Masonic Research Society
of the Masonic Institution
Bro. Louis Block, P.
G. M., Iowa
no man who does, not now and then keenly realize how greatly he needs
to know what
those things really are with which he has most commonly to do.
Most of us
are too often inclined to be content with the outward seeming, the mere
of things. Or we may be satisfied to accept what someone else tells us
about a thing,
and to let it go at that. We are all pretty apt to take things pretty
much for granted
and to saunter along our easy way until some new experience strikes us
to the fact that there is something beneath and beyond, that until then
we had never
known was there.
who has thought the least about the matter is the one who is the
readiest to tell
you he knows all about what Masonry means, what it stands for, what it
trying to do.
If old Socrates
should come back to earth and go poking around among us seeking light
on the question
"What Is Masonry?" he would surely and quickly accumulate such a vast
variety of answers as would drive him to some solitary corner in the
effort to recover
from his stupefaction and confusion of mind.
far too many Masons who have either never penetrated to the heart and
core of the
matter or have long ago forgotten what they found at the journey's end.
all of us tend to get "rusty", not only in the Ritual, but, what is far
more to be regretted, in the great themes the Ritual strives to teach.
In fact there
is no one of us, from the youngest Entered Apprentice in the Northeast
the lodge to the grey-beard who bears the Great Lights in funeral
would not be greatly helped his taking his Masonry out, now and then,
off, and taking a good square look at it in the effect to learn what it
may be many places to which one might go for his answer to the question
Is Masonry?" but it would seem that the obvious place to go would be to
Institution itself. It has its own clear-cut positive, out-spoken
answer to this
question, an answer as ancient as the Institution itself. Listen:
"The design of the Masonic
to make its votaries wiser and better and consequently happier."
Does It Mean?
that before? Of course, over and over again. But just what does it mean?
we go on to try to answer this question let us recall to mind a certain
fact about Masonry, and that is that it deals with the propound of
truths of a nature
so peculiar as to permit of their being promulgated only in a certain
The principles of Masonry are living, breathing things, and cannot be
with the cold, hard-worded precision of mathematical propositions.
ever comes directly at a subject. She travels toward her goal by
by symbol and propounds by parable. The teachings of Masonry are of
such a nature
that they can properly be presented only by what Whittier so eloquently
"The picture writing of the
The myths and parables of primal years."
observer soon comes to see that there is nothing obvious about the
Masonry and that Albert Pike was for the most part in the right in
that "the symbol conceals".
it is also true with Masonry as it is with life and religion that
"Answering unto Man's endeavor
Truth and Right are still revealed."
Is it not
true that we value the treasures of Masonry all the more because they
do not lie
openly on the surface, and can only be acquired by earnest thought and
rejoice and be glad to realize that real Masonic revelation comes only
as the result
of reflection, oft renewed, and many times repeated. It is this very
fact that makes
"the mystic art" worthy a man's mind.
make its votaries wiser and better." Even so, but how?
by teaching them to see and to think. To see by holding before their
emblems and stirring within them a desire to see beneath the surface to
of truth that lies hidden within. Somehow we are all so built that
things that are
simple and shallow don't hold us long. But face us with a puzzle, a
mystery, a thing
that defies our penetration and challenges our power of solution, and
at once our
interest is keenly aroused.
It was a
crying curiosity that caused most of us to join the lodge. We were
crazy to know
the secrets, and in due time they were told to us.
Yet, is that
true? Were they really told to us? Don't they still remain secrets for
most of us,
so far as their real worth and meaning is concerned?
We Know What We Are Talking
we so glibly bandy about among us sign and symbol, token and word, due
dialogue, do we really know what we are talking about? Sometimes I
think we are
like a parcel of parrots persistently pattering about our "perfect
both pedal and pectoral, yet of whose real meaning we have no
proposition seem preposterous to you? Well, the next time you
foregather with a
brother, dig into him, demand to know what this, that, and the other
sign and symbol
truly mean, and see how quickly he cries, "Oh, Man!" and hoists the
hailing sign of distress.
Here is what
actually happened not long since in a certain lodge not a thousand
miles from here.
The Grand Master was paying the lodge an official visit. He had been
and welcomed, conducted to the East, and seated beside a leading Past
the lodge. He returned the gavel to the Master of the lodge and the
now thy Creator in the days of thy youth ‒ "
G. M. in an undertone to the P. M.: "Listen to this, for I want to ask
some questions." "All right." … "in the day when the keepers
of the house shall tremble and the strong men shall bow themselves--"
G. M. to
P. M. "What does that mean?" P. M. to G. M. "I don't know."
… "and those that look out of the windows be darkened, and the doors
be shut in the streets, when the sound of the grinding is low ‒ " G. M.
P. M. "What does that mean?" P. M. to G. M. "I don't know."
… "and the almond tree shall flourish, and the grasshopper shall be a
and desire shall fail." G. M. to P. M. "What does that mean?" P.
M. to G. M. (irritably). "I don't know. I never did know! I haven't the
idea what any of it means!"
times he had recited it ‒ many more he had heard it recited. Yet to him
no more than does a Latin prayer to a worshipper who knows no tongue
no more than does the whirr of the Chinese prayer-wheel to the coolie
writer has concerned himself with things Masonic from "the days of his
until now when for him Life's descending sun has begun to sink in the
West. He has
striven earnestly to realize the meaning the immortal words of that
and believes he has some small conception of their significance. Yet he
well that even he has fallen far short of exhausting their meaning and
the day will never come for him when he can truly say that he has
sucked their sweetness
need all of us to be initiated again, this time not of words, but of
and the spirit", in order that we may realize that Masonry is after all
a thing "terrestrial", nor even yet verbal, but ever more "celestial"
and eternally spiritual.
close of a long and eventful Masonic life, after years of painstaking
study, after many months of meditation, Bro. Albert Pike, of revered
memory, put into these careful considered words his conclusion as to
is a continuous advance by means of the instruction contained in a
series of degrees,
toward the Light, by the elevation of the celestial, the spiritual, and
over the earthly, sensual, material and human in the nature of man."
Yea, my brother,
it is that, just that, and nothing less than that, that is "the design
Masonic institution", for only so can a man be made "wiser, better and,
Oxford University Press
to Become a Publisher of Masonic Books
University Press, American Branch, recently announced its purpose to
enter the American
Masonic field with an extensive list of new books. This step was taken
in the original
instance upon recommendation from the National Masonic Research
Society, of which
THE BUILDER is the official journal; and the plans adopted by the
the American Branch were worked out in conference with a group of the
of the Society. By virtue of the arrangements made the Society will
the Press in the preparation of a number of books in the proposed list,
lend its name to guarantee the authenticity of all books insofar as
they deal technically
A brief preliminary
announcement of this was made in THE BUILDER last month, page 185. The
of that announcement, brief as it was, immediately attracted the
attention of Masonic
students, a number of whom wrote letters to congratulate themselves and
at large upon such news; one of these, a well-known Past Grand Master,
it as "the greatest event in American Masonry since the Revolutionary
and one of the most significant things in the Craft since 1717."
of new titles now in prospect and in preparation is an extensive one,
and not yet
ready for detailed announcement. Already the American Branch has in
a number of editions of the Oxford Bibles for special use by Blue
Arch Chapters, for the Order of De Molay, and possibly for Commanderies
of the Knights
Templar; one or two volumes of Masonic music; a dictionary of Masonry;
Master's handbook; a standard monitor, etc. Among the more general
ready for printing are a work on Freemasonry in the Southwest, by Bro.
F. T. Cheetham;
a treatise on Masonic temple construction, by Bro. W. B. Bragdon; a
work on the
old catechisms, possibly to contain a number of facsimiles, by Bros. R.
and A. L. Kress; an outline history of Masonry, by Bro. H. L. Haywood,
University Press itself will have full responsibility in publishing,
and will accept
no MSS. not in conformity with its own standards. All books will be
through the usual channels, and many of them will be distributed by the
in various parts of the world. In every case authors will receive the
Opportunity to publish or market books will be open to any individual
and to all
legitimate Masonic bodies or concerns.
University Press has a venerable history behind it. The first book was
Oxford in 1478. The Press that issued it came to an end soon after
1485, but a second
Press was established and this lasted from 1517 to 1520; it was
published some twenty-three
books, mostly theological and in Latin.
Elizabeth's time a new Press was set up under the patronage of the Earl
the Queen's favorite, who was Chancellor. In 1586 the University made a
an Oxford bookseller, Joseph Barnes, of 100 pounds and he was allowed
printer and one apprentice. It was Barnes who published the first book
and the first in Hebrew.
of the famous patrons of the Oxford University Press was Archbishop
Laud. In 1636,
and largely through his instrumentality, a Royal Charter was granted to
to print "all manner of books."
and equally famous patron, was Dr. John Fell, the designer of the
forms that still bear his name. It is from 1675, and during his
the history of the Oxford Bibles dates; and it was he who suggested to
Sheldon the "Theatre" that bore his name, and in which the Press was
in 1669. Six years afterwards began the uninterrupted issuance of
and Prayer Books. Early in the eighteenth century, and after the
had ceased to be adequate for the needs of the Press, the Clarendon
erected. This building has ceased to serve as a printing house but the
to the Press continue to hold their sessions in it. In 1826-30 the
in Walton Street was erected. The most notable publication of the Press
years has been The New English Dictionary, which began to be issued in
In the sense
usually understood by the terms, the Oxford University Press is not a
or profit making organization; it uses the proceeds from its widely
books to publish works of technical scholarship that necessarily can
have only a
limited circulation and that, therefore, could not be published under
One of its historians writes that "all the activities of the Press may
as a function of the corporation known as the Chancellor, Masters, and
of the University of Oxford, acting through the Delegates of the Press…
. The Delegacy
is now composed of the Vice-Chancellor and Proctors for the time being
and (normally) of ten others, of whom five are Perpetual. Delegates are
for a term of years by the Vice-Chancellor and Proctors, by whom they
may be re-elected:
but when a vacancy occurs among the Perpetual Delegates, the Delegates
as a whole
are enjoined by statute to 'subrogate' one of the junior Delegates to
ad supplendum perpetuo numerum quinque Perpetuorum Delegatorum." :
officers are, at present: in Oxford, R. W. Chapman, Oriel College,
de M. Johnson, Exeter College, Assistant Secretary; F. J. Hall, Printer
to the University;
in London, Humphrey Milford, New College, Publisher to the University;
in New York,
W.W. McIntosh, Vice-President of the American Branch; in Toronto, S. B.
of the Canadian Branch; in Bombay, G. F. J. Cumberlege, Worcester
of the Indian Branch; in Melbourne, E. R. Bartholomew, Manager of the
has branches throughout the world as follows: London, Edinburgh,
New York, Toronto, Melbourne, Cape Town, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, and
Branch was founded in 1896; a history of it is given in Some Account of
University Press, 1468-1921, from which a paragraph may be quoted:
foundation of the Oxford University Press American Branch, an
has made the name of Oxford familiar throughout the Union, was due to
and enterprise of Mr. Henry Frowde. Acting on his advice the Delegates
of the Press
authorized the formation of a Corporation in the State of New York, and
in 1896 opened premises at 91 Fifth Avenue, under the management of the
John Armstrong. In the following year Mr. Armstrong added to the Bibles
books, previously sold by Messrs. Nelson, the Clarendon Press
sold by the Macmillan Company. The business grew rapidly in Mr.
and in 1908 moved 'up town' to the premises it now occupies at 35 West
Mr. Armstrong died in 1915, and was succeeded by Mr. W. W. McIntosh,
one of the
original members of the staff."
and Fascismo in Italy
Bro. Frank G. Bellini,
who is Worshipful Master of Garibaldi Lodge, No. 542, New York City,
has long kept
in touch, by correspondence and through personal contacts, with the
of the Craft in Italy.
conclusion of the World War it seemed for a while as though Socialism
the upper hand and control everything in Italy. In that country, the
include men of different tendencies, ranging from the very temperate to
violent, from those who have been called Reformists (Evolutionists) to
call themselves Communists, and later even Bolshevists.
1919, the first elections since 1913 were held in Italy. In 1913 the
had 77 deputies; in 1919 the number rose to 156. In the latter
elections the Socialist
formulas were: Opposition to the middle class, which had been in favor
of the war;
the reaffirmation of Socialism, and solidarity with the Russia of the
drew their strength from the suffering and destruction caused by the
war, from the
disillusion that followed on the victory, and the rancor against the
were looked upon as ungrateful for the great sacrifice and the great
made by Italy to the Entente cause.
the discontent at the time that, if the Socialists had won the same
votes in the south as in the north, their majority would have brought
metallurgical strike of 1920 brought matters to a crisis. The strikers
a number of industrial plants without violence or bloodshed, and thus
politico-economic revolution, the illegality of which they demanded of
to ratify; but it had already been condoned by government inaction.
"economic" experiment was tried in the Valley of the Po ‒ the great
center of the country, which during the World War had supplied the
nation with its
material means of combat and which was the objective of every
By the middle
of September, 1920, all these plants had been taken over by the
workers, who operated
them so far as lack of raw materials, technical skill, money and
would permit. The works were run under established Soviets and with red
over the buildings. The government had already declared its neutrality.
many within the ranks of the Socialist Party who were opposed to the
of government, but it was those who favored it that formed the
Syndicate of Metal
Workers and enabled the policy of "direct action" to be carried out.
As all the
world now knows, the economic experiment was not a success; the hands
of the government
had become weakened; respect for authority had almost died out and the
on the verge of falling under the dominion of mob law. Social
practically broken down and the bonds of order were loosened. It was
then that the
Fascisti arose to save the country from ultimate ruin and solution.
of this remarkable movement go back to the national revival succeeding
of Caporetto and culminating in the Piave. It was the young men of that
again rising spontaneously throughout, Italy, that constituted
themselves into the
Fascisti. The inevitable reaction had come. These young, heroic men had
their all for the defense of the country and were now witnessing the
a national catastrophe ‒ perhaps in imitation of Russia.
It is a curious
phenomenon of this movement that its leader should have been Benito
former Socialist editor, who separated himself from the Socialist Party
of his advocacy of Italy's participation in the war. The Fascist
groups, but loosely
held together, varying according to the characteristics of their
at first consisted largely of young men of the upper middle classes,
were of the nobility. The major groups were composed of students,
demobilized Arditi; but now there were among them an increasing number
and of the sons of peasants and smaller shopkeepers. Doubtful elements
them, and they became in some degree compromised by men who were more
or less adventurers.
to a certain degree for social reforms, and they indeed rivalled the
in the bitterness of their feelings against war-profiteers. While they
the agrarian revolution in returning the lands to the peasants, their
was directed against the Bolshevist propaganda, which they aimed either
to suppress or convert those who harbored Bolshevik tendencies. In this
succeeded by degrees, and thus rendered valuable service to the country.
Joined the Early
movement, which originated in Milan, numbered among its first and most
the brothers of the Masonic lodges of that city, especially of the
Ragione." Branches were formed in Bologna, Turin, Florence and Genoa,
in other parts of the Peninsula. The Masons everywhere supported and
patriotic movement. Even the Grand Master of the Grand Orient, who from
had been warned to forbid Masons from participating in the movement,
issued a circular
to the effect that he would not interfere with brothers joining a new
of national strength with the purpose of saving the country, and those
who set their
political views against the interests of the country were expelled.
But now Mussolini,
desiring to affirm himself, thought to utilize the great influence of
Church upon the popular soul, at his very debut in Parliament, made a
the Chamber of Deputies upholding the universal sovereignty of the
the Fascisti march on Rome and when Mussolini had gathered the reins of
power into his hands, he commenced a policy of surrender to the
Vatican, first by
imposing the teaching of the Catholic doctrine in the public schools.
Press was naturally delighted; other concessions were asked for and
while a veiled request for the suppression of Freemasonry was also
Freemasons, of course, protested strongly and a powerful stir was
created in the
Fascisti organization, many influential members of which were also
members of the
a violently hostile campaign against Freemasonry in the Catholic and
and the most ferocious but stupid attacks appeared in the Popolo
by Mussolini's brother Arnaldo. It seems that four or five years ago
endeavored ‒ in vain ‒ to join the Order. As a man of superior
intelligence he must
surely have known its ideals and constitution, hence, how can his
hostility be explained?
For a long
time now the Fascisti have been carrying on a campaign of violence,
destroying private property, workmen's co-operative institutions,
etc. In vain has Grand Master Torrigiani protested openly to Mussolini;
perpetrators of these excesses have always gone unpunished. Numbers
murdered, and the world was shocked at the murder of the Hon.
Matteotti, in which
some of the leaders of the Fascisti were implicated.
It so happened
at the Socialist Congress in Bologna in 1912 that Mussolini, then
editor of their
organ, L'Avanti, had persuaded the gathering to approve the resolution,
Mason or Socialist." Soon after he had attained to his abnormal power
control, he made the Fascisti Grand Council forget the great services
the national cause by the members of the millenary Masonic Institution
the edict, "Either Fascist or Mason."
At one time
Mussolini could not tolerate the influence of the Socialist Masons, who
their temples love of country and the principles of civil progress of
by gradual evolution, because they contrasted too violently to the
movement he wanted to impose upon the party. Then he considered
Freemasonry as the
worst enemy of Socialism, representing the bourgeoisie and
conservatism; from his
point of view, Freemasonry yesterday was retrograde and had to be
it retarded the Socialist revolutionary movement, and today it must be
it is not retrograde.
It was at
the beginning of the World War that Mussolini, disgusted at the pacific
of the Italian Socialists, abandoned that party with other leaders and
of the most fervent interventionists.
Secret Societies Be
the most discussed question in Italy is the law providing for the
secret societies, which is aimed directly at Freemasonry. There can be
however, but that the leaders of Fascism are thoroughly acquainted with
of the Order. To be admitted into Italian Freemasonry it is essential
to swear devotion
to the country to the extent of sacrificing life for it if necessary,
and this obligation
keeps out those of the anti-national parties, but they must also
(according to Masonic
law) be devoted to liberty.
have openly approved many acts of Mussolini's government, but they
could never agree
with his clerical policy. They could never give their assent to so
false a conception
of patriotism as would set the country back a thousand years; it would
be an insult
to the memory of so many martyrs to liberty of conscience and the civil
of the people.
be no doubt but that Masons all over the world follow with deep
sympathy the movement
in Italy over a question of principles which are the very essence of
which the Order supports and has defended throughout the world for
Italian Freemasons are defending the rights of the State and of the
the excesses of the minister, and neither the Fascist clubs nor their
can intimidate them, even as they were not deterred by the tortures,
shootings of their brethren during the epic struggle for liberty,
the unity of Italy. Not even its bitterest enemies could ever belittle
spirit of Italian Freemasonry. Some time ago, the Grand Master of the
of Italy, Domizio Torrigiani, concluded thus an interview with a
reporter of the
"It is in Freemasonry and
nowhere else that
the most solemn and heroic tradition of Italian patriotism is
preserved. If I may
compare a minor event with a greater one, I can tell you that from the
day on which,
with Melchiorre Delfico, fourteen Italian patriots proposed to Napoleon
the project for the unification of Italy, down to the day on which
about a hundred
Milanese Masons decided to join and give vitality to the very first
Fascisti, Freemasonry was present at every patriotic movement. The
of Italy came into being with the first Napoleonic kingdom of Italy; it
later in secret societies throughout the Peninsula; reappeared at Turin
when we had a much different Kingdom of Italy; it transferred itself to
itself at Rome in 1871 under the leadership of Garibaldi. From the
movement of 1848 ‒ to the annexation ‒ to the fighting for the conquest
and Rome ‒ to the Parliament of 1870- and thence to the irredentism and
‒ to the resistance and the national renascence, you will always find
institution on the opre [job], surrounded by implacable aversion, ever
The accusations are always the same. To read some papers today is like
abbate [Abbe] Barruel. We are used to it, and shall continue our work
Bro. Burton E. Bennett,
is dead, so far as its formal organization is concerned, so that in a
it belongs now to academic interests only; but in another sense,
it remains a subject of living importance, and that because the ideas
are still in our midst, seeking other forms and outlets. Those ideas
Some of them took root in early Zoroastrianism, exhibited themselves in
astrology passed over into Mithraism, thence to Gnosticism, Manicheism
still into Paulinism, which became so living a thing among the Baikan
itself became a new seedsowing, from which, in after years, developed
and the Waldensians, from the forces of which in due time came many
help give shape to the countless mystical sects that flowered so
or just after the Reformation period. If one cares to trace such as
under a Christian aegis he will find it worth his while to read
Reformers in the 16th and 17th Centuries" by Rufus M. Jones. Bro.
found these old inspirations at work among the Illuminati. Another
find them animating certain religious sects now in our midst. Such as
may care to
follow the Rosicrucian clue will do well to consult Bro. A. E. Waite's
"The Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross." Bro. Bennett was former member of
the Board of Park Commissioners of Seattle, former Pan-American
the state of Washington; former United states District Attorney for
Alaska; is a
member of Ionic Lodge, No. 90, F. & A. M., of Seattle, etc.
of the Illuminati was one of the four great societies produced by the
of the eighteenth century. Of course neither this society, nor any of
three, were real Freemasonry at all. They were produced by the peculiar
that existed in France at the time. These conditions finally culminated
in the French
Revolution, the wiping out of the last vestiges of feudalism, and the
the French nation into a fuller and wholly different life. The three
were the strict Observance, the Emperors, and the Carbonari.
