Masonic Research Society
Freemasonry in China
Frederick W. Hamilton,
Grand Secretary, Massachusetts
of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts in China date back sixty years. The
of overseas lodges was no new experience for Massachusetts. Henry
Grand Master for North America, established the see of his Provincial
in Boston in 1733, and at the same time warranted The First Lodge in
five years later, in 1738, he warranted a lodge in Antigua, B.W.I. From
on Massachusetts has continually had more or less to do with Masonic
The oldest of these overseas lodges now in existence and under the
of Massachusetts is Bethesda, of Valparaiso, Chile, dating from 1853.
1863, M.W. Bro. William Parkman, Grand Master, issued a dispensation to
E. Hill and sixteen others to form Ancient Landmark Lodge, U.D., in
was slower then than now, and the first meeting under the dispensation
was not held
until May 9, 1864.
of W. Bro. Hill making return on the dispensation and asking for a
the following interesting passage with reference to a visit which had
from R. W. the Hon. William Thomas Mercer, then District Grand Master
leaving Shanghai he visited the three lodges under his jurisdiction and
attention to the proficiency of the American Lodge, recommending the
members to often visit us, and ordered [italics in the original] them
to adopt our
course as to the examination of applicants for advancement."
not wonder at the enthusiasm of the distinguished visitor. Elsewhere in
letter W. Bro. Hill says that R. W. Bro. Mercer said that he had heard
of the proficiency
of the lodge and asked to see a Master Mason Degree. W. Bro. Hill sent
out for a
candidate who happened to be entitled to the Degree and ordered all the
and filled them from the floor. He then had the Degree worked in full
affirms that "the work was done without a single mistake."
In its report
recommending a charter the committee says:
committee feel that the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts can look with
pride upon this their offspring beyond the seas. This ancient Grand
to her traditions, has ever been zealous in disseminating Masonic light
residing in darkness, and is now performing a duty which it early
learned, and has
never ceased to practice, of sending to distant lands her messengers of
her humble way she obeys the divine injunction, 'Go ye into all the
world, and preach
the gospel to every creature.' "
of Ancient Landmark Lodge was issued March 8, 1865.
forty years Ancient Landmark was the one outpost of American
Freemasonry in China.
however, there was a great awakening of interest in American Masonry in
acquisition of the Philippine Islands, the declaration of the famous
door policy" by John Hay, and the general renewal of interest in the
on the part of Europe and America caused a rapid increase of American
in China and a desire for American Freemasonry. English Freemasonry was
established in China, but the English lodges did not offer precisely
what the Americans
desired. Naturally, there was a tendency to turn to Massachusetts, as
Grand Lodge with missionary experience and with an existing
establishment in China.
In 1903 four
dispensations were issued for lodges in China. These were Pei-He, in
Orient, Cathay, and Shanghai in Shanghai.
a brief and stormy existence. It started off well and a charter was
voted it in
1904. When the time for constitution arrived, however, the hand of
heavy upon it. The Senior Warden had been called to a distant part of
by business. The Junior Warden had been murdered by two natives. The
died. The Secretary had been transferred to the Philippines. The Master
entirely unfit for his position and incapable of dealing with the
faced him. The lodge struggled along for a couple of years and finally
its charter in 1906.
got to the point of receiving a charter. Cathay was chartered as Sinim,
name being considered too near to Far Cathay, of Hankow, No. 2855, on
roster. Shanghai also received its charter in due time and these two
now in active, flourishing existence.
changes in the situation in China occurred until 1915. In that year the
establishments of Massachusetts were organized into the District Grand
the Canal Zone, Chile and China, and District Grand Masters were
appointed to govern
this a petition was received from thirteen Master Masons resident in
to be formed into a lodge to be known as International Lodge. Three of
were Chinese brethren who had received their degrees in Washington, D.
C. It was
clearly stated that the desire of the petitioners was to found a lodge
East and West might meet on the common ground of Masonry. The
that there were elements in Chinese society ready for Masonry,
its fundamental ideas, and capable of assimilating and practicing them.
It was believed
that among these elements Masonry had a great field of most wonderful
and that nothing could do more to bring the Chinese and Americans into
understanding than such points of contact between the best in both
races as could
be furnished by Masonic lodges.
of this petition was an epoch in our Massachusetts Masonry. It raised
upon whose settlement depended the future of our Masonry in China and,
the future attitude of our Masonry at home.
many religions in China. Should the new lodge be founded and opened to
what should be our attitude toward those religions? Should we continue
(there had never been any legislation on the subject) that the Volume
of the Sacred
Law meant only the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, or at
Old, or should the phrase take on a wider meaning? Could Massachusetts,
for one moment considering the abandonment of the first great Landmark
in the Supreme Architect of the Universe ‒ show hospitality to many
of acceptance of that Landmark?
also the question of race to be considered. Was Massachusetts Masonry
in China to
continue, as it has been for fifty years, to be the fraternal home of
and Britishers only, or should it become cosmopolitan and universal?
American Masons in China were business sojourners and seafaring men.
lodges, all located in Shanghai, had grown up under the shadow of the
lodges and were much influenced by them. England had a strong
a District Grand Lodge. English influence predominated generally in the
portion of Shanghai. The English and the Chinese did not and do not
Chinese were not admitted to the English lodges nor had they been to
lodges. Were the American lodges to continue this policy, or were they
to move out
from the sphere of dominating English influence and give American
Masonry in China
a character of its own?
It came to
this: Was Freemasonry in China to mean anything to the Chinese?
Made To Grand Lodge
It is only
necessary to say that Bro. Melvin M. Johnson was then Grand Master of
Massachusetts to make it clear that the problem received the careful
of one of the finest Masonic minds in the United States. The Grand
upon the advice of the strongest committee he could raise in the Grand
report of the committee was drawn by Bro. Roscoe Pound. [Published in
October, 1916, page 302.]
As a result
of these deliberations International Lodge received its dispensation
and, in due
time, its charter.
time Massachusetts Masonry in China has had a distinct individuality of
and has meant something to the Chinese. Be it understood, there has
been no breach
and no antagonism with English Masonry. Not the slightest cloud dims
of our fraternal relations. Possibly some of the more conservative of
brethren may in their hearts question the wisdom of our new policy, so
from their established ways of thinking, but they recognize its Masonic
they acknowledge our unquestionable right to adopt it, and they
continue to be our
very dear brethren.
of our policy in China are these. Of course no attempt will ever be
made to coerce
the older lodges, or any lodges, to accept unwelcome applications. As a
fact, four of our lodges in China, the three Shanghai lodges and Talien
Dairen, Manchuria, have no Chinese members. Three ‒ International, of
Memorial, of Tientsin, and Chin Ling, of Nanking ‒ have Chinese
members. New lodges
are contemplated at other strategic points, and it will be understood
lodges in China are to be chartered with the understanding that they
are not to
be closed to Chinese who possess proper personal qualifications. There
is no thought
of establishing lodges made up wholly or even predominantly of Chinese,
for many years to come. There is no thought of abandoning the English
even for a single lodge, or of modifying the Massachusetts Ritual. Our
have no desire for any of these things. Every applicant must profess
in a Supreme Being, but he may be obligated upon the sacred writings of
religion. We hold that this meets the requirements regarding the Volume
of the Sacred
experience in International Lodge, fortified by the shorter experience
Memorial and Chin Ling, strengthen our conviction of the wisdom of our
Chinese brethren are Masons of the highest type, both in and out of the
Ritual is correct and impressive. International has had two Chinese
Paonan Meinsang Whang, elected in 1917, and Wor. Ssu Pang Chen, now
note.] Our Chinese brethren take their Masonry very seriously. They try
hard as any of us to practice it in their daily lives. They are most
in their investigations of Chinese applicants. In several cases Chinese
wealth and even international reputation have had their applications
the Chinese members have said to the Master, "We could not call him
of the highest standing have sought admittance. A Prime Minister and a
of the Supreme Court have taken their degrees. A President is
understood to have
withheld his application only because of his very slight knowledge of
granted an audience to Grand Master Prince when he visited our lodges
in China in
1922, received him most graciously, and expressed his high appreciation
and his sense of its great value to the people. Three members of
were among the Chinese delegation at the making of the treaty of
brief, is the story of Massachusetts Freemasonry in China. We do not
time, effort and money our Grand Lodge is putting into it, for we
believe that it
has a great mission and a great future.
of Brother Lafayette
Bro. Ed Towse, Honolulu,
IT was one
of the dozens of Sunday mornings that the sharp bow, high white sides
masts of the U.S.F.S. Philadelphia rested big and bright from the
wharves of Honolulu.
