, and John Bobbs, Grand Tyler.
"Ancient" Constitutions and By-Laws of Virginia were adopted for use
such time as regulations for the government of Kentucky lodges could be
These Constitutions had been used by the Virginia brethren since 1792
and were virtually
the "Ahiman Rezon" of Lawrence Dermott, the celebrated Irish Mason and
leader of the group which seceded from the Grand Lodge of England after
and formed the so-called Ancient Grand Lodge. (1) The five lodges were
according to the dates on their respective authorities ranking
thereafter in the
order named: Lexington Lodge, No. 1, Paris Lodge, No. 2, Georgetown
Lodge, No. 3,
Hiram Lodge, No. 4, and Solomon's Lodge, No. 5. Until one of its own
could be designed,
the seal of Lexington Lodge was adopted as the official seal of the
Grand Body. In the absence of parchment or vellum for the proper
execution of new
charters it was directed that written forms of authority be prepared on
remain in effect until more formal charters could be issued. To cite an
of the delay and inconvenience to which the pioneers of those early
days were subjected
it was ten years before the parchment warrant of Lexington Lodge was
committee was then appointed to address each Grand Lodge in the country
them of the organization of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky and the reasons
With the confirming of these proceedings by those present they were
the newly-elected Grand Officers and this epoch-making session came to
The Grand Lodge of Virginia later approved the action of the Craft in
withdrawing from its jurisdiction, her reply being received some time
in the year
following and read in Grand Lodge at the session of October, 1801.
first Grand Master, was Attorney General of Kentucky when elected to
station and has been followed in that office by many men who were
prominent in affairs
of State and Nation. It was William Murray who generously donated to
the lot whereon to build "Masons' Hall."
the circumstances and in manner related was born the Most Worshipful
Free and Accepted Masons of the State of Kentucky, formed at a time
when but half
of the state was settled, and that still little better than a
all that territory lying west and north of the Green River was yet an
Though all the five lodges within the confines of the state shared in
yet upon Lexington Lodge, No. 1, devolves the credit and honor of
and taken the initiative in the establishment of a ruling body of the
first in the country west of the Allegheny Mountains. From its very
of the most distinguished citizens of the Blue Grass state were
included in its
personnel. These lent their able assistance in the development of the
Lodge and in the safe guidance of its destinies throughout later
constituent lodge contributed its share of intellect none had a larger
or a more conspicuous part in its affairs, than Lexington Lodge.
this so in earlier years, for of the thirteen Grand Masters who served
terms from 1800 to 1820 eight were numbered among its members,
comprising some of
the brightest stars in the Masonic firmament of Kentucky: James
Morrison, John Jordan,
Jr., George W. Bibb, Joseph Hamilton Daviess, Daniel Bradford, Thomas
H. Woodson and Henry Clay. This old lodge has enjoyed an uninterrupted
for nearly 140 years and is today one of the most thriving bodies in
its membership from the little handful which began labor in 1788 having
approximately 700. Of the other four lodges all are still upon the
Grand Lodge Roster
with the exception of Georgetown Lodge, No. 3, whose charter was
forfeited in 1804.
is only fair to say that many competent scholars have come to the
the "Ancient" Grand Lodge was not formed by seceders from the Grand
of 1717, but by independent or "St. John's" lodges which had never been
connected with it. [Ed.]
Bro. William M. Stuart
distinguished foreigners, Masons as well as soldiers, who aided
mightily in the
American Revolution, not the least was Count Casimir Pulaski, a native
of the province
of Lithuania in Poland. Count Pulaski was educated for the law, but
that he should be a soldier. The internal troubles of Poland led, in
1769, to a
rebellion against King Stanislaus, and in this insurrection both Count
his father, the old count, were concerned. Eventually Casimir's father
and executed. The next year Count Pulaski was elected
commander-in-chief of the
rebel army, but was unable to gather a sufficient force to make headway
He now conceived
a desperate undertaking. It was no less than a plan to seize the king,
at the head of the troops by force and thus, with royalty as a figure
a sufficient number of fighters to beat back the army that Catherine of
dispatched to invade Poland. In conformity with this hazardous plan,
men, of whom Count Pulaski was one, entered Warsaw disguised as
peasants. For a
time fortune favored the adventurers. Meeting the equipage of the king
in the street,
they stopped it, took hence His Majesty and conveyed him in safety
without the walls
of the city. But here the hue and cry became too hot for them; they
to abandon their royal prey and make their escape.
after this abortive attempt Pulaski's force was defeated, his estates
himself outlawed. Thereupon he entered the service of the Turks.
Eventually he went
to Paris and, the war of American Independence now being on, had an
Benjamin Franklin. Through the influence of Poor Richard, Count Pulaski
to come to America and cast in his fortune with the struggling
patriots. This was
Comes To America
had anything to do with Pulaski's meeting Dr. Franklin and the ensuing
not now known, at least to the writer. It is, however, a rather
that a majority of the foreign soldiers whom Franklin influenced to
take up our
cause were of the Ancient Craft. Franklin's Masonic status is too known
exposition. To Washington and Congress Franklin recommended Count
Pulaski an officer
famous throughout Europe for his bravery and conduct in defense of the
of his country against Russia, Austria and Prussia." For a time,
was no command offered this distinguished officer, as Congress, to use
an apt phrase,
was "getting rather fed up" on foreign soldiers of fortune. Hence for
the present he was content to serve as a gentleman volunteer with the
In this capacity he fought in the bloody Battle of Brandywine and
himself for his bravery, approaching to foolhardiness. More than once
he rode up
to pistol shot distance of enemy's line to reconnoiter.
of Brandywine was remarkable, if for no other reason than that
a poorly equipped and largely untrained army of eleven thousand troops,
without being annihilated, an enemy, perfectly appointed and drilled,
over eighteen thousand men. And although Washington was outflanked and
of his army crushed, the result was little less than a drawn battle for
owing to the resolute stand and splendid fighting of the division
commanded by Bro.
now recommended to Congress that Count Pulaski be commissioned a
and placed in command of the cavalry. "This gentleman," said
"has been, like us, engaged in defending the liberty and independence
country, and has sacrificed his fortune to his zeal for those objects.
from hence a title to our respect that ought to operate in his favor as
far as the
good of the service will permit."
was not slow in adopting the suggestion of the commander-in-chief. At
the fall of
Germantown, where the American army, confused by a heavy fog, retreated
in the very
moment of victory, the count again won honors by his steady conduct in
with his cavalry the retreat of two divisions of infantry.
A few months
after the Battle of Germantown, Count Pulaski resigned his command and
Congress authority to raise an independent corps, to consist of a troop
sixty-eight in number, together with two hundred foot. This authority
and "Pulaski's Legion," as it was presently called, was raised in 1778,
chiefly among the better families of Baltimore. Many of the officers,
stories have been told concerning the horsemanship of the count. Says
is related that, among other feats, that daring horseman would
his steed was under full gallop, discharge his pistol, throw it in the
it by the barrel, and then hurl it in front as if at an enemy. Without
the speed of his horse, he would take one foot from the stirrup and,
toward the ground, recover his pistol and wheel into line with as much
as if he had been engaged in nothing but the management of the animal."
who has witnessed the justly famous "monkey drill" of the regular
in the American army of the present cannot help but speculate as to
mode of rough-riding did not originate in the days of Pulaski.
had been wounded in the Battle of Brandywine and for a time was under
the care of
the Moravian nuns of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. While in the hospital at
he was visited by Count Pulaski. Learning of the presence of the
the nuns of the Moravian order prepared for him a beautiful banner of
richly embroidered with intricate needlework. It was twenty inches
square and intended
to be attached to a lance when borne in battle.
the youthful Lafayette was not a Mason at this time, being later raised
in a military
lodge, it is supposed that the Count was a member of the Order when he
came to America.
Whether he was consulted as to the design on the banner we do not know;
it is that on one side is a Masonic design; being no less than the
enclosed by a triangle. Longfellow has written a poem concerning this
the last two verses of which read:
"'Take thy banner. But when
Closes round the ghastly fight,
If the vanquished warrior bow,
Spare him ‒ by our holy vow;
By our prayers and many tears;
By the mercy that endears;
Spare him ‒ he our love hath shared;
Spare him ‒ as thou wouldst be spared.
"'Take thy banner; and, if e'er
Thou should'st press the soldier's bier,
And the muffled drum should beat
To the tread of mournful feet
Then the crimson flag shall be
Martial cloak and shroud for thee.
And the warrior took that banner proud,
And it was his martial cloak and shroud."
In the spring
of 1778 the British launched an expedition against Little Egg Harbor on
Coast, a rendezvous for American privateers. The invading force
hundred regulars and a large number of Loyalist volunteers; the whole
the command of Captain Patrick Ferguson, a talented officer who was to
death at the Battle of King's Mountain later in the war, as was related
in the article
on Nolichucky Jack in a recent number of THE BUILDER. As the expedition
en route, many of the privateers received warning and put out to sea,
up the river to a place called Chestnut Neck, whither they were
by Ferguson. The town and shipping were completely wrecked by the
troops sent against the marauders at this time was Pulaski's Legion,
by a gun of Proctor's artillery. Unhappily, a deserter from the legion
to Ferguson that the Americans were encamped but twelve miles up the
infantry being quartered in three houses by themselves, while Pulaski
with the cavalry
was located at some distance.
and Pulaski Meet
was enough for Ferguson, enterprising soldier as he was. Taking two
fifty men, he proceeded up the river in boats and at four o'clock the
approached the spot occupied by the Legion. The oarlocks had been
muffled; it was
very dark. A few smouldering brands indicated where the campfires of
night had been. There was no light in the houses that loomed ghostlike
through the haze of early morning as the boats neared the shore.
on the beach, and yet there came no hoarse challenge of sentry. Perhaps
were asleep. It is possible that none had been posted; although that
would be hard
to believe concerning an officer of Pulaski's stripe.
Ferguson marshalled his men and led them to surround the three houses.
gruff command and the blaze and roar of a volley of musketry were the
that the sleeping Americans had concerning the presence of the foe.
a scene of confusion worse confounded. Some of the suddenly aroused men
of the Legion
thrust their muskets out of the shattered windows and fired at random
into the gloom.
Others rushed from the houses, only to be spitted like partridges on
of the British regulars. Hoarse shouts, cheers, screams and groans,
the constant banging of muskets to produce a pandemonium of horror. And
so the bloody
work went on unchecked. In the official report which Captain Ferguson
to his superior, he says: "It being a night attack, little quarter, of
could be given, so there were only FIVE PRISONERS." At this moment
was tasting the sweets of victory; but in time he was to behold men of
being shot down like rabbits by the infuriated mountaineers of
of the conflict now roused the cavalry camp at which Count Pulaski was
located. Through the foggy dawn came the wailing of a bugle, followed
soon by the
pounding of hoofs and the cries of charging dragoons. Hastily
collecting his men,
Ferguson embarked and succeeded in getting well out into the stream
before the cavalry
arrived. There was much random firing, but the British were safe. All
for the horsemen to do was to bury fifty men of the infantry who had
Among the dead were two officers of foreign birth. During the winter of
Count Pulaski with his Legion was stationed at Minisink. This was one
in Orange County, New York; dating back as far as 1669. It was located
sites of the present towns of Goshen and Port Jervis, among the
In February, 1779, Pulaski was ordered to join General Lincoln's army
in the South,
and this left the Minisink region without the protection of regular
the famous Mohawk chief, commonly known as Joseph Brant, was not long
the opportunity thus presented. At the head of a considerable force he
country round about Port Jervis plundered and burned, then, upon the
a body of militia, retreated up the Delaware Valley. He was overtaken
near the location
of the present village of Lackawaxen and a severe battle ensued. Owing
to the lack
of ammunition the Americans were finally defeated and a large number
who was a Freemason, saved the life of Major Wood of Goshen when the
gave a Masonic sign; not at the time being of the Order. Having been
the reason for his life being spared, the major hastened to affiliate
the Craft. This was not by any means the only time during the war that
and honored the sign.
Besieged by the
1779, General Lincoln, in conjunction with the French Count D'Estaing,
to Savannah, Georgia, then occupied by General Prevost with a British
force of two
thousand, eight hundred and fifty. The combined French and American
about five thousand, of which rather more than half were French. A
failing to reduce the place at once, D'Estaing urged an assault.
Fearing the effect
of the autumnal storms along the coast, he wished to take his fleet
away as soon
as possible. Accordingly the morning of the ninth of October was
selected as the
time to launch the attack.
a sergeant of one of the Charleston militia companies deserted during
of the eighth and divulged to Prevost the complete plan of attack. The
at once took measures to profit by this information. Just before dawn
on Oct. 9
the French and American armies pressed forward through a heavy fog to
under cover of a tremendous burst of artillery.
were waiting. They opened with such a devastating fire that the French
crushed almost at once, D'Estaing himself being wounded and borne from
The Americans pressed forward and forced an entrance to a strong
as the Spring Hill Redoubt. Across the ditch and up the glacis they
the flag on the parapet and strove valiantly to hold what they had
forlorn hope the British commander massed his best troops. A contest
grim and great
followed. Here fell many of the bravest. Sergeant Jasper, the hero of
perished while carrying the flag. The line was swept away.
