Masonic Research Society
Table of Contents
Bro. H.C. De Lafontaine,
purpose of this article is sufficiently indicated by the title, and the
set forth what in his opinion Masonry should be and what it might be.
is an additional interest to American readers, in that it will help
them in forming
a picture of some of the many differences in usage and custom between
it has developed on the two sides of the Atlantic, though, as the
the spirit is the same.
FORT NEWTON, in his admirable and much-to-be-recommended book entitled
when discoursing on the subject, "What Is Masonry?" says: "Masonry
is the activity of closely united men who, employing symbolical forms
from the masons' trade and from architecture, work for the welfare of
morally to ennoble themselves and others, and thereby to bring about a
league of mankind, which they aspire to exhibit even now on a small
This is a quotation from a German Handbuch on Masonry, and you might
say with some
reason that these noble sentiments come from a tainted source; but, as
I cannot render myself so bigoted a person as to refuse to employ a
so aptly expresses the high aims and intentions of our system. Had our
intellectuality evolved a similarly expressive statement, I should not
need to have
borrowed from a foreign source.
been much talk about the League of Nations; indeed, there already seems
to be a
Wilsonian directness about the phrase. We, as non-political brethren,
with the question. We can only make large eyes and meditate on the
method of securing in the future universal and permanent peace by
vast continent to be the arbiter of world decisions. A League of
Nations is an idealism
that is beyond the bound of possibility or probability; but, on the
a League of Mankind, though again an idealism, is something that can be
down to earth, that, indeed, is actually here, though men know it not
and go on
inventing impossible schemes, when they have already to hand in the
and the foremost principles of Masonry the greatest panacea for the
obliterating of this world's troubles that people have ever known.
"Amidst bitterness and strife
men of every rank and walk of life together as men, and nothing else,
at an altar
where they can talk and not fight, discuss and not dispute, and each
may learn the
point of view of his fellow."
hears the sentiment voiced, "Masonry is my religion," and one can
entirely with such an expression of opinion. For Masonry in its highest
"is Religion, a worship in which all good men may unite, that each may
the faith of all." "No part of the ministry of Masonry is more
and wise than its appeal, not for tolerance, but for fraternity; not
but for unity of spirit amidst varieties of outlook and opinion."
no dogma, invents no shibboleth, imprints no creed. In its vast
idealism, it embraces
all peoples, tolerates all world-wide religions and narrow sects, holds
hand to all who are groping in darkness for a way to light, and says
words, not strange to our ears, "Come, I will show you a more excellent
I quite believe that many Masons do find in the higher teachings of
that which more nearly satisfies their spiritual yearnings than any
system of religious thought which, encrusted into rigidity by
tradition, has come
to be known as all that is necessary to the soul's health. One of the
of Masonry, and one of the chief factors in its stability is that it
to free men from a limiting conception of religion, and thus to remove
one of the
chief causes of sectarianism."
in leaving this ideal aspect of the Craft, forbear quoting a few
The Builders, and if you know them already, I must apologize, but for
myself I think
we can never hear them too often. They come upon us like a rush of
invigorating air, fresh from the Atlantic, permeating all the recesses
of our somewhat
"When is a man a Mason? When he
deep down in his heart every man is noble, as vile, as divine, as
as lonely as himself. When he knows how to sympathize with men in their
yea even in their sins. When he has learned how to make friends and to
and above all how to keep friends with himself. When he can be happy
amid the meaner drudgeries of life. When no voice of distress reaches
his ears in
vain, and no hand seeks his aid without response. When he finds good in
that helps any man to lay hold of divine things, and sees majestic
meanings in life,
whatever the name of that faith may be. When he has kept faith with
his fellow man, with his God; in his hand a sword for evil, in his
heart a bit of
a song, glad to live, but not afraid to die."
"If Masons often fall far below
ideal, it is because they share in their degree the infirmity of
mankind. He is
a poor craftsman who glibly recites the teachings of the Order and
the lessons they convey; who wears the honorable dress to conceal a
spirit; or to whom its great and simple symbols bring only an outward
no inward urge toward the highest of all good. Apart from what they
symbols are empty; they speak only to such as have ears to hear."
Is a Chasm between
Practice and Precept
be denied by anyone who has any power of observation that there is a
between practice and profession in Masonry. But this is common to every
and must always be so, according to the nature of things. And nowhere
is this more
vividly illustrated than in the history of religion. The teaching is
the disciple, overburdened by human weaknesses, drags it down and
endeavors to fit
it to his own earthly ends. It is prone to all of us to make the most
with our lips, and to go away and belie the spirit of what we have
said. And then
men blame the teaching, and not the feeble human instrument. Masonry is
on those two principles which go to make up the whole of religion,
any accretions which may have hidden them from immediate view or
endeavored to strangle
them out of existence, and these principles are, as you well know, love
and love of man, both reacting and interacting on each other. One is
of the other; you cannot separate them; they stand or fall together. We
declare ourselves God-lovers, though in some instances, if the love
that we show
to a fellow man exemplifies our love to the Divine Being, the Divine
be a very neglected and solitary person.
of humanity is the great hindrance to the realization of the inner
strength of Masonry.
Remember the five points of fellowship! They bind together brother
Masons in the
strongest bond of charity that can be imagined. You greet your fellow
man as a brother,
and in doing so you become his ally for life; your further actions
touch every point
in his life, domestic, civil, and religious. And yet who has not known
have fallen from grace, who have endeavored to interpret their vows and
in the manner in which people interpret the Bible, squaring precepts
and texts to
their own advantage, sheltering themselves under the much abused maxim
temps, autres moeurs!" But these reflections need not make us
reduce us to a condition of hopelessness--the lesson for us is to show
example, to make others see by our own lives and conduct that Masonry
is not a simple
medium for convivial entertainment, that it is not a benefit society,
and that it
is not an association for the enticement and beguilement of hoary
and down-cheeked youngsters from homestead or from amorous dalliance,
but that it
affords to all, if properly understood and consistently practiced, the
for living an upright life, a life which may be said to be passed in
of God's smile.
your thoughts to the ideals of Masonry, I now turn to mundane
proceed to note some details in the working and practice of Masonry. As
to the forms
in which our present Masonry is enshrined, opinion has varied from time
as to the expediency of uniformity. From a general survey of the
question I think
anyone must see that any endeavor in this direction would be rather
like an attempt
to revise the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England. And the
be the same ‒ many historical landmarks would be lost for all time, and
emasculated version of our ceremonies would have to pass muster. At a
Communication of the Grand Lodge of England, you may remember that a
brought forward a resolution advocating uniformity of ritual. It met
with no approval,
and no one could be found to act as seconder. You cannot deduce from
this too much,
as possibly the same resolution at some other meeting of Grand Lodge,
another contingent of Masons, might have met with some support. Yet I
do not hesitate
to say that I believe that the majority of really working Masons are
any attempt to reduce our ritual to one monotonous level of sameness.
I would suggest,
however, to all private lodges such a measure of uniformity as enables
to work in harmony conjointly with the Master. To take only one
instance to illustrate
what I mean ‒ a candidate, if he is paying due attention to the
ceremony, must be
somewhat mystified to be told by the Master that it was in this
position that Moses
prayed fervently, etc., and then to be told, when conducted to the
pedestal, that it was really Joshua who so prayed, and not Moses at
all. It would
be well that a Master should state the working he intends to adopt, and
to his officers the practice of uniformity in working. But in the case
of long standing
oral traditions, the Past Masters of a lodge have much to say as to the
of the ritual so that the poor Master's constitutional authority
vanishes into thin
air. However, if Masters will be so weak as to come in danger of being
they must blame their own supineness.
who takes a lively interest in Masonry will notice in the Craft degrees
many redundancies of speech, many misquotations, and not a few
and will be correspondingly shocked or astonished; but the way can be
in this respect, and we cannot argue from this that a brand new ritual
evolved which should endeavor to satisfy all parties. There is no doubt
(1) working has made great and astonishing strides, and is much in
I have always considered that, whatever the ritual, the question of
is to interest, to teach, to instruct the candidate. Avoid all
and do not say things like a machine, even if you do lose a match-box.
be easy, have your ritual at your fingers' ends, be able to play with
it as you
like, pause for effect at the proper moments, and never let the
candidate see that
you are at a loss for a word, quickly substitute another, if it is in a
part of the ceremony. The candidate, the candidate, that is all you
have to think
of; not yourself; you must throw away every shred of self-consciousness
begin your work. Then you may succeed in doing justice to yourself, but
A most unfortunate effect is sometimes produced by a Master suddenly
again repeating what he has previously said, under the impression that
he has not
used the actual words. This breaks the continuity of the ceremony, jars
on the candidate,
and produces a feeling of nervous insecurity in the lodge. The
intonations and inflections
of the voice also have much to do with the effective rendering of the
persistence in one hard, dry, rasping note not only fatigues the
is wearisome to the speaker. But it is so easy to give advice. I think
I might now
fitly say, as was said to one of old, "Physician, heal thyself."
I have been
speaking about the candidate, and this leads me to the consideration of
on which I have always felt very strongly, and which I think deserves
and that is the training of young Masons. If I may speak from my own
my initiation meant nothing to me. The ceremony was shuffled over in a
sort of way, with the result that I went away thoroughly unedified. You
not be surprised to hear that it was two years before I presented
myself for my
Master Mason's Degree. It was then indelibly imprinted on my mind how
my entrance into Masonry might have been under other circumstances.
the present method, it seems to me that you hatch your chickens, you
then hide away
the mother-hen, and the only nutriment you provide for the callow brood
is a few
scattered grains pressed down into the cracks of the earth by the
of the fully fledged birds. The retort may be made that there are
lodges of instruction
for all Masons both young and old, (2) and I would not for one moment
usefulness of these organizations, nor decry the valuable work that
they have done.
Here the newly-made Mason may begin to take part in the purely ritual
part of Masonry;
his mind may also be further trained and enlightened by hearing the
working of the
various sections of the lectures. But, when all is said and done, this
is only the
fringe of the great enveloping vestment; the threshold, as it were, of
temple not made with hands; the tiny candle which attempts to hold a
light to the
sun. Dr. Newton, in the preface to his book, has these words:
"Fourteen years ago the writer
of this volume
entered the temple of Freemasonry, and that date stands out in memory
as one of
the most significant days in his life. There was a little spread on the
his raising, and, as is the custom, the candidate was asked to give his
of the Order. Among other things, he made the request to know if there
was any little
book which would tell a young man the things he would most like to know
What it was, whence it came, what it teaches, and what it is trying to
do in the
world. No one knew of such a book at the time, nor has any been found
to meet a
need which many must have felt before and since. By an odd coincidence,
it has fallen
to the lot of the author to write the little book for which he made
now see an additional reason for my having recommended this work to
at the beginning of my remarks. But even this book, admirable as it is
does not altogether satisfy me. It seems to want directness, and it
a point I always judge to be of supreme importance. It has also the
of being what I should call "high falutin". I say this not unkindly,
only as a concession to the beginner in Masonry. I therefore am still
the manual which will be an adequate vade mecum to the neophyte in
I ought here,
however, to mention that a little work, excellent in its way, has
during the past
two years been published and put in circulation. What Is Freemasonry?
the title of this brochure, and the well-known name attached to it,
that of Bro.
Crowe, vouches for its correctness and usefulness. I have many times
given it to
Entered Apprentices, and I hope they have profited by the information
Lord Ampthill, in the preface that he wrote for the book, says:
"I seize this opportunity of
suggestion which I have often made, namely, that there should be some
on Masonic history, Masonic principles, or on the administration and
the Craft at every lodge meeting. Let the Past Masters take it in turn
for five minutes and tell the junior members of the lodge something
matters, or advise them what to read. Let the younger brethren be
examined in their
knowledge of these subjects after they have had a chance of reading."
"The precepts which have been handed down to us from the days when
depended upon oral tradition, repeatedly emphasize the duty of
over and above that contained in the fixed ceremonies."
is really a step in the right direction; I cannot say it is all
sufficing, but a
notable point in its favor is that it contains a copy of a letter which
to every candidate for initiation in the old lodge. "Union des Coeurs,"
at Geneva. I have never read anything more suitable in tone and more
expressed, and as Bro. Crowe points out, "it is suited both to
newly-made brethren of every country." Lord Ampthill thinks that our
should send out a similar letter.
abide by my previous statement ‒ that I am still waiting for an
vade mecum; the book I have mentioned goes part of the way; Dr. Joseph
book goes a long part of the way; but there is still a longer journey.
I have for
some time thought that, besides lodges of instruction, there ought to
for those Masons who are disposed to take an interest in the science.
And here we
enter on the educational side of Masonry. These classes should be held
fortnightly, if possible, and should be presided over by experienced
an examination might be held to test the growth of knowledge on the
part of the
students. Some well-known Masonic textbook, if such a thing exists,
might be made
the basis of instruction, and a catechism might even be devised as a
You will be thinking that I am now plunging into a sea of utopian
and that I am addressing Masons who have no business avocations to
engage the most
part of their time and attention. It is truly said, however, that the
can always make time for further labors, and I honestly believe that
such a course
as I am suggesting would come as a positive refreshment to the
over the hard arid facts of life, and would serve to recreate and
enliven a sometimes
jaded mind and body. At all events, let trial be made before the notion
into the dust-heap of wild-cat schemes.
As a proof
of Masonry being an educational science, I may once more revert to
words from Dr.
Newton's book, which, I perceive, is fast obsessing my mind as being a
on which to build. He is quoting from Albert Pike's MS. Lessons in
Masonry and the
subject is the inner meaning of the three grips which occur in the
ritual of Craft
Masonry. The first the Entered Apprentice's grip, may be likened to the
function of science. "Science, so far from proving the immortality of
lays aside its instruments, unable to prove that there is a soul. Not
by that grip
can man be raised from a dead level to a living perpendicular. Logic,"
by the Fellow Craft's grip, "then tries to demonstrate that the soul in
nature, is indivisible, indestructible so immortal." But not even "by
that grip can man be raised to walk in newness of life. There remains,"
the Master Mason's grip, "the strong grip of Faith"; "once we know
that the soul is akin to God … we have a reach and grasp and power of
we are lifted out of shadow into the light."
Officers Should Not
As to the
conduct of private lodges, one must speak with a becoming discretion,
as I have
no eyes of admiration for the newly-appointed Grand Officer who thinks
he has a
mandate from the Grand Master to oversee and correct what he judges to
and departures from the usual ritual. He blusters with a newly-acquired
and often through his own imperfect knowledge makes confusion worse
At the same time I have always declared that Grand Lodge does not make
use of those whom it appoints to office. They might, those of them who
for the same, be sent to visit Provinces and to collect information as
to the work
and progress of lodges, which, when tabulated, might be of great
assistance to those
working in the office at Freemasons' Hall. This is only one direction
in which work
might be done. Naturally, such visitation must be in no sense
would be fatal; it must be in the nature of kindly friendship,
and counsel. Therein, I suppose, is the danger, that if such a system
square pegs might not fit into round holes.
one practice which even in the mildness of my nature I cannot avoid
and that is the practice, seen in so many lodges, of saluting every
his investiture by the Master. I can find no authority for this, and I
see no meaning
in it. And strange to say, it is only too often a Grand Officer, who as
of Ceremonies, shouts, "To older, brethren." Such a practice seems to
me to harmonize but ill with the dignity of the ritual, and Grand
to know better than to give it countenance.
of Labor Recommended
I think a
Master, if he presides over an actively working lodge, should endeavor
the as widely as possible, and not to keep the lion's share for
himself. He may
be the best of Masters, but he imposes on himself a needless strain
when in one
evening he makes himself responsible for the three degrees, and he is
the Past Masters that opportunity of pleasant reminiscence which they
so ardently desire.
lodge, in most instances, follows the meal, the pleasant symposium,
where all can
meet on a thorough basis of equality as at a common table, and exchange
and make acquaintances which strengthen the Masonic bond. A pleasant
function, but by no means to be looked on as an integral factor in
Masonry. To talk
of it as the Fourth Degree is to lower oneself into an abyss of Masonic
appalling in its height, depth, and breadth! To hurry over work in
lodge, in order
to get to the dinner table, is to prove that for some Masonry means
than a private feeding club! But, now as to the Fourth Degree! How can
a Fourth Degree, when, as Royal Arch Masons will know, and as others
will come to
know, we are expressly told that there is no Fourth Degree in Craft
only a ceremony which is a completion of the Third, or Master Mason's
venture therefore to plead that this utter misnomer be once and for all
from periods of refreshment in any lodge. If, during its working, any
lodge is called
off, the brethren are called "from labor to refreshment", not "to
attend to the work of the Fourth Degree".