The handsome unit of "white squadron" architecture was a striking
from Punchbowl, from Roundtop, Tantalus or Konahuanui, or from beneath
at Waikiki beach. Capt. Henry Cochrane, U.S.M.C. (later major with a
record), had seated himself with his guests in the shade of the shelter
of one of
the heavy pieces of the port battery. It was near the gangway. Out on
side we looked upon the odd little lighthouse, with the reef and surf
and sea beyond.
Along the opposite bend of the bay were the homes of the local boat
clubs ‒ Myrtles,
Healanis, Leilanis, Alohas. The young men were getting out shells and
were lounging or swimming. From a small wharf native men and women with
laughter were making running jumps into the bay.
the purpose of drawing out the veteran officer, one of his party had
for even, full grace and genuine general charm the Hawaiian half-caste
the superior of the daintiest thoroughbred of any kind or clime.
a sergeant of marines, a fine, soldiery fellow, approached to make a
report to his
commander. As the man left the captain began:
fellow is the complete ideal of a living Bertie Cecil stepped from
Two Flags. He's a marine and was with me in Paris."
had a detail of thirty-two United States marines at the Eiffel Tower
I asked the
captain what sort of a showing they made with samples of the other
armies and navies.
The captain now became unreserved, fluent and earnest; here is what he
were the best looking, best drilled, best dressed, best behaved, best
fed and most intelligent lot of enlisted men there. Their allowance
made them princes
among their associates and I was proud of them and our country and its
Every wealthy American who saw them made them a present. They were in
the time and had furloughs and half a dozen honorable mentions in
orders when they
came home. I have a picture of the company taken at the grave of
is certainly pardonable that I plume myself upon having instituted the
decorating the grave of Lafayette on the Fourth of July." Some sort of
inspiration suggested the plan to me. This was in the month of April.
I, of course,
thought of May 30 as the appropriate day for the ceremony. Mr. Whitelaw
our envoy to France, was at once enthusiastic. He said he knew a
Lafayette, a bachelor
member of the deputies or some other legislative body.
Reid, certain that his acquaintance was a relative of the man who made
America such great friends, at once dictated a letter to him, setting
the plan and indicating a day and hour at which both of us would call.
we made the visit we were kept waiting perhaps an hour, when one of the
of old gentlemen came in and offered in excellent English the excuse of
on public business. Very pleasantly did he entertain us. He was the
male descendent of the companion of Washington.
widowed sister and her daughter were mentioned with the assurance that
co-operate in the proposed exercises. M. Lafayette, on condition that
assume entire control and direction and the management of all details,
to make an address in English.
Reid was quite busy at this time and assigned me to the executive work,
enlistment of a committee of prominent Americans. This was no trouble
at all. Then.
about May 5, I set out to have a look at the grave of Lafayette and
mark a line
of march and parade position.
was a most astonishing thing, but an actual fact, that no one seemed to
the remains of this noble and famous man had been placed. I hunted for
aided by volunteers and paid men. Mr. Reid communicated officially with
and we learned that his inquiry was being referred from one bureau to
the end of May all of us were well-nigh hopeless. Then one day I ran
across a young
American resident who was married to a French woman. He was from
was at home enough in Paris and with the language to be a very
guide. Well, he knew where Lafayette's grave was.
was a Freemason, was intimately acquainted with the circumstances of
of Lafayette to his own lodge and that of Washington at Alexandria, Va.
told me that I might have made the quest simplicity itself by
of the Supreme Council of Thirty-third Degree Scottish Rite Masons of
any brother of a subordinate body of that great organization. He began
the location of the grave, but I took him right along with me.
tomb, very simply inscribed, was in a small cemetery in one of the most
sections or districts of old Paris. Near it was a large cemetery where
been interred 1,300 victims of the Reign of Terror. This was told in a
on a weather-beaten sign over the broken gate. Overlooking both of
grounds was a convent made famous in Victor Hugo's Les Miserables. One
French history and literature in that vicinity for a month.
30 was now an impossible date for the ceremony and we fixed upon July
4. There was
quite a gathering, though there was no intent to make it a general
affair. We raised
the Stars and Stripes and fired a salute. Then my men stacked arms and
The color sergeant laid his flag on top of the rifles. The sister and
niece of M.
Lafayette, who were dressed in black, walked over to the line of arms,
a fold of Old Glory and kissed it reverently. That was a sweet and
to the United States and all were affected.
floral offerings included some that I knew to be Masonic and of the
There was a beautiful cross of red roses, a triangle with a Hebrew
the center and an elaborate piece with a monogram displaying the
These, I was told, were for the initials of the words 'Liberty,
They surmounted the figures 33. Each Freemason present joined in a
the grave and at the final encircling of it dropped a sprig of green at
Lafayette's speech was a success beyond our most sanguine hopes
the very last sentence.
spoke of our country and his own, of our immortal forefather and of his
ancestor, of our President and his President, of Mr. Reid and myself
and of the
came his peroration and his accident from lack of practice with
English. As nearly
as I can recall, he said:
is peculiarly fitting that this recognition of the distinguished son of
such a thriving,
busy Republic as France has become, should be at the hands of citizens
of that great
model and time-tried Republic, that country of brave and brilliant and
men, that country of such grand institutions and complete liberty, that
which leads the entire world in the march of scientific, mechanical and
course 'achievement' was the word he was after. The Americans repressed
and were ready with compliments to the speaker. A few evenings later
most of us
met him at dinner and he then told the joke on himself. The custom of
Lafayette's grave continues and I hope it endure."
Capt. Cochrane told of witnessing a Russian coronation and his recital
two men guillotined in Paris gave at least one of his hearers more
several legal hangings and a half dozen lynchings witnessed in the
Relief at Rochester, Minn.
the fame of its physicians and hospitals this city has become a mecca
of sick men and women from all parts of the world. Of late years the
of Minnesota has been carrying on among these unfortunates a
work, the nature and extent of which is amply set forth in the report
of the committee
made to Grand Lodge at St. Paul at the Seventy-first Annual
republished by consent of Grand Secretary John Fishel:
To the Most
Worshipful Grand Lodge of Minnesota:
to the resolution of one year ago, whereby the Grand Lodge of Minnesota
the matter of Fraternal Service at Rochester, Minn., the M. W. Grand
the following trustees to take charge of the work: W. N. Kendrick, P.
