Masonic Research Society
a Mason at Sight
to a number of well-informed brethren this question: "Do you consider
in view of ancient Masonic usages, laws and landmarks, for a Grand
Master to Make
a Mason at Sight?" Below are printed a number of the replies, along
or three items added by Ye Editor. Other views and reviews of this
be welcomed, possibly for future publication; it is a problem that cuts
the principles of Masonic jurisprudence, for it opens up the very much
of a Grand Master's prerogatives. A number of discussions of the theme
will be found
in back numbers of this journal.
AS you have
qualified your question, I answer, unhesitatingly, No! There is no
usage, or law, or landmark of which I have any knowledge, that either
or justifies the Making of Masons at Sight.
"prerogative" of the Grand Master, to Make Masons at Sight, is
not a "landmark", for, as far as I am aware, it does not now belong to
Grand Masters (universally), and never has belonged to them, and
besides, the Grand
Master is a "modern invention."
S. H. GOODWIN, Grand Secretary, Utah.
It may be
legitimate, in view of usage or express Masonic law in certain Grand
for a Grand Master to Make a Mason at Sight--but it is of very
Every candidate should pass through the portals of Masonry as all have
have gone this way before. The scrutiny of investigation and ballot
should not be
relaxed for anyone. Acquaintance and experiences with scores of Grand
me that they are not sufficiently infallible to be permitted to
exercise such a
of the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Iowa evidently realized that
its coming Grand Masters might be prone to err, and expressly provides
upon any prerogative of the Grand Master to make Masons otherwise than
in the manner
prescribed by law, and in a regularly constituted Lodge."
FRANK S. MOSES, P. G. M., Iowa.
publishing the symposium, you would make it clear that this phrase
conferring upon some eminent citizen, who has signified his desire to
join us, an
honorary membership in our Order generally, in "an occasional lodge,"
called into being for that object alone, then I would say that it is a
privilege of the office of Grand Master ‒ to be exercised with the
expect from such a trusted officer.
It is true
that the conditions attendant upon this action in the eighteenth
century no longer
exist. Our Order has become popular and honorable, so that we no longer
scramble for "some nobleman to act as Grand Master." But there still
noble men, whose earlier years contained no opportunity ‒ possibly no
‒ to knock at our doors. Why should we not recognize their services to
as do the universities; leaving to their own choice their honoring some
lodge by affiliating with it?
N. W. J. HAYDON, Associate Editor, Toronto.
Make Masons at Sight" be understood as meaning that a Grand Master may
a profane aside privately and make him a Mason, I should unhesitatingly
say it was
against the general trend of opinion and tradition among Masons in all
and all times so far as we have record; although power to do so has
and probably at times exercised, by holders of certain High Degrees.
the phrase be taken in the sense that a Grand Master may summon a
of Masons, and with them form a lodge, and in that lodge initiate a
the regular formalities of investigation, it is within his right, as in
he only exercises in one case the general dispensatory powers that
inhere in his
office, where not specifically limited by constitution or statute.
Master is the sole inheritor of the powers once common to all Master
in an institution founded on antiquity such a traditional right ought
to be maintained,
and exercised in special cases where the character and position of the
and the general circumstances, combine to make it appropriate and
R. J. MEEKREN, Associate Editor, Quebec.
A Grand Lodge,
undoubtedly, has power to make its own laws; if it sees fit to delegate
to its Grand Master, then the acts of its Grand Master are legal until
by the Grand Lodge.
to be no question as to whether the Ancient Landmarks permitted such
each individual case met with the general approval of the Craft;
however, it must
be remembered that the ceremony of today is much different from that of
does not involve the question of "propriety," which I think of even
importance than "legitimacy." Personally, I do not favor the "Making
of Sight Masons," believe no particular good results therefrom, and
recipient of such honors later regrets the manner in which he received
If the "Making at Sight" consisted in the simple waiver of ballot by
Grand Master, it might serve a useful purpose, but most Americans look
privileges and autocratic power as anything else than Masonic.
RAY V. DENSLOW, Associate Editor, Missouri.
Practice Is Questionable.
have no inherent rights and no prerogatives not expressly delegated to
them by Grand
Lodges. To be made a Mason, one must go through the forms and
ceremonies and travel
the road that all others have traveled before him. There are no short
demands that none receive special preference. If Masons were ever ‘Made
as we now understand the term, in the eighteenth century, the practice
has no place in American Masonry today.
I note that
Pennsylvania is one of the states claiming Making at Sight as a
prerogative of the
Grand Master. And yet a regulation provides that a Mason Made at Sight
become a member of the lodge he may be made in but must apply by
petition and be
regularly elected. This is a curious situation.
If one seeks
to invest Grand Masters with romantic ideas as to the antiquity of
and to further invest them with prerogatives that the Grand Masters of
Knighthood and crowned heads once exercised, then one would insist our
had such power. But this is hardly the right conception. Nor can we be
before Dermott's time the instances of degrees being conferred in
lodges" was identical with "Making at Sight." Dermott, of course,
had no more authority to incorporate his reference to the matter than
you or I,
unless the practice had existed.
say the practice is questionable and if it were not, present day
be better served by Grand Lodges forbidding ‒ as many of them do ‒ the
A. L. KRESS, Associate Editor, Pennsylvania.
Is Sometimes Necessary.
If we look
into the history of the Masonic organization we discover that the Grand
the Masonic sphere had almost supreme power, being in a sense a Masonic
He had the undisputed right to act for the Craft and in the name of the
any affair not contrary to the ancient landmarks. A man having the
and recommendations might have become a Mason at heart, but be so
passing through the Rites would be burdensome. A man of great
be so involved in public affairs of particular interest to Masons that
would not be easy. A Grand Master contemplating the case and desiring
to honor the
individual, whom he knew was of Masonic mind and who had made a verbal
petition, might assume the right to declare such a candidate "a Mason
providing the candidate of his own free will had made some form of a
proper avowal of the candidate, the Grand Master possesses full
authority to convene
seven or more brethren in an occasional lodge and to confer the
Degrees. He may
then dissolve the lodge. All this would be within the bounds of the
Cases of this kind demonstrate the right of the Grand Master to himself
he has the power to delegate by dispensation, and the fact that a Grand
grant a dispensation or revoke it shows that the power proceeds from
the Grand Master.
In this sense the Grand Master is supreme in his power.
at Sight has never been a common practice, nor should it be. That the
never been abused reflects great credit upon those who have been chosen
over our Grand Bodies. Instances of Making Masons at Sight by order of
Master are akin to instances where universities exercise the right to
degrees upon those found worthy and well qualified, save for the fact
that a Mason
is always a full Mason, once so declared (unless he lose his status by
or otherwise), and that there is no such thing as an honorary Mason.
ARTHUR C. PARKER, Associate Editor, New York.
is not inconsistent with ancient Masonic usages, laws and landmarks for
Master to Make a Mason "at Sight", yet it is poor policy to do so.
It is poor
policy for a Grand Master to exercise this obsolescent prerogative
since it sets
at naught the lessons of equality, which is supposed to be one of the
principles of Masonry, inculcated at the closing of every American
lodge by one
of our great symbols, the Level.
It is an
injury to the Mason so made as it deprives him of the experience and
is his due and which comes to him only in passing through the Degrees.
Taft, who was so made, is reported to have expressed his regret that he
receive his Degrees in the regular way.
conditions, it is conceivable that an architect or sculptor arising to
in an out of the way locality, where there was no lodge, might be Made
a Mason "at
Sight" by a Grand Master; but the necessity no longer exists in this
should legislate on this matter and limit the exercise of this
in the rarest of instances and only when, for some reason, it is
the recipient to follow the usual course.
CYRUS FIELD WILLARD, Editor The Master Mason,
Mason at Sight seems to me to be a perfectly legitimate use of the
power and prerogative
vested in the office of Grand Master. We must always remember that
there is such
a thing as the Grand Master's prerogative clearly implied, if not
in the Old Constitutions. That is to say, the powers of a Grand Master
the office; they are not conferred and cannot be limited by Grand
Lodge. Grand Lodge
chooses the incumbent of the office, that is all.
no question that a Grand Master has the right to create a lodge by
and to dissolve the same at his will and pleasure. There is no question
that a Grand
Master has the right to summon a particular lodge at any time and to
A Mason is Made "at Sight," or "in an occasional lodge" (a phrase
of equivalent meaning), in a specially summoned regular lodge or in a
created for that purpose.
debatable feature about it is the Grand Master's dispensation waiving
formalities of the ballot. This I take to be within the dispensing
powers of the
Grand Master. In my opinion the dispensing power of a Grand Master is
by the Ancient Landmarks. I fail to see that the usages concerning the
to a large extent the common law of Masonry, can properly be called
far as usage is concerned, the practice can be traced in organized
It only remains
to be said that Making a Mason at Sight is an extraordinary use of an
power, usually held in reserve and never to be used except on
Should a sufficiently extraordinary occasion arise, it seems to me to
legitimate for a Grand Master so to use it.
FREDERICK W. HAMILTON, Grand Secretary, Mass.
Violates The Principle
held by the individual Mason on this question will be controlled by his
the general body of old statutes and customs of the Craft. The
for present day Masonry is not so much what did the Craft do three
ago, as it is, What is the spirit and genius of twentieth century
I am no stickler for the letter of the Masonic law. By this I mean,
that if we follow
the letter of the original law, many practices in modern Masonry are
Most Grand Jurisdictions in America have accommodated the original
statutes to their
own conditions. This being true this old practice, which had its
ought to be approached in the modern spirit. Our only defense of this
Making a Mason at Sight is as an honorary measure. Now, this is a
the conferring of this unique honor on any living man.
the temptation is to honor politicians and financial givers. The honors
been conferred under this particular landmark fall almost entirely
under these two
heads. Consequently the ancient intent has been replaced by a totally
itself that every member is traveling upon a highway along which every
and worthy brother has traveled before him. Yet this practice violates
itself that it regards no man for his worldly wealth or honors, and
that it regards
the internal and not the external characteristics of a postulant. No
obtain Masonic light along any other path than that which bears the
the vast host of Craftsmen.
It is a prerogative
that most Grand Masters rightly regard as obsolete and refrain from
common sense controls them and they decline to become parties to a
of the outstanding glory of the Institution, namely, its fundamental
"we meet upon the level, and we part upon the square."
CHARLES F. IRWIN, Associate Editor, Pennsylvania.
Is An Ancient Landmark.
of the propriety and legality of Making a Mason at Sight appears to be
topic for Masonic discussion, and there have been many earnest
advocates upon both
sides of the question.
of opinion is that it is one of those procedures which are lawful, but
except under extraordinary conditions. There can be no doubt as to its
within those Grand Jurisdictions whose constitutions expressly include
the "prerogatives of the Grand Master," and it would also appear to be
proper and legal in any other Grand Jurisdictions whose Constitution
does not expressly
of the Grand Master to Make Masons at Sight is enumerated by Mackey as
of the Ancient Landmarks. The work "Landmark" indicates something which
is unchangeable, immutable. Neither this Landmark, nor any of the
others, can be
repealed or considered as "obsolete". The injunction rests upon us all
to "carefully preserve in their integrity the Ancient Landmarks."
(True Ahiman Rezon) says: "The R. W. Grand Master has full power and
to make, or cause to be made in his presence, Free and Accepted Masons,
making is good."
Lodge, however, possesses the inherent right to determine for itself
is, or is not, expedient for the Grand Master to exercise this ancient
at this time, and many have decided in the negative. Probably much of
of the exercise of this prerogative by a Grand Master has arisen
of the procedure followed by the Grand Master on such occasions.
Ceremony Is Described.
If it were
only a brief, almost instantaneous action, practically only the
utterance of a mere
fiat of the Grand Master, similar to the creation of a knight in the
days of chivalry,
where the King simply struck the soldier on the left shoulder with a
"I dub thee knight," then this procedure could be very justly
and condemned. But it is not done in this perfunctory and informal
manner. On the
contrary, the obligations are given, the secret work fully explained,
tools and the apron presented in the usual manner, and the Charge
only feature lacking is that the ballot may be omitted, but as such a
become affiliated later, he then must pass the "scrutiny of the
thus completing all the usual formalities.
"The Making of a Mason at Sight is a technical term, meaning the power
pass and raise candidates by the Grand Master in a 'Lodge of
Emergency,' or as it
is called in Anderson's Book of Constitutions, an 'Occasional Lodge,'
convened by him and consisting of such Master Masons as he may call
that purpose only, the Lodge ceasing to exist as soon as the
and raising has been accomplished, and the brethren dismissed by the
of the Grand Master to constitute new lodges "under dispensation" has
never been questioned, nor the right of such lodges to legally confer
and yet such lodges are the mere creatures of the Grand Master, for it
his power at any time to revoke the dispensation and dissolve the
lodge. It should
follow that with such power to thus enable others to confer the Degrees
Masons by his authority, but out of his presence, the Grand Master has
right to congregate seven or more Masons with himself and cause a Mason
to be made
in his presence, or in his sight, dissolving such "Emergency Lodge"
the work for which it was convened is accomplished.
‒ FRANK W. HENDLEY, P. G. M., Ohio.
Is The Lodge's Right
To Select Its Own Material.
of Making Masons at Sight has often been discussed and there still
of opinion as to whether it should be done, and even whether a Grand
Master is not
exceeding his authority in so doing.
of Making Masons at Sight is given in the eighth landmark in Mackey's
is so regarded by a very large percentage of Masonic jurists. The
opinion of the
writer is that all the so-called prerogatives of a Grand Master are not
principles of Freemasonry, but are usages and customs which ought not
to be set
aside without very careful consideration and due deliberation, but that
not of such vital importance as to be considered as unalterable
I have been
unable to find any reference to the Making of Masons at Sight earlier
than the mention
made in Dermott's Ahiman Rezon. The third edition contains the
must be admitted fellow crafts and masters only here, unless by
the grand master."
A note to
the above regulation reads:
"This is a very ancient
seldom put in practice; new masons being generally made at private
the right worshipful grand master has full power and authority to make,
to be made in his worship's presence, free and accepted masons at
sight, and such
making is good. But they cannot be made out of his worship's presence,
written dispensation for that purpose. Nor can his worship oblige any
lodge to receive the persons so made if the members should declare
against him or
them; but, in such case, the right worshipful grand master may grant
them a warrant
and form them into a new lodge." (Page 109 Ahiman Rezon ‒ American
1805; from 3rd London ed.)
It is evident
that the custom has plenty of precedent to entitle it to be considered
usage, yet it has been productive of such severe criticism that very
few Grand Masters
ever attempt to exercise it. The prerogatives which Grand Masters may
by virtue of long established usage are many and in this particular
with other equally well established usage. It is even a more definitely
custom which has been written into the laws of most jurisdictions that
no man can
be made a Mason until after due inquiry and the ordeal of the ballot.
at Sight is a disregard of this very important law', and most Grand
eager to see all the laws enforced and would refrain from using a
would conflict with so vital a usage as the right of a lodge to
determine the fitness
of the material in its jurisdiction.
that very few Masons have ever been made at sight would indicate that
there is very
little danger of its being used to any extent. One distinguished
brother who was
so made a few years ago has publicly announced that if he had known
just what it
meant at the time he would have insisted on taking the same course as
SILAS II. SHEPHERD, Chairman Masonic Research
Committee, Wisconsin. [EDITOR'S NOTE] ‒ In connection with
Bro. Shepherd's reference
to Mackey it will be in place here to quote a paragraph from Mackey's
on his list of landmarks as published in Vol. II, The American
of Freemasonry (1859) where, on page 235, he says:
of the Grand Master to Make Masons at Sight is a landmark which is
with the preceding one. There has been much misapprehension in relation
landmark, which misapprehension has sometimes led to a denial of its
jurisdictions where the Grand Master was perhaps at the very time
exercising the prerogative, without the slightest remark or opposition.
It is not
to be supposed that the Grand Master can retire with a profane into a
and there, without assistance, confer the degrees of Freemasonry upon
him. No such
prerogative exists, and yet many believe that this is the so much
talked of right
of "Making Masons at Sight." The real mode and the only mode of
the prerogative is this:
Master summons to his assistance not less than six other Masons,
convenes a lodge,
and without any previous probation, but on sight of the candidate,
confers the degrees
upon him, after which he dissolves the lodge, and dismisses the
thus convened for special purposes are called "occasional lodges."
This is the
only way in which any Grand Master within the records of the
institution has ever
been known to "Make a Mason at Sight." The prerogative is dependent
that of granting dispensations to open and hold lodges. If the Grand
the power of granting to any other Mason the privilege of presiding
working by his dispensation, he may assume this privilege of presiding
and as no one can deny his right to revoke his dispensation granted to
of brethren at a distance, and to dissolve the lodge at his pleasure it
be contended that he may not revoke his dispensation for a lodge over
which he himself
has been presiding within a day, and dissolve the lodge as soon as the
for which he had assembled it is accomplished. The Making of Masons at
only the conferring of the degrees by the Grand Master, at once, in an
lodge, constituted by his dispensing power for the purpose, and over
which he presides
of the Grand Master's
you consider it legitimate, in view of ancient Masonic usages, laws and
for a Grand Master to Make a Mason at Sight?"
question which you submit to me could be answered in one word, but I
take it that
what you want is, not only my opinion, but my reasons for holding that
half a century I have held the conception of the structure of Masonry
the Brotherhood of man, under the Fatherhood of God. Its government
this by the Craft choosing from among their own number one to be Grand
one has absolute power, which power is freely given to illustrate the
of God. Thus our Grand Lodges are at one and the same time, each a
self-governed through an absolute autocracy.
ancient times, it was always considered a prerogative of a Grand Master
a Mason at Sight, or to be more definite, to make a Mason by the
exercise of his
own will, is not to be disputed.
I hold that
a Grand Master has prerogatives which no man or body of men can take
is one of the chief of them.
It is sometimes
argued in these modern times that as a Grand Lodge makes a man Grand
has the right to define his powers. Were it not that ours is a peculiar
with no parallel, this might be true, but to put this idea into action
to degrade ours, the oldest and most dignified of organizations known
into the level of modern societies without number. It would no longer
Masonry. Virginia Masonry holds that, once chosen and installed, a
has powers inherent in the office, antedating the organization of Grand
which cannot be denied him. Disputed as it sometimes is, the fact
remains that Masonic
organization existed before 1717, else where did those "four old
to that time no records, save in Scotland, were kept, and we must rely
Tradition always has some foundation in fact and is frequently more
sustains the statement that for ages it was customary for the Masons to
General Assembly once a year for the express purpose of choosing a
In England this was done at York, from which fact the opposition to the
of the organization of the Grand Lodge in London in 1717 arose.
So that since
Grand Masters have existed before Grand Lodges, the latter have no
right to abrogate
any power inherent in the office.
that Grand Masters have the prerogative under discussion, which has
exercised here without dispute, I, when Grand Master, on being asked to
Make a man
a Mason at Sight, refused. My reason was that under modern conditions
it was not,
nor perhaps would ever again, be necessary. I made the man, an officer
of the army
then in Cuba, a Mason by the following process:
well known by a large part of the membership of one of our lodges, I
gave that lodge
a special dispensation to entertain and act on his petition at a
called for the purpose, of which meeting and its purpose every member
notice. I attended the communication and took part in his regular
said, "All things are lawful for me, but all things are not expedient."