Illuminati was not a new one. It had been used by other societies of a
from as early as the fifteenth century. They all claimed to get light
from a higher
source as to all earthly things and, especially, as related to
spiritual ones; and
to possess knowledge of a purer kind than that possessed by ordinary
furnished many victims for the Inquisition. They had existed in Spain
and in Italy.
It is even averred that Loyola, the founder of the Society of Jesus,
ideas and was reprimanded by the Church for them. That these ideas go
the ages to the Gnostics is easily seen by scholars. In certain cults
survive to our day. The Illuminists claimed to get communications from
spirits and, even, from God Himself. There is a cult now in the city of
whose head claims to have talked with God and at their meetings
visitors are asked
by his followers if they do not want to talk with a man who has talked
In order to understand these societies, especially of the higher
it is necessary to know some think of Gnosticism.
as a movement was practically coeval with Christianity. It was a
produced by the times. The ancient gods had lost their influence.
for something purer and truer. While Mithraism, to some extent,
supplied this want,
still it was not sufficient. Gnosticism was largely Christian in
it tried to bridge the chasm between the old gods and the new Christos.
was a continuation of the ancient gods, but it contained many features
Christianity. It held on in the ancient world for many centuries, but
disappeared. Christianity at last got free from Gnosticism. Gnosticism
greatest height in the second century, and while branches of it
continued well on
into the fifth century it was, for all practical purposes, supplanted
before the fourth century. Streams from it have, even, come down to our
was what is known as a mystic religion. It was based upon revelation.
All of its
sects claimed to possess secret knowledge unknown to outsiders, mighty
imparted only to initiates. They claimed that it was received from
and His Apostles and early believers. It was their mystic writings and
with others, that the Rosicrucians, the soothsayers, and the magicians
possess in the eighteenth century when they commenced to bore into
They claimed to possess the secret word that Christ, as they averred,
the Temple, and with which He performed His miracles. To prove that
possessed what they claimed they pointed to Acts VIII where Simon Magus
Magician"), who was converted by Philip, tried to purchase with money
generally, did not accept the Old Testament. As a matter of fact they
to the old religions with their gods and goddesses. In their Ophite
sect they were
plainly connected not only with the old mythologies of Babylon and
Egypt, but with
those as well of Greece and Asia Minor. I think that we can safely say
was based wholly on sacramentism and superstition, accompanied by a
Still it was the great force that satisfied many in the Christian
the first hundred years of its existence. While some of the Gnostic
sects, as the
Valentinians, the nearest approach to the Catholic Church, were
Still their attitude was always sensual. The Gnostic confession of
faith is as follows:
"I baptise thee in the name of the unknown father of all, by the
mother of all, by the name which descended upon Jesus."
sect of the Gnostics, which existed as late as the sixth century,
the serpent that tempted Eve was the impersonation of divine wisdom. An
form of Gnosticism is found today in Babylonia among the Mandeans. They
known as St. John Christians. To outsiders they call themselves
Sabians. Their religion
is a mixture of that of the Jews, the Christians, and the heathen.
While we have
known about them from the seventeenth century, still that knowledge is
as they are careful not to talk before strangers. It is more than
they know very little about their religion themselves. It is, however,
their religion springs not from the Christian, or from the Jewish
religion, or from
St. John, but it comes from the older forms of Gnosticism with the
symbol of the
of the early Christian Church believed that Christ had only a phantom
is, He was born without material means and that all His acts and, also,
were not real, but only apparent. It is true that some of them did not
go as far
as this, but they, even, held that He had a heavenly and not really a
Docetism reached its highest point in Gnosticism.
New Cults Were Formed
finally conquered the ancient world so that the ancient gods were
believed in no
more, there had to be some outlet for that mysticism which Christianity
or could not, absorb. The sacraments had to end somewhere. This
resulted in the
formation of cults which continued in different forms down to the time
of the Illuminati
of Freemasonry, and from there down to our time. It must be remembered
the barbarians overran the Roman Empire and destroyed it, they
destroyed all science
as well; all intellectual pursuits stopped except those that centered
All learning was confined to the Church and all learned men were
only thing that was deemed of any importance was theology. The affairs
of this world
were of no importance; the affairs of the other world were of all
wonder is that superstition was not greater, that witches and
soothsayers and magicians
were not more abundant, that the Inquisition was so lenient, that the
did not become more fervid and astounding, and that Illuminism did not
make a greater
impress upon Freemasonry and upon mankind. That voodooism did not show
a malignant form shows conclusively that the human intellect had grown
has always been an attraction for men of more than ordinary
intelligence. When in
it there is found such men as Valentian, the man of business, the rich
of Syria; of Loyola, the man of God, the founder of the Society of
of Goethe, the poet, one of the greatest intellectuals of all time, it
not to try to brush it away with scorn, or deride it with egotistical
Perhaps the force behind it is the intellect trying to burst its finite
reach the infinite. Perhaps this will never be done, and, again,
perhaps it will
be. It seems the part of wisdom, however, to consider it with care,
yes, even reverently,
for where is the prudent man who wishes to deny that the intellect does
the infinite when our finite bonds are broken by the mystery of death?
Founds the Illuminati
of the Illuminati of Freemasonry was founded by Doctor Adam Weishaupt
Germany (Bavaria), on May Day, 1776. Weishaupt was professor of Natural
Law in the University of Ingoldstadt. His society was not, at first
Freemasonry but it became so in 1780. Professor Weishaupt joined the
through the strict Observance at Munich in 1777. He was an ex-Jesuit
and for the
rest of his life was assailed by the Jesuits through all sources that
reach, and by all means that they could command, ecclesiastical, civil
The new movement was really one of republican free thought. This
itself "The Order of Perfectibilists." Its members were at first young
students who bound themselves to be guided wholly by their superiors.
Weishaupt adopted the Jesuit plan that the end justifies the means. No
who the other members were except, of course, his superiors, the
Professor Weishaupt was educated by the Jesuits, and became one of
them, his intelligence
was of high order and its bent was always toward truth. Thus he grew
away from them
and from their Church as well. In 1784 the Society of the Illuminati
by the Bavarian Government, as well as all other Masonry, and all other
Doctor Weishaupt was deprived of his professorship and had to fly from
of the Illuminati consisted of three classes, to wit: (1) Nursery, (2)
and Scots Masonry, and (3) Mysteries. The first class contained five
follows: (1) Preparatory Literary Essay, (2) Novitiate, (3) Minerval,
Illuminates, and (5) Magistratus. The second class contained, also,
as follows: (6) Apprentice, (7) Fellow Craft, (8) Master Mason, (9)
or Scottish Novice, and (10) Directing Illuminates, or Scottish Knight.
class contained the following degrees: (11) Priest and Regent, and (12)
King. The last degree was never perfected. The necessary qualifications
of a candidate
were stated by Weishaupt as follows:
"Whoever does not close his ear
to the lamentations
of the miserable, nor his heart to gentle pity, whoever is the friend
of the unfortunate; whoever has a heart capable of loving friendship;
steadfast in adversity, unwearied in the carrying out of whatever has
engaged in, undaunted in the overcoming of difficulties; whoever does
and despise the weak; whose soul is susceptible of conceiving great
of rising superior to all base motives and of distinguishing itself by
benevolence; whoever shuns idleness, whoever considers no knowledge as
which he may have the opportunity of acquiring, regarding the knowledge
as his chief study; whoever, when truth and virtue are in question,
approbation of the multitude, is sufficiently courageous to follow the
of his own heart ‒ such a one is a proper candidate."
Order Spread Throughout
In 1780 the
Order was carried into Northern Germany by the Marquis Cantanzo, a
of Karl, Elector of Bavaria. It has been stated that lodges were
France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Poland, Hungary and Italy.
doubtful to me. If so, however, they were mere beginnings as not more
than two thousand
members, at the most, have ever been claimed for the Order. However' in
at page 141, of the Secret Memoirs of St. Cloud [Lib 1900; Vol 1, Vol 2], limited to five hundred
copies (copy 297),
Edinburgh Press, I find the following which I pass on without comment:
"In the will of that great
VIII). Baron d'Armfeldt was nominated one of the guardians of his
and governor of the capitol; but the Duke Regent, who was a weak
by philosophical adventurers, by ILLUMINATI and FREEMASONS, most of
whom had imbibed
French revoluntionary maxims, sent him, in a kind of honorary exile, as
to Italy * * * ."
of the Illuminati was taken up with enthusiasm by Baron Knigge, a Privy
of the reigning Duke of Saxe-Gotha. It was then that Goethe and Herder
Illuminati. Knigge had taken the Templar degrees at Cassel in 1772, and
with them. He thought that in the Illuminati he would find, at last,
But Doctor Weishaupt had not even completed the rituals. However he
placed his material
in Knigge's hands. They quarreled over how it should be arranged and
The Order in Northern Germany was dead. Meanwhile some of the Masonic
Rosicrucian tendencies joined with the Church in fighting the
Illuminati. It must
be remembered that Illuminism was as much the antithesis of
Rosicrucianism as it
was of Jesuitism. Rosicrucianism and Jesuitism had much in common.
rumble of the French Revolution could be heard in Bavaria. The
that they were justified in closing the Illuminati, as well as all
societies. Masonic historians, including Gould, have maintained that
possessed no revolutionary tendencies. While this is probably true,
using the word
"revolutionary" in its strictest sense, still its whole aim was away
existing things, and toward republican free thought. Professor
Weishaupt was a reformer,
a Masonic reformer. He wanted to reform religion. He wanted to reform
believed that his desired reforms could be accomplished through
But the French Masonry at that time was so steeped in kabbalism,
and natural religion that it was past reforming. It was stuck in slimy
its back toward the East, waiting for its Scots Perfection degrees to
the West. And so all Masonry died in Southern Germany and there it has
been, practically dead.
as an Author
fled to Saxe-Gotha. Duke Ernest, who was a Freemason, made him a Privy
and granted him a pension. He died there in 1830.
several works on Illuminism while living in Gotha. The best known are,
of the Illuminati (1786); An Apology for the Illuminati [Lib*] (1786);
History of the Persecutions of the Illuminati in Bavaria [Lib*] (1786);
and A System
of Illuminati [Lib*] (1887).
on the Illuminati Doctor Weishaupt said:
"My general plan is good,
though in the
detail there may be faults. I had myself to create. In another
situation, and in
an active station in life, I should have been keenly occupied, and the
of an Order would never have come into my head. But I would have
executed much better
things, if the government had not always opposed my exertions, and
in situations which suited my talents. It was the full conviction of
this, and what
could be done if every man were placed in the office for which he was
nature, and a proper education, which first suggested to me the plan of
were founded by Martinez Pasqualis in 1762 in a so-called Masonic Rite
Rite of Elected Cohens, or Priests," consisting of nine degrees. This
was afterwards reformed by the Marquis de St. Martin by what he called
Rectified Rite"; and this Rite, as well as a body of Russian
1790, of which Professor Schwartz, of Moscow, was the head, were then
Illuminati. The "Rectified Rite" consisted of two classes. The degrees
of the first class were (1) Apprentice, (2) Fellow Craft, (3) Master
Past Master, (5) Elect, (6) Grand Architect, and (7) Mason of the
Secret. The degrees
of the second class were (8) Prince of Jerusalem, (9) Knight of
Palestine and (10)
Kadosh. These degrees are simply day dreams of mystics and allegorists.
as a reformer failed and his high type of Illuminism apparently went
down with him;
but Illuminism became saturated with all kinds of nonsense, resumed its
more and more it and the "Emperors" rite drifted toward each other.
note by author.
- Consult The Gnostic Heresies of
the 1st and 2nd Centuries [Lib 1875], by H.L. Mansel; London; 1875.
- Articles on Gnosticism in
Encyclopedia Britannica [Lib*], 11th Edition.
- History of the Inquisition of
the Middle Ages, by Henry Charles Lea; III
Vol. [Lib 1901; Vol 3]; London; 1888.
- History of the Inquisition of
Spain, by Henry Charles Lea; five (four) volumes
[Lib 1906; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4], London; 1905-1908.
- Expansion of Christianity in
the First Three Centuries [Lib 1908; Vol 1, Vol 2], by Adolph Harnack, Eng.
- The Church in the Roman Empire
[Lib 1893], by Sir W. M. Ramsay; 1893.
- Mithraic Mysteries [Lib 1903],
a translation by T. J.
of the Conclusions of Cumont's great work on Mithraism; Chicago and
And St. John's Lodge, Philadelphia
Bro. David Mcgregor,
to understand the full force of Bro. McGregor's arguments in this paper
should turn back to a series of articles on the same theme previously
"The Story of Freemasonry in New Jersey," by Bro. Ernest A. Reed,
1923, page 329; "Concerning 'The story of Freemasonry in New Jersey,'
Melvin M. Johnson, April, 1924, page 109; "Daniel Coxe's Relations to
Freemasonry," Bro. David McGregor, November, 1924. page 328; "Daniel
and the 'Henry Bell Letter,' " by Bro. Melvin M. Johnson; and the
of Study Club articles, the first of which was printed last September.
as to the whereabouts of Col. Daniel Coxe during the year 1730 shows
that he returned
to New Jersey from London earlier than the date of his warrant as
Master of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania (June 5, 1730), and
of bringing it with him as suggested in our previous article, it must
sent out to him later.
minutes of the West Jersey Board of Proprietors, to be found in their
Burlington, N. J., we learn that he had been President of that Board
for many years
and continued to be re-elected annually until his death in 1739. On
Aug. 6, 1729,
he was "appointed and ordered" to meet the Jersey Agent in London and
protest against the proposed new division line between West and East
it would cause "great damage to the Proprietors and under purchasers of
in West Jersey." He was present at the next meeting of the Board on
1729, part of the record of which is in his own handwriting. His next
at the Board meetings was on April 9, 1730, and he continued to preside
at its meetings
until Dec. 12 of that year, thus widening the period of his presence in
in 1730 to over eight months instead of four as previously estimated,
it still more feasible for him not only to personally issue the warrant
John's Lodge, No. 1, of Philadelphia, but also to be present at its
if it took place early in December, 1730, as we are inclined to believe
He must have
sailed for England soon after the meeting of Dec. 12 so as to permit of
present at a meeting of the Grand Lodge of London on Jan. 29, 1731,
where and when
his health was drunk as "Provincial Grand Master of North America," his
ability to announce the institution of the first regularly constituted
Freemasons in America doubtless giving zest to the occasion.
of this study let us consider briefly what can be found in the oldest
pertaining to St. John's Lodge, the original account book known as
Liber B, in support
of the proposition that that lodge was in 1731 a regular and duly
receiving its warrant from R. W. Bro. Daniel Coxe of New Jersey.
entries on page 184 of Liber B, we learn from the Stock Account of the
on June 24, 1731, it had thirteen resident members, the fourteenth,
having gone to "New Foundland" in May, while one of the thirteen, Mark
Joyce, had just become a member before June 1, as we learn from the
against the members under the head of "omitions" at sixpence per lodge
day, twelve of them being charged for five days; William Button, for
four days "before
you sailed to New Foundland"; and Mark Joyce, one day. In addition to
Joyce is charged 9s-2d "the remainder of his 3 pounds at entrance"; for
a like reason Benjamin Franklin and Henry Pratt are charged 2-0-1,
which seems to
indicate that the difference between the entrance fee of 3 pounds, and
charged against them as a remainder, was in each case expended by them
for the entertainment
and "clothing" of the lodge members on the night of their initiation,
as was the regular custom at that time. These charges of "omitions"
evidently the result of an agreement among the members on or before
June 24, 1731,
to assess each member sixpence per month, the charges to be retroactive
Feb. 1 of that year and applicable in each individual case according to
of membership. These charges were continued against each member after
June 24, not
as "omitions", however, but as quota to stock; and in addition a fine
of one shilling was imposed after that date upon each member every time
himself from lodge meeting. From this we may naturally infer that the
been suffering from lack of attendance, and that it had resorted to the
a means of improving it, these fines, together with the monthly dues,
to go to the
establishment of a fund for carrying on the work of the lodge, but not
the feature of entertainment, which was paid for by the members
averaged in all about 2 pounds per night for the years 1736-7.
Were Thirteen Members
account we learn that the membership on Feb. 1, 1731, was thirteen, two
Franklin and Pratt, had just been admitted, or a total of eleven prior
to that event;
a number more in harmony with the thought of a newly organized lodge
than one of
long standing, as some would have us believe.
of Franklin and Pratt on Feb. 1 implies the existence of a constituted
that date in order that their application for membership could be
received and acted
upon in due form. Franklin was not legally eligible for membership
until after his
twenty-fifth birthday, which occurred on Jan. 6, 1731; and judging from
of an alleged expose of Masonry in the issue of Dec. 8, 1730, in the
Gazette, it must have been sometime between those two dates when he
that he had on three previous occasions during the year 1730 published
news pertaining to the Masons shows that he knew that some of his
interested in such items; and although not a Mason himself his business
him to cater to their tastes, as well as to the amusement of those not
with the Order.
entirely upon the public prints and on hearsay for what he published,
we are not
required to accept what he said about Masonry as official. Especially
apply to the oft quoted statement in the Dec. 8 issue, that "there are
Lodges of Free Masons in the Province of Pennsylvania," in which he
no doubt to the occasional meetings of the brethren, which we have
to believe occurred not only in Pennsylvania but in other Provinces on
Did Franklin Delay?
