Masonic Research Society
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Journal of the National Masonic Research
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo.
copyright 1926 by the National Masonic
as second-class matter at the post office,
St. Louis, Mo.; accepted for special rate of Postage provided for in
of Oct. 3, 1917: authorized Feb. 12, 1923, under the Act Of Aug. 24,
A. REED, New Jersey, President
R. PARVIN, Iowa, Vice-President
C. HUNT, Iowa, General Secretary
H. LITTLEFIELD, Missouri, Executive Secretary and Treasurer
BLOCK, P.G.M., Iowa
I. CLEW, Grand Historian, Ohio
C. HUNT, Deputy Grand Secretary, Iowa.
H. GOODWIN, Grand Secretary, Utah
M. JOHNSON, P. G. M. Massachusetts
S. LEE, P. G. M., Missouri
H. LlTTLEFIELD, Missouri
S. MOSES, P. G. M., Iowa
FORT NEWTON, Educational Director M. S. A., New York.
A. REED, P. G. M., New Jersey
H. SHEPHERD, Chairman Masonic Research, Wisconsin
DAY STREET, Deputy Grand Master, Alabama
WHITED, Grand Marshal, Order of De Molay, California
Grand Lodge of New York Withdrew From the Masonic International
By Bro. William A. Rowan,
Grand Master, New York
EDITOR ‒ In your letter of Dec. 9, you say:
have received so many inquiries concerning your withdrawal from the
Association that I am writing to ask if you would be willing to give us
reason in a letter that may be published in THE BUILDER."
of the Regulations and Statutes of the Masonic International
"Each Jurisdiction may withdraw freely from the Association, if it has
its financial obligations." In his address to Grand Lodge in 1923, M.
S. Tompkins, then Grand Master, in referring to the Masonic
said: "from which Association any Grand Jurisdiction may withdraw at
for any reason, or for no reason"; New York, however, had reasons,
its judgment, called for withdrawal, even though our Constitution
in the Association, which it does not.
At the session
in May, 1919, the following Resolution was adopted by the Grand Lodge
of New York:
That the Grand Master be and he hereby is invited to accept any
may be extended to this Grand Lodge to attend any Grand Lodge
Communication or any
conference or conferences of Grand Jurisdictions having for purpose the
of the Craft or a closer relationship between Jurisdictions, or any
which in his judgment will promote the interest of the Fraternity, with
appoint such delegates thereto as in his judgment may be deemed
expedient * * *
dated Sept. 30, 1919, was received from Swiss Grand Lodge Alpina,
the past years of war we frequently considered whether or not it was
to invite the Brothers of other countries to participate in a
convention for the
purpose of bringing them into closer relation with one another, but
after due consideration
we felt convinced that the proper time had not yet arrived, and that
this wish could
be realized only after the cessation of the bloody strife. Now the war
Nations are commencing to resume their relations. The broken threads of
skeins of destiny ought to be repaired. In this work of reconstruction
must not continue its attitude of waiting. It must no longer remain
idle. For is
not Freemasonry the one organization that is best qualified to further
between the peoples, and, by means of personal Contact among its
members, to aid
in the advancement of Masonic ideals and offered its services to call
Congress of all Freemasons, to be held in Switzerland during the autumn
subject to the approval and necessary support of the lodges of all of
viewing the principal value of such a conclave in the exchange of ideas
it may bring,
in order to break down any barriers that may exist, and to aid the
of a closer world brotherhood, stating that "the Congress will act
an informatory capacity, and will not pass binding resolutions," and
New York to consider the proposal carefully, and give it the necessary
among all interested circles. Following which, M. W. William S. Farmer,
Master, sent a letter to all of the Grand Masters in the United States
attendance, and later sent a letter to all Jurisdictions outside of the
expressing the hope for a large and representative attendance by
all over the world.
In his address
to Grand Lodge in May, 1920, M. W. Bro. Farmer said:
"Due to the position it
occupies in Freemasonry,
the State of New York cannot be backward in expressing its sympathy
with and participating
in, every movement in the Fraternity in this or any other country which
its purpose a closer union of Masons, with a view to the promotion of
for which the Fraternity stands and the making of the Fraternity a
world asset of
"We have talked much of its
but, when we come down to the final analysis, all Jurisdictions are
more or less
provincial, and, in their association with each other, find themselves
barriers for which there would be found little justification, were a
had and the differences discussed in a conciliatory and sympathetic
of course, all this without any departure from ancient landmarks or
“Realizing the mission of
Masonry as an universal
institution, its potentiality for good and the great service it can
render now in
world reconstruction, the State of New York should be willing to lead
and to follow
and to be represented in every great conference or assembly where it
to the general cause by its counsel and co-operation."
was not held in 1920, but was postponed to October, 1921; acting under
above referred to, the Grand Master of New York, M. W. Robert H.
representatives to the Conference. The following Jurisdictions were
present at this
of New York
1,300 Grand Lodge of Vienna (Austria)
4,000 Grand Orient of Belgium
1,000 Grand Lodge of Bulgaria
400 Spanish Grand Lodge
25,000 Grand Orient of France
10,000 Grand Lodge of France
25,000 Grand Orient of Italy
6,420 Grand Orient of Netherlands (Holland)
3,000 United Grand Orient Lusitania of Portugal
4,700 Swiss Grand Lodge Alpina
2,600 Grand Orient of Turkey
Grand Lodge "Zur Aufgehenden Sonne" (Grand Lodge of the Rising Sun, of
exclusive of New York, had a membership of less than 100,000; the
Jurisdictions of the world, exclusive of New York, had a membership of
At that time,
it was thought that the small attendance was due to the postponement,
and that the
new date had not been effectively advertised.
Lodge of the Rising Sun was admitted to the Conference by vote, New
York and Swiss
Grand Lodge Alpina voting in the negative.
adopted the following Declaration of Principles:
"The Masonic Grand
in Congress, with a view to making more effective their humanitarian
mission, proclaim hereby constituted a MASONIC INTERNATIONAL
ASSOCIATION, the seat
of which is Geneva.
"All Masonic Grand
Jurisdictions which subscribe
to the principles, herein set forth, shall be eligible to membership.
"Inspired by the ideals shared
by all, each
Grand Jurisdiction in this Association retains its sovereignty, its
"Freemasonry, founded by
philosophic and progressive, the basis of which is the acceptance of
that all men are brothers, has for its object the quest of Truth, the
practice of morality, and of that which will lead to unity among men.
"It labors to better the
conditions of humanity
from the material and spiritual standpoint as well as to lead it to a
intellectual and social plane.
"It has for principles
for others and for self, liberty of conscience. It holds it to be its
duty to extend
to all members of the human family the bonds of fraternity, which unite
the world over.
"Freemasonry, deeming work to
be one of
the essential duties of man, honors equally those who toil with their
those given to intellectual pursuits.
"It is composed then of a
society of upright
men, equality and fraternity, labor individually and collectively to
progress, giving expression thereby to beneficence in its loftiest
It also adopted
Regulations and Statutes, which will be found on pages "H", "I"
and "J", of the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of New York of 1922.
It will be
seen that the original proposition for the Congress to act only in an
capacity, and not pass binding resolutions, was abandoned; all of the
represented signed the Declaration of Principles, save New York and
signed subject to ratification by their respective Grand Lodges, and
the Grand Lodge
of the Rising Sun, whose representative left Geneva before the
termination of the
to the Grand Master of New York contained the following paragraph:
"Members of the Association
territorial integrity and jurisdiction of each other member. Foreign
our territory, chartered by legitimate Grand Lodges acting however in
to our claim of exclusive jurisdiction, will be eliminated."
to this paragraph will be made later.
So much objection
was raised to the Declaration of Principles by representative members
of the Craft
in this Jurisdiction because of the omission therefrom of a belief in
God, and reference
to the Holy Bible, and to becoming a member of an association some of
of which did not meet the standards of New York, that in 1922, upon
of M. W. Robert H. Robinson, then Grand Master, consideration of the
laid over for a year. In his address at that time, M. W. Robert H.
"It is cause of regret and of
humiliation to the Fraternity that notwithstanding its universality,
of Freemasonry have had little in common, co-operating almost not at
all, in fact
frequently refraining even from recognizing one another. For all this,
have been, perhaps there is, some justification, yet in these days,
when the world
is seeking closer co-operation, and men of all races appreciate the
more intimate relationship and understanding, if the present problems
of the world
are to be successfully solved, it was natural that the Fraternity too
to a desire to frustrate the efforts of its enemies to maintain it 'A
"These enemies have in a
by accentuating the Fraternity's discords and disagreements. Masonry
to overcome these designs by establishing some medium through which the
the several Grand Jurisdictions may be ascertained.
"This aspiration found
expression in the
Geneva Conference and there was there organized a Masonic International
which has, as its first purpose, the quest of 'Truth,' the thought
being that until
we know the truth concerning each other, we are hardly in a position to
we may cooperate, or justify our failure to co-operate.
"This new enterprise is of so
to the Craft that it seems proper that ample time to study it should be
In May, 1923,
in referring to the matter in his address to Grand Lodge, M. W. Arthur
Grand Master, said:
"Grand Lodge, at this session,
action in this matter and determine whether our Jurisdiction is to
continue as a
tentative member of this Association or is to become a permanent
member, or is to
withdraw entirely from the said Association.
"We are opposed to a
super-Grand Lodge or
any International Association that would dominate our own or any other
but I am in favor of a voluntary association or league of tie
Jurisdictions of the world upon fundamental principles as to which all
and upon the common platform of universal brotherhood, without
surrendering or compromising
any of our own ideals or landmarks and from which association any Grand
may withdraw at any time for any reason or for no reason.
"The International Association
we are now a tentative member has in it elements that are not in
harmony with all
of our Masonic standards, the majority of its members are recognized by
us as true
Masons and with them we are in correspondence and friendly relations,
and the question
to be determined by us is whether we shall continue our membership in
and encourage other American and European Jurisdictions to become
members and in
time purge the Association of the bodies that are truly not Masonic and
it a powerful agency for the spread of Masonic Doctrine throughout the
whether we shall withdraw our support and abandon the vision and hope
of a world-wide
Masonic federation. My own opinion is that we should stay where we are
and use our
best endeavors to interest other American Jurisdictions in the cause,
to the end
that we may ultimately eliminate all un-Masonic bodies and perfect a
effective worldwide Masonic alliance."
were referred to committees on Jurisprudence and Foreign Relations,
presented to the Grand Lodge the following recommendation: "The Joint
of Jurisprudence and Foreign Correspondence begs to report:
"'The portion of the Grand
relating to the Masonic International Masonic Association, which has
to us has been duly considered.
" 'It seems to your Committee
that as a
matter of comity to our sister Jurisdictions in the United States it is
to authorize the consummation of the membership by New York in the
Association before the subject of membership on the part of other
has been called to their attention, and an opportunity afforded them of
"'Your Committee therefore
that the status quo of New York with reference to the Masonic
be maintained for another year and until three or more other American
have signified their intention of joining with New York as qualifying
that the dues of New York for the coming year be paid; but without
"'(Signed) S. Nelson Sawyer,
for the Committee.'
"I concur in the foregoing
only because of the hope that it will make for greater harmony here at
yet afford some protection and comfort to our brethren in more troubled
the world where to be a Mason invites danger and even death.
"(Signed) Townsend Scudder."
It is not
necessary to relate here what took place when this report was
than to say it was emphasized "that this report was a compromise, and
was being asked was to sit down around a Council Table, not even within
and talk over with the representatives of these other Grand Lodges,
which we know
within their origin to be legitimate, to see whether or not we cannot
help and guide
them to our standards." That the Association "admits, for the purpose
of its organization, any Grand Lodge which is supposed to be
legitimate; and then
at the Council Table it is discussed and thrashed out." "When, after
with them the conditions that prevail, their ideals, purposes, aims,
to serve mankind, we reach the conclusion that we cannot co-operate."
amendment was offered:
"That it is the sense of this
in present session that the Grand Lodge of New York forthwith
consummate its membership
in the Masonic International Association."
In the discussion
that followed, "It was urged that the whole purpose of the thing is to
at a Council Table, and there discuss the matters which are dividing
us, in the
hope that possibly we may find a way of uniting." "We do nothing more
than sit at the Table and listen to what these people have to say, and
whether we can inspire them to our ideals, our standards, and our
humanity, that they may share, in their woe-befallen country, where
as their contribution to humanity and human happiness;" that having to
to the Declaration of Principles had been entirely eliminated at the
of the executive session of the Association.
that it might be urged that they were in substitution for the
landmarks, that the
landmarks were being east to one side and in their place these
consequently it was said, 'away with the whole thing, all that we want
do is to come here and to discuss the purpose of our getting together,'
so the idea
of the principles is out of it."
was adopted by 542 votes to 397.
were sent to the meeting of the Masonic International Association at
Geneva in September,
1923, which meeting was attended by representatives of the following
Orient of Belgium
Orient of Italy
Orient of France
Lodge of France
Lodge of Vienna
Grand Lodge of Luxembourg
Lodge of Barcelona
Lodge of Bulgaria
Orient of Portugal
Grand Lodge Alpina
Orient of Turkey
Lodge "Zur Aufgehenden Sonne"
Lodge of Chile
Grand Lodge of Colombia
Lodge of Yougoslavia
Lodge of the United States of Venezuela
Lodge of New York
Lodge of the Netherlands
Lodges of the Philippine Islands
admitted by Committee, to be confirmed by Association.
It is fair
to assume that more publicity was given to this meeting than to the
meeting in 1921,
and that the absence of other Grand Jurisdictions was for reasons other
lack of knowledge of the time and place of the meeting.
consummated its membership without reservations; Holland consummated
with reservations; the admission of the Grand Lodge of the Rising Sun
the President of the Association stating: "This Body is unable to prove
origin in the strict sense of established usages ;" the Grand Master of
Grand Lodge of the Rising Sun contended they were already regular
members of the
Association; eventually he asked the Convention to remit the question
of its membership
in the Masonic International Association to the next year. Some
in which, in one case, it was stated that his proposition was that he
one year, to the end that he may be given time to regularize his
this, the Grand Master stated: "That is correct. You will then have
freedom to settle the question of inquiry;" a member seconded the
the Grand Master with the statement, "Let us adjourn the matter for a
the time needed by the Rising Sun to secure its regularization."
"He asks one year to regularize his Jurisdiction and that we ourselves
whatever inquiry seems desirable to us to make. At the end of the year
have the necessary information, but from now till then I ask that his
cannot remain a member." To which the President replied: "That is
The Rising Sun will withdraw: that is understood.” The President then
put the following
proposition: "Do you, Brethren, approve this idea that for one year the
Committee will gather all useful information, and that at the end of
this time the
Rising Sun will raise its candidacy anew and will come with titles of
For the present, it is therefore considered as retiring voluntarily
from the Association."
to the Minutes, this was unanimously adopted.
as to the requirement in the Declaration of Principles that "all
Jurisdictions which subscribe to the principles, herein set forth,
shall be eligible
to membership" was taken up, and before the vote one representative
"It is well understood that the
of Principles stands as we have adopted it. What is suppressed is
simply the obligation
on the part of Jurisdictions which shall adhere in the future, and
should have not
signed this Declaration, to consider it as a credo, as an article of
this understanding, I am wining to support the proposition which asks
us to suppress
"The Assembly goes against the
unanimously, minus five votes." Whereupon the President announced, "The
Resolution is adopted. We shall keep the Declaration but from this time
on the Declaration
of Principles is no longer obligatory." (The only other provision for
is in Part 2, Article 5, of the Regulations and Statutes, as follows:
"The candidacy of a Grand
membership in the Association cannot be considered, excepting it be
three Grand Jurisdictions which are members.
"Among the Grand Jurisdictions
a candidacy, must be included those members of the Association having
in the same territory as the candidate."
was disposed of prior to the action concerning the Grand Lodge of the
of the Regulations and Statutes, reads:
"The object of the Association
"To maintain and to develop
between Masonic Grand Jurisdictions.
"To create new relations."
In the report of the Secretary is the following:
"The questions relating to the
Nations have been attended to. We have received different
communications about the
Russians and massacres of Greek populations at the Black Sea. The
League of Nations
has acknowledged the receipt of our letter. We have pursued the same
course in that
which concerns the alleged massacres of Boy Scouts, as the Turks call
them. We have
written to the League of Nations conformably to the decision of the
regard to repatriation of the prisoners of war. They have informed us
of the receipt
of our letters. We have in the same manner disposed of the question of
as regards the massacre of the Boy Scouts at Sofia."
presented a letter addressed to the Peace Conference at Lausanne,
"By this letter the Masonic
Association unites its views with that of numerous societies which have
of the Peace Conference at Lausanne the creation of national
independence in favor
of the Armenian, and this in the name of Right, Justice, and of
adding, "it means only a simple expression of good will and interest
people which suffers."
was adopted without objection.
For the information
of the Association the Secretary reported having met two delegates of
Syndical Federation of Amsterdam, which represents, he was told more
them 24 million
members of Metallurgic Syndicates. He was told that the delegates had
formal resolution at Rome concerning war against war; that they had
only to suppress war by honest means, but that they were ready to
suppress it by
a general strike, and asked if the Masonic International Association
would not be
disposed to lend its co-operation, to which he replied, "that we were
informed"; "for the two hundred years that Masonry has existed, it has
been pacifist; hence, we are older than all the Peace Associations. . .
. We have
entered into no acknowledgment whatever on this side."
"I was notified by the
Bureau at Basle, along with a number of Associations which stand for
peace. I have
been asked if as a Masonic International Association we would be
disposed to lend
our help to the International Peace Bureau at Berne. This Bureau has
sent us its
Constitution and a number of questions, all of which will be submitted
to the Advisory
Committee when it meets."
of one Jurisdiction, who at that time was Secretary of the
International Labor Bureau,
"Several delegates have
expressed a desire
to visit the International Bureau of Labor of the League of Nations.
You know that
this Institution follows objects and an ideal which corresponds to
those of Masonry,
and to which we all have an attitude to contribute. "Albert Thomas, the
of the International Bureau of Labor, has charged me to inform you that
be happy to receive you and to receive all of the delegates of the
Association at 6:30."
proposed the following Resolution:
"Sharing the emotion of the
the Masonic International Association provoked by the existing
condition of Hungarian
Masonry, the Convention of the Masonic International Association at
sincerely that events of a political nature have kept the Hungarian
from their labors. It is hoped that a more complete understanding of
the true character
of the Hungarian Masonic Lodges will put an end to the present
is to be addressed to the Brethren an expression of our keen sympathy
in the hope
that it may soon be serving anew by their activity the glory of their
the cause of humanity."
to the Minutes, the above Resolution was "unanimously adopted." A
signed by the President of the Convention, is sent to the President of
Ministers of Hungary, Budapest. A representative stated:
"I ask that this order of
is certainly voted unanimously, be transmitted to the Government of
There have been various interviews with the Government itself, as you
know. I believe
that if this order of business is transmitted to the Government, making
different Jurisdictions which have adopted it that is to say the
unanimity of the
Convention, I believe that this may have a very considerable influence
Horty. I ask that in doing this, we make known to Horty of how many
the Masonic International Association is composed."
in face of the fact that the Minister of the Hungarian Government had
Masonic question has become, however we may judge it individually, a
question of such intensity as to cause the Government to proceed with
caution; reopening the Lodges would mean signing an order for renewal
Resolution was approved as a sense of the meeting:
“The Masonic International
Association has for
an object to create a fraternity between peoples and to make war on
statement for publication in the public press, contained the following:
"The Convention unanimously
following Resolution: 'The Assembly uniting its endeavors with those of
of Nations, affirming that all conflicts between peoples should be
decided by an
International Jurisdiction * * * .' “
acts of the Association were not submitted to this Grand Jurisdiction
for information or consideration, either before being put into effect,
or for ratification
afterwards, although each Jurisdiction is supposed to retain its
provision is made in the Regulations and Statutes that any such
submission is to
be made, but on the contrary the Statutes provide that the Advisory
Has in charge the execution of the resolutions of the Congress.
