Masonic Research Society
About Stephen Morin
Bro. Cyrus Field Willard,
Rebold's Histoire des Trois Grandes Loges [Lib*], I noticed in all his
to Stephen Morin that he called his first name "Stephan" instead of the
usual French equivalent "Etienne," which struck me as peculiar.
Morin was the one who brought the Scottish Rite to America and was
Inspector General by the Council that met in Paris in 1761, he has
always been a
personage who aroused the greatest interest in my mind.
the French writers whom it has been my fortune to read, like Rebold and
as well as the French translation of Findel, have always asserted that
he was a
Jew and all his associates were Jews. In fact Rebold says on page 49:
it our duty to give here in all its length one of these constitutions,
the one which
was delivered in 1761 to Stephan Morin, Israelite; first because it is
both authentic and curious, and second, because it served as the basis,
and more later, for the foundation of the Scottish Rite of thirty-three
created at Charleston by five other Jews." (John Mitchell was Irish,
Dalcho was English, Isaac Auld was Scotch and Abraham Alexander was
page 452 Rebold says:
by the name of Stephen Morin belonging to the Israelite confession and
the National Grand Lodge of France, and also of a chapter of the high
been called to America by private interests, manifested the desire to
in that country the Masonry of the superior grades called the 'Masonry
and for this purpose addressed himself to Bro. Lacorne, then Deputy of
Master, the Count of Clermont. On the proposition made by the latter to
Grand Council of the Princes of the East and West there was, on the
1761, delivered to Bro. Morin a patent by which he was created
of all the Lodges of the New World, etc.
at San Domingo Bro. Morin named by virtue of his patent one of his
Bro. M. M. Hays, Deputy Inspector for North America. He conferred later
dignity on Bro. Franklin for Jamaica. Bro. Franklin [Francken is the
transmitted some time afterwards his powers to Bro. Moses Hays, Grand
As Bro. Henry
Andrew Francken, who formed the Lodge of Perfection at Albany in 1767,
his authority to Moses M. Hays, Dec. 6, 1768, as is shown by the patent
the minute book of King David's Lodge of Newport, R. I., according to
author of Jews and Masonry, The Jews in Masonry in the United states
who wrote me he saw it there, and as Moses M. Hays did not move to
1782 (see ibid.) and did not become Grand Master of Massachusetts until
did not exaggerate in saying that the twenty-year period which
intervened was "sometime
Histoire des Trois Grandes Loges, page 91, are the following remarkable
which are translated from the original French by the writer:
‒ These brethren already irritated against the Grand Orient which they
having struck and dispossessed its mother, the National Grand Lodge of
finally to have forced her by un-Masonic means to throw herself, dying,
arms were enraged to the highest degree after this new act of
was the principal cause [closing the doors of the French lodges of
against those of other Rites such as the Scottish lodges] which
determined the Masons
called Scotch to form a new Masonic power. Consultations had taken
place in the
underground hall of a restaurant keeper on the Boulevard Poissonnière. A great number of Masons of distinction
seconded this movement, several Americans ranged themselves on the side
of the dissatisfied
and among others the famous Stephen Morin, whom we have seen previously
in order to go and transplant in America the 'Masonry of Perfection' by
a Constitution of which we have given the text."
Was Not a Jew
we have quoted from Rebold because he is the one French writer relied
upon by Robert
Freke Gould, who translates him into English and seems to depend on him
From Gould all others who have written in English on the origin of the
Rite seem to have drawn their authority. Mackey alone seems to have an
the truth when he said in his Encyclopaedia of Masonry [Lib 1914] under the head of Morin:
"Ragon, Thory and Clavel say
was a Jew but as these writers have Judaized all the founders of the
in America we have no right to place any confidence in their
statements. The name
of Morin has been borne by many French Christians of literary
reputation, from Peter
Morin, a learned ecclesiastical writer of the Sixteenth Century, to
an antiquary and Protestant clergyman who died in 1700."
has been generally accepted by Masonic writers, with the exception of
Stephen Morin was a Jew, as the French writers said he was, yet this
that Stephen Morin was an American, made by Rebold in an obscure place
as above, was so positive and direct that it started a train of thought
led to the belief that such might be the case. It was apparently based
which Rebold had but which he did not care to go into for the reason
that he had
on page 49 of the same history called him an "Israelite" although
he was a member of the royal lodge, "The Trinity," to which no Jew
or would belong.
an American would explain why Stephen Morin "being about to depart for
as his patent said, was granted the celebrated patent to spread the
and to form the lodge "Perfect Harmony" which Sachse's Ancient
[Lib 1915] proves was actually formed at
as shown in the Ossonde Verriere patent in the library of the Grand
Lodge of Pennsylvania.
This patent of Verriere was signed by Stephen Morin, Oct. 26, 1764, at
as Sublime Grand Master and Grand Inspector and is worthy of more
if Morin were an American, as Rebold asserted, that is, one born in
his family would probably be a French family which had been settled in
some years. This would explain why he was invariably called "Stephen"
Morin by the French writers instead of "Etienne" (the French for
from his family being settled long enough in America for the name to
If he were
an American, as Rebold asserted, which assertion must stand until
valid evidence to the contrary, then it would be a fair assumption that
he was a
member of the only American family of Morin of which we have any
knowledge; we know
that there was such a family and that it was located at New York City.
Records Are Quoted
prompted me to write to New York to ascertain the names of the various
and their ministers, of whom I asked if their records showed anyone by
of Stephen, or Etienne, Morin. I received from Rev. A. V. Wittmeyer,
the "Eglise du St. Esprit," 45 East 27th St., New York, copies of their
records in the original old French and which, translated, read as
I. "Today, Sunday, day and year
[June 21, 1691] has been baptized in this church, Anne, daughter of
Melot, and of Marie Bellemain, her father and mother, born the first
this month, about seven o'clock of the evening. Presented to the Holy
Mr. Pierre Morin and Mademoiselle Marianne Melot, godfather and
godmother. P. Morin,
Peyret, Minister, J. P. Melot.
II. "Today, the twelfth day of
before the evening prayer, has been solemnly blessed the marriage
Morin, native of La Rochelle in the Kingdom of France, son of Pierre
of the said place, and Marie Jamain, daughter of Etienne Jamain, also
the said Rochelle and of the defunct Marie Billard. Their announcement
published for three consecutive Sundays without opposition.
The wife of Monsieur Jean Manbru
Dorothea Van Hertzbergen
Judhit [for Judith] Pian
III. "Today, Sunday, April 2,
been baptized in church by Mr. Perret, minister, after the service of
Marie, daughter of Pierre Morin and Marie Jamain. Prese to the Holy
Baptism by Mr.
Nicholas Jamain and Mdlle. Je Bardewick, godfather and godmother, born
of March in the morning.
IV. "Today, Sunday the 8th of
[the represents the new, the other the old style calendar], after
has been baptized in this church by M. Pe our minister, Pierre Morin,
son of Mr.
Pierre Morin and Madame Marie Jamain, born the 29th day of February 1
to the Holy Baptism by Mr. Etienne and Madame Judith Jamain, godfather
V. "Today, Sunday the 10th
has been baptized Pierre, son of Pierre Morin and of Marie Jamain, born
February. His godfather, Pierre Morin, his father, his godmother,
his aunt, by Monsr. Delaba
minister. J. Laborie. M.
VI. "Today, Saturday first January, 1697-8, has
been baptized by Mr Peiret,
minister, Etienne Morin, son of Pierre Morin and of Marie Jamain, born
December, 1697, about two o'clock in the morning. Presented to the Holy
by Elie Vanbert and Sara Gaineau, wife of Jean Mambru, godfather and
Rev. M. Wittmeyer
has verified the above translation and also said:
"In addition to his sons,
Pierre Morin and
his wife Marie Jamain had five daughters, one of whom, Marie, I have
(III). The others were: 1, Marguerite, born July 30, 1694, 2, Mariane,
17, 1703, and 3, Esther Judith, twins, born April 20, 1701."
(VI) shows that we are on the right track, for Etienne, or Stephen,
Morin was born
in 1697 and this was probably the father of the Stephen Morin known to
the introducer of the Scottish Rite into America.
Is Again Quoted
On Aug. 30,
1923, I again wrote to Mr. Wittmeyer in which letter I said:
"The information you have given
me is very
interesting as much as it shows the French Huguenot family of Pierre
in New York City as early as 1692. However, there must have been
Morin, besides the born December 20, 1697 (VI), who was perhaps a son
Morin (V) or Etienne Morin (VI) who must have been born from 1720 to
1740 as he
is first reported a Mason August 27, 1761, [date of his patent as given
and he is reported by Rebold as an American living in Paris 1803. He
must have been
at least twenty-one years old in 1761 to have been a Mason at that time
would take his birth back to 1740 or earlier. He is described in the
as "Stephen" Morin and not "Etienne" Morin as would have been
the name used, naturally if his family had not lived so long in America
had been thoroughly Anglicized into "Stephen." If he lived in Paris in
1803 that would have been forty-two years after 1761 and he would then
at least 63 years old, and his presence in Paris in 1803 is not
"If you would be kind enough to
the records for the period from 1720 to 1740 and see if you can find
of the birth or baptism of Stephen or Etienne Morin you would confer a
and help me solve the problem I am trying to unravel. I do not know
records contain any death notices but it is possible he may have
returned to America,
the home of his youth, and died some years after 1803.
To this Rev.
Mr. Wittmeyer replied:
"Have done so [looked over
years 1720 to
1740]. We have no such records. We have some death records but not
many. It is possible
that the records you desire are kept in other churches no longer
Some of our people joined other churches."
Miller, assistant clerk of the Collegiate Dutch Reformed Church of New
under date of March 7, 1924, wrote as follows:
"Our records of marriages and
to the year 1800 show the name of Morin only once each, i.e.
"In September, 1748, Jakob
Albride and Mary
Morin were married.
"In 1749, Jakob, child of Jakob
and Marie Morin, was baptized.
On the burial
records, there appears two children of Joseph Morin in 1834 and a John
in 1840, August 7th."An inquiry was made of Rev. Wittmeyer what are
who no longer speak French but no reply was received. As a postscript
to his letter
he also said:
"As you are a better judge than
I am, I
subjoin the following entry:
"Baptisme A la Nouvelle York ce
8me Decembre, 1717,
Aujourdhy dimanche aprest la priere du soir, Monr. Louis a baptise Jean
le 23me de Novembre dernier, fils de Moise Morin et de Marianne Bricon,
au St. Baptisme par Samuel Morin et Marie Quintard, parrain et marrain.
French is translated as follows:
"Baptism at New York this 8th
1717. Today, Sunday, after the evening prayer, Monsieur Louis has
Morin, born the 23rd of November last, son of Moise [Moses] Morin and
Bricon. Presented to the Holy Baptism by Samuel Morin and Marie
and godmother," and signed by L. Rou as pastor.
It is interesting
to note how the French "Moise" has Anglicized in the signature into
Morin appearing as godfather it is apparent there had grown up quite a
American Morins. In fact, there is today an extensive family of Morins
ancestors living in New York State, whose descendants have scattered
all over the
United States. One of these I met recently in California and he said it
was a tradition
in his family that the Morins were always Protestants and Masons. He
also said a
book has been written on the Morin family, hut despite many efforts I
unable to secure a copy.
Morins Were French Huguenots
It is apparent
from the records cited that the Morins were French Huguenots and
settled in New
York in 1691 or earlier, coming from the Protestant town of La Rochelle
such a gallant defense against the Roman Catholics); and from these a
family of that name originated. The siege of La Rochelle by Richelieu
and the bravery
of the Huguenot mayor are well known historically.
makes no difference whether or not Stephen Morin was a Jew. It is only
into the history of the Scottish Rite that historical accuracy which
of the present day are trying to introduce that I have made these
is also proper to announce here that Henry Andrew Francken also was not
a Jew, but
Holland Dutch. There are many of his name in the biographical
alone being listed as painters and artists in Holland. He (Francken) is
as having been present at a baptism in one of the early Dutch
in New York, so Samuel Oppenheim, who has seen the records, informed
declared in a letter to the writer that Stephen Morin was not a Jew,
but a French
the discovery that the Morins were a French Protestant family living in
among whom Stephen was a family name much used, it is now a matter for
Jurisdiction members of the Scottish Rite to follow up the clue and see
can find in any of the other French Protestant churches whose members
speaking French a record of the birth or baptism of Stephen Morin, the
Protestant Mason who brought the Scotttish Rite to America. He was
at about the same time and in the same town as Moses M. Hays, who was
born in 1739
at New York, where his father was a wealthy ship-owner. The two boys,
and Moses Hays, perhaps, grew up together in that small town which had
inhabitants at that time. This would furnish a reason why Stephen Morin
powers to Moses M. Hays at San Domingo, as well as to Henry A. Francken
or 1763 as has been generally stated. In the latter year the father of
Hays died [see Jewish Encyclopaedia] and the young man, then
twenty-four years old
and the oldest son, would naturally have to return home from San
Domingo to take
charge of the large business his father left and could do nothing with
Rite until 1768. All of the numerous tribe of Hays were patriots in the
War, as is shown by the Jewish Encyclopaedia. Moses Cohen in his patent
that he obtained his copy of the Constitutions of 1762 from Stephen
1794 in San Domingo, although it is asserted by Gould that Morin lost
his life in
the Negro insurrection that drove the French planters out of that
Until the paragraph of Rebold was discovered the writer supposed that
to be the
fact. Morin's life, after he passed the torch of light, liberty and
truth to Moses
M. Hays, seems to have been lost in obscurity, but some day it is
information will be obtained on this matter.
"Slowly the Bible of the race
Each tribe, each race adds a line to it."
known to have been present at Kingston, Jamaica, in 1770, when a
chapter of Rose
Croix, or even a higher degree was organized by Stephen Morin and Henry
under the authority of the Council of nine commissioners at Berlin,
which is recited
in the charter, a facsimile of which is given in the American edition
of the Complete
History of Freemasonry, by Robert Freke Gould, from the original in the
of Enoch T. Carson, 33d, of Cincinnati.
in regard to the introduction of the Scottish Rite into America by
the French Huguenot, would not be complete unless some further
reference was made
to the source from whence he obtained his power.
It was in
1761 that he was delegated, by what Albert Pike justly considered a
from the Grand Lodge of France and the Grand Council of Emperors of the
West. It is well known by Masonic historians that Baron Von Hund, the
known promulgator of the Templar system, known as the "Rite of Strict
was first initiated in 1742 at Paris into that Order (as recorded in
by the Earl of Kilmarnock, who was, at that time, not only Grand Master
but also Master of the celebrated Mother Lodge of Kilwinning. This
Lodge of Kilwinning,
tradition claims, was organized by those who built the Abbey of
Kilwinning in 1140,
and has always had attributed to it what we now term the "Higher
That there were Higher Degrees in Scotland is evidenced by the fact,
which is recorded
by Gould and others, that the Grand Lodge of Scotland did, by specific
in 1799 and 1800, "discharge and prohibit" its daughter or constituent
lodges from giving any degrees except those of E.A., F.C., and M.M.
of French Lodges
If we recognize
that all the troubles which occurred in French Masonry were due to the
fights between the English lodges, established by the Grand Lodge of
organized as the Grand Lodge of France, and the Scotch lodges,
established in France
by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, we shall arrive at a clearer
comprehension as to
the original cause and reason for the name of the Scottish Rite.
Michael Ramsay, noted Scotchman residing in Paris, who was made Doctor
of Laws by
Oxford, and also a member of the Royal Society, has had attributed to
Degrees which Rebold alleged were introduced by him; and he is likewise
his famous oration before the Grand Lodge of France in 1737, in which
to the fact that Edward I of England, conqueror of Scotland, brought
back many Masons
from the Holy Land at the time of the Crusades where he was from 1270
to 1272. This
has been substantiated by Prof. T. Hayter Lewis, Past Master of the
Lodge, as shown in Gould's Concise History [Lib 1951]. Chevalier Ramsay also in his
refers to the Knights Templar as being a Masonic organization and while
generally been regarded as a baseless tradition, yet new discoveries
seem to indicate
that the Arabs have been Masons since 632 A. D., when Mohammed died,
down to the
present time, and to have imparted the mysteries of Masonry to the
Templars as Sir Walter Scott, himself a Mason, partially describes in
In fact, a recent writer, Bro. Captain De Covington of the British
Service, stated in an article in The National Trestle Board of San
June, 1920, that there were documents in existence at Mecca proving
that every Arabian
ruler since the year 632 was a Master Mason. However, whether this be
so or not,
Baron von Hund asserts in his diary, which is as good evidence as the
diary of Elias
Ashmole, that he received the Templar degrees (which were originally
from the hands of the Grand Master of Scotland, and that this was the
the Scottish Rite and the Chapters of Clermont which were Rose Croix
named, so Gould says, in compliment to the Count of Clermont, Grand
Master of the
Grand Lodge of France at the time. The Scottish Lodge of St. Andrew of
the Templar Degree in 1769.
Scottish Rite In Germany
Lodge "To the Three Globes," of Berlin, of which Frederick the Great
Grand Master from 1740 to 1757, also has connected with it a Scottish
of Clermont which was organized by the Baron von Prinzen and a French
war, the Marquis de Tilly Launay, who was possessed of the Scottish
of the Chapter of Clermont, so Gould says. From this it would appear
is a basis for the statement that Frederick the Great was the head of
Rite when the Constitutions of 1762 were adopted, as this Chapter of
with the Berlin Grand Lodge, "The Three Globes," was organized in 1758.
In the Constitutions for 1786 it is expressly shown, as one can see by
to the original Constitutions of 1762 and 1786 given in Folger's
History of the
Scottish Rite [Lib 1862], that the Scottish Rite
and coming from the Earl of Kilmarnock, Grand Master of Scotland, into
Baron von Hund and through the Baron von Prinzen, was changed by order
in the Constitution of 1786 to a Rite of thirty-three degrees and these
explicitly state how it was done, and show why the changes were made.
the writer had always considered these Constitutions as somewhat
after a careful examination of them and all the facts obtainable, he
the conclusion, as did Albert Pike, that they are genuine and based on
All of the full process of reasoning by which this decision was reached
in a manuscript for a book to be entitled The Origin of the Scottish
gives a full history, as far as is now possible, of the birth of that
history was submitted to and accepted by the Supreme Council of the
A. & A. S. R., and it is the sincere wish of the writer that
the same may be
published after proper revision while he still treads this mundane
of Masonic Thought
the Expressions of Active and Thinking Masons
toiler in our vineyard, the zealous worker in our quarries may not be a
world may not look upon him in admiration or view with enthusiasm his
but the silent and sincere appreciation of his brothers are his; the
of the widow is his; the lisped prayer of the orphan is for him, and
the great and
potent influence which all good men exert in daily contact with their
can be traced to the teachings of our Craft.