Killed in the Battle
In the meantime
Count Pulaski, at the head of two hundred horse, was endeavoring to
force his way
into the town in another quarter. Galloping in advance of his troops,
banner that had been presented to him by the Moravian nuns, he had
crossed the ditch
and abatis when he was struck by a grapeshot and fell from his horse.
lieutenant seized the banner, rallied the troops and continued the
charge. But the
constant blazing of guns in front, the whining grapeshot and musket
the heads of the columns and drove the men back in confusion. By ten
French had given up the contest and the Continentals were retreating.
army lost over eleven hundred men in the terrible assault.
Some of Pulaski's
men found him in a great pile of dead and wounded. They bore him from
still alive but mortally hurt. He was taken to an American man-of-war
he died. Under a large tree on St. Helen's Island, fifty miles from
buried him. Congress voted to erect a monument to his memory.
banner was given by the first lieutenant, Charles Litomiski, to Captain
who took the flag to Baltimore when he retired from the army. Lossing
was used in the procession that welcomed Lafayette to that city in
1824, and was
then deposited in Peale's Museum. On that occasion it was ceremoniously
by several young ladies. Mr. Edmund Peale presented it to the Maryland
Society in 1844, where it is now carefully preserved in a glass case.
of its former beauty remains. It is composed of double crimson silk,
now faded to
a dull brownish red. The designs on each side are embroidered with
the letters shaded with green. A deep green bullion fringe ornaments
(Lossing wrote in 1852.) And so that courageous nobleman who lost
and title in defense of his own land, gave his life for the land of his
Never did he forfeit honor. Pulaski is a name of which both America and
Who Were Masons
Bro. George W. Baird,
P.G.M., District of Columbia
EDWARDS was the son of Jonathan Edwards, the author of the famous treatise
on the Freedom of the Will [Lib 1775] that at one time had such a
influence on Protestant theology. His mother was Sarah Pierpont (or
as the name is sometimes spelled), herself a daughter of a well-known
Divine, the Rev. James Pierpont of New Haven, Conn.
Edwards was minister at Northampton, Mass., when his second son, the
this sketch, was born, to which charge he had succeeded on the death of
the Rev. Mr. Stoddard, to whom he had been assistant. While the young
little more than a baby his father was dismissed from his pastoral
charge by the
representatives of the congregation on account of his inflexible
insistence on the
highest standard of admission to the communion table. Following this he
work at Stockbridge, Mass., where he engaged in missionary work among a
Indians domiciled there. As the only school available was composed of
and white children this led to Pierpont's brother, who was six years
speaking the Indian tongue as well as his own, and doubtless Pierpont
learned as much of it as a child of such tender years might be expected
to do, though
of this there is no definite record.
years in the work the post of President of Princeton University was
offered to the
father, and the family removed thither. Unfortunately in less than a
year he died
of smallpox and was followed to the grave very shortly by his wife, so
and his surviving brothers and sisters were left orphans. They,
however, were not
friendless and were carefully brought up. Pierpont is believed to have
his education at Yale, though other authorities state that he graduated
in 1768. It is possible that he was a student at both universities.
his degree he studied law and was admitted to the bar, and began to
New Haven in 1771. He was very highly thought of as a lawyer, not only
for his extensive
legal knowledge, but for his forcible and fearless advocacy of any
cause that he
judged to be right
AT New Haven
he became a member of the Masonic Order, being initiated in old Hiram
No. 1 on the Grand Lodge roll of Connecticut, the lodge that had among
so many characters prominent in the War of the Revolution. In due
course he became
Master, which honorable office he held for two years.
At the outbreak
of the Revolution Pierpont took an active part. Like so many others he
army, but the scanty records of the time tell us little beyond the bare
doubt he honorably discharged all the duties that fell to him to do.
When in 1779
American Union Lodge of Morristown, N. J., celebrated the festival of
St. John the
Evangelist he is mentioned as one of the many officers of the
who were present, among whom were Washington, Jackson, Alexander
Hamilton, and also
War was ended and peace concluded he became interested in politics, as
of his country naturally was. He was a member of the Continental
Congress and later
was elected several times as representative for New Haven in the
and was Speaker of the House in 1789 and 1790. Previously, in 1788, he
a member of the Connecticut Convention at which the Constitution of the
was ratified. In 1806 President Jefferson appointed him Judge of the
Court in Connecticut, which appointment he held until his death.
Edwards had a very positive and courageous character, which considering
is not to be wondered at. The son of the austere minister who was
ejected from his
church by a worldly and latitudinarian congregation, was one of the
the Toleration Party in Connecticut. His advocacy of this cause roused
of the Calvinists and lost him many supporters in his political life.
But this opposition
to him did not endure a great length of time, and whenever any question
arose it was generally recognized that his motives were pure and
he loved the Commonwealth, and that he generally was on the right side.
of his acceptance of duty is his acting in his legal capacity as
trustee and administrator
in settling the estate of Arnold after the latter had been declared
guilty of treason
and had fled the country. This could not have been a task calculated to
his popularity among the unthinking and showed that he was far from
being a politician
as the word is now understood.
so active in public life he appears from stray records to have been
sundry mercantile adventures. Probably he did not devote much time or
to these. To take a partnership in a trading voyage then was about
buying some speculative stocks on the exchange today.
When in 1783
thirteen of the old lodges in Connecticut met in Convention at New
Haven to establish
some general regulations for the good of Masonry, he represented his
was elected secretary of the Convention. He was also chosen as one of a
of four to act as general guardians of the Craft in the state. All
had received their warrants from the appointed Provincial Grand Masters
their authority from England. Most of them held under the Grand Lodge
of the Moderns,
but approximately a third were under the Grand Lodge of Scotland. With
of the United States this authority seemed to be at an end and in May,
Convention met at Hartford to consider the formation of a Grand Lodge.
Edwards was a delegate at this meeting, and was chosen chairman of a
prepare a plan of action to submit to meetings to be held on the
When the Convention re-assembled Edwards presented the report of his
which included not only a plan for the formation of a Grand Lodge but
also a Constitution
for its governance. This was adopted and the Grand Lodge was formed. On
being taken for the office of Grand Master Edwards was elected. He was
the following year, after which he was succeeded by William Judd. He
died in April,
1826, at New Haven, where he was buried. Though not one of the
of the Revolution he was one of the many sincere and active patriots
support the more prominent leaders would probably have failed. Local
that he was a very charitable man and detested anything in the nature
That he was respected by his brethren in the Craft is obvious from the
of the Covenant in the Light of Modern Research
Bro. Arthur C. Parker,
of The Builder will remember the most interesting and instructive
account of Indian
Secret Societies and initiation ceremonies by Bro. Parker which was
the May and June numbers for 1924. The author is the State Archeologist
of New York,
which should be sufficient evidence of his qualifications to speak on
discussed in the present article.
penetrate the innermost veil of the Temple and view through the clear
sun, unobscured by the smoke of priestly incense, the Holy of Holies?
The Ark of
the Covenant is of the most interesting and important institutions
the Hebrew scripts as these were finally codified. Its story gives a
of Hebrew religion and history. The dramatic episodes clustering about
of the Ark have made it a conspicuous symbol in Freemasonry, and we
find it used
in certain degrees of the Scottish Rite, no less than in the Royal
Arch. Of such
major importance is the Ark that we find it displayed upon the seals
and arms of
almost all Grand Lodges. Whence came this Ark, and what is its true
we ask for more light than that commonly given in traditional
explanations? If so,
let us consider the Ark in the light that actual investigation,
and philological science (1) have shed, and weigh our present belief in
the injunction to "prove all things".
Hebrew scholars are agreed that the Hebrew word aron, translated in our
Bible "Ark" means nothing more or less than box, coffer or chest. Box
is the accepted translation. This same word (aron) is used to describe
in which the mummy of Joseph was carried out of Egypt and into Canaan
(Gen. 1, 26;
Ex. xiii, 19) and it is also used to mean collection-box, being applied
xii, 10, and 2 Chron. xxiv, 10, to mean the box provided as the
receptacle for the
money offerings of the people for the repair the Temple.
It is this
same word which is employed in Ex. xxvii, 1, ff., and we are told that
here described was made from costly material by Bezaleel after the
laid down by Moses (Ex. xxv, 10, ff.) after he descended from the
the second tables of the law (Ex. xxxiv, 29), but Deuteronomy plainly
tells us that
Moses constructed the Ark himself, of plain Shittim wood (Acacia) just
went up to receive the tables of the testimony in the first instance.
to the scriptural account the Ark rested for some time at Gilgal after
of the Jordan, and later was removed to Shiloh. It was from Shiloh that
took the Ark of the Covenant in order that it might rest in their
before the battle with the Philistines. To the Israelites Yahweh
militant was a
war god to be invoked accordingly; but their shouting was in vain and
captured the Ark, hoping thereby to secure the power within it. But the
relate that the enemy was afflicted supernaturally and that they sent
back the Ark
in consequence, after which it was placed in safe keeping at
the reign of Saul we hear of the Ark of Nob. From Kirjath-jearim David
Ark to the house of Obed-edom and from thence to his palace at Zion.
hear of the Ark in the Temple of Solomon where a special sanctuary had
to receive it. Here the sacred chest remained as a central feature of
accounts of the Hebrew mysteries until the religion of Yahweh had so
into decay that the people gave themselves over to idolatry and placed
in the very sanctuary itself. The priests of the Lord, unable to endure
removed the Ark from the Temple, carting it from place to place to
preserve it from
the anger of the princes. Josiah then ordered the priests to return it
to the sanctuary
and leave it there. ( 2 Chron. xxxv, 3.)
Ark Said to Have Been
to tradition, the prophet Jeremiah, before the Babylonian captivity,
national calamity, and removed the Ark to a certain cave in that
Moses ascended before his death. The priests who went with him placed
on the spot, hoping thereby to remember the hiding place; but when the
back to again discover the Ark they could not find it, and the prophet
them for their curiosity and proclaimed that the spot should remain
such a time as all the scattered people should be gathered together
again and reconciled.
version differs slightly in that it relates that Solomon having had
him that the Assyrians would one day plunder the Temple and carry away
took the Ark to an underground chamber and concealed it there together
sacred articles, including Aaron's rod, the pot of manna, the priestly
and the holy oil. Other Hebraists affirm that Nebuchadnezzar took the
Ark to Babylon.
In the book of Esdras we read a lament that the Ark was stolen by the
But all scriptures and traditions agree that the Ark never reappeared
in the second
traditions relate that no one save Moses shall discover the Ark, but at
resurrection (and here we quote St. Epiphanius) "the Ark shall be
come forth out of the rock, it shall be placed on Mount Sinai, and all
shall be assembled about it, waiting for the Lord's return, and
endeavoring to defend
themselves from the enemy who would take it. Jeremiah at the same time
stone [where the Ark was hidden] writing with his own finger the name
of God upon
the place, in like manner as if it had been cut with iron. From this
moment a dark
cloud spread over the name of God and has kept it concealed to this
very day, so
that no one has been able to discover the place or read the Divine
name. This cloud
appears every night with great brightness over the cave, to show, as it
the glory of God does not forsake His Law. And the rock, before
between two mountains where Moses and Aaron died."
have distinct traditions of the Ark and relate that within it are the
Moses pulled off when he communed with God (Ex. iii, 5). They inform us
Ark was given to Adam by God and that it passed through the hands of
down to Moses to whom it was given as the dwelling box of the God. They
that the Israelites bore it before them in battle because the power
within it blew
as a strong wind and fiercely, so that the enemy was completely
Chests Used In Other
of Israel during their enforced sojourn in Egypt became familiar with
arks and chests of the Egyptians and long before Moses is reputed to
the tables of the law in the Ark of the Covenant, he had seen arks and
in the temples of Egypt. They came out of the land of their captivity
with the idea of arks with cherubim and seraphim and mystical contents.
only to view the inscriptions and wall paintings of the Nile land to
see what the
Israelites had in mind when their Ark was made. Those of Egyptian
origin were phallic
in nature and contained among other things the symbols of generation
To them the great mystery of life and its origin, and the mysterious
nature that contributed to produce or generate life were sacred things
to be venerated
by the highest religious rites. Thus, a flowering rod or a male animal
the father principle in nature, while an egg, a pot of "manna" or a
typified the mother principle. Let us pause to view the well-known "Ark
Phi" where we see amid emblems of male and female life an ark or chest
upon a lunar boat carried by priests with solemn ceremony. This ark
shows the cherubim
and seraph in the same attitude as depicted or carved in
representations of the
Jewish ark. Over the Ark of Phi is the winged sun with uraei
the sacred serpent) which the Jews modified to the shini cloud in which
himself, and was metaphorically called in more than one eastern tong
of Righteousness." Despite all the attempts of the prophets the Jews
totally escaped from the influence of their Egyptian teachings, and
have no difficulty in finding in the scriptures references to the
of Hebrew thought toward Egyptian doctrines, symbols and mysteries.
