Masonic Research Society
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Personal Views Concerning Membership in the Masonic International
Bro. Townsend Scudder,
Past Grand Master, New York
will find it greatly to his advantage to read in conjunction with Bro.
article below the article on ''Why the Grand Lodge of New York Withdrew
Masonic International Association," by Pro. William A. Rowan, Grand
New York, published in The Builder last month page 65.
TO the writer,
Freemasonry is not an accident, a thing which just happened, but an
agency of Divine
inspiration with a world field and mission.
In no sense
is Freemasonry a religion, but rather a light faith.
In no sense
is Freemasonry a substitute for the Church, but rather a tributary,
functioning in harmony with its ideals, gives strength to the Church in
Freemasonry should not be regarded as a rival, but should be hailed as
an aid, of
it is revealed that God is universal, one God for all, the same God,
conception of Him may vary in localities and among different peoples
it is revealed that all men are brothers, notwithstanding the
inequality of endowment
that exists among individuals.
uncivilized of mankind, some way or other, has risen to the conception
of a God.
has been revealed to man in the form or manner suited to the needs of
in its peculiar circumstances and environment; and God has planted in
the soul of
man the seed of His love, His truth, and His justice.
by these ideals, many years ago, a group of men, calling themselves
Freemasons, resolved to share in peace and good will the world's
to labor to make of God's children one family in spirit, without regard
creed, station, or locality.
In this family
or brotherhood, Freemasonry has pledged that no contention should
exist, save that
noble contention, or emulation, of who best can work and best agree.
for all this is not lacking; to go no farther, it is leading to
in the first Masonic Constitution:
"We are also of all Nations,
and Languages * * *."
It is also
"Masonry becomes the center of
the means of conciliating true Friendship among persons that must have
at a perpetual distance."
In that Constitution,
the Freemason is exhorted to cultivate:
"Brotherly-Love, the Foundation
the Cement and Glory of this ancient Fraternity."
"And if any of them do you
Injury, you must
apply to your own or his lodge * * * as has been the ancient laudable
our Forefathers in every Nation * * * saying or doing nothing which may
Love. * * *"
It is God's
command, through Jesus, His Son, that men love one another.
thy neighbor as thyself."
conception of Freemasonry than a loving Brotherhood of all men ‒
children of one
of Freemasonry are its Landmarks; and one Landmark differeth not from
in glory, or in priority of observance.
of Man's Brotherhood is an ancient Landmark, as fundamental to
as is belief in the Supreme Being. The twain are one and inseparable,
and ever will
be, specious reasoning to the contrary notwithstanding.
To him who
bases his faith on these great truths, stimulating, awe-inspiring, and
Freemasonry is a serious thing, and but very incidentally, a plaything.
That it has
the attributes of a world force is proven by its vitality, which more
and even in these so-called enlightened times, has shown those who
it, that it is unconquerable from without.
is from within.
tragedy, the crushing pity of the thing!
We have grafted
the trunk of Freemasonry with the cuttings of sectarianism, and the
fruit is intolerance,
bitterness and hate, instead of Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth.
ideal in Freemasonry, Brotherhood, is being sacrificed through the
of good men and true, who honestly imagine they assist Freemasonry,
it, by destroying its crowning glory.
to see that our Order has grown because it has made its appeal to an
common to mankind, of a humanity, however separated into creeds and
and races, united in Freemasonry under its Shibboleth of Man's Common
and, without condescension or presumption on the part of any, working
peace on earth and good will among men.
has been favorably placed; he has traveled extensively; has seen much
civilization; much of the trials and tribulations of those less happily
than are we.
He has seen
man attain the heights; he has seen man below beasts; yet his
admiration of man
has grown with his contacts and experience. Left to himself, man
and is kind, which is natural, being made in His image.
It is not
for the writer to interpret the effect of all this on his own process
The fact is noted for such help as it may give in weighing the merits
of his contention
that the Masonic Fraternity throughout the world must get together, if
further its high mission, and that the alternative is fratricidal war
grotesque and debasing; the more absurd because waged between men
they are fighting each other to promote the ideal of man's Brotherhood,
make this war between Freemasons more unjustifiable will be the unhappy
it will be waged on undefined issues; without the principals getting
hostilities, to find out whether there is anything to fight about, and
war honestly can be avoided.
What is it
which has brought the Fraternity to this crisis? Space will not permit
a brief summary of the causes.
of the Past
to be generally accepted by Masonic students that toward the end of the
century, the Society of Freemasons no longer had direct concern with
the art of
building. Its then aims seem to have been the preservation of the
and ceremonies, as well as the moral teachings, of our Operative
brethren. Its objects
were social and philosophical. It does not appear that there existed at
any recognized authority with power to constitute a lodge. Individual
to have initiated candidates, and to have formed them into lodges,
from other lodges likewise, or otherwise, organized, as may have been.
of the Grand Lodge
a movement was started to bring together Freemasons in London. It is
not known what
was behind the movement. It is a fact that it was controlled by persons
station. It seems that Freemasons in London were wont in those times,
to have an
annual feast, and at this feast in 1717, they elected to preside over
them a Grand
Master, a title probably, and an office certainly, until then unknown
to the Craft
in England. This first Grand Master appointed Grand Wardens. Thus was
the Mother Grand Lodge which in time constituted itself the supreme
in England, but not without challenge.
the Grand Lodge of Ireland already hall been formed.
certain lodges in Scotland modelled a Scottish Grand Lodge after that
there was organized in England, in opposition to Grand Lodge of 1717, a
of the Antients, an independent body, which dubbed the Mother Grand
Brotherhood Ideal was zealously fostered by each of these four original
they spread out over the world through lodges sprung from one or
another of them,
lodges often being constituted by two or more of them side by side in
the same country,
carrying to all peoples the message of Brotherhood. To this
is due the assertion, that no Freemason ever lived, whose Masonic
not begin in Great Britain.
of time these lodges in foreign lands organized their own Grand Lodges,
two or more in the same country, which entered upon their separate
independent careers, as equals in the family of Grand Lodges.
We are not
unmindful of later Grand Lodges of Scottish Rite origin, and of other
through concessions and adjustments, in due time were admitted to the
Freemasonry expanded over the earth, each Grand Lodge sovereign, going
its own way,
shapened, and shapening, to meet the conditions surrounding it, as it
in the promotion of Freemasonry's Ideal of Brotherhood.
Grand Lodges entertained no pretentions of dominion, or of sovereignty
offshoots in other lands. They recognized their independence, and
wisely left them
free to solve the problems and to overcome the difficulties which they
in furthering their common cause, as the genius of each might suggest,
and the necessities
of each locality required.
were not expected in those days.
It was in
this way that the Ideal of Man's Brotherhood was carried to the four
the earth, interpreted to each race and people, within their
limitations to understand,
by the leaders of thought of their own environment.
Was not this
in keeping with the principle underlying God's multifarious revelation
to the different groups of His children?
of the Craft’s
It is its
boast that for upwards of two centuries now, our Speculative
Freemasonry has sought
to foster the Ideal of Brotherhood, and has sacrificed mightily to
hate by fraternal love; to break down the intransigence of sectarianism
as it is
intolerant, and to substitute peace and good will among men.
today, what do we find?
Fraternity, divided against itself; engaged in charges and
contracting, not expanding. We find an ever increasing
narrow-mindedness, and the
growth within us of the petty dogmatic spirit which we are pledged to
with truth and justice.
In our dealings
with brethren of the Craft seeing differently from the way we see, we
act in violent
opposition to the considerate, broad-minded, brotherly attitude
inculcated in our
Masonic principles and teachings.
We sit in
judgment of our brethren, less favored than are we in the enjoyment of
of liberty of thought, of action, and of speech. We bear false witness
We pronounce sentence upon them without giving them a hearing. We are
invention, when denouncing what we lightly accept as their viewpoint,
boasting of our own superiority.
Has the time
come to call a halt? Or is the thing to go on? The rank and file must
let not our brethren on the benches be led astray through lack of
of the issues, or of what it is, which is at stake.
for Our Best Thought
is not over God and the Holy Bible; it is not between good and evil.
or Anderson Constitution, says of a Mason that, "if he rightly
the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist."
be, the converse must be the effect which the inspiration of
will have upon the soul of a man who, in his heart, truly was made a
Do we ever
winnow our store of grain after the harvest?
Do we ever
check up on our own membership? Is it again a case of the beam in our
own eye? Generally
speaking, the trouble is here: The Anglo-Saxon Freemason insists that a
for Freemasonry shall profess his belief in God, before initiation.
Freemason affirms his loyalty to the first Constitution of the Mother
(1717), which goes no farther than to say, under the caption:
God and Religion:
"A Mason * * * if he rightly
the art * * * will never be a stupid atheist * * * and yet 'tis now
expedient only to oblige them to that religion in which all men agree,
particular opinions to themselves; that is to be good men and true, and
men of honor
and honesty, by whatever denominations or persuasions they may be
Freemason has interpreted the quoted language to mean liberty of
To him the
light which Freemasonry diffuses will guide man to truth, will
transform the rough
into the perfect ashlar.
prefers to begin with material professing already to have obtained that
Latin aspires to attain at the end, rather than at the beginning of the
Have we perchance
lost sight of our Ideal in our craving to be heroic?
the defenders of His Book, which is not attacked by any Grand Lodge, do
ourselves up to so great a fervor, that we forget to practice the
laid down? The differences dividing us are largely temperamental. Bad
confused the issues; cold deliberation might prove helpful.
the Grand Lodge era, there was but one ceremony covering initiation,
of the imparting of a few signs, words and tokens. The Master, in his
may also have explained some of the Craft's traditions, and something
of the Old
Charges. This we do not know, but surmise.
Grand Lodge era, the earlier single ceremony of initiation has been
elaborated into the three ceremonies of Initiating, Passing, and
Raising, with little,
if any, resemblance to the original ceremony. Our ceremony of
initiation is not
a Landmark, but a modern development of the past two hundred years.
and independent, each Grand Lodge, as a sovereign jurisdiction, was
free to, and
did, develop its Ritual to meet its own requirements and taste, without
right to interfere on the part of sister Grand Lodges.
It was not
until about 1760 that the Bible was made the Great Light in the Mother
and a higher philosophical, or religious conception, was given to the
highly dramatic features found today are of a still later development;
are far from
universal; and in England, are not permitted.
of French Freemasonry
was introduced into France about 1724. The Grand Orient, the name given
Lodge, dates back, as a sovereign body, to 1736, according to its
is not seriously challenged.
beginning down to 1849, no declaration of a belief in Deity was in its
notwithstanding during all these years, it was in full fraternal
the Masonic world.
of its own motion, and following England by nearly one hundred years,
the religious conception.
it substituted tolerance and liberty of conscience.
dates many things had happened. Among other things, Garibaldi, the
great Italian patriot, had captured Rome and deprived the Pope of his
Reprisals came swiftly. The Roman Catholic Church charged Freemasonry
upon the Bible a spurious religion. To meet this charge, a Protestant
the Gospel, in the hope of foiling these attacks which were sadly
membership as was natural in a Catholic country, moved the change for
which we now
ostracize France. He stated at the time that it was not to be regarded
as a negation
in any sense of a belief in Deity. This has been, and this is, the
attitude of the
Grand Orient of France. We did not however break with the Grand Orient
over a Spiritual
question, but over a Temporal question, territory and material.
in which Latin Freemasonry was placed, by conditions which it could not
deserve that sympathetic and patient study and consideration which a
the Craft has a right to expect of his brother, before condemnation.
study of Freemasonry's persecution, will invite commendation of the
zeal and fortitude
of our Latin brethren, in holding high the banners of the Craft against
With us also
there are forces hostile to Freemasonry and its Ideals, but, happily
for us, these
forces do not directly, or indirectly, dominate the State.
be our situation if they did?
of what our Latin brethren have suffered, let us contrast their
carrying on with
what we did in the Morgan period. Then we shrunk up and all but blew
spirit which dominated during the Morgan crisis, and all but wiped us
and unrelenting, has raged against Freemasons in Latin countries almost
hundred years; yet our Latin brethren have kept the fire of their faith
burning; they have not surrendered to suffering and sacrifice, but have
numbers and in influence; slowly, but they have grown.
It was in
1738 that Clement XII issued the first Bull against Freemasonry. The
its condemnation were that Masons admitted members of all religious
sects, and bound
themselves by an oath of secrecy.
Catholic countries, the term atheist is colloquially applied by the
Church to non-Catholics.
Coming from this high authority, the appellation has been accepted as a
characterization of non-Catholics, without regard to the real meaning
of the word.
Subtle propaganda has put over this idea, and the term is now quite
by Catholics, as properly applying to all Freemasons; and by us, as
to French Freemasons.
are cleverer than are we.
that Freemasons bound themselves by a secret oath, was held by the
the Catholic Church to be an admission of perfidy. No further proof was
date of this Bull, it was followed by others, a conflict, bitter in its
and more bitter, where the Church politically was all powerful, has
been waged between
the Catholic Church and the Masonic Fraternity.
followed by counter-attack. Great bitterness was engendered, and a war
has raged, its intensity limited only by the power of the Church over
It is difficult
for Freemasons who are free to meet, free to act, free to live their
own lives and
advance their ideals, and to pursue their happiness, to understand the
their brethren, pursued, persecuted, destroyed, because of their faith.
in Italy today tells something of the story, and in Hungary the chapter
is not closed.
It is not
surprising that after the Bull of 1738, the development of Speculative
in Protestant countries was under happier auspices than in Catholic
Protestant lands it was often patronized by men of influence and high
and fortune smiled upon it. On the other hand, in these countries where
of Freemasonry were in power, it had to struggle for its existence,
suffer for its
faith, and keep its fires burning only at great peril to its members.
widely varying conditions, it was to be expected that Speculative
have a development possessed of striking contrasts.
of Operative Freemasonry
in its development, somewhat similar, but under conditions in no wise
had taken place in Operative Masonry, when the various lodges of our
developed their art of Gothic architecture along differing lines,
according to the
genius, culture and taste of the people for whom they worked, and to
of their Master.
of Operative lodges, and the machinery devised for efficient service,
materially in the several countries where the Craft found work.
In none of
this was there seen heresy in the olden days. It was just growth,
shaped by local
conditions. This condition has been repeated in the development of
which likewise, has been shaped by local conditions. The duty today is
days, the building was of stone and mortar, and a perfect structure was
of the Craft.
of Gothic architecture is the crowning glory of our Operative
forefathers. As this
style grew, architecture became more and more a highly technical
science, and the
secrets of the art became the possession of the Craft.
wherever cathedrals, churches and abbeys were being constructed, and
western Europe, blending into its environments, and developing the
lines reflecting the culture and aspirations of its own genius and that
it served, until the Gothic had diverged into many styles, each
reflecting The contribution
which each band of Craftsmen had to make to the Ideal.
days, the development of the Ideal of the Temple of the Brotherhood of
been the aspiration; and its realization will be the crowning glory of
As the possibilities of the Ideal were better appreciated, the
and its triumph was realized to depend more and more upon service and
The secret of its success became the possession of our Craft. It was to
of intolerant sectarianisms, of racial and unworthy prejudices.
Freemasonry organized wherever man sought a higher life. It spread over
of the earth. In each country it developed the Ideal along lines within
and abilities of its people to see the Light. It broadened out to
its appeal the contribution of every race and nationality to a higher
order of things here below.
of the ancient Operative lodges did not excoriate and excommunicate
because, in the perfection of Gothic architecture, some diversified its
to harmonize with the culture and taste of the countries where they
were at work.
They possessed the intelligence to see in these differences, the
each had to make to the perfecting of their art.
Nor did they
excommunicate each other for differences in the method of organizing
their respective lodges. There was more serious and worthwhile work to
As an instance
of our progress, let it be noted that in the days of primitive
the Jew had no part in the Order; but since the eighteenth century, the
been a growing constructive factor and influence for good, in the Craft.
Freemasonry did not include others than Christians. This is still true
in some Grand
Lodges, which Grand Lodge of New York holds high. Here we have another
out of tune with modern best thought. Nevertheless the Craft is slowly
toward the inclusion of all monotheists, in "that Religion in which all
of the Two Great
to the two distinct schools of thought in Speculative Freemasonry, let
consider some of their distinguishing characteristics.
they are the Anglo-Saxon School and the Latin School.
the Anglo-Saxon is the stronger; the numerical ratio between the two
may be six
to one. Grand Lodges, of Anglo-Saxon derivation, exercise jurisdiction
over a larger
area of the world than do Latin Grand Lodges; but this fact does not
importance of those areas where the Latin School is established and
race is widely dispersed over the earth, its contributions to
civilization are beyond
estimate; to the ideals of liberty, instance the help of France to our
"independence"; to the arts and sciences, witness its institutions of
learning, its museums and galleries, which Americans visit by
thousands. Its influence
is far reaching, its vitality without bounds. It has been the
in many lands. The numbers it has contributed to Freemasonry are few
what the Anglo-Saxon has given, but the quality is choice, both in
culture and zeal.
of Masonic International
Freemasonry, in its progress, particularly in North America, under the
of our doctrine of State rights, has developed a system of Masonic
Law, having for purpose the harmonizing and regulating of the
relationship one to
the other, of American Grand Lodges in the matters of sovereignty,
over territory, over Freemasons, and over candidates for Freemasonry.
and the proximity of our States and of Canadian Provinces, our common
and similar aspirations and genius, have favored the advance which we
On this continent, no one of our Grand Lodges would invade the
boundaries of a sister
jurisdiction, or accept its material.
development of Masonic law governing the conduct, or limiting the
powers, of Grand
Lodges has not occurred on the continent of Europe. Over there, Grand
the benefit of their nationals, have established or recognized, as a
matter of course,
lodges and even Grand Lodges, within the conches of other countries
by Grand Lodges. The Mother Grand Lodge of England did this in France,
only a few
years ago. European Grand Lodges have extended this practice to the
it on the ground that, since the Grand Lodges of the world have never
to discuss rules of conduct, and to agree upon laws qualifying the
Grand Lodges, each Grand Lodge still remains a free agent, and a law
Each still is sovereign and supreme, and particularly each is free of
to those Grand Lodges which brand it as Clandestine, and refuse even to
with it unhappy differences of opinion.
Lodges, offenders as we are wont to call them, do not question the
and the advantages of comity, of dignity, and of the spirit of
fraternity, in the
relationship of Grand Lodges. On the contrary they urge it, asking no
do, however, insist that the laws which are to govern their relations
Grand Lodges, shall be laws in the making of which they shall have a
and independent jurisdictions, they refuse to obey laws attempted to be
upon them by Grand Lodges which scorn them, and in the making of which
have had no part.
express approval, in principle, of Masonic law covering the question of
as it has developed in America, and they stand ready to agree upon a
system of laws
covering the relations of Grand Lodges, when made in a congress or
Masonic Grand Lodges duly assembled, where all meet upon the level, act
by the plumb,
and part upon the square.
brothers have called many such conventions; they have invited our
have discourteously ignored the invitations, or declined them with
but with profuse protestations of self-righteousness, and assertions of
would have been if under such provocation, resentment had not been
in anger or in sorrow, mistakes made, or steps taken, which it is now
is no law there is anarchy. We are drifting towards Masonic anarchy.
be more incongruous or grotesque.
