Masonic Research Society
Table of Contents
and the Palmyraines
Bro. Major John W. Shuman,
M. D., California
an exceedingly interesting account, the chief defect of which is its
a visit to "Tadmor in the Wilderness." The author was formerly
Professor of Medicine in the American University of Beirut, Syria,
known for short
as A.U.B. In February, 1923, Captain Douglas C. Cruickshank, then the
of Pathology, American University of Beirut, late of the Canadian Army
and a Mason, inveigled the writer into taking advantage of the Medical
five-day-mid-year vacation and visit the ruins of Palmyra. (This is the
in Arabic it is Tudmor.) He insisted that we should look over at close
remained of that wonderful city "in the wilderness" (Note 1), built
of years ago by King Solomon the Great Builder and successfully sacked
by the Romans
long afterwards. As a sight-seeing place of Asia Minor it easily ranks
Jerusalem and Petri rivals for first place; although to the Mason
first, for here Solomon, the wise one, built the first Temple and many
to Damascus, the most ancient thriving city in the world, across the
mountain ranges, with the Wady Broca between, is seventy-five miles; we
by auto without mishap and spent the night at the Victoria Hotel,
famous as General
Allenby's headquarters during his late campaign against the Turks. On
such a journey
as we were undertaking one usually goes armed on account of possible
Cheeties (brigands); in a country whose chief product for centuries has
and whose by-products have been reported as massacre, rapine and
pillage, we expected
to meet trouble; but in this we were disappointed, we met only kind and
to Palmyra is about one hundred and sixty-five miles on the
Camel-Automobile route; and there are no gas stations! So we loaded in
amount of petrol to motor us there and back. There are two roads, the
high, a bit
longer, and the low, a bit shorter, leading to Karratyne, a village
half way between Palmyra and Damascus. And thereby hangs a tale.
A party of
Beiruters had preceded us to Palmyra by the high road. We took the low
one and arrived
at Karratyne at a little before eleven o'clock, when we called to pay a
the Sheikh's house (which is the custom) and were made most welcome. He
was a Christian
and had a son in the Collegiate Department of the A.U.B. (American
Beirut). Our interpreter Zarhan, first year medical student, knew this
made father and mother delighted with "news". A bounteous repast was
spread, to which we did full justice as only hungry, healthy men would
do when "called
from labor to refreshment."
old man offered a letter to the Mohammedan Sheikh of Palmyra, stating
is no hotel in that place," and we could do nothing but graciously
That sealed letter was surely "the-magic-password." Thirty minutes
we had driven the car into the courtyard where Sheikh Mohammed stood, a
killed, dressed, and cooked sheep was served in the guestroom, through
at his back in the accompanying illustration (Cut 1). He said:
I beseech you to partake of our meagre repast; if you have wine bring
for although we Moslems are forbidden to use it, that is no reason for
guests to abstain." Just compare that with the hospitality of a U. S.
Here it may
be stated that if your digestion and sleep are disturbed by coffee and
do not go visiting in Asia Minor. For no business is transacted, no
social or official
call is complete and no meeting, however casual, is ever entered into
without coffee and tobacco. The coffee in Beirut is like the Turkish,
and sweet. As we went on into the interior of Syria the coffee seemed
to get more
bitter. In Palmyra it is the typical Arabic coffee, served hot as the
Hades, an ounce at a time in the bottom of a big cup and quite bitter.
or ten of these drinks you will understand why the Moslems don't have
to drink alcohol!
An ancient hubble-bubble (narghieh) was put at my disposal; and a large
to our room was given us, which I promptly threw on the ground. We felt
were among brethren and our trust was not misplaced for all the time we
not a thing of ours was molested; we ate, slept, moved, and had our
being in this
one-story mud (adobe) walled room of the Sheikh's when not on the hike;
in every sense of the word except for that bond of fellowship which
To the right
of his father stands Sheikh Abdullah (Cut 2) detailed by his father to
show us around
and comfort us. It was just about this time (6:00 P. M.) that the two
loads of Beirut folks arrived, the acting President of A.U.B. in
us of having eaten up their luncheon in Karratyne, and wanting to know
intended to sleep. We replied, "Ask the Sheikh." Sheikh Mohammed, like
the Karratyne Sheikh, had mistaken us for the "President" and his party
(the letter said so) and he did not change his mind. I suppose our old
had more prestige than "white collars". At any rate we slept much
than we would have under a tent.
of the Great Temple of the Sun at Palmyra, with many bits of ornate
it, cornices, capitals, and curved ceilings, stand as majestic symbols
craftsmen and things that were in the ages of long ago. What remains
still fighting for existence against the elements, to welcome the
make him marvel. One column which still remains bears an inscription
with the name
of Queen Zenobia, who once ruled from Egypt to Babylon, and later
graced the Roman
Triumph of the Emperor Aurelian.
numbered 2 and 3 show the Sheikh and four of his sons, and his guests.
He was then
sixty six years of age and looked after 2,500 souls, the "modern
They are the desert Bedouins, speak the pure Arabic language, and raise
camels. Palmyra is now but an oasis in the wilderness. Water is secured
channels, which were cut there eons ago by the hand of man. The
flourished in that country many years ago and when a besieging army cut
water supply of the forces they were attacking, it was not long before
of truce was flying. No. 3 shows the official photographer (Doctor C.),
soldier," third from the left. The French Arabian soldier is from the
garrison, located in Palmyra (the French mandate Syria now, the Turks
used to) who
had come to invite the Bogus-President and his party to the
Commandant's mess that
evening. He said that he would send an escort for us and the Sheikh. We
7:30 P.M. and then escorted ourselves over to find that the real
President and his
crowd had "beaten us to it," so the tables were turned! We returned to
our house. The Sheikh was indignant. He had prepared for us a real
we were enjoying immensely when the Commandant with his aides burst in
upon us with
beaucoup apologies, a quart of Scotch, and that was that! (Note 2.)
It will be
noted that there are hints of foreign (Frangi) civilization out there
in the manner
of dress. Note that top coat, also the two overcoats worn instead of
Abba. The smallest son was the songster, and sang for us many songs in
the usual nasal falsetto key, which sounded nothing like the "sweet
Araby," or "I'm the Sheikh," yet they were far more pleasant to the
ear than "Yes, We Have No Bananas," "No One Can Love Me Like My Old
Tomato Can," etc.
of the foreign was noted in the Sheikh's own bedroom; an idle, iron
brought forth the story that when he was much younger and less wise, a
the daughter of a prominent and wealthy French family, visited Palmyra,
love with the Sheikh, married him and took him to Paris to live. After
the sands of the desert called him and she went back with him. They
iron bed to Palmyra from Marsailles. But Palmyra as a steady diet for
her was too
tame; the bright lights of "Gay Paree" called her, and she went back
father had one hundred descendants; our host had fourteen sons, the
youngest a husky
infant in arms. Three of his four young wives expected soon to present
sons, for daughters don't count for much in the Orient. His eldest son
He was in South America, I was told, to be married to a lady there,
his father greatly for she was not of "the Faith." But, then, "like
father, like son."
was quite anxious to show us everything there was to be seen, more
Crusader Castle (see cuts 4, 5 and 6), which is a story in itself. I
that Order of Knights Templar several centuries ago set out to conquer
(especially Christianity's fountain Syria and Palestine) with the sword
‒ and failed
‒ just as Emperor William failed!
It was on
a Friday, the Moslem Sunday, that Abdullah asked us if we wanted to
swim. I said,
"Yes, where is the tin cup?" for I had no idea that there was anything
bigger to take a bath in. He took us for a swim in a subterranean warm
artificial, a part of the aqueduct system, where we frolicked for two
for companions the Cadi (judge) and Sheikh Beni Khallid, owner of 3,000
the same number that Job had. Before going into the water I gave
Abdullah my wrist
watch to hold, and when I got out I noticed that it was on his wrist. I
it for a souvenir, [carried it through America's part in the World War
and am really tired of it, and I am just looking for a chance to get
rid of it."
He accepted. It is difficult to tip these folks; in fact, it is taken
as an insult
unless adroitly managed. That evening in the dark he slipped into my
hand a bit
of paper with a hard object in it, saying, "Just a little souvenir, but
old." After he was gone, and by the light of a tallow dip I discovered
to be the possessor of an exquisite cameo of Zenobia's Dynasty.
men of the village love to play football of the European style. The
ball they had
was flat and the only thing they requested from us was "send us a
Shem (Damascus)." We sent them one by the French Air-Post.
second son had only two wives. He said he was "not rich enough to
as yet." He did ask, "Doctor, why does a big man like you only have one
wife?" I answered, "Effendi, you have never seen my wife." I crushed
him, however, when I remarked, "I have three children and you have only
They have no doctor in Palmyra and disease cuts them down young. Infant
is great there. A walk through the modern graveyard tells the story;
little tombstones marking graves of babies. "On the square," the Sheikh
would welcome a good, conscientious, well-trained, practical medical
man. That man
might not become rich in money but he would live and give and in the
years to come
he would have happy memories. We held a clinic while there, thereby
return, in a measure, the kindness we had received.
interested in our telling, through our interpreter, of the A.U.B. and
and the Sheikh promised that before long Palmyra would be represented
at the University.
Last year, so Dr. Cruickshank writes, the Sheikh's second son visited
was quite chagrined at not being able to visit the "Pseudo-President."
On this trip we had endured some discomforts, and hardships, met with
heat and cold, a snow blizzard, equal to any I ever experienced in
when crossing over the Lebanons, and had been mired in the mud; but we
received kindly, were not allowed to go hungry, and had slept in warm
beds. A broken
front spring and a ruptured tire were all the scars we could claim.
Note 1. I Kings, Chap. 9, verse 18, "and he built, … Tadmor in the
in the land." II Chronicles, Chap. 8, verse 4, "and he built Tadmor in
Note 2. D.
C. just forwarded these photos to me, March 1, 1925. In Syria, "time
really matter." One of their proverbs out there is "Tomorrow, Effendi,
is also a day."
Colonel Ceran St. Vrain
A Study of
the Life of a Masonic Pioneer of the Southwest
Bro. F. T. Cheetham,
in the introduction to one of his former contributions to The Builder,
has in hand the preparation of a history of the Southwest to show the
of Freemasonry in the development of that great American empire. This
study of Bro.
St. Vrain will serve as a chapter in that work. Its interest will be
it is read in conjunction with Bro. Cheetham's previous essays: "Kit
A Mason of the Frontier," The Builder, December, 1922, page 366 and
Bent, a Masonic Martyr of New Mexico," The Builder, December, 1923,
Bro. Cheetham, who may be addressed at Taos, New Mexico, will
any additional Masonic data bearing on his studies.
inherited from the English our language and that great system of
known as the common law, we are largely indebted to the French for our
They gave lavishly of their blood and treasure that we might become a
free and independent
nation. The name of the Marquis de Lafayette has throughout the days of
as a nation been a household word among our people. Nor did the
fostering care of
our French godfathers end at Yorktown. From the day when Napoleon
his fastest frigate forty-eight hours, while our Minister, Robert
brother Mason, penned that famous dispatch which culminated in the
purchase of Louisiana,
we were destined to become a great nation. Nor was this all, for while
us, for almost a nominal consideration, to acquire title to this vast
country, they rendered most potent assistance in winning the Far West
from all opposing
frontier soldiers, under the masterful leadership of George Rodgers
the Northwest, as it was then called, from the British, we acquired, as
thereto, the achievements of the intrepid French explorers and traders.
closely upon the heels of the Revolution there sprang up along the
waters of the
great Mississippi and its tributaries a thriving trade with the
tribes, which soon crept into that portion of the domain of the Spanish
as Mexico. This trade was handled almost entirely by the descendants of
France. As a natural consequence of this trade there soon sprang up
posts or centers as Kaskaskie, St. Genevieve and St. Louis.
traders purchased the greater portion of their goods at Philadelphia
and while in
that city they met and associated with members of the French lodges of
of that city, established by Bro. Lafayette and his men during the War
Independence. These merchants in turn obtained dispensations and
lodges in western trading posts. These lodges were in their order as
Star Lodge, No. 107, established at Kaskaskia in 1806; Louisiana Lodge,
at St. Genevieve in 1807; and St. Louis Lodge, No. 3, in 1808. Among
of these lodges we find in Louisiana Lodge, No. 109, at St. Genevieve
as Pierre Chouteau and Bartholomew Berthold, the founders of the great
Fur Company, and Stephen F. Austin, the "father" of Texas; in St. Louis
Lodge, No. 3, we note among the members the names of Meriweather Lewis,
secretary of President Jefferson, and Gen. William Clarke, the
explorers. Such indeed
is the background of our sketch.
Vrain, the hero of this sketch, was born near the city of St. Louis
about the year
1797. His father and uncle had fled from France during that dark period
of the French
Revolution, the uncle having been an heir apparent of French nobility.
of Ceran St. Vrain settled on the Bellefontaine Road, just out of what
St. Louis, and erected a fort, which was then, and until after Ceran's
Spanish territory. Of his early years little is known. It is altogether
that while a mere boy he ventured out into the plains and the
wilderness with the
fur traders of his time.
Becomes a Trapper
In 1826 we
find him a captain of a party of trappers leading an expedition down
Mexico as far as the river Gila. It was on this expedition that Bro.
made his maiden trip beyond the frontier. At this time St. Vrain was
with William Bent, who, about 1824, had erected a stockade on the bank
of the Arkansas
near where Pueblo now is. Soon afterwards the Bents and St. Vrain
stockade near the junction of the Purgatoire River with the Arkansas.
In 1828 St.
Vrain, associated with William and Charles Bent, commenced the erection
of a formidable
fort, afterwards known as Bent's Fort or Fort William, on the north
bank of the
Arkansas River, a few miles east of the present city of Las Animas,
credit has never been given the founders of this citadel of peace, for
it and they played in the winning of the Great Southwest.
It will be
remembered that, arising out of the Louisiana Purchase, the territorial
the United States covered the entire watershed of the Red and Arkansas
extended to within about fifteen miles of Taos, New Mexico; that by the
Feb. 22, 1819, between the United States and His Catholic Majesty the
King of Spain,
in return for concessions in Florida the United States moved its
backward some three hundred miles; that by this treaty the hundredth
fixed as the west boundary of the United States, north to the Arkansas
along the south bank of that stream to its source. This boundary was
ratified by the infant republic, Mexico, which almost immediately had
independence from Spain, by a treaty signed in Mexico City on Jan. 28,
It will therefore
be plainly seen how quickly the Bents and St. Vrain saw and grasped the
importance of the site, so well chosen by them, on the international
a large and strongly fortified trading post, destined to do more than
all the country's
soldiers in the winning of the Far West. The greater proportion of the
of the country immediately south of the border was made up of roving
tribes of unconquered
savages, who were eager to trade their peltries and robes for the
and other goods of the white man.
of Spain had been to exclude almost altogether any American trade with
in the Western Hemisphere. Mexico cherished the same hope and laid its
a view to making the American trade prohibitive and of creating a
monopoly in favor
of its central states. The result was that there soon arose in
California and other
outlying territories a great system of smuggling. But the founders of
trading post proposed to keep within their legitimate rights; they
fort on the border so that the Comanches, Arapahoes, Utes and Apaches
from their favorite hunting grounds, camp on the Arkansas near the
fort, and exchange
their products of the chase for the manufactured goods of the traders.
had any charges against the Indians for duty on goods carried by them
border, it was up to it to collect from them. The fort was completed in
of its appearance, Capt. P. St. George Cooke, who visited it in 1843,
a smooth, gravelly second bank prairie we caught sight at several miles
the national flag floating amid picturesque foliage and river scenery,
over a low
dark wall, which had a very military semblance. Very gradually and
approached and then we were more surprised at the fine appearance and
the trading post. An extensive square with high adobe walls and two
at opposite angles and all properly loopholed. Our near approach was
three discharges from a swivel gun, the walls being well 'manned.' The
suite were most hospitably greeted at the sally port by Messrs. St.
Vrain and C(harles)
Bent. The regiment marched on and encamped at the first grassy meadow a
two lower down. A number of officers partook of a good dinner at the
Wall" erected by Spain and fostered by Mexico soon began to crumble
the pressure of this stronghold of commerce. Mexico soon discovered
that if it did
not let the traders in, its people would go across the border to trade.
fort was really completed St. Vrain and the Bents were able to make
their way to
Santa Fe with goods, as will appear from a letter written by St. Vrain
Pratte & Co. from that place on Sept. 14, 1830, as follows:
"San Fernando del Taos, Sept. 14, 1830.
B. Pratte & Co.
It is with pleasure that I inform you of my last arrival at Santa Fe
which was the
4th of August. We were met at Red River by General Biscara the
and a few soldiers, the object in coming out so far to meet us was to
and it had the desired effect; there was a guard placed around our
we entered Santa Fe. We had to pay full dutys which amounts to about 60
on cost. I was the first that put goods in the Customhouse and I opened
but goods sold very slow, so slow that it was discouraging. I found
that it was
impossible to meet my payments, if I continued retailing. I therefore
was best to hole saile. I have done so. I send you by Mr. Andru Carson
Ruel one wagon, eleven mules, one horse and 653 skins of Beaver, 961
hundred and sixty-one pounds), which you will have sold for my account.
I do not
wish the mules sold unless they sell for a good price. I am with much
"Ceran St. Vrain."
the completion of Bent's Fort this firm established a branch post at
Taos, New Mexico,
and later on at Santa Fe, both of which were maintained until the firm
by the death of Governor Bent, in 1847. In 1838 they erected a fort on
Platte north of the site of Denver. This fort was called St. Vrain's
Fremont speaks of visiting this fort on his first expedition to the
It was at the confluence of the Cache le Poudre River with the South
Parkman, who visited it in 1846, found it abandoned.
By this time
the fur trade had suffered a great decline, the price of beaver having
a great slump on account of the discovery of a new way of making hats.
