Masonic Research Society
Grand Lodge Regulate Advancement To The Higher Degrees?
A Grand Masters' Symposium
a Grand Lodge try to set a fixed time between a brother's receiving the
and his going on to the Higher Bodies? This question has been so much
officially and unofficially, during the past few years, that it has
become one of
the live issues of the day. To give its readers some light on the pulse
opinion concerning this problem THE BUILDER addressed to each of the
Grand Masters of the country the following letter:
a Grand Lodge by law regulate the time to elapse between a candidate's
his Third Degree and his petitioning for membership in Royal Arch or
bodies? We shall greatly appreciate your contributing to this important
something concerning your own Grand Lodge's action (if it has taken
action) or your
personal opinion, or both."
of twenty-one representative replies is published herewith.
DEGREES SHOULD NOT SERVE AS A REWARD
of this nature would, in my opinion, indicate to the candidate that the
degrees were highly desirable and that they are a part of our Masonic
he might hope to attain by additional service and as a reward.
ANDREW FOULDS, JR., Grand Master, New Jersey.
HAS NO AUTHORITY
Lodge of South Carolina has taken no action on this matter, nor has any
been held. In my opinion, the proper place to handle such a regulation
in the bodies concerned. These bodies fix the pre-requisites for
the lodge has no authority over them.
C. K. CHREITZBERG, Grand Master, South Carolina.
HAS TAKEN NO ACTION
of the 25th of March was duly received. In reply would say that none of
Bodies of Wisconsin have ever taken any action or steps regulating the
time to elapse
between a candidate's receiving his Third Degree and his petitioning
in the Royal Arch or Scottish Rite bodies.
FRANK JOHNSON, Grand Master, Wisconsin.
HAS TAKEN NO ACTION
I have yours
of the 25th inst., and in reply will say that our Grand Lodge has taken
on this, nor has anything come before it; though two years ago one of
our Past Masters
had a resolution prepared, but died just before the Grand Lodge met. I
incidentally that it is very likely that something of that kind will
come up at
this meeting; however, I have no positive knowledge of it at this time.
I have not given the matter any thought and do not know whether there
a law on the subject or not.
H. M. GRUNDY, Grand Master, Kentucky.
HAS BEEN TAKEN IN ILLINOIS
to the inquiry embodied in your favor of March 25, I wish to state that
in my opinion
the extent to which the Royal Arch and Scottish Rite bodies go in
for membership should determine whether or not there should be a Grand
in the particular state regulating the time which should elapse between
of a member and his petitioning these other bodies.
Up to the
present time no action of this nature has been taken by the Grand Lodge
‒ RICHARD C. DAVENPORT, Grand
A YEAR SHOULD ELAPSE
to your question I will say that our Grand Lodge has not acted, but
think no Master Mason should petition for any other degrees that are
based on membership
in the Blue Lodge until he shall have passed a satisfactory examination
have received a certificate of proficiency in his Blue Lodge Degrees,
certificate shall not be issued until after he has attended his own
Blue Lodge regularly
for at least twelve months.
The act of
attempting to evade these regulations should be punishable by
CHAS. W. POLK, Grand Master, Tennessee.
HAS NO RIGHT TO MAKE SUCH LAWS
your first question, permit me to say that the Grand Lodge of Indiana
no action on the subject.
As to my
opinion on this subject, I cannot see how a Grand Lodge could pass a
a Master Mason from doing anything as long as he conducted himself as a
a Mason. I think a Grand Lodge would have as much right to say that a
Master Mason could not join a church for one year after he was raised,
as to say
he could not petition for membership in the Royal Arch or Scottish Rite
I cannot see how a Grand Lodge can assume control of a Master Mason,
except as to
his general behavior, unbecoming a Mason.
J. LEE DINWIDDIE, Grand Master, Indiana.
A YEAR IS
REQUIRED IN NEW HAMPSHIRE
Master has asked me to reply to you for him as to your inquiry of March
has received the Master's Degree in New Hampshire, a year must elapse
may petition for degrees in a Royal Arch Chapter or in the Scottish
has not been brought about by any action on the part of the Grand
Lodge, but was
voluntarily made, without suggestion, on the part of the Grand Chapter
and the Scottish
It is an
exhibition of their opinion rather than that of Grand Lodge.
to be working just as many of us felt it would, to the end of making
ultimately for them.
HARRY M. CHENEY, Grand Secretary, New Hampshire.
BETTER THAN AN EDICT
of the regulation by Grand Lodge of the time which must elapse between
and subsequent degrees is one upon which I have no very intelligent
opinion to offer.
The idea is new to us in Vermont, and while I called the attention of
to it during my remarks at the various District
I do not know that it has been discussed very much since then. It is
safe to say
that Grand Lodge action in the matter is very improbable. While there
is too much
solicitation of our newly made brethren the situation has not reached
where drastic action is wise or necessary, as it evidently has been in
So for the present we shall work along the line of Masonic education
edict, and keep closer watch of developments along this line.
C. B. CROWELL, Grand Master, Vermont.
to the recommendation of G.M., C. J. McAllister, 1922-23, the Grand
Lodge of Montana,
at its 1923 session, adopted the following resolution, and it now
appears in our
1924 Code, on page 101, as Article XIXa, as follows:
XIXa. Master Masons Not to Apply for Further Degrees Until Certain
Are Met. RESOLVED, That it shall be a Masonic offense for any Master
in the jurisdiction of this Grand Lodge to petition any Royal Arch
Chapter or Scottish
Rite body in Montana, until one year shall have elapsed from the date
of his raising;
or before he shall have passed successfully an examination in the
lecture of the
Third Degree; or before he shall have attended at least twelve meetings
of his own
or some other lodge, unless excused for good cause by his lodge from
(Adopted, 1923 Proceedings, p. 156.)"
I can assure
you that I am heartily in accord with this section of our Code. There
too much of a tendency to become Masons in name only.
H. L. HART, Grand Master, Montana.
SUBSTITUTE KNOWLEDGE OF MASONRY FOR ANY TIME PERIOD"
to your letter of March 25, it seems to me there are two ways you can
look at this
of the applicant desiring to secure Masonic degrees who labors under
the false impression
that the more degrees he secures the bigger Mason he is. For this
the York and Scottish Rites are at least partly responsible because
Master Masons, leading them to infer at least that degrees are true
of the welfare of the Rites as viewed by intelligent and zealous
for the strength and stability of the Rites, who take the position that
should be steps in development of Masonic lives. To such is due the
of the Scottish Rite that only Master Masons of six months' standing
shall be eligible
for membership in the Rite, the supposition being that six months is
the least time
in which a Master Mason may gain a comprehensive knowledge of Symbolic
This, however, works out more in theory than in practice.
I would substitute knowledge of Symbolic Masonry for any time period,
as a condition
of eligibility to Higher Degrees.
SAMUEL M. GOODYEAR, Grand Master, Pennsylvania.
HAS NO CONTROL IN THE MATTER
Jurisdiction had this question up before it and we decided that the
Blue Lodge did
not have any control over applicants making advancement to the
to me that Masonry being a progressive Science, and Proficiency in the
Art of the Craft being deemed a pre-requisite as to advancement toward
founded upon Symbolic Masonry, it should be a very essential factor to
But, I do
not see how a subordinate lodge could have any control over its
they desire to make advancement to the higher bodies of the York Rite
or of the
Scottish Rite. Therefore, the higher bodies should require a higher
degree of proficiency
of its applicants before permitting them to become members of their
for either the Royal Arch Degrees or the Scottish Rite, should be
the three symbolic degrees of Masonry. Advancement without a knowledge
of this would
bring upon the higher bodies a membership whose knowledge would be so
they would not be worth anything as a member of either, and become
these fraternal institutions.
JAMES D. HAMRICK, Grand Master, Georgia.
TRYING OUT A LAW
Lodge of Arizona two years ago adopted a regulation resolution which
year to elapse from the time the candidates receive their Third Degree
are permitted to petition for membership in the Royal Arch or Scottish
This action was taken owing to the fact that there seemed to be a great
the part of many to become Shriners. Candidates immediately upon
Third Degree applied for advancement in the Scottish Rite, which would
to apply to a Shrine. Complaint was made that these applicants upon
Shrine neglected and failed to give much attention either to the Blue
Lodge or the
concordant, being satisfied with the Shrine.
It was the
general impression of many at our Grand Lodge session that by thus
doing, the real
purposes and objects of Masonry were being abolished to satisfy the
whims of those
who took this course. We felt that they should be familiar with the
work of the
Blue Lodge before they should advance.
we have adopted is still in effect and an attempt was made at the last
session to repeal it ‒ the Scottish Rite brethren being insistent upon
done, but we concluded to give it a trial for another year to see to
if any, it would affect the application for membership in these
What action the Grand Lodge will take at its next session, if an action
to replace this one, I cannot say.
CLEMENT H. COLMAN, Grand Master, Arizona.
AND SUPREME COUNCILS SHOULD TAKE THE INITIATIVE
Lodge of the District of Columbia has taken no action on the question
of the length
of time which should elapse between the date a brother receives his
Degree and the date he may apply for the degrees in Capitular or
Scottish Rite Masonry.
Master, I have not given the subject intensive study, but I am inclined
this matter is one which should be left to regulation by Grand Chapters
Councils. Experience demonstrates that too rapid a progress up the
does not produce the best quality of Masonry, yet it seems to me
Grand Lodges should act as keepers of the gates of other Masonic
bodies. I should
welcome a ruling from the supreme authorities in Capitular or Scottish
that they would not elect to their bodies Master Masons who had not
attained a certain
age in Ancient Craft Masonry, but as a Thirty-third Degree Scottish
and as a Past Grand High Priest, I should feel that Grand Lodge was
its province, though, of course, not beyond its right, should it forbid
to abide by the laws governing application to those bodies, whether
such laws permitted
immediate or demand deferred application. The college sets standards of
for admission which high school graduates must reach. It seems
unnecessary for high
schools to set standards by which its graduates could enter college.
Masonry is not a primary school for the so-called "Higher" Degrees, but
as its degrees are pre-requisite for Capitular and Scottish Rite
Masonry, the comparison
ROE FULKERSON, Grand Master, District of Columbia.
LOOK AND LISTEN!"
you ask raises some doubt and much speculation. One who has been
privileged to receive
the various degrees of the York Rite and Scottish Rite, cannot discount
When we reflect, however, that the Three Degrees as conferred by the
the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Missouri may be said to be
admitting initiates through the portals of Masonic lodges throughout
teaching great lessons and having a great work to do, it would seem
the member of the lodge should be given an unhampered opportunity to
study the sublime
beauty and purpose of the symbolism of the Three Degrees, before being
to "take" other degrees.
is it insinuated to the prospective candidate, by the over-zealous,
that it takes
degrees to make him a Mason, or give him Masonic standing. What we need
loyalty to the lodge and less talk about degrees. The profane as well
as the members
of the lodge should be made to know that it is not the number of
that makes a Mason, but that it is the active performance of the pure
of right in one's home, religion, politics and business dealings that
one as a real Mason.
to me that when a candidate has received the Sublime Degree of Master
should be required to "Stop, Look and Listen," or "find himself"
Masonically, before being allowed to petition for the Royal Arch or
I believe that if he were required to wait one year after having passed
Examination in the Third Degree, we would add strength to our Order in
all its departments.
ORESTES MITCHELL, Grand Master, Missouri.
IT DOES NOT
CONCERN GRAND LODGE
of 25th ultimo received containing the following questions and
requesting a reply:
a Grand Lodge by law regulate the time to elapse between a candidate's
his Third Degree and his petitioning for membership in Royal Arch or
thereto would state that our Grand Lodge has taken no action upon this
There seems to be a perfect mania for legislation both in Congress and
state legislatures and very largely city councils suffer from this
from reading the proceedings of some of Grand Lodges even they have not
Masonry is interested in the welfare and deportment of its members.
it does not or should not care to go. It makes no difference to
how much time elapses or, on the other hand, whether he ever joins any
of the York
or Scottish Rite bodies.
is, if a brother Mason is in good standing, that is, no charges
him and is not in arrears for dues or assessments, he should be free to
go or to
join anything so far as the Grand Lodge is concerned that is not
subversive of the principles of Freemasonry or good government.
Therefore that such
restrictive legislation, paternalistic in its nature, is both unwise
it would be perfectly competent for any of the York or Scottish Rite
bodies to legislate
upon this matter if they were disposed to do so, but it would be a
matter in which
the Grand Lodge would not be interested.
HENRY C. DEXTER, Grand Master, Rhode Island.
NOT HINDER THE ASPIRANT FROM ADVANCING AS SOON AS HE WISHES"
to your request that I contribute an article from Florida to the Grand
Symposium dealing with the question of requiring a newly raised Master
serve a given length of time, as such, before applying for admission
into the Royal
Arch or Scottish Rite bodies, will say that this question has never
discussed at any meeting of our Grand Lodge within our memory.
provide for one month probationary period preceding the conferring of
each of the
degrees but no other restrictions as to time.
At our annual
convocation of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, which was
attended by the
Inspector General of the Scottish Rite bodies in Florida, a resolution
by the Grand Chapter and accepted by the Inspector General requiring an
for the degrees, in either of the bodies, to serve at least six months
as a Master
Mason. But this law remained in force only one year when it was
abrogated by the
newly appointed Deputy of the Rite and rescinded by the Chapter, hence
we have but
little opportunity to judge its merits from our own experience.
no doubt but that the Grand Lodge would have ample authority to adopt
but I would seriously question the wisdom of such action, because we
should be legislating
a pre-requisite upon the candidates for the York and Scottish Rites
properly be left for such action as these bodies saw fit to adopt.
Might we not,
with the same propriety, deny our Master Masons the privilege of
joining any organization
within six months from the time of their raising?
beautiful admonitions, ceremonies and lectures of the other bodies
the inspiring lessons presented in the Symbolic Lodge? I say no. So do
the aspirant from advancing as soon as he wishes.
T. T. TODD, Grand Master, Florida.
DEMANDS A ONE-YEAR INTERVAL
to your question: "Should a Grand Lodge by law regulate the time to
between a candidate's receiving his Third Degree and his petitioning
in Royal Arch Scottish Rite bodies?" I will say that at the last
the Grand Lodge of Washington the following resolution was passed: "Do
promise on your honor that, until you have been a Master Mason for a
period of one
year and have creditably passed an examination of proficiency as a
you will not petition for or accept membership in any other
organization which has
membership in a Masonic lodge as a pre-requisite?" This law is more
than it would be if stated as your question is.
I am opposed to any legislation of this character. We as "Blue Lodge
do not recognize any other body in Masonry, so why legislate for
does not exist for us? By such legislation we automatically recognize
Again I believe
that this regulation should come from the Royal Arch and the Scottish
I do not think that it makes any difference whether a man takes six
months or six
years to take all the degrees of Masonry. If he is going to make a good
work in the first Three Degrees then he will do so irrespective of how
he has taken, and in how short a time. If he is not going to be a good
Lodge Mason," then holding him back for a year, or thereabouts, from
the so-called Higher Degrees, will not change him one jot. You cannot
a man into being a good Mason.
I hold to
the old Jeffersonian idea of states Rights, and I want to allow the
to the individual. We are too prone as Grand Lodges to pass laws that
with the inherent rights of the individual Mason. Such a law as the one
an encroachment upon those rights.
my own personal views and I am going to bring in a recommendation at
our next Grand
Lodge meeting to rescind the law passed last year.
ROBT. C. McCROSKEY, Grand Master, Washington.
KNOWLEDGE SHOULD BE THE BASIS FOR ADVANCEMENT
At the communication
of our Grand Lodge in 1922 a resolution was adopted declaring it to be
of this Grand Lodge that no Master Mason should apply for appendant
a year from the time of his receiving the Third Degree. Thereafter an
was entered into between the Most Excellent Grand High Priest, Grand
Arch Masons of Oregon, and Most Worshipful P. S. Malcolm, Past Grand
Inspector General of Oregon, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite,
whereby it was ordered by them that on and after June 1, 1923, no
any Master Mason, raised within the period of one year prior to the
date of such
petition, should be received by any Chapter of Royal Arch Masons or
Lodge of Perfection
in Oregon, unless such petition was accompanied by a certificate of
executed in proper form, by the Worshipful Master of a duly and
Lodge of A. F. & A. M., and attested by the Secretary of such
lodge with the
At the communication
of the Grand Lodge in 1924, a complete Masonic Code was re-enacted. In
Code it is provided that no candidate is a full-fledged Master Mason
until he shall
have been instructed and passed an examination in open lodge in the
lecture of a Master Mason. All Master Masons are required to sign the
their lodge. They are also now required to pass the required
signing the by-laws. A candidate is not entitled to receive a
certificate of proficiency
until he shall have signed the by-laws. He is not eligible, therefore,
any of the appendant degrees until he shall have signed the by-laws and
his certificate. This briefly states the action taken by the Grand
Lodge of Oregon
with reference to the appendant degrees.
In my opinion
this is a better way to treat the troublesome matter, than to prescribe
length of time between receiving the Third Degree and the right to
the appendant degrees. Masonic knowledge should be the basis for
who is deeply interested in Masonry, and is informing himself in
and is desirous of advancing, should not be restrained. In my opinion,
to receive more light is a laudable ambition. He should be encouraged
in this rather
than discouraged. I am in sympathy with the desire to discourage the
through the various orders for the mere purpose of wearing the fez and
claw. I would like to have a regulation requiring all votaries of the
degrees to learn the work as they advance. I would like to see every
takes the Capitular Degrees, and all other appendant degrees, be
required to learn
a lecture in a similar way as the lectures of the symbolic degrees are
and Masonic knowledge should be our goal rather than a mere limitation
OLIVER P. COSHOW, Grand Master, Oregon.
SHOULD NOT PASS SUCH LEGISLATION
In the matter
under discussion the Grand Lodge of North Dakota has not passed any
time limit to
a brother petitioning for membership in the two bodies you name, except
that a Master
Mason must have obtained a Certificate of Proficiency from his lodge
either the Royal Arch or Scottish Rite bodies.
I have heard
this subject discussed both pro and con in this and in many other Grand
My personal opinion is that no Grand Lodge should pass legislation
time to elapse between a candidate's receiving his Third Degree and his
for membership in the two bodies named provided said Master Mason has
an examination of proficiency in the lectures of the three symbolic
a Master Mason believes that he will receive further or clearer light
by taking further degrees, that such additional degrees will give him a
and conception of Masonry, I can see no good reason for denying him
Masons desire to learn something of the purposes of life and how best
to live in
order to conform to the Divine Plan of the G. A. O. T. U. Many will say
will be found in the three symbolic degrees if the Master Mason will
look and search
for it. True ‒ but how many do make a search for it there! We know it
effort to learn by means of oral instruction and degrees than by
and reading. So, I firmly believe, if a Master Mason can obtain more
light in the
purpose of life, in the manner of living for the good of himself, his
his God, in impressions of the future life and in the aim of the Divine
should be allowed to follow his inclination in seeking it in further
may not find that which he seeks but some degree in one of these other
in a manner give him the true insight and meaning of Masonry which he
has not received
in the three symbolic degrees, thereby making him a better man and a
of great good to his brethren, his neighbors and his community, thus in
exemplifying practical and spiritual Masonry. It is an illusion that
the degrees in these recognized bodies without a time limit after the
will hurt the lodge.
I know that
Grand Lodges have passed laws regulating the time to elapse before
orders, but I have no sympathy with their reasoning. Masons should not
from joining recognized Masonic organizations which make them better
men and thereby better citizens of this great, wonderful and
THEODORE S. HENRY, Grand Master, North Dakota.