I find in
an old Masonic work, published in 1769, the following suggested by-law
and I quote it as containing a perhaps useful admonition for all,
though the convivial
side of Masonry is not now the mad carouse which in some instances it
used to be.
"As nothing has a greater
tendency to bring
the Craft into disrepute than keeping late hours on lodge nights; the
be acquainted by the S.W. when it is Nth o'clock, and shall immediately
to close the lodge; either of them failing herein shall forfeit the sum
of … and
any member who is in the lodge (and not being a traveler or lodger in
remaining in the same house after Nth o'clock, shall also forfeit the
sum of … It
is hoped and expected that no member will offend against this law,
secure the honor and harmony of the lodge, to prevent uneasiness to our
at home, and to preserve the economy of our families."
Music Is Needed In
as to music in lodges. I note that in Anderson's Constitutions there
is, at the
end of the book, an appendix, containing "Some of the Usual Freemason
Amongst these may be found the Master's Song and the Warden's Song,
both by Bro.
Armstrong, as also the Fellowcraft's Song, by Bro. Charles de la Fay,
and the Entered
'Prentice's Song, by Bro. Matthew Birkhead. Above the song is written
sung after grave Business is over." Then follows a collection of songs
this heading: "The following songs are not in the first book, but being
sung, they are now printed." These comprise the Deputy Grand Master's
the Grand Warden's Song, by Bro. Oates; the Treasurer's Song; the
and the Swordbearer's Song. It may be interesting to note, under this
Mozart owed many of his impulses as a composer to his connection with
Indeed a short Masonic cantata, which was composed on Nov. 15, 1791,
a few days afterwards at the consecration of a new Masonic temple, is
the last work
which Mozart completed. I suppose it is not generally known that in the
to Mozart's famous opera, "The Magic Flute," there occur three chords,
three times repeated, with pauses between, given out by the wind
and the rhythm of these chords is a musical expression of the knocks in
Degree. They occur again in the opera in the scene of the Temple
assembly as a sign
that Tamino, the hero, is accepted and appointed to undergo the tests.
by the way of parenthesis.
I have spoken about, you will see, goes to prove, except in one or two
that music has been more especially prominent in connection with the
of Masonry than with actual ceremonies in the lodge itself. I dare say
I am somewhat
hypercritical as to music, but I do say unhesitatingly that rather no
music at all
than music inefficiently performed. There is but little scope for music
in the Three
Degrees of our Craft ritual, though a skillful organist can by a well
well modulated accompaniment considerably enhance the beauty of the
ceremony. The greatest scope for music is afforded by the consecration
of a lodge.
I have attended numberless consecrations, and I can only say that I
both the music then given and its general rendering pitiful and beneath
I am afraid music is taken but little notice of by the ruling
authorities in the
Craft. It is curious to me that no Grand Organist has compiled or
collected a selection
of music worthy of the dignity of our Order. The only music I ever
in connection with Masonry which at all impressed me was at a rehearsal
of the consecration
ceremony by a London Lodge of Instruction. It was made a special
feature of the
occasion, and great pains had been taken to secure adequate talent. The
most harmonious, which will not be so if I drag out to further length
I have endeavored to give them a certain degree of practicality, and I
which I have written may bear a little fruit in a greater devotion to
and a fuller acquaintance with its sublime principles.
It may be
thought that in the latter part of my remarks I have wandered
altogether from my
subject, but I would rather contend that the several points I have
noted, if looked
at and considered in the right spirit, do tend to the elevation and the
of the high ideals on which the Order is founded. I must confess that
great world struggle rather struck Masonry at its base, and caused one
to have grave
doubts and apprehensions as to its future. But through the providence
of the Great
Architect of the Universe, it has recovered its equilibrium, and now
stands in a
position of greater strength than possibly it has had at any period of
form of existence. I feel that this very strength is a clarion call to
our efforts in promoting peace and harmony and earnest good will
and the peoples of the earth. I think it is a wise decree that
prohibits us from
employing Masonry politically. If anyone has studied the history of
Masonry in other
countries, particularly in those where the Latin races abound, he will
our Order has been made a screen to mask the most daring and appalling
yet, in view of this, I do venture to say that we do not actually live
up to the
high standard of our Masonic calling. Of course it will be understood
that I am
speaking of Masons in the aggregate, and not of individual and
If I should seem severe or captious, I can only say that Masonic zeal
me to make over-heated statements, but as to their veracity I feel
if properly apprehended, opens the door to a new world ‒ we pass from
light ‒ see to it that that light irradiates in an ever widening
center, so that
you may communicate wisdom and knowledge during your path through life!
- There are several forms of
ritual followed in England among which those taught
by the "Emulation" and "Stability" Lodges of Instruction are
perhaps the best known. Those who would like more light on this subject
well to consult Sadler's history of the former (if they can get hold of
Golby's "Century of Stability." [Lib*] The "Masonic Ritual Described
Compared and Explained" by J. W. Hobbs would be very useful in this
- This of course refers to
England where lodges of instruction are common.
They are regularly organized and are open to all Master Masons.
Scottish Mason, American Patriot
Bro. William M. Stuart
of this vivid historical story of Revolutionary days is becoming widely
known as a writer of American fiction, and we are glad to be able to
to our readers, and to be able to promise them further productions of
tale of a mythical god of old Athens reads the record of that
of the long ago, who though born in one of the lower strata of Scotch
riches, titles and honor; who came to walk with kings, but whose
ever remained that he was an American citizen.
the son of a poor Scotch gardener, was born July 6, 1747, in Arbigland,
Kirkbean, stewartry of Kirkcudbright. It was on the estate of Lord
Selkirk, a nobleman
of distinction, whose castle was on St. Mary's Isle, that Paul first
saw the light
of day. Years after the future commodore of the American navy was to do
of his father an injury and then make ample reparation.
of Paul Jones was spent on the shores of the Solway Frith across the
Whitehaven, which also he was to bring into the limelight of history.
the name has now become so familiar that it is difficult to think of
him in other
terms, it must not be forgotten that the famous sailor's birth name was
Jones, but John Paul. Under that name he was at the age of twelve
a Mr. Younger of Whitehaven, a merchant engaged in trading with
he was thirteen John Paul sailed for Rappahannock, Virginia, in the
From the first he liked America. His elder brother, William Paul, had
in Virginia, and it was in his home that John stayed while on this
failure on the part of Mr. Younger now induced that gentleman to
release John from
his apprenticeship, and the boy was therefore thrown upon his own
however, improved to the full such limited opportunities as he had.
Filled to the
brim with the thirst for learning, he studied late at night, not only
and kindred subjects, but French as well. In time he became a very good
and his scholarship in other lines was such that he did not have to
blush when in
the presence of the learned.
still but a boy when he shipped as third mate on a slaver hailing from
And in 1766 he secured a berth as first mate on the brigantine Two
engaged in the slave trade. At this time the business of slave trading
entirely respectable, but John Paul grew so disgusted with it that he
left the business
after the ship had arrived in the West Indies, and returned to Scotland
as a passenger
on another vessel. On the way over both the captain and the mate of the
of the fever, and Paul took command, bringing the brigantine safely
into port. This
act earned for him the appointment as master of the ship.
In the year
1770 he commanded the Betsy of London, a vessel engaged in the West
John now entered into speculations and made considerable money. It was
in this same
year of 1770 that, being ever in search of Light, he was initiated in
Lodge, No. 122, F. & A. M., of Kilwinning, Kirkcudbright,
Scotland. This was
on Nov. 27.
year John Paul renounced Scotland as his home, and in 1773, being
called to Virginia
to settle the estate of his brother, William Paul, he decided to stay
set up as a planter. He now had some property, although it would appear
never was a very rich man. It was also probably about this time that he
to change his name by adding to his birth name that of Jones.
it had remained a mystery just what induced him to take this step. But
a few years
ago that indefatigable historian, Cyrus Townsend Brady, cleared up this
seems that during his lean years Paul had grown on very friendly terms
with a gentleman
of North Carolina by the name of Wiley Jones. Although Brady does not
point, it is exceedingly probable that the cause of this friendship was
Jones was of much help to John Paul when the latter sorely needed it,
and in romantic
gratitude Paul added the name of Jones to his own. Later Wiley Jones
in securing for John Paul Jones his first commission in the infant navy
of the United
Jones seems to have been an enthusiastic and consistent Mason. Both
before and during
the Revolution he was a frequent visitor at the lodges in Boston,
New York. There is not the slightest doubt but that it was Masonry
which first brought
him to the attention of influential Americans. Later most of the
officers who sailed
with him on his various cruises were Masons, including the afterward
Dale, lieutenant on the Bonhomme Richard at the time of her battle with
Dale and Jones were firm friends as well as Masonic brothers, and
in utmost harmony.
On Dec. 7,
1775, John Paul Jones received his commission as lieutenant in the
being ordered to service on the Alfred. It is said that to him fell the
hoisting the first American flag over a ship of war. This was the
flag with the motto, "Don't Tread On Me."
independent command was the schooner Providence of seventy tons burden
with four tiny guns. With this feeble force he made a very successful
which he captured sixteen vessels and destroyed British property
aggregating a million
this, while in command of the Alfred he made another cruise and
captured great stores
of clothing, of which the patriots were then in much need.
was commissioned a captain on the very day that the stars and stripes
as the national flag. Ordered to the command of the Ranger, a corvette
hundred tons, he hoisted at her masthead on the 4th of July, 1777, the
This particular ensign had been made from "slices of their best silk
by the Misses Mary Langdon, Augusta Pierce, Caroline Chandler, Dorothy
Helen Seavey, of Portsmouth, N. H., for presentation to Jones for this
The ladies were present on the deck of the Ranger when the flag was
had a glorious history. It streamed over the Ranger when Jones set sail
to the King of France the news of Burgoyne's surrender; it still flew
from the masthead
of this famous ship when she captured the Drake; it received from the
fleet at Brest on Feb. 14, 1778, the first salute by a foreign naval
it went down with the Bonhomme Richard after the desperate fight off
According to Augustus C. Buell
in his history
of Paul Jones [Lib 1900; Vol 1, Vol 2]: "When Jones returned to this
country in February, 1781, he found Miss Langdon of 'the quilting
party' a guest
of the Ross family whose house was always his home in Philadelphia. By
way of an
apology he explained to her that his most ardent desire had been to
bring that flag
back to America, with all its glories, and give it back untarnished
into the fair
hands that had given it to him nearly four years before. 'But, Miss
Mary,' he said,
'I couldn't bear to strip it from the poor old ship in her last agony,
I deny to my dead on her decks, who had given their lives to keep it
glory of taking it with them.'
"'You did exactly right,
Miss Langdon, 'that flag is just where we all wish it to be ‒ flying at
of the sea over the only ship that ever sunk in victory.'"
at Brest with the message for the French king, Jones soon took the
Ranger on a cruise
destined to be famous. He fairly swept the English Channel and the
Irish Sea of
British commerce, causing the price of marine insurance to sky-rocket
to be denounced as a pirate, a blackguard and a traitor.
harbor of Whitehaven like a book, he determined to surprise it and burn
Taking two boat crews, he landed in the night, surprised the forts,
to have had but small garrisons, then attempted to burn the fleet of
that fairly crowded the harbor. But here fortune turned against him.
had burned out. Running into a nearby house he secured some fire which
in the hold of a vessel warped to a dock. Soon this ship burst into
But now the
dawn had come up and the populace were aroused. Jones himself describes
He says: "The inhabitants began to appear in thousands, and individuals
hastily toward us. I stood between them and the ship on fire, with my
my hand, and ordered them to stand, which they did with some
sun was a full hour's march above the horizon; and as sleep no longer
world, it was time to retire. We re-embarked without opposition, having
a number of prisoners, as our boats could not carry them. After all my
embarked, I stood upon the pier for a considerable space, yet no person
I saw all the eminences round the town covered with the amazed
had been but partly successful, yet it served to terrorize the
inhabitants of the
British coast towns and awaken them to a feeling for the coast-wise
America, who for so long had been forced to endure the aggressions of
navy. It was ever in the mind of Paul Jones to secure as a hostage some
Briton, that his captivity might serve to mitigate the evil experienced
by the Americans.
With this end in view he approached St. Mary's Isle and saw through the
foliage the turrets of the castle of Lord Selkirk.
On the estate
of this nobleman Paul had played as a little child. He knew every inch
of the surrounding
country. He held the family of Lord Selkirk in the highest respect, for
Selkirk had in old times often befriended his mother. But he knew that
if he could
secure the person of the nobleman it would go a long way toward
insuring the good
treatment of American prisoners, such as were at this time languishing
in that floating
hell, the Old Jersey prison ship.
two boat crews of his most trusty men, Jones debarked from the Ranger,
the shore of St. Mary's Isle and proceeded up the broad driveway that
led to the
soon upon two countrymen, the Americans learned that Lord Selkirk was
home. This was bitter news for Jones; but as the person of the lord was
all he wanted,
he gave the command to his men to right about face and march to the
pier, but the
men were inclined to revolt. They wished to loot the castle of the
that they knew it must contain.
their grievance. He well knew the mental processes of the average
In those days if a sailor could not make prize money or secure loot he
prone to mutiny. Bitterly Jones resented being placed in the position
of a plunderer,
and at that of one who had befriended him in his childhood. However, he
risk a mutiny at this time.
directed the officers of the party to proceed with the men to the
castle and secure
the plate, but on no account to permit any other pilfering, or any
injury to the
people of the castle. He then returned to the shore and awaited the
return of his
now fully satisfied, made its way to the castle, secured the plate and
to the Ranger without doing any further damage either to property or
the plate was put up for sale, Jones, although he really could not
afford to do
so, purchased it and returned it to Lord Selkirk with an explanation
His courtesy and thoughtfulness were acknowledged by Lord Selkirk in a
was printed in various papers, but which did not serve to lessen the
storm of abuse
showered upon Jones by the British public. The British had grown to
fear him, hence
they hated him.
has been made the subject of a novel by Cooper [Lib 1831], and The Pilot has had a
with the reading public that has continued to this day.
this event Jones was attacked by the British man-of-war Drake near
The Drake was a ship about equal to the Ranger in size and weight of
was heavier manned.
It was late
in the afternoon when the action commenced. It continued for over an
hour. At the
end of that time the Drake's rigging, spars and sails were cut to
of her crew had fallen, and she was completely helpless. She was
to strike. On the Ranger but two men were killed and six wounded. Jones
the Drake into Brest harbor as a prize.
French alliance, Jones thought it probable that he would be able to
secure a command
sufficiently strong to work havoc upon the British shipping. Said he,
not wish to have command of any ship that does not sail fast, for I
intend to go
in harm's way."
But he met
with many discouragements. Franklin tried to aid him, but it was not
until the summer
of 1779 that he was enabled to secure a command that promised to be of
Then he was given the Duc de Duras, an old, rotten East Indiaman, which
to turn into a warship. Many of her guns, forty in number, were rusty
dangerous. Her crew had to be raised among the offscourings of the
docks and wharves.
Of her entire personnel, but seventy-five of the seamen were Americans.
were foreigners of various breeds, including even some Malays. The
loaned him an hundred soldiers to act as marines. The officers were
and included the brave, active and efficient Lieutenant Richard Dale,
and Masonic brother of Jones. The flag that floated over the old ship,
Bonhomme Richard, now in the harbor of L'Orient, was the same that
Jones had raised
on the Ranger in Portsmouth harbor.
little squadron there were also four other vessels, the Pallas, Cerf,
Alliance. The last named was a small, well-built American frigate with
crew, but commanded by the Frenchman, Captain Landais, who had been
given this command
as a compliment to the French government. Landais was a half-insane,
crank, who bitterly resented having Jones rank him, and who proved when
moment came that he was more of a menace than a help. The three other
small affairs, thoroughly French throughout, but flying the American
this polyglot and feeble command Jones started out to win honor for the
immortality for himself. And, strange as it may seem, he succeeded in
temporarily quiet waters of the North Sea on the evening of Sept. 30,
on the quarterdeck of the Bonhomme Richard sighted near Flamborough
Head a large
fleet of merchantmen convoyed by two powerful ships of Britain's navy.
a fine new frigate of fifty guns, was commanded by Captain Pearson.
was the Serapis. The second ship of war was the sloop Countess of
It was already
growing dark; a finger of light streamed from the tower on Flamborough
moon was shedding its soft radiance over the water; the light of the
made plain the rows of portholes in the sides of the ships. Crowds of
had gathered along the heights to watch the expected fight. The
scuttled for cover, but the warships came straight toward the
challenger of the
naval supremacy of England.