Thus did the
Israelites come out of Egypt with a distinct picture of a Holy Ark or
box in mind,
and in their belief their welfare was bound up with its safety. (2)
before the Egyptian captivity the tribes Israel and their cognate
kinsmen have been
familiar with the arks of Babylon and Assyria. These also were phallic
the symbols of the lingam and yoni ‒ the male and the female principles
In many of the Babylonian and Assyrian sculptures we may see winged
priests and sometimes eagle-headed men, gathered on opposite sides of a
of a sacred grove or altar. These winged priests or angels (seraphim
hold in their right hands the cones of the male palm and in their left
bags, in which the cones, no doubt, had been kept. These cones are
the thirteen representations of the female palm or palm flower of seven
the action is that of pollenizing the flower. The tree or sacred
lattice from which
these "flowers" project is the female principle, or the mystical "tree
of life." Borne upon a chest or base it becomes an arkite charm.
will be remembered, came out of Ur of Chaldea, and in Abraham's mind
of these Assyrian shrines. Indeed, wherever the Hebrews went, they were
from some sacred ark belonging to one cult or another. (3)
Hebrew Tribes Resembled
Hebrews were nomads with a primitive religion similar to that of the
Arabs of the
deserts. Their political organization was similar. Their culture was
more like that
of the nomadic Arabs than of the civilized Phoenicians, Canaanites and
Like the Arabians the Hebrews built shrines of stones, or set up stones
to be worshiped
as gods or as the abodes of gods. Stone worship is apparent all through
and we find a sacred stone or mazzebah in every sanctuary. On these
poured drink offerings and they were anointed with oil. (Gen. xxv, 14.)
It is not
strange that tablets of stone engraven with the words of the law should
sacred and carried in arks as objects of veneration and that the same
employed by the Egyptians, Babylonians and Assyrians should be
associated with them.
The ark idea was one deeply engrafted in the minds of Asiatic peoples
and in entering
Canaan the Israelites did not escape it, for they found arks in the
sanctuaries of even the heathen Canaanites. These arks and their
deities were frequently
worshiped by the Israelites, and the Yahwistic prophets are constantly
them for seeking out strange gods.
or arks were used by the early Greeks and Romans who, like the nations
placed in them their sacred relics, charms and fetishes. Apuleius and
the arks of Egypt, and Pausanias tells of the sacred ark of the Trojans
all their religious mysteries and which was taken in the siege of Troy
to Euripilus as his share of the booty. Nor is this idea of a sacred
emblems of heaven's promises peculiar to Asia and the Levant, for all
two continents of America the various tribes of American Indians had
arks or boxes, and these were carried into battle just as was the ark
militant by the Jews, to give success in battle. Like the Jews they
the god-power within the sacred bundle would rush out and destroy the
foe, and like
the Hebrews, their arks were sometimes captured by the enemy, and as
brought back because they had brought calamity to their captors.
The Hebrews Have More
than One Ark?
It was the
Rabbi Judah ben Laquish who flourished in the second century A. D., who
a plurality of sacred arks. He contended that there were two arks that
the Israelites in their wilderness wanderings. In one was the complete
the law and in the other fragments of the first tablets. More recent
seem not only to confirm the suppositions of the Rabbi Judah but go far
showing that there were many arks by the Israelites and that even the
edited scriptures of the Hebrews fail to eliminate all evidence of this
now know that the books of the law were written long after the prophets
the Hexateuch is the result of a compilation of several earlier
accounts. It was
Jean Astruc, a French physician, who first called the attention of the
world to this and his discoveries have now been generally accepted by
It is shown by these that the Scriptures embrace what are known as the
and the Jehovistic accounts, which explains the apparent differences of
similar accounts, as for example the sixth and seventh chapters of
arose the designations of J and E to mark the sources of the older
stories of the
Bible, later augmented by the Deuteronomic code called D. Then came the
the Law of Holiness, H, which forms the greater part of the Book of
scribes compiled the ecclesiastical traditions and religious teachings
of the earlier
time, beginning with the creation, and running through the whole
is known as P or the Priestly code. After the captivity JEDHP were once
and combined to form the Hexateuch as we have it at the present time,
and it was
this completed work that was issued on the occasion of the Feast of
as recorded by Nehemiah.
all the careful editing received by these old documents of the Jews
have not yet been erased, despite the attempts of the priests to bend
writings to fit the changing faith and beliefs of Israel. With the
the "Ark of the Covenant" became a central religious institution, and
the legends clustering about the Ark make it an object of extraordinary
It was with considerable care, therefore, that in compiling the older
was sought to eliminate all allusions implying the existence of several
the doctrine of a single holy and mystical "Ark of the Covenant"
into the P code. This is so far apparent to the critical student of the
and religious writings that Professor William R. Arnold in his "Ephod
published in the Harvard Theological Studies (Cambridge, Mass., 1917),
"The historical ark of Yahweh
was not a
unique but a manifold object, attaching to every Palestinian sanctuary
a consecrated priesthood, and the theory of a single ark corresponding
to that of
a single legitimate sanctuary, is the last surviving neuteronomistic
the theological science of the present day."
Ark Called an Ephod
to the other arks in the Old Testament is hidden behind the word
which word had been consistently substituted by the scriptural editors.
of the ephod as a loin cloth or apron, and David is described as
wearing a linen
ephod when dancing before the Lord. Again we find that in priestly
times the ephod
is used to describe the ceremonial vestment of the priest. But a third
of this word shows no relation to the former descriptions and we find
it was a solid
object used in divination. In 1 Sam. xxi, 9, we read of the sword of
in a cloak lying in the sanctuary of Nob "behind the ephod." What then
is this ephod and why have the priests substituted this word for
another which they
wish to blot out? What is the expunged word? This word for which the
ephod has been substituted is none other than aron, an ark or chest. It
is the same
priestly instrument of divination that was used all through the land of
In substituting ephod for ark the late priestly editors sought to
protect a doctrine
that had grown up and to eliminate the grosser references to the use of
Let us pause
for a moment to read from the original Hebrew through a careful
by Dr. Arnold, professor of Hebrew at Andover Theological Seminary,
what the prophet
Jeremiah himself had to say of the "box of Yahweh." Let us remember
the Israelites were scattered and that the monarchy of Jeroboam had
up. The wretched remnant of North Israel for three generations had
lived in captivity
and their God had been relegated to a position of equality with other
with pagan rites among the sacred groves of Canaan. To these Israelites
addresses the following words:
wandering children, declares Yahweh, for I am your owner. And I will
take you one
from a city, and two from a clan, and will bring you to zion and I will
shepherds after my own heart, and they will feed you with knowledge and
And it shall come to pass that when you increase and multiply in the
land of those
days, declared Yahweh, that men will no longer speak of the box of
Yahweh nor will
it enter their minds nor will they invoke it, nor will they resort to
will it be manufactured any more. (Jer. iii, 14 ‒ 16.)
Arnold commenting on these texts says:
"The box of Yahweh here
referred to is not
an individual object but an institution. Neither the fictional Sinaitic
box of Jewish
dogma nor yet the supposedly unique historical box of Solomon's temple,
to and invoked in the days of Jeremiah by the people of North Israel.
too, the object which the prophet has in mind has been reproduced again
in the past and might conceivably be multiplied indefinitely in the
future, so that
he cannot be alluding to a box whose essential character consisted in
an ancestral fetish of the age of Moses. Nor should we overlook the
implication of the context, it is as the cherished instrument of divine
that the sacred box is to be superseded by the ministrations of
prophecy. For the
rest it is apparent that Jeremiah had never heard of the fiction of 1
9, regarding the Solomonic box, and that it would have been quite
foreign to his
temper to sympathize with it. To his mind, the box of Yahweh was a
which could not be too thoroughly eradicated."
In the judgment
of the modern student of Biblical knowledge the individual ark or chest
Solomon's Temple was not of such special intrinsic value as to tempt
of the Temple, whether Shishak (1 Kings xiv, 25), Hazael (2 Kings xii,
(2 Kings xvi, 8), Senacherib (2 Kings xviii, 15) or Nebuchadnezzer (2
13 ff). Certainly in the elaborate catalog of objects taken from the
Temple by these
raiders if the ark or chest had been a valuable article it would have
mentioned and its loss proclaimed as a calamity. If by some chance the
the ravages of four centuries of stormy Hebrew history, a thing
scarcely to be expected
of a wooden box of acacia wood, housed in a damp stone building often
out of repair,
it would have finally perished in the flames when the Temple was
likely the Solomonic box fell into decay long before 586 B. C. when the
lost their independence. Jeremiah would scarcely have saved it for he
was not an
advocate of divination by means of a sacred box but a believer in
human speech," a long step ahead in the evolution of the Hebrew faith.
it is true, that priestly divination had taken the place of the rite of
by means the box of Yahweh, still the priests remembered their ancient
bearing this box before them and the traditions of invoking the counsel
by its means were still current, though such invocations were frowned
upon by the
prophets who now led the religious thought of the Hebrews.
of the Ark Changed
after the destruction of Solomon's Temple the question arose as to the
the Solomonic ark about which so many traditions clustered. The box of
now become a dogma and the scribes to fortify these priestly legends
by some modern theological critics to have deliberately interpolated
Deut. x, 5
and 1 Kings viii, 9, 21. The original accounts of the tables of the
to competent authorities on the Hebrew scripture had nothing whatever
to say of
a box or ark. Nor, on the other hand, did the original stories of
have anything to say about the Sinaitic tablets. The fact that the
compiled long after the writings of the prophets gave the scribes ample
interpolate, edit and gloss the original documents before them, and
nothing is clearer
than the fact that scribal midrash has altered completely original
words in the earlier writings.
student is referred to the Harvard Theological Studies III, "Ephod and
a study in the records and religion of the ancient Hebrews," [Lib 1917] by William R. Arnold,
Professor of Hebrew in Andover Theological Seminary. Dr. Arnold
the original Hebrew, this most interesting subject about which so many
traditions have arisen. The "Ark of the Covenant" as an actual object
in the sanctuaries of Israel served a useful purpose in the religious
life of the
Hebrew and directed the attention of an ignorant and wayward people
toward a Jehova
(Yahweh) who was a greater deity than man had yet conceived. And when
the arks had
passed out of existence as material things the Hebrew faith took a
higher and more
spiritual form. It was mistaken zeal for dogma that led the scribes and
interpolate and gloss their scriptures in later years and so attempt to
real character of the arks or sacred boxes. That the religion of the
have grown out of varied beliefs in magic, in sacred charms and in the
certain persons to influence the Deity for the purposes of material
gain is no impediment
to the religion finally evolved. All mankind at one time believed in
magic and to
a large extent still does, but that does not detract from the fact that
painful errors, woeful mistakes and vain invocations, man may even yet
God, when he his seen his error and searched aright. The story of the
is a story of an evolution toward spirituality and toward a higher
Deity than ever held before.
(1) During the
past fifty years critical students of archeology, philology
and history have produced a vast array of facts relating to the early
the Hebrews and the evolution the Yahwistic religion of Israel. These
not available to the compilers of the canonical books now comprising
our Old Testament
when the council met at Nicea or Trent to determine what books were
what were not. Thus after years of critical research in Bible lands, we
a given a totally different perspective of many of the institutions and
of the Hebrews.
One has only to
attend the lectures given in any great Theological seminary
or to read the books prepared by the professors teaching in these
note that a vast change has come over the theological world with
respect to the
externals of religious belief and dogma.
(2) John P.
Peters, D.D., Sc. D., Rector of St. Michael's Church, New York,
and former Professor in the Philadelphia Divinity School, in his
of the Hebrews" (1914), in discussing the ark says: "Was the Ark, then,
a modification of the Egyptian god-ship, or is it in any sense due to
use of ships to convey the gods from place to place? It seems to me
we should recognize here Egyptian influence, and that the Egyptian ship
the Hebrews a box, very much as in the Hebrew flood story the
Babylonian ship became
(3) The sacred
boxes or box-shrines of most oriental nations were not portable,
for, like the pre-Mosaic Hebrews, it was generally believed by the
the gods were localized and fix to certain spots or mountain peaks. The
use of portable
arks or box-shrines as traveling dwelling places for the god was an
idea which the
Hebrews developed in a special way. It was an important link in the
the God idea. With most of the Levantine peoples the sacred box was not
from its "holy of holies" except in emergency, or for the purpose
it to another shrine.
of Installing a Grand Master in 1768
Bro. Bro. A. L. Kress.