Lodge of Louisiana has no law or regulation fixing the time that should
the Master's Degree and the application for a higher body in Masonry.
opinion in the matter is that there should be no minimum time limit
the candidate who has just received his Master's Degree and who desires
application for the Royal Arch or the Scottish Rite. If the candidate
of his own
free will and accord, and without any solicitation on the part of
to apply for the Royal Arch or the Scottish Rite Degrees, he should be
to do so without the intervention of any specific period of time
his right or freedom to petition for the degrees voluntarily and
should be kept entirely separate and apart from the right of a member
of the Royal
Arch or the Scottish Rite to solicit applications for the Royal Arch or
Rite from Master Masons. Nothing so wounds the pride of a Master Mason
or small financial resources as to have some member of the Royal Arch
or the Scottish
Rite or some other Masonic body approach him on the night that he
receives his Master's
Degree with the statement that conveys to the neophyte the impression
that he has
received but very little of what there is in Masonry ‒ that unless he
wants to live
ill ignorance he must apply for and take or receive the other degrees,
Master Mason is supposed to do unless he is a pauper or a cheap-skate
who does not
show the proper appreciation of Masonry. Such statements to such Master
a tendency to lessen his ardor, zeal, interest in and love for the
that reason, in my opinion, members of other Masonic bodies than the
should not be permitted to seek applications from Blue Lodge Masons
within a period
of at least six months from the date that the prospect received his
This can easily be ascertained by the first question that the proselyte
Mason: "How long have you been a Master Mason?" If the answer is to the
effect that six months have elapsed, he could then proceed with his
of the application; otherwise he should not broach the subject in any
way to his
prospect under penalty of being reprimanded for so doing.
average Mason has had so much of the beautiful philosophy of Masonry
him in the Blue Lodge, and been informed of the various and manifold
duties of a
Master Mason, all during the usual period of not more than three hours,
lessons and the philosophy of Masonry must be studied and repeated by
him and to
him after he has had the Third Degree conferred upon him, there should
be at least
six months for the Blue Lodge to have the undivided attention, as it
were, of the
neophyte. And if members of other rites would put forth more effort
and encouraging this neophyte to go to all Blue Lodge meetings
possible, with a
view to making a better Mason of him, then it would be much easier for
then at the
end of six months, or some such time, to secure his application for the
circumstances should my remarks be interpreted as an improper disregard
other degrees in Masonry, both York and Scottish Rites, for some of the
lessons, some of the most beneficial philosophy, and some of the most
applications of Masonry are there unfolded. And my sincere desire is
worthy human who is eligible would take all of the work. But I think
that not only
the Blue Lodge, but all other Masonic bodies would be materially
benefitted by allowing
at least six months to elapse before applications could be solicited
from a Master
Mason, though I wish everyone of them would voluntarily apply much
H. B. CONNER, Grand Master, Louisiana.
the Man and Mason
By Bro. Erik McKinley Eriksson,
OF HISTORY, LOMBARD COLLEGE, II
will be remembered as the author of "The Anti-Masonic Party," published
in these pages, March, 1921, an essay characterized, like that printed
adequacy, impartiality, and accuracy. The student who wishes to make a
investigation of the whole Anti-Masonic period is recommended to read
Bro. Eriksson's study McCarthy's "Anti-Masonic Party," published in the
American Historical Association Reports, 1902, p. 370; it will be found
any public library. Bro. Charles Comstock P.G.M., of the Grand Lodge of
Historical Research Committee, has published a leaflet on "The Masonic
of Andrew Jackson."
truly great men of the United states must be included Andrew Jackson,
the famous Battle of New Orleans, President of the United states for
and for two years Grand Master of Masons of Tennessee. Not only was he
genius and a master politician, but he was an active Mason. His record
is one in
which all Masons may take pride.
man in American public life has been more reviled by his enemies or
praised by his friends than Jackson. This was natural in view of the
during the period in which he occupied the presidential chair,
became most bitterly partisan. It was at this time that political
parties were for
the first time definitely organized under the control of leaders at
It was inevitable that a man of such strong will and domineering
the leader of the new Democratic Party, should be hated by his
who included the Anti-Masons, the National Republicans, and the
of whom later merged to form the Whig party. Because in the past
biographers have depended largely on the writings of these political
their sources of information, it has not been until recently that
Jackson has been
presented in a true light.
was far from being a perfect man, but he was not the uncouth,
individual pictured by unfriendly critics. He was a man whose
many contradictions, which make it difficult to characterize him. His
him as irascible, egotistical, stubborn, vindictive, intolerant of the
of others, and unforgiving. He was regarded as embodying all the
crudity of the frontier. To his friends he was a very different man.
him as a military hero, a true patriot, a great statesman and referred
terms to his probity, his sagacity, his firmness, his courtesy, his
his virtue, his bravery, his chivalry towards women, his hospitality,
and his steadfastness.
the historical perspective of the present time, he appears to have been
a man in
whom these faults and virtues were curiously blended, but with the good
over-balancing the bad. Had he been the kind of a man pictured by his
could never have achieved the greatness to which history shows he is
to understand Jackson it is necessary to know something of his career
and the conditions
under which he lived. Born on the frontier, he spent almost all of the
years of his life, prior to his accession to the Presidency, under
The date of his birth was, March 15, 1767, but there is some dispute as
to the place
where the: event occurred. Two years before, his parents had come from
Ireland to join the Scotch-Irish settlement, the Waxhaws, near the
North and South Carolina. Only a few days before Andrew was born the
head of the
family died. It has been contended that the mother then crossed the
line and went
to the home of a relative in North Carolina, where the child was born.
the latest historical research indicate South Carolina as Jackson's
and he, himself, always referred to it as such.
His Mother Wished Him to
Become a Minister
Jackson, the future President's mother, was a pious woman of the
as were most of the Scotch-Irish, and cherished the hope that her son
become a minister. But there was little in his rough frontier
environment to incline
him towards that calling. As a boy he not only was an active
participant in the
rough sports of the frontier settlement, but he is reported to have
companions. He was always ready for a quarrel or for a cock-fight, and
he was proficient
in the use of oaths which seemed so essential to the frontiersman. Yet
not a passion with him and his constant striving to excel boded well
for his future.
opportunities at that period of history in this country were very
for a very few individuals. On the frontier the educational standards
were not high
and it was regarded as sufficient if one could read and understand
English in an
indifferent manner, write a legible hand, and perform a few
necessary for business transactions. Of such education Jackson partook
opportunity was offered in the rude neighborhood school. The formal
he thus acquired was sadly inadequate for one who was to occupy the
which he later attained. Later, in his study of law, he picked up some
but he never acquired the knowledge of literature or history which
such of his contemporaries as Thomas Hart Benton.
was faulty and yet not to such a degree as commonly supposed. The
reason so much
stress was put on this was that, during the campaign of 1828, his
sought to discredit him as an illiterate, and therefore unfit to be
magnifying his inability to spell correctly. Though largely untaught he
unlearned. He, through his own efforts, acquired the ability to express
in clear, vigorous English, and his ideas were original with him. His
were essentially his own, though others helped put them in final form
was still a mere boy and before he could have attended school much, the
a War for Independence was being fought was forcibly impressed on him.
the British captured Charleston and over-ran South Carolina. Though but
a boy of
thirteen, Andrew Jackson served as a trooper with the American forces.
year, he and his brother were taken prisoners by the British. Refusing
an officer's boots he was slashed across the hand and head with a
sword. The scars
of this and the marks left by smallpox, which he contracted while in
carried to the end of his life.
died, but Andrew's release was secured by his mother. Shortly
afterwards she died
of fever contracted while serving as a volunteer nurse caring for
were held prisoners at Charleston. The end of the Revolution found
in the world with the necessity of relying on his own resources. While
continuing his education, there was no opportunity in his locality for
He then undertook to become a saddler but after a short period he found
too monotonous. He is reported to have spent more time in the saddle ‒
for he was
an expert horseman ‒ than in working at the trade.
He Sowed His Wild Oats
he thought to make his fortune in the world beyond the frontier, and
went to Charleston.
There he became associated with the sporting element and by reckless
horse races involved himself in debt. Extricating himself from his
by a fortunate wager, he turned from the gay life of the city.
He must have
been conscious that the frontier offered him the best opportunity for
he returned to the region of his nativity. In 1784 he took up the study
of law at
Salisbury, North Carolina, in the office of Spruce Macay. Finally
law course he was admitted to the bar in 1787 and launched out on his
career at Martinsville, North Carolina. There is no record to indicate
practice he had but it is reasonable to think that he received few
he was as yet not twenty one years old, was given to the pursuit of
probably knew little law.
At the time,
Tennessee was still a part of North Carolina, and had been but little
counties in the eastern part had been organized and, in 1788, these
a judicial district by the North Carolina legislature, and John
McNairy, one of
Jackson's fellow law students at Salisbury, was appointed judge. He
to accompany him with the result that the autumn of the year found them
at Nashville. Jackson soon acquired a lucrative business among the
the most part. The only lawyer of the vicinity had been retained by a
group of debtors,
so the creditors were glad to retain Jackson. He was also appointed
McNairy's district with a salary of forty pounds for each court he
invested his income in land and in eight years was one of the wealthy
of the new community.
acquired prestige and was soon recognized as one of the outstanding men
His rise to fame was aided by his personal appearance, for he was tall,
and erect, with a pale face and keen blue eyes surmounted by a high
His hair was bushy and of a sandy hue; his chin was clear-cut and
square, and his
lips expressive. He carried himself like one who was his own master and
were quick and decisive.
When he appeared
in court he always created a favorable impression. While acting in his
as solicitor he exhibited such courage and such love for justice that
he won the
respect of the law abiding while the evil doers came to fear him. It
was not long
before he received further preferment. When only twenty three years old
he was appointed
United States attorney. When Tennessee was admitted into the Union as a
1796 he was elected as its first and only Representative in the lower
house of Congress.
A year later
he was appointed United States Senator, but resigned this office in
The national capital at that time was located at Philadelphia, and
to have found the life in that metropolis distasteful. Upon his return
he was appointed a justice of the Tennessee Supreme Court, and served
until 1804. His decisions, while not always exhibiting as much
knowledge of law
as might have been desirable, were eminently fair and were
characterized by their
two important events had taken place in Jackson's life which were to
mean much to
him in the future ‒ his marriage and his entrance into the Masonic
the former much has been written; little is known of his early Masonic
When he first
came to the Nashville settlement Jackson became acquainted with Rachel,
of John Donelson, one of the pioneer leaders. She was married to one
of Kentucky, a worthless individual whose cruelty forced her to seek
refuge in her
parental home. At the time there were no divorce laws in Kentucky so it
for Robards to petition the Virginia legislature, which then exercised
over Kentucky, for permission to sue for a divorce in a Kentucky court.
petition was granted, in 1791, his wife married Jackson, both believing
had been freed from Robards. But two years later, that individual sued
in a Kentucky court and was granted it on the grounds that his wife had
years been unlawfully living with Jackson as his wife.
He Finds Himself in a Humiliating
news reached Tennessee, Jackson was much mortified and hastened to
re-marry in 1794.
Later, especially in the campaign of 1828, his political enemies sought
political capital of the event by circulating stories of this marriage.
Jackson acted precipitately in the matter, there is no doubt that both
he and his
wife were innocent of any intentional wrongdoing. He was always very
the matter and nothing would arouse his ire more quickly than allusion
to the circumstances
of his marriage. He killed one man in a duel, it is supposed, because
of some disparaging
remark in regard to his marriage, though the quarrel leading to the
duel began over
a horse race. Jackson was always fondly devoted to his wife and she to
his early Masonic record the facts are not so clear. Several lodges
claim him, but
there is doubt as to which lodge conferred on him the first three
Degrees of Masonry.
At the time of his going to Tennessee the region was under the
jurisdiction of the
North Carolina Grand Lodge as the Grand Lodge of Tennessee was not
1813. The claim of Greeneville Lodge, No. 3, of Tennessee, formerly No
43, of North
Carolina, seems to be the most weighty. The records were destroyed by
the Civil War, so it is unknown just when he took the three Degrees.
But an original
transcript of the lodge record for Sept. 5, 1801, shows that he was a
Lodge, No. 12, at Clover Bottom, Tennessee, the only lodge in the
by the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, has claimed Jackson, but as it was not
until 1805, its claim does n seem valid. The Proceedings of the Grand
Lodge of North
Carolina for 1805 list him as a member of Harmony Lodge, No. 29, at
later became No. 3, in the Tennessee jurisdiction. He might have been
made a Mason
in this lodge, but here, too, the evidence is not conclusive. During
he appears to have been active in the work of the Fraternity, and is
known to have
served as a Worshipful Master. He also became a Royal Arch Mason.
(To Be Concluded.)
and the Grand Orient of France
by a desire to have Freemasonry become a united and universal
brotherhood, a desire
accentuated by the disrupting influences of the World War, and willing
to go more
than half way, three or four American Grand Lodges entered into
with the Grand Orient of France during the war period. A further step
in that direction
was taken when certain of our Grand Lodges took membership in the
Masonic Association, the grand purpose of which was world-wide Masonic
was hoped by those Grand Lodges, and by many brethren in Grand
participating, that some basis of unity could be found on which all
of the world might have common footing without sacrifice of principle
One of the
obstacles in the way of this rapprochement, so far as many American
were concerned, was the fact that so many of them had long before
with the Grand Orient of France: first, because it had invaded American
jurisdiction; second, because of its position on belief in God; and the
had to be reckoned with because of its influence in Europe, and because
of its membership
in the International Masonic Association. The American brethren who led
in the movement
toward unity, and who hoped to have the International Masonic
the nucleus for a future association of Grand bodies of the world,
tried to find
a way out of the religious difficulty and hoped the Grand Orient might
come to a
better understanding of the American principles of religion and the
of territorial jurisdiction.
It now transpires
that the Grand Orient has no thought of co-operating with regular
at all ‒ at least so one gathers from its Compte Rendu, issued during
records show the Grand Orient deliberately undertaking to enter into
with an irregular Masonic Grand body, the Regional Grand Lodge of
ours): "Bro. Mille, President, recalls the conditions of the covenant
is to be made with the Regional Gr. Lodge of Pennsylvania, which has
patronage of the Gr. Or. of France. He states in what circumstances
group has applied for our patronage. He thinks that it is our duty to
call of our American Brothers. The Council, desirous of cultivating
with the Masonry of the whole world, has examined at length this
question. We are
not accustomed to trespass on the jurisdiction of other Obediences, and
it is only after mature reflection and a careful study of the facts
that we have
taken a decision. Our right is unquestionable. We are not in relations
with the official Gr. Lodge of Pennsylvania. The question of
is not raised." The Council gives full powers to its Board to pursue
and make the necessary covenants.
Past Master of the Atlantide (in New York City) our Bro. Biny, has sent
a kindness for which we cannot thank him too much, documents concerning
Lodge of Pennsylvania. In a first statement, he shows us the attempts
made by the
York Rite, especially in 1906, to suppress the Lodges of the Gr. Or. of
second statement gives us a real summing-up of the history of the Gr.
Lodge of Pennsylvania.
A last one explains the origin of the Lodges of the Gr. Or. of Spain in
States. All this is very interesting to us at the moment when we are
going to form
a close connection with the Regional Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
* * *
Delauney, Secretary of the Council of the Order: 'It is owing to the
desire of the
Council of the Order, to develop our international influence, any time
occurs that the parleys entered into with the Regional Gr. Lodge of
Gr. Lodge of Pennsylvania, which comprises thirty five lodges, several
and Councils, was founded in 1893 under the auspices of the Grand
Orient of Spain
and remained subject to it until 1922. The separation took place under
circumstances: When the Supreme Council of Spain asked to be admitted
to the International
Meeting in 1922 of the Supreme Councils at Lausanne, the American
before all, that the Grand Orient of Spain should give up the lodges
under its dependency in American territory. The Supreme Council for
to them and later advised its lodges to become affiliated with the York
York Rite Masonry did not correspond to the philosophical ideal of the
Gr. Lodge of Pennsylvania which, on the other hand, saw with chagrin
in which it had been treated by the Gr. Or. of Spain. In order to have
explanation with the Spanish obedience the Gr. Lodge sent its Gr.
Gould Lawyer to Madrid. In Europe he received confirmation of the
Lausanne. He was then put into communication with the Gr. Or. of France
Bro. Biny, Past Master of our Lodge 'l'Atlantide' of New York City.
* * *
we have only to read you the main lines of the projected Convention
Regional Gr. Lodge of Pennsylvania and the Gr. Or. of France:
- The Regional Gr. Lodge of
Pennsylvania shall pay every year to the Gr. Or.
of France the sum of ten dollars for each active lodge.
- The Regional Gr. Lodge shall
buy all the third degree diplomas which they
may need at a price which shall be fixed immediately. These diplomas
shall be on
parchment printed in English and in French from a model furnished by
the Grand Lodge
(That model is a diploma in use at the time when the Gr. Lodge was
subject to the
Gr. Or. of Spain).
- The Constitution of the Gr. Or.
printed in English shall be furnished to
the Regional Gr. Lodge at a price of 500 francs for 100 copies.
- All the communications between
the Gr. Or. of France and the Regional Gr.
Lodge shall be in English.
- The Gr. Or. of France shall
furnish (for a price to be fixed) letters patent,
printed in English and in French, for the lodges which belong actually
to the Gr.
Lodge or may be created later. Those letters patent shall bear the
and numbers of the lodges already in existence.
- The Gr. Lodge shall have the
right of working according to the Scottish Rite.
- The Gr. Lodge shall have the
right of recording all legislative acts concerning
the regulation of the lodges of its obedience.
- The Gr. Lodge shall have the
right of establishing new lodges in the United
States when it shall deem it proper, it will receive for them letters
the Gr. Or. of France.
- The Regional Gr. Lodge requests
that every time a lodge or a member of its
obedience shall write directly to the Gr. Or. such letters be
communicated to the
Gr. Lodge before the adoption of any solution.
matter is not concluded. We trust in our Lodge l'Alantide of New York
knows that Gr. Lodge well and which has asked to keep us informed; as,
the ground, it knows better than we do all the precautions which should
the other hand if most American Grand Lodges ignore us there are some
we are in relations of amity. Such are the Grand Lodges of Alabama, of
Louisiana, of Minnesota, of New Jersey and Rhode Island.
As the Regional
Gr. Lodge of Pennsylvania asks to be granted the right of establishing
in the United States it would be proper on our part to tell them not to
any in the States with which we are in relations of amity. There are
besides two obediences, very small ones, New Jersey and Rhode Island,
become mixed up in this affair on account of their relative nearness to
L. the Atlantide, Or. Of New York, gives us the following information
the 'Loyal Order of Moose,' which had manifested a desire to enter into
with us. As many other American secret societies of the same kind, the
of Moose is interested in one of those things which form the aim and
ideal of Masonry;
it is in itself an honorable society, but its object is before all ‒
and assistance; a member is entitled to benefits in case of sickness,
Our lodge earnestly entreats you to avoid all connection with the Loyal
Moose, or any other society of the same kind. We would run the risk,
the lodge says,
of becoming the laughing stock of all America and of the European
Masonry. It does
not seem as if we should hesitate; we must adopt the line of conduct
to us by the Atlantide.
Lodge the Atlantide, Or. of New York, writes us another letter
concerning the 'Loyal
Order of Moose'. The details which it contains confirms the information
furnished by the Atlantide and specify this fact that the 'Loyal Order
presents no Masonic character. In the latter part of the letter our
lodge from beyond
the sea tells us to be on our guard against certain portentous
"'We can only urge you to
refrain from forming
any connection with that Order which would never even have dared put
such a question
as it dared put to you in Paris. We repeat it, beware of the snares
which the Americans
lay for you, and remember well that Americans do not come for nothing
purpose to the European Masonries and especially to the International
in Switzerland in which they did not take any interest at all before
1920. On the
day when something disagreeable will happen to you (bear well in mind
now we only indulge in guesses) you will regret very much the advances
shall have made to the Americans.
"'The United States are, for
such as have
not lived here, the most incomprehensible, the most unlike people in
Study well the English and you will know somewhat their Anglo-Saxon
"We must thank that devoted
lodge, the Atlantide."
* * *
The lodge L'Atlantide, Orient of New York, requests the Grand Orient to
Brother Felix Levy 18d the necessary powers by which to effect the
the Chapter degrees, for the purpose of forming a Chapter, on some
brethren of the
project being justified by the importance of our lodge in New York,
proposes that you render the following decree:
" 'The Council of the Order.
"'In view of Article 70 of the
and the paper of the lodge L'Atlantide dated Aug. 2, 1923, and the
of the Grand College of Rites.
"'Article first: ‒ Delegation
is given to
Brother Felix Levy, 18d member of the lodge L'Atlantide, to effect the
of the Chapter degrees on the Brothers who shall be designated by that
sequel to all this will be found in Bro. Frank C. Sayrs' Grand Master's
delivered to the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, April 16, 1924, the
of which are here quoted from the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of New
1924, page 91 ff: Our relations with all other jurisdictions with which
we are in
fraternal communication are undisturbed, but I am constrained to bring
to your attention
correspondence with the Grand Orient of France, which may prompt your
of the propriety of the continuance of our present friendly relations
organization. Let it be understood that the Grand Lodge of New Jersey
formally recognized the Grand Orient of France; that the interdict laid
it in 1871 at the request of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, because of
invasion of territorial jurisdiction of the latter was in reciprocation
of New Jersey's
request of all American Grand Jurisdictions to support it in
interdicting the Grand
Lodge of Hamburg for invasion of our jurisdiction by warranting a Lodge
continued until its rescission in 1918. Perhaps the controlling reason
during the war, members of New Jersey Lodges in the American
had reported the welcomes, the kindnesses shown them by their brethren
and had suggested the removal of the interdict against Masonic
the Grand Orient has occasionally written requesting to be informed of
of spurious organizations which had applied for recognition, such as
Masonic Federation, the Memphis Rite of Chicago, and have been left in
of in what "regularity" consists in the United States of America.
regarding the exclusive territorial jurisdiction of American Grand
Lodges has always
been governed by Standing Resolution No. 1, adopted in 1840:
Resolved, That the Grand Lodge of New Jersey regards the Grand Lodges
of the several
States and Territories of this Union, which have been heretofore
holding exclusive jurisdiction within the limits of those States and
and will regard any attempt to violate this principle in this or in any
or Territory as an innovation in the established regulations of the
tending to its destruction."
It was therefore
surprising to have received the letter which follows:
"July 17th, 1923. "To the Grand
of New Jersey:
"VERY DEAR BRETHREN ‒ Our Lodge
of New York informs us that a certain number of your Lodges receive as
French Masons who come from France, and who are passing a limited time
in your State,
but they refuse admittance to those of our Masons who are residents in
and in particular, those members of our Lodge L'Atlantide of New York.
"However, these last are Masons
of the Grand
Orient of France with the same title as the others.
"We are convinced that you will
we do, that your Lodges misinterpret your instructions.
"We shall be grateful of your
if you will give thought to the foregoing and we hope you will direct
by the very
next advices that all the Masons of the Grand Orient of France shall be
received as visitors in your lodge-rooms.
"Receive, very dear brethren,
of our devotedly fraternal sentiments
"One of the Secretaries of the
answer was made as follows:
"Dr. Delaunay, "Secretary,
of France, "Paris, France.
"DEAR SIR AND BROTHER ‒ I
of your letter of July 17th, 1923, in which you advise the Grand Lodge
of New Jersey,
that members of your Lodges in France, who may be temporarily
sojourning in New
Jersey, are received as visitors in our Lodges, while members of a
lodge of your
obedience, L'Atlantide, situated in the city of New York, are denied
the like privilege
of visitation, and requesting that our Lodges be instructed to receive
"A Lodge of any foreign
within the territorial jurisdiction of an American Grand Lodge, in
defiance of its
sovereignty, is an irregular Lodge and its members cannot be recognized
"The Grand Orient of France
cannot be ignorant
of the long established principle of exclusive territorial
by the Grand Lodges of North America, violation of which principle was
for the interdiction of Masonic communication with the Grand Orient of
so many years.