G. M., Herman
Held, P. G. M., and W. Bro. Guy Streator. S. G. S. The appropriation
$3,000 in the hands of the committee to cover the expense.
retained the service of Bro. Frank G. Warner as fraternal
representative at a salary
of $2,500 per year, placing in his hands five hundred dollars to be
used as a revolving
fund for the financial assistance of brethren who might be temporarily
in need of
From a small
beginning a few years ago when the Master and brethren of Rochester
Lodge, No. 21,
carried on a splendid work as well as the limited means at their
command would admit,
this work has developed to such lengths that this year Bro. Warner has
met and administered
to the comfort of 1956 brethren and members of the O. E. S., making
during the year, besides doing a tremendous number of errands of
various kinds and
having an average of 163 persons on his list daily. Bro. Warner is
present at this
session of the Grand Lodge and will supplement this report with a
of his work and a further explanation of what his work consists.
to the routine work required of your representative his presence in
been the means of saving thousands of dollars to the brethren coming
majority never having been in Rochester before, come there with a
of money which they feel will cover their traveling expenses,
examination at Clinic,
operation, if necessary, and their hospital bills, not realizing that
examination may take from a few days to two or three weeks. Being
and often discouraged, and not knowing where to get accommodations
means, they naturally drift to the easiest place, which is often an
so that by the time they are ready to go to the hospital their funds
depleted. By getting in touch with these brethren upon their arrival
is enabled to furnish them with accommodations within their means and
often to expedite
their examination by seeing that they do not miss their regular
Bro. Warner has received his list of brethren at the separate
hospitals, but now,
through the generous efforts and co-operation of Bro. Harry Harwick,
of the Clinic, Bro. Dr. A. W. Adson, who has on former occasions
Clinic in our negotiations, and the Rev. Bunge their social service
all people are registered as to their fraternal affiliations at the
Clinic and he
receives his list there. He is thereby enabled to get in immediate
touch with the
brethren and members of the O. E. S., and the value of his services is
To these men the Grand Lodge of Minnesota owes a debt of gratitude.
of providing the revolving fund of $500 has been thoroughly
demonstrated by the
feet that Bro. Warner has turned this fund over four times, or in other
loaned $2,000 and the fund is now intact with the exception of a recent
$50. In every instance these loans have been promptly returned with
of gratitude and appreciation which amply repay the Grand Lodge for any
which it may have been to and the committee feel that their time has
been well spent.
feels that the fund has been rather economically administered in that
outside the salary and wee expense of your representative has been less
which covers the traveling expense of the members of the committee,
upon the use of picturesque phrases recently, The London Times asked:
How many of
those who talk glibly of shibboleths have before them the picture of
Ephraimites at the ford striving frantically to frame the word which is
be the arbiter for them of life and death? Rev. Walter Crick, of Oving
in answer, mentions a striking repetition, not of the word, but of the
the word connotes, as related to him by Major-General Sir George
MacMunn, who served
at the Dardanelles and in Mesopotamia during the war:
Allenby's final routing of the Turkish forces broken parties of
at the fords of Jordan. There were many Arabs and Syrians conscripted
in the Turkish
Army. The fords were held by our Arab allies, and when Turkish soldiers
pass, they one and all said they were Syrians. So the Arab guards said,
now 'Bowel' " (onion), and they said, "Bossel," for no Turk could
pronounce it right.
said to repeat itself, adds Mr. Crick, and, if this is so, no more
of the feet could well be imagined than is presented by this picture of
soldiers "striving frantically to frame the word which is going to be
for them of life and death," just as did the Ephraimites 3,000 years
probably at the self-same ford!
Cassius J. Keyser
of Mathematics, Columbia University, New York
is known to the country by virtue of a list of notable books, among
which is "Mathematical
Philosophy," [Lib 1922] a glorious triumph of right
in a difficult field, reviewed in these pages, October, 1922, page 319.
book, to which Dr. Keyser refers below, was reviewed in August of the
page 256. The reader will find it worthwhile to read "Man and Men"
with Bro. Sidney Morse's captivating apologue, "The Grand Vizier's
in The Builder, November last, page 330; the general theme is
identical. The present
essay is based on an address delivered before the Bureau of Personnel
of New York in January, 1924.
I CHOSE this
subject ‒ "Man and Men" ‒ because I desired to discuss with you the
important subject that I or you or anyone else could think of. In our
are many realities but they differ much in dignity or rank. Of all the
with which you and I have to deal, with which it is our privilege and
to deal, the supreme one is not matter nor material energy nor space
nor time, though
the importance of these is very great. The supreme reality is Man. The
realities of our world are human individuals ‒ men, women, children.
abstract reality of the world is man ‒ the human race ‒ Humanity. What
do I mean
by that term? I mean, I suppose, what you mean. By Humanity I mean all
not merely the living ‒ but the living, the dead, and the unborn. By
mean, if I may answer abstractly, those propensities and powers in
virtue of which
humans are human. Have you ever considered what those propensities and
I shall not tarry here, for it would detain us too long, to name them
them. Being human, you have them in some measure. As intelligent
to understand your own nature, you are bound to ascertain what they
are, if you
can. And you can, if you will. There is a book that will greatly help
you in the
quest. I mean Count Korzybski's Manhood of Humanity [Lib 1921]. It is a work that you and
other man and woman ought to read open mindedly, re-read, and ponder.
With its central
idea I have dealt briefly in a chapter of my Mathematical Philosophy,
but the reading
of that chapter, though it may help, is far from sufficient.
In the remaining
minutes of the hour I wish to say a few things, by way of opening up an
subject, about the relations of individual human beings to Humanity. I
do more than drive into the wall, rather rudely, a few wooden pegs to
may desire to attach some reading and reflection in the future.
given herewith will help us. The mid-part represents the Present,
occupied by the
existing people of the world. On the left is our human Past, tenanted
by the dead,
a long backward stretch, perhaps a half million years. On the right is
strange Future, mysterious realm of the unborn. Humanity embraces the
three ‒ the
Past, the Present, the Future the dead, the living, the unborn. Today
you and I
are among the living. Yesterday we were unborn. Tomorrow our bodies
will have perished.
In each estate we are members of Humanity ‒ representatives, as W. K.
have said, of "Father Man."
We are here
tonight because it is the fortune of the living to have to deal with
what we are
wont to call "the problems of the world." Of these the so-called
problems, in which you are especially interested, are only some of the
or aspects. All the problems are primarily and essentially human
about humans for humans to solve, and no such problem exists alone or
a lone solution. Each of them is in a network involving all the others.
matter the mystic's contention is true ‒ each is all and all is each.
Maggots in a Cheese
I have no
single formula for the solution of all your industrial problems, much
I one for solving all the great problems of our troubled modern world.
But it is
my conviction that the chief source of trouble is this: We have been
and are living
in the midst of a great civilization like maggots in a cheese.
That is not
a conclusion arrived at in haste. It is very deliberate. Perhaps you
We are living
immersed in a civilization which, despite all its shortcomings, is so
vast and rich
and manifold that we cannot measure its proportions nor assess its
worth. The industrial
and other social troubles of the world will be found, if we view them
to have their roots in the fact that we have been living, and are still
in and upon that civilization, without serious thought of our relations
to it, without
a sense of our indebtedness and obligations, like maggots in a cheese.
And so the
best formula I can think of for dealing with industrial and the other
of the world is this: Stop living in the midst of our great modern
as maggots in a cheese.
How is that
to be done? The first means thereto is to study civilization ‒ its
origin, its genesis,
its essential nature, our human relations obligations.
our civilization come from?
Let me intimate
the answer by means of an example.
ago I was teaching a class in the calculus. The boys were dealing with
in maxima and minima. Some of you know, and others do not know, what
but all of you will understand what I am about to say. We had one hour.
finished in forty-five minutes. "Boys," I said, "please be seated.
I want to say something more important than the calculus.
and I are probably quite ordinary people. It may be that someone among
you is extraordinary
but, if so, the happy fact is not yet manifest. So let us assume that
gifts are ordinary. Yet you have just now readily solved problems of a
the greatest genius that ever lived on our planet could not solve
without the instrument
you have employed ‒ an instrument you have been getting acquainted with
last few weeks, namely, the calculus. Where did it come from?"
was invented by Newton," said one of the boys. Another one said: "It
invented by Leibniz."
I said: "Boys,
both of those answers are commonly given and in a sense they are
correct. But in
a deeper sense both of them are false because Newton and Leibniz did
the mathematics of their immediate predecessors, and these did but
improve the mathematics
of their predecessors, and so on back till you come down here somewhere
in the sharp
angle of our diagram where our dear remote ancestors are engaged in the
of learning to count: the calculus was invented back there ages ago ‒ I
started there. And so calculus was not created by Newton or Leibniz. It
little by little, by many generations now in the state of those we are
to call the dead."
And I said:
"Boys, they are not dead ‒ that must be evident to you. Their bodies
but the men are living and are here in this room ‒ Newton and Leibniz
and the rest
are here ‒ they are at work, working with us and through us as agents
by means of ideas which they invented, which we inherited and which it
is our privilege
as humans, and our obligations, to use, to improve, and to transmit. I
for the unborn are coming ‒ if you will go to your cloister and there
the silence, you can see them approach generation after generation of
children with us of 'Father Man' ‒ they look to you and me and appeal
to us as the
present occupants and guardians of their future home, for the kind of
will find depends upon our loyalty as representatives of Humanity."