And now from
the dark shadow with the double row of lurid portholes came a loud cry,
ship is that?"
Paul Jones gave a command and a heavy broadside rang out from the
flash of the guns had died out an answering broadside crashed from the
gun of the Serapis. Through the rotten sides of the Richard the heavy
splintering beams and tearing human flesh.
there was other cause for apprehension on the part of Jones. Two of the
cannon in the lower tier of guns burst with the first discharge,
killing their crews
and hurling pieces of metal everywhere, some of them even penetrating
the deck above.
But the Richard
surged slowly ahead while Jones tried to manoeuvre her into position
Still firing heavy broadsides, the Serapis avoided her antagonist and
up on the port side. Soon the bowsprit of the Serapis got entangled in
of the Richard and locked together the two ships swung side by side,
the bow of
each pointing in a different direction. Jones hastened to lash the
for he well knew that his chance of success lay in making it a close
fight. If he
allowed the Serapis to chose her distance she could knock the rotten
old East Indiaman
to pieces with impunity.
And now the
Pallas, another one of Jones' squadron, proceeded to attack the
Countess of Scarborough.
The other ships gave no aid. Rather, the crazy Frenchman, Landais, took
off with the Alliance, while the other ships stayed at a safe distance.
of the autumn evening had fallen fast; it was now quite dark, except
for the joint
illumination of the moon and the ever-flashing broadsides of the ships.
of the heavy cannonade echoed and re-echoed along the coast and far
the hearts of the peasantry with foreboding.
On the high
poopdeck of the ancient ship stood Paul Jones watching the enemy pound
to pieces under his very feet. For the decayed planking of the Richard
slight impediment to the flight of the heavy balls from the battery of
Within an hour from the time the action commenced the main battery of
ship was silenced, everything in the path of the terrible discharges
from the enemy
being blown either out or in. It is said that from this time on the
balls from the
eighteen-pounders of the Serapis went straight through the Richard
anything, the planking and timbers on both sides having been cut
asunder and hurled
out of the way. The gundeck was a veritable shambles. And now the ship
Almost immediately after this the ship's carpenter told Jones that in
the hold the
water was pouring in very fast. The old tub was sinking under their
feet. And to
add to the confusion, someone released the two hundred prisoners that
had been held
below deck on the Richard. These men came tumbling up the hatchways,
to the hazard of battle, for they were all British seamen. And now
among the mongrel
crew of the Richard some began to cry for quarter, while even among the
murmurs were heard that Jones should strike. Surely this was the time
to try a man
with a heart of oak. But Jones had a heart of steel and fire.
And now from
the Serapis came the hoarse cry, "Have you struck?"
Jones sprang upon the rail and, funneling his hands, roared back
through the sulphurous
gloom, "sir, I have not yet begun to fight!"
though in an effort to blast that unconquerable spirit, the broadsides
of the Serapis
reopened with added intensity. Splinters flew in clouds, the flames
secured a new
start, masses of stifling smoke rolled up from below decks and almost
the men. All of which but served to stir Jones to new endeavor.
caused a rumor to be circulated among the released prisoners that the
sinking, and that the only salvation for both crews was to keep the
The terrified prisoners thereupon, rushed to the pumps and worked
for other duty many of Jones' men. Next he hauled two nine pounders
across the spardeck,
had them loaded with chainshot and grape, and opened fire on the
mainmast of the
Serapis, hoping to bring it down. Then he directed the fight in the
tops and the
rigging of the entangled ships.
time Jones stopped long enough to reprove one of the junior officers
in profanity. "Don't swear, Mr. Stacey," said he. "In another moment
we may all be in eternity, but let us do our duty."
In view of
the fact that the British have always characterized Jones as a pirate,
rather strange language to use at such a time and place.
If the British
had it all their own way below decks, it was not so either on the main
deck or aloft.
The French soldiers of the Richard had from the rigging of the American
swept the deck of the Serapis clear of men. Also, the Americans had
into the tops and upper rigging of the Richard and, crossing over into
of the Serapis, had driven the topmen out and gained command, thus
being able to
fire directly down on the British deck and into the various hatchways
that led to
the gundeck below.
And now an
old American tar, taking a bucket of hand grenades, crept out along a
hung directly over the main hatch of the British ship, calmly lighted
the fuse of
one of his missiles and tossed it down into the hole. Almost
immediately there followed
a terrific explosion, which tore up part of the deck of the Serapis and
of the guns of her main battery out of commission.
that the powder monkeys of this battery had accumulated behind each gun
surplus charges, while some had been broken open and the powder strewn
decks. When the grenade exploded here the loose powder was ignited with
Now the Americans
fairly rained grenades on the deck of the Serapis and even tossed them
portholes of the ship. If most of their cannon had been rendered
useless, they yet
retained and could use a most formidable weapon. And now the Serapis
The Richard had been almost continuously on fire.
On the Richard
the doctor came running on deck bawling that the water was gaining so
fast in the
cockpit that it already floated the wounded there. He advised an
"Tut! Tut! Doctor," smiled Jones amid all that reign of horror, "would
you have me strike to a drop of water? Just help me a bit with this
of the Serapis growing desperate, attempted to board. They were beaten
crew of the Richard made a like attempt which also failed. But the
of Jones' two nine pounders against the foot of the mainmast of the
fruit. The mast tottered and swept downward into the sea carrying the
top of the
mizzen mast with it.
things now looked brighter. But at this instant out of the gloom came
firing alike upon both the Serapis and the Richard. In vain the
for the crazy Frenchman to hold his fire. Broadside after broadside he
returning again and again to the attack. Many of the Richard's crew
by the missiles from the Alliance, the captain of which desired to make
strike to the Serapis that he might have the honor of taking both ships.
their calls were unheeded, the Americans of the Richard's devoted crew,
fire from both friend and foe, turned again to their job. Lieutenant
had been wounded, but in the excitement of the fight failed to realize
the contest he was a veritable tower of strength to Jones.
had now been raging for three hours. About half of the crew of the
had fallen; nearly two-thirds of that of the Serapis. The Pallas had
Scarborough. This fight could not go on forever; human endurance could
much more; nor were there men enough left in both crews to furnish food
for many more hours. Someone had to yield. Jones would not. Hence on
the deck of
the Serapis, the commander, Captain Pearson, tore down the British
colors with his
fight in all naval history was over!
Landais had at last sailed away with the Alliance. Lieutenant Dale led
the captured Serapis a prize crew and sent Captain Pearson and his
to the Richard. When Pearson handed to Jones his sword in token of
is reported to have made a remark to the effect that he would hate to
a halter around his neck.
of Jones was characteristic of him; courteous, high-minded gentleman
that he was:
"Sir," said he, "you have fought like a hero; and I make no doubt
your sovereign will reward you in the most ample manner."
sovereign did just that thing; he made Pearson a knight. When a long
this Jones heard about it, he remarked dryly, "He deserves it. And if I
fall in with him again, I'll make him a duke."
In the morning
after the bloody night battle it was soon found that the poor old
which Jones had named in honor of his friend, Dr. Franklin, could not
Therefore, the prisoners and the wounded were transferred to the deck
of the Serapis,
jury masts were rigged on the latter, and sail set for Holland.
the Richard sank into the sea, from her topmast still streaming the
and Stripes ever hoisted over an American man-of-war.
at the Texel, Jones was commanded by the Dutch to either set the French
his ship, accepting a French commission, or give up his prizes.
Now one of
Jones' famous sayings was that "I have ever looked out for the honor of
On this occasion
he lived up to that saying, as he always did. He refused to lower the
choosing rather to give up his prizes. Deposing Landais from the
command of the
Alliance, Jones shifted his colors to that ship. After carefully
Jones put to sea in the teeth of both a howling gale and a whole fleet
British ships and brought the Alliance safely through the English
Channel to Corunna
in Spain, and later to a French port. The five hundred and four
prisoners that he
had taken were afterward exchanged for a like number of patriots who
had been languishing
in British dungeons.
now not only a hero, he was the talk of all Europe. The French created
him a Chevalier
of the Order of Merit. He returned to America in February, 1781.
to pass a flattering resolution concerning him.
The end of
the war found no command for him in the American navy, for the navy was
abolished at the close of the struggle. Jones went to Russia and was
by the queen a rear admiral, later being promoted to the grade of
admiral in command
of a squadron in the Black Sea. In the Russian navy he displayed his
genius as of
yore, but he did not like the service. He eventually returned to Paris,
health began to fail. He died July 18, 1792, being but forty-five years
to the historian Brady, to whom reference has already been made, there
among the papers of John Paul Jones the following in his own
"In 1775, J. Paul Jones armed
in the first American ship of war. In the Revolution he had
and solemn recontres by sea; made seven descents in Britain, and her
of her navy two ships of equal, and two of superior force, many store
others; constrained her to fortify her ports; suffer the Irish
from her cruel burnings in America, and exchange as prisoners of war,
citizens taken on the ocean, and cast into prisons of England, as
and felons!' "
being made a Master Mason Jones had retained his membership with the
lodge at Kilwinning,
but it does not appear that he received a Masonic burial in Paris. The
cemetery in which he was interred was officially closed in 1793, and
of his grave was forgotten. But a few years ago General Horace Porter,
states Ambassador to France, caused a search to be made, the results of
that the body of the hero was discovered, identified, and brought back
on the deck of a warship more powerful than he had ever dreamed of.
his casket now rests, at the famous school where young fledglings of
brood are taught technical details of the sea officer's trade, and
filled with the
heroic traditions of our navy. And among those traditions there are
none more inspiring
than those which cluster about the name of him who has at last been
of his fiery courage and unquenchable spirit has tended to animate
young officers who have made the navy of the United States a thing
known and honored
throughout the world. It was the spirit of such as he and Lawrence
nerved the crew of the Cumberland to keep on firing while fighting a
they knew was hopeless; the spirit of never-say-die that kept them
the flag above even as the ship sank into the waves.
many centuries shall have rolled by and our beloved nation, following
path blazed by the inexorable law of decay and death, has sunk into the
that cloaks the dust of Chaldea, Carthage and Palmyra, wise men of a
race, as yet ill the loins of the future, searching for the glory that
shall marvel exceedingly over the record of that dauntless man, who,
when the way
was dark and to all others the cause seemed lost, hurled back in the
teeth of the
enemy that indomitable cry of defiance and purpose:
I have not yet begun to fight!"
Freemasonry Designed To Be?
Bro. Silas H. Shepherd,
In a letter
accompanying the following too brief article Bro. Shephard says:
have stressed brotherly love rather forcibly, but it seems to me it
stressing. I have met many brethren who admitted they did not believe
in it. They
were unwilling to practice what Freemasonry teaches." One wonders very
why such brethren ever joined the Order. It hardly seems possible that
have truthfully answered the questions put to them before they entered
unless this attitude be due to disillusionment. It is as true of
Masonry as of anything
else, one only gets out of it what one puts into it, and only one who
the fraternal precepts of the Craft can ever know what brotherly love
of Free and Accepted Masons is the custodian of a system of symbolic
had its origin in a remote antiquity. From the earliest records of
humanity we find
evidence of the use of geometrical and architectural symbols being used
basic moral and spiritual truths.
of this method of teaching is twofold. It makes a deeper and more
not only on the mind, but on the heart and soul of the candidate and it
the dogmatism which verbal teaching has so often included, and which
the vital and fundamental truths. The symbols and allegories used by
are all symbolical of basic moral and spiritual truths. The verbal
offered may be considered as commentaries. The symbol or allegory is
always of greater
value than the commentary. In fact the great design of Freemasonry is
to build a
Temple of Character by the use of the symbolic tools and implements,
and every effort
to arrive at a clearer conception of Freemasonry should have this
purpose ever in
things in life are those that are true and vital. The Fatherhood of God
Brotherhood of Man are basic laws of nature, and our failure to
recognize and obey
them is the cause of all our economic, social and political strife and
Nature displays harmony, and mankind should subdue the passions of
and superstition, and improve themselves by building a character which
to be square, level and plumb.
Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth as our tenets. We explain our broad
idea of Brotherly Love. It must be made more than lip service to be of
value ‒ we
must make it an active principle of our lives.
who formed the Grand Lodge of England, in 1717, clearly defined the
only basis on
which a universal brotherhood can be established. To "Only oblige them
Religion in which all men agree." Are we doing this today when we
recognize Freemasons who have adhered to this basic principle more
great difference of opinion among Masonic writers regarding the exact
Freemasonry regarding religion. Some say it is not a religion. By "a
we infer one of several or many religions, and in such a sense they are
No man can,
however, participate in the forms and ceremonies and fail to have the
of his religious nature reached. Here he finds the vital truths of his
religion, be they what they may.
is such a wonderful system of morality that it reaches the heart of the
initiate and is profound enough to make the greatest intellects its
that it contains a whole philosophy of life and immortality and has
hidden and veiled
allusions to the details which each brother must work out for himself,
advisable for us to frequently revert to the vital and fundamental
differentiate it from all other institutions.
of virtue includes, in its visible symbolic form, the lines which are
the Level and the Plumb. It also includes in its Masonic application
the basic duties
of man to God by an upright life, and to our fellowmen by equality, or
Love. The point within a circle is capable of many interpretations and
When we consider that from a center there are radii which project as
of a wheel, we can receive a most beneficial idea of how Brotherly Love
to a great law of spiritual development. The center symbolizes the
Each radius symbolizes an individual. As the several radii draw away
from the center
they draw further away from each other. The only way we can do our full
God is by fulfilling our duty to our fellowmen, and likewise the only
way we can
do our full duty to our fellowmen is by doing it to God.
of character we have to become proficient in the use of the tools and
of the several degrees, and these are for use on our own character
only. Not until
we have thoroughly learned how to apply them are we given the Trowel,
which is the
first implement that in any way affects others.
By its use
we may learn to actually practice the tenet of Brotherly Love, and
human being as a brother. True, he may err most grievously and appear
our severest condemnation but who among us does not err, and are we not
in a measure
responsible for the environment which may have contributed to his
errors? The poorest
human creature is our brother, and even though his faults appear most
must remember a most wise admonition, "Judge not, lest ye be judged."
design of Freemasonry is to build character. To live up to the tenets
ought to be of first importance. If Brotherly Love is not true we
should cease to
teach it. If it is true we are bound by every obligation of honor and
duty to put
it into practice.
a Supreme Being, whom Freemasonry designates as The Great Architect of
and belief in the Immortality of the Soul are the only basic religious
can possibly unite men of every country, sect and opinion.
the tenets of Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth are as far as we may
safely go in
we must continually apply all the tools and implements so that we may
Temple and receive the reward, Truth ‒ the long lost WORD. We must use
Gauge and Common Gavel; the Plumb, Square and Level; the Trowel and all
continually. Never let them rust for want of use.
member of a lodge has some such conception of the design of
Freemasonry, our Fraternity
will function as it was designed to do, and Plenty, Health and Peace
and Peace and Good Will prevail on earth. So mote it be.
Bro. George H. Dern,
Governor of Utah, P.G.M., Associate Editor, Utah
like to hear or read a discussion of what masonry is and what it stands
One of the
ways of proving a thing is by elimination, and perhaps some light may
upon the subject of what Masonry is by telling a few things that
Masonry is not.
Is Not a Reformatory
In the first
place, Masonry is not a reformatory institution. We make no pretense of
into the highways and byways, picking up men who have strayed and
them members of our Fraternity and reforming them. That sort of work is
and Masons, as individuals, may be proud to engage in it, but it is not
of Masonry. A man, to be eligible for Masonry, is required to come up
to a certain
standard, and we need not fear that the standard will ever be too high.
who knows that a man who has petitioned for the Three Degrees has
defects, but who says, "Well, he is a pretty good fellow in other ways,
perhaps Masonry will help straighten him out," and therefore permits
to go through, is not doing his duty.
He is not
doing his duty, first, because, as already stated, Masonry is not a
We have troubles enough of our own without deliberately dragging in
He is not
doing his duty, second, because you cannot reform a man by making a
Mason of him.
If he is a bad Indian before he becomes a Mason he will be a bad Indian
becomes a Mason. A man's character is not changed by repeating a few
to him. It is not changed by what he hears, but by what he does. His
formed by his past life, and he will always act in accordance with his
We are beginning to learn that a man does not make a deliberate choice
a question comes to him. His actions today are determined by his
actions of yesterday.