"The Grand Lodge of New Jersey
its interdict in 1918, under a resolution to be found recorded in its
of 1918 on page 146, and you are aware of the fact that in 1921 the
of Louisiana suspended its recently resumed fraternal relations with
the Grand Orient
for the explicit reason that the latter still maintained two Lodges in
one in San Francisco, Cal., and another in New York City.
"Under date of July 21st. 1920,
it is of
record in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, that the
had considered the existence of the Lodge L'Atlantide justified, but
that it was
disposed to order the dissolution of the Lodge Jerome Lalande
(California). If the
latter was considered irregular or offensive to the interests of
between the Grand jurisdictions, then also will the former be, while it
to exist within the jurisdiction of an American Grand Lodge.
"The annual proceedings
of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey are regularly sent to the Paris office
of the Grand
Orient, and if you will refer to the volume of 1918, page 146 and then
to the volume
of 1922 you will find in the appendix (pages 46, 47, 48) a full
explanation of the
attitude of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey in regard to the principle
particularly in relation to the Lodge L'Atlantide.
"Since Masonic communication
with the members
of an irregular Lodge cannot be tolerated in New Jersey, I beg leave to
in the interest of undisturbed fraternal relations, that you formally
letter, as otherwise its subject matter must be officially communicated
Lodge at its Annual Communication in April 1924, and I have reason to
suspension of amicable relations with your Grand Orient would probably
its legislative action.
"I trust this greatly to be
can be averted, by your further consideration of the subject, and your
of the suggestion I have offered.
Accept an expression of the
with which I subscribe myself, your friend and brother,
"FRANK C. SAYRS, "Grand Master."
that the Grand Orient of France willingly continued to request
suspiciously irregular bodies in America is afforded by the following
"GRAND ORIENT OF FRANCE,
"16 Rue Cadet, Paris,
"November 7, 1923.
"Grand Lodge of New Jersey:
"VERY DEAR BRETHREN ‒ We have
communication of which the following is a copy:
"'We, brethren of the Grand
Lodge of New
Jersey, make a request for the foundation of a Council and desire you
to send us
a Patent, so that we may be recognized under and by the Rites of the
of France. "'Will you send us a charter under which we shall be able to
We form a Council of nine members under the name of the Supreme Council
of the United
States. "'The names of the brethren of the Council are the following:
Wilkes, Robert M. Ford, William Bull, W. Williams, C. C. Holoway,
Nattian Pitts, Robert Calhone, W. H. Matthews Thanking. "'Will you
your reply to A. G. Wilkes, 458 No. Franklin Street, Philadelphia, or
M. Ford, 209 Taylor Ave. Camden (N. York)
"'We shall pay for the charter
Put on it the French seal. We pay you all charges.'
"I shall be obliged if you will
us what you think of the contents of that letter and of its authors. We
reply (before) for writing to the interested parties.
"Accept, very dear brethren, my
the assurance of my devoted fraternal sentiments.
THE SECRETARY-GENERAL, "ARIES. "
answered as follows:
December 5th, 1923.
"V. Fr. Aries, Secretary-General, Grand Orient of France:
"T. C. F. ‒ Your letter of
1923, containing the translation of a letter requesting the issue of a
a 'Supreme Council for America' to certain persons named therein
to be members of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, has been read with
at the impudent mendacity of the writers, and at the display of their
in presuming that the Grand Orient of France would consider such an
a mere demand, without a careful consideration of the reasons which had
such a request. Your prudence in desiring an expression of our opinion
on the subject
is an appreciated Masonic courtesy to the Grand Lodge of New Jersey and
it is only
with an earnest desire to reciprocate that courtesy and to render you a
that we advise you that the persons named in the letter are not members
of the Grand
Lodge of New Jersey, nor of the Lodges of its obedience. We have reason
the names to be of persons identified with the irregular and
which had been operating in the State of Pennsylvania, under the
of the Grand Orient of Spain, and which had been renounced by that body
at the instance
of the Supreme Council of Spain, because of their known irregularity.
"To these outcasts have been
irregular and clandestine survivors of the so-called American Masonic
of which the organizers, Matthew McBlain Thompson and his associates,
are now under
sentence of conviction in a Federal Court to pay fines of $5,000.00 and
years' imprisonment for their fraudulent use of the United States mails
of their dupes.
"It may be of ultimate and
to the Grand Orient of France to be reminded that American Masonic
theory and practice,
well justified by long experience, imparts a very serious meaning and
to 'regularity' ‒ for every Mason in America by the obligations which
him a Mason is thereby prohibited from Masonic communication with an
spurious or clandestine Mason, and the regularity of any individual
Mason is determined
by his making in a just and lawfully constituted Lodge of the obedience
of a Grand
Lodge possessed of sole territorial jurisdiction within its own State
"Therefore, nothing could be
done or authorized
by any Masonic authority outside of the United States of America to
its geographic boundaries any kind of a Masonic body and invest it with
regularity. This applies equally to Grand Orients and Supreme Councils
of any or
all degrees of legitimate Masonry.
"In this connection, and
perhaps of even
greater relative importance, your attention is called to the subject
forth in your Compte Rendu of March 25th, 1923 (soir), pages 156 to
by which it appears that the same 'irregulars' had overtured the Grand
take an exaggerated number of so-called Lodges, chapters and
philosophical (?) councils
under its protection and thereby identify itself with a so-called
Lodge for North America.
"It would seem impossible that
such an association
could be seriously considered, but giving all credence to the story and
the Illustrious brethren participating in the discussion, upon their
courtesy, as reported, we feel that we would be gravely derelict did we
and emphasize the advice tendered herein, and offer for your most
the view that your official cognition of the parties thus soliciting
and assimilation could have but one result; namely, the immediate
friendly relations with the Grand Orient of France by the Grand Lodges
of the United
"Accept our fraternal assurance
invited expression of opinion is based on the facts and is offered
solely in your
interests and in behalf of the continuance of the friendly relations
between the Grand Orient of France and several of the American Grand
"With high consideration and
"FRANK C. SAYRS,
to this letter embodies the French understanding of American exclusive
"PARIS, January 29th, 1924.
"To the Grand Lodge of New
"DEAR BRETHREN ‒ We desire to
the point of view of the Grand Orient of France regarding our relations
Masonic Powers which have formed a friendly connection with us, and
relations with your Grand Lodge.
"Allow me to remind you of the
our Lodge. 'The Atlantide' Orient of New York (City), having called to
that while you accept as visitors our brethren who pass through the
you strictly forbid to our brethren of 'The Atlantide' entrance to your
We wrote you July 17th, 1923, requesting you not to make such an
between regular Masons of our Obedience. Your answer of August 31st,
us to formally withdraw our letter lest your Grand Lodge should suspend
with us. You founded your demand on the fact that a foreign Masonic
have a Lodge on the territory of a friendly Power.
"Can this principle, which we
apply to our case? No, most evidently. The United states is,
politically, a federation
of many states, but Masonically it is not so. Each one of these states
a Masonic Power, and so far as we know these individual Powers do not
one effective group, regulated by one constitution and working as one
organization. Therefore, to us, the fact that we have Lodges in one
state does not
seem to place an obstacle in the way of our having relations with
"Article 21 of our
'The Grand Orient of France does not establish Lodges in those
countries where there
exists a regular Masonic Power with which it is in fraternal
is changed in the situation of those Lodges that are in actual
means to us that should we form a friendly connection with the Grand
Lodge of New
York we would bind ourselves not to create Lodges on the territory of
Lodge of New York, but the Grand Lodge of New York would have to
recognize the regularity
of the Lodge which already exists there.
"With still more reason and
the existence of our Lodge, 'The Atlantide,' was previous to the
forming of our
friendly connections with your Grand Lodge, it seems to us inadmissible
should refuse to recognize our New York Lodge, which is outside of your
and to deny the right of visitation to such of its members as might
visit your Lodge.
"Under these conditions you
that we cannot do otherwise than maintain the point of view just stated.
"On the other hand allow us to
for the information which you gave us in answer to our letter of
November 7th, 1923.
That information corresponds with a request which has reached us from
Brother Robert M. Ford, of Camden (New York), who pretends that he and
eight signers are members of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey.
"The question therefore did not
the Regional Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, with which we are in
concerning which we take the liberty of offering you some fraternal
"When the Grand Orient of
Spain, which had
granted its Constitution to the said Grand Lodge, severed its
connection, the Grand
Lodge requested us to become its patron, that is, to take the place of
Orient of Spain, as its warrantor and to furnish its Constitution and
for its members.
"A definite decision has not
on the matter, for our Grand Orient has, first of all, requested the
Lodge of Philadelphia to show proofs of its Masonic regularity. The
gave us these proofs consisting in its previous Constitution granted by
Orient of Spain, and a decision of the High Court of Philadelphia by
which its legal
existence was recognized with the exclusion of the other groups of the
"The negotiations continue and
decision has been reached. You may be sure that in this order of ideas
Grand Orient will not swerve from its ancient line of conduct and be
with the principles of its Constitution or the agreements it has
entered into with
"Accept, dear brethren, the
our devoted and fraternal sentiments.
One of the Secretaries of the Council of the Order."
that the Grand Orient had not yet decided to affiliate the Pennsylvania
might reasonably serve to delay action on the part of this Grand Lodge,
not for the utter misunderstanding of American practice, evinced in
and which alone may justify at least a temporary severance of our
from the current Proceedings of the Grand Orient of France,
translations of which
have been sent me by the Chairman of your Committee on Foreign
such curiously erratic details as would justify a suspension of
until our French brethren realize the gravity of their proposed action.
of the Grand Master's address was referred to the Committee on Foreign
which recommended (its recommendations were adopted by Grand Lodge) as
To the M. W. Grand Lodge:
Having duly considered the
subject matter contained
in the printed address of the M. W. Grand Master, under the caption
Relations" (pages 15-23) which was referred to this committee, we
In reference to the suggestion
that the existing
relations with the Grand Orient of France be terminated because of its
in regard to the American practice of exclusive territorial
jurisdiction as set
forth in the letter dated Jan. 29, 1924, which traverses and ignores
of this and all other American Grand Lodges, we agree that entire
is found in the correspondence, but we are of the opinion that the
decision to terminate
our relations may with propriety await final action by the Grand Orient
as to its
affiliating the Pennsylvania irregular and clandestine groups with
which it is in
negotiation, and therefore recommend that the M. W. Grand Master be
his declaration to terminate the existing relations between this Grand
the Grand Orient of France when by such action it shall appear to be
* * * *
ROBERT A. SHIRREFS
WILLIAM VAN EERDE
CHARLES W. GARMAN
Committee on Foreign
Trenton, N. J., April 17th, 1924.
Hypocrisy of Goodness"
By Bro. Henry Taylor, Missouri
MORRIS invented the term "Cryptic Masonry" to designate the set of
degrees that closely follow the Royal Arch: Royal Master, Select
Master, and Super-excellent
Master. The word is from the Latin crypticus, derived from an older
Greek term krupte,
meaning a vault, or underground passage or room. The suitability of
this name is
instantly apparent to every brother fortunate enough to have taken
degrees. It is regrettable that so few, comparatively speaking, have
privilege; it is said that only about nine per cent of Master Masons
them, whereas about twenty-seven per cent are Royal Arch members, and
per cent are Knights Templar. The Rite seems to flourish most in
Hampshire, Ohio, Rhode Island, and Texas.
historians say that the Cryptic Degrees began as honorary or side
degrees of the
Scottish Rite, more especially of the original Rite of Perfection,
founded in France
in the middle of the eighteenth century. The Proceedings for the
at Charleston, dated Dec. 4, 1802, apparently show that the
were then claimed by that Body, but as "detached" degrees: "Besides
those degrees which are in regular succession, most of the Inspectors
are in possession
of a number of detached degrees, given in different parts of the world;
they generally communicate, free of expense, to those brethren who are
to understand them, such as Select Masons of Twenty-Seven," etc. On the
subject Charles T. McClenachan wrote: "In the Southern states of the
the Supreme Council initiated, chartered, and fostered Councils of
Royal and Select
Masters; and as rapidly as they were self-sustaining they became
Bro. George W. Warvelle disagrees with all this, and attributes the
degrees to American
sources. In THE BUILDER of May, 1924, he said that "the history of
Masonry, as coherent and connected system, commences with the year
1818, and that
it owes its present existence" to the enthusiasm of Jeremy L. Cross,
the material from earlier American ritualists. In either event, the
of the degrees are lost to us; but that matters not.
there is a connection between the Cryptic Rite and the Temple of
Solomon. I. Kings,
Chapter VI, verse 7, says: "And the house, when it was in building, was
of stone made ready before it was brought thither: so that there was
nor ax nor any tool of iron heard in the house, while it was in
The ashlars were hewn out and perfected ‒ many of them at least ‒ in a
into the hill underneath the building. The entrance became concealed by
and so the very existence of that underground work chamber became lost
by modern archaeologists. It appeals to one's imagination to think how
many of the
stones which graced the arches of King Solomon's Temple or shone from
wall were carved and quarried by craftsmen working in silence and in
more of this kind of cryptic work in our Fraternity than most Masons ‒
of the younger set ‒ ever know of. The Worshipful Master and his
in their evenings and Sundays working out the problems of the lodge;
going to his dingy ante-room through all kinds of weather; committees
sick, and planning the work of the brethren; much of all this necessary
never published to the world; oftentimes the casual attendants at lodge
it not at all. But if it were not for this hidden labor, going on
of ax or hammer ‒ they make all their sound, usually, where everybody
can hear ‒
there would be no Masons, no lodges, no Fraternity.
who really practices his Masonry is in a large sense a Cryptic Mason,
may not work much in lodge ‒ how few ever do that! Circumstances may
make it impossible
for him to attend meetings or to serve on committees, but he is doing
often, just the same. He does a good turn here, drops a helpful word
on a needed dollar, or pays a call, and all because his Freemasonry is
him to do it.
matter, there is plenty of Cryptic Masonry going on everywhere in the
our ranks. The cynic makes much capital of the fact that so many men
he thinks ‒ if ever he does think-that all goodness is merely a thing
and all men are rotten at the core. A hypocrite, so the word literally
"one who takes part in a show or play." He is a "play actor."
There is truly, as the cynic wishes us never to forget, much acting at
by men who are anything but good. But what the cynic himself always
forgets is that
there are also many men who play at being worse than they really are.
such a thing as "the hypocrisy of goodness." Oftentimes the fellow who
makes a great bluster at being a "regular tough" has a heart as soft as
a woman's but he would as lief be caught stealing as have anybody
discover all "his
little nameless unrecorded acts of kindness and of love." There is just
much concealed goodness in the world as concealed wickedness. Down
hidden in the crypts of the world, are multitudes of silent workmen;
they may doff
the apron before coming to the surface; they may hide their tools; they
no sound at their work; they may not leave their mark on the ashlar
where it can
show; nevertheless, to some degree, they are royal and select masters,
they are forgotten their children's children will see their anonymous
in the sun.
Discovery of America
By Bro. Alfred Newton Miner,
of the city or country of Norumbega is vested with the charm of
and early explorations. Early historical accounts contain many
references to Norumbega
[a name given to a lodge in Newtonville, Mass.], and the place was much
in the 15th Century. Who founded it, where it was located, and what was
of its abandonment, are questions that have never been fully answered
to the satisfaction
of all. One late writer has referred to Norumbega as "The Lost city of
In the study
of ancient historical subjects, especially before the era of the
written word, one
is dependent upon the traditional narratives or legends of the people,
handed down by word of mouth, from generation to generation, until at
last set down
in writing by some scribe and presented as historical narratives. These
or traditional accounts are found mingled with the early written
tending to corrupt the authenticity of the earliest records. This
mixture has often
led to the serious questioning of the early records, and caused many
between the students of narrative and critical history. Such is the
case with the
earliest records of Norumbega.
have been advanced regarding its situation and founder. Early maps,
from 1520 to
1634, show it variously located along the eastern coast of North
America from Nova
Scotia to Florida. John Smith speaks of Norumbega as including New
England and the
region as far south as Virginia. Some later historical students have
on the Penobscot River in Maine, others in Rhode Island, others near
So far as
is known, no trace of ancient settlements has been found indicating
that this city
was located along the Penobscot River. The old stone tower at Newport
is now believed
to be the work of an early governor of Rhode Island, rather than the
work of the
Norsemen. The Dighton Rock at Dighton, R. I., on which were found runic
is now believed by some to be the work of early Indians. In the main,
is agreed that if such a city or country existed, it was undoubtedly an
of the roving Norsemen. It is probable that Norumbega will never be
to the satisfaction of all, unless historical records clearer than
those at hand
as our interest is in the origin of the name and the location of the
of Norumbega, the writer has made a careful study of early Norse
history, the Norsemen
and their voyages of exploration, their discovery of America, their
as well as the works of recent writers substantiating or refuting the
of this city being located on the Charles River near the Massachusetts
the hardy, courageous, adventurous nature of the Northmen or Norsemen,
and their discovery of America, nearly five hundred years before
it is necessary to glance briefly at the early history of these people,
settlement of Iceland and Greenland.
Northmen or Norsemen was applied in a general way to the early
inhabitants of Denmark.
Norway and Sweden, these people forming the northern branch of the
Teutonic or Germanic
race. Later, the names were specifically applied to the people of
and Greenland, and are so applied in this narrative.
All Is Legend Prior To Tenth
For the first
few centuries, the Norsemen were more or less hidden from view in their
home, Norway. Their history only becomes authentic with the
introduction of Christianity,
at the close of the 10th Century. All previous to this date is a
compound of legend,
mythology and doubtful history. Enough is known, however, of these
hardy sea kings
to make it certain that they were the most intrepid voyagers of the
they had no compass, no guide, in fact, but the sun and stars, yet they
made long voyages in rudely built vessels, not larger than some of our
The beaks of their long ships were seen in every known port of Europe,
as far south
as the Golden Horn, and they explored other countries then unknown in
armed aid could be secured by every ruler who could afford to pay them.
crept along the coast of Germany, Gaul and the British Isles. Every
dreaded sea rovers made swift descents upon the exposed shores of these
plundering, burning, murdering and retiring to the north before winter
set in. Before
long they began to winter in the southern countries, and soon the
shores were dotted
with their stations and settlements.
their first appearance on the coast of England in 787 A.D., and from
the year 832
A.D. repeated their invasions, until they became masters of the whole
about fifty years under King Canute. Land, which the Norsemen named
ancient province of France, was granted Rollo, one of the most renowned
chieftains, together with the daughter of Charles the Simple, to stop
of France in the 10th Century.
they settled, they rapidly adopted the more civilized form of life of
but they inspired everything they adopted with the bold, fearless
spirit of the
Norsemen, producing marked internal improvements and fearless leaders.
discovered in 860 A. D. by the bold Norse Viking Naddodd, sailing from
was settled by immigration from Norway in 874 A. D. This island,
in the cold North Sea, was soon well peopled. The nature and climate of
where winters are long, the whole year surrounded by chill ice
the main support must be from fishing, developed a hardy, brave race,
one who loved
the freedom of the wild country, the spirit of the Viking.
adventurous nature led to the discovery of Greenland, in 876 A.D., but
it was not
until about a century later, in 984 A.D., that the land was visited and
by Erik the Red, an adventurous Norseman, who had fled from Norway on
manslaughter and was later banished from Iceland for the same cause. He
after two years to obtain settlers for Greenland, giving the new
country this name
to attract them. Greenland, too, was soon colonized.
after its settlement became the literary center of the Scandinavian
grew up a class of Scalds or Bards, who before the introduction of
and transmitted orally the Sagas or legends of the northern races.
About the 12th
Century these poems and legends were gathered together, and they
constitute a small
body of Icelander literature that has come down from the period of the
held for a long time in the memory by frequent recitations, transmitted
and mother to son and daughter, and later, with the introduction of
on parchment. They are among the most important and interesting of the
memorials that we possess of the early Teuton people and reflect the
customs and the wild adventurous nature of the sea kings, as well as
historical data of the people and age, at a time when literary darkness
the European continent.
which led to the discovery of North America by the Norsemen and their
are set forth in the Old Norse Vinland Sagas, or early traditional
tell the following story:
In 986 A. D. a Norseman named
Bjarni, son of
Herjulf, who was voyaging from Iceland to Greenland, was driven far out
of his reckoning
to the west by a gale. He saw several times in the distance a bold,
line, probably that of "New Foundland" or "Laborador", but made
no landing. The account of this voyage was related when he returned to
Lief Erikson Sets Out
In the year
1000 A. D., Lief Erikson, son of Erik the Red, bearing in mind the tale
his predecessor, set out with the avowed object to test the truth of
and sailed with thirty-five men. He visited first an island seen by
named it "Helluland" (flat stone land), supposed to be Newfoundland,
"Markland" (woodland), supposed to be Nova Scotia, and last "Vinland"
(vineland, because they found vines and grapes in great abundance),
be the coast of New England. Lief built houses and wintered in Vinland
and in the
spring loaded his vessel with timber and returned to Greenland.