‒ The Widow's
worth of our life is that many hearts of friends should be saddened and
drop tears when it ends; that the poor should have good words to speak
of us and
thankful recollections of some act of charity and loving kindness, and
the Great Architect of the Universe that these may, in His merciful
our many frailties and errors ‒ this, and that our influences that live
should bear no ill fruit. So the teachings of our venerable Craft
endeavor to persuade
us to live. So, more or less, lived our beloved brothers whose deaths
it is our
sad duty to record from time to time.
‒ EI Paso Bulletin.
of Freemasonry in Colorado
Bro. George B. Clark,
is a member of Pueblo Lodge, No. 17, A.F. & A.M., Pueblo,
Colorado. His brief
history, the second and concluding half of which will be published next
the result of original researches extended over a period of years,
he has spared himself no effort to verify all the facts. His brochure
published in book form and so made available to all brethren in
Colorado, and to
students of Masonic history elsewhere.
a man not do for gold? No obstacle is too great, no hardship too severe
is reasonable hope that gold may be had for the taking. The streams and
Colorado have yielded many fortunes to the hardy adventurers who went
Many who came did not find the fortune. For them some obstacle could
not be surmounted.
of Colorado Masonry is the story of Colorado, and the story of early
the story of the search for gold. When the golden sands of California
1848, the gold seeker crossed Colorado and passed on to the West and
added a new
empire to the country. Ten years later another wave of excitement,
the success of the California movement, rolled eastward. Gold had been
at Pikes Peak, and the "prairie schooner," with its "Pikes Peak or
Bust" banner, came to the Rockies. Men flocked to this part of the
always in search of gold. And it is to the glory of Colorado that,
the gold, many of these bold spirits remained to build a state and
enjoy the fruits
of their labor within sight of the mountains which gave them their
Yes. Many of these men were Masons, made in some lodge in a "home town
East." Away from that home town probably for the first time in their
what more natural than that they sought out their brethren in the new
very dangers and vicissitudes of travel would draw them together; and
drawn together it was inevitable that the principles instilled into
them in the
lodge would go far in maintaining order in the new country. The
prospector for gold
is a very migratory sort of person. Any "strike," or rumor of a strike,
starts him at once for the new "diggings." Were this not so there might
not have been any Colorado.
1861 there was no Colorado, there was only an indefinite "West," with
an almost impassable mountain range crossing from north and south.
necessity went around to the north by way of Ft. Laramie, or to the
south by way
of Santa Fe or Ft. Union. Kansas and Nebraska were new countries even
rather indefinite boundaries. The line between them was drawn on the
map as a straight
line to the mountains. The Utah lines coming from the west were drawn
to this same
very indefinite mountain range. The maps of 1859 are not in agreement
but seem to
carry an idea of the mountain range as a boundary line running
a line between North Park and Routt County, between Park and Chaffee
between Huerfano and Costilla Counties. All on the west was Utah. The
between Kansas and Nebraska continued west to this same mountain range.
All to the
north was Nebraska and to the south was Kansas. One map of the Indian
dated 1854, shows a portion of the southern part bounded approximately
on the west
by the Culebra Range, on the north by an east and west line through La
on the east by the 103rd meridian, as being New Mexico.
At that time
nobody seemed to care a part of the country; nobody wanted it. In
Kansas and Nebraska
seemed to be arguing as to who should police it. But in 1858 the magic
was spoken! How quickly the scene changed! Men flocked out to the
country and a new order arose, a new country came into being, a new
state was formed.
First Immigrants to
led to the intersection of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek
where there had
been a small Indian village. As near as may be ascertained the first
party of immigrants
arrived Oct. 10, 1858. In this party were the "Russell Boys" and a
named John Smith. It seems that the first structure erected was a
double cabin built
by Dr. L.J. Russell for himself and Smith. Others came in and other
erected by Roswell Hutchins, John Easter, A.H. Barker, Henry Allen,
and a Mr. Rooker. These cabins were located on the west side of Cherry
the community was named "Auraria City" after Auraria, Georgia, the home
town of Dr. Russul. In a month or so other parties arrived and settled
on the east
side of Cherry Creek. They named their community "Denver City," after
the then Governor of Kansas, this being presumed to be Kansas soil.
Some of the
first cabin builders on this site were General Larimer, E.P. Stout,
Hickory Rogers, Moyne and Rice, Lawrence and Dorsett. The name Auraria
in April, 1860, when a bridge was completed across Cherry Creek making
and it was called Denver City.
the month of October, 1858, was a busy one for the new settlements.
be built for~ protection against the coming winter, and more important
was the pleasant task of getting acquainted. The first rush of building
thoughts turned "east." We are told by J.D. Ramage that he arrived at
"Pikes Peak" (now Denver) on Nov. 2, 1858 and that on the next evening
he attended the first assemblage of Masons in this new country. Note
the names of
those present at the birth of Masonry in Colorado: W. M. Slaughter,
Dr. Russell, Andrew Sagendorf, George Lehow, Henry Allen and J.D.
came and with it the true Masonic desire to celebrate St. John's day on
Quite a gala feast was prepared for the twenty-six Masons who had
arrived by that
time. The story of this first celebration has been told many times. The
room ‒ a 16 by 16 foot cabin; table cloth ‒ a clean sheet borrowed from
family: the table ‒ wagon boards; chairs ‒ none, all stood up; menu ‒
beans, coffee, wild game, as far as it went.
spring and with it a great influx of miners, prospectors and those who
be miners. W. N. Byers arrived April 17, 1859, and he notes meetings
Masons present. On May 6 came the announcement of the discovery of gold
Diggings and away went the people. Gregory Diggings is but a few miles
the present Central city and a great exodus took place from Auraria and
Gregory. Less than a fortnight later we read of meetings being held by
Central City. Before June had passed a block of ground had been
pre-empted for the
purpose and a Masonic Temple was erected. Many of the same names noted
present at the Auraria meetings are now recognized as the pioneers
among the Masonic
activities at the diggings. By summer it was estimated that fully
20,000 men had
come into the mining district, and the intensity of the Masonic
interest may well
be imagined. Meetings were held every week and hundreds of names were
added to the
"rolls of visitors." It must be kept in mind that these were not lodge
sessions but were informal meetings of Masons to discuss and keep alive
traditions, and to search out and band together for mutual protection
were entitled to wear the Square and Compass.
As time went
on other mining discoveries were made, districts were established and
in to make more history. The transient moved on to the new fields until
his place and became a part of a new community. In the fall many of the
out of the district, some going back to the states for the winter, and
stopped off at Auraria until winter had passed. Meetings now took on a
and serious aspect. Permanent organizations, dispensations and charters
Decision was made to change the temporary organizations into permanent
regular Masonic proceedings.
In the olden
time Masons by "immemorial custom" could assemble and erect a Masonic
lodge. These lodges would make Masons, who in turn would "travel in
countries," work, and receive Masters' wages, and they in time would
other lodges. Eventually there came the necessity of an affiliation of
the need of some central authority. So representatives of these lodges
together and organized a Grand Lodge and elected a Grand Master. To
this Grand Lodge
were delegated certain powers, among which was the power to charter
Grand Lodge assumed jurisdictional powers which, after much
controversy, was established
as regular. Thus the Grand Lodges were set up in England, Scotland and
the priority resting with the Grand Lodge of London, organized in 1717.
sources the principles spread to the American Colonies and lodges were
on this side. In time Provincial Grand Lodges were set up in most of
by one or the other of the Grand Lodges of England or Scotland. After
War the American Provincial Grand Lodges declared their independence of
authority and erected themselves as sovereign and independent Grand
Lodges in their
respective states. This was in due time acknowledged by the Grand Lodge
and the American Grand Lodges became in fact independent Grand Lodges.
Lodges by mutual agreement announced a new policy, that of "exclusive
In brief, it is this. The authority of each Grand Lodge is supreme in
in which the Grand Lodge is situated and no other Grand Lodge may
invade that state
to charter lodges. If in any state or territory there be no Grand
Lodge, that field
is open to any Grand Lodge to charter lodges.
another phase of the principle of exclusive jurisdiction. When three or
have been chartered by any Grand Lodge authority in a state or
territory in which
there is no Grand Lodge, these three or more lodges may meet by
agreement and themselves
erect a Grand Lodge for that state or territory. Thus the chain goes
on. A new frontier
is opened, Masons go in, meet each other, desire Masonic concourse,
a lodge, ask some Grand Lodge for a dispensation to form a lodge, and
meet as a lodge, regular in every way. In due time the charter is
granted and the
new lodge is now on its way. Then by association of all such lodges in
the new country
a Grand Lodge is formed.
Came From Everywhere
So it was
in this part of the country. These informal meetings took on the
aspects of a lodge
and the desire was expressed to form a regular lodge. Naturally the
which arose was that of the source of such authority. Strictly
speaking, all the
territory around Denver, Central city, Golden, and Gregory was Kansas
soil but it
is doubtful if it was so known or considered at that time. The line
and Nebraska was drawn as being along the present north line of
So it may safely be said that there was a question as to the title to
this new gold
field, Masonic title as well as civil or territorial title. Men came
here from all
parts of the United States and Masonic memberships must have been
almost as varied
as the men themselves.
By the spring
or summer of 1859 there were more or less settled communities in
Golden, Central city, Parkville and Gold Hill. Masons were meeting in
each of these
places in sufficient numbers to justify the establishing of lodges and
in its own way did ask for regular Masonic authority for a lodge. Some
requests were carried through to completion as chartered lodges, some
for a time, and some were lost by the way. Brethren in Auraria, Golden
Nevadaville petitioned the Grand Master of Kansas for dispensations and
were all granted. Brethren in Parkville and Gold Hill petitioned the
of Nebraska for dispensations and these petitions were likewise
granted. The lodge
at Golden City was given a dispensation on Feb. 18, 1860, and was
chartered by the
Grand Lodge of Kansas on Oct. 16, 1860, as Golden City Lodge, No. 34.
at Parkville was chartered on June 5, 1861, by the Grand Lodge of
Nebraska as Summit
Lodge, No. 7. The lodge at Gold Hill was chartered on June 5, 1861, by
Lodge of Nebraska as Rock Mountain Lodge, No. 8.
Master of Kansas issued two other dispensations for lodges in the Gold
to the brethren at Auraria on Oct. 8, 1859, and to the brethren at
January, 1861. When the Grand Lodge of Kansas met in October, 1860,
there was no
return from Auraria Lodge, but it was ordered that a charter should
issue as No.
37 when the returns should arrive, cognizance being taken of the
insecurity of travel.
The returns of Golden City Lodge did arrive on time and it was
its charter at No. 34. It is known that at least three, and perhaps
four other communities
were asking for lodges, but complete organizations were not perfected.
Denver, separate and distinct from Auraria, Central City, Mountain
City, and Arapahoe.
1861, the territory enclosed by the present boundaries of the State of
was set aside by the National Government and named the "Territory of
In due time, 1876, Colorado took its place as a sovereign state of the
Grand Lodge Is Organized
1861, then, conditions were right for the next Masonic move. Here was
civil territory of the Union with no Grand Lodge and there were
its borders three chartered lodges, two lodges under dispensation, and
four more seeking authority to meet as lodges. Invitations were issued
to the chartered
lodges to meet and discuss the advisability of the formation of a Grand
time set was Aug. 2, 1861, and the place as Golden City. On that day
at the lodge room in Golden City the following:
from Golden City Lodge. No. 34, at Golden City, C.T: Bro. Eli Carter,
I.E. Hardy, proxy for S.W.; Bro. J.A. Moore, J. W.
Lodge, No. 8 at Gold Hill, C.T.: Bro. C.F. Holly, proxy for W.M. and
J.M. Chivington, proxy for J.W.
No. 1, at Parkville, C.T.: Bro. James Ewing, W.M.; Bro. O.A.
Whittemore, proxy for
S.W.; Bro. S.M. Robins, proxy for J.W.
Bro. L.L. Bowen, Past Deputy Grand Master of Nebraska; Bro. W.T. Wade,
Bro. L. M. Frary, Past Master.
of the Grand Lodge of Colorado as perfected on this day, Aug. 2, 1861,
and the following
officers elected and installed:
Gold Hill, Grand Master; S.M. Robins, Parkville, Deputy Grand Master;
Parkville. Senior Grand Warden; J.M. Holt, Gold Hill, Junior Grand
Warden; Eli Carter,
Golden City, Grand Treasurer; O.A. Whittemore, Parkville, Grand
communications due to the difficulties and dangers of travel caused
situations for the new Grand Lodge. It became known that another Grand
chartered a lodge in Colorado after the formation of the Grand Lodge of
But in true Masonic spirit these situations were cleared away and the
Lodge was recognized and accorded its place among the Grand Lodges.
surrendered its Kansas charter and received a Colorado charter as No.
and Central city surrendered their dispensations from Kansas and
and received new dispensations from Grand Master Chivington. They were
in due time
chartered by the Grand Lodge of Colorado as Denver Lodge, No. 5, and
Lodge, No. 6. This latter lodge, however, changed its name later to
Grand Master, John M. Chivington, was a church dignitary, but when the
out he sought service for the Union. He was offered appointment as
this he refused, insisting that he have a fighting commission. He
a colonel of Colorado troops and served his country well. He came to
Nebraska, where he served as Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge of
to which he had served as Master of the lodge under dispensation which
No. 3 when the Grand Lodge of Kansas was formed.
Did Colorado Derive
is particularly directed to the following extract from the minutes of
meeting, dated Aug. 1, 1861:
motion it was
"RESOLVED, That a school of
be established by this Grand Lodge, and that at least one day, at each
be set aside for the purpose of instruction by the M.W. Grand Master,
in order that
uniformity in the work may be obtained in this Jurisdiction.
"RESOLVED, That the work in
be adopted as exemplified in the present session of this Grand Lodge."
this work was is not known. Golden City Lodge was chartered by the
Grand Lodge of
Kansas, and set up by a representative of the Grand Master who was a
Kansas Mason. The meeting at which the Grand Lodge was formed was held
in the hall
of Golden city Lodge, and I. E. Hardy of Golden City was appointed the
Lecturer. The first Grand Master was a Master of a Kansas Lodge. These
lead one to infer that the first work was "Kansas work."
On the other
hand a Past Deputy Grand Master of Nebraska, one L.L. Bowen, was
present at the
organization of the Grand Lodge and he may have influenced the
selection of the
first work. Also it is known that Bro. Chivington had been an officer
of the Grand
Lodge of Nebraska, as well as having been a Kansas Master. It is known
first Constitution adopted was the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of
modified only to suit the conditions of the new Grand Lodge.
Be that as
it may, it is one thing to adopt an official "work" and quite another
thing to see that it is used. Lodges were few and far between; the
presence of hostile
Indians on the way and the extreme vicissitudes of travel made it
for a Grand Lodge officer, be he Grand-Master or Grand Lecturer, to
visit the lodges
and teach or demonstrate what that official work was. Each Master of a
thought the work of the Jurisdiction from which he came was the best
and, knowing that work only, he would use it in his new Colorado lodge
to the exclusion
of all else. The result can well be imagined. In 1878, Grand Master C.
J. Hart said
in his annual address:
"We have adopted a uniform work
laws prohibiting the introduction of any other among our lodges and
this, the work in this Jurisdiction is almost as varied as were the
colors of Joseph's
to correct this were made. The system of District Deputy Grand
Lecturers was tried
but was not a success. Men could not give the time and attention to
to the neglect of private business especially when distances were great
hazardous. As a result a committee of five Past Grand Masters was
appointed to look
into the matter. Their report rendered in 1882 carried this quite
"That the work as presented by
Lecturer is in its essential features the same as the ALLYN WESTON work
ago used in this jurisdiction."
be noted here that Allyn Weston was made a Mason in Michigan, in a
lodge in Detroit.
He was very active in Michigan Masonry and for a number of years
published a Masonic
magazine known as THE ASHLAR. He came to Colorado in 1861 and at the
Communication of the Grand Lodge in December, 1861, was appointed Grand
He no doubt at this time introduced his Michigan work in the new Grand
Colorado. The following year he was elected Grand Master. This Allyn
with but few changes continued until 1911, when a revision made by the
of the Work was put into effect. This latter work is now in use and, by
system of inspection under a Grand Lecturer who devotes his entire time
to the work,
complete uniformity is maintained throughout all the lodges in the
state. All the
credit for this wonderful accomplishment goes to Bro. W. W. Cooper, who
so many years the Grand Lecturer and is now the Grand Secretary.
writing in 1915, had this to say concerning the derivation of the
"From what I can learn of these
I am inclined to think that our line of descent is fairly clear.
Webb, we next have Gleason and Fowle, then Barney, and through
It must be remembered, however that the Barney work, as taught by him
in Vermont in 1818, is not the same Barney work that we have inherited.
has been clouded, possibly it has been purified by additions and
Brother Willson above referred to subsequent to 1818 went to Iowa and
the system of lectures which he had learned from Barney in 1818, was
those two Jurisdictions. I think there is no doubt that Vermont, Iowa
have a better title to the original Barney work of 1818 (whatever it
was) than have
Michigan, Illinois and Colorado. Whether the original
Barney-Gleason-Webb work of
1818 is better than the modified Barney-Gleason-Webb work of Colorado
Monitor Is Adopted
there had been no Monitor adopted as the official text for this
to this time the Mackey Monitor had been unofficially the standard and
use. The Jurisprudence Committee reported on this subject in 1900 as
our opinion the Mackey Manual now in use meets the errands and wishes
of our officers
and lodges. In view of the fact that it is so generally satisfactory
and so generally
used we recommend that no change be made." In 1906, however, the Macoy
was adopted as the official monitor and its use recommended throughout
This was not satisfactory and the Custodians of the Work were directed
to and did
prepare a Monitor that harmonized completely with the new revision of
work, and this, called The Colorado Craftsman, was adopted in 1911, and
is in use
throughout the jurisdiction today.
At this same
time this committee prepared a Colorado diploma for the use of Colorado
may wish to travel in other jurisdictions where such documents are
As has been
stated the Constitution adopted Aug. 2, 1861, was practically a copy of
the Grand Lodge of Nebraska, and the preamble read:
"WHEREAS, Every Grand Lodge
inherent powers to form a Constitution, as the fundamental law of its
and to enact such By-Laws from time to time as it may deem necessary
for its own
government, and to make such rules and prescribe such regulations for
of its subordinate lodges, as will insure the prosperity thereof, and
general good of Masonry; and,
"WHEREAS, Every Grand Lodge is
representative of all the Fraternity in communication therewith, and
is, in that
behalf, an absolute and independent body with supreme legislative
always, That the ancient Landmarks of the Order be held inviolate.