His actions of yesterday were determined by his actions of the day
before, and so
on back to his childhood.
sometimes explain this on the theory of brain grooves. The first time
is confronted by a certain set of conditions he makes a deliberate
choice and acts
accordingly. The act of making this choice makes a groove in his brain.
time he is confronted by a similar set of conditions his mind has a
follow this groove. It is the easiest thing to do, and the doing of it
groove a little deeper. The third time the same situation is before him
it is still
easier to follow the groove, and the groove is further deepened. As the
is repeated time after time, the groove gradually becomes so deep that
follows it instinctively and without any effort. Indeed, it requires a
and decided effort not to follow the groove. A fixed habit has been
has become a part of his nature. He will always and unconsciously let
his mind run
in this groove, and he cannot help acting in this particular fashion
unless by a
determined and persistent effort of the will he acts otherwise and
starts a new
Degrees may furnish him a temporary moral stimulant that will be
beneficial if he
acts according to the emotions that they arouse in him, but almost
stimulant will soon wear off, and he will then be his normal self, and
according to the actions of his past. If his life has contained hate
and deceit and cruelty and slander and backbiting and lewdness, then
are a part of his make-up and they will show up in the future as they
up in the past.
And so if
we think we are going to make a man over by giving him the Masonic
Degrees we are
sadly mistaken, for the thing is scientifically impossible. When we are
a petition we should think only of the man's past, and not of his
his past will absolutely determine his future. If he is not a good
he gets the degrees he never will be.
Is Not a Charitable Institution
In the second
place, Masonry is not a charitable institution. That is, we are not
for the purpose of administering charity. It is allowable and proper
for a lodge,
if it has the money, to relieve the pressing needs of its distressed
help the families of deceased members when their necessities require,
and even to
contribute to other worthy purposes; but nowhere in the Ritual, code or
is there anything that makes it obligatory upon a lodge to dispense
any conditions. In fact, our lodge dues are not generally figured on
any such basis.
may be surprising to some of us, especially in view of the fact that
one of our
chief teachings is charity. The explanation is right here. We teach our
to be charitable. We bind ourselves, not as a body, but as individuals,
the distress of others. It is the duty of every individual Mason to
Masonry, as an organization, is not a charitable institution but a
and charity is one of its teachings. The Mason with a true
understanding of his
art therefore is not chagrined when other orders dispense greater sums
than do our Masonic lodges. He is only chagrined when members of other
more charitable than Masons.
Is Not a Religious Institution
In the third
place, Masonry is not a religious institution. Members of every sect
are eligible, according to our basic law, and we have no right to
reject a man solely
on account of his religious belief. We hear an enthusiastic brother
say, once in
a while, "Masonry is my only religion," but in so doing he hardly uses
the word religion in the accepted sense. Would it not be more accurate
to say that
Masonry is a system of morality, which she teaches to her devotees?
no faith or dogmas from her members. She only requires them to be good
men and true.
Religious liberty and tolerance are vital Masonic principles. Let us
that while we fight intolerance in others we must also fight it in
Is Not a Money-Making
In the fourth
place, Masonry is not a money-making institution, neither for its
members nor for
itself. Men are not supposed to join Masonry for business reasons nor
think they will reap a financial profit by so doing. Doubtless some do,
are careful to keep the fact in the background, and they solemnly
declare that they
came uninfluenced by mercenary motives. If you know a man has put in
because he thinks it will help his business, you have an excellent
reason for using
the black ball.
Masonry exist to make money for itself. There are good reasons to
believe it does
not do a lodge any good to become extremely wealthy. Its ideals are apt
to be higher
while it is poor. It is like the early Christian monasteries. When they
they had a high ideal, and their very poverty helped them live up to
In the Middle Ages, when they had become wealthy, many of the
monasteries and convents
were dens of vice and debauchery. Possibly the same thing could be
pointed out in
the high life of today. Let us hope Masonry will never have to sigh for
as Riley says, "When we were so happy and so pore."
other things that Masonry is not. This little essay does not pretend to
them all. Neither does it undertake to tell all that Masonry is.
Suffice it to say
in brief that Masonry is an organization of high grade men with only
one real mission,
and that is character building. We may divide and subdivide as much as
but it all comes back to this, that we aim to develop the characters of
and we expect thereby to send a set of men out into the world who will
have an uplifting
influence upon everything they touch.
Lodge and Chapter
Bro. N.W.J. Haydon, Toronto
between "Ancient Craft Masonry", as modern American Freemasons
it, and the Capitular Degrees has always been more than ordinarily
the inquiring member of the Craft. In this review of the origin of the
ceremonies, which seem to have been more closely linked together in
our Associate on the Board of Editors, Companion N.W.J. Haydon of
very interestingly the known links in the chain of history. There is
more to be learned, though whether all the historic facts will ever
is somewhat doubtful.
AFTER a man
has been received into a Masonic lodge, he is apt to become bewildered
claims on his attention, not the least of which are those of the
degrees". Finding himself almost at the bottom of the degree ladder,
of the top as he had rather expected to be, he will ‒ if he has the
money to spare,
and no one is good enough to advise him to digest first what he has
‒ inquire as to what comes next and proceed with his travels. So the
this paper is to help him discover what "next" is most natural,
and where to stop if he would profit by his experience.
been in all known Masonic history but one formal and authoritative
to just what constitutes "Ancient Craft Masonry". This is to be found
in the "Articles of Union" drawn up in November, 1813, and accepted as
a basis for the healing of the Masonic differences which had for over
(since 1751) divided our English predecessors into two hostile camps.
Of these twenty-one
Articles, the second reads as follows:
It is declared and pronounced
that pure Ancient
Masonry consists of three degrees, and no more; viz, those of the
the Fellowcraft, and the Master Mason, including the Supreme Order of
the Holy Royal
But this article is not
intended to prevent any
Lodge or Chapter from holding a meeting in any of the degrees in the
Orders of Chivalry,
according to the constitution of the said Orders.
it will be evident that all other so-called Masonic degrees or
ceremonies, of whatever
title, can claim to be such only because their membership is confined
to those who
have passed through these original three.
these "Degrees" became separate and secret ceremonies is still
The earliest known record of such is dated 1702, in the minute book of
a lodge at
Haughfoot, Scotland (1) and the others must have been revived prior to
they are mentioned in the First Book of Constitutions [Lib 1723], of that date, drawn up by
history of our Order forbids any opinion as to the degrees being
originated at this
date, as the brethren were so opposed to anything new that even the
changes in the
Constitution, which made possible the present broad-minded basis of
membership, were sufficient to commence the bitter disputes referred to
Arch Degree was first conferred in lodges, the word chapter coming into
use in England about 1768, though Stirling Rock R. A. Chapter of
a charter of 1743. The earliest known mention of it as a separate
ceremony is found
in an Irish work dated 1744 (2), but the statement there made is that
had been conferred "some few years" previously in York and in London
further, that it was conferred only on "Most Excellent Masons" who were
"an organized body of men who have passed the chair and given
of their skill in architecture", so that this degree must have been
a reward of Operative merit.
As the years
passed this pre-requisite became a barrier to the support of Royal Arch
so we find that in 1768, at Bolton, in Lancashire, nine brethren, were
Masters in order to qualify them for the Royal Arch (1), thus making
or honorary Past Masters as, distinguished from those who were actual
through service in the chair. The fact that nine brethren were so
treated is evidence
that the custom was much older than this record, and this method
a matter of routine as it is today.
scholar (3) has preserved for us the record in a Dublin newspaper of
in a celebration by a lodge at Youghal, there was a procession in which
"the Royal Arch carried by two excellent Masons" and a minute of the
lodge of two brothers "passing to the dignity of Royal Arch Masons.
proper officers of this lodge".
record of this ceremony being conducted in the American Colonies is
that of a lodge
at Fredericksburg, in Virginia, dated 1753, which states that on the
two brethren were "raised to the Degree of R. A. Mason" following which
an Entered Apprentice's Lodge was opened.
much more interesting material available to fill in the above outline
but, the present
purpose being just to show the historical connection of the chapter
with the lodge,
the reader would gain more profit by making use for himself of the
at the end of this paper.
question is whence was the material drawn for the Royal Arch
ceremonies; has it
any symbolic connection with the lodge; does it serve to complete the
It will be
remembered that, on becoming a Master Mason, one learned that, owing to
of the Chief Architect, the plans were all awry because the knowledge
could make them serviceable was cut off. As a result there was received
bare statement and further Masonic progress was based entirely on the
oneself or some other brother might regain that which was lost, thereby
the completion of the Temple, as existing in both h member and our
Order as a whole.
Idea of Our System
and recovery of some essential element of progress, generally termed
is the central idea of our Masonic system. The idea is not original
with us as Words
of Power were known and referred to many centuries ago, but we being
rather than Operatives see in it not some method of ceremonial magic,
but a reminder
of the perpetuation of life through the natural processes of death and
our bodies. And, since familiarity has made us contemptuous of their
we need to learn their correct use as they are the appointed pathway to
of which all humanity are the ashlars.
tells us (4) that in his time the candidate, this exaltation, was
addressed as follows:
Allow me to congratulate you on
into the sublime and exalted Degree of a Royal Arch Mason, which is at
foundation and copestone of the whole Masonic structure. You may
that you have received this day a Fourth Degree of Freemasonry, but
such is not
the case; it is only the completion of that of a Master Mason.
It may be said, then, without
passing the limits
of due caution, that the completion of the lodge in the chapter is the
the lost Word of Power, embodied in one of the Names whereby the Great
is known throughout this material universe. But, because these Names
are as infinite
of variety as they are of potency, we use as a focus for our finite
that ancient form preserved in the Hebrew scriptures, known as the
and revered for centuries by countless worshippers.
usage preceded the official separation we also learn from Dr. Oliver,
as he tells
us (5) "I have before me an old French engraving of the Ground Work of
Master's Lodge, dated 1740, containing the usual emblems and, on the
the 'True Word' in Roman capitals."
of the Ceremonies
or how this conclusion of the Master Mason ceremony came to be
separated from it
and worked up into a different name and condition is difficult to state
in a few
words. A natural theory is that the same influence which brought about
change in Masonic methods, making it possible for lodges to pass and
own members instead of leaving that power in the hands of Grand Lodge
also responsible, as our Order increased in numbers, for granting the
to brethren who could pass the prescribed trials of skill and firmness,
prevented by that same increase from passing the chair. Even if, as is
the working was less elaborate than it is today, the complete degree
would be inconveniently
long, especially with the ceremonial changes involved. So that as the
of the Craft brought in men who had to consider the value of their
time, the blemishes
of "short forms" and of "hearing the lecture on some future occasion"
could only be avoided by the actions of those who, out of respect for
finally brought about the division into two at the natural point of
one more consideration that should be dealt with ‒ what good will be
served by joining
the chapter and being exalted to the Royal Arch? If the Royal Arch
the discovery of the Omnific Word or of the Ineffable Name, as it is
why is it that one sees the sign of the chapter on the persons of so
Here we touch
on the mystical side of things, for neither lodge nor chapter is like a
of Surgeons, which requires its students to prove their practical as
well as their
theoretical knowledge of its secrets and mysteries, before they are
honors and responsibilities of graduation in their degrees.
can be learned only by experience in service and while that is
coincident with our
whole life, we should not refrain from entering upon it just because
the end seems
so far off. As a matter of fact we reap every day the slowly converging
of our efforts, some long past and forgotten, some recent, but the more
we try to
serve the more marked and speedy are the results. As Bro. Wilmshurst
tells us (6):
The pursuit of "secrets" is certain to prove futile, for the only
worth the name or the tinding are those incommunicable ones which
within the personal consciousness of the seeker, who is in earnest to
ceremonial representations into facts of spiritual experience.
purpose of all initiation is to lift human consciousness from lower to
by quickening the latent, spiritual, potentialities in man to their
through appropriate discipline.
level of attainment is possible than that in which the human merges in
consciousness and knows as God knows.
the level of which the Order of the Royal Arch treats ceremonially, it
Masonry, as a ceremonial system, reaches its climax and conclusion in
chapters we have three ceremonies or degrees, the other two being known
as the Mark
Master and the Most Excellent Master, both of which precede the Holy
and act as links between it and that of the Master Mason with their
bases of history,
symbol and mystery-teaching.
and its dependencies the Mark Degree has been a separate Institution,
its own Grand Mark Lodge since 1856, owing to its being refused
recognition by that
Grand Chapter as a separate degree, because of the terms of the Act of
too, it also consists of two parts, Mark Man and Mark Master, usually
the same occasion, the former applying to workmen who had gained some
were not yet able to work alone, and the latter to Fellowcrafts who had
right to travel in foreign lands and work as Masters (7). This
recognition has now
been granted officially and some changes of organization may ensue as a
the Mark is conferred in lodges, but the Royal Arch is not recognized
by that Grand
Lodge, while, in Ireland, both are serving Masonic interests.
The use of
the Mark is, naturally, very ancient and widespread, as Operatives,
illiterate, had to use symbols for purposes of identification.
Collections of Marks
have been gathered from all parts of the world where stone has been
ingenious theories devised by Masonic scholars to reduce their various
a system. For the most part they consist of straight lines making an
of angles, but curved lines have been found in Scotland (8) and India.
theory has been advanced that our present alphabet, through its descent
and Greek letter-systems, owes its origins to the marks used by
operatives who built
the temples of Egypt and its Colonies in Asia Minor (9).
a distinct ceremony was first used is not definitely known. The oldest
its working as such is dated 1769 (10), but the famous Schaw statutes
under date of 1598, require that when a Fellow of the Craft is
received, his name
and Mark must "be orderlie buikit" (11).
the granting of the right to use a Mark is akin to the Rite of
Confirmation in the
Church, and to the legal "coming of age". It was not granted until the
apprentice had finished his term, passed his test, and been received as
of the Craft by his lodge. Then, no longer need his work be governed at
by some more skillful Craftsman. He now stands on his own feet and
for his own acts. He is considered a man of mature years, sound
judgment and good
morals. His Mark is put on his work; on it he builds his reputation
and, if his
sons follow in his trade, they would frequently use his Mark, though
with some slight
difference. We, though Speculatives, still follow this custom, and
every Mark Master
is required to select and register his Mark and cut it on his "Chapter
Apart from this we emphasize the lessons of the Master Mason by
regarding the Mark
as made visible in personality and character, than which no man can go
is not worked in Great Britain but is peculiar to Canada and the United
and the latter still work the ancient ceremony of "passing the chair"
in memory of the old regulation as to Installed Masters.
phrase "Excellent Master" has a definite place and value in Capitular
Masonry from its earliest times, it does not appear that there was also
or distinct ceremony conferring such a title until much later. M. W.
tells us (12) that originally "this degree was the sixth of the York
and he adds that it was "the invention of [Thomas Smith] Webb, who
the Capitular system of Masonry as it exists in America". As this first
Chapter for the United States had not come into being in 1798, and the
York Rite had ceased to exist by about 1789 at the latest, it seems
that Webb's "invention" was simply an adaptation of material already
with long use.
of this degree is concerned with the Keystone, and in conjunction with
teaches the lesson of patience under injustice caused by official
the final triumph of work properly done.
of the English Rite of Freemasonry [Lib 1884], by W. J. Hughan .
(2) A Serious and Impartial Enquiry, etc. [Lib*], by F. Dassigny, M. D.
(3) Caementaria Hibernica [Lib 1726], by W.J. Chetwode Crawley,
(4) Origin of the Royal Arch [Lib 1867], by Rev. Geo. Oliver, D. D.
(5) The Necessity of the Royal Arch [Lib*], by M. Ex. Comp. William F.
(6) The Meaning of Masonry [Lib 1922], by W. J. Wilmshurst.
(7) By Ways of Freemasonry [Lib*], by Rev. J. T. Lawrence, M. A.
(8) A Treatise on Masons' Marks [Lib*], by Charles A. Conover.
(9) Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Vol. 3 [Lib 1890], page 189. Kenning's
(10) Concise History of Freemasonry [Lib 1951], by R. F. Gould.
(11) Mark Masonry [Lib*], by W. J. Hughan.
(12) Encyclopedia of Freemasonry [Lib 1914], by Albert G. Mackey, M. D.
of Freemasonry in Colorado
Bro. George B. Clark,
has been directed to the fact that the authority exercised by the Grand
Colorado was obtained from that delegated to it by the lodges forming
Lodge. Those lodges derived their authority by reason of a warrant or
Constitution granted to them in regular form by the Grand Lodges of
Kansas and Nebraska.