It takes the steps necessary to realize, within the provisions of the
the purposes of the Association."
above set forth, and others hereinafter referred to, are not the
by M. W. Bro. Farmer (as expressed by him in above quotation), who
invitation of Swiss Grand Lodge Alpina, or by M. W. Bro. Robinson, who
representatives to the first Conference, and whose views are quoted
or by M. W. Bro. Tompkins, whose views and recommendations are also
furthermore, these acts do not meet the purposes of the Association, as
in Article 1, of the Statutes, above quoted, nor do they conform to the
urged in the Grand Lodge of New York in 1923, hereinbefore mentioned,
and so far
as the League of Nations is concerned, the United States has refused to
member, and in this country it has become a matter of political
up its program for the meeting of 1924, the Association included
therein the subject
of Labor; the question of Labor from the general and social point of
view. The Grand
Lodge of New York was not advised that this subject was to be
it has nothing to do with the purposes of the Association, nor with
a Council Table the matters which are dividing us, nor with inspiring
with our standards of Masonry.
Avoid Philosophical Discussions
also included in the Program for the meeting of 1924 the subject of
Regularity (referring to Grand Lodges), with the understanding that the
was to "avoid philosophical questions"; that "philosophical questions
are of an internal concern", and "that means not to consider the
the questions of divinity; things which have nothing to do with the
Without the restrictions placed upon this discussion, here was an
discuss one of the matters which are dividing us, and to see whether or
not we could
help and guide such of the Jurisdictions as are not in harmony with all
standards; but with the restrictions, nothing helpful could come out of
for were everything else agreed upon, there would still remain the one
upon which this Jurisdiction is unyielding, and that is the requirement
of a belief
in God and the Holy Bible. This attitude furthermore eliminates from
the essential Landmarks of the Craft, by which regularity is truly
after evidence has been presented of legitimacy by descent or proper
This elimination would make impossible the realization of the hope with
York entered the Association, that these Landmarks would be accepted
as binding upon all members of the International Association.
At the banquet
which followed the session, statement was made, referring to those
"it is impossible that such men can be separated, divided, simply
exist between them very small differences"… "If there exist any
between us, they are not deep; if that is once realized, the attainment
of our object
will not be far off." Another speaker stated: "And yet these principles
were worked out in 1877 at a time when our Jurisdiction, concluding
that the symbol
of the Great Architect of the Universe was of a nature to create an
in harmony with the Masonic Doctrine, eliminated it from its formulas."
"A Very Small Difference”
between the requirement of a belief in God, and the Holy Bible, and the
may be regarded by some as a "very small difference" and "not deep",
but in this Jurisdiction it is a difference between a Mason and a
membership of the Association are some so-called Masonic Jurisdictions,
the Landmark, defined by New York, as follows:
every candidate for admission to the privileges of Freemasonry must
declare his belief in one ever living and true God, the Creator and
Ruler of the
Universe, and the immortality of the soul."
in its Conventions, disregards the Landmark, defined as follows:
"That no candidate or brother
can be questioned
as to his peculiar mode of religious or political opinion, nor can any
upon such subjects be permitted in any assembly of the Craft."
Some of the
so-called Grand Lodges, members of the Association, do not hold to the
that, "The Holy Bible is the Great Light in Masonry, and the Rule and
for faith and practice."
At the meeting
of the Advisory Committee, Feb. 22, 1924, in Paris, it was stated that
membership of 1924 consisted of twenty-five adherents, of which
Peru, and Haiti are provisional.
of the Grand Lodge of the Rising Sun again came up; it was stated that
Orient of France had authorized its representatives to support and
defend the Rising
of Nations was discussed, and a Committee was appointed for propaganda
of the League of Nations. One representative quoted Albert Thomas as
"We have advanced beyond the
the subject, we have today the sovietism in Russia and obligatory labor
are not these indications of a new conception of what labor is and what
it is to
be? Labor from the beginning was slavery which then developed into wage
isn't it possible that we may approach a new Era?"
He then asked,
it therefore not be useful to study theoretically, 'academically,' what
It will be
noted that persistent efforts have been made to introduce into the
Grand Lodge of the Rising Sun, an organization which is Masonic only in
composed of lodges, none of which is in possession of a charter from a
This self-constituted organization, moreover, has stated officially
that it has
been established to combat orthodoxy in religion and orthodoxy in
in fact, "We are against Masonic orthodoxy which bows to the Bible and
a belief in a personal God, Grand Architect of the Universe." From the
that there are members in the Association who do not require a belief
in God, or
the use of the Holy Bible, it would seem as though all the Association
this organization to do within a year was to find some Jurisdiction
that would regularize
it without altering its principles or beliefs. Should the Grand Lodge
of the Rising
Sun, in its present condition, or after being healed, be admitted, it
the veto power over the Grand Lodges within the territory of Germany,
so far as
admission into the Masonic International Association is concerned,
unless of course
the Association amends its Regulations and Statutes, which read:
"Among the Grand Jurisdictions
a candidacy, must be included those members of the Association having
in the same territory as the candidate."
have something to do with the efforts to secure its admission, or the
in trying to have this Association admitted, may be in the nature of a
by some of the Jurisdictions in the Association to the statement of M.
W. Bro. Tompkins,
above quoted; however that may be, the quibbling which has taken place
the Grand Lodge of the Rising Sun does not inspire confidence either in
or usefulness of the Association.
Grand Orient Gets Out Of
to report of an agreement made at Geneva in 1921, which report is
quoted in the
early part of this letter, the Grand Orient of Italy, respecting the
eliminated the lodges of its obedience in this Grand Jurisdiction. The
of France has not only disregarded the agreement, but to this day has a
its obedience in this Jurisdiction, which lodge, subsequent to 1921,
has been empowered
to confer the Degrees of the Scottish Rite up to and including the 18th
to our information, the Grand Orient of France, since the Geneva
Conference in 1921,
has taken under its official patronage a spurious organization with
in the Jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, and has
authorized it to
establish Masonic lodges in all parts of the United States, including
except the Jurisdictions of the Grand Lodges of Rhode Island, New
Iowa and Alabama, so long as these five Jurisdictions shall remain in
relations with the Grand Orient of France.
of the Regulations and Statutes, of the Masonic International
"All Grand Jurisdictions
belonging to the
Association must be composed of men exclusively."
letter of this law appears to have been observed by all the members,
there is plainly
an evasion of the spirit of it on the part of the Grand Orient of
France, as since
1921 it has entered into fraternal relations with a co-Masonic Order,
which admits men and women on equal terms. It is true that
inter-visitation is limited
in that only men belonging to the co-Masonic Order may visit lodges of
Orient of France, but the fact remains that the principle announced in
has been violated by recognizing as Masonic an organization professing
women into the Craft, and making them members thereof.
of the Grand Orient of France could be corrected, but it is not to be
the Grand Orient will require a belief in God as a pre-requisite of
or restore the Bible to its altars. According to the Minutes of the
of the Grand Orient of France, which is the governing Body of the Grand
France, the attitude is to never restore the requirement of a belief in
to replace the Bible on the lodge altars.
New York Lays Down a Policy
At the time
of our withdrawal, in addition to New York, the Association was
composed of eighteen
Grand Lodges recognized by this Grand Jurisdiction, and seven not
the six candidates for membership at that time, only one is recognized
by New York.
to the situation, as above presented, determined me to lay down such a
would make our position definitely known to the Association; and to
that I had the authority to do this, being unable myself to find such
I referred the matter to the Judge Advocate, Right Wor. Harold E.
advised as follows:
"The Grand Lodge of the State
of New York
has adopted for the Preamble of its Constitution the expression of
essential to its existence and to which all members of the fraternity
jurisdiction must subscribe in order to be Masons of good standing in
in the Grand Lodge of the State of New York.
"In addition, it has prescribed
form of petition for initiation (Section 87) in which are embraced in
10, 11 and 12, relating to the Landmarks of the Fraternity to which
must answer, and to be acceptable, his answers must disclose his belief
in God his
sound bodily health and freedom from any physical, legal or moral
reason which would
prevent him from becoming a Free Mason and to describe any physical
defect, which later must be of such character as not to be in
contravention of the
qualifications prescribed in Definitions Section 6.
"The Landmarks as defined for
of the Constitution, are contained in the appendix thereto and follow
of order. In addition, the Standing Committee on Foreign Correspondence
is the recognized
body through whom the relations of the Grand Lodge of New York with
Lodge or Grand
Lodges of other Jurisdictions, be established. And, for one claiming to
be a Free
and Accepted Mason, to be recognized as such by the Grand Lodge of the
New York, he must have received degrees in a Lodge recognized as
regular by our
Grand Lodge, and for a Lodge to be recognized as regular, and to have
with the Grand Lodge of the State of New York, such Lodge must act
of a source duly recognized as regular by the Grand Lodge of New York.
"It is therefore my opinion
the Grand Lodge of the State of New York, or any of its duly accredited
may hold Masonic intercourse or enter into any engagements affecting or
to Masonry as accepted by the Grand Lodge of the State of New York with
bodies or Grand Lodges, it is pre-requisite that such a Lodge or Grand
meet every requirement which the Grand Lodge of New York considers
official recognition and that such recognition has actually been
granted by the
Grand Lodge of New York by due presentation by the Committee on Foreign
of the qualifications of such a Lodge or Grand Lodge."
was submitted to the Chairman of the Committee on Constitution, M. W.
Bro. S. Nelson
Sawyer, whose decision I quote below:
"I have read the copy of Bro.
opinion concerning the International Association with much pleasurable
and, with the exception herein noted, am in full accord with the
conclusion he has
reached as well as his reasons therefor.” The last two and a half lines
indicate his thought that the Grand Lodge has no power to act except
of the Committee of Foreign Correspondence. It is my belief that the
created by the Grand Lodge solely for convenience, and that the Grand
it so desires, may act directly and without reference to the Committee.
does not mean it may act in contravention of its self-imposed
When in May, 1923 we attempted to associate ourselves with this
Masonic Association, a number of the members of which are not Masonic
at all according
to our standards, we violated our own constitution and the action so
an absolute nullity. It could, in my judgment, have been lawfully taken
such amendment of the constitution as would waive, our present
raise the ban against non-belief and clandestinism, both of which are
in that Association."
was concurred in by M. W. Bro. Thomas Penney, and M. W. Bro. Arthur S.
the other members of the committee.
no alternative, and the following cable was therefore sent to the
"I am directed by the Grand
Master of New
York to request you to convey to the President of the International
incumbent or to follow the following official message:
" 'Grand Lodge of New York
the International Masonic Association on constitutional grounds and
will not be
represented at coming conference in Brussels. Letter follows.' (signed)
was confirmed by letter, as follows:
"Confirming our cable message
to you today,
copy enclosed, I am directed by the Grand Master Most Worshipful
William A. Rowan
to inform you that, while this Jurisdiction is desirous of a closer and
relationship and for some basis for united co-operation with all
to the Landmarks both in this country and abroad, and is willing to
enter into relations
with any jurisdiction meeting the requirements of our recognition, it
a member of a Masonic Association, some of whose members do not adhere
to the Landmarks.
"Having met its financial
Lodge of the State of New York withdraws from membership in the
"Will you be good enough to
convey the purport
of this letter to the Brother President incumbent of the International
and his successor when selected."
reasons, other than those herein stated, or indicated, or which may be
therefrom, which we prefer to withhold for the present. If any doubt
as to the weight of judgment in favor of our withdrawal, a reading of
of the last Session of the Association (1924) would be helpful.
At the 1924
Session, "The President reported that the prize of One Hundred Thousand
to be awarded in a competition in French on the subject of Peace, has
been won by
Ed. Naurette belonging to the Lodge 'Fidelity' at the Orient of Paris.
to send to this brother a telegram of felicitations. Adopted
Jurisdictions are termed "Obediences".
“The Rising Sun" Again
of the Grand Lodge of the Rising Sun came up, and was put over another
year by a
vote of 11 to 9, after its admission had been demanded and the
that they be accepted without examining too closely into the question
proposition was submitted:
"The Masonic Obediences which
into the ranks of the I. M. A. bind themselves to submit to the
arbitration of the
I. M. A. any differences which may arise between them an Obedience
the I. M. A. and to accept the verdict of such arbitration."
was passed, reading in part as follows:
"Considering that the Hungarian
has dissolved that Grand Lodge so that our Brethren cannot meet freely:
"We invite our delegates to the
I. M. A.
to use all their efforts in common with the delegates of the Powers
so as to cause to be lifted an interdict which nothing can justify."
Resolution was approved by acclamation:
"International Masonry views
sorrow any blow struck at the liberty of peoples and that of their
"It reproves notably violence
"The International Masonic
therefore against the massacre of the Georgians and expresses the wish
will cease the fratricidal struggles unworthy of our civilization and
of the pacific
era which seems at last to be opening for Humanity."
question of Masonic regularity, one Jurisdiction presented its
of which was that it considered as regular the Powers already admitted
to the Masonic
International Association. Another Jurisdiction proposed that new
to be consecrated regularly by the Masonic International Association.
proposed that "The recognition of the regularity of an Obedience, such
Masonic International Association will define it, ought to have as a
the interfrequentation [right of visitation] of the lodges by the
to all of the Obediences making part of the Masonic International
Resolution was unanimously adopted:
"The Convention recommends with
earnestness to all the affiliated Obediences to have recourse to
order to settle any differences which may arise between them and
charges the Consultative
Committee to regulate the methods and penalties of such arbitration."
leaves the Masonic International Association without representation
from any Grand
Jurisdiction in the United States. It will have been observed that the
have a closer world brotherhood resulted in a few regular Jurisdictions
with Jurisdictions not recognized by New York, and, exclusive of the
of New York, having less than 3 per cent of the membership of the
Jurisdictions of the world in this Association.
If this were
a possible way to reach a closer world l brotherhood, it seems strange
representatives of the 3,250,000 regular Masons of the world have stood
it; perhaps some such thought has arisen in the minds of the
several of the member Jurisdictions, and that we are not alone in our
as to the futility of the present Association.
on Foreign Correspondence has continued right along with its duties,
the time of our connection with the Masonic International Association,
of it, has acquired information concerning other Grand Jurisdictions,
some of which
has been acted upon by Grand Lodge, and the rest, as far as it has been
will be submitted for consideration at its next session.
is one God, the Father of all men", is the rock upon which we build;
"The Holy Bible is the Great Light in Masonry, and the Rule and Guide
and practice", and an adherence to the Landmarks, governs our
this basis, I dare say, this Grand Jurisdiction will join hands with
all the Grand
Jurisdictions of the world within its recognition for a better
relationship and co-operation, and in any practical move to attain
unity and advance
the spirit of Brotherhood.
Note: ‒ Since
above communication was drafted, I have received a letter and memoir
from the Advisory
Committee of the Masonic International Association asking for the
reasons of our
withdrawal, to which I shall reply in a little while. This memoir was
sent in conformity
with the following resolution, passed by the Association last September:
"The Congress expresses its
over the withdrawal of the Grand Lodge of New York from the I. M. A., a
decided by the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New York.
"The Congress charges its
to cause to communicate to the Grand Lodge of New York a memorandum
sentiments of the I. M. A. to put itself in relation with the Grand
Lodge in order
to examine with the latter the differences which appear to exist, and
the wish that they may be dissipated in the shortest possible time."
You may not
be aware of the feet that I was born and raised in Missouri, and of
acquired some of the characteristics of that nativity. Believe you will
so far as Masonic International Association is concerned "I have not
(Signed) William A. Rowan.
By Bro. Carl A. Foss,
National Secretary of the
Fraternity of Square and Compass, New York
THIS article, to be concluded
next month, should
prove of permanent reference value, it is so rich in history and fact.
is a member of Alexandria Lodge, No. 297 Alexandria Bay, N.Y., and of
Chapter, No. 44, R. A. M., Lexington, Va. He was one of the founders of
Compass, is now National Secretary of that Fraternity and editor of
Mason." Among other college fraternities he holds membership in Phi
Phi Delta Phi (legal), and Delta Sigma Rho (forensic).
the 24th day of June in the year of our Lord, 1717, a number of Master
in an ale-house in London, known by its sign of the Goose and Gridiron,
the organization of a Grand Lodge of Freemasons which they had begun
the year previous,
they started something whereof the end is not yet seen. Without
entering into a
discussion as to whether their step was a new beginning or a
a Grand Lodge, it safely may be assumed that this action of the English
the popular beginning of what is now one of the most extensive features
human society, especially in our own country. The inauguration of
is not only the beginning of a fraternal system of ethical principles
with a world-wide membership, but has led also to the foundation of
that have copied, to a greater or less extent, the fundamental
teachings of Freemasonry
and many of the characteristic forms and practices of the Craft. The
number of such
organizations is almost incalculable and new ones are being started
Imitation is the sincerest commendation.
It is said
that Americans are a nation of joiners. We doubt whether Americans are
any greater urge to become members of secret or fraternal organizations
the citizens of any other country or the members of any other race. It
that the large number of such organizations in the United States is due
to the early
popularity of the Masonic Order in America. When Washington and almost
all of his
major generals were Masons, when Franklin, Hamilton and Marshall and a
of the signers of the Declaration of Independence were loyal members of
in short, when practically every man of consequence in the early days
of the American
Republic wore the lambskin, it is not to be wondered that men were
eager to be enrolled
in the Brotherhood. Neither is it to be wondered that other
fraternities were started
which sometimes provided a means of social intercourse that was not
Freemasonry under some conditions and in some localities and that these
received, in many cases, those who also bore allegiance to the Craft.
Some of the
newer fraternities, because they were young and less conservative, have
accepted those rejected by some Blue Lodge, but no reproach should be
them for this. There have been for many years in this country certain
that have had and do have a particular appeal to certain classes of
and, of course, many American social organizations have been founded
motives and principles with a consequent appeal to those in sympathy
with such ideas.
The fraternal organizations, offering the benefits of insurance, have
benefits of a social organization with the advantages of an insurance
in the case of some of these it is sometimes difficult to recognize the
as the insurance features predominate over those of a social character.
Democracy Accounts for Their
proven that the Anti-Masonic period was less of a catastrophe than it
was an occasion
of an awakening interest in secret societies, for new organizations
sprang up by
the dozen during this period and closely following it.
that the principal reason for the growth in number and membership of
organizations has been the democracy of membership. Probably no country
in the world,
with the possible exception of Canada, has a greater democracy in
than the United States. This democracy has been inherited from the
Revolutionary days when a Masonic lodge included judges and farmers,
private soldiers, statesmen and fishermen. Freemasonry in England today
the king's uncle and the king's sons and we suppose half of the House
and it may include the king's servants for all we know, but we doubt if
in England is composed of such a mixture of wealth and influence and
lack of them
as in America. This may be caused, to some extent, by the English
practice of limiting
the membership of a lodge to members of a particular calling or
business, and we
may presume that in the natural course of events more lodges will be
made up of
the wealthier and more influential classes than of those less able, in
influence, to maintain a lodge. In America we have few "class" lodges
and may the good Lord preserve us from them for democracy in membership
the natural result of almost every lodge in the United States being
made up of rich
and poor, professional man and laborer, doctor, lawyer and Indian
chief. We have
such a multitude of fraternal organizations in America, in consequence
of the democracy
and early popularity of membership in the Masonic Order, that there
isn't an American,
no matter how poor, who cannot belong to at least one. This is a good
In the United
States we have the Owls and the Orioles, the Eagles and the Elks, the
the Foresters, the Knights of Columbus and the Knights of Pythias (we
to write the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan), and hundreds of other
by plain names, names of animals, birds, insects, fish, the moon and
And to keep up the procession we Masons have the Royal Arch, the
the Scottish Rite, the Mystic Shrine, the Veiled Prophets, the Sciots,
Cedars, the Eastern Star and its appendages, and numerous other Side
more imposing names but less actual worth. And then our Negro citizens
compiled a list of the entire bunch and multiplied the number by two,
same names and, generally, the same rituals used by the organizations
members of the white race, adding a few more organizations of their own
for good measure.
not the least important members of the fraternity system, there are the
fraternities. Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities (10th
almost one thousand college organizations, either clubs or
fraternities, that have
been born in the United States and have since departed or else are
still in the
land of the living. Decidedly, one would think we had sufficient
which one could select at least one to make a connection with. The
number of American
secret organizations has reached an imposing figure, but the saving
of their existence is that about 99 and 44/100ths per cent of Americans
at least one of them. Some of our most careful politicians belong to at
dozen all at the same time.