A. D., Lief's brother Thorvald went to Vinland with thirty men and
wintered at the
same place. In the succeeding year he sent a party to explore the
coast, who were
gone all summer. In 1004 A. D. he explored the coast eastward and was
a skirmish with the natives, and in 1005 A. D. his companions returned
In the spring
of 1007 A. D., Thorfinn Karlsefne, a rich Icelander, set sail for
Vinland with three
ships and one hundred and sixty men and women. They took with them
and sheep. Three summers were passed on the Vinland coast. While here
wife, Gudrid, bore a son, Snorre. Finding the natives hostile, they at
to Greenland. The old Icelander manuscripts make mention of other
visits to Vinland,
or to Markland in 1011, 1121, 1281 and 1347 A. D.
this is the accepted account of the first discovery of America by the
The truthfulness of the Sagas' account is confirmed by the accounts of
Adam of Bremen,
almost contemporary with the voyage of Thorfinn. Later documentary
relation to the intercourse between Greenland and America, is the
of the visit of Nicolo Zeno about 1390 A.D., when he met fishermen who
on the coast of America.
between this early Norse settlement, called "Vinland," and the
of today has been discussed by many. Why this city was not discovered
ruthless hand of time had entirely destroyed it is not definitely
but very little voyaging of exploration was done between the time the
abandoned their settlement and voyages to America in the early part of
Century, and the voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1492, John Cabot,
Columbus Knew Of Norse Explorations
that Christopher Columbus knew of the land discovered by the Norsemen
is not disputed
today. Several years before he sailed on his memorable voyage he had
and undoubtedly talked with the descendants of those who had lived in
America. He also undoubtedly had opportunity to see and study the map
thought to have been procured for the Vatican by the first Bishop of
visited Vinland in the year 1121.
in which the knowledge of this ancient city was handed down to the
was not found by the writer. It may have been from the Vatican reports,
the wife of Thorfinn, the mother of Snorre, made a pilgrimage to Rome
death of her husband, and recounted the story of her three years'
residence in Vinland.
Rome at this time was paying much attention to geographical
discoveries, and took
pains to collect all new charts and reports. England, France, Portugal
were all vying with each other in discovering new lands and extending
The roving Norsemen, themselves, may have spread the stories of the new
these countries, as recounted by the men at home. Whatever the way, the
of this wonderful place in a new country began to carry historical
maps of the early explorers carry reference to it, although in many
cases the name
is spelled differently. Norway was known as "Norvega" in Europe in the
early centuries, and is so shown on some of the ancient maps in late
1500, and the
Norsemen undoubtedly settled the new country in the name of the
Norumbega is said, by Professor Horsford, to be the Indian attempt to
the name given to the country by the Norsemen. Their inability to
pronounce it aright
may have accounted for the diversified spelling of the name found on
the early maps
of explorers. In the Spanish Document of 1523, the name "Arembi"
in place of Norumbega. Peter Martyr also mentions "Arembi" as a
known and visited by the Spaniards. Thevel, in his instructions to
1557, speaks of a small fort erected by the French some ten or twelve
the mouth of a river, which place was name "Fort of Norumbegue."
map of 152 shows a place on the New England coast called "Aranbega."
Dieppe Sea Captain, in 1539, speaks of "Norumbega" as a vast and
country extending from Cape Breton to Florida, discovered by
Verranzano. Jean Allefounsce,
in 1543, who about that time visited Massachusetts Bay, describes
from reports "as the capital of a great country". The great French map
of 1543, which represented much of the geographical knowledge of the
the "Los City of New England" with stately castles and imposing towers.
Michael Lok's map of 1582 gives the name "Norombegue" in prominent
Champlain's map of 1612 gives the name as "Naranbergue." Several old
of this time give the name as Norumbega, and this so appears on Dutch
maps to the
end of the 17th Century.
Ingram Wrote an Account
Englishman certainly known to have reached any portion of the country
known as Norumbega
was David Ingram, a sailor, who passed through this territory in
trails north from the Gulf of Mexico, where he had been sent ashore
with some one
hundred and twenty men, on account of lack of provisions, by Sir John
1568. Although his account is a mingling of facts and fable, that he
the journey has never been doubted. He states he saw the city of
"Bega," which was three-fourths of a mile long and abounded with peltry.
It is easily
seen that these ancient names Arambe, Arambec, Aranbega, Norvega,
and Norumbega are similar in sound, and may be said to support
theory as to the origin of the name "Norumbega."
maps of the early explorers, although establishing the fact that there
was a country
or city of Norumbega, are inaccurate as to its definite location so
that much is
left to conjecture. The first known English expedition to Norumbega was
a little frigate by Simon Ferdinando, who sailed from Darthmouth in
1579. His brief
account does not state the exact location.
Horsford Discovers Norse
one, however, who believed that the early city of Vinland, of the Norse
the Norumbega, as given on the ancient maps, and that this city could
from the old narratives. This was Professor Eben Norton Horsford, of
Massachusetts. Early in 1880 he began his careful study of the old
Norse Sagas and
traditions, the accounts of early explorers and their crude maps. He
convinced that the description of the country, as given in the Sagas,
the Charles River Basin as the location of Vinland, and that the
ancient city and
seaport, Norumbega, one of the early settlements of the roving Norsemen
Erikson in 1000 A. D., underlay the modern Watertown. Here were found
walls on either side of the Charles River beginning just above the
'Arsenal, in some places undermined or removed, but in the main nearly
running up the river and expanding at Watertown into docks, wharves, a
a dam at the head of tide-water, which he states may be traced to the
"indispensable requirements for the conduct of a great Norse industry
glimpses are given in the Vinland Sagas."
head of stony Brook in Weston and Newton were found remains of their
canals in which
they floated the mosurr wood (a burr growth on the trunks of trees) to
to be floated to the seaport and loaded into their ships for Norway,
wood was greatly prized for the fashioning of drinking cups, bowls,
throughout the basin of the Charles are found the theatres and
the ground has been terraced so that all might see the events taking
may be found near Breed's Pond, Mount Auburn, another near the Charles
a half mile above the United states Arsenal (in front of the Perkins
the Blind), where their water sports might have been held, another near
all pointing to the work of man before the colonization of New England
by our forefathers.
many who do not agree with Professor Horsford, and there have been
of long standing over his placing Norumbega in this region. The
however, do not offer proof to definitely disprove his findings. Due
be paid him for the long years of painstaking research work, the
of the countryside where he believed the city to be located, and the
proof to substantiate his beliefs. That these facts are disputed does
not dim our
appreciation of the Norsemen as a race, barbarous and adventurous, but
a degree of civilization in an age when Europe was but emerging from
to his works and writings on this subject, so late a writer as William
late commander in the Royal Danish Navy, Professor of Naval Design and
in Massachusetts Institute of Technology, writes after a careful study,
and discussion of the ancient Norse Sagas and subsequent works in his
Voyages of the Norsemen to America":
ruins of houses and graves, found by the late Professor Horsford and by
Horsford on the banks of the Charles River, at Cambridge,
Massachusetts, were believed
by them to be Norse. The researches which some years ago were
undertaken on the
spot did not bring to light any positive evidence to substantiate the
on the other hand there appears to be nothing absolutely to disprove
Horsford, to commemorate the early discovery of America by the Norsemen
and to mark
the site of their settlement, erected a tower on the site of their fort
on the Charles
River in Weston, near the Newton line, which carries the inscription as
A view of
this tower appears on the Seal of Norumbega Lodge as well as on the
cover of the
Moriah's Brow --
kings have crumbled into dust,
The scepter and the sword
Since e'er the master builder stood
Beside the trestle-board;
Yet never strikes the solemn hour,
I care not where or when,
But that His name is whispered low,
Upon the lips of men:
I conjure with its magic spell,
In strange barbaric lands,
And lo! the temple's beauties rise
From out the desert sands:
And in the Arab's guarded tent,
Refreshed from travel's toil,
I'm welcome to his little store
Of corn and wine and oil:
The mighty ones of all the earth,
The rustic at the plow,
Have gone with me along the road
To Mount Moriah's brow:
No charm of creed, no power of birth,
Nor pride in battles won,
Shall blight the green acacia bloom
Where sleeps the widow's son:
In humble guise, with contrite heart,
I walk the lonely way,
And sore beset where dangers lurk,
I kneel me down and pray;
What though the road is dark and rough,
Or angly threats be heard?
I journey onward to the light
And seek the Master’s Word:
Low twelve or high, it matters not,
So that He calls to me,
I fare me on from Lebanon
To Joppa by the sea:
For never night goes round the world,
I care not where nor when,
But that His gentle spirit speaks
Upon the hearts of men.
‒ Robert Rexdale.
Henry Clay, Jefferson Davis, Dr. George Oliver and Other Notables
IN the Iowa
Masonic Library are a large number of original letters from brethren
Masonic history; and an almost equally large number about famous men
who were not
Masons. A little collection of these letters is given herewith, as much
light they throw on questions still mooted as for their intrinsic
Jefferson Davis Was Not
will recall a discussion in the Question Box of recent issue of THE
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy, as to whether or not he
was a Mason,
and what may have been his feelings about the Craft. These questions
once and for all by two letters, the former of which was evidently
its recipient to Bro. T. S. Parvin, who in turn himself wrote to
as is indicated by the second Davis letter below:
Beauvoir, Miss. 16th Dec. 1885.
Col. I. L. Power
Dear Sir: I have received with
others of a similar
character, the enclosed sheet, having a paragraph underlined to secure
and I send it to you to attract your notice. Under the head of
is a concentrated instillation of malice and mendacity. The main attack
be against the fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons and as many
heretofore done, the writer avails himself of a sectional prejudice
me to point his attack against Freemasonry and in less than the three
lines, perpetrates at least, as many falsehoods.
1st. I, Jefferson Davis, am not
and never have
been a Free and Accepted Mason.
2nd. As a citizen of the
sovereign state of Mississippi,
I obeyed her commands and as sovereigns cannot "rebel" neither led or
followed a Rebellion, great or small.
3rd. As I have no Masonic
standing, the assertion
that it was not tainted by the imputed act of mine, rests not upon a
fact, but upon
4th. Masonry could not have had
much to do with
securing "my pardon", as I have never been pardoned, nor applied for a
pardon, or appealed to Masonry to secure to me the benefit of the writ
Corpus, that I might have the constitutional right of every American
be confronted with my accusers.
To exclude a possible
inference, I will add that
my father was a Mason and I was reared to regard the fraternity with
have never felt any disapproval of it other than that which pertains to
society. Viewing Freemasonry from a distance, and judging the tree by
I have believed it to be in itself good.
Respectfully and truly yours,
is a portion of the "Summary" referred to in the foregoing, evidently
taken from some crude Anti-Masonic blast: "Benedict Arnold, first
American liberty, learned his patriotism in Hiram Masonic Lodge, No. 1,
Conn., and died a Freemason in good and regular standing. Aaron Burr,
to the government, plotted his treason in Royal Arch cipher, and also
died a Free
and Accepted Mason in good and regular standing. Jefferson Davis, a
Free and Accepted
Freemason, led the great rebellion and the fact did not even taint his
but did have much to do in securing his pardon.")
16th Jan. 1886.
S. Parvin, Esq.
the 6th inst. has been received. Col. Power could not have intended to
that I had complained of the treatment received by me from the Masons.
I have never
felt otherwise than a friendly regard for the Fraternity and never
could have written
or spoken in any other spirit. A publication by the Anti-masons was
sent to me in
which my name was used as a stalking horse and falsehoods employed in
of Masonry. I wrote to my friend, Col. Power, a refutation of the
charge for publication
in the "Jackson Clarion." The paper was issued during my absence from
home and I have not seen the paper, but not doubting that my letter was
in the "Clarion" I will request Col. Power to send to you a copy of the
paper containing it.
of your proceedings which you kindly sent to me came safely to hand,
and was so
highly appreciated as well for itself as the evidence it contained of
development in a country I had known as a wilderness that I am only
my having failed to acknowledge your courteous consideration.
Dr. George Oliver Writes
George Oliver is a name known to almost every Mason in the world. He
was born at
Pepplewick, England, of Scotch ancestors, Nov. 5, 1782. His father
raised him in
St. Peter's Lodge, Peterborough, in 1801. Immediately he took a great
Freemasonry, and at last became one of the most scholarly and
voluminous of Masonic
writers. His influence in England was incalculable; so also in America,
writings ranked second only to those of Bro. Dr Albert G. Mackey in
to shape Masonic opinion. Like Bro. William Preston before him, with
whom his name
is so often bracketed, he received the displeasure of a Grand official
a misunderstanding, and as a result withdrew from all active
participation in lodge
activities, a fact mentioned in the letter below. The Hist. L'n'ks
referred to was
doubtless his Historical Landmarks and Other Evidences of Freemasonry
of which Dr. Mackey said, "No work with such an amount of facts in
to the Masonic system had ever before been published by any author. It
remain as a monument of his vast research and his extensive reading."
Remains of the Early Masonic Writers was, as the title indicates, a
five volumes, each of which carried an introduction by him. Because of
literary production produced by him, of which these two titles are only
indicative, and because of the far-reaching influence of his fourteen
principal works, Dr. Mackey gave him a very proud position in the
hierarchy of Masonic
authors, as witness: "While his erroneous theories and his fanciful
will be rejected, the form and direction that he has given to Masonic
will remain, and to him must be accredited the enviable title of the
Father of Anglo-Saxon
Scopdwick vicarage, May 6th,
Dear sir and Brother:
I am much gratified to receive
so good an account
of Masonry in your part of the world, for altho' I am getting too far
years to take any active share in the details of a working Mason yet it
pleasure to hear of the successful exertions of younger and more able
I am at all times ready to
reply to any suggestions
or to answer any enquiries relative to a science in which for so many
years I took
a warm interest, so far as my judgment and recollection will allow; and
at once on a brief notice of your alleged difficulties.
The naked facts of the legend
attached to the
Third Degree are not borne out by legitimate history, for it is well
H.A.B. lived to see the T-finished, and afterwards returned to Tyre.
(See the Hist.
L'n'ks, Vol. II, p. 154.) In fact the legend is a pure myth, and has
interpreted. Some think it refers to the death of Abel ‒ others to the
death of Noah when he entered the Ark, and his resurrection from it
when the waters
had subsided as is commemorated in the Pagan mysteries; some to the
Christ on the cross; and others, amongst whom was the late Sir W.
learned author of the Origines, refer to it as an astronomical origin.
of the arguments by which each of these opinions is supported would
occupy too much
space for discussion in a single letter. The view which I take of it is
Adam and Life in CHRIST, and the particulars are developed so far as it
with the O. B. in my Hist. L'n'ks, Vol. II, pp. 179-183. But it never
can be thoroughly
understood by any Master of a lodge who does not extend his researches
ordinary lectures and ceremonies; which are, as you truly observe, vox
Bro. Margoliouth, whose lecture
I have not seen,
would, I am inclined to think, take his illustration of the Cross of
by the junction of the Level and Plumb Rule, etc., from my Hist.
L'n'ks, Vol. II,
p. 627.n. 29, where it is stated as an idea suggested by Bro.
Willoughby of Birkenhead.
You will find the subject discussed in loc.
The XII Chapter of Eccles,
which you have rightly
introduced into the discussion of the lodge, is a legitimate object of
and was used by Dr. Anderson at the revival of Masonry about the
beginning of the
last century. You will find it, as explained by that eminent Mason, in
volume of the Golden Remains, page 65. If you have a convenient
opportunity of sending
your paraphrase I should like to see it.
Respecting the nine characters
on the coffin,
which you mention, I am quite in the dark, not having been in a lodge
room for the
last dozen years. I have not even seen the latest Tracing (Trestle)
Board and therefore
am ignorant what those emblems may be.
I send the only list of books
in my possession.
I approve of your seal, as the emblems are strictly Masonic.
Believe me to be, dear Sir
Your faithful Brother. Geo.
F. W. Barron, Esq.
U. C. College,
THE G. M.
OF IOWA WROTE ON HENRY CLAY It is well known that Henry Clay
was a Mason. The
next letter in this group shows that he bowed before the almost
a politician) mania of the Anti-Masonic craze but never became an
July 2, 1852.
Master Iowa Lodge, No. 2.
thro Br. LaCassitt that the Masonic Fraternity of the city may appear
and unite in the procession which the citizens design forming on Monday
testify their respect for the memory of Henry Clay recently deceased is
declined, for the reason that the illustrious deceased long since
the institution to which he belonged the credit and lustre of his great
declared publicly that he should no more cross her thresholds and that
no further use in keeping up the organization, and by his conduct
evinced a disposition
to shun the contact of his Brotherhood, though to his credit be it
spoken he never
renounced the Order.
As a citizen
I shall join my fellow citizens in the ceremonies of the day and
my respect for the illustrious dead who has filled so large a space in
history and whose efforts to extend the area of freedom throughout the
the lasting gratitude of mankind. In this I hope to be joined by all my
while a sense of duty to the Order, whose reputation I have in charge,
reluctantly to deny your request.
T. S. Parvin, Grand Master
Grand Lodge of Iowa.
Dr. Findel Gossips About
J. G. Findel is a name almost as well known as that of Dr. Oliver,
of the fame enjoyed by his Geschichte der Freimaurerei, or General
History of Freemasonry
[Lib 1861; Vol
2 (German)], first published in 1861 in
later translated into many languages [Lib 1866 (English)], "the first attempt at a
history of the Craft." He was once the editor of Die Bauhütte, and
the Verein Deutscher. The letter below, addressed to Bro. T. S. Parvin,
Grand Lodge of Iowa, is a bit of gossip about the Geschichte. It is
our illustrious German brother had some difficulties with our language.
18 Mar. 1869
I was rejoiced in receiving Vol. I-IV of the Proceedings of the Gr. L.
of Iowa and
I hastened to acknowledge the acceptation. Since then I send you,
regularly my paper
"Die Bauhütte." The packages for the Gr. L. of 3 Globes, Royal York,
at Berlin, I have sent to their address.
spirit which seems to animate your Grand Lodge and is a truly fraternal
of some prejudices of American Grand Lodges, I was very much pleased.
In the meantime,
I opened a very fraternal correspondence with your able and modest
Reuben Mickel, very much respected by me, and I asked for the
permission to dedicate
the 2nd edition of my History of Freemasonry to your W. Grand Lodge,
which was granted.
I have sent you some copies of the Prospectus hoping and wishing that
you will be
kind enough to distribute them and work in some way for the sale of my
should be in the hands of every Worshipful Master and Lodge Officer at
I must wish not only for myself to earn a small remuneration for the
(Of the 1st Ed. 500 copies burnt at the printers, not injured) I had,
but in the
first place for the welfare of the Craft. The ignorance under the
brethren in your
blessed country is horrible and the Masonic literature with the
exception of 3 or
4 works, quite worthless, full of errors and nonsense. I think my work
will do some
good and promote the interests of the Craft. If the Grand Lodges of the
U. S. instead
of wasting Gr. L. moneys for lecturers and other things, would buy some
to distribute them under their particular lodges, it would be very good
them in the eyes of every thinking Mason. I will be very much obliged
to you, if
you will do your best to give my work a large circulation within your
Your Gr. Master, I am sure will assist you. The 2nd Edition will be
and revised and more correct in the contents and shall especially the
Freemasonry in America become enlarged and more complete, as far as
there are reliable
sources. Relating to modern time I will have opportunity to give a
to the G. L. of Iowa. The G. L. of Ky. has given me notice that she
would take it
as a great honour the dedication also and be thankful for it.
Gouley has written to me a very flattering letter about my work, so
that I hope
he will in this issue, also review my work in his paper. [The Missouri
Some day or other my name will be as familiar in America at the
brethren, as in
Germany and England.
give my best compliments to the Iowa Brethren and believe me, Most
J. G. Findel.
For A General Grand Lodge!
Snow, an apostle in the middle west of the Webb Ritual system, once
of Ohio, was a famous Mason in his day, especially in the Buckeye
state. His voluminous
correspondence should be published. In the letter immediately following
Bro. Jonathan Nye, a leader in North Carolina, seeking to persuade him
of that venerable ignus fatuus, a General Grand Lodge. Claremont,. N. C.
John Snow, Esq.,
I wish to
call your attention to a subject, in my view, important and desirable.
It is the
establishment of a General Grand Lodge for the United States. Such an
would strengthen the cord which now feebly unites the brethren of the
states and induce them to feel and take a deeper interest in
disseminating the true
principles of the institution. It would promote a good and general
and uniformity and harmony in this work and labor. It is time for us to
our lethargy and by united exertions to maintain the station that
belongs to us.
Our Society is ancient and honorable. Let us render it so by combining
all our exertions
in the cause of truth. Let us form a solid column and present to the
world our harmonious
As it is
expected that there will be a meeting of the 99 chapters in the city of
next winter, this would be a good time for the formation of a General
Delegates might be chosen in the course of the summer. If you feel
engaged in this
pursuit, I wish you to converse with some of your influential brethren
their views and feelings, and communicate to me without delay the
result as well
as your opinion.
your friend and obedient servant,
Bro. Nickerson Writes Against
of the last letter of this little group was a mighty pillar in the
Grand Lodge of
Massachusetts in his day,' being Grand Master in 1872-74, and Grand
twenty-six years, 1882-1908. During that long period of service he
with Mackey, Pike, Drummond, and Parvin as a national leader in the
Craft. The publication
of this letter thirty-five or forty years ago would have raised a
storm; now, time
has removed its sting. It has value here as evidence of the opposition
by the higher degrees ill their laborious progress to their present
influence and prestige.
Boston, Sept. 24-1885.
of the 21st inst. is received. I have this day mailed to your address a
the Proceedings of our Grand Lodge at its Quarterly Communication in
That was the only session at which we have had any discussion of any
regard to "Spurious Rites and Degrees." The subject was acted upon at
one or two other meetings but without much talk. I send you also a
pamphlet of which
we printed about 15,000 copies, containing all we had previously
printed on the
subject, except some twaddle that was not worth reprinting. Please look
and see whether you want copies of other Proceedings from which
extracts are made,
or if you desire it, I will send you a copy of the Proceedings of each
which any reference to the subject was made.