It is rather
interesting to note that an average of eleven weeks elapsed between the
of the items of Masonic news in the London papers and their
re-publication on July
9, Aug. 13, and Aug. 20, 1730; whereas seventeen weeks elapsed in the
case of the
extensive article in the Dec. 8 issue. We are led to inquire, Why did
he delay the
publication of that expose and why did he print it when he did? May it
be that his
sense of fairness and editorial propriety prevented him from hastily
something, the truthfulness of which was questionable, knowing that the
with the organization were of excellent character and high social
standing, as shown
by the items he had already published, and which he might never have
had not some local event created a special interest in the Fraternity,
the curiosity of many of his readers and causing them to be much
amused, or exercised,
with conjectures concerning them? Nothing had appeared in the public
four months that could have aroused such interest, hence the cause must
local. What was more likely to have later amused, or interested, the
people of Philadelphia
than the institution of a regular Masonic lodge in their midst?
to publishing something that "might not be unacceptable" to his
Franklin's object was apparently to get at the truth in regard to the
concerning the Masons, which was no doubt promptly explained to him to
satisfaction, as he shortly afterwards made application for membership
to be one of the lodge's strongest pillars.
along with the proven presence of Coxe in America at that time, seem to
the month of November, 1730, as the date of the institution of St.
and short of an unquestionably accepted actual record to that effect,
we feel that
there is no just reason why this should not be looked upon as the
of its institution as a regular and duly constituted Lodge of Free and
Changes Are Noted
to Liber B there is evidence of still further changes in the regulation
of the lodge on or before June 24, 1731. Under that date we find
William Allen referred
to as Grand Master; William Pringle, Deputy Master; William Button,
and Thomas Hart, late Warden; the two late offices pertaining to a
and the two active offices to a Grand Lodge, indicating a transition
from a subordinate
to a Grand Lodge; or shall we say the super-imposing of Grand Lodge
the body of a subordinate lodge?
character of St. John's Lodge is very apparent from the fact that all
elected to Grand Lodge offices for years to come were members of the
Lodge of St. John, while there are no records of any subordinate
elected during that period; and conclusive evidence of it is to be
found in the
issue of the Pennsylvania Gazette of June 16, 1737, in the form of a
disowning any connection with, and deeply deploring a dastardly fake
performed on a simple fellow in Philadelphia which resulted in his
death, and with
which the enemies of Freemasonry were endeavoring to discredit the
in the Morgan affair of about a century later; the declaration being
behalf of all the members of St. John's Lodge at Philadelphia," by
Grand Master; William Plumsted, Deputy Grand Master; Joseph Shippen and
Grand Wardens; while no mention is made of subordinate lodge officers.
For a subordinate
lodge thus to assume to itself, or have super-imposed upon it, the
title and functions
of a Grand Lodge may appear irregular and unconstitutional, but the
brethren had at least one precedent in the Grand Lodge of Munster,
records of which began Dec. 27, 1726, and in reference to which Gould
the proceedings of a private Lodge those of the Grand Lodge of Munster
but it seemed on the whole highly probable that the only distinction
was in name,
and that the membership was one and the same." So it was with St.
Situation Is Described
Let us consider
the situation of affairs immediately preceding the month of June, 1731.
lodge, with about a dozen members, was in a rather precarious
lost its Worshipful Master, and only one Warden left. The Grand Lodge
in a similar situation. Grand Master Coxe was unable through enforced
devote much of his time to the office, leaving the actual work in the
hands of his
Deputy, as did the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England, the
office of Grand
Master being then largely an honorary one. Who was more likely to have
choice for Deputy Grand Master than the brother whose name appears in
Liber B as
the succeeding Grand Master, viz, William Allen, a young man of proven
energy, a lawyer by profession, who had studied law in London while
Coxe, also a
lawyer, was a resident there; and both being identified with
Philadelphia, one by
birth and upbringing, the other by business relations and marriage, and
doubtless well acquainted with each other before the deputation was
Grand Master had no organization to preside over or support him, while
lodge was without its proper officers. In such a predicament it was but
that an attempt be made to save the situation by combining, which they
did, and in doing so they anticipated the rights granted them by Coxe's
to select their own Grand Master and Wardens, this right not actually
effect until a year later. Allen showed his appreciation of the
thus bestowed upon him by consistently absenting himself from the
of the lodge, with one exception, until the time came around for his
leaving the management of the affairs of the lodge to Deputy Master
attended the meetings regularly.
It is interesting
to note that in thus making the best of it, they abstained from giving
to their doings, not a word appearing in the public print in regard to
it. Not so
a year hence when with the authority of the Grand Lodge of England's
to Coxe back of them they elected Allen and Pringle to the same Grand
event was published in Franklin's Gazette, but not as a re-election.
no doubt, that however they may have been forced to overstep their
year previous, they were now acting in a perfectly legitimate and
manner, as Daniel Coxe's deputation had expired.
and unusual authority was granted them by this deputation to Coxe in
that they were
permitted to elect their own Provincial Grand Master without requiring
them to submit
their action for the approval of the Grand Master of England and secure
direct from him, as in most all other cases of Provincial Grand
thus granting them an independent self-perpetuating right, the Grand
were without any documentary evidence to prove their authority as
derived from the
Grand Lodge of England, Coxe's deputation being the only thing they
to, which he no doubt refused to surrender as it was his own personal
Was To This That Franklin
this is the situation which Franklin referred to in his letter to Henry
Grand Master of New England, on Oct. 23, 1734, wherein he said that
Masonry in Pennsylvania
"seems to want the sanction of some authority derived from home, to
proceedings and determinations of our Lodge their due weight"; and of
so much has been made in the endeavor to prove that the Grand Lodge of
was not a regular lodge at that time.
had been regularly elected Provincial Grand Master of Pennsylvania on
Day June 24, of that year, and it appears that his authority had been
by some false and rebel brethren who were about to set up a distinct
lodge in Philadelphia
in opposition to the old and true brethren there; and he was unable to
documentary evidence to prove that his authority was derived directly
from the parent Grand Lodge; therefore in order "to promote and
the interest of Masonry in the Province," he promptly took advantage of
appeared to him to be a fortuitous circumstance, viz., the reported
of Henry Price as Grand Master of All America, and applied to him, not
to the regular body of Masonry, as has been suggested, but that if
Price could by
properly attested documentary evidence prove himself to be the
Grand Master of all America, that he should promptly confirm them by a
or charter in the privileges they then enjoyed of holding annually
their Grand Lodge,
choosing their Grand Master, Wardens and other officers, who might
manage all affairs
relating to the brethren there, with full power and authority according
and usages of Masons. This was not the language of one seeking to
before the regularly constituted Masonic authority, as required of all
Masons or body of Masons before being admitted as regular brethren; but
of one that
knew himself to be a true and regular Mason, requesting that they be
and distinguished by some special authority as herein desired", in
protect the good name of the Fraternity against the actions of false
and rebel brethren.
The Carmick Ms.
A.L. Kress, Associate Editor, Pennsylvania
343, of The Builder, November, 1924, Bro. Haywood discussed the Carmick
MS. in connection
with the records of early Pennsylvania Masonry. His conclusion was "If
MS. be accepted as genuine it proves that a lodge, or lodges, must have
in Pennsylvania three years and more before Franklin's item in his
Bro. M.M. Johnson referred to the MS. on page 369 of The Builder,
Prompted by Bro. Haywood's statement that the case for the Carmick MS.
needs a thorough
overhauling, my own opinion of it is embodied in the following
‒ A. L.
MS. was found about the year 1907 (we judge) in the possession of Bro.
Fraser Smith of Pittsburgh, Pa. It was reprinted by the Grand Lodge of
edited by Bro. Julius Sachse, in 1908. The original is now in the Grand
at Philadelphia. The work was published under the title The
Constitutions of St.
John's Lodge. Bro. Sachse wrote a brief foreword saying in part:
"The finding of a MS. copy of
of St. John's Lodge bearing the date of 1727, however, seems to give a
proof of the antiquity of the old Philadelphia Lodge…
"This venerable document … is
and is signed by Bro. Thomas Carmick, a connection of the Frazer family
are mine, A. L. K.], whose name also appears upon one of its pages. Of
the scribe of the old Constitutions, we have thus far been unable to
"The Carmick MS. unquestionably
is not alone
the oldest Masonic MS. in America, but it was also probably the first
to be used
by the scattered brethren in Philadelphia, who at that early date
erected St. John's Lodge in Philadelphia, the first Masonic Lodge on
page of the MS. was reproduced in THE BUILDER, page 344, November,
1924. It shows
the signature of Thomas Carmick and the date 1727. Page 20 of the MS.
words: "Persr. Frazer's Book 5756." Sachse tells us Persifor Frazer was
born Aug. 10, 1735, and died April 24, 1792. He belonged to a lodge of
Philadelphia. He would then have been twenty-one years of age when the
into his possession. This Persifor Frazer was an ancestor of Persifor
among whose possessions the MS. was found at Pittsburgh about 1907.
So much for
the MS. itself and Sachse's claims. Now what are the actual facts which
we may justifiably
accept, after examining the MS. itself? In the absence of any external
we must depend entirely on the document itself.
Reason to Doubt Genuineness
is no reason to doubt that the MS. is a genuine copy of the "Old
that it was transcribed either from memory or from another copy by one
apparently in the year 1727; that it came into the possession of
is no direct evidence whatsoever, that this document was used by a
lodge in Philadelphia
in 1727, nor even that the MS. was in America at that date. This claim
by Sachse rests wholly upon his assertion which I italicized above that
was "a connection of the Frazer family." Sachse was unable then and no
one since has produced any documentary evidence as to Thomas Carmick.
impartial observer can accept the statement that this MS. was used in
in 1727, one must know at least something about Carmick. Where was he
and when did, he die? Was he in 1727-1730, or at any other time even,
What was the nature of his "connection" with the Frazer family? Nearly
thirty years elapsed between 1727 and 1756 when the document came into
basis the document itself affords, for the assumption that it may have
by a lodge in Philadelphia circa 1727-1730, consists in the heading
carried on each
page, "The Constitutions of St. John's Lodge." There was such a lodge
in Philadelphia in 1731 calling itself a "St. John's Lodge." One might
therefore infer as Sachse did, that Carmick actually transcribed this
MS. for the
use of this particular lodge at Philadelphia. We are not warranted in
such an opinion in the complete absence of any evidence as to Carmick
all lodges then termed themselves "St. John's Lodges."
on the various pages of the MS. vary. There are several headed "The [or
Constitutions of the Holy Lodge of St. John." At that time, "St. John's
Lodge" was a generic term applied with no specific or distinctive
in mind. There was a St. John's Lodge at Boston. A lodge at Portsmouth,
N. H., in
1735, styled itself the "Holy and exquisite lodge of St. John." The
has been preserved till this day in our ritual, in reply to the
whence came you?" Therefore, the use of this term in itself is not
to prove a connection between the MS. and the early lodge at
then I should draw are:
MS. is genuine but its
genuineness has nothing to do with the existence
of a lodge at Philadelphia in 1727.
is possible that it could
have been used by such a lodge at that time
but in the absence of further evidence, we cannot accept the statement
evidence ever be
produced that Thomas Carmick was in America and Philadelphia
between the years 1727-1730, then it would be reasonably safe to
conclude that he
did prepare it for and it was used by a lodge at Philadelphia at that
We know the
lodge at Portsmouth, N. H., claimed to possess a MS. copy of the "Old
or charges since they so stated in their petition to Henry Price at
a charter in 1735. This copy, by the way, I would suggest Bro. Vibert,
and Rosedale ought to list in their tables of "Missing MSS." As the
for the Carmick MS. now stands, it would be no less plausible to claim
it as the
missing "Portsmouth MS." as that it was used in Philadelphia in 1727.
It is only
fair to add that, though residing in Pennsylvania, I am not a member of
I am sure we should all be glad to see evidence produced which would
opinion that this curious and valuable old Masonic document does date
back to Philadelphia
Alfred Robbins Comments
on "Making a Mason at Sight"
IN a recent
letter to THE BUILDER Sir Alfred Robbins, President of the Board of
The United Grand Lodge of England, made a number of valuable comments
on the symposium
dealing with the subject "On Making a Mason at Sight," published in THE
BUILDER, February, 1925, page 33. "I note that you quote our late Bro.
T. Lawrence's By-Ways of Freemasonry [Lib*] on the subject; but I
your accepting the ipse digit of our late Bro. W. J. Hughan [Hughan's
were published as a part of the quotation from Lawrence's essay],
as he was, as in any way indicating that English Freemasonry, as it
the United Grand Lodge of England, accepts the idea that the process of
on Sight by the Grand Master is inherent."
then called attention to a paragraph included in the first report he
Grand Lodge as the President of the Board of General Purposes, the only
English pronouncement on the matter. This paragraph is as follows:
“An apparently authoritative
been made to an American Grand Lodge, and, as a consequence,
in the United States and Canada that the M. W. Grand Master not only
but himself shared in the practice of making Masons 'at sight,' thus
by special dispensation through all the degrees at the same lodge
meeting, the Grand
Secretary has been directed to communicate to all Grand Lodges in the
and Canada in Masonic association with the United Grand Lodge of
England, a statement
of our precise position in this regard. Rule 195 of the Book of
provides that 'No Lodge shall confer more than one degree on any
Brother on the
same day, nor shall a higher degree be conferred on any Brother at a
than four weeks from his receiving a previous degree.' The M. W. Grand
no power, except in the case of Lodges abroad in defined conditions, to
dispensation to permit degrees to be conferred at shorter intervals,
and then, by
Rule 115, only by substituting an interval of one week for four, and
the Board trusts
that this explanation of the English practice in this particular which
been rigidly adhered to, will prevent the further circulation of a
that, if unchecked, may have serious Masonic consequences."
the subject Bro. Robbins goes on to we ire further in his letter:
"In fact, as I then made a
point of discovering,
the United Grand Lodge of England, as it has existed since 1813, has
the existence of such a practice, and, in my own time in Masonry, so
far from its
having been exercised I have myself seen the M. W. the Grand Master
W. Bro. H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, while in the same year, 1919, I was
at the initiation, also in full form, of R. W. Bro. H. R. H. the duke
"Both these illustrious
Brethren took their
degrees in precisely the circumstances laid down in our Book of
in order to satisfy its provisions, one of them had to remain in
England at distinct
personal inconvenience two days longer than he had intended to do when
go abroad on some important mission. In the same way, each served his
as Warden of a regular Lodge before being installed in the Master's
Chair. In every
possible way, therefore, we have indicated as English Freemasons that
in reference to entrance into, or progress in, Freemasonry should be
the strictest regard to Masonic line and rule. As I believe the
historic facts I
have mentioned have not yet been incorporated in any history of recent
in Freemasonry, I send them to you thus for your consideration. "
Little Lodge of Long Ago -- [A Poem]
Douglas Malloch in Masonic News
Little Lodge Of Long Ago ‒
It wasn't very much for show:
Men met above the village store
And cotton more than satin wore,
And sometimes stumbled on a word,
But no one cared, or no one heard.
Then tin reflectors threw the light
Of kerosene across the night
And down the highway served to call
The faithful to Masonic Hall.
It wasn't very much, I know,
The little lodge of long ago.
But, men who meet in finer halls,
Forgive me if the mind recalls
With love, not laughter, doors of pine
And smoky lamps that dimly shine
Regalia tarnished, garments frayed,
Or cheaply bought or simply made
And floors uncarpeted, and men
Whose grammar falters now and then ‒
For Craft, or Creed, or God Himself,
Is not a book upon a shelf:
They have a splendor that will touch
A lodge that isn't very much.
It wasn't very much ‒ and yet
This made it great: there Masons met,
And, if a handful or a host
That always matters, matters most.
The beauty of the meeting hour
Is not a thing of robe or flow'r,:
However beautiful they seem:
The greatest beauty is the gleam
Of sympathy in honest eyes.
A lodge is not a thing of size,
It is a thing of brotherhood
And that alone can make it good.
Great Men Who
Bro. George W. Baird,
P.G.M., District of Columbia
WHIPPLE'S fame has been somewhat overshadowed by that of his brother
who was one of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence; this is
because Captain Abraham Whipple was one of the true heroes of the
period. We Masons may find an additional inspiration from his heroic
career by virtue
of the fact that he was a member of the famous old St. John's Lodge,
No. 1, of Providence,
Rhode Island. This was the second lodge to be established in that
Colony and it
was one of the sixteen charters that were granted by the Provincial
of Massachusetts. The charter was signed by Jeremy Gridley, Provincial
of North America at the time. St. John's Lodge in Providence and King
in Newport were the only two active lodges in the state at the close of
was the third captain to be appointed in the original (Colonial) Navy
of the United
States. He was born in Providence, Sept. 16, 1733, and began his life
on the sea
when only a boy. In those days the colonial merchant marine was the
of revenue for the Colonies and it was so extensive that it was said
vessels were seen on every sea.
French and Indian War (the war which had so much to do with
establishing our civil
and religious liberties) Captain Whipple was in command of the Game
in a single cruise captured twenty-six French vessels.
War of the Revolution was in its incipiency, and when the provisions of
Act prevented the movement of vessels, England began to mobilize
vessels in the
harbors of Rhode Island, a thing that brought the people to a high
pitch of excitement.
Captain Whipple first became noted as the result of his part in the
episode. When this armed schooner came into Providence, Captain Whipple
led a squad
of volunteers in small boats, who boarded and destroyed her on June 17,
British Government offered a reward of 1,000 pounds for the
apprehension of the
leader because war had not yet been declared and Whipple's act was
regarded as piracy.
In the summer
of 1775, and after the Battle of Lexington, Captain Whipple was made
two armed vessels, though his commission as Captain was not dated until
of the same year. A few days after he assumed command he chased and
Rose, which was the very first sea-fight in the war. Captain Whipple
was later given
command of the Providence, a larger vessel, which took more prizes than
other American vessel. When this vessel was captured by the enemy
was assigned to a new frigate bearing the same name and carrying
He was blockaded in Narragansett Bay by a fleet, but succeeded in
running the blockade
and escaping. This escape enabled him to reach France with very
relating to the first treaty with that country, for which service
Washington wrote Captain Whipple a particularly complimentary letter.
to Boston in July, 1779, bringing with him two merchant vessels he had
He had taken eight other vessels besides, which he had sent on to
Boston, and the
value of which was estimated at $1,000,000.
In 1780 Captain
Whipple sailed to Charleston, in order to help relieve that city then
by the enemy, but was met by Sir Henry Clinton with a larger and better
who captured Whipple's vessels and held that good sailor prisoner until
of the war.
In 1784 Captain
Whipple commanded the first vessel to unfurl the American Flag in the
In 1788 he joined the famous Ohio Company and settled in Marietta,
where he died
May 29, 1819. He was tired of the sea and like so many retired sailors
got as far
away from it as he could. He is interred in the cemetery at Marietta
with many of
his pioneer brethren, and a bronze tablet at the entrance records their
as far as I have been able to discover no memorial has ever been
erected to Whipple
It is a pity
that we know so little of the Masonic activities of Abraham Whipple and
famous patriots of the time. Surely there must be in existence many old
diaries, local histories and correspondence, in which some grains of
might be found. Let us dig!
the Man and Mason
Bro. Erik Mckinley Eriksson,
of History, Lombard College, Illinois
From Last Month.)
UP to the
time he was about forty-five years old, Jackson had done little to
outside the boundaries of his own state. During the years between 1804
and the beginning
of the War of 1812 he refrained from office holding, and devoted his
an unsuccessful mercantile enterprise at Clover Blossom, and more
the pursuits of a planter.
of the War of 1812 was his golden opportunity and he was ready to
embrace it. In
1802 he had been elected Major General of the Tennessee militia and so
in touch with military affairs. In 1812 he was commissioned a Major
General of United
States volunteers and took charge of the military operations in the
first great success came with the crushing of the Creek Indians at the
Horse-Shoe, or Tohopeka, in the spring of 1814. This removed a serious
the frontier, for these Indians had been incited by the British to
Wins the Great Battle
of New Orleans
He next turned
his attention to the British expedition designed to over-run the
them he achieved the crowning victory of his career, when, on the 8th
1815, he defeated the British at New Orleans. With a small force of
sheltered behind a rude barricade, Jackson annihilated the attacking
force of 5,000
picked British soldiers. While the Americans lost seventy-one men in
the day's fighting
the British lost 2,137, including their commander, Sir Edward Pakenham.
close of this war, Jackson remained in the military service, but it was
1817 that he again saw active service. The Seminole Indians of Florida
causing trouble on the frontier, and finally Jackson was ordered to
them. The Indians avoided fighting and sought shelter in the Spanish
Florida. Without hesitation, Jackson pursued them across the boundary,
the Spanish city of Pensacola, and executed two captured British
Arbuthnot and Robert Ambrister, who had been inciting the Indians.
These acts involved
our government in diplomatic difficulties, but indirectly Jackson's
action was the
means of forcing Spain to sell Florida to the United States.
Furthermore, he secured
peace on the frontier.
Jackson was to be prominent in politics rather than in war. Though he
army commission until 1821, he did no more fighting. He had shown
himself to be
a great general, one who was later described by one of his bitterest
Daniel Webster, as the greatest American general, next to George
he was an excellent fighter, and though lacking in a knowledge of
he achieved results ‒ and that is the true test of greatness.