Is it not
good Masonic doctrine to be constructive in criticism, slow to condemn,
Masons are not without responsibility for present conditions of chaos
within the Craft.
In the beginning
it was wise to give independence to new Grand Lodges and to call them
It was unwise to neglect them thereafter.
path which our Latin brethren believed themselves compelled to follow,
from our path, we sought to impose upon them conditions for our favor,
broke off all relations when they refused to comply with our ultimatum.
closed the door on all possibility of negotiation and persuasion, on
of helping them in their sorely distracting situation.
If we Anglo-Saxon
Masons had for purpose, in this treatment of our Latin brethren, to
to return to our ideas of the orthodox path, we signally have failed.
body of men will permit itself to be thus coerced.
ultimatums do not comport with Masonic teachings.
was at fault. Instead of standing by our Latin brethren, to support
them in the
crushing difficulties confronting them in their persecution, we left
them to the
mercy of their enemies. We might have helped and influenced them to
had we stood by. Our assumed superiority seems to have blinded us.
Let us not
forget that we, Anglo-Saxons, gave Speculative Freemasonry to the
world. We spread
it far and wide among the peoples and races of the earth; and then we
it, our own child! We permitted it to drift, driven by the hate and
its and of our implacable foe. When assailed by forces stronger than
it, we gave
it no support; and when in dire straits it blundered, as we think, we
cast it out
from our fellowship without laboring with it.
nor institution can ignore responsibility and remain honorable and
Freemasons have a duty which we must perform or suffer discredit. That
duty is to
make every honorable effort to get together, and patiently to work out
solution of our internal problems, so that, once more a united
Brotherhood, in concert,
shoulder to shoulder, we may bear forward and higher Freemasonry's
Ideal of Man's
Brotherhood, of which a suffering humanity stands in such sore need.
But it will
be said we cannot hold communion with those who do not profess a belief
and who do not maintain the Holy Bible upon the lodge altar.
Is this true?
And is it worthy of Freemasonry? Does it comport with the teachings and
of Him who ate and drank with publicans and sinners?
ever are being held between individuals holding the most divergent
either party, by meeting his opponent, being held to have forfeited
enlightened Governments abandoned the practice of breaking off friendly
with other States because of laws for their citizens of which these
did not approve. It is different when one Government does some wrong to
Government or to its nationals. This may justify the breaking of
but not so when what a State does concerns only its own internal
that every Masonic Grand Lodge is sovereign and independent, and that
no interference by foreign Grand Lodges in our internal affairs, by
what logic can
we justify our refusal to discuss, face to face, our differences or
with legitimate sister Grand Lodges based on the conduct of their
Let us not
ignore the truth that these Latin Grand Lodges, which we scorn, have
made no attack
on our sovereignty, have in no way injured our members, nor violated
law to which they have given sanction. They have not declared that they
recognize Freemasons who do believe in God. They hold that they have no
concern themselves with man's religious beliefs. They were driven to
this by the
propaganda of the Catholic Church, but they have gone no farther than
to say that
they do not make belief an essential to initiation, and they point out
that no such
test is called for in the Anderson, or First Constitution, of the
Mother Grand Lodge.
It is regrettable
that this is the fact. We are right in our stand that the development
in harmony with the religious principles taught and exemplified by
for far greater happiness in the human family, than possibly can
truth. Let it be remembered however that nothing in Latin Freemasonry
opposes belief in God, or the inspiration of Holy Bible. Let it be
no Latin Grand Lodge preaches atheism, or ungodliness, but that all of
for the highest conception of morality as the rule of conduct, and
insist that real
service to man and brotherhood shall precede advancement to each higher
of the Bigness
of New York’s Past Grand Masters
has shown fine spirit in quoting liberally from the pronouncements of
as Grand Masters of New York, on the duty and opportunity of the Craft
the world, in these troublous times. What Past Grand Masters Farmer,
Tompkins have said and done for the unification of Freemasonry the
world over in
co-operative effort to promote its Ideal of Brotherhood, have made
their names immortal
in the annals of the Craft. They pointed the way and laid the
foundation. All honor
"Build, for the world is sick
For building, not for wrecking, swing your blade."
It is to
be hoped that all that these great brothers have said upon this great
be read and considered; the time will be well spent.
one of them has said or done justified the conclusion that he expected
to be attained in a single year.
only, measures the membership of the Grand Lodge of New York in the
Association. It voted to consummate its membership in May, 1923. It was
in full membership in September, 1923. It was withdrawn as a member by
Rowan in August, 1924. As a member it attended no regular meeting of
the one meeting it was privileged to attend was a special meeting, the
of which was limited to the matters in its call.
So much for
the opportunities it has had to do constructive work.
of the first gathering at Geneva in 1921 when, so hopefully, a little
the foundation for the Masonic International Association and for a
of things in our Fraternity, has been well described by Past Grand
S. Tompkins. That spirit has grown!
for service in and through the Masonic International Association, has
presented by Past Grand Master Robert H. Robinson. It is greater today!
and credit of the inspiration, and of having the courage to respond to
to duty in the broad spirit of Masonic Love, is with Past Grand Master
Farmer. All hail to him, and to his co-workers of vision! They have
Hall of Fame and will think twice before they recant.
of A Narrower
Rowan is right when he points out that the Constitution of the Masonic
Association does not give it power:
To protest the massacre of
women and children
The slaughter of Boy Scouts, and
Fratricidal struggles unworthy
of our civilization
To express interest in the fate
of suffering people like the Armenians, persecuted
unto death for their religious faith; the Jews when the victims of
To express regret that events
of a political nature have kept our Hungarian
brethren from their labors.
To express the hope that a more
complete understanding by the Hungarian Government
of the true character of Hungarian Freemasonry may result in its soon
openly, the cause of humanity;
To express the hope that
conflicts between peoples may be decided by a Court
of International Jurisdiction, and the calamity of war ended;
To express the belief that
Freemasonry, however represented, has, for an
object, the creation of a spirit of fraternity between peoples, and to
war on war.
It is a fact
that no Grand Lodge was bound by anything the delegates to the Masonic
Association did in reference to these matters, and every Grand Lodge is
disavow the action taken, or dissent from the Masonic aspiration
International Association has suggestive functions only. But these sad
while a group of Freemasons are nearing or are in session, what should
Forget the Landmarks, the great Ideal, and supinely remain silent, or
Man's Brotherhood, and the duty which man owes to man?
if its professions are more than sham pretensions, will not permit
to be dubbed "political," to place them outside the pale of its
or to escape its wrath; massacres, for instance!
political movement were to be started with us, to turn over the control
of our public
school system to some church, is it not probable that the Fraternity
would be heard
from in no uncertain terms, Bro. Rowan and his political scruples to
alter cases. Witness the "Boston Tea Party."
What is "politics"
in any great crisis, of needs be must be left to the high conscience of
Lodge affected; and other Grand Lodges should be slow to condemn.
of Shadows Which
Rowan is disturbed:
Because a telegram of
felicitations was ordered sent to a brother who had
won a prize of one hundred thousand francs for an article on Peace.
the world want peace?
Because sundry appeals for
justice and the right to live, addressed to the
Masonic International Association, were passed on to the League of
Nations, of which
he points out, the United States has refused to become a member.
disposition could have been made of them?
not told, somewhere, of their duty to Brother Man in like destitute
Because someone suggested it
might be useful to study theoretically, "academically,"
what labor is.
Is not knowledge of the truth helpful?
Because a delegate, attached to
the International Bureau of Labor of the
League of Nations, invited the delegates to the Masonic International
to visit that Bureau.
Freemason resent a hospitable invitation to him and his brethren in a
to visit institutions of educational interest which may be there?
Rowan seems alarmed because someone or another of the delegates of the
Grand Jurisdictions advanced sundry proposals, to his way of thinking
and which the Congress did not adopt, evidently sharing his view; and
the peril in this.
I agree with
him, there is danger here. I confess that I know but one way to
minimize that danger,
and finally to eliminate it, and that is by doing our part as Brothers
in our Universal
Brotherhood; by attending its International Congresses, and through
not by idle, futile threats, and long range denunciations, but by
and logic, prove our views the wiser, and the better suited for the
service of humanity.
how silly it would be, to pronounce the Government of the United States
and useless, because of the foolish things which individual members of
say, and have said or done, in our Legislative Halls!
not some of this sort of thing going on in the early days of our
still is. Great oaks from little acorns grow.
build by tearing down, advance by going backward!
Is it not
our duty to make the most of what is, and to try to improve it, rather
than to destroy
it, without providing something better?
of Honest Toil
Just a word
with reference to the question of work which Grand Master Rowan seems
with some organized labor question or difficulty, the nature of which
he does not
Masonic International Association was given birth, the world's recovery
effects of the Great War was retarded by the inability of people to
to steady work. Nerves were at too high a tension.
International Association inserted in its principles the declaration:
"Freemasonry, deeming work to
be one of
the essential duties of men, honors equally those who toil with their
those given intellectual pursuits."
of this was to help bridge the gap between classes, and lessen jealousy
by proclaiming anew the Landmark of the dignity of honest toil.
one challenges the axiomatic truth that happiness and the world's
welfare are dependent
upon work! True, these are days when workmen combine for the
maintenance of their
rights, which is proper. Labor Unions are here. They have a useful
service to perform.
They cannot be gotten rid of excepting by a class war, which would be
Is it not better for us all to study and seek to understand the capital
question, so that with understanding, as individuals, we may aid
opinion to promote fair play between these two great and essential
of What Might
today are composed of a wonderful aggregation of sterling men,
attracted to Freemasonry
by its Ideal, the Brotherhood of Man; by its field, the world; by its
the promotion of peace on earth.
Of all organized
groupments of men, Freemasonry alone makes equal appeal to men of every
to no one dominance, it urges all men to co-operate, each in his own
sphere of usefulness,
for the common welfare and happiness.
cannot triumph, excepting Freemasons get together on terms of brotherly
and in the spirit of charity for all and malice towards none. If this
be their will,
we shall be doing God's work; if it be not their will, what is there to
Freemasonry from drifting into and becoming a vainglorious mutual
kept alive by the sale of valueless titles and sham honors to cheap men
shine nowhere else, and who, following false gods, will be wasting time
money which they cannot afford, to the injury of their family and
Due to a
trend, the Freemason is often misled; and misled, he too often loses
his sense of
not permit consideration, item by item, of all the points which Bro.
The writer has sought to group some of the more important of them.
that this great subject is now open to discussion, and, in course of
time, to a
verdict which will reflect the present day policy of the Craft in
the big, the broad, the generous purpose of the Fathers, in due time,
that their vision will be vindicated. As we have boasted, so it will be
and the boast made true, that in our times as in theirs, Freemasonry's
to unite men of every race, nationality and religion, without regard to
wealth or station, "provided they be good men and true, men of honor
passes over without comment the withdrawal by Grand Master Rowan of the
of New York from the Masonic International Association.
That is a
matter of local politics. Greater the pity!
Rowan acted, of course, according to his lights, both when he withdrew
Lodge of New York from the Masonic International Association, and when
it from the Masonic Service Association of the United States.
be magnificent, New York is magnificent!
And now for
a brief summary of a subject here most inadequately presented, in fact
but upon which, let us have all the light there is to shed.
close our eyes to the fact that there exist two great schools of
the Masonic Fraternity. That due to lack of contacts, association and
these two schools are drifting farther and farther apart and nearer and
open warfare. Surely we know the bitterness and the relentlessness with
feuds are waged.
In a general
way, one of these two schools represents the Anglo-Saxon race and the
Latin race. The influence of these two races leads civilization, and
has it in its
within these two great divisions of men strive, in their Masonic way,
to bring them
together in co-operative brotherly effort for the promotion of peace
and the progress
of civilization, or shall they permit them to drift further apart, and
to the inevitable
clash, if differences be not reconciled and wounds healed?
the threatened crisis is cowardly. Let us not cry peace when there is
Men of great soul throughout the world see the danger, and for the sake
of the peace
of the world are striving for friendly co-operation between the two
endeavor was Freemasonry's task in the inspired plan of our
Forefathers. This was
its great ideal. This was Freemasonry's mission! Its excuse for being!
We cannot repudiate the past without betrayal. We must go forward,
die, and rot!
International Association is an existing thing; it is far from perfect
but it is
a beginning, giving expression to a great aspiration. It is a present
agency confronting Anglo-Saxon Freemasonry either as a means to make a
to peace within and without the Craft, or as a force to be reckoned
with. The Association
embraces within its membership nearly all the Latin Grand Lodges of the
some of those on the border line between the two schools, and Holland
and New York,
of the Anglo-Saxon School. It promises to live. Its foundation is safe.
contacts without recognition. Its meetings are not "Masonic
Its founders sought to respect sensitive susceptibilities.
of these two schools in Freemasonry working together in and through the
can make for one Freemasonry the world over. Whether Anglo-Saxon
big and broad enough, and its conception of Freemasonry is godly
enough, to see
the light and play the great role, time will tell. If it fails to rise
to this inspiring
task, there will be two systems of Freemasonry in the world, locked in
each excoriating and excommunicating the other, and dividing races,
and religions, instead of uniting men and destroying divisions.
it be? One system of Freemasonry, and peace, or two systems of
Freemasonry and war?
The momentous decision rests with the Craft, not with any Grand Master
or Past Grand
Bro. Carl A. Foss
National Secretary of the
Fraternity of Square and Compass, New York
IN 1825 the
Kappa Alpha Society was founded at Union College and, in many respects,
was a copy
of the Phi Beta Kappa that had been established at Union eight years
two years, two other fraternities, Sigma Phi on March 4, 1827, and
Delta Phi on
Nov. 18, 1827, were established. There were a number of other college
founded at other colleges about this time, but we shall speak only of
whose example and influence have arisen the large number of college
today. Calling itself the Alpha of New York in 1831, Sigma Phi
established a Beta
chapter at Hamilton College (Clinton, N. Y.). This resulted in Alpha
Delta Phi being
established at Hamilton one year later and, in November, 1833, Psi
Upsilon was founded
at Union. Also in 1833 Kappa Alpha placed a chapter at Williams College
Mass.) and this was followed one year later by a third chapter of Sigma
established at Williams. In 1837 the Mystical Seven fraternity was
founded at Wesleyan
College (Middletown, Conn.). In 1835 Alpha Delta Phi established its
at Miami University (Oxford, Ohio) and, in 1839, Beta Theta Pi, the
fraternity to be founded, was established at Miami to compete with the
Delta Phi. In 1841, the Mystical Seven fraternity (without a Greek name
to its predecessors in the college world) established a chapter at
(then at Oxford, Ga., and since removed to Atlanta) and, in 1844,
was established at Franklin College, now the University of Georgia, at
extension of the Mystical Seven fraternity to the south led to the
founding of W.
W. W., or Rainbow Society. Neither the Mystical Seven nor W. W. W.
as separate societies. From these beginnings have come the present
system. In almost every case, the foundation of a new fraternity has
been the result
of the establishment of a new chapter of an existing fraternity and
there has been
considerable similarity in the character of the organizations.
fraternities, even including Delta Upsilon which was founded as an
at Williams in 1834, are more or less secret. We say "less" for during
the course of many years of college rivalry, chapters have stolen the
other fraternities and the secrecy is more theoretical than actual,
course, attendance at meetings is limited to members and business
such meetings is not known to others. Most of the social fraternities
to such limits, in membership and wealth, that secretaries, office and
stenographers, inspectors and editors are employed, a far cry from the
the work was done by the students themselves.
for the Leading
Ten Are Given
To give some
idea of the standing of these college fraternities a list is given
below of the
ten largest fraternities to-day in point of membership. (The figures
are for 1923
and are taken from Baird’s Manual.)
of Fraternity – Founded at
Theta Pi, Miami University
Delta Theta, Miami University
Alpha Epsilon, U. of Alabama
Sigma, U. of Virginia
Chi, Miami University
Gamma Delta, Jefferson College
Kappa Epsilon, Yale College
Tau Delta, Bethany College
Nu, Virginia Mil. Inst.
Tau Omega, Virginia Mil. Inst.
should be remembered that the above membership figures do not refer to
but to the actual number initiated from the establishment of the
It will be
observed that none of the earliest fraternities are included in the
above list and
the reason is found in the intense conservatism of the societies
founded in the
east. Delta Kappa Epsilon is the only one that had a vision of the
America to come
outside of the section in which it was born.
In 1869 there
was founded at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) the first
fraternity. This was Phi Delta Phi, which was limited in membership to
the profession of law. Since then fraternities have been founded for
profession under the sun. There are fraternities for chemistry
women medical students, male medical students, commercial, dental,
homeopathic medical, women educational, pharmaceutical, women musical,
women osteopathic, art, women normal, scientific, public speaking and
and oratorical, women legal, physical education, home economics,
and metallurgy, dramatic, and engineering students. Many of the
have a large number of professional fraternities, notably legal and
which they are eligible for membership. The principal characteristic of
between the social and the professional fraternity is that one can only
one social fraternity, but he can belong to as many professional
of the same profession) as may care to invite him, and he can also
belong to a social
fraternity as well as the professional fraternity. The membership of
is confined, principally, to the upper classmen.