Associate Editor. Pennsylvania
ON Nov. 23,
1768, John Rowe was installed as Provincial Grand Master for all of
at Boston, Mass. A detailed description of the ceremony was recorded in
Lodge minutes "for the direction of those who may have the Management
a Solemnity on any future Occasion," which may be found in the Reprint
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts [Lib*], 1733 ‒ 1792,
assembled at the hall and after the Grand Lodge was opened, Henry
as Provincial Grand Master, proceeded to read the Duke of Beaufort's
appointing John Rowe as Provincial Grand Master. The Grand Secretary
him to be such, the lodge signifying their approbation "by the usual
testimonial of Three times Three." After a procession around the hall
short address by Henry Price, a minister present offered the following
Masonic prayer: THE PRAYER
"O most Glorious and Eternal
God! who art
the infinitely allwise Architect of the Universe: We thy Servants;
Solemn Grand Lodge, would now extol thy Power and Wisdom in the Works
and Providence: Thou said let there be Light and there was Light: The
and declared thy Glory, and the Firmament Spangled with thy handy Work;
who Rules the Day, gave Light to the Moon; the Moon who Rules the
Night, tells to
the listening Earth the surprising story of her Birth, so that there is
of the Sun, another Glory of the Moon, and one star differs from
another star in
Glory, and all by most Wondrous signs and Tokens, without Voice, Sound
solemnly Proclaim Divine Mysteries. We adore thee for that
thou hast given of Man, being made in thine own Image, and hast above
all thy Creatures
made him Lord of this lower World, and given him a capacity to imitate
Perfections. We beseech thee to give us thy Servants at this Time,
Wisdom in all
our doings, Strength of Mind in our difficulties and the Beauty of
Harmony in all
our Communications with one another: But Grant, O Lord! that thy
servant now about
to be Solemnly invested with the Authority and Rule over the several
Lodges in this
part of the World, may be endued with Knowledge and Wisdom to instruct
to us the Mysteries of Masonry: and grant that we may understand, learn
all the statutes and Commandments of the Lord, and this Holy Mystery,
pure and undefiled
unto our Lives end; that Brotherly Love and Charity may always abound
let this be always the Cement of our Society, each one striving how to
be most beneficial
"And when we have finished our
below, let our Transition from this Earthly Tabernacle be to the
above, where safely Lodged among thy Jewels, we may Shine with Thee for
"We ask all in the Name of him
on the Pinnacle of the Holy Temple, even Christ Jesus, our Lord, Amen."
prayer, performed by the Revd. Brother Bass, The Grand Master Elect
Solomons Chair, ‒ and Grand Master Price at his Right hand, The Bible
open at the
Gospel of St. John, the Compasses open and the Square laid thereon all
laid on the
Table before the Grand Master, he proceeded to give the following
Charge to the
new Grand Master:
" 'Right Worshipful Brother.
The first and
most essential requisite towards a right conduct in the great trust you
is to study the utility as well as to enforce the practice of all moral
" 'Here sir, is the Bible, the
the Square, the Level and the Plumb Rule, the Symbols of Masonry: The
first is to
be the Rule and Guide of your faith; the others are well known
to Builders. The Compass teaches us Prudence and circumspection; the
us Justice and Truth; The Level and Plumb teaches us the Equality of
Uprightness of Conduct among Masons. If there be any virtue and if
there be any
Praise, think on these Things.' "
Master Price took the Collar with the Jewel appending thereto, and put
it over the
Neck of the new Grand Master, and said, 'Receive this Jewel as the
Badge of Dignity;
The Sun here Represented, as it enlightens, warms and cherishes the
Earth, so you
are to be the Great Light and Comforter of the lodges; The Compass
extended on it,
sheweth, that his Dimensions and Influences are within the Compass of
which you are to be the Patron. Let me now Seat you in Solomon's Chair
Master gently with both hands placed the new Grand Master in the Chair)
you with the distinguishing Badge (and put his Hat upon his Head) of
and may you long enjoy this eminent Station, for the good of Masonry,
and be a Crown
of Honour to ourself for ever and ever.'
Grand Master, Deputy Grand Master, Grand Wardens, and all the other
Masters, Wardens, and Brethren of Lodges in Course, Congratulated the
Master upon his exaltation and then retired to their places.
the new Grand Master called to Order by a Stroke of the Hammer and
stood up and
gave his Benediction to the Brethren, as follows:
the Grand Architect of the Universe, pour down his Blessings on this
enable me to discharge the great Trust reposed in me, to the Honour of
and the Royal Art: and may there never be wanting such to fill the
Chair who shall
promote Masonry, and the Good of Mankind, so long as the World
Lodge was closed in Form.
the Marshall call'd forth the Officers and Brethren in the Order they
were to be
formed for the Grand Procession to Church, as follows:
- The Grand Tyler, with the
Book open on his left arm, and a Naked Sword in his Right Hand
- Two Bands of Musick, belonging
the 59th and 64th Regiments.
- The Brethren of Newburyport
- The Master and Wardens of
- The Stewards of the Apprentices
- The two Wardens of the
- The Brethren of the Apprentices
two and two.
- The Secretary and Treasurer of
the Apprentices Lodge.
- The Master of the Apprentices
- The two Stewards of the
- The Wardens of the Fellowcrafts
- The Brethren of the
Fellowcrafts Lodge, two and two.
- The Secretary and Treasurer of
the Fellowcrafts Lodge.
- The Master of the Fellowcrafts
- The two Stewards of the Masters
- The Wardens of the Masters
- The Brethren of the Masters
Lodge, two and two.
- The Secretary and Treasurer of
the Masters Lodge.
- The Master of the Masters Lodge.
- The three Grand Stewards.
- The Plumb carrier, The
Chaplain, The Level carrier.
- The Square carrier, The Bible
carrier, The Compass carrier.
- The Grand Sword bearer with the
Sword of State.
- The Grand Secretary and Grand
- The Grand Wardens.
- The Deputy Grand Master, The
Grand Master, The past Grand Master.
- The past Deputy Grand Masters
and past Grand Wardens.
- The Grand Marshal.
then moved to Trinity Church where the Reverend Brother Bass preached a
It was the
practice of the Moderns to charter "Masters Lodges." No one so far has
given us any satisfactory explanation for this or what distinguished
Lodges" from others. We find them in many places. Bro. M. M. Johnson
these "Masters Lodges" worked the "Chair Degree." It is interesting
to note that in the above ceremony, the jewel of the Master of the
Lodge" was the Pantheon, while that of the Masters of the other two
was the Square. I judge the Pantheon was intended to symbolize
Has anyone any opinion as to its significance as used above?
In the public
processions of that time, the brethren walked hand in hand, in twos.
There was some
debate as to aprons for the above occasion, and it was finally agreed
those Brethren who do not choose to Line their Aprons with Green Silk,
them plain, or line them with any other Colour'd Silk but Blue or Red,
and no Precedency
be taken by any Brother with a Lined Apron, to those who wear Plain
J. Meekren Editor-In-Charge
a strong tendency at the present day to resort to new laws ad hoc on
occasion. Is some reform demanded, some abuse to be removed or any
straightway a brand new piece of legislation is proposed, more often
than not hurriedly
drafted in the first place and ignorantly amended in the second, before
the statute book.
It is a state
of affairs to which a democracy is peculiarly exposed and it is not a
Those familiar, for example, with the history of Athens will remember
how in its
decline the flood of laws, enactments and decrees rose higher and
higher. It is
quite certain that in the great majority of cases the situation held
out as the
reason for proposing a new law today is not due to the lack or
sufficiency of old
laws to serve the purpose, but to failure in their enforcement. It is a
fallacy, due we must suppose chiefly to ignorance, that a new law will
right. No need to bother about the machinery of enforcement, that is a
like most details uninteresting. There is no opportunity in it for a
honor and glory ‒ and political advancement.
general tendency seems likely to overflow into the affairs of the
Craft. Grand Lodges,
not content with the traditional organization and the old and
under which it operated, are experimenting more and more with new
of them very radical in principle. There is a constant increase of
More and more the old rights and privileges of the lodges are being
and more the ancient powers of the ruling Masters are being put into
the hands of
Grand Lodge officials ‒ generally in the name of executive efficiency,
of work, or maintenance of discipline.
A very unusual
piece of legislation recently passed by one of our Grand Lodges may be
an example. Not only is it a completely new departure in itself, but it
apparently retroactive, a most dangerous thing in principle and
establishing a very
bad precedent. According to this enactment it seems that every Mason
who has been
tried and condemned on a criminal charge in the courts of the state is
to be ipso
facto and automatically expelled from the Fraternity, without any
or the privilege of a trial before his brethren. Privilege is hardly
word, for it is one of the ancient rights of a Mason which date back to
when the Craft was Operative as well as Speculative.
It is very
probable that many brethren will not at first see the point. If a man
is a criminal
he is unfit to be a Mason. He should never have been permitted to
enter, and the
quicker he can be got rid of the better. The automatic method does get
rid of him
without any formality or fuss or delay, and is therefore to be
commended. This is
very plausible, but the reasoning on which it is based is fallacious.
there is a tacit assumption that the verdict of the court is
infallible. When the
point is raised we must admit that it is not, that innocent men have
condemned. Are we to desert a brother in the hour of his greatest need?
there is yet another assumption, that what is a crime before the law of
is necessarily un-Masonic conduct, an offense against the laws of the
know very well that this is not the case when we stop to think, even
though in great
part the two codes may agree. Political offenses, for example, have
never been regarded
as in themselves censurable from the Masonic standpoint. A rebel
against the state
is not as such to be condemned by the Craft. Hundreds of cases could be
substantiate this. Again, Masonic law does not view an action from the
of view as that of the state. To the latter if the action falls within
external definition it is a crime. Motives and circumstances may be
determining a sentence, but do not affect the question of guilt in the
eyes of the
law. But motive and circumstances make all the difference in estimating
and it is with that alone that Masonry is concerned. It follows that
are un-Masonic and dishonorable that are legal, and some things are
that are not dishonorable or immoral. Possibly very few, but the
of any means the possibility of grievous wrong to a brother if the
action of the
Masonic code become a mere reflex of the juridical machinery of the
is the reason held out for the passage of such a disturbing enactment?
is illuminating ‒ it is because a number of lodges have failed to do
in the past. Either no charges have been preferred, or inadequate
inflicted. Here we have the root of this radical and dangerous growth
It is not the deficiency of machinery to meet the case, but its
If lodges have not done their duty and nothing was done about it whose
it? If the Grand Master and the Grand Lodge had done their duty in the
cause for scandal could have arisen. Either the particular lodges would
appropriate action when directed so to do, or they would have ceased to
adequate means exist, of ancient establishment and well tried, to
remedy the evil,
but they are allowed to lie idle; and for that reason a new and
is to supersede it, which because it is automatic presumably is
expected to work.
But if the evil lies in non-enforcement will the present law be
enforced? In the
same breath as it were that we are told of it, it is also suggested
exceptions will be made in the retroactive clauses. That is, in effect,
will be used ‒ by somebody. Discretion is an excellent and necessary
in an automatic law there is no room for discretion legally, it is
itself a breach of or disregard for the law.
the sting of the whole matter, these new rules and regulations that
old established laws of the Craft are proposed, not because the latter
are not good,
or are no longer suitable to present day circumstances, but because
they have not
been enforced. The new rules in general are even more difficult to
the old, and so we start on a downward slope, continually inventing new
to meet the inoperation of those of yesterday, while the habit and
temper of non-enforcement
is continually growing stronger. In the language of the Scripture it
would be well
to "Stand in the ways and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the
way, and walk therein."