Seminole affair, Jackson returned to Tennessee, but in 1821 went to
Florida to serve
as the first Governor of the newly acquired territory. After a
of a few months in that office, he resigned Dec. 1, 1821.
from official cares he returned to his beloved "Hermitage," his home,
near Nashville. It was now that the Masons conferred on him the highest
their power. On Oct. 7, 1822, the "Annual Communication" of the Grand
Lodge of Tennessee began at Nashville, and Andrew Jackson was seated as
a Past Master
of a subordinate lodge. On the same day he was elected Grand Master and
in the office. In 1823 he was elected to serve for another year. He
duties in an able and efficient manner. His sincere interest in Masonry
when he called the Grand Lodge into special session for one week for
of standardizing the work of the three degrees.
But the Hero
of New Orleans, popularly called "Old Hickory," was not allowed to
in retirement from public cares. In 1823 he was elected to the United
but he had already been put before the country as a candidate for the
At the time there was only one political party, the old Republican, and
candidates, Andrew Jackson, John Q. Adams, Henry Clay, and William H.
were all members of it. The popular election in November, 1824, proved
Though Jackson received the largest vote, his electoral vote was only
to eighty-four for Adams, forty-one for Crawford, and thirty-seven for
Was Defeated in the House
was now carried to the House of Representatives, as provided by the
When the vote was taken on Feb. 9, 1825, Adams received the vote of
and thus was elected, while seven states voted for Jackson, and four
Clay had thrown his influence to Adams, and when he became Secretary of
the new cabinet, Jackson and his followers became convinced that a
bargain" had been made between Clay and Adams.
by this belief and feeling that the true will of the people had been
resigned from the Senate and threw his energies into the campaign for
at the next election. Backed by an efficient organization which
the press as well as other agencies of propaganda, and after a bitterly
lasting almost four years, Jackson was elected over John Q. Adams, and
on March 4, 1829, as seventh President of the United States. The
of the following eight years cannot be understood without a
comprehension of people
who put Jackson into office. Among the supporters of the new President
three classes: the southern aristocratic planters who were imbued with
ideas of democracy; the laboring classes of the north; and the
frontiersmen of the
region west of the Appalachians. The last named group was easily the
and gave its character to the Jacksonian Democracy. It was this group
Jackson truly represented.
characteristic of this pioneer frontier democracy was its devotion to
the idea of
equality of opportunity. To these people, social antecedents counted
They did not ask a man from whence he came but they expected him to
play a man's
part. Everyone had his opportunity to achieve success; he who failed
consideration, while the man who showed the qualities of leadership was
idea of equality was not a theory which would make everyone alike.
There was nothing
of the communistic idea in it. Each man had an equal opportunity to
and distinction. Property was acquired by hard toil under the most
conditions. There was no thought of equal distribution whereby the
indolent would benefit by the exertions of the ambitious.
was ever ready to co-operate with his neighbors when there was need, he
and helpful, but was far from being communistic in his conception of
democracy of the frontier well illustrated the idea that brotherhood
means not literal
economic, social and political equality, but equality of opportunity,
and is to
be attained by justice and not by communism.
ideas of the frontier were well illustrated in politics. The man who
was a successful
Indian fighter was expected to make the best Judge or Congressman. It
that any upstanding man was qualified for any office, and consequently
Democrats opposed the idea of a permanent office-holding class. They
in political democracy, equality of economic opportunity, and just as
monopolies and special privilege.
Of this class
Jackson was the typical and outstanding representative. Because he
will so accurately, the era in which he occupied the presidential chair
called the period of "Jacksonian Democracy."
of the United States has more truly represented the people who elected
did Andrew Jackson, and this is one of his chief claims to greatness.
When he performed
the acts which marked his Presidency he was but carrying out the will
of the new
democracy. It has been said that Jefferson inaugurated "government of
for the people," but that it remained for Jackson to add "by the
The Victor Belong
why President Jackson allowed the "spoils system," the idea of "to
the victors belong the spoils," to be applied to the national civil
The new democracy were ardent believers in the idea of rotation in
office; the spoils
system had long been practiced in the states; and it was inevitable
that it should
now be applied to those holding office under the national
administration. If Jackson
had not introduced it some other President would have done so. He did
the system as extensively as later Presidents for, during his eight
years in the
Presidency, only about one-fifth, or 2,000 out of approximately 11,000
under the Federal Government, were removed.
his refusal, in 1832, to sign the bill re-chartering the Second Bank of
States was due largely to the belief of himself and his constituency
that it was
aristocratic and monopolistic in character and dangerous in a
That he truly interpreted the will of the people was shown by his
1832 with the question of the bank re-charter as the chief issue.
Jackson has been
severely denounced for his lack of knowledge concerning finances, but
vindicated him in this matter. The United States has never gone back to
of having its finances handled by a single privately controlled
he have had his way "hard money" would have taken the place of the
money which flooded the country. Furthermore, he opposed, though he
could not prevent,
the passage of the bill in 1836 providing for the distribution among
of the surplus money which had accumulated in the Treasury since the
was paid on Jan. 1, 1835. This distribution, which was sponsored
chiefly by John
C. Calhoun and Henry Clay, encouraged reckless expenditures and was a
in bringing on the panic of 1837. In this matter Jackson deserves
credit which biographers
and historians generally have failed to give him.
And so in
all the other political controversies of his two turbulent
administrations, he acted
as he thought the people wished. In suppressing the nullification
movement in South
Carolina he lost the support of the southern aristocracy but retained
of the chief elements of his following who were intensely
nationalistic. When he
refused to enforce the Supreme Court decision protecting the Cherokee
the State of Georgia he acted in accordance with his own feeling and
that of the
frontiersmen, that the best thing for the Indians was removal beyond
River. He did not oppose internal improvements of a national character,
the drain from the national treasury to pay for local improvements
within the states.
Won Amazing Diplomatic
he achieved a record which surpassed that of such statesmen as John Q.
Henry Clay. Besides negotiating numerous commercial treaties, he
secured the opening
of the West Indies trade by negotiations with England. This matter had
since the Revolution and all previous attempts to settle it had failed.
Jackson secured a settlement of the indemnity claims against the French
growing out of the Napoleonic wars, which his predecessors had tried
but unsuccessfully to settle.
All of Jackson's
policies were most bitterly assailed by his political opponents and
have been severely
criticized since. But throughout the eight years of his Presidency he
met and consistently
overcame all opposition. The final triumph of his career came in 1836,
his personal support, Martin Van Buren, who was pledged to carry on his
was elected as his successor.
may differ in their opinions concerning the political questions of the
they all should honor and respect him for the open stand he took for
Order during the Anti-Masonic movement. When thousands of Masons, if
they did not
openly renounce the Order, at least were afraid to defend it, Jackson
his attachment to the fraternity. Even when the Anti-Masonic party, in
William Wirt [see note] in the field as a candidate for the Presidency
he refused to equivocate. During his residence in Washington he was an
member of Federal Lodge, No. 1. When his duties permitted he did not
attend lodge functions and otherwise openly show his loyalty to the
Order. As an
illustration of this he wrote a letter to the Grand Lodge of
the heat of the Anti-Masonic excitement, declaring that "the Masonic
was an institution calculated to benefit mankind and trusted it would
second term as President expired in 1837, Jackson retired to his home,
near Nashville, Tenn. While he continued until his death to maintain a
in politics, he was not able to actively participate. During his whole
his health had been bad and during his closing years his physical
been said about Jackson's violent qualities but little about the
gentler side of
his life. His wife had died late in 1828, and from then to the end of
his life he
worshipped her memory. In his room he kept her picture constantly
before him, and
each day he would read from her Bible ‒ something which probably most
of his detractors
did not do. In 1839 he joined the Presbyterian Church and from then to
of his life was a professing Christian. At the "Hermitage" he was very
affectionate in his relations with the family of his adopted son who
him. Towards his servants he showed kindness and consideration.
which had for so long been undermining his constitution finally
overcame him, and
he died on June 8, 1845. The cause of his death was announced as dropsy
When the news spread over the country there was almost universal
mourning. So bitterly
had he been hated by political enemies that these showed little regret
at his passing.
But the great majority of people sincerely grieved at his demise.
country eulogistic addresses were delivered, and in the larger cities,
such as New
York and Washington, funeral processions were held, in which the
occupied prominent positions.
of his Masonic brethren were shown in the tribute prepared by the
Chaplain of the
Grand Lodge of Tennessee, who said:
"The hand of the spoiler has
us. His grasp has been laid upon the pillars of our edifice, and one of
columns lies in the dust * * * The life of Andrew Jackson was a
of Masonic Benevolence. In him it was an expansive, a diffusive
principle * * *
The grave holds this noble jewel of Masonry. In republican simplicity,
* * * Disturb not his slumbers, by party execrations. Let us give his
oblivion, and enshrine his virtues in our 'heart of hearts'. Whilst a
award to him their need of praise, be it ours so to pass the level of
time, as that
we may greet him in the 'Holy of Holies above."
Of the many
biographies of Andrew Jackson the best is Bassett, John Spencer, The
Life of Andrew
Jackson [Lib 1911; Vol 1, Vol 2], II vols. Doubleday, Page and
New York, 1911.
Life of Andrew Jackson [Lib 1860; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3], III vols., Houghton, Mifflin
Co., New York, 1888, is interesting but often not reliable. Parton
as fact and lacked in critical discrimination.
biographies are Brady, Cyrus Townsend, The True Andrew Jackson [Lib 1906], J. B. Lippincott Co.,
Garrott, Andrew Jackson [Lib 1900] (The Riverside Biographical
Series, No. I),
Houghton, Mifflin Co., New York, 1900, and
C., History of Andrew Jackson. Pioneer, Patriot, Soldier, Politician,
[Lib 1904; Vol 1, Vol 2], II vols., Charles Scribner's
New York, 1904.
others but those named are best.
information concerning the Jackson period and Jackson democracy there
A. M., New Viewpoints in American History [Lib 1922], The MacMillan Co., New York,
contains an excellent chapter on "Jacksonian Democracy."
William, Jacksonian Democracy [Lib 1906] (Albert Bushnell Hart ed. The
Nation; a History, Vol. XV), Harper and Bros., New York, 1906
Austin, The Reign of Andrew Jackson [Lib 1919] (Allen Johnson, ed., The
of America Series, Vol. XX), Yale University Press, New Haven 1919
Henry, The Jacksonian Epoch [Lib 1899], Harper and Bros., New York,
Jackson, Rise of the New West, 1819-1829 [Lib 1904] (Albert Bushnell Hart, ed..
American Nation: A History, Vol. XIV), Harper and Bros. New York, 1906.
on the period 1825 to 1845 was obtained from political newspapers of
the time: the
National Intelligencer, the National Journal, the United States
Telegraph; the Washington
Globe; and the Washington Union. Information concerning the
Anti-Masonic Party is
contained in the Masonic Service Association Bulletin, No. 10, and THE
concerning Jackson's Masonic record was obtained from The Freemason's
Vol. IV (1845), p. 349, A. B. Andrews, "Andrew Jackson the Freemason,"
The New Age Magazine, Vol. XXIX, pp. 3-6; William L. Boyden, "Andrew
Grand Master of Masons," The New Age, June, 1904, pp. 71-73; and the
of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee 1813-1847, pp. 77, 375, 578-579.
EDITOR ‒ According to Dr. Albert G. Mackey, Mystic Tie, New York, 1856,
Wirt, Anti-Masonic candidate for President, had been an Entered
did not renounce the Order until his nomination, even then his
equivocal and half-hearted and, as he himself frankly acknowledged,
based on hearsay
Unit Shriners' Hospitals for Crippled Children
THIS is one
of eleven hospital units now organized, all of them financed and
managed by the
The St. Louis
or base unit, which receives patients from the St. Louis area and to
which the other
units will forward especially difficult cases, was formally opened
April 13, 1924,
at which time fifteen patients were already being cared for. The
building is a truncated
"L" in shape, and stands at the corner of Kings Highway and Clayton
the entire plant, including lot, building and equipment, represents a
estimated at from $800,000 to $900,000. It stands opposite Forest Park,
it commands an unobstructed view. The lot itself cost $150,000. Moolah
Louis, provided the entire equipment at a cost of $25,000. From the
kitchen in the
basement to the commodious operating room on the top floor everything
is as complete
as modern scientific skill can make it; throughout there has been an
to provide the children patients with every possible comfort.
of every color, creed, and nationality are welcome. A child to be
be a cripple, not over fourteen years of age, of sound mind, and his
admit of being so corrected as to render him self-supporting in after
life. No child
whose parents are able to pay for treatment is admissible.
is given a complete list of Shriners' Hospitals as now organized, their
board of governors, and the general board of trustees. It will be
there are eleven of these, including the unit at Honolulu, which has no
its own, but uses Kaukeolani Hospital.
Sam P. Cochran ‒ Chairman
W. Freeland Kendrick – Vice-Chairman
Forrest Adair ‒ Secretary
Jas. R. Watt, Albany, N.Y.
Dr. Oscar M. Lanstrum, Helena, Mont.
John D. McGilvray, San Francisco, Cal.
Arthur W. Chapman, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Jas. E. Chandler ‒ Imperial Potentate
Jas. C. Burger ‒ Imperial Deputy Potentate
David W. Crosland ‒ Imperial Chief Rabban
Clarence M. Dunbar ‒ Imperial Ash. Rabban
Advisory Board of Orthopedic Surgeons
Dr. Robert B. Osgood, Chairman, Boston, Mass
Dr. Michael Hoke, Secretary, Atlanta, Ga.
Dr. W. Edward Gallie, Toronto, Can.
Dr. Edwin W. Byerson, Chicago, III.
Dr. John C. Wilson, Los Angeles, Cal.
Chief Surgeon ‒ Dr. Herbert A. Durham
Superintendent ‒ Miss Byrd Boehringer
Opened ‒ September, 1922
Capacity ‒ 50 Beds
Board of Governors ‒ J. H. Rowland, Chairman: L. E. Thomas, H. S.
W. B. Farrar, Shreveport; J. P. Haller, New Orleans, La.
Chief Surgeon ‒ Dr. LeRoy C. Abbott
Superintendent ‒ Miss Estelle D. Claiborne
Opened ‒ April 8, 1924
Capacity ‒ 110 Beds
Board of Governors ‒ Henry F. Niedringhaus, Chairman; P. S. Kaull. J.
J. E. Bishop, Secretary; I. L. Hedges, Wm. J. Kennedy, Geo. T.
Chief Surgeon ‒ Dr. Wallace H. Cole
Superintendent ‒ Miss Caroline B. Hallberg
Opened ‒ April 14, 1923
Capacity ‒ 60 Beds
Board of Governors ‒ C. E. Ovenshire, Chairman; Geo. K, Belden, A. B.
Minneapolis: Wm. K. Gill, Duluth; J. Harry Lewis, Secretary; Oscar
J. W. Holland, Wm. Aull, St. Paul, Minn.
Chief Surgeon ‒ Dr. Walter I. Baldwin
Superintendent ‒ Mrs. Gertrude R. Folendorf
Opened ‒ May 26, 1923
Capacity ‒ 50 Beds
Board of Governors ‒ John D. McGilvray, Chairman; Earnest C. Hueter,
Chas. G. Gebherdt,
Jos. Heineberg. Arthur Joel, Frank Kessling, Wm. H. Worden, Secretary.
Chief Surgeon ‒ Dr. R. B. Dillehunt
Superintendent ‒ Miss Letha Humphrey
Opened ‒ Dec. 9, 1923
Capacity ‒ 50 Beds
Board of Governors ‒ Geo. L. Baker, Chairman; Geo. W. Stapleton, D. G.
W. J. Hofmann, Secretary: Frank Grant, H. J. Blaesing, Carl Tipton.
Chief Surgeon ‒ Dr. R. N. Hatt
Superintendent ‒ Miss Harriett McCollum
Opened ‒ Feb. 21, 1926
Capacity ‒ 60 Beds
Board of Governors ‒ George M. Hendee, H. H. Caswell, Chas. A. Fraser,
A. H. Phillips,
Henry O. Olds. F. C. Smith, Fred R. Brown and Chas. H. Beckwith.
Chief Surgeon ‒ Dr. A. McKenzie Forbes
Superintendent ‒ Miss Louise M. Dickson
Opened ‒ Feb. 9, 1925
Capacity ‒ 50 Beds
Board of Governors – A.A. Bittues, H.J. Elliott, Walter G. Hager,
Walter Taylor, Thomas Currie and W. Williamson.
Ward Space Rented from ‒ Kaukeolani Hospital
Chief Surgeon ‒ Dr. Jas. Warren White
Superintendent ‒ Miss Sarah Bloom
Opened ‒ Dec. 19, 1922
Capacity ‒ 30 Beds
Board of Governors ‒ Harry N. Denison, Chairman, Guy H. Buttolph, Kirk
Hugh C. Spencer, Secretary; Chas. G. Heiser, Harry S. Hayward, Frank E.
John A. Young, Honolulu, H.I.
Ward Space Rented from ‒ St. Luke's Hospital
Chief Surgeon ‒ Dr. Charles F. Eikenbary
Superintendent ‒ Miss Grace Bratton
Opened ‒ Nov. 15, 1924
Capacity ‒ 20 Beds
Board of Governors – Henry A. Pierce, Chairman; Hugo E. Oswald, Sam
Murgittroyd, Glen Pattee, Harry A. Garrett, C. Bert Clausin
Ward Space Rented from ‒ St. Mark's Hospital
Chief Surgeon ‒ Dr. L. Huether
Opened ‒ Jan. 15, 1925
Capacity ‒ 20 Beds
Board of Governors ‒ F.C. Schramm, Chairman: C. H. Fischer, M. E.
Lipman, Leon Sweet,
W. J. Lynch, James W. Cherry, Salt Lake City; John E. Carver, P. F.
Ward Space Rented from ‒ The Children's Hospital
Chief Surgeon ‒ Dr. A. A. Murray
Opened ‒ Jan. 16, 1926
Capacity ‒ 20 Beds
Board of Governors ‒ A.W. Chapman, Chairman; W. A. McKay,
Vice-Chairman; Alex Thompson,
Secretary-Treasurer; W.F. Taylor, James Mackie, H.T. Hazelton, Clarence
W.H. Carter, Winnipeg, Man
Hospital for Crippled Children for the Philippines
Bro. Leo Fischer, Philippine
of The Far Eastern Freemason and as associate editor of The Cabletow,
the two Masonic
journals of the Philippine Islands, and as a leader in Masonic
activities in the
Far East, Bro. Fischer is peculiarly well qualified to write on this
thanks are extended to him for this good word from the Philippines. May
grant that our far-away brethren be successful in their magnificent
IT is a far
cry from the vast domain of the continental United States to the
of the Philippines and a comparison of the scant resources available to
body of Masons in these Islands with the enormous wealth at the command
of the great
army of Masonry in the United States is out of the question. Yet the
Craft in this
Far Eastern Archipelago is constantly giving evidence of a noble
ambition, an ardent
desire, not to remain behind its brethren in the United States in
and every great movement in American Masonry finds an echo in the
the Masons of these Islands are putting forth every effort to maintain
Grand Lodge, give the largest sum of Masonic education possible to the
the various charitable enterprises they have initiated, and hold their
numerous hostile elements and influences of which our brethren in
America have no
idea, yet they have for some time past been contemplating the taking up
of one form
of Masonic charity that has but recently been given attention in the
a Masonic Hospital for Crippled Children.
as 1923, a number of enthusiastic Scottish Rite Masons who meet every
a luncheon in the Masonic Temple on the Escolta, Manila, under the
the Deputy for the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction of the
M. W. Bro. Frederic H. Stevens (then Grand Master of Masons of the
discussed plans to found a hospital for crippled children in Manila.
of an orthopedic ward at the Mary Chiles Hospital was contemplated. But
compelled Bro. Waldo N. Lemmon, the director of this hospital, who had
experience in that line and to whom the brethren interested in the plan
a prominent part in the work, to return to the homeland. It was then
best to start the movement as a general Masonic venture, and on July
29, 1924, a
number of the most active Master Masons of the Islands met in the
and organized a corporation for the purpose of building, equipping and
in the City of Manila a Masonic Hospital for Crippled Children.
of incorporators was headed by Wenceslao Trinidad, the M. W. Grand
Master of the
M. W. Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands; Frederic H. Stevens. Ill.
the Supreme Council, A. & A. S. R. of the Southern Jurisdiction
of the United
States, and the representatives of various other Masonic bodies.