In very few
cases do the members of a professional fraternity live together in a
Nearly all of the chapters of social fraternities maintain homes in
which the members
live, and because of this fact and that many of the members of the
societies are also members of the social fraternities, the former could
chapter houses with the small number not already living in fraternity
are the honorary fraternities, and of these there are a couple of
dozen. Among them
must be included Phi Beta Kappa, of the highest rank; Sigma Xi, an
honor society for scientific students, and others of less and, in some
doubtful merit. We have just learned of a college organization founded
Masonic college students, by membership, who live up to the principles
while in college. We have always thought that Freemasonry honored its
by election to office or, in the case of the Scottish Rite, election to
body of the Rite; or else one was honored by the esteem in which he was
his brother members; but, seemingly, to some it may appear to be an
honor to be elected to membership in another organization.
and Cons Are Discussed
In the course
of years through which the college fraternity system has existed there
praise and condemnation, loyalty of the highest quality from its
members and bitter
opposition from its enemies. With no exceptions that we know of, the
the Greek-letter fraternities have been those who have not belonged to
Against the college fraternities has been raised the cry of undemocracy
and in some
cases the charge has been well founded. However, on the whole, the
system is worthy of existence and is controlled by serious minded men
of high character
and citizenship. Attacks have, however, led to the banishing of college
at the state institutions in South Carolina and Mississippi and, at the
of Arkansas, members of college fraternities are not eligible for
is whether fraternities, intercollegiate in character, shall exist, or
no connection with any organization at another institution. The
evidence seems to
bear with the fraternities. These are controlled, almost entirely, by
being more mature than undergraduates, are not likely to permit things
to go on
that would be permitted in a club, the only control of which is
exercised by the
members in college. Many of the fraternities exercise a control that
would be impossible
for a local club to' assert. The Greek-letter fraternity to which the
has, for many years, enforced an edict, under penalty of expulsion,
that no member
shall gamble in a chapter house or shall bring liquor into that house
a woman therein for immoral purposes. For some years prior to the
adoption of the
18th Amendment to the Federal Constitution, Delta Tau Delta made a
against drinking among college men. Other fraternities have made
to increase the scholarship of their members.
to the condemnation of being undemocratic it must be conceded there is
truth in the assertion. The system of "bidding" is, in the first place,
the principal cause and considerable undemocracy will continue so long
controls the manner of election to membership. This is especially true
"bidding" is practiced on boys who have just landed at college, their
true characteristics being almost unknown to the members of the various
Another evil is occasioned by the social fraternities laying too great
upon the social qualities of the candidates. Social heroes are not
fraternity brothers in other characteristics. However, it is noticeable
there are so many fraternities in an institution that considerable
and a large percentage of the student body belongs to the fraternities,
little cause for charging the societies with lack of democracy. At
Lee University (Lexington, Va.), with over twenty social fraternities
for a student
body of about 600, students are invited to join fraternities even when
only a year remaining in college. The charge of undemocracy can only be
where college fraternities do all of their "bidding" in the first week
of the freshman year and later refuse to take in students, no matter
they may be, after they have made a name for themselves in college.
Was Founded In 1904
limited to Masons have existed in American colleges for years but,
until 1904, these
were entirely local Masonic clubs; no intercollegiate organization
the founding of The Acacia Fraternity at the University of Michigan in
the present time, Acacia has 27 active chapters, a membership of 6,130,
valued at $830,000. At some time prior to 1917, Acacia adopted the
college Masons who were members of Greek-letter social fraternities
would no longer
be eligible to membership. Acacia practices "bidding" and is considered
a rival of the Greek-letter social fraternities, being a member of the
Conference, which accepts as members only those college societies that
Its chapters are approximately of the same size as those of the
and, consequently, only a limited number of the Masonic students in an
can become Acacians.
intercollegiate Masonic fraternity to be founded was Square and
Compass. Its establishment
was due directly to Acacia's prohibition against having as members any
were already members of social Greek-letter fraternities. In 1916-17,
Club at Washington and Lee University, wishing to strengthen itself and
the interest of its members, set out to petition Acacia for a charter,
itself unable to do so with success on account of the large proportion
fraternity members in the club. (It should be remembered that whereas
age of college freshmen is perhaps eighteen or nineteen, he is not
eligible to become
a Mason until he is twenty-one. It is, therefore, natural that he
a Greek-letter fraternity member if he has the opportunity.)
Consequently, the club
determined to organize another intercollegiate Masonic society, which
it did. The
organization laid dormant during the War and the second chapter (called
was not founded until 1920. Since then the fraternity has grown rapidly
has entered 47 institutions all over the country, publishes a magazine,
has a paid
secretary, and property of a value of about $75,000. Square and Compass
extraordinarily successful because the local Masonic clubs have quickly
advantage of the intercollegiate form of government offered by Square
This fraternity does not practice "bidding" but any Master Mason who is
eligible to membership on account of his connection with the
institution where Square
and Compass is established may apply for membership, and his
application can only
be rejected by a majority vote based on un-Masonic conduct.
formerly, an organization known as The Trowel Fraternity, membership in
limited to Masonic students in dental schools. Its scope was confined
to the Pacific
coast, and whether it is still in existence is not known. Another
organization has recently been founded that has two chapters. It
There are in addition to these perhaps a hundred or more local college
Many of them are in good condition, have homes and the loyalty of their
However, most of them do not have a strong, continued existence.
We know of
no chapters of the Order of Builders or of the De Molay being
established at an
educational institution with membership limited to the students, but
when a chapter
is established in a college town, a large proportion of the membership
made up of college students. At Central College (Fayette, Mo.) no
permitted and so the local chapter of the Order of De Molay has taken
on very much
of the character of a college fraternity.
we wish to assert that, with the exception of Freemasonry, no
such undiluted loyalty from its members as the American college
of what is said about it, the college fraternity must have features of
order to make men, grown old and engrossed in the affairs of the
willing to take of their time to devote it to an organization they
ago. And many of them have gone even further; they have given of their
erect costly fraternity houses that provide a home for the youngsters
of today and
tomorrow. For college men and for those who have not been privileged to
go to college,
the American college fraternity is a subject of increasing attraction,
one reads. For many, the college fraternity has started the interest
that has led
to membership and active interest in the Freemasonry of the years to
NOTE ‒ The
writer wishes to express his thanks for the assistance obtained from
of American College Fraternities for the preparation of this article.
For one interested
in the subject, no better or more trustworthy book on the American
system can be obtained. The book is published by James T. Brown, 363
West 20th St.,
New York city. Another publication of value to those interested is
Exchange, a quarterly, published at Menasha, Wisconsin.
Grace E. Hall.
keen blade makes an open wound
And crimson stains are bright,
And laws are made for blade and blood,
To keep man's conduct right
But what of those who stab and slay
A human heart ‒ and go away?
An open wound is red and raw
And everyone may see
And those who use a knife, the law
Will punish lawfully;
But those who only stab the heart
May strike in safety and depart.
A keen blade makes an open wound
A cruel wound and red
And every man will cry that law
Upon its course be sped;
But souls are murdered everywhere
And men but smile and call it fair.
Bro. Phil A. Roth, Wisconsin
upon our urgent request that Bro. Roth stole time from his pressing
work as Manager
of the Masonic Service Bureau Milwaukee, Wis., to prepare this paper on
so dear to his own heart and so close to the conscience of the American
desiring further light on the rapid development of organized Masonic
address Bro. Roth at Scottish Rite Cathedral 470 Van Buren St.,
service is a great, if not the greatest, word in our vocabulary.
is ennobling and helps to build a stronger manhood.
is one of the meanest of words. Selfishness in mankind breeds unrest in
and stimulates ignorable thoughts, in which is nourished evil and vice.
as you may observe from the diagrams below, narrows down to misery and
is that prevailing thought which brings forth and nourishes
aggrandizement ‒ self-admiration
‒ power-domination and harshness, and which develops into
vanity-speculation ‒ immorality
and conceit. Out of these grow jealousy-degradation, and crime. The
results of these
habits are punishment and suffering ending inevitably in misery and
finally in death.
Thus we can plainly realize and understand how dreadful and full of woe
lives of those unhappy mortals who allow that ugly word selfishness to
their existence and to become a part of their thoughts and actions.
Now let us
study the word "Service." It is a most commendable virtue to be devoted
to God, to our glorious country, and to practice and exemplify kindness
occasion. In doing that we learn a deep reverence for God in all His
works, to be
obedient and loyal to the laws of our Government, to esteem our
friends, to love
our neighbor, and to respect ourselves.
our neighbor we may live in peacefulness; by our reverence to God we
minds and bodies of the "vices and superfluities of life," and we
our way to the path of righteousness and happiness. Obedience and
loyalty to our
Constitution and flag brings tranquility and self-respect and builds
Possessing these splendid attributes, we find the peace-loving neighbor
willing to favor and serve us, to find employment for us when we need
it, and to
aid and assist in every form. A clean conscience is ever ready to
protect and provide
relief, which invariably develops honesty of purpose, happiness and
we find that in the practice of these virtues we have built a pure
highest and most beautiful gift to man.
therefore, embodies everything that is good and clean and that makes
living. It is the key to the road that leads to the establishment of
of Man and the recognition of the Fatherhood of God. Service is the
the Holy Bible; we can find no clearer and better definition for the
word than is
contained in the Golden Rule. In Service we find all that is beautiful
in the eyes
of God and Man; all that makes man happy and content, the straight path
haven of eternal peace, "that house not made with hands, eternal in the
So, in our
time-honored Institution, we discover much use for service. By service
our hearts and consciences to observe, and to alleviate the troubles,
and misery of those less fortunate than we; by it we discern the
of real Masonry, applied in a practical way. What then are all our
teachings, beautiful phraseology, the high ideals, and many wise
therein unless they are brought into practical wholesome effect? To do
to the honor and glory of our Fraternity, we must go outside of the
four walls of
the Temple. It is well indeed to receive our instructions there, but it
better and more beneficent by far, to mix and mingle with the multitude
to feel the pulse of our brother away from the environments of the
lodge room, and
by reminding him of his errors.
Must Be Applied
practice in Freemasonry are what theory and existing practice are in
Ritual is our theory, and that theory must be put to practical test
before it becomes
a useful factor. In these days of progress and advancement, of keen
and unscrupulous men it is essential that we come forth from our
our burden, and make our usefulness felt, if not seen. This does not
mean to alter
our ancient landmarks or our laws, to engage in religious disputes, or
political strife: but in the performance of service to mankind to
inculcate by example
a correct and moral code of living to elevate the unfortunate ones to a
of life, and to inspire them with the loftiest ideals of man.
to radiate the effects of these constructive attributes among the
masses in the
most effectual way, we are obliged to follow the rule of modern
progress ‒ that
is, organization. The average man or woman is too busy in these
to spread individually the lessons they have learned. Even if this were
it is a fact that a great portion possess neither tact nor influence to
the desired results. For this reason organization into bureaus or
concentrate the forces, and the appointment as managers such men as are
of carrying out this work has been found the most expedient, practical,
and economical manner of dispensing Masonic Service to the members of
and others of the human family. Hence the creation of Relief Boards,
and Service Bureaus. Relief Boards have long existed. They were
pioneers, and for
generations gave needed relief to the unfortunate and deserving needy.
But in the
march of progress and time, there was found a need for another highly
Service ‒ that of Employment. This new branch of Service is very
should be adjudged as highly as Relief. You may ask why? Because if a
a brother Mason, can be spared the humiliation of accepting relief or
can better maintain the dignity of his manhood, keep himself aloof from
difficulties, and hold the respect of his family and friends. Then why
a Brother to help Himself?" and accord him the highest quality of
within our power.
your mind the peace and contentment of him whom you have aided to help
thereby enabling him to retain his self-respect, independence and
manhood. It impresses
him with the importance of self-sacrifice, rather than accepting
out meagerly! Think of the joy and happiness that will come to those
that are near
and dear to him, those that are dependent upon his efforts for the
the home! How much better to stimulate the mind of a brother to greater
to help himself than to make him dependent on charity!
Should Avoid Humiliation
and thousands of our brethren, their widows, daughters and minor sons
in employment annually by our Masonic Employment or Service Bureaus.
What does this
signify? That thousands have been spared humiliation and hardship,
rightful places as head of families, have been able to provide the
life and thereby bring happiness into the homes, where before there
firesides and despair. Not only that, but thousands of dollars have
been saved lodge
treasuries and the work of Relief Boards has been reduced accordingly.
Is it not
constructive work that helps a brother to his feet, that starts him out
the highway of life with quickened aspirations and better equipped to
meet the stern
realities of life? These Bureaus create, in this new era of progressive
conditions for the Craft. They are helpful in aiding to rebuild manhood
and to re-establish broken homes. In congested cities and districts,
where the Masonic
population is naturally larger, where misfortune and distress are
always more prevalent,
it has been deemed necessary and judicious to consolidate Relief and
Boards under the name of Service Bureaus. First, because they can be
a more economical basis, and second, the bureau that combines the work
of both boards
can carry on the work more efficiently, and expedite the work of
putting a brother
back on his feet, since both wants of a brother in such unfortunate
can be administered to by the same agency.
is extended, employment is usually necessary to overcome the
is beautiful indeed yet it is only temporary aid, while employment
furnishes a service
that is usually lasting. Nor does the service of such a bureau end
here. The Masonic
Service Bureau of Wisconsin, with main offices in the Scottish Rite
Milwaukee, furnished us an example. There the needy sojourner finds
given gratuitously by a staff of physicians and surgeons, who
their services for the benefit of those who are unable to pay. Likewise
a staff of lawyers, who handle the legal end of the Service Bureau free
as well as a staff of dentists who aid and assist along their lines.
are made with four hotels where food and shelter for hungry, destitute,
wanderers is furnished until communication with their respective lodges
can be had.
Masonic physicians and Masonic hospital employees report sick
sojourners, so that
flowers and visits can be arranged for, which help to cheer the sick
These Service Bureaus are actually Masonic advisory stations, places to
and women, husbands and wives, widows and children, sons and daughters
their business and employment problems, their private, fraternal and
The Bureau provides legal and material aid for the protection of women
who are brought into the courts.
In so doing,
Masonic Bureaus have reached the widows and orphans of deceased
the needy who through pride, misfortune or disability did not seek the
of their brethren, reached the aged, the weak and the wanderer, the
does not attend his lodge, and creates a renewed interest in the
Fraternity in the
hearts of many Masons, whose membership meant only the payment of
Harmon Is Quoted
In all their
purposes, these Service Bureaus aim to be of service to the Masonic
and their dependents. Their work, as such, is practical as well as
the slacker who fails to back these Bureaus and give them his hearty
would direct attention to the remarks of Bro. Harmon, President of the
Employment Bureau, in his 1919 report as follows:
a small degree some of our bodies look upon the work of the Bureau from
of benefit alone to their individual members, overlooking the one great
of Masonry, that of universal helpfulness to all Masons and their
the past, men have looked too frequently upon such institutions as this
standpoints of indifferent interest, which becomes so confusing in
effect as to
hamper or retard its very existence; but if one will seek out its aims
and look upon its ideals, rather than the commercial element of its
beyond any ambitions which it serves, and away from the clouds of
poverty and need
which it uplifts, they will see shining the Light of Eternal Truth,
that Truth guided
by the Almighty Hand, which inspires and reaches into our hearts,
brotherly love and relief the means to make others happy."
Bureaus in active service throughout Freemasonry there is no good
reason why any
brother or his family should ever be a stranger in a strange land, or
shelter or friends, wherever they may roam. Of course much depends upon
in charge of such a Service Bureau. He should of necessity be a mature
and keen of judgment, proficient in the study of human nature to enable
him to distinguish
the impostor from the worthy man, and have ability to serve the right
the proper time and in the proper way. Andrew Carnegie is quoted as
most difficult thing to do is to spend money properly."
Masters of lodges changing annually, does it not follow that the
managers of such
Bureaus become, better educated by their continued experience, perform
service, better detect the worthy from the unworthy and give advice,
sympathy whenever and wherever it is needed than the Worshipful Master
who is brought
face to face with these problems only occasionally? Even granting that
is at all able to handle such cases, has he the time, the patience, the
methods and connections properly to care for the unfortunate sojourner,
or his children? I dare say he has not. Then who is there to do it?
Only the Service
We must remember
that there are many forms of Service daily rendered by these Bureaus
numerous to mention, such as writing letters for those who have a claim
on us, rendering
information to lodges and sojourners residing in other jurisdictions,
men, wives, sons and daughters, caring for, and leading back to the
paths of rectitude,
those who are traveling the road of destruction. Such a case came to
recently when a weeping, distracted and heartbroken widow and mother in
appeared at the Service Bureau begging its assistance to save her minor
had fallen into the clutches of the California law. A message and
to the worthy manager of the Stockton Bureau brought him on the job. He
of the case, saved the boy from a possible prison sentence, gave him
and fatherly advice and put him to work. The boy is now doing well. You
imagine, dear reader, how this poor mother's suffering heart was
changed to extreme
joy and happiness. Could we have done anything more beautiful, more
or more gratifying to our mind, than that of saving this boy to that
mother and widow? Put yourself in her place, and then judge. This is
one of many
similar cases on the records of the various Service Bureaus.
for Boys Are Commended
Service Bureau in Chicago, under the management of our good Bro. Arthur
and that in Kansas City, under the able management of our friend and
S. Land, every credit due them for leading our youths into the paths of
and righteousness by organizing the Order of Builders and the Order of
respectively. What a wonderful work! this trying to make real men out
of the boys,
taking them in hand in that tender age when they are easy prey and most
to all the vices of life, to instruct them carefully in the proper code
and teach them to honor father and mother; especially the mother, the
and best friend man ever had! This work is a service not only to the
to the country.
necessity of the Service Bureau is becoming more apparent is evidenced
ever increasing numbers. As previously stated, Relief Boards have been
for many years and there are now known to be 143 in the United States,
over 38 states. Prior to 1905 Employment Bureaus were practically
that time the Chicago, Cleveland and Cincinnati Bureaus sprang into
then the number has increased to thirty. Of these New York and New
Jersey have state
organizations divided into districts, under one head. This plan has
in Wisconsin where several districts have already been started; and we
that the State of Washington is contemplating doing the same. This is
best mode of conducting Masonic Service. No one city can properly reach
of the state; even if that were possible the manager even with
additional help could
scarcely devote enough time to any one district, except the home
office, to conduct
its work properly and efficiently. Therefore, the New York and New
where each district has its own manager, subject to the orders of the
will, in all probability, become the popular one to follow.
the plan may be, the members of our Brotherhood should give these
unified support. No lay member, however versed he may be in Masonic
ever know how much splendid, efficient and beneficent work is being
By the operation of these Bureaus we are enabled, as a body, to
practice what we
preach in our Ritual. We are in a position to aid, support, assist and
to our teaching in a friendly, brotherly way. We can better protect and
our members, their widows and orphans, and throw a broader mantle of
those in dire need.
Eye of God is surely upon us in this beneficent work; in supporting
in the performance of these duties of Brotherly love and affection, you
thanks and appreciation of the greatest and best Fraternity ever
created by man,
our good old F. & A. M.
I wish to
note the following twelve Bureaus which in 1918 placed 7,886 applicants
Buffalo, Rochester, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago Pittsburgh, Jersey
Francisco, Philadelphia, Columbus and Milwaukee.
only four years later, Buffalo, Cleveland, Chicago, Cincinnati, Kansas
Angeles, Jersey City, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Portland, Seattle,
twelve Bureaus, placed 16,578 in employment.
In 1918 there
were seventeen Employment Bureaus among the Craft.
In 1924 there
were thirty such Bureaus in operation.
I know definitely
that the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts is contemplating the formation of
such a Bureau
at the time of writing this.
show a healthy condition of Employment Bureaus, and demonstrate their
value to Masonic
brethren and their families. I predict that within a few short years
will boast of several like organizations within their Jurisdiction, and
the practical application of Freemasonry.