"Well Known Men Are
one that there are mighty few Americans who do not belong to some
we have only to investigate. President Coolidge did not join any
in college, but has since become a member of Theta Delta Phi, a college
Secretary Hughes is a member of Delta Upsilon, a college social
Mr. Coolidge nor Mr. Hughes are Masons, but it is not difficult to
friendliness towards secret fraternal organizations because of their
Both Mr. J. W. Davis and Senator LaFollette are Masons. Henry Ford was
a Mason in
good standing some time ago, if he is not now, and the leader of what
Mr. Ford considers
his enemies – Mr. J. P. Morgan of Wall Street – joined one or more
organizations in college. Those who have received the honor of election
to Phi Beta
Kappa, the college honor society for scholarship, are legion and you
will see a
Phi Be Kappa key jingling in all of the best circles. The Roman
countenances a number secret fraternal organizations and there are a
numb of fraternities
limited to those of the Jewish faith. Going to Newport, Bar Harbor or
and you will find most of the men there will acknowledge membership in
fraternal organization, college otherwise. And then, while the old Ford
good, run into some less desirable places for living and ask the men
you see there
if they ever heard of a secret society. Even down to the lowest stratum
society, your informant will reply that he goes, or ought to go, to
Monday night or as the case may be. Almost everyone, from banker to
will acknowledge membership in one or more of the secret societies that
or other benefits. Because of this fact, an anti-secret society period,
that of the Anti-Masonic agitation, will not recur in America; no one
is left to
become the plaintiff in the case. (This is neither the time nor place
for a discussion
of the merits, or lack of them, of the agitator against the Ku Klux
Klan. In the
matter of practice: and principles, that society has made such
that its enemies are fighting less its character as a secret fraternity
innovations it has adopted.)
But we meant
to write about college fraternities. To most men who have never gone to
these organizations are more than secret; they are unknown. And yet,
college fraternity system is a very vital part of the entire American
system and not simply an adjunct of more or less value. There may be
those who believe
that Freemasonry would be stronger if there were no other American
if so, they are blind indeed. In the opinion of the writer there is no
lends such great strength to the Masonic Order as the existence of our
fraternities. To some this statement may appear to be unsupported by
but we believe that acquaintance with college secret societies leads
the future leaders in America to become Masons as soon as they are
who wishes may read the evidence in favor of the college men. The
tells us that less than one per cent of American boys go to college and
per cent of the men listed in "Who's Who" are college men. The facts of
the case are all with the college man and as long as Freemasonry keeps
or exceeds the progress of our country, the Craft will need college men.
They Are Indebted To Freemasonry
college fraternities owe a great deal to Freemasonry. Some of the
customs of college
fraternities that are known to us are copied directly from Masonic
are probably the result of some of the founders of the oldest
also Master Masons. In the case of Phi Gamma Delta, founded in 1848 at
College, Canonsburg, Pa. (since united with Washington College at
to become Washington and Jefferson College), and now one of the largest
known of the college societies, all of the five founders were, at the
time of founding
the fraternity and writing its ritual, members of the Craft. It is not
that were we Phi Gams we might recognize many points of similarity in
practice between Freemasonry and the college fraternity. However,
this connection of the college fraternity system with Freemasonry,
there is one
point of difference that is universal in the college system with the
the organization of which the writer has the honor to be a member and
This difference is in the method of becoming a member. As is well
known, to become
a Mason we first apply for membership. In the college system, if one
wishes to become
a member of a certain fraternity he simply waits until he is asked to
custom is so severe that if one were to intimate to a member that he
wished to join
Alpha Beta Gamma, for instance, he probably never would be asked to
join that particular
organization, for, strange as it may seem, visible preference for an
is viewed in the light of a faux pas so pronounced that the guilty
possibly be worthy for membership in that society. This form of
invitation to join
is known in college circles as "bidding" and we know of no college
other than Square and Compass that does not practice it. Square and
the Masonic custom of application for membership.
of "bidding" produces a great deal of excitement in college fraternal
circles at the time it is practiced. Some institutions require a
student to be in
college a whole year before he is invited to join a fraternity; others
lesser period, either a term or a semester. Whenever the time comes,
of the different fraternities are zealous in their efforts to obtain
the best men
for their respective societies. Rules are adopted for the same reason
that we have
Marquis of Queensberry rules and International Law governing the
methods of so-called
civilized warfare. And then it is considered significant by some that
are generally drawn up and enforced by a council (nearly always called
Council, meaning, all Greek) known to the students by a name that would
outsiders as having the significance of a group made up of the damned.
freshman will generally receive two or more "bids" and so he will be
to numerous luncheons and parties, so far as the purse-strings of the
will allow, in order to induce him to believe that one fraternity is
another. He will be told that some President of the United States, long
and almost forgotten by everyone except the chosen orators of that
a faithful member of the society and thought more of it than anything
else in the
world. And then there are Senators So-and-So and other celebrities
seeking to convince
the young freshman that the greatest mistake he could possibly make
would be to
accept the other "bid" and not the one from that fraternity. Old and
professors indulge in this persuasion. A dear friend, professor of
one of the state universities, has told us he always felt more or less
he sat down with some green freshman to try and convince him there was
fraternity for him to join when he knew there were a dozen along the
row in which
the freshman would probably be just as happy. After a "bid" is once
it is the height of college dishonor to accept a "bid" and initiation
from another fraternity.
Phi Beta Kappa Is Oldest
But to get
back to the beginning of the college fraternity system. The oldest
fraternity that exists today is the Phi Beta Kappa, founded on Dec. 5,
Williamsburg, Va., by five students of the College of William and Mary.
was preceded by the Flat Hat Club which numbered among its members
George Wythe, Edmund Randolph and others who later became famous. A
number of these
men were Masons but whether they were Masons before becoming members of
Hat Club, or whether any of the founders of Phi Beta Kappa were Masons
to us. We are not certain why the founders of Phi Beta Kappa selected
alphabet from which to find a name, but the fact that they did so has
American college fraternities being called Greek-letter fraternities,
for most of
the college organizations have followed the practice of Phi Beta Kappa.
It is customary
for the founders of a college society to select a secret motto made up
of two or
three Greek words and call the society by a name composed of the first
each word, or this can be reversed by finding a motto that will fit the
chosen. (To one unfamiliar with the Greek alphabet it should be
explained that the
Greek words used are simply the English forms for words used by the
Greeks to represent
the letters of their alphabet, i.e., A, B and C in Greek are Alpha,
Beta and Gamma.
Although there are many points of similarity, the Greek and English
not identical in limit, meaning, sound and writing. Ancient, not
modern, Greek is
used.) Phi Beta Kappa was secret and members were required to take an
oath of fidelity.
In December, 1778, the society adopted a provision where by
become members and plans were laid for extending the fraternity by
means of "branches."
Five charters were granted for "branches" but nothing is known of the
fate of these offshoots.
In the early
part of 1779 Elisha Parmele, a graduate of Harvard, was initiated and
he asked for
permission to establish a "branch" at Harvard and another at Yale, near
where he lived. In November, 1780, Mr. Parmele's efforts resulted in a
established at Yale College. The Yale chapter called itself "Alpha of
instead of "Zeta" as contemplated. In January, 1781, Phi Beta Kappa at
Williamsburg disbanded on account of the approach of the British Army
and in September
of the same year the "Alpha of Massachusetts Bay" was established at
charters had granted to Yale and Harvard the right to establish new
their respective states, while the mother chapter reserved the right to
chapters in other states. However, in 1787, because of the lapse of the
at William and Mary, the Yale and Harvard chapters united in
establishing a chapter
at Dartmouth, called the "Alpha of New Hampshire." In 1817, the three
chapters in existence united in chartering "Alpha of New York" at Union
College, Schenectady, N. Y., and the establishment of Phi Beta Kappa at
the spark that began the inauguration of social fraternities which
later took place
at this institution.
word as to Phi Beta Kappa. In 1831 the Harvard chapter divulged the
secrets of the
society due to the agitation against Freemasonry and other secret
a result, the fraternity lost its social character and there grew up
of meeting once each year at commencement and electing the honor men
of the succeeding senior class. Women were first admitted in 1875 and
now have equal
standing in the society with men and with its long and illustrious
to Phi Beta Kappa is easily the highest award in the American college
(To Be Concluded.)
Bro. Herbert N. Farrar.
built my house on the Sands of Time
A house that I built to stay-
But the tide came in ‒ as the tide will come,
And it washed the sands away.
Then my house fell down, as a house will fall,
And hope went out with the tide
But I built again, as a man will build,
If he be a man of pride.
Then came the storm with the fierce whirlwind
And my house was wrecked again.
And I stood and looked at my labor lost,
And it all seemed so in vain.
But I built again in another place ‒
Where the storm and the tide came not,
And I felt safe in my new strong house ‒
But one thing I forgot.
It was the flames with their red-hot tongues,
That came in the still of night,
And they ate it up--as the flames will eat,
Though I strove with all my might.
And again I looked at the house that was,
Then knew it was not to be,
For a well-built house won't fall three times,
When built for eternity.
Now why should I build a house three times,
And why should it three times fall?
Were it better I built a house that falls
Than never to build at all?
Then came a thought from the Great Somewhere,
I had not followed the rules,
For a well-built house won't fall three times
When built with the Master's Tools.
So I built again with the Master's Tools
The Level, the Plumb and the Square
Each ashlar hewn from the Rock of Faith
Was polished and laid with care;
And the plans I used were the Plans of Life
And my house it faced the sun
Now I dwell therein as a man should dwell
When the Craftsman's work's well done.
of the Quatuor Coronati
By Bro. Gilbert W. Daynes,
Associate Editor, England.
from February Issue)
these saints occupy a similar position to that in Italy. In the
at Strasburg in A. D. 1459 for the regulation of the Steinmetzen, the
recites: "In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
and of our gracious mother Mary, and also of her blessed Servants, the
Crowned Martyrs of everlasting memory." The invocation which commences
Torgau Ordinances of the Steinmetzen, made in A. D. 1462, refers to
in almost similar terms. These ordinances also declared that, of the
that were to be said on all acknowledged fasts and on St. Peter's Day,
was to be "to the four Crowned Martyrs." It is also interesting to note
that, according to Bro. R. F. Gould, the Steinmetzen opened their
lodges in the
name of the Holy Trinity, the Virgin Mary, and the Four Crowned Martyrs.
Belgium, we find that many Flemish Gilds of Operative Masons in
Bruges and elsewhere were known as Vier Ghecroonde, or Quatuor
Coronati. As far
back as the year A. D. 1423 the records of the City of Antwerp mention
a gild of
that name, and their patron saints according to medals struck in the
middle of the
fifteenth century were Claudyn (Claudius), Nycostratus, Symphorianus
This shows the confusion existing as to the number and names of these
to England, we find very early traces of the Quatuor Coronati in the
Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica [Lib 1903] we learn that in A. D. 619,
time of Bishop Mellitus, there was in Canterbury a church dedicated to
Crowned Martyrs. The Ecclesiastical History by the Venerable Bede was
Latin, and completed in A. D. 731. So great was the reputation of this
King Alfred translated it into Anglo-Saxon for the benefit of his
subjects. In this
history, under the chapter headed "Bishop Mellitus by prayer quenches a
in his City, A. D. 619," we find it stated that "the Church of the Four
Crowned Martyrs was in the place where the fire raged most." As to the
when this church was erected ‒ whether about the time of Saint
Augustine, A. D.
597, or earlier, during the occupation of Canterbury by the Romans – it
is now impossible
accurately to determine. One can, however, see quite plainly that the
the knowledge of the saints was derived was undoubtedly Roman.
Canterbury was the
headquarters of the Roman mission, and it may well be that the
dedication of a church
there to the Quatuor Coronati was the result of the devotion which
minds of the masons, or other artificers, who came over with the
Rome. Arguments have, however, been put forward claiming for the
building an earlier
history, commencing during the Roman occupation. If this could be
proved it would
show that there was a Christian population in Canterbury at that time,
to a considerable extent, the generally accepted accounts of
Tradition is absolutely silent as to what happened to this church, nor
is the exact
site of the church now known. It has, however, been thought that the
site is where
the Church of St. Alphage, rebuilt early in the fifteenth century, now
is lent to this supposition by the fact that the foundations and lower
of the present walls do show distinct traces of Roman work. This Church
of St. Alphage
was restored in 1890, and the east end window was glazed with stained
subject depicted being the Four Crowned Martyrs.
They Are Referred to in
may be found to the Legend of the Quatuor Coronati in the earliest
in the possession of the Craft ‒ the Regius MS [Lib 1390]. ‒ which was probably written
the year 1390. This MS., which is in metre, cannot be classed with the
frequently known as the Old Charges. It is considerably earlier in date
to the earliest
known copy of these MS. Constitutions. There is an absence of
this Poem, and, from a perusal of it, it is quite clear that its author
his material from many sources, even transcribing portions of such
verbatim, into his Poem. The author must undoubtedly have had a copy of
Constitutions before him when he was composing his work, and we know
portions of his Poem were taken from two old MSS. of the period, viz.,
for a Parish Priest, and Urbanitatas. In this Poem, the author devoted
lines to the Legend of the Quatuor Coronati. This part commences at
line 497, and
is headed "Ars Quatuor Coronatorum." The author prays that the Articles
and Points set out earlier in the Poem may be kept in the same manner
As dede these holy Martyres
That yn thys Craft were of gret honoure
They were as gode Masonus as on erthe schul go,
Gravers and ymage-makers they were also.
For they were werkemen of the bests. &c. &c.
reference to the Quatuor Coronati occurs in any Masonic document after
Poem, and, from the absence of any allusion to the Legend in the Cooke
MS., or any
of the MS. Constitutions, it is quite clear that the author of the
Regius Poem must
have obtained his material, for this portion of his work, from some
source at present
unknown to us. For further information as to these saints, the author
reader to the Legends of the Saints, and it may have been from some
records of a
Masons' Company, now destroyed, or from tradition, handed down verbally
to generation, that he connected the saints with the Masons. It is,
clear that, at this period, these saints were intimately associated
with the building
fraternities, and we have evidence of this in the Records of the city
Book "L", of the Corporation of the city of London, preserved amongst
the archives at the Guildhall, on folios 165 to 167, there were posted
of an application by the Masons' Company of the city. This Entry shows
the "15 Oct., 21, Edward IV (i.e. 1481), came good men of the Art or
of Masons of the City of London into the Court of the lord the King in
of the Guildhall, before the Mayor and Aldermen, and prayed that
for the better regulation of the Mistery might be approved." The
question are then set forth at length in this book. One of these
"That every freeman of the Craft shall attend at Christchurch (within
on the Feast of Quatuor Coronati to hear Mass, under the penalty of 12
written by the clerk of the Masons' Company, dated the 9th February,
1725, is still
preserved, in which he refers to the "Constitutions made and granted to
Fellowship of the Free Masons enfranchised within this Honourable city
in the time of John Browne, Mayor of the city in the one and twentieth
year of the
reign of King Edward the fourth after the conquest 15th day of October
From this we may gather that the application of the Company was duly
clerk was probably quoting from documents then in the possession of the
Company, but which have since been lost or destroyed.
All London Masons Were Obliged
To Honor the Saints
It is important
to recognize that the Article in the Regulations, which I have quoted,
all the Masons within the city of London ‒ masters, liverymen and
freemen ‒ who
were required, under a substantial penalty, to honor the memory of the
These saints must have been, at that time, the recognized patron saints
of the gilds
of Masons. It is, also, of interest to note that the Masons' Company of
at the same time attached to the Gild of the Holy Trinity and held it
in the position
of a patron saint of the Company, the streamer of the Holy Trinity
carried by the Company in processions, as representing apparently the
side of the Company.
it may also be mentioned that, from the very earliest times, the 8th of
was, by the English Church, directed to be observed as the Feast of the
Coronati, and was included in all early calendars. This feast was
by the English Church up to the time of the Reformation, but:
disappeared from the
Prayer Book, published by Edward VI in 1549.
Just as the
Reformation vitally affected the church builders and the Masons' gilds,
it had its effect upon the observance of the Feast of the Quatuor
that time, little or nothing is heard of the Four Crowned Martyrs, and
by the eighteenth
century they seem to have been entirely forgotten by the craftsmen
looked upon them as their patron saints. Space does not permit of a
upon the many interesting problems arising upon the facts previously
set out. There
is much still unknown, not only as to the Legend itself, but also as to
relationship the saints bore to the medieval builders. The omission of
to the saints in the Cooke MS., and the MS. Constitutions, requires
and so also does the reference to them in the London Company of Masons'
no similar references having at present been traced in the records of
Masons' company. If there were, as many assert, two main classes of
Masons ‒ the
Church Mason and the Gild Mason ‒ were the Quatuor Coronati the patron
both classes, or only of the Gild Masons? Did the Reformation bring
with it the
abandonment of these saints, as patron saints, on account of their,
Romish origin, or, if not, what was the cause? Or, again, was there a
of the Saints John for the Quatuor Coronati by the building fraternity
at the time
of the Reformation, or at any other time? If not, how is it that, at
of the Grand Lodge era, we find the Saints John as the patron saints of
to the total exclusion of the Quatuor Coronati who were, at one time,
patron saints of their Operative ancestors. These and many similar
await solution at the hands of the Masonic student.
Grand Lodge Founders Knew
Nothing about Them
It is quite
clear that those who were responsible for the formation of the premier
in 1717 could have known nothing of the Quatuor Coronati as the patron
the Freemasons, and that to Dr. James Anderson the legend was a closed
is also quite certain that those Freemasons who formed and directed the
the other Grand Lodge, commonly known as the "Antients" Grand Lodge,
have known nothing of the Masonic antiquity of these saints. If they
had, the facts
would certainly have been used to the detriment of the premier Grand
Lodge. No reference
has been traced as to these saints in any of the publications of either
two Grand Lodges.
And so time
went on until 1839 when Mr. J. O. Halliwell, not a Freemason,
discovered the Regius
MS. amongst the MSS. in the Bibliotheca Regis, now forming part of the
This MS. had formerly belonged to Charles Theyer, a well-known
collector of the
seventeenth century, and had long laid hidden under its catalogue title
Poem of Moral Duties." Mr. Halliwell described his lucky find and the
of the MS. in a paper which he read before the Society of Antiquarians,
on the 18th
April, 1839, and an edition of the Poem was printed in the following
year. A perusal
of this Poem revealed to the Freemasons of the nineteenth century that
forbears of medieval days had had as their patron saints the Sancti
These saints, however, still remained in comparative obscurity, the
of Masonic archaeology being then in its infancy. It was left to those
of that world-famed Lodge of Research to rescue these craftsmen saints
oblivion into which they had descended, and to place them once more in
of old, a position from which I trust time will never remove them.
of Freemasonry, by R. F. Gould; Vol. I; [Lib 1884]
Concise History of Freemasonry, by R.F. Gould; Ch. V.; [Lib 1951]
Lodges, by R. F. Gould; [Lib 1899]
Q. C., Vols. I. [Lib 1895], XII.
[Lib*], XIII. [Lib 1900], XXVII
it has been my very joy to find
At every turning of the road
The strong arm of a comrade kind
To help me onward with my load
And since I have no gold to give
And love alone must make amends
My only prayer is, while I live,
God make me worthy of my friends."
Statistics of Masonic Homes in
the United States
Land Owned Acres
Provided for Since Est.
Boys, Girls and Old People
Boys and Girls
. . .
Old Men and Women
. . .
Boys and Girls
. . .
Old Men and Women
Old Men and Women
Old People, Boys and Girls
. . .
Boys and Girls
Old Men and Women
Boys and Girls
Boys, Girls and Old People
Widows and Orphans
Boys, Girls and Old People
. . .
Old Men and their Wives
. . .
Old People, Boys and Girls
Old Men and Women
Boys and Girls
Old People, Boys and Girls
Old Men and Women
Old Men and Women
Old People, Boys and Girls
Old People, Boys and Girls
Old People, Boys and Girls
Old People, Boys and Girls
Boys and Girls
Old People, Boys and Girls
Old People, Boys and Girls
Old People, Boys and Girls
Old People, Boys and Girls
Boys and Girls
. . .
Boys and Girls
Washington, D. C.
Old People, Boys and Girls
Old People, Boys and Girls
When was Lafayette Made a Mason?
By Bro. Harry J. Guthrie,
P. G. M., Delaware
here ably discussed by Bro. Guthrie is one of more consequence than
to a casual reader: like other similar questions an answer would throw
certain problems of the first importance in the history of American
will find it worth their while to read in connection with the present
contributions to THE BUILDER: 1916, pp. 219, 313; 1918, pp. 163, 219,
pp. 26, 70, 118; 1923, p. 331 more especially the last named. See also
History of Brother General Lafayette's Fraternal Connections with the
R. W. Grand
Lodge, F. & A. M., of Pennsylvania," [Lib 1916] by Julius F. Sachse;
a reference is made to the Marquis de Lafayette and his Masonic
arises in my mind feelings of great regret that the time and place of
and subsequent raising cannot be a matter of absolute record, not that
prove the more that our distinguished patriot was a Master Mason, but
that it would
set at rest the various claims that have been forthcoming from
and Masonic historians.