Principle Is Universally
I have used
the calculus, my friends, merely as an illustration. The calculus is
but one element
of our civilization. What I have said of the calculus is true of all
the other elements
‒ speech, the arts, the sciences, the inventions, the great literatures
and West, the wisdoms of philosophy and law, the ways of social
order, and all the other kinds and forms of material and spiritual
wealth. We, the
people of this generation, were born in the midst of an immense
may have improved it a little in some respects but we did not create
it. It is of
the utmost importance for us to grasp that fact and hold it fast and
keenly; for else we shall be as maggots in a cheese. Our civilization ‒
and spiritual wealth of the world ‒ was not produced by us. We have it
as a gift.
It is the fruit of the time and thought and toil of many generations of
bodies have indeed perished but whose spirits survive and are now
active in the
ideas and ideals and sentiments and aspirations embodied and
transmitted to us in
the form of instrumentalities and institutions, knowledges and arts.
We must understand
and not forget that there was a time when there were no human beings on
There was a time when humans began to be. We must try to realize, for
it is true,
that our remotest human ancestors did not know what they were nor where
They had no clothes nor houses ‒ they were probably covered with hair
in caves. They had no language, no human history, not even human
tradition, no knowledge
of number, no guiding maxims, no tools nor craftsmanship. But they had
thing ‒ a gift that enabled them and impelled to start what we call
and they were, moreover, the first of a race that had another equally
and equally precious gift ‒ a gift enabling them and impelling them to
These are the gifts that make humans human.
Is the Creature
And so we
see that civilization is the creature, not of men, but of Man. It is
of Humanity. It is to the time and thought and toil of those remote
groping in the dark, and of the many generations of their descendants
that you and
I and our living fellows are indebted for the immeasurable riches ‒ the
and spiritual wealth ‒ of our present world.
that Human Inheritance as we habitually do receive it, taking it all
as we take the gifts of Physical Nature ‒ land and light and sea and
sky; not to
realize in thought and in feeling that, though we are individuals, we
organs of Humanity; not to realize in our heads and hearts and ways of
not to teach in home and school, our relations and obligations to the
Dead and the
Unborn: that is what I mean by "living in and upon our civilization
in a cheese."
But in proportion
as we learn to understand and to feel those relations and obligations,
emancipate ourselves from the lower ideals dominant in the world and
the sway of the higher ones. For, as Benjamin Kidd has justly insisted,
a hierarchy of ideals and a hierarchy of emotions begotten of them.
From the power
of the emotion of the ideal of self-efficiency ‒ causing us to live and
die for self; from the power of the emotion of the tribal ideal ‒
causing us to
live and kill and die for tribe; from the power of the emotion of the
‒ causing us to live and kill and die for state: from the domination of
shall emancipate ourselves and more and more come under the sway of the
of all possible ideals, the ideal of Man ‒ causing us to live and,
to die for Humanity.
teaches man to practice charity and benevolence, to protect chastity,
the ties of blood and friendship, to adopt the principles and revere
of religion, to assist the feeble, guide the blind, raise up the
the orphan, guard the altar, support the Government, inculcate
learning, love man, fear God, implore His mercy and hope for happiness."
and Genius of Royal Arch Masonry
Bro., the Late William
HIGH PRIEST, GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
his term as General Grand High Priest Bro. Kuhn visited as many Grand
he could find opportunity to do, and at the same time accepted
invitations to speak
before other Grand Bodies. Such brethren as have been able to read the
of these various Grand Bodies must have been impressed with the
vitality and resourcefulness
of the speaker's mind, for while his theme was everywhere very much the
managed to give it on each occasion a form and application appropriate
to the occasion.
One of the best reported of his addresses as Grand High Priest will be
the Proceedings of the Seventy-sixth Annual Convocation of the Grand
Mississippi, held at Vicksburg, Feb. 21, 1924, here reproduced.
Grand High Priest, I am endeavoring to visit as many Grand Chapters as
during my term of office, and I have but one theme: more dignified and
ritualism and a moral and educational value of the Capitular degrees.
It is a lamentable
fact that Royal Arch Masonry has not come into its own. Many Freemasons
of the fact that they are Master Masons, or Knights Templar, or
Scottish Rite Masons,
but seldom do they boast of being Royal Arch Masons. There must be a
this, and it lies in the fact that Capitular degrees have been
conferred in an undignified
manner, and the moral, historical and educational value have been
But a change is coming, and these degrees are receiving more attention
and a more
dignified rendition than ever before. It has been established beyond a
even the most light-headed of men prefer dignified work and an
of the moral and intellectual values contained therein.
Masonry will come to its own as soon as these facts are recognized.
is a beautiful allegory which unfolds to the thinking Freemason the
story of the Loss, the Recovery and the practical application of that
which we call
the Word. This is all that the great text book, Freemasonry, contains.
is symbolized in the lodge, and the Recovery, with its practical
life, is symbolized in Royal Arch Masonry. Freemasonry has a golden
thread, a central
idea running through all of the degrees and around which all the
symbolism of Freemasonry
revolves. This central idea, or the goal of Freemasonry, upholds the
and unless this is kept in mind, the whole structure falls to the
ground. This center
is the Master's Word.
is not a lot of degrees piled one upon another without any connecting
link, or a
heterogeneous mass gathered together with the mere idea of fooling the
into taking many degrees. But there is this goal running through
Ancient Craft Masonry
of which the Capitular degrees are an important part thereof. The
of this fact has prevented Royal Arch Masonry from coming into its own.
It has been
misunderstood, misinterpreted and made a jest, instead of recognizing
field for intellectual and moral development of anything in
Freemasonry. This co-relation
of the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry was recognized by the United
of England when it stated that "Ancient Craft Masonry consists of the
of Entered Apprentice Fellow Craft, Master Mason, together with the
Holy Royal Arch,"
and in section second, it declared "that the lodges may confer the
Chivalry under their several constitutions."
Is a Part of Ancient
that the Royal Arch Degree is a part of Ancient Craft Masonry, and the
Chivalry were recognized as Masonic. This constitutes York Rite
naturally follows that one degree is not higher than another, but is a
part of the
unfolding of an interesting story, and the Royal Arch is as much a part
Craft Masonry as the Master's Degree, and it may be truthfully stated
that no one
is in possession of all of Ancient Craft Masonry without the Royal
Arch. In this
interesting relation and co-relation we have the beautiful symbolism of
the Recovery and the interpretation of the Master's Word. If there is a
must be a Recovery, and the Recovery is of little value unless you
Recovery. It would be merely theoretical, philosophical nonsense to
Master's Word, and fail to interpret it in a practical application to
Arch portrays this Recovery. That is, if you receive the degree in a
will enable you to recognize that you have made the Discovery.
who have received the Royal Arch Degree did not receive anything and
the whole thing
was merely a joke. Many newly-made Master Masons have been disappointed
in not receiving
that which was promised them, and in the fact that they were put off
with a substitute,
although they received the promise that at the proper time the true
the Word may have been given in the Master's Degree, but the
introduction of the
legend of Hiram Abiff necessarily made a fourth degree possible. Not
only made it
possible but absolutely necessary to symbolize the Recovery. This is
the story of
Freemasonry. The candidate feels a disappointment in not receiving the
Word as had been promised him, but he fails to grasp the truth behind
this disappointment, but when he analyzes the question from every angle
he will invariably come to the conclusion that he was unprepared and
to receive it. Men are not qualified to receive great truths instantly.
It has been
stated that a great truth requires three hundred years before it is
philosophy and history of religion bear out this idea. It is a
lamentable fact that
great truths, throughout the ages, have found unqualified ears. This is
ancient Babylon, of Persia and Egypt. It is true of the Hebrew nation.
been searching for truth. They have been reaching out. They have been
it. All the prophets of the Hebrew people, from Moses to Malachi, and
many great men of modern times, have spoken words and taught truths
that fell upon
unqualified listeners and deaf ears. It is the old, old history, of
not understood. It requires years of discipline, research and
before arriving at the stage of being qualified to comprehend great
truths in their
completeness. The Master Mason did not receive that which was promised
he was not qualified in those things that "Mark the perfect man."