Fur Company and the Rocky Mountain Fur Company found their trade
latter company went out of business entirely. Jedediah S. Smith, its
captain, had quit the northwest fur trade and engaged in the Santa Fe
he lost his life while blazing a new trail on the Cimarron. But the
Bent &; St. Vrain had been established with a view of working
both ways. They
worked as far north as Fort Lookout on the Missouri, and held the key
to the Southwest.
They later erected a fort on the Canadian River in northern Texas,
known as the
Trading Posts Became
a Rendezvous for Explorers
posts became the rendezvous of the daring mountain men, trappers and
penetrated the mountain forests, scaled the snow-capped peaks, blazed
through seemingly inaccessible passes, encountered both savage and
and planted the American flag on the Pacific. A trading post of Bent
& St. Vrain
was like a safe haven in the midst of the trackless storm-tossed sea.
Whitman and A. Lawrence Lovejoy made their famous ride in the winter of
an effort to save Oregon to the United States, they availed themselves
of the hospitality
of several of these posts and it fell to the lot of Ceran St. Vrain to
aid to Whitman in getting across the plains, for he, on learning of
to proceed across the plains, sent an express from Bent's Fort to their
at the Big Cottonwood and held it until Whitman could arrive.
Ceran St. Vrain, believing that the course of empire was westward,
him one Cornelio Vigil, a progressive resident of Taos, New Mexico, and
and meritorious service to the Mexican Government in maintaining peace
Indians on the frontier, made application to the Governor for a grant
of land for
colonization purposes, the petition for which, being translated, is in
part as follows:
"That, desiring to encourage the agriculture of the country to such a
as to establish its flourishing condition, and finding ourselves with
land to accomplish the object, we have examined and registered, with
the land embracing the Huerfano, Pisipa and Cucheras Rivers, to their
the Arkansas and the Animas, and, finding sufficient for cultivation,
of pasture and water, and all that is required for a flourishing
and for raising cattle and sheep, being satisfied therewith, and
certain that it
is public land, we have not hesitated to apply to Your Excellency,
praying you to
be pleased, by an act of justice, to grant to each one of us a tract of
the above mentioned locality."
was accordingly made and the intent and purpose thereof is probably
best shown by
a deed made in 1844 to St. Vrain's partner, Charles Bent, which is as
of Conveyance to Charles Bent.
undersigned owners and possessors of the lands included from the waters
of the Rio
de las Animas and of the Huerfano, within the boundaries designated in
the act of
possession, for the purpose of effecting and procuring means to settle
for which purpose we have solicited and obtained the concession of the
and of our own free will, we cede to M. Charles Bent, and to his
one-sixth part of the land contained in our possession at said place,
to which we
hereby renounce all our rights, hereby obligating ourselves not to
in that which we hereby grant unto him; it being our voluntary act and
being understood that we are to give to such families as may transport
to said place, lands free of charge, subject to the guarantees and
benefits to each
party, as may be agreed upon in order to protect the settlements to be
by this extra-judicial document, which we execute on this common paper
none of the corresponding seal), we, thus, as our entire voluntary act,
and this indenture shall be as valid as if it was duly authenticated;
and by the
same we may be compelled to observe and comply therewith; and in
we sign this in Taos, on the 11th day of March, 1844.
two years thereafter, the diplomatic relations between the United
States and Mexico,
long strained, reached a breaking point and war was declared between
the two countries.
The Army of the West was organized and placed under the command of
Gen. Kearney. It proceeded, in several columns, to march from the
to Bent's Fort, which was established as a rendezvous. There the little
force rested a few days, preparatory to the invasion of the enemy's
find that the men who had been forerunners of the flag stood ready to
service in their power. Charles Bent served as chief intelligence
officer and Ceran
St. Vrain hastened to St. Louis to procure supplies and provisions soon
to be needed.
When the soldiers crossed the frontier, they found that the traders had
by the arts of peace what they had expected to achieve by the shedding
Vrain left St. Louis on the 1st of September, 1846, with a cargo of
goods for New
Mexico. He was accompanied, among others, by a young lad of seventeen
H. Garrard, who left behind a narrative of his thrilling experiences,
in 1850 under the title of Wah-To-Yah, or, The Taos Trail [Lib 1850], which he dedicated to the
of our story in token of the many acts of kindness by the latter. St.
Garrard at the fort and proceeded on to Santa Fe with his goods where
be most needed. Soon after his arrival at that place the Taos
out and Gov. Chas. Bent was assassinated, under circumstances narrated
in a former
sketch. [THE BUILDER, December, 1923, P.358.] St. Vrain, on learning
that his friend
and partner had been slain, enlisted the services of about sixty
mountain men at
Santa Fe and tendered his little command to Col. Price, who immediately
with such force as was available to Taos to avenge the death of the
other countrymen. St. Vrain was given a commission as captain and
and meritorious service at La Canada, Embudo, and at the Taos Pueblo.
At the latter
place he came near to losing his own life in a personal encounter with
He served as court interpreter in the trials of the conspirators and
tendered the office of governor of the territory, which he declined.
Vrain Settled At Taos
restoration of order, Capt. St. Vrain settled down in Taos, New Mexico,
as Don Fernando de Taos, where he had a store on the south side of the
his business as a trader. In 1849 he was elected to, and served as a
the Constitutional Convention, convened at Santa Fe on Sept. 24 of that
years 1854, 5 and 6 the Ute and Apache Indians had given the people of
deal of trouble, waging constant war on the unprotected settlements and
near annihilating a couple of companies of the First United States
Dragoons in a
fight in the Embudo Mountains near Taos. The civil and military
authorities in Santa
Fe decided to put an end to these troubles. Volunteers were accordingly
Col. De Witte C. Peters, in his Life of Kit Carson [Lib 1875], published in 1858, in
of this affair, says:
"The organization of the
was made complete by the Governor of the Territory, who selected as
Mr. Ceran St. Vrain of Taos. This gentleman, although he had much
which called his attention elsewhere, immediately expressed his
willingness to accept
the responsible position which, without solicitation, had been
conferred upon him.
The commission received by St. Vrain gave him the rank of
delay he set about the difficult and important work that lay before
to bear upon the details that sound judgment, gentlemanly bearing and
which had long characterized the man. He had the good fortune to secure
of Lieutenant Creigg of the regular army, whom he appointed as one of
Having completed his staff and other arrangements to place his force
upon a military
basis, he was ready to take the field.
"The appointment of St. Vrain
of the Volunteers, was hailed with delight throughout the territory.
His great experience
in the mountains, his knowledge of the Indian mode of warfare, and the
the people he was called upon to command invariably paid him, seemed to
every thinking mind that something more than usual was to be
felt that the wrongs of their country would be certainly redressed. The
prove that the people were not doomed to disappointment."
St. Vrain thereupon reported to Col. T. T. Fauntleroy who forthwith
expedition against the warlike savages. The command proceeded to Ft.
near the station of Garland, in Colorado; thence they pursued a
to the head waters of the Rio Grande; from thence they crossed the
where they found the Indians encamped in a large village. They gave
and put them to flight with heavy loss. Col. Fauntleroy then divided
sending Col. St. Vrain with his command to the eastward across the main
he again encountered the fleeing fugitives and inflicted upon them a
Kit Carson, who accompanied this expedition as a scout, referring to it
in his personal narrative dictated to Col. Peters, the MS. of which is
now in the
Newbury Library in Chicago, in substance said, that if the operations
of this voluntary
organization had continued a few months longer under Col. St. Vrain's
there would never again have been any need for soldiers in the
of service of this organization having expired they were mustered out
and Col. St.
Vrain returned to his business at Taos. He erected and operated
mills and extended his business operations in all directions. In the
of the Rocky Mountain News, published at Cherry Creek [now Denver],
in 1859, we find an item announcing that Col. St. Vrain had lately
arrived at that
place with a train load of flour from Taos.
Vrain Entered the Civil
Civil War broke out Col. St. Vrain, like Bro. Kit Carson, joined hands
North and very promptly tendered his services to his country. When the
volunteers came he helped to organize the First New Mexico Cavalry and
its first Colonel. Kit Carson was elected lieutenant-colonel. He was
owing to poor health, to relinquish his command to the latter, with the
however, that it would render a good account of itself. In this he was
He continued to render valuable service to his country by keeping his
and supplying the various military posts of the Southwest with flour
and other articles
Vrain, like many other sturdy men of the frontier, was long prepared in
to become a Freemason, before he had had an opportunity to knock at the
a lodge. He had been intimately acquainted and more or less associated
like Charles Bent, Dr. Dayid Waldo, James Kennerly, and Col. Dodge, who
been members of the Order. He therefore presented himself for
initiation March 22,
1853; was passed April 16, 1853; and raised Jan. 28, 1855, receiving
in Montezuma Lodge, No. 109, of the jurisdiction of Missouri, at Santa
Fe. He demitted
therefrom April 7, 1860, and together with Bros. Kit Carson, Peter
Maxwell, John M. Francisco, A. S. Ferris, and others he formed a lodge
under a charter from the Grand Lodge of Missouri, issued on the 1st day
1860. This lodge was known as Bent Lodge, No. 204.
close of the Civil War, in order to better conduct his business for
to the Government, Col. St. Vrain moved to Mora, which was near Ft.
Union, the principal
military base of the Southwest. Col. James F. Meline, who visited New
1866, in his book entitled Two Thousand Miles on Horseback [Lib 1867], in speaking of the Colonel,
"Mora is the residence of
Ceran St. Vrain one of the most distinguished of the band of early
and trappers ‒ Bent, Kit Carson, Bridger, Maxwell ‒ who survives.
Colonel St. Vrain's
wealth in land is very great, and he owns under a Spanish grant, one
tract of land
a hundred miles square, bounded by the Snowy Range, the Rio de las
Animas and the
Arkansas. St. Vrain was, with Kit Carson found on the side of his
country in the
hour of trouble, and threw the influence of his high personal
character, great popularity,
and immense wealth, in the scale of freedom against slavery." (pp.
Here he spent
the most of his declining years. We learn from Albert D. Richardson, in
the Mississippi that, "after accumulating an ample fortune (he) went to
York City with a determination of spending his days. But he found life
and soon returned to New Mexico, vowing he would never leave it again."
Died In 1870
He was gathered
to his fathers Oct. 28, 1870. Speaking of his passing the Daily New
date of Oct. 29, 1870, said:
"DEATH OF CERAN ST. VRAIN
"We received this morning, by
from Fort Union the painful intelligence that Col. Ceran St. Vrain of
this life at six o'clock last night.
"Col. St. Vrain came to New
than forty years ago and has been one of its most highly respected and
citizens ever since. Possessed of good education, fine natural
abilities, the highest
style of courtesy and very good energy and enterprise, he at once
engaged in merchandising
and manufacturing, by the legitimate profits of which he has
accumulated a handsome
property. His upright dealing, fairness and courteous treatment of all
he came in contact won him hosts of friends, who will sincerely sorrow
at his death.
"Every enterprise looking to
of the country received willing and earnest support and sympathy from
him, and many
hundreds of honest poor men have been by him furnished with the means
to start again,
and repair the misfortunes of the past. In every part of this Territory
men who will feel that in the death of Col. St. Vrain, not only has the
lost one of its best citizens, but that they have lost one of their
truest and noblest
"To the friends of the deceased
our sincerest condolence and commend his virtues and enterprise to the
of his thousands of acquaintances in the Territory."
Mountain News of Denver, under date of Oct. 31, 1870, had this to say:
"Ft. Union, Oct. 31, 1870.
"Col. St. Vrain, the oldest
pioneer of the
Rocky Mountains died at his residence in Mora at six o'clock the 28th.
took place on Sunday the 30th and was attended by Gen. Gregg and nearly
officers of Ft. Union. Col. Starr of the 8th Cavalry with his troop
acted as escort
and the General and his staff as pall bearers. The regimental band
music. He was buried by the Masons and as Col. of Volunteers with
Over 2,000 people were present. The Services were highly impressive."
was erected over his grave with Masonic emblems ‒ square and compasses
‒ but the
writer has been informed by Bro. Z. S. Lonquevan, who for many years
Mora, that the Masonic emblems have been defaced.
should take pride in paying a tribute of respect and love to the memory
worthy brother, who was born a Spanish subject, of French extraction,
and yet whose
loyalty to the country which adopted him was the admiration of all who
Olum or Painted Record
Bro. Charles F. Irwin,
Associate Editor, Pennsylvania
and customs of the Red man are matters of deep interest to a great many
Masons, though the older and uncritical theories that a primeval form
existed among them is quite untenable. Bro. Irwin has drawn on the
great store of
material buried in forgotten books, and we hope that he may have
to tell us later on.
years there have appeared in the issues of THE BUILDER a number of
the American Indian. This is a department of American Research which
me as a field to be carefully investigated, seeing that it belongs to
the soil of
this great continent, and there is one department of such a study which
to the student a fascinating path along which to travel. It is the
legends of the
prehistoric wanderings of the various stocks of Indian. And in these
is ever to be the possibility of clues to the still more remote and
mystery: the races of prehistoric Americans known as the MOUND BUILDERS
abide to this day in earthen mounds, circles, and in fortifications,
animal and bird effigies.
speaking, there were four stocks of Indians in the United States:
ALGONKIN FAMILY ‒ They were
a widespread family found stretching from
Labrador in the northeast of the continent, westward through Canada to
and thence southward into the United States, thence eastward to the
from Maine to Florida.
IROQUOIS FAMILY ‒ They were
found surrounding the Erie and Huron Lakes
and through New York State, and eastern Pennsylvania and Maryland.
CREEK FAMILY ‒ Under this
general name were embraced in a general way
all the Indians in southern United States, such as the Muskogees,
CHEROKEES ‒ This family
presents some unique features and should be studied
apart from all the others. They were found in the states of Tennessee,
Georgia, Mississippi, and later across the Father of Waters in Indian
In each of
these four main groups there grew up a body of tradition and lore in
the form of
legends and rituals that all point back to prehistoric migrations. In
these traditions overlap and wherever this occurs we are provided with
which to make critical comparisons. They make it imperative to accept
as fact that
great movements of aborigines took place in the dim past over large
the continental area.
Was The Origin Of The
as fact that such tribal and national movements did take place, we are
led at once
to this consideration: whence did they come? From what remote places
did they depart
and what were the routes they pursued in their migrations? Did they
meet with other
peoples who were still earlier, that they found dwelling upon the soil
of our country?
If so, who were these peoples and whence did they spring? We are
restricted to narrow
limits in conjecturing on these points. But by no means has the
argument been mild.
There have been two principal theories, first, that man is indigenous
to the American
soil and like Topsy "he just grew" here. That man emerged from the
order into intelligence upon the western continent just as he did on
hemisphere; and second, that man was not indigenous to the western soil
from other lands.
theory has not had serious consideration by archaeologists while the
given rise to some interesting groups of ideas. For example, we find
among a large
group of French and Spanish writers the theory that migrations took
place from Phoenicia
via Africa and the lost continent of Atlantis, arriving on the shores
of South America
and in time spreading up through Central America into the northern
adherents of this theory hold as one of their prime reasons that the
the prehistoric peoples show a higher state of development in Central
they do in the United States, and that this indicates that the genius
of the ancient
peoples for some reason had deteriorated as time elapsed and their
them farther from the sources of their original culture.
the theory that has appealed to the Nordic American supposes that in
the dim past
migrations took place from northern Europe via Iceland and Greenland,
and that these
Nordics took root in Labrador and northeastern America and in time
spread to the
west and south. An interesting offshoot of this theory has it that one
of the Welsh, one Madoc, in the year 1100 A. D. left the shores of
Britain and landed
on the eastern American coast, and proceeded gradually to the westward
the 18th and 19th Centuries their descendants, known as White or Welsh
were to be found in the general territory of Oklahoma and Arkansas.
There was heated
controversy early in the 19th Century in the American press over this
was, however, never seriously considered by American scholars.
Migration Was From Asia
but one more possible theory and that is that migrations took place at
time across the Behring Sea, or possibly on solid ground prior to some
rupture of contact with Asia. Thence that they proceeded down the
into American territory and grew strong in the Columbia River regions,
legendary migrations of the Indians proceeded.
So much for
these explanations of the Indian and his ancestry. There is one point
in all these
theories, and that is that sooner or later the migrations became a
Indian entered the western world they were a migratory people compelled
domestic, or political pressure to remove from one area to another and
it was not
until historic times that the bounds of the American Indians became
fixed. And it
is moreover true that there were certain national movements steadily to
or rising sun. The traditions of the Indians within continental United
agree upon this point. There is one notable exception to this. The Cree
of Canada in their legend state that their forefathers came westward
‒ southwestward and westward. This series of legends stands out in bold
with the Algonquin and Iroquois and Cherokee legends. And this becomes
when you consider that the Cree and Chippewa’s belong to the Algonquin
In fact, the language of the Crees is accepted by American
archaeologists as the
purest linguistic dialect of their parent stock.