This question may be asked: from what sources came the authority
exercised by the
Grand Lodges of Kansas and Nebraska?
Lodge of Kansas was erected March 17, 1856, at Leavenworth, by
three lodges all chartered by the Grand Lodge of Missouri, viz:
No. 1 ‒ Smithton
Lodge, No. 140, at Iowa Point, chartered May 30, 1855. No. 2 ‒
No. 150, at Leavenworth, chartered Mav 30, 1855. No. 3 ‒ Wyandotte
Lodge, No. 153,
at Wyandotte, chartered May 30, 1855.
Lodge of Nebraska was erected Sept. 23, 1857, at Omaha, by
representatives of three
lodges all chartered as follows:
No. 1 ‒ Nebraska
Lodge, No. 184, at Bellevue, chartered Oct. 3, 1855 by Illinois. No. 2
Lodge, No. 156, at Nebraska city, chartered May 28, 1856, by Missouri.
Lodge, No. 101, at Omaha, chartered June 3, 1857, by Iowa.
Lodge of Iowa was erected Jan. 8, 1844, at Iowa city, by
representatives of four
lodges all chartered by the Grand Lodge of Missouri, viz:
No. 1 ‒ Des
Moines Lodge, No. 41, at Burlington, chartered Oct. 20, 1841. No. 2 ‒
No. 42, at Bloomington, chartered Oct. 20, 1841. No. 3 ‒ Dubuque Lodge,
at Dubuque, chartered Oct. 10, 1843. No. 4 ‒ Iowa City Lodge, No. 63,
at Iowa City,
chartered Oct. 10, 1843.
Lodge of Illinois was erected April 6, 1840, at Jacksonville, by
of six lodges chartered or under dispensation as follows:
No. 1 ‒ Bodley
Lodge, No. 97, at Quincy, chartered Aug. 30, 1836, by Kentucky. No. 2 ‒
Lodge, No. 101, at Equality, chartered Aug. 29, 1837, by Kentucky. No.
3 ‒ Harmony
Lodge, No. 24, at Jacksonville, chartered Oct. 2, 1838, by Missouri.
Lodge, No. 26, at Springfield, chartered Oct. 8, 1839, by Missouri. No.
5 ‒ Far
West Lodge, No. 29, at Galena, chartered Oct. 10, 1839, by Missouri.
No. 6 ‒ Columbus
Lodge, U. D., at Colunlbus, under dispensation from Missouri.
Lodge of Missouri was erected April 24, 1821, at St. Louis, by
three lodges all chartered by the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, viz:
No. 1 ‒ Missouri
Lodge, No. 12. at St. Louis, chartered Oct. 8, 1816. No. 2 ‒ Joachim
25, at Herculaneum, chartered Oct. 5, 1819. No. 3 ‒ St. Charles Lodge,
No. 28, at
st. Charles, chartered Oct. 5, 1819.
Lodge of Tennessee was erected Dec. 27, 1813, at Knoxville by
nine lodges all chartered by the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, or
properly by the Grand Lodge of North Carolina and Tennessee. This was
at the direction of and under orders from the Grand Master of the Grand
North Carolina. The following participated:
No. 1 ‒ St.
Tammany Lodge, No. 29, at Nashville, chartered Dec. 17, 1796. No. 2,
No. 41, at Knoxville chartered Nov. 30, 1800. No. 3 ‒ Greenville Lodge,
at Greenville, chartered Dec. 11, 1801. No. 4 ‒ Newport Lodge, No. 50,
chartered Dec. 5, 1806. No. 5 ‒ Overtor Lodge, No. 51, at Rogersville,
Nov. 21, 1807. No. 6-King Solomon Lodge, No. 52, at Gallatin, chartered
Dec. 9 1808.
No. 7 ‒ Hiram Lodge, No. 55, at Franklin, chartered Dec. 11, 1809. No.
Lodge, No. 60, at Nashville, chartered June 24, 1812. No. 9 ‒ Western
No. 61 at Port Royal, chartered Nov. 21, 1812. The title Grand Lodge of
and Tennessee was assumed in 1801.
Lodge of Kentucky was erected Oct. 16, 1800, at Lexington, by
five lodges, all receiving authority from the Grand Lodge of Virginia.
No. 1 ‒ Lexington
Lodge, No. 25, at Lexington, chartered Nov. 17, 1788. No. 2, Paris
Lodge, No. 35,
at Paris, chartered Nov. 25, 1791. No. 3 ‒ Georgetown Lodge, No. 46, at
chartered Nov. 29, 1796. No. 4 ‒ Hiram Lodge, No. 51 at Frankfort,
11, 1799. No. 5 ‒ (Solomon) (Abraham) Lodge, U. D., at Shelbyville,
of the Grand Lodge of Colorado is thus traced in a regular manner and
in a direct
line to that of the Grand Lodges of Virginia and North Carolina. The
of Masonry in these and the other colonies is another story. Suffice it
to say here
that Masonry was established in North Carolina directly from the Grand
England in two lodges and then, through the appointment by the Grand
Master of the
Grand Lodge of England of Joseph Montfort as Provincial Grand Master
for North Carolina,
by the chartering by him of some nine or more lodges. After the
these lodges, in 1787, threw off the English connection and erected the
of North Carolina as a sovereign Grand Lodge which functions to this
established in the Colony of Virginia independently by the Grand Lodges
Scotland and Ireland. No Provincial Grand Master ever functioned for
lodges receiving charters from and reporting direct to the Mother Grand
At the time of the Revolutionary War in 1778, nine of these lodges
independent and erected the Grand Lodge of Virginia.
very small beginning of 52 members in three lodges at the time of the
of the Grand Lodge of Colorado in 1861, the progress has been steady
and very satisfactory.
At the present time, according to the returns as of July 31, 1925,
there are 31,159
members in 145 lodges, an average of 215 Masons to each lodge.
Names Are Mentioned
branch of human endeavor there are some names that stand out over and
others, some names that are remembered for personal excellence or great
while the names of the others are lost. Colorado Masonry has some such
of personages who have loomed large in Masonic affairs and whose names
it is well to remember.
great name in Colorado Masonry is that of its first Grand Master, John
Great, not because of being Grand Master, but great because he made it
people to come to Colorado and enjoy life. It is to Col. Chivington,
the Indian that the trails must be kept open for the white man to come
and go in
peace, that the honor goes. A minister of the church he was, but also a
and one whom the Indian feared and respected.
It is well
to remember here at this time the name of Allyn Weston who gave us our
Ritual stood the severe test of a frontier civilization.
great name to remember is that of Henry M. Teller, for so many years
of Masons in Colorado, who carried the name of Colorado into high
places as United
states Senator and Cabinet Member, and whose ability carried the Craft
Masonic project of our times, the George Washington Memorial Building
construction at Alexandria, Virginia, is the result of a suggestion
given to the
Masonic world by a Grand Master of Colorado, Roger W. Woodbury. It was
he who proposed
a national memorial service for our first President, out of which came
as a direct
result the great memorial building. Thus the suggestion of our Grand
the inspiration for two of the greatest Masonic gatherings ever held in
States. The first was the occasion of the centenary of the death of
held at Mt. Vernon in 1899; the second was when the cornerstone of the
Memorial Building was laid. And no doubt the third and largest will be
the building is completed and dedicated.
Most of us
have read that famous poem, "The Lodge Room Over Simpkins' store." Have
we realized that its author, Lawrence N. Greenleaf, was recognized as
the poet laureate
of Freemasonry, that his fame as a Masonic poet was nation-wide? As
of Colorado, as editor, as writer of correspondence reviews, and in his
activities he should be remembered by all Colorado Masons.
One of the
greatest Masonic students of the country wrought among us for many
years and we
are even yet slow to appreciate his greatness. Coming generations will
works of Henry P. H. Bromwell and perhaps find the secrets that he
tried to tell
but which we of today are but beginning to suspect.
presses, we must hurry on. We can but point out a few names here and
there and trust
the future biographer to tell the greatness of these Masons. There is
E. Len. Foster,
who has given years and years of himself in the service of his brethren
the upbuilding of a Benevolent Fund. There is Robert D. Graham, student
the greatest Masonic lecturer on the platform today, who is proud to
point to a
Colorado lodge as his home. Great and wise Masons said that Uniformity
of Work in
the Ritual was impossible of accomplishment ‒ yet it was accomplished
and the one
responsible for it was William W. Cooper, then Grand Lecturer and now
The last name we shall propose for coming generations to remember, is
that of the
most loved of Colorado Masons of recent years, Charles H. Jacobson, for
years Grand Secretary.
by no means all the great names produced by Colorado Masonry but rather
just a few,
a few who will never be forgotten. Nearly every lodge can tell of men
are worth recording yet who worked in the comparative quiet of their
satisfied that their fame should travel no farther.
Royal Arch Is Organized
coming of the parent body of Ancient Craft Masonry to Colorado, came
also the concordant
orders of Royal Arch Capitular Masonry, Royal and Select Cryptic
Templarism, and the Scottish Rite. Unlike the lodge system these other
governed by national organizations; and original jurisdiction is
all territory not served by a state body of that Rite. These central
had been in existence many years before Colorado was made into a
territory and naturally
they claimed jurisdiction there. In a new state these bodies are
in regular order. First comes the lodge, then the Royal Arch chapter,
then the Commandery
of Knights Templar, and finally the council of Royal and Select
Masters. The Scottish
Rite may be established at any place in the series when there are
to justify it.
We have seen
that the Grand Lodge was established in 1861. We next see that the
Royal Arch appeared
as early as 1863. As exclusive jurisdiction over Colorado territory was
the General Grand Chapter it was to this body that petition must be
made for the
establishment of chapters of Royal Arch Masonry. Dispensations were
issued by the
General Grand High Priest at various times for the formation of five
Colorado and each temporary organization was perfected into a chartered
in due time. In this way regular authority was given to five chapters
City and numbered 1 " Denver City " " 2 " Pueblo " "
3 " Georgetown " " 4 " Golden " " 5
while there were but three chapters chartered, an effort was made to
form a Grand
Chapter, but due to one of the chapters declining to take part nothing
came of it.
At this time a suggestion was made that the three chapters in Colorado
and the two
chapters in Wyoming combine to form a Grand Chapter, but this movement
by the General Grand High Priest as not being possible under the laws
of the General
date of April 22, 1875, the General Grand High Priest gave his consent
to the formation
of a Grand Chapter in Colorado. Representatives of the five chapters
met in convention
on May 11, 1875, and perfected the organization of the Grand Royal Arch
of Colorado on that day with five chapters and 282 members. This
meeting was held
in the Fink Block, corner of 15th and Holladay (now Market) streets,
Wm. N. Byers, of Denver city, was elected Grand High Priest, and Ed. C.
of Georgetown, as Grand Secretary. This branch of Masonry has advanced
from 5 chapters averaging 56 members each in 1875, to 51 chapters with
an average of 158, as of July 31, 1925.
For the benefit
of the student the following table is submitted of the data as they
appear in the
records of the General Grand Chapter:
City, No. 1
All participated in the formation of the Grand Chapter of Colorado May
Templarism Is Established
first appeared in 1875, as is evidenced by a dispensation issued to
members at Denver
City under the date of Jan. 13, 1866, by the Grand Master of Knights
the U.S.A. to form a Commandery there. Following this, under date of
Nov. 8, 1866,
a dispensation was issued, authorizing the members at Central City to
form a Commandery.
Eight years elapsed and the next dispensation was issued Aug. 17, 1874,
formation of a Commandery at Pueblo. There being now three Commanderies
it was deemed wise and proper that a Grand Commandery should be formed.
was given by Grand Master J. H. Hopkins on Feb. 10, 1876, and the
met by agreement at Denver on the following day. On March 14, 1876, the
of Colorado was established. The first Grand Commander was Henry M.
the first Grand Recorder was Ed. C. Parmelee. From the small beginning
in 1876 of
three Commanderies with an average of 42 members, progression has been
the present count as of July 31, 1925, of 36 Commanderies with 4771
average of 133 members each.
Masonry Is Established
first made its appearance in Central city in 1871, when the Grand
Master of the
Grand Council of Illinois issued a dispensation under date of Nov. 9,
1871, to several
Companions to form a council there. The charter was granted Oct. 23,
1872, as Central
city Council, No. 54, on the Illinois register. This council continued
success until 1875, when it ceased to function. Nothing further was
done until 1891,
when through the efforts of Companions J.C. Johnston and Henry Dowson
Masons of Denver were gathered together to form a council. A
dispensation was issued
by the General Grand Master under date of Jan. 16, 1892, to 23 members
Denver Council, No. 1. The charter was granted by the General Grand
26, 1894, to 93 members. In rapid succession dispensations were issued
granted establishing councils in Trinidad, Durango, Pueblo, Canon city,
Gunnison. The latter two, however, were not constituted, having failed
was called according to agreement to meet in Denver on Dec. 6, 1894,
for the purpose
of organizing a Grand Council. There were represented at this
Council, No. 1, of Denver; Rocky Mountain, No. 2, of Trinidad; Durango,
No. 3, of
Durango; Akron, No. 4, of Akron; Canon city, No. 5, of Canon city; and
6, of Pueblo. The charter of Akron Council had not arrived at this time
vote, its delegate was seated as regular. Organization was perfected
and the Grand
Council of Colorado erected in form on this date, Dec. 6, 1894. A
between the new Grand Council and the General Grand Council over the
form of the organization of the Grand Council of Colorado. This
until July 30, 1898, when all differences were adjusted and the Grand
Colorado became a full member of the family of the General Grand
Council of the
start of 5 councils with 191 members, or an average of 38, progression
slow but steady until at the present time, July 31, 1925, there are 14
with 2454 members, an average of 175 to each council.
Scottish Rite Is Established
time that the Chapter and the Commandery were being established, those
in the Scottish Rite began the agitation for the introduction of that
idea is generally prevalent among non-Masons that the Scottish Rite is
of Masonry in which a Mason receives at one time all the degrees from
the 4th to
the 32nd, inclusive. As a matter of fact this Rite is composed of
separate and distinct, yet all reporting to one common body. These
bodies are known
- The Lodge of Perfection,
conferring the degrees of 4th to 14th, inclusive.
- The Chapter of Rose Croix,
conferring the degrees of 15th to 18th, inclusive.
- The Council of Kadosh,
conferring the degrees of 19th to 30th, inclusive.
- The Consistory, conferring the
degrees of 31st and 32nd.
Rite is administered in the united States in two jurisdictions, the
headquarters at New York City, and the Southern with headquarters at
D. C. Colorado is in the Southern Jurisdiction.
body of this Rite to be established in Colorado was the Delta Lodge of
chartered Jan. 26, 1877, followed by the Mackey Chapter of Rose Croix,
April 11, 1878. For ten years there were the only bodies chartered, but
beyond the 18th were made available by "Communication", this ceremony
being generally performed by the representative of the national body,
who at that
time was Bro. L. N. Greenleaf.
of Kadosh received its Charter Sept. 3, 1888, followed very shortly by
Consistory, on Oct. 17, 1888. Colorado now had its full complement of
bodies. These four bodies were all numbered 1 and located in Denver. In
1918 a second
series of bodies of this Rite were chartered in Denver, and in 1919 a
in Pueblo. The first returns available for Colorado Consistory for
1889, show 53
members; while the latest returns as of Dec. 31, 1893, show 5368
members for the
I ask the brave soldier, who fights
by my side
In the cause of mankind, if our creeds agree?
Shall I give up the friend I have valued and tried
If he kneel not before the same altar with me?
From the heretic girl of my soul should I fly,
To seek somewhere else a more orthodox kiss?
No, perish the hearts, and the laws that try
Truth, valor, or love, by a standard like this!"
‒ Tom Moore.
on Freemasonry in Austria
Bro. Theodor Hilm, Austria
in Austria in recent years have been of much interest to Freemasons,
has been permitted to become known because of the necessity for extreme
as to membership, even to the adoption of Masonic names by members of
‒ aliases as it were ‒ that their true identity might not become known
interested in creating difficulties for the Institution. In this brief
little light is thrown on some of the conditions prevailing in that
also on the work which zealous members of the Craft are accomplishing.
to be an endless campaign, the fight of the day with the night, of the
the evil, of the truth with the lie. Where are the stronger forces?
lie the victory? The millennium, when Christ will reign and Satan shall
is it still far away? Are the efforts of those who are striving onwards
are they in vain? Is it a natural law that when the glory of the light
the forces of the darkness will begin to act? Will those who bear the
they make it shine, all powerful, omnipotent, or will they stumble and
extinguish the flame?
strength. This has always proved true; it is of greater importance now
before. Masonry today is almost divided into two camps, Anglo Saxon and
the battle it has to fight is the same all the world over, as it meets
same type of opponents. Does that not mean preparing the way for the
enemy? Or are
there hidden influences? Divide et impera, divide and govern, a
stratagem of ancient
Rome ‒ has Rome ever forgotten it? Parts are more easily defeated than
is the whole.