We are searching
for the truth, the Master's Word, and this search is evolutionary,
to a higher and better conception. This is well illustrated in the
Jehovah from that of Abraham down to the time of Christ. Every prophet
took an advanced
step in his conception of Deity and the Tribal God of Moses became the
and loving to all who worshipped Him.
Is a Great School
is a great school in which every Freemason, if he desires, may educate
He will not only be a historian, but a Bible student. If he is a reader
find the footprints of Freemasonry in all history, in the arts and
degrees illustrate symbolically and teach four important and necessary
which he who seeks that which was lost who would make the recovery,
must have in
his heart and soul. Without the possession of these attributes no
ever be made and that which was lost will forever remain in darkness.
is symbolically a workman, whether his place is in the quarries or
shop. Every day
finds him standing before the Overseers to test the work wrought by
to the design laid down in the "Great Trestle Board." These designs
good work, and square work, because only good work and square work can
be used in
the building of the temple. A square man, and a square man only; a man
foursquare to the world, not a trickster, a politician, a doughface, or
is demanded. A man who can face the world unshaken, unashamed, a bold
man for all things right, is needed everywhere. In the great search for
was lost, such a man has taken a long step on his journey.
One of the
great essentials today is to have an open mind. You and I are too
bigoted in many
things. We have our set ways, our set way of thinking. You remember
that when a
beautiful stone was presented, it was rejected because it did not fit
of the Overseer, and they heaved it over among the rubbish. The trouble
in the past, and is today, a great hindrance to progression, that we
are all carrying
about little dinky squares and every time anything new comes up we put
to it, our notion of the thing, not our reason, but chiefly a notion
and if it does not fit the little squares of ours, we heave it among
We do not stop to analyze the question. We have a preconceived notion,
not an idea,
hence we throw the new thing overboard. This is true in politics; it is
religion, it is true in science. In fact it is true in everything that
is new. This
is the story of the Master's Word. Everything new that comes we meet it
in a defensive
manner. We do not canvass it and examine it, but without thinking about
it. We are not open minded.
I do not
believe that any man can discover the Master's Word who is a bigot, who
is not willing
to weigh things. We know what bigotry has done in this world; that it
has kept churches
apart and has made partisan politics. A Freemason ought to be a man
with an open
mind, willing to analyze anything that comes along, from the humblest
to the most
scientific. We have heard a great deal about the fundamentalists and
in religion. The fundamentalist backs up and says, "No, that is not
to my notion; I will reject it." The liberalist takes everything that
along, fails to analyze it well enough to see whether it fits or not.
You have heard
of a distinguished citizen who was scared to death for fear that
find that his grandfather was a monkey. It is being said that on
account of science
men are doubting the Bible and rejecting it. This is a purely
view. My advice is, read all the scientists and all the higher
criticism, then analyze
them and think it over. I know where you will land. There is no danger
to the thinking
man of becoming an atheist. All the criticism and all the scientific
the theories of creation, when we apply them intelligently and
correctly, make the
Bible stronger than ever. That which was mere faith before now is
by reason. Do not be afraid of higher criticism. Do not be afraid of
sciences. If the religion you have cannot stand the test of true and
it is not worth very much. Religion will meet all scientific truth and
meet it in
the proper spirit and in the proper way. It may change some of our
notions, but laying aside these notions, your religion will come out
better than ever. I am not afraid about evolution. I believe in
evolution. I cannot
see the flowers in the front yard without making me believe in the
evolution. These beautiful flowers were once weeds. The process of
made them what they are now. So with everything. But evolution does not
mean monkeyism at all. Even if it did, behind it all stands the fiat,
cannot get away from that. I do not care whether this world was made in
or whether it took billions of years. Back of it all stands the word,
far as the monkey is concerned, if we are evolved from the monkey then
it is a fine
type of evolution and we must congratulate the monkey. Of course, a
great many people
are afraid of having their ancestry exposed, and I do not blame them,
but the world
does not care a fig as to who your grandfather was, but it is asking,
are you, what are you going to do?" Even the monkey evolution is not
as I would rather have a good clean monkey for my great, great, great
than some people I know.
ought to look things squarely in the face, lay aside his prejudice, and
question carefully. There is nothing to be afraid of. Let us lay aside
squares and recognize the beautiful and not heave it over among the
we do not understand it. There are many things that have been thrown in
heap that in after years were discovered as the most beautiful and
Men have lived, wrought hard, and died rejected. It took years before
was recognized, and they stand today as remarkable men in the history
of the world. An open-minded man is never a partisan. It is all right
to a party; but it is all wrong to have a party own him, and he fail to
horse sense in analyzing questions. A Freemason ought to be an
with no yoke about his neck. When Freemasons can analyze questions,
deliberately, come to a rational conclusion, they are coming closer to
the Master's Word.
Second Lesson Is Self-Control
lesson is that of self-control, obedience to constituted authority.
This is taught
in the Past Master's Degree. Of course, very few of you have seen this
the degree. This degree is used chiefly in some Grand Jurisdictions as
a means of
making a fool of a man and, as conferred, is a disgrace to Freemasonry;
yet it contains
one of the fundamental principles of Freemasonry; that before a man
will rule, he
must first learn to obey; that before he would teach, he must first be
a Craftsman before he will be a Master of the Craft; a subject before
he would be
a king; and before he would enlighten others, he must become
These principles are fundamental, but the tendency of our present day
is, that a
man wants to be the boss before he is an Entered Apprentice; be Master
of his lodge
before he has been an obedient Craftsman. The world is suffering from
men; unprepared for existing conditions; for an honest day's work; for
that may arise, possessed of a mere smattering of everything, but
little of anything;
an expert in all things but an expert in nothing. Undisciplined men,
men who lack
self-control, are a curse of the age. A disregard of law, and
incompetency to perform,
is as prevalent among the better class as among the crooks. Bold
defiance of law
is everywhere present. Men wink at the violation of law, especially the
amendment. No Freemason will violate this law or wink at the violation
If he does he will never find the Master's Word. A true Past Master has
the lesson of obedience in the school of discipline, has become master
and is thoroughly prepared for the duties upon which he would enter.
have been supreme satisfaction to King Solomon to erect the magnificent
Temple of Jehovah. It represented all that the Oriental mind could
conceive as an
offering to God. The inspiring display that marked the preliminary step
the dedication of, the Temple is one of sublimity and glory. The
depicted it so graphically, describing this scene, touched the theme
with more than
mortal pen. Picture the Temple reflecting its golden splendor under the
sun; imagine the great choir chanting antiphonally that wonderful
up your heads, oh ye gates, and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting doors,
and let the
King of Glory come in." Listen to that inspiring prayer of the King,
on the brazen scaffold in his rich and kingly robe, see the fire
descend on the
sacrificial altar, and the Temple illuminated by the Divine Presence,
vast throng fall prostrate worshipping and praising. "For He is good,
mercy endureth forever." Who would not like to have witnessed this
not the same scene been re-enacted in many a human heart? It may not
have had the
external splendor; it may not have been that of a King or Prince, but
that of an
humble man, who toiled daily, yet this individual, personally
of the same splendor, heard the same choir, uttered the same prayer,
the fire descend on his meager sacrifice, and felt the glory of the
We are, indeed, Temple Builders. Some are building a magnificent
temple. Some are
building the best temple they can. Men differ in ability. Men differ in
But it does not matter whether you are building a little temple,
building of bricks
rather than granite, or bricks without straw, yet the temple is being
and I will have to complete our temple and the last stone must be put
and may it receive the plaudits as of old, "Grace, grace be unto it."
do you not think that if a man is independent, does square work, and
only, controls himself and is obedient to constituted authority, who is
a temple in this world, do you not think he is getting pretty close to
Describers Purpose of
the Weary Sojourners
I have often
thought of those three weary sojourners coming out of Babylonian
their long and toilsome journey from Babylon to Jerusalem with only one
in mind, and that was to rebuild the city and the House of the Lord.