In A Name?
point of view very little. As Shakespeare remarked the rose would still
be a rose
whatever it was called. Yet practically there is a great deal in a
name, and it
makes a great deal of difference in our communications with our fellows
the right name, the right descriptive word be used. And "right" in this
connection means the word that has the most power to evoke in the
hearer the same
thought as is in the mind of the speaker. That this can be done exactly
possible, we come nearest to it in the technical terminology (which
might be called
the private slang) of scientists, engineers and such like people. This
kind of speech
is about very closely defined things or objects, the subsidiary
words used in ordinary conversation possess for most of us are kept
down to a minimum,
so that a technical expression means, and can mean, only one thing ‒ to
This is not
the case, for instance, with the name with which we started. A rose can
things from a blushing maiden to a member of a widespread order of
plants. It may
recall old-fashioned gardens, or the hopes and joys of the long buried
past ‒ anything
with which it has been connected in our lives.
thus almost living things, part of our mental furniture, growing in
meaning as we
advance in knowledge and experience, they really have an importance not
For example, some of our correspondents are inclined to criticize the
Club" as not the best title for the organization it is intended to
In the letter published in the January number of THE BUILDER the
by the possibility, in a large lodge with many social activities, of
for some other club is advanced as a reason for making a change. We are
to go rather deeper for a reason, though without any intention of
one advanced, for indeed the first requirement in a name is that it
should be unambiguous,
that so far as possible it shall be sufficiently distinctive to prevent
and mistakes. Nevertheless there seems to be a more fundamental
in the term. A club is primarily a social organization. All the primary
that we have with the word are of this character. A club tout seal is a
a special group of men ‒ or women ‒ can meet and talk, lounge, play,
eat, and perhaps
sleep. Certain kinds such as the golf, the country, the athletic, which
in some social amusement, sport or recreation, nevertheless keep in
line with the
primary conception. Now far be it from us to suggest that Masons
interested in learning
more about the institution of which they are members cannot or do not
when they meet together, that there shall be no social intercourse at
The very existence of the National Masonic Research Society is bound up
contention that this kind of study can become a most interesting and
pursuit ‒ in common speech that it is great fun, and can give all kinds
to the student in search of elusive facts; and so there is no reason
why those interested
in studying Masonry should not have a club. But we begin here to come
the customary usage of words. We have, for example, plenty of
and Associations, but no Historical Clubs. There are no Biological or
or Engineer Clubs in this sense. It seems that the word "club" is on a
somewhat lower level; or perhaps on a different plane, would be a more
way of putting it. Architects may belong to a Society, Organists to an
If in a large city we find a Club of Architects or Organists, we
understand at once
the distinction and the different purpose of the two organizations.
place for Masonic instruction is the lodge. It is true that under the
in this country there is not much likelihood of many lodges realizing
this, or trying
to revive this well-nigh obsolete function. But as it really is their
machinery should be set up to do this work of a character such that it
to perpetuate the present state of affairs. For this reason the word
association were better avoided as implying a too self-sufficient and
organization. The word "group" has been suggested, and it certainly
to fill most of the requirements, but it is perhaps too indefinite. Of
terms "circle" certainly seems the best. In the first place it has
with reading and study. In Germany the "Correspondence Circle" has long
fulfilled similar functions to those of the National Masonic Research
us. On the other hand, though suggesting a group with some form and
organization is so slight that it can easily blend with any other ‒ it
within usage to speak of a circle, a learned circle, an upper or inner
a larger and more inclusive organization. A Study Circle in a lodge is
any time to coalesce with the lodge itself when the Master and brethren
On the other
hand "Study Club" has already a tradition behind it, and it may be that
by now it would not be well to change it. It would be interesting and
to learn how our members feel about it.
of the Old Catechisms
Bro. R.J. Meekren
that may be shed on the subject of Masonic symbolism by those curious
which have been grouped under the term "Old Catechisms" has now to be
considered. There are not many of them, and few but students know much
or even of their existence. This is not at all the place for anything
like a full
account of them, yet a brief description may be of assistance in
value they may be supposed to have. Two of them appeared in print in
1730 as exposures
of the secrets of the Craft, and have since then been reprinted a
number of times;
they were both reproduced in full in the Appendix of Gould's History.
proper of one of them is also to be found in Mackey's History. Other
similar character have turned up in more recent times, some of which
have been published
in various Masonic journals and Transactions; there are about a dozen
of them all
told, including the MS. recently discovered by Bro. W. J. Songhurst,
Quatuor Coronati Lodge.
contained in these documents it must be confessed appears as strange to
today as it must to the profane, though naturally, seeing that it
to the Craft, certain things are referred to that form part of our own
for example the lodge, the Temple of Solomon, the square and compasses,
and so on.
But the natural judgment on first examining any one of them would be
that it was
an invention by somebody who really knew no more about Masonry than any
could pick up.
acquaintance with the different documents might lead to a modification
of this view,
however. It is possible that they represent, fragmentarily, parts of
the old Operative
esoteric system. Though it must be admitted that with no record of the
stages of the evolution, it certainly leaves the matter open to doubt
how the Speculative
system could have been erected on such a meager foundation. The chief
be the incomplete nature of the documents in question. Mackey assumes
that the Catechism he reproduces represents the ritual "accepted by the
Freemasons from their Operative brethren, and used until the genius of
as Desaguliers invented something more worthy." (1)
they may be they are not rituals. The most that could be said is that
some ritual references and give some disjointed description of the
admission. Their contents vary a great deal, but the most natural
that they are copies of, or based on, memoranda made by individuals for
use, for the purpose of retaining so much as would be necessary to
claims to be received as members of the Fraternity. This supposition
for their incompleteness and unsystematic nature. One of them, the
published in the Scots Magazine in 1755, purports to give what an
who had come to regard the Institution as sinful and invented by the
devil ‒ "idle
nonsense" and "horrid wickedness" are the terms he uses ‒ is able
to remember of his admission to the Fraternity some twenty-eight years
judging by internal evidence, in a lodge of strongly Operative
the Sloane MS. No. 3329, appears to be a compilation from more than one
with some unsympathetic comment by the compiler. All the others seem to
character suggested above, that of private memoranda.
For our present
purpose no more need be said on this score. Disregarding their origin,
no judgment on their value or authenticity, but merely taking them as
let us see what they offer in the way of symbolism. There is, however,
document, though it is of even more questionable character, to which it
may be useful
to refer, one which has been reprinted many times and is even yet to be
and that is Prichard's Freemasonry Dissected. The reason that it may be
this connection is that though much longer and more diffuse, and much
in arrangement, yet there is nothing in its first part that has not a
one or other of the Old Catechisms, though more frequently in a less
One might suppose the notorious Dissector compiled his account from
or on the other hand it may be taken as additional support for the
the other documents contain only fragments of the actually existing
But that again is a question apart from the inquiry on which we are
point is that it does seem allowable to compare the often times cryptic
of the more archaic documents by comparison with the expanded account
of the Dissection,
when that may appear to shed some light upon this very obscure subject.
first point that strikes the attention is the existence of some kind of
rite. That such existed was well known to the profane even in the 17th
as witness Plot's account [Lib 1686], and Aubrey's note in his
History of Wiltshire [Lib 1847], both of which have been
often quoted. (2)
But such a ceremony, or in fact any ceremony at all, however simple,
must be to
some degree symbolic. From the four documents that pretend to give some
of this initiation (The Mason's Examination, The Mystery of Freemasons,
Confession, and the unpublished Chetwode- Crawley MS.) we learn the
first describes a form of preparation of the entrant at the door; his
knee is specifically
said to have been made bare, and everything made of metal is taken from
his elbow is spoken of as bare also. The Mystery corroborates this by
a demand by the doorkeeper for any weapons he may have, and later
as being bare knee'd. It might almost be supposed that the breast was
but this is not explicitly stated.
requirements have a suspicious flavor of magic about them. The
deprivation of everything
made of metal about the person as a preparation for the performance of
magical or religious, may even go back to a period of transition from
the use of
stone implements to the higher culture in which bronze and iron were
used. The requirement
would in any case carry the origin of the ceremonies back to a time
when its necessity
was generally presupposed. It is quite certain that this condition did
two hundred years ago in England, nor the anthropological knowledge for
Indeed one may guess that there was even then a tendency for it to
break down into
a purely formal requirement, the giving up of some metal instead of
all, as the
surrendering the sword, then very commonly worn by all men above the
and with this there would be the possibility of an obvious
interpretation ‒ that
of submission, good faith and peaceful intention.
In the same
way the baring of parts of the body would appear to have in origin the
making actual contact with sacred objects. In the old form of judicial
in force in some countries, the Bible is kissed, as earlier still were
relics on which the oath was taken. The hands of kings were kissed, as
of priests in the Greek Church. The Holy Sacrament may not be received
hands, and Moses was told to remove his shoes on holy ground. So
according to the
Confession the entrant had his bare elbow on the Bible, and the Mystery
knelt bare knee'd within the square, while both say the compasses were
held to the
breast. As the two latter instruments seem to have been sacred, almost
the sanctity of the oath was increased by contact with them while
taking it. The
following quotations will show the way in which they were regarded:
How was the Master clothed?
In a yellow jacket and a blue pair of breeches.
Would you know your Master if
you met him?
Yes … by his habit.
What colour of his habit?
Yellow and blue, meaning the compass which is brass and iron.
Where is your Master?
He is not so far off but he may be found.
Then if the
square be at hand it is offered on the stone which they are working …
and so the
square is acknowledged to be their Master.
How set you the square?
I ca' in two irons in the wall, if two will not serve three will
and that makes both square and level.
comments on this to the effect that two nails are driven into the wall
at the same
height on which one limb of the square can rest, and another
so that the other limb can be pushed up against it, the three points
line a square, and give also a horizontal. He adds, however, that
they ca' in but one" and goes on to remark that "the reason it is said
to set the square and not hang it, is They're not to hang their Master."
But the matter
is even more explicitly stated later on where the question is asked:
How many points in the Square?
What are those five?
The square our Master under God is one,
the level's two,
the plumbrule's three,
the handrule's four
and the gage is five,
to these implements will be quoted later in another connection which
illustrate the estimation in which they were apparently held. We will
some other accounts of the preparation. Prichard has the following
the entrant's condition:
"Neither naked nor clad,
barefoot nor shod,
deprived of all metal and in a right moving posture."
phrase might be modernized "in a most pitiable state."
may be compared the Examination:
How was you made?
Neither naked nor clothed, standing or lying, but in due form.
And the Essex
What posture did you pass your
I was neither setting nor standing, lying, hanging nor properly
nor naked, shod nor barefoot, but as a Brother knows how.
What were you sworn by?
By God and the Square.
Whether above the clothes or
under the clothes?
Under the clothes.
Under which arm?
The right arm.
refers to the necessity of the square being in contact with the body,
and may be
better understood by the following from an additional question and
answer in the
Mystery, apparently not quite consistent with the previous quotation:
What was you doing while your
oath was tendering?
I was kneeling bareknee'd betwixt the Bible and the square.
the note is added,
N.B. There's a Bible put in the
Right Hand and
the Square under the Right Elbow.
MS. No. 4 gives the following account; the spelling is modernized:
How were you brought in?
Shamefully with a rope about my neck.
What posture were you in when
you [were] received?
Neither sitting nor standing nor running nor going but left knee.
Why a rope about your neck?
To hang me if I should betray my trust.
Why upon your left knee?
Because I would be in so humble a posture to the receiving Royal Secret.
Why might perhaps be
it was fitting I should be in such an humble posture when receiving the
primitive rites as seem to underlie these variant accounts are hardly
The metal was taken from the person of the neophyte for the same reason
that a surgeon
washes his hands in a disinfectant, to remove a dangerous influence
that would militate
against the success of what was to be done. Of course the primitive
no foundation in fact, but it was based on reasoning and the action
it was logical, and so to say, a matter of common sense. At a later
increased knowledge the original reason becomes obscure and finally
however maintains the action, and so new, and usually mystical, reasons
But at the period to which our documents belong mystical reasons would
it was on the whole a shallow, materialistic, unbelieving age, and so
is laid on the personal humiliation involved, and the ceremony does in
a sense become
truly symbolic. Not of course that this aspect was entirely new. All
communities tend to magnify their own importance, it goes to make up
thing called esprit de corps. If these sources give us any real
information it would
seem that the Operative organization insisted that it was honored by no
great, who joined it, but that itself honored all whomsoever it
their rank and station. In form at least it insisted that the entrant
came of his
own will, and made him submit to forms certainly well designed to
of these documents state explicitly that the proper place for
performing these ceremonies
was out of doors. There is no need to remark that this is also a mark
of its primitive
origin. For example, the Essex MS. has this:
Where was you made a Mayson?
In a just and perfect lodge.
How many make a lodge?
God and the Square with 7 Right and perfect Maysons in the highest
in the lowest valleys in the world.
Where was you entered?
In a just and perfect lodge.
What makes a just and perfect
Master, two wardens, four fellows with Square, Compass and common gudge.
this again makes the number seven. Gudge undoubtedly is a dialect form
of gauge. Then follows:
Where was you made?
In the Valley of Jehosaphat behind a rush bush where a dog never heard
to bark or
a cock crow, or elsewhere.
clause, "or elsewhere," is apparently an emendation following the
of the traditional outdoor meetings. And because of this disuse the
valley" receives a Biblical name and is obviously on the way to a
Where should the Mason word be
On the top of a mountain from crow of a cock, the bark of a dog, or the
And in another
Where place ye your lodge?