Americans, Chinese, and Filipinos, and the fair sex was represented by
of the Deputy for the Supreme Council, Mrs. Frederic H. Stevens. The M.
Master was chosen honorary president and the Ill. Deputy for the
and Governor-General Leonard Wood honorary vice-presidents of the
officers elected were W. W. Larkin, president; Teodoro M. Kalaw, first
Major-General James H. McRae, second vice president; F. E. Hedrick,
Joseph H. Schmidt, secretary. Much enthusiasm was shown and the newly
entered upon their duties with great vim and vigor and have been
with constancy and zeal ever since.
campaign was the first move undertaken, of course. Membership in the
is limited to regular Master Masons; the wives, daughters, sisters,
widows of regular Master Masons; and such organizations and
associations the membership
of which is composed of these eligibles, as the Board of Directors may
to time determine.
several classes of membership. Life membership may be secured by the
an entrance fee of $250, there being no annual dues for this class.
requires no entrance fee, but the payment of $50 per annum for dues for
Regular membership may be obtained by paying an entrance fee of $5.00
per annum for dues.
was very satisfactory. At last Philippine Masonry seemed to have found
object of a concerted effort for constructive work in general charity,
from that extensive to Masons and their wards alone, for which it had
for years. The Scottish Rite bodies and a number of Blue Lodges and
subscribed as life or sustaining members, and applications for regular
kept pouring in. And we venture to say that the response would have
been more general
were it not for a few factors militating against it; the drive for the
school and dormitory; the unsatisfactory condition of business; the
poor means of
communication with the provincial lodges scattered throughout the large
Islands; and others. Enthusiastic workers have been lecturing and
the hospital, and others have wielded their pens for it until at
present the corporation
has fifteen life members, thirty-three sustaining members, and 525
Mrs. W. J. Williams, the wife of a brother who hails from Australia,
dancing recital for the benefit of the Masonic Hospital for Crippled
on two successive nights she and seventy of her pupils, mostly American
delighted appreciative audiences at the Grand Opera House of Manila.
The net proceeds
of the noble work so performed by Mrs. Williams and her pupils totaled
The performances were well patronized by the general public and a
of broad-minded Catholics gave their assistance towards the success of
Funds Are Now In Sight
on hand are almost sufficient to establish a ward for crippled children
in one of
the local hospitals. Bishop C. B. Mitchell, of the Methodist Episcopal
very enthusiastic Mason, has offered the use free of charge of the
staff and facilities
of the Mary Johnston Hospital, in the district of Tondo, Manila, an
for a charitable institution of any kind. We expect soon to hear of the
of the plan cherished by the Masons of the Islands. In the meantime,
the drive for
members and funds continues. "The Cabletow" and the "Far Eastern
Freemason," official organs of the Grand Lodge of the Philippine
the Scottish Rite bodies of the Valley of Manila, respectively, which
every regular Mason in the Philippine Islands, are constantly active in
the Hospital and a number of the enthusiastic workers of the
corporation never miss
an opportunity to make propaganda for it.
of the Masonic Hospital for Crippled Children will show to the Masonic
the seven thousand regular Masons of the Philippine Islands are capable
great things and carrying them to a successful conclusion.
of the Headquarters Building for the Triennial Conclave, Knights Templar
Knights from all over the United States assemble in Seattle for their
Triennial during the 28th to 30th of this month, they will find
themselves in one
of the most unique structures that has ever been erected in the
country. The perspective
of it, published in THE BUILDER on page 100 of April last, furnishes
but a slight
conception of it. The designs were made in the offices of Sir Knight
Blogg, A. I. A., Seattle, to whom THE BUILDER is indebted for the
the building embodied in the paragraphs below.
Blogg is a member of Bethlehem Commandery, No. 10, and an Institute
Member of the
Washington State Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. Mr.
Henry H. Hodgson,
Associate of the Washington State Chapter, A. I. A., who was designer
in Mr. Blogg’s
office at the time the designs were made, is responsible for much of
of the design and its development. Sir Knight Henry Bittman was the
Sir Knight Ludwig Livergreen was the general contractor; and the
electric work was
done by Bro. Evans of the City Electric & Fixture Company, of
design is that of a feudal castle of the time of the crusades. The mass
of the plan
consists of two buildings with a court between. The entrance is from
and leads over a drawbridge into the large court which is 23 feet wide
by 94 feet
long. From this court entrances lead into the Washington State
headquarters on the
west. At the north end of the court is the keep, or main tower. The
of this keep contains the executive offices for the control of the
the keep is the north entrance with massive gates. All approaches from
to the buildings are by inclines.
colors will fly from the staff on the keep and the Beauseant, battle
flag of the
Templars, will fly from a turret at the southwest angle of the west
State headquarters building is 57 feet wide and 118 feet long and
contains a balcony
23 feet wide around three sides. In this building are quartered the
subordinate Commanderies of the State of Washington and space for
hotel, and transportation services. Thirteen Commanderies have quarters
on the main
floor and eleven in the balcony.
headquarters building, which is 63 feet wide and 92 feet long, besides
quarters for the state headquarters of Oregon, Montana and Idaho, has a
bower. In this building will also be found telephone, telegraph and
service. Direct telephone connection will be in service to all the
and to the central executive office. Each Commandery will have a
a private branch exchange. The exterior of the buildings is painted to
the stone work of the feudal period.
Use of "Chapter"
"lodge" has become so completely identified with the Blue Lodge body,
and "chapter" has become so generally linked with the local body of
Arch Masons, that any divergence from this custom arouses curiosity. A
case of this
kind is met with in the Beteilhe MS. account of the founding of the
of Boston, at the Bunch of Grapes Tavern, July 30, 1733. That account
the following heading: "At a Special Chapter of Free & Accepted
Did this use of the word have any special significance? The question
to Bro. Gilbert Daynes, Associate Editor, England, whose reply, given
in full immediately
below, indicates that "chapter" and "lodge" were once used
The word "Chapiter" or
appears in two of the Statutes of Labourers. First, in 1360, when the
Labourers received Parliamentary confirmation, and its observance was
strong penalties. The reference is "that all alliances and Bovines of
and carpenters, and congregations, chapters, ordinances and oaths
betwixt them made,
or to be made, shall be from henceforth void and wholly annulled."
History I. 340.)
In 3 Henry
VI. c. 1., A.D. 1425, we read "whereas by the yearly congregations and
made by the Masons in their general Chapiters assembled," etc., and
said Lord the King.... bath ordained and established, that such
Chapiters and Congregations
shall not be hereafter holder." (Gould, I. 351-357).
"Chapters" is met with in all the editions of the Constitutions up to
and including the edition of 1784. In the 1723 edition the second
The Master of a particular Lodge has the Right and Authority of
Members of his Lodge into a Chapter at pleasure, upon any Emergency or
as well as to appoint the time and place of their usual forming."
no definition of either the word "Lodge" or "Chapter" given
by Anderson, nor is the difference between them, if there was any
indicated by Anderson. In the 1738 edition, the old regulation, as
is given, but the words "at pleasure" are omitted. The New Regulations,
also given in that edition do not touch upon that part of the Old
II which is under discussion. The editions of 1756, 1767 and 1784 have
to "Chapters" in the Regulations.
In the history
given by Anderson in the 1723 edition of the Constitutions [Lib 1723], he mentions on page 35 "and
because such Agreements were suppos'd to be made at the General Lodges,
the Act CHAPTERS AND CONGREGATIONS of MASONS it was then thought
This refers to the Statute of Henry VI, part of which Anderson gives in
a note o
i the same page, to which he gives the title, "Masons shall not
themselves in Chapters and Congregations." In the second edition, on
73 and 74, Anderson again sets out the Statute of Henry VI using the
In the General
Laws of the Old Lodge, held at the Saracen's Head, Lincoln, and founded
7th of September,
1730, the third of its By-Laws reads as follows:
"3. Upon emergent occasions
such as the
proposed Brothers going out of Town or the like the Mar may convene the
that purpose and hold a Chapter for the Election and Institution of
if he see good." (A. Q. C. Vol. IV, p. 101. [Lib 1891])
In a letter
by M. Broughton (not a Mason) from the Duke of Montagu's, at Ditton, to
of Rickmond, dated New Year's Day, 1734-5, the following sentence
"On Sunday Night at a Lodge in
St. John Albemarle and Russell made chapters: and Bob [Robert Webber]
the Dr. [Dr. J. T. Desaguliers] being very hardly persuaded to the
Latter, by reason
of Bob's tender years and want of Aprons." (A. Q. C., Vol. XXX, p. 190.
amount of the discussion upon this paper in Quatuor Coronati Lodge was
as to what
was meant by the word "Chapters."
It is interesting
to note that in the earliest Minutes of R. A. contained in the Minute
Book of a
Bristol Lodge, 1758, the word "lodge" is used. The last actual Royal
meeting recorded is that on Sunday, May 6, 1759, when "a Royal Arch
was held. In A. Q. C. Vols. XXX and XXXII [Lib 1919] there are papers with
to Royal Arch Masonry, which might help you in coming to some definite
as to whether Anderson, or others, during the period 1723 to 1743, used
"chapter" as referring to something different from the ordinary "lodge."
Bro. John A. Davilla,
Grand Secretary, Louisiana
lodges of the City of New Orleans united in forming a Relief Board on
the 28th of
April, 1851. This Board continued to operate for three years, when the
resolution was presented to the Grand Lodge and adopted:
the Masonic Board of Relief, established in the City of New Orleans,
itself entitled to the confidence of this Grand Lodge therefore, Be it
That the said Board of Relief be and is hereby constituted into a
for the special purpose of its creation, and the Grand Master is hereby
and empowered to grant a Charter or Warrant of Constitution to them,
under the title
they now hold or such other as they may select."
On the first
day of July, 1851, this charter was granted, under the title and
Louisiana Relief Lodge, No. 1.
Lodge law governing this matter states:
"The members of said lodge
of its ofl6eers, who may be selected from its constituents at large,
and the Masters and Wardens in office (or their proxies), of such
lodges as shall
hold membership in the same."
"Said lodge shall have no power
degrees nor to send representatives to the Grand Lodge, nor shall it be
to pay any dues, fees or charges to this Grand Lodge."
of this Grand Lodge are replete with praises for the services of the
during the years when the yellow fever scourge paid practically an
to the cities of the South.
is still continued and we have the unique honor of having the only
to relief work in the world. The work of the lodge is limited to the
care of sojourning
Masons and is the same class of work done by the Relief Boards of the
we have the advantage, we believe, in that the Master and Secretary
handle all the
affairs of the lodge between meetings and pass upon all cases presented.
meets quarterly and is never closed, but is called from refreshment to
vice versa and is therefore always ready for an emergency. Any two of
lodges constitute a quorum.
Reason for Poor Books
Masonic literature, outside as well as inside the Craft, often charge
with encouraging the circulation of books of such poor quality as would
their use by any other class of readers. There is a certain amount of
truth in this
indictment, for it would be easy to name certain Masonic "histories"
no competent historian would deign to read; works on symbolism that
draw scorn from
symbologists, properly so-called; treatises on the "Ancient Mysteries"
‒ more especially of Egypt ‒ too puerile for any use except by the
and various other writings, callow, uninformed, dull.
a reason for this, such a reason as reflects no discredit on the
of the Craft. There are many subjects in Masonry itself, essential to a
of it, to understand which such knowledge is needed as outside the
falls only within the province of specialists. A reading about King
calls for some dealings with archeology; the "Liberal Arts and
of the Second Degree carry one back into Medieval history; the H. A.
connections with ancient myths and forgotten astrologies. And so on.
of a lodge who may become interested enough in such subjects to seek
on them naturally cannot be expected to possess the special knowledge
enable him to read with critical discernment. "The more excellent way"
for such a reader is to seek counsel of those who, by virtue of some
may be able to give him a just appraisal of any book he may be tempted
‒ H.L. Haywood
Time to Prepare
for the Celebration of the Bicentennial of American Masonry
IN the Question
Box and Correspondence Department of this issue the reader will find a
from Bro. Robert J. Newton in which that brother, who has long had at
heart so sincerely
the high purposes of the Craft, urges that it is now time for American
a whole to make plans to celebrate the two hundredth anniversary of the
of American Freemasonry. His suggestion is timely and his proposal is
the founding of our Fraternity on these shores was an event of such
consequences, not alone to Masonry here and abroad but to our nation as
some suitable celebration thereof is morally binding on US all.
be a possible disagreement as to the date. Pennsylvania may wish it to
be held in
1930 in remembrance of the St. John's Lodge that was evidently at work
in that city
in 1730 ‒ the first American lodge of which we have records.
Massachusetts may desire
to set the date in 1933, to recall the founding of the First Lodge at
1733. But there cannot be any serious difficulties on this score when
the fact itself,
and as a whole, is such as to make details a matter of inconsequence.
a real sense in which this bicentennial is a date for Freemasonry
whole world. The Craft did not begin here. It is not as ancient as it
is in England
and in Europe. Like our population and our culture it was in its
beginnings an importation
from abroad. Nevertheless it has had here a development so unique, and
its size and social activities it has come to wield an influence so
wide that American
Freemasonry has come to be something more than a fraternity, something
a secret society, but has grown to be one of the public institutions
like the school
and the home, with ramifications extending everywhere.
the American Craft has achievements to its credit other than its mere
size. To organize
forty-nine Grand Lodges within the borders of one country, and to so
link them together
without violating the sovereignty of any one of them as to leave each
but all states united is in itself a thing to be proud of. Of the same
case is the
fact that here the Higher Grades have grown to a position of power and
not everywhere found, and yet at the same time exist in harmony along
with the Grand
bodies practicing the Craft degrees; so also is the fact that along
with these specifically
Masonic organizations are a number of Side Orders, many of them
national in scope,
which, though they are not strictly speaking in the Masonic family, are
to it. The co-existence of so many governing bodies in one great family
the vitality and the unity of the American Craft, and is a culmination
of two hundred
years of activity of which each American Mason may legitimately feel
be most appropriate for all Grand bodies to unite in celebration at the
National Masonic Memorial when the time comes. That Memorial was
brought into existence
as a monument to the unity of American Masonry, and the mere fact that
would be held within its walls would in itself help to make that unity
such auspices a celebration would familiarize all American Masons with
history of the Craft in America; would make clear the contributions of
American civilization; would set free from local obscurities the grand
have actuated it from the beginning and continue to inspire it; and
would be a powerful
stimulus to all wise and worthy activities in which it is now engaged.
be best of all if these good results could lie embodied and made
permanent by means
of a national Masonic museum and library, which perhaps might lie given
a home in
the Washington Memorial itself. At the present time books, documents,
are scattered throughout the states, separated oftentimes by thousands
so that any investigator into the original records must either leave
many of them
untouched or else must spend a small fortune in traveling expenses.
Could the proper
foundation for a strictly national collection be laid the time might
a generation of development, when a student could find almost anything
Alexandria, and at the same time such a foundation could be made, by
means of cross
reference systems and other familiar devices, an approach to the
contents of all
state libraries and museums and thereby bring into focus the total
wealth of all
American Masonic resources of this kind.
and the Egyptian
OF ANCIENT EGYPT [Lib*]. By Ernest G. Palmer. Published by William
Rider & Son,
London. May be purchased through National Masonic Research Society Book
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Cloth, illustrated, 108 pages
Price, postpaid, $1.35.
THIS is a
magnificent little book. "The author follows and amplifies the theory
by the late Mr. Marsham Adams that the Great Pyramid was an ancient
temple of Initiation,
and that it was constructed in such a manner as to constitute a
of the secrets contained in the so-called Book of the Dead. The Book
and the Pyramid
are thus held to be mutually explanatory, and to enshrine the esoteric
by the Hierophants of Ancient Egypt."
with many books on Egypt, more especially on Ancient Egypt with its
and its strange religions and philosophies, is that they are either
specialists or else are priced at a figure that puts them out of reach
of the majority
of readers; The Secret of Ancient Egypt is a welcome exception to this
author has his own share of erudition but has not permitted this to
mind or his book. With a great deal of skill he has disentangled from
number of facts such as are of most interest to a modern man,
especially to a Mason.
The author himself is evidently a member of the Craft, for one of his
devoted to "Masonic Traces."
He says that
the Mysteries of Ancient Egypt continue to hold the center of interest
and that we may expect in the future to continue to learn more of the
of the ancient hieroglyphics and symbolism. "It is admitted; however,
more has been done in this field by actual excavation and translation
than by interpretation
of the symbolism which veiled the deeper meanings of the ancient Wisdom
whence Masonry itself derives much of its meaning and ritual. Hence
book may find a place in the literature of a vast subject, not so much
as an expression
of finality, but as a contribution to that symbolic interpretation,
which, it is
hoped, may be greatly extended in future."
famous theory stands at the center of Mr. Palmer's book. The Adams'
theory is that
The Book of the Dead was in reality the script of an initiation
ceremony and that
the Great Pyramid was not the tomb of some dead King, but a temple,
like one of
our own Masonic Temples, in which a few selected men and women were
the Egyptian Mysteries.
the ancient world," writes our author, "to be unacquainted with the
was to be considered one of the 'uninitiate vulgar'. In our day the
conveys something vague and indefinite or uncertain. Not so in the old
it was a very definite instruction in the meaning of life, its origin
and its immortal
nature. It comprehended in its lower degrees or lesser mysteries a
teaching of all
that stood for culture in those days: letters (in Egypt the hieroglyphs
scripts), chemistry, history, mathematics, physics, etc."
makes it clear that the center of the initiatory ceremonies was a drama
like that of H. A. in our own Third Degree. The analogy is so close
that Mr. Palmer
is of the opinion that the very ancient ceremony employed in Egypt may
to the Masonic Fraternity of today. On this subject he quotes Mr. James
"The theory of Hiram Abiff may
to the members of the Mystic Craft. It will be instructive for them to
story of Osiris with the story of Hiram, his death, interment, and
the Orient Freemasons may be disposed to go further back than Solomon's
insert the name of Osiris as at first in their Mysteries."
of this theory Mr. Palmer points to a number of items in the Masonic
identical or nearly identical with the same kind of things in the old
In this same
connection the author's note on "The Origin of Freemasonry" (page 101)
is good to be quoted in full:
"There appear to be only three
to account for the resemblances in Masonry to the Egyptian Mysteries ‒
which are too numerous to be accidental.
The Mysteries of Egypt must
have been in continuous operation through the
ages and have later been reconstituted in Masonry.
Masonry deliberately borrowed
much of its workings from Ancient Egypt without
any continuous lineal descent.
The Egyptian Mysteries, after
having formed the basis of the Eleusinia of
Greece and probably of the Roman Collegia, having ceased to be
continued to inform or inspire secret societies, which have transmitted
the ancient workings to the Masonry of today.
"With regard to the first of
it is known that the Egyptian Mysteries ceased to be celebrated. When
definitely abandoned is doubtful. The Edict of the Emperor Theodosius,
A. D. 373,
abrogating all other religions but Christianity, was opposed by the
powerful Sacred College of Philae, and it is known that the Mysteries
and Isis were celebrated on that island as late as A. D. 453. The
on the walls of the temple prove it. So we can definitely affirm that
the old workings
were in existence at that date, if not afterwards.
"With respect to the second
theory, it is
sufficient to say that Masonry is known to be of ancient derivation,
and some of
the resemblances are such that they would not suggest themselves for
some of them being too trifling, while others imply a knowledge of
has only been obtained recently, and long since the Masonic Fraternity
"Champollion deciphered the
about the year 1820, and the first Lodge of Speculative Freemasonry is
have been founded about A. D. 1700.