Jews were heroes but, while just released from captivity, it should be
that the great age of the Jewish nation was not in regal splendor in
as a nation, in its armies, in its wealth, or its expansive boundaries,
golden age was the seventy years of captivity. It was the literary age
Out of it came its sacred writings, the collation of its remarkable
history of her
people, her prophetic literature and her psalter. Had the captivity
the world might have been denied its greatest heritage, the Old
the school of captivity emerged a people immortal, a people who were
of the sacred and undying literature of the world, and the steadfast
purpose and aim of these three weary sojourners. A purpose that was
never lost in
their long and toilsome journey, on foot, over rough and ragged roads
and amid ruins, but ever onward toward Jerusalem, the city of their
journey was not taken to secure ease, comfort, emolument or honor, but
the purpose of engaging in the noble and glorious work of rebuilding
the city and
House of the Lord. This truly was a noble purpose, but it did not
embrace all, as
they did not expect even "the hope of a fee or a reward." This was the
climax of their noble purpose. It was unselfish. It was unstinted
service, a service
to their home, to their people and to their God. What greater encomium
can be given
to these faithful, devout, returning captives than to say they served?
of the work, however humble, their willing hands were willing to
perform. The keystone
of the Royal Arch should bear upon it, "I Serve." Service,
should be the battle cry of Freemasonry, and he who does not wish to
serve or sacrifice,
will never discover the Master's Word.
zealous Jews discovered it. They did not discover it in a palace but in
They found it after digging away the rubbish, away from the sight of
men, not for
worldly applause or honor, but for pure service, and they found it.
This is the
beautiful story of Freemasonry: The loss of the Master's Word and its
men being fully prepared and qualified searching for it, and willing to
and toilsome journey through life, with one end in view, to assist the
glorious work of building the House of the Lord, working for humanity
hope of fee or reward. When Freemasonry grasps this idea, that it is a
a life of self-sacrifice, then will Royal Arch Masonry come to its own.
grasp the idea of Royal Arch Masonry as I have tried to explain it, it
any longer be a mere stepping stone from the lodge to the Commandery,
but we shall
consider it an honor to be Royal Arch Masons, and no higher honor can
come to any
man than to appreciate and understand Royal Arch Masonry.
many of you are High Priests of your chapters, candidates are coming
into your chapters.
Will you explain to them this story ‒ that they are searching for
or will you make these solemn ceremonies a scene of buffoonery? I
not. These ceremonies are too sacred and it would be a sacrilege to
that is not in keeping with the dignity of Freemasonry. Shrine
ceremonies have no
place in Freemasonry and only the light-headed and the moron will
indulge in it.
Has Been Too Much
never a time in Freemasonry when this ought to be brought home with
There has been a great rush into Freemasonry. There has been a hip and
it. Men have come having no conception of what Freemasonry is, but they
to drop out. The tide is going out. Dimissions and suspensions for
dues will increase. What are you going to do with this vast amount of
material? Among this material are many good men as well as a mass of
Many have come without qualifications.
Let me tell
you a little story. During the Civil War, Senator Vance of North
Carolina, one of
the most brilliant men of the Southern States, being an active
disfranchised by the government. After the war he was elected to the
Senate. He went to Washington with his certificate of election and was
that his election was all right, but having been disqualified, and this
not yet removed, he therefore could not be seated. He was informed that
if he would
remain in Washington a short time, Congress would doubtless pass a bill
his disability. But Senator Vance determined to go home. In doing so he
ordinary coach and a seat opposite two ministers, a Baptist and a
These two Dominies soon became engaged in a warm discussion on the
question of foreordination
and election. The war waged hotly between the Navy and Infantry of the
After a while, the Presbyterian minister, noticing that Senator Vance
was very much
interested, said to him, "Stranger, you seem to be interested in our
What is your opinion of election?" Senator Vance said, "I have a very
positive opinion. An election is not worth a damn until your
disabilities are removed."
This is a good Masonic as well as theological statement. Too many men
and are still coming in whose disabilities have not been removed. They
What are you going to do about it? Are you going to educate them as
ought to educate her young men, or are you going to let them drift and
out by taking their dimits or by non-payment of dues? Every man is not
fit to be
made a Mason. There are some who naturally will drop out if Freemasonry
is not congenial.
We have moral morons as well as intellectual morons, and a moron is not
fit to be
made a Mason, whether he be one morally or intellectually. Will you
help those that
remain? Are you going to have a circus out of it, or are you going to
and teach these men the great central thought of Freemasonry? Now,
Royal Arch Masons, will you please consider these things: that the
much. It is the great stepping stone to the central idea, the Master's
Recovery of it and its interpretation and application. It is not
is sincere, dignified work, just as much as the church itself. I
that if we took Freemasonry sincerely, studied it, brought it out as I
to explain to you, it will lead every man to the door of the church.
By Rob Morris
Name! I learned it at a mother's knee
When, looking up, the fond and tearful face
Beaming upon my eyes so tenderly,
She prayed that God her little son would bless!
That Name! I spoke it when I entered here
And bowed the knee, as each Freemason must;
From my heart's center with sincerity
I said, "In God, in God is all my trust!"
That Name! I saw it o'er the Master's chair
"The Hieroglyphic bright," and, bending low,
Paid solemn homage at the emblem there
That speaks of God, before whom all must bow!
That Name! In silence I invoked its power
When dangers thickened and when death was nigh!
In solemn awe I felt the death clouds lower
And whispered, "God be with me if I die!"
That Name! the last upon my faltering tongue
Ere death shall still it, it shall surely be
The Password to the high celestial throng
Whose Lord is God in truth and majesty!
That Name then, Brothers, always gently speak,
Before your father's, mother's name revered!
Such blessings from His gracious hand we take,
O be His honor to our souls endeared!
of Masonry in Alaska
Bro. Charles E. Naghel
MT. JUNEAU LODGE, No. 147, ALASKA
of Alaska is within the jurisdiction of the M. W. Grand Lodge of Masons
of the State
of Washington. The list given herewith of Alaska lodges shows the
number of Master
Masons on the respective rolls at the end of 1924:
Pass Lodge, No. 113
Lodge, No. 124
Lodge, No. 140
Juneau Lodge, No. 147
Lodge, No. 159
Lodge, No. 162
farthest north lodge) 203
Lodge, No. 168
McKinley Lodge, No. 183
Lodge, No. 219
Lodge, No. 221
small active Masonic clubs at Hanies and Sitka, Alaska. The brethren at
place have applied for dispensation, but still lack two dimits of
having the requisite
fifteen to obtain favorable action on their petition.
Alaska, are located the following Scottish Rite bodies: Alaska Lodge of
No. 1; Alaska Chapter of Rose Croix, No. 1; Alaska Council of Kadosh,
No. 1, and
Alaska Consistory, No. 1.
an active Scottish Rite club located at Ketchikan, Alaska, and active
are located in all the larger cities of the territory.
of Royal Arch Masons is located in Nome, and Commanderies at Anchorage
lodges and clubs throughout the territory have always been active in
the work of the Fraternity and maintaining its high principles.
lodges are visited by sojourning Masons from jurisdictions scattered
the world, and it is not uncommon to find a dozen or more Masonic
including a number of foreign countries, represented at our small
Oftentimes two or more brethren will meet and make themselves known to
in the most unexpected manner and in remote places, as while out on
hunting or prospecting
trips, and these meetings out in the vast researches of an undeveloped
are quite illustrative of the universality of Freemasonry, for often
whom you meet thus unexpectedly hails from a lodge in some distant
I have experienced
the pleasure of such meetings in a small way myself while out on
In 1916 I accepted an invitation from an acquaintance, whom I had met
in Juneau when he was here on his infrequent visits to the city, to
have my hunting
trip with him that fall. I had been informed that he was a Mason and,
part of the journey by the mail boat and finishing it by traveling in a
I arrived at his little cabin where, by due examination, we established
relationship, and afterward he climbed up to the attic of the cabin and
down his Knight Templar's uniform and sword, which he told me had not
been out of
their cases for many years. He held membership in a Lodge and
Commandery in Idaho.