The power does exist, but should not be exercised, unless occasionally
for the sole
purpose of maintaining the prerogative.
JOSEPH W. EGGLESTON, P. G. M., Grand Treasurer,
Properly a Landmark.
"prerogative" does not occur often, and in the interval we are likely
to forget the details. It is wrongly named; it is not ephemeral as its
but is, in reality, but an abbreviation of the service. The postulant
the esoteric service, and is required to post up on the monitorial part
earnest, enthusiastic Masons have thought that the process eliminates
or important, parts of the work, and have been much opposed to it. But,
of it being in the class of miracles which enabled Jesus to raise
Lazarus from the
dead, it is but a "prerogative" which enables the Grand Master to
the Constitution, by-laws and installation services, which we are
obliged to abide
impressions are the most enduring; on our admission to an E. A. Lodge
we are led
to believe that all good brothers and fellows have gone this way
before, and we
believe that all who follow will follow the same way.
of the Grand Master has never been disputed, and time has sanctioned
it; but its
adoption as a landmark is debatable. We are obliged to bow in
submission to Landmarks,
but we are at liberty to question the authority of a modern Mason to
Bro. George Fleming Moore Past Sov. Grand Commander of the A. A. S. R.
S. J., records
Lord Lovell's making a Mason at Sight of the Duke of Lorraine and the
Germany as early as 1731; and in 1766 the Duke of Gloucester was made a
Sight; and a year later the Duke of Cumberland enjoyed the same honor;
and, in this
country, the prerogative has been extended only to very distinguished
It would be, we think, interesting to know the origin of the
prerogative. In the
installation of the Master of a lodge, he is required to agree that no
body of men, are at liberty to make innovations in the body of Masonry.
of every lodge provide that the character and eligibility of every
be examined by a committee, after which the lodge shall set in judgment
on the petitioner,
and these by-laws are scrutinized and ratified by the Grand Lodge; and
yet, in his
prerogative, the Grand Master is at liberty to abrogate these very
thou art a jewel."
Is Attributed To Mackey
came into our Constitution from the writings of the very distinguished
who lived long after "the original plan of Masonry" was formulated,
in the mind of the writer, it is out of place. A dictionary definition
of the word
will tell us that it comes from the two words "land" and "mark,"
and is a mark to designate the boundary of land: a fixed object, as a
stone or a
tree; a ditch; a heap of stones by which the limits of a farm or town
or other portions
of territory may be known and preserved; but a sailor's definition is
elevated object on land which will guide a seaman."
Landmark of Mackey says:
"There has been much
apprehension in relation
to this Landmark, which apprehension has led to a denial of its
existence in jurisprudence
where the Grand Master was perhaps, at the very time substantially
prerogative, without the slightest remark or opposition.
"It is not to be supposed that
Master can retire with a profane into a private room and there, without
confer the degrees of Freemasonry upon him. No such prerogative exists,
many believe that this is the so much talked of right of 'making a
Mason at Sight.'
The real mode, and the only one, of exercising the prerogative is this:
"The Grand Master summons to
six other masons, convenes a lodge, and, without any previous probation
but on sight
of the candidate, confers the degrees upon him, after which he
dissolves the lodge
and dismisses the brethren … "
we are not going too far when we say that the name of this ceremony,
is wrong, or that it is not proper to call it a Landmark as it is so
has never changed. Our thoughts of today have been the thoughts of
What comes to us easy is, and ever has been, less appreciated than what
by effort. The distinguished individual who is made a Mason by this
method realizes the compliment, but he will not respect it so much as
if he had
been inducted into the Order in the regular way.
said "a public office is a public trust," and we think the principle
as much to a Grand Master as to any municipal office bearer. That Grand
made all the promises any Master has made, upon installation, and has
sat in judgment
on the by-laws of lodges.
GEORGE W. BAIRD, P. G. M., District of Columbia.
Ought To Be
On the Level"
requests opinions regarding the Ancient prerogative of the Grand Master
Masons at Sight. Is there really such a prerogative sufficiently firmly
as to constitute a Landmark of the Order in the American Rite? Ought
there to be
such a power resting in the office of Grand Master, or any other man?
If so, what
limits ought to be set to it? Supposing such a power to exist at
present, is it
now limited at all or can the Grand Master, if he so wills, invite in
all his friends
without regard to their eligibility under the laws, such for instance,
or a woman? Must he have these parties initiated in the regular
or can he simply communicate the secrets and give the party a
certificate that he
is now a Freemason? Whatever may have been conditions in former times,
if there is now any necessity existing in the Order today to Make
Masons at Sight.
This is far
more applicable to other Rites than the regular American, or what is
known as the
York Rite. At one time there were several Rites which existed in a
on paper. The Grand Master originated the Rite and bestowed his
on whom he pleased or thought worthy. He could make a man an Inspector
authority to establish working bodies and communicate doctrines and
to his own will. Or it was quite possible for the grand council of an
so formed to authorize men to pass their authority on to others. Here
Order would consist of such Masons made solely by certificate and seal
of passwords and signs, its objects being purely political or
In our own
Rite, at this period, and here in the United States, we can see no
use for such a prerogative, but to show off. In some ways such a
the pardoning power of the Governor of the state. It is a privilege on
of the officer to set aside the laws of the institution either
governmental or fraternal
and substitute in their place the will and wisdom of the particular
the case of the law of the land, the legislatures create so many unjust
laws that it is almost necessary that there exist a power of some kind
interpose and prevent in a measure the harm and injustice they might
work. The power
placed in the hands of the ordinary Governor makes a farce of the laws,
every case. He thinks it in his right to commute or annul every
sentence that the
courts pronounce. It is a very expensive job to detect and arrest
criminals; a still
more expensive and difficult job to indict and convict them; and after
this is done
the Governor makes all this expense useless and waste.
Laws Need Revision
We are of
the opinion that there ought to be somewhere in the Order a power that
and set aside some of our own foolish laws, and prevent their harmful
there does not seem to be any chance to vest such a power save in the
annulling the laws made and provided for admitting and instructing
Masons. Of all
these laws there is none more salutary than that one requiring a
month's delay or
consideration of a petition; two months would be better than one. This
only be sufficient to prevent bad material, but would enable men to
in identity which cause used so many black balls and consequent
injustice and ill
feeling. In every case where this prerogative has been exercised in
it was prompted by vanity and it implied that the initiatory ceremony
was of the nature of an imposition-which the illustrious candidate was
to avoid-instead of an honor and something very desirable. The valuable
thus made subservient to the financial consideration even though it be
view of it. The illustrious gentleman thereby made a Mason is expected
the Order in the estimation of the people in the city or town, just as
Family adds to the social importance of the Order in England. We
ought to be on the Level as well as on the Square. Grand Masters should
more honorable than any outside the Order. The man who is led to think
that he confers
an honor on Masonry by coming into it, should be at once undeceived and
in the notion.
R. C. BLACKMER, Missouri.
Western Masonry Opposes.
that a Grand Master may Make a Mason at Sight has never been popular in
Western lodges of the United states, where the level of all men before
altar is insisted upon as an undeniable Landmark of the Craft. It
appears to be
foreign to the genius of the Fraternity, as understood by the Far
and arguments in support of the doctrine have always been regarded as
than convincing and as bearing all the marks of having been composed
after the fact,
and as a defense of the act itself. Civilized man knows almost
is right and what is wrong, even if he cannot explain in so many words
how he knows
it. Similarly, the great body of Masons in the Far Western states feel
any Grand Master to set aside the rules of the Fraternity to such an
extent as to
deprive members of a lodge of their right to vote upon an application,
to make a farce of the examination as to proficiency before advancing a
from degree to degree, is contrary to the traditions.
who are well acquainted with what Dermott wrote on this subject, who
know that the
Duke of Lorraine, the Duke of Newcastle and several members of the
Family have been given all the degrees at once, and who are told in
that William Howard Taft, John Wanamaker, Charles W. Fairbanks and
have been made "Masons at Sight," do not change their opinions because
of the noteworthy character and standing of these men. When Mr. Taft,
of the United states, was thus dignified by a Grand Master, there are
who recall the wave of what was closely akin to resentment that was
the lodges throughout the country, and in lodge discussions like
noted at the action of a Grand Master last year in making a Protestant
Bishop a Mason in a similar manner. As long ago as 1870, the Grand
Lodge of Nevada,
at the time composed of leading men of all professions and students of
and jurisprudence, all of them raised in other jurisdictions and thus
the views of American Masonry, felt called upon to adopt a resolution
on this question,
in which it said:
is the sense and the opinion of this Grand Lodge that the Grand Master
possess and ought not to exercise the prerogative of making Masons at
that the only way in which any man should be allowed to approach the
of Masonry is by regular petition to an organized lodge, a report
due inquiry, and a favorable ballot." (See Reports of the Grand Lodge
1870, pages 159; 163.)
Is a "Strange Doctrine"
not altered this opinion in the Grand Lodge of Nevada, nor has any
jurisdiction displayed leanings toward a contrary view. However
ingenious the arguments
in favor of Making Masons at Sight may be, most of the leaders of the
Craft in this
part of the country agree with Robert Freke Gould when he terms it
doctrine" (History, Volume II, Page 467.)
Master Percy Is Quoted
Master A.O. Percy, who ruled over the Craft in Nevada a quarter of a
and represented then and now the views of Masonry in the West, holds
that the doctrine
is wrong. "There should be no distinction between candidates for
he said, in discussing the question. "If it were otherwise and men of
could have the way smoothed for them, profanes would soon consider that
was seeking to shine, so to speak, by reflected glory, and the dignity
would be lowered. I have never believed that Grand Masters should make
was," says Past Grand Master Henry W. Miles in a note to the writer,
the accolade was given upon the field of battle, but even then the
period as page and esquire had been served. If the dignity of Masonry
is to be bestowed
at sight, the privilege of investiture should only be exercised by
of super-eminent attainments, men excelling in discriminative powers
and of distinctive
achievement. Even then the power should be charily used. Better to let
the rugged path to the coveted goal."
it will be observed, questions the advisability of Making Masons at
than the authority of a Grand Master in the matter, and Past Grand
E. Pratt takes a similar view. Says Brother Pratt:
right of a Grand Master to Make Masons at Sight has been so long
recognized as to
be beyond dispute, but it is a practice that by frequent use would
A Grand Master has no rights excepting the rights of his own Grand
Lodge and a Grand
Lodge may narrow its own boundaries of authority at any time in
conformity to the
Silas E. Ross Opposes
Master Silas E. Ross, who has just closed a year of great distinction
in the Grand
East, does not believe in the doctrine, aside from the specific
prohibition in the
decisions of the Grand Lodge of Nevada. In discussing the subject he
"The two points involved are
first the question
of 'Is this an act of your own free will and accord?' and, second, the
ballot. If an individual wants to become a Mason, the solicitation must
his part. If he has not initiative enough, he is not worthy of the
honor to be conferred.
If he is not willing to submit to the same ordeal as his brethren, he
is not good
material for a Masonic lodge. Making Masons at Sight deprives the
of his Masonic right to choose his own associates. For these reasons I
do not believe
that Making Masons at Sight would be of any benefit to the individual
or to the membership of the Fraternity at large. Should this practice
it would, in my opinion, tend to make the membership less studious and
be a lack of appreciation of the valuable tenets of the order. Very
often it would
lead to internal friction in the subordinate lodges."
his History considers that what he calls "this strange doctrine" is
upon Dermott's assertion, but possibly Dermott may have copied it from
and older writer. However, as the matter stands the first assertion of
to waive for any person the tradition of applying and being regularly
voted on in lodge is found in Dermott's statement. In the operative
under "Making a Mason" in Clegg's Mackey's Revised History) the
had to apply and be made in a lodge. But aside from the traditions of
the by-laws of every lodge in the United States distinctly specify the
a candidate must take. He must apply to a lodge for the Degrees, his
must be reported on by a committee, and then it must be voted upon at a
of the lodge. It is true that in the matter of dispensations a Grand
large latitude and in Nevada he is empowered to permit balloting upon
without reference to a committee, but the laws of the Grand Lodge
the particular matters in which he may exercise the dispensatory power.
of opinion, in short, seems to be that the right of a Grand Master to
at Sight is at least dubious, but that, even admitting he possesses
it is injurious to the Craft to exercise it.
DAVID E. W. WILLIAMSON, Associate Editor, Nevada.
Is A Just Prerogative
Of The Grand Master
You ask if
I consider it legitimate, in view of ancient Masonic usages, laws and
for a Grand Master to Make a Mason at Sight.
for the answer to this question cannot be given within a few words.
an extensive historical study. Such a study has satisfied me that the
Masons at Sight is the prerogative of the Grand Master of which he
cannot be deprived
without his consent. This power practically is now rapidly becoming
Massachusetts it has not been exercised since September, 1827. It is a
the existence of which should be recognized. No Grand Master, however,
who is fully
appreciative of his responsibilities ought to exercise this prerogative
such very extraordinary circumstances as amount practically to absolute
Had the responsibility
for the exercise of this prerogative seemed to me less I should, when
have thus made a Mason of my honored father who, though of
dared not apply for the degrees at his residence (and he scorned the
of applying elsewhere) because of personal antagonisms arising out of
because of his uncompromising and strenuous battles in behalf of moral
questions, such as, for instance, total abstinence.
a few Jurisdictions where through peaceful, though nevertheless
the Grand Master has been degraded to a constitutional officer and has
all of his prerogatives including this one. These jurisdictions have
failed to follow
the maxim of Vaux that "Freemasonry is a law unto itself." They have
cast aside the advice of the great leaders of the Craft, such as
Drummond, who cautioned
against regarding the ideas of Masonic Government as derived from the
of Civil Government.
Master of Masons in Massachusetts, in September, 1827, Made a Mason at
the Body of Columbian Lodge. It is referred to in the printed
Proceedings of our
Grand Lodge for 1871, on page 58, where Judge Gardner, then Grand
Master, says that
it was the only case in Massachusetts. He was wrong.
On Jan. 31,
1757, the Grand Master called a special communication of the Grand
Lodge and the
following is a part of the record:
"Our Right Worshipful G. M.
Lodge that the occasion of this meeting was for to make Capt. Harry
Gilbert McAdams, aid de Camp Doctor Richard Huch & Mr John
Appy, Secy. to the
Earl of Loudoun with Mr. John Meivill, Masons, (who came to town from
with Bro. Lowell on purpose to be made a Mason) which the lodge
"Our Right Worshipful G. M.
Richard Gridley to make the above Five Gentlemen Masons, who were made
& Pass'd Fellow Crafts."
Master also exercised this prerogative again in 1758 as shown in our
of printed Proceedings, page 55. In other words there have been three
when it was done in Massachusetts.
On page 138
of the printed Proceedings of our Grand Lodge for 1871 you will find
of the committee of our Grand Lodge on this very subject.
MELVIN M. JOHNSON, P. G. M., Massachusetts.
NOTE] ‒ The Report in Massachusetts Grand Lodge
for 1871 reads as follows:
point in the order of our arrangement is that of Making Masons "at
Your committee had supposed that this subject had long since been
disposed of and
definitely settled to the satisfaction at least of the Fraternity of
and they confess to some surprise that it should have been reopened for
by any Grand Lodge in our Masonic confederacy. That there was a time in
of Masonry when such "makings" were lawful and proper, is indisputable.
But as early as 1663 a regulation was adopted by our English Brethren,
no person of what degree soever, be made or accepted a Freemason unless
in a regular
Lodge," and at the reorganization of the Fraternity, in 1717, a regular
was declared to be a Lodge "legally authorized to act by Warrant from
Master for the time being"; and still later, in 1753, it was ordered
Lodge shall ever make a Mason without due inquiry into his character,"
more than one degree upon the same candidate at the same meeting,
without a dispensation
from the Grand Master. And as due inquiry into the character of the
not be made before his name had been submitted to the Lodge, it was
decreed that "no person shall be made a Mason without a regular
at one Lodge, and the ballot at the next regular stated Lodge," without
from a proper authority. This closed up the irregular manner which had
existed, of making Masons at haphazard, or without the precautions and
essential to the prosperity and security of the Institution. Lodges
of the privilege which they undoubtedly at one time possessed, of
at Sight, or without previous proposition and due inquiry. This
has been somewhat modified by the modern practice of evading its
the dispensation of the Grand Master, authorizing the calling of a
by summons bearing the name of the candidate to be balloted for at the
and if admitted, to proceed at once with the making, giving the three
the same evening. This course is within our own experience, and comes
as near Making
Masons at Sight as ingenuity can devise. It calls into exercise the
of the Grand Master, who undoubtedly may, by virtue of the ancient
his office, make or order to be made in his presence, and in a regular
summoned, and for a special and emergent purpose, a Mason at Sight,
the previous proposition and due inquiry; he assuming the entire
of the act. Cases of this kind have from time to time occurred in
of Europe, and they are not without precedents in our own country. One
ever occurred within the jurisdiction of this Grand Lodge, and that is
described in the letter of the Grand Master to the Grand Lodge of
Nevada, that your
committee need not recite the circumstances under which it occurred,
nor do they
deem it necessary to pursue the subject further.
T. Lawrence Is Quoted
NOTE] ‒ One of the most succinct studies of the question in English is
Bro. John T. Lawrence's By-Ways of Freemasonry [Lib*], published by A.
On 18th February, 1909, Most Worshipful Brother Hoskinson, Grand Master
exercised an alleged prerogative of the Grand Master by making Mr. W.
H. Taft a
Freemason "At Sight." What the exact course of procedure was is
to the somewhat important question that was raised. It is sufficient to
Mr. Taft escaped a good deal that ordinary persons have to contend
the ballot, and it seems, according to one American Masonic journal, he
over the wall," leaving a somewhat obvious inference to be made; and,
to another, he "penetrated the holy of holies by means of a
It may be left to the present writer to suggest that there is yet a
third way of
getting into the Temple, and that is through the roof ‒ when Brother
Tyler is nodding.
For the most
part, however, the American Masonic press denounced the proceeding as
and some journals, having regard to the exalted rank of the gentleman
the exercise of the prerogative, employed terms much more
Many of the
writers of Masonic antiquities agree in conceding the right of the
to Make Masons at Sight as a landmark. The present writer (Masonic
p. 8) refers to the alleged landmark, and the most recent exercise of
he has been able to hear of in this country was as far back as 1796. In
therefore, the question has scarcely excited any attention. In America
it is different,
and the incident referred to was not the only occasion which had called
discussion, and a few historical notes may therefore be desirable. The
instances are on the authority of Mackey.
In 1731 Lord
Lovell, being Grand Master, "formed an occasional lodge at Houghton
Robert Walpole's house in Norfolk," and there made the Duke of
Emperor of Germany, and the Duke of Newcastle, Master Masons. In 1766
who was then Grand Master, convened "an occasional lodge" and conferred
three degrees on the Duke of Cumberland. In 1787 the Prince of Wales
was made a
Mason "at an occasional lodge," says Preston, "for the purpose, at
the Star and Garter, Pall Mall, over which the Duke of Cumberland
presided in person." And in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, VIII, p. 41 [Lib 1895], there is an account of the
of the alleged prerogative by the Provincial Grand Master of Lincoln,
but this case
scarcely goes so far as the one under discussion, for it amounted to an
use of the dispensing power.