On the sunny side of a hill that the sun may ascend on't when it rises.
that the place be out of hearing of the sound of the common domestic
that it should be far from human habitation. This is brought out in the
What makes a true and perfect
Seven Masters, five apprentices, a day's journey from a Borrowstown
of a Dog or Crow of a cock.
of expression at the least verges on figurative or poetic symbolism.
of those present seems to have been regarded as important, and except
in one case
is always uneven. The Sloane gives six, two masters, two fellowcrafts,
and two "Interprintices,"
but says "five will serve." The quotation from the Essex MS. Given
stipulates "five or seven." The latter seems to have been regarded as
the proper number taking the evidence as a whole, but in an additional
appended to the Essex we have this:
And how many Masons was so
Any odd number from three to thirteen.
mentions another number:
Who made you a Mason?
God Almighty's holy will made me a Mason, the square under God made me
nineteen fellowcrafts and thirteen entered 'prentices made me a Mason.
remarks that there weren't really this number present, but "so I was
MS. and two others have the following explanation, which itself needs
Why do odds make a lodge?
Because all odds are men's advantage.
to mean that odd numbers are lucky ‒ which again is magical.
the Lodge was Situated
We saw that
the Confession placed the lodge on the sunny side of a hill that the
of the rising sun might strike it, for that seems to be the meaning.
Every one of
our authorities (except an appended fragment to the Kilwinning MS.) has
to say about the situation of the lodge.
and the two parallel versions have this:
How doth that Lodge stand?
Perfect East and West as all holy temples do.
and the Mystery:
How is it seated?
East and West as other temples are.
How stands your lodge?
East and West as kirks and chapels did of old.
Because they were holy and so ought we to be.
gives as a reason: "Because all churches and chapels are so or ought to
so," while Kilwinning and two others mention the orientation of the
of Solomon to account for it:
Which way stands your lodge?
East and West because all holy churches and temples stand that way and
the temple of Jerusalem.
the Essex does not refer to the Temple in this place it has later the
question and answer:
In what part of the temple was
the Lodge kept?
In Solomon's porch at the west end of the Temple where the two pillars
are set up.
is probably an explanation on the same lines as the identification of
the deep valley
in which a lodge might be held with the Vale of Jehoshaphat. The
or situation was East and West, in reference to the rising sun. It was
associated with the orientation of churches with which of course the
were familiar; and after the Reformation, as the Bible became a popular
Temple analogy would almost inevitably be adopted if it had not
which is quite possible. There are other indications that the East and
was regarded as important. The Chetwode-Crawley MS. has:
Which way blows the wind?
East and West, out of the South.
has only "Due East and West" for answer to the question.
that in several forms the lodge is called after St. John may be of
this connection. We begin to get a composite picture of a lodge formed
on a hilltop
towards the east. It would almost appear that the original time of
sunrise, or rather just before it. Now the assembling on hilltops on
before dawn was a very widespread and persistent folk custom of a
type. But midsummer day is also the day of St. John the Evangelist, a
that seems significant, for there are certain independent traditions
that may point
to the lodges originally meeting only once a year. But such a state of
one would judge, had long passed at the period to which the relics we
properly belong. It is perhaps not surprising, in view of the zealous
of North Britain, that in the two versions of definite Scottish origin
to the Saint appears. The Sloane MS. (which Gould however thought was
least in part from Scottish sources) does mention him, thus:
Where was the word first given?
At the tower of Babylon.
Where did they first call their
At the holy chapel of St. John.
was from some such variant that Prichard got the word "holy."
From whence came you?
From the Holy Lodge of St. John's.
we have seen it appeared in the "holy temples" referred to as a reason
for placing the lodge East and West.
In the above
quotation from the Sloane MS. there seems to be a reference to the
history of the
Craft in the Old Constitutions, which assigns the first definite
the occasion of building the Tower of Babel. While the second answer
seems to indicate
an attempt to explain or rationalize the ascription of the lodge by
it had first met in a sacred building dedicated to St. John.
leave the lodge there are some other references that should be
has a set of questions as to the positions of the Master, Wardens and a
Junior Entered Apprentice. The arrangement seems rather self-conscious
The Examination and Mystery both seem to be corrupt at this place, but
they seem to indicate the following as their original:
How do Masons take their place
The Master's place southeast, the Warden's place northeast and the
fellows the eastern
and its parallels seem to have had:
What is the Master's point?
At the east window waiting the rising of the sun to set his men at work.
What is the Warden's point?
At the west window waiting the setting of the sun to dismiss the
is intermediate between Prichard and the former quotation. It would be
late as the presence of windows supposes a building. The more primitive
fits into the old outdoor meeting very well. The lodge would be a level
the hilltop marked out or enclosed in some way, leaving an opening to
the east and
presumably another to the west, for designating the particular passage
implies more than one. The entrant conducted in at the latter would be
the sunrise, and those forming the lodge would be all facing him. There
references to day and night, of which the version in the Confession is
for seeing, the night for hearing.
and the Kilwinning MS. make two bites of it. The former has:
What's the day for? To see in.
What's the night for? To hear.
Now the Mystery
describes the entrant being taken "by two Wardens" through a "dark
Entry" and "conducted from Darkness into Light." But before we go
further with this it may be as well to consider another point which is
in all our documents except the Trinity College MS. As the latter has
questions and answers in all it can hardly be supposed to be complete,
so the omission
is not very significant. The question in the majority of cases is
How many lights in your lodge?
however, the answer varies considerably. The majority agree that there
but the Kilwinning MS. and the second catechism in the Sloane MS. have
They are said to be, giving some typical answers:
Three, a right east, south and
The southeast, south, and
Three, the northeast, the
southwest and the eastern
group explains them as representing the three persons of the Holy
Son and Holy Ghost, while the Examination refers them to the Master,
Fellows, and the Chetwode Crawley MS. says "one denotes the Master, the
the word, and the third the Fellowcraft."
in the instances where two only are given are; Kilwinning:
Ye sun riseth in the east and
sets all men to
work, and sets in the west and so turns all men to bed.
says "that there is one to see to go in and another to see to work."
In all these
varying forms a general underlying meaning seems present. The lights
had to do with celestial phenomena, and not with such artificialities
and candles. On our supposition of an outdoor assembly before dawn on
Day all these references seem to arrange themselves in something like
neophyte, brought to the lodge while it is yet night, is in darkness,
at a much later period by a dark anteroom. He can only hear directions
him. At sunrise he receives light, physically, as well as symbolically
"entered" to the Craft, and being entrusted with its secrets. That the
lights are sometimes explained as referring to the Holy Trinity, or to
and celestial luminaries, are only inevitable symbolical developments.
Key of the Lodge
has by no means been exhausted but we will consider only one more
point, the key.
There is as much unanimity in mentioning this as there was on the
lights, but even
more importance seems to have been laid on it, though its possibilities
narrower. We may take the Essex MS. as typical:
Have you a key to the lodge?
Yes I have.
What is its virtue?
To open and shut, and shut and open.
Where do you keep it?
In an ivory box, between my tongue and my teeth, or within my heart
where all my
secrets are kept.
refer to a chain to this key, "as long as from my tongue to my heart."
Other variants speak of the key lying under a "green turf or a square
or in "a bound case under a three-cornered pavement a foot and a half
the lodge door." The chain also appears as a "cable." The Sloane
What is the key of your lodge
door made of?
It is not made of wood, stone, iron or steel, or any sort of metal, but
of good report behind a brother's back as well as before his face.
Kilwinning MS. explains thus:
My head is the box, my teeth is
the bones, my
hair is the map and my tongue the key.
is a dialect form of mop. Probably the turf or "divoy" has the same
Prichard combines most of this, and makes something of a play on words
it hang or lie?" by which apparently we are to understand that being a
of good report it will not lie about a brother, but that its owner
hang first. Really it would seem that the earlier conception was that
the key was
not the tongue, but the word. Though the tongue as the organ of speech
always confused with it.
To sum up
this rather tedious discussion, granting the supposition that these
represent in part what might be called the formal esoteric teaching of
Craft, we see that the symbolizing tendency was present. It might
plausibly be supposed
that it was at an earlier period even more developed than we find it,
as there are
many signs of these accounts being corrupt and deficient; though it is
probable that such questions and answers formed the text on which the
instructors or "intenders" expounded at length according to their
and ability rather than that they included a full exposition of the
the Craft. Those who expect to find symbolism shadowing forth the
philosophic and cosmic truths will of course be disappointed, and
Let them remember Naaman the Syrian. The imagery of the Scriptures
chiefly with the affairs of every-day life and the thoughts, feelings
common to all men. Why should that of our Operative predecessors be
have had something different, something more occult? They were
practical men, and
their codes and secrets related especially to their work and the
of their lives. It is after all not a little thing to teach even common
‒ it is really not very common ‒ and if a system of symbolism will help
the lesson it is justified. And so far as such a system is true it can
in or adapted to teaching greater and deeper truths still, as far as
the human mind
can go ‒ towards the East, the place of light.
Revised Edition, p. 980.
Concise History, pp. 99, 119. Mackey 658. Gould's Collected Essays
should be referred to, especially the first "On Some Catechisms, etc.,
Scottish Idiom and the sixth On the Antiquity of Masonic Symbolism,
though the author
uses the word symbolism in a way peculiar to himself. There are many
in A.Q.C. that should be looked up by the student fortunate enough to
- In what way could ceremonies
based on primitive magic have become part of
the Operative ritual?
- What symbolism is implied in
the adoption of an admission ceremony into a
society, and what forms might it take?
- How could the simple symbolism
of light and darkness be developed?
- What kind of symbolism would it
be natural to suppose the Operative Masons
to have evolved?
Goodness and Severity
of the Law"
IT is in
their certainty and severity that many laws are most beneficent. Even
of the laws
against murder and other crimes as horrible this is true: for if a man
doubt that the gallows or the penitentiary will follow his deed, such a
recall him to his senses when nothing else can, inside himself or
attempts to soften the severity or to make uncertain the executions of
are inspired by a false sentimentality which cannot bear to think of
pain on any human being. The sentimentalist should favor making fear of
absolutely ubiquitous, for only thus can men be prevented from crime.
mercy to those of murderous disposition is to neutralize their criminal
by a fear that operates automatically wherever they are. Such a fear
does more to
maintain security for all citizens than any number of policemen or
and in the long run keeps men out of prisons, which is certainly more
kind to them
than any amount of coddling after they are behind the bars.
Craft in Georgia
AND ITS PROGRESS IN ATLANTA AND FULTON COUNTY, GEORGIA: WITH BRIEF
HISTORY OF THE
GRAND LODGE, F. & A. M., OF GEORGIA 1786-1925 [Lib*]. For sale
by the compiler,
T. C. McDonald, P. M. 27 West Alabama Road, Atlanta, Georgia. Cloth,
Price postpaid $5.25.
deserves the plaudits of his Georgia brethren for bringing together
form so many facts of local Masonic history; it is to be hoped that
will be forthcoming by the large sale of the book in Atlanta and
vicinity. The volume
is indeed a labor of love.
remains to be desired in the treatment that the compiler has given his
it cannot be denied that much labor has been put into it. Material is
future historians and biographers cannot disregard; this feet assures
the work of
a place in the literature of Georgia Freemasonry. The numerous articles
subjects which have been included in the work,- cannot be endorsed
but the critical student will know what to cull.
is very profusely illustrated, including many full-page groups of lodge
There are also a number of pictures of general historical value that
to the student of Masonic history in this country. There are
portraits of most of the Past Grand Masters of Georgia who are still
work will naturally be of interest chiefly to the brethren in the state
it wins written, and the compiler and author is to be commended for his
their behalf. It has been very highly recommended by the chief Masonic
in the state, and we trust it will meet the appreciation of the Craft
* * *
AND THE SPANISH INQUISITION [Lib 1913]. By Rafael Sabatini.
Stanley Paul & Co., Ltd., London. May be purchased through the
of the National Masonic Research Society, 1950 Railway Exchange, St.
Fifth edition, cloth, illustrated, table of contents, 404 pages. Price
WHAT is the
root of religious persecution? To its victims it naturally appears
its ministers cruel and bloodthirsty men possessed of the spirit of
and this is true whether it be Christian sect against Christian, or
Mohammedan or Jew in any combination. Taking a present day example, it
is not easy
for us to do justice to the motives of the Turks in their policy of
of the last remnants of the Christian populations of Asia Minor.
Motives here are
mixed as elsewhere, the mob spirit, racial antagonism, national
resentment (it must
be remembered that the Assyrian Christians fought bravely and
effectively on the
side of the Allies in the war) desire for plunder and like human and
and desires have their part, and the religious one is apt to appear but
of hypocrisy. Yet Islam is one of the great ethical religions, its
creed is devoutly
held, its moral effect is good, at least so far as it goes; and what is
our present point, the Mohammedan is ready himself if need be to endure
for his faith. Indeed the probability is that a larger percentage of
people in any
Mohammedan country would choose death rather than apostasy from their
would be found among Christians in America.
himself would doubtless have gone to the stake not only willingly but
had it been to witness to the faith that was in him. He does not seem
to have been
especially cruel by nature, he certainly was a man of irreproachable
absolutely without any shadow of self-seeking in his character ‒ what
twist is it
in human nature that can produce this intolerant cruelty in people who
normal relations as neighbors, friends, citizens, are fairly decent and
of kindness and compassion? The author points out what is probably the
reason, quoting from the historian Lecky, that religious persecution
has its root
in the belief or doctrine of "exclusive salvation."
of the Inquisitors sounds to us much like the genial conversation of
with the confiding oysters in Alice in Wonderland.