Scope of the Article
confines itself to the second of the four great Indian Stocks, namely,
This family was widespread: In Canada we find the Crees, Chippeways and
In the United States, the Pottawottomies, Miami, Peoria, Pea,
Menominee, Sac, Fox, Kicjapoo, Abnaki, Mogegan, Massachusetts, Shawnee,
Unalachtigo, Nanticoke, Powhatan, Blackfeet, Gros Ventres, and
Cheyennes. In all
these general groups we find certain linguistic, traditional and
pointing to a common origin.
of information are several.
early Missionaries, such as
Heckewelder and Loskiel of the Moravians;
Brainerd of the New England Puritans; and the Jesuits of the Roman
among the first.
first explorers, traders,
interpreters, and government agents.
records of conferences and
treaties between Whites and the Redmen, at
which time the Indians often referred to historical matters in arguing
to certain sections of the country, and in order to settle rank and
the representatives of various Indian nations.
later archeologists, especially of the early 19th Century, there
appears a man whose
career and whose personality present some of the strangest aspects to
be found among
American scholars. I refer to Prof. G. S. Rafinesque. This interesting
was born in Galata of French parentage, Oct. 22, 1783. His father died
was quite young and consequently the responsibility of his training
fell upon his
mother. She permitted him very largely to work out his own career. In
came to the United States where he remained two years. In 1804 he
sailed to Europe
and settled in Sicily. Here he married and maintained an unhappy
1815, when he returned to the United States to make it his home,
leaving his family
behind him. He made Philadelphia his home, where, except for a short
as Professor of History in Transylvania University in Kentucky, he
pursued his erratic
course until his death in 1840 amid squalor, poverty and misery.
early turned his attention to botany and became an expert in that
science. His attainments,
however, reached out into other departments of learning. He was a Latin
scholar of parts, he was master of several modern languages, he was
the science of the time, and for a period posed as a medical
a mass of manuscripts on diverse subjects, for he was an indefatigable
of these were lost in a shipwreck during his second ocean voyage to
after his death his remaining manuscripts were scattered and most of
He seems to have been shunned by most of our leading scientists of the
he belonged to a number of their societies; however, Asa Gray took
some of his botanical papers and prepared a criticism of them.
the Painted Record
the period that Rafinesque was on the staff of the University in
Kentucky, he claims
to have secured, in 1820, from a "Dr. Ward of Indiana" access to a
of wooden symbols or ideographs together with a manuscript on which
legends of the Lenni Lenape Indians. He seems to have done little with
until 1833, when he published what he called a translation of the
the Chants. He arranged these in three column series somewhat similar
to the manner
on the Rosetta Stone. He called his translation the "WALUM OLUM" or
Record of the Lenni Lenape Indians. [Lib 1882]
consists, as has been said, of three columns. The first is a series of
the second of dialectic chants, and the third his own translation of
the two into
literal English. It purports to be a metrical legend of the migrations
Indians in prehistoric times and of their contacts with other nations
thus brought into view. It did not receive consideration to any
on the part of contemporaneous scholars until Squier secured possession
of the original
manuscripts and produced an independent copy of the pictographs, chants
which he incorporated in a paper he read before the New York Historical
in 1849. Brinton, into whose hands the original manuscript had come
the death of Rafinesque, and who loaned them to Squier, has stated that
copy of the symbols is very careless and in a number of places is
that his Indian chants wander from the original manuscript in several
own conclusion after close study of this point is that Brinton is the
for the student to follow.
I give at
this time a brief example from each of the Cantos, producing the
chant and literal English translation of the same.
deals with the Creation. There is considerable similarity to the
in this Canto. The surmise is made by several scholars that this is a
proof of the
recent origin of the legend and indicates the influence of the
missionaries on the
Indians. In rebuttal the widespread appearance of this legend wherever
stock existed refutes this claim; in divergent form this legend existed
of the subdivisions of the family. Moreover, Heckewelder gives us an
of the legend and this version corroborates the WALUM OLUM in most of
In reply to this it is fair to state that charges are made that
freely from the manuscripts of Heckewelder. Brinton seems inclined to
the legend is genuine although it may contain some influences of the
ewitalli wemiguma wekgetaki.
At the first-all-see water above land.
On the earth, an extended fog, and there the great Manito was.
elemamik kitanitewit essop.
At, forever, lost in space, everywhere, the great Manito was.
Sohalawak kwelik hakik owak
He made the
extended land and the sky.
II Canto, The Deluge:
maskanako anup lennowak
Long ago there was a mighty snake and brings evil to men.
essopak shawelendamep eken shingalan.
This mighty snake hated those who were there greatly disquieted those
whom he hated.
machiton, nishawi matte lungundowin.
They both did harm, they both injured each other, both were not at
The mighty snake firmly resolved to harm the men.
tulapewini psakwiken woliwikignu wittank talli.
After the rushing waters (had subsided) the Lenape of the turtle were
in hollow houses, living together there.
kshakanakpinep, thupin akpinep.
It freezes where they abode, it snows where they abode, it storms where
it is cold where they abode.
tihill kelik meshautang sill ewak.
At the northern place, they speak favorably of mild, cool, (lands) with
peyachik wikhichik pok-wihil.
As they journeyed, some being strong, some rich, they separated into
Long ago the fathers of the Lenape were at the land of spruce pines.
Hitherto the Bald Eagle band had been the pipe-bearer.
While they were searching for the Snake Island, that great and fine
They having died, the hunters, about to depart, met together.
All was peaceful, long ago, there at the Talega land.
The Pipe-Bearer was chief at the White River.
At this time, from the north and south the whites came.
60. Langomuwak kitohatewa
peaceful, they have great things who are they?
fragments the reader will discover that we have a very important
document that reaches
back beyond the discovery of America by Europeans and that touches very
upon the era of that mysterious people who inhabited the American
continent in primeval
OLUM frequently refers to a race, as the "Tellegwi". According to the
account, this people occupied the central portion of the continent ‒
where now the
states of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio are found. They also stretched
well into Pennsylvania.
of their name is found in the Allegheny Mountains aid River. The
Tellegwi were a
warlike race, possessing considerable civilization, cultivating their
highways and walled cities. Scientific investigations carried on by the
Society have recovered to us considerable of the domestic and cultural
life of this
lost people. The Lenape legend ascribed to them these qualities and
the Iroquois nation and themselves joined hands and for years fought
the Tellegwi and at last expelled them from their homes and country and
southward down the Ohio Valley. There are reasons for believing that
Indians are the lineal descendants of these Tellegwi, and if so, are
First Families of America.
Olum supplies the American archeologist with a text which, supplemented
aboriginal documents, furnishes us with considerable information as to
of the ancient American Algonkin stock.
of that day had a trinity of objects of worship: Light, Winds, Totemic
the Light. They did this under three forms: the Sun, Fire, and the Hare.
"Life and Journal," [Lib 1793] says "Others imagined the sun
to be the only deity, and that all things were made by him."
festivals, the fifth was held in honor of "fire." They personified fire
and called it "the grandfather of all Indian Nations." They assigned to
it twelve divine assistants, represented by so many actors in the
has very clear reference to the twelve moons or months of the year, the
a type of the heavenly blaze ‒ the sun. [See Loskiel [Lib 1794], Geschichte, etc.] Both sun
fire were material emblems of the mystery of Light. Out in the Fair
Grounds at Newark,
Ohio, is found one of the remarkable enclosures of the Mound Builders.
It has but
one opening. In the center of the immense enclosure is the dirt effigy
of some great
winged creature. It is flying straight toward this one opening. In the
1917 my family gypsied with our auto through southern Ohio and we
encamped in this
enclosure overnight. At daybreak my children stood on the top of the
looked across its body toward that one opening and discovered they were
at the sun as it rose over the eastern hills.
The son and
fire became the body or fountain of deity [Brainerd]. Something "all
a being in whom the earth and all things in it may be seen, a "great
with the day, yea, with the brightest day, a day of many years, a day
continuance." Light was also worshipped under the symbol of the Hare.
The Delawares applied to the Hare the appellation "Grandfather of the
[Loskiel.] Like the fire, the hare was considered their ancestor, in
was meant, their word for "hare" was identical with their word for
and light.” Now the “Light” worship among the Delaware Indians has an
bearing on several points in the Walum Olum. No compounds are more
frequent in that
document than those with the root signifying "light", "brightness".
Given To the Four
worshipped the four cardinal points. This worship was parallel with
that of Light
and very probably was a part of it. These four cardinal points appear
as the four
winds, they bring the rain and sunshine, they rule over the weather.
"after the strictest inquiry respecting their notions of the Deity, I
that in ancient times before the coming of the white people, some
were four invisible powers who presided over the four corners of the
Held in the Soul
a general belief in a soul, spirit, or immaterial part of man. Their
words for soul
tschipey ‒ root ‒ to be
separate or apart.
tschitschank ‒ root ‒ the
the soul went south. It enjoyed here a happy life for a certain term of
could return and be born again into the world. In certain ecstasies
this soul had
power to recall its former existences, both mundane and purgatorial.
Thus we learn
that the Aboriginal American, especially of the Algonquin stock, had
of an exceedingly ancient lineage, extending over vast reaches of land
he had developed a religious cult that found place for the invisible
forces of the
spiritual world. God had a meaning to him and he found in himself a
Moreover, he projected life beyond the limits of the physical world and
certain great virtues inherent in his cosmogony. As time stretches out,
of man on the American continents will appeal increasingly to the
Trend of opinion is assigning to him more ancient epochs than was
Meanwhile, the student of American life will find it profitable to
legends of these Lenape Indians and their observations recorded by
who lived among them.
paraphrase of the Walum Olum, as found in Drake's Aboriginal Races of
is given here at length.
I. The Creation
the first there were great
waters above all the land.
above the waters were thick
clouds, and there was God the Creator.
first being, eternal,
omnipotent, invisible, was God the Creator.
created vast waters, great
lands, and much air and heaven;
created the sun the moon,
and the stars;
caused them all to move well
His power He made the winds
to blow, purifying, and the deep waters to
was made bright and the
islands were brought into being
again God the Creator made
the great Spirits,
made also the first beings,
angels and souls
made He a man being, the
father of men
gave him the first mother,
the mother of the early born
gave He him, turtles,
beasts and birds.
the Evil Spirit created
evil beings, snakes and monsters
created vermin and annoying
were all beings friends.
being a good God, all
spirits were good ‒
beings, the first men,
mothers, wives, little spirits also.
fruits were the food of the
beings and the little spirits:
were then happy, easy in
mind, and pleased.
then came secretly on earth
the snake (evil) god, the snake-priest and
then bad weather, disease
was all very long ago, at
our early home.
II. The Deluge
ago came the powerful
serpent (maskanako), when men had become evil.
strong serpent was the foe
of the beings, and they became embroiled,
hating each other.
they fought and despoiled
each other, and were not peaceful.
the small men (mattapewi)
fought with the keeper of the dead.
the strong serpent
resolved all men and beings to destroy immediately.
black serpent, monster,
brought the snake-water rushing, everywhere destroying.
wide waters rushing, wide
to the hills, everywhere spreading, everywhere
the island of the turtle
(Tula) was Manabozho, of men and beings the grandfather
born creeping, at turtle
land he is ready to move and dwell.
and beings all go forth on
the flood of waters, moving 18 afloat everyway
seeking the back of the turtle (tulapin).
monsters of the sea were
many, and destroyed some of them.
the daughter of a spirit
helped them in a boat and all joined, saying,
of all beings, of
men and turtles, the grandfather!
together on the turtle
then, the men then, were all together.
prayed to the turtle that he would make all well
the waters ran off, it was
dry on mountain and plain and the great evil
went elsewhere by the path of the cave.
the flood the true men
(lennapwi) were with the turtle in the cave
was then cold, it froze and
the northern plain, they
went to possess milder lands, abounding in
That they might be strong and
rich, the newcomers divided the lands between
the hunters and tillers (wickhichik, elowichik ) .
hunters were the strongest,
the best, the greatest.
spread north, east, south,
the white, or snow country
(lumowaki), the north country, the turtle land
and the hunting country, were the turtle men, or Linapiwi.
Snake (evil) people being
afraid in their cabins, the snake priest (Nakopowaj
said to them, let us go away.
they went to the east, the
snake land sorrowfully leaving.
escaped the snake people,
but the trembling and burned land to their
strong island (Akomenaki).
from oppressors, and
without trouble, the Northlings (Lowaniwi) all
went forth separating in the land of snow ( Winiaken ) .
the waters of the open sea,
the sea of fish, tarried the fathers of the
white-eagle (tribe?) and the white wolf.
fathers were rich;
constantly sailing in their boats, they discovered
to the eastward the Snake island.
said the Head-beaver
(Wihlamok) and the Greatbird, let us go to the
responded, let us go and
annihilate the snakes.
agreed, the northlings, the
easterlings, to pass the frozen waters.
They all went over
the waters of the hard, stony sea, to the open
vast numbers, in a single
night, they went to the eastern or Snake island;
all of them marching by night in the darkness.
easterlings, the southerlings ( Shawanapi), the Beaver-men
(Tamakwapis), the Wolf men, the Hunters or best men, the priests
wiliwapi, with their wives and daughters and their dogs.
all arrived at the land of
Firs (Shinaking), where they tarried, but
the western men (Wunkenapi) hesitating, desired to return to the old
ago, our fathers were at
Shinaki, or Fir land.
White Eagle (Wapalanewa)
was the path leader of all to this place.
searched the great and
fine land, the island of the snakes.
hardy hunters and the
friendly spirits met in council.
And all said to Kalawil
(Beautiful Head): be thou chief ( sakima ) here.
chief he commanded they
should go against the snakes.
the Snakes were weak and
hid themselves at the Bear Hills.
(White Owl) was sakima at Fir land.
him Jantowit (Maker) was
after him Chilili
(Snowbird) was sakima. The south, he said ‒
our fathers, they were able,
spreading, to possess.
the south went Chilili; to
the east went Tamakwi.
Southland (Shawanaki) was
beautiful, shoreland abounding in tall firs.
The East Land (Wapanaki)
abounded in fish, it was the lake and buffalo land.
Chilili, Agamek (Great
Warrior) was chief.
our fathers warred against
the robbers, Snakes, bad men, and strong
men, Chikonapi, Akhonapi, Makatopi, Assinapi.
Agamek came ten chiefs
and then were many wars south, east, and west.
them was Langundowi (the
Peaceful) sakima, at the Aholaking (Beautiful
him Tasukamend (Never
bad), who was a good and just man.
chief after him was
Pemaholend (Ever beloved), who did good.
Matemik (Town builder) and
after these in succession,
Gunokeni, who was father long, and Mangipetak
followed Olumapi (Bundle
of sticks), who taught them pictures (records)
then Takwachi (Who shivers
with cold), who went southward to the Corn
was Huminiend (Corn
eater), who caused corn to be planted.
Alko-ohit (The Preserver),
who was useful.
Shiwpowi (Salt man) and
afterwards Penkwonowi (The Thirsty) when
was no rain, and no corn,
and he went to the east far from the great
river or shore.
over a hollow mountain
(Oligonunk) they at last found food at Shililaking,
the plains of the buffalo-land.
Mekwoehella (the Weary), and Chingalsawi (the Stiff).
him, Kwitikwund (the
Reprover), who was disliked and not willingly
angry, some went to the
eastward, and some went secretly afar off.
wise tarried, and made
Makaholend (the Beloved) chief.
the Wisawana (Yellow River)
they built towns, and raised corn on the great
being friends, Tamenend
(the Amiable) lit beaverlike, became the first
The best of all, then or since,
was Tamenend, and all men were his friends.
him was the good chief,
Wapikicholen (White Crane).
then Wingenund (the Mindful
or Wary), who made feasts.
him came Lapawin (the
White) and Wallama (the Painted ) and
(White Bird), when
there was war again, north and south.
was Tamaskan (Strong Wolf)
chief, who was wise in council, and
made war on all, and killed
Maskensini (Great Stone).
(the Whole) was next
chief, and made war on the Snakes (Akowini).
(Strong and Good)
followed, and made war on the northern enemies
(the Lean) was next
chief, and made war on the Father-snakes (Towakon).
Opekasit (East Looking) being
next chief, was sad because of so much warfare.
let us go to the
sunrising (Wapagishek), and many went east together.
great river (Missussipi)
divided the land, and being tired, they tarried
(Hut Maker) was next
sakima, and then the Tallegwi were found
possessing the east.
Friend), who longed for the rich eastland.
went to the east, but the
Tallegwi killed a portion.
all of one mind exclaimed,
Talmaton (Not of
Themselves) and the Nitilowan all go united (to the
(Sharp Looking) was
their leader, and they went over the river.
they took all that was
there, and despoiled and slew the Tallegwi.
was next chief, and then the Tallegwi were much
followed, and many towns were given up to him.
was chief and the
Tallegwi all went southward.
was sakima, and all the people were pleased.
of the lakes they settled
their council fire, and north of the lakes
were their friends the Talamaton (Huron?).
were not always friends,
but conspired when Gunitakan was chief.
was Linniwolamen who made
war of the Talamaton.
followed, and then
the Talamatons trembled.
were peaceful long ago, at
the land of the Tallegwi.
was Tamaganenu (weaver
Leader) chief at the White River.
(White Lynx) followed
and much corn was planted.
came Walichinik, and the
people became very numerous.
was Lekhitin, and made
many records (Walum Olum) or painted sticks.
Bird), at the place of much fruit or food.
was chief over many
Pepomahemen (Paddler), at
many waters (or the great waters).
Tankawon (Little Cloud) was
chief, and many went away.
Nentegos and the Shawanis
went to the southward
(Big Beaver) was
chief at the White Lick.
Good Prophet (Onowatok)
went to the west.
visited those who were
abandoned there and at the southwest.
(Water Turtle) was
chief at the Talegahonah ( Ohio ) river.
(Walker) was next
chief, and there was much warfare.
the Towako (Father
Snakes), against the Sinako (Stone or Mountain
Snakes), and against the I,owako (North Snakes).
(Grandfather-of-boats) chief, and he warred against
the snakes in boats.
(Snow Hunter) was
the chief at the north land.
Likwekinuk (Sharp Seer) was
chief at the Allegheny Mountains (Talegachukang).
Wapalawikwon (East Settler)
was chief east of the Tallegwi land.
and long was the east
had no enemies (snakes) and
was a rich and good land.
Gikenopolat (Great Warrior)
was chief towards the north.
Hanaholend (Stream Lover)
at the branching stream (Saswihanang, or Susquehanna).
Gattawisi (the Fat) was
sakima at the Sassafras land.
were hunters from the big
Salt Water (Goshikshapipek), to the again sea.
(Red Arrow) was
chief at tide-water.
Wolomenap was chief at the
the Wapanend and the
Tumewand were to the north.