"Therefore, Upon these
have never been disputed, the Grand Lodge of Colorado does hereby
and promulgate the following Constitution and By Laws for its future
and does make and prescribe the following rules for the government of
under its jurisdiction."
has been entirely revised and the present code adopted in 1914 had for
"We, The Grand Lodge of
Ancient, Free and
Accepted Masons of Colorado, in order to form a more perfect fraternal
for and promote the welfare of the Craft, do ordain and establish this
(To Be Concluded)
of the Craft
Robert I. Clegg, Vice-President
of the N. M. R. S., Ohio
my interest by the brief mention you have in the June issue of THE
the good brother who is well into the concluding decade of his hundred
age. You say that he has served his lodge as a Past Master and your
inquiry as to
other cases of the same kind starts me off in a reminiscent mood.
I am not
now thinking of the mere accumulation of years. A man may but vegetate
them. I am thinking of those who have given service with the years; the
that may have been theirs and their growth that has come with these
and their added days.
And by the
way, there is something about Masonic labors that keeps the heart young
hair falls. Age does not wither nor custom stale the fount of that
flows with infinite variety in useful streams.
me remind you that last year Bro. Fay Hempstead, that genial and poetic
elected Grand Secretary of Arkansas for the 42nd time; see page 38,
Bulletin, April, 1924.
One can easily
call to mind others of similar type in length of useful service to the
Bro. Parvin of Iowa, who has recently passed away, and whose
found chronicle in THE BUILDER; Bro. Vrooman of New York, Bro. Orlady
for example, both still with us, whose services have been devoted and
long duration and going strong while life lasts.
Records of Two English
in London a few months ago I sat next to an active and aged brother,
Dr. John Dixon,
at a chapter dinner. His mind was acute, his interests unflagging. The
him was in truth that spring of youth of which Ponce de Leon dreamed.
There at 93
years of age he was telling me that he joined the Fraternity 1857,
years ago, and in 1860 when the lodge celebrated its fiftieth
anniversary he was
elected Worshipful Master. Fifty years later, when that lodge
celebrated its one
hundredth anniversary, he was elected Worshipful Master of the lodge,
actively, doing work, initiating candidates and asking no odds of
all these years he had participated freely in the Masonic labor of
I am no longer young, but before I was born he was an active officer of
Lodge and Grand Chapter and other governing organizations, consecrating
bodies and installing the officers, and doing it from memory as is the
there. In fact, at 93, and although he belonged to about every
department of Masonic
work, he was confident he could install the officers of any body to
which he belonged,
and do it without prompting from anyone else.
a somewhat similar incident among my other Masonic acquaintances, that
was in regard
to Bro. Robert F. Gould. He was not active as Bro. Dixon in so many
our Institution as an officer, but he was very prominent in the bodies
that he favored,
and there was a stretch of about fifty years from the time he presided
over a military
lodge at Gibraltar and from thence to the day when he was installed as
Master of King Solomon's Lodge at Chester, and the latter was no mere
installation, as he told me, he was required to do the work, and he did
so far as my investigation goes.
these things with Bro. John Heron Lepper, the present Worshipful Master
Coronati Lodge. He thought that the claim as to ability to do Masonic
so many years was not at all unreasonable. Certainly he was not as much
as I have been to make a generous allowance for the natural enthusiasm
born of a
good dinner and congenial company, with the added encouragement of
comforts no longer permitted on such occasions in the United States.
Record from Ireland
told me of a countryman of his, Bro. Robert McLawin, who died in 1890
at the age
of 96. Bro. McLawin conferred a degree as far back as 1816, and in 1884
from memory, as is the usual custom, the officers of his Chapter in
Just think of a man who was for 68 years an active Masonic. Bro. Robert
was a Roman Catholic in faith, and I was told that in his later years
tried to get him to resign from Freemasonry, but he steadfastly
refused. His Roman
Catholic descendants still treasure his apron as well as his other
While I was
in England, I had the very great good fortune of receiving a degree at
of some of my Masonic brethren, one of whom last October celebrated his
birthday. He has recently passed away endowed with years and honors. Of
him it was
said that he had never filled any office in Freemasonry, for nearly
half a century,
the duties and work of which he had not fully discharged. For forty
years he was
a pioneer and a most outstanding figure in Temperance Freemasonry, and
ago was honored with the presidency of the Council of Federated
Lodges. His remarkable record of progress in the Craft is one about
which I doubt
if there can possibly be its equal. I have met other aged brethren
abroad, as well
as many here, but Bro. Tipper was in every respect unusual. Those who
him long pronounced him a brother of tender sympathies, of strict
unimpeachable character, unselfish in devotion and service, and zealous
good and noble cause. King Solomon's Lodge of London, of which he was a
more than forty years ago, honored this splendid veteran last November,
and it was
indeed a tribute fully deserved and given with all that warm-hearted
animates affairs of that kind.
his Masonic record which appeared in The Freemason on Oct. 25, 1924:
Harry Tipper was initiated in Tranquility Lodge No. 185, on April 19,
as Master of the lodge seven years after his initiation - the Lodge
For thirteen years he served as Treasurer of the Lodge, and became an
He became a Founder of King Solomon Lodge, No. 2029, in May, 1884 ‒ the
total abstaining Lodge in London. He became its first Secretary, and
that position up to his death, except the 21st year, when he served as
was a Founder and second Master of the Hammersmith Lodge, No. 2090, of
was Secretary for the ten years preceding his death. Joining the Wilson
No. 2054, in 1885, he became its fifth Master, and in this connection
his first appointment to Provincial Grand Rank - Prov. G. Registrar of
He was a Founder of the Robert Mitchell Lodge, No. 2956, and was an
He joined the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 2076, in 1889, was Founder,
and was acting
I. P. M. of the Aldwych Lodge, No. 3096, was Treasurer for ten years
and an Honorary Member. The M. W. Grand Master recognized his valuable
to the Craft in 1895 by promoting him to Grand Rank, and appointing him
Grand Pursuivant, and twenty-two years later conferred on him the
Brevet Rank of
P. G. Standard Bearer at the Royal Albert Hall. He has been a
of four new Lodges - Nos. 3027, 3237, 3947, and 4445, and was Honorary
each of them.
Royal Arch Masonry he was exalted in the Faith Chapter, No. 141, in
May, 1882, since
when he has been a Founder of the King Solomon Chapter, No. 2029,
No. 3096, Ranelagh Chapter, No. 834, Quintinian Chapter, No. 2956, and
Chapter, No. 2090. He has been First Principal of each of these
No. 2956, of which he acted as I.P.Z. He was appointed an officer of
Chapter in 1895 by the conferment on him of Assistant G.D.C. He has
been a Consecrating
Officer of four new Chanters ‒ viz.. Nos. 3237, 3387, 3376, and 3368,
and an Honorary
Member of each of them.
Mark Masonry he was advanced in the Henniker Lodge No. 315, in
February, 1884, was
Worshipful Master five years later, and was Secretary and Installing
twenty-five years. He was a Founder of King Solomon Mark Lodge, No.
385, its first
Master, and the Treasurer since 1888. He was P.G.S.D. in both Middlesex
Provinces, was appointed Grand Inner Guard in 1906, and promoted P.G.D.
He was a Consecrating Officer of the new Arts and Crafts Lodge, No.
736, and an
Honorary Member of it.
a Royal Ark Mariner he was elevated in the Prince of Wales Lodge, No.
4, in 1888,
filled the office of W.C.N. and was Treasurer from 1900 to 1923.
Founder and W.C.N.
of King Solomon Lodge, No. 385, and Treasurer from 1898. Elected
in the Matier Lodge, No. 400, and the Installing Master.
the Rose Croix he was perfected in the Bard of Avon Chapter, No. 44, in
M.W.S. in 1892, and Recorder fifteen years. Joined the St. George's
42, and was M.W.S. Founder of Canterbury Chapter, No. 72 and second
M.W.S. and was
D.C. for some years. Took the Thirtieth Degree in 1898, selected for
Degree in 1916.
took the four degrees in the Allied Degrees in 1887, was W. M. of the
No. 15. Appointed Grand Inner Guard, 1896.
the Knights Templar and Knights of Malta he was installed in the New
in 1890, E. Preceptor in 1895, Prior in 1896, Founder of Galilee
Preceptor, and was Registrar for several years. Was appointed 1st G.
Capt. of the
Guards and G. C. Outposts in 1907.
was installed in the Red Cross of Constantine in the Plantagenet
Conclave in 1898,
was M.P.S. 1906. Has installed the M. P. S. and Eusebius, since
Marshal Consecrating Officer De Urwin Conclave, Bath, and Honorary
the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre he was received in the Saye and Sele
1891, and acted as Prior for several years at the Annual Festival.
was advanced in the Royal Order of Scotland on 4th July, 1902.
Appointed G. Warder.
was received in the Constantine Council of the Cryptic Degree in 1891,
as T.I.M. also, appointed Grand Steward.
the Order of the Secret Monitor he was inducted in the Horatio Shirley
in 1888; was Supreme Ruler-Grand Visitor in 1900, was also P. G.
the Premier Conclave, No. 1, and was P. S. R. Consecrating Officer of
Leeds, Claro True Friendship Conclave, Harrogate; Regent Conclave,
of Cinque Ports Conclave, Hastings, and Honorary Member of each of them.
was received in the Royal Masonic Knights of the Scarlet Cord in 1910,
5th Degree, that of Arch Priest. Registrar to Metropolitan Consistory
up to 1918.
the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia he was introduced in the
in 1896 and was Celebrant. Admitted to the Eighth Grade in 1910, and
the Ninth Degree
in 1918. Has been Treasurer-General of the High Council since 1910
until his death.
He was Consecrating Officer of the Woodman College, Bradford;
Sheffield; Lancashire College, Bolton; and W. Wynn Westcott College,
and Honorary Member in each case.
of Eri. ‒ Knight Grand Cross and Bard, 1919.
of Light. ‒ Member of the Second Degree of the Order, meetings of which
held in Bradford."
the above I have a letter from a good friend of mine and his, active in
of England, Bro. John Barker, and he tells me, as though it was not of
account, that at the meeting of his lodge on May 22, he would initiate
and he also incidentally observes that he was first installed
of that lodge in 1871. He was doing this mainly to celebrate his
Brethren Have Long
we have in this United States of ours many brethren of wealth of years
in the Fraternity
having exactly the same lively interest in the welfare of the
Fraternity that is
found among the devoted brethren in Europe.
Wright Vrooman, whom we have already mentioned, celebrated his
on March 28. At the age of twenty-one he was made a Mason in Herkimer
No. 423, Herkimer, New York, and held several offices in both this
lodge and the
Grand Lodge of New York until June, 1889, when he was elected Grand
and re-selected for this office until he declined the honor. He
attended every session
of the Grand Lodge of New York State for fifty-two years. Upon his
the Grand Lodge purchased in 1889 one hundred and sixty acres for the
New York State
Masonic Home at Utica and on May 21, 1891, the cornerstone of the
Building there was laid by him as Grand Master and he also laid the
of the Washington Memorial Arch in New York City. He has been
in office or out, and his correspondence has been an inspiration to
those of his
brethren who, like myself, have been favored by these expressions of
and good will toward all Masonic educational enterprises. Of his
he probably would not wish anything to tee 'said here, but those of us
the dedication of their lives to this splendid sort of work will have,
as we do,
a whole-hearted regard for Bro. Vrooman and his good wife.
is another important addition that I hope may be included because it is
notable instance and we over here can and do highly value the service
by the distinguished leader of the English Craft. At the June Quarterly
of the Grand Lodge of England on June 3 the announcement was made by
the Pro Grand
Master, Lord Ampthill, of the coincidence that on this occasion of the
of the Duke of Connaught, the M. W. Grand Master, three anniversaries
of this distinguished
brother were especially to be noted. This was the twenty-fifth year of
Mastership, the fiftieth year of the Grand Master's admission to the
of his own seventy-fifth birthday, a truly remarkable combination of
Christmas and New Year greetings which came our way during the holiday
1924 none was more acceptable than that written in his own hand by John
formerly Past Grand Master and continuing thereafter as Grand Treasurer
to our own
times. In this letter of his our good brother says, "I have been a
years and in my eighty-sixth year I am as zealous as when first
suggestion of constancy and zeal may very well be the concluding
paragraph of the
present article, which is by no means intended to be exhaustive.
are many other shining examples that properly belong in such a
discussion as the
one herein attempted.
Million Memorial Fund of England: The Proposal and the Prospect
Bro. Sir Alfred Robbins
President of the Board of
General Purposes, United
Grand Lodge of England
Proposal and the Prospect were crystallized in the original and
of the project by the Grand Master at the Great Masonic Peace
Celebration at the
Royal Albert Hall in the June of 1919, in these words: "The great and
growth of Freemasonry amongst us demands a central home; and I wish it
to be considered
whether the question of erecting that home in this metropolis of the
to the Most High, and worthy of the great traditions of the United
Grand Lodge of
England, would not be the most fitting Peace Memorial." And, just as he
the movement at the outset, so has the Grand Master again and again
ever since, and notably in his exclamation to the Provincial Grand
the Installation of the Prince of Wales as Senior Grand Warden in
"I would ask you to do everything in your power to further the cause
I have so much at heart, as I am anxious to see, within a reasonable
time, the erection
of a memorial worthy of those who have made the great sacrifice."
last words lies the essential idea of the scheme. It is most desirable
brother who joins in the effort should realize that the true reason for
is, again to quote from the Grand Master's original appeal, "the
as a rightful sequel to that impressive gathering (the Peace
Celebration), of a
perpetual memorial of Masonic gratitude to Almighty God for the special
He had been pleased to confer upon us, both as Englishmen and as
we can render fitting honor to the many brethren who fell in the War,
and the greater
number who, having fought therein, are happily still among us."
I have had previous occasion to say to the brethren) is the first and
object at which we aim - the erection of a Memorial which shall
all time the abiding gratitude of the Craftsmen of today to those
brethren who showed
themselves prepared in our nation's most critical hour to sacrifice
and many were called upon to make that sacrifice for the sake of us
all. They died
that we might live. Nothing we can do can heighten their honor or
fame. But we can prove by personal effort that their deeds are not
their memory faded away.
and without hesitation would repeat that the idea that a Masonic
be erected has been accepted throughout the Craft as eminently fitting
and there has been just as general acceptance of the idea that such a
not be a monumental mass of stone or metal, but a living thing which
symbolize and embody the growth, the greatness, and the grandeur of the
of England. This practical attempt to realize the ideal we have set
before us would
take shape in such an edifice, in the metropolis of the Empire and the
of Grand Lodge, as would ensure the possession by the Craft of not only
Temple, not merely adequate administrative offices, but, as the Grand
it, a Central Masonic Home. This could form a rallying point and
resting place for
the myriad brethren who visit London not alone from the Provinces of
Wales, but from the many hundreds of our lodges beyond seas. These
would thus for
the first time be afforded an opportunity for Masonic fellowship which
for the truest fraternity, and would inspire many a visit to this
would not otherwise be undertaken.
speaking, what it is intended that this new Central Home of English
shall contain will be a spacious Temple for the Communications of Grand
smaller Temple for the Convocations of Supreme Grand Chapter; improved
for other Masonic meetings; full accommodation for the preservation and
of the library and unsurpassed collection of Masonic treasures in the
of Grand Lodge; a hall for the use of the brethren, especially those
from the Provinces
and overseas, with reading and writing rooms; and provision for the
administrative and executive needs of the Craft.
For the purpose
of erecting such a building, an ample self-contained freehold site,
on three sides, has been acquired, and is today the property of Grand
over three hundred architects in all parts of the world are at this
moment, at our
invitation and their own wish, considering the early submission of
designs to provide
for a building to cover eventually the whole of the land belonging to
but some of it held under covenants which will not expire for a further
In view of this circumstance, which affects only one end of the site,
it is intended
first to provide and complete on that portion upon which we can
not only a new and much-needed great temple but such accommodation as
as far as possible that existing in the present Freemasons' Hall, thus
to minimum the disturbance of the executive and other work now carried
on in that
The new building,
therefore, will contain a large temple with seating capacity for 2,000
with separate cloak rooms and other accommodation, registration hall,
and scrutineers' room: Administrative offices adequate to the growing
wants of the
Craft, with ample waiting rooms, a register room, muniments rooms, and
committee rooms: the needed increased accommodation for the Grand
officers, Past Grand officers, and brethren attending Grand Lodge from
London but the Provinces and Districts, and unattached lodges overseas
part of the English Jurisdiction: a suite of large rooms for the use of
Provincial District, and other visitors, to include a reading and
smoking room, three conference rooms, a locker room, and the like: a
a museum lath larger than the present library and museum, with
and strong room: not fewer than fifteen lodge and chapter rooms,
varying in size
from a room to hold 600 for meetings of Grand Chapter, and the Great
and rooms for large lodges with attendance of from 150 to 400, to small
for attendances of thirty to fifty, all having adequate ante-rooms with
candidates' rooms; and storerooms adjacent to each lodge room, where
and other lodge property may be kept for the convenience of lodges,
that part of
the building containing the lodge rooms and storerooms to be so
as to allow the addition of further floors of lodge rooms as occasion
Are Arranged For
This is a
detailed summary of what is designed to be done, and I present it to an
of business men as a business proposition. The reply naturally may be
as a proposition, but will you have the wherewithal to carry it out?"
the full answer to this interrogation can be supplied only by the
individual brethren themselves; but this much I can say with absolute
- that by the time the plans are approved by Grand Lodge and the
is laid, as we all pray it may be laid, by the Grand Master to whom the
of the scheme is due, there will be enough money in hand to secure the
of the first half we are undertaking, and sufficient pledges of more to
the whole will be accomplished.
For the accomplishment
of that whole, invitations. under the direction of Grand Lodge, have
to architects, to which, as has been noted, more than three hundred
to submit designs and plans for the new building in competition. This
was open to all architects, and it will be conducted in two stages: a
first or sketch
competition, and a second or final competition. Not fewer than ten
be selected from those submitted in the first competition, which closes
and of these a further selection will be made of six designs, the
authors of which
will be invited to submit detailed plans and designs in the second or
Each of the
six architects submitting a bona-fide design in the final competition ‒
with instructions and conditions drawn up and issued by the assessors ‒
an honorarium of 500 guineas. Three assessors have been appointed: the
architect of eminence to be nominated by the President of the Royal
British Architects, who has secured the consent of so eminent an
authority as Sir
Edwin Lutyens, R.A., to act in this capacity; and an architect of
eminence who is
a Freemason nominated by the special committee of the Grand Lodge; and
Superintendent of Works. The conditions governing both competitions are
with the regulations of the Royal Institute of British Architects for
Competition, and by these we are bound to abide.