However, we were not on common ground beyond the Blue Lodge, having
later, while hunting with this brother, we were camped on the beach on
of a large inlet filled with reefs, rocks and small islands. We had
day's hunt, and just as night was falling, after we had washed the
and were cleaning up the arsenal of small arms in the tent, we heard
put" of a small gas boat approaching the camp. I stepped outside the
called out to the boat's occupant the directions for making the
anchorage in our
small sheltered bay, but it was not until he had pulled almost to the
shore in his
tender that I recognized him as a Mason from Ukiah, Cal., whom I had
sat in lodge
with several times years previously in Juneau. He had been informed at
a small settlement
some miles away of my being in the inlet, and he searched about in his
until nearly dark before he located our camp. We had an enjoyable and
fraternal session in the tent until late into the night, disturbed by
no sound outside
the tent except the occasional call of a loon, duck or goose, which is
the hunter; and often the volume of sound from the feathered tribe at
prompt us to venture the prediction that wing shooting on the morrow
would be more
attractive than seeking the more toothsome venison.
nature of our surroundings in Alaska brings members of the Fraternity
a closer bond than is the case in the more thickly populated
communities, I believe.
If you ever have the leisure and inclination you should spend a few
weeks on one
of the most fascinating journeys to be had throughout the world, a trip
to our Northland
during the summer, and see our wonderful scenery, which has sufficient
the territory to always be pleasing to the eye as one journeys along.
The trip can
be made without much expense during the summer tourist season, which
time is most
attractive to many people, although I always maintain that winter is
the most productive
of beautiful sights, although not a good time for travel or to make
along the route. You would enjoy a visit to Alaska, viewing its
and meeting the people that make this land their home. Besides, you
would go back
to your home with the knowledge that Alaska is a different land than
you had conceived
it to be at long range.
of Masonry In China
from "Encyclopedia Sinica" [Lib*] BRO. I. V. GILLIS, Peking, China,
our attention to an illuminating article on the Craft in China in the
Sinica." The Oxford University Press, American Branch, 35 West 32nd
New York City, publishers of the "Encyclopedia," very graciously gave
consent to our reprinting it here. We desire to give full credit to the
to the estate of Samuel Couling, editor of the "Encyclopedia." This
reference work is one that may be heartily commended to any and all
may have an interest in China. It may be purchased from the Oxford
at $14.00. The article, as here given, is taken from a Photostat and
as it stands except for the sub-heads. It is signed by G.L. The
was published in 1917.
claim the creation of the world as the starting point of their
But an immediately following admission tells of the founding of the
Lodge of England, to which so much of modern Masonry may be traced, and
origin of that at no earlier date than A. D. 1717. Ireland, Scotland
followed in order with like institutions of their own, the last named
Grand Lodge in 1792. Two classes of detractors base their criticisms on
one ridiculing the claim of the ancient lineage, the other running down
on account of its modernity. Both are wrong. The claim that the first
the Creator of the Universe need not be discussed, but historic
research shows plainly
enough that "a peculiar system of morality, veiled in allegory and
by symbols," has existed from time immemorial.
records ‒ the finest, best and most complete in the world in some
respects ‒ prove
that within her borders there was such a system known before the days
hundreds of years B.C., and what is more interesting is the fact that
and compasses were used then as emblems of morality much as they are
now. We need not feel surprised that this should be so. The early
connexion of the
Chinese with our own Western ancestors is being slowly but inevitably
in words alone is sufficient to satisfy those who have gone into the
there must have been similarity, if not identity, in origin.
classics, therefore, speak in terms masonic, as, for example, when
those in "pursuit of wisdom" to "make use of the compasses and square,"
we may well surmise that the germ of the idea was common to the
progenitors of those
who came east on the one side and went west on the other. Confucius at
himself that he could then "venture to follow the inclinations of his
without fear of transgressing the limits of the square."
Chinese Triad Society should have a ritual and practice in many
identical with that of Freemasonry need not surprise us, for just as
China has for
many generations been the happy home of secret societies opposed to the
so was it ‒ and to some extent is still ‒ in Continental Europe, where
and there were governments and rulers wise enough to place themselves
at the head
of such movements. Nine out of ten of the many rebellions in China have
work of secret societies connected more or less intimately with
first Freemasons of Shanghai built for themselves a home in which to
applied to the then Consul for his advice as to the Chinese name which
given to their hall. Mr. Medhurst had no great difficulty in meeting
He knew what has been said above respecting the use by the Chinese of
and compasses, and advised accordingly. He suggested "Kweikeu-t'ang,"
or "Compass and Square Hall" ‒ the Chinese reverse the order of the
‒ as a fitting title, and the designation being accepted, has continued
present time to suggest to our native fellow residents, and to the few
who have been accepted as "brethren," that the practices to which the
building is dedicated are of that moral and reputable order known from
of old and
practiced by their Great Sage himself.
First Home Was In Hong
on the China coast, however, found its first home, not in Shanghai, but
Kong, where the Royal Sussex Lodge, named after the Duke of that title,
its warrant in 1844, and opened its meetings on the 3rd of April, 1845.
it removed to Canton, where it remained for ten years and was then
its resuscitation in Shanghai in 1863. The original number of the Royal
was 735. It is now 501, and it is thus senior to the Northern Lodge of
first to be formed in Shanghai, whose number is 570. Both are under the
Lodge warrant is dated Dec. 27, 1849, the lodge at first being No. 832.
place of meeting was in the Kiangsi road (then Church street), where it
a Chinese building, much as one of the Weihaiwei lodges did recently.
migrated to a building of its own in the Nanking road (then Park lane).
its accommodation, it was compelled to make a fresh move, and for some
a building in the Foochow road. Meanwhile its second hall was being
built in the
Canton road, where it still stands. But, once again, developments
change, this time to the Bund, where the foundation stone of the new
laid on the 3rd of July, 1865. Most unfortunate as to the circumstances
followed, the new Masonic hall found itself one of two "white
which the Shanghai community had on its hands. The other was Trinity
the Cathedral. Shanghai had had its fat years during the late fifties
sixties when the Taiping rebels were over-running the province. Its
lean ones dated
from the overthrow of those pests at Nanking in 1864, and for years the
the two big buildings was felt very severely by the small and
community. The Northern Lodge, however, bore half the burden of the
hall, the other
half being carried by the Royal Sussex and the Tuscan Lodges in the
ratio of 3 to
Lodge warrant dates from Aug. 18, 1864. As a working lodge it has had
its ups and
downs, but during the course of its existence it has provided three
Masters, Bros. Miller, Moore and Hough, for Freemasonry in the Far
East, and is
now reported to be in a highly flourishing financial condition.
Freemasonry began in Shanghai in 1861 with the charter of the Zion
under the Northern Lodge, No. 570, E. C. It continued alone till 1869,
Rising Sun R. A. Chapter, under the Scottish Constitution, was formed.
Chapter has ever been one of the most successful of Far Eastern Masonic
and its list of Past First Principals contains many names of men who
mark in Shanghai history in other than Masonic circles.
But it is
now time to turn to constitutions other than the English. All three
made their debut
in Shanghai. The year 1864, the last of the fat years, was prolific of
We have seen that the Royal Sussex was re-constituted in Shanghai in
1863. On the
very same day the Lodge of Assiduity was formed. It was on the 7th of
that the Lodge Cosmopolitan, working under the Scottish Constitution,
its warrant. The Tuscan immediately followed, as we have seen, and on
the 14th of
December it was the turn of the American Constitution to come in with a
for the formation of the Ancient Landmark Lodge.
It is not
necessary here to dilate on the slight differences existing between the
Scotch and Massachusetts Constitutions. They are all in the realm of
of principle, and the consequences have almost without exception been
for while unity in principle secures solidarity in essentials,
diversity in working
is always attractive to visiting brethren who delight in tracing
contrasts in the differing rituals.