(Good Fighter) was
chief, and set out against the north.
trembled the Mahongwi (The
Iroquois) and the Pungelika (Lynx-like or
the second Tamenend
(Beaver) was chief and he made peace with all
all were friends, all
united under this great chief
him was Kichitamak
(Great-good-beaver) chief in the Sassafras land.
(White Body) was chief
at the seashore.
(the Friendly) was
chief, and much good was done.
Pitemunen was chief, and
people came from somewhere.
this time from the east came
that which was white (vessels?).
was chief and made
was next chief,
and was a warrior at the south.
made war on the Otaliwako
(Cherokee snakes or enemies) and upon the Akowetako
(White Otter) was
next chief, and made the Talamatons friends.
followed and visited
the land of Tallegwi at the west.
were the Hiliniki
(Illinois?), the Shawani, and the Kenowiki.
was also chief and
went to the great lakes.
he visited the Wemiamik
(Beaver Children, or Miamis) and made them friends.
(Cranberry-eater), who made the Tawa (Ottawas) friends.
was chief and
visited the Noisy place
Tashawinso was chief at the
the children divided into
three parts, the Unamini (Turtle tribe), the
Minsimini (Wolf tribe), the Chikimini (Turkey tribe).
was chief, and
fought the Mahongwim, but failed.
was chief, and the
was chief, yonder
Otawili and Wasiotowi were
(White Crab) was
chief, and a friend of the shore people.
was chief towards
from the north and south
came the Wapagachik (White comers).
to be friends, in
big birds (ships), who are they?
- BRINTON: Lenape and Their
Legends. [Lib 1882], Library of Aboriginal
Literature. Vol. 5. 1885. Phila.
- BEACH: Indian Migrations in his
"Indian Miscellany." [Lib 1877]
- Halo: Indian Migrations as
by Language [Lib 1883]. 1883. Chicago.
- LACOMBE: Dictionnaire de la langue
des Cries [Lib 1874]. 1874. Montreal.
- HOWSE: A Grammar of the Cree
Language [Lib 1844]. 1842. London.
- SHEA: Province of Maryland [Lib
1880]. George Alsop.
- SHEA: American Historical
Magazine [Lib*]. Vol. 2.
- Guss: Early Indian History on
the Susquehanna [Lib 1883]. 1883. Harrisburg.
- HECKEWELDER: History of Indian
Nations. [Lib 1876]
- JONES: History of Ojibwa
- JONES: Relation
des Jesuits 1637. [Lib 1638]
- HAYWOOD: Natural and Aboriginal
of Tennessee [Lib 1823]. 1823. Nashville.
he Missions. [Lib
- ETTWEIN: Traditions and
Language of the Indian Nations [Lib*]. 1788.
- DRUMMOND: Articles in American
Philosophical Association [Lib*]. 1872.
- DRUMMOND: Proceedings of the
American Philosophical Society [Lib*].
- BRUNNER: The Indians of Berks
Co., Penna [Lib 1897]. 1881. Reading.
- RICHARDSON: John Richardson's
Diary [Lib*]. 1844. London.
- SCHOOLCRAFT: History and
Statistics of the Indian Tribes. [Lib*]
- DE SCHWEINTZ: Life
of Zeisberger [Lib 1870].
Key Into the Language of America. [Lib 1643]
- ADAIR. History of the Indians
- BRINTON: Myths of the New
World. [Lib 1896]
- BRAINERD: Life and Journal.
- BRAINERD: Pennsylvania
Historical Society Bulletins. 1848. [Lib*]
- HARRISON: A Discourse on the
Aborigines of the Valley of the Ohio. 1838.
- GALLATIN: Transactions American
Antiquity. [Lib 1820-1911; (11 Volumes –
- DRAKE: Aboriginal Races of
North America [Lib 1859].
of the Modern Operatives
Bro. R.J. Meekren
was partly written two years ago at the request of Bro. Haywood, while
was in England where he had the privilege of seeing and hearing a good
deal at first
hand on the subject. It has been completed with a view to presenting
the other side
of the case so ably advocated by Bro. Springett in his article that
the August and September numbers of The Builder, Bro. Wonnacott very
additional information for this purpose, and permission to use his name.
within the first decade of the present century, I put it thus
indefinitely for so
far I have not been able to learn exactly when or how the first
made, the members of the Craft in England were intrigued by statements
of Operative Masons were still in existence, and working the original
rites as handed down from a remote past.
a north of England Civil Engineer, claimed to be one of the three chief
of this organization. Dr. Carr became one of his disciples, and wrote
pamphlet, The Ritual of the Operative Freemasons [Lib 1911], and later Dr. Merz in this
published Guild Masonry in the Making [Lib 1918], while John Yarker acted in
by various statements and references in certain of his works. The
claims made by
these brethren were naturally heard with mingled feelings by Masonic
is not easy to mentally adjust oneself to facts that appear to
undermine the very
presuppositions of all one's previous work. An analogous case in
science was the
discovery of radio-activity, which necessitated an entire revision of
physical hypotheses and an abandonment of the older theory of
inert atoms as the substratum of matter.
impulse, and a perfectly normal and sane one, is to doubt such alleged
and to put it to the most searching tests. This Masonic students did
with the claims
of the "Operative" Masons: yet on the other hand they showed a perfect
willingness to be convinced, and many of them took a great deal of
were willing to agree to any possible conditions that might be laid
down for an
examination of the records said to be in the possession of the
In short, it cannot be said that these claims met with an intolerant or
examination; and if the weight of Masonic scholarship has finally
it is due to a continued refusal, or inability, to produce any tangible
It is certainly curious that not only have the ritual secrets of the
communicated freely to Speculative Masons, but in the works of the
mentioned they have been published to the world at large, so far as it
may be interested;
while inspection of minute books and accounts has been consistently
refused on various
Claims Made By the Operatives
It may be
as well to recapitulate the more or less official statements and claims
of the modern
Operative or Guild Masons, the full title of whose society is "The
Society of Freemasons, Rough Masons, Wallers, Slaters, Paviors,
It may be
noted, by the way, that while the name of the society indicates that it
all these occupations connected with building yet apparently only the
are actually admitted into the lodges, though Carr does say that a
Fellow will exchange
the apprentice grip with a bricklayer, but will go no further. The
according to the accounts given, is divided into two, the arch and
and a man must belong to one or other exclusively, except that the
masters are free
of both, and form the link that unites the two branches into one
the lodges of the lower degrees are separate for each. The Apprentice
is not considered
a member of the society, though obligated and entrusted with certain
When he has served his time he becomes a Fellow, from which degree he
to Super-Fellow, and from that to Super-Fellow Erector. Then he may
become a Superintendent
and after that a Passed Master. From the Passed Masters on is annually
be one (the junior) of the three Masters who rule the society. This
filled annually, the second and third Masters holding office for life
or until they
of the first grade correspond to those of Entered Apprentice in
and Fellow to the Fellow Craft. Super-Fellow and Erector parallel
Masonry, while the degree of Master Mason is said to be an imitation of
ceremonies connected with the election and installation of the Third
is said to represent H.A.B., only the ceremony is used to retire the
the office at the end of his term and give an occasion to install his
instead of being an initiation into a higher grade. From the accounts
given us there
is one idea specially worked out in the ritual of each of the first
which is that the candidate is made to emblematically represent the
stone, in its
rough and polished states and as marked and set in its place in the
give a very detailed account of the origin of present day Speculative
lay all the blame on Dr. Anderson, who it would seem, poor man, has
set of sins to answer for in addition to those that have been laid at
his door by
modern scholars, of unreliability in his historical accounts and his
tendencies in religion. By this account he was Chaplain to the old
Lodge of St.
Paul's (this same account, by the way, is the authority that there was
such a lodge)
and that he irregularly admitted sundry gentlemen as honorary members
of the Craft.
For this he was expelled, and in consequence proceeded to set up a
in conjunction with those whom he had irregularly introduced (who
included, it is
said, Dr. Desaguliers, Sayer and George Payne) and from this
lodge the Grand Lodge of 1717 shortly after arose. Dr. Carr says:
"In 1717, under the influence
of Dr. Anderson
and his friends, some Operative Freemasons with some of these
or Speculative Freemasons, belonging to four lodges in London, met and
first Grand Lodge, a combination in which Speculative Masonry instead
Masonry was the primary consideration. Architecture and Operative tools
but the ritual was based on the Ritual of the old Operative Society, of
it was largely a reproduction.
"The Apprentice Degree and the
Degree were founded on the corresponding degrees of the Operative
"Later on, when a Master's
Degree ‒ not
a Master of a lodge, but a Master Mason ‒ was added, Anderson and his
a ceremony based on the Operatives' Annual Festival of Oct. 2,
slaying of Hiram Abiff at the building of King Solomon's Temple.
"The real Secrets and real
Ritual of the
Operative Master's Degree could not be given, as but few knew them,
those who had actually been one of the three Masters, Seventh Degree,
by whom the
Operatives were ruled, and Anderson had certainly not been one of
these; his function
having been that of Chaplain, although it is quite possible he had been
an Accepted member of the Craft some years previously in Scotland."
Now of course
if Operative Masonry did consist of a two-branched seven-degree
if Sir Christopher Wren was chief Master of the lodge that built St.
when Anderson was Chaplain, then this account might be accepted; but as
organization of the Craft is one of the very points at issue it must be
doubt till the matter is decided.
three lines of criticism which may be followed. The strictly historical
The time and occasion when modern Operative Masonry was first heard of,
of its claims, the attempts of qualified students to find out more
about it, the
constant evasions of Bro. Stretton, and his refusal to meet direct,
inquiries concerning the alleged continuous records. There is in the
of Bro. Wonnacott, Grand Librarian of the United Grand Lodge of
England, a collection
of letters from Stretton to a prominent member of the Craft now
a period of about five years. In these letters one can see a gradual
the claims and characteristics of the Guild organization; to use Bro.
own phrase, one "can almost see it grow"; and by comparing dates, it is
even possible to see what books Stretton had been reading. In one
he flatly contradicted himself. One of the earlier letters gives a
half-jocular, account of the initiation of the landlady of a public
the meetings were held, into the first degree, so that she could be
free to enter
the lodge with refreshments when required. As the Operative ritual
candidate to be stripped naked this was somewhat embarrassing, as
Stretton was at
pains to explain. Some years later he repudiates the idea that ever
under any circumstances
could a woman be admitted. Masonic students in England are personally
aware of all
these circumstances and so far it has not seemed to them worthwhile to
collect the facts concerning these claims. But for the coming
generation, and for
those at a distance it would be well if some qualified brother should
task in hand.
of approach is through a criticism of the Operative ritual itself in
the light of
all the facts known about the Speculative ritual forms, and a third
would be a consideration
from a technical point of view of the alleged Operative trade secrets
of planning and laying out buildings. To deal with these two aspects of
we need no more evidence than is furnished by the writings of the
partisans of the
We may start
with the title itself. We have already pointed out the contradiction
between a Society
of Rough Masons, Plasterers, Bricklayers and others that does not admit
of these trades to more than a first degree, which is expressly stated
to be exterior
(that is, the apprentice is not a member of the Society) so that though
or Pavior may be given the apprentice grip and word he does not really
Merz in his Guild Masonry in the Making alludes to a number of
instances of Guilds
or Companies composed of a group of crafts including masons. He also
gives in full
the charter given by the Bishop of Durham to a Guild in that city in
1638. The curious
thing in this (it is not a charter of constitution, but of
confirmation) is that
in the preamble it speaks of the Society having formerly existed under
of Rough Masons, Wallers, Slaytors, Pavers, Playsterers and Bricklayers
‒ the title
is mentioned twice, the second time to say that "from henceforth and
it is to be "in deed and name one body politiq ppetuall and incorporate
the name of the Company society and fellowship of freemasons,
etc." That is the freemasons are from thenceforward to be a part of
corporation. How this can be evidence of any esoteric organization is
hard to see.
All such guilds and companies composed of like (and in some cases
were formed for purely local and sectional reasons, to make rules for
concerned, to inspect work done and, especially, to prevent the
employment of "furriners,"
men without the freedom of the city. Again all the old MS.
that there must be no consorting with roughmasons or layers ‒ probably
same class of workmen as wallers, yet according to the modern Guild
rules they are
allowed to enter as apprentices. Yet the old "Charges" are claimed as
being really Guild documents! They certainly are operative documents,
but the assumption
of the term operative by a modern organization gives the latter no
claim on them
except by confusion of thought.
There Seven Degrees?
point is the hierarchy of seven grades or degrees. We must all heartily
Bro. Merz that the medieval Masons could have devised and worked a
ritual, but the question is not whether they had the ability but
whether they actually
did so. If the modern Operatives did not appeal to the Old Charges and
records of the Craft we could have little to say, for it is hard to
prove a negative.
Such an organization might have existed, might have been perpetuated,
but it would
be something quite other than the organization that we know did exist.
But if they
bring the records of this last as evidence for their claims it seems
they can only
be disallowed, for the Mason craft of which we have documentary
three ranks and two grades, or if not two then only one. This last is
to some extent
still an open question ‒ but the bearing is the same, however decided.
three ranks known ‒ the Masters, employing other men, the Fellows and
In degree, either all ranks were included in one esoteric grade or the
grade was one step and Master or Fellow another.
Titles Sound Modern
of the seven Operative degrees give the impression of modernity rather
SuperFellow and SuperFellow Erector are very clumsy titles ‒ not such
as would stand
the wear and tear of centuries. A "banker" or "setter", a "layer",
"cutter", or "carver" are terms that could be and have been
used. But the prefix "super" applied to fellow is not easy to say, it
does not run smoothly. It also suggests some forgotten side degrees of
eighteenth century Speculatives, such as Super-excellent Master, a much
title, by the way, than Superfellow, though it has been practically
the more sonorous Most-excellent. The sixth grade is called Passed
composes the body of Harodim. Passed or Past Master is a simple, smooth
phrase that might be of any age, only there is no evidence in any
that it was actually used until after the crucial year of 1717 and the
of the Speculative organization. So far as can be gathered it meant
either one whom we would call a Past Master, or what we intend when we
say one has
been raised a Master. The terms pass and raise were at first used
for either or both the Speculative degrees of Fellowcraft and Master
is again a curious term. It is not impossible, of course, that it might
used in medieval times, but it is quite certain that we first hear of
it in connection
with Speculative Masonry. It sounds very much like a bit of the learned
that marked the period in which the latter was organized. Until some
record of its
previous use can be adduced it rather points to modern invention than
In the actual
ceremonies themselves as they have been described to us there are many
that seem to indicate an evolution from the Speculative ritual used in
the present time. Some of these points indeed are even used by the
the "Guild" claims as evidence for their contention. The mere fact of
resemblance proves nothing one way or the other, nor does it follow
that the more
developed is necessarily the original, it may be an evolution from the
For instance, Bro. Carr in a paper read before the Author's Lodge (1)
makes a point
of the fact that in an Operative masters lodge three mountains
with Hebrew history are referred to, Moriah, Tabor and Sinai. Then he
in the special form of opening the lodge in the English Grand and
Lodges the Grand Wardens are said to have their stations on Tabor and
The argument is that because the Speculative ritual does not go on to
Grand Master on Moriah this ceremony is an imperfect reflection of the
form. So it might be if there were nothing else to consider. But when
that this Tabor, Sinai form is peculiar to England, and that it is
Grand Lodge, we have to hesitate, because to fully appraise the problem
remember that other Speculative ritual traditions are of equal value to
Union ritual of England, if indeed they are not of even greater weight,
are trying to work back to early eighteenth century forms. Briefly we
the oldest catechisms referred to high hills and to the Valley of
was quite sufficient to have been the germ of the Grand Lodge formula
and the Operative
addition could have well been a still further evolution, put in
their method of placing the officers in just the opposite positions to
have in Speculative Masonry, that is WestEast-North instead of
But all the earliest ritual evidence, which must almost certainly take
the supposed Andersonian innovations, goes to show that the Master's
place was always
East and the Warden's (for at first there seems, at least in some
places, only to
have been one) in the West.
In the Operative
system a great deal is made of the great secret of the 3-4-5 sided
each of the three Masters has a rod of proportionate length, so that
with the three
such a triangle can be made. This Operative grade is equated with the
In the English form of this degree each of the three principal officers
scepter, and at a certain point in the ceremonies a triangle is formed
an equilateral triangle. Here again just from these facts alone the
have been one way or the other. The Operative theory is that the
framers had a vague inkling of the formation of a triangle but did not
significance. But we know, curiously enough through Bro. Yarker himself
made a beautifully written copy for the Library of the Grand Lodge of
another for Quatuor Coronati Lodge, that a form of lectures used by
at the end of the eighteenth century contained this great Operative
secret, so that
it was quite well known to the Speculative Craft late in the eighteenth
An argument based on this being unknown to them must fall to the ground
in the light
of this evidence.(2)
is made of the length and complexity of the Operative ceremonies, and
to technicalities and trade secrets. But inherently this would seem to
to invention than to tradition. A ceremony is no place for practical
The apprentice was not taught in a class but as he worked. At the end
of his apprenticeship
he was a master of his craft, he knew all the trade secrets and
operations and had
the manual skill to employ them.
is described of stretching a cord between the stations of the three
so as to make a triangle, and then the measurement of the three angles
must make three right angles. The three angles of any triangle must
two right angles, though to measure the angle made by a stretched cord
difficult enough to do with any accuracy ‒ and as useless as difficult.
of the Pole Star and the Swastika again sounds very like a borrowing
researches; one would guess that the framer of these rituals had read
work on the Buddhist Prayer Wheel, and other works of like content that
in the late nineties of last century or the first years of the present
he was acquainted with the various theories advanced by Masonic
scholars, such as
the old one that the Royal Arch was originally part of the third degree
‒ a hypothesis
that seems the less tenable the more closely it is considered in the
light of known
facts; or the opinion that the "Lodge" is derived from the "Guild,"
which brings many unnecessary difficulties in its train; or the very
that Craft ceremonies are ultimately of Hebrew origin, which has led to
learned darkening of counsel by multitudes of words.
we have been considering are not of course conclusive, but taken
together in the
light of the constant refusal to submit any of the documentary evidence
said to be in the possession of the Operative Society they certainly
make a strong
case for rejection of the claims made for its continuous existence, in
form, from time immemorial. It is difficult to get over the
with which esoteric and ritual secrets have been published while such
things as minutes and books of account have been withheld. The story
that they are
in a secret vault that only the Masters can enter, and from which they
removed, is not very convincing. Bro. Carr is of the Master's Grade,
yet he has
apparently never seen them, at least he has never said so publicly, nor
has he ever
dwelt on the point, although it has always been the first one to be
raised by every
serious student when confronted by the Operative claims.