In the United
States instances have been frequent. There are a number of cases of
at Sight in the records of the Grand Lodge of New York, but the power
was not frequently
exercised. The last time was by Grand Master Robert D. Holmes, who
reported to the
Grand Lodge in 1867 that he had Made Hon. James T. Brady a Mason at
Sight, on account
of his great personal merit. It has also been pointed out that there is
precedent in Ohio for the Making of a Mason at Sight, such a course
pursued in 1892 in the case of the late Governor Asa S. Bushnell, when
Levi C. Goodale conferred the three degrees upon him in one day.
Precedents in other
states are not wanting. In the year 1898 John Wanamaker was Made a
Mason at Sight
by Grand Master Wagner of Pennsylvania. The making of Admiral Schley,
by Grand Master
Small of the District of Columbia, in 1899, caused widespread
discussion. It was
reported that all of the three degrees were conferred in full form on
and a similar course was pursued a few years later when Governor Foster
was Made a Mason in the Opera House at Elizabeth, before an assemblage
of a thousand
Masons, by the Grand Master of New Jersey. Still more recently,
was similarly honored by the Grand Master of Masons in Indiana. There
many more cases.
Now let us
examine the legal question involved. The statement that it is an
practice and an illegal usurpation of prerogative, may be dismissed. It
is not pretended
that the Constitutions have anything to do with it. The Grand Master,
landmark, existed before Constitutions, and, as far as this country is
the Constitutions have left the Grand Master's prerogative severely
alone ‒ in fact,
Grand Lodge would itself have been guilty of a usurpation if they had
to limit it, or even define it. Public opinion is a far more effectual
of the proprieties than the whole statute book. In some jurisdictions,
the Grand Master's prerogative has been to some extent defined, and the
extract ‒ Article IX of the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of
in 1861, which defined the powers of the Grand Master ‒ contained the
is his prerogative to make Masons at sight, and for this purpose he may
his assistance such Brethren as he may deem necessary."
as a part of the Constitution until the revision in 1875, a period of
years, when Section I of Article IX was adopted as follows:
Most Worshipful Grand Master shall have and enjoy all the powers and
conferred by the ancient Constitutions and the usages and landmarks of
revision, adopted in 1903, retained the above as Section I of Article
VII. If this
right be expressly reserved to the Grand Master by Constitution, there
more to be said, beyond the obvious corollary that the acts of one
do not concern any other. But even then the admission that a
confer this power infers that it could also take it away ‒ in fact,
of any contention that it is a landmark.
Is a Landmark
contends that it is a landmark. A landmark, to quote from Jurisprudence
is a claim or a practice that has never been seriously disputed, that
from a period beyond living memory, that has never suffered
modification, that helps
to define the Order and is part of its essence. This may not be
it goes some way. And when the Grand Master, by himself or by
some worthy person and admits him to the Order, he is only doing what
Solomon did before him. As to the innovation which has been read into
may it not be that the machinery of the ballot and the superincumbent
in reality innovations?
press was much concerned at the thought of the possibilities involved
in all this,
but we may point out that the person so distinguished is not thereby a
any lodge, nor could any lodge be compelled to receive him as a joining
and in such a case the only way in which he could acquire any Masonic
would be by being made an officer of the Grand Lodge. At least under
Constitution, for Article II defines membership of Grand Lodge in such
it would appear as if a Grand Lodge officer, present or past,
maintained his membership
of Grand Lodge irrespective of being a subscribing member of a private
persons admitted to the Fraternity in ancient time? There was
undoubtedly a period
when admission was simply by selection of a superior officer. As to the
otherwise of an active use of the prerogative, the writer offers no
undoubtedly, if it is a landmark, the Grand Master is quite justified
in such occasional
exercise of it as may serve to keep it from falling into desuetude.
of this chapter appeared in The Freemason of 10th July, 1909, and in
the issue of
the following week Bro. William James Hughan, Past Grand Deacon, the
Masonic historian, forwarded his own views on the subject, which, by
like to add to the remarks made by Brother the Rev. J. T. Lawrence, M.
A., as to
'Making Masons at Sight,' that the Grand Master of Ohio was fully
justified in the
course he took in regard to the admission of President Taft. As Bro. G.
(Editor of the New Age) was one of the first to point out, Article X of
of the Grand Lodge of Ohio reads as follows: 'It is the Grand Master's
to make Masons at sight, and for this purpose he may summon to his
Brethren as he may deem necessary.' Brother Moore also states that 'The
criticisms and objections are without merit so far as the particular
case is concerned'
(the New Age, New York, March, 1909).
I question if such an action would be tolerated on this side of the
of the numerous facilities offered for initiation in the ordinary way,
as our Rulers have so long refrained from exercising such powers."
Temple at Davenport, Iowa
Bro. Albert F. Block,
IN the ordinary
course of events the Masonic history of any community begins with the
of the first Masonic lodge. If the town is one destined to thrive, one
or more of
the various affiliated organizations eventually appear and ultimately
Lodges will be constituted. But before many of the affiliated Orders
some room in the town has usually come to be known as the "Masonic
These Orders naturally come to be housed in the same location and
before long the
affiliated bodies own their own home.
are added as the years roll by and soon there commences to grow up in
one or more
of the bodies a feeling that the work of that body is hampered by lack
in the old quarters. Either their floor space is too cramped by reason
rooms or meetings have to be held at extraordinary times in order that
can do their work.
This is the
critical period in the building history of the Masonic bodies of any
city. If at
such a time one body, finding itself larger and consequently more
cramped in its
hall space, and richer and consequently better able to build a separate
for itself, is permitted to break away from the others and do so, from
no Masonic Temple will ever house all of the Masonic Orders of that
Iowa, the establishment of Masonic bodies was normal, with the
that one of the lodges established here is no longer in existence,
until the time
came when one of the bodies, having twice the membership of the next
two building lots near the center of the city where it expected to
build a separate
building for its own private use.
were brought to the attention of this particular body. First, that it
would be selfish
for them to separate from the rest of the bodies; I second, that each
of the bodies
felt as much I cramped as the largest one did; and third, that if all
of the bodies
combined in the erection of one | large temple, in which they could be
that no one of them could afford singly, that temple would be at once a
of all their troubles, a pleasure to each member of the Craft, and a
credit to the
Order and to the community.
naturally then presented itself whether the bodies could build such a
could accommodate all of them. The difficulties being mainly financial,
it was first
necessary to determine what such a temple would cost. Architects
refused to make
any estimate without having a definite plan before them and accordingly
instructed to prepare the plans for such a temple. Many plans were
drawn and many
were presented to the Temple Board until finally one was found
acceptable to all.
Then a general
meeting of the Craft was called at which the proposed plans were thrown
on a screen
and explained by the architect who was present in person for that
purpose and each
member was requested to submit any suggestions in writing. When the
plans were re-drafted
to comply with the valuable suggestions thus procured, estimates were
made as to
the probable cost of construction. When the figures were presented the
plan of financing
was still to be worked out.
It Was Financed
At this time
attorneys were employed who communicated with members of the Craft in
where new Masonic Temples had been lately erected, to ask for their
plans of financing;
and when these had been received and compared and the best parts of
a corporation "not for pecuniary profit" was organized under the same
Iowa statute which gives corporate existence to most church
organizations in this
the "not for pecuniary profit" feature there was combined the principal
feature of most business corporations ‒ that of issuing stock. Two
kinds of stock
were authorized: one, a voting stock; and the other having no right to
being non-income bearing, issued only as evidence of their
and retirable under certain conditions. Of ten thousand shares
a par value of one hundred dollars each, only seventy were voting
shares. This was
in order that seven of the local Masonic Orders might have
representation on the
Board of Directors of the Building Association, ten of such voting
purchased by and issued to each of such bodies. Each body holding
voting stock was
to be entitled to elect a Director to represent that particular body on
authorized shares were such that they might be owned and held by the
Masonic bodies and such other affiliated organizations as might be
located in Davenport;
but no stock can be held except by a local Masonic, or affiliated, body.
Must Help Pay
of the Temple Board was not merely to build for the present, but for
as well, and therefore it was deemed just to build such an edifice as
would be greater
than could be paid for at present in order that posterity should pay
its own share
of the building expense. The plans were enlarged accordingly and, by
way of passing
on to future members their share of the expense of establishing such a
provisions were made: first, that the non-voting stock should be
five years; second, for the issuance of registered 4 per cent first
payable six months after the death of the registered holder or in 1960
third, an issue of 6 per cent bonds on which were bought by the
House as a temporary financing arrangement pending the sale of the "Old
Temple Building" and the completion of the subscription of the 4 per
It is contemplated that the 4 per cent bonds shall be retired as they
the 6 per cent bonds shall be retired when they have served their
purpose; and that
the non-voting stock shall be retired when it becomes possible to do
so; so that
ultimately there will be no obligation outstanding except the seventy
was accepted when presented. Each body in the city invested its every
dollar in stock. Every Mason who could afford to, and some who could
4 per cent bonds. The Temple was built.
bottom of its great concrete footings to the top of the highest
Flagstaff, it is
thoroughly modern in every way. In the basement is a beautiful dining
enough to seat twelve hundred at once, adjoined by a kitchen having the
of the most modern hotel; and large store rooms and pantries, with
direct delivery of foodstuffs. The dining room has a floor suitable for
so it can be converted into a ballroom, using the same platform for the
as is used for entertainers while the room is being used as a dining
of this dining room on the same level is a large billiard room,
space for ten billiard tables, flanked by a large card room on one side
and a ladies'
rest room on the other.
Fire Escapes Needed!
On the next
floor above, which is the grade level, is a beautifully decorated and
large enough to lay out a tennis court on its floor. On each end of
this lobby is
a passenger elevator and a stairway leading to upper and lower levels.
On the street
side of the lobby are five large doors, the purpose being to build
stairways, elevators and exits to comply with all requirements of
so that the exterior of the building need not be disfigured by fire
the other side of the lobby is the Gothic room, decorated in the old
and equipped with a pipe organ and a modern stage with scenery hung
all lighting of the room being controlled by a switchboard in the wings
of the stage.
This room is used by the local chapter R.A.M., the Knights Templar, the
Star, and the Grotto, and is designed to seat six hundred persons
chairs on the floor.
the lobby, on either side of the Gothic room, is a corridor to the rear
of the building.
A thoroughly adequate cloak room is the first opening off of the west
and south of that is the lounge, in which Masonic and other periodicals
at all times. Further back of the lounge we find the card room where
skat and chess
On the east
corridor, the first doorway opens into the offices of the building.
Here the Secretary
of the Temple Board, the Recorder of the Scottish Rite Bodies, and the
of the Shrine have modern offices with large vaults and a Directors’
room. All of
the telephones in the building are controlled through a switchboard in
and across the corridor are two telephone booths for the use of who may
along the east corridor, is a large ladies' parlor, with a second
ladies' rest room
offices on a mezzanine floor is a large committee room; and over the
on the opposite side of the building is a writing room.
Feature Boom Is Described
On the next
floor above is the floor of the main auditorium, which is the feature
room of the
building. This great room is so constructed that although it will seat
hundred or more in a semi-circular arrangement around an arena large
Grotto or Shrine Patrols to drill on, nevertheless there is in it no
pillar or other
obstacle to obstruct complete view of the stage from any seat; and
softest tones were audible in all parts of the room, there was no echo
Band at its greatest volume.
booth at the rear is fully equipped to throw either moving or still
the silver screen which is hung from steel cables winding on a drum in
On the east
side of the stage is the great electric pipe organ large enough to give
effect; while on the west side is the choir loft.
is as well equipped as any in the country, having a large floor and all
hung vertically and counterbalanced, a complete switchboard designed to
desired lighting effects, and which may be locked for the protection of
fingers. There is also so complete a complement of dressing rooms that
company was not cramped.
was designed for De Molay, Grotto, Shrine and Scottish Rite
ceremonials, the main
requirement being no pillars to obstruct the view from any seat of a
The pillars were avoided by the use of large cantilevers to support the
this great room.
rising tiers of seats on each side of the auditorium are the two Blue
the Doric on the west side and the Egyptian on the east. These are also
sessions of other bodies, whose membership is not so large as to
require the Gothic
room. By setting the floors about six feet lower than the level of the
floor, good dignified ceiling heights have been attained, and these two
beautifully decorated and furnished.
with each is a suite of ten other rooms designed to give space for
in connection with Blue Lodge work. From the corridor one enters a
cloak room off
of which is a wash room and toilet, from the cloak room one enters the
off of which are the preparation room and the lodge room. The Tyler's
room is only
half as high as the lodge room, and out of it a stairway leads to a
floor over the
rooms previously described on which are a projection room and a music
is separated from the lodge room only by a screen, and four committee
Is an Unseen Temple
description tells of only the visible parts of the building, but one
knows of the
existence of large unseen rooms, where equipment and paraphernalia are
all kinds of ceremonies; knows of a room full of mysterious electric
glittering switches, bubbling batteries, buzzing motors, numerous dials
to the visitor and an elevator switch with a startling way of suddenly
that it is on the job and lifting great loads.
sees no open windows, but still he doesn't ask for fresh air, because
it is always
there, so he doesn't stop to wonder where in that building are
great fans that can make a complete change of atmosphere in an hour;
and he is always
warm, so he doesn't consider the battery of three smokeless boilers in
busily turning coal dumped through one hole in the alley pavement into
be lifted through another; and heat to warm the fresh outdoor air
the building is marvelous. The style of architecture is not one of the
five, but is nevertheless pleasing to the eyes. The Davenport Masons
have seen a
vision and carved it in stone.
of teaching by symbols, it is a symbol in itself. Uniting all of the
one roof, it symbolizes that the work was wrought with peace and
"Let there be light," carved in the six-ton lintel over the main
offer the only possible cure for the unrest which has had such a
in the addresses of Grand Masters for the past five years.
is nearly a perfect cube.
strength and beauty by straight severe lines, it symbolizes the power
of the simple thoughts of Masonry.
appearance of the building creates an optical illusion such as to make
appear smaller than it really is. The visitor, upon entering, marvels
that all of
its spacious halls can be enclosed within the building he first viewed
In this the building symbolizes the revelations that come to the
student of Masonry.
has some just claims to distinction. It is the largest Masonic building
The chandelier in the main auditorium is the largest indirect lighting
on the continent, it having been said of this great fixture by some
Jonathan Swift that it should have been labelled "40 hommes 8 chevaux."
The rank and file of the Craft in Davenport helped design the building
to finance its erection.
in Davenport are proud of their new temple. When they decided to build
it was suggested
that they build for posterity. From then on the question never was,
we do it's" but "How shall we do it?” It was done by Davenport Masons.
Both the architects and the building contractors were born and raised
the architect, the Board sought a local man who was a member of all the
and fully capable of designing the temple desired. The architect showed
in deciding which symbols should be used in decoration. He simply used
been said above would be incomplete without a mention of the first
the money with which to build. There is an old recipe for chicken pie
"First get your chicken." The first indispensable for a new Masonic
is a man ready, able and willing to induce the individual members of
the Order to
subscribe. This brother is the authorized salesman of Masonry.
call in an outside organization to raise funds. This may be necessary
in some rare
cases. But most cities will desire to emulate the example of the
brethren of Burlington,
our sister Iowa city, where, with only a few exceptions, every member
of the Order
has a part of his or her estate invested in the new temple, and where
months after the temple was dedicated, the last cent of indebtedness
was paid off
and a substantial amount was on hand in the sinking fund to meet the
of stock due as the holders might die. The Burlington brethren say this
is the work
of one man and for that reason one sees on the wall in the lounge of
a bronze plate bearing the name of George Joseph Holstein. Truly this
man must have
heard and understood something of charcoal and clay, which must ever be
elements in the construction of new Masonic Temples!
are building our home on eternity's shore
While we dwell in our structure of clay
We are shipping materials onward before,
With the close of each hastening day.
We are sending the thought that the spirit has wrought
In the wonderful glow of the brain,
And the timber is grown from the seeds we have sown
Mid the shadow of sorrow and pain.
We are building our home on a beautiful street,
While we dwell in the by-way of fears
And the roses that bloom there so pure and so sweet
Must be watered and nourished by tears.
And the light that shall shine in a glory divine
Must be formed in the darkness and gloom
And the foundation laid in the cloud and the shade
Of the path that leads down to the tomb.
We are building our home in the valley of life
By the side of eternity's sea,
And the work that we do mid the scenes of earth's strife
Shall decide what that home is to be.
Every thought leaves its trace on that wonderful place,
Every deed, be it evil or fair,
And the structure will show all the life lived below,
All the sinning and sorrow and care.
We are building our home; may the angels of light
Bring us wisdom where ever we stray
That the Mansion Eternal be fashioned aright
And the sunlight of truth be its day.
May the rainbow of love form its arches above,
And the river of peace murmur by,
And the spirit be blest by the glimmer of rest
We have sent to our home in the sky.
(Can any reader tell us if this
is an accurate
copy and who may be the author?)
of the Quatuor Coronati
Bro. Gilbert W. Daynes,
Associate Editor, England
of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research of England, so often referred
to in The
Builder, has caused many brethren to inquire as to the significance of
sounding name; such brethren will discover an abundant reply to their
Bro. Daynes' essay, his first contribution to this journal, but not to
be his last,
for he is now a permanent member of our staff. Such brethren as are
in the subject of Masonry's Patron Saints, and more particularly the
John, will find here set forth one important chapter in the history of
ON the 28th
November, 1884, the Most Worshipful the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge
in response to a petition from nine brethren, all eminent in the
literature of Freemasonry,
granted them a warrant of constitution. The name selected for the
lodge, thus constituted,
was "The Quatuor Coronati Lodge," a name which had never before been
for a similar purpose. The adoption of this name by a lodge, which has
by its steadfast
exertions become the foremost lodge of research in the world, and, by
means of its
Correspondence Circle, attained a universality which is only equalled
itself, naturally creates in many a desire to know more concerning the
subsequent history of the Quatuor Coronati, Saints whom the Masons in
the days of
Medieval Operative Masonry must have held in the utmost veneration.
of the Quatuor Coronati in its inception was purely Italian, and it was
country that the knowledge of these Saints must have spread to Germany,
and elsewhere in Europe. As Bro. A. F. A. Woodford has so truly said,
all Legends, as Time runs on, the story itself becomes confused and
hazy, and criticism
has often a hard crux set it to make that plain and consistent, which
lapse of years has lost in correctness what it has gained in
This certainly applies to the story of the martyrdom of these Saints,
appeared in various forms; and considerable confusion has arisen
all the accounts deal with two sets of persons, as well as with two
far apart from each other.
the Legend may be gleaned from the Arundel MS., which is in Latin. This
MS. has found a resting place in the British Museum, and dates from the
or, at the latest, thirteenth century. In addition to the Arundel MS.
two other MSS. which may be mentioned, viz., a Greek version by
Porphyrius, a philosopher,
and another Latin version known as the Petrus MS. This last-named MS.,
at its close,
refers to the Greek version, and all three MSS. belong to the same
The two latter MSS. were selected by the Bollandist editor, when
attempting to disentangle
the Legend of the Quatuor Coronati for that, still incomplete, magnum
opus on the
lives of the saints, known as the "Acta Sanctorum," commenced by Father
John Bolland, a Flemish Jesuit, in January, 1643.
as set forth in these MSS., may be thus briefly summarized. During his
Emperor of Rome, journeyed to Pannonia so as to be present whilst the
were quarried from the rocks in the mountains in those parts. Having
workmen in metals, the Emperor Diocletian discovered amongst them four
possessing wonderful skill in the art of carving, or ‒ more
Their names were Claudius, Castorius, Simphorianus (Sempronianus,
according to Porphyrius
and Petrus MSS.), and Nicostratus. These craftsmen were secretly
invoked the aid of the Lord Jesus Christ in all the work they undertook
They proved most skilful in the art of carving, and gave much delight
to the Emperor
by the manner in which they carved an image of the sun, with his
horses, and everything appertaining thereto, from one enormous stone
from the metal
of Thasos. As a consequence the Emperor received these four craftsmen,
‒ an artisan who worked with them ‒ with great joy, and gave them
orders to hew
certain columns, or capitals of the columns, from the porphyry. Now
who was a Gentile, was not successful in his work, and kept breaking
tools. Claudius, however, took all these carving tools and said, "In
of the Lord Jesus Christ let this iron be strong, and fit to work
after this Simplicius carved well and properly with his tools. On
account of this,
Simplicius, after receiving instruction from Claudius in the elementary
Christianity, became converted. The five then visited Bishop Quirillus,
in prison at the time, and Simplicius was duly baptized by him.
to their work, and, as a result of the skill displayed by these
offered to give them riches and presents provided they would first cut
the mountain of porphyry images of Victory, Cupids and other
statuettes, but especially
an image of Aesculapius. The craftsmen did all that was required of
them with the
exception of the image of Aesculapius, and submitted their work to the
who noticed their omission to carve the image of the God of Health. He
them to go and make this image and also fashion lions pouring water,
and stags and other likenesses. Again they completed everything
commanded of them
except the image of Aesculapius.
to see the work done by the various workmen, Diocletian ordered
everything to be
brought into a public place. The image of Aesculapius is noticed by the
to be missing. Diocletian is then informed by the philosophers, who
instructors of the workmen, master sculptors or builders, and who were
of the five craftsmen, that the favored craftsmen were Christians, and
were not obedient to his commands, having declined to carve the image
of the god
Aesculapius. The Emperor ordered the culprits to be brought before him,
the reason for their refusal. Claudius, acting as spokesman, answered
that an image
of that most wretched man they would never make, for it was written,
that make them are like unto them, and so are all those who put their
trust in them."