Now it is
possible that, as far as all these points are concerned, I have carried
the assent of all assembled, but there is a further point that has to
be dealt with,
and that is the objection sometimes to be heard that the proposed great
will not only be situated in London, but be mainly of use to London
therefore, that the Provinces are not called upon to support it. Let me
fairly face this point, and not only: in generalities but in
particulars. In the
first place, I submit to every brother of our Order, not only here at
home in the
Provinces or in London, but to the large number overseas, that a
such as in the truest sense is the United Grand Lodge of England, must
have a great
central point of administration, and that plainly must be situated in
of the Empire. You in your own town have a Guildhall or a Shirehall, or
a Town Hall
for local administrative and judicial purposes, but that does not
obviate the necessity
for the erection and continued existence of the Houses of Parliament at
and the Palace of Justice in the Strand, where business affecting the
not a part of those concerned is transacted. In all such matters, one
is bound to
"think Imperially"; and an unprecedented opportunity is now afforded
brethren as a whole to realize that Freemasonry is not confined to
a particular lodge, or a single Province, or even the Island in which
we live, but
is a matter which touches every part of the globe in which the English
is spoken and English Institutions are revered, and in which, I trust,
of our Brotherhood will always flourish.
Are Practical Advantages
is an intensely practical side as well as a sentimental one to this
matter. It is
a subject of legitimate grievance, which it is our special endeavor to
every member of a Provincial lodge qualified to attend Grand Lodge is
at this moment
handicapped by lack of room for his accommodation which exists in the
which must continue to exist until they are greatly enlarged.
Supposing, for example,
any one of you yourselves come to London for a Communication of Grand
have no Masonic Home to which you go as a right; no place to meet a
from your own Province or some other part of the Jurisdiction, with
whom you may
like to exchange your views; no possibility of obtaining such Masonic
as you might desire to have on your visit to the headquarters of the
this will be provided by the realization of the present scheme.
be Provincial brethren not likely to attend Grand Lodge who may urge
considerations in no way appeal to them, and that they fail to see the
for an extension of Freemasons' Hall in the direction desired; as, from
of view, it would touch no great interest of their own. In that regard,
they are in error, as a great deal of additional accommodation will be
cope with the ever-growing demands made upon the administration of the
the constant increase in the number of its lodges and the total of its
And, when I hear these lesser objections raised by brethren living
within two or
four or at the most eight hours' journey from London, I think of those
six, eight, and even ten thousand miles beyond sea, from which only the
proportion of members can ever hope to come to England, which are
and whole-heartedly subscribing to the scheme, and become Hall Stone
Lodges as a
sign and symbol of their belief in the essential unity of Freemasonry.
It is true
that in these times we are not operative but speculative Freemasons;
but today we
are out to build.
Up to the
moment of speaking, no fewer than 459 London lodges had become Hall
this being more than half the total number, and something like
two-thirds of the
others had given their promise to do the utmost to satisfy this
sufficiently disposed of the idea, which had no true foundation from
that the capital of the Empire was lukewarm in its response to the
appeal. The Provinces and Districts are worthily pursuing the same
course, and every
week, indeed, every day, strengthens their resolution to proceed in the
us build wisely, let us build surely, let us build faithfully, let us
for the moment, but for future years, seeking to establish here below
what we hope
to find above ‒ a house of many mansions, where there shall be room for
These were the words concerning the British Commonwealth of Nations
uttered by one
of the most distinguished statesmen of today, who is likewise a brother
of our own.
I echo and emphasize them now in regard to the Central Masonic Home of
and I commend them to the thoughts and the hearts of you all. Never, as
my power I would urge on all the brethren, has such an ideal been
presented to the
Craft. What will be its realization? Of the splendid end that will
await us I have
no doubt. Gratitude to our glorious dead, loyalty to our illustrious
devotion to the eternal principles of brotherhood inculcated throughout
and practices of the Craft all join in arousing support for the Peace
As I have indicated, from the Metropolis of the Empire, from the east
and the west,
from the north and the south of the Homeland and of Britain beyond
of adhesion are daily being received. It may not be given to some who
are the most
strenuously working in the movement to see the full fruition of so
great a plan.
But they will pass from among their brethren with the satisfaction of
to their sons and their grandsons in the Craft the proof for all time
that the Masons
of today were prepared to make a supreme effort to prove in most
their gratitude to the dead, their loyalty to the living, and their
unshakable belief in the eternal principles of a glorious Craft.
From Last Month)
Manuscript Ritual of the Stonemasons we learn that the lodge was opened
by the singing
of a verse to a hymn tune, but the words lend themselves best to "God
Brethren, here we agree
To strive for harmony
In this our cause.
May love lead these our laws,
And help us in our cause,
And may the secret be
President announced: "In the presence of this assembly, and in the
King Edward the Third, I now declare this lodge duly opened."
minutes, if kept, were then read, and any formal lodge business
followed this prayer, which was also used at the closing of the lodge:
O God, who art the author of
peace and lover
of concord in knowledge of whom standeth our eternal life, whose
service is perfect
freedom, defend us, thy humble servants, in this our undertaking, that
trusting in thy defense, may not fear the power of any adversary,
through the might
of Jesus Christ ‒ Amen.
were candidates in attendance to be Made Masons, the following "Form of
with the Candidate, was asked at the door of the lodge by the Inside
comes here to disturb the peace and harmony of our most worthy Lodge?"
Conductor replied: "I am not come here to disturb the peace and harmony
your most worthy lodge. I am a Brother, with A.B., a stranger, who
wishes to be
admitted into this our honorable Order, if you please to admit him."
Tyler reports: "Most worthy President, there is a Brother, with A.B., a
who wishes to be admitted into this honorable Order, if you please to
"In the name of the Lord, admit them."
then gave a knock and claps, from the appearance of the MS., possibly
those in the Second Degree, and joined in singing the first verse of
"Praise God from whom all blessings flow." The Conductor and candidate
were then admitted and addressed by a brother called the Lefthand
Supporter of the
Vice-president, as follows:
Strangers, within our secret
walls we have admitted
Hoping you will prove honest, faithful, just and true;
But if you cannot keep the secret we require
Go, go hence, you are at liberty to retire.
Is your motive pure, and do you declare it is?
having so declared, the Left-hand Supporter of the President said:
Brethren, to initiate this
stranger we now proceed,
And our Most Worthy Master may begin to read.
I will thank you to kneel, and then I will read Psalm XC.
"Guards, conduct these strangers to our secret chambers."
verse of the Doxology has been sung, the Right-hand Supporter of the
thus addressed the Conductor and the candidate, who apparently had not
left the lodge:
Stand, ye presumptuous mortals;
And let me know your trade and business here.
By my great power nothing from vengeance here stay us
If you are come here intending to betray us.
also called the Vice-president):
Most worthy guardian of our secret laws,
They are Masons wishing to protect our cause.
Then all is well.
Supporter of President:
Strangers, you are welcome if
you are sincere
You never will repent your time and labour here;
Our trade, protecting wants, we, by experience know;
And it's our duty to prevent the recurrence of our woe;
We have one common interest and one common soul;
Should by virtue guide and actuate the whole.
Our common wealth was like a savage land;
When the weak are slaves the stronger bear command.
When tyrants rule us with unfettered sway
And degraded subjects must their will obey.
Such was our domestic lot, our sufferings, and our care;
Enraged our minds with madness and despair.
We found that only half our lawful rights was gained
E'en when we had united and our rights obtained.
Our interests were so many and so various
The tenor of our rights so frail and so precarious
That had we not invented lodges our rights to ensure
All would have come to nought as it had done before.
Strangers, our lodge's design is love and unity,
With self protection founded on the laws of equity.
And when we have our mystic rites gone through,
Our secrets all will be disclosed to you.
We deem you worthy of friendship, trust and confidence to share;
See that you make the prosperity of our cause your constant care;
Let your tongue be faithful, let your heart conceal the trust;
Woe, woe and dishonour attend the faithless and unjust.
join in singing another verse of the Doxology:
Eternal are thy mercies, Lord;
Eternal truth attend thy word;
Thy truth shall sound from shore to shore;
Till sun shall rise and set no more.
"Give the stranger Light."
Then he pointed
to a skeleton, and went on:
Stranger, mark well this shadow
which now you
'Tis a faithful emblem of man's destiny.
Behold this head once filled with pregnant wit;
These hollow holes once sparkling eyes did fit;
This empty mouth no tongue or lips contains;
Of a once well-furnished head see all that now remains;
Behold this breast where a generous heart once moved;
Filled with affection loving, and behold!
Mark well these bones; the flesh hath left its place,
These arms could once a tender wife embrace;
These legs in gay activity could roam;
Alas, the spirit fled, and all is gone
O Death, O Death, thy spirit strikes us with dismay;
'Tis only the just spirit that has left its earthly clay
Can set thee at defiance, and in triumph say:
The sting of death is sin, and we are sinners all;
The heavy stroke of death must one day on us fall;
O death, where is thy sting, O grave, where is thy victory
then asked the candidate some questions as to his resolution to keep
all the secret
entrusted to him, after which he was again blindfolded and led up to
while another verse of the hymn was being sung. The President thus
"Stranger and pilgrim in the
dark, are you
come here with a pure intention to support wages, and protect the
If you are you must answer; if not, you are at liberty to retire to the
whence you came. I will thank you to kneel down and place your right
hand upon your
naked left breast and your left hand on the Bible; answer me with your
name and surname as you are touched upon the head, and repeat after me:
"I, A.B., a stonemason, being
in the awful
presence of Almighty God, do voluntarily declare that I will persevere
to maintain and support a Brotherhood, known as the Friendly Society of
Stone Masons, and I further promise that I will to the utmost of my
men on all just and lawful occasions to obtain a just remuneration for
And I call upon God to witness this my most solemn Declaration that
fears, rewards or punishments, or even death itself, shall induce me,
indirectly, to give information respecting anything in this lodge, or
similar lodge connected with the Society; and I will neither write nor
be written upon paper, stone, wood, sand, or anything else, except for
the use of
the Society, and I further promise that I will keep inviolable all the
this Society; and I never will consent to have any money belonging to
divided or appropriated to any other purpose than the use of this
Society and the
support of the trade. So help me, God, and keep me steadfast in my most
At this point
the candidate had the bandage removed, and the President dictated the
of the Obligation:
"And if ever I reveal either
part or parts
of this my most solemn Obligation, may what is before me plunge my soul
Then he was
told to kiss the book and rise, properly initiated.
was being led out of the room the last verse of the hymn was sung:
Blest are the men of every kind
That do unite with willing mind;
And help each other in distress
When sick and rendered comfortless.
who went through this elaborate ceremony, even if inclined to laugh at
hat and fierce mustaches of the Tyler, was not likely to forget quickly
he had made, and the oath of loyalty he had sworn. To many trade
oath was a very real thing, and not easily broken. The lodge was closed
same prayer as at the opening, and the singing of this verse:
Brethren, ere we depart
Let us join hand and heart
In this our cause.
May our next meeting be
Blest with sweet harmony,
Honor and secrecy,
It is not
certain whether the Union insisted upon a uniform ritual of admission.
It is probable
that it did not. James Morrison, in a letter to Robert Owen, both
in trade unionism, dated 2nd September, 1833, urged him to arrange for
of ceremonial, in order to minimize the effect of such superstitious
there is no evidence that the request was attended to. Uniformity,
only to have been demanded in the oath.
I am exceedingly
fortunate in having had access to the cash book of the Warrington
Lodge, from which I have made the following amusing and interesting
is a record of receipts and payments from 15th September, 1832, to 10th
The first page gives the names of the eleven founders of the lodge, and
founders each paid an additional 1s. 6d. at the first meeting, and 2s.
to have been the entrance fee throughout. The highest number of members
is 114, the weekly subscription being 3d. The date when each member
received a certificate
is duly noted.
is entitled in a bold hand:
In the center
of the book there is a record of the date when members received votes
for their services:
10th, 1832. ‒ Thanks was Unanimously Given to Brother John Hawke for
Conduct whilst in the office of Vice President and as being one of the
first Forwarded The Society."
2nd, 1833. ‒ A Vote of thanks was Unanimously given to Brother Samuel
for Serving the Office of Outside Tyler for six months."
2nd, 1833. ‒ A Vote of thanks was Unanimously Given to Brother George
serving the Office of Right-Hand Supporter of the vice, and for His
behalf of the Society."
2nd, 1833. ‒ "A Vote of thanks was Unanimously Given to Brother Ephraim
for serving the Office of vice President to the entire Satisfaction of
2nd, 1833. ‒ A Vote of thanks was Unanimously Given to Brother Dennis
serving the Office of Right-Hand Supporter to the President for six
months and for
His constant attendance while in Office."
2nd, 1833. ‒ A Vote of thanks was Unanimously Given to Brother George
serving the Office of Secretary for six months and for His Exertions in
the Society "
16th, 1833. ‒ -A Vote of thanks was Unanimously Given to Brother Joseph
serving the Office of President for six months to the satisfaction of
22nd, 1833. ‒ A Vote of thanks was Unanimously given to the Secretary
for his past
Services, together with 12 Shillings from the Society's funds towards
him for his Great Trouble he has experienced in his Office. ‒ E. Bevan
of the cash book devoted to the payments made on behalf of the Society
remarkable for the frequency of the item, "Ale for New members and
the average amount being one shilling. Other interesting items are:
1832. ‒ "Delegates' expenses, Regalia, etc., 4 12s."
Oct. 24th. ‒ "Calico, etc., for Transperancy, 2s."
Oct. 27th. ‒ -"Painting for Gilding despensation frame, 3s."
Nov. 7th. ‒ "Glass for despensation frame, 4s."
Nov. 24th. ‒ "Corresponding Secretary's wages quarterly, 1s."
Dec. 1st. ‒ "Painting and Gilding the Axe, 2s. 6d."
Jan. 14th, 1833. ‒ "Lent to the Runcorn Lodge, 1 4s. 2d."
Jan. 19th, 1833. ‒ "Paid for the Wigan Regalia, 2 9s."
Jan. 31st. ‒ "Paid for the Bible, 5s."
Feb. 9th. ‒ "Paid for the Tyler's Dress, 1 10s. 9 1/2d."
March 25th. ‒ "Warrington Lodges share to the Officers' visitation, 3S.
April 4th. ‒ "Painting Plates for Cap and Belt. 4s."
April 29th. ‒ "Expenses attending the Brisklayers, 5s."
May 14th. ‒ "Materials for Secretary's Scarf and making, 13s. 7d."
May 20th. ‒ "Ribbon for do., 9d."
July 6th. ‒ "Paid for the Sword, 4s. 6d."
July 4th. ‒ "Ale, etc., for the Flaggers Innitiation, 7s. 9d."
July 10th. ‒ "Buying Warden's Scarf, etc., 1s. 9d."
Feb. 13th. ‒ "The Warden's hat and scarf, etc., 8s."
Feb. 15th. ‒ "Making ditto and trimming. 3s. 6d."
Feb. 15th. ‒ "Fine Box for the Warden, 3s. 6d."
July 18th. ‒ "Warden's Axe, 3s."
Aug. 13th. ‒ "Painting and Gilding the Axe, 1s. 6d."
Sept. 16th. ‒ "Sent to Manchester Lodge, 3 pounds."
Sept. 19th. ‒ "Delegates' Expenses to Manchester, 2 11s."
Oct. 12th. ‒ "Paid for two Columns, 5s."
Aug. 18th, 1834. ‒ "Paid for Washing Surpluses, 2s."
Aug. 15th, 1835. ‒ "Paid for two pair of brass candle-sticks 10s. 6d."
It is an
interesting coincidence that one of the first initiations recorded,
that of Elias
Ashmole, took place in an Operative Masons Lodge at Warrington, in 1645.
Life; Edouard Quartier-La-Tente
Bro. S. J. Carter, New
years ago a child was born in New York State destined, through a life
service, to make an impression on the Masonic Order as a whole that is
than his contemporaries can easily realize. Always truly modest, and
least trace of self-seeking or self-assertion, his work was done with
blasts of publicity, such as in America we have come to regard as
almost a necessity
in furthering any cause. All the more, therefore, should some attempt
at a recognition
be made of what he attempted, even if his efforts seemed, as
undoubtedly they did
seem to him at the last, to have ended in failure. Some failures in
this life are
most glorious ‒ as, for example, that of the defenders of Liege to stop
hordes in the autumn of 1914.
was born of parents who had emigrated from Switzerland. At an age when
than an infant in arms he was left an orphan, and through the good
offices of the
Swiss Consul in New York he was sent back to the country of his
ancestors, and for
some years was cared for by his grandfather. At the age of seven he was
alone in the world and was sent to an orphanage in Neuchatel, where he
till he was thirteen. He however showed so much ability that after
the elementary schools he was sent to the University of Neuchatel where
a theological course, and was eventually ordained as a minister of the
Church. After some years of pastoral work he was called to the chair of
Theology at his Alma Mater. This was in 1888. Two years later he
assumed the direction
of the secondary schools in the Canton, and was placed at the head of
of Education and Public Worship. These posts he held till his
resignation in 1922.
During these years he had been very active in the various movements for
of world peace in which Switzerland has taken so prominent a part. He
of the Peace Society, and was chosen to preside over the Nineteenth
held at Geneva in 1912.
had been a Freemason, and was a member of Sincerity Lodge No. 200, of
Y. Most likely it was through the fraternal care of the members of his
his infant son came to be sent back to his nearest surviving relatives,
but of this
there appears no record. At the age of twenty-nine the son followed his
steps, and sought admission to the Craft. He was initiated in the lodge
in June, 1884, and a year later, as is the custom there, was passed to
degree. He was not raised until 1887, for the sublime degree is not
a matter of course by our Swiss brethren, but only after the Craftsman
his fitness to receive it. In 1897 he was elected Junior Warden and the
year Senior Warden, and Assistant Worshipful Master in 1899. The next
of becoming Master of his lodge he was chosen as Grand Master of the
"Alpina," the ruling body of the Craft in Switzerland, an office he
for five years. It was during the tenure of this office that the Swiss
largely through his influence, instituted an organization which it was
lead to giving more reality to the fundamental ideal of Masonic
conception was a simple one ‒ no more than the formation of an
enquiry office ‒ the International Bureau of Masonic Affairs. It was
clear that assisting in the work of this Bureau involved nothing in the
way of recognition
or of jurisdiction-its sole function was the collection and
dissemination of accurate
and trustworthy information. Yet in spite of the obvious advantages of
such a piece
of machinery in view of the disruptions in the Craft throughout the
project was looked on with suspicion by many, and complete indifference
of the governing bodies of the Masonic world. In a personal letter
said that but for the support and encouragement of individual Masons
from all over
the world the work could not have been carried on at all, and added
while generally the individual brethren believed in universal Masonry,
official rank seemed in many cases quite indifferent or even hostile to
In the face
of all this discouragement Brother Quartier-la-Tente labored on, he
became the center
and mainspring of the Bureau, he established personal relations with
of Masons in every country, and among them most of those of the highest
most full of enthusiasm for the larger objects of the Masonic
Institution. His work
began, rather tardily, to be recognized; he received many honors; more
the Bureau was being used and being also found useful. And then the war
It was then that German Masonry, officially, for it does not follow
that all German
Masons agreed, declared that it had nothing to do with the Masonry of
‒ that Universal Masonry was not only a delusion, but a snare, a
to the bottomless morass of "Internationalism." German Masonry
was too much at the mercy of the German government, to be blamed as a
these wild outbursts, by which it self-excommunicated itself. But it
was a great
blow to the hopes of Brother Quartier-la-Tente, especially when Swiss
also put under the German ban because certain Swiss Masons, as
protested against the outrages in Belgium.