Bro. Gilbert W. Daynes
IN the course
of the ceremony of raising a Mason to the Sublime Degree of a Master
Mason, as practiced
in England, the attention of the candidate is drawn to certain emblems
which it is hoped will guide his reflections to that most interesting
of all human
studies, the knowledge of himself. The maxim, "Know thyself," was no
maxim when the ritual of our Masonic ceremonies was expanded and
the eighteenth century. We know that, far back in the dim distant past,
oracles made use of it. Its origin has been ascribed to one who has
recognized as the founder of Greek geometry, astronomy and philosophy ‒
Miletus ‒ who flourished during the sixth century B. C., and was the
chief of the
Seven Wise Men of Greece. Chilon of Sparta ‒ another of the seven ‒
makes use of
the maxim in his writings, and the saying was also inscribed over the
Apollo's Temple at Delphi. Right down the ages this axiom has been
quoted and its
eternal verity demonstrated. Christian sages have held it in the
and we find many passages in the V.S.L. which point out, in clear and
terms, its sterling worth. For instance, are we not told in Chapter
XVII of St.
Luke, verse 21, that "the kingdom of God is within you?" There can be
no surer way to that haven of eternal happiness and peace than by
learning to "Know
to more recent times we find Alexander Pope clothing this maxim in
"Know then thyself, presume not
God to scan;
The proper study of mankind is man."
in the same poem, the maxim is again brought into focus, and we read:
"That virtue only makes our
And all our knowledge is, ourselves to know."
It is not
surprising, therefore, that Freemasonry, in its system of morality
out the desirability for its members to acquire such a knowledge. Many
may say that
the principle enunciated is self-evident, and that it is therefore not
to lay stress upon it. It may be true that the advantage of knowing
obvious; but, as the acquisition of that knowledge is by no means easy,
search after it neglected in so many cases, is it not well that we as
have this truth brought continually to our notice as we listen to the
the Third Degree? It is to our profit that we should be made to realize
and guidance that a knowledge of one's self can give, for, as William
truly tells us, "There is nothing that helps a man in his conduct
more than a knowledge of his own characteristic weaknesses which,
become his strength." It is for want of such knowledge that men go
and utilize their faculties for ignoble ends. There must be no straying
from the Road of Conscience and Reason; and the precept, "Know
is the best and surest guide, or signpost, to the true road to follow.
Nor is it
surprising that this maxim should find its place in the ceremony of the
in which are gathered together the fruits of those Degrees which
precede it. The
Master Mason should consider this charge to "Know thyself," a standing
rule of conduct of life, and strive diligently to perfect himself in
knowledge. By the study of ourselves ‒ the sum of wisdom ‒ those tenets
the basis of Freemasonry can be observed. By a searching knowledge of
we may hope to steer the bark of this life over the seas of passion
the helm of rectitude, and so subdue our passions and prejudices that
they may coincide
with the just line of our conduct. As Francis Bacon correctly has it,
is power." Just as knowledge of outside matters will give to the man
it a power over his more ignorant fellowmen, so also will knowledge of
give us a power over those unworthy feelings which tend to be uppermost
human beings. It is by means of such knowledge that man realizes that
he does not
live merely for himself, but is part of one vast humanity.
no better method of grasping and taking to heart those great Masonic
which the brotherhood would instill into all its members, than by
maxim, "Know thyself." Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth will become
factors in a Mason's life. The spirit of Love, as defined in the
a standard for attainment; Charity, in its fullest sense, wells up and
heart; and Truth comes to the front, thrusting falsehood and dishonor
into the abyss.
By acquiring knowledge of yourself the shackles of ignorance and
prejudice may be
struck off, and the garments of goodness and humility donned. Fortified
a knowledge all matters are put to the highest test, and only the good
also, the voice of conscience becomes strengthened and more audible to
true way. In short, it cannot be too strongly brought home to every
Mason that it
is by introspection that the mind is guided into the right channels;
and that by
a thorough knowledge of one's self the Mason is given strength and
courage to practice,
outside in the world, those beautiful principles and tenets he is
the lodge. The truth of the maxim is brought home by its practice, and
thus we are
made to feel that more wisdom cannot well be crowded into less room
than in those
two short words, "Know thyself." The immortal Shakespeare must have
the true inwardness of this precept, for, in Hamlet, when Polonius is
certain principles of character to Laertes, he concludes thus:
"This above all ‒ to thine own
self be true;
And it must follow, as the night the day
Thou canst not then be false to any man."
in Vermont Masonry
Bro. Herbert H. Hines,
of Probate, Secretary of State for Vermont, State Senator, Clerk of
Courts, Master of Warren Lodge, Woodstock, Vt., at the time of its
Was made an honorary Mason in 1856 for fidelity throughout the
Postmaster General under President Taylor; Chief Justice of the Supreme
Vermont. United States Senator. Made an honorary Mason in 1856 because
not and did not desert" Freemasonry when it was "assailed the fiercest,
and when weak-minded and faint-hearted brethren were swept away before
(Records of Woodstock Lodge, No. 31.)
often find themselves governed by curiosity. They have not yet learned
to all the questions, and very often face the symbolism of the ancient
with a great deal of bewilderment. It very often seems that a strange,
is asking, "In your present blind condition, what do you most desire?"
No answer comes until a familiar voice whispers, "Further light in
As long as further light in Masonry is the desire, curiosity leads in
The following account may be taken as a sample of some of the results
on the part of one whose Masonic experience is still so limited that he
outside the northeast corner. It may also be a warning that not enough
of the older
brothers assisted in bringing him to Masonic light.
three questions that come to one before he has gone very far into the
the Vermont lodges:
Why did the old lodges disband?
Why were they reorganized?
What does it mean today?
question is the most difficult to answer; the second is largely left to
while the third is answered in the spirit of the Craft today. It might
as centering around three dates: 1832, 1850 and 1925. It takes us back
to one of
the most unstudied periods in American history. Yet to us, interested
the ancient landmarks that anti-Masonry more nearly defeated than we
like to think,
the years from 1826-1845 are of unusual interest.
When we turn
to our most reliable information we read that a dissolute, shiftless
in Batavia, New York, a man who had "failed in everything else …
make money by betraying the secrets of an order which his presence
That he was foolishly arrested on a trumped-up charge and afterwards
taken by a
few Masons, with or without his consent, who "got him out of the
apparently paid him to stay out." There should have been no attention
to him. But "rumors of abduction started." It was said that he had been
"thrown into Niagara," or otherwise killed. There is "no proof that
he was ever killed." The Governor of New York made every effort to
punish any possible murderer. The wild rumors, however, soon reached
quickly penetrated to every village and hamlet within its borders.
In the future
historian's unprejudiced analysis of the causes of anti-Masonry, the
by William Morgan will be as insignificant as that of the killing of an
unknown man in a forgotten city of Central Europe in the real causes of
War. Today we know how it was seized for political propaganda by
Thurlow Weed and
his "pack of unscrupulous politicians"; of Weed's statement: "It's
a good enough Morgan until after election," and how it spread like a
fire, and about as disastrously. Politically it centered in the
election of 1832
in which the Democrats re-nominated Andrew Jackson (at the convention
inaugurated the two-thirds rule); the National Republicans nominated
while the anti-Masons, the first in the field, presented a former
Attorney-General, William Wirt. In his speech of acceptance, Mr. Wirt
he had not been in a Masonic lodge for many years; that he had never
taken the Third
Degree, and that he had not known that anything was wrong with Masonry
had read certain pamphlets printed in New York. The party, aided by the
pen of Horace
Greely and popular frenzy, was particularly powerful in Western New
York and Vermont,
where Mr. Wirt was heralded as the Moses who would lead the country
Red Sea of Masonry.
of the election were that Henry Clay, a Mason, was defeated; Andrew
Mason, was elected, while the only state of the twenty one to give its
vote for William Wirt was Vermont. It is rather hard to explain why the
conservative state of Vermont was so carried away with the movement,
but the center
of the excitement for New England was in Central Vermont. For several
all local and state officers were non-Masons, for it was the election
it was the duty to keep Masons out of office. At several state
elections no governor
was chosen. The elections in the legislature went to thirty or forty
on one occasion no governor could be elected.
the Movement Effected
diaries, and from older men who heard the story from the generation
we learn how the excitement rose to white heat, affecting business,
splitting families and churches. Masons were not allowed to serve in
even on the jury. The demand was that they should not be allowed to
clergymen were forced out of churches by dramatic methods. At funerals,
relatives would sit in one room and the anti-Masonic relatives in the
at the grave the factions would stand on opposite sides. Lodges
their charters. The Grand Lodge was declared by the Masons themselves
to be unnecessary.
Morgan's book was sold on the trains and in stores for twenty-five
cents a copy.
Caravans traveled from town to town giving exhibitions of the degrees.
in the Windsor County court house, 300 received the Third Degree by
been in the shire town of Windsor County a certain Joe Burnham who had
and had been pronounced dead. Later he returned to the town in perfect
anti-Masons said that he had really died but that he had been raised to
Masonry. A five-act play was presented in a large hall entitled, "The
Raising of Joe Burnham," and the newspaper of that week says it was
by broken heads, black eyes and bloody noses." Local people who had
in the play brought suit for slander, which went through several courts
was finally settled. A copy of this play sold not long ago for $750 to
a book dealer
who again sold it at a considerable profit.
was done to make Masonry ridiculous. Stones were thrown through church
ministers; anti-Masonic almanacs were distributed; conventions were
held in churches
of almost all denominations. At church services ministers asked, not
to religion, but for men to renounce Masonry. There is one record of a
for a serious crime on the grounds that being a Mason he was not a
Masonry was held to be a "secret combination at war with free
to contain "illegal oaths," to "shield criminals from punishment,"
while such epitaphs as "kidnappers" were among the mildest sort used.
The result was that by 1833 the Vermont Legislature reported with
very small number of lodges and the diminishing ranks of Masonry.
In the beginning,
some newspapers, as the Vermont Courier, were very tolerant, and
committed the heresy
of suggesting that the anti-Masons were without "good sense, reason or
prudence," and that Masons seemed to be qualified for public office.
opposition in Central Vermont came from a paper called "The American
Vermont Luminary and Equal Rights, published by the Windsor County
In the files of this paper is the record of one of the most
unreasonable and intolerant
attacks ever made by one body of citizens against another, and printed
at the very
center of this "bitter and baseless persecution." Certainly in Vermont
history there is nothing to compare with it since the land grant
struggle of the
early pioneers. Among the signed articles are numerous "withdrawals"
Masonry. The following is a sample, from the issue of Jan. 7, 1832:
"Feeling conscious of my
to God, and duty to my country and posterity I cannot (consistently)
forbear stating to the public my former and present views of the
I was made a Mason in Faithful Lodge, Charlestown, N.H., about the year
1810, and was raised to the Sublime Degree of a Master Mason. At that
in an atheistical state of mind, I expected to find light which would
be of great
service to me, but being disappointed in each step, I was told that the
in the higher degrees. You must go further to obtain the desired
this time, while undetermined about going further, in the higher
degrees, our agent
returned from a visit to the Grand Lodge of the state. Among other
things our agent
told us that there was a brother under trial for un-Masonic conduct and
be expelled from the lodge, simply for the crime of stating that the
Masonry above the third were merely nominal. As I was convinced that
the first three
degrees were such, it struck my mind forcibly that the man told the
I concluded not to follow the phantom any further but determined to
search for light
from some other source. Soon after this I was led to examine the Bible
(for I had
hitherto much neglected it) ‒ I found a glorious light ‒ viewing
Masonry by this
light I found it to be total darkness and I could no longer have any
with it. I could not rest. Whenever I heard of Masonry I became
excited. I rejoiced
at Morgan's exposition ‒ the snare of Masonry was now broken ‒ it was
of infidelityits oaths and obligations are profane. Therefore I
renounce it as dangerous
to civil and religious rights and privileges."
paper one week published a list of Masons living in a nearby town. The
there was a communication from one of the men mentioned who said that
while he had
been a Mason he had not attended lodge for six years; had not in that
to a Mason, and would not do so. Another denial of Masonry has this
"I believe Freemasonry is a
benevolent and literary institution. But its morals are heathenish, its
selfish, its humanity cruel, its literature childish, its religion
destructive and anti-republican. It is said that Masonry is of divine
it descended from Heaven. Here I believe is some mistake. It came from
place and I guess 'twill go there again."
of how anti-Masonry perverted every possible representation of the
Order is seen
in the following poem. It was written by a Prof. Dean, and very widely
under the title "The Freemason's Dream." The last verse read:
"My heart in devotion, it
swells to an ocean
To see all Freemasons in union agree;
We will meet them in glory, and there tell the story,
Where troubles and trials forever shall flee."
changed to read:
"My heart in dejection, it
swells to reflection
To see the corruption of Freemasonry
Could I meet them in glory, I'd there tell the story,
And warn the Freemasons from its thraldom to flee."
But the warning
was hardly necessary to the few lodges and members that were left in
this part of
the state. In most towns a faithful few had hidden the records and
sometimes in a hole on a hillside, or under the floor of a barn where
it would be
accidentally discovered years later.
wide spreading movements, the causes and encouragements of anti-Masonry
and very diverse. In some parts the Morgan affair was a subterfuge, a
plot under a thin disguise. In other towns internal trouble in the
its purpose. "Immoral conduct of the members, lack of ability to
in the lodge, the brethren will not meet upon the level or part upon
obligations are disregarded," these are the reasons for the abandonment
the lodge in the shire town of Windsor County as early as 1827. This
was not an
exceptional case, but a sample of the pernicious purposes undermining
It is undoubtedly true that Vermont Masonry had flourished more than
was good for
itself. Many had become members for political influence. Many knew
nothing at all
about the Order, never had attended a meeting since they had been made
and were ignorant of its principles. It could be said of the lodges as
it was said
of the first Grand Lodge in England, "It ran itself out of breath
folly of its members."
It was also
the time of many revival movements of an emotional type that took
Masonry as its
chief point of attack. It was the time of many fanatical excitements
such as phrenology,
mind-reading, magnetism, hypnotism, and many such movements, most of
half fraud. The new immigration brought social unrest; the spoils
political dissatisfaction. Anyone with a loud voice could get an
audience. It was
as true then as now:
"The whole world loves the
Who sit all day as still as owls;
But 'tis needless to mention,
It gives its attention,
To the man who gets up and howls."
passed, and in 1850 in Windsor, and gradually all the other towns and
Central Vermont, little groups of a dozen or fifteen men quietly came
their "own free will and accord" for the reformation of their lodges.
They were men beyond middle age. They had no banquets, parades or
They were willing to make sacrifices, to endure hardships, to work
hard, to face
possible local criticism and personal risk. There was not a "cowan"
them. No one in those days talked about "watch-fob Masons." Masonry had
been purged until there were no members who were Masons only in name.
They had not
come together for social purposes, for they could have found that in
with less personal risk. There must have been some deeper purpose
behind their reorganization.
Sometimes it is only when a man takes a long journey away from home
that he truly
comes to appreciate its love and care. Often a man can judge his
business best when
he is away from it. A certain man who lived in a situation where for
he could not attend church, came to a new appreciation of its necessity
through its enforced absence. Something like that moved these men of
only have been men who knew their work well. Through the years, the old
of which their work was but the symbol, must have haunted their minds,
lived not with the monthly repetition of the work but with the ideas of
meant. It must have seemed to them that they were living in the
ante-room when they
should have gone on into the lodge; that there was confusion among the
that their column was broken and the temple incomplete. They had been
years in the North and its darkness was unnecessary. As earnest workmen
set out in "friendship, morality and truth," but they had been betrayed
by those whom they had trusted, their hopes and creative purposes had
been put to
death and thrown into an unmarked grave. Their enemies had said that
dead, but these few men believed that there was still something that
could not be
defeated, and which could yet be raised from the level of death to the
of life. Once they had known "how good and how pleasant it is for
to dwell together in unity." Then their society had been torn by
hatred, unkindness and unbrotherliness. Now they faced the problem of
"The only cure of unbrotherliness is brotherliness," was their
Here in the teachings of our Craft were the basic principles of
tolerance and charity
and truth, and the cement of brotherly affection. And on this they
built their Order
anew, and we honor them because they came through with it.
To us of
1925 many truths come out of these tragic experiences. Perhaps we are
be more careful in the selection of candidates. Perhaps it means that
be sure that every man of us is trained in the work, knows its meaning
and is fully acquainted with the history and the symbols. But there is
lesson, one that Vermont Masonry will never have to learn again, and it
the very heart of our fraternal purpose. If these fast fading events
at all, they tell us in unmistakable terms that Masonry is not a search
for a word.
One may know the word and not have the spirit. Masonry is not something
be voiced in a few words. Its secret is not a combination of syllables.
It is true
of Masonry, as of the highest religion we know, "not he that nameth the
but he that doeth the will." Masonry cannot be exposed in a book. It is
safe and deep as character. If it had been false at heart it could not
It lives in its truth.