At first Diocletian looked leniently upon the sculptors, who had thus
him, but after the philosophers had obtained other sculptors to carve
an image of
Aesculapius to the entire satisfaction of the Emperor, the five
craftsmen were again
accused by the philosophers of being heretic Christians.
Workmen Are Ordered
To Be Tried
incensed at their disobedience rather than at the fact of their being
ordered a certain Tribune, Lampadius, to try them. The Tribunal having
in the same place before the Temple of the Sun, Claudius, Castorius,
Nicostratus and Simplicius were brought before Lampadius with their
Tribune ordered them to worship the sun god, but they steadily flatly
"We do never worship the work of our own hands, but we worship the God
and Earth, who is the everlasting Ruler and Eternal God, the Lord Jesus
Lampadius thereupon ordered them to be put into the common prison.
After a few days
they were again brought before Lampadius, who tried in vain to persuade
sacrifice to the sun god. They, however, remained firm and constant in
and after a third hearing, after having been shown various kinds of
said, "We fear not terrors, nor is our purpose broken by soft words,
fear everlasting torments. For let Diocletian Augustus know that we are
and will never depart from his worship."
ordered them to be stripped and beaten with scorpions, but, whilst
still in the
judgment seat, was seized by an evil spirit, and tearing himself,
expired. The news
enraged the Emperor, and he ordered coffins of lead to be made, and the
ordered to be shut up alive therein, and cast into the river. The order
carried out on the sixth day of the Ides of November (the 8th November,
to our present reckoning), by a certain citizen named Nicetius, who sat
as an assessor. The Bishop Quirillus heard of it in his prison, and,
grieved, died the same day. The year is a little doubtful, and the
between A. D. 298 and 302.
this, the Emperor journeyed from thence, that is, Pannonia, to Syrme,
forty-two days a Christian named Nichodemus raised the coffins
containing the bodies
of the five craftsmen and placed them in his own house.
Soldiers Were Executed
in Syrme eleven months the Emperor Diocletian entered Rome. He at once
that a temple to Aesculapius should be built in the Baths of Trajan,
and an image
made from the squared stone. Upon the completion of the work he ordered
the soldiers, and particularly the militia of the city, should offer
sacrifices whenever they came to the image of Aesculapius. There were,
four wing officers (cornicularii) of the city militia, who resisted the
Christians. Upon their disobedience being reported to the Emperor, he
to be put to death in front of the very image they refused to worship,
of the plumbata, a scourge with thongs weighted with leaden balls. The
these four soldiers occurred exactly two years after the death of the
The bodies of the four soldiers were ordered by Diocletian to be cast
into the streets
to the dogs. After lying there five days, Sebastian with the Bishop
collected the bodies by night, and buried them in a cemetery on the
road to Lavica,
about three miles from the City of Rome, where many other holy men were
buried. Subsequently, in A. D. 310, upon becoming Pope, Melchiades
the anniversary of the death of the four soldiers should be observed
under the names;
of the holy martyrs, Claudius, Castorius, Simphorianus, Nicostratus and
as the names of the soldiers were unknown, and their deaths had
occurred upon the
same day of the year, viz., 8th November, but two years later. Also,
the Pope bestowed
upon these four soldiers, or milites, the title of Quatuor Coronati, or
Ones. The names of these four martyrs appear to have been unknown until
century, when, it is said, by the grace of God they were revealed as
Severinus, Carpophorus, and Victorinus.
at the commencement of these notes, the whole matter has been
complicated by the
fact that to the details of the martyrdom of the sculptors have been
of a second set of martyrs. The five sculptors, or stone-squarers, and
milites have, in consequence, frequently been mixed up and confusion
but as Bro. R. F. Gould has rightly said, "the 4 Officers instead of
masons have become the patron saints of the building trades, while the
of the 5 has survived under the name of the 4."
meaning of the term coronati has been the subject of considerable
the part of Masonic students. Some authorities think that the word
coronati is a
corrupted form of the military term cornicularii. Others suggest,
the four unknown cornicularii received a posthumous honour or promotion
at the hands
of the chronicler, and became known as coronati, the higher class of
in the Roman army, and immediately above that of the cornicularii. This
a very feasible suggestion, when one remembers that by the use of the
the crown of martyrdom is also implied.
of these two sets of saints is referred to, in many early
martyrologies, from A.D.
400 onwards; and also in various breviaries down to and including the
Version published by Pope Pius V by a Bull dated July, 1568. The
accounts in these
MSS. vary considerably, and add to the uncertainty of the real facts.
It has been
suggested that the almost immediate acceptance of the Quatuor Coronati
as duly recognized
canonical saints may be due to the fact that they were members of a
but satisfactory proof of this has still to be furnished.
In the Isabella
Missal (circa 1497) although the five sculptors are mentioned in the
prayer, yet only four appear in the illumination on that MS. These four
the original four, Claudius, Castorius, Simphorianus, and Nicostratus,
are depicted with the emblems of masonry, viz., square, plumb rule,
gavel. The missing one is undoubtedly Simplicius, who joined the other
four on becoming
a Christian, and was martyred with them. Besides, the illuminator could
have put more than four figures into his picture, which was to
saints, who were collectively known by the name of "Quatuor Coronati."
In the time
of Pope Honorius I (A. D. 625-638) there was in existence at Rome, on
Hill where the Temple of Diana had formerly stood, a noble church, in
the form of
a basilica, bearing the name of the Quatuor Coronati. Some say that the
it and dedicated it to these saints. During the Pontificate of Leo IV
(A. D. 847-855)
the remains of the five sculptors and the four milites are said to have
from a cemetery on the Lavican Way in which they had long reposed to an
beneath the altar of the church on the Caelian Hill just referred to.
The four milites
were placed in two marble sarcophagi, and on either side in two other
were deposited the remains of the five sculptors. This is recorded on
of Leo IV, in the church over the left stairs leading to the oratory.
was destroyed in the great fire of Robert Guiscard in A. D. 1084, but
Pope Paschal II in A. D. 1111. The church was again restored by Pope
in A. D. 1624 and exists to this day. being known as the Church of the
The change in name is accounted for by the fact that the word coronati
and Medieval Latin, and the word incorronati of the modern Italian mean
the same, viz., "Crowned Martyrs."
Were The Sculptors
previously quoted from describe the burial of the four cornicularii in
on the Lavican Way outside Rome; but how the five Pannonian sculptors,
in that country, and retrieved from their watery grave by Nichodemus,
came to be
reinterred near Rome, and in the same cemetery as the four cornicularii
they have been confused, has never been explained satisfactorily. It
may also be
mentioned that the site of this cemetery is still unknown,
notwithstanding the persistent
searches of antiquarians and others.
early times when associations of workmen in different trades were
formed, the Quatuor
Coronati have been the patron saints of the building fraternity in
Italy and elsewhere.
In Florence the gild of smiths, carpenters, and masons, during the
decorated with a group of statues representing the Quatuor Coronati,
one of the
niches on the exterior of the northern wall of the Church of Or San
church of the trade gilds of that city.
(To be Concluded)
Poem Version of the Quatuor Coronati Legend
a transliteration of the Regius Poem version of the Quatuor Coronati
the "Four Crowned Martyrs." The version begins at line 497 and extends
to line 532. The poem was written, so it is believed, in England, about
D., and is the oldest Masonic document in existence.
Pray we now to God almyght,
And to hys moder Mary bryght
That we mowe keepe these artyculus here,
And these poynts wel al y-fere,
As dede these holy martyres fowre
That yn thys craft were of gret honoure;
They were as gode masonus as on erthe schul go,
Gravers and ymage-makers they were also.
For they were werkemen of the beste.
The emperour hade to hem gret luste;
He wylned of hem a ymage to make,
That mowgh be worscheped for his sake;
Suche mawmetys he hade yn hys dawe
To turne the pepul from Crystus lawe.
But they were stedefast yn Crystes lay,
And to here craft, withouten nay;
They loved wel God and alle hys lore
And weren yn hys serves ever more.
Trwe men they were yn that dawe,
And Iyved wel y Goddus lawe;
They thoght no mawmetys for to make,
For no good that they mygth take
To levyn on that mawmetys for here God,
They nolde do so, thawg he were wod,
For they nolde not forsake here trw fay,
An byleve on hys falsse lay.
The emperour let take hem sone anone,
And putte hem ynto a dep presone;
The sarre he penest hem yn that plase,
The more yoye wes to hem of Cristus grace.
Thenne when he sye no nother won,
To dethe he lette hem thenne gon;
Whose wol of here lyf get mor knowe,
By the bok he may hyt schowe,
In the legent of scanctorum
The names of quatuor coronatorum.
Bro. C. C. Hunt, Deputy
Grand Secretary, Iowa
just taken my examination in the lecture of the Third Degree and am now
go on. Which way had I better take?" asked a young Mason recently.
do you mean by 'which way'?" he was asked.
I don't know. I understood I had the choice of two ways to go on, after
on where? Where do you want to go? By the 'choice of two ways' you must
you have a goal and that either way will take you there. What is the
goal you seek?"
I hadn't thought of that particularly, but I suppose it must be the
that the top in Masonry?"
my Brother, it is not. The top in Masonry is an accomplishment and not
But even if some Masonic degrees could be considered higher than
others, the Shrine
has no claim to any such distinction. It is not a Masonic degree in any
the term and does not pretend to be. It has been called 'the
playground' for Masons,
giving as it does opportunity for recreation and play, after the
serious work of
the Masonic degrees. It doubtless has a function to fulfill, but it is
by no means
a goal, and it is a great mistake to consider the Masonic degrees a
means to reach
such a goal.
if we grant all that has been claimed for the Shrine, it is no more to
a goal of Masonry than is the school playground a goal of the classes
would you think of a boy who thought of his class room work as merely a
the playground? All pupils of the same school are entitled to use the
at proper times and under proper restrictions without regard to the
books or subjects
studied in the school, and the question of whether he shall take
arithmetic or geography,
reading or spelling, history or literature, is determined without
reference to the
playground. Possibly it might be well to take all these subjects in
order to obtain
a well-grounded education.
it is with the York and the Scottish Rites of Masonry. Neither is to be
a way to the Shrine. Each is to be considered on its own merits; and
take both. They are no more to be considered as furnishing a choice of
to the same goal than would be the subjects of history or philosophy in
of study. Neither is antagonistic to the other, but on the contrary,
the other. Remember, however, that the degrees you have already
received are of
the York Rite, and it may be well for you to become thoroughly grounded
in the work
of this Rite before taking the other. A jack-of-all-trades never
in anything, and it is better to have well-grounded knowledge of one
a superficial knowledge of many things.
eventually you may find it desirable to seek additional degrees, you
that you can never outgrow the degrees of the lodge. The additional
be found useful only as they enable you to obtain a better
understanding of those
you have already received. If they cause you to forget your lodge it
would be better
had they never been taken.”
the Eastern Star's Educational Campaign in Tennessee
The Chairman of the Publicity
Committee, Grand Chapter, O. E. S., Tenn.
that public education is perhaps the most important national Interest
Worthy Grand Matron of the Order in the State of Tennessee, Mrs. Felix
has initiated a vigorous campaign to raise the educational standard,
in rural communities:
stands forty-fourth in the forty-eight commonwealths of the United
States. The coordination
and cooperation of the forces of the Grand Lodge, F. & A. M.,
the Royal Arch
Masons, the Knights Templar, the subordinate lodges of the F. &
A. M., with
the subordinate chapters of the O. E. S., will eventually win the
suggestions were made to the subordinate chapters as a first step in
No. 1 ‒ Each
chapter to devote the time of one of its early stated meetings to a
of the subject of education, the Worthy Matron in advance of the
meeting to appoint
one or two speakers who can deal with it.
No. 2 ‒ At
the meeting, a special committee on education to be appointed, the
duties of this
committee to be:
(a) To ascertain
the number of schools within the jurisdiction of the chapter, with the
pupils attending each school, the number of teachers, the number of
school time, and if possible, ascertain the number of children not
(b) To confer
with the superintendent of education having these particular schools in
to ascertain in what direction in his opinion, the influence of the
best be directed.
(c) The apportionment
of the schools within the chapter's jurisdiction among a sufficient
number of sub-committees
to insure a personal visit to every school, at least once in each two
sub-committees to report at each stated meeting as a regular order of
condition of the schools in their charge, with any suggestion for their
which may be apparent.
(e) To seek
a conference with the Worshipful Master and Wardens of the Masonic
lodges in their
immediate jurisdiction offering their assistance in such educational
work as the
lodge may have in hand, and to endeavor to coordinate the two.
(f) The same
offer of assistance to be made to any chapter of Royal Arch Masons
which may be
within their territorial limits.
(g) The sub-committee
to cooperate with any Parent-Teacher's Association which may be in
if none, to attempt an organization of that sort.
(h) The Worthy
Matrons to write the Worthy Grand Matron at the end of each three
months what has
been done, what progress ‒ made
Asked To Keep In
All the chapters
and all the members of the chapters are asked to keep in touch with the
In this way, we believe, the work will develop and avenues of
themselves. It is our present ignorance of the conditions of the
need and their insufficiency, which is at the root of our troubles.
the Order to act intelligently the school superintendents of each
county in the
state were asked to give the following information:
number, name and location of all one teacher schools, and the name and
number, name and location of all two teacher schools, and the names and
of the teachers.
number, name and location of all three teacher schools, and the renames
of the teachers.
number, name and location of all high schools, and the name and address
of the principal
of each high school, and the names and addresses of all teachers in
names and addresses of your county board of education, designating the
of such board.
name and address of your county supervisor of schools.
you can do so, will you please furnish with this data, the number of
and attending each school in your county' This is also of great
importance in our
proposed work. We are also anxious to find out, if it be possible, how
there are in the different counties, who are of school age, and yet who
and probably never have been, attending any school. Will you give us
cooperation in this effort to help the educational work in Tennessee,
and will you
make the first step in that cooperation, the sending to me, this much
important data, within the next ten days ‒ so our work can begin
localities are arranging different methods and mans for work. Almost
chapter has appointed an educational committee. These committees have
themselves with the measures of the Sterling-Reed Bill and are
work with great earnestness of purpose
of the Eastern Star stands for the following:
- A Federal Department of
Education with a Secretary in the President's Cabinet.
- More generous support, through
appropriations and improved legislation.
- A minimum school term of eight
months for each county, well trained teachers
for each school, and living salaries for all teachers.
- Thorough investigation of all
unsatisfactory conditions in regard to the
illiteracy of each county.
- For a fuller understanding and
hearty cooperation at all times with county
superintendents of education, teachers and Parent-Teacher's
- For frank statements, just
demands, and offers of helpfulness to county boards
of education and county courts.
- For the active participation of
each subordinate chapter of the O. E. S.
in our state in such plans as are adapted to their localities.
Grand Matron, Mrs. Felix G. Ewing, and the Worthy Grand Ruth, Mrs.
have made a round of official visits to a large number of chapters in
and the Worthy Grand Matron is planning to visit every chapter in the
of the educational movement before the close of the year.
Has Been Accomplished
and interest are displayed everywhere. Much practical work has been
The compulsory attendance law is being enforced more thoroughly than
have been raised to replace a burned schoolhouse; a domestic science
has been fully equipped; books for libraries have been given; teachers'
have been supplemented; one chapter has pledged a thousand dollars
towards the building
of a new schoolhouse; clothing, books and shoes have been supplied for
and other social service work undertaken which will make possible the
of children at school. Two chapters have been largely instrumental in
school from a two-year to a four-year high school; and the whole
movement has engendered
a community school spirit that speaks well for the accomplishment of
of the campaign.
house canvasses are being made in some centers in order to find out if
of school age are not attending school, and for what reason. This has
to establish a cordial relationship between the parents and those
for publicity an educational program will shortly be broadcasted from
and it is hoped that the moving picture shows may be made a medium for
the appeal for intelligent interest in this important subject.
are showing the greatest cooperation on the ground that no better
service can be
rendered the Southland than the blotting out of her illiteracy. This
to the principals and teachers in the schools, together with clergy and
in all communities.
has been instrumental in making large additions to the ranks of the
Order and the
cordiality and enthusiasm with which it has been received are most
the state officers.
of the Order at End Of 1924
By Bro. C. C. Woods,
Grand Lodge of Mexico
Sketch of Lodge Canongate Kilwinning, No. 2, Scotland
An Account Published
by the Lodge Itself)
ONLY a half
dozen lodges in the world can vie with Canongate Kilwinning, No. 2, in
interest. Ancient it is, and venerable, like some ivied cathedral, and
Masons the world over as one of the fountainheads of the Craft. Robert
Rudyard Kipling have been among its poets laureate, also James Hogg,
Shepherd, friend of Christopher North, and author of lyrics as sweet as
Among other illustrious names affiliated with this lodge may be
mentioned Lord Roberts,
Lord Kitchener and Lord Haig.
her ranks has come such a phalanx of the great and good in every field
activity, as might well make her the envy of the proudest sister in the
brightest names are not hers alone, but Scotland's, and among them are
posterity will not willingly let die."