Of War Relieved
But a new
need arose, and the Bureau, providentially for some thousands of Masons
need, was right where it could meet it. Among the prisoners of war
taken on both
sides were a considerable proportion of Masons. At first the
arrangements for looking
after these prisoners were largely improvised by the government
concerned. One thing
is certain, that while the Germans in the hands of the Allies were at
the same rations that our own men received in accordance with
the Allied prisoners in Germany were at the first subjected to such
at that time seemingly unnecessary, deprivations, that it certainly
gave the impression
they were being systematically and deliberately half starved. However
that may be,
these men were in great need, and Brother Quartier-la-Tente turned the
of the Bureau, and used all his great influence towards the task of
distress – primarily among the Masonic prisoners of war ‒ but he did
his sympathies and assistance to them. The Bureau became a center for
of funds and the dispatch of parcels of food and other necessaries to
prisoners, and also to make inquiries for those who were missing. In
spite of the
official severance of relations between Switzerland and the German
many individual brethren on the German side did not wholly follow their
leaders in this matter. Brother Quartier-la-Tente was able to establish
communication by which he was enabled to do an enormous amount of good.
writer can speak of this from personal knowledge, as it was his fortune
to be captured.
At one time owing to the miscarriage of several letters, his friends
anxious. An inquiry was made that reached Brother Quartier-la-Tente
channels; and he managed in some way to have a German Mason make a
of some hundred and fifty miles to visit the camp where the writer was
and find out exactly his state of health and general conditions. This
was but one
of many, no one knows how many, cases where our late brother spared no
trouble to himself in the service of those who could do little to help
during the continuance of war. Those of us at least who came in touch
with him then
are little likely to forget him.
war the question arose in an acute form as to the future of the Bureau.
twenty years Brother Quartier-la-Tente had devoted most of his time and
the work, without reward, and with little acknowledgment. It is not too
say that he was the Bureau himself. In 1920 the difficulties became
was a falling off in the voluntary subscriptions and an increase in the
to the general rise in prices. Besides this he felt that the
organization was impermanent
so long as it depended entirely on himself. At that time his letters
disappointment ‒ even discouragement. It seemed to him that he had
labored in vain.
He could not understand how it was that the great majority of Masons
and in the case of those in official positions, so frequently even
hostile to an
attempt to remove misunderstandings, ignorance of actual conditions,
and other obstacles
to a closer union between the sovereign jurisdictions throughout the
object seemed to him so necessary, so fully and completely Masonic in
of the term, that he was unable to believe that any Mason could be
it, and wondered if perhaps it was because that the movement had been
and for a long time chiefly supported by such a small group as that
by the Grand Lodge Alpina, relatively as insignificant in numbers, as
itself is in point of size compared with its immediate neighbors.
announcement that the Bureau would have to be dissolved brought out
all over the world and promises of support. The result was that the
Masonic Association was formed into which the Bureau was merged.
was unanimously elected to the office of Chancellor of the new
so in some measure received recognition of all he had done in the past.
this it is perhaps better not to pursue the subject, as, officially at
speaking Freemasonry has ignored or condemned the International
recent events have made it a highly controversial subject. This
attitude on the
part of the largest and wealthiest of the Masonic jurisdictions of the
of course a bitter disappointment to Brother Quartier-la-Tente, and
little doubt that this disappointment hastened his end.
many Masonic honors and distinctions, notably several honorary
memberships in lodges
in Great Britain, he had the honorary rank of Past Senior Grand Warden
in the Grand
Lodge of Maryland, and was an honorary member of the Masonic Veteran
of Washington, D. C.; he was also an honorary member of a number of
of the A. & A. S. R. Perhaps his best epitaph would be a
sentence from one of
his own letters: "As far as I have been able I have given my heart and
Who Were Masons
Bro. George W. Baird,
P.G.M., District of Columbia
Carson and Edward F.
of the two subjects of this sketch was born in Kentucky, the second in
D. C., but an adventurous disposition threw them together in the then
West, and they are especially connected together in their acquaintance
efforts for, the welfare of the various Indian tribes.
Carson, who will always be known as Kit, is one of the better known of
trapper, pioneer, and frontiersman figures of the days when the white
man was beginning
to reach out to take possession of the Golden West. As mentioned above
he was born
in Kentucky, but his parents moved into the State of Missouri when he
was a year
old, and there he spent his boyhood. He went to school until he was
was then apprenticed to a saddler. Whether he gained much proficiency
at this craft,
history does not say, but at the age of seventeen he joined a trading
going overland to Santa Fe. Perhaps his knowledge of saddlery may have
to do with this adventure, as many repairs to the harness would
naturally be required
on such a long journey.
taste of travel and adventure, the youth found it impossible to settle
down to any
sedentary pursuit. He became a trapper and explorer, wandering all over
and through the Rockies to the Coast. It is said that for sixteen years
rifle supplied every particle of food on which he lived." At one time
employed by a Trader's Company to supply their fort with meat, and this
he did for
In this life
he became well acquainted with the Indians, and was always on good
terms with them.
He married an Indian girl. By this marriage he had a daughter who was
St. Louis, Mo., and grew up to be very well known and popular in that
wife died in 1842.
made his famous expedition to explore the Rocky Mountains he employed
guide, and it would have hardly been possible for him to have found any
fitted for the post. After this expedition Carson returned to New
he married again, a Spanish lady, and resumed his old life of hunting
but when Fremont made his second expedition Carson joined him again and
with him all through the military operations which resulted in the
addition of California
to the territory of the United States in 1846-7.
Carson was sent to Washington, where President Polk nominated him for a
in the Army, but this nomination was not confirmed by the Senate. He
to New Mexico and in 1853 he collected a flock of over six thousand
he took to California, where they were in great demand.
successful venture he returned once more to New Mexico, and was later
Indian Agent. It was a most happy appointment, for his knowledge of the
and his reputation among them fitted him in a peculiar manner for this
post. Owing to their trust and confidence in him he was enabled to
treaties of benefit both to the Indians themselves and the Government
outbreak of the Civil War Carson was loyally on the side of the
rendered most valuable services; so that at the end of the War the man
Senate refused to accept as a second Lieutenant was retired from the
army with the
brevet rank of Brigadier General.
the Masonic Order in 1854, receiving the degrees in Montezuma Lodge,
No. 109, at
Santa Fe. He afterwards dimitted with several others to become a
of Bent Lodge, No. 204, at Taos, named after Governor Charles Bent,
whose wife was
a sister of the lady Carson had married. Carson was named Junior Warden
in the charter
of the new lodge, and in spite of his constant expeditions was a
The lodge was later obliged to return its charter, and the surviving
Carson, returned to membership in Montezuma Lodge.
absolutely fearless, but so modest and retiring that no one could ever
get him to
speak of his exploits. He was greatly beloved by all who knew him
deeply regretted when he died.
In the National
Museum at Washington is a bronze relief showing Carson and Beale in
journey to gain reinforcements for the American forces in the second
expedition. The inscription tells the story:
"The Army, sent from Santa Fe
California was met and defeated by the Mexicans at San Pasqual. The
were driven upon a dune in the desert where there was no water, and
by the Mexican forces. Edward F. Beale and Kit Carson, both famous
the west, volunteered to get through the Mexican lines and get
Stockton's fleet at San Diego. They succeeded in crawling past three
Mexican sentries in the night; by hiding in ravines in the day and
night they reached Stockton's fleet after enduring great hardships."
in the largest museum in the country, is seen and read by many thousand
subject, Edward Beale, was the son of George Beale, a Naval Paymaster,
and his mother
was the youngest daughter of Commodore Truxton, who commanded the
in her famous engagement with the Vengeance. Very naturally he followed
in the footsteps
of his forbears and went into the naval service. He was appointed
order of President Andrew Jackson, was promoted to Master in 1849, and
in 1852. At the time of the event above described he was commanding a
serving with the army. It was Beale who was called the hero of San
it was Beale and Carson who crossed the plains bringing reports to
it was Beale who brought the first gold from California to the East. He
resigned from the Navy and President Fillmore appointed him
Superintendent of Indian
Affairs in California, while Congress appropriated two hundred and
dollars to carry out the plan he had proposed of establishing Indian
reservations. Had this plan been strictly adhered to and honestly
carried out much
of the later trouble with the Red Men would have been avoided.
a diary, which he illustrated with very clever pencil sketches; a most
account of his adventures, and one that should find some day a
He noted the deplorable condition of the Indians held in peonage by the
and Mexicans, and from these observations eventuated his plans for the
care of these
wards of the nation.
of transportation in the Southwest was then a very serious one, and
the use of camels, which the then Secretary of War, Davis, approved,
David D. Porter was sent to Syria to secure a number of these animals.
proved a great success, and but for the advent of the railroads the use
would probably have been continued.
wagon road was surveyed from Fort Defiance to California, the second
step in solving
the transportation problem, and then came the railway surveys from Fort
Lincoln reappointed Beale as Surveyor-General of California and Nevada,
had expressed a desire to re-enter the Navy and take a part in the
of the Civil War, but the President wanted him where he felt he was
Beale proposed the acquisition of Lower California, but this was not
At the end
of the Civil War, Beale resigned his office with the intention of
making his home
on his ranch at Tejon, but his annual visits to Chester, Pa., revived
for politics. His land holdings in California had yielded him a good
he purchased the old home of Commodore Stephen Decatur in Washington,
down in close neighborhood with many of his old Mexican War comrades.
He had been,
for many years, a close friend of General Grant and General Sherman.
between Grant and Blaine was reconciled through his intermediation.
wanted to appoint him Secretary of the Navy, but did not succeed. He
died in Washington
on April 22, 1893, and his ashes interred at Chester, Pa.
He was a
member of California Lodge, No. 1, though the date and place of his
not come to the knowledge of the writer. His services to the Government
to the establishing and settling arrangements with the Indians, like
those of Carson,
are worthy of remembrance.
of the Lodge
Bro. R. J. Meekren, Assistant
days it appears that the lodge was a lodge of Masons, and could not be
constituted without a certain number present. The number required in
seven, though in some accounts six and even five were said to be enough
of necessity. These seven were the Master, two wardens, two fellows,
though other authorities said five fellows and two apprentices; and yet
two masters, two fellows and two apprentices (or three masters, if
there were seven
present all told). In all these variations there is apparent the
that a lodge must include every grade and rank in the Craft.
Remembering that at
that period the master was such only in virtue of his being an employer
the master or ruler of a lodge, that in grade or degree he was a fellow
of the Craft,
it is clear there is no inconsistency between the requirement, five
that of master, wardens and two fellows, or again three masters and two
has been taken as indicating (with other considerations supposed to
tend the same
way) that only one form or ceremony was known before 1717. This does
In the eighteenth century everywhere, in Europe and Britain today, the
always opened in the First Degree, not as a lodge of apprentices but as
of Masons. It is first formed, which part of the ceremony is also
the lodge. Before Grand Lodges and the system of chartering or
this was a very practical piece of business. It really was the same
thing in intent
and purpose as the inauguration or constituting a new lodge today by a
or his deputy. Only as at that time Masons met in their own right,
there being no
organized outside authority they constituted themselves, and after
a lodge it was opened. Then if any business arose at which the
not competent to assist, they were directed to retire, in a manner
to the withdrawal of all but Past Masters when the Worshipful Master
elect is invested
with the "secrets of the chair" (in those places where that ceremony is
used as part of the installation). In such withdrawal and the tiling of
anew are to be found the germs of the ceremony of opening the lodge in
degree. Such secondary (and tertiary) ceremonies were naturally
parallel to the
purging and opening of the lodge in the first place, but would not
repeat (and do
not repeat except in America) that part in which the lodge was formed
because it was not a new lodge that was being opened, but the same,
with some of
its members absent. There is good reason to suppose that up until the
time of the
Morgan episode, the same rule more or less held good in the U.S.A. It
is well known
how through that storm of persecution Masonry became dormant in many
the natural result that when lodges revived there was much ignorance
even about quite essential things. Yet for a long time after it was the
many places to open the lodge in the First Degree (as the process came
to be described), that is, to open a lodge of Masons. In other places
was opened on any degree according to convenience. Even when the idea
began to gain
currency that the business of the lodge was the concern of the masters
still remained a tradition (which Morris for one tried hard to make a
that the lodge should always be opened and closed in all three degrees
for the sake
of instruction. But during the same time the idea grew up, and the
writings of Morris
and Albert Mackey went far to definitely crystallize it, that there was
lodge of Masons working under a charter, but a lodge of Master Masons,
who had authority
to convene at their pleasure lodges of Fellowcrafts and Entered
however, were distinct entities of an ephemeral character. With this as
logic demanded that the initiate should no longer be considered a
member of the
lodge, and scarcely even of the Craft. Indeed, not long ago, someone
made the extraordinary
proposal, quite seriously, that the presentation of the apron should be
until the Third Degree, as the Entered Apprentice and Fellowcraft were
history of this change would be well worth inquiring into more fully.
the prefacing of the first question in the lectures by the phrase "As
Apprentice" is connected with this development, either as cause or
or more probably both. But it has become so thoroughly a part of the
law of American
Masonry as to be received almost as a "Landmark." In itself, as Mackey
argued, for he knew very well the custom was not primitive, the change
is of little
practical moment under present conditions in this country, as the
stages of the
two inferior degrees are passed through so rapidly. Where a man has to
wait a year
or more as is the rule in many foreign jurisdictions, between degrees,
is quite different, and in such countries the Entered Apprentice is
as a Mason and a member of the lodge, though often without the right to
of this evolution lies in its being an instance of how imperceptibly an
new rule, even a fundamentally different rule, may by degrees get
anyone at any time during the process being conscious of innovation.
is that small changes should be watched with a jealous eye, with a full
of the danger to the old structure of employing logic without adequate
and the risk in attempting to reform apparent inconsistencies, a
should be curbed and checked, for such inconsistencies are often most
of what the original ritual actually was in the past.
Bro. William E. Summers,
Flag of Cuba Is
a Masonic Flag, Designed By Masons"
No less an
authority than Bro. Carlos Manual de Cespedes, Secretary of State of
of Cuba and former Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of
to the United States, made this statement.
is the son of our late brother of the same name, who was the first
Cuba under their Provisional Government in the unsuccessful struggle of
people to free selves from the tyranny of Spain. This conflict, known
as the "Ten
Years' War," began on Oct. 10, 1868, and ended Feb. 10, 1878, leaving
sides exhausted and neither really successful. The leaders against
Spain in this
rebellion, Bro. Cespedes, Sr., Bro. Ignacio Agramonte and Bro. Manuel
designated by the Spaniards as "the three Masonic conspirators." The
as has been noted, was the first President of the Provisional
Government; Bro. Quesada
was the first Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary Armies, and Bro.
at first, the Secretary of Revolutionary Government under Cespedes, was
made Commander-in-Chief of the Armies in the field and for a period
kept the revolution
alive with, at one time, but 35 men, all under-armed and under-fed and
for the payment which every patriot receives in the privilege of
defending the land
he loves. He fought against terrific odds for two years until finally
action while charging the enemy on July 1, 1873. The Spaniards took his
his home city of Camaguey and there burned it in the public square.
explains the Masonic significance of his flag as follows: The two white
represent the two columns found in Masonic lodges, the three blue ones
degrees of symbolic Masonry, the red triangle the Masonic triangle as
in the "Scottish Rite" system of the symbolic degrees, and the white
the All-seeing Eye which watches over the world. The colors, blue,
white and red,
denote the Masonic principles: truth, peace and brotherly-love.
of our diminutive, big-souled neighboring republic is a worthy
associate for our
own beloved "stars and stripes."
explanation of the symbolic significance of this flag was given by Bro.
F. A. Currier
in his Centennial History of Aurora Lodge of Fitchburg, Mass., as
"The flag of free Cuba, with
its red, white
and blue colors, indicative of liberty and the rights of man, is
with Masonic symbolism. It was in the secrecy of the lodge room that
of Havana devised this symbol of the struggles of Cuban patriots for
Spanish misrule. The five-pointed star in the center of the red color
of the triangle
is said to represent the star of free Cuba rising from amid the blood
shed by her
devoted sons. The three stripes of blue are suggestive of friendship,
love and truth, the two white stripes are typical of purity of aim and
and these, bound together by the triangle at the end in the center of
which is the
star with its five points of significances, make the flag of free Cuba
of peculiar interest to students of Masonic heraldry. It tells of the
of the Provisional Government at Seville, when, in 1808, Napoleon
deposed the Bourbon
king; it tells of the revolution of 1823, when Bolivar and his
associates were tortured
and put to death; it tells of the revolution of 1844 when inquisitorial
of cruelty were revived by the Spanish government; it tells of the
death of Lopez
and his followers in 1848: it tells of the 'ten years of ruin and
tears' in the
struggle for freedom under the leadership of Gomez, and finally it
tells of the
triumph of truth over error, of right over wrong, and of a victory
by devotion to the promptings of the occult meaning of a symbolism
for liberty and obedience to the will of God. This emblem of freedom,
the secret councils of a brotherhood, is a newcomer in the galaxy of
the flags of
nations. Men have not yet become accustomed to its meaning: but there
thereon a history and a prophecy ‒ a history of the triumph of civil
a prophecy of its privileges and responsibilities under the guidance
and the restraints
‒ H.L. Haywood
reader has sent in a photograph clipped from a rotogravure Sunday
is an interesting picture. One look at it explains why its sender
on it "What Price Shrine?" It cannot be reproduced here lest it bring
the roof down on us, nor may it be described except to say that it
displays a rubicund
Noble alongside a bathing beauty, as they are called, of dangerous
If Shriners insist on bringing these ladies into the scenery they need
not be surprised
to hear a lot of rumbling among Grand Lodges. Unless we completely
the temper of brethren in these same Grand Lodges, one such miss is
enough to cause
a tremor, a dozen can cause an earthquake. If ever that earthquake
comes there will
be an end of Shrine frolics.