Duties of the Stewards
IN the early
days of Speculative Masonry lodges made much of their "feasts," and
gala events. Such affairs were carried on by the lodge itself, as one
of its regular
duties; and their stewards were chosen for the express purpose of
them. Nowadays it has generally come to be the custom to leave the
all forms of sociability to special committees or clubs, as if the
social hour were
something apart from, or even opposed to, the proper work of a lodge.
to this emasculation of the scope and duties of the lodge, the special
method has a further defect in that it leads to extravagance,
sometimes to results still less dignified. A sensible way out is for
the lodge to
recover control of its own social life by placing all responsibility
for it once
more in the hands of its stewards.
Who Were Masons
Bro. George W. Baird,
P. G. M., District Of Columbia
FRANCIS ASBURY ROE was born in Elmira, N. Y., in 1823. Of his early
is known, but at twenty-two years of age he received an appointment as
in the United States Navy. Five years later it is recorded he was
raised a Master
Mason in Union Lodge, No. 95, in his native town.
Of all the
officers whom I have met he was remarkable for a sincere and sublime
He believed so simply and completely in the Divine Providence that in
times of danger
he was absolutely fearless, and in this confidence would often do
things that in
another man would have been pure foolhardiness. He was a very reserved
man, and had but few intimate friends. He was abstemious and rigidly
moral in all
his habits, so much so that his presence and example were at times
to many of his fellow officers.
service was on board the old sloop of war John Adams, in which vessel
three years on the west coast of South America, in rough water and
The John Adams was very low between decks, and the berthing space very
and altogether the vessel was badly ventilated and uncomfortable; but
in those days
a seafaring man did not expect the comforts of home.
ship was the Yorktown, on the west coast of Africa, where though still
he did the duty of lieutenant. Later he was with Commodore O. H. Perry
at the blockade
of Vera Cruz, in the sloop Boston, and was wrecked in that vessel in
in 1847. Next he served in the Alleghany, an experimental steamer, and
same year went for a course in the Annapolis Naval Academy. In 1848 he
after which he was absent from active service for a period of eleven
next service seems to have been on the mail steamer Georgia, after
which he was
appointed to the famous old brig Porpoise as lieutenant and executive
she was commissioned for the Behring Sea exploring expedition, and
later in the
China Seas. It was during this cruise that the Porpoise had an action
with a fleet
of thirteen pirate junks, all heavily armed, in Koulan Bay. As a result
of the battle
six of the junks were sunk or destroyed and the remainder dispersed
with heavy loss.
he served on another exploring expedition in the Vincennes, through the
Sea of Japan
and the Kurile Islands and along the north coast of Siberia. This
chiefly for surveying and charting purposes for the benefit of
navigation, as those
coasts were almost unknown to geographers and seamen alike.
years Roe was continuously in service, receiving some promotions,
they were unduly retarded. The present writer first knew him as first
of the Pensacola in 1861, at the Washington Navy Yard. This vessel was
steamer, but full rigged in addition to her engines. She was armed with
smooth bore battery. Her commander was ordered to join Farragut's fleet
Mississippi River Passes. To prevent her doing this the Confederates
at four points on the Potomac. The President was very anxious and
visited the ship
several times, encouraging everyone on board. Roe seemed the only one
not in the
least disturbed by the prospect, and in the event his attitude was
ship ran safely by the batteries at night, and though she was subjected
to a brisk
fire from them all not a shot hit her, nor did she fire a gun in reply.
reached her destination it was found that she drew so much water that
it was impossible
to get her over the bar of the Mississippi until she had been greatly
However, she was finally floated over and Farragut was ready to go up
officers Roe was known to his men by a nickname. He had a very dark
eyes and a very black beard, and he was naturally called "Black Jack.”
the Pensacola had got by Fort Jackson which was effected with very
she ran into a fleet of armed river boats which put up a stiff and
Their shells were bursting freely, doing much execution. Stationed on
ladder, passing up ammunition, was a coal-heaver named Eagan, and as
Jack" rushed past the hatch, trumpet in hand, shouting some order,
"Howly Jaze, Oi hopes the firrst shell that burrsts over the ship will
the seat of the trousers off of him," and it was scarcely a minute
the fragment of a shell actually did this to Roe, taking a good deal of
flesh besides. He fell forward, was picked up and taken to the sick
bay, and as
he was carried past, Eagan said, "Howly Mother, it's lucky Oi did not
it was the head of him."
Roe was promoted
to the rank of Lieutenant Commander in July, 1862, and was ordered to
Katadin after the fall of New Orleans, and was in the fight at Grand
Gulf when the
army was landed to garrison the place. Here Roe witnessed some
pillaging on shore,
by soldiers and officers, which greatly outraged his feelings, for if
there is any
one thing impressed on the mind of a young navy officer it is respect
inhabitants and their property rights. He reported this pillaging to
of the Navy, knowing it would get thence to the Secretary of War and
come back to
the commanding army officer for action. This actually did occur, but
the letter going to the Division Commander it reached the Department
Maj. Gen. B. F. Butler. The latter replied to the War Department in
terms respecting Roe as would have made many an officer challenge him.
satisfied with having done a Christian act, as well as one that he
regarded as his
duty as an officer, said that to read between the lines would condemn
in the estimation of any officer or honest man.
In 1864 Roe
commanded the paddle wheel gunboat Sassacus in North Carolina Sound,
and very promptly
destroyed two blockade runners. The Confederates then sent out their
Albemarle to meet the Sassacus. An engagement took place on May 5,
1864, which was
very hotly contested. The Albermarle, iron-clad, had the advantage of
protection for her guns and crew, while the Sassacus had that of speed
power. There were many killed on board the latter ship, and for a while
serious. However, by skilful handling Roe caught the iron-clad across
his bow, and
sending his ship ahead full speed, rammed his opponent, which so
damaged her that
she began to take in water fast and was glad enough to escape up the
However, with a parting shot she put a shell into the Sassacus' engine
burst one of the boilers, doing much injury. Altogether it was one of
naval duels in the Civil War.
commanded the Madawaska; and later the Michigan on the Great Lakes. In
vessel he was called to quell the miners' riot in Marquette which saved
He was in command of the Tacony at Vera Cruz at the time of the capture
of Maximilian, and as senior officer prevented the bombardment of the
city by the
foreign war vessels assembled there. After this he was fleet captain
Rowan on the China Station. His last cruise was on the Lancaster off
the coast of
Brazil. In 1875 he was on duty at the New London Naval Station and on
at Washington from 1879 to 1880, and he was at about this time member
of the Board
of Examiners at Annapolis. In 1880 he was promoted to the rank of
from 1883 to 1884 was Commander at the Government Naval Asylum at
He was retired from the service at the end of 1885 with the rank of
saw a good deal of Admiral Roe in 1896 and enjoyed many intimate
him. He was just as serious as when a young man. He said that in all
he had never had a nickname, and, while we smiled inwardly, we thought
Eagan and the seat of his trousers.
died in Washington on Dec. 28, 1901, and was buried in Arlington
The writer has always regarded Roe as a great man, and is happy to
think that we
may claim him as a Mason. He was a true and sincere Christian, who
his creed on others; one who ever set a splendid example; who was as
ready to reward
a generous or righteous act as to condemn a fault; who enjoyed a glass
of wine but
detested intemperance; and who loved a generous and manly man. He was
a grave adjacent to that of his old shipmate and lifelong friend, Rear
English, and over his remains the beautiful granite monument shown in
has been erected.
J. Meekren Editor-In-Charge
the universal law and the theme of every age. It comes no less to THE
to other established institutions, and it comes now in this
announcement of a successorship
in its editorial chair.
Bro. R. J.
Meekren, known to readers of THE BUILDER and as well to students of
is now in charge of the editorial affairs of the National Masonic
and its official journal.
It is, in
reality, scarcely necessary to introduce Bro. Meekren to our members,
for his pen
and the results of his research have already done that. Rather is it
give something of the occasion therefor and of the retirement of Bro.
H. L. Haywood,
who has been obliged to leave this work because of the state of his
illness during the summer made his physicians insistent that he reduce
demands upon him, and it was upon consideration of this advice that he
take the step of severing his active connection with the National
has been identified with THE BUILDER from its inception, assisting Bro.
Newton during his occupancy of the editorial chair and afterwards
and more responsible for the editorial management of THE BUILDER until
in 1921 he
was placed in complete charge. During his incumbency he became well
and by correspondence to a very large number of Masons in every part of
indeed of the world, while his literary abilities were patent to all.
is, as already noted, because of his physical condition and the
necessity for preserving
his health by lightening his duties.
illness came while the August number and the September and October
numbers as well
were in preparation. Hence the absence of the formal announcement until
Bro. R. J. Meekren to take charge of the editorial duties of the
Society, it is
my firm belief, developed through intimate association with the man
trying circumstances, that THE BUILDER and the work of the Society will
that constant progress forward and upward which has been the record of
which have passed, despite the difficulties that are inherent in such
those to which this Society and THE BUILDER are dedicated.
made this announcement, may I not add the assurance on my own behalf
that it is possible to do with the resources at command will be left
undone by this
Society in the advancement of the cause of education in Freemasonry.
* * *
IT is well
periodically to stop and take stock and balance our accounts, whether
commercial, mental or moral; whether as individuals or as
organizations. At the
present time the vaccination of "Education" has taken in the body
of Masonry. Most of the Grand Lodges in this country, including Canada,
something definitely in this way, either using the machinery of the
Association, or through Masonic Service Committees and Educational
Boards of their
own; many of tavern making regular appropriations for carrying on the
work, in some
cases of very considerable amounts.
This is all
very much to the good. It shows at least that a need is recognized,
that there is
something lacking in the general condition of the Craft, and also a
desire to find
and apply a remedy. Yet a general survey of what is being done might
lead an innocent
bystander (which THE BUILDER, of course, is not) to suppose that the
only in disagreeing, and that the patient had no more chance of
recovery than Nature
and Providence might extend.
is merely in passing. There is no intention here of criticizing or even
suggestions. Freemasonry in each section of the country has, to a very
extent, special characteristics, peculiar conditions and its own
A variety of treatment of the one we are considering is thus
inevitable, and very
largely desirable, at least in the experimental stage. What it is
proposed to do
here is to briefly review the question in its more general aspects. For
apology will be needed as members of the National Masonic Research
Society are naturally
interested in the subject, both from their own personal requirements
desire to be of use to their brethren.
It may be
of advantage to consider the matter under different heads, as it is so
that it really is hard to see the forest for the trees. First we may
what indications are there that there is a need for education, what
to be found in Masonry and among Masons to make it a desirable or
The answer to this is very much under our notice, and there is little
need to cite
chapter and verse. The large number of members who have little or no
the Order, the questioning of the younger Masons who want to know what
it is all
about anyway. A feeling that the Institution has grown to an enormous
size and is
yet apparently without definite purpose or object. Both the instructed
and the uninstructed
feel that Masonry means something, stands for something, if only it
were known what
it was. Those we have called the instructed have worked out more or
conclusions for themselves. They feel, and experience tends to show
they are right,
that only a small minority of the uninstructed will find out things for
and they feel that there should be some machinery for teaching the
others, and so
prevent them from swelling the great class of the lapsed and
this there is nothing new, the point of especial interest here is that
for education is not a "high brow" affair at all, it is not to make the
members of the Craft scholars and students, but to make them Masons, to
the instruction necessary to Larry out their Speculative vocation.
Those who have
it in them to become students usually do so in spite of difficulties
Yet, a complete scheme of Masonic education must regard them as well.
There is no
reason for needless difficulties to be put in their path, and their
in the organization is to instruct their brethren. An educational
system must arrange
for the training of teachers.
heading that we may take up is the subsidiary question whether the
contemplates anything of the nature of education, and if so, by what
it supposed to be carried out?
is a question of which the answer is right at hand. The most
with the ritual will indicate an affirmative answer. The lectures of
degrees are obviously designed to instruct. The Entered Apprentice is
the charge given to him that in his leisure hours he is "to converse
brethren" that he "may improve in Masonic knowledge." But the charge
given to the newly passed Craftsman goes beyond this and "earnestly
to his consideration the 'study of the liberal arts and sciences,"
that not only was the Mason expected to devote time and attention in
Masonry itself, but also to "polish and adorn his mind" with general
as well as to "learn to subdue his passions" and "divest his heart
and conscience of all the vices and superfluities of life." While the
for this is not obscurely indicated; not only is the neophyte to
converse with well
instructed brethren as he can find or make opportunity, but again and
again it is
emphasized that it is the Master's place to afford light and knowledge
to the uninformed
and give his lodge good and wholesome instruction. But it is not all
thrown on -the
Master of the lodge, it is the duty of every Master Mason "to correct
and irregularities" of the uninstructed. How are the Masters to teach
they are first instructed themselves? The word "Master" with us implies
primarily the idea of control, of authority, but as it came into Craft
mediaeval times it first of all connoted that of teaching and
instruction. The Master
directed and controlled by virtue of his ability to teach. It follows
the organization of Masonry fully provided for instruction, for the
those who entered it. But Master with us has come to be but a formal
Masons receive it after a few short weeks, while yet in fact they are
but very newly
Entered Apprentices, and the Masters of lodges being chosen from such a
is no wonder that in general they are little qualified to instruct. It
something if they could be made to realize that it is their duty to do
so, and if
not qualified personally, to arrange that competent brethren should
take their place
in this respect.
seen that the original Institution both contemplated education and
to put it into effect, we may next ask what should be the position of
Committees, Research Societies, Study Clubs and other like
organizations? That is,
should we acquiesce in the present state of things, scrap the old
provide new, or should we seek to return to the old ways and use the
to supplement and strengthen the old? Here again to ask the question is
in the minds
of most Masons to answer it. The old machinery is perfectly good and
were it used. The unit organization in the Craft is the lodge, and
be done in and through the lodge. Educational Committees should direct
to this end, Study Clubs should be regarded as stop gaps and not as
desirable institutions, or at least as supplementing and not as
functions of the lodge in this regard.
us to the last aspect of our general problem ‒ of what should the
consist? Masonry is not a school such as our schools are today, but
like one of the old European universities where instruction was given,
but the students
pleased themselves as to what they took and when they took it. We
cannot force members,
if they lack interest, to learn more than the bare rudiments of the
must be given in such wise that it will invite interest and encourage
and study, and only so can it be successful. A scheme of Masonic
be based on the elementary instruction in the ritual, beginning with
bare forms, in the teaching of which the lodge machinery is still
these are learned the next step is obviously explaining their surface
is so much that is archaic in our formularies that there is need for a
amount of what we may call "textual commentary," the explanation of
words and phrases, the pointing out that the ritual does actually mean
From this would naturally spring instruction in the duties of the
explanations of what Masonry should mean in his own life, and what he
it mean to the world at large. That is the ethical and sociological
side. With this
is closely connected the symbolism of the Craft, for this is chiefly
teach and emphasize the moral side. After this would come history. Much
of the preceding
cannot be fully understood without knowing how it came to be, that is,
History when thus taught is intensely interesting, though when handed
out in heavy
indigestible chunks, nothing is more calculated to dampen and
extinguish any interest
the enquirer may have had. These then it would appear are the lines
Masonic instruction should follow. The "higher" education, the
of the instructors is another matter altogether. If the majority of
Masons had the
elements it is probable that there would be no problem at all, for the
be open for those capable to go on and qualify themselves to be Master
the original sense of the term, and fully competent to teach and guide
well informed brethren.
man to practice charity and benevolence, to protect chastity, to
respect the ties
of blood and friendship, to adopt the principles and revere the
ordinances of religion,
to assist the feeble, guide the blind, raise up the downtrodden,
shelter the orphan,
guard the altar, support the Government, inculcate morality, promote
man, fear God, implore His mercy and hope for happiness.
to one's country is an essential qualification in Freemasonry, and
those only are
acceptable who cheerfully conform to every lawful authority. Disloyalty
in any form
is abhorrent to a Freemason, and is regarded as a serious Masonic
Symbolism of Medieval
Bro. R. J. Meekren
about the Masonic Institution will be assented to by all students, that
a real organic connection between the Speculative fraternity of today
and the Operative
organization of the past ‒ but regarding the question how much of
and tradition has survived there have been, and still are, wide
differences of opinion.
At the least during the period of transition (say from 1680 to 1730,
more or less)
the old must have been mingled with new material, the new expanding and
fading out until it was all gone-except the name, and some
technicalities much changed
in meaning; while at the highest we may suppose the essentials of the
old were all
retained and only changed in detail and by the addition of formal
Between, these two extremes must lie the opinions of everyone at all
with the facts. It follows, therefore, that our present symbolism must
derived from the medieval craft of Masonry or else have been borrowed
and extraneous sources during the period of transition just mentioned,
or even later
the present system (or aggregation) that we possess may be of mixed
origin in any
proportion of the two elements, original and borrowed, and as the
matter is too
complex to deal with except one step at a time we will now confine our
to the tangible symbolism in the architectural monuments erected with
care and patience by our Operative predecessors.
that medieval Masons recorded hidden doctrines in the symbols they
carved in stone
is incredible on the face of it. Any such teaching that the Craft may
was quite easily and safely transmissible through the organization of
there would be no need to record it publicly, even if under a veil. As
of fact we find that the emblems and devices actually used were such as
commonly or traditionally known and employed, or else such as might
easily be understood
by obvious allusion. For instance, the fox preaching from a pulpit is
as plain a
denunciation of clerical rapacity as the bishop being dragged down to
hell in a
fresco of the last judgment still existing in an old church at
Salisbury is a reminder
that high position, even in the church, is no passport to salvation.
It has often
been asserted that the old churches of Europe are full of symbolism,
in stone for those able to read. That they are full of significance is
true, and it may also be the fact that people today have generally lost
to understanding them, but it does not follow that because we need
to interpret the meaning that it was so when they were built. An
Greek is unintelligible to most among ourselves today ‒ to the citizen
of old Athens
it was as clear as the headlines of a newspaper. Among the people of
the thirteenth century say, there was perhaps no larger percentage who
at all than among us who can read Greek or Latin, and to them generally
inscriptions would be as unintelligible as their emblematic and
are apt to be to us. But when we go back and laboriously attempt to
last we are faced with an added complexity that did not exist when they
carved. Most of these devices were conventional, at least to the extent
were generally recognized and understood. Such a device stood for such
as to us the symbol + means "add" or % means "percent." We do
not think when we see these and like characters of what they may have
meant in the
first place, or how they came to mean what they do to us, we glance at
take their face value and pass on. But in deciphering the symbols of a
language it is quite different, to get at any meaning at all we must
dig into their
history and when we have found that we really know too much to easily
content at any given time.