CHAPEL is of unique antiquarian interest from the traditions associated
Canongate Kilwinning and with the site of the Chapel.
is one of the very few which holds its Annual Festival on St. John the
Day corresponding with the Summer Solstice, and its bright red clothing
motto both pointedly refer to the dawn of the day in the East and
ancient sun worship.
As the sun never sets but to rise again, so, according to the oldest
forms at every
communication, the work is closed, but the lodge is never closed ‒ only
The Chapel is probably the oldest Masonic lodge Chapel in the world.
preserves the ancient Scottish arrangement of the interior, having the
and Warden's chairs at the three points of a triangle, the Master's
the apex. This is the correct and most ancient form of arrangement of a
lodge, corresponding with the so called Higher Degrees, and also with
Masonic systems, but differing both from the English and the American
of Canongate Kilwinning, as an operative body, begin with the building
Abbey and Palace, when, by royal warrant, skilled builders and
Craftsmen were brought
from all parts of the country to assist in the work. The Abbey was
founded by King
David I. in 1128 for the Canons Regular of St. Augustine, and dedicated
to the Holy
Rood or Cross brought to Scotland by his mother, the pious Margaret.
The Cross was
called the Black Rood of Scotland. The lodge was practically identified
religious foundation of the Abbey, till the growing Burgh of Canongate
walls of Edinburgh became of sufficient importance, amid the religious
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, to confer rights of freedom
apart from the protection of the Church. The trade societies of the
owed any allegiance to Edinburgh, and the somewhat arrogant attempts
made by the
trades of the latter occasionally to exercise control in the Canongate
led to indignant repudiation.
Masons, however, while dating their corporate privileges from King
to the Canons of Holyrood, and the constitution of the Burgh of
Canongate, and being
entirely separate from and independent of Edinburgh, identified
the general body of Freemasons in Scotland in 1677, five years after
Church was transferred from the Abbey. In that year they accepted a
Mother Kilwinning, which was at the time ‒ as the Head, though in
the second, lodge in the Kingdom ‒ exercising the functions of Grand
Kilwinning had a traditional connection, similar to that of Canongate,
skilled ecclesiastical builders and architects of the time.
other lodges in England and Scotland, and owing to the incompleteness
of documentary evidence of earlier existence, our precedence thus runs
from a much later date, 1677, than the real inception of the lodge
respect of its constitution at so early a date as a purely speculative
of and uncontrolled by any trade organization or incorporation, it
takes rank as
one of the very oldest existing lodges. It is one of the few which
cannot, and does
not, produce to candidates or anyone else any "charter or warrant of
from the Grand Lodge of Scotland." Grand Lodge, indeed, was formed
hospitable roof, and one of its members, William St. Clair of Rosslyn,
Grand Master Mason of Scotland.
years the lodge premises have been greatly enlarged and improved,
cloakroom and lavatory accommodation, increasing the size of the
Refectory, as well
as adding a large museum between the Chapel itself and the new St. John
designed to harmonize with the older part of the building.
In 1916 the
lodge acquired an adjoining building, hitherto used as a wood turner's
and entering off Old Playhouse Close; and during the present year
(1924) they have
procured a building to the south of the lodge, which will be available
of the present premises at an early date.
The old entrance
to the lodge by St. John's Close can now be used at any time. It gives
a storeroom or scullery and to an arched vault in the basement. There
is a caretaker's
house of room and kitchen, etc., on the top flat, while on the middle
flat, to which
access is obtained by a turreted staircase, is the old kitchen of the
restored. The pillars on either side of the door between the old
kitchen and the
Secretary's room are from the old council chambers in Leith. The
fireplace now disclosed
was formerly covered up by masonry and partitions.
possesses an interesting museum, containing many unique articles
the Craft, and in the lodge room there is an organ built in the year
the oldest organ in Scotland, and the only existing organ on which the
Robert Burns were played in his presence.
of members includes the names of men famous in history, literature,
and other spheres ‒ men who have helped to make our country and empire.
Poets Laureate of the
Burns (Caledonia's Bard)
1835 James Hogg (The Ettrick Shepheid.)
1836 William Hay (The Lintie o' Moray).
1842 E.W. Lane, M.D.
1846 Francis Nicoll.
1850 James Marshall.
1851 N. J. Mansabuis.
1853 William Pringle.
1860 Anthony O'Neal Haye (Author of "Poemata." Editor of the "Scottish
1872 Captain Lawrence Archer.
1879 Bryan Charles Waller, M. D., of Masongill.
1880 Andrew Stevenson, M. A. (Author of "The Laureate Wreath," etc.).
1887 Charles H. Mackay.
1890 Wallace Bruce (Author of "The Old Organ," etc.)
1897 Charles Martin Hardie, R. S. A.
1899 Alexander Anderson (Surfaceman).
1902 T. N. Hepburn (Gabriel Setoun).
1905 Rudyard Kipling.
1909 Stewart Home.
1918 Joseph Inglis, W. S., P. M.
1920 T. S. Muir. M. A.. P. M.
1922 Allan McNeil, P. M.
1923 John B. Peden, P. M.
One of the
most interesting features about the lodge is the list of its Poets
more especially its connection, when the office was instituted, with
entered Apprentice on 4th of July, 1781, in Lodge St. David's,
(about a month after the two lodges, St. David's and St. James, in that
been united). He was then in his twenty-third year, and from that date
death he was a most enthusiastic member of the Craft, paying regular
at, and identifying himself with, the lodges in every place where he
be for the time.
On the reconstruction
of Lodge St. James, about a year after his initiation, he identified
that section, and in 1784 was elected Depute Master of St. James. The
at the time, held in a public house, which is now in ruins, scarcely
the bare walls standing.
presided over the lodge, a fact to which he refers in his poems.
He was an
affiliated member of Lodge St. Andrews, Dumfries, No. 179. The mallet
and an apron
of that lodge used in his time are in possession of Grand Lodge. It is
own private apron.
He was affiliated
in Lodge Canongate Kilwinning on 1st of February, 1787, and was elected
Poet Laureate of that lodge on 1st of March, 1787. The lodge,
containing, as it
did, the elite of the bright and learned of Edinburgh society and some
of the foremost
spirits in Scottish life of the time, welcomed Burns with whole-hearted
and the enthusiasm found tangible expression, not only at meetings, but
supporting and assisting the preparation of the first Edinburgh edition
of his works.
of the inauguration of Burns as Poet Laureate was, some time ago,
finally and judicially
established after an elaborate and exhaustive inquiry by the Grand
Lodge of Scotland,
which possesses the well-known historic painting representing the
by Bro. Stewart Watson, and presented to Grand Lodge by Dr. James
Burness, the distinguished
Indian traveler and administrator, and a distant relative of Burns
through his ancestry
in Kincardineshire, from which Burns' father migrated to Ayrshire.
possesses an actual Master Mason's apron of Burns' Mother Lodge, used
at the time
when he was initiated, and presented by Bro. McGavin, Past Substitute
descendant of one who was present.
the Ettrick Shepherd, succeeded Robert Burns as Poet Laureate in 1835.
meeting of the lodge was held at the Cleikum Inn, St. Ronan's,
he was initiated into the Craft, and sang to the assembled brethren his
‒ "When the Kye Come Hame." The names of Alexander Anderson
Wallace Bruce, T. N. Hepburn (Gabriel Setoun), and Rudyard Kipling
appear in later
Bro. N. W. J. Haydon,
Asso. Ed., Canada
Lodge, Mimico, owns as unusual a piece of furniture as is to be seen,
in Ontario. This is an altar, designed and partly built by the skillful
Bro. Joseph Nevin, who is also a brother of the Operative Art, being an
Man" of the City and Guilds Institute, of London, England.
is built on the design of a tower and porch to a cathedral. It is made
of oak, and
is entirely symbolical in its detail and finish, being twenty-four
at its base and thirty-three inches high. At each corner is a
pier, set at an angle of 45d; these reach up to about half its height
them, the corners are cut in blocks like maple and the leather of
inlaid with three rosettes of oak, each carved with an eight-petalled
buttons being silver coins smoothed and engraved with the square and
On the edge, outside the apron, are five seven-sided, tapering spires,
one at each
corner and one in the center of the eastern side, which has at its apex
points and a weathercock pointing towards the east for "a favorable
In the east,
south, and north sides are set three-light windows of gothic design,
colored glass. The reveals of the windows are in ashlared blockstone
gothic arches containing the correct number of stones, the keystones
in the shape of a coffin. Around each arch is a moulded label course,
at its center with a carved square, plumb-rule and level.
In the west
side appears a doorway, with three steps as an approach to a door in
whose hinges are of the fleur-de-lis pattern. It bears a "Sanctuary
of brass in the shape of a demon's head, with horns, serpent's tongue,
a ring in
its mouth and eyes that, by some peculiarity of the maker's art, appear
right at you, whether you stand in front or on either side. This
doorway is recessed
and, in the angles, appear the staves ‒ emblems of authority, while
around the opening
appear block-finished ashlars. The upper half is a gothic arch of
and a keystone carved with a fleur-de-lis.
door is a window of five lights of lances design, inlaid with colored
so arranged that each arch has one-half struck from a common center and
within the bounds and touching one common circle. This is surmounted by
containing fifteen stones and a keystone inlaid with pearl and carved
with the usual
is lighted electrically from within which makes a very pleasing effect.
also in this lodge a choir rail, built of oak by the same brother, and
as a colonnade with gothic arches. It is supported by twelve columns,
one of which
is peculiarly twisted in the turning. This rail is fitted with special
lamps, of a color suitable for the Master Mason ceremony and displays
thought, skill and ingenuity in the making, so as to meet the service
For The Dedication
Of Masonic Temple In Moncton, N. B., Aug. 25, 1924)
God, mighty in power, of majesty incomprehensible, look graciously on
who lift up their hearts unto Thee. Thou who madest the earth and
gayest man understanding;
suffer us by Thine help to build to Thine honour. In Thine infinite
patience with our imperfections. In our pitiable weakness make perfect
and O. ineffable BEAUTY, leave us not ashamed. Instruct our tongues to
Word aright. Make attentive the ears that would catch Thy voice and in
breasts do Thou find for Thyself repose. Encourage those who walk in
to lean upon Thine Arm. By Thine Own Hand raise us out of all disaster
the Middle Chamber of Thy Sacred Presence we may rejoice to behold Thy
Thou Master of Workmen, Thou Builder of Mansions, Thou Giver of Life.
Grand Chaplain, New Brunswick.
Who Were Masons
Bro. George W. Baird.
P.G.M., District of Columbia
few men, few Masons, in our history who have figured so prominently and
yet so modestly
as James Otis. We learn that he was a Mason from The Freemasons'
published by that brilliant Massachusetts Grand Secretary and editor,
Moore; in his Volume XIX for 1860, page 133, he says:
"James Otis, of Revolutionary
distinguished lawyer and orator, was a frequent visitor to the Grand
Lodge. At the
quarterly communication of October 12, 1753, he appeared as the Senior
the 'second lodge.' Afterwards, his name is enrolled among those of
1753, 1754, 1758, 1759, 1760, 1761, 1765, 1767, 1768, 1769, 1773, and
1774. He was
a pall-bearer at the funeral of Grand Master Gridley, and served on a
of the Grand Lodge on that occasion."
was born on what was called Great Marshes, now West Barnstable,
5, 1725; and died at Andover, May 23, 1783. He was graduated at Harvard
having taken the College Course, studied law in Boston, and was
admitted to the
bar in Plymouth, where he began practice. Later he moved to Boston to
of the better opportunities there.
a thinking man with a habit of tireless industry. As early as 1760 he
his famous essay The Rudiments of Latin Prosody with a Dissertation of
the Principle Harmony in Poetic and Prosaic Composition. This title
classical and philological tastes. It was his knowledge of languages
him to find the exact word for his idea; though he became famous as an
was never in the least theatrical.
Advocate General in 1761 he delivered a masterly argument on "Whether
Employed in Enforcing the Acts of Trade Should Have the Power to Invoke
the Assistance of All the Executive Officers of the Colony." He soon
his office as Judge Advocate General because he considered the "Writs
to be illegal and refused to argue them further. He was then employed
on the other
side and produced a profound impression; the judges evaded giving
the Writs, though secretly granted at the next term, were never
elected to the Legislature, where his eloquence soon placed him at the
head of his
party and won for him the title of "The Great Incendiary of New
In 1765 he
moved that a congress of delegates be called from the several Colonies.
of this proposal resulted in a congress held at New York in October of
with Otis as a member. He was authorized to prepare an address to the
House of Commons.
In the following May he was elected Speaker of the Provincial House.
Townsend’s plan of taxation had passed in the British Parliament, the
House sent, in 1768, another circular letter requesting the Colonies to
some suitable measure of redress. When Governor Bernard required this
be rescinded Otis made a speech which was pronounced by the friends of
Government to be "the most violent, insolent, abusive, and treasonable
that perhaps ever was delivered." The House refused to rescind by a
92 to 17.
In the summer
of 1769 Otis discovered that the Commissioners of Customs had sent
him to England to charge him with treason; immediately he inserted an
in the Boston Gazette denouncing them. The next evening he met Mr.
of the Commissioners, in a coffee house; an altercation occurred in
which Mr. Otis
was struck on the head with a blunt instrument, leaving a gash; this is
to have been the cause of his dementure later on. In the action
Mr. Robinson he was awarded damages of 2000 pounds, but declined to
money since Mr. Robinson had made an "humble written apology."
retired, on account of his health, but was again chosen a
Representative. But he
was forced to retire permanently because of mental derangement. His
death was brought
on by a stroke of lightning which struck his house at Andover.
derangement he had destroyed nearly all his papers. He had published a
on The Vindication of the Conduct of the House of Representatives
The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted [Lib 1766], 1764; and Considerations on
of the Colonists [Lib 1765], 1765.
Craft stands just now in need of a new vocabulary. With the official
the principle of Masonic Education by so many Grand Lodges, brethren so
are hard put to discover a means of describing what they are aiming at.
is used, but it suggests something scientific, or antiquarian,
something very heavy
and dull. "Study" is unpleasantly reminiscent of school and college.
itself suggests study, classes, teachers, text-books and other highbrow
Of course there are very few Masons who desire to make a scientific
study of Masonry,
or who would care to go to school again; nevertheless they may desire
to learn what
Masonry is, how to practice it, or manage it, how to enjoy it. He will
lay us all
under obligation who makes us the Rift of a new vocabulary by which to
such desires and such needs.
of Masonry in the
Bro. H. L. Haywood Editor
VI – Beginnings in
of the various books in which some discussion is made of the beginnings
in Massachusetts will show that for many years the subject has lain in
due partly to a lack of data, partly to the average writer's habit of
without critical examination things said by a predecessor. If this
to a large extent been cleared up, so that the subject now stands forth
clear outlines it is principally due to a remarkable book, already
in these studies: The Beginnings of Freemasonry in America [Lib*], by
M. Johnson, P. G. M., Massachusetts. As already stated by the present
a review published in THE BUILDER, October, 1924, page 316, the chief
value of this
work is that it is based on original records, and that these records
have been subjected
to a critical scrutiny, by virtue of which fact it may be accurately
a new departure in writing the history of the Craft in America.
work covers the period from the traditional beginnings up to and
During that period Boston was the cultural and commercial capital of
and one of the two or three most important cities on the continent. A
find a detailed history of the city from 1630 to 1880 in a magnificent
work in four
volumes: The Memorial History of Boston, edited by Justin Winsor;
The period during which Freemasonry was organized in Massachusetts is
Volume II, in which, on page 439, is the following succinct description
of the population
and general characteristics of the Boston of that time:
appearance which Boston in the middle of the eighteenth century
presented to a visitor
was one of thrift and substantial prosperity. It had much the air of
some of the
best country towns in England. The marginal lines had not materially
Price's plan of 1743 shows, and the territory of the little peninsula
with but slight changes, until the new movement in life began early in
century. The population had increased chiefly by process of natural
by any extensive immigration or influx from the country. When the
out in 1722, it was estimated that the town contained about twelve
Twenty years later, in 1742, there were about eighteen thousand and the
exceeded twenty thousand in 1760. This stationary character of the
no doubt in the preservation of local characteristics. In the valuation
there were reported to be one thousand seven hundred and nineteen
houses, and one
hundred and sixty-six warehouses twelve hundred of the population were
thousand of them being set down as poor; and there were one thousand
and fourteen Negroes in town. Peter Faneuil had just presented Faneuil
Hall to the
town; and there were standing, besides the Town House and Province
House, ten meetinghouses
of the prevailing faith, three edifices of the Church of England, a
French, a Quaker,
and one Irish or Presbyterian meeting-house. There was a work-house and
a granary and four school-houses."
Calendar, Old Style
It was in
such an environment that Massachusetts Masonry made its beginnings some
the first quarter of the eighteenth century, and in order to understand
of development that environment will need to be kept constantly in
mind. Also the
reader needs to remember that prior to 1752 the Old Style calendar was
use. The general oversight of this fact has caused so much confusion in
histories it will be useful here to quote Bro. Johnson's explanation of
New Style calendars:
confusion has arisen over dates from January 1 to March 24, inclusive,
1753, because to and including the year 1752 the first day of the New
Year was March
25 instead of January 1. Consequently old style March 24, 1750, for
the day before March 25, 1751; and January 1, 1750, was the day after
1750, and not the day after December 31, 1749. In many commentaries on
matters as well as upon matters of general history this distinction has
with resultant confusion. Accuracy of dates has been attempted herein,
and for clearness
both old and new style have been indicated. For instance, March 24,
the day before March 25, 1751. At the time that day was officially
known as March
back to the origins of American Masonry Bro. Johnson made use of eight
Lists of Lodges.
often engraved, were issued at various times by the English and Irish
The two best books on these lists were written by Bro. John Lane: Handy
the Study of the Engraved. Printed and Manuscript Lists of Lodges of
and Accepted Masons of England (Moderns and Ancients) from 1723 to 1814
Appendix and Valuable Statistical Tables; and Masonic Records,
1717-1886; the former
was first printed, London, 1889; the latter, London, 1886. A second
edition of the
Records was published in London, 1895.
2. The Constitutions.
head are included all the Old Manuscripts, but more especially the
by Dr. James Anderson, first published in London, 1723 [Lib 1723]. It was this book that
Franklin brought out in Philadelphia, 1734. [Lib 1734]
and Account Books.
head come the record books of the Grand Lodge at London beginning under
June 24, 1723; Liber B, Philadelphia, beginning June 24, 1731; original
of the First Lodge in Boston, evidently begun in 1738; the original
records of the
Masters' Lodge in Boston, with the first record under date of Dec. 22,
of St. John's Lodge at Portsmouth, N. H., begun Oct. 31, 1739; minute
book of Tun
Tavern Lodge of Philadelphia, with the first entry dated June 28, 1749;
written by Benjamin Franklin July 4, 1730; and the record of the
Lodge of Boston beginning April 13, 1750.
of the Period.