Experiences Of 1924
Bro. Charles S. Lobingier,
General Honorary, Deputy and Legate of the Supreme Council in China,
is a name well known in the Craft, especially among Scottish Rite
brethren. He has
a number of contributions to The Builder to his credit, among them
being a memorable
article in the first volume, December, 1915, on "Masonry in 'The Temple
Heaven.'" Bro. Lobingier is a life member of the National Masonic
has lived a score of years in the Far East, a long furlough in the
an interesting change. While life on the other side of the globe has
there are also certain disadvantages, not the least of which is the
attend regularly our great national gatherings, notably those of the
There, for example, is the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons
of the United
States, representing, probably, the largest single Masonic unit in the
meets triennially and unless the furlough of a Far-easterner happens to
that particular year, he is "out of luck". On several previous
I had planned to attend this great gathering but something had always
So in planning my furlough this time, the 1924 Convocation was among my
that, just before sailing for home, I received a letter from my good
Graff M. Acklin, 33d, asking Mrs. Lobingier and me to join him and his
in an automobile tour to Portland, Maine, where the Convocation was to
and through New England. When the time came to start I was in New York
there on Sept. 3 to join the Acklins and Mrs. Lobingier, who had been
the West, at Lake George. A daylight voyage up the Hudson, with its
beauties, brought me to Albany, where I spent the night, taking the
next morning for Lake George via Schenectady and Saratoga, for the
a better opportunity than the train to view a rural region like that.
is a picturesque hamlet situated at the foot of the lake of that name,
with a rather
famous hotel, the Fort William Henry, where we spent the night. Leaving
next morning the region so full of historic scenes of the French and
we proceeded by automobile across Vermont and the Connecticut River and
far north as Woodsville, N. H.
Glimpse of Dartmouth
middle of the afternoon we reached Hanover, the seat of Dartmouth
College, the campus
of which we halted to view. We were surprised at the number and size of
which would do credit to a university, although Dartmouth has never
which is still the principal one of higher learning in New Hampshire
newer State University at Durham promises to become a successful
a rather unique history. It was the outgrowth of "an Indian charity
founded about 1754 by Dr. Eleazar Wheelock, who, some fifteen years
the assistance of the Earl of Dartmouth, obtained a charter from King
"for Dartmouth College, for the education and instruction of youth of
tribes * * * and also of English youth and any others." (Note 1) The
youth long since vanished and the English youth never attended. But
"others", in successive and expanding generations of American boys,
taken full advantage of the privileges thus offered. We were told that
of accommodations had long since been reached and that great numbers of
had to be turned away every year. A recent gift of $100,000 to the
college may help
to relieve the congestion.
granted on the eve of the Revolution was held, a generation later, not
only to have
been unaffected by that cataclysm but to be protected from any
by the clause of the Federal Constitution (Note 2) forbidding a state
any law impairing the obligation of contracts". This case (No. 3) was
of one of Chief Justice Marshall's most famous decisions; viz., that a
a contract ‒ and the institution was represented by its most
Daniel Webster ‒ who, in the course of his argument, observed of his
"It is a small college but there are those who love it."
day our route lay through that portion of the granite state which
contains its most
celebrated scenery. We visited successively Franconia Notch and the
of the Mountain", a stone figure resembling the human face and
the summit of a mountain which has since been taken over as a state
park. We also
visited "The Flume," a narrow passage about a half mile long between
walls of rock, through which flows a mountain torrent. In the West this
called a "canon" (e. g., Clear Creek, near Denver), and though it
many visitors it is not to be compared with the Pagsanjan Gorge in the
nor with the Royal Gorge of Colorado.
In the afternoon
we found ourselves in sight of the "Presidential" mountain range.
there are others like Mt. Adams and Mt. Jefferson, its most famous peak
is Mt. Washington,
already then covered with snow, to whose base we approached and watched
descend on the cog railway and discharge its passengers, but we did not
Turning then toward the seacoast we passed through Bretton Woods and
In New England
the term "notch" appears to be used in much the same sense as the
"canon," and there are many "notches." I know one in Sandgate,
VT., which, the neighbors are fond of telling, was once visited by
chosen for the last triennial of the General Grand Chapter was the
Maine and the birthplace of the poet, Longfellow, who sings in his poem
"Often I think of the beautiful
That is seated by the sea;
Often in thought go up and down
The pleasant streets of the dear old town
And my youth comes back to me."
house, built in 1784, where the poet was born, is in good repair and
has been taken
over by a memorial association.
the city late Saturday evening and the next day it was my privilege to
in Longfellow's church ‒ the first church of Portland, now Unitarian.
of the poet occupied the family pew on that day. It was the first
the summer vacation and the pastor, Rev. Joel H. Metcalf, preached on
topic "Coming Back." As is customary in sermons he spiritualized his
It was a stimulating sermon and I was not surprised to learn afterward
that he was
among the foremost of Maine's clergy. Incidentally, the Grand High
Priest of that
state is a Congregationalist minister.
Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters met on Monday, Sept. 8, and
the General Grand Chapter. The sudden death of General Grand High
Priest, Bro. Wm.
F. Kuhn, just as he was about to start for the Convocation, cast a
gloom over the
entire gathering. Fortunately his address had been prepared, was
already in print,
and was read by General Grand Secretary, Companion Charles A. Conover,
the routine business was proceeded with. The Committee on Charters and
upon which I had the honor to serve, had the pleasant duty of
for several chapters abroad, including two in Mexico. Incidentally, I
was able there
to render some service to the Fareastern chapters and Companion Acklin
a very interesting report on Luzon Chapter, Manila.
One of the
happiest results of the Convocation was the settlement, in a manner
satisfactory to both General Bodies, of the decade long controversy
General Grand Chapter and the Supreme Grand Chapter of Scotland, over
institution of Keystone Chapter at Manila. That unfortunate episode,
which had interrupted
the fraternal relations between these Grand Chapters for some time and
the adherents of Capitular Masonry not only in the Philippines but
Far East, was permanently adjusted by ratifying the following treaty
between their respective presiding officers: "First That the
the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the United states of
Royal Arch Masonry in the Territory known as the Philippine Islands is
and that said General Grand Chapter has this right and authority for
that, since the year 1826 the General Grand Chapter has exercised the
power to grant dispensations and charters for Royal Arch Chapters in
states, its territories, dependencies and protectorates, and also in
territory of districts where no chapter exists.
That said Keystone Chapter, No. 354, shall be permitted to retain its
the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Scotland, and that its members
recognized as regularly made Royal Arch Masons under the further
no more chapters shall be chartered by the Supreme Grand Chapter of
the said territory of the Philippine Islands or any other territory or
of the United states.
That said Keystone Chapter shall accept no petitions for membership or
except from members of the Scottish Lodge of Manila, known as Lodge
Perla del Oriente
That Luzon Chapter, No. 1, shall have exclusive jurisdiction over all
for the chapter degrees or for affiliation, resident or sojourning,
within the Philippine
Islands, except members of Perla del Oriente Lodge, No. 1034." (Note 4.)
Social Features Were
day of the convention some time was set apart for social enjoyment,
into which the
visiting bodies especially entered with great zest. There was an
excursion to Old
Orchard Beach and a real Maine clam bake on one of the islands of Casco
in a huge tent the entire assemblage of visitors was treated to a feast
of sea food
such as only the coast affords. On the evening of Sept. 10, the Maine
and Council gave a brilliant banquet to the visitors at the Congress
The committee did me the honor to place me on the list of speakers and
I took as
my theme "Capitular Masonry in the Far East," to which I found my
more responsive than I expected. I shall never forget the pleasant
my first General Grand Chapter Convocation.
Session Next Attended
we motored to Boston to attend the 112th annual meeting of the Supreme
Scottish Rite, of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction. It was preceded by
of the Provincial Grand Lodge, Royal Order of Scotland, which conferred
on Monday, Sept. 15, and held its annual banquet that evening. Invited
Grand Master Corson to speak at the banquet I dwelt on the work of the
in the Far East, particularly at Shanghai. The substance of my address
later in the Christian Science Monitor. It was interesting to witness
of the 33d upon the large class gathered from the populous northeastern
Another enjoyable feature, especially to the visiting ladies, was a
under the Supreme Council's auspices on the evening of Sept. 18, by
of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. I had heard nothing like it since my
preceding season to Harbin where a large orchestra plays nightly.
morning, just before the Supreme Council retired for its executive
Commander Abbott called me to the East and asked me to conduct a
symposium on Far-eastern
and other topics for the benefit of the honorary members who remained I
unprepared for such an invitation but proceeded to speak for a time on
the Far East and then gave opportunity for anyone to propound
questions. I was agreeably
surprised at the response and found an especially keen interest in
that I devoted the balance of my talk mainly to that subject, pointing
analogies between Buddhism and Christianity. The result was that this
instead of lasting for an hour or less as I had expected, continued
hours and until time for adjournment for one of the ample lunches which
Council provided at the Copley-Plaza each day except the last on which
it was served
at the Masonic Temple. There I bade farewell to the many friends, old
and new, whom
I had met at the session, and we resumed our motor journey across the
of the old Bay state. We stopped to see the Eastern states Fair at
and also to revisit the historic scenes in and around Bennington, Vt.,
enjoying, between the two places, the almost unrivaled beauty of the
On the afternoon of Sept. 20, we reached Troy, where I left the party
and took the
night boat for New York.
John's Day at Erie,
aftermath of the Boston meeting was an invitation from the Erie, Pa.,
who were present there, to repeat my address on Masonry in the Far East
annual observance of St. John's (the Evangelist's) Day by the five
lodges at Erie.
I accepted the invitation and on Dec. 27 journeyed from New York to
Erie and gave
the address. I was agreeably surprised at the numbers present when Ill.
W. Shacklett, 33d, rose to introduce me ‒ about 900, including the
of the state Supreme Court and the local Congressman, who had visited
the Far East.
But I was especially impressed with the interest displayed and the rapt
shown. It is always an inspiration to address an audience like that and
Day at Erie will long linger in my memory. Thus my Masonic year, 1924,
at Shanghai, in connection with the numerous affairs attending the
in April to Japan, where I conferred the 33d and took part in the
observance ‒ shifted again in September to New England with many novel
‒ and ended in Pennsylvania, my ancestral home, where my family has
lived for two
centuries and where many of my kinsmen still reside. It has been an
and its Masonic memories are among the brightest of my Craft career.
Freemason in France
Bro. Robert I. Clegg,
Associate Editor, Ohio
Station in London to Paris is but a few hours' journey. Many of the
have been told to us regarding this trip are not altogether in
accordance with the
facts. We have been informed that the system of checking baggage so
common and so
much appreciated in the United States is unknown in Europe but you can
baggage, or "luggage" as it is commonly termed over there, from
Station at London to the railway station at Paris in France. It is not
‒ it is termed "registering" the baggage ‒ but it amounts to the same
thing. Your baggage is weighed, you pay something for it, get a
receipt, and then
you forget it until you hunt it up at the depot in Paris.
across is but a few hours. You can leave London soon after breakfast
and be in Paris
for dinner. I took by no means the shortest route, which is first to
Dover by rail
and then to Calais by sea and then again by railroad on to Paris. I
went to New
Haven and then by way of Dieppe. Thus, instead of spending about an
hour on the
water as would have been the case between Dover and Calais, I spent
over what has seldom, if ever, been known to be a smooth stretch of
everybody suffered from sea-sickness and a couple of young women near
me whose baggage
bore the letters of the District of Columbia said in my hearing that
more on the trip from England to France than they had in crossing the
that was not the only surprise because in talking with one of the
sailors ‒ or perhaps
I ought to say, in attempting to talk with one of the sailors ‒ I
while he had been traveling daily back and forth to England for many
years, he knew
nothing of the English language. I was later on astonished to meet some
of the University of France who spoke no English and this seemed at
first very surprising
but, after all, it is a common thing to find people on the other side
of the Atlantic
on the English Channel who frequently visit France and yet make no
attempt to learn
the language that is spoken there. We arrived in Paris in due season
about the time that my train arrived there were also several hundred
delivered there who had come in from one of the Transatlantic boats. I
that two inspectors only at the Customs House were assigned to take
care of probably
300 people. Nothing was done by the examiners until all the baggage had
out on the counters ready for inspection. They made a fairly rapid trip
room looking at the baggage and paying no attention whatever to many of
who are unusually anxious to get away before the rest of us. I dare say
them wanted to catch trains going to other parts of Europe as it is
you come to think of it how general the tendency is to see Europe from
of a railroad car. Few people stay at any spot very long and never
think of going
back again to the same place on a trip if they can possibly avoid it.
is possessed with the idea that the more towns you visit the better the
did not happen to be in that class and so could afford to take things
at the Customs House and listen to the prayers and pleading and curses
all languages which were indulged in by the people around me. I was a
as I listened attentively to the customs inspector (I had to listen
my knowledge of the language was not only imperfect but I was sadly out
and, on the other hand, he was somewhat rapid in utterance and it
seemed to me his
words came like a torrent) to find that he wanted to know whether I had
any matches or cigar lighters and I discovered later that both are
some way by the government. However, I got free of the Customs House in
and secured a taxi and was glad to get away from the Gare de St. Lazare.
had been cloudy all day and the rain now began to fall and the interior
of the taxi
was very comfortable ‒ especially after I had made it clear to the
I wanted to go. He set off at a remarkable speed and I do not wonder
now that during
the war moving soldiers in taxicabs was done at the Battle of the Marne
the way they handle passengers is certainly expeditious. I was told by
engineer in Paris that when anyone is knocked down by a taxi in the
street he is
liable to fine and perhaps imprisonment unless he can show quite
clearly that it
was not his fault. I had no means of checking up this assertion but I
the story more than once and one may easily see what an undertaking it
is and how
much responsibility you carry in crossing the streets in Paris.
during my taxi trip that immediately upon arriving and getting some of
of the trip off me I would order up an appetizing meal but my hotel did
a dining room. The love of restaurants in Paris is carried to even a
than in the United States of America. I discovered that even a very
hotel in all other respects might not possess a dining room but I found
a few doors away there was a restaurant where the man in charge spoke
I soon made my way to his place. His English was not very good from a
point of view but at the close of what had been a far from perfect day
were eminently satisfactory and I was soon seated over in a corner on a
ran along two sides of the room. The bill of fare had been written
a faint ink and by a person whose handwriting was, to say the least, of
grade. It had been reproduced in some fashion and the ink had run on
the copy that
was given to me and it was almost impossible to spell out the words and
had discovered the spelling I was more than once entirely at a loss to
meaning. I studied over that bill of fare for some little time.
at my right a young fellow leaned my way and held out his left hand,
a ring showing the compasses and square. He said, "Brother, it is a
since I saw that button," and he looked at the little emblem of the
which I wore in my coat. I whispered to him, "Where do you hail from?"
as I held out my hand for the grip. He said, "Atlanta," to which I
"By any manner of means, do you know a good brother down there called
Adair?" He answered, "You mean the old real estate man, don't you?"
I nodded and he said, "I sure do!"
Wine, and Oil at Last!
He took the
bill of fare away from me, marked several items as being especially
good in that
particular restaurant, briefly gave me some idea as to things I could
call for with
advantage and I soon had ordered my dinner and was engaged in chatting
and another good brother who happened to sit at my left. To use his
were "leftovers" from the American Army who had, in a spirit of
decided to stay in France and try their luck for a few years. They were
companions and that first evening of mine was spent very happily and I
to the hotel through the rain, which bothered me no longer. The rain
and the snow and wind might keep it company in that wintry season at
Paris but I
had found the brotherhood of the Craft and I was well content. After a
rest, I spent the morning leisurely about the streets and early in the
made a search for Oswald Wirth, the scholarly editor of Symbolisme. I
apartment and discovered him exceedingly glad at my call. He is
somewhat frail of
physique and it would almost seem that the fire of his research had
burned out much
of the stamina that was formerly his. We talked of Freemasonry
generally and I found
that he still presides as Master of his lodge. He was preparing an
address on "The
Alchemy of Freemasonry" and, as he has alluded to this subject in
his books, I was more than usually interested in what he had to say. I
for a copy of his manuscript but this request he could not concede
because he had
planned to speak from memory and therefore had no intention at the time
out his address.
Important Letter from
I may say
that later on I persuaded him to jot down in a letter the gist of what
he said and
this he very kindly consented to do and the translation of his letter
is as follows:
I received your most fraternal letter of the 20th of this month I sent
you the two
last numbers of Symbolisme but you would not find there my discussion
given at the
beginning of January on Masonic alchemy or the art of transmuting
profane lead into
initiated gold. I had nothing in writing prepared and I spoke fully on
which has been for a long time familiar to me. I insisted on the fact
that the true
initiation does not express itself by symbolic acts like those
prescribed by our
rituals. Those are only images of what ought to be passing in the mind
that the recipient may be really transformed into an Initiate. Nothing
is more quickly
done than to take off the metals (emblems) that one wears; but it is a
difficult task to perform in reality what the rite signifies. (To put
away all prejudices,
to forget all mistakes, to make for oneself a virgin mind, capable of
the truth without distortion.) What Mason can flatter himself that he
has put off
his metals in spirit and in truth after being made to do so
reviewing the other proofs, I explained that there is no magic virtue
in the formalities
of the reception, for instance, and that it is not enough to undergo
to be initiated in reality. Ritual is the image of what asks to be
lived. It traces
the allegorical course of the transformation which ought to be taking
place in our
inmost being if we are to see the light clearly. The fact of remaking
does not prove that one is indeed dead to all the profane frailties,
and the three
journeys only purify by allusion. They tell us what we ought to do to
initiated; but when we understand nothing of Masonic allegory, we are
ourselves with the bare outline of initiation, with the letter, not the
so that we do not become real Masons because we content ourselves with
of what we ought to be in reality.
by begging the brethren not to hold to appearance and forms. If they
wish to be
Initiates, they must go deep down. They ought to retire within
themselves by concentration
until they forget the outside world. This movement of the mind is
the ancients by a descent into hell. We must know how to leave the
level of objectivity
in order to understand how to think, and above all to know the
of the wrappings of our personality. You have all passed by le cabinet
but you have only stayed there a few minutes, and have never thought
since or burying
yourself there and being absorbed in the profundity of your own
thoughts. How, then,
can you imagine you have become thinkers superior to the multitude of
never descended to the centre of the earth, you have never been able to
the skies. You cannot judge of sublime things without giddiness. So you
to school, to business, and you have not attained your liberty. The
flow of opinion
carries you along with it, you have not arrived at the simple vision
our sages. However, you are not insensible to the proof of fire. The
heat of the
purifying flames has warmed your hearts and your wishes are frank and
long ardently for the general good. You are full of generosity, full of
for truth, the just and the beautiful. You are real initiates by
is fundamentally the essential thing and I congratulate you on it.