The key pattern,
honeysuckle, etc., may once have been symbols, but became decoration
were many emblems and motifs carried over into church decoration from
sources through folk tradition, but these were either given new
meanings, or their
meaning was forgotten. The maze, or labyrinth, from being probably the
out for a heathen ritual dance, became a means of a minor form of
penance. On the
other hand the medieval Mason had a sense of humor, and frequently
indulged in mystification,
and sometimes concealed his meaning. The architect of the Pharos, the
of Alexandria, is said to have carved his own name on a great stone in
and then covered it with cement in which was cut the name of the King ‒
the cement eventually to disintegrate when his name would remain. The
story is doubtful
but the Mason who carved a grotesque and evil looking dragon set in the
of a building at Glastonbury, which when seen from the side appears as
portrait of the Abbot of the time, certainly recorded his opinion of
‒ but he played safe for it is impossible to see the carving from the
by climbing a ladder, or getting on the roof of another building, where
would be hardly likely to go.
into the habits and customs of the so-called white Indians of Central
that they have a highly developed picture writing, but that also
draw or paint pictures with no symbolic import, but from pure artistic
Certain individuals among the Esquimaux have also been found who drew
most realistically animals in groups or singly, with no ulterior
purpose but the
pleasure of delineation. Pre-historic men, or at least certain
notably that called after the hamlet of Cro-Magnon in the south of
their remains were first discovered in any quantity, seemed to have had
instinct abnormally developed, almost comparably with the classical
Greek or his
Mycenaean predecessors. Yet it is possible these drawings and carvings
had a magical
purpose. That at least is the accepted theory. But such care and skill
was not necessary
for magic, cruder work would have served. We may suppose that this was
but that the magician lost himself in the artist ‒ just as the Greek
statues of the gods, but made them ideal human beings.
however, such as the Azilians, showed little depictive ability ‒ and
went in for
geometrical patterns. The purpose of their inscribed and painted
pebbles is most
obscure. Perhaps it was no more than a semi-serious play on the part of
It is hard to say. But if one takes pebbles and a paint brush and
mark them with dots and lines and circles, or if one takes wet clay and
of pointed stick and attempts some kind of simple decoration it will be
easily certain forms supposed to be symbols can be formed, how they
will come of
themselves practically, circles with dots in them, triangles, parallel
and so on. The combinations of simple lines that give any effect as a
are not so many but that almost any child will hit on most of them. It
is for this
reason that it is so impossible to say whether the origin of a given
in a pattern or ornament, or was a symbolic representation. The cross
is an example.
Found practically everywhere and at all times, it seems almost
everywhere to have
been venerated as a very sacred, or at least significant, symbol. Yet
of lines is simpler or more obvious, a geometrical pattern can hardly
without the cross appearing in it somewhere, openly or concealed, and
association which made of it a most sacred symbol is even yet not
agreed upon by
those most competent to judge.
now to Christian Churches, we must, to begin with, clearly grasp why
they were in
the first place built at all. Every religion has sacred or holy places,
sacred buildings, and these have varied in character according to the
A mosque is primarily a place where individual worshippers can pray,
where the Koran can be read and expounded. A Greek temple was the house
of the cult image of some deity – the ritual all took place outside.
first built as places where the sacrament of the Eucharist could be
and until the Reformation we may generally say that this was always the
idea underlying the planning of churches. The evolution of the
cathedral from the
simplest form of basilica reflects the evolution of sacramental
very likely the growing complexity of structure may have had an
reaction and stimulated the very advance in dogma by which it was
to trace this out in detail would take us too far afield and into
subjects besides; but in order to understand the Medieval churches and
this much must be borne in mind, that both priests and people,
employers and builders,
believed quite simply and literally that the sacred edifice would
shelter the very
presence of God, not spiritually only but in a sense physically, not
but bodily. That every day, at the altar, the sacrifice of the cross
would be symbolically
yet really re-enacted, and that the bread and wine would become daily
and blood of Christ. Believing this a number of things naturally and
followed. Perhaps the very first would be the arrangements whereby the
of the faithful could see and worship, but with this would follow also
could be too good for such a place. The costliest materials, the most
the richest ornaments. But though the artist is always making new
and going to nature for new elements of design, yet always (at least in
schools) he starts with something traditional. Sometimes old symbols
can be pressed
into use, sometimes they have lost all meaning as we have seen and are
elements, but whichever it was it beautified and glorified the House of
we find that one of the first types used to represent the Lord was the
figure of Orpheus.
has been fabled descended to hades and by the power of his music
obtained the release
of his dead wife Eurydice; so he was taken to represent the Christ who
from death and hell. Another pagan figure adopted was Apollo, in the
guise of the
good shepherd, that is as carrying a lamb. Here we have an example of
tangled strands that go to the making of a symbol. Both the shepherd
and the lamb
represented the Saviour as taken directly from scriptural parable and
But Apollo had been regarded as a Saviour god, he represented the sun,
was equated with the sun of righteousness, and in addition the ram was
sacred to the sun, the stories of the golden fleece, or the purple lamb
are in part sun myths. So that in this symbolic figure were many lines
which made it full of significance to the converts to the new faith to
tales were as familiar as Bible stories are to us ‒ or should we say to
and grandmothers? There was the added advantage, during the first
such symbols were noncommittal ‒ the unbeliever would see in them
nothing to cause
comment or remark. In the Christian sense they were secret symbols;
later when it
was quite safe to be a Christian newer devices took their place, and
ones were modified in form and emphasis and gradually fell into the
In the mosaic
design from North Africa, here reproduced from Mr. Lethaby's work on
we have probably part of the floor of a very early church. From the
colors it is
evident that the arches springing from the vases are intended for
wavy border being also a conventional representation of water. The deer
at the two streams of water springing from the holy mount refer to the
verse, "As the hart panteth after the water brook so panteth my soul
Thee, O God." The peacocks strangely enough were an early Christian
of the Resurrection, from a supposed fact of natural science (as then
which no one ever troubled to verify, that the peacock's flesh was
It may be conjectured that this very beautiful bird when first
introduced from the
East was thought of as representing, or being like, the fabled Phoenix.
about the latter and its rebirth in fire show that originally it was
the sun represented
as a bird. The spreading tail of the peacock again and its many "eyes"
was possibly connected with "thousand-eyed Argus" who was a
of the starry sky. These two associations would have been enough to
what was believed about the peacock in an unscientific age, which held
the terrible unicorn was tame and docile in the presence of a virgin,
and that the
pelican pierced its own breast to feed its young.
streams of water at which the two deer are drinking, the fountains and
border, all have undoubtedly a reference to baptism; the border may
also have reference
to the four rivers of Paradise, while the two streams flowing from the
remind the believer of the rock in the wilderness that Moses struck to
to the people. The rock or mountain was constantly referred to Jehovah
the Old Testament; "The Lord is my rock and my fortress," "O Lord,
my rock," "Be thou my strong rock," are but a few instances from
the Psalms, while the sacred mountains, Sinai, Horeb, Zion, and later
of Olives and the Mount of Transfiguration would also be brought to
mind. But the
associations or meanings of the symbol are even yet not exhausted. The
would recall inevitably the mingled water and blood that flowed from
side when pierced by the centurion's spear, a detail even yet dwelt on
in many popular
In the first
centuries the cross does not seem to have been much used as a symbol by
and when used at all it was more frequently in the form of the Greek
‒ that is X, the St. Andrew's Cross. This was the first letter of the
and was most frequently used in the still familiar "Chi Rho" monogram.
There was a natural reason for not emphasizing it, for it was still a
peculiarly dishonorable mode of execution, reserved for slaves and
criminals. But in Western Europe it was different. The late Baring
evidence to show that all the peoples of Western Europe, Celt and
used the cross as a sacred symbol, and he showed also that it is
probable that its
use in the church spread from West to East. That is, in the West it
formed a link
between the new and the old faiths. It does not mean that heathen ideas
carried over, but that the symbol being familiar and sacred, and being
a purely Christian meaning, was naturally employed, just as in
preaching to the
unconverted it was necessary to use their own terms for God, heaven and
so on, in
order to be intelligible to the hearers. With symbols as with words the
but the meaning changes.
When we come
to the churches of the great period of the Middle Ages, in the full
of Gothic architecture, we find that they are filled in every available
sculptured and painted symbolism of this kind. To enter a church, to
it, was to pass in review the representations of every fundamental
point of Christian
faith, and much else besides. On the facade, above the main entrances,
Judgment was often depicted, as a warning to both those in and out of
fold. In the porch, or in the west end of the nave, would be types of
rite of baptism, such as the Ark, the Israelites passing through the
Red Sea, the
baptism of our Lord, St. Peter sinking in the sea. On the screen
from chancel was the crucifix; over the high Altar, the Ascension, or
the Lord in
glory surrounded by angels. The Annunciation, the Nativity, would be
Wise Men from the East. The genealogy of the Lord in a "Jesse Tree,"
everywhere the representations of saints and angels, martyrs,
who had defined or supported the faith, with many allusions to their
and vices allegorically and symbolically represented, the seasons of
the year, and
the characteristic occupations carried on in each ‒ the whole of life
and of history
as known to the builders was set forth in such wise that the simple and
But the question
arises, who devised all this? The only answer that seems possible is
that it must
have been those who had the churches built. Here again we must remember
priest and congregation, bishop or noble, all were at one on the
matter. And the
builders, the masons, were not a caste apart so far as religion was
had the same faith, and the same ideas about religion as their
who provided the funds, knew, as those today who consult an architect,
of what they wanted. They knew which saint they wished to dedicate the
they had an idea of the size they could afford, they doubtless referred
churches as having this or that point they would like included. Then
indications the master would sketch a design. The final plans would be
of consultation and discussion between all parties concerned. When it
came to details
the same process seems to have been gone through. We will say that a
in question. It has been decided between the Master and his employees
that a certain
subject shall be treated, let us suppose the "Last Supper", or as it
then have been thought of, the "Institution of the Holy Eucharist." The
Master would depict this to one of the craftsmen, who in his turn would
and discuss them with the Master, and then after the general outline
had been decided
on he would proceed to do the work. Over the doorway might be a relief
and the Twelve sitting at table. Or it might be arranged as a series of
statues, the Lord in the central position, with the chalice and paten,
of the Apostles on each side, each with his distinguishing attribute.
there would be a canopy, while under the brackets supporting each
statue might be
some allegorical or symbolic device worked into the design, which would
reference to the person represented. Here if anywhere would be found
of individual ideas. But whatever these were they would be in accord
with the general
scheme outlined. In certain places, as in mouldings, the carvings on
or in the gargoyles, the craftsman might let himself go, and introduce
or humorous subjects – but these would in general be as obvious in
are comic supplements or political cartoons to us. Sometimes again
devices with the old pagan intent were inserted, but these would be in
of traditional survivals of which there are so many examples in all the
as well as in traditional Christianity. This will be touched on in a
the evidence thus far examined has led to is that the medieval church
employed symbolism, of a specifically didactic character. It ranged
from bare conventional
signs to the highest flights of artistic representation in sculpture
and it was designed with the conscious purpose of recalling the tenets
of the Christian
faith, and of other points regarded as interesting or edifying to the
and lastly, that there was nothing secret about it, that it was
intended to be,
and doubtless was, as obvious in meaning as the advertisements on our
For a general
view Medieval Architecture [Lib 1909; Vol 1, Vol 2] by A. Kingsley Porter is one
the best works on the subject. A smaller, but most excellent work, is
W. R. Lethaby's
Medieval Art [Lib 1904], from which the illustrations
in the article
have been taken.
- What was the real character of
the symbolism found in the churches built
in the Middle Ages?
- Was there any esoteric meaning
attached to the symbols employed?
- If there were such hidden
meanings by whom were they intended and for what
much of the original
meaning clung to old pagan symbols when used with
a Christian reference?
Bro. Emerson Esterling,
To many of
us the pursuit of happiness, and the escape from sorrow, is the
desideratum of our
mortal existence. Our great national institution of government makes
this in our worthy Constitution. Blindly seeking after this coveted
only too quickly find that with it comes, to our way of thinking, that
But the philosopher,
seeking not pleasure nor happiness, perhaps receives fully his lot; for
in hand and peruses the garment of Hertha, spun from the spindle of the
cloak of ideas, woven from the black and white threads of eternity, and
one lends to the other, and that without the blinding light and abject
we would know nothing of the gray of our consciousness.
and partially reaching the heights of joy and happiness, eschewing, but
by the depths of sorrow, we come to know.
writes, in his Morals and Dogma: "All the true Initiates have
usefulness of toil and sorrow. 'Sorrow,' says a German poet, 'is the
dog of that
unknown shepherd who guides the flock of men.'"
We who have
taken the degrees of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, and who have
taken it for
more than the form and pretense of ritual, know it to be verily a Lodge
for to the true philosopher life itself is a sorrow, for with his
vision he can
see ahead, behind, beyond, and in the range of his vision looms up
have been," "what might be," and all around he sees only what is
‒ and it is no wonder that many saw Christ weep, but none saw Him
smile. No wonder
that the great Abraham Lincoln carried the woe of a nation on his
the sorrow and suffering of humanity in his face ‒ he saw!
we must consider the contagious effect of personality. The chronic
grouch, the person
who has a biased view of things, and whose perverted influence is
extended to others,
is not to be confused with the man who has found wherein lies the true
who has sounded humanity and the universe to his mental capacity, and
forth with an understanding of better things, and then accosted with
the grim realities
of this fallen race of mankind, expresses a sorrowful sympathy.
So, we find
in the woof and warp of the mantle of life both black and white
interlinked, under and over, around and about and side by side ‒ and,
mantle throughout our mortal existence unto the portal of death where
we must shed
all and stand naked and alone, we must accept the texture, for the
that formed us out of the dust of the earth fashioned our mantle, of
and Accepted Masons of the State of New York, by their Grand Officers
in Grand Lodge assembled, at an annual communication thereof, in
existing Constitutions and Laws, do establish and promulgate the
As an expression
of the simplest form of the faith of Masonry, not exhaustive, but
and suggestive, the following is
one God, the Father of all men. The Holy Bible is the Great Light in
the Rule and Guide for faith and practice. Man is immortal. Character
destiny. Love of man is, next to love of God, man's first duty. Prayer,
of man with God, is helpful.
WHAT IS DOGMA?
By Edouard LeRoy. Translated by Lydia G. Robinson. Published by the
Open Court Publishing
Co., Chicago, III. May be purchased through the Book Department of the
Masonic Research Society, J950 Railway Exchange Bldg., St. Louis, Mo.
89 pages. Price. postpaid, 60c.
THIS is a
remarkable little book. It goes right to the very root of the question
with no redundant
argument or superfluous illustration, while yet the author's thesis, or
as he insists, his question, is put so clearly that it seems difficult
how he could have been misunderstood. Yet misunderstood he was, and his
was the cause of a prolonged controversy in the French press, not only
and philosophical journals, but also in the popular magazines and
is a Roman Catholic, and apparently both sincere and devout in his
he is also a philosopher and fully abreast with scientific and literary
His question is addressed to the authorities of the Roman Church, and
asks a question he apparently puts them in a dilemma ‒ which may
account for the
hostility his article roused, and the fact that when republished, with
some of the
letters it elicited and the author's replies thereto, it was put on the
a book forbidden to the faithful.
for the question raised may be given in the author's own words. "I
all," he says, "to make better known the state of mind of these
who think, the nature of the questions they ask themselves, the
obstacles that hinder
them and the difficulties that perplex them … The experience of
circles (I might even say a personal experience) has demonstrated to me
proofs brought forward as traditional have no effect on intellects
the discipline of contemporary science and philosophy." And further on
"Let no one think such a task profitless or superfluous … we [i.e.
of dogmatic teaching] are not listened to or understood. What we say
has no response
and carries no weight. We exert ourselves in [a] silence and in a void,
even giving rise to any criticism or refutation." And again he says,
denial does not attack one dogma any more than another. It consists
above all in
a preliminary and total demurrer … it is the very idea of dogma which
which gives offense."
By a dogma,
he means a point or article of faith held and taught by the church, and
holds good of any dogma of any church, and two of the three given in
are held by all orthodox churches. He shows that understood purely and
intellectual propositions they are not only impossible to demonstrate
but that they
are positively meaningless. He then shows that historically dogma is
is not this or that is to be believed, but such and such a thing is not
to be believed.
Only in the historical setting have the dogmas of Christianity any
meaning from the philosophical point of view. But beyond this they have
meaning, as in one of his illustrations, "God is a person," teaches
that God is not simply a law, a hypothesis, an abstract force. But
implies that the believer must act as in a personal relation towards
being we call God.
of this subject will prove of great value to thinking Masons who really
know quite clearly what the "belief in God" that is a prerequisite to
membership in the Fraternity really implies.
is to be congratulated on the successful rendering of the original into
clear and idiomatic English. We could wish that she had gone on and
of the ensuing controversy.