In this classification
are included the original petition for the constitution of the First
Lodge in Boston;
the original petition for the constitution of the First Lodge in New
the Beteille Manuscript; the Baron's Letter; and The Pelham List. The
is so called because it was written by Francis Beteille. He was made a
the First Lodge of Boston, July 24, 1734, was made its secretary some
to June 23, 1736, and was "appointed or reappointed Grand Secretary by
Grand Master Tomlinson on June 24, 1737." Also he was evidently
the Masters' Lodge, for its records from Jan. 2, 1738/9, to and
including Aug. 7,
1739, are in his handwriting. The Manuscript named for him opens with a
the petition for the constitution of the First Lodge under date of July
Peter Pelham was made a Mason Nov. 8, 1738, in the First Lodge, of
which he became
secretary Dec. 26, 1739, and so remained until Sept. 26, 1744, when his
made a Mason in the First Lodge, Sept. 12, 1744, succeeded him. Charles
secretary until July 24, 1754, or afterwards. It is from these two
the Pelham List takes its name.
of the Period.
News-Letter, first published April 17, 1704; The Boston Gazette,
launched Dec. 14,
1719; The New England Courant, first published Aug. 17, 1721; and The
Weekly Journal, March 20, 1727, are among the important Massachusetts
Franklin and his brother had much to do with these early journalistic
6. The Pocket
Pocket Companion was printed in London by E. Rider in 1735. In its
first and subsequent
editions it was used as a kind of popular textbook of Freemasonry, and
until it was superseded to a large extent by Preston's Illustrations of
Illustrations of Masonry.
edition of this famous book was published in London, 1772 [Lib 1772]. For nearly a century it was
the most popular Masonic book in existence. Many portions of its
stand in need of careful revision, but for all that it is one of the
of Masonic history. The Masonic bibliophile will find it useful to
of Bro. Silas H. Shepherd's complete bibliography of Preston [Lib 1920].
Lodges Were "According
To Ancient Custom"
1721 it was "legal" or "regular" for a group of Masons, working
by "inherent right", to form themselves into a lodge, without charter
or other official instrument. Such lodges were known as "time
"spontaneous", sometimes as "occasional", and frequently as
"St. John's Lodges." After the Grand Lodge at London adopted its new
in 1721, covering the forming of a lodge, these independent Masonic
bodies had to
become regularized. All the extant evidence justifies us in believing
were such independent lodges in the American Colonies prior to 1733, a
adverted to in a previous chapter on the beginnings of Masonry in
as well as those that later came into existence, "duly and regularly
met under conditions very different from those now obtaining. They were
less migratory, meeting from place to place, sometimes in private
for a lodge meeting were carried from house to house by the tiler; and
usually left with the secretary, who kept them at his own home. Because
free and easy way of managing their affairs, lodges oftentimes kept few
or no records
of their activities; and frequently such records as were kept became
were in the same case. The Mother Grand Lodge at London was organized
in 1717, but
its contemporaneous records were not kept until on and after June 24,
first Grand Lodge in Massachusetts was organized in 1733, but the still
contemporaneous records begin of date July 13, 1750. An excellent
this state of affairs is found in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of
for 1871, page 338:
society conducts its affairs very differently now from what it did
to 1776 the Grand Lodge of England had no apartments of its own. Its
held in taverns and halls, while the Grand Secretary's office followed
of that officer, and the papers, archives and records intrusted to him
to loss, decay and mutilation. They were undoubtedly preserved as well
considering the fact that they followed the person of the Grand
Secretary, and were
subject to such care and supervision as he bestowed upon his own papers
in his own office.
same was true of the Grand Secretary's office here. It was at the house
officer, or at his place of business, as was most convenient, and the
archives were packed away in a box or trunk, rarely opened. The
Lodge met at the Bunch of Grapes Tavern, the Royal Exchange, at Concert
at such other place as was most convenient, and had no hall or home to
Under these circumstances, we are indeed fortunate in finding any of
the inquiry we are making, it is necessary to keep in mind the great
between the systematic manner in which our affairs are now conducted,
and the loose,
unmethodical way in which Masonry was carried on during the last
between 1733 and 1770."
of lodge meetings, as suggested above, were held in taverns, which were
what they afterwards became, but were social, intellectual, political
centers to which members of the best classes were accustomed to repair.
could be written, if space permitted, on the influence of tavern life
in early Massachusetts
Masonry. Some hint of this, along with valuable information concerning
prominent taverns of the period between 1733 and 1750, was given by
W. Moore in his The Freemasons' Monthly Magazine, 1860 [Lib*], page 131:
"During the period anterior to
is probable that the Grand Lodge met about thirty times, sometimes at
of Grapes Tavern, and sometimes at the Royal Exchange Tavern. In 1735,
Lodge' (the present Saint John's) was removed to the Royal Exchange by
the Grand Master; and on the 15th February, 1750, a 'second Lodge' was
to be held at the same place. On the 7th of March following, the 'third
formed, its meetings to be holden at the White Horse Tavern; but
that year, it was removed to the Bunch of Grapes.
"The Bunch of Grapes Tavern was
Street, just below the Town House, 1724'. Its site was that now
occupied by the
New England Bank, on the corner of State and Kilby Streets. It was kept
Coffin in 1731, and by Col. Joseph Ingersoll in 1764-9. King Street
as State Street in 1784.
"The Royal Exchange Tavern
stood on the
late site of the Columbian Bank, on the corner of State and Exchange
occupied by the Merchants' Bank building. The quarrel between Benjamin
and Henry Phillips, 1727, resulting in a duel and the death of the
here. The event caused a good deal of excitement at the time. The
tavern was then
kept by Luke Vardy. "The White Horse Tavern, 'at the South End, 1724,'
nearly opposite to where Hayward Place now is. Its landlord in 1760-4
"On 'Fryday, April ye 13th,
1750', a quarterly
communication of the Grand Lodge was held at the Royal Exchange Tavern,
R. W. Thomas
Oxnard presiding. From this date to that of January 27, 1775,
inclusively, one hundred
and fifty-one meetings ‒ regular, special and festive ‒ took place. The
designate the places where eighty-five of them were held. Until the
summer of 1767,
the quarterly and other business sessions were generally held at the
and afterwards, until the breaking out of the revolutionary war, at the
Brethren Made Much of
with the sociable tavern atmosphere in which they worked was the great
attached by our early brethren to their annual and semiannual feasts,
and to their
public processions. Feasts were held on either or both of the St.
John's Days, all
plans for the festivities being in the hands of the stewards. When the
arrived the brethren, each in his liveliest costume, gathered at the
or at the home of the Grand Master or Worshipful Master. The whole day
of the night was devoted to the festivities, except for the few hours
for lodge or Grand Lodge business. The public procession attracted the
of the entire town, for the brethren went forth in all the variety of
preceded by "French horns", and followed by the dignitaries in
In the same
essay from which quotations were made just above, Bro. Charles W. Moore
a little glimpse into these activities and at the same time furnishes a
the feasts celebrated by Grand Lodge on St. John the Baptist Day and on
the Evangelist Day:
"In 1751, on the 12th of April,
Voted, That the next St. John's Day should be celebrated out of Town;
our Rt. Wors. Bro. Price made an offer of the use of his House at
West Cambridge,] which was accepted.' The record states further that
ye 24th, 1751, the Brethren went in Regular Procession to the House of
in Cambridge, 'Bro. Price's House at Manotomy being Incumber'd by
a Grand Lodge was held for celebrating the day.'
"Within the period now under
twenty-four years, the festival of Saint John the Baptist was
celebrated at the
Grey Hound Tavern in Roxbury, in 1752, 1753, 1754, 1755, 1756, 1757,
1761, 1764, 1767, 1768 and 1770; at the British Coffee House in King
Street in 1762;
at 'The George Tavern on Boston Neck,' afterwards called 'The King's
in 1763, 1769, 1771, 1772 and 1773; and 'at the house of Bro. Gardner
"The feast of St. John the
the twenty-four years, was observed at the Royal Exchange Tavern in
1751, 1758 and
1759at the Bunch of Grapes Tavern in 1752, 1753, 1762, 1764, 1765,
1767, 1768, 1769,
1770, 1771, 1772 and 1773; at Concert Hall in 1756, and at the British
in 1760 and 1761.
"These festivals might have
also, in the years here omitted; but if so, the fact is not recorded."
For the general
period covered by the present chapter see the bibliography appended to
Club for last October, page 314.
For a description
of the Boston of 1700-1750 see The Memorial History of Boston,
County Massachusetts [Lib 1881; Vol 2], edited by Justin Winsor;
1882; Vol. II.
On the calendar
see Beginnings of Freemasonry in America [Lib*], Johnson; New York,
1924; page 42.
sources see Ibid, page 28 flf. [Lib*]
Beteille and the Beteille Manuscript see Ibid [Lib*], page 36, and
in index; also Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts for 1871
and Peter Pelham and the Pelham List see Beginnings of Freemasonry in
pages 290, 293; also consult index.
newspapers see The Memorial History of Boston [Lib 1881; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4]; VoI. II, page 387 flf.
or "time immemorial" lodges see Johnson, page 47 [Lib*];
The Freemasons' Magazine, 1844 [Lib 1844], page 163.
records see Massachusetts Proceedings, 1871 [Lib*], page 338;
Johnson, page 372 [Lib*];
The History of Freemasonry [Lib 1889; Vol
4], Robert Freke Gould;
1889, Vol. IV, page 242.
see The Freemasons' Magazine, Charles W. Moore; 1856 [Lib*], page 162;
and processions see Ibid [Lib*], page 132;
Johnson, pages 137, 187, 223 [Lib*].
- Why is it so difficult to
ascertain the exact facts concerning the origins
of American Masonry?
- What sets Bro. Johnson's book
apart from most of the studies of that field?
- Give a description of social
conditions in Boston during the early half of
the eighteenth century.
- In what way do you suppose, did
this environment influence Freemasonry?
- What is meant by the Old Style
calendar? When was the New Style begun?
- What are the various sources
for a history of American Masonry?
- Do Grand Lodges now publish
official lists? If so, where?
- What is meant by "the
- What part do they now play in
- What record and account books
does your own lodge keep?
- How are these preserved?
- Is your lodge keeping a history?
- What is meant by Masonic
- What was the Beteille
- The Pelham List?
- Name some early Boston
- What use have they as sources
of Masonic history?
- What was the Pocket Companion?
- Who was William Preston?
- What book did he write?
- When was it published?
- Have you ever read it?
- How did lodges come into
existence prior to 1721?
- What were such lodges called?
- How does a lodge now come into
- How did early lodges keep their
- Where did they meet?
- How did the early Grand Lodges
keep their records?
- Describe one of the early
- What is meant by St. John's Day?
- What is the date of St. John
the Baptist Day?
- St. John the Evangelist Day?
- Why are the two Saints John the
Patrons of Freemasonry?
- Does your own lodge hold feasts
on either of these days?
- Do you believe that Freemasons
should indulge in public processions?
- Who had charge of the social
festivities of early American lodges?
- How are the social festivities
managed in your own lodge?
- Do you believe that all such
festivities should be in the hands of the lodge
‒ H.L. Haywood
A Grand Master that
Mason who has read the symposium on "Making a Mason at Sight" printed
on the first page of this issue will probably feel that the whole
subject is something
of a mystery ‒ just as he feels about medicine when doctors disagree.
If we offer
our own interpretation of that mystery it is not to complete or perfect
so well said by the competent brethren who have contributed to the
rather to suggest a clue by which a reader may find the basis of
their various opinions, among which there is apparently so much
existed before the Fraternity adopted laws to declare or define their
purpose of such laws is necessarily to guide Grand Masters in the
exercise of their
authority and the performance of their duties; in other words, those
laws are rules,
rules to define the actions of Grand Masters.
It is conceivable
that a Grand Master might be called upon to perform an almost
of acts. If the laws are too general, too abstract, do not define a
of possible acts, if they leave too much to the discretion of a Grand
Grand Master necessarily becomes a despot. In such a system Grand Lodge
a shadow, or cease to be. The Grand Master ‒ like the too ambitious
who said "I am the state" ‒ would say, "I am the Grand Lodge! I am
Freemasonry!" In the nature of things such a state of affairs would be
because Freemasonry is not the kind of organization that could be so
On the other
hand, if nothing is left to the discretion of the Grand Master, if
act, or occasion, or emergency, or contingency, or decision, or
problem, or eventuality
is dealt with by our laws, or so attempted, then Masonic law will break
its own weight, too cumbersome to be applied, like the ancient
Rabbinical laws that
tried to tell a man how many yards he could walk on the Sabbath, how to
how to trim his beard, how many pins he could stick in his coat.
most detailed and elaborate set of rules some cases are certain to
arise not contemplated
by the makers of the rules. How can such emergencies be met? Clearly,
only by leaving
to the constituted authorities just the amount of discretionary power
to meet them.
It is this
principle that underlies a number of the "prerogatives of the Grand
Those "prerogatives" presuppose that no number of laws can possibly be
framed to meet every possible contingency, and therefore power is left
with a Grand
Master to act according to his own best wisdom. Not otherwise can the
itself to meet emergencies.
(the term is not happy) to "Make a Mason at Sight" is one case in
Under normal conditions the rules and regulations covering the
conferring of degrees
are perfectly satisfactory; but it may be that in some special and
those rules would be found wanting; it might be that a qualified
be so situated as to make it impossible for him to "travel the usual
If so, the Grand Master very properly exercises that authority
to him for just such a case.
to Make a Mason at Sight inheres in the office of Grand Master, just as
authority to meet any other kind of emergency. Whether any given case
is such as
constitutes an emergency, and justifies a Grand Master in the exercise
of his authority,
that is a separate question, necessary to be decided according to the
the case in question. The fact that of all the hundreds of Grand
Masters who have
governed the forty-nine American Grand Lodges during these many years
so few have
exercised this prerogative would indicate that such emergencies almost
Such being the case it is incumbent upon a Grand Master who does
venture to exercise
his authority to Make a Mason at Sight to make plain to the brethren of
how that one particular case was just such an emergency as could not be
by the exercise of the prerogative.
Lodge of New York adopted a new funeral service for Masons at its last
a ceremony to meet the present mood concerning death, and one in which
hallowed words of the older formularies are mingled with phrases of
In so doing it entered a path that other Grand Jurisdictions are also
to find for themselves, each in its own fashion, and by way of response
to a quiet
demand. The New York brethren succeeded in making a revision without
retaining the spirit of the old in language of the new, and that is
wise for it
is a subject about which every man has tender feelings.
back Winnifred Kirkland wrote an essay on "The New Death" to show that
with a changed outlook on life and the world we approach our departure
from it with
other hopes and fears than those experienced by our fathers. It may be.
It is certain
that we have won freedom from many needless superstitions. But even so
a bittersweet adventure, a letting go of the land for a voyage to one
what "passage to India."
friend, Cassius Keyser, who has himself of late been drawn perilously
near to the
everlasting farewells, published a while ago a meditation on the great
make us all see that what is most precious in life receives much of its
from the fact that it will have an end; that life has its richer
meanings by virtue
of the limits eternally set about it.
thought, with more pathos in it, and less hope, clung to William Morris
life long. The urge of vitality within his tireless body, and all the
the great dreams and hopes clamoring within him for expression, made
death for him
all the more regrettable, and touched with an unutterable pathos every
joy he knew.
In all his labors, he felt like those
"Who strive to build a shadowy
isle of bliss
Midmost the beating of the steely sea,"
sense of how fleeting all things are as men toil their way across the
"Grudge every minute as it
Made the more mindful that the sweet days die."
are fair but they are frail. The song of the birds at dawn has a
poignancy in it.
Nevertheless flowers and birds are all the dearer for the shortness of
the fleetness of summer.
"Folks say, a wizard to a
At Christmas-tide such wondrous things did show
That through one window men beheld the spring,
And through another saw the summer glow,
And through a third the fruited vines a-row,
While still, unheard, but in its wonted way,
Piped the drear wind of that December day."
This is beautiful
enough but there is no need that men grow sad because December pipes
its wind. December
has its own proper place among the months; there would be no wheat in
its snows; it belongs to the universe as much as June, and is equally
is not an interloper in the scheme of things, or an accident, or a
calamity, but as natural as birth, and as much to be welcomed. We do
not know what
it leads to, or what unexpected world may lie beyond it, but we have
to believe that after it we shall find ourselves in the same universe
as now, with
sunrises every morning, and stars in the sky. The processes that lead
us at last
to our transition are at work in our blood from the moment we are born,
our breathing and our sleep, all of a piece with birth and growth, and
it is as much a part of the everlasting scheme of things as existence,
not to be feared.
perhaps our life as we now live it may also not be an accident or a
experiment in the eternal scheme of things! It may be – one is
privileged to his
own dreams ‒ that the final exodus will be no transition to a totally
existence but merely one great moment in an existence that will
very much as we now know it! It may be that all the dead, great and
small, the countless
millions of them, are even now living somewhere in a world like our
own, men and
women, sleeping at night and arising in the morning, working and
perhaps, by the ancient pains and sorrows. If such were indeed the fact
at once lift from our present days the mists of transiency; soil and
houses, fields, mountains, suns, stars, working, planning, loving,
family, all these would emerge into our ken transformed and made doubly
it a fact that they and we together are now living in eternity.
To the mysteries
of our Craft death is no stranger. It appears at the center of them as
haggard tragedy and as an irreparable Loss, bringing confusion among
leaving the Column broken, the Temple incompleted. But so also appears
that shall endless be; a great Secret is recovered, a Discovery is made
in the rubbish,
an Altar is erected, a Temple is completed after many failures. It is
the hid, profound,
immortal teaching of Masonry, this Rising Again, this miracle
symbolized by the
It is all
true and real, and not a series of gestures for rhetorical effect; and
it is this
that should give its shape and color to the rites at the grave of a
wherein is expressed the agony of Loss to them that remain behind, but
at the same
time a Faith that calls them back again to the labors of the day in the
that death cancels none of the values of life, and that the Lord of
Life walks amidst
the gardens of death:
waited: He is come. Oh, I have dreamed
Of Him and doubted, now, I understand ‒
In all the day it was His glory gleamed,
In all the darkness I have touched His hand.
“’Tis the new life beginning; now I see
This cell is grown too small to hold me: I
Am driven out by joy's necessity,
For if I were to linger, joy must die.
"So I must out and on. Fling the door wide.
Good Porter, whether thou be life or death!
These narrow walls are not for me, outside
The whole world breathes the wonder of His breath."
RAY PARVIN, Grand Secretary, Grand Lodge of Iowa, and Vice-President of
Masonic Research Society, passed to the Grand East above, Friday
evening, Jan. 16,
1925. Funeral services were held at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Tuesday, Jan.
20, they being
in charge of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, of which Bro. Ernest R. Moore is
interment was made at Oakland Cemetery, Iowa City, where lies buried
father, Theodore Suttin Parvin, a name illustrious in the annals of
A sketch of Bro. N. R. Parvin's Masonic career will be published in
Map Is Needed
somebody prepare a map to show the geographical location of lodges, and
of membership with the general population?
Concise History of Canadian
Masonry Freemasonry in Canada
and published by Osborne Sheppard. May be purchased through National
Society Book Department, 1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Three
pages in loose-leaf binder. Price, postpaid, cloth, ';4.25; flexible
first published in 1912 (2nd edition, 1915) has recently been issued in
edition. It aims to be "an authoritative account of supreme Bodies in
and consists of some twenty-nine articles contributed by various
writers to such
works as "The Library of Freemasonry" or compiled by Bro. Sheppard from
editions many historical errors occurred; unfortunately very few of
these have been
corrected, nor has any attempt been made to set before the reader any
of the many
important discoveries made respecting early Canadian Freemasonry during
ten years by research students on both sides of the Atlantic.
two articles deal with "The Mother Grand Lodge of England" and "Old
British Lodges" by the late M. W. Bro. A. T. Freed and W. Bro. W. J.
respectively. These articles, somewhat in need of revision, are
as indicating the English and Scottish sources of Canadian Masonry.