I think upon it, the more I am satisfied that I took the true ground in
in June, 1882, and the clearest-headed among the Fraternity all over
are rapidly coming to my opinion. The legislation then proposed seemed
to me vastly
more in the interest of true Masonry and the Craft at large than of the
Rite and the few who acknowledge its authority. The "higher degrees" ‒
falsely so called ‒ have always been a curse to Masonry in this
everywhere else. I thought we were taking the first step towards the
them all into oblivion, and I still hope it will prove so. They are all
of degree mongers, and most of them are (not to put too fine a point
upon it) a
nuisance and an abomination. I trust the day is not far distant when
will unite in putting an end to the whole batch of them. It is enough
to make the
angels weep to think how much time and money we waste on the worthless
and fraternally yours,
Sereno D. Nickerson.
a "Real Menace"
In the December
number of THE BUILDER, page 355, Bro. Dr. Parkes Cadman contributes an
"A Real Menace" and you ask our support in your efforts to obtain for
the purifying influence of his writings the wider and more enduring
they not only so well merit, but which our so-called civilization so
May I, for one, accede to your request, writing as from England,
because I believe
we here, quite as much as you in America, need to bestir ourselves in
view of this
menace. At its root, and contributing largely to its growth I submit,
is that insidious
thing which being universal may be so innocent and may be so guilty ‒
To take an
illustration from the sphere of the public press. A few weeks ago an
lecturer said he regarded as a most hopeful sign the fact that a
should find place once a week for so novel a departure as to give a
to an article on some religious or moral subject which should appeal to
side of man's nature. His optimism was not due to a perception that
for this were prompted to it by a sense of obligation, as people of
influence, to helping in uplifting, but rather arose from the
conclusion that there
must be an increasing number of thoughtful newspaper readers who could
appearance of such articles and hence they were produced because it
paid to do so.
A few weeks
since in a village newspaper shop I noticed the advertisement boards by
leading English papers inform the public day by day of their chief
were four of these in the little shop and of them, although matters of
were transpiring at the time, three gave as the all-important item the
of a trial for blackmailing an Indian Prince whose conduct with an
was a disgrace to both nations.
One of these
papers which of late has given column after column to the disgusting
murder, impurity, divorce, and other putrid things which would appeal
to the lower
passions, and has been frequently "sold out," on Christmas Eve
a Christmas article of the sweetest and most elevating type. For what
the question be asked, seeing there can be but one answer ‒ the making
And when the enormous influence of the press – greater than that of the
is remembered, this becomes a matter which should compel the thought
and such action
as is within the power of every good Mason.
are doubtless many excellent Masons engaged in newspaper production,
good men, whose
nature if it could be brought to realize the awful responsibility of
involved in their influence, would revolt against the demoralization
inertia allows, if not produces. Cannot their position be brought home
Their loyalty to Masonic obligation and principle is seriously in peril
their indifference or want of realization of their responsibility in
not wanting indications here in England, and with you also, that a
feeling of protest
against the existing state of things in connection with newspaper
influence is growing.
Religious newspapers, magazine articles, and by no means the least; our
press, all illustrate this; but as long as the production of our great
has money making at the foundation, protest, as directed against the
avail but little.
of it all is that good and evil call it God and Devil if you like ‒ are
to them, means to an end. If God pays He shall have the service; if the
matter the consequences to humanity, it shall be his; and still
further, if both
can be made to pay, both shall be served.
every Mason to face this tragedy and to deal with it, each in the way
he finds himself
most capable of doing, and to let it be seen that Masonry does stand
more than ritual, degrees, jewels and good fellowship. And we need to
be brave not
only in the matter of newspapers but also in the realm of all such
novels, movies, plays, etc., which seek to sell humanity for gold.
it would be a great step if candidates for admission to our Order were
impressed with the fact that their admission involves a life-long
build in the widest sense in which the word can be used; to build
at, and trowel in, hand, in face of difficulty it may be, and in spite
the Holy Temple of consecrated Humanity; and never for a moment being
found to side
with those who, for their own mercenary ends, would damage or destroy
growth and beauty.
W. Ravenscroft, England.
Who Were Masons
By Bro. George W. Baird,
P. G. M., District Of Columbia
John Anthony Quitman
Quitman would be like trying to paint the lily. His father was a German
minister who, though he was born in Germany, migrated to America and
with us as well as of us. John himself was born in Duchess County, New
1799, the same year in which Washington died. He received an education
in the classics
and began preparation for the Lutheran ministry, but instead became a
ultimately a general officer in the American Army. As a Freemason he
and far, becoming Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Mississippi for
upon his death Albert Pike wrote an obituary of him. His death occurred
in 1858. He was buried in the family lot on his estate at Monmouth,
with Masonic honors, all of which is recorded by Claibourne [Lib 1860; Vol 1, Vol 2], his biographer.
up his residence in Natchez, Miss., in his early manhood and soon
ranked as a leader
in the state of his adoption, for he served in the state legislature
became chancellor of the state and later president of the State Senate.
He met with
no opposition in the path of promotion.
In 1836 he
raised a body of men in Mississippi to assist the American Texans;
after he had
assisted at the capture of Santa Anna he returned to Natchez.
commissioned a Brigadier General in the United States Army in 1846 and
report to General Taylor at Camargo for service in the Mexican War. At
of Monterey he distinguished himself by his assault on Fort Tenerife
(?), and by
his daring advance into the heart of the city. At the siege of Vera
Cruz he commanded
in the first engagement and subsequently led an expedition against
Alvarado in conjunction
with the naval forces under Commodore Perry. He was with the advance
Worth which took possession of Puebla, where he was brevetted a Major
received a sword that Congress had voted to him. At Chapultepec he
stormed the formidable
works at the base of the hill, pushed forward to the Belem gates, which
by assault, and then took possession of the City of Mexico, of which he
order and discipline he returned to the United States and soon after,
acclamation, was elected Governor of the state. In this office he fell
to scandal-mongering. He was accused of complicity with General Lopez
in the formation
of a filibustering expedition to Cuba. Quitman resigned his office as
went to New Orleans with the United States Marshal; all effort to
obtain any kind
of evidence against him proved abortive and the prosecution was
abandoned. He was
nominated, or rather re-nominated, for Governor, but declined the
honor. He was
elected to the National Congress in 1855, and again in 1857, serving
all the time
as chairman of the Committee of Military Affairs. He attracted the
the country by a speech on the repeal of the neutrality laws and by his
on the powers of the Federal Government, the latter speech winning him
as a States' Rights leader. Quitman was a presidential elector in 1848
In his Masonic
career Quitman was also a maker of history. The first lodge to be
organized in Mississippi
was Harmony Lodge, No. 7, constituted at Natchez Oct. 16, 1801, under a
from the Grand Lodge of Kentucky. Andrew Jackson Lodge, No. 15, was the
be organized, also located in Natchez, and constituted Aug. 13, 1816,
on a dispensation
from the Grand Master of Tennessee. Tennessee also chartered Washington
17, at Port Gibson, April 19, 1817. Harmony Lodge took the initiative
in the organization
of a Grand Lodge. Masters and Wardens of the three lodges met at
Natchez July 27,
1818, and there voted unanimously to organize a Grand Lodge and at once
and installed the first Grand Master, Bro. Seth Lewis, who had been
born in Massachusetts
in 1764 and who had been the first Worshipful Master in Mississippi.
A. Quitman entered the Grand Lodge as the Junior Warden of Harmony
Lodge in 1823.
His first Grand Lodge appointment was that of Grand Marshal. He was
elected to the
Grand East in 1826, being reelected year after year until 1838. He was
as Grand Master in 1840, during an absence from the state, but declined
however, in 1845, and again in 1846, he again held the exalted office.
It was during
this period that the famous American principle of Exclusive Territorial
was becoming crystallized and established. Quitman took the position
that any Grand
Lodge had the authority to organize a lodge in any territory or state,
of any Grand Lodge that might be in existence there. "In the first year
his Grand Mastership," writes Josiah H. Drummond, "he granted
for lodges in Louisiana and maintained his right to do so; the lodges,
surrendered these dispensations and took charters from the Grand Lodge
state. A few years later the Grand Lodge decided that its former action
of Exclusive Territorial Jurisdiction is one that sticks out like a
sore thumb in
all the efforts being made to establish fraternal communication with
Lodges. It is a subject about which we do not have any authoritative
book; one is
very badly needed. If ever such a volume is prepared Quitman's
experience and arguments
will necessarily find a prominent place in its chapters.
navies are forgotten,
And fleets are useless things,
When the dove shall warm her bosom
Beneath the eagle's wings.
When the memory of battles
At last is strange and old,
When faiths have found one banner
And creeds have found one fold.
When the hand that sprinkled midnight
With its powdered drift of suns
Has hushed this tiny tumult
Of sects and swords and guns.
Then Hate's last note of discord
In all God's world shall cease,
In the conquest which is service
And the victory which is Peace.
Frederick Lawrence Knowles
of Masonry in the United States
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Editor
Part IX – The Founding Of
Duly Constituted Masonry in Massachusetts
IN this department
for April (the Study Club was omitted last month to make way for the
number) something was said about the personal career of Henry Price,
who was deputized
by Lord viscount Montague, Grand Master of England to be "Provincial
Master of New England and Dominions and Territories thereunto
returned from England to Boston in the spring of 1733; on July 30 of
the same year
he called together a group of Boston brethren and then and there
brought into existence
a Provincial Grand Lodge. So far as the existing written records show
this was the
first Masonic body to be organized in America under written authority.
in earlier chapters of this series a lodge was in existence in
Philadelphia in 1731,
perhaps in 1730, but thus far nobody has discovered anything of a
to show how it was organized.
as his Deputy Andrew Belcher, Esq., son of Governor Jonathan Belcher
(see THE BUILDER,
October, 1924, page 312), and Bros. Thomas Kennelly and John Quane as
Little is known of the circumstances attending this important event
early records are meager; the oldest existing account is found in the
MS., written in 1750, some seventeen years after the event; but this
to do with the authenticity of the account, which fits squarely into
all the known
facts of the period. Moreover, Pelham based his own narrative on older
"When Charles Pelham (in 1750) wrote the record of this evening in the
existing volume of the Grand Lodge record book," writes Bro. Melvin M.
in his Beginnings of Freemasonry in America, "he either copied from the
Manuscript or both were taken from an original now lost."
In the same
connection Bro. Johnson goes on to relate how the First Lodge of Boston
existence. "For in language so nearly identical that the accounts could
have been written independently, both report that after forming the
Price ordered his Commission or Deputation to be read, and then ordered
to be read
a petition of eighteen Brethren addressed to him praying that they
might be Constituted
into a regular Lodge by virtue of said Deputation. Ten, at least, of
had been 'made here,' i. e., had been made Masons in Boston in some of
meetings held, like those in Philadelphia and elsewhere perhaps,
or warrant but according to 'Old Customs.' Thereupon he granted the
and did then and there in the most solemn manner according to ancient
form as prescribed in the book of Constitutions, constitute them into a
Lodge. This original petition, apparently in the handwriting of Henry
that evening was chosen Master, is still in the archives of the Grand
Lodge of Massachusetts,
bearing the original signature of the petitioners. . . ." (Beginnings
in America, pages 80, 81.)
had "met at the house of Edward Lutwych, at ye sign of the Bunch of
in King's street [now State Street], Boston, New England"; their first
as a lodge was held Aug. 3, 1733, when "John Smith was made." It
its by-laws printed in full by Johnson and in the Massachusetts Grand
1871, on Oct. 24 of the same year. The earliest known records of the
with an entry under date of Dec. 27, 1738; and a list of members is set
the Massachusetts Grand Lodge Proceedings, just mentioned, beginning on
The "Masters Lodge"
amount of mystery hangs about the next lodge constituted in Boston.
Known as the
Masters Lodge it was organized Dec. 22, 1738, with Henry Price as its
W. M. and
Francis Beteilhe as secretary, the latter a business partner of
Price's. The existing
records, written by Beteilhe, and. now in the archives of the Grand
Lodge of Boston,
begin with the date of constitution. The first regular meeting of this
held Jan. 2, 1738/9.
Why was it
called "Masters Lodge"? It is known that not all its members had been
Masters of lodges. Was this lodge brought into existence expressly for
of working a degree new in the Masonic system? There is some hint of
such a thing
having been done in England. Or did it practice what would now be known
as a "higher
degree"? Bro. Johnson accepts this latter alternative. "I believe the
answer to be that the degree worked by the Masters Lodge was what is
as the 'Chair Degree' or installation of a Master, absorbed nowadays in
States by the Royal Arch Chapter and transformed into the degree of
a different function than this, or at least as showing that at the
period a theory
of the Masters Lodge was held in Massachusetts other than that set
forth by Bro.
Johnson, is the case stated in. the charter issued to a lodge in
Island, by Jeremy Gridley, Grand Master of Massachusetts. In that
dated March 20, 1759, are statements to show that the Masters Lodge may
a lodge organized to confer the Master Mason Degree:
"Know ye that Whereas a
of Master Masons have from Time to Time congregated themselves at
Newport in the
Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations within our district
as a Lodge
of Master Masons, and have therein raised some Brothers of the Fellow
Craft to Master
Masons, not thinking but they had Authority so to do, and have now
to confirm the said Degree, and to form them into a Masters Lodge.
"We therefore by the Authority
by the Grand Master of Masons, do hereby confirm the said Degree to
which any Bro's
have been so raised and do appoint Our Beloved and Right Worshipful
Maudsley to be Master of a Right Worshipfull Master's Lodge, to be held
at New Port,
he taking Special Care in Choosing Two Wardens and other officers
the due reputation thereof, and do hereby give and grant to the said
Lodge all the
Rights and Privileges which any Master's Lodge of Free and Accepted
or ought to have," etc., etc.
need that this whole subject of Masters Lodges in the early Colonies be
traversed by a competent student; the findings would undoubtedly throw
on the earliest ritualistic developments and at the same time, perhaps,
on the beginnings
of the Higher Grades in America.
A third lodge,
called The Second Lodge in Boston, was organized by Grand Lodge, Feb.
and still another, called The Third Lodge in Boston was similarly
the 7th of the following month. The former was to meet at the Royal
the latter, at the White Horse Tavern.
Many Lodges Are Chartered
the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts (known as the "St. John's Grand Lodge"
in after years) had chartered lodges outside of Massachusetts, a few of
be noted, the first of these being in 1736, for a lodge at Portsmouth,
from which six representatives sent a petition to Henry Price under
date of Feb.
5, 1735/6. The records of this lodge, showing the adoption of a set of
Oct. 31, 1739, are still in existence; as is also the above mentioned
now in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. The language
in this petition
is most interesting, and shows that a lodge was already in existence at
it was made:
"We, the under named persons of
and Exquisite Lodge of St. John do request a deputation and power to
hold a Lodge
According to order as is and has been granted to faithful Brethren in
of the World. We have our Constitutions both in print and manuscript as
as ancient as any that England can afford," etc.
to the next lodge to be mentioned in chronological order it will be
postpone discussion until some future chapter, for there are many
questions to be
raised concerning it; in the present paragraph it will suffice to say
between 1735 and 1738 it is believed that Massachusetts chartered a
lodge in Charleston
(then CharlesTown), S. C. Charles W. Moore gave the date as Dec. 27,
1735, but this
is certainly an error. Dr. Mackey, in his History of Freemasonry in
gives the date as reputedly of 1738, when he says: "There is, however,
any doubt that the lodge said to have been held in 1738 in Charleston,
at 'the Harp
and Crown,' received its warrant from St. John's Grand Lodge of Boston…"
Tomlinson was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge at Boston he went to
England by way
of the West Indies, where he visited Antigua, and founded, so it is
lodge there. A lodge had been already organized in the preceding year.
In this connection
it is worth noting that in September, 1734, the Earl of Crawford
chartered a lodge
at Montserrat, in the West Indies, the second known to have been
the Western Hemisphere on the basis of a written instrument.
planted in Nova Scotia under Massachusetts authority in 1738, or
in Boston in 1737 Erasmus James Phillips was made a Mason, and upon his
Annapolis Royal in the following year organized a lodge, of which he
made the first Master. "In the Boston Gazette of March 12, 1738," wrote
Bro. R. V. Harris [see THE BUILDER, August, 1924, page 228], "we find a
of the appointment by Henry Price of Major Phillips as Provincial Grand
Nova Scotia; and on the occasion of his next visit to Boston in April,
appears as such in the minutes of St. John's Lodge." Under Phillip's
a lodge was organized at Halifax, N. S., July 19, 1750.
It was in
this wise, by planting a lodge here and there as need arose, that
under the leadership of Massachusetts, so that by the middle of the
forty or more lodges had been warranted or officially recognized by
authority, beginning with Henry Price.
Tomlinson Followed Price
succeeded in office by Robert Tomlinson. Inasmuch as all authority
the Grand Master of England it was necessary that the brethren at
Boston send there
a petition for "a new Grand Master." This they did on June 28, 1736, in
which they requested that Tomlinson be appointed to rule over them. In
thereto the Earl of Loudoun, Grand Master of England, issued a
Deputation to Robert
Tomlinson to be Grand Master of New England; this bore date of Dec. 7,
as the document was some time in reaching the colony Price continued in
and on the 27th of the same month made Tomlinson his Deputy. By April
Tomlinson received his Deputation, and on the following St. John's Day
sat in the
Grand East. His term of office lasted until July 16, 1740.
early life little is known, but it appears that he came originally from
He was made a Mason in the First Lodge at Boston Jan. 13, 1735; became
of the Masters Lodge; and in 1736 become W. M. of the First Lodge. From
his advance in office was rapid, as already indicated. Incidental to
his first presiding
as Grand Master on St. John the Baptist's Day in June, 1737, occurred
what is believed
to have been the first public procession of a lodge as such in America.
wide attention, and was noted in Saint James' Evening Post, published
in its number dated Aug. 20, 1737. After relating how Grand Lodge was
giving a list of the officers appointed, this account goes on to relate
this "the Society attended the Grand Master in procession to his
Governor Belcher's, and from thence the Governor was attended by the
and the Brotherhood to the Royal Exchange Tavern in King street, where
an elegant entertainment." (This incident is especially worth noting by
brethren who look upon feasts as a modern contrivance out of keeping
with the traditions
of the Craft; the opposite is the case, for in early times feasts were
great events of the Masonic year, and considered among the normal
functions of the
lodge. ) When a similar feast and procession was held in 1739 it was
in doggerel verse, printed in the American Apollo, the first of many
descriptions of the doings of Masons, whose regalia, highly colored
mysterious customs appealed powerfully to the imagination of the times.
died while visiting in Antigua in 1740.
Oxnard Became Grand Master
He was followed
in office by Thomas Oxnard, who received a Deputation from Lord Ward,
of England, under date of Sept. 23, 1743, a copy of which, duly
attested, is in
the archives of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. This instrument was
Boston in March of the following year, from which time Oxnard served in
East. According to this Deputation he was to be "Grand Master of North
as a quotation will show: "NOW KNOW YE We John Lord Ward have Nominated
and Appointed, and by these Presents do Nominate Constitute and Appoint
Beloved Bro. Thomas Oxnard, Esq., To Be Provincial Grand Master of
etc." Gould believed that Lord Ward made an error in thus appointing
for the whole of North America. Bro. Ossian Lang believes the
Deputation was intended
to mean for all North America where there was not already a Grand
Master in authority,
and points out the fact that whereas Oxnard, evidently acting upon the
of his Deputation, appointed Benjamin Franklin as Deputy Grand Master
in 1749; this action was evidently set aside by the Grand Master of
a few months later, appointed William Allen to be Grand Master of
thereby going over the head of Oxnard. During his term ( 1743-1754)
of England appointed Richard Riggs for New York, William Allen for
Francis Goelet for New York, George Harison for New York, and Peter
Leigh for South
Carolina, which would indicate that the Grand Lodge of England did not
Oxnard as holding authority for the whole of North America. These and
facts in the case show that during the first half of the eighteenth
was much confusion in the minds of officials on both sides of the
Atlantic as to
the Provincial Grand Lodge system in the Colonies; at an rate such
facts as are
of record are most confusing to a present day Mason. Perhaps the surest
for such an one is to hold firmly in mind the fact that a Provincial
was the creature of the Grand Master of England; that all his authority
Grand Master was of the delegated variety; and that this authority was
revised, or withdrawn according to needs or changes of policies on the
part of the
Grand Masters of England. If for a period the influence of
Massachusetts more or
less predominated in Colonial Masonry it was not because the Grand
Lodge of England
extended to Massachusetts peculiar powers or privileges, but because
Masonry was so virile, its leaders so capable and so active, and its
situation, relative to the centers of population, so central that its
sprang out of natural causes.
and of the Oxnard family much is known, because the Oxnards played a
in the public life of their day. Thomas Oxnard himself was born in
England in 1703.
He was made a Mason in the First Lodge of Boston Jan. 21, 1735/6;
became W.M. of
the lodge in December of the same year; helped found the Masters Lodge;
Deputy in 1739; and served as Grand Master from March 6, 1743/4 to June
His son Edward became a notorious Tory during the Revolutionary period,
banished from the Colonies; his son Thomas became prominent in the
Masonry of Maine.
An account of the family will be found in Willis' History of Portland,
and in the
New England Historical and Genealogical Register.