That he was
a Master Mason is fully attested by the fact of his visit to the Grand
Pennsylvania on Oct. 2, 1824, and to the Grand Lodge of Delaware on
July 25, 1825,
and his enrollment as an honorary member by each of the said Grand
with his visitations to several other Grand Lodges at different times,
all of which
are matters of Masonic record easily obtainable.
may be impossible for me to prove my contention by facts I do feel
demolish one tradition by the means of an alibi which I believe to be
a tradition in Masonic circles that General Lafayette was made a Mason
in one of
the military lodges at Morristown, N. J., where a Festal Lodge was held
27, 1779, for which occasion the jewels, furniture and clothing of St.
No. 1, located at Newark, N. J., were borrowed. At this communication
Washington and sixty-seven brothers, including General Benedict Arnold,
This lodge has been identified, so to speak, as "American Union Lodge,"
later known as "Military Union Lodge, No. 1," traveling in Connecticut,
New York and New Jersey, the minutes, or at least a portion of the
same, being in
the possession of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut, so I am advised.
do not however contain any reference to Lafayette, for obvious reasons,
I will later submit an alibi.
the Library of Freemasonry [Lib 1906; Vol 4, 224 pp], twentieth edition,
seen fit to make use of hearsay evidence and named the place of
ceremony as Morristown,
N. J., saying, "According to the late C. W. Moore, all the American
of the Revolution, with the exception of Benedict Arnold, were
Freemasons. The Marquis
de Lafayette was among the number, and it is believed that he was
initiated in American
Union Lodge at Morristown, N. J., the jewels and furniture used on the
being lent by St. John's Lodge at Newark, N. J." On the basis of this
the publishers inserted a full page cut of the distinguished Marquis
with the following
statement: "The Marquis Lafayette was admitted into Freemasonry in
Union Lodge which was held in a room over the old Freemen's Tavern, on
side of the green, Morristown, N. J., during the winter of 1777, at
which Bro. George
Washington presided in person."
due regard and proper respect for the "late C. W. Moore," I am prompted
to believe that if his "belief" in regard to Lafayette's being made a
Mason was no better than his knowledge which prompted him to deny that
was a Mason, then that whole reference used by Bro. Gould had better be
off and forgotten: for it is bald fact that Benedict Arnold was a Mason
expelled directly after he proved himself a traitor to his country,
which did not
occur until sometime in 1780.
Lafayette's Movements Are
me trace the movements of General Lafayette. He arrived in this country
14, 1777; received a commission (honorary in effect) as a Major General
Congress and was later assigned to Washington's staff as of July 31,
1777; led part
of the troops in the Battle of Brandywine on Sept. 11, 1777, where he
in the leg and remained in an incapacitated condition at Bethlehem,
Pa., until the
latter part of October. He tired of the quiet and finally volunteered
for duty when
scarcely able to place a boot on his foot, and was assigned to the
command of General
Green and assisted that General in conducting a reconnoiter with a view
battle to Lord Cornwallis, who was strongly intrenched at Gloucester
Point, N. J.,
about opposite Philadelphia. The fact that the whole country between
New York and
Philadelphia was held in British grip precludes the probability of a
general officers of the American army attending a Masonic function at
N. J., between the first of November and the fifteenth of December,
1777, on which
date Washington set his troops into winter quarters at Valley Forge,
Pa., and at
which place Lafayette was quartered until after Dec. 30, 1777, after
he went to Albany, N. Y., for some special work.
satisfy the mind as to the utter improbability of his having taken any
Morristown, N. J., in 1777. But I am inclined to think the printed date
an error and that it should read 1779 in accordance with the tradition
That surmise however would not correct the matter. History and
inform us that on Oct. 21, 1778, Lafayette, as a Major General, was
granted a leave
of absence to go to France to return at his convenience. (Probably on a
It is a fact however that Lafayette left Boston Harbor Feb. 11, 1779,
and the fact that he was presented with the Congressional sword at
Harve on Aug.
24, 1779, comes pretty near proving that he arrived in France. On the
he sailed on board the French frigate Hermoine from Rochelle, March 19,
landed at Boston April 28, 1780, and on May 13, 1780, the Continental
his return to America to resume his command as a fresh proof of zeal,
SO IT WAS NOT POSSIBLE FOR HIM TO HAVE RECEIVED THE DEGREES OF
FREEMASONRY AT MORRISTOWN,
N. J., IN DECEMBER, 1779, AND THAT IS THE REASON A REFERENCE WAS NOT
MADE TO HIM
AND THAT HIS NAME WAS NOT INCLUDED IN THE LODGE REGISTER WHICH
CONTAINED THE NAMES
OF WASHINGTON AND THE OTHER SIXTY-SEVEN DISTINGUISHED VISITORS.
tradition is, that General Lafayette was made a Mason in a military
met at Valley Forge during the winter of 1777-78, but no official lodge
of such action have ever been discovered.
in his Military Lodges, 1732-1899: "In December, 1777, the Army retired
Valley Forge, and it was there ‒ according to evidence which seems to
be of a trustworthy
character ‒ that General Lafayette was initiated." He makes a further
quoting Lafayette himself. "After I was made a Mason," said Lafayette,
"General Washington seemed to have received a new light. I never had
moment any cause to doubt his entire confidence. It was not long before
I had a
separate command of great importance." It is significant that
Dec. 4, 1777, was made a Major General by act of the Congress and was
charge of a Division of the Army by Washington on that authorization.
Dr. George W. Chaytor Is
In an address
delivered by Bro. George W. Chaytor before Lafayette Lodge, No. 14, A.
A. M., located at Wilmington, Del., on Jan. 18, 1875, upon the occasion
of the fiftieth
anniversary of its constitution, he said among other things:
"Having in a very brief manner
to Lafayette as a soldier, a patriot, a statesman and a friend, we will
him to you as a Mason, and endeavor to show WHEN and WHERE he first saw
light. He was not a Mason when he landed in America, nor was he a Mason
at the Battle
of Brandywine. The Army under Washington, in December, 1777 retired to
where they wintered. Connected with this Army was a lodge. It was at
THAT HE WAS MADE A MASON. On this point there should be no second
opinion ‒ for
surely LAFAYETTE KNEW BEST WHERE HE WAS MADE A MASON. We have this
HIMSELF ‒ MADE AT THE TIME HE WAS THE GUEST OF THE GRAND LODGE OF
TO MEMBERS OF THAT GRAND BODY. The statement he made was as follows:
"'He had offered his services
to this country
from the purest motives, and he knew that in his heart he had no
He found a people struggling for liberty against tyranny, and he put
his whole soul
in the cause. That Washington received him in the kindest and warmest
never in any direct way showed that he had not the fullest confidence
in his intentions
and ability as a soldier; but, yet, he could not divest his mind of a
(that, at times, gave him great discomfort) that the General of the
was not altogether free from doubt in his case. This suspicion was
the fact that he had never been intrusted with a separate command. This
said, weighed upon him, and at times made him very unhappy. With this
he had not the least cause for discomfort. During the winter (1777-78)
lay at Valley Forge he learned there was a Masonic lodge working in the
hanging heavy the routine of duty being monotonous, he conceived the
idea that he
would like to be made a Mason. He made his wish known to a friend, who
at once informed
him that he, himself, was a Mason, and would take great pleasure in
making his wish
known to the lodge. This was done ‒ and he was there made a Mason. He
that Washington was present and acted as Master of the Lodge at the
time of his
statement was made to members of the Grand Lodge from some of whom it
I have no doubt that he said what I have here given for the parties
making the statement
were gentlemen as well as Masons, and their public lives show the
fellow citizens placed upon their honor and characters. I know that
much doubt and
contradiction has been bandied about this important point in
Lafayette's life. Various
places have been stated as the point of his initiation ‒ but an ARMY
LODGE WAS ALWAYS
THE ORGANIZATION IN WHICH HE SECURED LIGHT.
not yet finished his statement ‒ the latter part is evidence of the
former. In the
beginning he stated he felt rather hurt that Washington had not shown
confidence to entrust him with a separate command. Now, listen to what
he said later:
'After I was made a Mason, General Washington seemed to have received a
‒ I never had from that moment any cause to doubt his entire
confidence. It was
not long before I had a separate command of great importance.'
find that, in May, 1778, General Lafayette, with 2,000 men, defeated
of the British Army, whose forces numbered 5,000."
It was on
July 25, 1825, that Lafayette affixed his signature to the charter, or
of the aforesaid Lafayette Lodge, No. 14, at Wilmington, Del., during
to the Grand Lodge of Delaware. This lodge was chartered Jan. 18, 1825,
petition of seven prominent Masons and citizens of Wilmington, all of
identified with public affairs; more prominent perhaps among the number
Tilton, M. D., a former Surgeon-General in the American Army; Colonel
Pont, former aid to General Lafayette, and Nicholas G. Williamson, who
was elevated to the position of Mayor. Notable among the first
initiates in the
lodge were such men as Allen McLane, noted as a surgeon; General James
Willard Hall, U. S. District Judge and father of the Public Educational
the State of Delaware and later a Grand Master; Hon. Louis McLane,
later a U. S. Senator, Minister to Great Britain, Secretary of the
Treasury, all contemporaries of General Lafayette and fortunate in
their day and
generation ‒ tall men, sun-crowned men and good Masons.
Dr. Chaytor Was a Mason
of High Standing
Now as to
the sponsor for the statements connected with the second tradition in
so far as
my story is concerned. It was no less a personage than Dr. George W.
and favorably known, a notable physician and enthusiastic Mason. He was
25, 1813, initiated Sept. 7, 1841, raised Nov. 2, 1841, and died April
respected by all men. He served his lodge as Master and in 1845 became
member of the Grand Lodge of Delaware and was immediately elected
Senior Grand Warden,
Grand Secretary, 1849-53 inclusive, Deputy Grand Master, 1858-59,
Chairman of Committee
on Foreign Correspondence until 1875, elected Grand Master of Masons of
was fortunate enough to be born well and early enough to be more or
with many of the men and Masons who were active in fraternal matters
affairs during the years 1824-25, and who took an active part in the
of the lodge which took as its name that which was perhaps the most
the time; these companions of Bro. Chaytor were also men who were
prominent in Lafayette's
reception in the Grand Lodges of Pennsylvania and Delaware.
sterling character and reputation precludes the possibility of his
misunderstood or subject to discount. He had the reputation of speaking
even though it hurt. It can be set down without fear of successful
that his statements concerning Lafayette were made after due
received through a line of worthy brothers of the Craft.
It is of
course to be regretted that the worthy Doctor did not give, in his
names of his informants and a little more of the particulars. However,
comes forward and disproves the second tradition which I have
incorporated in this
letter many of us will continue to base our belief that BRO. MARIE JEAN
ROCHE YVES GILBERT du MOTIER, MARQUIS de LAFAYETTE, was made a Master
Mason in an
Army Lodge during the winter of 1777-78 at VALLEY FORGE, PENNSYLVANIA.
Etiquette of the Flag
As Prepared By Robert C.
Davis, The Adjutant General, War Department, Washington, D. C.
So many inquiries
come to hand from lodges and other Masonic bodies as to the official
the national flag that THE BUILDER is here publishing in full a
circular on that
subject as issued by the War Department under date of March 28, 1924.
is within the province of the War Department to prescribe rules and
governing the use of the flag for observance within the Army, yet it is
province to prescribe any such rules or regulations for the guidance of
or to undertake to decide questions concerning this subject that are
On Flag Day,
June 14, 1923, representatives of over sixty eight patriotic
organizations met in
Washington for a conference under the auspices of the National
of the American Legion, to draft an authentic code of flag etiquette.
adopted by this conference represent the opinion of the patriotic
represented at this conference and other patriotic organizations which
adopted this code. The flag circular previously published by the War
under date of February 15, 1923, having been incorporated in this code
in toto, the conference flag code is published for the information of
Description of the Flag
of the United states has 13 horizontal stripes ‒ 7 red and 6 white ‒
the red and
white stripes alternating, and a union which consists of white stars of
on a blue field placed in the upper quarter next the staff and
extending to the
lower edge of the fourth red stripe from the top. The number of stars
is the same
as the number of states in the Union. The canton or union now contains
arranged in six horizontal and eight vertical rows, each star with one
On the admission of a state into the Union a star will be added to the
the flag, and such addition will take effect on the 4th of July next
In the Army
Regulations four kinds of national flags are described, viz., flags
which are flown
at military posts or on ships and used for display generally; small
flags or ensigns
which are used on small boats; colors which are carried by unmounted
and standards which are carried by mounted regiments and are,
in size than colors.
flags, with the exception of the colors and standards carried by
troops, will be
of the following proportions:
of flag, 1.
of flag, 1.9.
of union, 7/13.
of union, 0.76.
each stripe, 1/13.
For a number
of years there has been prescribed in Army Regulations a knotted fringe
silk on the national standards of mounted regiments and on the national
unmounted regiments. The War Department, however, knows of no law which
or prohibits the placing of a fringe on the flag of the United States.
No act of
Congress or Executive order has been found bearing on the question. In
a fringe is not considered to be a part of the flag, and it is without
significance. In the common use of the word it is a fringe and not a
custom sanctions the use of fringe on the regimental colors and
standards, but there
seems to be no good reason or precedent for its use on other flags.
no Federal law now in force pertaining to the manner of displaying,
saluting the United States flag, or prescribing any ceremonies that
should be observed
in connection therewith. In fact, there are but four Federal laws on
books that have any bearing upon this subject; first, the act of
February 20, 1905 (33 Stat. L., p. 725), providing that a trade-mark
can not be
registered which consists of or comprises, inter alia, "the flag, coat
or other insignia of the United States, or any simulation thereof"; the
a joint resolution of Congress approved May 8, 1914 (38 Stat. L., p.
the display of the flag on Mother's Day; the third, the act of Congress
February 8, 1917 (39 Stat. I,., 900), providing certain penalties for
mutilation, or improper use of the flag, within the District of
Columbia; and the
fourth, the act of Congress approved May 16, 1918 (40 Stat. L., p.
when the United States is at war, for the dismissal from the service of
or official of the United States Government who criticizes in an
abusive or violent
manner the flag of the United States. Several states of the Union have
which have more or less bearing upon the general subject, and it seems
that many counties and municipalities have also passed ordinances
matter to govern action within their own jurisdiction.
desecration of the American flag by aliens was issued by the Department
which sent the following notice to Federal attorneys and marshals:
"Any alien enemy tearing down,
abusing, or desecrating the United States flag in any way will be
regarded as a
danger to the public peace or safety within the meaning of regulation
12 of the
proclamation of the President issued April 6, 1917, and will be subject
arrest and punishment."
certain fundamental rules of heraldry which, if understood generally,
the proper method of displaying the flag. The matter becomes a very
simple one if
it is kept in mind that the national flag represents the living country
and is itself
considered as a living thing. The union of the flag is the honor point;
arm is the sword arm, and therefore the point of danger and hence the
place of honor.
flag should be displayed
only from sunrise to sunset, or between such
hours as may be designated by proper authority. It should be displayed
and state holidays and on historic and special occasions. The flag
be hoisted briskly and lowered slowly and ceremoniously.
carried in a procession
with another flag or flags, the flag of the
United States should be either on the marching right, i.e., the flag's
or when there is a line of other flags the flag of the United States
may be in front
of the center of that line.
displayed with another
flag against a wall from crossed staffs, the
flag of the United States should be on the right, the flag's own right,
staff should be in front of the staff of the other flag.
a number of flags are
grouped and displayed from staffs, the flag of
the United States should be in the center or at the highest point of
flags of states or cities
or pennants of societies are flown on the
same halyard with the flag of the United States, the national flag
be at the peak. When flown from adjacent staffs the flag of the United
be hoisted first. No flag or pennant should be placed above or to the
right of the
flag of the United States.
flags of two or more
nations are displayed they should be flown from
separate staffs of the same height and the flags should be of
size. (International usage forbids the display of the flag of one
nation above that
of another nation in time of peace.)
When the flag is displayed from
a staff projecting horizontally or at an
angle from the window sill, balcony, or front of building, the union of
should go clear to the head of the staff unless the flag is at
When Bunting Should Be Used
the flag of the United
States is displayed in a manner other than by
being flown from a staff it should be displayed flat, whether indoors
or out. When
displayed either horizontally or vertically against a wall, the union
uppermost and to the flag's own right, i. e., to the observer's left.
in a window it should be displayed the same way, that is, with the
union or blue
field to the left of the observer in the street. When festoons,
rosettes, or drapings
of blue, white, and red are desired, bunting should be used, but never
displayed over the middle
of the street, as between buildings, the flag
of the United states should be suspended vertically with the union to
in an east and west street or to the east in a north and south street.
used on a speaker's
platform, the flag should be displayed above and
behind the speaker. It should never be used to cover the speaker's desk
nor to drape
over the front of the platform. If flown from a staff it should be on
used in unveiling a statue
or monument, the flag should not be allowed
to fall to the ground but should be carried aloft to wave out, forming
feature during the remainder of the ceremony.
When flown at half staff, the
flag is first hoisted to the peak and then
lowered to the half-staff position, but before lowering the flag for
the day it
is raised again to the peak. On Memorial Day, May 30, the flag is
displayed at half
staff from sunrise until noon and at full staff from noon until sunset,
Nation lives and the flag is the symbol of the living Nation.
used to cover a casket the
flag should be placed so that the union is
at the head and over the left shoulder. The flag should not be lowered
grave nor allowed to touch the ground. The casket should be carried
the flag is displayed in
church it should be from a staff placed on
the congregation's right as they face the clergyman. The service flag,
flag, or other flag should be at the left of the congregation. If in
the flag of the United States should be placed on the clergyman's right
as he faces
the congregation and other flags on his left.
the flag is in such a
condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem
for display it should not be cast aside or used in any way that might
as disrespectful to the national colors, but should be destroyed as a
preferably by burning or by some other method in harmony with the
respect we owe to the emblem representing our country.
not permit disrespect to be
shown to the flag of the United States.
not dip the flag of the
United States to any person or any thing. The
regimental color, state flag, organization or institutional flag will
not display the flag of the
United States with the union down except as
a signal of distress.
not place any other flag or
pennant above or to the right of the flag
of the United States.
not let the flag of the
United States touch the ground or trail in the
not place any object or
emblem of any kind on or above the flag of the
not use the flag as drapery
in any form whatever. Use bunting of blue,
white, and red.
not fasten the flag in such
manner as will permit it to be easily torn.
not drape the flag over the
hood, top, sides, or back of a vehicle, or
of a railroad train or boat. When the flag is displayed on a motor car
should be affixed firmly to the chassis or clamped to the radiator cap.
not display the flag on a
float in a parade except from a staff.
Do not use the flag as a
covering for a ceiling.
not use the flag as a
portion of a costume or of an athletic uniform.
Do not embroider it upon cushions or handkerchiefs or print it upon
not put lettering of any
kind upon the flag.
not use the flag in any form
of advertising nor fasten an advertising
sign to a pole from which the flag of the United States is flying.
not display, use, or store
the flag in such a manner as will permit it
to be easily soiled or damaged.
the national colors should be used for covering a speaker's desk,
draping over the
front of a platform, and for decoration in general. Bunting should be
the blue above, the white in the middle, and the red below.
Salute to the Flag
ceremony of hoisting or lowering the flag or when the flag is passing
in a parade
or in a review, all persons present should face the flag, stand at
salute. Those present in uniform should render the right-hand salute.
When not in
uniform men should remove the headdress with the right hand and hold it
at the left
shoulder. Women should salute by placing the right hand over the heart.
to the flag in the moving column is rendered at the moment the flag
national anthem is played those present in uniform should salute at the
of the anthem, retaining this position until the last note of the
anthem. When not
in uniform men should remove the headdress and hold it as in the salute
to the flag.
Women should render the salute as to the flag. When there is no flag
should face toward the music.
Old Masonic Books
Do not throw
away old Masonic books unless you know them to be of no value. Some of
old works are much sought for, and may be worth from five to two
Clandestines Were Shown the Error of Their Ways
By Bro. Oscar C. Taylor,
gives us an account in familiar style of how he converted two
he had gone far with them he found himself involved in questions of
It is always so! His account of how the clandestine "St. John's Grand
came into existence will be found of special value to brethren
following the present
series of Study Club articles.