"The third theory is the one
the support of all the best authorities. Herodotus states the Grecian
were derived from the Egyptian. In a similar way other and later bodies
the tradition, and a study of the various occult societies of the
Middle Ages might
show the line of descent. Some of the Hierophants, after accepting
still acted as Stewards of the Mysteries, and, with some of the arcane
passed on, perhaps unconsciously, some of the forms which had their
origin in Ancient
Egypt. In the lapse of ages, however, much has been lost and much has
The Masonic tradition of some connection with King Solomon is very
should be remembered that Moses was a priest of Heliopolis, one of the
centers of the celebrations of the Mysteries in Egypt and he is stated
in the Scriptures
to have been instructed in ail the Wisdom of the Egyptians. Solomon
also was probably
an Egyptian initiate, as he married a daughter of the Pharaoh of his
day. It is
possible, therefore, that some of the Egyptian modes may have been
by this line, through various other societies. The Keepers of the
St. Paul called them, would build new organizations, which they would
the ancient ideals, involving the inclusion of some of the old forms
to suit the needs of a new day. This implies, however, not adaptation
borrowing of the outer forms, but a transmission of some of the ancient
to new foundations by the Custodians of the Ancient Mysteries."
* * *
of the Somerset
Master's Lodge, No. 3746. 1924
transactions of this research body [Lib*] are chiefly taken up by an
the Royal Cumberland Lodge, No. 53, at Bath, much of which consists of
from Minute Book No. VIII, running from October, 1818, to December, the
period immediately following the union of the two rival Grand Lodges in
There are some interesting illustrations of the Masonic Hall at Bath
plan of the arrangement of the lodge room at its dedication. This shows
in the middle (where the altar would be in an American lodge room)
white satin. By this "lodge" we are probably to understand the chart,
or diagram, placed on a low stand, as is yet to be found at Bristol.
also an interesting account of an installation in 1827, when the Master
taken by the Master and Past Masters to an ante-room, where "a Lodge of
Masters having been opened in due Masonic Form....The accustomed
place." After which "The Board of Installed Masters was closed, and the
Brethren in Procession returned to the Lodge room" where the new Master
invested and installed. The noteworthy point is the hesitation between
a "Lodge of Installed Masters," which was the earlier form, and a
which is the present description in England and the British Empire
real reason for changing the name was doubtless to discourage the idea
"secrets of the chair" formed a degree, as the articles of Union had so
specifically stated that pure ancient Masonry consisted only of three.
an exceedingly interesting account of some old MS. Royal Arch rituals
to Sincerity Chapter, No. 261, of Taunton, in Devonshire, by Comp. H.
the Scribe E. of the chapter. These show a form of work variant from
English arrangement, though much closer to that than to the American
Bro. J. W.
Hobbs has collected into one place under the heading "Our Mediaeval
most if not all the principal and significant allusions to mediaeval
and Master Masons. Much of this of course has been published many times
it is a very useful article. We may remark the use of the word Ashlar,
form "asselars" as apparently meaning, without qualification, stones
and ready for the builder's use.
* * *
The Masonic Lodge?
OF MASONRY [Lib*]. By H. L. Haywood editor of THE BUILDER. Published by
Doran, New York, as Vol. 11, M.S.A. National Masonic Library. For sale
Masonic Research Society. Blue cloth, index, bibliography, 187 pages.
of an inquiring turn of mind looking down from a circling airplane upon
anywhere in America, might reasonably ask himself, Why all this
hurrying to and fro? At intervals the streets are full of people madly
Presto! They become empty again. Everybody has disappeared somewhither.
become of them? What objective induces folk thus to hurry from hither
If our fancied
observer seriously desired an answer to his question he would do well
to come down
to earth, take note of the place, time, and manner in which people
assemble in groups
and inquire under what leadership and for what purposes they come
together. A community
may best be judged by its groupments, its homes, churches, schools,
places of business
and amusement ‒ in a word, its institutions ‒ and by the manner and
extent to which
they are frequented; an individual, by the way, divides his time and
them. To make the point clear, one may ask oneself, What would Main
Street be like
if its schools, its churches or its lodges were incontinently sponged
out of existence?
How would the lives of Dr. and Mrs. Kennicut and their neighbors be
brings us to our question, Why the Masonic Lodge?
One has only
to walk with a limp to discover how many people have a touch of
rheumatism now and
again, and the fact that Freemasonry is the thing uppermost in my own
mind may account
for the number of questions that come to me, directly or indirectly, as
to the worth-whileness
of the Masonic Lodge.
I don't know
how many Masons of more or less prominence in public life, whom I have
to act as speakers or in connection with civic work, have admitted that
enter a Masonic Lodge unless invited to make an address. One of my
a man active in affairs, was made a Mason at the same time as myself. I
to guess that he does not attend lodge once a year. Another, the
president of a
thriving business enterprise, now in his second year as a Mason, tells
me that he
does not yet see what inducement there is to attend lodge at all!
All of these
men value their membership in the Fraternity very highly. They pay
their dues. They
could in no wise be incited to dimit. Yet they do not appreciate the
of the lodge enough to attend its meetings. Nor is their attitude
different to that
of three-quarters or more of the Fraternity. For lodge attendance
continues to hover
around 20 per cent and the number of unaffiliates grows apace.
the World War, or its aftermath, has called into question the
Freemasonry along with that of every other human institution. Perhaps
the many hundreds
of thousands of men who have been made Masons during and since the war
this query. Maybe the great Masonic temples and memorials that are
rising upon every
hand art provoking inquiries. Possibly our feasting, dancing and
attracting a dubious attention. At all events, unless I am the more
number of persons is increasing both within and without the Fraternity
toward the Craft has in it an element of dubiety, if not of challenge.
As to the
public, possibly the traditional attitude of silence and secrecy is
Possibly not. Opinions will differ on that question. As to all who are
to Masonic light, there can be no two opinions. Every Master Mason
should be able
intelligently to state the reasons for the faith that is in him. All
enlightenment to the uttermost degree.
of the hour and the man of the. hour have happily met in the
publication by the
editor of THE BUILDER of the most recent, the most acceptable and, one
to say, the only adequate answer to challenging inquirers, The Great
Freemasonry, which appeared as a volume of the National Masonic Library.
and refreshing appeal of this particular volume is not merely its
newness. A number
of Masonic books of exceptional merit have recently appeared. The
virtue of this book is its modern-mindedness. Here at last is a book on
that a business man, a mechanic, a school teacher, a society woman, can
pleasure and understanding. This book any ordinary person would be
disposed to leave
lying about the living room or take upon a journey, or recommend
casually to a friend,
and could do so without suspicion of being a propagandist. Haywood's
in short, is a plain, simple, straightforward contribution to current
The subject is one in which the general public is, and has a right to
interested. The style is pitched upon a literary plane distinctly above
but is withal so simple that a child can understand it. Here is a book
interesting to a profane as to a member of the Craft.
faces squarely the question: "Why the Masonic Lodge?" or, in his
"What is it all about?” He explains with sweet reasonableness and
candor why Masonry employs ritual and symbolism, the meaning of
initiation and secrecy,
and the Masonic theory of the good life. The fact that Masons meet upon
leads him naturally to show why Freemasonry is the champion of liberty
He makes clear how the brotherhood of man, as understood by Freemasons,
their attitude toward religion and gives the Craft its universality as
institution. He points out that belief in the brotherhood of man
implies faith in
the Fatherhood of God and in the endless life, and shows how naturally
love expresses itself in brotherly aid and charity. The Masonic
conception of human
nature as educable finds expression in the motto of the Fraternity,
“Let there be
light.” This affords a firm basis for the comprehensive interest of the
all means and agencies for education, especially the American free
system. The lodge itself is depicted as a school for the inculcation of
Teachings" of the Fraternity. Thus the very table of contents of this
addition to our literature lends itself to simplicity of exposition and
in the phrase of Bacon, to men's business and bosoms.
democracy, industry, religion, brotherhood, charity, education ‒ what
or more timely watchwords could be selected for an institution which
of members in its world-wide distribution and takes rank with the home,
the church as among the most universally present and active
institutions in American
life! Each peals out like a bugle call a challenge to worthwhile
service. Each is
eloquent, not only of individual self-expression and self-development ‒
building ‒ but also of social and civic cooperation for the common weal.
whether the Craft is discharging its full responsibilities to its
members, to community,
state and nation, and to mankind, has been generally agitated during
and since the
World War, and there has arisen in certain quarters a strong demand for
action." Attention is called to the prestige, number, wealth and
influence of the Craft, and it is argued that steps should be taken to
line up on
a united front, bring about effective mass action in favor of those
things for which
Freemasons traditionally stand ‒ such, for example, as the improvement
of the public
schools ‒ and bear down opposition. Conservative brethren, on the other
to mind the landmarks prohibiting political and sectarian discussion
auspices and deprecate departure from the time-honored routine of the
be more timely, or helpful, to progressives and conservatives alike,
than a fresh
analysis and interpretation of Masonic fundamentals in the light of
and present day conditions. The most extreme schools of Masonic opinion
common ground in Bro. Haywood's presentation of the great teachings of
Each will be helped to see the other's point of view. All will be
enabled to stand
together on his broad platform and continue working in fraternal
harmony and brotherly
love for the common weal.
programs of the National Masonic Research Society and the Masonic
and of the various Grand Lodge Bureaus organized under their
inspiration or auspices,
have enormously increased the demand among lodges for Masonic speakers.
One of the
most serious problems in connection with this effort is that of
supplying in sufficient
number speakers who can be relied upon to keep their remarks within due
and square them by the ancient landmarks. No book yet published could
be more helpful
in clarifying the mind of a- speaker, or more useful in the preparation
addresses, than Haywood’s Great Teachings. May it find its way into the
all who have occasion to counsel and direct the Craft.
* * *
OF BAGDAD [Lib*]. By Sylvanus Cobb, Jr. Published by The Masonic News,
Mich. May be purchased through National Masonic Research Society Book
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. 8 vo., 224 pages. Price,
interest with which this story was read as it appeared serially in The
clearly demonstrated that it should be issued in book form. The Caliph
was originally published in serial form in the New York Ledger, in
1868, under the
title of The Mystic Tie of the Temple, and created a demand which
publishers in putting out a large edition in book form. Although there
subsequent reprints it eventually became out of print and very hard to
and the present republication in The Masonic News and in book form has
an opportunity to read one of the best works of fiction by this popular
is laid in Bagdad in the ninth century, and like all the stories of
Bro. Cobb, the
plot is exceedingly strong.
hero, returning to Bagdad, his native city, impelled by a desire to
distress which has been caused by the tyrannical Caliph. He comes from
where he has been a Brother of the Mystic Tie, but in Bagdad he finds
have made it necessary for the Brotherhood to use the fraternal
principles and practices
to an extent he had not conceived. The adventures and thrilling
Dagon and his associates undergo before the story reaches the
make it a fascinating and most delightful tale.
To all this
is added a thread of Masonic interest, bringing out the true spirit of
and making it not only splendid fiction, but also one of the best
that has been written.
the work for humanity they were engaged on in Bagdad, we became curious
as to what
became of them.
you ask what became of the Brotherhood of the Cryptic Temple? Their
was founded upon the eternal principles of Brotherly Love and Truth;
and it found
a support in the hearts of men which neither the lapse of time nor the
hand of adversity
could overcome. It lives today, as it lived then; and were Gedaliah of
time to drop this evening into our Temple, he would find his work well
He could meet us on the Level, and he could leave us on the Square."
* * *
IN MODERN MATHEMATICS [Lib*]. By Hastings Berkeley. Published by Oxford
Press: New York, 1910. May be purchased through the National Masonic
Book Department, 1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Blue cloth,
index, 264 pages.
Price, postpaid, $2.95.
was traditionally said not only to be founded upon, but synonymous with
Geometry was the branch of mathematics first to be at all fully
until comparatively modern times was algebra evolved from arithmetic;
but its development
has been so far reaching that now geometry takes a subordinate place;
become but special cases of algebraic formulae. It is refreshing to
those who have
struggled in school and college to grasp what it was all about to come
serious criticism of the fundamental positions of mathematicians.
author would have us understand by mysticism is the apparent tendency
writers to suppose that their symbolic conventions really lead to new
of quantity and space, wider and more general than those of common
sense. This he
insists is pure illusion. He shows to begin with that the term
gives us no wider idea of what "quantity" means but is simply shorthand
for two separate conceptions, quantity proper and the direction in
which it is measured.
In the same way he criticizes, in the most illuminating manner,
to equations; imaginary quantities; imaginary points; points at
infinity; and finally
the non-Euclidean systems of geometry which lead to suppositions and
of space that cause parallel lines to meet, and straight lines to
return upon themselves
like circles if carried far enough. The book, however, though clearly
not requiring any more than an elementary acquaintance with the
subject, will be
of interest chiefly to those who have studied the subject and have felt
like a friend
of the author, who told him that he had abandoned the study “because,"
expressed it (with an obviously intentional touch of humor), he found
required a kind of low cunning which he was destitute of."
for today, read for tomorrow, but ‒ today and tomorrow ‒ to develop the
keeping in touch with what the world is thinking and doing, lest that
day come which
finds us marooned, isolated, side-tracked, dead but not buried.”
* * *
New Book by Dudley Wright
THE ANCIENT FAITH OF BRITAIN [Lib 1924]. By Dudley Wright. Published
E. J. Burrows & Co., London, England. May be purchased through
Masonic Research Society Book Department, 1950 Railway Exchange, St.
Green cloth, 7 1/2 by 10 1/2 inches. Illustrated, index, 192 pages.
with Druidism under the following heads: origin and creed; initiatory
and priesthood; the bards; magic; monuments, festivals; and finally its
to other religions. The work is very largely a collection of facts,
opinions drawn from all quarters. Viewed in this light it is of very
value, though the student will find the lack of exact references very
The reader, however, who is only seeking a general impression will find
a very full
account of most of what is known, and also a great deal that has been
about the religion of the Ancient Britons, set out in a clear and
As a matter
of fact there is really very little certainly known about the Druids.
It is very
probable that such brief accounts as we have of them in the classical
not very much more to be relied on than eighteenth century allusions to
of India and the Sages of Persia. They were made under quite analogous
by highly cultured writers theoretically admiring the simple life
to live it. But if the classical accounts must be received with
caution, later accounts
can hardly be accepted as of any value at all.
following the comparative method, and using critically such records as
down to us in conjunction with surviving folk customs, and parallel
elsewhere, would lead us to a very different picture of the Druid
the traditional one. The Druids and Bards were probably more like
men," "Shamans" and "witch doctors" than the venerable
philosophic priesthood that we have had pictured in the past. It is not
at all likely
that Druidism was a monotheism; it is far more likely that it was a
holding in veneration a form of the universal earth mother, with a
as husband or lover. Much of the religion was doubtless pure primitive
special characteristic of the cult was the close organization of the
a great gild or society ‒ if one may trust the older accounts. Into
the chiefs or rulers of the various tribes seem to have been
incorporated. One is
much struck by the parallelism that appears between this and some of
secret societies of West Africa.
It was a
favorite hypothesis of earlier generations of Masonic students to
suppose that Druidism
was the original of Speculative Masonry. Fellows, who published his
of Freemasonry" [Lib 1860] in the first half of the
elaborated this theory in great detail and with considerable learning,
was by no means the originator of it. He supposed that, after the
the Druid organization by the Romans, a remnant of the survivors
continued it in
secret under various disguises, the later one being that of a craft
gild or society.
He assumes that the Royal Arch was the culminating revelation in which
a few well
tested initiates had the true purpose and meaning of the society
revealed to them.
Unfortunately for this supposition, though Fellows is not to be blamed
at the time he wrote, the system of seven degrees (the Blue Lodge and
which he fitted into a Druidic dress, was very far from ancient, was
when he wrote a century old. Even the three Symbolic Degrees in their
do not go further back than 1730.
there may be a kernel of truth under all this speculation. Druidism was
cult of the original people of Britain and Western France, and
have a way of leaving traces in all sorts of unexpected quarters.
certainly originated in Britain whatever relation its mediaeval
forerunner may have
had with similar organizations in France and Germany. And finally there
in Druid rites and ideas that has a direct counterpart in the archaic
of Masonic ritual. While there is not the slightest reason for
supposing that the
craft organization was a lineal descendant of the Druid gild, yet it is
by no means
impossible that certain traditions may have come down front Druid times
incorporated into Masonic forms, not consciously or deliberately; but
as part of
the mental furniture and cultural atmosphere of the social strata from
early Operative Masons were drawn. At least the Masonic reader of
book will find many curious coincidences. It is a great pity that such
a book could
not have been made more useful by the addition of references and
a little more critical discrimination in presenting the material.
‒ R. J.
* * *
OF SOLOMON, A STUDY OF SEMITIC CULTURE [Lib 1910], By Phillips Endecott Osgood.
by the Open Court Publishing Company: Chicago: 1910. A limited number
may be purchased
from the National Masonic Research Society Book Department, 1950
St. Louis, Mo. Paper, illustrated, 69 pages. Price, postpaid, 75 cents.
contains a most interesting re-construction of Solomon's Temple,
together with a
discussion at the reason for, and meaning of, its various parts.
is very modest in his estimate of his attempts. "I do not claim," he
(p. 30), "to have found a solution which will set the discussion at
but only "to add to the collection a reconstruction I have not been
find, but which seems just as probable as any. Certainty is happily
beyond the reach
of any man." (One must suppose here that he meant "unhappily" and
not "happily" as he is made to say by the printer.)
of approach is first to consider the character of the Hebrew religion
at the time
of King Solomon. He takes the widely accepted theory of the gradual
a primitive form of worship in patriarchal times to the lofts
monotheism of the
prophets and post-Exilic writers, and notes that Solomon's time stands
two. Then he collects; all available information regarding the temple
types of early
eastern Mediterranean civilizations, and of the later and derived forms
Then he glances briefly at the temple construction of Egypt and its
and then comes to a consideration of the actual descriptions and
the temple as given in the Old Testament and in Josephus [Lib 2014].
feature of his reconstruction is that the Middle Chamber was really a
court with a peristyle running around it. One is naturally inclined to
this at once; but after reading the arguments in favor of it, it is
maintain that the author may not be right.
He then discusses
the ornamental features, and their origin and significance, their
very primitive religious ideas, and their possible idealization at
respect to this part of his work it is possible to think that the
author has not
allowed sufficient weight to the early Mediterranean cultures,
Mycenaean and Minoan,
which the most recent discoveries show to be almost certainly a
from Neolithic times, and possibly quite as old, if not older than the
of Egypt and Mesopotamia. And this civilization had always precisely
the same type
of religion that is found in Asia Minor and Palestine as far back as we
and which survived in Greece, amid other and alien deities and ideas of
right up to Roman times. But into this one can hardly go further here.
though small, is a most valuable one. The argument is clear, is well
evidence so carefully and critically employed that it is hard to find a
point that is not noted by the author himself. The references are fully
a good working bibliography is appended. The only fault one can find is
proof reading. One probable error has already been pointed out. There
is an unnecessary
"e" in "peristylar" on page 19, while on page 13 "stone"
is turned into "store" in two consecutive sentences. But these are
blemishes in a monograph that should be of great interest to Masonic
* * *
Shall I Read?"
AND "A LIBERAL EDUCATION" [Lib 1922] By Jesse Lee Bennett. The
Company: Baltimore. May be purchased through the National Masonic
Book Department, 1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Board, 92 pages.
I read? It is not difficult to answer that question if one reads for
merely to pass the time. But what of the man who is conscious of
leaving a mind
in his head and wished to bring that mind under the influence of the
of the race, and of "the best that has been thought and said in the
The selection of books then becomes a more difficult task.
has undertaken, and that with brilliant success, to act as father and
such as these, who seek for culture as well as amusement when they
read. Not that
culture is a stiff forbidding thing to be done under compulsion! Far
from it! Mr.
Bennett makes it plain by every artifice of emphasis that nothing is
or even more exciting.