* * *
Eight Hour Night
much common sense and a world of wisdom in the Working Tools of
as they are in their ancient uses, and commonplace in form. Where can
sounder ideas than those of which they are the emblems? Clerk-Maxwell
is symbolized in the clock, the balance, and the foot rule."
something better than the foot rule; it has the two-foot rule.
The twenty-four-inch gauge,
divided into twenty-four
equal parts, is symbolical of the hours of the day, of which the Mason
to devote eight to the service of God and a worthy distressed brother,
his usual vocation, and eight to refreshment and sleep.
phrase has in it a quaint touch almost of humor, especially when
applied to us Americans
in these present days. We are committed, even by law, to the principle
of the eight-hour
day; we are quick with charity and we are, as St. Paul said of the
very religious people. But sleep and refreshment! A learned
that Americans are ruining themselves for lack of sleep; he advocates
night. Another authority of the same ilk says we have countless
amusements but few
recreations, and tire ourselves to death trying to have a good time out
he says that amusement is fun that tires us, recreation is fun that
old Greeks protected themselves against excesses by adopting proportion
as their ideal. "Nothing over much," such was their motto. The golden
mean was their golden rule. It is a good rule to follow, especially in
times, and it is symbolized by the twenty-four-inch gauge. A life built
to it is like a house that is built upon a rock; though a windstorm of
clubs, movies, shows, night rides, and all night poker parties descend
it will not crash.
* * *
IT is now
one hundred and fifty years since the embattled farmers and shopkeepers
and Concord fired their shots heard round the world. Other farmers and
followed them, and fired off other bullets, not always of lead, the
of which have not yet died down, and won't for centuries to come. What
at Lexington reached its grand finale with the surrender of Cornwallis,
grand consummation when Bro. George Washington was inducted into office
President of an infant nation with an oath taken on a Holy Bible
borrowed from St.
John's Lodge of New York City.
in New England are already celebrating the sesqui-centennial of these
lodges will follow in due course for the next seven years. Before these
of reminiscence are concluded, it is greatly hoped, the entire
Fraternity will unite
with these brethren in New England and the East, and bring the whole
period to a fitting end by a nation-wide celebration of the
bicentennial of the
founding of the American Craft.
seven years many historical papers will be read, orations will be
will be written, and movies will be filmed. The Yale University Press
produced the first of a series of movies covering the Revolutionary
period; in these
Freemasonry is being noted.
is very much to the good. The patriots were a colorful lot, men of
of audacious speech, of dramatic surprises; to live through their
again will satisfy the ineradicable need in us all for the picturesque
and the romantic.
will accomplish a more sober purpose for us Masons. In spite of the
fact that Freemasonry
was in the thick of events from Lexington to Yorktown, and that every
heard much about it, the whole story of Revolutionary Masons remains
the dark. Except for Bro. M. M. Johnson's Beginnings of Freemasonry in
and Bro. Sidney Morse’s Freemasonry in the Revolution the books and
papers on the
subject have for the most part been dreary and unreliable stuff, their
authors accepting con amore a whole mass of secondhand fables. All this
may be remedied
during the next seven years. It is certain to be remedied if the
devotes itself to these anniversaries with the whole-hearted interest
* * *
Love, Relief and
is so familiar that it is probable that few Masons have ever considered
One would naturally expect in such a group that the three things would
be of the
same kind, classifiable in the same category ‒ as three abstract
qualities, or three
virtues, or whatever it might be ‒ but this group consists of an
emotion or sentiment,
a kind of action and an abstract principle. What is the reason that
they are brought
together and said to be the tenets of a Mason's profession? A cynical
perhaps say because the truth is that though we profess brotherly love
we do not
do much for the relief of those in distress.
there would be just enough truth or semblance of truth in such a
as might make members of the Craft a little uncomfortable, and yet we
be quite justified in feeling that it was unfair to say the least. In
the old days,
and under more primitive and less complex conditions, relief was a
simple matter, and one in which individual brethren seldom failed to
obligations. Now we have found that indiscriminate and casual charity
tends to perpetuate
the need, and that a complicated machinery is required to administer
But this again has its dangers and drawbacks in that it strongly tends
the personal element, the only one of permanent value, the feeling of
of friendship, everything that is comprised in the term brotherhood.
with which we started might be interpreted in several ways. Undoubtedly
it had some
definite meaning to those who first used it; whoever it was must have
had some reason
for coupling these three things together with such an important
everything else in the Masonic system of teaching it gives food for
provides us with many valuable suggestions. Here is one interpretation.
Love is the very foundation, the ground indeed on which the Masonic
rests. Without it Masonry is dead and without meaning. But true love
is not merely a sentiment, an affection in the primary meaning of that
an active impelling motive power. The very strongest, indeed, in human
it is that impels the individual to transcend self, to face any danger,
hardship, even to lay down life itself. Brotherly Love must lead to
distress of a brother in need, and so we get Relief. But what of Truth?
In our rituals
we are told it is a "Divine Attribute" and a theme worthy of
but its special application is to truth in our dealings and intercourse
to sincerity and lack of hypocrisy, to friendly admonishing of faults
to a brother's
face rather than unfriendly criticism behind his back. But it may also
as a desire to know the truth, a determination not to rest content with
statements but to arrive at the actual facts, and especially the facts
as to the
needs of others, and the not less important facts of what we are really
do to help others.
has been inspired by the receipt of a report of the Masonic
Commission printed by order of the Grand Lodge of Texas. The Commission
of three committees appointed respectively by the Grand Lodge of Texas,
and New Mexico. It is not possible here to go into the details of this
we do wish to bring to the attention of our readers all over the
country, the essential
facts, the truth, in this particular and very pressing problem. The
danger of tuberculosis is a fact of common knowledge, as also that it
is a disease
that when taken in time and treated under proper conditions is
Also it is hardly necessary to point out that Masons are not immune to
it. Yet again
it is well known that the mild dry climate of the Southwest is commonly
to be peculiarly favorable to the recovery of those afflicted with this
complaint, and that many sufferers of their own motion, or by medical
their homes in the North and East to journey thither in search of
is yet another point, the individual so afflicted has usually struggled
on for a
long time before coming to this decision, in many cases people are not
have the disease until after a long period of general ill health, and a
incapacity for their usual avocations. Which means that as a result, in
many cases, that scanty savings have been used up, that debt is
incurred, and that
actually the patient is in distress financially if not in absolute need
pilgrimage is undertaken.
are often very optimistic, the attack has been so gradual that they
what effect it has really had on their physique. So far they have been
able to keep
going, and they feel that only more favorable circumstances are
required for them
to recover. The matter comes to the knowledge of the brethren, the
the lodge feel something should be done. The patient says if only I
could go South
or West I would get well, but I can't afford it. The lodge offers to
pay his fare,
and he thinks this will be assistance enough. So he starts out ‒ with
and perhaps a little money. He is grateful and the lodge feels it has
done all that
is needed. But what happens? In the first place the new arrival is
fit for work than ever before, in the second place he comes to
there are already too many in the same condition as himself. Either he
has to undertake
work too hard for him, or he cannot get work at all. Sooner or later he
destitute, and on the local lodges the care of relieving him is thrown
‒ an unfair
burden, seeing that this does not happen once or twice but over and
The lodges concerned are in three jurisdictions, relatively among the
poorer in the United States, the jurisdictions from which many of the
are among the richest and strongest ‒ it is not justice that the former
have thrust upon them the charges that properly are the concern of the
justice is one of those four great cardinal virtues upon which
details of the plans that the Commission has evolved we will not enter
to say that they contemplate the erection of Sanatoria to which such
be sent and where they will be given every opportunity to regain full
thus be restored as useful members of the community. Such an
undertaking is one
that concerns the whole Craft in America, and we are confident that it
more than a realization of the truth of the matter for the project to
support. In the meantime we trust that all our readers will consider
and tell others about them at every opportunity, so that the ground may
be the better
prepared, when the time comes, for the erection of such truly Masonic
real Temples of Brotherly Love and Universal Benevolence.
of Masonic Thought
the Expressions of Active and Thinking Masons
toiler in our vineyard, the zealous worker in our quarries may not be a
world may not look upon him in admiration or view with enthusiasm his
but the silent and sincere appreciation of his brothers are his; the
of the widow is his; the lisped prayer of the orphan is for him, and
the great and
potent influence which all good men exert in daily contact with their
can be traced to the teachings of our Craft.
‒ The Widow's
worth of our life is that many hearts of friends should be saddened and
drop tears when it ends; that the poor should have good words to speak
of us and
thankful recollections of some act of charity and loving kindness, and
the Great Architect of the Universe that these may, in His merciful
our many frailties and errors ‒ this, and that our influences that live
should bear no ill fruit. So the teachings of our venerable Craft
endeavor to persuade
us to live. So, more or less, lived our beloved brothers whose deaths
it is our
sad duty to record from time to time
‒ El Paso Bulletin
of Masonry in the United States
Bro. H. L. Haywood
X – The Founding of
a New Grand Lodge in Massachusetts
IN Part IX
of these studies published in THE BUILDER June last, I gave some
account of the
various Grand Masters that served the first Massachusetts Grand Lodge.
It now remains
to give a short sketch of the last Grand Master of that Grand Lodge,
Bro. John Rowe,
and then to describe the rise of a new, and for a time a rival, Grand
In his The
Freemasons' Monthly Magazine, Vol. XV [Lib*], 1856, page 163, Charles
W. Moore wrote
a thumb-nail biography of Rowe that may here be quoted:
"John Rowe, Esq., who was Grand
the time of which we are speaking, was also a distinguished Boston
proprietor of what in our younger days was called 'Rowe's Pasture,'
Bedford and Essex streets, but now covered with costly and elegant
wharf,' in the vicinity of 'Fort Hill,' was also his property and place
and still bears his name. Like most of the leading men and Masons of
his day, he
was an efficient actor in the early scenes of the Revolution. His name
on the noted Memorial of 1760, and it also stands next after that of
Samuel Adams (who was the first signer) on the Memorial to the Governor
of Dec. 18, 1765, against the longer continuance of the closing of the
law. He was likewise chairman of the committee appointed at a town
meeting in October,
1766, to prepare a subscription paper in which the signers agreed to
the use and consumption of all articles manufactured in any of the
Colonies, and more especially in this Province, and not to purchase,
after the 31st
of December next, any of certain enumerated articles, imported from
was a bold measure, but it received the sanction of the country. He was
of the 'Sons of Liberty,' and the intimate of James Otis, Samuel Adams,
Joseph Warren and their associates.
"He was initiated into Masonry
in the First
Lodge (St. John's) in July, 1740, and was chosen Master in 1748. In
1750 he was
elected Grand Treasurer, and again in 1766. And having previously
offices of Junior and Senior Grand Warden and Deputy Grand Master, he
was, in 1768,
on the decease of M. W. Jeremy Gridley, commissioned by Lord Beaufort
for North America and the territories thereto belonging'; which
appointment he held
until his death, on the 16th February, 1787. He was buried with Masonic
the Grand Lodge and the lodges in Boston and Charlestown attending in
Is Chosen Grand Master
chosen for the office of Grand Master at the adjourned meeting of Grand
at the Bunch of Grapes Tavern, Jan. 22, 1768. Henry Price, then serving
Master pro tem, made the nomination of Rowe who, upon the ballot being
the usual manner, received twelve of sixteen votes and was thereupon
and constitutionally elected. Thereafter a committee of nine was
appointed for the
purpose of petitioning the Grand Master of England for a Deputation. In
signed by all members of the committee and dated Jan. 25, 1768, was a
containing some points of historical value, which read in this wise:
"And, Whereas, Masonry in
in this Place Anno 5733, and in the year following, our then Grand
received Orders from Grand Master Craufurd to establish Masonry in all
in Pursuance of which the several Lodges hereafter mentioned have
from us. We therefore crave due Precedency, and that in Order
thereunto, Our Grand
Master Elect may, in his Deputation, be styled Grand Master of all
and your Grace's Petitioners as in duty bound."
along with this petition a letter of his own addressed to the "Right
Grand Master, Deputy Grand Master, Grand Wardens and Brethren in Grand
in which he stated that he had been first appointed Provincial Grand
Master in 1733,
and that in 1735 this commission "was extended over all North America."
He went on to say that the said Deputations were never registered
though he had
paid a fee of three guineas for the same, and stated that "this
was the first that the Grand Lodge ever issued in any Part of America,
so now in all Lodges on the Continent. Other Deputations have since
been given to
different Provinces; but they cannot, according to Rule, take Rank of
and letter were taken to the Grand Lodge of England by Bro. William
Jackson in person,
a member of the committee. After Grand Lodge officers had made their
a Deputation was issued to Rowe in the name of "Beaufort, G.M.," and
by Charles Dillon, Deputy Grand Master, under date of May 12, 1768.
with his Deputation, at Boston, Sept. 30 of the same year.
Was Installed With Elaborate
arrangements were made for installation to be held Nov. 23 following.
to all the known and accepted brothers in town" were issued by the
and as a result a large number of brethren attended, 148 being present
at the dinner
provided on the occasion. Of it, Recording Grand Secretary Charles H.
was ended this grand solemnity, much to the honor of the fraternity, as
had never been seen in America before; what from the richness of the
clothing and ensigns of office, the good order and regularity of the
the appearance of many honorable and respectable brethren, and the
the clothing, the spectators of all ranks were struck with admiration,
few who called themselves brethren, who had sufficient to raise their
it appeared in the countenances of several of them, as the procession
the streets to and from church."
venerable father of the Grand Lodge, delivered an inauguration address
preserved in Grand Lodge Proceedings; one quotation from his earnest
words will reveal the high moral plane upon which the Craft was then
Brethren, let me once more take my solemn leave of this chair, by a
word of advice
to you. Let me recommend to you in the first place, a proper deference
to your new
Grand Master; assisting him with your advice and aid in carrying up
that great building,
Charity! Regard yourselves as a Body of people the most considerable in
selected into different departments, for promoting all the good you
can, in proportion
to your abilities and opportunities ‒ not only to one another, but to
all your fellow
creatures, in public obedience to the laws of God, and the
manifestation of the
social duties we profess. Let each man then in every such department
study his usefulness;
not to recline himself in a round of selfish pleasures or associate for
of eating and drinking, without first paying a peculiar regard to the
of mankind, and to the use of our faculties as reasonable beings."
New Beginning Is Made
a new beginning in organized Massachusetts Masonry had been made in
upshot of which was the ultimate establishment of a new Grand Lodge. In
1752 a group
of Masons gathered together in the Green Dragon Tavern and organized
into a lodge. Inasmuch as the early records of this lodge appear to be
the first four years of its existence, it is difficult to learn much
about its first
members. Their manner of organizing their lodge was open to question.
organizing on a warrant, as was required at the time by the Grand
Lodges of England
and Scotland, they organized according "to ancient usage," that is, a
number of Masons voluntarily formed themselves into an independent
with any Grand Lodge.
handicapped by the anomalous position of their lodge, the brethren, in
a petition to the Grand Lodge of Scotland for a charter. On Nov. 30,
1756, the Grand
Lodge voted to issue the charter but, for a variety of reasons, its
withheld for a season ‒ perhaps largely because of doubts about the
of the petitioners ‒ so that the lodge in Boston did not receive the
until Sept. 4, 1760. In this charter its name was given as St. Andrew's
By 1761 this
lodge had grown to such proportions that the St. John's Grand Lodge of
took action to condemn St. Andrew's Lodge by adopting the following
That it be, and is hereby recommended and ordered by the Grand Master,
that no member
of a regularly constituted Lodge in Boston, do appear at the meeting
(of the Lodge
so called) of Scots Masons in Boston not being regularly constituted in
of this (Grand) Lodge. The Master and Wardens of the several Lodges,
to take notice of this Order at their next meeting."
action being taken St. Andrew's Lodge communicated the fact to the
Grand Lodge of
Scotland. The Grand Master of that Grand Lodge, the Earl of Elgin and
sent a reply to the lodge under date of June 4, 1762, in which, among
"The last reason assigned by
in Boston for their unkind behavior to you is, that the Right
[Jeremy] Gridley, Esq., looks upon your Charter as an infringement of
as Grand Master of North America; it is my opinion there may be some
this; you say he saw, read and approved of your Charter; if he had any
he certainly would have signified them to you when you showed him your
I am confident my R. W. Brother Jeremiah Gridley, Esq., knows and
observes the principles
of Masonry better, than to take offence where there is not the smallest
for it. I do not doubt nor dispute his authority as Grand Master of all
in North America, who acknowledge the authority and hold of the Grand
Lodge of England,
as he certainly has a warrant and commission from the Grand Master of
that effect. The Grand Master and Grand Lodge of Scotland have also
granted a warrant
and commission to our R. W. Bro. Col. John Young, Esq., constituting
him Provincial Grand Master of all the Lodges in North America, who
the authority and hold of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. These
Commissions, when rightly
understood, can never clash or interfere with each other."
St. Andrew's Had
St. John's Grand Lodge took no further interest in its rival body.
During that period,
as Drummond writes:
"It had grown rapidly and
among its members some of the most active and influential men of the
who had been made in the other Lodges, joined it. Then a Mason could
belong to more
than one Lodge, and one receiving the degrees in a Lodge did not become
without a subsequent election to membership. St. Andrew's Lodge
admitted to membership,
or as visitors, members of all other Lodges: but the other Lodges did
Its first Master under its charter was William Burbeck, who was made a
'the first lodge' and had been its Senior Warden; its second Master was
(afterwards Grand Master of Massachusetts Grand Lodge) also made in
'the first Lodge,'
and Past Junior Warden of it, and up to 1767, its Masters and Wardens,
a single exception, were Masons made in Lodges subordinate to the
Lodge. Whether this was merely accidental, or was done with the purpose
the legality of the Lodge in the eyes of the Craft, is now only a
matter of conjecture."
of 1766 St. Andrew's Lodge dispatched its compliments to the Grand
Master and other
Grand Officers of the St. John's Grand Lodge. This friendly overture
was not accepted
with much kindliness; on the 27th of the month, and evidently after
the Grand Lodge "voted" that brethren who had been named "in the
Constitution of the Lodge," naming nine, "were not at the time of their
application for it, or at the date of the said Constitution, free and
and that their applying for a charter had been an imposition upon the
this action Bro. Charles W. Moore, in his historical account of St.
made a comment that was also an argument:
"The bad spirit in which these
written, is not their most objectionable feature. The Brethren who
Committee of the Lodge, with the exception of Ezra Collins were all
in St. Andrew's Lodge, under the authority of its Charter from the
Grand Lodge of
Scotland and were therefore, as lawfully made, and entitled to as much
and respect, as the Grand Master who presided over these deliberations.
of the Charter of the Lodge, and the lawful making of the petitioners
for it, were
matters in which the Grand Lodge had no control or right to interfere.
had passed beyond its reach. Whatever may have been irregular in the
of the Lodge in the earlier days of its organization, had been
and confirmed by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, under whose authority it
and to which body it was alone amenable. If the St. John's Grand Lodge
had any grievances
to complain of it was to that body its complaints should have been
Lodge prepared a reply to the censures of the Grand Lodge, and at the
appointed a committee to convey it to that body, which in turn
appointed a committee
to confer with them. A conference of the two committees was held at the
Tavern but little came of the proceedings except that the controversy
down to a few points. On its side the Grand Lodge committee
in error in having cast aspersions on the Grand Lodge of Scotland;
while the St.