Initiates In Reality!
make yourselves become Initiates in a complete sense, conscious of what
understanding clearly what you try to portray. Work hard, struggle to
and make your initiation again, not symbolically but in spirit and in
are necessary to us, they alone can save the world from chaos, they
alone can apply
the motto Ordo ab Chao. Therefore, my brethren, take Masonic
thinkers who work, Masons who construct the grand temple of humanity.
Master finished by recommending to all the careful study of the Books
of the Companion, and of the Master, not forgetting close application
that learned review, etc. You see all passed off very well.
you meet brethren who read French, I beg of you not to forget
they can buy for an absured price, benefiting by the exchange.
to see you soon, believe me, your very cordial and devoted-Oswald
I may say
that Brother Wirth is a member of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish
Rite and translated
some of the degrees that are used over there and did this from the work
of the Southern
Masonic Jurisdiction as prepared by General Albert Pike. He has some
views about Freemasonry internationally and it is most edifying to
him. I shall never forget a brief statement of his, covering, in his
was the purpose of the first three degrees. The Entered Apprentice
with what a Freemason should be, the Fellowcraft Degree with what he
and the Master Mason's Degree with what he should do.
course of our conversation he told me that, of course, I had made the
trip to Paris
at that particular time to attend the annual festival of the Ancient
Scottish Rite. I assured him that I had not even heard of it and that I
delighted to attend because that was about the only body in France
which was recognized
by Masonic organizations of which I was a member. The question then
came up as to
how I could get to the place and whether there were any difficulties
about my attendance.
I secured the address, No. 8 Rue Puteaux, and, after a little
examination of the
map, came to the conclusion that I could easily get into the
delay. Brother Wirth inquired if I had any regalia and when I said I
had only the
jewel and diploma with me he shook his head in dismay and admitted that
would need further study, but he concluded that it would be all right
if I had a
letter of introduction.
I was grateful
for this offer though his suggestion seemed to me an extraordinary one.
an entrance into the meeting of a Masonic Order by means of a letter of
was to me a truly remarkable course, indeed. He loaned me the necessary
and I may say that this was resplendent. The apron particularly was
much embroidery and a profusion of spangles. The brilliance of the
colors and the
glitter of the rest of it made me certainly a very conspicuous person
Is Met By a Sword
him for his kindness and hurried off to the underground railway and in
a short time
found myself on the narrow street which is not only the headquarters of
and Accepted Scottish Rite for France but also houses the Grand Lodge.
I was eligible
to visit one of these but not the other. At the door I met a good lady
of the entrance and after some little difficulty with the French
language I managed
to make clear what I wanted. She directed me to continue on my way
along the corridor
and go down the steps. This I did and found myself in a rather small
a sentinel armed with a very long sword. This weapon was used to salute
on and was not at all fitted to the size of the chamber. I was a little
in the swinging of this two-handled sword one or the other of us might
come to grief,
but I told the sword-bearer who I was and presented my letter of
read it and then bowed quite impressively, inquired if I had any
regalia and, on
being assured that I had, he told me to put it on while he announced my
time later I was, ushered into a room which probably contained forty or
attired in all sorts of regalia, much of which seemed novel to me. At
one end of
the room were seated the officers of the Supreme Council and the
meeting was presided
over by the Sovereign Grand Commander, Raymond. I was familiar with
his pictures as an elderly bearded brother, but this presiding officer
was a much
younger man than I expected to find. I discovered later on that the man
I was thinking
of was Jean Raymond, while the man I met bore the name of Rene Raymond.
of the Scottish Rite, or annual meeting, is open, apparently, to
members of Freemasonry
of all grades. They attend, wearing the emblems of their respective
the plan seems to be an excellent one as it is carried on for keeping
of the fraternity clearly informed of what is going on in Scottish Rite
in France and elsewhere.
to the reports which were read and the reading of documents does have a
to speed and I am sorry to say that I got very little of what was
presented by the
respective officers. I had missed the allocution of Brother Raymond
owing to the
lateness of my arrival but I heard something of the activities of the
Toward the close of the meeting a sturdy Frenchman rose to his feet to
very earnest address. He wore a red apron and collar, which was
suggestive to me
of the Royal Arch but which, it occurred to me as I thought more of the
was not likely to represent that body in France where it is by no means
as we have found it to be in the United States of America. The brother
enough to me that I could carefully examine the jewel he wore. At the
end of the
collar were the compasses resting upon the arc of a circle and I
wondered as he
went along if he was not a member of some Grand Lodge.
Meets Grand Master Monier
It was soon
apparent to me that I had guessed right because this was Bro. Maurice
Master of the Grand Lodge of France, and it was, curiously enough, the
in France where I could meet him as a brother Mason because my Grand
not recognize his. He spoke with great deliberation and selected his
care. He was so deliberate that it was no great difficulty to follow
what he had
to say and I heard with the utmost pleasure the expression of his
regard for the
United States and he did not confine himself to our Freemasonry, at
that. He impressed
upon me his hope that when I returned I would assure my brethren from
him that he
wanted them to believe that France was not a militaristic nation. He
not only wished
to send his good wishes to our brethren but he did hope for the
maintenance of the
best possible feeling between our two nations. I assured him later that
be glad to carry that message whenever I had the opportunity to express
I had an
opportunity to meet Brother Raymond later on. He had taken up the work
of his father
and I could see how deeply impressed he was with its responsibility.
burden has been too great for him and may have impaired his health.
Since I have
returned I notice that he has resigned but I am quite sure that I quote
letter from him correctly when I say that he is as much interested in
as ever and will not lose any opportunity to advance its interest.
Let me say
further, in talking of Masonry in countries dominated by the Roman
that Freemasonry there has a tremendous struggle to live. I am making
whatever for any change in our policy in regard to France. I believe
that most of
our Grand Lodges have felt that certain things are essential in order
any body as being Masonic and I do not propose to argue here for any
change in the
policy followed by the majority of our Grand Lodges, but I cannot but
sympathetic towards the brethren of any obedience who must struggle for
in Roman Catholic countries. I know something of the harsh conditions
meet and that men do under these circumstances preserve their identity
and their organizations as lodges is a strong testimony, I am sure, to
and faith of their belief. Nearly every French Freemason, and I met
some of those
who belong to bodies recognized by the Grand Lodge of England, can tell
facts as to what Freemasonry means when it must meet the opposition of
from the banks of the Tiber.
M. ROE died at Jackson, Miss., Feb. 6, last, while on a business trip
Middle West. Exigencies of publication, very much regretted, made
announcement of his death in these pages last month. He had of late
been so active,
and apparently in such robust health that his sudden passing brought a
well as genuine grief to his friends, of which he had a very large
a descendant of Bishop Francis Asbury, and of Rear Admiral Francis
Asbury Roe, a
famous member of Union Lodge, No. 95, Elmira, N. Y., was not known in
councils of our Craft ‒ as far as the present writer knows he was never
officer ‒ nevertheless, in his own quiet way, he had an influence in
above many whose names are prominent in our annals, and that for a
to be explained.
of one of the departments of the George H. Doran Company he became
Masonic literature and saw, as no publisher ever before had seen, how
American Craft needed books equal in value and appearance to those
other fields. The result was the National Masonic Library, issued under
of the Masonic Service Association, and a number of other volumes of
now in preparation, and to be published in due course of time. These
a great publishing house will stand in the future as a monument to his
enthusiasm and wise management. May he therefore be remembered "in the
hereafter of our speech and song!"
"One Stone The More" -- [A Poem]
stone the more swings to her place
In that dread Temple of Thy Worth ‒
It is enough that through Thy grace,
I saw nought common on Thy earth.
"Take not that vision from my ken;
Oh, whatsoever may spoil or speed,
Help me to need no aid from men
That I may help such men as need."
Who Were Masons
Bro. George W. Baird,
P. G. M., District Of Columbia
account of the Masonic history of Bro. Rufus Choate is given in the
of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, 1908, page 241.
lawyer and orator was born in Essex, Mass., Oct. 1, 1799. He was so
a child that when only six years of age he could repeat long portions
Progress. In 1819 he graduated from Dartmouth, and from the Cambridge
two years afterwards. For a time he was assistant to the Attorney
Wirt, with whom fame has bracketed his name, and then practiced law at
Mass., for some five years. He was elected to the State Legislature
from Salem in
1828, where he distinguished himself by a speech on the tariff. In 1834
in 1836 he was re-elected.
In the course
of time Choate became the acknowledged leader of the Massachusetts Bar,
greatly admired by the younger lawyers. In 1814 he became a member of
States Senate to fill out the unexpired term of Daniel Webster, his
as lawyer and orator. In the Senate he distinguished himself by
speeches on the
Oregon Boundary, the Tariff Bill, the United States Bank Bill, and the
Institute; he opposed the annexation of Texas, strongly advocated
for President, and later on was a supporter of Bro. James Buchanan.
genius in the best sense of the word. His knowledge of the law was
was a man of striking personality, handsome even in his old age, and
in any company by his attractive and brilliant manners. When to those
were added his great ability in forensic addresses, his unsullied
honesty of heart
and purpose, it is easily understood why he became so famous in his own
In 1858 his
health became so impaired that he was obliged to retire from public
life. He died
at Halifax, N. S., on his way home from a trip abroad, and his body was
in Mount Auburn Cemetery, where the beautiful memorial shown herewith
of him will be found in E. P. Whipple's Recollections of Eminent Men.
sketches, and correspondence were edited by S. G. Brown of Boston, in
1862, in two
are many, religion is one," wrote an old scribe. By the same token,
are many, government is one; moralities are many, morality is one;
are many, philosophy is one. Deep down in man, rooted there eternally
like the tree
Ygdrasil, are needs and powers which take all the forms of Proteus,
which pass through
as many incarnations as Buddha, embodying themselves in countless
And while the forms and institutions, the creeds, theories, and dogmas
go, like the "solid hills" in Tennyson's poem, that out of which they
arose and to which they ministered goes on forever, just as hunger and
remain through all the changes of diet or cuisine.
It is one
of the open secrets of Freemasonry, explaining alike the breadth and
of it, that it is based on the enduring principles rather than on
It builds on religion, but not on any one theology; it is a "science of
but adheres to none of the thousand codes; it teaches charity, but is
to any institutional method; it stands for democracy, the right of
every man to
a voice and a vote, but not for any one political scheme; it is a
teacher of truth,
but of no particular philosophy; it demands equality, but not in this
or that form;
liberty, but not any one man's scheme for it; education, but not any
patriotism, but not any one governmental regime; brotherhood, but no
one form of
it; immortality, but no particular theory of it.
It has this
position, not because it is uncertain of itself or ambiguous in its
because its genius is to search out and to build on that which lies in
underneath the sects that shatter, the creeds that divide. They who,
out of ignorance
of its character and purpose, seek to harness it to some favorite
pet theory know not what spirit they are of. Could they succeed ‒ which
can ‒ the great Craft would vanish with the next shift in the winds of
Masonry in the United States
Bro. H. L. Haywood, Editor
VIII – Henry Price
important event in the history of Masonry in New England, and one of
the most important
in the history of the whole of the American Craft, was the issuance of
to Henry Price by the Grand Master of England, Lord viscount Montague,
Price was authorized to be "Provincial Grand Master of New England and
and Territories thereunto belonging."
been much debate over the date of this instrument. The Beteihle
Study Club article last month), written between July 27 and Aug. 23,
the date as April 13, 1733; this same date was given in the petition
of the First Lodge in Boston, July 30, 1733; in the Duke of Beaufort's
to John Rowe in 1768; and in a communication from Grand Secretary
French of the
Grand Lodge of England. Bro. Melvin M. Johnson believes April 13 to
have been correct.
But the earliest records of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, written
gave it as April 30; so did Ebenezer Swan in the earliest records of
the First Lodge
of Boston. A number of later writers, such as Drummond, MacCalla,
Stillson and Hughan
have followed Swan and Pelham; but a careful analysis of the facts
in favor of the date as April 13. This point is of little intrinsic
nevertheless it has been made the basis for attacks on the validity of
of which more anon.
received his Deputation in person, while visiting the Grand Lodge of
paid for it a fee of three guineas. It was signed by Thomas Batson,
Master, and by the Grand Wardens, and is supposed to have carried the
seal of Grand
Master Montague. No record of the issuance of the Deputation was
entered in the
minutes of the Grand Lodge of England, but the same thing holds true of
known to have been issued, as described in this department last month.
for a Provincial Grand Mastership was issued privately by the Grand
Master, as one
of the prerogatives of his office, and was held to be the personal
property of the
recipient; for these reasons it frequently happened that no minutes of
such a transaction
were entered in Grand Lodge records. Price's Deputation has been
printed in full
in Johnson's Beginnings of Freemasonry in America, and in the
Proceedings of the
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, 1871, taken from the Beteihle Manuscript
Price brought his Deputation with him upon his return to Boston in the
1733 and almost immediately laid it before a number of the brethren.
born in London in 1697. The Minutes of the Grand Lodge of England show
that in 1730
he was a member of Lodge No. 75, meeting at the Rainbow Coffee House,
and as such was doubtlessly well and favorably known to the brethren of
He was in Boston in 1723, but later returned to London where, as noted
was present at Grand Lodge in 1733. Between April 18 and July 30 of
that same year
he returned to Boston, where he remained during the whole of a long
a suit filed by him in Boston in 1733-4 have him described as "Henry
of Boston," a tailor by profession, in which calling he could not have
very high in the social hierarchy of the city; but in 1733 Governor
appointed him cornet, or standard-bearer, in the Governor's troop of
the rank of major, by which title he was always known thereafter; this
to the usages of the time, bestowed upon him a certain amount of social
Price formed a business partnership with Francis Beteihle in 1736, to
general store and tailor shop, with Price in charge of the latter. But
or four years Price severed the connection, purchased a lot of land for
erected on it a brick building in which he kept a clothing and dry
and very evidently prospered greatly, for he retired in 1750 in
possession of a
great amount of real estate. By religion he was an Episcopalian,
against which there
was a great deal of prejudice in Boston in those times; but later in
without any change in his creed, he also purchased pews in three
not of his faith, a fact that evidences a life-long and sincere
interest in religion
without the taint of sectarianism.
In 1737 he
was married to Mary Townsend. A year after her death in 1751 he married
of Boston. His second wife died in 1759 or 60, and a short time
daughter, a double bereavement that left Price saddened all his days.
In 1771 he
married Lydia Randall, from which union two children were born. During
years Price prospered in business, bought many properties in Boston and
and for several years had a country home in Cambridge. His home at
so large that it was generally described as the "great house." His
occurred in 1780 from an accident while splitting rails, when his axe
his abdomen. From this severe wound he died on the 20th of May at the
age of eighty-three,
leaving behind him a large estate. All extant evidence go to prove that
was a man of firm character and fine intelligence, who by his own
up a fortune considerable in that period, and who was accepted socially
among the leading citizens of the Province.
past forty years several attempts have been made, notably by a
notorious and violently
prejudiced American Masonic writer whose name need not be mentioned, to
question Price's good faith and even to accuse him of having forged his
such canards fall utterly to pieces against the undeniable record of
character and his reputation. Had he been such a man as his traducers
to paint him, it would have been impossible for him to make for himself
such a place
in Massachusetts during the forty-seven years in which he was so active
in and about
such a man have so long remained the actual or virtual head of
Freemasonry in New
England ‒ virtual, that is, in the sense that he was looked up to as a
the Masonic Israel. He was appointed to be the first Provincial Grand
New England in 1733, and as such was universally accepted; he served
as Grand Master from his appointment until 1737; again from July, 1740,
6, 1743-4; again from July 12, 1754, to Oct. 1, 1755; and yet again
from Oct. 20,
1767, to Nov. 23, 1768. He was charter Worshipful Master of the
Masters' Lodge of
Boston; charter Worshipful Master of the Second Lodge; and one of the
Masters of the First Lodge. Even so late as 1773, when he was
of age, he was asked to preside over Grand Lodge in the absence of
John Rowe. All his Masonic activities were public, known in every
detail to the
brethren on both sides of the water, and were by all accepted as
regular and official;
had his Deputation been a forged document, had he assumed leadership
the fact would have been discovered very early and made impossible his
honorable Masonic career.
was buried in Townsend, a small Massachusetts town incorporated in
miles distant from Boston, on the border line of New Hampshire. The
placed at the head of his grave, a photograph of which is given
an inscription, here copied just as it stands:
"In Memory of Henry Price, Esq.
in London about the Year of our Lord 1697 he Remov'd to Boston about
the Year 1723
Rec. a Deputation Appointing him Grand Master of Masons in New England
the Year 1733 was Appointed a Cornet in the Governors Troop of Guards
With the Rank
of Major by his Diligence & industry in Business he Acquired
the means of a
Comfortable Living with which he remov'd to Townsen in the latter Part
of his life.
He quitted Mortality the 20th of May A. D. 1780 Leaving a Widow and two
With a Numerous Company of Friends and Acquaintance to Mourn his
Departure Who have
that Ground of hope Concerning his Present Lot Which Results from his
Regard to his Maker & extensive Benevolence to his Fellow
in Life by a behaviour Consistent With his Character as a Mason and his
a Man. An honest Man the Noblest Work of God."
have called in question the genuineness of Price's original Deputation
and who have
sought otherwise to discredit him and his Masonic career before the bar
have made much capital out of three facts: first, that no record was
made of the
Deputation in the Minutes of the Grand Lodge of England; second, that
in a letter
to the Grand Lodge of England under date of Jan. 27, 1768, and while
his own Deputations (Price received a second Deputation, as will be
in which his powers were extended) he spelled Montague as "Montacute";
and third, he mentioned in a letter to the Grand Secretary of England
in 1768 his
second Deputation as having been of the year 1735, whereas it should
have been 1734.