"The time has come, the walrus
talk of many things ‒
Of ships, and shoes, and sealing wax, and cabbages and kings
And why the sea is boiling hot and whether pigs have wings.
So were the
Inquisitors instructed to question the accused "vaguely" so that he
perhaps "betray matters or persons hitherto unsuspected." They were to
address him "with great sweetness," and the following was given as an
"Look now, I pity you who are
in your credulity and whose soul is being lost; you are at fault, but
fault lies with him who has instructed you in these things. Do not then
sin of others upon yourself… And so that you may not lose your
reputation, and that
I may shortly liberate and pardon you and you may go your ways home,
tell me who
has led you ‒ you who knew no evil ‒ into this error. “
"kind words" the inquisitor was to proceed, always assuming the main
to be true, and confining his interrogations to details. It sounds like
extreme of hypocritical cruelty; yet the truth was that it was probably
and most certainly that it was seriously intended. What is more it is
the attitude of all persecutors for religion's sake, whether Puritans
Church of England rulers ferretting out Roman Catholics and dragooning
Presbyterians harrying Prelatists; Calvinists persecuting Zwinglians,
and the rest
‒ the underlying premise necessary to their arguments, whether of
or of accusation against their opponents (and victims) is "only those
as we do can be saved." This being granted, especially when supported
doctrine of a terrible and eternal place of punishment for those who
have not received
salvation, makes any and every atrocity justifiable and even
meritorious if directed
to the end of forcing the unbeliever, or the misbeliever, to renounce
But this is not wholly satisfying. While we can see how this belief
existent, it is only to present a fresh puzzle in the new question. How
a belief arise ‒ or, rather, how is it that a revival of religion, or
of a new one, seems as a matter of fact to have always brought in its
idea, or feeling, of exclusiveness? The answer is probably to be found
psychology. As a matter of fact the phenomenon is not peculiar to
religion. It is
quite natural, and even normal, for the mind to take for granted that
way of doing a thing is the only way; and the first feeling roused in
when told of another is often incredulity and even resentment. For
women (in a position to have one) are very insistent that a maid
servant shall do
the housework in a particular way; and how many suggested improvements
turned down by foremen and managers with an authoritative "it can't be
Much more is this true of religion which embodies the highest and
and motives of life. From this standpoint indifference or agnosticism
must be regarded
as a religious attitude negative in latter state of mind come the
claims of some
form of positive religious belief. Or it may be the case of a
conventional and habitual
religious connection, that in essentials is really much the same thing
as the negative
attitude, out of which the man is driven by the preaching of a purer
and more living
form. In either ease the new belief, whether in a new religion or a
more vital form
of the old one, is accepted as the one great thing in life. It is of
in the eyes of the convert that it is most difficult for him to believe
other can be compared with it, or have any value; in other words, it
seems to him
to be the only way of attaining salvation.
Such a feeling
being present, intense in proportion to the strength of the religious
is but a step to fortify it with logical reasons and even to make it an
of faith. It is in this way that the paradoxical effect has come about
higher and purer forms of religion have produced the greatest
intolerance and the
highest degree of persecuting zeal among their followers.
To put the
process in a nutshell, the value and importance of "the Faith," whether
Christian or Mohammedan, Orthodox or heretical, to the individual
believer led to
the naive assumption that no other belief could be true. Because the
felt that without it he would be lost, would be still "dead in sin," it
was argued that God must condemn all who did not believe in or adhere
to it. Out
of the individual's own vivid realization of the depths from which he
he created a terrible place of punishment for sinners and unbelievers ‒
perhaps purely metaphorical and symbolical, as in the Book of
Revelations of St.
John, but very soon almost inevitably understood literally. With such a
is obvious that the roughest and most drastic methods of saving others
a fate would seem justified, just as a child may be severely whipped
with matches. Conversely, now that belief in hell has been so generally
among us, and a wider conception of religion adopted, it is very
difficult to maintain
our missionary zeal. Our most potent arguments (seemingly at least)
have been lost.
It is hard to strike a balance; but at least these considerations help
us to see
that the persecutor in all periods is a most human character.
In the present
work the author devotes one chapter to early persecutions, both of the
by the Roman authorities, and later of the pagans by the officially
In the next he briefly sketches the foundation of the Inquisition as an
in the Crusade against the Albigenses in the South of France. The rest
of the book
is devoted to the Spanish Inquisition proper. In this country it became
an imperium in imperio, not only independent of the state but almost
than the Pope himself; and Torquemada was the man who established it
and laid the
foundations of its power in the face of the genuine reluctance of the
King, and the opposition of the ruling classes both of state and church.
the Catholic, was a very remarkable woman, and one of the most capable
world has known. Spain was divided into many small kingdoms and
and to a number of these she succeeded as heiress of her utterly
Henry IV of Castile. Her marriage with Ferdinand united the whole
country with the
exception of the Moorish kingdom of Granada, fated soon after to fall.
state of anarchy existed, worse even than that under the robber counts
There was no law, no justice, no peace. In a very short time Isabella
no doubt that she was the predominant partner and the driving force)
whole state. The lawless nobles, amazed and confused, were brought up
reduced to order. An effective police was established, justice was
swiftly punished, and an era of unprecedented prosperity ushered in.
Yet she authorized
the Inquisition, which, in the long run, seems to have been one of the
in reducing Spain from one of the greatest world powers to almost an
of the organization of the Inquisition was the problem of the so-called
Christians," who were of Hebrew descent. There had been Jews in Spain
the earliest times. As elsewhere they were traders and money lenders,
the least opportunity became wealthy, and powerful with the power
As elsewhere then, and now, there was great prejudice against them and
frequently subject to mob violence, as well as official persecution of
kind. At the end of the fourteenth century these persecutions popular
attained a climax. Thousands of Jews were slaughtered, and thousands
lives by an enforced acceptance of baptism. Such converts could hardly
to be enthusiastic believers in their new religion. With many
undoubtedly it was
merely a mask, but even those who may have really accepted the
Christian faith it
was difficult to give up the habits and customs of daily life belonging
people. Even their methods of cooking were later made the grounds of a
"judaizing." It was chiefly to seek out among these converts those who
were inclined to return to their old faith that the Inquisition was
Torquemada. But once set up, the secret tribunal remorselessly extended
of its activities until no one was safe. None so high or powerful that
escape, and none so low or obscure as to evade observation.
A vivid and
full account is given of the methods of the inquisitors. Physical
torture was not
so frequently or lightly employed as it is popularly supposed to have
use was hedged with restrictions ‒ but sooner or later if the suspect
did not fully
confess or submit it was employed; but always done in due form.
must be admitted," says the author, "that the records show none of that
fiendish invention which is so widely believed to have been employed.
subtilities of the inquisitors were spiritual rather than physical."
to the code there were five degrees of torture: (1) the threat; (2)
the instruments; (3) being prepared; (4) being bound upon the "engine";
(5) the actual application. For further details on the unpleasant
subject the reader
is referred to the work itself. It must be said that the author does
not dwell any
more than is necessary on these matters, and the account is as free
horrors as the subject will allow.
prepared by Torquemada seem to make suspicion and proof equivalent. The
is nearly always used where it would seem more natural to us that
or "evidence" was intended. The person under suspicion was not to be
the precise charge against him, as has already been noted nor his
accuser, or the
witnesses against him. It was argued that it was better for the
innocent to suffer
than the guilty to escape. Nay more, it was seriously advanced that the
should be willing to suffer.
short, to burn at the stake for crimes never committed is a boon, a
glory to be enjoyed with a profound gratitude toward the inquisitors
it. One cannot help feeling a pang of regret at the thought that the
who wrote a commentary on the Instructions] should have been denied
is treated very fully from actual records that have been discovered; it
of a young "New Christian" by name Yuce Franco, who seems to have been
present at the ritual killing of a Christian boy (afterwards canonized
as the "Santo
Nino") by a number of Jews and New Christians. This ritual murder was
out in a cave near La Guardia. It seems to have been an actual fact and
not a popular
invention based on racial antipathy; but curiously the intent does not
have been a mockery of the Crucifixion, as the Christians naturally
rather a piece of witchcraft with the object of protecting the Jews and
their enemies by magical means. But again the reader must be referred
to the book
we to think of this Institution? Could it from any point of view,
times and circumstances, have been justified? Today it would be hardly
to say so, yet fanaticism and intolerance very easily spring up in any
if unchecked by knowledge, and once started along the path it is not
far to go before
like results are reached. It will not be amiss even for us to bear in
Sabbatini says of Torquemada's Instructions:
"They are rash who see
hypocrisy in the
priestly code that is to follow. Hypocrites there may have been, must
and many. Yet the system itself was not hypocritical. It was sincere,
tragically, ardently sincere, with the most hopeless, intolerable and
all sincerity ‒ the sincerity of fanaticism, which destroys all sense
and distorts man's intellectual vision until with an easy conscience he
guile and craft and falsehood the principles that shall enable him to
do what he
conceives be his duty to his fellow man."
It is a fascinating
book and one that is difficult to drop once the reader has started it.
Literary Values of the
GENIUS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT [Lib*]. By P. C. Sands. Published by the
Press, 1924. May be purchased through the Book Department of the
Research Society, 1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Blue cloth,
index, 123 pages.
Price, postpaid, $1.65.
book was intended as a text book for Scripture Study in schools, and
grew out of
a series of lessons devised on quite new lines. These lines are indeed
so new ‒
to all but specialists in Biblical criticism ‒ that the work should be
interest to the general reader whatever his religious convictions. The
no dogmatic axe to grind. He is evidently a sincere Christian of
but this one gathers almost entirely from the way in which he says
things, the turn
of his phrases. His primary purpose, and one to which he faithfully and
adheres, is to show the literary value and interest of the Bible, and
of the Old Testament, both in the original, and in what must most
concern all but
the smallest minority of his readers, the English version. It is a work
to be most
highly recommended, and after reading it many will doubtless feel
inclined to turn
to the pages of the old Book to see how they appear in the new light.
[Lib*]. By Franklin Riley Poage. Published by the author. May be
the Book Department of the National Masonic Research Society, 1950
Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. Cloth, table of contents, frontispiece, 157
pages. Price postpaid
IN this little
book the author has presented his brethren with a series of suggestive
various aspects of life as it should be lived by a Mason. Though each
one is complete
in itself, yet in the arrangement there is a logical progression to be
"Searching or Finding" sets the keynote, followed by "In the Heart."
Bro. Poage sets down a few of the thoughts that these phrases and their
might suggest to a Mason. Then follows "Life Organized" by the
of rule and order, the twenty-four-inch gauge of the Entered
Apprentice, and so
on to "Moral Mastery."
Work" a traveler is quoted as saying that other peoples think that
care for quantity rather than quality. It is true that the loving and
of the true craftsman is not greatly in evidence among us, though it is
one of the
moral lessons for which Masonry stands. Every man's work will be tried,
as by fire,
said St. Paul, and what is deficient, what is of poor materials, will
and the true value of what he has done made manifest.
consists largely of reflections upon the great work being done by the
crippled children. The remainder of the book is more miscellaneous in
but a very high level of literary style is maintained all through. Bro.
in a very pleasing manner. The book would make a very excellent gift to
and especially to the newly-raised Master, to whom it will open up
vistas of the
moral teachings of the Craft. It would also be very useful to those who
prepare addresses at Masonic functions, for texts, suggestions and
are to be found on every page.
and the printing are excellent; there are very few errors in the proof
There is a brief introduction by Bro. Joseph Fort Newton.
Bro. Toler R. White,
delivered after the raising of two Ministers of the Gospel to the
of Master Mason.