Andrew's committee on its side admitted the irregularity of its
activities, in these words:
also acknowledge in behalf of said Lodge, that all the proceedings of
before their application for a Constitution from the Grand Master of
irregular and wrong; but are fully of opinion, that the proceedings of
Andrew's Lodge, after their Constitution have been regular and just;
and that although
they, before their Constitution, were irregular, yet the Grand Master
has a power of dispensation, and can make irregular Masons regular;
think themselves regular."
poured some oil upon the waters but a full union of the two groups was
many years, as will be related in the following chapter.
- Give a sketch of John Rowe.
- Explain how Provincial Grand
Masters were appointed at the time.
- Tell what you know about Henry
- What are the points of
historical value in the paragraph quoted from the
petition for Rowe's Deputation?
- What would the account of
Rowe's installation indicate of the prosperity
of the Craft in 1768?
- What is indicated concerning
the moral ideals of the Craft at the time of
- When was the lodge that met at
the Green Dragon Tavern organized?
- In what sense was its
- Why do you suppose, did this
group petition the Grand Lodge of Scotland for
- Why didn't it petition the
Grand Lodge of England?
- Why did the St. John's Grand
Lodge oppose St. Andrew's Lodge?
- Was the institution of a lodge
under Scotch charter a violation of the territorial
rights of St. John's Grand Lodge? If not, why not?
- Could brethren at that period
belong to more than one lodge at once? Do you
believe that such a privilege should now be permitted?
On John Rowe
see The Freemasons' Monthly Magazine [Lib*], Charles W. Moore; Boston,
page 161. Beginnings of Freemasonry in America, Johnson; New York,
for Rowe's Deputation as published in full in Proceedings of the Grand
Massachusetts [Lib*]; 1871, page 327.
is given in the same volume, page 352; and Price's speech at Rowe's
is given on page 372.
On St. Andrew's
Lodge, see in particular The Lodge of St. Andrew, and the Massachusetts
Centennial Memorial Volume [Lib*]; Boston, 1870.
Mackeys Revised History of Freemasonry [Lib*], Robert Ingham Clegg;
page 1570 ff.
of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts [Lib*]; 1869.
of Freemasonry [Lib 1889, Vol
4], Robert Freke Gould;
Philadelphia, 1889, Vol. IV, page 334 ff.
the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons, and
Orders [Lib 1891], Stillson and Hughan; Boston,
1891, page 243ff
Get Back To First Principles!
in the June issue of THE BUILDER several answers to your inquiry as to
different Grand Lodges thought as to the length of time a brother
should be a Master
Mason before making application for the so-called Higher Degrees. Such
should never have been necessary if Grand Lodges were doing their duty.
organized for only one thing, namely, that all men who were earnest and
after Truth could come together and exchange ideas and methods and in
this way to
help each other find what all true seekers have ever found ‒ God. There
is no place
in Masonry for any man unless he is earnestly seeking that one goal;
and the man
who comes into the Order on any other basis has wasted his time and
money and can
never become a real Mason. It is too true that those on the inside in
99 per cent
of the membership do not know the true qualifications for entrance, and
thousands are coming in who are only pin Masons or mere lodge members.
who do know the true qualifications were to refuse to let any other
kind in, they
would soon be without friends and be looked on as cranks.
If true Masonry
is to survive, we shall have to get back to what Herbert Spencer would
principles." No petition should be acted on in less than six months
time it is received by the lodge, and if the applicant is found worthy
and is elected
he should serve three years as an Apprentice and be able to prove that
the esoteric meaning of that degree before he can go further. He should
to understand that he can never receive the next degree until he has
shown by his
zeal and study and earnest search he has found the true meaning and is
to live it. In this he should be helped by the J. W., who should be
teach the meaning of the symbols or words used to conceal from the
should serve two years as a F. C., and should be compelled to study the
arts and sciences and prove that he knows about them to appreciate the
work of his
Creator. Unless he knows the first two of these arts at least, how can
he ever expect
to interpret the Great Light, or any scientific work on the development
of the human
soul? And how can he appreciate the glories of this world unless he
of music? Or the glories of the universe unless he knows something of
which science shows the utter absurdity of any man trying to fathom the
Mind by his little finite mind? Of course this should not prevent
anyone from studying
the universe and its marvelous system of worlds or any other study that
progress in knowledge. When any brother has mastered these two degrees
he has mastered
Masonry, so that when he is raised and brought into tile company of
those who have
learned the Truth, he is capable of comprehending all that the
have to give him, and he will be confirmed in his knowledge especially
if he goes
on through the Scottish Rite degrees. He should, however, serve one
year as a Master
by Grand Lodge decree. When this program is carried out by all Grand
the world we shall not have any "lodge members" but real Masons, and we
shall have officers who are capable of teaching the initiates or at
them in their search for the Great Central Light.
If THE BUILDER
wants to do some worth-while constructive work for the advancement of
can do so by initiating a campaign for the above program. When Grand
six and one-half years from the time a petition is presented until a
through the Blue Lodge degrees, there will be no need for any
discussion as that
in your inquiry to the Grand Masters. No building is secure unless the
are well laid; and since the Entered Apprentice Degree is the:
foundation of Masonry,
it should be thoroughly mastered before any other degree is attempted.
not have such large numbers under such a program, but we would wield
for good in the world than many times the present number. In other
hundred thousand such Masons would wield more influence than all the
Masons in the
world at the present time. I hope to live to see some such plan put
by the Grand Lodges of the world, and Masonry brought back to its
This will require real education before the age of twenty-one to carry
is no darkness but ignorance."
‒ Wm. Hockings,
In your statement
under the photograph of Bro. John S. Kosier, in the June BUILDER, on
page 163, I
find the query, "Is He the Oldest Living Past Master? " ‒ I am herewith
handing you information, which will answer the question so far as the
of Georgia is concerned.
Taylor, of Luthersville, Gal, joined the Masonic Fraternity in 1855. He
the Grand Lodge of Georgia in 1860, and has never missed a
communication of the
Grand Lodge since his first visit to the Grand Lodge, making sixty-five
service without missing a single year. He will be 92 years old the 25th
day of this
coming October. Bro. Taylor is Past Grand Master of Georgia, Past Grand
of Georgia and Past Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter of
States, and still active in Masonic work. He has attended the Board of
for the Masonic Orphans' Home of Georgia and served as Chairman of the
Trustees since 1907, and has never missed a meeting of the Board.
‒ James D.
Hamrick, Grand Master, Georgia.
You're A Mason" -- [A Poem]
you can clear from off the path about you
The rotting limbs of Bigotry and Greed,
If you can recognize with men around you
The Brotherhood of Man above their Creed;
If you can know that all of human thinking
Gains strength from God's divinity in man
And see His laws with human effort linking,
Then you're a Mason, brother, and a Man.
If you can see in all Masonic labor
Responsibility towards your fellowman
And, strips for Service, you can draw your sabre
And fight for Truth, as only Masons can;
If you can speed the day when Education
Shall raise man's vision o'er his cult and klan
And fill him with Masonic inspiration
Then you're a Mason, brother, and a Man.
If you can stoop and raise a fallen brother,
And start him on the Road of Hope again
If you can know yourself to be a lover
Of Honor, though obscured by cloud and rain;
If you can hear the call of grief and sadness
From your distressed, discouraged fellowman,
And change his tears to laughter and to gladness
Then you're a Mason, brother, and a Man.
to Read in Masonry
Grades, Eastern Star,
back a Masonic periodical published an editorial to say that Masonic
about come to an end for lack of anything further to do. (He should
have read Bro.
Gilbert Haynes' Untrodden Paths of Masonic Research!) In making this
statement our colleague must have completely overlooked the whole realm
by the Royal Arch, Cryptic Masonry, Knight Templarism, and the Scottish
of having reached its term of usefulness in these fields, research has
not yet properly
made a beginning save possibly in the case of a few valuable treatises
in the indispensable Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. The almost utter paucity
good works on these Higher Grades is a thing to be astounded at, and
casts a rather
lurid light on the claims sometimes made by them to be high schools or
of Masonry. That claim cannot be substantiated until a literature is
high schools and universities without books are unthinkable.
have remained indifferent to the appeal of the Higher Grades it has not
lack of subject or of materials. The Royal Arch came into existence in
eighteenth century, or before. Knight Templarism followed a few years
During the same general period Scottish Rite Masonry came gradually
the Mother Supreme Council having been organized in 1801. During this
a half, or a century and three-quarters, a vast number of events
occurred, and all
manner of developments happened, enough to fill many volumes with a
would be as colorful and as full of human interest as any other chapter
in the long
story of Masonry. Why don't competent brethren give us this history?
The whole Craft
calls loudly for it.
At the same
time these Higher Grades offer an equal opportunity to writers gifted
with the faculties
for philosophy and the interpretation of symbols and ritual. In his
Morals and Dogma
Albert Pike revealed the possibilities of such a treatment in his own
albeit he did not, as some appear to think, exhaust his subject, or
utter the final
word. In truth and by way of parenthesis, we need two or three books
and Dogma itself, to reduce its mountains of chaotic materials to
order, and to
release its leading ideas from their vast and confusing context. Let
There should be a book, or better still, books to do for the Royal
Arch, the Council,
and the Commandery what Morals and Dogma has done for the Scottish Rite.
In that connection
another lacuna may be noted. The Higher Grades have grown to be great
organizations, each sovereign in its own field; but these organizations
of their members that they be in good standing in a Blue Lodge,
is a zone of constant interaction as between the Craft lodges and the
A wise and learned book is needed to cover that zone to the end that it
the legal issues involved, and at the same time make clear in what
fashion the rituals
of the Higher Grades dove-tail into, or amplify, or complete the Ritual
of the Blue
Lodge. It is an opportunity for a brother of parts. If such a brother
forward he will lay the whole Masonic Craft under a debt of obligation.
of a more adequate literature on the Higher Grades would be most
welcome to students
of the Blue Lodge. If ever the origins of the Royal Arch, Templarism,
and the Scottish
Rite are laid bare, and a meticulously careful account of their early
given, the facts will throw some badly needed light on the Blue Lodge
of the corresponding
case in point here is the Royal Arch. Did it arise inside or outside
the Craft lodges?
If it arose inside, why? What were the conditions that gave it birth?
Why was it
incorporated in the Blue Lodge system? If it arose outside, who began
it, and for
what purpose? In either case, was it designed in order to “complete”
of the Lost word? If so, why did the Blue Lodge suffer its own
to remain "mutilated"? However such questions may be answered, the
will help us to know how Blue Lodge Masons of the eighteenth century
their own symbolism.
who undertakes a study of the Scottish Rite will be fortunate if he
in which much of the extant literature is written. He will be more
if he has some familiarity with the history of the eighteenth century,
of that brief but crowded chapter of it that contains the story of the
and that other chapter, also filled with incident, in which Frederick
figured as the chief character. Perhaps the most useful available work
(second-hand) is Robert B. Folger's Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite
[Lib 1862], though it is out of date in
particulars; and so also of Enoch T. Carson's "History of Ancient and
Scottish Rite Masonry in the United States" [Lib*], Part IV of The
Addenda of the American edition of Gould's The History of Freemasonry.
of Knight Templarism will find in the same volume T. S. Parvin's "The
of Knight Templar Masonry in the United States," which may be read in
with Addison's Knight Templar History [Lib 1842]. Both of these studies need
checked up by the chapters in Clegg's Mackey's Revised History of
and the essays in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum.
In the meantime
we must rest content with what we have, of which some indication is
given in the
list below, along with a few titles on the Order of the Eastern Star.
To that list
should be added the general histories of Freemasonry which contain
chapters on the
Higher Grades, such as Gould's History, Mackey's Revised History of
History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders, and a large number of
Masonic encyclopedias, of which a number were mentioned on this page
- Centennial Memorial of Thomas
Royal Arch Chapter [Lib*], Frederick A. Currier.
- The Cryptic Rite [Lib 1888], J. Ross Robertson.
- The Higher Degrees Handbook
[Lib 1923], J. S. M. Ward.
- Origin of the English Rite of
Freemasonry [Lib 1884], Wm. J. Hughan.
- Origin of the Royal Arch [Lib 1867], Dr. George Oliver.
- Story of the Royal Arch [Lib 1919], William Harvey.
- Treatise on Selection and
Registration of Masons Marks [Lib*], Charles A.
- Treatise on the Construction,
Completion and Dedication of King Solomon's
Temple [Lib*], Charles A. Conover.
- The Crusades [Lib 1894], T. S. Archer and C.L.
- History of Malta Knighthood
[Lib*], W. Henry Lannon.
- Knights Templar History [Lib 1842], C. G. Addison.
- Ancient and Accepted Scottish
Rite in Thirty-three Degrees [Lib 1862], Robert B. Folger.
- Ancient Documents Relating to
the A. & A. Scottish Rite in the Archives
of the R. W. Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania
- Book of the Ancient and
Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry [Lib 1914], Charles T. McClenachan
- Brief Account of the Scottish
Rite [Lib*], Henry A. Crosby.
- Life Story of Albert Pike [Lib 1928], Fred W. Allsopp.
- Morals and Dogma [Lib 1871], Albert Pike.
- Thoughts Inspired by the
Scottish Rite Degrees [Lib*], Edgar A. Russell.
- History of the Order of the
Eastern Star [Lib 1912], Willis D. Engle.
- History of the Order of the
Eastern Star [Lib 1917], Jean M'Kee Kenaston.
- Pioneering in Masonry [Lib*],
Lucien B. Rule.
- Woman and Freemasonry [Lib*],
"Freemasonry has in all ages insisted that men shall come to its door
of their own free will not as the result of solicitations, not from
curiosity, but from a favorable opinion of the Institution and a desire
to be ranked
among its members.”
THE SQUARE," A HANDBOOK FOR FREEMASONS [Lib*]. By Wm. Hy. Beable.
by the author. May be purchased through the National Masonic Research
Department, 1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Limp cloth, four by
51 pages. Price, postpaid, fifty-five cents.
is an active English Mason. Most of the little articles collected in
Square" appeared originally in The Freemason, of London, and treat of
Masonic subjects from the point of view of the English Craft. To an
the most instructive chapters are those dealing with four of the great
institutions of England, more especially those on the "Royal Masonic
for Boys," and the "Royal Masonic Institution for Girls." In fine
keeping with our English brethren's unflagging devotion to Masonic
relief ‒ proportionately
to their membership they are far ahead of us in this ‒ Bro. Beable
devotes all proceeds
from the sale of his beautiful little book to Masonic charities.
* * *
Book on Human Engineering
by CASSIUS J. KEYSER, Columbia University
MAN AND HIS
AFFAIRS FROM AN ENGINEERING POINT OF VIEW [Lib*]. By Walter N. Polakov,
M. E. Published
by Williams & Wilkins Company. May be purchased through the
Research Society Book Department, 1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo.
of science is the spirit of truth-seeking, and nothing but science can
world. But science is one thing and the applications of science are
former is good; the latter may be good or bad ‒ it may advance
civilization or it
may rend and destroy it. If science is to save the world it must
contrive to enlighten
the world. Scientific men and women cannot indeed make scientists of
but regarding the spirit and the ways of science they can make the
as one may become wise about agriculture, for example, without being a
about music without being a musician, or about the affairs of State
a king or a legislator.
To give the
multitude such wisdom demands a special art ‒ an art in which most
have not been trained and which, most unfortunately, they are neither
qualified to practice or even to honor. Happily there are a few notable
and the author of this book is one of them.
well-bred, Mr. Polakov does not wear academic spectacles, nor does he
an academic pen. He is a consulting engineer, accustomed to dealing
with the concrete.
But he is no mere technician, much less a mere practician; he is a
union of doer
and thinker ‒ a fact abundantly evident in his contributions to the
engineering, especially in his Mastering Power Production, a superb
work that no
student of engineering can afford to neglect.
work the present one is at once scientifically enlightened and quick
with the spirit
of human service. Both of them are contributions to what Count
Korzybski has happily
called Human Engineering ‒ the application of scientific intelligence
to human affairs.
But while the former work is pretty technical, the latter one is
designed for the
general reader and can be read by all save morons.
What is the
book's message? It cannot be conveyed in a word but its general nature
may be intimated.
Despite the exactions of his profession the author has somehow
contrived to keep
in touch with the great advances in the scientific thought of recent
in the fundamentals of logic, mathematics and physics. Few have seen so
as he that these fundamental developments are fast producing a profound
in our views of the world and of Man. He has seen clearly, what most
have yet to
learn, that the old cosmic absolutes ‒ absolute space, absolute time,
absolute natural law, absolute truth ‒ are gone. He sees clearly that
of relativity, thus inaugurated by the basic sciences, is destined to
work a corresponding
revolution, deep, noiseless, it may be, but inevitable, in all the
views and institutions
and affairs of man. The aim of the book is to indicate the nature of
to prepare us for it, to show us that it is the part of wisdom to
welcome it and
to facilitate its coming.
the book will probably read it twice, as I have done, for it is
many-sided and very
thought-provoking. Is it a work for educators? It is noteworthy that
contributions to educational theory the three most significant ones are
by men who
do not pose as educators. I refer to the preface of Boys' Own
Arithmetic by Raymond
Weeks, to Count Korzybski's Manhood of Humanity and to Polakov's book,
the chapter on Language, Logic and Destiny, which is alone worth many
price of the volume.