ONE of the
bosses in the mill where I had just started to work hailed me as a
Mason and asked
the name of my lodge. On being told "De Witt Clinton, No. 15, of
Vermont," he replied that he belonged to a lodge which has a number
"Antiquity, No. 18."
is it located ?"
here in Lowell, on Middlesex Street."
Massachusetts lodges have no numbers."
has, just like yours up in Vermont, and I think they won't let you into
that haven't a number."
As I had
visited Massachusetts lodges before, I saw something was wrong and left
with the chemist and hurried back to the dye house. In a few minutes,
A. followed me and brought with him another boss, Mr. B., who would
all about it." Mr. B. said he was the Senior Warden and wanted me to
that I would come to lodge the following Wednesday. I hesitated about
and was informed that the lodges that were not numbered were irregular
Masons from outside of Massachusetts always visited Antiquity, No. 18,
and not Ancient
York, Pentucket, William North, or Kilwinning. After more discussion in
finally had to refuse to answer any questions about the Ritual, I
promised to read
a book Mr. A. would bring me the next day.
turned out to be an impassioned address by "R. W. Charles F. Eddy,
Deputy Grand Master for the First Masonic District," and was entitled
Arraignment of Irregular Freemasonry in Massachusetts. Printed by St.
Lodge, A. F. & A. M." Besides a great deal of oratory it
statements of fact. The following are fair samples:
"We have been obliged to dig
down into moldy
graves, closed for a century, to disclose the skeletons of two
imposters in Masonry,
to show that the GRAND LODGE of MASSACHUSETTS (so-called) in its
born of two dead beings ‒ a doubly posthumous child, and which dead
they did live their lives of imposition, did not have the right to
live; to show
that this miraculously born Grand Baby was still-born, and ever since
and now after more than a hundred years of pretension, usurpation and
is still, a pretender, a usurper and irregular as the Devil is wicked.
"All this has been shown to you
by the lecturer to whom you have listened.
"The facts, figures and
by him are incontrovertible. Controvert dispute, deny and defend, men
of the MASSACHUSETTS
ASSOCIATION, if you can. YOU CANNOT DO IT.
"We have told you so a hundred
yet you take not up the challenge. You content yourselves by saying, so
far as opposition
speech is heard, 'Fakes!' and 'Fake Masonry'.
"In God's name, men of
are the 'Fakes' and what is 'Fake Masonry' in view of the unimpeachable
"We say that Joseph Webb and
had no Masonic right or authority to form a Grand Lodge and produce the
law and authorities. Assert and show to the contrary, if you can. YOU
"We say that a most damnable
was perpetrated in Massachusetts, 1882-3.
"It is called 'THE
by your own people.
"You get your right to exist,
one of your
wise men has said, by 'Revolution and Assumption.'
"You have turned around so many
so rapidly that no one knows who or what you are, or whence you came.
Is that what
you mean? You have assumed and assumed your Grand Usurpation to be
'It', until the
bump of Assumption has grown so big that it looks like a Grand Lodge to
"The Masonic world is looking
men of Massachusetts, and what you fail to do in purifying and
cleansing your Masonic
temple the Masonic world will someday compel you to do by ignoring your
pressed by Mr. B., I had to admit that the book was mostly "hot air"
that it contained no definite information as to Antiquity, No. 18, or
Grand Lodge. The next day he brought his diploma, made out on a form
the one used by many regular lodges; and a leaflet called, "Who are
This was a perversion of Masonic history which quoted Gould and other
It also contained the "Act of Incorporation" under the laws of the
of Columbia of "Saint John's Grand Lodge Ancient Free and Accepted
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts." (The italics are my own.)
escape the frequent urgings to attend their
lodge where "everything would be explained" I wrote to M. W. Henry H.
Ross, Grand Secretary of Vermont, who kindly but emphatically informed
me that Antiquity,
No. 18, was clandestine. I showed his letter to the irregulars and
that I considered the matter closed. After some talk the matter was
I consigned the affair to the rubbish heap.
They Claimed Harding
At the time
of President Harding's death some weeks later, Mr. A. revived the
asking me why President Harding belonged to their organization if it
I countered by saying that it was no use to argue for
"A man convinced against his
Is of the same opinion still."
This he finally
answered by saying he would withdraw from his lodge if he was shown
of the falsity of its claims. Mr. B. later made a similar promise.
placed me in the position of a man who tries to prove that the world is
the two irregulars placed perfect faith in the wild statements of their
especially those of one "Past Grand Master" Leithead. In this, they
many regular Masons who accept without reservations wild fancies about
and universality of the Order.
As I was
separated from my back number of THE BUILDER I could not find the name
Harding's lodge, and addressed a letter to "Masonic Temple, Marion,
It was answered by return mail by J. A. Knapp, a Past Master and the
Marion Lodge, No. 70. The letter was admirably fitted to my purpose. I
a letter signed by Secretary Christian enclosing a list of President
affiliations. Thus one point was nailed down.
my campaign I selected the claims which were most important in the eyes
of the two
St. John's Grand Lodge was
accepted everywhere in the United states
outside of Massachusetts.
the Grand Lodge of which
Arthur D. Prince of Lowell is a Past Grand
Master was not so recognized.
St. John's Grand Lodge was
recognized by the Grand Lodge of England
and the Massachusetts Grand Lodge was not.
St. John's Grand Lodge was
incorporated under the laws and in the Commonwealth
of Massachusetts as well as the District of Columbia. (5) That the
Grand Lodge was not incorporated at all. A letter from the Secretary of
of Massachusetts ‒ a mouth-filling and most impressive title ‒
established the fact
that St. John's Grand Lodge was not incorporated in Massachusetts. Why
Grand Lodge which uses "Commonwealth of Massachusetts" as a part of its
title have been incorporated in the District of Columbia? The answer
be that the laws on that subject in the District were lax. A trip to
showed that the Massachusetts Grand Lodge was incorporated before the
from Bro. Robert A. Shirrefs, Secretary General of the Supreme Council
Jurisdiction, said: "I have no knowledge of any 'St. John's Grand
I think there is a Negro organization which uses 'St. John' as a part
of its title."
In the public library I found an American edition of Gould's History of
that contained this statement which I copied:
"This Grand Lodge
(Massachusetts) has adhered
with almost wonderful tenacity to the ancient laws and usages of the
all attempts to introduce modern methods and ideas, and its solid
growth, high reputation,
and splendid prosperity are undoubtedly largely attributable to this
(Vol. IV, p. 361.)
a previously quoted statement in the booklet of the irregulars. I could
Gould further because of his length and style, but I could refer to him
the four volumes were in the public library. I obtained from home my
copy of Gould's
Concise History, 1920, revised edition. As this was published in
England and contradicted
statements in the clandestines' book I could use it to good effect.
was good, but a "clincher" was needed. Guessing that a clandestine
would become cautious if he wrote to a regular and so contradict his
I got a letter from "Past Grand Master" Leithead of Lowell. This letter
is worthy of study from several angles, but the following served the
The italics are my own.
* One of our members who has learned his work as all Master Masons
should do (is?)
admitted to most any regular lodge of Masons that is not dominated by
Rite or higher degrees. The most of the lodges in the U. S. are so
these documents, I presented the case to Mr. A. and Mr. B. during a
noon hour. I
began by saying that I had gone to considerable trouble in the matter
not only because
of friendship for them, but also because it was a bad thing to have two
men lending dignity to a dishonest organization. At the end of my
said I had more than sufficient proof and that they were glad to get
free from a
How "St. John's G.L."
From a study
of the published Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts I have
the following information:
In 1882 an
amendment to the constitution of the Grand Lodge was proposed which
named the regular
bodies of the "Scottish" and "York" Rites and "declared
that any Mason who is hereafter admitted in this jurisdiction, into any
as Masonic, whether called the Rite of Memphis or by any other name, is
and for such conduct shall be liable to be expelled from all the rights
of Masonry, and shall be ineligible to membership or office in this
At the quarterly communication in June this was reported unanimously
and was debated. Learned Masons from outside Massachusetts such as E.
Cottrill, R. F. Gould, Findel, and Hughan sent letters approving it and
that Grand Lodges in Europe, the British Isles, and America recognized
Grand Lodge was the supreme Masonic governing body of its territory.
was passed 319 to 28. In 1883 this amendment was given the final vote
of 351 to
In 1901 the
Rite of Memphis bobbed up again, and some brethren protested that these
violated the Landmarks of Masonry, but it was shown that this
contention had no
basis and that the amendments were in harmony with both the
and with the acts of Masonic Bodies throughout the world. The
petitioners were given
leave to withdraw. One of the petitioners was a proxy to the Grand
Lodge and started
to vote in the negative and then lowered his hand. The vote was
humorous incident closed the "Masonic departure" referred to by the
1902, there was started an irregular lodge under the title of "Ancient
Lodge, No. 1, Boston, Mass.," claiming to hold a dispensation from a
Grand Lodge in the state of Ohio. This body met frequently in a small
Castle Square Hall at 446 Tremont street, Boston, and sent out
anybody and everybody to "join the Masons" at the price of ten or
dollars, five dollars of which went to the brother bringing in the
of the victims demanded and obtained their money back! This was the
start of "St.
John's G. L." !
Newton Ray Parvin: In Memoriam
By The Editor
N. R. Parvin was promoted to the Grand Lodge above (a notice of his
death was published
in THE Builder last month, page 56) the American Craft lost a leader
will become historic, and many of us ‒ how many, no man can tell ‒ lost
For long years we shall remember him in the great old library at Cedar
its curious blend of old and new, its shining cleanliness, its all
of books; we shall recall how often we have seen him turn so abruptly
in his swivel
chair to greet a visitor; how instant he was with a proffer of any
how happy he was, day or night, to take any requested part in Craft
For Masonry, in Masonry, and among his books, he lived and moved and
had his being.
I shall be
forgiven my garrulousness if I make record of my own indebtedness to
him. The preparation
of my little book on Symbolical Masonry made it necessary for me to
spend much of
my time during a year or so (with a man to help) in the library. It was
Parvin's suggestion. He set aside a room, equipped it with two desks
and a set of
bookcases, had several hundred volumes transferred to my shelves, then
gave me the
keys to all the stacks downstairs, and all in such a spirit as if he
else in the world to do, though his duties as Grand Secretary and Grand
were onerous enough. Such was the heart of the man.
It was in
the same manner that he gave himself to help in the founding of the
Research Society and to the launching of THE BUILDER, the first issue
of which was
published in January, 1915. At the formal organization of the Society
he was made
Vice-President and so remained until his death, Friday night, Jan. 16.
these long years of service to us let us erect in our hearts a monument
to his memory.
was first of all a Grand Secretary, one of the most influential of the
offices of the Ancient Craft; next after that he was a librarian. Too
busy to be
a student, too pragmatic to be a scholar, he was most interested in the
housing and distribution of Masonic books, and it is doubtful if any
ever devoted more loving care to that work. His father had founded the
him, from the most meagre beginnings; he carried it forward to a
gave it a place in the quartette of great Masonic libraries, along with
Pennsylvania and Massachusetts. The typically Iowan building in which
it is housed,
facing First avenue, lying L-shaped, like a Masonic square, has this
long time been
a lighthouse at the center of the Craft in the Middle West.
Parvin was born in Muscatine, Iowa, July 5, 1851, in a home full of
his ninth year his father, Theodore Suttin Parvin, who ranked with
and Drummond among the chief of American Masons, accepted a
professorship at the
University of Iowa, Iowa City; the family remained there many years.
Bro. N. R.
Parvin was raised in Iowa City Lodge, No. 4, May 5, 1874, and retained
there until his death. He joined the chapter and the Commandery in Iowa
later transferred to Trowel Chapter and Apollo Commandery,
respectively, upon his
removal to Cedar Rapids. He was a member of Palestine Council, No. 2;
El Kahir Temple,
A. A. O. N. M. S.; Iowa Consistory, No. 2; St. Bartholomew Conclave,
No. 37, Red
Cross of Constantine; the Masonic Veterans' Association; Cedar Chapter,
O. E. S., and the Grand Secretary's Guild.
Rite degrees were conferred upon him just before the removal of the
Library from Iowa City to Cedar Rapids by orders of Albert Pike, that
he might become
the custodian of important papers relating to the Rite. He was crowned
Oct. 20, 1886.
the office of the Grand Secretary as a clerk in 1872, and became Deputy
in 1877. When his father died in 1901, after having served as Grand
some fifty-seven years, Newton Ray was appointed to serve out the year
Secretary and Grand Librarian, and was reelected, usually by unanimous
year thereafter. Father and Son together served the Grand Lodge of Iowa
capacity for a total of 100 years.
Who Were Masons
By Bro. George W. Baird,
P. G. M., District Of Columbia
General James Jackson
JACKSON, the fifth governor of the State of Georgia, was a member of
Solomon's Lodge at Savannah, one of the very oldest in the country.
There is evidence
to show that either Solomon's Lodge, or a preceding lodge in the same
was organized in or near Savannah in 1733 and that it was duly
constituted in 1735
or 1736. It worked under a charter granted by the Modern Grand Lodge of
which had been organized in 1717. There is some evidence to show that
dormant for a period of years.
In 1785 James
Jackson proposed that they reorganize under a warrant from the Ancient
of England which had been erected in 1751. The proposal was agreed to,
and the brethren
were constituted as a lodge of Ancient York Masons. In the following
year an independent
Grand Lodge was formed in Georgia; of this General William Stephens was
Grand Master and he appointed James Jackson, recently made a Brigadier
as his Deputy. In the following year, 1787, Jackson was elected Grand
held that office until the end of 1789. "It was during his Grand
Sidney Hayden, "and under his direction, that the Grand Lodge of
strong efforts to unite all the Grand Lodges in America under one
and his correspondence on this subject is still to be found in the
on the record books of most of the then existing Grand Lodges." Efforts
organize a General Grand Lodge for America have been made many times
far they have never succeeded, and probably never will.
of this distinguished Georgia Mason was so full of adventure that the
of it reads like a yarn from the pen of Henty. He was born in
Sept. 21, 1757. In his fifteenth year the family emigrated to Georgia,
and the boy
became a student of law in Savannah. No native born loved the land more
young Englishman. When the Revolutionary War began he abandoned his law
to enlist. His military career began with the rank of Second
Lieutenant. In the
defense of Savannah in 1778 he gave such a good account of himself that
he was appointed
Brigade Major, although at the time he was but twenty-one years of age.
fell he joined General Moultrie’s of reputation, recognized him and
saved his life.
Of his deeds
as a soldier a book might be written, but he was even more famous as a
In 1788 he was brigade in South Carolina. Upon reaching the American
forces he was
in rags and tatters, and almost starved. His appearance aroused
suspicion, and so
did his English accent. He was accused of being a spy and was arrested,
tried and condemned to be hanged, but while a rope was being prepared a
gentleman elected Governor of Georgia, but declined on the ground of
his youth ‒
for he was then less than thirty-one years of age; American political
not furnish such another example of political modesty.
In 1798 he
was a member of the convention that prepared the constitution of the
say this instrument was his own composition. He was a Representative to
Congress held under the Federal constitution in 1789-91; a presidential
and a United States Senator in 1793-95. He was Governor of Georgia,
governor he established an enviable record, for he carried into the
office the rare
qualities that had brought him such rapid promotion in the army.
Jackson was as fearless in politics as in war. A shining example of
this is his
action in regard to the "Yazoo Fraud", involving 20,000,000 acres of
extending to the Mississippi River, which the Georgia Legislature had
sold for $207,000.
Jackson was uncontrollably indignant at this outrage. He exposed it in
resigned his seat, got himself elected to the State Legislature, and
then put through
an act to declare the Yazoo transaction null and void. Later on the
under an agreement made by James Madison, Albert Gallatin and Levi
for the Federal government, and James Jackson, John Millidge and Abram
Commissioners for the State of Georgia, was made over to the United
for the sum of $1,250,000.
He was again
elected to the United States Senate in 1801, dying in office, in the
city of Washington,
March 19, 1806, in the forty-ninth year of his age. His body was buried
a few miles out of the city, but later was interred in the
ground at Washington. The inscription on the stone was made by John
Board of Editors
in ‒ Chief ‒ H.L. HAYWOOD
SIZE OF LODGES
be a large lodge or small? Is it better for all concerned, individual
well as the Craft at large, to hold down the membership of any given
the size of lodges be regulated by Grand Lodge? A Special Committee of
Lodge of Colorado has given careful attention to this subject and
reported in the
H. Van Fleet, the then Grand Master, made a recommendation that such a
be appointed when, in his address for 1922, he said:
my visitations to the various lodges in this jurisdiction I have been
with the brotherly feeling and kindly regard displayed by the members
of our smaller
lodges for each other. In these lodges, composed of not to exceed four
or five hundred
members, the brethren seem to know each other personally and are deeply
in each other's welfare. I am inclined to believe that some of our
lodges are too
large, top-heavy with members as it were. One of the great objects of
is sociability, and when a lodge reaches the size where none of its
acquainted with all of its members I do not believe that that lodge can
properly. I therefore recommend that a committee be appointed to take
and report at our next annual Communication as to the advisability of
membership of lodges in this jurisdiction to not more than five hundred
to a lodge."
consisting of Bros. William S. Peirce, William L. Bush and Sheridan S.
all of Denver, reported in 1923 that in their judgment it is better
that each constituent
lodge be left to decide such matters for itself. The report is worthy
of very careful
committee has given this matter serious and careful consideration,
officers and many of the brethren of our largest lodges to ascertain
it might have on their future usefulness should a by-law be adopted by
Lodge limiting the membership of lodges.
the course of our investigation during the past year, we have visited
whose membership ranged from three hundred to twelve hundred, for the
observing the general condition of these large lodges, in order to
assist the committee
in formulating a recommendation, having in view at all times the best
the lodge and all the Craft so far as it relates to the size of
result of our investigation discloses that at the present time our
are inculcating the true teachings of the Craft, they observe the hours
and refreshment, and that genuine fraternity exists. Frequently their
time is employed
in the proper Masonic development of the brethren by instructive
lectures and discourses
on Masonic subjects occasionally social family gatherings are held in
that no member has cause to complain of not receiving brotherly and
In eases of distress, illness or the passing on of a brother or member
of his family,
the sympathy and duties of the lodge are fully extended-in the proper
is natural for large lodges to receive many petitions for the decrees.
of which, the Master and officers arrange their trestle-board
preventing confusion or delay; and thus avoid converting the lodge into
a mere degree
machine; in many instances the members are encouraged to join in all
and assist the officers in conferring the degrees. We find that the
of the ritualistic work is maintained at a high standard. The
instruction and lectures
are delivered to the newly-made Masons in an impressive and dignified
they are given in the presence of a large number of the brethren, it
inspiration and encouragement to the officers to perform their work to
best of their ability and enables all to enjoy the benefits of the
Craft, to more
thoroughly understand the sublime aims and purposes of the Fraternity
what their personal duties are as Freemasons.
careful investigation, due deliberation and satisfying ourselves as to
of the membership in our larger lodges, and the future effect it would
in curtailing the true Masonic work now being performed by them and
limitations upon the growth, influence and power of our great
Fraternity, your committee
is of the opinion that it would be unwise to recommend the adoption of
limiting the membership of lodges in this Grand Jurisdiction."
** * *
"Abie's Irish Rose"
statisticians of the theatre tell us that "Abie's Irish Rose" [Lib*] is
going to break all known records since "Uncle Tom's Cabin," alike for
number of times produced, for the number of paid admissions and for
the author, the last item being predicted as ultimately to reach the
sum of $5,000,000. If Anne Nicholls comes into possession of that Count
Cristo fortune for having written her broad farce it is doubtful if
begrudge it to her. She has wrought a good work for her country.
critics have damned it, almost without exception; they say it is "too
lacks subtlety, has no plot, is a mere caricature, and that its humor
but slapstick from beginning to end; some of them allege that the story
of the marriage
of the young Israelite to the Irish Roman Catholic girl, with the
resulting therefrom, has been used a hundred times before; and so on,
and so on.