Reasons for the absence of any Grand Lodge record of his Deputation
been given. As to his misspelling of the name of the Grand Master who
first Deputation that is easily explained by the fact that the name was
"Montacute" in Entick's edition of the Constitutions, widely used by
Masons as an official book. The error in the date is really of no
all. Thirty-four years had elapsed since 1734, so that when he wrote
Price was seventy-one years of age and forty-six miles away from his
and documents. Any other man under the same circumstances might have
made a similar
slip. Also it is worthy of note that a petition which accompanied
spells the name of Lord Montague correctly and accurately gives the
date of Price's
second Deputation as 1734. The latter facts would indicate that the
errors in Price's
own letters were mere oversights.
find all these facts, and many others equally germane, set forth at
and in a manner very interesting to read, by William Sewall Gardner in
delivered before the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, of which he was then
Dec. 27, 1871, printed in full in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of
1871, page 284. Bro. Gardner's estimate of the man, along with a
summary of his
arguments for the authenticity of Price's first Deputation is embodied
in the last
pages of his address, in three paragraphs worthy to be quoted:
"It would seem, however, from
now produced that no one could reasonably doubt that the officers and
the Grand Lodge at London were fully informed of the proceedings of
in Boston, who publicly claimed to be the authorized delegate and
of that Grand Body here; that from 1733, down to the war of the
were as familiar with his doings as with those of their Provincial
in the several districts of England. It cannot even be argued with any
plausibility, that they, or the Craft in general, could be ignorant of
acts and doings. If they had knowledge of his claim to a Deputation
as Provincial Grand Master, or if it is apparent that they ought
reasonably to have
known it, the conclusion is irresistible that Price held the Commission
which he publicly professed to have, under which he openly acted, and
notoriously throughout America ascribed to him. From all the Grand
Officers at London,
as well as from all the Members of the Fraternity, from 1733 to 1780,
universal, undoubted belief in Henry Price, as the legitimate founder,
authority, of Masonry in America. Not a doubt, suspicion, or
insinuation were breathed
against him. He was entirely, unconditionally, absolutely confided in,
sides of the Atlantic. During all the years of his Masonic life he
enjoyed the fullest
confidence of the Grand Lodge at London. It would seem to be too late
now to originate
doubt and suspicion against a man of pure character, unsullied name and
reputation, after the lapse of one hundred and thirty-eight years
[written in 1871],
unless the clearest evidence and undeniable proofs of the charges made
Suspicion and suspicious circumstances are not sufficient to weigh down
than eighty years of life, characterized by honesty, integrity and
"In reviewing the life of Henry
cannot escape the impression that the Ancient Society of Free and
through his persistent labor, emerged from a position of comparative
to one of prominence and great respectability in the Province. When he
Provincial Grand Lodge at Boston in July, 1733, the brethren whom he
him, with the exception of Andrew Belcher, occupied humble places in
life, and were
not calculated to extend the influence of the Society, nor to make
among the best men of Boston. But Henry Price set his standard high. He
that the institution should be known by the good character of its
members, and that
it should be represented by able and respectable officers. He retained
of Provincial Grand Master only so long as it was necessary to carry
out his cherished
scheme. All of his successors were gentlemen of the highest
respectability and character,
while those who had become members of the lodges gave to the Society a
which commanded the respect of all classes of men. The reverend clergy
gave to it
their sanction, and aided by the sacred rites of their office, in their
the public demonstrations which from time to time occurred. The press
spoke in terms
of respect of 'that ancient Society, whose benevolent constitutions do
mankind,' and of the distinction conferred upon those called to preside
Master over its proceedings. Thus the institution won its way to favor
estimation. When Price installed his successors, each one with more
pomp than that of the preceding one, he saw that the honor which he
being the 'Father of Masonry in America', was not an empty honor, but
in his day was worthy of pride, and which he well hoped might be
ascribed to him
"He had been successful beyond
anticipations. Wealth, political and social distinction, the high
the Province, the teachers of Christian virtue and the leaders in the
parties of loyalty and liberty, had bowed before the altar of
by him. Thus he had accomplished all that he dared to dream of in the
of his labor."
Deputation see The History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould;
Vol. IV, page 330. [Lib*]
of Freemasonry in America [Lib*], Johnson, New York, 1924, pages 74,
the Most Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons
in New York
from the Earliest Date [Lib*], Charles T. McClenachan; New York, 1888,
Vol. 1, page
the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons, and
Orders [Lib 1891]. Stillson and Hughan; Boston
and New York,
1891, pages 219, 239.
complete lay-out extant of data concerning Price will be found in the
of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts; for 1871 [Lib*], published in
Boston in 1872,
page 284 ff. In that volume will be found Price's will, page 345, his
page 347; Tomlinson's Deputation, page 349; Franklin's letters to
Price, page 356;
Grand Secretary French's letter to Price, page 366; Price's reply
368; Price's address at the installation of John Rowe, page 322; etc.
personal and Masonic career in general consult the following:
Monthly Magazine, Charles W. Moore; Boston, Vol. XV [Lib*], page 163; Vol.
XVI [Lib*], page 129; XVII [Lib*], page 11, XX [Lib 1861], page 266, XXV [Lib 1866], page 343; XXVIII [Lib*], page
301; XXX, pages 95,
148 [Lib*]; XXXI, page 125 [Lib 1872]; XXXII, page 33 [Lib 1872].
Freemasonry in Canada [Lib 1900, Vol 1, Vol 2], John Ross Robertson;
Vol. I, page 147.
Freemasonry in Rhode Island [Lib*], Henry W. Rugg; Providence, 1895,
of Freemasonry in America [Lib*], Johnson; New York 1924, page 92, etc.
Freemasonry in the State of New York [Lib 1922], Ossian Lang; New York. 1922,
of Freemasonry [Lib*], Delmar D. Darrah, Illinois, 1920, page 230.
the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons, and
Orders [Lib 1891], Stillson and Hughan; Boston
and New York,
1891 page 242.
Freemasonry [Lib 1884, (four volumes see bibliography)], Robert Freke Gould;
IV, page 241.
in Michigan [Lib 1897/8, Vol 1, Vol 2], Jefferson S. Conover;
1897, Vol. I, page 8.
and His Masonic Compeers [Lib 1869], Sidney Hayden; New York
1866, page 233.
[Lib*], Thomas J. Melish; Ohio, Vol. XXVIII, page 83; Vol. LXIX, page 311.
- Why was the issuance of the
Price Deputation so important an event?
- What American Mason preceded
Price as a Provincial Grand Master?
- Who issued Price's Deputation?
- What was its date?
- Where and how did Price receive
- Why, do you suppose, did he pay
a fee for it?
- By whom was it signed?
- Where was Price born?
- Where was he made a Mason?
- When did he return to Boston?
- What was his profession?
- What is the importance of his
appointment by Belcher?
- Who was his business partner?
- What was his religion?
- To what extent did he prosper?
- How did he build up his fortune?
- How often was he Grand Master?
- Worshipful Master?
- Where was he buried?
- What does his epitaph indicate?
- Why has his Masonic record been
- Name the grounds taken by his
- Why was no record of his
Deputation made in Grand Lodge minutes of England?
- How did Masonry prosper in
Massachusetts under his leadership?
‒ H.L. Haywood
WHAT is the
secret of the mountains? We may see them from afar with indifference,
hang like cloud shapes in the sky, but once we have ascended to their
among their peaks and elevated Valleys, they take possession of us in a
their own. The sight of granite lifted into the air disturbs us with a
astonishment; we are accustomed to think of granite as hidden in the
earth. We have
been believing that soil and rock should lie under our feet; here they
our heads. In the streets of our cities and on our farms we have been
human beings, immersed in the buzz of their movements; here we come
into a strange
solitude, as if to the "one spot of earth devoted to eternity," and it
gives us the feeling that, in contrast to this calmness, our ordinary
are fretful and vain, like the stuff of dreams. Our houses, fields and
with the seasons or through the influence of our work; these crags
appear to be
indifferent to all such permutations, as if that changelessness which
to eternity were here made evident. The beauty of the mountains, the
shapes of slope and cliff, the metallic foliage of the pines, " the
blast of waterfalls," the transformations of light, and shade, and
a startling originality in it, like that of an apparition. And the
usually hidden from us by verdure or pavement, here lay aside their
"Characters of the great
The types and symbols of Eternity
Of first, and last, and midst, and without end."
nothing private in these impressions. Men everywhere and always have
by them to feel in their beings something that corresponds to the great
that they have at times tried to make artificial mountains for
Babel or the Pyramids. This has given sanctity to high places, and
hills, and has
set a range of peaks across the Great Divides of religion ‒ Ararat,
Zion, Olivet, Olympus; it has given mountains a place in literature and
the Mountains of the Moon, the Old Man of the Mountains, and Dante's
Mount of Paradise,
with its concentric aspiring circles, leading toward the unfoldment of
mystery. Mountains have a place in man's traditions, because there is
mountain-like in man himself. He lifts his eves unto the hills: he
cries out to
God. "Thy righteousness is like the great mountains!”
In the center
of our Masonic mysteries stands such a peak, Mt. Moriah, commanding the
some Fujiyama. It is the symbolical High Place on which Solomon erected
which is itself symbolical focus. And it is there in our rituals, this
its mountain, because that which it typifies is in a Mason's life, if
he is really
there are who live in the Lowest Vales! Unhappy, troubled by many
perplexed, apprehensive, they are like men that have lost their way,
their own ignorance but helpless, so they believe, to escape from it,
or to find
the Word of Life that they have lost. Such lives are covered with
men almost literally walk in darkness.
for these lost souls is to erect a Temple in the midst of the rubbish,
on some stable
hill. Such architecture requires no occult powers, no superhuman skill;
it is what
any man can do, for the nature of things does not compel one to go
unhappy all his
days, because each of us possesses in his own self from birth the
such building. If he does not know this secret his Masonry is there to
for it is this ability to transform a log cabin existence into a temple
teaches; it is this which is its "science of morality, veiled in
and illustrated by symbols."
on which such a new life may be erected are already in a man's nature
if only he
will learn to use them. He can develop a sincere desire for better
things; he can
cultivate a tenacity of purpose; he can learn how to become steadfast
of aim; he
can summon strength of will; he can discover for himself what is meant
of mind and confidence in life. On such a Mt. Moriah of his own ‒ and
the true qualifications of a Mason ‒ he can build his own King
which, once it is finished, is a new kind of life for him, wherein are
* * *
IN the article
on page 104 by Bro. Phil Roth ‒ in whom moral enthusiasm is so
with practical sense ‒ is found a story of Applied Masonry that is as
of the new mood of American Masonry as anything could be. Once was when
Bureaus were looked upon with suspicion because they were not mentioned
Landmarks or required by Masonic Jurisprudence. As if for that reason
should be forbidden to carry its own teachings into practice! When
lodge was a village lodge, when every member knew every other member
there may have been no need of Employment Bureaus; but in this day,
when more than
half of the Masonic population is to be found in cities, when hundreds
approach or surpass the "one thousand members" mark, it is impossible
to carry out our old tenet of Brotherly Relief by individual efforts.
and Relief Bureaus have become a necessity; and not because the
is under any the less obligation to practice Relief and Charity inside
of his own Cable Tow.
It is sometimes
objected to Masonic charity that it is for Masons only. In one sense
this is true
and necessary. Our lodges make no levy for charitable purposes; our
not a charitable or insurance society. The Masonic principle is that
assist each other by way of relief, as when a member meets with an
accident or some
similar misfortune. The Craft has no monies for charity in general; and
as far as
that is concerned other fraternities, and churches, clubs, and
societies do the
same; each takes care of its own.
so, and in another real sense, Masonic charity is just charity, charity
pure and simple, with no label attached. Though Masons as Masons do not
use of large funds for relief, as men in every walk of the world they
because of their Masonic vows, to be charitable to all men; and the
by lodges and Grand Lodges is only incidental to that Masonic charity
which a real
Mason carries everywhere in his heart.
ever given satisfactory proof of an inherent inequality of races. The
opinion of the Negro is based largely on complete ignorance of African
and of Negro achievements in the industries and arts and in political
The glorification of our own race is founded exclusively on a
consideration of the
cultural opportunities given to the few and on the complete neglect of
primitiveness of the great mass of individuals. This primitiveness
intellectually in the uncritical acceptance of second-hand ideas and
in the ease with which most persons succumb to the power of fashionable
Down Like a Wolf on the Fold"
OF SENNACHERIB [Lib*]. By Daniel David Luckenbill, Professor of the
and Literatures in The University of Chicago. This is Vol. II of The
of Chicago Oriental Institute Series. University of Chicago Press. May
through the National Masonic Research Society Book Department, 1950
St. Louis, Mo. Boards, 9x12 inches, illustrated, 196 pages with index.
MOST of us
know nothing about "Sennacherib, the great king, the mighty king, king
universe, king of Assyria" (his own description) save Byron's poem that
how he "came down like a wolf on the fold" and the few pages in the
of Kings II, chapter 18, etc. It is our loss. He was a great personage,
a fact abundantly
set forth in his own clay records, an illustration of which will be
found on page
of how he took Jerusalem in 701 B. C. is told in II Kings 18:13 If,
"Now in the fourteenth year of
did Sennacherib king of Assyria come up against all the fortified
cities of Judah
and took them. And Hezekiah king of Judah sent to the king of Assyria
saying, I have offended; return from me; that which thou puttest on me
will I bear.
And the king of Assyria appointed unto Hezekiah king of Judah three
of silver and thirty talents of gold."
that Sennacherib's own version:
"As for Hezekiah, the Jew, who
did not submit
to my yoke, 46 of his strong cities, as well as the small cities in
which were without number ‒ by levelling with battering-rams (?) and by
up siege-engines (?), I besieged and took (those cities). 200,150
and small, male and female, horses, mules, asses, camels, cattle and
number, I brought away from them and counted as spoil. Himself, like a
I shut up in Jerusalem, his royal city. Earthworks I threw up against
him ‒ the
one coming out of the city-gate, I turned back to his misery.
"The cities of his which I had
I cut off from his land and to Mitini, king of Ashdod, Padi, king of
Silli-Bel, king of Gaza, I gave. And (thus) I diminished his land.
"I added to the former tribute,
upon him the giving (up) of their land (as well as) imposts ‒ gifts for
"As for Hezekiah, the
of my majesty overcame him, and the Urbi (Arabs) and his mercenary (?)
he had brought in to strengthen Jerusalem, his royal city, deserted him
"In addition to the 30 talents
of gold and
800 talents of silver (there were), gems, cosmetics (?), jewels (?),
couches of ivory, house chairs of ivory, elephant hide, ivory (lit.
ushu-wood, all kinds of valuable (heavy) treasures, as well as his
harem, his male and female musicians, (which) he had (them) being after
me to Nineveh,
my royal city. To pay tribute and to accept (lit. do) servitude, he
Annals, all written in the Royal first person singular, are rich as
as leaves from a book of dreams, redolent of ancient poetries and
especially when they relate the rebuilding of Nineveh, and of
Without a Rival." Hear how he speaks of Nineveh!
that time, Nineveh the noble metropolis, the city beloved of Ishtar,
all the meeting-places of gods and goddesses; the everlasting
eternal foundation; whose plan had been designed from of old, and whose
had been made beautiful along with the firmament of heaven, the
place, the abode of divine law (decision rule), into which had been
kinds of artistic workmanship, every secret and pleasant (?) plan (or
god); where from of old, other kings, who went before, my fathers, had
the lordship over Assyria before me, and had ruled the subjects of
Enlil, and yearly
without interruption, had received therein an unceasing income, the
tribute of the
princes of the four quarters (of the world)."
And see what
manner of temple-palace he erected, with its great pillars!
(lit. therein) I had them build a palace of ivory, ebony (?), boxwood
cedar, cypress and spruce, the 'Palace without a Rival,' for my royal
of cedar, the product of Mt. Amanus, which they dragged with difficulty
out of (those)
distant mountains, I stretched across their ceilings (?). Great
door-leaves of cypress,
whose odor is pleasant as they are opened and closed, I bound with a
band of shining
copper and set up in their doors. A portico, patterned after a Hittite
they call in the Amorite tongue a bit-hilani, I constructed out of the
of shining bronze, the workmanship of the god Nin-a-gal, and
together with 2 colossal pillars whose copper work came to 6,000
talents, and two
great cedar pillars, (which) I placed upon the lions (colossi), I set
up as posts
to support their doors."
* * *
Exciting Book of Arithmetic:
Cassius J. Keyser
ARITHMETIC [Lib*]. By Raymond Weeks. Illustrations by Usabal. New York:
E. P. Dutton
& Co. For sale by National Masonic Research Society Book
Department, 1950 Railway
Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Red (very red) cloth, index, 188 pages. Price,
HERE is a
book that will gladden the hearts and brighten the eyes of millions of
boys if they
get a chance to read it. And they will get the chance if their fathers
and their other teachers discover the book and learn what it really is.
It is not
a book of arithmetic as commonly understood. It is not one of those
dead and deadening
things known as textbooks. It is a living bit of literature based on
for the amusement and incidentally for the edification of real boys, of
boys, of girls, too, and, I dare say, even of grown-ups, for the book,
genuine literature, is universal in its appeal.
makes no claim to being a mathematician though it is evident that he
been one had he so elected. Neither is he a professional teacher of
He is an eminent professor of romance languages and literature in a
But he was a boy once, is now a father of boys, and, though mellowed
with the wisdom
of experience and years, he is still a boy at heart, in his
recollections, in his
sympathies and understanding and love. It is that together with a
certain rare and
amiable genius that enabled Mr. Weeks to write this book of charming
the amusement and education of children, causing them to learn while
to laugh while learning.
He has thus
employed a most important principle of human education. For laughter is
like eating and sleeping, for example. Laughter is a human thing.
divine river of joy, thou art the blessed boundary line between the
beasts and men."
is even divine. Did not high Olympus often ring with the laughter of
the gods! Recently
it has been contended by eminent theologians that even the God of good
possesses a sense of humor. They must be right for how could He fail to
by the claims solemnly made on His behalf by the fundamentalists?
I have said
that the book is literature; it is literature based on arithmetic, and
fits the matter as neatly as the bark fits the tree. There are more
than a hundred
short stories. The list of their titles is itself a poem ‒ far more
the Iliad’s famous list of ships. Here are a few samples chosen at
between ten boys and a cinnamon bear; Opossum eating persimmons; Red
Smile of a crocodile; Dog scratching off fleas; Cats in Catalonia;
of a hornet; The boy, the bulldog and the ice-cream; Standing a
fraction on its
head; and so on with the range and diversity of a live boy's manifold
that there is here no room to quote a few specimens of these stories,
is no other way to give a right sense of their fidelity, their
charm, their pure fun, their fine union of sense and sane nonsense, now
one of Tom Sawyer and now of the immortal creations of Lewis Carroll.
In each story
there lurks an arithmetical problem; it leaps forth to challenge the
boy just as
he finishes the reading. What grappling and battling will result,
two boys are playing the game together!
not all the numbers mentioned in a given story are essential to its
else the boy would not have the delight of discriminating what is
what is not. Fortunately the stories are not so arranged that the
problems are presented
in the order of increasing difficulty, for else the book would not be
true to life.
Neither would it be true to life if it did not set some problems whose
cumberous and some that seem to be genuine but are not.
is profusely illustrated by Usabal, who has caught its spirit of humor
The illustrations are alone worth more than the price of the book.
Cassius J. Keyser, Columbia University.
* * *
OF FELLOWSHIP [Lib*]. By Charles D. Williams D. D., Late Bishop of
by Fleming H. Revell. May be purchased through the Book Department of
Research Society, 1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Cloth, 218
established a national reputation for himself in church circles by his
courageous advocacy of a socialized Christianity. He was one of the
leaders to see that religion exists for the community as much as for
and that a Gospel for the individual alone is only a half Gospel. True
to the convictions
of a lifetime, he made his last book a plea for this insight, and a
noble book it
is, albeit the author might have given it more literary finish had he
lived to see
it through the press.