Gridley Was an Outstanding
death in 1754 Henry Price served as Grand Master pro tem for a year,
Jeremy Gridley was appointed to the office. Of Gridley (brother of
of equal fame) himself a book might be written, he was active in so
being school teacher, sometime preacher, lawyer, public official,
a citizen of substance, and a leader in Masonry. Unlike his predecessor
in the Chair
of Solomon he was American by extraction, having been born in Boston,
1701/2. After receiving an education at Harvard he climbed steadily up
of promotion until at last he stood forth among the mightiest of his
day, of wide
influence and commanding personality. He was made a Mason in the First
11, 1748; was raised in the Masters Lodge in 1750; became W. M. of the
in 1763; and in October of the following year was recommended by Grand
succeed Price, serving temporarily. When no reply was received to this
Price, in August of the following year, himself addressed a letter to
Master, interesting because of the many facts it contained concerning
Masonry, among which was the statement, "Here is not less than Forty
sprung from my First Lodge in Boston." Meanwhile, and under date of
1755, James Brydges, Marquis of Carnarvon, Grand Master of England, had
Deputation to Gridley appointing him to be "Provincial Grand Master of
Such Provinces and Places in North America and the Territories thereof,
no Provincial Grand Master is at presently appointed," etc. This was
in Boston, Aug. 21, 1755, and on the first day of the next October,
with great éclat,
Gridley was installed Grand Master, and held office until his death in
which Henry Price once again served as Grand Master pro tem.
Questions for Discussion
When and by whom was the
Provincial Grand Lodge of Massachusetts brought
On what authority was it
Whom did Price appoint as his
What are the oldest existing
records of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts?
When was the First Lodge in
Under what circumstances?
What evidences are to show that
Masons were living in Boston prior to 1733?
When did the First Lodge hold
its first regular meeting?
When was the Masters Lodge
Why was it called "Masters
How many degrees were practiced
at that time?
What does Gridley's charter to
the lodge at Newport, Rhode Island, indicate?
What is Johnson's theory
concerning this Masters Lodge?
When was the second lodge
organized? the third lodge?
When and by whom was the lodge
at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, chartered?
When did Massachusetts charter
a lodge in South Carolina?
Where is Antigua?
What was the second lodge
constituted by written authority in the Western
When and by whom was
Freemasonry planted in Nova Scotia?
Name two lodges that were
By whom was Henry Price
succeeded as Grand Master?
Tell what you know about Robert
Where and when was the first
lodge procession held in America?
What part did feasts have in
early American Masonry?
When did Thomas Oxnard receive
What was the scope of Oxnard's
What is your opinion concerning
Describe the Provincial Grand
Lodge system then in existence in the colonies?
Define the authority of a
Provincial Grand Master.
Tell what you know of Thomas
By whom was Oxnard succeeded?
Who followed Henry Price as
Tell what you know of Jeremy
By whom was Gridley followed?
Notes and References
Price see bibliography given on page 116 of THE BUILDER for April last.
On all subjects
treated in the above chapter see Beginnings of Freemasonry in America
New York, 1924; consult index.
On the organization
of the Grand Lodge see also The Freemasons Monthly Magazine, Charles W.
Vol. XXIII, page 260. [Lib 1864]
of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould Philadelphia, 1889, Vol. IV [Lib
4], page 330.
On the First
Lodge see Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts; 1871 [Lib*],
Charles W. Moore, Vol. XXII [Lib 1863], page 173, Vol. XIX [Lib 1870], page 131.
Vol. IV, page 243.
[Lib 1889; Vol
On the Masters
Lodge see Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts; 1871 [Lib*],
charter to New port, Rhode Island, see History of Freemasonry in Rhode
W. Rugg; Providence, 1895 [Lib*], page 34.
in Nova Scotia see THE BUILDER, August, 1924, page 227.
see History of the Most Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and
in New York, Charles T. McClenachan, New York, 1888 [Lib*], Vol. I,
the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons, and
Orders, Stillson and Hughan [Lib 1891]; Boston, 1891, page 241.
IV [Lib 1889; Vol
4], page 332.
Freemasonry in the State of New York [Lib 1922], Ossian Lang, New York, 1922,
Proceedings; 1871 [Lib*], pages 219, 308; 1916 [Lib*], page 237.
see McClenachen [Lib*], Vol. I, page 85.
and Hughan [Lib 1891], page 241.
IV [Lib 1889; Vol
4], pages 249, 332.
Historical and Genealogical Register, Vol. XXVI [Lib*], page 3.
Proceedings; 1871 [Lib*], pages 312, 318, 350; 1916 [Lib*], page 211.
Franklin as a Freemason, Sachse [Lib 1906]; Philadelphia 1906, page 3.
Freemasonry in Maryland [Lib*], Edward T. Schultz; 1884, Vol. I, page
Gridley see Moore, Vol. XIX [Lib*], page 134.
IV [Lib 1889; Vol
4], page 253.
Proceedings; 1871 [Lib*], pages 320, 321, 351, 362, 364.
and Hughan [Lib 1891], page 242.
Vol. I [Lib*], page 86.
On all the
above subjects see also Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry, Robert
Chicago, 1921; consult index. For a list of the Grand Masters in
1733 to 1870 see The Lodge of St. Andrew, and the Massachusetts Grand
1870, page 289.
Editor-In-Chief ‒ H.L. Haywood
The Lodge Speaker
Craft appears to be entering a new era of oratory. The old style
minutes in duration, delivered with great solemnity in heavy periods a
is going the way of all flesh; in its place has come the "talk,"
given in conversational style, and otherwise informal. This in itself
is a gain,
except to such as enjoy a sleep during a speech; but it has its own
is guilty of its own blunders.
for the inevitable incompetency of some speakers, it may justly be said
failure of a talk is usually due to a sad lack of intelligent
management on the
part of a W. M., or his committee, and that on several points, the most
of which is that a speaker is frequently left completely in the dark as
expect, or what is expected of him. The typical manner of arranging for
runs somewhat in this fashion:
W. M.: "Can
you give us a talk next Wednesday night? It is our monthly, you know."
think I can. What am I to talk about?"
W. M.: "O.
anything you please, just so it is snappy."
Yes! Yes! I have heard that word before. How long shall I speak?"
W. M.: "Long
as you please. Will be ready for you about 9:30."
arrives. The lodge is called to order a half hour late. Business drags
There are many bills presented; each one is argued about. Some
comes up unexpectedly; it is debated at enormous length. "The Good of
comes around about 10:50; the speaker is announced; he is one hour and
delayed. (The present scribe has more than once been introduced at
having been scheduled for 9:00!) Everybody is tired; many leave; the
air is fetid
with stale smoke; the talk is a fizzle. Why shouldn't it be!
A more serious
failure is often due to a mix-fire. The W. M. did not tell the invited
often forget that he is an invited guest, and should be treated as
such) what would
be an appropriate theme. So he is obliged to draw a bow at a venture,
shoot an arrow
into the air, and leave it to hit where and when it may. Too often it
anything at all, but once in a while it will unfortunately sink itself
subject about which there is deep feeling among the brethren. Result!
is that abomination of the introduction. Who has not seen it happen!
While men are
coming and going, or buzzing about the Secretary's desk, the W. M.
a rap with his mallet, and then mumbles something like this: "Brethren,
are tonight privileged to have with us Bro. So-and-so who will speak to
us on Pdqurstuvwxyz.
. .," etc., etc. Nobody catches the speaker's name or learns who or
is, or what he is to talk about. He arises in the midst of the
off as best he can, and battles with the racket. What wonder that he
grow discouraged, or lapse into banalities, or be betrayed into
he is confronted by so much competition?
W. M. will adopt a more excellent way. He will give his prospective
speaker a detailed
account of the circumstances under which the address is to be given;
will tell him
of the character of the lodge, how many are expected to attend, and
what theme will
be most acceptable; he will write out carefully all the facts to be
the introduction; and he will see to it that the speaker is presented
on time. And the speaker on his part, if he also be wise, will prepare
specifically for the lodge itself; will confine himself strictly to
will stop exactly on time, not a minute over.
* * *
to its latest statistics the Grand Lodge of Mississippi numbers 33,308
its 382 active lodges, with an average of slightly less than 90 members
This showing ranks it as about twenty-ninth or thirtieth among 50
Lodges (including Philippine Islands) as far as size is concerned; but
if its total
population is taken into consideration, along with a number of local
it ranks relatively much higher from the standpoint of accomplishment.
From a careful
study of the Mississippi Grand Lodge Proceedings for 1924 one is led to
that something of this fine record is due to the exceptionally faithful
the Grand Lecturer, Bro. J. Rice Williams. His analytical report is a
to give one a peep into the inner life of the lodges, as a few items
year ending Jan. 29, 1924, 119 lodges conferred 5,428 degrees, and 259
2,605 degrees, a grand total for 378 lodges of 8,033 degrees. In twelve
mature men. with all their faculties alert, had impressed on their
the deep lessons of the first three degrees of Freemasonry; if one will
this he can the better understand why the Fraternity has so great an
the life of a state and of the nation. Bro. Williams found that one
lodge was located
on the first floor of a building, 217 on the second floor, 15 on the
one on the fourth; 153 owned their own building, 38 were using
were using charts; that 203 had the proper number of ante-rooms
with 30 failing to accord with the regulations on this point; that 162
an historical ledger and 68 not. During the year 119 lodges conferred
degrees or more.
If such an
analysis could be made of the records of every Grand Jurisdiction in
it might amaze the most hardened veteran! It would most certainly give
the Masonic pessimist. It is probable that no other institution in the
almost entirely on voluntary work, could show such a tale of
who have been seeking to discover the "secret" of Freemasonry might
try to learn what it is in our Mysteries that gives vitality to so many
* * *
The Dark Room
OFTEN a man
thinks that his own little world, his daily work, his community, his
own life and
that of his neighborhood is all simple and intelligent enough, lying in
familiar and friendly, but that "out beyond," back of the sky, perhaps,
or somewhere at the center of the "universe" are great dark mysteries
in which lurk portentous powers. He is not sure in his mind as to what
may be, but he fears them, and they menace his sense of security and
peace. If he
chances to have an element of superstition in his make-up he will find
fear of this great unknown darkness, and the fear will cast a
over his life.
peoples this fear gives rise to religions of dread, with expiatory
rites, and haunted
myths, or else takes the form of magic, which was originally man's
attempt to control,
in his own interest, the mysterious powers. In its lowest form this
becomes a kind
of voodooism, with charms and amulets to ward off evil spirits and
devils. The same
fear, based on the same primitive emotions, is often found among
civilized men also,
but takes a different form. When Edgar Allan Poe, with a pen dipped in
blood of his own heart, composed "The Raven," [Lib 1884] he unwittingly confessed just
a voodooism of his own. He pictures man as seated in his own home, with
and love about him, tormented by a raven, the voice of an
The darkness was the negative of the lamplight and of the firelight; to
hope, thought and dream it croaked the one annihilating word,
In a certain
ceremony known to Masons a man finds himself in a dark room. When he is
which he most desires he finds he has been all the while among
brethren, and also
amid, at least the symbols of, light and all the truths by which men
this is an allegory. If so, never was an allegory more true or more
is no dark room at the center of creation. The Sovereign Grand
Architect of all
things has left none of His architecture without its own Great Lights.
* * *
The Symbolical Size of a
WHAT is the
ideal size of a lodge? This question is being ventilated right and
left, among Grand
Lodges, and in the Masonic press; the whole Fraternity is curry-combed
for and against, and some stand up for big lodges, others for small.
While we are
so interested in this question why cannot we carry it a step farther
is done? Why not apply the principles of symbolism to the problem,
the following manner, for example?
When is a
lodge too big? When the individual becomes lost in the crowd; when the
grows too complicated for the average man to manage; when the
activities swamps legitimate lodge duties; when the lodge is no longer
but a crowd; when fellow Masons can be members but not acquaintances.
When is a
lodge too small? When it can't fill the chairs at the monthly
it cannot pay its debts; when it breaks out into bickerings and
quarrels; when it
has no money for charity; when it grows small in spirit and ideals;
when it leaves
no trace of its influence in the community.
When is a
lodge too rich? When it builds a costly temple but lets its charity
funds run low;
when it becomes filled with vanity because of its rich furniture; when
a poor man
ceases to feel at home among his brethren; when it becomes an exclusive
When is a
lodge too poor? When it loses the love and loyalty of its members,
there may be; when it has lost its vision; when its Ritual becomes as
nothing but "Words! Words! Words!"; when it has ceased to break the
of fellowship; when it has degenerated into a mere degree mill.
* * *
The Vitality of Masonry
nothing mysterious about the deathless vitality of Masonry. It survives
and makes its way everywhere because of the ideas at the center of it.
of God, the immortality of man, the solidarity of the race, the
necessity for righteousness,
the desire for knowledge, loyalty to the motherland, the desire for
and relief for the distressed ‒ it is these that give vitality to
and school, and animate the whole world of men. There is no need to
seek for the
origin of Masonry in antiquity, or for its secret in occultism; its
origin is in
our own natures, its secret is as public as the light. Its truth is not
any one of us; in it all men live and move and have their being.
The Human Side of Architecture
OF ARCHITECTURE [Lib*]. By Frank Rutter. Published by George H. Doran.
by National Masonic Research Society Book Department, 1950 Railway
Louis. Green cloth, glossary of architectural terms, index, 236 pages.
thing to be said is that The Poetry of Architecture contains no poetry.
feels and thinks about buildings very much as a poet might, and is
so doing because there is much of the substance of poetry in all the
styles. His volume reminds one of that other poetic treatment of the
Bragdon's The Beautiful Necessity, except that he has no thesis to
does architecture mean to our emotions, our ideals, our ethics, our
our sense of art, what part has it played in shaping our world; it is
to a discussion
of such subjects that he has set himself, and that with success.
In his "Introductory"
Mr. Rutter writes of some of the definitions of "architecture":
"the art of building and of disposing buildings"; somebody's
is good building, and Building is bad building"; somebody else's
is Building touched with emotion"; and Ruskin's contention that all
is illumined by certain definite moral principles, rhetorically
described in his
The Seven Lamps of Architecture, "the grandest book on architecture
poetically describes the huge structures of Egypt, Babylonia, and
Assyria as the
architecture of "The Age of Fear": of Babylonia he says that "the
most characteristic edifice" is the Temple; of Assyria, the Palace; of
the Tomb; and he attributes the form taken by these edifices to the
fear of the
gods and of the unknown so general among the population of those three
The Mason will be pleased with the discussion of Egypt, the mother land
of the mysteries,
especially the pages on pillars, columns and the Great Pyramid. Of the
last of these
a twelfth century Arab wrote: "All the world fears Time, but Time
the Pyramids." On this subject our author's page 48 is good to be
"Sir Gaston Maspero has told us
Egyptian temple was built 'in the image of the earth such as the
Egyptians had imagined.
The earth was for them a sort of flat slab more long than wide, the sky
was a ceiling
or vault supported by four great pillars. The pavement of the temples
the earth, the four angles stood for the pillars, the ceiling, vaulted
or more often flat, corresponded to the sky.'
"The Egyptians of course, had
no idea that
the earth was round, and there is evidence for supposing that they
sky to be flat as they thought the earth was. The symbolism begun in
the very elements
of the structure was continued in its decoration, and the ceiling was
punctuated with five-pointed stars, and sometimes adorned with sun and
moon in imitation
of the heavens. The pavement, on the other hand, which represented the
appropriately decorated with forms of vegetation. Sometimes, as a
memorial of foreign
conquest, the monarch had executed in the temple carvings of plants and
not indigenous to Egypt, which he had seen abroad, but these are always
to their right sphere, or rather their right plans. 'The
ornamentation,' says our
authority, 'was restricted to a small number of subjects, always the
period of architecture, of which the Parthenon was the perfect gem, is
by Mr. Rutter as "The Age of Grace." The "gleaming eyed Hellenes"
were a race of artists, so we read, who discovered "the quality of
and who learned, as some Masonic architects have not yet learned, "that
is not Beauty." A Mason fond of the Second Degree ‒ what real Mason is
‒ will find that Chapter III throws some light on our own "Five Orders
were a military race, who thought in the terms of armies and
fortresses. They had
skill but not art; engineers but not architects; their very churches
forums or fortresses readapted to religious uses. Thick walls, low
windows, round arches, hidden buttressings, and gloomy interiors
out of such a civilization, characterized by Mr. Rutter as "The Age of
came "The Age of Piety." The Roman state became an ecclesiastical
the Roman Pontiff became the Roman Pope. Almost everything became
the terms of religion. The church edifice was a basilica; and the
its term with the Byzantines, for whom Constantinople was the cultural
and Greek Catholicism the official religion. In describing this stage
our author has something to say about Mosaics, a subject of some
importance in our
Masonic Ritual. This period was profoundly affected by the universally
belief that with the fatal year A. D. 1000 the world would come to a
end; such a fear paralyzed everything, architecture included. The first
to escape from that superstition were the Lombards (to them belonged
Masters), and the Normans, whose buildings have been summed up in a
"Massive arches, broad and round
On ponderous columns, short and low."
reader feels most at home in the chapter on "The Age of Aspiration,"
it deals with the Gothic, among the builders of which we usually seek
for the originators
of Freemasonry. The uses of the pointed arch, flying-buttresses, the
and the elimination of dead wall spaces, these were the discoveries out
Gothic developed; those and the artistic crown of all, the
"Each the bright gift of some
Who loved their city, and thought gold well spent
To make her beautiful with piety."
some luminous interpretations of the "inner secrets of Gothic":
"The nature of an arch has been
illustrated by Professor Lethaby. 'If,' says he, 'you bend a piece of
an arch between two piles of books, the books have to be heavy enough
or they will
be pushed asunder by the elastic bow.' This tendency to push the books
away is what
is known as the lateral thrust. 'An arch is perfectly safe, and,
as long as it is imprisoned, but let the restraining forces be an ounce
and it will break out like water through too weak a dam, and a moving
arch is as
terrible as a flood.' The problem, therefore, resolved itself into
this: how could
the arch be so imprisoned as to be inactive? The Romans of course, had
problem, for their solid concrete 'lids' exerted no lateral thrust upon
beneath them, but their ponderous methods did not commend themselves to
The Romanesque builders made an honest frontal attack on the arch by
the books' on either side, yet even when they had made the imprisoning
massive and strong they sometimes miscalculated and the building came
and when they succeeded it was only by a sacrifice, namely, by
narrowing the width
or span of the vaulted spaces. Since the desire was for even wider, not
naves and aisles, this restriction was eminently unsatisfactory.
"Then one day some unknown
genius had the
bright and happy idea of abandoning the frontal and attempting a flank
the principle of ‘set a thief to catch a thief’ he conceived the notion
arches imprison one another, of setting them up so that each might
the lateral thrust exerted by the other. Thus was Gothic architecture
thus it became possible with safety to balance the ends of two, four,
eight or more
arches on one slender pier. This brilliant device was put into
operation by means
of the ribbed-vaulting described in the last chapter, the intersecting
converted into actual arches which, resting on piers, became the main
support. One thing more was needed to complete the scheme, and a hint
of this had
already been given at Caen....
"Whether we consider the
Egypt, Greece, Rome, Byzantium or Early Europe, all the buildings have
characteristic in common: they are inert. They consist of lifeless
sometimes pierced to admit light, on which a roof rests quietly like a
this lifelessness disappears in a Gothic structure, which is kept
together by its
energy, its stonework is functional, and all its ribs and arches and
'at bowstring tension.' As Professor Lethaby has said, 'we may think of
as so "high-strung" that if struck it would give a musical note': and
a mason can tap a pillar so as to make its stress audible. In a word,
style substituted a dynamic for a static architecture.
"From this new conception of
sorts of interesting consequences followed. Now that the main walls of
were relieved from the strain of the lateral thrust by
flying-buttresses, the spaces
between the internal isolated points of support were of no greater
than the silk which covers the ribs of an umbrella; they could be made
light Material and almost replaced by vast windows of stained glass.
Thus, as it
has been well said, a cathedral became 'a stone cage with films of
suspended in the void, a marvellous jewelled lantern."'
passed "The Age of Elegance" came on, best represented by the Italians
of the Renaissance, of whom Mr. Rutter names Arnolfo as chief. The
a co-mingling of new and unexpected influences, most quickly described
that a New World had been discovered. The Great Explorers ‒ Magellan,
and the rest ‒ gave men a wholly new conception of the earth; the
the lost civilization of Greece and R. me gave them a new Past, a new
consequently a new culture. The mixing and clashing of these novel
light dazzling stars into new constallations of art and thought;
Lorenzo the Magnificent
came on the scene, and with him Leonarda, Pico Mirandello, and all the
and learning dislodged religion from its monopoly of thought; the
the typical architecture; Popes and Bishops lived in kingly residences.
this became the Elizabethan style, and Wren its prophet in chief; Wren
and the others
who derived Gothic as "barbarous," in fact gave it its name of Gothic
out of derision.
the Georgian style (in England), and "The Age of Memory." The old
passed away with the Palaces and Cathedrals; and their ideals were
received as a
precious heritage by our own Fraternity. The only new style since
developed in our
American sky-scraper, which if it cannot be "a joy forever" is rapidly
becoming "a thing of beauty."
* * *
"The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen"
OF TUT-ANKH-AMEN [Lib*]. By Howard Carter and A. C Mace. Published by
Doran Company, New York May be purchased through National Masonic
Library Book Department,
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Cloth, 334 pages, with index,
Price, postpaid, $5.25.
THIS is a
description of the tomb of King Tut-Ankh-Amen discovered by the late
Earl of Carnarvon
and Howard Carter; with 104 illustrations by Harry Burton from
by him at the site, Harry Burton being the official photographer of the
Museum of Arts of New York.