But the book
was not specially designed for professional educators. Far from it. It
be read by politicians for it would help them face about in the
direction of statesmanship;
by professional philosophers, for it would help to emancipate them from
and verbomania; by engineers for it would elevate and amplify their
engineering; by biologists, anthropologists and historians, for it
would give them
new light upon the nature of man; and by all men and women of affairs
for it will
give them precious insight into the essential relations of their
affairs to the
modern developments of Science.
* * *
OF MASONIC THOUGHT [Lib*]. Compiled by Bros. Geo. M. Martin and John W.
Scotland. May be purchased through the National Masonic Research
Society Book Department,
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Blue cloth, 816 pages, table of
Price, postpaid, $2.75.
is frankly a compilation, and consists of articles, addresses, lectures
and so on
gathered from a very wide field. Naturally in such a collection the
merit varies a good deal, but the general level is remarkably high;
in it is not only readable but worth reading.
Most of the
items are quite short, and it is the sort of book one can pick up and
open at random
and find something of interest. The table of contents gives the names
such as Kipling and Sir Gilbert Parker; of students such as Dring,
Vibert, and others whose names are very familiar to all reading Masons,
and of others
again whose fame has hardly crossed the Atlantic.
be impossible to discuss the contents as the articles are so varied in
but a glimpse is given of almost every avenue of Masonic study and
every field of
have devoted all the proceeds of the work to assist in the building of
Temple in the town of Dundee, the seat of one of the oldest lodges in
This laudable undertaking is worthy of support. One annoying omission
in the editing
of the book must be recorded. Apparently most of the articles have been
before, but in almost every case there is no indication of this, and
is most marked in precisely those cases where such information is most
Box and Correspondence
I am a Past
Master and am often called upon to examine visiting brothers.
demand first the up-to-date lodge receipt including the Grand Lodge
voucher if possible,
also his signature, all of which is in accordance with the Grand Lodge
Then I take
the three Great Lights and ask him to place them as he saw them in each
then I ask him and my witness (I always have a witness) to place one
hand on the
Holy Bible with me, and repeat the Tiler's oath after me, both visitor
Then I proceed with the regular lecture of the three degrees.
I have learned
all this indirectly but have never seen any authority for it, and
whenever I have
been examined myself I have never seen it done twice alike.
Do you know what is right and regular and by what authority? Am I right
change or alteration should I make to be right and regular? Is there a
question: Has a near Masonic body like the Grotto or Eastern Star,
etc., a right
to demand from a visiting Master Mason the Masonic password?
I claim that
nobody other than the Blue Lodge has a right to demand that word, and
inquiring brothers not to give it when demanded. I am quite sure that I
What is your opinion or ruling?
J. W., New York.
to your first question it would appear that you are quite right in your
examining, but on the other hand, there is no regular way of doing
and everywhere binding. It is a matter wisely and naturally left to the
of those appointed by the Master to test the qualifications of the
is, however, another side to the question, very generally ignored, so
much so that
many Masons do not even realize its existence. The lodge is equally on
the stranger brother. It is as much the latter's duty to take nothing
or on hearsay as for the examining committee. It is for this reason
that when the
solemn declaration is administered, usually styled the "Tiler's Oath,"
that all present should repeat it as you say ‒ which is not always
done. Also not
only should the visitor show his diploma or certificate and receipt for
he should, unless he has lawful information to satisfy him on the
to see the charter of the lodge. A well instructed brother without
to the standing of the lodge would insist on seeing it before answering
of an esoteric nature. The proper way of arranging the Great Lights is
test, but by no means an essential one.
questions, many examiners do not follow the order in the lectures at
in fact, some avoid it as much as possible, but this again may militate
the rights of the visitor.
first group of questions and answers (the first twenty-five
approximately) be considered
as a whole it will be seen that they are so designed that each party
cautious reserve Neither questions nor answers by themselves could mean
the uninitiated, and the form and order of the questions is as much a
proof of the
qualifications of his examiners to the one examined as his answers are
of his own. This group should therefore never be omitted and no others
prior place. After this the examiner may use his own discretion as to
how much and
what he should demand. His object is not to find out how proficient the
may be, but whether he is what he claims to be.
to the witness, it is the more usual custom in most places for the W.
M. to appoint
two brothers to examine the visitor, generally Past Masters, and the
was for them to introduce the visitor at the altar after the lodge was
certify that they had found him duly qualified or well skilled in
second question it would seem that speaking generally you are quite
no other body (such as those you mention) has any right to demand any
word or sign
pertaining to the Blue Lodge. In the case of bodies whose membership
who are not Masons this is particularly true. On the other hand an
of such a body, in his quality as a Master Mason, may privately demand
or sign to satisfy himself of the visitor's status. In the case of
all of whose members are Master Masons such an examination is most
right is not the right of the body as such, which is extraneous to
but of its individual members, who as Masons may legitimated demand
proof that the
visitor is a Mason, just as he has a right to be satisfied that they
have the same
* * *
in the Ritual
question from the same correspondent is also of interest:
when a newly made brother was raised without an address. In recent
years an address
before raising has come into use as follows:
in your present … situation you represent no less … who Masonic
us … just prior to the completion of the Temple … for refusing … as …
is said to
have been … by the strong … I will now as … and will communicate, etc.
Where did this come from and by what authority Is it right to say
anything at this
point in the ceremony, bearing in mind what the ritual says previously
first… and the first … at the … etc.? Is not this address therefore out
of questions are not very easy to answer. Brethren who have not
traveled very extensively
are frequently quite ignorant of the wide variations in the ritual used
jurisdictions; there are many different ways of arranging the essential
explaining their significance actually in use, besides others that were
and have become obsolete.
be impossible to say exactly where the address referred to came from.
It may possibly
be authorized by the committee on ritual in the jurisdiction, or it may
grown up in some lodge and been copied by others. It depends on the
of the previous ritual formula that you employ whether it be consistent
or not to
say anything at this point. In most rituals the substance of the first
part of this
address is given to the candidate early in the second "section" while
the equivalent of the last is given in the instruction later.
* * *
a Master Mason join the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite?
is an old Latin saying De gustibus non disputandum, which is the
equivalent of the
English "There is no accounting for tastes." But it is hardly fair to
dismiss the question merely as a matter of personal predilection,
though it does
appeal sometimes that the same things that are inducements to on man to
degrees of the Rite lead another to disapprove of it altogether.
have become more and more dramatic in character until the newer
buildings, the so-called
"cathedrals” of the Rite, are frankly theatres, with proscenium, drop
scenery, and all the paraphernalia of the stage. There is no doubt that
there put on are most impressive, and in many places highly charged
and should have a beneficial effect. On the other hand the friendliest
avoid noticing that the reality of the claim of the Rite to be a
system of moral philosophy tinged with mysticism has in the same
more and more shadowy.
the various degrees in their origin and earliest promulgation had very
do with each other. Several of them in their original forms were
designed to be
the highest degree, the ne plus ultra of Masonry. After being worked
they were put together in groups; connecting degrees were invented,
mostly of very
little interest or significance, and these groups were again put
at last the present rather unwieldy number of thirty-three was
attained. One rite
was then trying to outbid the other in the number of degrees it could
on Albert Pike revised the rituals and did his best to make a system of
very difficult if not impossible task, considering the heterogeneous
which they were composed. He compiled the well-known text book, "Morals
Dogma," [Lib 1871] to set forth a philosophy and
of the series; a work about which opinions are as sharply divided as
about the value
of the degrees themselves. All that can be said, therefore, is that if
is attracted by the Rite he will probably enjoy it very much and may
profit by it,
but if not, it is possible for him to go as deeply into the meaning of
a Master Mason as if he possessed all the degrees of concordant orders
But of course he will in that ease have to seek for further light by
* * *
and the Narcotic
American Grand Lodges taken action to assist the International Narcotic
Association in their truly laudable work? It appeals to me as being a
effort, this task of stopping the general use of narcotics.
‒ R. D.
do not show that any Grand Lodge thus far has taken any action
whatsoever, nor do
we see the necessity of such a thing. Desirable as it undoubtedly is to
the unspeakable evil of the narcotic habit, such an activity Does not
the province of Grand Lodge action, just as other equally necessary
of them similarly Masonic in their spirit, cannot be discussed in Grand
For one thing, many of these crusades for cleaning up the world
a case in point here) are political in their character; for another,
there is a
limit to the moral duties of organized Freemasonry. If it is
to stop the narcotic evil, why is it not also its duty to undertake
social reform? Where could the line be drawn?
* * *
give me any information regarding the significance of the Warden's
‒ J. T.,
use of the columns at the present time is to mark whether the lodge is
or refreshment. If the former, the one on the Junior Warden's pedestal
is laid down
while that of the Senior Warden is erect. When the lodge is called to
it passes into the special care of the Junior Warden, who thereupon
his column while the Senior Warden lays his down. There is some doubt
correct procedure when the lodge is closed. It is generally assumed in
States that while the lodge stands closed the Craft is at refreshment,
and it is
in consequence of this ritual supposition that the legal theory has
arisen, in some
jurisdictions actually embodied in definite enactment, that the Junior
act as a public prosecutor when charges have been preferred against any
excepting of course in the extremely rare event of the offense being
the lodge was at labor, when it would, on this principle, be the Senior
duty. However, following this line of thought, when the lodge is closed
should stand as when the lodge is at refreshment, and should be so
placed when it
is about to be opened. Generally they are left just as they happen to
It is not perhaps a very important matter, but it is attention to such
marks the perfect rendition of the ritual.
the date of the first appearance of the columns in the lodge as actual
not certain. There is evidence of a kind in the "Three Distinct Knocks"
that they were in general use in 1760 among the "Ancients," and that
represented the two pillars of the porch of K. S. T. Up to this time,
much later in some places, the "Modern" lodges contented themselves
drawing them in the so-called "diagram" of the lodge. The engravings of
the "Procession of Scald Miserable Masons" shows among many other
carried in the procession, two large pillars, each about as high as a
man. It is
probable that there has never been any uniformity in the matter, some
small columns, some large, and some only drew them. It is obvious that
of using them as mentioned above as marking whether the lodge is called
off or on,
could only have arisen when they were actual objects small enough to be
It is also pretty evident that where large columns exist in addition to
the Wardens, that they are in symbolic origin merely duplications. As
far back as
any record or indication goes, Freemasons have always attached a
to the two pillars of the porch fashioned by Hiram, the widow's son,
and they were
naturally represented in the lodge in the way most convenient, and this
led to the variations in form that we find, while the underlying
principle has remained
* * *
Order of the Temple
Can you tell
me when the Knight Templars joined the Masonic Order? Was it after the
Jacques de Molay? In what country was it and how did it happen? I shall
obliged if you can answer these questions.
‒ G. M.,
said first of all that during the Crusades a number of Masons went to
among the multitudes of men of every rank and condition of life, and
that they so
distinguished themselves that the chivalric orders in some way
and some of the knights joined the craft organization as honorary
members. And that
when they returned from the Holy Land, this connection was maintained.
is another story that after the suppression of the Order of the Temple
members fled and hid themselves by joining the Masonic lodges, but
others have said
that they pretended to be working Masons as a disguise, and that they
Freemasonry as a Fraternity with initiatory rites.
is yet another tale that certain Templars fled to Scotland and helped
the Bruce against the English, and as a reward were formed by him into
of the Rosy Cross, which later became the origin of Freemasonry in the
form of the
Royal Order of Scotland, which some would tell us is the true authentic
Masonry. Others say that the Templars maintained their existence in
to the times of the Jacobite conspiracies and insurrections, but that
period they nearly died out, and to preserve their organization
admitted a number
of Masons, and that through this it became the rule that one
to become a Knight Templar was to be a Master Mason. Similar stories
are told in
France and elsewhere, and they are all equally probable and all equally
real evidence, so it would seem everyone may take his choice.
the question should first be asked, did the Knight Templars join the
And to this question most of those best qualified to speak would answer
in the negative.
Not only is it improbable in itself, but the different stories so
other that they cancel out. The idea of the connection between the two
seems to have had two roots. One was a rather snobbish desire to
associate the origin
of the Fraternity with knighthood and nobility ‒ the other was the
the Temple. Masons were interested not only with Solomon's Temple, but
and then Herod's, and later still with the Christian order that built
and headquarters on the self-same site and was pledged to defend it
enemies of Christendom. The Templar connection rounded out the
with the first Temple, and so when high degrees were being devised and
this theme was inevitably seized upon, and worked out in all kinds of
main lines of which have survived ‒ the Templar Orders of America and
Empire (which are very different from each other) and the degrees with
in the A. & A. S. R.
* * *
What is the
official name of the Scottish Rite supreme body in the Southern states?
titles should its officials be addressed?
title of the supreme body is given in the Statutes, thus: "The Supreme
of the Thirty-third and Last Degree of the Ancient and Accepted
Scottish Rite of
Freemasonry for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States of
The title of the Grand Commander is "Sovereign," of the Lieutenant
Commander is "Venerable," and of all other officers and members is
* * *
Books Are Recommended?
of Books for the Mason has given me a larger understanding of the
of Masonic reading. May I be permitted to ask if the Society recommends
‒ W. S.
M., New York.
not. The Book Department of the Society came gradually into existence,
thought of ever making a commercial business of it, and solely as a
to its members. In the early days of the Department the Board of
to list only such titles as could be recommended without reservation,
but this proved
to be impracticable, owing to a great diversity of opinion among
members. What one
man believes to be a poor book another man considers to be valuable.
Society nor any other group of Masons has any right to censor Masonic
to read and what not to read is an inalienable prerogative of every
The Board of Editors never hesitates to give its own honest opinions
about any book
of which a member makes inquiry. Every member may feel free to make
before purchasing a book if he so desires.
* * *
Has Been The Religion
Of The Presidents?
kindly inform me, through the Question Box Department, what has been
affiliation of the Presidents of the United States?
G. L. K., Ohio.
to an unsigned brochure in our files, the Presidents have been of seven
affiliations, not counting those of no church at all. We cannot vouch
for the accuracy
of this statement and will appreciate a check-up by such readers as
have the data
in hand. In tabulated form the names stand thus:
‒ Washington, Madison, Monroe, Wm. H. Harrison, Tyler, Taylor, Pierce,
Unitarian ‒ John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Fillmore, Taft.
Presbyterian ‒ Jackson, Polk, Buchanan, Lincoln, Cleveland, Benjamin
Reformed Dutch ‒ Van Buren, Roosevelt.
Methodist ‒ Grant, Hays, McKinley.
Disciples ‒ Garfield.
President Coolidge is a member of the Congregationalist Church.
* * *
Rite Liturgy Wanted
I am desirous
of obtaining a copy of the Liturgy of the first three degrees of the
Accepted Scottish Rite. I have the rest of the set, and am willing to
pay any reasonable
price for it. Our library here does not contain it either, and at
present the supply
is exhausted at Washington.
know where there is a copy for sale, or perhaps a notice in THE BUILDER
one to light.
‒ W. A.
Theobald, P. O. Box 438, Chicago,
not know where this work could be obtained, but are very pleased to be
able to give
publicity to Bro. Theobald's requirements, and hope that someone among
may have a copy he wishes to dispose of.
congratulation on the May number of THE BUILDER continue to arrive and
that similar efforts be made to deal with Freemasonry in other
countries. This is
very gratifying and we hope to be able to carry out some of these
* * *
A story related
by Rob Morris many years ago throws a lurid light on the conditions
the Craft labored in the fifties and sixties of the last century. It
serious complaints reached the Grand Master concerning a certain lodge
in his jurisdiction
and he appointed a commission of grave and reverend seigneurs ‒ at
least right worshipful
brethren ‒ to inquire into the matter. The commission met and summoned
among them was a member of the lodge in question whose testimony ran as
in answer to the questions asked him:
Yes, it was true the lodge met
in a room over
a "dramhouse" but he thought that this very conveniently solved the
of providing necessary refreshment. Yes, it was a fact that most of the
out of the windows, but no more than afforded necessary ventilation.
Yes, the floor
was only loose boards with wide cracks between them, but this saved the
of having cuspidors ‒ and as for anyone discovering the secrets of
Masonry, he had
been a member of the lodge for three years and he hadn't learned any.
to say how the commission reported.
* * *
very much to learn that "The Square" of Vancouver, B. C., has to be
suspended. This is bad news, for "The Square" has been one of the best
and most generally interesting of Masonic magazines. It is to be
that this suspension may be only temporary and that Bro. Templeton may
be able to
continue it on the same high level that he has done in the past. "The
is one of the comparatively few Masonic periodicals of general
interest, very little
of purely local concern having appeared in its pages. It is too bad
that it could
not have more general support.
* * *
for a copy of "The Clique" met with an unexpected response, quite a
of readers very kindly sent us copies, for which courtesy on their part
we are truly
* * *
As an additional
note or comment on Bro. Tuckett's very interesting article in the May
THE BUILDER on "Prince Charles Edward Stuart, G. M.," we reproduce the
following communication by Bro. J. O. Manton to Miscellanea Latomorum
regarding the old lodge at Li(t)chfield, England. It does not appear
Bro. Manton is referring to the article in THE BUILDER, but to one
the April number of the above mentioned periodical.
Tuckett is in error in crediting Derbyshire with the Longnor Lodge of
is in Staffordshire, just over the border. Perhaps the following
and details will be of interest. The Lodge at Longnor was consecrated
on 28th June,
1811, and the number was altered to 492 in 1814. Its last return was
made in 1818
and it was erased in 1829. In the meantime an Atholl Lodge had been
founded at Buxton,
in 1810, with the number 165, under the name 'Derbyshire Lodge.' In
1837 it had
only two members, and in 1840 the surviving members of the Lodge at
the removal of the Derbyshire Lodge to that place from Buxton.
this Lodge was in its turn erased in 1866 having made no returns for
and on 15th September, 1868, a warrant was issued for the Phoenix Lodge
of St. Ann,
Buxton, and the two brethren of the extinct Lodge at Longnor who were
of all its furniture and its warrant, being among the founders of the
transferred to it all the effects of the old one. The Lodge at Buxton
is still in
possession of them and the old warrant is there today. It bears the
date 24th July,
1787 – not June as printed at p. 117.”
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Albert Pike a Biography
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and its Kindred Sciences
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History of Masonry and
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History of the Order of the
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Morals and Dogma
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Origin of the English Rite of
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The Cryptic Rite
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The Higher Degrees Handbook
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The History of the Knight
Templars; The Temple Church, and the Temple
Add42 / auth. Addison Charles G. - London : Longman, Brown, Green, and
Longmans, 1842. - Scanned at sacred-texts.com, May, 2006 : Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 285. - 1.8 MB.
The History of the Order of the
Eng12 / auth. Engle Willis D. - Indianapolis : Willis D. Engle, 1912. -
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The Origin of the Royal Arch
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The Scottish Rite
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The Story of the Royal Arch
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