To him the
central reality in a socialized religion is fellowship; accordingly he
apply "The Gospel of Fellowship" to every and all social, political,
economic problems, which, as the whole of modern literature attests,
are too numerous
have grown up out of the nature of things. Out of the breakup of
the political state as we now know it, with independent nations lying
each other; with the discovery of steam in 1789 came industrialism,
with its new
alignment of social classes; with the development of transportation
a shrinking up of the world, with its clash of cultures; and with the
rise of democracy
came a new social consciousness, with new demands on church, school,
The need of readjusting human life to these changed conditions
solution of this problem is the application to it of the spirit and
fellowship. Such an effort is both Masonic and Christian in the larger
those words, and reflects nothing but credit upon our author. But there
is in it
a difficulty, a difficulty that stands out above the book: it is that
is not defined. We are told that fellowship can solve our economic,
and religious problems but we are not told what this fellowship is. The
generalized idea of it given by Bishop Williams will not serve; when
so wide a territory his idea becomes so thin that at times it becomes
have the same difficulty in managing some of our own key words;
toleration, relief, landmarks. Perhaps it is because we have not yet
out. Almost the final achievement of the mind is the definition of a
word (not in
the dictionary sense of "definition") when it stands for some
idea. Inspirational books help us to make up our minds to travel toward
but they seldomly open any of the gates that stand locked across the
* * *
History of the Crusades
and of the Knights Templar
THE STORY OF THE LATIN KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM [Lib 1894]. By T. A. Archer and Charles
Kingsford. Published by G. P. Putnam's Sons: New York. May be purchased
the National Masonic Research Society Book Department, 1950 Railway
Louis, Mo. Cloth, illustrated, index, 467 pages. Price, postpaid, 2.65.
passed away the Caliphs immediately set to planning the conquest of the
the name of Islam. They conquered the Near East, North Africa, and, at
Unsuccessful in breaking through into France and Italy from the west,
the powers to the east and arranged for the overthrow of
in by this dreaded Infidel power on the east, south and west the
of Europe found themselves in terrible straits. If Rome were to fall,
become of Paris? what would become of England? of Christendom itself?
doom hung over Europe like a pall.
this danger with the Crusades. Inspired by a common fear the kings and
bishops let off warring among themselves, pooled their men and money,
and set off
to attack Islam in its own stronghold. A stranger thing never happened
in all history,
or a bloodier, or more romantic. There were no nations in Europe, only
there was no lasting unity, not even in the church; there was no
knowledge of the
world outside of Europe; there was no patriotism, only personal loyalty
to a leader,
and allegiance to a common Faith. Consequently the Crusades became a
seethe of cross-currents,
of feuds, and of internecine war; kings, princes, counts, dukes, like
of the common folk, perished like snowflakes in the sea.
tale of it all, of how Europe found itself in its defeat, of how
Jerusalem was taken
and lost again, of how the Knights Templar were created and destroyed,
waxed into a wondrous bloom, then faded, and how the long troubled era
of two hundred
years flared finally in the burning of De Molay is told in Archer and
The Crusades with clarity and simplicity. No better account has ever
in one volume.
* * *
Monitor for General Use
WHAT A MASTER MASON OUGHT TO KNOW [Lib*]. Published by The Peerless
Ohio. May be purchased through the National Masonic Research Society
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis Mo. Paper, 117 pages. Special price in
Single copy, price, postpaid, sixty-five cents.
THIS is a
collection of lectures, charges, and addresses compiled by a brother
has led him to hide himself behind the screen of anonymity. "While we
claim," he writes, "that these lectures are the best there are, we do
say that the ones submitted have been accepted by many as some of the
printed and are suitable for use in any Blue Lodge. The order of
natural and in rotation, they can be used as a whole or separated and
any part desired
used as the occasion presents." Brethren who have grown weary of
the same lectures on the Apron, the Winding Stairs, and other familiar
of the exoteric work of the Blue Lodge, will find in this little brown
variety of forms from which to draw fresh material.
is the subjugation of the human that is in man by the divine, the
conquest of the
appetites and passions by the moral sense and the reason; a continual
and warfare of the spiritual against the material and sensual. That
victory ‒ when
it has been achieved and secured, and the conqueror may rest upon his
wear the well earned laurels ‒ is the Holy Empire.
to Read in Masonry
Making of American Masonry
that we American Masons have been more interested to learn how Masonry
make America than how America helped to make Masonry. At any rate,
there has this
long time existed a sad lack of adequate literature on the history of
in this broad land; why, it would be difficult to say, unless it be
that we are
so obsessed by the present as to think ‒ as many undoubtedly do – that
today is the peak and culmination of time, and what happened day before
is dead and done with, and not worth caring about. Unless it be
accounted for by
this prejudice against the past the paucity of readable, comprehensive
histories of American Masonry is a mystery. One thing is certain! If
have left the subject alone it has not been for lack of opportunity, or
of an audience, or for any dearth of materials. As for materials they
every one of us mountain high, ready to be worked into precious metals
for the enrichment
of the Craft; as for an audience, it is a large one, of three million
and true; and as for opportunity, it is endless, and calls loudly to
men of knowledge
This is not
to fling a dornick at the works already extant. Quite the contrary!
Many of them
are good work, true to the plumb and to the square, and fit ashlars for
as will be instantly patent to the discerning brother who scans the
the student's attention is especially called to the files of our
periodicals, the names of which, in past and present, are almost
legion. The Freemason's
Magazine, The Masonic Record, The Tyler-Keystone, The American Mason,
The Voice-Review, The New Age, The BUILDER, The Quarterly Review of
in the back files of these, and in a score of others, equally valuable,
are to be
found thousands of articles on every imaginable phase of American
In addition to whatever intrinsic value they possess, many of them
to now forgotten books or to other sources, often obscure or unknown;
only the careful
student can appreciate the full value of such references.
be expected that many brethren could carry complete files of
periodicals in their
library, as much for the difficulty of securing them as for their cost;
but in most
cases a studious brother can manage to consult them in some Masonic
are such libraries in many cities, a partial list of which is as
Fargo, North Dakota.
New York City (2).
San Francisco, California.
Washington, D C.
South Portland, Maine.
Waynesville, North Carolina.
Chicago, Illinois (2).
Hot Spring, Arkansas.
Tacoma, Washington (2).
South Pines, North Carolina.
Winnipeg, Man., Canada.
Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
* * *
- Beginnings of Freemasonry in
America [Lib*], Melvin M. Johnson.
- Benjamin Franklin as a
Freemason [Lib 1906], Julius F. Sachse.
- Centennial Memorial of Aurora
Lodge, A. F. & A. M., A. D., 1801-1901
[Lib*], Frederick A. Currier.
- Dedication Memorial of the New
Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, Sept. 26, 29,
80,1878 [Lib*], Compiled by the Library Committee of the R.W. Grand
Lodge of Pennsylvania
- Franklin Bi-Centenary
Celebration [Lib*], Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
- Freemasonry in America Prior to
1750 [Lib 1916], Melvin M. Johnson.
- Freemasonry in Canada [Lib*],
- Freemasonry in Michigan (2
vols.) [Lib 1897; Vol 1, Vol 2], Jefferson S. Conover.
- Freemasonry in Pennsylvania,
1727-1907, as Shown by the Records of Lodge,
No. 2, F. & A. M., of Philadelphia, From the Year A. L. 5757,
A. D. 1757 [Lib
1908; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3], Compiled by N. S. Barratt
- Freemasons' Monthly Magazine
[Lib 1842-1872; (Nineteen Volumes – See Bibliography)], edited by Charles W. Moore.
- History of Brother General
Lafayette's Fraternal Connections With the R.
W. Grand Lodge, F. & A. M., of Pennsylvania [Lib 1916], published by the G. L. of
- History of Brother Stephen
Girard's Fraternal Connections With the R. W.
Grand Lodge, F. & A. M., of Pennsylvania [Lib*], published by
the G. L. of Pennsylvania.
- History of Freemasonry
(American Edition) [Lib 1884; Vol
4], R. F. Gould
- History of Freemasonry in
Canada [Lib 1900; Vol 1, Vol 2], J. Ross Robertson.
- History of Freemasonry in
Maryland [Lib*], Edwart T. Schultz.
- History of Freemasonry in Ohio
From 1791 [Lib*], W. M. Cunningham.
- History of Freemasonry in Rhode
Island [Lib*], Henry W. Rugg.
- History of Freemasonry in South
Carolina [Lib 1861], Albert G. Mackey.
- History of Freemasonry in the
State of New York [Lib 1922], Ossian Lang.
- History of Lodge No. 61, F.
& A. M., Wilkesbarre, Pa. [Lib 1897], Oscar Jewell Harvey.
- History of St. Andrew's Lodge,
No. 16, A. F. & A. [Lib 1922], M. Henry T. Smith. '
- History of the Grand Lodge and
of Freemasonry in the District of Columbia
Kenton N. Harper.
- History of the Grand Lodge of
Iowa [Lib 1910; 1915; Pt 1, Pt 2], Morcombe and Cleveland.
- History of the Most Ancient and
Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted
Masons in New York From the Earliest Date [Lib 1892; Vol 1 (missing), Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4], Charles T. McClenachan.
- Indian Masonry [Lib 1907], Robert C. Wright.
- Jews and Masonry in the United
States Before 1810 [Lib 1910], Samuel Oppenheim.
- LeTellier's Lodge at Honolulu:
A Masonic History [Lib*], Ed. Towse.
- Life Story of Albert Pike [Lib 1928], Fred Allsopp.
- Little Masonic Library [Lib*],
Masonic Service Association.
- Mackey's Revised History of
Freemasonry [Lib*], Robert I. Clegg.
- Masonic Light on the Abduction
and Murder of Wm. Morgan [Lib 1886], P. C. Huntington.
- Masons as Makers of America
[Lib 1921], Madison C. Peters.
- Memoir of Sylvanus Cobb, Jr.
[Lib 1891], Ella Waite Cobb.
- Military Lodges [Lib 1899], R. F. Gould.
- Military Lodges [Lib*], Alfred
- Minutes of the Right Worshipful
Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honourable
Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania and Masonic
Thereunto Belonging, published by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
- Mormonism and Masonry: A Utah
Point of View [Lib 1920], S. H. Goodwin.
- Old Masonic Lodges of
Pennsylvania, "Modern and Ancients." 1730-1801,
Which Have Surrendered Their Warrants or Affiliated With Other Grand
I and II, published by G. L. of Pennsylvania. [Lib 1912; Vol 1, Vol 2]
- Pioneering in Masonry [Lib*],
Lucien V. Rule.
- Proceedings of the R. W. Grand
Lodge of Pennsylvania. [Lib*]
- Report of the Masonic Overseas
Mission on Efforts to Secure Governmental
Permission to Engage in Independent War Relief Work Abroad. [Lib*]
- Reprint of the Minutes of the
Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of
Pennsylvania (six volumes) [Lib 1895; (Eleven Volumes
– see Bibliography)],
compiled by Joshua L. Lyte.
- Sacred Mysteries of the Mayas
and the Quiches [Lib 1909], Auguste Le Plongeon.
- Scarlet Book of Freemasonry
[Lib 1885], M. W. Redding.
- Souvenir Album, Showing the
Various Places of Meeting of the R. W. Grand
Lodge, F. & A. M., of Pennsylvania, for the Past century and a
With Interior Views in the New Temple, prepared under the direction of
on Library. [Lib*]
- Story of Mount Vernon Lodge,
No. 4, Free and Accepted Masons, Providence,
Rhode Island, 1799-1924 [Lib*], William Evans Handy.
- Story of "Old Glory" [Lib*].
John W. Barry.
- Study in American Freemasonry
[Lib 1908], Arthur Preuss.
- Thomson Masonic Fraud [Lib*],
Isaac Blair Evans.
- Washington and His Masonic
Compeers [Lib 1869], Sidney Hayden.
- Washington, the Great American
Mason [Lib 1922], John J. Lanier.
- Washington, the Man and the
Mason [Lib 1913], Charles H. Callahan
- Washington’s Masonic
Correspondence [Lib 1915],
Julius F. Sachse.
Box and Correspondence
of Boards of Relief
and Employment Bureaus
I find a list of Boards of Masonic Relief and of Employment Bureaus? We
of organizing some thing of the kind in our own city and would like to
with a few Secretaries before doing so.
M. J. W., Ohio.
find a list right here, brought up to date for us by Bro. Andrew J.
of Masonic Relief Association of the United States and Canada, and many
him for his kindness:
Masonic Relief Association, R. A. Walkup, Secretary, Masonic
Albany, N. Y. Board of Relief, Lewis J. Barhydt, Secretary Masonic
Alexandria, Va. Board of Relief, Edgar Warfield, Secretary 300 Prince
Atchison, Kansas. Board of Relief, Guy W. Sharp, Secretary, 308
Atlanta, Ga. Masonic Board of Relief, Walter C. Taylor, Secretary, City
Bakersfield, Calif. Masonic Board of Relief, A. D. Whittemore,
Baltimore, Md. Masonic Board of Relief, B. Friedman, Secretary, 109 W.
Barrie, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, Alfred Wilkes, Secretary.
Baton Rouge, La. J. S. Busse, Secretary-Treasurer, P. O. Box 617
Beaver Falls; Pa. Board of Relief, J. L. B. Dawson, Secretary.
Billings, Mont. Masonic Board of Relief, C. S. Bell, Secretary, 406
Binghamton, N. Y. Board of Relief, A. P. Kelsey, Secretary Masonic
Bloomington, Ill. Masonic Board of Relief, Bloomington, Ill.
Boston, Mass. Board of Relief, John A. Blake, Secretary, 207 Masonic
Brockville, Ont., Can. Board of Relief, W. H. Kyle. Secretary.
Brooklyn, N. Y. Williamsburgh Masonic Board of Relief, John Milford,
827 Bedford Ave.
Buffalo, N. Y. Masonic Relief Board, M. O. Denny, Secretary 2 Masonic
Buffalo, N. Y. Masonic Service Bureau, E. Earle Axtell, Secretary, Room
Butte, Mont. Masonic Board of Relief, George T. Wade, Secretary,
Calgary, Alberta, Can. Masonic Board of Relief, Masonic Temple.
Camden, N. J. Joseph B. Davis, Secretary, 817 Hadden St.
Charleston, S. C. Masonic Board of Relief. J. Berkman, Secretary, 4
Charlotte, N. C. Masonic Board of Relief, H. A. Franklin.
Chattanooga, Tenn. Masonic Board of Relief.
Chillicothe, Mo. Masonic Board of Relief.
Chicago, Ill. Board of Relief, Nicholas E. Murray, Secretary 5812 West
Chicago, Ill. Board of Relief, W. O. Robinson, Agent, 77 W. Washington.
Cincinnati, Ohio. Cincinnati Relief Association. Rolland L. Kraw,
Southern Ohio Bank Bldg
Cleveland. Ohio. Board of Relief, Isaac Morris, Secretary, 3515 Euclid
Cleveland, Ohio. Masonic Employment Bureau, R. S. Rovers Sec'y and
Supt., 316 Claxton
Clinton, Iowa. Board of Relief, Dr. E. F. Martindale, Secretary.
Colorado Springs, Colo. Masonic Board of Relief, Oliver E. Collins.
Columbia, Mo. Masonic Board of Relief.
Columbus, Ohio. Columbus EmpIoyment Bureau, W. S. Andrews. Secretary,
Concord, N. H. Board of Relief, John H. Wasson, Secretary.
Cortland. N. Y. Board of Relief, Charles H. Jones, Secretary.
Council Bluffs, Iowa. Masonic Relief Board, W. E. McConnell, Secretary,
Cumberland, Md. Masonic Relief Committee.
Dallas, Tex. Masonic Board of Relief, W. C. Lemon, Chairman, 300 Austin
Davenport, Iowa. Davenport Relief Board, C.E. Harrison. Agent, 1201
Dayton, Ohio. Board of Masonic Relief, W. A. Marietta, Secretary,
Decatur, Ill. Masonic Relief Board, Elmer O. Brintlinger, Secretary,
543 N. Maine
Denver, Colo. Board of Relief, Dr. M. H. Dean, Secretary, 219 Masonic
Des Moines, Iowa. B. F. Stretson, Charity Agent, 4th floor, Masonic
Detroit, Mich. Masonic Board of Relief, Fred J. Lawrence Secretary,
Dubuque, Iowa. Board of Relief, C. W. Walton, Secretary 1072 Main St.
Duluth, Minn. Masonic Board of Relief, H. VanBrunt, Secretary, Masonic
East St. Louis, Ill. Masonic Board of Relief.
Edmonton, Alberta, Can. Masonic Board of Relief, Lorne Muir, Secretary,
P. O. Box
El Paso, Tex. Masonic Board of Relief, Forest E. Baker, Secretary,
Evansville, Ind. Masonic Relief Association, Fred H. Ruff Secretary
Association, Third and Chestnut St.
Fort Wayne, Ind. Fort Wayne Relief Board, J. M. Stouder Chairman, 122
Fort Worth, Texas. Masonic Relief Association, E. F. Green
215 1/2 Main St.
Fresno, Calif. Board of Relief, S. B. Leas, Secretary.
Galveston, Texas. Masonic Board of Relief, Walter L. Norwood, Chairman
Grand Rapids, Mich Masonic Board of Relief, David Farbs 225 Ottawa Ave.
Great Falls, Mont. Great Falls Relief Board, O. B. Kotz, Secretary, P.
O. Box 112.
Guelph, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, A. Jeffray, Secretary, 54
Hamilton, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, H. R. Clark, Secretary,
Hannibal, Mo. Masonic Relief Board, W. H. Blackshaw, Secretary, 1241
Hartford, Conn. Hartford Masonic Board of Relief, George A. Kies,
Helena, Mont. Masonic Board of Relief, Wm. T. Hull, Secretary, care
Nat'l Bank of
Honolulu, T. H. Masonic Board of Relief. Wm. Bell, Secretary.
Houston, Tex. Houston Board of Relief, J. E. Chestnutt, Chairman, 302
Independence, Mo. Masonic Board of Relief, F. Walker, Secretary.
Indianapolis. Ind. Masonic Board of Relief, Rev. Willis D. Engle.
Jacksonville, Fla. Jacksonville Relief Committee, W. S. Ware Secretary,
Jeffersonville, Ind. Masonic Board of Relief, Wm. G. Young. Secretary.
Joliet. Ill. Masonic Board of Relief, E. W. Willard, Secretary, 407
Joplin, Mo. Joplin Relief Board. M. Wyler, Secretary.
Kansas City, Kansas. Masonic Board of Relief, J. R. McFarland.
Kansas City, Mo. Masonic Board of Relief, W.S. Lane, Secretary, Masonic
9th and Harrison Sts.
Kingston, Ont.. Can. Masonic Board of Relief, W. A. Bearance
493 Princess St.
Kirksville, Mo. Masonic Board of Relief.