This is the
first volume of what we hope will prove a long series of books on the
made in this tomb. We have impatiently looked for this book with great
pleasure since we read of the great find in the Valley of the Tombs of
of Thebes. We have seen from time to time in the illustrated journals
some of the articles discovered and have greatly desired something
the pens of these fortunate discoverers. This find is probably the most
of any made as a result of the expensive excavations that have occupied
and study of so many of the best students along archaeological lines,
and that have
so long taxed the resources of our great universities of both
continents, as well
as those of vast private fortunes. All have desired some part in this
and when word was received that a new tomb had been found our two
generous offers of help from the most noted scientists engaged in the
desired some mementoes for their museum shelves. All were anxious to
they could of this old buried civilization of Egypt in order to compare
this new civilization of which we all take so much pride, and, as it
a little vain glory. We read, with much concern, of the death of the
Earl of Carnarvon,
whose fortune had been devoted to this particular discovery. But trig
goes to demonstrate part of the price that educational work pays for
and rare discoveries.
which this book discusses may be noted as follows:
A biographical sketch of the
late Earl of Carnarvon by his sister, Lady Burghclere,
describing his childhood education, travels of adventure, war
Description of the valley and
The valley in modern times.
The prefatory work at Thebes.
The finding of the tomb.
The preliminary investigation.
A survey of the antechamber.
The clearing of the antechamber.
Visitors and the press.
The work in the laboratory.
The opening of the sealed door.
The removal and description of
the objects discovered, occupying the space
from pages 258 to 325 as an appendix to the main book.
tomb they have brought to light many objects of great artistic beauty,
made at a
period when mere time was evidently of little account. It could hardly
be said of
these ‒ "art is long and time is fleeting." It is evident that these
were produced by hands made eloquent with great devotion. Perhaps their
the praise of a prince, who tried to be a father to his people. We
doubt if mere
wages could purchase such skill at any time in the history of the
it appears that gold was estimated as the stones of the street as in
the days of
Solomon. The intrinsic value of the discovery is mighty, to say nothing
of its educational
value. Mr. Carter tells of the infinite care and pains taken in
removing and preserving
these treasures so that sometime in the future any of us who possess
the means of
travel may study them in the museums of Cairo and England. It appears
did not stint himself in providing his outfit for that long journey to
country from whose bourne no traveler returns. Here are chariots for
camp and household furniture, food and clothing, armor and weapons,
be encountered by the way. We cannot speak of the many articles in
are so beautifully illustrated in this book. We look for many more of a
and we long to read the inscriptions which doubtless accompany many of
and abound on the walls of the tomb. It will take some time to
even to study out and collate the text.
* * *
The Oxford Press Enters
ON the eve
of putting this issue through the press, word comes that the Oxford
American Branch, is preparing to enter the field of Masonic literature
with a magnificent
program of new Masonic titles. This is welcome news indeed to all
Masons who love
good books. With its thirteen branches in various parts of the world
old publishing house will be in a position to give American Masonic
books a world-wide
distribution. And its standards of excellence, than which nothing could
guarantee in advance the quality of its productions. THE BUILDER has
the management of the American Branch, having offices at New York City,
next month a more extended announcement of the plans, and possibly a
list of the
first books to be published.
What to Read in Masonry
On Ritual and Symbolism
A BIG subject,
surely, and one that breaks through the fences into all manner of
Nobody has yet made a selection of titles on Ritual and Symbolism
anybody, least of all to himself, though the Wisconsin Grand Lodge
Masonic Research has come close to it in its Selected List of Masonic
a bibliography on which heavy demands were levied in the preparation of
printed below. The reasons are many and various. For one thing, not
have been devoted exclusively to Masonic Symbolism; the subject usually
treated incidentally, and during the discussion of other subjects, as
is so frequently
the case in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, in which are so many mines of
another thing, the symbols of Masonry are found scattered throughout
so that often one will come upon a discussion of them in non-Masonic
works, of which
Harold Bayley’s The Lost Language of Symbolism [Lib 1912; Vol
1] is a case
in point. For these and other reasons one is obliged to pick his way
through a widely
scattered literature in order to assemble material on the subjects now
this is another difficulty in the way of a student, many of the titles
are out of print (like Bromwell's Symbolry [Lib*]); they must be
they are so often referred to. In most cases they may be borrowed from
a list of which was given on this page last April.
so many sources, and being in nearly all cases written by individuals
own axes to grind, books on Ritual and Symbolism have unequal value, so
a title by some such master as d'Alviella will stand a work of no value
at all save
as a thing of curious interest. No attempt can be made here to separate
from the chaff; the reader can easily find his own way after he has
a half dozen books and learned something of the lay of the land.
to general works on the Ritual a thoroughgoing student will need the
use of copies
of the Old Charges, exposes, the old catechisms, and such other source
as usually will be found only in technical works. The most accessible
an English speaking reader will be found in the publications of the
lodges or societies, most of which are in England, in Ars Quatuor
in Quatuor Coronatorum Antigrapha. A forthcoming work by Bros. A. L.
Kress and R.
J. Meekren on the old catechisms will be an addition to the permanent
in this field.
is a many-sided subject, with ramifications going off into folklore,
of religions, liturgy, and symbolism; among the titles below are a
number that contain
not a word about the Masonic Ritual but are included by virtue of their
as supplementary works. Such works as are here listed are not in any
but have been chosen because they are representative, and because they
as introductions to various special fields.
Algonquin Legends of New
England [Lib 1884], Charles C. Leland.
Ancient Freemasonry [Lib 1916], Frank Higgins.
Ancient Mystic and Oriental
Masonry [Lib 1907], R. Swinburne Clymer.
Ancient Pagan and Modern
Christian Symbolism [Lib 1922], Thomas Inman.
Arcana of Freemasonry [Lib 1915], Albert Churchward.
Arcane Schools [Lib 1909], John Yarker.
Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross
[Lib*], A. E. Waite.
The Builders [Lib 1914], Joseph Fort Newton.
The Cathedral Builders [Lib 1899], Leader Scott.
Century of Masonic Working
[Lib*], F. W. Golby.
Discrepancies of Freemasonry
[Lib 1875], George Oliver.
Druidism [Lib 1924], Dudley Wright.
Emblematic Freemasonry [Lib*],
A. E. Waite.
English Miracle Plays [Lib 1898], Alfred W. Pollard.
Essays on Symbolism [Lib*], H.
An Examination of the Masonic
Ritual [Lib*], Meredith Sanderson
Francis Bacon and His Secret
Society [Lib 1891], Mrs. Henry Pott
Freemasonry and the Ancient
Gods [Lib*], J. S. M. Ward.
Freemasonry: Its Symbolism,
Religious Nature and Law of Perfection [Lib 1873], C. I. Paton.
The Freemasons' Treasury [Lib 1863], George Oliver.
Genius of Freemasonry [Lib 1914], J. D. Buck.
Glossary of Important Symbols
[Lib*], A. S. Hall.
Gnostics and Their Remains [Lib
1887], C. W. King.
Gospel of Freemasonry [Lib*],
Bascom B. Clarke.
Hidden Church of the Holy Graal
[Lib 1909], A. E. Waite.
Illustrated History of the
Emulation Lodge of Improvement [Lib*], Henry Sadler
Illustrations of the Symbols of
Masonry [Lib*], Jacob Ernst.
An Interpretation of Our
Masonic Symbols [Lib*], J. S. M. Ward.
The Kabbalah [Lib 1920], C. D. Ginsburg.
The Keystone [Lib*], John T.
The Lake of Como, Its History,
Art and Archaeology [Lib 1910], T. W. M. Lund.
Lecture on Masonic Symbolism
[Lib*], Albert Pike.
Liturgica Historica [Lib 1918], Edmund Bishop.
Liturgies, Eastern and Western
[Lib 1896], F. E. Brightman.
Lodge and the Craft [Lib*],
Rollin C. Blackmer.
Lost Language of Symbolism [Lib
1]. Harold Bayley.
Magic and Fetishism [Lib 1906]. A. C. Haddon.
The Masonic Initiation [Lib 1924], W. L. Wilmshurst.
Masonic Symbolism [Lib*], A. H.
Meaning of Masonry [Lib 1922], W. L. Wilmshurst
Mediaeval Art [Lib 1904], W. R. Lethaby.
The Mediaeval Stage [Lib 1903; Vol 1, Vol 2], E. K. Chambers.
Migration of Symbols [Lib 1894], Count Goblet d'Alviella.
Mirror of the Johnannite Masons
[Lib 1866], George Oliver.
Morals and Dogma [Lib 1871], Albert Pike.
The Mummers' Play [Lib*], R. J.
Mysteries of Mithra [Lib 1903], Franz Cumont.
Mystic Masonry [Lib 1897], J. D. Buck.
New Light on the Renaissance
[Lib 1909], Harold Bayley.
Numbers, Their Occult Power and
Virtue [Lib 1911], W. Wynn Westcott.
Old and New Magic [Lib 1906], Henry R. Evans.
The Old Charges [Lib*], Herbert
Old Charges of British
Freemasons [Lib 1872], W. J. Hughan.
Old English Drama [Lib 1892], A. W. Ward.
Origin and Antiquity of
Freemasonry [Lib*], Albert Churchward.
Origin and Evolution of
Freemasonry [Lib 1920], Albert Churchward.
Origin of Masonic Ritual and
Tradition [Lib 1880], William Rowbottom.
Origin of the English Rite of
Freemasonry [Lib 1884], W. J. Hughan.
Oxford Degree Ceremony [Lib 1906], J. Wells.
The Perfect Ashlar [Lib*], John
Primitive Secret Societies [Lib
1908], Hutton Webster.
Primitive Symbolism [Lib 1885], W. W. Westropp
Quests Old and New [Lib 1913], G. R. S. Mead.
Restorations of Masonic
Geometry and Symbolry [Lib*], H. P. H. Bromwell.
Revelations of a Square [Lib 1855], George Oliver
The Rites of the Twice-Born
[Lib 1920], Mrs. Sinclair Stevenson.
Ritual and Belief [Lib 1914], E. B. Hartland.
The San Graal [Lib*], F. G.
Science and the Infinite [Lib 1917], Sidney T. Klein
Second Lecture on Symbolism
[Lib*], Albert Pike.
The Secret Tradition in
Freemasonry [Lib 1911; Vol
1, Vol 2], A. E. Waite.
Shakespeare and the Emblem
Writers [Lib 1870], H. Green.
Signs and Symbols [Lib 1837], George Oliver.
Signs and Symbols of Primordial
Man [Lib 1913], Albert Churchward.
Solomon's Temple [Lib*], W. S.
Speculative Masonry [Lib 1914], A. S. MacBride.
Spirit of Masonry [Lib 1795], William Hutchinson.
The Star in the East [Lib 1825], George Oliver.
Stellar Theology and Masonic
Astronomy [Lib*], R. H. Brown.
The Story of Alchemy [Lib*], M.
The Swastika [Lib*], Thomas
The Symbol of Glory [Lib 1850], George Oliver.
Symbolic Teaching [Lib 1917], Thomas M. Stewart.
Symbolical Masonry [Lib*], H.
Symbolism in Christian Art [Lib
1892], F. E. Hulme.
Symbolism of Churches and
Church Ornaments [Lib 1893], Durandus.
Symbolism of Freemasonry [Lib 1921], A. G. Mackey.
Symbolism of the East and West
[Lib 1900], Mrs. Murray-Aynsley.
Symbolism of the Three Degrees
[Lib 1924], Oliver Day Street.
Symbols and Legends of
Freemasonry [Lib*], J. F. Finlayson
The Temple of Solomon [Lib 1910], P. E. Osgood.
Traces of a Hidden Tradition in
Masonry and Mediaeval Mysticism [Lib 1900], Isabel Cooper-Oakley.
The Treasure of the Magi [Lib 1917], James Hope Moulton.
Wisdom, Strength and Beauty
[Lib*], C. N. McIntyre North
The Witch-Cult in Western
Europe [Lib 1921], Margaret Alice Murray.
The Word in the Pattern [Lib*],
Mrs. G.F. Watts
York Mystery Plays [Lib 1885], L. Toulmin Smith
Meeting Places of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania
IN the course
of an address as Grand Master, delivered at a Quarterly Communication
of the Grand
Lodge of Pennsylvania Sept. 5, 1923, Bro. Abraham Beitler gave a
of Pennsylvania Masonic history. One section of his address will be
to such readers as have been following the present Study Club series:
Worshipful Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania has occupied the Temple in which
tonight for a half century, and it has seemed to me that it would be
and instructive to take a hasty glance at what happened in those fifty
Lodge has had fourteen different places of meeting: In 1732 it met at
Tavern, also called "Peggy Mullen's Beefsteak House," King (Water)
between Chestnut and Walnut streets (a gathering place for the most
In 1735 it
met at the "Indian King" Tavern, south side of High (Market) street,
Third, southwest corner of Biddle's Alley (Bank street). This was the
home of the
"Leathern Apron Club," the first Masonic Club known. Its members
Benjamin Franklin, Hugh Roberts and Charles Thomson.
In 1749 it
met at the Royal Standard Tavern, High (Market) street, near Second.
In 1755 it
met at "The Freemasons' Lodge," Lodge Alley, west of Second and north
of Walnut streets. This was the first Masonic Hall erected in the
and title was held by trustees of the three lodges then meeting in
In 1769 to
1790 it met at Videll's (Lodge) Alley, Second street below Chestnut,
American Revolution it met at the City Tavern Second Street, southwest
to 1799 it met in the Free Quaker Meeting House, southwest corner Fifth
to 1802 it met in the State House (Independence Hall), Chestnut Street,
Fifth and Sixth Streets.
to 1810 it met in the Pennsylvania Freemasons' Hall, Filbert Street
Street, north side.
to 1819 it met in the Masonic Hall, Chestnut street, between Seventh
streets, north side.
Books for Decorative Purposes
Beecher said that a wall covered with books is decoratively more
a wall hung with the costliest tapestries. Some lodges appear to accept
in its severest application. They lock their books up in cases, leave
for years, and make it almost impossible for any man to lay hands on
they fear that a volume may be pilfered. It is preferable to miss a few
to lose the use of them all.
Box and Correspondence
Statistics of Masonic Home
In the March
issue of THE BUILDER, page 74, I note an error in the statistics
covering the Masonic
Home of Florida, due, it is probable, to a typographical error in our
compilation as printed reads: Land owned, 10 acres; assets, $200,000;
52; annual cost, $172,810; provided for 100 old people, boys and girls.
the last three items to read: Residents, 70; annual cost, $27,153;
90 old people, boys and girls.
W. S. Ware, Secretary, Jacksonville, Fla.
* * *
"Where Was Lafayette
Made A Mason?"
It has never
been-denied that Lafayette was a Mason, but it has been disputed when
he was initiated. Gould says it was at Morristown, N. J., in an Army
Gould was a great authority. In your March issue, page 75, it was
stated, by a good
authority, and quoted from a good authority, that Lafayette was
initiated in "an
Army Lodge during the winter of 1777-78 at Valley Forge, Pa." But in an
to the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, May 4, 1825, Lafayette himself stated
that he was
initiated before he ever came to this country. I had a letter from Bro.
Grand Secretary of Tennessee, confirming this. It is in the Proceedings
of the Grand
Lodge of Tennessee.
George W. Baird, District of Columbia.
* * *
Kipling Gives His Masonic
A. Shirras, New York, has sent for publication an item clipped from The
that explains itself:
letter was sent recently by Rudyard Kipling in reply to an inquiry as
to his Masonic
reply to your letter I was secretary for some years of Lodge Hope and
No. 782, E.C. [Lahore, English Constitution], which included Brethren
of at least
four creeds. I was entered by a member of the Brahmo Somaj (a Hindu),
a Mahomedan, and raised by an Englishman. Our Tyler was an Indian Jew.
We met, of
course, on the level, and the only difference that anyone would notice
at our banquets some of the Brethren, who were debarred by caste rules
food not ceremonially prepared, sat over empty plates. I had the good
be able to arrange a series of informal lectures by Brethren of various
on the baptismal ceremonies of their religions."
was initiated in the lodge mentioned in the same year that he published
Ditties," before he attained his majority.
* * *
Re "Physical Qualifications
In THE BUILDER
for January last I find an article in the Question Box regarding
Qualifications in Leviticus XXII." Bro. Gillis leaves the impression
person with a blemish, etc., can approach the altar to offer the bread
of his God.
I think that is wrong. It is the offering that should not have a
blemish. I would
be glad to have a little more "light" on this. Bro. Gillis takes his
by taking a few words here and there throughout the chapter.
F. M., Pennsylvania.
by Bro. Gillis is really from Chapter XXI, verse 17, but the reference
is to the
family of Aaron only, the members of which, according to the Biblical
to be the priests of the children of Israel. Physical perfection and
purity were demanded in them as qualification to perform the sacred
how far such a qualification for a priestly caste should be taken as a
to govern the acceptance of candidates for Masonry is very much a
matter of individual
* * *
Daniel Boone Probably A
I note an
item on the question as to Daniel Boone's membership in the Fraternity,
in THE BUILDER,
page 31, January, 1925. Permit me to add to the information therein
or two of my own notes. In Rob Morris' History of Freemasonry in
Kentucky I came
across, in the historical account of Kentucky lodges, an item which
would seem rather
significant: "Boone Lodge No. 100 (at Petersburg) organized U. D. in
chartered in 1837." This lodge lived but to 1854 when it threw up the
like so many early Kentucky lodges. With the other information at hand,
meager, I am of the opinion that Boone was a Mason, probably being made
Carolina. The early lodges of Kentucky seem to have nearly all been
members of the Craft or else given the name of the town where located.
Henry Baer, Ohio.
* * *
Sigma Mu Sigma Fraternity:
Or "Select Masons Society"
In the present
instance we have ourselves contributed an inquiry to this department in
of a letter addressed to Bro. Sidney C. Brown, Jr., of Washington, D.
a new fraternity for college Masons. His reply is a complete
description in brief
of the fraternity in question, and good to have in its own behalf, as
well as to
serve as a valuable addition to Bro. Carl Foss's magnificent essay on
College Fraternities," published in the March and April issues of this
the need of an organization of students selected from the Masonic Order
devote themselves to the fostering of the highest ideals of the
Fraternity and to
the promotion of Masonic fellowship, three Master Masons, Harold Van
Knapp, and Claude Brown, students of Tri-State College of Angola, Ind.,
met on Good
Friday, March 25, 1921, and organized the Sigma Mu Sigma fraternity.
The first requisite
of the new society was that the members should be Master Masons in good
and should be imbued with a zeal for the promotion of the cardinal
Sincerity, Morality, and Scholarship by thought, speech and practice.
fellowship that followed such lofty ideals was of the highest type, and
at once became firmly fixed in the plans and lives of the young men who
being manifested from other sources, a national organization was
perfected in Washington,
D. C., in May, 1924, by Sidney C. Brown, attorney, who was elected
Hon. L. W. Fairfield introduced in Congress a bill which would grant a
Charter to the fraternity. Brigadier General Fries, head of the
division of Chemical
Warfare, is sponsor of the National organization and these two men are
national honorary members.
of the national body is to establish in leading universities and
of Sigma Mu Sigma for the promotion of these same cardinal virtues. The
to select from Master Masons who are attending the various schools,
those who are
interested in promoting the true spirit of Masonry as applied to
student life and
for the development of sincerity, morality and scholarship in the lives
men fitting themselves for service in the world. Established on such an
plane there is no need for wonder why the fraternity is attracting
a long and flourishing career is anticipated for Sigma Mu Sigma among
have given thought to its aims and its teachings.
now three active chapters, located at Angola, Ind.; Washington, D. C.;
University, at Norman, Okla. Chapters will be installed at Purdue
Milwaukee Engineering School; Alabama University; National University;
Washington University, Washington, D. C., this spring.
Sidney C. Brown, Jr., Dist. of Columbia.
* * *
"Encouraged and Discouraged"
I have read
with considerable interest the article by Bro. R. J. Newton entitled
in THE BUILDER of October, 1924, also the letter by Bro. Ernest E.
Murray of Montana
in the December issue.
contributions bring to my mind a sermon that I heard over the radio
"Encouraged and Discouraged." What impressed me most in this sermon was
the following statement: "In the recent World War it was considered a
offense for anyone to break the morale of the army, and that it was of
importance to encourage the soldiers to the highest degree, so that
when the time
came for them to go to the front, they would do so with courage and a
to win, and to this encouragement, I am sure, we can attribute the
of that terrible conflict."
has set the morale and should be encouraged. He has sounded a call,
accomplished, will be the most noble achievement that Masonry has ever
In every great enterprise there is always somebody to knock it, no
matter how worthy
it may be. Show me a Mason, or anyone else for that matter, who would
not be willing
to contribute $2.00 per year for such a noble cause! What is Masonry
What do the words Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth mean? What do the
of Fellowship mean? It seems to me that if our brethren will just stop
for a moment, they will see that Bro. Newton's call is entirely in line
teachings of Masonry.
several ways for raising sufficient money with which to carry on this
initiation fee could be raised in all the lodges of the United States.
not affect the incoming membership in any way. When one wants to join
$10.00 or $20.00 more or less will not stop him from joining. The
lodges in the
State of California all raised their initiation fee, $20.00 I believe,
is being used to help maintain the two homes, the one at Decoto for the
and the other at Covina for our orphans. Nevertheless, the percentage
of new members
was not decreased by the increase in the initiation fee. Besides, I am
are philanthropists among us who would be willing to help in a more
way such as outright contributions, also bequests.
need not be gratis to our brethren. A small fee, say $10.00 or $15.00
could be charged. Some could perhaps pay more.
is beset with dangers, more or less. There is no paved road to any
Then again, is it not worth facing these "dangers" for the good that
be accomplished? We boast of the Masonic Institution being the best in
Let us live up to it, or else cease boasting.
you have opened the eyes of the Masonic Fraternity. You have started
when accomplished, will immortalize your name among Masons. The eyes of
who have already established such hospitals are now upon us, and the
of Masonry is at stake. If we lose in this proposed undertaking,
Masonry will have
received a terrible blow which will take more than a generation to
we win, and I feel sure we will win, we shall retain our enviable
the fraternities of the world.