Pace the critics! The public has received the young couple into its
so there is an end of it! Millions laugh and cry over the ludicrous
of the thrice-married pair, and will doubtless continue to do so for
years to come.
one may well believe, is a sign and a symbol, for "Abie's Irish Rose"
is a shaft winged with humor sent to the very heart of the old ugly
problem of race
prejudice. Miss Nicholls selected the most extreme type of Jew, set him
the most extreme type of Irishman, and then let nature do the rest. It
been all the same if she had set an Englishman against a Yankee, or a
a French-man, or a Japanese against a Chinaman, or got her folks mixed
up in any
other imaginable scramble of race complications; the situation would
have been the
same in essence. And so would have been her solution, which is love and
One has a
right to be reassured by the fortunes of this play. If so many million
have rejoiced in it, perhaps there is not so much racial bitterness in
as we have feared. God grant that there is not! It is a blighting,
It has made history hideous. It has been the immediate cause of
It may be
that the idea disguised behind Miss Nicholls' plentiful slapsticking
rests on more
solid grounds than some may think. Science is more and more calling the
of "race" and "race supremacy" in question. Who can define the
word "race"? Nobody has yet been able to do it. It can't be done on the
basis of color, because every known "racial group" runs a wide gamut
light to dark; or on culture, or language, or religion. Twenty-five
years or so
ago Houston Stewart Chamberlain tried to prove that the "Teutons" have
been the world's dominant strain; but when he stretched his term to
take in Buddha
and Jesus, every reader saw immediately that he was merely juggling
with a word.
So also with our own use of "Anglo-Saxon," so much stressed by Freeman
and his school of history writers. Huxley questioned the very existence
of any such
"race," and the anthropology of today is coming around to Huxley's
These anthropologists are finding the word "race" increasingly useless,
it is so lacking in definiteness, and so easy to be twisted to suit any
prejudiced theory. Some day we shall doubtless find that what we have
to call a "race" is really little more than a comparatively temporary
grouping brought about by a set of cultural and geographical conditions
many blood stains participate. Whether that happens or not, one thing
certain: the most casual acquaintance with history shows that whatever
may be it is too mixed up a thing to serve as the foundation for fixed
for stirring up one group of human beings to hate another group.
in the religious principles of Freemasonry is a solvent for all racial
whatsoever. God is, therefore all members of the human family exist in
spiritual reality; God is the Father of all, therefore all men are
is the Sovereign Grand Architect of the Universe, therefore He is
building the destinies
of one people as much as any other. This establishes men in an equality
and so all-embracing that any and all differences become negligible by
The universe itself is fraternal; the stars in their course fight
This is not
a counsel of perfection. The Universal Fatherhood carries within its
arms all manner
of differences and distinctions. We cannot help liking some types of
than others. No individual can wholly rid himself of what Charles Lamb
as “imperfect sympathies,” and it is useless to expect such an
not as long as friends can be irritable to friends, or members of the
can clash. But what of it! One can learn to disagree without enmity. It
of United States Senators that they can fight each other like hyenas on
of the Senate and then go to lunch with interlaced arms. Freemasonry
asks us not
to make capital out of our imperfect sympathies; not to make up lies
we cannot like; it knows that any man can learn to have good will
toward every other
* * *
A Splendid Research Record
be difficult to find anywhere in the country a Grand Lodge Research
a better record for work accomplished than the Wisconsin Grand Lodge
Masonic Research, consisting of Bros. Silas H. Shepherd (Chairman),
George C. Nuesse,
Henry A. Crosby, George B. Goodwin, and Fred W. Russell. Up to and
1,1924, this Committee had published twenty research pamphlets and
them being: Bibliography of Preston's Illustrations; Masonic Study and
Masonic Literature of the First Half of the Nineteenth Century; The
Ritual in the
19th Century; Masonic Literature from 1880 to 1918; Masonic
Jurisprudence; The Old
Charges; Suggestions for the Study of Freemasonry; The Guilds and
Causes of Dissension During the Eighteenth Century; Seeking Light; At
Symbolic Teaching; Items for Masonic Lodge Bulletins; A Half Hour in
The Masonic Application of Geometry; Notes on the Ritual; What Is
Selected List of Masonic Literature; The Landmarks. The last named
signal honor of being included in The Little Masonic Library, published
by the Masonic
Service Association. Why can't our Wisconsin brethren collect all their
into one volume for general distribution? They have done such good work
as to incur
this moral obligation. Noblesse oblige, brethren!
James Whitcomb Riley
allus argy that a man
Who does about the best he can
Is plenty good enough to suit
This lower mundane institute –
No matter of his daily walk
Is subject for his neighbor's talk,
And critic-minds of ev'ry whim
Jest all git up and go fer him!
It's natchurl enugh, I guess,
When some gits more and some gits less,
Fer them-uns on the slimmest side
To claim it ain't a fare divide
And I've knowed some to lay and wait,
And git up soon, and set up late,
To ketch some feller they could hate
For goin' at a faster gait.
My doctrine is to lay aside
Contensions, and be satisfied;
Jest do your best, and praise er blame
That follers that, counts jest the same.
I've allus noticed grate success
Is mixed with troubles, more er less
And it's the man who does the best
That gits more kicks than sill the rest.
Masonry in the United States
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Editor
Part VII – The Provincial
Grand Lodge System
of organized Masonry in Massachusetts properly begins with the
to Henry Price by the Grand Master of England, Lord Viscount Montague,
him "Provincial Grand Master of New England and Dominions and
belonging." Chronologically it would stand next in order, in this
studies, to give an account of Price and his Deputation; but that has
until the succeeding chapter in order to give some account of the
Lodge System, a knowledge of which is necessary to an understanding of
first Grand Lodge was established in London in 1717 each new lodge was
constituted by the Grand Master himself, or else, in his absence, by
As the Fraternity grew in membership and an ever increasing number of
into existence, it became physically impossible for either the Grand
Master or the
Deputy Grand Master to officiate in person; thereupon Grand Masters'
custom to grant a Deputation to some brother to act in the name of the
As lodges still further increased in number, with the subsequent
complexity of government
thereby made necessary, the further custom arose of deputizing
Masters to act over a given term of years. The Deputation granted to
such a Provincial
Grand Master authorized him to constitute lodges as requirements might
was not a Deputation issued for the constitution of any one lodge, and
was an enlargement of authority over the Deputations issued under the
But even so the Provincial Grand Master was in reality merely the Grand
Deputy and derived all his authority from the Grand Master himself, and
the lodges that might comprise his Provincial Grand Lodge, should he
to be organized. since it was the Grand Master, and not Grand Lodge,
such Deputations, the issuance of them was not always reported back to
and for this reason a number of such Deputations do not show in Grand
that the first Deputation for a Provincial Grand Master was issued on
May 10, 1727,
for North Wales, but this is an error. Grand Lodge Minutes, as edited
by Bro. W.
J. Songhurst, page 73, show that on May 10, 1727, a letter from the
Master of Chester, under date of April 15, 1727, was read to Grand
proving that a Provincial Grand Master had been deputized prior to May
10. The Masonic
Year Book for 1924, published under the authority of the United Grand
Lodge of England,
shows that the Provincial Grand Lodge of Cheshire had a Provincial
in the person of Colonel Francis Columbine in 1725 (page 323). In the
a Provincial Grand Lodge of North Wales is shown as having been
organized in 1726
(page 264), and that of South Wales as having had sir Edward Mansel as
M. in 1727 (page 330). The Grand Lodge Minutes, above referred to, also
a Deputation was issued for Daniel Coxe to be Prov. G. M. of the
provinces of New
York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania in America on June 5, 1730. On page
222 of this
same book, under date of Nov. 21, 1732, the Right Honorable, the Lord
is shown as Provincial Grand Master in Ireland. Under date of April 17,
Took was appointed to be Provincial Grand Master of South America, and
of April 6, 1738, John Hammerton is shown as attending Grand Lodge as
Prov. G. M.
of South Carolina, but nothing is said in the Minutes concerning the
of either Took or Hammerton.
The English System Was Extended
of the Provincial Grand Lodge System in the American Colonies was an
extension of the system found necessary in England, as above described.
H. Drummond makes note of this in a paragraph showing the number of
Lodges in existence at the time of the Revolution:
the first creation of chartered lodges in this country down to the
was governed through the Provincial Grand Lodge system except that
lodges were chartered directly by the home Grand Lodge in provinces in
had no Provincial Grand Lodge. When hostilities commenced, there were
Grand Lodges, in real or nominal existence, in Massachusetts (for New
New York, Virginia, South Carolina, North Carolina and Georgia under
the Grand Lodge
of England ('Moderns')in Massachusetts (for Boston and within one
thereof) under the Grand Lodge of Scotlandand in Pennsylvania under the
Grand Lodge of England: in 1781, the Athol [or Ancient] Grand Lodge
a Provincial Grand Lodge in New York."
Ancient Grand Lodge was organized in London in 1751 as a rival to the
of 1717, it adopted a somewhat different system of deputizing
Provincial Grand Masters,
described concisely by Bro. Henry Sadler in his Masonic Reprints and
Revelations (page 83):
difference may be observed between the Moderns and the Antients in the
mode of appointing
Provincial Grand Masters. By the former, such appointments, being
personal prerogative of the Grand Master for the time being, were
seldom even reported
to the Grand Lodge after the first few years of its existence. Hence
county in England and Wales, as well as many of the colonial districts
foreign countries, had a Provincial Grand Master, although in some few
the head of the province had no lodges to rule over.
list of the Provincial Grand Masters under the Modern Grand Lodge will
in the Grand Lodge Calendar, but no attempt has hitherto been made to
of the Antients, who allowed their Grand Masters no such privilege as
the appointments being very few, and only made in response to petitions
to the Grand
a new lodge was to be opened, either at home or abroad, it was
customary for the
authorities to issue a Dispensation to some duly-qualified brother in
to act as Deputy Grand Master pro tem, and to 'open and hold a Grand
the space of three hours only,' for the purpose of Constituting the
lodge and Installing
the first officers.
far as I can learn, the appointment of a Provincial Grand Master for
and Lancaster was the only one made in England.
brethren abroad, after a Provincial Grand Warrant had been granted and
nominated as first Provincial Grand Master, seldom troubled the home
for a successor, but selected one for themselves, and merely reported
the name to
the Grand Secretary when they sent him a list of their officers; and as
kept no record of such appointments this list may not be absolutely
perfect in every
Provincial Grand Lodges were Warranted and given a number on the
general list of
lodges, in most cases taking a local number as well."
makes note of the Provincial Grand Masters deputized by that Grand
Lodge in the
Western Hemisphere, among which we note: Major Erasmus James Philips,
1757; William Ball, Pennsylvania, 1761; Dr. Thomas Fogarty, Montserrat
1767; Rev. William Walter, New York, 1781; Prince Edward, Duke of Kent,
1792-1812; William Jarvis, Upper Canada, 1792; and Honorable William
Gardner Explained the System
One of the
best explanations extant of the Provincial Grand Lodge System from an
of view is found in an address delivered by William S. Gardner, Grand
Massachusetts, in 1870. It is worthy of being quoted in extenso:
"The system of Provincial Grand
in the Grand Lodge of England in 1726, and arose from the necessity of
the distant colonies of Great Britain where Masonry has extended, some
and power, not only to control and govern the Craft, but also to
establish new Lodges
in the Provinces. The Provincial Grand Master was appointed by
commission of the
Grand Master, wherein the extent of his powers was set forth, and by
virtue of which
he convened his Grand Body. In the language of early days, this
commission was styled
a Deputation, and this word conveys the true idea of the Provincials'
It was a Deputy Grand Lodge, with its various Deputy Grand Officers,
the power and authority of the Provincial Grand Master as the Deputy of
Master. It possessed no sovereign power. The Lodges under the
jurisdiction of the
Provincial Grand Master were not necessarily registered in his Grand
were returned to England, registered in the Grand Lodge there, and
we do our Lodges at the present day, as belonging to a certain District
The Provincial Grand Master had power to appoint a Deputy and
commission him, who
in the absence, sickness, and disability of his chief, assumed his
Grand Wardens and other officers he also had the exclusive right to
sometimes he nominated brethren to these offices and permitted the
Grand Lodge to
"Each lodge in the Province had
of representation in the Provincial Grand Lodge, by its Master and
Wardens or by
a regularly appointed representative, and the expenses of the Grand
Body were assessed
upon the various subordinates. The right of appeal existed from every
act and decision
of the Provincial Grand Master or Grand Lodge, to the Grand Master of
making the Provincial and his Grand Lodge subordinate to the power by
"The allegiance of the Lodges
and of the
Craft was to the Grand Lodge of England, and to the Provincial Grand
Lodge and Grand
Master, through the parent Body. There was no direct allegiance to the
from the Craft. It was a temporary power which he held ex gratia, and
of which he
could be deprived at the pleasure of the Grand Master by whom he was
"Thus it will be seen that the
Grand Master was appointed for the convenience of the administration of
of the Grand Lodge of England in distant parts, in the same manner that
Deputies are appointed at the present time. The powers, however, in the
were more extended than they are in the other. The means of
communication with London
were not so easy and rapid as now, and the distance from the Grand East
that some officer should be stationed here, who should be invested with
for sudden emergencies and instant action. "The Provincial Grand Master
been regularly commissioned and installed, could not resign his trust
to his Provincial
Grand Lodge. That Body had no power to accept it. His resignation must
be made to
the Grand Master from whom he received his commission. The Provincial
was the creation of the Provincial Grand Master, and was wholly under
and control. He appointed its officers, and summoned the
representatives of the
lodges to assemble in Grand Lodge. In this Grand Lodge there was no
save what it derived from the Provincial Grand Master, by virtue of his
authority, thus making it the very reverse of a Sovereign Grand Lodge,
Master of which derives his authority from the Sovereign Body by whose
is elected to office, and over which he presides.
"The Grand Master appointing
could annul the commission at his will and pleasure. The officer being
the pleasure of the Grand Master of England, all the adjuncts,
appointees, and creations
of the office depended upon the same pleasure, and existed during the
will of the
appointing power. If a Provincial Grand Master was removed, and his
and the Grand Master declined to appoint his successor, it is clear
that the Provincial
Grand Lodge established by virtue of such commission would cease to
a Grand Lodge never possessed any vitality which would survive the life
of the commission
appointing the Provincial Grand Master.
"The death of the Provincial
lead to the same result. The commission to him from the Grand Master
all its force upon his decease. Whatever act the Provincial performed,
he did by
virtue of the commission to him. His Deputy Grand Master and Grand
by him and not by the Grand Master of England, nor by his confirmation,
their power and character as Grand Officers from the Provincial, and
when the Provincial
expired, their tenure of office expired also."
As It Was In 1756
In the course
of his argument Bro. Gardner quoted the Entick edition of the
show how the Provincial Grand Lodge System was regulated in 1756:
"Art. 1. The office of
Master was found particularly necessary in the year 1726, when the
increase of the Craftsmen, and their traveling into distant parts and
themselves into Lodges, required an immediate Head to whom they might
apply in all
Cases, where it was not possible to wait the Decision or Opinion of the
"Art. 2. The appointment of
this Grand Officer
is a Prerogative of the Grand Master: who grants his Deputation to such
of Eminence and Ability in the Craft, as he shall think proper; not for
during his good Pleasure.
"Art. 3. The Provincial thus
invested with the Power and Honor of a Deputy Grand Master; and during
of his Provincialship, is entitled to wear the Clothing, to take rank
as the Grand
Officers, in all publick Assemblies, immediately after the past Deputy
and to constitute Lodges within his own Province.
"Art. 4. He is enjoined to
the Grand Lodge, and to transmit a circumstantial Account of his
least once in every Year. At which Times, the Provincial is required to
send a List
of those Lodges he has constituted for the general Fund of Charity: and
demand, as specified in his Deputation, for every Lodge he has
constituted by the
Grand Master's Authority."
Grand Lodge System was a gradual development and remained in a
condition of flux
for a number of years. The extant records of early American Grand
Lodges would indicate
that on this side of the water our American brethren were not very
certain in their
own minds as to what was expected of them. We find the Grand Lodge of
turning to the Grand Lodge of England to ask for the deputizing of a
Grand Master, and then turning toward Henry Price, at Boston, to ask
him to extend
his authority over Pennsylvania. Did the American Provincial Grand
Lodges each one
derive its authority directly from England? Or was it supposed that
in some one American Provincial Grand Master who in turn passed it down
Provincial Grand Masters? Why was Henry Price's authority extended to
whole of North America at the time when a Grand Master resided in
It is difficult to clear up these questions.
Johnson Is Quoted
Johnson has recently commented on them in a private letter which he has
permitted me to quote in these pages:
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, of which Price was Grand Master, was a
Grand Lodge, instituted by him. His authority was subsequently extended
America. I have never felt that gave the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts
over all North America. I have never felt that gave the Grand Lodge of
authority over all North America. I have felt that the authority
resided in Price
to establish provincial authority elsewhere when he saw fit to do so.
When he did
it their authority was derived from him, who in turn derived his
Grand Lodge of England was not a very careful respecter of its own
rules. In spite of authority given to Price, it constituted other
Lodges direct. Price was not the only Provincial Grand Master whose
disrespected by the power appointing him. There are numerous instances
where a Commission
issued covering a time or period in part of which a new Provincial
was appointed or lodges were founded direct. In other words, in this
conditions were more or less fluid. Price's authority should have been
throughout North America.
will remember a protest was made when subsequent Provincial Grand
that other lodges had been constituted without going through them. I
power that issued their warrants had authority to do what it did I
every time an
authoritative commission was given which deleted from the authority of
American Provincial. I suppose that was legal and by so much decreased
unless it was expected that even though an appointment was made it was
be under him.
tell the truth my impression is that they didn't think much about those
that period. They were so anxious to spread Freemasonry and the
authority of the
English Grand Lodge that they just went ahead and did things whenever
a good opportunity. When the Grand Lodge of England was organized
indeed, it was
at first only supposed to have local authority. Almost immediately,
began to extend that authority so that it was only a short time when it
exclusive jurisdiction at least in England and all of England's
even went further and almost assumed jurisdiction over the world. Where
does this sort of thing in previously unexplored country, what it does
by the rest of the world. Just so with Freemasonry. The action of the
Lodge in extending its authority was at first successful de facto and
recognized de jure. Subsequent developments limited the jurisdiction of
Lodge of England from its fluid coverage to what is now recognized.
again was the working out of the facts of history.
said above that it did not seem to me that the other Provincial Grand
North America were subject to the Grand Lodge here in Boston. That is
only my conclusion,
but without giving the matter very careful thought and study I am quite
this conclusion is right. I do think that from 1734 Price was the
Master of all North America ‒ so were some of his successors. I think
had full provincial authority over North America except in such places
as had been
cut out of that authority by a direct appointment from England."
as they will be frequently referred to it may be of use for future
chapters of these
studies to give a list of the Provincial Grand Masters appointed in
America by the
Grand Lodge of 1717, those appointed by the Grand Lodge of 1751 having
given in the quotation from Bro. Henry Sadler:
In 1729 the
Duke of Norfolk appointed Daniel Coxe for New York, New Jersey, and
In 1733 Lord
Viscount Montague appointed Henry Price for New England and Dominions
In 1736 the
Earl of Loudoun appointed Robert Tomlinson for New England and John
In 1737 the
Earl of Darnley appointed Richard Riggs for New York.
In 1742 Lord
Ward appointed Thomas Oxnard for North America.
1748, 1749, 1750, 1751, Lord Byron appointed William Allen for
Francis Goelet for New York.
In 1752 and
1753 Lord Carysfort appointed George Harrison for New York.
1755 the Marquis of Carnarvon appointed Peter Leigh for South Carolina
Gridley for all North America, except where a Provincial Grand Master
had been already
Lord Aberdour appointed Grey Elliot for Georgia and Benjamin Smith for
In 1768 Lord
Beaufort appointed John Rowe in the room of Henry Price.
Lord Petre re-appointed Henry Price for North America; John Cullins for
Noble Jones for Georgia; and Honorable Peyton Randolph for Virginia.
In 1771 the
Duke of Beaufort appointed Joseph Montfort of North Carolina
Master of and for America."
Note: ‒ I
shall appreciate having any error or omission in this list called to my
H. L. H.
to Provincial Grand Lodges in the Minutes of the Grand Lodge of England
Quatuor Coronatorum Antigrapha, Vol. X [Lib*], index. The Masonic Year
Book is published
annually by the Grand Lodge of England.
The reference to Preston is based on his Illustrations of Masonry
edited by Dr.
George Oliver, London; 1829 [Lib 1829], page 195.