Knoxville, Tenn. Knoxville Relief Board, Dr. J. D. Henderson Secretary,
Leavenworth. Kansas. Leavenworth Relief Board, Geo. W. Leek, Secretary.
Lethbridge, Alberta, Can. Masonic Board of Relief, John A Livingstone,
P. O. Box 94.
Lexington. Ky. Masonic Board of Relief, John W. Lancaster Secretary,
Lima. Mont. Board of Relief, S. W. Vance, Secretary
Lima. Ohio. Masonic Relief Board, Fred Barrington, Secretary, 901
Lincoln. Neb. Masonic Board of Relief, Fred W. Tyler, Secretary, 1204
London. Ont. ‒ Can. London Benevolent Association, Inc., Rt. Wor. J.W.
Pres.-Chairman, 633 Queens Ave. W. Bro. H. J. Childs.
Secretary-Treasurer, 293 Dundas
London, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, A. Ellis, Secretary,
Los Angeles, Calif. Masonic Board of Relief, Dr. J.M. Dunsmoor,
Secretary, 435 Stimson
Louisville, Ky. Louisville Relief Board, Charles H. Boden Secretary,
961 S. Second
Lowell, Mass. Masonic Board of Relief, Lucius A. Derby, Secretary.
Manila, P. I. Masonic Board of Relief, R. E. Clarke, Secretary, 105
Maryville, Mo. Masonic Board of Relief, Dr. L. C. Dean, Secretary.
Meadville, Pa. Masonic Board of Relief, Edwin M. Hoffman Secretary, 545
Memphis, Tenn. Memphis Relief Board, Chas. E. Lodge, Secretary, 4th and
Mexico City, Mexico. Masonic Board of Relief, C. T. Craig, Secretary,
Milwaukee, Wis. Masonic Service Bureau, P. A. Roth, Field Secretary,
470 Van Buren St
Minneapolis, Minn. Masonic Board of Relief, R. A. Saunderson,
Secretary, 420 Masonic
Missoula, Mont. Masonic Relief Board, Levi Whithee, Secretary, Masonic
Montreal, Que., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, Alexander Strachan,
Prince Arthur St., West.
Muskogee, Okla. Masonic Relief Committee, F. L. Walton, Secretary.
Nashville, Tenn. Masonic Relief Board, Aaron Bergado, Secretary, 610
New Albany, Ind. New Albany Relief Committee, Hugh J. Needham,
Secretary, Room 207,
Post Office Bldg.
New Haven, Conn. Masonic Board of Relief, S. A. Moyle P. O. Box 872.
New Orleans, La. Louisiana Relief Lodge No. 1, John A. Davilla,
Secretary, 301 Masonic
Newport News, Va. Masonic Board of Relief, A. L. Evans Secretary, 228
New York City, N. Y. Masonic Board of Relief, Robert S. Wardle,
Secretary, 71 West
New York City, N. Y. Italian Board of Relief, F. W. Chillemi Secretary,
St., Astoria, L. I
New Westminster, B. C., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, A. Minn,
Oakland, Calif. Masonic Board of Relief, R. G. Evans, Secretary,
Omaha, Neb. Masonic Board of Relief, Chas. Bradley, Secretary, Masonic
Ottawa, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, D. A. Esdale, Secretary.
Pasadena, Calif. Masonic Board of Relief, Luciene A. Parmalee,
Pekin, Ill. Masonic Board of Relief, F. W. Soady, Secretary.
Peoria, Ill. Masonic Board of Relief, Chas. H. Toddhunter, Secretary.
Peterborough, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, Henry Rush, Secretary.
Pocatello, Idaho. Masonic Board of Relief, E. G. Houde, Secretary
Portland, Maine. Masonic Relief Board, Almon L. Johnson, Secretary,
Portland, Oregon. Masonic Service and Employment Bureau, N. H.
Portland, Oregon. Masonic Board of Relief, P. P. Kilbourne, Secretary,
Pueblo, Colo. Masonic Board of Relief, Wm. Peach, 40 Masonic Temple.
Quincy, Ill. Masonic Board of Relief, Paul G. Duncan, Secretary,
Rahway, N. J. Masonic Bureau of New Jersey, R. A. Vertseeg, Secretary.
Raleigh, N. C. Masonic Board of Relief, Wm. P. Little, Secretary, care
Regina, Sask., Can. The Masonic Council of Regina, J. G. Lowrie,
Richmond, Ind. Masonic Relief Board, Clarence W. Foreman, Secretary.
Richmond, Va. Masonic Board of Relief, B. C. Lewis, Jr., President,
1015 E. Maine
Rochester, N. Y. Masonic Service Bureau, H. G. Oliver, Manager, 61-63
Sacramento, Calif. Masonic Board of Relief, A. V. Henning, Secretary,
Nat'l Bank Bldg.
Saginaw, Mich. Saginaw Board of Relief, C. J. Phelps, Secretary, 410
Salina, Kansas. Masonic Board of Relief, W. G. Dewees, Secretary.
Salt Lake City, Utah. Masonic Board of Relief, F. J. Keller, Secretary,
San Antonio, Texas. Masonic Employment and Relief Bureau Leland S.
San Diego, Calif. Masonic Board of Relief, R.W. Belding, Secretary,
San Francisco, Calif. Masonic Board of Relief, Leo Bruck Secretary,
San Jose, Calif. San Jose Relief Committee, W. J. Anthes, Jr.,
Sault Ste. Marie, Ont., Can. Masonic Board
Relief, E. I. Scott, Secretary
Savannah, Ga. Masonic Relief Association, A. L. Maxwell, Chairman,
Scranton, Pa. Masonic Relief Association, Ernest I. Paine, Chairman,
Seattle, Wash. Masonic Relief and Employment Bureau, Harry M. Welliver,
5193 Arcade Bldg
Sedalia, Mo. Masonic Board of Relief, J. Rautenstrauch, Secretary, 703
Sioux City, Iowa. Masonic Board of Relief, Charles L. Guiney Secretary,
South Bend, Ind. South Bend Relief Board, F. M. Boone, Secretary,
Southern Pines, N. C. Masonic Board of Relief, R. H. Chandler,
Springfield, Ill. Masonic Board of Control, J. R. Orr, Secretary,
Springfield, Mass. Springfield Emergency Fund, Howard L. Kinsman,
Springfield, Mo. Masonic Relief Board, M. F. Smith, Secretary, Masonic
St. Johns, New Brunswick. Masonic Board of Relief, Alexander R.
26 Germains St.
St. Joseph, Mo. St. Joseph Board of Relief, Orestes Mitchell,
Secretary, 304 Corby-Forsee
St. Paul, Minn. Masonic Board of Relief, Andrew B. Swansstrom, Agent,
St. Louis, Mo. Masonic Board of Relief, Chas. H. Schureman, Secretary,
2207 S. Grand
St. Louis, Mo. Masonic Employment Bureau, Wm. C. Heim Secretary, 2159
St. Louis County, Mo. Board of Relief, Homer N. Lloyd, Secretary, 517
St. Thomas, Ont., Can. St. Thomas Relief Board, Fred W. Judd,
Secretary, 379 Talbot
Stockton, Calif. Masonic Board of Relief, E. H. McGowen, Secretary.
Syracuse, N. Y. Masonic Board of Relief, S. D. Solomon Secretary, 712
S. A. &c
Tampa, Fla. Masonic Board of Relief, D. C. Hill, Secretary 1323
Terre Haute, Ind. Terre Haute Relief Board, Charles H. Traquair,
N. Seventh St.
Toledo, Ohio. Masonic Executives' Association, Joseph J. Devlin,
Toronto, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, J. B. Nixon,
Troy, N. Y. Masonic Relief Board, F. E. Bowen, Secretary National State
Tulsa, Okla. Masonic Relief Board, Frank S. Davison, Secretary, 316 E.
Utics, N. Y. Masonic Board of Relief, Arthur D. Evans, Secretary.
Vancouver, B. C. Masonic Board of Relief, Lewis E. Frith, Secretary,
Vancouver, Wash. Masonic Board of Relief, C. A. Parrish, Secretary, 807
Vicksburg, Miss. Board of Relief, Dan G. Flohr, Chairman, 1322
Victoria, B. C. Masonic Board of Relief, Stewart M. Manuel, Secretary,
Washington, D. C. Masonic Board of Relief, Wm. Mehn, Secretary, Masonic
Waterbury, Conn. Masonic Board of Relief, O. A. Ziglatzki, Chairman.
Wheeling, W. Va. Masonic Relief Association, Thos. T. Meek Secretary,
Wilmington, Del. Masonic Board of Relief, Walter I,. Morgan, Secretary,
Wilmington, N. C. Masonic Board of Relief, H. E. Walton Secretary, 19
S. 9th St.
Windsor, Ont., Can. Windsor Relief Board, John Fry, Secretary.
Winnipeg, Man., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, John McCrea, Secretary,
Woodstock, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, John Morrison, Secretary.
Worcester, Mass. Masonic Board of Relief, Arthur H. Burton, Secretary,
Ypsilanti, Mich. Masonic Relief Committee, J. R. Dell, Chairman.
And then you'll be sure
To avoid many troubles
That others endure.
of Lodge No. 61
Har97 / auth. Harvey Oscar J. - Wilkesbarre : [s.n.], 1897. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 696. - 28.7 MB.
A Memoir of Sylvanus Cobb Jr.
Cob91 / auth. Cobb Ella Waite. - Boston : Published for his Family,
1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 329. - 12.8 MB.
A Study in American Freemasonry
Pre08 / auth. Preuss Arthur. - St. Louis : B Herder, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 453. - 8.9 MB.
Albert Pike a Biography
All281 / auth. Allsopp Fred W. - Little Rock : Parke Harper Co., 1928.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 415. - 30.8 MB - Illustrated.
Benjamin Franklin as a Free
Sac06 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Lancaster : The New Era Printing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 187. - 13.2 MB.
Brother General Lafayette
Sac16 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 47. - 1.3 MB.
Freemasonry In America Prior To
Joh16 / auth. Johnson Melvin M. - Cambridge : Caustic-Claflin Co.,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 242. - 4.7 MB.
Freemasonry in Dist of Columbia
Har11 / auth. Harper
Kenton N. - Washington DC : R Beresford, 1911. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 554. -
Freemasonry in Michigan Vol 1
Con97FM1 / auth. Conover Jefferson. - Coldwater : The Conover Engraving
and Printing Company, 1897. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 607. - 39.8 MB.
Freemasonry in Michigan Vol 2
Con98FM2 / auth. Conover Jefferson. - Coldwater : The Conover Engraving
and Printing Company, 1898. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 513. - 32.5 MB.
Freemasonry in New York
Lan22 / auth. Lang Ossian. - New York : Grand Lodge of New York, 1922.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 248. - 5.5 MB.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 1
McC91NY1 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 4. - Volume not Found.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 2
McC92NY2 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1892. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 649. - 16.8 MB.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 3
McC93NY3 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1893. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 636. - 17.3 MB.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 4
McC94NY4 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1894. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 656. - 18.6 MB.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania Vol
Sac08FP1 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1908. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 526. - 13.9 MB.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania Vol
Sac09FP2 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1909. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 518. - 11.8 MB.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania Vol
Sac19FP3 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1919. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 507. - 13.0 MB.
Freemasonry in South Carolina
Mac61 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - Columbia : South Carolinian Steam
Power Press, 1861. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 567. - 33.2 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 01
Moo42FM01 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1842. - Vol. 1 : 32 : p. 392. - 26.3 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 03
Moo44FM03 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1944. - Vol. 3 : 32 : p. 390. - 32.8 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 04
Moo45FM04 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1845. - Vol. 4 : 32 : p. 393. - 34.1 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 05
Moo46FM05 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1846. - Vol. 5 : 32 : p. 393. - 32.0 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 06
Moo47FM06 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1847. - Vol. 6 : 32 : p. 403. - 35.8 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 07
Moo48FM07 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1848. - Vol. 7 : 32 : p. 786. - 66.9 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 10
Moo51FM10 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1851. - Vol. 10 : 32 : p. 117. - 10.0 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 12
Moo53FM12 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1853. -
Vol. 12 : 32 : p. 393. - 30.4 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 13
Moo54VM13 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1854. -
Vol. 13 : 32 : p. 393. - 30.9 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 16
Moo57FM16 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1857. -
Vol. 16 : 32 : p. 262. - 15.6 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 20
Moo61FM20 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1861. -
Vol. 20 : 32 : p. 190. - 14.8 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 21
Moo62FM21 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1862. -
Vol. 21 : 32 : p. 792. - 63.4 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 22
Moo63FM22 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1863. -
Vol. 22 : 32 : p. 222. - 22.3 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 23
Moo64FM23 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1864. -
Vol. 23 : 32 : p. 393. - 23.0 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 24
Moo65FM24 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1865. -
Vol. 24 : 32 : p. 440. - 39.6 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 25
Moo66FM25 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Edward S Coombs Company,
1866. - Vol. 25 : 32 : p. 220. - 17.2 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 29
Moo70FM29 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Solon Thornton, 1870. -
Vol. 29 : 32 : p. 188. - 9.9 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 31
Moo72FM31 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Arthur W Cooke &
Co, 1872. - Vol. 31 : 32 : p. 461. - 36.3 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 32
Moo72FM32 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Batchelder &
Wood, 1872. - Vol. 32 : 32 : p. 434. - 32.6 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
History of Freemasonry in
Canada Vol 1
Rob00FC1 / auth. Robertson J Ross. - Toronto : George N. Morgan
& Co Ltd, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 1358. - 36.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry in
Canada Vol 2
Rob00FC2 / auth. Robertson J Ross. - Toronto : George N. Morgan
& Co Ltd, 1900. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 465. - 19.0 MB.
History of Masonry and
Hug91 / auth. Hughan William J / ed. Hughan William J. and Stillson
Henry L.. - New York : The Fraternity Publishing Co., 1891. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 863. - 63.4 MB.
History of the GL of Iowa Vol 1
Mor10 / auth. Morcombe Joseph E. - Cedar Rapids : GL of Iowa, 1910. -
Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 334. - 14.2 MB.
History of the GL of Iowa Vol 2
Iow15HI1 / auth. Iowa GL of / ed. Cleveland William F. - Cedar Rapids :
Grand Lodge of Iowa, 1915. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 384. - 19.8 MB.
History of the GL of Iowa Vol 2
Iow15HI2 / auth. Iowa GL of / ed. Cleveland William F. - Cedar Rapids :
Grand Lodge of Iowa, 1915. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 331. - 9.0 MB.
History of the GL of Iowa Vol 3
Iow39HI4 / auth. Iowa GL of / ed. Moore Ernest R.. - Cedar Rapids :
Grand Lodge of Iowa, 1939. - Vol. 4 : 5 : p. 326. - 17.0 MB.
History of the GL of Iowa Vol 4
Iow69HI4 / auth. Iowa GL of / ed. Whipple Ralph E. - Cedar Rapids :
Grand Lodge of Iowa, 1969. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 205. - 4.8 MB.
Wri07 / auth. Wright Robert C. - Ann Arbour : Tyler Publishing Co.,
1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 143. - 7.9 MB.
Masons as Makers of America
Pet21 / auth. Peters Madison C. - New York : Trowel Publications, 1921.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 65. - 1.8 MB.
Military Lodges. The Apron and
Gou99 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Gale & Polden, Ltd.,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 280. - 13.7 MB.
Minutes Vol 01 - 1779-1801
Pen95GP01 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 1 : 12 : p. 514. - 12.3 MB.
Minutes Vol 02 - 1801-1810
Pen95GP02 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 2 : 12 : p. 524. - 17.5 MB.
Minutes Vol 03 - 1811-1816
Pen95GP03 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 3 : 12 : p. 507. - 12.6 MB.
Minutes Vol 04 - 1817-1822
Pen95GP04 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 4 : 12 : p. 503. - 16.4 MB.
Minutes Vol 05 - 1822-1827
Pen95GP05 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 5 : 12 : p. 506. - 12.1 MB.
Minutes Vol 06 - 1828-1839
Pen95GP06 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 6 : 12 : p. 526.
Minutes Vol 07 - 1840-1848
Pen95GP07 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 7 : 12 : p. 558. - 12.3 MB.
Minutes Vol 08 - 1849-1854
Pen95GP08 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 8 : 12 : p. 541. - 13.6 MB.
Minutes Vol 09 - 1855-1858
Pen95GP09 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 9 : 12 : p. 519. - 14.3 MB.
Minutes Vol 10 - 1859-1864
Pen95GP10 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 10 : 12 : p. 602. - 16.1 MB.
Minutes Vol 11 - 1865-1874
Pen95GP11 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 11 : 12 : p. 495. - 30.6 MB.
Minutes Vol 12 - 1875-1880
Pen95GP12 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 1895. - Vol. 12 : 12 : p. 510. - 19.6 MB.
Mormonism and Freemasonry
Goo201 / auth. Goodwin S H. - 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 140. - 1.4 MB.
Old Masonic Lodges of
Pennsylvania Vol 1
Sac12OL1 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1912. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 484. - 13.6 MB.
Old Masonic Lodges of
Pennsylvania Vol 2
Sac13OL2 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1913. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 483. - 14.5 MB.
Sacred Mysteries among the
Mayas and Quiches
Plo09 / auth. Plongeon Augustus Le. - New York : Theosophical
Publishing Company, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 207. - 7.3 MB - Illustrated.
St Andrew's Lodge
Smi22 / auth. Smith Henry T. - Toronto : The Macoomb Press, 1922. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 253. - 10.9 MB.
The Abduction and Murder of
Hun86 / auth. Huntington P C. - New York : M W Hazen Co, 1886. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 177. - 7.2 MB.
Arc94 / auth. Archer Thomas A and Kingsford Charles L. - New York :
Putnam's Sons, 1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 504. - Illustrated - 12.7 MB.
The Jews and Masonry in the
United States Before 1810
Opp10 / auth. Oppenheim Samuel. - New York : The Jewish Historical
Society, 1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 104. - 2.9 MB.
The Scarlet Book of Free Masonry
Red85 / auth. Redding M W. - New York : Redding & Co, 1885. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 511. - Illustrated - 28.2 MB.
Washington and His Masonic
Hay69 / auth. Hayden Sidney. - New York : Masonic Publishing and
Manufacturing Co., 1869. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 416. - 21.5 MB.
Washington the Great American
Lan221 / auth. Lanier John J. - New York : Macoy Publishing &
Masonic Supply Company, 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 310. - 9.1 MB.
Washington the Man and Mason
Cal13 / auth. Callahan Charles. - Washington : The Memorial Temple
Committee, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 501. - 28.3 MB.
Washington`s Masonic Correspondence
Sac15 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Lancaster : New Era Printing Co.,
1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 182. - 11.6 MB.