There is, however,
no article on Irish Freemasonry, from which source at least twenty-one
lodges received their charters, and from which source also Canadian
the dozens of Military lodges of Irish origin in Canada, derived
in earlier days (to a far greater extent than from Scotland) and to
in Canada and the United States are indebted for many of the Higher
J. Bennett's article on "The Grand Lodge of Canada in Ontario" would
been better confined to that subject, which he deals with interestingly
the portion relating to early Masonry in Nova Scotia and Quebec should
left to writers on those subjects, thereby avoiding considerable
conflict of statement.
on "Freemasonry in Quebec," by the late Will H. Whyte, "Early Quebec
Lodges," by E. T. D. Chambers, and "St. Paul's Lodge, No. 374, E. R.,
Montreal," by Dr. D. D. MacTaggart, are full of information of more
interest, though claims on behalf of the antiquity of several lodges in
are made which, in the light of later-day research, are untenable, to
say the least.
in Nova Scotia" compiled from the writings of the late Senator Wm. Ross
hopelessly out of date. It should be entirely re-written. Freemasonry
in the Dominion
began in Nova Scotia at least twenty years before the rest of Canada
passed to the
British Crown. That Province has more than a good half dozen lodges
outpoint the historical sketches of the Ontario and Quebec lodges, of
not even a hint is given.
on Freemasonry in New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Manitoba,
and British Columbia are of recent compilation and most illuminating,
complete and concise.
these chapters comes a list of lodges under the Grand Lodge of Canada
with their officers, etc., for 1924; the other Grand Lodges of the
ignored. The same may be said respecting the chapter entitled "Rulings
Masters of the Grand Lodge of Canada in Ontario" ‒ useful and excellent
Ontario, but of little value elsewhere; the other Grand Lodges are
Masonry is dealt with ‒ inadequately we think ‒ in four articles:
Marks," compiled by Bro. Sheppard; "The Origin of the Royal Arch
by C. A. Conover. Gen. Grand Secretary, both very good; “The
Introduction of the
Royal Arch Degree into the United States" (interesting but in need of
revision); and "The Grand Chapter of Canada," by Henry T. Smith. This
last article, apparently complete and accurate as far as it goes, gives
that Royal Arch Masonry began in Ontario in 1787; where a Chapter
in Quebec from 1760, and the degree was conferred even earlier in Nova
is said respecting the origin of Royal Arch Masonry in the Dominion,
nor of its
long and splendid history in Quebec and, the Maritime Provinces.
on "Knight Templarism in Canada," by the late Will H. Whyte, and W.H.A.
Eckhardt, the present Grand Chancellor, give a comprehensive and
of this branch of Masonry in the Dominion, although some revision is
the first article by reason of recent research. The article on "The A.
A. Scottish Rite in Canada," by W.H Ballard, is all that could be
and gives an excelled account of the growth of the Rite. We cannot,
the same respecting the chapters on the "Royal Order of Scotland" and
"The Cryptic Rite". Those deal with the legendary history and
of these organizations, but not a word to show that these orders have
of Canada. The article on the "Shrine," by W. B. Melish, deals with the
history of the Order in the U.S.A. with a list of 155 Temples in the
and the Dominion.
are promised twice a year and should prove a means of rectifying errors
as adding to the information given in the volume. If a good index were
it should prove most useful in finding one's way through a work which
every lover of the history of our Order. A concise history of the
Canada is much needed an should fill a long-felt vacant.
* * *
Martyrdom of Winwood
OF MAN [Lib 1872]. By Winwood Reade. Published
by Peter Eckler.
For sale by National Masonic Research Society Book Department, 1950
St. Louis, .Mo. Cloth. Price, postpaid, $2.15.
MY own experience
with this book would in itself be an almost sufficient review. I
chanced to take
it along on an all day trip on a summer excursion train across Ohio ‒
old state! There was a superabundance of crowds, confusion, racket,
cinders and heat, but there were no seats, not at least for me. So I
stood up all
day; and all day long, thus standing, I read; and the book was so
that by the time I reached Sandusky I had read it through. There is
a book that can put one under a spell like that!
that something is one is hard put to describe, but it is there, and
many a man (as
Elbert Hubbard said, "It is not a book for mollycoddles") has felt it
as deeply as did I. George Routledge, of London, has announced a
Even in this land where men do not have much of a stomach for strong
books, it is
beginning to take hold. Second-hand dealers tell me it is in
and that, for some reason or other, difficult to guess, it seems to
make a peculiar
appeal to Masons.
Of The Martyrdom
of Man Cecil Rhodes said to Princess Catherine Radziwill: "I know the
It is a creepy book. I read it the first year I was in Kimberley, fresh
father's parsonage, and you may imagine the impression which it
produced upon me
in such a place as a mining camp." After a moment's pause he exclaimed:
book has made me what I am!" H. G. Wells bears a similar testimony in
to his The Outline of History: “One book that has influenced me
strongly is Winwood
Reade's Martrydom of Man. This 'dates,' as people say nowadays, and it
has a fine
gloom of its own." Also there is the word in W. Robertson Nicoll's The
of Nuts, that work of exquisite beauty, but now, alas, out of print:
Reade, we have been told, has first designed to call his book The
Duties and Responsibilities
of Creators. It is in its most impressive part an arraignment of the
As such it has few books that stand beside it in English literature."
down the page the famous editor registers his judgment: "But for the
happily, English writers have refrained from calling God to the tiny
bar of their
nephew of the novelist, Charles Reade) was an African explorer, and
fell early under
the enchantment of Africa, so that he came to look at the whole world,
and to come, from the point of view of that exotic continent, where
human life has
always taken a strange turn, and where it comes easy to believe in
demons, occultisms, and all manner of supernaturalisms. Today as much
Africa fascinates the imagination because it is the home of primitive
like of which disappeared from other parts of the world ages ago. Reade
was a cultivated
Englishman; finding himself in the midst of Africa's Neolithic life his
disturbed by the shock of the contrast, and became filled, as Wells
said, with gloom.
But it was
not a "fine gloom!" Far from it! There is nothing fine about it. Nor
one, like Nicoll, accuse the author of the presumptuous pride of
mind was darkened into atheism and despair by its inability to see
facts; it is
this, rather than any pride or presumption, that transforms his book,
be a history of the world as viewed from Africa, into a crepuscular
as our own equally benighted Edgar Allan Poe might have written.
In some ways
Reade reminds one of another brilliant literary talent who also fell a
an irremediable pessimism: the author of Madame Bovary. Flaubert was
far more painstaking
and "scientific" in accumulating facts than was Reader and he had an
maniacal passion to use words in their most accurate senses. But all of
of information, accumulated at the cost of numberless sick headaches,
added no wisdom
to his mind. In his Salammbo he gives us a picture of a military rout
in old Carthage:
in one all enclosing panic kings, queens, soldiers, peasants, children,
elephants, lions, serpents, and vermin plunged helplessly together into
death among mud holes. It was Flaubert's picture of human life.
is the picture presented in The Martyrdom of Man, where the whole of
life is envisaged as a frightened plunge out of the heart of darkness
into the heartless
dark. This means that Reade literally did not know what he was talking
if human life were such a pitilessly cruel thing the human race would
off this unhappy earth thousands of years ago. His central blunder was
not in his
gloom or in his satanic pride but in his inability to see facts as they
are or report
them as he found them. Such a book, where this is true of it, may be
a "fine gloom" and all that, but it is not HISTORY; and what it gives
us is not "the martyrdom of man" but the unhappy martydrom of Winwood
* * *
Sheaf of Sermons
[Lib*], 1924. Edited With Introduction and Biographical Notes by Joseph
Published by Harcourt, Brace & Co., New York. May be purchased
Masonic Research Society. Blue cloth, 852 pages. Price $2.65.
art of preaching is not likely to be abandoned in this or any other
age, not as
long as men hunger in spirit and need guidance through the tangled
life. The preacher is his own medium: his gestures, intonations and
along with the subtle nuances of his personality, are as much a part of
as his words, for which reason not many sermons can be captured in
are, however, happy exceptions where one who knows the divine power to
in a pulpit enjoys equal talent for setting them down on paper. The
is a sheaf from sermons by such men, collected and edited by one who is
one of the pulpit's most eloquent voices in this age.
explains the motive behind this anthology in his preface:
several years past we have had each season books of the best poems, the
stories, the best moving pictures to which it seems worthwhile to add
book of the Best Sermons. Such a venture is not only timely, but is
the new interest in the issues of religious faith created by the
of the last ten years, as well as by the debates which have recently
churches, and still more by the ancient wistfulness of the human heart
and its need
for guidance in a time of unrest and confusion."
he reveals his own ideal of the great art while describing the sermons
he has selected
sermons in this book, selected from a profusion of riches, show us a
company of preachers, very unlike one another in outlook, in method,
and in gifts;
young men of dawning genius, men in the full flight of mid-career and
ripe and serene vision. Hardly an echo of recent debates is heard in
One would not find it easy to tell to what churches the preachers
belong, if the
labels were left off. They are not concerned with dogmas that divide,
but with the
issues and perplexities of life as men live it today; and above all
with the problem
of redemption in its tragic and gigantic modern setting. In every
sermon there is
the same loyalty to the personality and principles of Jesus who, in
spite of all
our energy and invention ‒ radium, radio and the rest ‒ has in His
keeping the one
secret the world needs to know. About Him these preachers gather; in
His name they
speak, each with his own insight and eloquence, in behalf of a common
underlies all creeds and over-arches all sects."
be interested to find among the preachers represented the names of four
active in the Craft: Bros. Gaius Glenn Atkins, Lynn Harold Hough,
Ernest E. Tittle
and Robert Norwood.
* * *
New Edition of Streets
OF THE THREE DEGREES [Lib 1924]. By Oliver Dan Street. Second
and Enlarged. Vol. III National Masonic Library. Published by Masonic
Washington, D. C. May be purchased through National Masonic Research
Department, 1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Blue cloth, questions
index, 195 pages. Price, postpaid, $2.15.
Symbolism is so familiar to readers of THE BUILDER that it does not
stand in need
of review except to say that the author has added to it so much new
has rewritten so many pages that it is substantially a new book, and as
richly deserving its place in the National Masonic Library, published
by the Masonic
Service Association. Furthermore, Bro. Street has also included ten
pages of Questions
for Discussion, thereby the better fitting it for use by Study Clubs;
text for that purpose is in existence.
A list of
the topics not covered in previous editions will show at a glance how
much the book
has been enlarged: Name of the Fraternity; Definition of Masonry;
Secrecy; The Twenty-four
Inch Gauge; The Common Gavel; The Chisel; The Key; Solomon's Temple;
Tiler, Tyler; Due Guard; Approaching the East; The Dignity of Man;
Blue; Gloves; Valley of Jehoshaphat; Untempered Mortar; Nature;
Relief of the Distressed; Truth; Light; Jewels of a Lodge; Perfect
Youth; The Square;
The Level; The Plumb; Point Within a Circle; Parallel Lines; "What Came
Here to Do?"; Royal Tradition; Officers of a Lodge; Letter G;
The Working Tools: Broached Thurnel; Death; The Resurrection;
to Read in Masonry
Kit of Working Tools
lists embodied in this series do not show what books are available as
new and what
are to be had only secondhand; there is never any telling when a title
will go out
of print, or when an old work will be reissued. Such information on any
of the books
referred to will be given on request.)
TO make dictionaries
is dull work," bemoaned Samuel Johnson, the patron saint of all good
Perhaps! but using them is not. O. Henry, who read them for fun, called
the most exciting books in existence; "they are so full of surprises
It is possible
that the studious Craftsman will not find Masonic dictionaries and
very exciting ‒ it is difficult to write an exciting Masonic book ‒ but
is certain, he will find them necessary, dictionaries, encyclopedias,
reference works, whatever his own favorite field may be. He will need
such a kit
of working tools.
If he is
collecting a library of his own he will probably wish to classify it
William L. Boyden's Classification of the Literature of Freemasonry and
Societies, will be useful for that purpose; and Selected List of
by the Wisconsin Grand Lodge Committee on Masonic Research, of which
H. Shepherd is chairman, will show how to apply the Boyden system to a
list of titles.
The catalogs issued by various Masonic libraries will assist to the
same end. In
the selection of the best books he can consult the various published
such as Masonic Historical and Bibliographical Memoranda [Lib 1882], by J. H. Drummond; Masonic
[Lib*], Enoch T. Carson; Early Masonic Literature [Lib*], E. H. Dring;
Masonic Literature [Lib*], Harry A. Williamson, etc. In addition to
these are such
special bibliographies as Shepherd's Bibliography of Preston's
numberless others. One of the best ways to keep abreast of new books as
is to subscribe for the cards issued at intervals by the Library of
Washington, D. C.; the cost is nominal.
of old lodges the best works are Masonic Records, and Handy Book, etc.,
John Lane; and Pocket Companion for Freemasons [Lib*], 1735, and Pocket
and History of Freemasons [Lib*], 1764, both anonymous. The List of
published annually at Bloomington, Ill., gives all lodges now in
existence in America
and a few other countries; the Masonic Year Book, published annually
of the Grand Lodge of England, gives complete data concerning names,
etc., of all Masonic bodies in any way connected with that Obedience.
or yearly Transactions will keep a student in touch with the work of
lodges, most of which are in England; and he will find it necessary to
have a copy
of the Annual Proceedings of his own Grand Lodge, especially for the
sake of the
Fraternal Correspondence Report, in which is a bird's-eye view of
general Masonic reference works, more especially the encyclopedias.
The Cyclopedia of Fraternities [Lib 1899], Stevens, is out of date in
but otherwise essential.
Concise Cyclopaedia of Freemasonry[Lib*], or Handbook of Masonic
E. L. Hawkins;
History and Cyclopaedia of Freemasonry [Lib 1870], Oliver and Macoy;
Royal Masonic Cyclopaedia of History, Rites, Symbolism and Biography
R. H. MacKenzie;
Kenning's Masonic Cyclopaedia [Lib*], A. F. Woodford;
and Dictionary of Symbolical Masonry [Lib 1853], George Oliver, are composed
concise articles on Masonic subjects, all in English. The more
are New Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry, A. E. Waite;
and An Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry [Lib 1914], principally by A. G. Mackey,
latter of which is widely used in America. The Bound Volumes of THE
which a ten-year consolidated index is now being prepared, is also good
to be used
for encyclopaedia purposes.
Of the many
handbooks with reference value, these are representative:
The Master's Assistant [Lib*], D. D. Darrah;
The Worshipful Master's Assistant [Lib*], Macoy;
Things a Freemason Should Know [Lib*], Crowe
The Master Mason's Handbook [Lib 1890], Crowe, etc.
reference works, necessary for auxiliary purposes, there are legion,
but some call
for special mention:
The New English Dictionary [Lib*];
Encyclopaedia Britannica [Lib*];
Dictionary of the Bible [Lib 1911; (4 Volumes– See
Dictionary of Religion and Ethics [Lib 1908; (13
Volumes (Hastings) – See Bibliography)], Mathews and Smith;
Encyclopaedia Biblica [Lib 1899/1903; (4 Volumes– See
, Cheyne and Black;
Encyclopaedia of Occultism [Lib 1920], Spencer
Manual of Church History [Lib 1900; Vol 1, Vol 2], Newman;
Encyclopaedia of Social Reform [Lib*], Bliss;
Cyclopaedia of Education [Lib 1892 (Cyclopedia), Fletcher]; [Lib 1906 (History), Monroe] [;
and Encyclopaedia of Religions [Lib 1921], Canney.
of all such works in the general field of religion and morality is the
of Religion and Ethics, Hastings; a list of its articles of interest to
published in THE BUILDER, July, 1922, page 215. Of reference works on
two will be sufficient, both bearing the official imprimatur:
Question Box, Conway [Lib 1909]; and
The Catholic Encyclopaedia [Lib 1907; (16 Volumes–
For all matters
in the fields of primitive culture, folklore, early religions, and
Golden Bough [Lib 1922] is as rich as a gold mine.
work in the Masonic field comparable to the Encyclopaedia Britannica
and other great
general reference works is a set of the famous Transactions of the
Lodge of Research, London, known as Ars Quatuor Coronatorum [Lib (34 Volumes–
the publication of the now very scarce first volume in 1888 until the
new volume has been issued each year, filled with the most scholarly
Freemasonry thus far produced in any land.
If a student
is wise he will not trust his memory to preserve all he learns, but
a reference work of his own in the shape of a filing system, which can
and of small cost. One of the most effective of these may be organized
quantity of ordinary manila letter folders, 11 3/4 inches wide, with a
9 inches when folded, and of such a quality as will permit writing in
ink. On the
inside ‒ you can draw off three columns with a pencil ‒ write down your
to books, quotations, and such of your own ideas as you wish not to
forget. On the
back paste your magazine and newspaper clippings. When the back is
a Card No. 2 on the same subject. This card when folded will serve as a
for clippings too large to paste, booklets, pictures, and other loose
folders may be kept in a homemade box. With the folders costing only
$1.50 or $2.00
per hundred, and an alphabetical guide costing only a dollar or so, the
for 1,000 subjects can be established for a total cost of only ten or
When to his
collection of Masonic and general reference works and to his filing
system the student
adds two or three good standard dictionaries his kit of working tools
completion. There is a great difference among dictionaries, especially
words, and they are not all to be trusted. (Did not the great Dr.
admit guessing now and then?) It is safest to use some good unabridged
derivations and furnishing examples of usage; it is safest of all, if
one is lucky
enough to be near a good public library ‒ the cost is prohibitive ‒ to
use The New
English Dictionary, sometimes called the Oxford. Nearly all our
terms will be found in it, in some form or another, and it is as near
as anything of the kind can be.
Box and Correspondence
York Owns Copy of Franklin
with your Franklin article in the December BUILDER, page 372, you can
add the Library
of the Grand Lodge of New York as possessing a copy of the original
It likewise has a copy of the Pennsylvania Grand Lodge reproduction of
and a copy of the reprint of the reprint issued by the New York Masonic
D. D. Berolzheimer, New York.
* * *
Starcke Is a Mason
In the November
issue of THE BUILDER, on page 352, the anonymous Brother A. B. C. says
C. N. Starcke is not a Mason. He mistakes. Brother Starcke is
of the St. John's Lodge De Gamle Pligter ("The Old Charges") in
under the Grand Lodge of Hamburg; and he is an honorary member of
P. A. Fenger, Copenhagen.
* * *
To This Brother
I am sending
you my renewal for membership in our Society. It seems to me that THE
so much better than it used to be. I have been quite sick for some
time. I will
be eighty-six next week if I live until the 26th; my wife is two and a
younger; we will be married sixty-five years if spared until the 26th
I have been a Mason over fifty years. I have not been able to walk a
block for over
fifteen months. I wish brethren would drop me a line.
W. O. Sterling, Annandale, Minnesota.
* * *
Books for Sale and
I have for
sale a number of desirable books on Masonry that would be a welcome
any library. At the same time I desire to procure a few of the volumes
of Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum, Proceedings of the Lodge of Research, No. 2129, Leicester,
and Proceedings of the Manchester Association of Masonic Research. If
has some of the latter works for sale we may possibly arrange for an
Bro. V. L. P., c/o THE BUILDER, St. Louis, Mo.