Hungary and Italy are good examples. Who is to come next?
a singular coincidence in the ways of war. The same kinds of soldiers
national troops on business, Field Marshals, like Mussolini, visible to
commanding. The wise General Staff in the background gives the
And Mussolinis, small and tall, appear everywhere. Austria has her
there is paper war only. Michl, an Austrian Pan-German, is accusing us
of the World War, of the murder in Sarajevo. His recent voluminous
been much noticed in Austria and Germany and has found a wide circle of
Numerous attacks have followed. The most important perhaps, and of more
the General Staff even appeared on the scene-was an article in the
the official paper of the Roman Catholic party, the mightiest in
which appeared on April 4, 1925, is entitled "The Secret Brothers." It
tells first of the successes of Freemasonry in Austria, how the
Viennese Grand Lodge,
founded Dec. 18, 1918, with fourteen lodges and a thousand members,
sixteen lodges and 1500 members and is principally interested in
This, it says, it learns from the Narodny Listy, a leading Prague
the Viennese Press, where the lodges have widespread connections and
wield a power
as never before, does not speak about these successes. The article says
it is as
if the lodges did not exist and did not have influence in every form of
and legislation. The Press is silent, it says, hiding by this silence
which go on behind closely drawn curtains, concealed from the eyes of
which do not belong to the secret fraternity.
In the general
turnover after the war the lodges succeeded in getting official
according to this writer, for at that time nothing appeared so urgent
as to grant this permission. To speak the truth, the article says, the
never had great troubles before for, disguised as humanitarian
were doing their work and their members were only obliged to go to the
for the ritualistic assemblies. Now, having free course, says the
writer, it was
presumed they would come out of their secret corners and tell the world
had to say, what gifts they had to bestow on mankind.
happened differently, according to the article in question. A festival
held on the first of June, 1919, in the palace of Archduke Ludwig
Viktor ‒ a great
triumph, with 600 brethren present, all in Masonic clothing. "Now we
the future," an orator declared. "If we have been taken until now as
kind of valets of the King of Hungary, as mere harmless, peaceful
an error, we are not quite so harmless. Now the way is free, as there
no more." In the same meeting the Grand Master proclaimed: "Now a real
Masonic activity will begin!" Nevertheless, the "Reichspost" says
it is hidden, the brothers disguised as philanthropists, as popular
orators, acting in a hundred changing forms, always one aim in view
which they are
concealing now, just as they did then. They are not mere dreamers, the
"Masonry intends and will bring war!"
the article goes on, accusing us as antagonists of Christendom, of
as promoters of dangerous school reforms. The 1500 brothers, it says,
lodges, is a small number, but the number does not make it. This secret
which wants to stay secret in the full freedom it has been granted,
does not boast
itself in sumptuous temple buildings like their American brethren, but
has a predominating
influence in a very powerful political party, according to the
while the social democratic Austrian workman has become its plaything.
leaders of the workmen are losing their power under the sway of
declares, adding that one of the most important political facts is
found in the
influence of an uncontrollable international secret society on Austrian
which, it says, must seriously be taken into account.
was reprinted in full in the "Wiener Freimaurer Zeitung," of April,
as it supplied a welcome occasion to show that erroneous opinions
prevail in many
quarters. As a reply it was stated that Grand Lodge has by no means to
light of the day, that it is quite unpolitical, that it has none of the
aims in view, that it has nothing to do with government or legislation.
only one idea which the Grand Lodge is eager to serve, and that is the
idea of peace,
mutual understanding and reconciliation. On numerous occasions Grand
Lodge has openly
and repeatedly declared its principles, and in the six years of its
life has supported
officially many institutions for the furtherance of peace. It was
in propagating the Pan-European idea as a means to enable the League of
to become more efficient than it is at present and in this way to seek
peace on this continent. With regard to our alleged attacks on religion
it remains to be said that the lodges are formally and conscientiously
the "Ancient Charges" which form an essential part of our Constitution.
The lodges have among their members adherents of many parties,
progressionists, and this being the case, it is not true that they
influence a political party.
In the writer's
opinion the continual attacks are very much to be deprecated, as we are
approaching a new state of things, a new age, and the occasion will
need the co-operation
of all forces which could serve the public weal. Of course, if our
intentionally misunderstood, we can do nothing more than strictly
follow the way
marked out by the principles of our Order and patiently endure the
whatever side they may come.
J. Meekren Editor-In-Charge
IT is rather
quaint that at this late day in the greatest and most civilized country
in the world,
particularly remarkable (neglecting aeroplanes, gramophones, jazz,
etc.) for the enormous number of daily papers and magazines that are
the still more enormous number of people who read them, that an editor
to rise up and remark that he disclaims all official responsibility for
of his contributors. The primary function of THE Builder, the one for
which it was
started and to which it has always remained steadfast, is to provide
the N. M. R. S., and the Craft at large, with accurate and trustworthy
about Masonic subjects. Some subjects are controversial and in these
cases the only
possibility is to present both sides of the question as brethren able
to do so can
be prevailed upon to write about them The fear of truth and knowledge,
about the other side, is certainly not Masonic.
* * *
Does It Stand For?
A the present
time a great many Masons are asking the question "What does Freemasonry
for as an Institution?" Also it would be useless to ignore the fact
brethren think it ought to stand for something ‒ that it ought to
or public schools or Americanization or law enforcement.
say, "What is it good for if it doesn't stand for something ‒ if it
take a stand for something?" Not perhaps in these words or exactly by
mental steps. Many pass from an idea that is legitimate to one that is
a conception of what Masonry is, or at least should be, to one which is
to its spirit and intent.
How is this
to be judged? To give a concrete example, it is quite within the bounds
traditional functions for a Grand Lodge to build a home or a hospital
or a school,
and endow or maintain it. It would be, we think, though perhaps some
quite proper for a lodge to maintain a bed in a local hospital, to
young people with the expenses say of going to college, to contribute
to the relief
of families in poverty or other distress ‒ without any Masonic claim on
of the recipients of the benevolent or charitable action. But on the
it would not be proper for a Grand Lodge to recommend the building of a
or the founding of a university by the state or city, and still less so
for it to
consider ways and means by which a State Legislature or City Council
could be induced
to undertake such projects, or the people led to support a demand for
laudable the proposals might be in themselves.
illustration a principle emerges quite clearly. Any action which is
to the Order, over which it has complete control and which remains
to its own volition, and within its own hands, and which is also, of
conformity with the tenets of the Institution, is legitimate. But as
soon as such
action involves the consent or cooperation of the community at large,
of the community, it becomes illegitimate. No matter how laudable a
be, no matter how necessary it may seem, if it be one requiring the
action of the
community as a whole, or in the persons of their constitutional
it becomes a political question. It is a political question even if the
in the community were overwhelmingly in favor of it, even if opposition
to it be
quite non-existent. The mere fact that it involves political action in
or legislative halls, or even that it requires the support of
non-Masons, puts it
outside the class of things in which Freemasonry can act as an
into that other class in which Masons must act! or refrain from acting,
and each according to his own opinion and conscience.
But it will
be worthwhile to consider the matter further, and ask the question what
function and purpose of Freemasonry really is. In. a large measure
and Dern have answered the question in their brief but pithy articles
in the present issue of THE BUILDER. That they have approached the
the opposite standpoints of the affirmative and negative has not
from reaching essentially the same conclusions. Masonry is an
association of Masons,
and its function is primarily just that, to enable Masons to associate
learn to know each other, help each other, teach and inspire each
other. An institution
of civil engineers, a learned society of students or scientists is
founded and conducted
on exactly the same principles, their particular functions, the reason
existence, is to afford means for an interchange of ideas and
information. An association
of master-builders does not bid for contracts as such, neither does a
architects enter a competition for the design of some great building.
In each case
individual members compete or bid, yet no one thinks or says that their
has no use. Freemasonry is symbolically a society of architects and
in erecting spiritual habitations; the Great Architect has charge of
It is Freemasonry's function as an Institution to teach the Apprentice
the Craftsman ‒ but the work is done by each individually as he finds
in the world.
* * *
of the Blind
F. KUHN, whose death was such a great loss to the American Craft, was
for the following clever parody of a well-known definition of
Freemasonry. He said
that to many Masons it was apparently "a beautiful system of gymnastics
by signs, steps, grips and words."
be quite possible to take this seriously and give it a meaning quite
its apparent one ‒ the one intended. For gymnastics properly mean
education as a
whole, not merely physical training, the ordinary meaning in colloquial
and Masonic education is symbolically illustrated by steps and signs
when the inquiring Craftsman begins to look beloved the surface. But of
Bro. Kuhn wished to emphasize was that in so many lodges no one ever
did look below
the surface, and his adaptation of the traditional formula was intended
as an ironical
rebuke to those ritualists who are also literalists and have not
the letter alone killeth, that the meaning, the spirit, alone maketh
Past Grand Master of Iowa, is responsible for the following anecdote:
is what actually happened not long since in a certain lodge not a
from here. The Grand Master was paying the lodge an official visit. He
duly received and welcomed, conducted to the East, and seated beside a
Master of the lodge. He returned the gavel to the Master of the lodge
and the work
now thy Creator in the days of thy youth ‒ '
the G. M. in an undertone to the P. M.: 'Listen to this, for I want to
ask you sortie
… 'in the
day when the keepers of the house shall tremble and the strong men
shall bow themselves
M. to P. M. 'What does that mean?'
M. to G. M. 'I don't know.'
the almond tree shall flourish, and the grasshopper shall be a burden,
M. to P. M. 'What does that mean?'
M. to G. M. (irritably) 'I don't know. I never did know! I haven't the
idea what any of it means!'
many times he had recited it ‒ many more he had heard it recited. Yet
to him it
meant no more than does a Latin prayer to a worshipper who knows no
tongue but English.
If such ignorance,
which in this case could have been so easily remedied ‒ any public
have the material, any clergyman could (we hope) have explained the
passage ‒ is
to be found among the rulers of the Craft, whose duty primarily is to
what are we to expect of the rank and file?
is not only ignorance of the meaning of Masonic teaching and the truths
the symbols, but also of the legal and executive side of the
Institution. To see
the number of questions that are referred to our Grand Masters and
that could be answered at once by consulting the constitutions, the
code or regulations
of the jurisdiction, is enough to make one wonder if aspirants for
office have the
least idea of the qualifications they ought to possess. The fact of the
is that the ritual bulks so large in lodge activities, and requires so
on the part of the average officer, that knowledge of the constitution
law, and even often enough the by-laws of his own lodge, is thrown into
and simply forgotten. There are many Worshipful Masters, unfortunately,
know how to put a motion properly and are quite unable to properly
decide any point
of order that may arise. And there are very many more who have no idea
functions and prerogatives of the Master of a lodge really are, even in
matters. It is most deplorable where such conditions exist, and shows
need for the stimulation of a desire to learn more than the bare forms
on the part
of every Mason. Without that desire little improvement is to be looked
* * *
letter speaks for itself:
I am attaching
a news clipping from the Fargo Forum containing an account of Bro.
Alanson B. Skinner's
tragic death near Tokio, N. D., on Aug. 17. Bro. Skinner had a very
article in THE BUILDER several months ago and I later received a most
letter from him with reference to Masonry and the Chippewa-Ojibway
tribe, or rather
that was the subject discussed.
I am sure
that the country and Masonry has lost a most valuable citizen and
his untimely death.
‒ S. S.
Hynes, North Dakota.
clipping it appears that Bro. Skinner met his death in an automobile
engaged in prosecuting his archeological researches. From 1919 to 1924
he had been
employed by the American Museum of Natural History, and was Curator of
Station. His Masonic affiliations were also in Milwaukee. At one time
he was on
the board of Associate Editors of THE BUILDER and it is with very great
we learn of his death.
Bro. R. J. Meekren
that perennially crops up among Masons whenever they are discussing the
aspects of the Institution is symbolism. It might well appear, judging
by the flow
of books and articles on the symbols and symbolic teaching of Masonry,
subject must be worn quite threadbare, yet even a casual acquaintance
has been written will show that this is not the case, indeed it will
that the would-be expositors are more in need of explanation than the
which they treat. It would, therefore, seem that it might be better to
problem from a different angle, for a problem Masonic symbolism has
To adopt the words of Paul the Apostle, it is foolishness to some and
a cause of stumbling and misapprehension.
explanations of Masonic symbolism, in spite of much that is
questionable, are probably
still the best and safest, speaks of a "Science of symbolism," and he
would define Masonry as a "system of morality developed and inculcated
science of symbolism." Strictly speaking, in the present day sense of
there is no such thing, and what it is proposed to do in the present
to approach the subject from the strictly scientific point of view.
are at all acquainted with the story of the development of our modern
really great achievement of our civilization, are aware that the great
have been made in all directions in recent years have been in part due
to the breaking
down of the old water-tight compartments that separated one science
The comparative method has been the potent apparatus by which so much
has been done
in the latest investigations, especially in subjects dealing with man
and collectively. It fact, many subjects not long since regarded as
to scientific treatment have been elevated into sciences properly
the application of this method alone. The problems of the different
forms of religion
among the various races and peoples of the earth have very largely been
by comparing them together, and obscure survivals in one explained by
the custom or belief was still in full force. And later still much has
by considering them in the light of psychology. Nothing is actually
the world, we have to distinguish and separate, analyze and abstract,
in order to
deal with the raw material of knowledge, the multitudinous phenomena of
around us. This is the only way in which we can deal with it, and our
formed innately and by habit to so function. But when this has been
done, if we
forget (as it is so very easy to do) that our subject, our
generalization or abstraction,
is intimately connected with other things at every point we lose all
sense of balance
and proportion, and what knowledge we have gained becomes in truth more
falsified because we have lost the reality of its place and connection
to the whole.
As an example,
a very simple and obvious one we distinguish in our own bodies various
organs. In this case we are not likely to forget the connection we are
to deem the hand an entity apart from the arm to which it belongs, or
that directs it according to sensations received by the eye or ear. But
is as much a part of the earth as the hand is of the arm, or the earth
part of the
solar system. The abstract formulae of mathematics or chemistry are no
representations of the normal, usual or habitual way in which things
much so as when we generalize about our fellows in saying one is
generous, or another
irascible, or another virtuous. Usually we prefer to say, speaking of
things. the invariable mode of action rather than habitual. But we
use this or like terms absolutely, for our knowledge is based on a
amount of experience, and we are never likely to be able to demonstrate
are not minute variations in the reactions of material objects. Human
even animals, as individuals, show much variation, but in the mass can
be covered by cut and dried rules as statistical research has shown. So
in a thousand will die in a certain time, so many will be born, so many
and so on. It is true that the rates are variable from place to place
and time to
time, but we are dealing with groups of individuals all of whom are
in themselves. If such groups can be so accounted for in useful
fashion, if they
exhibit a tendency to act as a whole according to a rule or law, much
groups of individuals or units whose variations are very small, such as
systems of molecules that form the material objects of every-day life
to the accepted hypothesis of physical science. The point is that the
thought is always to make absolute and invariable entities out of
We speak of justice, or fortitude, and immediately that principle of
action or disposition
of mind assumes a separateness and distinctiveness that it has not
really got in
itself. This is true all through the whole field of experience, from a
in batting averages to the business man's rules for disposing of
in his office, from the infant's first distinctions of distance between
offered to it that it can grasp and the electric chandelier for which
in vain, to the biologist's classifications of living organisms into
families and varieties. And so in dealing with Freemasonry, those who
further light, once they have acquired the rudiments of the subject as
the lodge, can hardly have it too often impressed upon them, that
be understood fully as an isolated fact. Its history cannot be properly
in ignorance of the secular history of the countries and communities in
has appeared, its laws cannot be appreciated without reference to the
jurisprudence in general, its objects, its raison d'Ítre must be
the light of social organization in general, and so too with regard to
Meaning of the Word
As a first
step it may be useful to see what the word symbol actually means.