For the Drummond quotation see History of Freemasonry, R. F. Gould,
Vol. IV [Lib 1884, Vol
4], page 330.
On Provincial Grand Masters under the Ancient Grand Lodge see Masonic
Revelations, Including Original Notes and Additions [Lib*], Henry
1898, page 83.
Grand Master Gardner's address was on the subject of Negro Masonry
[Lib*]; it will
be found in Massachusetts Grand Lodge Proceedings for 1870; it is
quoted in full
in Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry [Lib*], Robert I. Clegg,
For lists of Provincial Grand Masters see History of Freemasonry in the
New York, Ossian Lang; New York; 1922 [Lib 1922], page 11ff.;
History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders [Lib 1891, Stillson and
and New York 1890 [Lib 1891], page 225,
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts [Lib 1871], 1871, page 384.
Also consult index of the Beginnings of Freemasonry in America [Lib*],
Johnson; New York; 1924.
On the Provincial Grand Lodge System as now worked under the Grand
Lodge of England
consult Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of England; Freemasonry and
[Lib*], Campbell Everden, page 70;
Masonic Jurisprudence [Lib*], J.T. Lawrence; London; 1923, Chapters IV
Questions for Discussion
- When does the history of
organized Masonry in Massachusetts begin?
- What do you know about Henry
- How were the first lodges of
Speculative Masonry constituted?
- Explain how the Provincial
Grand Lodge System arose.
- From whom did a Provincial
Grand Master derive his authority?
- Who was Preston?
- Why were Deputations to Prov.
G. M.'s omitted from minutes of the Grand Lodge?
- Who was Josiah H. Drummond?
- What Provincial Grand Lodge
existed in the American Colonies at the time
of the Revolution?
- What was the Ancient Grand
- In what way did its Provincial
Grand Lodge System differ from that of the
older Grand Lodge?
- Who was Henry Sadler?
- Describe the Provincial Grand
Lodge System as explained by William S. Gardner.
"The Little Masonic
MASONIC LIBRARY [Lib*]. Published by the Masonic Service Association,
D. C. May be purchased through National Masonic Research Society Book
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Cloth, 20 volumes, 4Y2 by 6
into one set of books, of convenient size and tastefully bound, so
great a variety
of Masonic writings of a high class, and all at a price merely nominal,
Service Association has performed a brilliant publishing feat. The
are uniformly bound, in dark blue cloth, printed in gold; and the paper
book stock. At five dollars the set the volumes average only
twenty-five cents apiece
‒ a bargain if ever there was one.
to review a collection of such scope would require in itself a book as
one of the volumes of The Little Masonic Library; under the present
of space a reader will be best served by a descriptive list of the
here set forth seriatim:
1728, with introduction by Bro. Lionel Vibert.
This is the same fac-simile reprint that in another edition sells for
Freemasonry, Silas H. Shepherd. This is a "compilation
of the lists made by Masonic scholars or adopted by Grand Lodges
together with material
planned to assist comparative study."
Jurisprudence, Roscoe Pound.
Comacines, W. Ravenscroft.
Contains as an appendix, "More Light
on the Comacines."
Masonry; A Brief Sketch
of the Craft Since 1717, Joseph Fort Newton.
A "sketch and outline of the extraordinary development of Modern
the founding of the Grand Lodge of England in 1717."
Morgan Affair and
Anti-Masonry, John C. Palmer.
and Masonry, S. H.
History of the York and
Scottish Rites of Freemasonry, Henry Ridgely Evans.
This work, never before published, contains four chapters on Capitular
Cryptic Masonry, Templar Masonry, and the Scottish Rite.
and the Flag, John W.
Barry. In addition to Bro. Barry's "The
Story of Old Glory" are five chapters on "The Fourth of July," "The
Roll Call," "Paul Revere," "For the Good of the Order,"
and "Warren G. Harding."
and Americanism. Five
chapters on "Masonic Brotherhood in the
United States," "Religious Liberty," "Equality Before the Law,"
"Equality of Opportunity," and "The Dignity of Labor."
and the American
Revolution, Sidney Morse. Eleven chapters on
all phases of Masonic history in the Revolutionary period.
American Masons, George
W. Baird. Chapters on thirty-four famous American
Light in Masonry; A
Little Book in Praise of the Book of Books, Joseph
Fort Newton. Chapters on "The Master Book," "The Supremacy of the
Bible," "The Word of God," "Our English Bible," "The
Great Light," and "Reading the Bible.'
Three Degrees and Great
Symbols of Masonry. Thirteen chapters on the
Three Degrees, the Altar, Holy Bible, Square, Compasses, Level and
Plumb, Rite of
Destitution, Book of Constitutions, and Master's Piece.
Ethics of Freemasonry,
Dudley Wright. A collection of nineteen of Bro.
Wright's essays published in Masonic journals in various parts of the
Meaning of Masonry; Being
the First Half of a Lecture Delivered Before
the Grand Lodge of Louisiana. By Request, in 1858, Albert Pike. This
is introduced with an essay on Albert Pike by Bro. Joseph Fort Newton.
Old Past Master, Carl H.
Claudy. A collection of twenty-four Old Past
Master's Wages, Carl H.
Claudy. Twenty-seven essays, "addressed to
young Master Masons."
Poems. A collection of
ninety-four poems on Masonry, written by authors
living and dead, and drawn from many sources.
to be said that each volume has been edited by Bro. Joseph Fort Newton,
Director of the Masonic Service Association, and Editor of The Master
Mason, a fact
always sufficient to guarantee a high literary and editorial standard.
Masonic Library is to be unreservedly recommended to all literate
Masons, more especially
to such of the young brethren as desire to lay down a proper
cornerstone for a private
Masonic library. Our congratulations to the Masonic Service Association
good work accomplished.
* * *
A Handbook For Masons
MASTER'S ASSISTANT [Lib*]. By Robert Macoy. Published by Macoy
Masonic Supply Co. For sale by National Masonic Research Society Book
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Three hundred and two pages, with
postpaid, cloth, $2.15; leather, $3.15.
is adequately described by its title page, composed in the manner of
Master's Assistant. The Encyclopaedia of Useful Knowledge Concerning
Responsibilities and Prerogatives of the Worshipful Master; Also the
of the Lodge; Embracing Full Instructions Upon Parliamentary Law, the
a Treatise Upon the Principles and Practice of Masonic Law,
of Sorrow, Forms of Burial Service, and Public Demonstration Generally;
Other Matters Essential to the Honorable and Successful Government of a
In his Preface
the author has given a frank acknowledgment of the spirit in which he
book: "I have placed myself in the attitude of a 'Father in Masonry',
familiarly with a brother just elected Master, young, inexperienced,
to make a brilliant record in his official career."
and general nature of the book can be easiest described by setting
forth a resume
of its contents. Part I explains the prerogatives and duties of all the
of a lodge, from Worshipful Master to Tyler. In Part II, on "The Public
of Freemasonry," are six chapters on constituting a lodge, installation
officers, laying of cornerstones, dedication of buildings, and burial
III consists of three chapters on "Code of Parliamentary Law", "Masonic
Discipline in General," and "The Trial of Masonic Offenders." Part
IV comprises a compact treatise on the principles and practices of
with one chapter on "The Foundations of Masonic Law"; a second chapter
on "The Law Concerning Individual Masons, Their Duties and Privileges";
and "The Lodge."
standard set up by Bro. Macoy for the Worshipful Master is shown by a
from Bro. T. Fitz-Henry Townsen, placed at the head of Chapter I:
"To become Master of his lodge
is the legitimate
object of every young brother who takes an interest in our society. The
policy of our present regulations seems to be, to open to each, in
way to the Mastership ‒ almost, if not altogether, as a matter of
course. Now, my
younger brethren may rest assured, that although in deference to usage
is perhaps too late to abolish, we may place a careless or ignorant
Mason in the
Chair, invest him with the badge of authority, and address him with the
forms of respect, we cannot command for him the deference and
will be sure to follow the enlightened and expert. He will be like the
of a ship ‒ placed foremost, and gaudily decorated; but, after all, it
is a mere
effigy, not contributing in the least to the management of the vessel.
as in great things, knowledge is power ‒ intellectual superiority real
intended primarily as a textbook for the Worshipful Master The
Assistant is in reality a handbook for all members of Blue Lodges. If
were to read it at least once he would find Masonry twice as
interesting, and would
gain for himself a luminous comprehension of the Fraternity, its
purpose, its forms
of organization, and its proper work. The entire volume is written with
literary ability, and is easy to read. The Worshipful Master who
chapters by the official monitor of his own jurisdiction and takes care
up its chapters on Masonic jurisprudence by his own Grand Lodge Code,
will be well
advised to keep this volume at his elbow during his entire tenure of
* * *
"Much in Little"
BEFORE AND AFTER DESTRUCTION [Lib*]. By E. George Lindstrom. Published
by the author.
For sale by National Masonic Research Society Book Department, 1950
St. Louis, Mo. Blue Paper, illustrated, 15 pages. Price, postpaid,
his first Masonic book, Bro. Lindstrom exhibits a talent for
condensation rare in
beginning authors. In the ‒ course of fifteen pages he has worked in
material than is often found in a hundred pages, and that on a wide
list of themes:
Hiram, Tyre, Tyrian Purple, Definition of "Mason," Zerubbabel, Cryptic
Masonry, Mt. Moriah, Solomon's Temples, Archeology, and a half dozen
of the book is a reproduction and interpretation of a series of murals
the Scottish Rite Cathedral of Buffalo, N. Y. Two of these, as being
the rest, are reproduced herewith; there are ten others. All of these
along with the explanatory text, furnish as instructive a lesson in
one can find.
* * *
A Pound of Nails
A SYMPOSIUM OF SUNSHINE AND WADS OF WIT [Lib*]. By Lew L. Abbott,
selected and compiled
by Gene T. Skinkle. From the Press of Fable Brothers. May be purchased
Masonic Research Society Book Department, 1950 Railway Exchange, St.
Paper, 95 pages. Price, postpaid, fifty cents.
"has went and done it again." But it was Lew Abbott's fault. Lew had
into the habit of interlarding a monthly advertising circular of his
and quirks of wit and wisdom, each a "sharp wire nail" to drive home a
selling argument. So Bre'r Gene scooped out a handful of them, did them
up in hardware
paper, and now offers them to the tribe of scribes and orators at fifty
pound. Some of them are brads and some of them are spikes and all of
them are sharp.
We put in a few as a window display:
Fords rush in.
who know their own minds don't know much.
says he knows an old fellow whose thoughts are "aged in the wood."
When a woman
begins to lose her charms she wants her rights.
If the fish
did not open his mouth he would not get caught
admit our trousers are on their last legs.
* * *
What to Read in Masonry
OF THE CRAFT"
THE man does
not live who could prepare a list of books on general Masonic history
to the complete
satisfaction of everybody. The present scribe knows full well that he
has not done
so in the list presented below. But even so, a list of such length
cannot be very
far astray, since it is an omnibus collection made to cover the most
of Masonic history; and is not intended to imply that every item
included is to
be completely endorsed, or that every item excluded is to be condemned.
who reads all these books will find himself at the end abundantly able
to pick his
way through all the special works and brochures that lie around the
margin of the
subject, or may be recommended or quoted in the volumes in the
indispensable works for the brother who sets out to master the subject
to bottom are The History of Freemasonry [Lib 1884, Vol
1, Vol 2, Vol
3, Vol 4], by R. F. Gould; Mackey's
History of Freemasonry [Lib*], edited by Robert I. Clegg; and Ars
Mackey's may be secured on the present market; Gould can be picked up
stores, more especially in the American edition, which a Mason in this
prefer for the sake of the American Addendum; and while the early
volume of Ars
are difficult or impossible to obtain, many of the later volumes can be
difficulty. If one lives within gunshot of some good Masonic library he
all three sets on its shelves.
While a few
special histories are included in this month's list ‒ because of their
the general theme ‒ most of those dealing with local or special
subjects, such as
Canada, United States, Royal Arch, Scottish Rite, etc., will appear
from month to
month in separate allocations.
The one golden
indispensable advice to a Mason undertaking to read the story of the
Craft is that
he will keep at it. A horrible confusion will fall upon him at first
like that which
wrings the heart of a tenderfoot trying to find his way about New
Confusion will be followed by skepticism for he will discover one
another, and all of them together in disagreement on a thousand points.
will have its own rewards. After due time, when he has toiled to some
above the mud flats and the dark defiles, the student will begin to see
as a whole, lying plainly beneath him in the sunlight. It will prove a
panorama, for Freemasonry is as broad as the world and rich as time
that will be his exceeding great reward for a thousand and one nights
of toil over
- Ahiman Rezon [Lib
1805], Laurence Dermott.
- Ancient Freemasonry and Old
Dundee Lodge, No. 18 [Lib*], Arthur Heiron.
- Ancient Scottish Craft and the
Third Degree [Lib*], William Harvey.
- Antiquities of Freemasonry [Lib
1823], Dr. George Oliver.
- Arcane Schools [Lib 1909], John Yarker.
- Archaeological Curiosities of
the Ritual [Lib*], Enoch T. Carson.
- Atholl Lodges [Lib 1879], R. F. Gould.
- Beginning of Masonry [Lib 1916], Frank C. Higgins.
- Brief Inquiry Into the Origin
and Principles of Freemasonry [Lib*], Simon
- Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross
[Lib*], A. E. Waite.
- Builders of Man: The Doctrine
and History of Masonry, or the Story of the
Craft [Lib*], John George Gibson.
- The Builders [Lib 1914], Joseph Fort Newton.
- Cathedral Builders [Lib 1899], Leader Scott.
- Century of Masonic Working
[Lib*], F. W. Colby.
- Collected Essays and Papers
Relating to Freemasonry [Lib 1913], Robert Freke Gould.
- The Comacines, Their
Predecessors and Their Successors [Lib 1910], W. Ravenscroft.
- Concise History of Freemasonry
[Lib 1951], R. F. Gould.
- Constitutions of the Freemasons
[Lib*], 1728: Reproduced in Facsimile from
the Original Edition: With an Introduction by Lionel Vibert.
- Thomas Dunkerly [Lib 1891], Henry Sadler
- Early History and Antiquities
of Freemasonry [Lib 1881], George F. Fort.
- Eleusinian Mysteries and Rites
[Lib 1917], Dudley Wright.
- Emblematic Freemasonry and the
Evolution of Its Deeper Issues [Lib*], A.
- England's Masonic Pioneers
[Lib*], Dudley Wright.
- English Gilds [Lib 1870], Toulmin Smith.
- English Masonry and the
Founders of Modern Masonry 1717-1917 [Lib*], E. Quartier-la-Tente.
- Evolution of Freemasonry
[Lib*], D. D. Darrah.
- The Four old Lodges: Founders
of Modern Freemasonry and Their Descendants
R. F. Gould.
- Francis Bacon and His Secret
Society [Lib 1891], Mrs. Henry Pott.
- Freemasonry and the Ancient
Gods [Lib*], J. S. M. Ward.
- Freemasonry Before the
Existence of Grand Lodges [Lib 2010], Lionel Vibert.
- Freemasonry in Canada [Lib*],
- Freemasonry in China [Lib*],
Herbert A. Giles.
- Freemasonry Its Derivation and
Development [Lib*], R. C. Davies
- Freemasonry When? Where? How?
George Thornburgh. [Lib*]
- French Prisoners' Lodge, [Lib 1900]
- Further Notes on the Comacine
Masters [Lib*], W. Ravenscroft.
- General History of Freemasonry
in Europe [Lib 1868], Emmanuel Rebold.
- Grand Lodge of England [Lib*],
A. F. Calvert.
- The Grand Stewards, and Red
Apron Lodges [Lib*], A. F. Calvert.
- Guild Masonry in the Making
[Lib 1918], Charles H. Merz.
- Historical Landmarks [Lib 1846;
1, Vol 2], George Oliver.
- History and Cyclopaedia of
Freemasonry [Lib 1870], George Oliver and Robert
- History and Illustration of
Freemasonry [Lib*], Alexander Lawrie.
- History of Freemasonry [Lib 1866], J. G. Findel.
- History of Freemasonry [Lib
4], R. F. Gould.
- History of Freemasonry and
Masonic Digest [Lib*], J. W. S. Mitchell.
- History of Freemasonry from
1829 to 1841 [Lib 1841], George Oliver.
- History of Freemasonry in
Ashby-de-la-Zouch [Lib 1909], 1809-1909.
- History of Freemasonry in
Canada [Lib 1900; Vol 1, Vol 2], J. Ross Robertson.
- History of Freemasonry in
England from 1567 to 1813 [Lib*], Leon Hyneman.
- History of Freemasonry in
Europe [Lib 1868], Rebold.
- History of Initiation [Lib 1855], George Oliver.
- History of the Ancient
Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons and Concordant
Orders [Lib 1891], Stillson and Hughan.
- History of the Emulation Lodge
of Improvement [Lib*], Henry Sadler.
- History of Wigan Grand Lodge
(Lancashire) [Lib*], Eustace B. Beesley.
- Hole Crafte and Fellowship of
Masonry [Lib*], Edward Conder.
- Illustrations of Masonry [Lib 1772 (for other
editions see Bibliography)], William Preston.
- Jacobite Lodge at Rome, 1735-7
[Lib 1910], W. J. Hughan.
- Mackey's Revised History of
Freemasonry [Lib*], R. I. Clegg.
- Masonic Facts and Fictions
[Lib*], Henry Sadler.
- Masonic Legends and Traditions
[Lib*], Dudley Wright.
- Masonic Reprints and Historical
Revelations, Including Original Notes and
Additions [Lib*], Henry Sadler.
- Masonic Sketches and Reprints
[Lib 1871], William J. Hughan.
- Medieval Architecture [Lib
1909; Vol 1, Vol 2], A. K. Porter.
- Memorials of the Masonic Union
[Lib 1913], W. J. Hughan.
- Military Lodges [Lib 1899], R. F. Gould.
- Military Lodges [Lib*], Alfred
- Notes on the Early History and
Records of the Lodge, Aberdeen 1 ter [Lib*],
A. L. Miller.
- Old Gilds of England [Lib 1918], Fred Armitage.
- Origin and Early History of
Masonry [Lib 1882], G. W. Steinbrenner.
- Origin and Evolution of
Freemasonry [Lib 1920], Albert Churchward.
- Origin of the English Rite of
Masonry [Lib 1884], W. J. Hughan.
- Outline History of Freemasonry
[Lib*], J. S. M. Ward.
- Pocket Companion and History of
Freemasons 1764 [Lib*].
- Pocket Companion for Freemasons
- Primer of Masonic History
[Lib*], Henry Falls Evans.
- Revelations of a Square [Lib 1855], George Oliver.
- Secret Sects of Syria and
Lebanon [Lib 1922], B. H. Springett.
- Secret Societies of All Ages
and Countries [Lib 1875; Vol
2], C. W.
- Secret Tradition in Freemasonry
[Lib 1911; Vol
1, Vol 2], A. E. Waite.
- Short Masonic History [Lib
2], Frederick Armitage.
- Short View of the History of
Freemasonry [Lib 1829], William Sandys.
- Speculative Masonry: Its
Mission, Its Evolution and Its Land-Marks [Lib 1914], A. S. MacBride.
- Spirit of Masonry [Lib 1795], William Hutchinson.
- Story of Freemasonry [Lib 1913], W. G. Sibley.
- Story of the Craft [Lib*],
- Studies in Mysticism [Lib*], A.
- Thumbnail Outline of
Freemasonry [Lib*], H.L., Haywood.
- The Traditions: Origin and
Early History of Freemasonry [Lib 1870], A.T.C. Pierson and Godfrey
- Two Centuries of Freemasonry
[Lib*], Th. G.G. Valette
- Vest Pocket History of
Freemasonry [Lib*], H.L. Haywood
Box and Correspondence
About The Lost Word
some books or essays on the subject of The Lost Word.
A. L. A., Oregon.
the index of each volume of THE BUILDER far published you will find
and items on the subject. See also Symbolical Masonry, Haywood; The
Lost Word, Higgins;
Secret Tradition in Freemasonry, Waite; and Morals and Dogma, Albert
Pike. One of
the best treatments of the subject is "A Contribution to the History of
Lost Word," by Rev. J. F. Garrison, printed as Appendix A in The Early
and Antiquities of Freemasonry, George F. Fort. This last was written
prior to 1875
and therefore needs some revision, especially in its references to
but for all that has permanent value.