AS you all
know a week from this evening we shall come together again for the
purpose of electing
a corps of officers for the next Masonic year, so, as tonight's work
active labor for the current year, it seems to me a sort of valedictory
and, so far as activity in their present stations concerned, for those
so well assisted me the official work of the lodge for 1925.
with which to round out the year's labor there is none that could
afford me greater
pleasure than these upon whom we have this evening carved the words
MASON", men who have consecrated and dedicated their lives to the
The Great Architect of the Universe, and noblest and most beautiful
the choice of man to follow.
in its broad sense as covering all denominations is the greatest
have, and as her handmaiden Masonry has always upheld and supported
her. It should
not be possible for any Mason who before our altar declares his trust
God to view the work of his ministers without a feeling of admiration
for them and
for their devotion to the cause of Him who was born in a manger and
died on a cross
in order that mankind might have not only eternal life, but also a most
and beautiful happiness during his sojourn upon the earth.
should study the life of Christ, for in it we find exemplified all the
of our Institution, and one who endeavors to incorporate those
principles into his
daily life must of necessity conform very closely to the example given
us by the
Master. Nowhere and at no time has any other given such demonstration
love as when after pleading daily with His own people He exclaimed in
of His great heart, "O Jerusalem, how oft would I have gathered your
together as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings," and, also
the cross He prayed His Father to forgive His enemies, for He said,
not what they do."
In the feeding
of the multitudes we find a record of one of the greatest pieces of
work ever done. We see in His healing of the sick additional
demonstration of His
endeavors toward the relief of His fellow creatures. No other man has
His record in the practice of this great principle. And as to His
belief in the
virtue of truth, which we are taught is the foundation of every virtue,
the evidence of His daily life, for notwithstanding the influence that
come to Him through important personages He never hesitated to rebuke
Masonry is not in any sense a religion, but rather the handmaiden
thereof, we as
Masons should lend our loyal support to the efforts that these, our
brethren, are putting forth in the upbuilding of the cause of The Great
of the Universe, whose votaries we profess to be, and to whom we must
bend our knees.
Box and Correspondence
to the query in the January issue of THE BUILDER, regarding Charles
Carrollton: Schultz, in his "History of Freemasonry in Maryland,"
refers to Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, but does not attempt to
connect him with
Masonry. Below is a portion of the minutes of the Special Communication
of the Grand
Lodge of Maryland, held for the purpose of participating in the
exercises in connection
with the commencement of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad July 4,
"Agreeably to previous
Grand Lodge formed a procession in the following order, and proceeded
to the Exchange
in Gay Street [Baltimore], where they were met by the venerable Charles
of Carrollton, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of
followed in the rear of the Grand Lodge; and the whole proceeded to the
Bond Street where the right of the Grand Civic procession rested.
"The deputation from the
next advancing, presented Mr. Carroll the pick, spade, stone-hammer and
by them for the occasion and made the following address....
'The deputation from the
stone-cutters now came
forward, and the ear containing the Foundation Stone was driven to the
l spot. While
the stone was preparing, Mr. Carroll, accompanied by the Grand Marshal
of the day,
and by Mr. John B. Morris, and bearing in his hand the spade just
from the pavilion and advanced to the spot selected for the i reception
of the Foundation
Stone, in order to strike the spade into the ground. He walked with a
and used the instrument with a steady hand." …
it may be
that his participation in the above ceremony gave rise to the
impression that he
was a Freemason.
‒ W. L. B.,
Washington, D. C.
refrain from writing you relative to the article in THE BUILDER for
on tubercular brethren and the proposed action to remedy their troubles.
minded person would wish to do all he could to help any and all of
but it certainly does irritate me when I see that any individual, or
number of them,
not only go into a matter of this sort with all their energy in action,
so far as
anything they themselves can do is concerned, but far worse than this,
to follow their example, without having the slightest knowledge of the
their efforts, which only too often are injurious rather than helpful.
would say they should be given credit for their intention, but why
credit one for
doing vast harm when, if he would only refrain from doing anything at
all, it would
be infinitely better?
I note in
the report of the Sojourners' Club that "Many of them carried burdens
and worry for loved ones at home, without means of support." This is
what I have always maintained; it is quite certain that this grief will
harm in almost every instance than the environment. It is the worst
in most instances for these people to go away from home, the dictum of
men in the country notwithstanding. It is generally supposed that
abundance of fresh
air, food and sunlight does the business. All these can be had at home
in the vast
majority of cases. I know that our state has built a large plant for
the care of
these people, and I feel that the money spent in erection and
maintenance, to say
nothing of the sums spent for transportation of patients and
attendants, would take
care of many times the number of afflicted and do them all much more
good if they
were all left at home and given proper care.
course, presupposes that the disease is not communicable, which I
insist upon, having
had many years of experience and never yet having seen a case acquired
Everything must have a cause, and if those who should know will ever
take the trouble
to investigate they will soon learn that all these cases have wasted a
amount of nerve energy, a drain that possibly no one could withstand
long. The sensible
thing to do is to find what is at the bottom of this and remedy it,
when the individual
will build up. No case of pulmonary tuberculosis should die if properly
at a reasonably early period. It is little short of criminal to
people to flock to the Southwest, thousands of miles from home and
loved ones, when
there is nothing in prospect but grief and want. I know that they can
all get as
much sunshine, fresh air and food in South Dakota as they can anywhere
and if by
any possible chance the real truth would ever be thoroughly
of the foolish theories which have cursed the inhabitants of the earth
for lo these
many years, this particular affliction would soon be mastered.
is it not absurd to read how these good people spent a large proportion
money for transportation for both living and dead! There is absolutely
not a grain
of sense in the whole proceeding. Not only let them remain at home but
them to do so, and if necessary force them to do so; at least do not
raise vast sums of money to be worse than thrown away. I speak from
of more than thirty years in the practice of medicine, and no theory
goes with me
community, lodge, should look after their quota of such eases, and no
one can do
it better than they if they pursue the proper plan. These folks going
home is about the same as farm or other laborers going to other states
is plenty of work at home. I maintain that a man who is a good workman
has a vastly
better chance of securing and holding employment in his home community
‒ E. W. F.,
Suppression of Charges
of Unmasonic Conduct
are preferred against a brother for un-Masonic conduct, can these
be held up by the Secretary, owing to the social prominence of the
undersigned contends that once charges are preferred the lodge must act
regardless of any such considerations.
‒ A. B. T.,
to your inquiry as to whether charges which have been preferred against
for un-Masonic conduct can be held up by the Secretary of the lodge, it
be said that no Secretary has the power to withhold anything properly
his official attention, because he is merely an instrument of the lodge
act for the lodge under any circumstances, except as may be
in the by-laws of that individual lodge. Charges of un-Masonic conduct
member must be placed before the lodge for action according to the
Grand Lodge laws
of Minnesota and the collateral provisions which may exist in the
by-laws of the
lodge in which the charge is made. This is generally true of all
Do Others Think?
Were it not
for your request for constructive criticism and suggestions this would
not be written.
I am repeating a suggestion made once before without apparent effect.
I am old-fashioned, but I remember the dictum of my sophomore rhetoric
forty years ago that the purpose of all discourse is either to inform
or to persuade.
Of many points made to that end, the only one which I distinctly
remember is economy
of the recipient's attention. As an editor of manuscripts for
I try to keep this point carefully in mind. It is a prevalent vice of
of about every kind to break articles suddenly at the end of a page, or
in even less excusable places, and direct the reader to some distant
page, to be
hunted for, there to continue the line of thought. To command my
article must be of very exceptional interest, and I usually don't obey.
this habitual disobedience promotes indifference, and I have felt that
in the case of THE BUILDER. The magazines usually plead the necessity
to the advertisers, and so splitting up the reading matter, but THE
not this incentive for even so slight an annoyance to readers. And now
the benefit of my one suggestion, which probably means only wasted time
at the typewriter.
‒ A. L. C.,
Washington, D. C.
I am very
anxious to secure all possible information of a Masonic nature about
Henry Knox who was our first Secretary of War, as we are organizing a
at Boston to be called Major General Henry Knox Lodge.
‒ H. R. H.,
unable to find anything about the Masonic career of Major General Henry
Secretary of War of the United States, beyond the bare feet that he was
He was particularly prominent in the formation of the Society of the
That in itself would indicate that he had Masonic connections, as it is
that the idea of such an Order would have occurred to anyone who was
a member of some kind of fraternity. Also the greater number of the
appear to have been Masons.
some of our readers may be able to furnish more information.
as a Symbol
I received an account of the laying of the "foundation stone" for a
Temple at Long Sutton, England, the place where I was born. In the
by the Provincial Grand Master, it stated that corn, wine, oil and salt
Can you enlighten me as to the symbolism of salt?
‒ F. B. M.,
we have not any English formulary for the consecration ceremony at
hand. In one
used in Scotland salt is not included. It is however used in the Royal
ceremonies as practiced in Canada.
Encyclopaedia, under the heading "Salt," it is said that in the Swiss
ritual this substance is added to the corn, wine and oil, and here it
stated to be a symbol of wisdom and learning, which should characterize
lodge. The foundation stone is sprinkled with salt with this formula:
this undertaking, contrived by wisdom, be executed in strength and
beauty, so that it may be a house where peace, harmony and brotherly
probable that the corn, wine and oil is taken from the Old Testament,
from the Psalms. Another possible meaning of the salt is that in
the sharing of salt between two strangers creates a bond of
hospitality, or brotherhood,
between them. With this underlying idea it would be very suitable for
us in the
dedication of a building where Masons are to hold their meetings. It
may also have
an allusion to the saying in the New Testament, "If the salt has lost
which again would have an appropriate meaning.
that the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts instituted various lodges in
and the Canal Zone. I would like to know if these lodges are considered
lodges or clandestine.
‒ T. A. DeA.,Ohio.
quite true that the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts has chartered lodges
in the Canal
Zone and in China. This is a perfectly legitimate proceeding as neither
countries have any Grand Lodge organized within their limits, and
to the law of jurisdiction, as followed in America, it is open to any
to charter lodges in such unoccupied territory. As a matter of fact,
there are also
lodges chartered in China by the Grand Lodges of England and Scotland
governing bodies in Europe. Wherever the Grand Lodges which chartered
are in communication with each other, the subordinate lodges can also
and are regarded as perfectly regular.
to Chile the question would be different as there is a Grand Lodge
However we have no information that any foreign Grand Lodges have
however be emphasized that this is the American view of the law
The Grand Lodges in other parts of the world do not wholly agree with
this and follow
their own rules, which has often led to disputes and sometimes to the
fraternal relations. In any case whether such lodges as you speak of
or not by other Grand Lodges, they cannot possibly be called
clandestine in the
proper sense of the word.
Club or Group?
to the article appearing in the Question Box of the January issue of
referring to Study Clubs, and your desire for an expression of opinion
as to a suitable
name, may I give you my own experience in the matter? A number of men
in my lodge
who are interested in the subject of Masonic study, formed a group for
Inasmuch as the object was Masonic study, without any social or club
we have designated our organization as the Masonic Study Group.
‒ W. B. B.,
Wanted and For Sale
is lacking Vols. 3, 7, 19 and 25 of The Universal Masonic Library,
Robert Morris, 1856. We have available for exchange or sale Vols. 5,
10, 12, 15,
21, 22, 24, 27 and 29. I would be very pleased to hear from anyone
desiring to obtain
these or wishing to dispose of those we require.
‒ N. W. J.
H Letters may be addressed care of the Editor.
is an extract from The Norfolk Chronicle, or The Norwich Gazette, which
and published in Norwich, Norfolk, England, on Saturday, May 13, 1797:
"At a full Court of Mayoralty
his Royal Highness Prince William of Gloucester was admitted to the
of this City.
"On Thursday afternoon, between
four o'clock, his Royal Highness left this City, accompanied with the
respect and admiration of all ranks.
"The Prince during his
several times the Lodges of Freemasons, to the Craft and Mysteries of
which he is
particularly attached. On Tuesday night the Royal George Chapter was
held at the
White Swan, by his Command, over which his Royal Highness presided ‒
were exalted, and the Prince established his character as a perfect
master of Masonry,
in the strictest sense of the word. The evening before his departure he
the Theater with his presence, to serve a brother Mason."
In a bas-relief
at Dendirah Osiris is shown rising from a bier. In another he is shown
in a tree, and is called in the inscriptions "the one in the tree" and
"the solitary one in the acacia." At the temple of Philae he is shown
lying dead with stalks of wheat springing up from his body, while a
close by pouring water over it from a libation vase. An inscriptions
is the form of him whom one may not name, Osiris of the mysteries, who
the ebbing waters.”
little doubt that in origin Osiris was a deity of vegetation and more
of the various kinds of grain.
Pen25 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1825. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 287. - 13.1 MB.
Ephod and Ark
Arn17 / auth. Arnold William R. - Cambridge : Harvard University Press,
1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 173. - 5.5 MB.
Freedom of Will
Edw75 / auth. Edwards Jonathan. - London : J Johnson, 1775. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 458. - 31.2 MB.
The Natural History of
Plo86 / auth. Plot Robert. - Oxford : At the Theater, 1686. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 532. - 56.6 MB.
The Natural History of Wiltshire
Aub47 / auth. Aubrey John. - London : J. B. Nichols and Son, 1847. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 148. - 14.5 MB.
Sab13 / auth. Sabatini Rafael. - London : Stanley Paul & Co,
1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 422. - 10.1 MB.