Generally of course
everyone knows its signification, but the history of a word and its use
fresh light upon it. Webster's dictionary tells us it is "the sign or
of something moral or intellectual by the images or properties of
gives as synonyms, emblem, figure, type. A sentence from Samuel Taylor
is quoted in further elucidation: "A symbol is a sign included in the
it represents ‒ an actual chart chosen to represent the whole, or a
lower form or
species used as the representative of a higher in the same kind." It is
used in place of letter, or character, as in algebra and mathematics
itself is pure Greek, transliterated without any change but the
dropping of the
case ending. Symbolon. (the Greek letter "μ" is usually represented by
"y" in English) is "a sign by which a thing is known or inferred,"
it is used generally in Greek in the sense of sign, mark or token.
in Greek, were the same thing as the Latin Tesserae hospitalis, pieces
coins, or other objects broken in two, part being kept by each of two
a pledge and proof of friendship. In principle these were essentially
the same thing
as the medieval "tally," which was a piece of wood split in two, after
various notches had been cut on it, as a mutual record of an account.
Or the original
form of cheque in which the paper was torn in two, the fitting together
of the two
pieces being a proof of its genuineness. The derived meanings of the
word in Greek
thus came to be the half of anything, a corresponding part, a ticket, a
license, a verbal signal, a watchword, any distinctive mark, such as
of faith" in the Christian Churches, or the outward sign of a
word Symbolaion had the meaning of "a mark or sign from which a
is drawn" and came to be used for a covenant, contract or bond. Both of
words were derived from Symballein, which is literally "to throw
a word used in very many ways, as to meet together, to fight. But among
meanings are those of guess, conjecture, interpret, understand,
compute and agree upon.
this we can see the line of development of meaning in this term, from
together, compared together, to things taken as representing other
things with which
they have previously been put, compared or associated. There is nothing
abstruse or farfetched about all this. It is a matter of every day
the meaning of the term in accord with ordinary usage, to objects or
of objects, that are taken to mean some other thing or group of things
not so easily
described or depicted, we can still find plenty of symbols in everyday
we choose to turn. Some are very modern, as for example the trademarks
the badges of societies, and some very ancient, as the letters of the
As is well known the latter were in their origin pictures of actual
were conventionalized into pictographs such as were many of the
and then by further simplification becoming ideograms, like the
characters of Chinese
writing. How far we should be justified in calling such designs, or
in the stricter sense above defined, is open to question, but when
ceased to be taken as representing an idea but were used to designate a
soul, they certainly became symbolical. The letter "A" in Greek is
from the Semitic, Aleph, which meant ox. The original form of the
letter was a drawing
of a bull's head. In the course of transmission, after it had become
the letter got turned upside down. "B" is Beta in Greek, which is from
the Semitic Beth, a house, and was originally an outline drawing of a
however, does not altogether fit the definition given by Coleridge, as
here we have
the greater representing the less, instead of the reverse, as he
though the sound of the letter "A" is a simpler and a lesser thing than
Aleph, the ox, of which it is the first phonetic element, yet as a
whole the use
of alphabetic writing is an enormous advance on pictographic or
any case whether the meaning ascends or descends the principle of using
to stand for another is the same.
Are Not Obsolete
devices, such as the use of a wheel in design for the badge of an
of a wing to represent an aviator, or a word made up of the initial
letters of the
full name of a firm or company, all these are too much in evidence to
than a bare notice in passing. Arbitrary designs or trademarks would
not, in the
restricted sense, properly be called symbols, but rather emblems or
tokens (in the
general sense), though whether there are many such things as purely
or devices is doubtful. In the minds of those who adopt them there is
connection or association that would tend to bring them into the class
properly so-called. And here we reach the psychological aspect of the
by usage we limit the word symbol to an actual object, or the
an object visible and tangible (or at the least a reference in words to
object as being real and actual) which is taken to mean something else,
yet we must
not allow ourselves to be led to isolate the process of symbolizing
from the other
mental processes or modes of expression in which one thing is compared
with another and then used to represent, describe or suggest it. Such
devices for example as metaphor, simile, allegory and like figures and
speech are psychologically exactly the same kind of thing as symbols.
As a matter
of fact, many, perhaps the majority of words are the fossilized relics
analogies, metaphors and symbolisms. For example, take the word
to most men will at once recall an essential part of an engine. It is
a root meaning to roll, and from that root was named a form of solid
easily roll, a roller that is. This is perhaps a secondary development,
us take the word pipe, which probably makes most people think of
artifact, a hollow piece of metal usually. The root of this word is the
that of "peep," a chirping or whistling noise. This is itself probably
onomatopoeic, that is, derived from a conventionalized spoken
reproduction of the
kind of sound intended. From this it is applied to a musical instrument
to make such sounds, such as the flute, whistle, or panpipes, and as
all essentially pieces of wood, metal or other material with hollow
ducts, the word
finally comes to mean such objects for whatever purpose formed. Take
at random, the word "attend" will do. A meaning that will perhaps first
occur to mind is that of being "present at," not however just being
somewhere, but at a special kind of occasion, nearly always implying
of other people as well. The root of the word means simply to stretch.
or physical stretching it is applied metaphorically to a stretching or
the mind, to pay attention to something. From this it passes to the
sense in which
one gives attention to another person, as a physician attends his
patient, and from
that to attending a meeting, or a church service where attention will
be given to
the proceedings. This sort of thing could be illustrated from half the
might be found in the pages of a dictionary, and very likely if we knew
ultimate derivations from the great majority of words in all languages.
and symbolical language is especially the province of the poet and
orator, but every
metaphor and simile, even of the most commonplace character and used by
people, is of the same kind thing. Either original or secondhand
symbols are our
counters of conversation, and even in the driest and most precise of
may be traced what originally were fresh and poetic comparisons and
for an irreducible minimum of purely imitative word is probably the
most of our
words were thus formed, and even the former really follow the same
to imitate a bird's note, a dog's barking, a cow's lowing, brings those
to mind, the characteristic call or cry of each standing as a
the individual. Some words in use among us are patently thus originated
‒ as the
names of a chickadee and bob-o-link and whippoorwill.
Based on Association
principle thus seen to be the underlying ground of symbolism is
possibly the characteristic
mode of operation of our minds. Some psychologists have referred all
the association of ideas. This as a theory is probably not now very
but it, does undoubtedly have a large place in our mental processes and
the kind of comparison that we are specifically dealing with.
have us believe, not without considerable warrant in fact, that we are
all of us
symbolists without knowing it, that our dreams are elaborate and
of symbols representing unconscious and repressed tendencies and
judgment may be passed on this theory such explanations it least again
to the universality of the principles involved, for even if they import
meaning into phenomena in which it really does not exist, it at least
is an instance
of the faculty of symbolizing, of setting one thing to mean another.
The net result
then of this preliminary survey is to show that the use of symbols is a
of humanity in the expression or recording of thoughts and ideas. If
this be so
why is it that so many are moved to impatience and even disgust with
symbolical explications of Masonry that form such a considerable part
of the literature
of the Craft? This is a question that could only be fully answered in
in general this aversion and impatience are probably very frequently
due to a feeling
that these intricate systems are either not true, or if true are of no
Such an impression is, we must confess, in many cases more than
justified. But the
fault lies not with the employment of symbols but with the manner or
their employment. We do not quarrel with language or condemn its use
people tell us lies, or others bore us with uninteresting relations of
events. The fundamental trouble with most of the elaborate
interpretations of Masonic
symbols is that their authors have tried to read something into Craft
was not properly there. Perhaps it is not quite accurate to say
It was Adam Weishaupt who said in defense of his system that no one had
an explanation of Masonry or an account of its object that received the
of anyone else and that in such a confusion of opinions he felt quite
in adding another. The truth must be confessed that Masons have never
just what the teaching of Masonry really is, or perhaps more
accurately, what it
should be; and every would-be Masonic prophet and teacher has assumed,
to give the impression, that his explanation was the original and
and was concealed in the symbols of the Fraternity by the mythical
sages who founded
Power of Symbols
these brothers are not to be condemned without deliberation; the ground
offending may turn out to be a trivial matter, or one of detail only.
One of the
essentials of symbolism, of metaphor and simile, is suggestiveness,
worked out in fact, that everyone has suggested to him not wholly what
or teacher has in mind, but largely what he has of his own to bring to
In technical language, and most of our everyday language is the same
kind as what
is strictly called technical, suggestiveness, vagueness, is as far as
When a surgeon speaks of making an incision, or of the articulation of
though the words were originally figurative, in usage they have come to
very definite ideas. So when the mechanic speaks of a rivet, a bolt and
the exhaust of an engine; again all these words were originally applied
but understood very precisely. So also in such everyday words and
phrases as eating,
getting up, cutting, and hundreds of others, the meanings are so
that we all probably have about the same mental reaction to them, that
have the same import to the hearer as to the speaker. But when one
heat of summer, and says the "air in the streets was like the blast of
we all realize that he means it was very hot, but we all picture it
according to our own experience. One who knows furnaces will conceive
from one who knows only the kitchen fire.
be easy to select scores of illustrations from literature of this kind
Certain metaphors become fashionable, and then they start on the
and may eventually desiccate into technicalities. In general it is
unsafe for anyone
to use a figure or a symbol that is out of his own experience, the
chances are a
thousand to one he will not get it quite right. That has been one great
many writers on Masonic subjects. They have attempted to develop the
use of Craft symbols with no knowledge of operative Craft technique;
as, for instance,
when Mackey speaks of the squaring of stones being less skilled work
than that of
setting them and therefore left to the apprentices, whereas in fact it
the reverse. It is easily seen that here he was constructing a supposed
fact out of the allocation of working tools to the three degrees in
Masonry. Some such errors are even to be found in our rituals, as where
in one degree
something is said to be done "on the point of the chisel under the
of the mallet." This almost reminds one of the famous definition of a
that it is a red fish that walks backward. A chisel is a tool with an
edge not a
point, and a mallet gives rather an impact than a pressure.
of mistake is more likely however to be made in the secondary
development of a symbol
or group of symbols than in the original choice, and for a good reason.
or emblem (we are still using the words in their widest sense) is first
to express some idea, and to express it intelligibly; for by this time
be clear that the primary function of symbolism is to express, to
reveal, not to
conceal. Medieval craftsmen were at one in this with Greek sculptors
picture writers. One universal kind, that in a restricted sense might
not be allowed
the name symbol, is the attribute. An object which serves as a label.
a statue of a woman with a bow and quiver is Artemis, with spear and
Athene. A naked man with a harp is Apollo, with club and lion-skin
the Medieval artist put in the wheel of St. Catherine, the lamb of St.
keys of St. Peter. This is quite elementary and due to simple
association of such
objects in the story of the person represented, but it leads on to the
representation of abstract ideas. Before the writer lies a plate
adopted for the Army of the United States. For the medical service is a
with serpents twined round it ‒ the attribute of Aesculapius, the god
For Foreign Service is a partial view of the statue of Liberty, for the
service a conventional lyre, for the engineers a castle, for aviation a
outline of a flying plane. This last and several others not mentioned
are on the
first or pictographic level merely. The second of those mentioned
those who have been on Foreign Service will have seen the statue of
castle of the engineers represents one of their chief functions, the
protective works. We see in this modern instance a great variety of
reason for adopting
the specific designs, and this has always been the case. The choice of
or symbol is due very largely to accidental circumstances, which also
the fact that the same object can represent different ideas, as the
anchor is the
badge of naval service and also an emblem of hope. And on the other
hand the same
idea can be symbolized in many different ways. We may have an inflamed
charity, or a woman caring for little children. A torch or a lamp or a
represent knowledge. The torch again may mean truth. Justice is
represented by the
balance, and also by the sword. The one thing is that there should be
or indirect association that gives an intelligible and natural
the thing represented and the object representing it. This, of course,
to the received doctrine that symbols were chosen to conceal secret
all but the initiated. That they have never been used in this way
would, of course,
be going too far. But even here the general rule holds good? The symbol
obvious in meaning to those in the secret. The appropriateness of a
on a common experience. The pictographic aeroplane is obvious in
meaning to all
of us today. The more subtle symbol of the statue of Liberty would be
clear on reflection
to most Americans, but might be very obscure or unintelligible to
people in other
countries. The staff of Aesculapius requires a knowledge of ancient
appreciate fully, though it of course has become almost as conventional
as the letters
of the alphabet.
then is intelligible naturally and obviously to the group with the same
experience as the one who chooses it. If the early Christians used the
fish as a
secret sign it was obvious to them, it had references to baptism as
well as representing
in a kind of picture puzzle a confession of faith. Jesus Christ the son
the Saviour. For the initials of this phrase in Greek, Iesous Christos
Soter, spell Icthus, the word for fish. The drawing of a fish therefore
once a symbol of the faith and a token of recognition.
then that we must come to are that Masonic symbolism, in the first
place, is no
mystical or abstruse thing apart from everyday life, but rather quite
inevitable; and secondly that the primary meaning of these symbols is
one so long as we keep in touch with reality. It may not be always
obvious to the
uninitiated because he has not had the same experience. It may not
always be obvious
to the uninstructed Mason because the original fitness of the choice
may have lain
in a state of affairs now passed away. To understand such as these
is required parallel to that necessary for the full explanation of the
the medical service, or how "B" came to represent a certain consonant.
But after this it must be remembered that the advantage of symbolism is
and that everyone brings some new element to its interpretation, every
one if he
looks can see some new shade of meaning. For those who like definite
we can conclude by saying that the primary, simple and obvious meaning
is the authoritative
and authentic one, so far as these qualifying words apply, but that any
the individual can find for himself is also just as legitimate so long
as it is
in accord with the primary significance.
For the purely
Masonic aspect of the subject Mackey's Symbolism of Masonry [Lib 1921] and Haywood's Symbolical
[Lib*] are recommended. The latter work is the result of two years
in which about everything ever written on the subject was examined.
also has much on the subject under appropriate headings.
aspect has been extensively discussed in recent years by the
Dreams and Myths [Lib 1913] by K. Abraham, Dreams and
Totem and Taboo [Lib*]
by Freud, the originator of the method, and a Brief Outline of the
[Lib*] by Barbara Low. Readers are, however, warned that they may find
much in books
on this subject to repel them.
and symbols used in writing, the article on alphabets in the
may be consulted. Of modern symbols there is a useful list in Symbolism
[Lib*] by H.T. Bailey and Ethel Pool.
On the symbolism
of primitive magic Tyler's Primitive Culture [Lib 1920; Vol 1, Vol 2] and Frazer's Golden Bough
[Lib 1922] will be found useful as an
to the subject, more especially as they are written with quite other
- What is a symbol?
- On what principle are symbols
- How and by whom are they
selected and why are they employed?
- Is symbolism as a means of
- What is it real function?
OF FREEMASONRY [Lib*]. By Charles E. Green. Published by R. S. Sampson,
May be purchased through the National Masonic Research Society Book
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Cloth, illustrated, index, 163
states in the preface that much contained in his book was first given
in the form
of lectures and addresses delivered in various places in Western
this would not have been evident from a perusal of the work itself, as
in many similar
cases it is.
It is rather
a difficult book to classify. Arranged in the form of a connected
a historical sequence, it yet has much of the character of a
While it is to a considerable extent (and quite frankly) a compilation,
author's own thought is everywhere in evidence. The larger part of the
book is devoted
to just Freemasonry, the Blue Lodge, yet considerable space is given to
higher degrees, and their relationship, historical and symbolical, with
is worked out.
is in effect a select descriptive bibliography of Masonic literature.
devoted to Masonic collections. There is much useful and interesting
in the appendix. The extent of the author's reading is in evidence on
and the style, though unadorned, has a simple directness about it that
In short, it appears to be a most excellent little book for the purpose
it was written, an elementary manual for the ordinary Mason who would
like to know
more about the Craft, but has no access to Masonic libraries and has
not the means
to purchase many books, or the time to read them. Practically every
aspect of the
Institution is touched upon, including all the historical points on
have been or still are serious controversies. The author evidently
relies a good
deal on Bro. J. S. M. Ward, more so perhaps than is really safe, as the
of this writer often leads him to leap to his conclusions over very
wide gaps in
his argument. Bro. Green also adopts the "one degree" theory of
Lodge Masonry, though the evidence for two grades is almost
overwhelming. He has
also evidently read the late Bro. Stretton's works and has inserted his
diagram of the supposed method of raising large stones by the Operative
Bro. Stretton, by the way, an engineer by profession, ought surely to
something more practical. In truth mediaeval Masons did not use large
a rule. It was even one of their boasts that their tremendous vaults
were built of stones that a man could carry up a ladder on his
of course the derrick and crane were used by them as it was by the
Romans. He also
reproduces the present day "Gild Mason's" division of the Craft into
and Arch Masons, of which there is no trace whatever in medieval or
It is simply a technical feet that it is no harder to cut the voussoir
of an arch
than a square ashlar. It is of course more difficult to build an arch
than a wall,
but that there were ever two classes of mason setters has yet to be
the division still existing between skilled and unskilled.
as these however can hardly be called blemishes, as the author is
entitled to present
his own opinion on the points at issue; they are mentioned only to
of the book that there is a difference of opinion about them, and that
of Masonic scholarship is rather against than for the point of view
is given of the famous (or should we say, notorious) drawing in the
the Grand Chapter of Scotland supposed to be by the Italian artist
the composition can be anything more than a sketch, is obvious at a
it to be by a competent artist; and on this supposition it can hardly
for a real composition as the recumbent figure is so utterly out of
the others. It has never been clearly stated on what grounds it was
Guercino or to so early a date as 1665. Nevertheless, in view of the
for it, it is very interesting, and the author is to be thanked for
making it accessible
to the Craft at large.
leaves something to be desired, and although the small type brings the
to a convenient pocket size, yet it would probably be more readable
were it larger.