But he has
done more than that. Under the general heads of history, science,
travel, archaeology, poetry, polities, the fine arts, etc., he has laid
out a series
of lists, mostly of new books, reinforced by a battery of sparkling
such advice as only a man can give who knows what he is talking about.
who follows him will have his exceeding great reward: he also will come
what he is talking about on almost every subject about which one may
care to talk.
to Read in Masonry
ON the opening
page of his Lectures or) the Philosophy of Masonry [Lib 1915], Bro. Roscoe Pound briefly
Masonic philosophy as "the science of fundamentals," also as "organized
Masonic knowledge," and then throws the problem of that branch of
into the form of three questions: "What is the nature and purpose of
as an institution?" "What is ‒ and this involves what should be ‒ the
relation of Masonry to other human institutions, especially to those
similar ends?" "What are the fundamental principles by which Masonry is
governed in attaining the end it seeks?"
approaches these questions indirectly by means of a critique of four
teachers ‒ William Preston, Karl Christian Friedrich Krause, Dr. George
and Albert Pike ‒ and concludes with a contribution of his own in the
shape of a
chapter on "A Twentieth-Century Masonic Philosophy: The Relation of
to Civilization." In prosecuting these designs he shows Wm. Preston to
held that knowledge is the aim of the Masonic life: "By making the
epitomes of all the great branches of learning, the Masonic lodge may
be made a
school in which all men, before the days of public schools and
might acquire knowledge, by which alone they could achieve all things."
looked upon the Fraternity as a social institution, like government,
school, the aim of which is to secure and preserve social order: "Thus,
conceives that Masonry is working hand in hand with church and state,
the conditions of social progress: . ." To Oliver the great end of
was religion: "What is the end of Masonry, for what does the
Oliver would answer, it is one in its end with religion and with
science. Each of
these are means through which we are brought into relation with the
Albert Pike made a metaphysical approach: "To him Masonry is a mode of
first principles and its end is to reveal and to give us possession of
principle by which we may master the universe."
In Ye Editor's
own little book entitled The Great Teachings of Masonry [Lib*] an
to a philosophy of Masonry was made by a different method. The
principles of the Craft were released from their context in ritual, law
and expounded as separate ideas, from a modern point of view, in
The fundamental idea underlying the eighteen chapters in that volume
was that Freemasonry
is an actually existing institution, now at work in a world
from that world of the eighteenth or earlier centuries when it came
in its present form; and that the task of Masonic thought now is, What
is the aim
of Masonry in modern society? What does it mean, or what may it be made
according to present modes of thinking? The presupposition behind this
that Freemasonry is a vital organism, not a stereotyped mechanism, and
living things must adjust itself to changed and changing conditions,
else it perish.
such matters, how important they are, and how necessary it is that they
lest the Fraternity go off on false tracks and waste its energies, it
for surprise that there is not a larger literature in the English
language on Masonic
philosophy. Such, however, is the melancholy fact. One may comb through
lists now extant but will find no more than a handful of works dealing
philosophy per se. This feet is recommended to the attention of
more especially to such-as have some literary ability; opportunity
to authors in this field.
there are few books that deal with Masonic philosophy properly
so-called, as does
Bro. Pound's own memorable work, there are a number that treat of it
or from special points of view. To this group belong those studies that
Freemasonry as a form of mysticism, occultism, or Rosicrucianism; and
of essays ‒ such as were written by Bro. J. T. Lawrence in which
are expounded separately. A number of these ‒ and some of very doubtful
have been included in the list below.
of all such books, in addition to the periodical literature on the same
theme, will disclose the fact that thus far almost no writer has
attempted a sociological
study of Masonry. This hiatus is difficult to account for, all the more
so in view
of the current interest in sociology. Surely there is need for such a
is a public institution; it has influenced the social order in which it
and in turn has been influenced by that milieu; it is therefore a
proper theme for
sociology, the science that deals with all forms of social organization.
interpreters of Masonry usually take their point of departure from
history and jurisprudence;
as a result they arrive at conclusions, often, that appear to leave
Masonry in a
social vacuum, as if it were a thing unrelated to other social
its own world; and as if it could live and work untouched by the
influences of its
environment. This partial, and even parochial, philosophy of the nature
of Masonry would receive a needed correction frame thoroughgoing and
Masonic sociology. Such a study should appeal to professional
most of whom habitually overlook the fraternal institutions in American
- Ancient Freemasonry [Lib*], Frank C. Higgins.
- Ancient Mystic Oriental Masonry
[Lib 1907], Dr. R. S. Clymer.
- Arcana of Freemasonry [Lib 1915], Dr. Albert Churchward.
- Brothers and Builders [Lib 1915], Joseph Fort Newton.
- Builders of Man [Lib*], J. G.
- The Builders [Lib 1914], Joseph Fort Newton.
- The Ethics of Freemasonry
[Lib*], (Little Masonic Library), Dudley Wright.
- Ex Oriente Lux [Lib*], Alfred
- Freemasonry, Its Aims and
Ideals [Lib*], J. S. M. Ward.
- Freemasonry. Its Symbolism,
Religious Nature and Law of Perfection [Lin 1873], Chalmers I. Paton.
- Freemasonry: What, Whence, Why,
Whither [Lib*], Sir John A. Cockburn.
- Genius of Freemasonry [Lib 1914], J. D. Buck.
- Golden Remains of Early Masonic
Writers [Lib 1819-47; Vol
- Gospel of Freemasonry [Lib*],
Bascom B. Clarke.
- Great Teachings of Masonry
[Lib*], H. L. Haywood.
- Historical Landmarks and Other
Evidences of Masonry Explained [Lib 1846;
1, Vol 2], George Oliver.
- Illustrations of Masonry [Lib 1867], William Preston.
- The Keystone [Lib*], John T.
- Lectures on the Philosophy of
Freemasonry [Lib 1915], Roscoe Pound.
- Masonic Initiation [Lib 1924], W. L. Wilmshurst.
- Masonic Problems [Lib*], The,
J. G. Gibson.
- Masonry and Society [Lib*], J.
- The Master's Lectures,
Worshipful Master of Evans Lodge, No. 524 [Lib*],
- A Master's Wages [Lib*],
(Little Masonic Library), Carl H. Claudy.
- Meaning of Masonry [Lib 1922], W. L. Wilmshurst.
- The Meaning of Masonry [Lib 1858], (Little Masonic Library),
- The Men's House [Lib*], Joseph
- Morals and Dogma [Lib 1871], Albert Pike.
- Mystic Masonry [Lib 1911], J. D. Buck.
- The Old Past Master [Lib*],
(Little Masonic Library), Carl H. Claudy.
- Origin and Antiquity of
Freemasonry [Lib*], Albert Churchward.
- Origin and Evolution of
Freemasonry [Lib 1920], Albert Churchward.
- The Perfect Ashlar [Lib*], John
- Philosophical History of
Freemasonry [Lib 1854], Augustus C. L. Arnold.
- Rationale and Ethics of
Freemasonry [Lib 1858], Augustus C. L. Arnold
- Religion of Freemasonry [Lib*],
Henry J. Whymper.
- Science and the Infinite [Lib 1917], Sidney T. Klein.
- Secret Tradition in Freemasonry
Lib 1911; Vol
1, Vol 2], A. E. Waite.
- Speculative Masonry [Lib 1914], A. S. MacBride.
- Spirit of Masonry [Lib 1795], William Hutchinson.
- The Star in the East [Lib 1825], George Oliver.
- The Symbol of Glory [Lib 1850], George Oliver.
- Symbolic Teaching [Lib 1917], Thomas M. Stewart.
- Theocratic Philosophy of
Freemasonry [Lib 1856], George Oliver.
- True Principles of Freemasonry
[Lib*], M.R. Grant
- What is Freemasonry? [Lib*]
Fred J.W. Crowe
Box and Correspondence
OF "THE CLIQUE"
We have had
an urgent request from the library of the U. T. Grant Company, New York
a copy of the poem entitled "The Clique." This is believed to be a
poem; the author is unknown. Information will be appreciated. Write to
* * *
A SET OF
MACKEY'S ENCYCLOPEDIA FOR SALE
I have for
sale a set in perfect condition of The Encyclopedia of Freemasonry by
Mackey, 1921 edition. Will be pleased to communicate with any brother
who may be
‒ J. P.
St. Clair, Belen, N. Mex.
* * *
to the list of Employment Bureaus published on page 127 of THE BUILDER
Employment and Service Bureau of Brooklyn and Long Island, Inc.;
Masonic Temple, 317 Clermont Ave., Brooklyn; Secretary, Ralph E. Moore,
D. Cotter, Brooklyn, N. Y.
* * *
Comyns as a Provincial
May I suggest
that you insert on page 87 of THE BUILDER for March last the following
to Bro. Haywood's list of Provincial Grand Masters:
In 1737 the
Earl of Darnley appointed Captain Robert Comyns as Provincial Grand
Master for Cape
Breton and Louisburg and renewed his appointment under date of 1738
with the words
"excepting such places where a Provincial Grand Master is already
The appointment was revived by Lord Cranstoun in 1745.
Reginald V. Harris, Halifax, Canada.
* * *
ABOUT THE GAVEL
I am desirous
of learning when the gavel was first introduced into an American
to be used by the presiding officer. Tradition and the information I
seem to indicate that the gavel was brought in by one of our presiding
from his Masonic Lodge. I shall greatly appreciate any information that
can furnish me on the subject.
care Yale University Press,
522 Fifth avenue, New York, N. Y.
* * *
SET OF "THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST" FOR SALE
a complete set of The Sacred Books of the East published by the Oxford
Press. This set is bound in three-quarter morocco, gilt top, and is
really a most
exceptional buy for anybody who is interested. Ten of the volumes are
of print, and if they can be obtained at all. command high premiums.
price and all other particulars on request.
H.V.C., c/o THE BUILDER
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo.
* * *
AND EMPLOYMENT BOARD, WICHITA, KANSAS
In the list
of Masonic Relief and Employment Bureaus published in THE BUILDER,
page 127, I do not find mention of our own Relief and Masonic Board of
Kans. Up to the end of last February our Board had placed in various
brethren, during March it placed 112. Our secretary is Bro. Joseph L.
manager of our Employment Department is Bro. Frank W. Brown.
Klein, Wichita, Kans.
* * *
ABOUT "THE ORDER OF TRUE KINDRED"
I am searching
for some data regarding the history and origin of "The Order of True
I have been connected with this Order and have been trying to learn
its beginnings, but thus far my information has proved indefinite. I
the library but at this time have not been able to learn anything
except that which
is said in Mackey's Encyclopedia under "Heroine of Jericho" and "Good
Samaritan," which are degrees in the Order, but the Order itself is not
with so far as I can learn. Any information about this subject will be
Albert W. Trippensee, 2041 Atkinson Ave., Detroit,
* * *
About Daniel Boone
As A Mason
I can add
another item to the discussion of Daniel Boone as a Mason published by
you on page
190 of THE BUlLDER for June last. In digging among old Kentucky
archives in search
for materials for a story of Masonry in Kentucky I came across an
On page 32 of Allen's History of Kentucky (1872) appears this: "The
was accompanied by several military companies and the Masonic and Odd
in rich regalia." This excerpt is from a description of the ceremonies
the re-interment of Boone's remains on Sept. 13, 1845, in Frankfort,
their removal from Missouri. The account also says that the funeral
delivered by Honorable John J. Crittenden, who will be remembered as a
as a Governor of Kentucky. I think we are safe in claiming Boone to
have been a
Mason in view of all that has come to light so far, although not of a
Henry Baer, Ohio.
* * *
Disclosing the Ballot
If in the
ballot on an application to join the lodge a black ball is found, and a
afterwards says that he cast it, is he liable to have proceedings taken
him for violating the secrecy of the ballot?
‒ A. H.
entirely on whether there is any specific law on the point in the
But though in some jurisdictions it is definitely held to be an offense
seem to be a real reductio ad absurdum. There is always a tendency for
a law or
regulation to become an end in itself quite regardless of its purpose,
is a case in point. The common law, as one may term it, of Masonry, is
members of a lodge should be agreed before a candidate can be admitted.
many ways in which agreement can be reached, and the simplest is for
officer to ask for any objections. The indications are that this method
employed in the early days. But for obvious reasons a secret method of
opinion would in many eases be found advisable, and the simplest
mechanism for this
was the ballot box. But though this means of reaching a decision came
to be practically
universal, and was gradually made a matter of legislation and minute
it was all in the interests of the brother who was adverse to the
who for personal reasons, good, bad or indifferent, did not want it to
It was with this in view that Mackey, Morris and other writers on
laid down the canon that no one has a right to say he did not cast a
for if all who were favorable thus revealed how they voted, the
would be discovered by a process of elimination, and the purpose of the
which is to protect him, nullified. That is to say the whole
paraphernalia of the
ballot box and the rules and regulations concerning it serve no other
the protecting of a brother Mason's personal secret. But it remains his
and not that of the lodge or the Craft, and if he chooses to reveal it,
his own affair entirely, and except where Grand Lodges have legislated
to the contrary,
he is at perfect liberty to do so, and even there it is his right to do
his Masonic rulers have mistakenly it from him.
* * *
System of Swedenborg
please give me a short sketch of the system of Swedenborg?
C. J. M., Philippine Islands.
was a mystic whose logical and scientific mind led to the clothing of
in an extraordinarily complex, but on the whole consistent, material
The keynote of it all is that God is infinite love, and that only in
love do his
Creatures find their highest welfare and the true end of their being.
There is little
to be wondered at that in the period (1730-1780 roughly speaking) when
over Europe were seeking to amplify and explain Masonry as an ancient
occult wisdom, his doctrine should have been seized upon as material
for the fabrication
of "high" degrees. S. Beswick, in his work The Swedenborg Rite and the
Great Masonic Leaders of the Eighteenth Century [Lib 1870], gives an account of the rite
in America in 1870, which he says consists
of six degrees, comprising E. A., F. C. and the M. M., and three
named Enlightened Freemasons, or Green Brother; Sublime Freemasons, or
and Perfect Freemason, or Red Brother. This work may be consulted but
assertions of the author must be used with great caution.
* * *
Within a Circle and
the Parallel Lines
We have a
Study Club in our lodge. At the last meeting a question was asked about
Within a Circle and the Two Parallel Lines and there was quite a
it. Could you tell me in the Q.B. what is authoritatively known about
its origin and real meaning?
was a discussion of this question in THE BUILDER in 1918 (Vol. IV, p.
206) and again
in 1921 (Vol. VII, p. 172, and p. 367), but it can hardly be said that
was finally disposed of. The greatest number of those who have sought
the mystery have turned either to the occult or to druidical circles,
and phallicism. One great advantage of symbols is that every man can
own meaning from them. In this case there is undoubtedly a coincidence.
pillars and stone circle, or similar emblem of primitive sex worship,
parallel to the Masonic symbol; but there is no reason for believing
is any connection between them. As a matter of fact there is no
to it in the Masonic Rituals before the latter part of the eighteenth
speaks of the Two Parallel Lines; Browne of the Point Within a Circle;
may be referring to it when he derives the word "Mason" from the Greek
mesouraneo, "I am in the midst of the heavens;" and adds, "which
conjecture is strengthened by our symbols."
authorities represent more or less independent lines of tradition, and
throw the origin back several years at least. On the other hand there
is no mention
of it in the Ritual evidence of 1760, nor was it known at all in Europe
if one may
judge from negative evidence.
hypothesis is that it is an abbreviated form of the diagram of the
lodge. An early
account describes this as a sort of ring containing a representation of
on the outside two pillars were drawn. The more likely explanation is
From the beginning of the eighteenth century at least Masons had
referred to the
“principles” of geometry, as a point, a line, a superficies and a
solid, and this
was doubtless not new. In early Masonic designs geometric diagrams
intended to represent these four, as also the angles, squares,
perpendiculars referred to in the catechism. In one of these designs at
figure representing the surface is a circle. What probably happened,
when the elaborate
moralizations of Masonic emblems came into vogue, was that a selection
of these diagrams, and a "beautiful illustration" attached to them (as
the stock phrase went) about the Sts. John and the Master Mason, while
went into the discard with much else that had survived from the
* * *
Is The Purpose Of Masonry?
Grand Master, the wise King Solomon, said that “of the making of books
no end." I have been reading a number about Masonry and I also see
Masonic magazines and I would like to ask a question, "Has Masonry any
is a short one but it would require another book to give anything like
answer, if an answer that would be accepted by all could be given. The
we can do here is to give some indications as to how an answer might be
a system of symbols, such as that employed by the Craft, may have
obvious and simple and perhaps even superficial meaning while yet
capable of more
recondite significance and of combination in many different ways, so
that each individual
can find what he needs, so Freemasonry has certain simple and patent
view, and ideals to follow. In the first place it is a brotherhood; its
are bound to certain reciprocal duties and obligations. It is true that
such as any just and upright man would carry out to all mankind, but as
begins at home, so the lodge is a seed plot for benevolence and
morality ‒ or should
be. It is something to be bound by a special obligation to perform our
towards some men, as the beginning thus made may lead, and in many if
not most cases
certainly does lead, to a more sensitive realization of our obligations
to all men.
Speculative Freemasonry is based on an Operative craft. The original
was in the first place for the mutual benefit and protection of its
it is today in changed circumstances, but secondarily, and no less
for the service of society in the building of houses for the dwelling
of men and
the erection of temples for the worship of God. Freemasons should still
in a Speculative sense. They should be always ready to discharge public
duties, and to individually use their influence for the good of the
and as a matter of fact to a very large extent they do.
course is all sufficiently obvious, and is probably not in the least
the sort of
thing the question refers to, which we suppose is rather directed to
objects of the Craft as an institution. It is possible that any
have some kind of objective, conscious or unconscious, just as every
has. And just as the individual organism reacts and adapts itself to
so Freemasonry being very much alive adapts itself to the social
which it is found. Every lodge in this sense, and every jurisdiction,
may have its
own objects or ideals, more or less variant from those of its fellows;
more will they vary in different countries and among different races.
In the British
Isles the ideal would seem to be intimate personal friendship; and the
benevolence. In Europe it would seem that a definite action on society
the ideals of personal liberty, education, freedom of thought and
speech were more
the objective; and when an organization of men have such aims they will
tend towards political action, even if the border line be not
are the present characteristics of American Masonry it may be safer to
decide for themselves.
* * *
To Our Vocabulary
I note the
difficulty you have expressed in the paragraph at the foot of page 51
of your February
issue entitled, "A Vocabulary Wanted." I concur with your desires
there are times when we all have trouble in fitting our stock of words
to what we
are trying to name.
which you raise is one that we have discussed at this office [The
Company]. I have never found the objection myself that some of my
expressed as to the words "study" and "education." Both have
deserved and occupy respectable places in Masonic literature but I have
surprised that a greater use is not made of the words "Masonic
This is the desired end of Masonic training and Masonic education and
to me it has
a somewhat better significance and has not the unpleasant connections
that you have
set forth in regard to the other two words mentioned in your article.
brethren impress upon every candidate the necessity of making a daily
in Masonic knowledge, and I rather like this expression. The whole
as indeed it is, ritualistic, but many of my brethren might think it
brief, and somewhat pedantic in style, at that.
"the progress in Masonic proficiency" is a fair substitute for it and
"proficiency" is not a bad word to indicate what we are all aiming at.
that we make a larger use of it because it has, I dare say, been
in comparison with the two words that you have criticized and which
have been, I
am frank to admit, over-worked.
Robt. I. Clegg, Illinois.