‒ H. A. W., Los Angeles, Calif.
* * *
Masonic Expedition to Tibet,
Kipling's Story, Etc.
I would like
to get some information regarding the English expedition that went to
discovered many Masonic relics, and also found some of the natives of
who were familiar with parts of the Masonic ritual, although the
Englishmen in question
were supposed to have been the first white men to visit that country.
It is my
impression that Bro. Rudyard Kipling wrote a story or described that
B. H. M., New Jersey.
was referred to Bro. Gilbert W. Daynes, Associate Editor, England. He
the only English Expedition, or rather Armed Mission to Tibet, was the
took place in 1904. It was on this occasion that Lhasa was reached, and
unveiled. (See The Unveiling of Lhasa [Lib 1905], by E. Candler; also, Lhasa
2], by P. Landon.) This was
however, not the first visit of white men to the country of Tibet,
because, in the
18th century, European Jesuits visited and resided in Lhasa; and Dr.
de Patte, of Flushing, visited Lhasa (1730) and resided there for a
long time to learn the language, and became intimate with some of the
Englishman to enter Tibet was George Bogle, in 1774. In 1811-12, Thomas
of Caius College, Cambridge, visited Lhasa and stayed there five months.
the 19th century Europeans were systematically prevented from entering
or speedily expelled if found in it. From 1888 onwards, much
exploratory work has
been done in Tibet by Englishmen, and also Europeans, of whom the most
Sven Hedin (1896-1908). (See Central Asia and Tibet, 1903 [Lib 1903, Vol
2], and Adventures in Tibet,
1904], both by Sven Hedin).
as given in the query are, therefore, not in accordance with the true
Tibet. If, which is extremely doubtful and is unknown to London Masons,
Masonic was found in 1904, they might easily have been taken into the
the 18th and 19th centuries, either by the various explorers, or by
on many occasions had visited Russia, China, and India.
to the last sentence of the query, I can state positively that Bro.
has never written any story or described any expedition to Tibet.
correspondent has got hold of is a story, written by Bro. Rudyard
"The Man Who Would Be King," [Lib 1899] which is to be found in his
Wee Willie Winkie and Other Tales. This book was, I believe, first
the nineties of last century. This piece of fiction, and a very good
of the adventures of two rolling stones, Peechey Carnehan and Daniel
Kafiristan, part of Afghanistan. Peechey, after being away for three
back a total wreck, and tells how they had been to Kafiristan and ruled
While there, they found that all the chiefs and priests knew the words
of the first two Degrees, and could work a Fellowcraft lodge in a way
that was familiar
to Peechey. They did not, however, know the Third Degree. Making the
Temple of Imbra
the lodge room, they painted the black pavement with white squares, and
stones for the three principal chairs. A lodge is duly opened in the
and the head priests and chiefs are raised. The story is certainly one
be read by Freemasons; but the statements made in this story must not
be taken even
as legends, which have often some substratum of truth, but must be
to proceed from the very fertile brain of the author, one of the most
it is quite clear that your correspondent has got hold of the facts of
I have outlined above; perhaps it has been told him as a fact. The
is all against its truth.
W. Daynes, England.
* * *
General Phillip John Schuyler
and Alexander Hamilton
Can you inform
me through the Question Box in THE BUILDER if General Philip John
War general, was a Mason? General Schuyler was born at Albany, N. Y.,
Nov. 22, 1733,
and lived there most of his life. The writer is a descendant of that
would appreciate very much to know if he was a member of the Craft or
J. H. M., Pennsylvania.
your inquiry to Bro. Isaac Henry Vrooman, Jr., of Albany, N. Y., and
it, for our own needs, a question or two concerning Alexander Hamilton.
In an essay
published in THE BUILDER, March, 1920, page 59, Bro. Geo. W. Baird gave
membership as in Philadelphia, second lodge of Moderns, and the date of
as December, 1757. This was based on Sachse's Old Masonic Lodges of
Since the appearance of that article, and through Bro. J. E. Burnett
Librarian, Library of Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, Bro. Baird has
learned that the
Alexander Hamilton referred to in that book was not the Alexander
in our history. Bro. Vrooman's notes are here given:
General Schuyler's name:
Baptismal Record of the First Reformed Church, of Albany, N. Y.
(Published in the
1906 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York), the following entry
Philip (son) of Joh. & Corn. Schuyler
Jer Van Rensselaer, Maria Miln.
a Dutch custom, apparently for purposes of identification, for a son at
add the name of his father to his own and, in the Schuyler Family Bible
in Lossing's Life of Philip Schuyler, v. 1, p. 82) is this entry:
the year 1755, on the 17th day of September, was I Philip John
to Catharine Van Rensselaer. . . "
the only place where I have found the "John" used. The General almost
always signed his name "Ph. Schuyler" and is known to history as PHILIP
the question of his Masonic membership:
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge, F. & A. M., of New York for
1900, the Grand
Historian presented a valuable report on the Masonic lodges and members
in New York
during the Revolution (pp. 294-316). On page 309 is the following:
Philip (Gen.) ….. (no lodge given)."
generally held that General Schuyler was a member of the Fraternity,
but if so,
I cannot substantiate it.
305 is this entry:
Alexander ….. (no lodge given)."
not known of what lodge Alexander Hamilton was a member. His name is
the visitors to American Union Lodge, at Morristown December 27, 1779.
only his surname is given, he is identified by his being the only one
of that name
then holding a commission with the army under Washington. In a recent
paper by Henry
Whittemore read before the Masonic Historical Society of New York, his
was clearly established in this connection. The visitors present on
meeting of American Union Lodge are taken from the minutes, as
published by the
Grand Lodge of Connecticut, as follows: (Here follows a long list of
among others, those of Bros. Washington, Schuyler and Hamilton.)
known that General Philip Schuyler was in Morristown during that winter
and it is
fair to assume that the "Schuyler" listed among those present was the
one of that name listed in the 1900 report as being a member of a New
is John De Peyster Ten Eyck a member of Masters' Lodge, No. 2 (now No.
5). He was
my great-great-grand uncle and I represent him in the Society of the
by virtue of his service as Captain-Lieutenant in the First Canadian
Regiment, Colonel James Livingston.
probably were other Ten Eycks who were Masons and who were in the army,
is the only one of which I have record.
any of the readers of THE BUILDER have any additional information, it
will be most
Henry Vrooman, Jr., Albany, N. Y.
may be added Bro. Buckenham's letter to Bro. Baird. It disposes once
and for all
any idea that the Alexander Hamilton of the Sachse volume may have been
your favor of 16th for which I thank you. I note you make reference, in
on Alexander Hamilton to the Old Masonic Lodges in Pennsylvania. capes
45, 48 and
73. These references all relate to another Alexander Hamilton who lived
and was a member of the Fraternity. Alexander Hamilton, First American
of the Treasury was born Jan. 11, 1757, in the Island of Nevis, W. I.,
and did not
come to this country until October, 1772, when he landed in Boston and
to New York, later settling in New Jersey, and again in New York, and
in Philadelphia on government business.
45, the name of Alexander Hamilton is found in a list of subscribers to
to build the Masonic Hall, March 13, 1754.
58, the name appears in a list of those who paid their subscriptions,
and is only
a repetition of the former reference.
on page 78 is only the date of the raising of Alexander Hamilton, as
shown on the
secretary's books Dee. 17,1767. This date was when Hamilton (of Nevis)
one year old.
always doubted Alexander Hamilton being a Mason. for if he had been,
of it would have been made at the time of his death. However if you
learn of any
evidence, I hope you will let me know.
J. E. Burnett Buckenham,
talk about the world coming to an end reminds one of Emerson's famous
warned by a fanatic that the whole mundane scheme of things was to come
to an early
and immediate wind-up, the Concord Sage demurely replied "Let it end. I
do without it."
* * *
It is said
that Bro. Ralph Welsh, twenty-two years of age, is the youngest W. M.
in the country.
Does anybody know of a younger? He presides over King Solomon Lodge,
No. 197, Kane,
* * *
Grand Lodge Bulletin for February, 1925, is the best thing we have ever
its kind. It contains a notable article on Marat. Bro. Ray V. Denslow,
has kindly given us a limited number of copies for free distribution.
and name and address, plainly written.
* * *
Chinese Masons have received dispensation to organize Mencius Lodge ‒ a
and appropriate name at ‒ Escolta, Manila, P. I. There are many Chinese
in Philippine lodges but Mencius is to be the first composed
exclusively of members
of that race.
* * *
Grand Lodge of Mexico has published an exceedingly valuable book
Notes on Masonry in the Republic of Mexico Relative to the Gran Logia
Valle De Mexico
and the York Grand Lodge of Mexico, F. & A. M. Bro. C. I.
Arnold, Apartado No.
1986, Mexico, D. F., is Grand Secretary. A word to the wise is
* * *
here! The office boy has been saying mean things about Ye Editor, and
has been punished
appropriately and corporally therefor, so the aforesaid office boy
appealed to Bro.
George W. Baird to draw up a cartoon, of a libellous and sarcastic
the aforementioned Ye Ed. But Bro. Baird had the gout and couldn't use
and he thereupon entered into a conspiracy with Bro. J. Harry
Cunningham, also of
Washington, D. C., to do the vile deed, and the picture alongside is
It may be said that The Green Hat is NOT among the books, but it has to
that the pen is made of a goose’s feather.
for the Johannite Masons
Oli66 / auth. Oliver George. - New York : Masonic Publishing and
Manufacturing Co, 1866. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 196. - 10.9 MB.
Adventures in Tibet
Hed04 / auth. Hedin Sven. - London : Hurst and Blackett Limited, 1904.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 494. - Illustrated - 22.1 MB.
Ancient Pagan Symbolism
Inm22 / auth. Inman Thomas. - New York : Peter Eckler Publishing
Company, 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 205. - 13.6 MB.
Yar09 / auth. Yarker John. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
382. - 1.8 MB.
Beginning of Masonry
Hig16 / auth. Higgins Frank C. - New York : [s.n.], 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 125. - 6.1 MB.
Benjamin Franklin as a Free
Sac06 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Lancaster : The New Era Printing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 187. - 13.2 MB.
Central Asia and Tibet Vol 1
Hed03AT1 / auth. Hedin Sven. - London : Hurst and Blackett Limited,
1903. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 569. - Illustrated - 42.0 MB.
Central Asia and Tibet Vol 2
Hed03AT2 / auth. Hedin Sven. - London : Hurst and Blackett Limited,
1903. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 590. - Illustrated - 47.3 MB.
Wri24 / auth. Wright Dudley. - London : Ed. J. Burrow, 1924. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 207. - 9.3 MB.
English Miracle Plays
Pol98 / auth. Pollard Alfred W. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1898. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 324. - 12.1 MB.
Francis Bacon and His Secret
Pot91 / auth. Pott Mrs Henry. - London : Sampson Loe, Marston &
Co., 1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 419. - 21.6 MB.
Freemasonry in New York
Lan22 / auth. Lang Ossian. - New York : Grand Lodge of New York, 1922.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 248. - 5.5 MB.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 1
McC91NY1 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 4. - Volume not Found.
Freemasonry in South Carolina
Mac61 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - Columbia : South Carolinian Steam
Power Press, 1861. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 567. - 33.2 MB.
Freemasonry it`s Symbolism
Pat73 / auth. Paton Chalmers I. - London : Reeves and Turner, 1873. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 530. - 14.1 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 22
Moo63FM22 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1863. -
Vol. 22 : 32 : p. 222. - 22.3 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 23
Moo64FM23 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1864. -
Vol. 23 : 32 : p. 393. - 23.0 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 29
Moo70FM29 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Solon Thornton, 1870. -
Vol. 29 : 32 : p. 188. - 9.9 MB.
Geschichte der Freimaurerei Vol
Fin61 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - Leipzig : Herman Luppe, 1861. - Vol. 1
: 2 : p. 465. - German - 20.7 MB.
Geschichte der Freimaurerei Vol 2
Fin611 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - Leipzig : Herman Luppe, 1861. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p. 391. - German - 20.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
Fin66 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - London : Asher & Co., 1866. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 742. - Translated from the German - 17.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
History of Masonry and
Sti91 / auth. Stillson Henry L. - Boston : The Fraternal Publishing
Company, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 866. - Illustrated - 57.8 MB.
John A Quitman Vol 1
Cla60JQ1 / auth. Clairborne John F H. - New York : Harper and Brothers,
1860. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 403. - 20.0 MB.
John A Quitman Vol 2
Cla60JQ2 / auth. Clairborne John F H. - New York : Harper and Brothers,
1860. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 397. - 20.4 MB.
Lhasa Vol 1
Lan05LA1 / auth. Landon Perceval. - London : Hurst and Blackett, Ltd,
1905. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 431. - Illustrated - 24.8 MB.
Lhasa Vol 2
Lan05LA2 / auth. Landon Perceval. - London : Hurst and Blackett, Ltd,
1905. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 443. - Illustrated - 24.0 MB.
Bis18 / auth. Bishop Edmund. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1918. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 517. - 52.4 MB.
Bri961 / auth. Brightman Charles F. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1896. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 717. - 18.2 MB.
Magic and Fesishism
Had06 / auth. Haddon Alfred C. - London : Archibald Constable &
Co Ltd, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 108. - 5.4 MB.
Let04 / auth. Lethaby William R. - London : Duckworth & Co,
1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 396. - 24.4 MB.
Morals and Dogma
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston : Supreme Council AASR, 1871. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 895. - Formatted & Indexed by rhm - 7.6 MB.
Buc97 / auth. Buck Jirah D.. - Cincinnati : The Robert Clarke Co.,
1897. - 2 : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 290.
New Light on the Renaissance
Bay09 / auth. Bayley Harold. - London : J M Dent & Sons, 1909.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 280. - 7.9 MB.
Wes11 / auth. Westcott W Wynn. - London : Theosophical Publishing
Society, 1911. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 129. - 6.6 MB.
Old and New Magic
Eva06 / auth. Evans Henry R. - Chicago : Open Court Publishing Co,
1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 407. - 16.9 MB.
Old Charges of British
Hug72 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : Simpkins, Marshall &
Co., 1872. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 113. - 8.2 MB.
Old English Plays
War92 / auth. Ward Adolphus W. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1892. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 479. - 20.2 MB.
Cly07 / auth. Clymer Swinburne. - Allentown : The Philosophical
Publishing Company, 1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 191. - 8.0 MB.
Origin and Evolution of
Chu20 / auth. Churchward Albert. - London : Georg Allen & Unwin
Ltd, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 243. - 14.5 MB.
Origin of the English Rite of
Hug84 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : George Kenning, 1884. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 166. - 5.1 MB.
Oxford Degree Ceremony
Wel06 / auth. Wells Joseph. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1906. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 115. - 3.8 MB.
Primitive Secret Societies
Web08 / auth. Webster Hutton. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1908.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 241. - 7.0 MB.
Wes85 / auth. Westropp Hodder M. - London : George Redway, 1885. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 99. - 3.3 MB.
Quests Old and New
Mea13 / auth. Mead George R S. - London : G Bell & Sons, 1913.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 347. - 7.3 MB.
Rite of the Twice Born
Ste201 / auth. Stevenson Mrs Sinclair. - London : Oxford University
Press, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 499. - 11.8 MB.
Ritual and Belief
Har14 / auth. Hartland Edwin S. - London : Williams and Norgate, 1914.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 365. - 16.4 MB.
Science And The Infinite
Kle17 / auth. Klein Sydney T. - London : William Rider & Son,
1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 196. - 0.7 MB.
Shakespeare and the Emblem
Gre70 / auth. Green Henry. - London : Trubner & Co, 1870. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 605. - 38.3 MB.
Signs and Symbols Illustrated
Oli37 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper,
1837. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 289. - 9.2 MB.
Mac141 / auth. Macbride A S. - Glasgow : D. Gilfillan & Co.,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 283. - 18.6 MB.
Symbolic Teaching of Masonry
and its Message
Ste17 / auth. Stewart Thomas M.. - Cincinnati : Stewart & Kidd
Co., 1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 256. - 14.5 MB.
Mur00 / auth. Murray-Ansley Harriet. - London : George Redway, 1900. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 262. - Illustrated - 6.8 MB.
Symbolism in Christian Art
Hul92 / auth. Hulme F Edward. - London : Swan Sonnenschein &
Co, 1892. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 241. - 15.6 MB.
Symbolism of the Three Degrees
Str24 / auth. Street Oliver D.. - Anamosa : National Masonic Research
Society, 1924. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 52. - 0.4 MB.
The Algonquin Legends
Lel84 / auth. Leland Charles A. - Boston : Houghton, Mifflin and
Company, 1884. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 419. - 16.4 MB.
The Arcana of Freemasonry
Chu15 / auth. Churchward Albert. - London : George Allen &
Unwin Ltd., 1815. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 362. - 10.9 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Cathedral Builders
Sco99 / auth. Scott Leader. - London : Sampson Low, Marston &
Co., 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 520. - 16.1 MB.
The Discrepancies Of Freemasonry
Oli75 / auth. Oliver George. - London : John Hogg & Co, 1875. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 335. - 8.3 MB.
The Freemason's Treasury
Oli63 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Bro. R. Spencer, 1863. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 393. - 12.4 MB.
The Genius of Freemasonry and
the Twentieth-Century Crusade
Buc14 / auth. Buck Jirah D. - Chicago : Indo-American Book Co., 1914. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 353. - 7.8 MB.
The Gnostics and their Remains
Kin871 / auth. King Charles W. - London : David Nutt, 1887. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 503. - 15.9 MB.
The Hidden Church of the Holy
Wai09 / auth. Waite Arthur E. - London : Rebman Limited, 1909. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 719. - 31.0 MB.
Gin20 / auth. Ginsburg Christian D. - London : Georg Routledge
& Sons Limited, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 159. - 4.2 MB.
The Lake of Como
Lun10 / auth. Lund Thomas W M. - London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner
& Co Ldt, 1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 258. - 11.5 MB.
The Lost Language Vol 1
Bay12 / auth. Bayley Harold. - New York : Barnes & Noble, Inc,
1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 386. - 12.9 MB.
The Man who would be King
Kip99 / auth. Kipling Rudyard. - New York : Doubleday and McClure
Company, 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 141. - 1.5 MB.
The Masonic Initiation
Wil24 / auth. Wilmshurst W L. - 1924. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 93. - 2.0 MB.
The Meaning of Masonry
Wil22 / auth. Wilmshurst W L. - London : William Rider & Son,
1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 254. - 1.2 MB.
The Medieval Stage Vol 1
Cha03MS1 / auth. Chambers Edmund K. - Oxford : Oxford University Press,
1903. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 462. - 21.3.
The Medieval Stage Vol 2
Cha03MS2 / auth. Chambers Edmund K. - Oxford : Oxford University Press,
1903. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 491. - 18.6 MB.
The Migration of Symbols
dAl94 / auth. d'Alviella Goblet. - Westminster : Archibald Constable
and Co., 1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 315. - 8.8 MB.
The Mysteries of Mithra
Cum03 / auth. Cumont Franz / trans. McCormack Thomas J. - Chicago : The
Open Court Publishing Company, 1903. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 270. - 5.3 MB.
The Origin of Masonic Ritual
Row80 / auth. Rowbottom William. - [s.l.] : Published for the Author,
1880. - p. 95. - 3.5 MB.
Poe84 / auth. Poe Edgar A. - New York : E P Dutton and Company, 1884. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 30. - Illustrated - 2.3 MB.
The Revelations of a Square
Oli551 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1855. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 496. - 17.3 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 1
Wai11 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
1 : 2 : p. 474. - 19.1 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 2
Wai111 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p. 478. - 19.6 MB.
The Signs and Symbols of
Chu13 / auth. Churchward Albert. - London : George Allen &
Company, Ltd, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 546. - 59.2 MB.
The Spirit of Masonry in Moral
and Elucidatory Lectures
Hut95 / auth. Hutchinson William. - Carlisle : F. Jollie, 1795. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 370. - 13.8 MB.
The Star in the East
Oli25 / auth. Oliver George. - London : G. and B. W. Whittaker, 1825. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 190. - 4.0 MB.
The Symbol of Glory
Oli50 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1850. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 397. - 11.6 MB.
The Symbolism of Churches and
Dur93 / auth. Durandus William. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1893. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 344. - 14.0 MB.
The Symbolism of Freemasonry
Mac21 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - Chicaco Ill. : The Masonic History
Company, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 386. - Revised by Robert I. Clegg.
The Temple of Solomon
Osg10 / auth. Osgood Phillips E. - Chicago : The Open Court Publishing
Company, 1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 79. - Illustrated - 5.6 MB.
The Unveiling of Lhasa
Can05 / auth. Candler Edmund. - London : Edmund Nelson and Sons, Ltd,
1905. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 381. - 12.8 MB.
Traces of a Hidden Tradition
Coo001 / auth. Cooper-Oakley Isabel. - London : The Theosophical
Publishing Society, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 194. - 5.2 MB.
Treasure of the Magi
Mou17 / auth. Moulton James H. - London : Humphrey Milford, 1917. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 291. - 6.7 MB.
Witch Cult in Western Europe
Mur21 / auth. Murray Margaret A. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1921. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 305. - 14.3 MB.
York Plays, the Plays Performed by the Crafts
Smi85 / auth. Smith L Toulmin. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1885. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 634. - 14.0 MB.