* * *
A Secondhand Catalog
with Masonic Appeal
and Co., 43, Piccadilly, London, W. 1, England, have recently issued
No. 82 of secondhand books on the Fine Arts. Their list includes so
of especial appeal to Masonic students that such brethren will find it
while to possess themselves of a copy. The catalog is in itself a work
of art, containing
a large number of very rare illustrations. The lists on Archaeology,
Bookplates, Costume, Heraldry, Mosaic, and Ornament are especially
the Masonic point of view.
* * *
as a Mason
Foskett, of St. Louis, was one of two who attended the Knight Templar
at New Orleans in 1874 and again in 1922. He tells me that the
Commandery from St.
Louis went to the Triennial in 1874 on the Mississippi River boat Grand
and that at some point down the river, Jefferson Davis, much worn and
brought on board and introduced around among the brethren as a Mason. I
this clue to Bro. Nathaniel H. Walker, Gulfport, Miss., who made an
THE BUILDER September last, page 287.
Ray V. Denslow, Missouri
* * *
In THE BUILDER
for May, 1924, page 160, we have noticed an inquiry from one of your
a lodge which might be described as the highest in the world. We may
tell your readers
that here in Simla, at an elevation above sea level of 7,200-odd feet,
we have five
Craft lodges, three of them English Constitution, one Irish and one
above figure, I think, puts the one your correspondent specified in the
Journal of Northern India,
* * *
in a while the question of physical requirements of the candidate for
comes up. In this connection I have never seen reference made to the
as given in the Book of Leviticus, Chapter XXII: "And Jehovah spake
saying, Speak unto Aaron saying, Whosoever he be of thy seed throughout
that hath a blemish, let him not approach to offer the bread of his
God. For whatsoever
man he be that hath a blemish, he shall not approach; a blind man, or a
he that hath a flat nose, or anything superfluous, or a man that is
or broken-handed, or crook-backed, or a dwarf, or that hath a blemish
in his eye,
or is scurvy, or scabbed, or bath his stones broken no man of the seed
the priest that hath a blemish, shall come nigh to offer the offerings
made by fire: he bath a blemish, he shall not come nigh to offer the
bread of his
I. V. Gillis, Peking, China.
* * *
The Comacine Theory
I have been
reading for the second time Bro. Haywood's Study Club article on the
October, 1923, and Bro. Ravenscroft's reply in January of 1924, but am
in the dark about one point. Bro. Haywood appears not to accept the
is not that generally accepted? Do not all Masonic historians believe
came down from the builders of cathedrals?
D. G. F., Ohio.
of Masonic historians accept the theory that Masonry has come down from
builders, but that is not the same as accepting the Comacine Theory.
theory holds that among the cathedral builders was a great secret
organized, under a governing head, and that it was from this secret
Freemasonry derived. One can believe in the theory that Freemasonry
among the cathedral builders (I believe it myself) without accepting
theory that those cathedral builders were ever a secret society. I do
the "Comacine Theory"; I am unconvinced and still on the fence. Some
have accepted that theory but I do not believe that it could be
described as "generally
accepted," at least my own notes do not indicate as much.
* * *
Not A "World Masonic
that since the World War there have been a great many "World
of different sorts, all with the idea of coming to some mutual
agreement to end
war for all time, all of which have not seemed to make very much
progress. I have
been wondering if a "World Masonic Congress" would not be a good idea.
It could be held for the purpose of "lessening the probabilities of
and it would serve a twofold purpose in that it would tend to
strengthen the idea
of friendship and brotherly love amongst the Craft over the world.
Thomas M. Parsons, Wisconsin.
Parsons' proposal is as excellent an idea as it is Masonic. It has been
and debated by Masonic statesmen. The International Masonic Association
into existence as a step toward world Masonic unity. Thus far it has
many difficulties, owing to the differences of constitution and
Grand Lodges and other Grand Bodies. Perhaps the most successful
attempt at Masonic
World Congresses have been the General Conferences of regular Supreme
the Scottish Rite. The subject is one that merits discussion.
* * *
to learn something about the origin of the Sextant and its Masonic
Can it be given to other than a P. M.?
W. P. B., New York.
I do not
understand that, Masonically speaking, there is an instrument called
Masonically the word refers to a pair of compasses opened at an angle
of 60 degrees.
In the United States the Jewel of a Past Master is a pair of compasses
an angle of 60 degrees and lying over a fourth part of a circle with a
Sun in the
center. Of course, no one but an actual Past Master would be entitled
to wear this
or angle of 60 degrees is the angle in which the cord of a circle
equals the radius.
It is also the angle of an equilateral triangle. Six of these make a
and therefore it was anciently a unit of astronomical measurements.
Each of these
units was divided into 60 degrees, each degree into 60 minutes, and
into 60 seconds. As such we still use it as the unit of circular
instead of dividing the circle into six Sextants we consider it as
having 360 degrees,
but the division of degrees into minutes and seconds still continues.
to a Past Master's Jewel the Sextant over the quadrant implies that the
has superseded the material, that the standard of earthly measurements
place to that of the heavenly, and that the wearer is a Past Master in
* * *
Conferring Degrees by Courtesy
In the Question
Box of the August issue, page 256, appeared an item dealing with the
Through the good offices of the Iowa Masonic Library we are able to
up with valuable information concerning the regulations in employment
by all American
Grand Lodges, except for Arizona, Delaware, Mississippi and Oklahoma.
those Grand Jurisdictions will help to make the present record complete
will give us their own Grand Lodge regulation. The following Grand
all three degrees by courtesy and grant waivers of jurisdiction:
Connecticut, District of Columbia, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Kentucky,
Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey,
New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oregon, Rhode Island, South
Dakota (some lodges charge a fee, others do not), Texas, Utah, Vermont,
Washington, West Virginia and Wisconsin, the latter allowing the same
at the discretion
of the local lodge. Grand Lodges doing the same except for the E. A.
California, Colorado, Indiana, Nevada and Wyoming. Those conferring all
but not granting waivers: Minnesota, Missouri and Tennessee. Florida
degrees and waives jurisdiction except where a candidate has been
Kansas confers all degrees; waives jurisdiction; where a petitioner has
been a non-resident
for two years cannot request courtesy degrees and must waive
confers all degrees and waives jurisdiction only over those permanently
from state, so also Maine. Pennsylvania confers no courtesy degrees at
for courtesy work must be made to the Grand Master in Arkansas,
Nebraska and Oregon; in other cases may be made through Grand
Notice of any errors that may have crept into this listing will be
* * *
from the Scottish Rite News Bureau that a London book dealer has
offered for sale
the second known copy of The Old Constitutions Belonging to the Ancient
Society of Free and Accepted Masons. Taken from a manuscript wrote
about five hundred
years since. London, Printed and Sold by J. Roberts in Warwick Lane,
Six pence). Something like $7,600 is asked for this very rare Masonic
first known copy is in the possession of the Grand Lodge of Iowa. The
Research Society published this manuscript in fac-simile some years ago.
on Lectures of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania has very kindly given us
distribution fifty copies each of their three bulletins: "Lecture
"Freemasonry in Pennsylvania Before the Grand Lodge of 1786," and
in Pennsylvania ‒ Organization, Organic Law, Ritual." First come, first
Send a postage stamp and your name and address clearly written.
* * *
to Bro. George Washington on his 193rd birthday.
* * *
H. Dern, one of Ye Associate Editors, is now Governor of the State of
Utah. It is
where he belongs. Sincerest congratulations to Bro. Dern.
* * *
the Table of Contents to the outside cover, by lengthening the page two
by setting the Library Department in smaller type we have been enabled
to add 3,000
words of reading to each issue of THE BUlLDER without increasing the
* * *
554 titles in our new book catalog.
* * *
No. 2, Cavite, Philippine Islands, had the misfortune to lose
everything by fire.
The lodge requests that every member in any part of the world send in
his name and
address at once to the lodge secretary. A large part of Cavite's
membership is composed
of service men.
* * *
Home Journal, that esteemed contemporary, is hard on editors ‒ or is it
Witness this: "The editor of a profane paper, who was a believer in
journalism,' ran the following as an editorial: 'The business man of
this city who
is in the habit of hugging his stenographer had better quit or we will
name.' The next day thirty-seven business men called at the office,
paid their subscriptions
a year in advance, left thirty-seven columns of advertising, to run
and told the editor not to pay any attention to fool stories."
* * *
of next month's BUILDER will be an article by Grand Master Wm. A.
Rowan, of | New
York, on the International Masonic Association. It is worth going
twenty miles to
read, and then some.
* * *
At the left
is Bro. William Hogarth's notion of married life. It is very
symbolical, one would
say! Bro. Hogarth was Grand Steward, Grand Lodge of England, in 1735.
James Book of
And23. - London : William Hunter, 1723. - Fac-Simile by Jno. W. Leonard
& Co., New York, 1855 : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 119. - 6.0 MB.
Anderson James Book of Constitutions
And34 / ed. Franklin Benjamin. - Philadelphia : Unknown, 1734. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 52. - 1.1 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 001 - 1895
Ars95 / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC, 1895. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. -
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 002 - 1889
Ars89 / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC, 1889. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 221. -
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 003 - 1890
Ars90 / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC, 1890. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 277. -
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 004 - 1891
Ars91 / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC, 1891. - Vol. 4 : p. 305. -
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 005 - 1892
Ars92 / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC, 1892. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 356. -
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 006 - 1893
Ars93 / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC, 1893. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 311. -
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 007 - 1894
Ars94 / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC, 1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. -
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 008 - 1895
Ars951 / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC, 1895. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 358.
- 94.0 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 010 - 1897
Ars97 / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC, 1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 306. -
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 013 - 1900
Ars00 / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. -
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 014 - 1901
Ars01 / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC, 1901. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 330.
- 22.3 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 017 - 1904
Ars04 / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC, 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 396.
- 33.0 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 018 - 1905
Ars05 / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC, 1905. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 256.
- 15.0 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 019 - 1906
Ars06 / ed. Rylands W. H.. - Margate : H. Keble, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 429. - 37.0 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 020 - 1907
Ars07 / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC, 1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 443.
- 61.5 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 021 - 1908
Ars08 / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 437.
- 34.8 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 024 - 1911
Ars11 / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC, 1911. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 490.
- 47.0 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 025 - 1912
Ars12 / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC, 1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 529.
- 35.8 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 028 - 1915
Ars15 / ed. Reylands W. H.. - London : AQC, 1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
268. - 215.4 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 029 - 1916
Ars16 / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC, 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 418.
- 20.3 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 032 - 1919
Ars19 / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC, 1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 213.
- 16.7 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 033 - 1920
Ars20 / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 303.
- 23.6 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 034 - 1921
Ars21 / ed. Songhurst W. J.. - London : AQC, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
272. - 16.4 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 036 - 1923
Ars23 / ed. Songhurst W. J.. - London : AQC, 1923. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
307. - 47.4 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 037 - 1924
Ars24 / ed. Songhurst W. J.. - London : AQC, 1924. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
330. - 38.0 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 038 - 1925
Ars25 / ed. Songhurst W. J.. - London : AQC, 1925. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
333. - 38.5 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 039 - 1928
Ars26 / ed. Songhurst W J. - London : AQC, 1926. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 328.
- 44.0 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 040 - 1927
Ars27 / ed. Songhurst W. J.. - London : AQC, 1927. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
310. - 18.0 MB.
Ars Quatuor Coronati AQC Transactions Vol 041 - 1928
Ars28 / ed. Songhurst W. J.. - London : AQC, 1928. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
368. - 75.0 MB.
Canney Maurice A Encyclopaedia of Religions
Can21. - London : George Routledge & Sons, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 407. - 42.5 MB.
Cheyne Thomas K Encyclodaedia Biblica Vol 1 -
A to D
Che99EB1. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1899. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p.
605. - 42.2 MB.
Cheyne Thomas K Encyclodaedia Biblica Vol 2 -
E to K
Che03EB2. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1903. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p.
801. - 57.8 MB.
Cheyne Thomas K Encyclodaedia Biblica Vol 3 -
L to P
Che02EB3. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1902. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p.
674. - 47.6 MB.
Cheyne Thomas K Encyclodaedia Biblica Vol 4 -
Q to Z
Che03EB4. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1903. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p.
765. - 53.8 MB.
Conway Bertrand L Question Box Answers
Con09. - New York : The Columbus Press, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 621. -
Crowe Frederick J W The Master Mason's Handbook
Cro90. - London : George Kenning, 1890. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 105. - 2.5 MB.
Drummond Josiah Masonic Memoranda
Dru82. - Brooksville : James W Staton, 1882. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 179. -
Fletcher Alfred E Cyclopedia of Education
Fle92. - London : Swan Sonnenschein & Co, 1892. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 571. - 50.5 MB.
Frazer James G The Golden Bough
Fra221. - [s.l.] : Project Gutenberg, 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 664. -
Formatted and Indexed from Project Gutenberg File by rhm - 2.6 MB.
Gould Robert F History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1. - New York : John C. Yorston & Co., 1884. - Vol.
1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
Gould Robert F History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2. - New York : John C. Yorston & Co., 1884. - Vol.
2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
Gould Robert F History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3. - New York : John C. Yorston & Co., 1884. - Vol.
3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
Gould Robert F History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4. - New York : John C. Yorston & Co, 1884. - Vol.
4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
Hastings James Dictionary of the Bible Vol 1
- A to Feasts
Has11DB1. - New York : Charkes Scribner's Sons, 1911. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p.
881. - Illustrated - 85.9 MB.
Hastings James Dictionary of the Bible Vol 2
- Feign to Kinsman
Has11DB2. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1911. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p.
884. - Illustrated - 84.3 MB.
Hastings James Dictionary of the Bible Vol 3
- Kir to Pleiades
Has11DB3. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1911. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p.
915. - Illustrated - 87.2 MB.
Hastings James Dictionary of the Bible Vol 4
- Pleroma to Zuzim
Has11DB4. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1911. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p.
1007. - Illustrated - 104.7 MB.
Hastings James Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 01
HasER01 - A to Art. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol.
1 : 13 : p. 925. - 87.9 MB.
Hastings James Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 02
HasER02 - Arthur to Bunyan. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908.
- Vol. 2 : 13 : p. 927. - 87.9 MB.
Hastings James Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 03
HasER03 - Burial to Confessions. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1908. - Vol. 3 : 13 : p. 922. - 86.8 MB.
Hastings James Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 04
HasER04 - Confirmation to Drama. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1908. - Vol. 4 : 13 : p. 929. - 93.8 MB.
Hastings James Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 05
HasER05 - Dravidians to Fichte. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1912. - Vol. 5 : 13 : p. 925. - 90.8 MB.
Hastings James Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 06
HasER06 - Fiction to Hyskos. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1914. - Vol. 6 : 13 : p. 910. - 275.9 MB.
Hastings James Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 07
HasER07 - Hymns to Liberty. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908.
- Vol. 7 : 13 : p. 935. - 93.3 MB.
Hastings James Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 08
HasER08 - Life and Death to Mulla. - New York : Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1908. - Vol. 8 : 13 : p. 934. - 92.6 MB.
Hastings James Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 09
HasER09 - Mundas to Phrygians. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1917. - Vol. 9 : 13 : p. 934. - 119.2 MB.
Hastings James Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 10
HasER10 - Picts - Sacraments. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1908. - Vol. 10 : 13 : p. 938. - 86.9 MB.
Hastings James Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 11
HasER11 - Sacrifice to Sudra. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1908. - Vol. 11 : 13 : p. 940. - 94.7 MB.
Hastings James Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 12
HasER12 - Suffering to Zwingli. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1908. - Vol. 12 : 13 : p. 885. - 90.3 MB.
Hastings James Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 13
HasER13 - Index. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 13
: 13 : p. 767. - 64.8 MB.
Herbermann Charles G Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 01
HerCE01. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 1
: 16 : p. 2163. - 12.6 MB.
Herbermann Charles G Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 02
HerCE02. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 2
: 16 : p. 2096. - 12.3 MB.
Herbermann Charles G Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 03
HerCE03. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 3
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Herbermann Charles G Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 04
HerCE04. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 4
: 16 : p. 2115. - 12.6 MB.
Herbermann Charles G Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 05
Diocese-Fathers of Mercy
HerCE05. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 5
: 16 : p. 2051. - 12.6 MB.
Herbermann Charles G Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 06
Fathers of the Church-Gregory XI
HerCE06. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 6
: 16 : p. 2046. - 12.2 MB.
Herbermann Charles G Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 07
HerCE07. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 7
: 16 : p. 2052. - 12.2 MB.
Herbermann Charles G Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 08
HerCE08. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 8
: 16 : p. 2065. - 12.2 MB.
Herbermann Charles G Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 09
HerCE09. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 9
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Herbermann Charles G Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 10
HerCE10. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol.
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Herbermann Charles G Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 11
HerCE11. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol.
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Herbermann Charles G Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 12
HerCE12. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol.
12 : 16 : p. 2060. - 12.2 MB.
Herbermann Charles G Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 13
HerCE13. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol.
13 : 16 : p. 2064. - 12.1 MB.
Herbermann Charles G Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 14
HerCE14. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol.
14 : 16 : p. 2071. - 12.1 MB.
Herbermann Charles G Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 15
HerCE15. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol.
15 : 16 : p. 2020. - 12.2 MB.
Herbermann Charles G Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 16
HerCE16. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol.
16 : of 16 : p. 235. - 1.7 MB.
Mackey Albert G An Encyclopeadia of
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Mac14. - New York : The Masonic History Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 :
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Macoy Robert General History, Cyclopedia
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Mac701. - New York : Masonic Publishing Co., 1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
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Monroe Paul History of Education
Mon06. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 801.
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Moore Charles W Freemason's Monthly Vol 03
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Newman Albert H A Manual of Church History Vol
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New00CH1. - Philadelphia : American Baptist Publication Society, 1900.
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Newman Albert H A Manual of Church History Vol
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Oliver George A Dictionary of Symbolical
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Otis James Considerations
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Otis James Rights of the Colonies
Oti66. - London : J Almon, 1766. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 123. - 8.4 MB.
Preston William Illustrations of Masonry
Pre72. - London : Eidographic Reproduction Publishing Co. 1887, 1772. -
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Reade Wynwood The Martyrdom of Man
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Shepherd Silas H Masonic Bibliography
She201. - Milwaukee : Silas Shepherd, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 44. - 0.9
Spence Lewis Encyclopedia of Occultism
Spe20. - New York : Dodd, Mead & Company, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
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Stevens Albert C. Cyclopedia of Fraternities
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Street Oliver D. Symbolism of the Three Degrees
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Winsor Justin Memorial History of Boston Vol
Win81HB1. - Boston : Ticknor and Company, 1881. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 649.
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Winsor Justin Memorial History of Boston Vol
Win81HB2. - Boston : Ticknor and Company, 1881. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 672.
- 29.9 MB.
Winsor Justin Memorial History of Boston Vol
Win81HB3. - Boston : Ticknor and Company, 1881. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 736.
- 33.1 MB.
Winsor Justin Memorial History of Boston Vol 4
Win81HB4. - Boston : Ticknor and Company, 1881. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 736.
- 33.8 MB.