* * *
A Masonic Silver Cup
I have come
across a strange kind of heavy silver cup, evidently having some
It is cylindrical in shape, 3 1/4 inches in diameter and 4 inches in
are no markings upon it except on the lid. In an outer circle of the
lid are these
words: "Harmonic Brothers" and "One Tun." Within this circle
of words are the square and compasses with a "G" at the center. At the
left of the shoulder of the compasses is an "A", at the right, a "T".
Can you tell me what all this means?
. W. M., Minnesota.
Brothers" would suggest the name of some musical organization, perhaps
quartette. Since "tun" means a certain kind of wine cask of
capacity it may be that this labeling on your cup was intended for
it was made to be presented as a "loving cup" to some musicians at a
banquet. This does not explain "A" and "T". It does not "explain"
anything because it is a guess. Does any reader have another guess?
* * *
The H. A. Tragedy and Eternal
Club has asked me to seek from you the following information: Does the
H. A. in the Third Degree teach the doctrine of immortality? I could
make this inquiry
longer but believe you will understand what we are driving at.
T. T., Ohio.
find a discussion of this subject in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
of THE BUILDER
for September and October 1920. Theologians usually make a distinction
doctrines of eternal life and of immortality. The latter holds that a
to exist endlessly after death, maintaining throughout his own proper
the former includes that idea, or generally does at least, but adds
that even now,
before death, there is a life open to man that may fitly be described
These are profound questions in the presence of which every man must
his own inadequacy to think them through. Moreover they are filled with
owing to the vagueness attaching to the words "immortality" and
It may well be that in the beginning the Tragedy of H. A. was intended
a teaching now lost to us; such calamities have more than once
symbols and ceremonies; but there is good reason to believe that as the
now stands in our American Rituals it is legitimate to find in it a
Drama of Eternal
Life. The protagonist of that Tragedy is not brought back from some
but is raised to newness of life in this. If a man ceases to be
controlled by petty
circumstances as they arise from day to day; if he conquers his baser
if he gains a wisdom that does not perish while "the sweet days die";
if his spirit becomes anchored in the conviction that life is
worthwhile and of
permanent value in the scheme of things; and if his existence in this
shaped and controlled by these ideals and convictions he has every
right to believe
that he has learned the deep lesson of the Third Degree. There is a
sense in which
he now lives the eternal life because accidental events and fortunes,
like worms into the soul," as Schopenhauer once pessimistically
leave untouched or uninjured the true values of life. The Mason who has
in his heart knows peace in the midst of turmoil, and joy in the midst
* * *
On Obtaining Relief
If a brother
falls into misfortune, has an accident or becomes ill, while far from
home and among
strangers, and needs Masonic relief, how should he apply for it? Should
formal request of his lodge?
K. G., South Carolina.
brother should call in the nearest Mason he can find, for every brother
obligation to give assistance to any brother in distress, wherever he
may be, or
whatever may be his lodge membership. That brother should immediately
fact to the nearest Masonic lodge, which in turn should ascertain the
mother lodge, and make official report thereto. If the mother lodge
to make any reply ‒ as is unfortunately sometimes the case ‒ the matter
telegraphed to the Grand Master, who will take immediate action.
Inasmuch as the
Fraternity is not a charitable or insurance society, as some
it has no rigid machinery for dealing with cases requiring relief, but
in any part of the world is himself a committee on relief at any and
No brother needing relief should hesitate to make his wants known; no
to such action. It is all a part of Masonry, as much a part as a lodge
or an initiatory ceremony.
* * *
American Degrees in an English
I read a story, some time ago, relating the occurrence of the
conferring of American
degrees in an English lodge. I think it was during the World War. Can
the facts if this was true and tell who was responsible for it, etc. ?
W. P. B., New York.
is known of an American degree being actually conferred in an English
such an occurrence would be contrary to all Masonic rule and practice
have given rise to the story referred to is the fact that in 1919, when
of distinguished American brethren were in London as guests of the
Lodge of England for the great Masonic Celebration of Peace, in the
Hall, two London lodges, one of which was the Jubilee Masters' Lodge,
No. 2712 (composed
entirely of English Grand officers and London Past Masters), expressed
a wish to
see the American working rehearsed by American brethren at a meeting of
This course was approved by the authorities of Grand Lodge, and such a
in each case of the Third Degree, took place, one of them in the Great
Freemasons' Hall, where Grand Lodge is accustomed to be held, but it
was held to
be strictly a rehearsal, and not a ceremony which carried with it any
* * *
A Suggestion Concerning
the Northeast Corner
I have been
asked by my lodge to prepare a little paper on the subject of the
youngest E. A.
in the Northeast Corner. Won't you give me an idea as to how to handle
U. Y. P., New York.
will confine your talk to the exposition of one idea you will make it
thereby avoiding the swamping of your short talk under a mass of
material, a thing
that too often happens. The Northeast is typically the place where the
is laid. It is legitimate to think of the youngest E. A. as being
placed there to
symbolize the fact that he is the cornerstone of his lodge, for every
lodge is erected
on its youth, lest it go out of existence with the passing of its older
All this is an allegory, applicable to the world at large, of which the
Freemasonry's symbol. Youth is the cornerstone of the state, on which
is necessarily erected; if youth be not strong and solid, the
necessarily collapse, hence the importance of education, which is a
method for fitting
youth to take its place in human society. In that method are included
influences and agencies, in school and out, whereby the helpless child
into the adult man, capable of fulfilling his offices and duties as a
bridge between helpless infancy and self-reliant maturity ‒ that is
its totality. The First and Second Degrees of Masonry may be thought of
as a drama
in ritual form in which are set forth many of the general principles
every sound education, not in the narrow school sense of that word, but
in the broad
sense, suggested by the above. The ceremony of the Northeast Corner
see, one of the central ideas in Masonry, and is therefore capable of
treatment, expansion and interpretation. It would be a fascinating
subject for a
* * *
The Condemnation of Galileo
I write to
ask some information about Galileo, the great astronomer, to settle an
among some of us in our lodge. Did the Church ever condemn Galileo
was he merely generally condemned by theologians not speaking
officially by the
Church? If the Church did condemn his discoveries was it not acting
own field of work?
K. J. L., Louisiana.
not within our province to discuss the theological questions raised by
question. As to the matter of historical fact, Galileo's teaching was
condemned. The astronomer was summoned before the Inquisition in Rome
in 1615 to
state his views. After about a month the Inquisition rendered a
"The first proposition, that the sun is the center and does not revolve
the earth, is foolish, absurd, false in theology, and heretical,
contrary to Holy Scripture; the second proposition, that the earth is
not the center
but revolves about the sun, is absurd, false in philosophy, and, from a
point of view at least, opposed to the true faith." Upon this, and at
of Pope Paul V, the Congregation of the Index published a decree to the
"all writings which affirm the motion of the earth" are false and
and that any such notion must not be taught or believed. The Pope
affixed to this
decree a Bull, thereby giving to it the official authority of the
Church. The effect
[of] this was to condemn Copernicus and Kepler as much as Galileo.
* * *
Concerning Eligibility to
Can a Grand
Master rule that a Deputy Grand Master who has never served as a Grand
not eligible to be elected Grand Master, taking it for granted that the
has adopted a law to the effect that "any member of the Grand Lodge can
elected from the body of the Craft?" What custom, law or landmark would
election of a Grand Master who had not been a Senior Grand Warden
violate? If a
lodge believes that a Grand Master has violated Grand Lodge law in
making a decision,
what redress does the lodge have?
J. E. B., Illinois.
is as follows:
"No brother shall be eligible to the office of Grand Master, Deputy
Grand Warden, representative of another Grand Lodge, or District Deputy
who has not been duly elected and installed Master of a constituent
you will see that the only prerequisite is that a man must have been
installed as Master of a constituent lodge.
Lodge, in 1879, elected Theodore T. Gurney from the floor. This is the
of this kind since the formative days of Grand Lodge.
is no recourse from a ruling of a Grand Master under our law, except an
ruling of a subsequent Grand Master.
Grand Sec’y, Illinois
LITERATURE! Bro. Arthur Millard has kindly given us the disposal of a
beautiful little books about the Order of Builders for Boys. There are
All three will be sent free. Write your name and address plainly and
send two cents
* * *
month Ye Ed. begins his fifth year in the inner Editorial Sanctum. My,
* * *
If you have
borrowed clippings from us, and have finished with them, will you not
them pronto? It will save us time and postage. Our clipping bureau has
* * *
If you encounter
Masonic items in the daily press, send us a copy. Anything useful to
our files is
always welcome and is nearly always used for some purpose.
* * *
Writer Publishing Company has issued Little Adventures in Newspaperdom.
Think of a man without a soul,
As solemn as the tomb,
And you can see the sordid thing
Who runs the counting-room.
He thinks a drygoods bargain ad
More readable than news;
He values what the ad men write
Above our weighty views.
He never asks, is this thing right,
But simply, will it pay?
He never had a noble thought
For he's not built that way.
Devoid of all fixed principles
He must a conscience lack
And sacrificing all to gain.
His deeds are mostly black.
The brains department much regrets
That money must be had,
But it would differentiate
Between the good and bad.
I cannot love a stingy man,
Or money-grabbing shark;
I hate a man whose thoughts revolve
Around the dollar mark.
* * *
My Temple -- [A Poem]
George H. Free, Iowa, U.S.A.
ye not that ye are the temple of God.
that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?"
"Build Me a temple," the Master said,
"Fashion each block with care;
Stones for My house I have placed at hand,
More will be furnished at your demand,
See that you build it as I have planned ‒
Build it surpassing fair."
Tools for my task He has given me ‒
Tools for my every need;
Gavel and trowel and plumb and square,
Level and gauge. an equipment rare,
Implements perfect beyond compare,
Meet for my work indeed.
Plans He has drawn on my trestle-board ‒
Worthy designs and plain;
Foundation firm, based on faith secure,
Sanctum sanctorum, a heart kept pure,
Dome, seat of reason, a fortress sure ‒
Plans for a noble fane.
How am I doing my Master's work ‒
What of my zeal and skill?
How will my shrine with His plans compare?
Will it prove true by His perfect square ‒
Fitting abode for His presence fair ‒
How do I work God's will?
History of Freemasonry Revised
Gou51 / auth. Gould Robert F / ed. Crowe Frederick J. W.. - London :
Gale & Polden Limited, 1951. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 401. - 10.3 MB.
A History of Free Masonry from
1829 to 1840
Oli41 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1841. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 156. - 7.3 MB.
A History of Freemasonry in
Reb68 / auth. Rebold Emmanuel. - Cincinnatti : American Masonic
Publication Association, 1868. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 431. - 25.6 MB.
A Library of Freemasonry Vol 1
GouLF1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : John C. Yorston Publishing
Company, 1911. - Vol. 1 : 5 : p. 443. - 32.5 MB - Illustrated.
A Library of Freemasonry Vol 2
GouLF2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : John C. Yorston Publishing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 2 : 5 : p. 411. - 29.0 MB - Illustrated.
A Library of Freemasonry Vol 3
GouLF3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : John C. Yorston Publishing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 3 : 5 : p. 493. - 34.1 MB - Illustrated.
A Library of Freemasonry Vol 4
GouLF4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : John C. Yorston Publishing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 4 : 5 : p. 491. - 33.6 MB - Illustrated.
A Library of Freemasonry Vol 5
GouLF5 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : John C. Yorston Publishing
Company, 1911. - Vol. 5 : 5 : p. 652. - 41.6 MB - Illustrated.
A Poem of Moral Duties
Reg90 / auth. Regius Manuscript. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1390. - p. 70. -
A Short Masonic History Vol 1
Arm09 / auth. Armitage Frederick. - London : H. Weare & Co,
1909. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 195. - 3.8 MB.
A Short Masonic History Vol 2
Arm11 / auth. Armitage Frederick. - London : H. Weare & Co,
1911. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 190. - 3.9 MB.
A Short View of Free-Masonry
San29 / auth. Sandys William. - London : Crew and Spencer, 1829. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 58. - 1.2 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 001 - 1895
Ars95 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1895. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. - 29.8 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 013 - 1900
Ars00 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1900. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - 18.4 MB.
Yar09 / auth. Yarker John. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
382. - 1.8 MB.
Beginning of Masonry
Hig16 / auth. Higgins Frank C. - New York : [s.n.], 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 125. - 6.1 MB.
Brother General Lafayette
Sac16 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 47. - 1.3 MB.
Collected Essays &
Papers Related to Freemasonry
Gou131 / auth. Gould Robert F. - Belfast : William Tait, 1913. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 313. - 14.3 MB.
Ecclesiastical History of
Bed03 / auth. Bede the Venerable / ed. Giles J A. - London : George
Bell & Sons, 1903. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 595. - 35.4 MB.
Smi70 / auth. Smith Toulmin. - London : The Early English Text Society,
1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 683. - 41.9 MB.
Francis Bacon and His Secret
Pot91 / auth. Pott Mrs Henry. - London : Sampson Loe, Marston &
Co., 1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 419. - 21.6 MB.
Freemasonry Before the
Existence of Grand Lodges
Vib10 / auth. Vibert Lionel. - London : Spencer & Co., 2010. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 163. - 0.5 MB.
Freemasonry in Ashby-de-la-Zouch
Tho091 / auth. Thorp John T. - Leicester : Johnson, Wykes and Co, 1909.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 104. - 2.9 MB.
Freemasonry in New York
Lan22 / auth. Lang Ossian. - New York : Grand Lodge of New York, 1922.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 248. - 5.5 MB.
French Prisoners' Lodges
Tho00 / auth. Thorp John T. - Leicester : George Gibbons, 1900. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 154. - 4.9 MB - Illustrated.
General History, Cyclopedia
& Dictionary of Freemasonry
Mac701 / auth. Macoy Robert. - New York : Masonic Publishing Co., 1870.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 683. - 24.8 MB.
GL of Massachusetts Proceedings
GLo71 / auth. GL of Massachusetts. - Boston : Solon Thomson, 1871. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 581. - 18.1 MB.
Guild Masonry in the Making
Mer18 / auth. Merz Charles H. - Louisville KY : Light Publishing, 1918.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 204. - 2.9 MB.
Historical Landmarks Vol 1
Oli46 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1846. - Vol. 1
: 2 : p. 573. - 26.2 MB.
Historical Landmarks Vol 2
Oli461 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1846. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p. 780. - 44.1 MB.
History of Freemasonry
Fin66 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - London : Asher & Co., 1866. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 742. - Translated from the German - 17.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
History of Freemasonry in
Canada Vol 1
Rob00FC1 / auth. Robertson J Ross. - Toronto : George N. Morgan
& Co Ltd, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 1358. - 36.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry in
Canada Vol 2
Rob00FC2 / auth. Robertson J Ross. - Toronto : George N. Morgan
& Co Ltd, 1900. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 465. - 19.0 MB.
History of Masonry and
Hug91 / auth. Hughan William J / ed. Hughan William J. and Stillson
Henry L.. - New York : The Fraternity Publishing Co., 1891. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 863. - 63.4 MB.
History of Masonry and
Sti91 / auth. Stillson Henry L. - Boston : The Fraternal Publishing
Company, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 866. - Illustrated - 57.8 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre67 / auth. Preston William and Oliver George. - New York : Masonic
Publishing and Manufacturing, 1867. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 404. - 25.3 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre61 / auth. Preston William and Oliver George. - London : R. Spencer,
1861. - 17th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 578. - 27.9 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre55 / auth. Preston William and Oliver George. - New York : Jno. W.
Leonard & Co., 1855. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 412. - 29.6 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre29 / auth. Preston William and Oliver George. - London : Whittaker,
Treacher, and Co., 1829. - 14th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 482. - 21.7
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre12 / auth. Preston William. - Unknown : [s.n.], 1812. - 12th Edition
: Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 248. - Formatted and Indexed by rhm; 1.2 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre96 / auth. Preston William. - London : G. & T. Wilkie, 1796.
- 9th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 57. - From GLBC Canada; 0.5 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre88 / auth. Preston William. - Unknown : Unknown, 1788. - p. 328. -
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre75 / auth. Preston William. - London : J. Wilkie, 1775. - Second
Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 327. - 10.0 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre72 / auth. Preston William. - London : Eidographic Reproduction
Publishing Co. 1887, 1772. - First Edition Facsimile : Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
295. - 5.2 MB.
Masonic Sketches and Reprints
Hug71 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : George Kenning, 1871. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 158. - 4.2 MB.
Medieval Architecture Vol 1
Por09MA1 / auth. Porter Arthur K. - New York : The Baker and Taylor
Group, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 606. - 19.8 MB.
Medieval Architecture Vol 2
Por09MA2 / auth. Porter Arthur K. - New York : The Baker and Taylor
Group, 1909. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 620. - 23.2 MB.
Memorials of the Masonic Union
Hug13 / auth. Hughan William J. - Leicester : Johnson, Wykes &
Paine, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 169. - 6.7 MB.
Military Lodges. The Apron and
Gou99 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Gale & Polden, Ltd.,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 280. - 13.7 MB.
Origin and Evolution of
Chu20 / auth. Churchward Albert. - London : Georg Allen & Unwin
Ltd, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 243. - 14.5 MB.
Origin of the English Rite of
Hug84 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : George Kenning, 1884. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 166. - 5.1 MB.
Secret Sects of Syria
Spr22 / auth. Springett Bernard H. - London : George Allen &
Unwin Ltd, 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 352. - 14.5 MB.
Secret Societies in all Ages
Hec75 / auth. Heckethorn Charles W. - London : Richard Bentley and Son,
1875. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 404. - 9.4 MB.
Secret Societies in all Ages
Hec751 / auth. Heckethorn Charles W. - London : Richard Bentley and
Son, 1875. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 334. - 13.0 MB.
Mac141 / auth. Macbride A S. - Glasgow : D. Gilfillan & Co.,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 283. - 18.6 MB.
The Antiquities of Free-Masonry
Oli23 / auth. Oliver George. - London : G. and W. B. Whittaker, 1823. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 393. - 13.4 MB.
The Atholl Lodges
Gou791 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Spencer's Masonic Depot,
1879. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 113. - 2.0 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Cathedral Builders
Sco99 / auth. Scott Leader. - London : Sampson Low, Marston &
Co., 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 520. - 16.1 MB.
The Comacines Their
Predecessors & Their Successors
Rav10 / auth. Ravenscroft W.. - London : Elliot Stock, 1910. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 94. - 3.4 MB.
The Early History and
Antiquities of Freemasonry
For81 / auth. Fort George F.. - Philadelphia : Bradley & Co.,
1881. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 514. - 21.2 MB.
The Eleusian Mysteries
Wri17 / auth. Wright Dudley. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
House, 1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 110. - 4.3 MB.
The Four Old Lodges
Gou79 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Spencer's Masonic Depot, 1879.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 90. - 4.6 MB.
The History of Initiation in
Oli55 / auth. Oliver George. - New York : Jno. W. Leonard &
Co., 1855. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 245. - A New Edition - 12.9 MB.
The Jacobite Lodge at Rome
Hug10 / auth. Hughan William J.. - Torquay : Torquay Directory Co.,
1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 52. - 1.0 MB.
The Life of Thomas Dunkerley
Sad91 / auth. Sadler Henry. - London : Diprose & Brothers,
1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 350. - 14.0 MB - Illustrated.
The Old Guilds of England
Arm18 / auth. Armitage Frederick. - London : Weare & Co., 1918.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 231. - 8.9 MB.
The Revelations of a Square
Oli551 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1855. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 496. - 17.3 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 1
Wai11 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
1 : 2 : p. 474. - 19.1 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 2
Wai111 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p. 478. - 19.6 MB.
The Spirit of Masonry in Moral
and Elucidatory Lectures
Hut95 / auth. Hutchinson William. - Carlisle : F. Jollie, 1795. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 370. - 13.8 MB.
The Story of Freemasonry
Sib13 / auth. Sibley W G. - Gallipolis : The Lions Paw Club, 1913. -
3rd : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 122. - 4.3 MB.
The Traditions of Freemasonry
Ste82 / auth. Steinbrenner Godfrey W.. - New York : Masonic Publishing
Company, 1882. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 391. - 18.1 MB.
The True Ahiman Rezon
Der05 / auth. Dermott Laurence. - New York : Southwick &
Hardcastle, 1805. - 3rd Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 277. - 17.0 MB -
Traditions of Freemasonry
Pie70 / auth. Pierson Arthur P. - New York : Masonic Publishing
Company, 1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 383. - 36.6 MB.