* * *
Letters Concerning "Allgemeines
I was very
much interested in the article on "Prince Charles Edward Stuart, G.
written by W. Bro. J. E. Shum Tuckett of England for the May issue.
the Allgemeines Handbuch der Freimaurerei [Lib 1900; Vol 1 (no other
which neither Bro. Tuckett nor
Bro. Dring could find, I am pleased to identify this as Wolfstieg No.
work is fully described in the text of the first column, page 92, and
in the notes
practically filling the second column. The Handbuch is really a third
Lenning's Encyclopaedie der Freimaurerei, which appeared at Leipzig
first edition contains nothing on the subject; the second edition,
‒ and the one which Gould used ‒ contains an article that was revised
for the third
and latest edition of 1900-1901.
able to use a German Masonic Encyclopedia will find the Allgemeines
Handbuch a most
excellent reference volume. I consider it an indispensable work, it
on subjects not to be found in any other Masonic encyclopedia. A
to German works can be found in my article on pages 94-95 of the March,
of THE BUILDER, entitled "German Masonic Writers."
J. Hugo Tatsch, Iowa. May 18, 1925.
* * *
On page 146
of the May issue (1925) of THE BUILDER, in the article "Prince Charles
Stuart, G. M.", is a statement which one reads with surprise. It runs
"Gould's authority is Allgemeines Handbuch der Freimaurerei, s. v.
Karl Edward, but neither Bro. Dring nor I can find it, and it is not in
Handbuch der Freimaurerei is probably the best known, certainly the
Masonic encyclopedia in existence. It is listed in Wolfstieg's
freimaurerischen Litteratur in Volume I, page 92, number 1302. The most
edition of the Handbuch began to appear in 1900, so R. F. Gould,
writing in 1882,
must have used the second edition (1863-1879), in which the articles on
Edward Stuart appear under Karl Eduard Stuart, Volume II, page 99, and
(here the v. Wachter matter), and under Stuart III and Stuart (Karl
Eduard ), really
two articles, in Volume III, page 336, and following, where the charter
of the Arras
chapter is given and much other information.
of the character of v. Wachter is beyond all doubt, but one should also
the fact, referred to in the last mentioned article in the Handbuch,
Edward Stuart, the Pretender, was in later life a weak drunkard and
dependent on an enemy of Masonry, the pope, and may well have denied
Chester Nathan Gould, Illinois
* * *
to the Higher Degrees
two letters that arrived too late to be included in the symposium
Grand Lodge Regulate Advancement to the Higher Degrees?" published in
last month, on page 261:
At the Communication
of the Grand Lodge of Utah held on Jan. 17 and 18, 1922, the following
resolution was adopted:
‒ SOLICITATION FOR HIGHER DEGREES
member of the Craft, within this Jurisdiction shall apply for or
receive any Scottish
Rite or Royal Arch degree until at least one year has elapsed since
taking the third
degree and before and until he shall have qualified himself in the
the Master Mason's degree, provided that this section shall not apply
who have received the third degree prior to Jan. 1, 1921. No Master
solicit for said higher degrees from any Mason who has not been a
Master Mason in
good standing for at least one year prior to such solicitation." (
was introduced by concerted action of the Masters of all the Salt Lake
and I do not recall that there was any lengthy debate or discussion.
in this Jurisdiction seemed to call for such regulation, and in my
opinion the operation
of the resolution has been beneficial both to the Blue Lodges and to
the Royal Arch
and the Scottish Rite bodies.
It is my
personal opinion that it is both the inherent right and the duty of
to protect newly-made Master Masons from ill-advised importunities to
the so-called "higher degrees," thereby often depriving such newly made
Master Masons of the opportunity and the desire to assimilate the
teachings of the
B. R. Howell, Grand Master, Utah.
I wish to
state that the Grand Lodge of New Mexico has never taken any action in
this. In my opinion a year's time should elapse between a candidate's
his Third Degree and his petitioning to a membership in Royal Arch or
bodies, but I think this action should be taken by these bodies in
the Grand Lodge.
Jaffa Miller, Grand Master, New Mexico.
* * *
A Masonic Bicentennial
1930 will be the two hundredth anniversary of the establishment of
the territory which is now the United States of America. I assume that
this is also
the two hundredth anniversary of the founding of the Masonic Order in
the New World,
but shall ask some historian to verify that fact.
for the introduction of Freemasonry in America is given to Daniel Coxe,
of New Jersey,
who was deputized by the newly organized Grand Lodge of England to
Craft in the Colonies. From this humble beginning the Order has now
grown to a total
strength of three million men.
of American Freemasonry should now begin, if they have not already done
so, to plan
for a fitting national or international celebration of this important
A national committee, with representatives from every Grand Lodge, and
York and Scottish Rite bodies should be formed to organize this
World Congress should be held at some central point, or perhaps at the
Capital, with a Masonic exhibition or exposition in connection, showing
of Freemasonry throughout the world.
We have five
years to make this a worthwhile exhibition, five years to finish up
work now under
way, and five years in which to begin and carry through a program of
work which we shall be proud to exhibit to the world.
Lodge should complete its orphanages, homes and schools and its
the aged, and all other projects now under way or contemplated.
of all, we should begin and carry to completion in the next five years,
for a chain of Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatoria, located to serve all
parts of the
country, built and maintained for the care of American Freemasons
consumption. As pointed out in THE BUILDER of last December are 40,000
hospital treatment at all times and 5,000 deaths a year from this
years we could raise the money needed, $12 500,000, to build ten
five thousand beds. We could build and equip them and open them to our
brethren. What better exhibition of practical Masonry could we show to
should be a year of dedication. In that year we should dedicate a large
new Masonic institutions to the service of Freemasons. And in that year
dedicate American Freemasonry to a larger measure of service to the
Craft, to each
other, to mankind, and to God.
Robert J. Newton, Texas.
* * *
tells us on page 88 of THE BUILDER for March that a Mason is
a believer in both God and the Bible. How then is it that New York
relations with Massachusetts? Bro. Hamilton on page 2 of THE BUILDER
1925, tells us that while "every applicant must profess his belief in a
Being … he may be obligated upon the sacred writings of his own
religion. We hold
that this meets the requirements regarding the Volume of the Sacred
is the requirement of a belief in God more than merely formal?
agreed for years ‒ and in the light of modern theological upheaval even
in the street realizes ‒ that the term "God" defies definition. Nor
Freemasonry dogmatically define any concept of T.G.A.O.T.U. Surely
is as acceptable to Masonry as the monotheistic Yaweh of Judaism, or
of the Episcopal Church. Just suppose for the purposes of argument that
such a thing
as an atheist could possibly exist, and further that such an
knocked at the door of the lodge. If this supposed candidate were
actually an atheist
it is quite probable that the answers to the constitutional
be satisfactory but untrue. Who ever heard of a candidate denying a
belief in God?
of God and the Holy Bible confuses the issue! How simply Bro. Scudder
puts it on
page 99 of the April BUILDER when he says: "The conflict is not over
the Holy Bible!" Bro. Scudder delineates the position of the Latin
with such sweeping force that to paraphrase the Biblical passage I say:
brother, almost thou persuadeth me to become a Latin Freemason!"
We must face
the gross, bald feet that Grand Lodges have not been actuated by
to any great extent in determining questions of "regularity"; that the
real question is one of territory and material is too well known to
In discussing this question Grand Masters are wont to express
themselves in no uncertain
terms. Witness the words of Bro. Beach recorded on page 9 of the 1923
of the Grand Lodge of Illinois. In his report as Grand Master after
the dissolution of the Spanish Grand Orient into seven regional Grand
goes on to say: "The moral influence of the Grand Lodge of Illinois and
other regular Grand Lodges should be exerted against the outrageous and
assumptions of this spurious spawn of the illegitimate Spanish Grand
In the light of present usages of the Grand Lodge of Illinois the
attitude of Bro.
Beach is absolutely above criticism. The only comment on the matter
appears in the
Report of the Committee on Grand Master's Report at page 53, where it
is said that
the "portion of the Grand Master's Report pertaining to the Spanish
is of no small moment and will require considerable serious thought and
This matter, therefore, is referred to the Committee on Jurisprudence."
Committee on Jurisprudence indorsed the sentiments of the Grand Master
report at page 142, without comment. In the face of this there can be
no doubt that
Masons owing allegiance to the Grand Orient of Spain or any of its
As an Illinois
Mason loyal to my Grand Lodge I not only admit the legal right of Grand
declare Masons clandestine but am jealous of that right. But as a
I am confused by having my right to hold Masonic fellowship with
thousands of earnest
Masons abolished, revived and abolished again for reasons little more
by a few brethren composing Grand Lodge committees.
the creature of the several lodges of Freemasons, has no purpose to
than to aid the lodge in its Masonic labors. The function of a Masonic
not to confer degrees for a consideration, but is to furnish the
what is necessary to enable them to fit their minds as living stones
for that spiritual
temple, that house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. In the
this it behooves Grand Lodges to devote more attention to spreading the
brotherly love and less to squabbles about what subordinate lodges
shall be permitted
to make Masons in a given territory and incidentally collect the fees.
This is a
duty owed both to the great body of Masons and the innocent candidate
at their hands.
is presumptuous on my part to comment in this decided fashion upon a
adequately dealt with by such eminent brethren and W. A. Rowan and
Yet somehow I feel that as it is good for statesmen to get the sense of
so it is wholesome for those high in the Fraternity to know the
attitude of the
humble Craftsman who sits on the side lines. Why not decide questions
which concern the rights of every Mason in both jurisdictions
concerned, by the
referendum? It was not so long ago in the history of the Fraternity
when each Mason
decided this question for himself. It would not be inconsistent with
of Grand Lodge Masonry nor with the Ancient Landmarks to refer these
the brethren laboring in the several lodges for decision. It would
serve to clarify
the whole situation, educate the average side liner and hasten the day
Universality will be realized in fact. God speed that day!
Roy W. Johns, Chicago, Ill.
The May number
of THE BUILDER, devoted to English Masonry, brought forth more letters
than any number published during the past five years. All credit for
to Bro. Gilbert W. Daynes, Associate Editor for England, who had the
in charge. We hope that Brow Daynes can find it possible to prepare
number to cover English Masonry from 1813 to the present time.
* * *
Morse has given us for free distribution a supply of his "The Golden
Freemasonry." It is one of the most useful and interesting things of
that has ever been prepared. Write your name and address plainly and
a two-cent stamp.
* * *
our busiest season. It was so busy this year that Ye Ed. more than once
the rabbit, famous in song and story. Here is the latest version of the
dogs and me almost got one old rabbit, but at the last moment he went
rabbits never climb trees."
George, this one had to!''
* * *
the following bit of homespun philosophy, taken with thanks from the
cover of the
May issue of the Virginia Masonic Journal, may be apropos:
What We Need!
A little more Kindness, and a little less Creed
A little more Giving, and a little less Greed,
A little more Laugh, and a little less Frown,
And a little more Helping a man when he's Down.
A little more "WE" and a little less I
A little more Laugh, and a little less Cry,
A few more Flowers along our pathways of Life
Instead of on our Graves at the end of the Stife.
of the Inquisition of
the Middle Ages Vol 1
Lea01 / auth. Lea Henry C. - New York :
Harper & Brothers,
1901. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 601. - 31.3
of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages Vol 2
Lea011 / auth. Lea Henry C. - New York :
Harper & Brothers,
1901. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 598. - 30.7
of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages Vol 3
Lea012 / auth. Lea Henry C. - New York :
Harper & Brothers,
1901. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 743. - 38.3
Bro00 / auth. Brown William G. - Boston :
Houghton, Mifflin and
Company, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
166. - 6.0 MB.
Transactions Vol 004 - 1891
Ars91 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G.
London : AQC, 1891. - Vol. 4 : p.
305. - 80.7 MB.
Transactions Vol 032 - 1919
Ars19 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W.
London : AQC, 1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 213. - 16.7 MB.
And23 / auth. Anderson James. - London :
1723. - Fac-Simile by Jno. W. Leonard & Co., New York,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 119. - 6.0 MB.
New151 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 33. - 0.3 MB.
Jos14 / auth. Josephus Flavius. - Pictou :
ronigo, 2014. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 1349. - 5.6 MB - Digital
Version - No
Wri24 / auth. Wright Dudley. - London : Ed.
1924. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 207. - 9.3
of Christianity Vol 1
Har08EC1 / auth. Harnack Adolph / trans. Moffatt
James. - New
York : G P Putnam's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 1 :
2 : p.
529. - 34.1 MB.
of Christianity Vol 2
Har08EC2 / auth. Harnack Adolph. - New
York : G P Putnam's Sons,
1908. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 373. - 23.4
Pat73 / auth. Paton Chalmers I. - London :
Reeves and Turner,
1873. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 530. - 14.1
Man75 / auth. Mansel Henry L / ed. Lightfoot J
London : John Murray, 1875. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 3223. -
Handbuch der Freimaurerei Vol 1
Mos00 / auth. Mossdorf Friederich. -
Leipzig : Max Hesse Verlag,
1900. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 649. -
German - 39.1 MB.
Landmarks Vol 1
Oli46 / auth. Oliver George. - London :
1846. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 573. - 26.2
Landmarks Vol 2
Oli461 / auth. Oliver George. - London :
1846. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 780. - 44.1
of Andrew Jackson Vol 1
Bue04AJ1 / auth. Buell Augustus C. - New
York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1904. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p.
447. - 15.7 MB.
of Andrew Jackson Vol 2
Bue04AJ2 / auth. Buell Augustus C. - New
York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1904. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p.
438. - 17.8 MB.
Pre67 / auth. Preston William and Oliver George. -
New York :
Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing, 1867. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p.
404. - 25.3 MB.
Mac067 / auth. MacDonald William. - New
York : Harper and
Brothers Publishing, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
364. - 9.7 MB.
Andrew Jackson Vol 1
Bas11AJ1 / auth. Bassett John S. - New
York : Doubleday, Page
& Company, 1911. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p.
383. - 17.4 MB.
Andrew Jackson Vol 1
Par60AJ1 / auth. Parton James. - New York :
1860. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 664. - 24.3
Andrew Jackson Vol 2
Bas11AJ2 / auth. Bassett John S. - New
York : Doubleday, Page
& Company, 1911. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p.
402. - 17.4 MB.
Andrew Jackson Vol 2
Par61AJ2 / auth. Parton James. - New York :
1861. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 672. - 39.3
Andrew Jackson Vol 3
Par60AJ3 / auth. Parton James. - New York :
1860. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 773. - 35.4
of the Court of St Cloud Vol 1
Ste00SC1 / auth. Stewarton Lewis G. -
London : Grolier Society,
1900. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 359. - 11.5
of the Court of St Cloud Vol 2
Ste00SC2 / auth. Stewarton Lewis G. -
London : Grolier Society,
1900. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 311. - 10.2
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston :
Supreme Council AASR,
1871. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 895. -
Formatted & Indexed by
rhm - 7.6 MB.
Buc11 / auth. Buck Jirah D.. - Chicago :
Indo-American Book Co.,
1911. - 5th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 307. - 8.9 MB.
Viewpoints in American History
Sch22 / auth. Schlesinger Arthur M. - New
York : The Macmillan
Company, 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
311. - 11.8 MB.
Culture and A Liberal Education
Ben22 / auth. Bennett Jesse L. - Baltimore :
The Arnold Company,
1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 89. - 4.1
Cly07 / auth. Clymer Swinburne. -
Allentown : The Philosophical
Publishing Company, 1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
191. - 8.0 MB.
and Evolution of Freemasonry
Chu20 / auth. Churchward Albert. - London :
Georg Allen &
Unwin Ltd, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
243. - 14.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
Arn54 / auth. Arnold Augustus C L. - New
York : Clark, Austin,
& Smith, 1854. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
278. - 8.5 MB.
And The Infinite
Kle17 / auth. Klein Sydney T. - London :
William Rider &
Son, 1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 196. -
Mac141 / auth. Macbride A S. - Glasgow : D.
Gilfillan & Co.,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 283. - 18.6
Rite and the Great Masonic Leaders
Bes70 / auth. Beswick Samuel. - New York :
Company, 1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
202. - 11.6 MB.
Teaching of Masonry and its Message
Ste17 / auth. Stewart Thomas M.. -
Cincinnati : Stewart &
Kidd Co., 1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
256. - 14.5 MB.
American Nation - Vol 14
AmNa14 / auth. Turner Frederick J. / ed. Hart Albert
B.. - New
York : Harper & Brothers, 1904. - Vol.
14 : 28 : p.
392. - 13.0 MB - Rise of the New West 1819-1829.
Arcana of Freemasonry
Chu15 / auth. Churchward Albert. - London :
George Allen &
Unwin Ltd., 1815. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
362. - 10.9 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar
Rapids : The Torch Press,
1914. - 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
317. - Original
pagination for reference - 0.6 MB.
Church in the Roman Empire
Ram93 / auth. Ramsay William M. - London :
Stroughton, 1893. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
516. - 13.1 MB.
Genius of Freemasonry and the Twentieth-Century Crusade
Buc14 / auth. Buck Jirah D. - Chicago :
Indo-American Book Co.,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 353. - 7.8
Golden Remains of the Early Masonic Writers Vol 1
Oli47 / auth. Oliver George. - London :
1847. - Vol. 1 : 5 : p. 236. - 8.4
Golden Remains of the Early Masonic Writers Vol 2
Oli471 / auth. Oliver George. - London :
Richard Spencer, 1847. -
Vol. 2 : 5 : p. 313. - 9.9 MB.
Golden Remains of the Early Masonic Writers Vol 3
Oli67 / auth. Oliver George. - New York :
Masonic Publishing and
Manufacturing Company, 1867. - Vol. 3 : 5 :
p. 399. - 22.5
Golden Remains of the Early Masonic Writers Vol 5
Oli19 / auth. Oliver George. -
Philadelphia : Geo. Howorth &
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Inquisition of Spain Vol 1
Lea06IS1 / auth. Lea Henry C. - New York :
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p.
637. - 46.0 MB.
Inquisition of Spain Vol 2
Lea06IS2 / auth. Lea Henry C. - New York :
Company, 1906. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p.
621. - 50.9 MB.
Inquisition of Spain Vol 3
Lea06IS3 / auth. Lea Henry C. - New York :
Company, 1906. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p.
590. - 44.4 MB.
Inquisition of Spain Vol 4
Lea06IS4 / auth. Lea Henry C. - New York :
Company, 1906. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p.
637. - 43.1 MB.
Pec99 / auth. Peck Charles H. - New York :
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Wil24 / auth. Wilmshurst W L. - 1924. - Vol.
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Meaning of Masonry
Pik58 / auth. Pike Albert. - 1858. - Vol.
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Meaning of Masonry
Wil22 / auth. Wilmshurst W L. - London :
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Mysteries Of Freemasonry
Fel60 / auth. Fellows John. - London :
Reeves and Turner,
1860. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 364. - 25.6
Mysteries of Mithra
Cum03 / auth. Cumont Franz / trans. McCormack Thomas
Chicago : The Open Court Publishing Company, 1903. -
Vol. 1 :
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Philosophy of Masonry
Pou15 / auth. Pound Roscoe. - [s.l.] : The
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Rationale And Ethics Of Freemasonry
Arn58 / auth. Arnold Augustus C L. - New
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1858. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 294. - 10.5
of Andrew Jackson
Ogg19 / auth. Ogg Frederic A / ed. Johnson
Oxford : Oxford Press, 1919. - Vol. 20 :
50 : p.
274. - Vol 20 of The Chronicles of America - 7.4 MB.
Secret Traditions in Freemasonry Vol 1
Wai11 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London :
1911. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 474. - 19.1
Secret Traditions in Freemasonry Vol 2
Wai111 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London :
1911. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 478. - 19.6
Spirit of Masonry in Moral and Elucidatory Lectures
Hut95 / auth. Hutchinson William. -
Carlisle : F. Jollie,
1795. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 370. - 13.8
in the East
Oli25 / auth. Oliver George. - London : G.
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1825. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 190. - 4.0
Symbol of Glory
Oli50 / auth. Oliver George. - London :
1850. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 397. - 11.6
Temple of Solomon
Osg10 / auth. Osgood Phillips E. - Chicago :
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Illustrated - 5.6 MB.
Theocratic Philosophy of Freemasonry
Oli56 / auth. Oliver George. - London : R.
Spencer, 1856. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 391. - 13.0 MB.
Bra06 / auth. Brady Cyrus T. -
Philadelphia : J B Lippincott
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
533. - 10.7 MB.