* * *
OF THE INVISIBLE EMPIRE. "THE MAELSTROM." [Lib*] By Edgar I. Fuller.
and edited by Geo. La Dura. Published by the Maelstrom Publishing Co.,
Colo. May be purchased through the Book Department of the National
Society, 1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Cloth, illustrated, 178
was at one time Executive Secretary to Edward Young Clarke, Imperial
Wizard Emeritus, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, but has very fully and
renounced the organization. This and the title will give the reader a
inkling of what to expect. Incidentally one would remark that publisher
or whoever was responsible for the allegorical picture that comes
before the Foreword,
seems to take the Maelstrom to be a kind of cyclone, tornado or aerial
of some kind. The word of course simply means "millstream" and was
to a once famous and much dreaded whirlpool caused by tidal currents
off the west
coast of Norway. This error is perhaps trivial enough in itself, but
one feels in
a way that it may be really typical of the whole work.
is in brief a very fierce and bitter accusation and denunciation of the
founders, its leaders and all its ways and works. If a tithe of what
alleges is true his indignation would be more than justified, but the
failing other sources of information, would be inclined to suspect that
wrath has run to seed in rhetoric. It certainly seems that a more
would carry greater conviction.
gives us an account of the founders of the present day Klan, and the
men who now
control it, and it is no pleasant picture that he draws. There are
of Simmons and Clarke which might be those of any ordinary prosperous
Certainly these illustrations would not give us by themselves the
the first showed the features of a man "characterized by physical
mental inertia and moral insensibility from childhood," of a minister
gospel "discontinued, while yet on trial because of his inefficiency
with grave rumors as to his moral conduct." Nor does the other look
confessed white slaver, a renegade Presbyterian church worker and
Yet on the other hand the author alludes casually to newspaper reports
fully bear out his characterizations. Into these personalities,
however, it is hardly
worthwhile to go. The Klan and its activities are of interest to
in the first place, because of the persistent propaganda put out to
lead the public
to think that there was some connection between the two organizations.
it is of interest to individual Masons as citizens of the United
its machinery is so diametrically opposed to the ideals of democracy on
Republic is founded. Secret tribunals are a natural resource of a
by a despotic and tyrannical government, but they have no place in a
The Klan as a pretentious make-believe would be only a source of mirth,
it tries to make its hidden autocracy effective it becomes a legitimate
apprehension and reprobation. At the very best it is a short cut to
would lead still deeper into the quagmires of injustice and corruption.
One of the
most amusing things about the Klan is the amazing nomenclature in use,
and the even
more amazing crudity of its rituals. It is a cause of wonder how anyone
education to be able to read and write can stomach it. It evidently
racial and religious prejudice, and its promoters find their fishing
the more they can trouble the waters. We can fully recommend the book
as a counter-irritant
to anyone at all inclined to become a Klansman.
Box and Correspondence
for Grand Officers
‒ And Others
I read with
interest an anecdote in the October BUILDER, narrating that a Grand
Master on an
official visit was seated in the East during the reading of a passage
from the Old
Testament, in the course of which he repeatedly asked a Past Master
him, "What does that mean?" The Past Master replied irritably that he
did not know. The moral is that Past Masters really ought to know more
they do know.
I suppose, incontestable; but the anecdote calls to my mind a problem
which is occasionally perplexing. I have not found in any of the
of etiquette directions on how to shut up a Grand Master; nor, frankly,
do I think
I would act upon the knowledge if I had it. One shrinks from the
exercise of stupendous
powers. Besides, one ought never to get irritated at a Grand Master any
at an organist. Most of us could not fill either job. But just what
ought you to
do if you are visiting a lodge and some Worshipful Brother seated next
to you persists
in chattering to you during the work; or if you are entertaining a
visitor and he
converses so continually that even the candidates as they pass by
cannot but hear
him? You don't want to be a solemn ass; but conversation, when it is
nor place for it, is one of the crimes it takes two to commit; so if
you talk back
to your amiable neighbor many can see that you and he are talking and
some can hear
If you happen
to be seated in the East when this occurs everybody can see that you
My own solution
of the difficulty is a compromise ‒ no doubt a cowardly one. At most
stages of the
proceedings I do answer back, under the continual fear or perhaps hope
‒ that the
Master will gavel us into silence. But when the Scripture is being
read, I would
not pay attention to anybody seated beside me, were he a Grand Master
or the best
of grand good fellows. I don't think my regard for the Bible is
fanatical, but when the word of God is being read to me, I consider it
up to me
to pay attention to it and not to anything or anybody else.
I have even
noticed conversation going on during prayer. That surely is boorish as
well as irreverent.
not be well once in a while to suggest to officers, kindly, that during
they ought to sit up straight and pay attention; and might we not
remind Past Masters,
respectfully, that when seated in the East they are conspicuous and are
an example? Let all the brethren remember that it is the lodge at work,
certain performers doing the work. If that were more fully realized
work would seem more interesting.
a time for conversation, for catechism by Grand Masters, for
speechmaking and for
all that promotes sociability. The Master has power to allot the time
things as he deems best; the brethren, whatever their station, should
accordingly. At least, that is the way it seems to me.
‒ C. H.,
* * *
Religion of President
as to the religion of President Hayes that would probably be regarded
as most authentic,
is his own diary, in which he wrote on May 7, 1890: "I am not a
to any creed. I belong to no church. But in a sense satisfactory to
myself and believed
by me to be important, I try to be a Christian, or rather I want to be
and to help do Christian work." Again, on Jan. 8, 1893, nine days
death, he wrote: “I am Christian, according to my conscience, in
belief, not, of
course, in character and conduct, but in purpose and wish; not, of
course, by the
orthodox standard. But I am content and have a feeling of trust and
and many others from Hayes' diary are printed in the two-volume "Life,"
by Charles Richard Williams [Lib 1914; Vol 1, Vol 2] (Houghton Mifflin Company,
which was written at the request of General Hayes' sons and principally
in the family
home at Fremont, Ohio. Hayes' mother was a New England
Congregationalist; when they
moved to Ohio his parents united with the Presbyterian Church. Hayes
went to Kenyon
College (Episcopalian) but apparently only because it was the nearest.
wife was, as is well known, a zealous Methodist and he always went with
her to church.
His biographer, Williams, says: "His widowed mother's pride in him was
and she never had fault to find with him except that he did not make
of the Christian faith and unite himself with some church. While he
to be a Christian in all essential respects, he never united with any
were declarations of belief in the orthodox creeds that he could not
though much briefer, are found in the "Life," by William Dean Howells
(New York: Hurd and Houghton, 1876).
E. Harrison, New York.
to the statement in your October issue that President Hayes was a
Hayes and his wife were both members of the Methodist Episcopal Church.
from the Presidency, he made his home at Fremont, Ohio, and the
Church in Fremont is largely indebted to President and Mrs. Hayes for
Hayes and my father were close friends and frequently discussed
religion. One day
I overheard my father say, "Hayes, I know you belong to the Methodist
but what is your religious belief?" He replied, "I am a Christian;
are very few of us." Another statement he made and which I overheard,
is not related that Christ ever smiled. He seems to have had no sense
‒ Frank H.
* * *
I wish to
call your attention to an article appearing on the Editorial page of
1925, issue of THE BUILDER, to the effect that Mark Twain was an
atheist. In a publication
known as "Masonic Events," whose business office is located at 186 N.
LaSalle Street, Chicago Ill., I read another article which leads me to
Mark Twain was a member of Polar Star Masonic Lodge, No. 79, St. Louis,
two articles conflict with each other. Which is correct?
‒ A. F. S.,
in the January issue of THE BUILDER was based upon the biography of
written by Albert Bigelow Paine [Lib 1912; Vol
3], who is the authority for
that Twain in his later years was an atheist. We have no other
authority for the
statement than that contained in the Paine biography. This statement,
not inconsistent with the statement that Mark Twain was a member of
Polar Star Lodge,
No. 79, St. Louis, because his membership in Polar Star Lodge was at a
to the period in which it is averred by Mr. Paine that he became an
this latter period of his life he was no longer a member of Polar Star
his religious beliefs could not be called in question.
does not accept responsibility for the statement in the Paine
biography, but simply
in its editorial saw in the distress of that great humorist probable
of the statement made by his biographer.
* * *
by the undersigned in your September issue on "Facts About Stephen
seems to have elicited considerable interest as shown by the receipt of
of letters by him.
important was one from Henry A. Alexander, a prominent attorney of
who in his letter dated Sept. 22, says:
to your article 'Facts About Stephen Morin' in the September, 1925,
number of THE
BUILDER, in which in the third paragraph you refer to Abraham
Alexander, the first
Secretary-General of the Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, may I
impression that he was not a Jew.
pertinent facts are that Mr. Alexander, my great-great-grandfather, was
of London and a Jew.
compensation he served the Jewish congregation of the House of God of
South Carolina, as its minister from 1764 to 1784, and this service is
in the ritual of that congregation for the Day of Atonement. He is
buried in the
Jewish Cemetery in Coming Street in Charleston and his descendants are
To this most
interesting letter to all Scottish Rite Masons I replied, saying I was
pleased to learn that there were descendants of this noted brother,
now living in the United States, and asked for more details of his
life, as Albert
Pike was able to find out but little concerning him save that he was
the Charleston Custom House, was an Englishman and, as his informant
"a fine caligraphist." I further suggested to Mr. Alexander that he
me all the facts concerning his illustrious ancestor that he cared to
for publication as a separate article, to which I have as yet received
‒ Cyrus Field
* * *
and the Holy Bible
I am taking
the liberty of mailing you a copy of "The York Rite Trestle Board," a
little sheet published by a few earnest and enterprising brother Masons
of the City
of Mexico in the interest of York Rite Masonry in this Republic. It is
of the Grand Master to address the Craft by a monthly letter. This
of our present M. W. Grand Master occurs to me as about as fine a
statement of real
Masonry and its purpose as I have ever seen.
apt is his statement with reference to the "Holy Bible as the nearest
we have of learning the Will of God, and as the best Guide, upon which
to base our
faith and our conduct." Here is a conception, upon which all honest men
agree whether in the lodge or out of it.
‒ E. S. Banks, Sec'y, Tampico Lodge, No. 10, F.
& A. M., Tampico, Mexico.
from which Bro. Banks quotes, reads in full thus:
has for its fundamental principles and tenets only those principles
upon which all
good men may agree without argument and without contention. Such is the
one Supreme Being, the Father and Creator of all things; such is the
belief in the
immortality of the soul, that part of Man which most nearly resembles
the God he
worships; such is the belief in the Holy Bible as the nearest means we
have of learning
the Will of God, and as the best guide upon which to base our faith and
To these great fundamentals we add the practice of benevolence, of
charity and of
tolerance, the belief in individual responsibility, in the free
education of all
men and in freedom of thought for all mankind.
* * *
Wanted and For Sale
having a copy of "Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid," by Piazzi
that they are willing to dispose of, communicate with Bro. George
Meyer, care of
Bro. G. F.
Winemiller has a complete set of THE BUILDER from January, 1915, to
date, for sale.
Todd Plum, daughter of the late Bro. Irving Todd, of Hastings, Minn.,
sell her father's Masonic library. This consists chiefly of a
collection of proceedings
of various Grand Masonic bodies which had been made very nearly
complete. A very
valuable set, which might especially interest any Masonic body
formation of a library. There are in addition some two hundred volumes
of a miscellaneous
character, some of them very scarce.
Bro. O. M.
Henderson has about seventy Masonic works to dispose of. A list will be
to those interested. Among these books are such items as the following:
Masonry. Mackey, 1866. $2.00.
Traditions of Freemasonry. Pierson, 1865. $2.00.
Symbolism of Freemasonry. Mackey, 1869. $1.50.
Encyclopedia of Freemasonry. Mackey. $4.00.
Antiquities of Freemasonry. Oliver, 1856. $2.00.
Illustrations of Masonry. Preston, 1856. $2.00.
Revelations of a Square. Oliver, 1855. $1.76.
Mnemonics. [Morris.] $2.50.
A. Theobald would like to obtain a copy of the Scottish Rite Liturgy of
Three Degrees. If any of our readers have a copy to dispose of, or know
could be obtained they would be extending a fraternal favor in letting
Letters may be addressed in care of the Editor of THE BUILDER.
I. Clegg writes to point out an error that was overlooked in the
of THE BUILDER, and one that is sufficiently obvious, at least when
The portrait illustrating his article entitled "More Patriarchs of the
is that of Bro. John Barker, not Harry Tipper.
s’accuse, say the French, and Ye Editor is neither going to excuse nor
The mistake occurred, it is now corrected, and that's that.
* * *
In a little
work published some time ago giving a brief outline of Biblical history
Masonic point of view, together with topographical and archeological
the Orient ‒ it would perhaps be unkind to mention the exact title ‒
following gem: "The Sphinx is a gigantic monument with the body of a
the bust of a woman, probably the image of an ancient king."
reads this it would seem that kings were curious animals in those days.
* * *
And yet another
correction! A friendly critic writes to point out that the poem we
quoted last month
is all wrong, and also (which under the circumstances is worse) that
the true version
appears in the first volume of THE BUILDER on page 137. Ye Editor will
his face" by pointing out that this is a very good concrete example of
variant forms of a story, a proverbial saying, or a traditional ritual
If such mistakes can be made when the original is on record and easily
much more so are they likely to occur when this is not the case.
Here is the
original form of the poem:
"The parish priest of austerity
Climbed up in a high church steeple,
To be nearer God so that he might hand
His word down to the people.
And in sermon and script he daily wrote
What he thought was sent from heaven
And he dropped it down on the people's heads
Two times one day in seven.
In his age God said, Come down and die.
And he cried out from the steeple
Where art Thou, Lord? And the Lord replied
Down here among my people! "
up of the poem into stanzas, and the dividing of the first and every
alternate line into two are minor details and do not affect either the
the sense. But note how the "austerity" of the priest has been changed
into a geographical designation of similar sound. The most curious
is adding "r" to the word "age" and the consequent complete
change of the end of the line in order to produce sense. Those who
wonder how discrepancies
have got into the Masonic Ritual can see the process here in plain
view. It is now
the turn for someone else to discover neither version is right. But
this will not
affect the moral.
Character of Maryland
Als80 / auth. Alsop George. - New York : William Gowan, 1880. - Vol. 1
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A Grammar of the Cree Language
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Aboriginal Literature Vol 1 -
The Maya Chronicles
Bri82AL01 / auth. Brinton Daniel G / ed. Brinton David G. -
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Aboriginal Literature Vol 3 -
Bri82AL03 / auth. Brinton Daniel G / ed. Brinton David G. -
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Aboriginal Literature Vol 4 -
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Aboriginal Literature Vol 5 -
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Aboriginal Literature Vol 6 -
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Aboriginal Literature Vol 7 -
Ancient Nahuatl Poetry
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Aboriginal Literature Vol 8 -
Rig Veda Americanus
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Discourse on the Aborigines
Har38 / auth. Harrison William H. - Cincinnati : [s.n.], 1838. - Vol. 1
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Guild Masonry in the Making
Mer18 / auth. Merz Charles H. - Louisville KY : Light Publishing, 1918.
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History of American Indians
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History of the Mission of the
Los94 / auth. Loskiel Georg H. - London : The Brethren's Society for
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History on the Susquehanna
Gus83 / auth. Guss Abraham L. - Harrisburg : Lane S Hart, 1883. - Vol.
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History, Manners and Customs of
the Indian Nations
Hec76 / auth. Heckewelder John G E. - Philadelphia : Historical Society
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Hal83 / auth. Halo Horatio. - Chicago : James Morse, 1883. - Vol. 1 : 1
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Bea77 / auth. Beach William W. - Albany : J Munsell, 1877. - Vol. 1 : 1
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Key into the Language of America
Wil43 / auth. Williams Roger. - London : Gregory Dexter, 1643. - Vol. 1
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Kit Carson's Life
Pet75 / auth. Peters De Witt C. - Hartford : Dustin, Gilman &
Co, 1875. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 580. - 39.1 MB.
Langue des Cris
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Life and Character of Hayes
How76 / auth. Howells William D. - New York : Hurd and Houghton, 1876.
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Life of Brainerd
Wes93 / auth. Wesley John. - London : G Paramore, 1793. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
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Life of Hayes Vol 1
Wil14LH1 / auth. Williams Charles B. - Boston : Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 577. - Illustrated - 31.7 MB.
Life of Hayes Vol 2
Wil14LH2 / auth. Williams Charles B. - Boston : Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1914. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 514. - Illustrated - 28.2 MB.
Life of Zeisberger
Sch70 / auth. Schweinitz Edmund de. - Philadelphia : J B Lippincott,
1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 748. - 33.6 MB.
Mark Twain Biography Vol 1
Pai12MT1 / auth. Paine Albert B. - New York : Harper & Brothers
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Mark Twain Biography Vol 2
Pai12MT2 / auth. Paine Albert B. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishing, 1912. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 579. - Illustrated - 26.1 MB.
Mark Twain Biography Vol 3
Pai12MT3 / auth. Paine Albert B. - New York : Harper & Brothers
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Medieval Architecture Vol 1
Por09MA1 / auth. Porter Arthur K. - New York : The Baker and Taylor
Group, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 606. - 19.8 MB.
Medieval Architecture Vol 2
Por09MA2 / auth. Porter Arthur K. - New York : The Baker and Taylor
Group, 1909. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 620. - 23.2 MB.
Let04 / auth. Lethaby William R. - London : Duckworth & Co,
1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 396. - 24.4 MB.
Relation des Jesuites
LeJ38 / auth. Le Jeune Rev Paul. - Rouen : Jean Le Boullenger, 1638. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 603. - Old French - 33.1 MB.
The Aboriginal Races
Dra59 / auth. Drake Samuel. - Philadelphia : Charles Desilver, 1859. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 747. - 70.1 MB.
The Indians of Berk County
Bru97 / auth. Brunner David B. - Reading : Eagle Book Print, 1897. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 216. - 10.0 MB.
The Myths of the New World
Bri962 / auth. Brinton Daniel G. - Philadelphia : David McKay,
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The Ritual of the Operative
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Two Thousand Miles on Horseback
Mel67 / auth. Meline James F. - New York : Hurst and Houghton, 1867. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 330. - 12.0 MB.
Gar50 / auth. Garrard Lewis H. - Cincinnatti : H W Derby & Co,
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What is a Dogma
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