Wit offer this as a suggestion should the author contemplate a second
* * *
OF SAMSON AND ITS PLACE IN THE RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENT OF MANKIND [Lib 1907]. By Paul Carus. Published by
Open Court Publishing Co., Chicago, Ill. May be purchased through the
of the National Masonic Research Society, 1960 Railway Exchange, St.
Boards, 188 pages, illustrated, index. Price, postpaid, $1.10.
work arose out of a friendly controversy between Mr. George W. Shaw and
regarding the relationship between myth and history. Dr. Carus takes
the view, very
generally accepted, that historical characters, that is to say people
existed, often attract to themselves and their stories legendary
details from pure
myths. An instance is given of this, where Alexander the Great has
become the hero
of quite mythical romances to the complete exclusion of his real
like manner Dr. Carus is willing to allow that there may have been a
hero of the tribe of Dan who bore the name Samson, or Shamshon, but
holds that the
stories preserved in the Book of Judges are almost wholly, if not
of the hero fits in well with this as it is derived from Shamash, a
word for sun,
and literally would appear to signify "sun-like." This, of course,
it fits the myth theory, is no evidence, as many real men have borne
from the sun and other natural objects among all races, and names of
the same kind
were common among the Hebrews.
compares the Samson story, which is admittedly a fragment preserved by
scribes and editors of the sacred scriptures, with the legends of
Dagon, Melkarth, Adonis and Osiris, and shows striking parallels
between them. Samson
is not a builder, but his death in the destruction of a temple is not
and perhaps significance, especially if the author is at all right in
that the original unmutilated story gave an account of his
resuscitation or resurrection.
a great deal of material collected in the work, much of which is of
to Masons, but it must be acknowledged that the style affects the
reader as somewhat
scrappy. And though professedly written as a popular work, yet a great
deal is taken
for granted the absence of which might well leave those unfamiliar with
in a state of doubt as to the precise bearing of the facts alluded to.
author evidently has small sympathy with the Hebrew point of view. In
fact he compares
the tribe of Dan to gypsies and equates the Philistines with modern
and assumes that the real Samson, if he ever lived, was only an ancient
tough, whom the Philistine police very properly sought to suppress.
however, does not affect the value of the book as a contribution to the
of solar heroes and demi-gods. A closer analogy would perhaps have been
between the nomad Indians of the plains and the white settlers. Only in
case both Philistines and Hebrews were immigrants and had an equal
right, or no
right, to the territory they occupied.
Box and Correspondence
le Progres of Honolulu was founded in 1841, chartered in 1842 as a
body of the Supreme Council of France, Ancient and Accepted Scottish
as number 128, was carried upon the roll of the parent body at Paris to
1895, when it came into the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of California
of a generation the Lodge le Progres endeavored to operate as a
Blue Lodge." Its authorizations were derived from the Supreme Council
and were altered only as a friendly concession to York Rite Masonry
coming to the
then Kingdom of Hawaii.
writer is a copy of the "General Regulations of Scottish Masonry for
and Her Dependencies," published in 1846. As a contribution to the
or question of the element of time in acquiring the "further" ‒ not
‒ degrees, the following Regulation, being Article CCCXXV, is submitted:
delays between each of the three first degrees are fixed as follows:
the proposition to the reception, three months;
the reception to the 2nd Degree, five months
the 2nd Degree to the 3rd, seven months; in all fifteen months.
in case of urgency, attested by an express resolution of the lodge, and
the five highest officers, and clothed with the seals and stamps, the
delays can be abridged. This resolution should be submitted to the
office of the Rite, charged to transmit it to the Lieut. Gr. Com., or
to him who
fills his office. who alone has the necessary power to grant
dispensations, of which
the benefit can only accrue upon certificate of payment of the cost of
into the hands of the Treasurer of the Holy Empire."
advancement in degrees is asked for by the Senior or Junior Wardens for
the Apprentices or Fellowcrafts who have completed their time and who
them to merit this favor, by their instruction, their assiduity and
E. T., Honolulu.
* * *
In your issue
of June, 1925, just to hand, I notice an article headed "Should a Grand
Regulate Advancement to the Higher Degrees?" and I perused the varying
from quite a number of the American Grand Lodges.
Lodge of Queensland is the baby Grand Lodge in the world, and I think I
in saying that the control of admission to the Higher Degrees is
its jurisdiction. The difficulties met with in your parts are, however,
for by regulation in the Higher Degrees themselves.
In this State
of Queensland it is impossible to enter Royal Arch Masonry within
of being raised as an M. M. A Royal Arch Mason can then take some of
degrees," such as the Royal Ark Mariner, Red Cross Council and the
Series almost any time he likes: but when it comes to the really Higher
such as the Rose Croix or 18d, then so far as the Scottish Rite is
Mason must have proved himself by long and active service both as a
Mason and as
a Royal Arch Mason before his admission would be considered. In the
Rose Croix Degree
the members are all elderly and those who have won their spurs, and
also very select.
it is provided by Constitution that a further five years must elapse
before he can
be admitted into the 30d. So you will see how we are safeguarded in
If you can publish this in your next issue of THE BUIEDER it may do
P. Marks, Hon. Sec'y, Supreme Council S.C., Queensland
* * *
Evolution of the Lodge
I wish to
thank you for your notes on the evolution of the lodge. When I was made
(in 1874) the lodges in this jurisdiction were always opened on the E.
and every Entered Apprentice had the option of joining the lodge at the
his initiation, and thus becoming a contributing member with all the
and responsibilities of membership. He might remain unaffiliated if he
do so. Two who took their degrees with me did not join the lodge,
because they were
about to go to California. They visited the lodge two or three times
the degrees, and were recorded as visitors from the lodges of the Holy
I was sorry when our Grand Lodge amended its regulations, and ordered
that the work
of the lodge should be done on the Third Degree, and none but Master
many good things in THE BUILDER this month. Long may it flourish.
‒ J. Vroom,
* * *
I would like
to know the history of the attempts to form a General Grand Lodge of
States and the causes of failure. Where can I locate this information?
‒ F. C.
of this will be found in Masonic histories, both general and those
Freemasonry in the older States, but for some reason or other
historians seem rather
to have shirked the subject.
have been many attempts to form such a General Grand Lodge, beginning
as early as
1779. On the 27th of December, 1779, American Union Lodge, attached to
of the Connecticut line while stationed at Morristown, N. J., adopted a
for the appointment of a General Grand Master over all the lodges in
Feb 7, 1780, a committee met at Morristown with delegates from
New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland. They endorsed a
resolution for the
formation of a General Grand Lodge. Meanwhile, in January, 1780. the
of Pennsylvania elected Washington Grand Master of the United States
other Grand Lodges of its action, requesting their approval. For
reasons not known
the thing came to naught. In 1790 Georgia started agitation for a
Lodge. In 1799 South Carolina renewed it. North Carolina made the
in 1803. Prior to Washington's death, the plan always was to elect him
General Grand Master.
plans were made for a convention in Philadelphia in 1807, and another
in 1808, neither of which met. Another unsuccessful effort was made to
hold a convention
in Washington in 1811. The Grand Lodge of North Carolina again proposed
to be held at Washington in 1812, which failed to meet. In 1822 such a
did meet there, presided over by Henry Clay. Nothing came of it.
At a convention
held at Baltimore in 1843 for the purpose of adopting a uniform ritual,
was given to the question, and they agreed to meet again in 1845 and
1847. But once
more, no results were forthcoming. Further conventions were held at
in 1853 and at Washington in 1855 and Chicago in 1859. Like their many
they failed to accomplish their purpose.
moment for a General Grand Lodge passed by at the time when the several
to form the United States. Had the latter not taken place just when it
did, it is
a grave question whether it could have happened after say, 1800. So
with a General
Grand Lodge. The feeling of individual independence has always been too
any of our Grand Lodges to sacrifice any sovereignty whatsoever.
* * *
In your account
of the funeral of the late Thos. R. Marshall you say "It was conducted
A.&A.S.R." This is only partially true. The Rite held their
the home and Ancient Landmarks Lodge, No. 319, took charge on the
entrance of the
cortege to the cemetery and conducted the services at the commital.
Bro. J. Clyde
Hoffman, W. M., is shown at the head of the casket in the picture.
A. Lorenz, Indianapolis, Ind.
* * *
of The Eastern Star
I have before
me a "Manual of the Order of the Easter n Star," published in 1872. On
the title page it is said to be "Arranged by Robert Macoy, National
and in the Introduction, which gives a brief account of the various
degrees conferred on women in France and other countries, I find the
"Many systems of Adoptive
from time to time, been introduced in the United States, with varied
of which, however, seemed to possess the elements of permanency, except
of the Eastern Star, which was established in this country during the
In a copy
of an address given by Dr. Robert Morris, before the Grand Chapter of
of the Eastern Star of California, in April, 1876; Dr. Morris claims to
the Order of the Eastern Star in 1850.
Can you advise
me which is correct? Was Bro. Macoy in error in his statement that the
introduced in this country in 1778?
‒ A. F. Florida.
of the Eastern Star, in its present form, was really the creation of
but he apparently took as the basis of his structure an adoptive side
the same name, and one would judge from outside indications of very
This degree had no organization and was conferred by any Master Masons
it upon their female relatives. There may have been individual chapters
places of more or less permanent character, and it is barely possible
that it, or
some degree like it, was introduced as early as 1778, though without
evidence it would not be wise to put too much confidence in the
statement you quote.
Substantially, however, the Order, as an independent institution, was
1850, though the ritual and organization seems to have been quite
and simplified in 1855.
* * *
Hayes A Baptist?
to the matter on page 288 of the September issue of THE BUILDER
affiliations of the Presidents:
were ardent Baptists, and the Hayes-Tilden campaign was on when I was a
lad. My father made quite a point of the statement that Rutherford B.
a Baptist, and in that connection I have a rather vague memory of
having been told
that while Governor of Ohio, Hayes taught a class in a Baptist Sunday
this is not authentic proof of anything, but I should say that Baptists
should know positively.
that Harding's name was omitted from the list.
‒ G. B. H.,
* * *
Should Give Instruction?
Is it proper
for anyone but a Master or Past Master, or possibly a Warden, to
deliver any of
the monitorial lectures or present aprons or working tools? My
the matter is, that it is an unwritten law that none but the above
should do these things, but the Master can delegate anyone to perform
any of these
I will be
glad to know if there ever has been a ruling made on this point, and
what that ruling
may be or whether it is or is not proper for any but the above
to perform the ceremonies in question.
‒ W. B. M.,
first place every state has its own independent Grand Lodge to regulate
and whatever rule or decision any one of them may have arrived at is
on local customs or the ideas of influential members of the Craft in
Arguing from first principles it is quite certain that all instruction
is the responsibility
of the Master. He either gives it personally or selects qualified
brethren to do
so in his place. Consequently, unless there is a well-recognized rule
to the contrary in the jurisdiction, the matter would appear to be
entirely in the
Master's own hands. Actually there is a great variety of usage, and it
altogether too much space to attempt to cover the whole ground, but it
hard to think of any system of allocation of the duty of giving charges
that is not followed somewhere.
* * *
ago I wrote for you an article dealing with brethren who had been for
years useful, notable and active in our Masonic Fraternity.
me call your attention to the September issue of the Bulletin, issued
Cal., by our good Bro. J. H. Logie. He instances a case of Dr. A. W.
King, a member
of Redlands Lodge, No. 300, who, on Aug. 21, 1925, became one hundred
Some months ago he attended lodge and delivered the charge of the Third
He was Master of his lodge in 1859 and for some years thereafter.
I. Clegg, Associate Editor, Chicago, Ill.
heard the story of the substitute? When Morrison was playing Faust ‒
some of you
have seen the play ‒ he was taken sick, and he had to use a substitute.
a very tall, slender fellow. The substitute was a short, fat fellow. In
scene where the devil departs into hell, he goes through a trap door.
got along all right until he came to that part, and as he was
descending into the
infernal regions, he was so fat he stuck in the trap door, and those
pulled on his legs and tried to pull him through, and those above tried
him through, but they couldn't do it, so there he stuck. It got pretty
but realistic to one of the boys in the gallery. The boy in the gallery
know why the actor could not get through, but jumped to his own
got on to his feet and yelled, "Thank God, hell is full." This was one
of Dr. Wm. F. Kuhn's stories.
* * *
from an address by Bro. I. E. Newsom, Grand Orator of Colorado, is
though the view spoken of is not altogether a new thing:
modern view of religion does not require that the devotee shall remove
all contact with the world in order that he may thereby commune with
God. This view
is well expressed in the following poem:
Climbed up a high church steeple,
To be near God
That he might hand
God's word down to the people.
"In sermons grave
He daily wrote
What he thought sent from heaven;
And dropped this on
The people's heads,
Two times one day in seven.
"In rage God said
'What meanest thou?'
The priest cried from the steeple
'Where art thou, Lord?'
The Lord replied,
'Down here among my people."'
History of Freemasonry Revised
Gou51 / auth. Gould Robert F / ed. Crowe Frederick J. W.. - London :
Gale & Polden Limited, 1951. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 401. - 10.3 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
AQC Transactions Vol 003 - 1890
Ars90 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1890. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 277. - 23.5 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And23 / auth. Anderson James. - London : William Hunter, 1723. -
Fac-Simile by Jno. W. Leonard & Co., New York, 1855 : Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 119. - 6.0 MB.
Cra26 / auth. Crawley Chetwode. - 1726. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 20. - 2.0 MB.
Dreams and Myths - A Study in
Abr13 / auth. Abraham Karl / trans. White William A. - New York : The
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Company, 1913. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 85. - 2.5 MB.
Origin of the English Rite of
Hug84 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : George Kenning, 1884. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 166. - 5.1 MB.
Paul Jones Vol 1
Bue00PJ1 / auth. Buell Augustus C. - New York : Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 328. - 14.7 MB.
Paul Jones Vol 2
Bue00PJ2 / auth. Buell Augustus C. - New York : Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1900. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 386. - 15.9 MB.
Primitive Culture Vol 1
Tyl20PC1 / auth. Tylor Edward B. - London : John Murray, 1920. - Vol. 1
: 2 : p. 517. - 24.1 MB.
Primitive Culture Vol 2
Tyl20PC2 / auth. Tylor Edward B. - London : John Murray, 1920. - Vol. 2
: 2 : p. 481. - 16.2 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Golden Bough
Fra221 / auth. Frazer James G. - [s.l.] : Project Gutenberg, 1922. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 664. - Formatted and Indexed from Project Gutenberg
File by rhm - 2.6 MB.
The Meaning of Masonry
Wil22 / auth. Wilmshurst W L. - London : William Rider & Son,
1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 254. - 1.2 MB.
The Origin of the Royal Arch
Oli671 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1867. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 266. - 7.8 MB.
Coo31 / auth. Cooper James F. - London : Henry Colburn and Richard
Bentley, 1831. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 430. - 14.3 MB.
The Story of Samson
Car071 / auth. Carus Paul. - Chicago : The Open Court Publishing
Compnany, 1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 206. - 17.1 MB.
The Symbolism of Freemasonry 1921
Mac21 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - Chicaco Ill. : The Masonic History
Company, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 386. - Revised by Robert I. Clegg.