Lodge, No. 428, S. C., began working in 1864 under the mastership of
one of the
best known of the older Shanghai Masons, W. Bro. C. M. Donaldson. It
been a strong lodge, and was long distinguished for its charitable
work. The Saltoun
Lodge, No. 936, S. C., dates from Dec. 23, 1902.
Landmark Lodge, acting under the Constitution of Massachusetts, began
work on the
9th of May, 1864, and sprang rapidly into complete success. It was the
the meeting of a few friends at the house of Dr. H. W. Boone, who, with
-afterwards well known for his connexion with Gen. Ward of the "Ever
Army" ‒ and Bro. Blanchard, was one of the leading lights in Masonic
for years after. Bro. Eames, learned in the law, and father of the
Madame Emma Eames, was another of the little fraternity, as was the
who in later years became Bishop of the American Episcopal Church in
Schereschewsky. Amongst the list of Past Masters of this lodge will be
Bros. Hill, Eames, Jansen, the Rev. J. R. Hykes, D. D., and E. T.
Chargé d'Affaires for the United States in Peking.
Royal Arch Chapter may be looked on as an offshoot of the Ancient
as its mainstays were found amongst the stalwarts of that body. Its
from the 20th of September, 1871.
bodies founded in the early days of the settlement should be noted
here, the first
of which was the "Celestial Encampment," embodying Knight Templar and
other degrees not officially recognized by the English Constitution.
dates back to Oct. 3, 1862. In 1877 its name was changed to that of the
Preceptory," under which it was the only body in China conferring
Masonic Knighthood. In 1900 it ceased to exist, but has since been
The Cathay Rose Croix was another. It came into existence under a
May 18, 1869, and conferred degrees following the Royal Arch to the
18th. It has
long been extinct.
for the construction of a Provincial Grand Lodge of the Royal Order of
is dated Aug. 10, 1865, and W. Bro. C. M. Donaldson was appointed first
an office held for life. This post he continued to fill till 1892,
when, after his
death, his mantle fell upon P.G.M. Bro. J. H. Osborne, who held it
until 1916, when
he resigned and was succeeded by Bro. M. E. H. Wells. The Royal Order
the degrees that precede it in being purely Christian in tendency. It
parts, the second of which is a degree of Knighthood.
A few other
interesting occurrences in the olden days may be recorded. The first
was held in 1865, but it was not till 1874 that another provided a
and so formed the nucleus of the Masonic Charity Fund, which has done
so much good
in Shanghai and elsewhere. In 1866 the foundation stone of the present
was laid with fitting Masonic ceremonial. In 1867 the Masonic hall on
the Bund was
dedicated. It has since been rebuilt and adapted to modern
requirements. In 1868
Ningpo joined the fraternity by forming the "Star of Peace" Lodge, No.
1217, E. C. It lasted but two years, however. During the year
Scotsmen formed a new lodge, St. Andrew in the Far East, No. 493, S. C.
was its first Master and it had every promise of a long and successful
its hopes were shattered and the lodge came to an end in 1874. The
Hankow was next
to try its hand with "The Star of Central China," No. 511, S. C. This
was in 1871.The Hankow Lodge might have been known as the Tea Lodge,
for its founders
were mainly engaged in the great tea trade of the port as it then was.
fell off, and regular residents became fewer, the lodge lapsed. Since
its place has been supplied by the Far Cathay Lodge, No. 2,855, E. C.
German Lodge Was Inaugurated
1872 saw the inauguration of the Lodge Germania, which had a chequered
some ten years and was then closed. Dr. Zachariae was one of its
Masters, and the
lodge was revived in 1895 by no less a celebrity than W. Bro. P. G. von
since which time it has been in regular working order. In this, as in
cases, members of the English Constitution freely gave their aid
wherever it was
possible and necessary.
In 1909 an
effort was made to start a lodge under the Dutch Constitution, and the
Grand Lodge had the pleasure of performing the Consecration ceremony,
but the experience
of the following year proved that an insufficient number of resident
forthcoming and the warrant was returned to The Hague.
of the development of District Grand Lodges in China is one of
The first W. M. of the Royal Sussex Lodge, Bro. J. H. Murray, was also
Provincial Grand Master of the whole Masonic Province of China, and the
W. M. who
succeeded him in the chair of the Royal Sussex also succeeded to the
honor of the
Prov. Grand Mastership. This was Bro. S. Rawson. It was not till 1877
immense "Province" was divided into two "Districts" of North
and South China. Bro. Cornelius Thorne was the first D. G. M. of the
and held the post for eight years. Leaving for home in 1885, he was
Bro. J. I. Miller, who in turn resigned in 1896, and was followed by
Bro. L. Moore,
who held the office till his death in 1903. Bro. W. H. Anderson was the
and remained in office till his departure for home in 1908, Bro. R. S.
the vacancy in the following year and still remaining in office, thus
in length of service all his predecessors.
A D. G. M.
is entitled to Past Rank only after a service of three years. His
office is by no
means a sinecure. He has the appointment annually of a score or more of
to serve under him in the District Grand Lodge, and he is in undisputed
of all the lodges ‒ be they few or many ‒ of his own Constitution in
over which he rules. Territorially in China he may have to share his
sway with D.
G. M's of other Constitutions who, of course, rule only over lodges
own ritual and having warrants granted by their own Grand Lodges. As
at present [the Cyclopaedia was published in 1917], the lodges under
Grand Lodge of Northern China, E. C., are as follows:
Lodge of China
Lodge of Tientsin
Star of China
Lodge in consequence of constant removals from the port and an
of permanent residents found itself unable, in 1914, to carry on its
and so lapsed. The date given for the warrant of the Tongshan Lodge is
the date of its consecration. This Lodge has had the peculiar
experience of losing
its warrant by theft, and of being compelled in consequence to go into
a new one had been obtained. Some years ago the present writer paid a
to this remarkable little community which was then the proud possessor
of a racecourse,
a club, a rifle association, a church and a Masonic Hall, with what
centers is not recorded, while the census showed a total, including the
of seventy-five souls only.
points to one of the causes of the spread of Masonry in the Treaty
Ports of China.
As it is now in such a place as Tongshan, so it once was in Shanghai,
etc. Men formed lodges for companionship. Now, when social amenities in
settlements are multiplied, that particular attraction is not only
lost, but is
antagonized by endless other facilities provided by clubs of every
It is only in the outports that the earlier conditions are repeated.
D. D. G. M's Are
earliest days the American lodges have had the advantage of a District
Master, the following being the list of worthy brethren who have held
Bros. C. E. Hill, first W. M. of the Ancient Landmark Lodge, W. C.
B. Eames, D. C. Jansen, A. W. Danforth, J. R. Hykes, George A. Derby
and Dr. Stacey
A. Ransom, the present incumbent. But it was not till 1915 that the
number of American
lodges was sufficient to call for the formation of a regularly
Grand Lodge. Application then made to the Grand Master of the State of
resulted in the issue of a charter, and the ceremony of installation of
R. W. Bro.
Dr. Ransom was conducted by the D. G. M. of the English Constitution,
R. W. Bro.
R. S. Ivy, assisted by the officers of the English D. G. Lodge. This
ceremony occurred on the 24th of November, 1915, and the new District
held its first annual meeting on the 27th of December, 1916.
years the Ancient Landmark was the only lodge under the rule of the
Deputy Grand Masters, but on the 28th of January, 1904, the Sinim Lodge
at first under the name of the Cathay Lodge, its first Master being
of the late R. W. Bro. D. C. Jansen. Another, the Shanghai Lodge, has
dated Sept. 14, 1904. A provisional warrant was given to the Peiho
Lodge of Tientsin,
but the only occupant of the chair was W. Bro. L. C. Emery, the lodge
incapable of carrying on.
curiously enough, held out longer against Masonic influences than any
of the Treaty
Ports of importance. It was not until the 2nd of October, 1915, that an
Lodge was established in Peking, which has since received its warrant
from the Grand
Lodge of Massachusetts, and is thus under the control of the American
D. G. Lodge.
On the 4th of November, 1916, a Lodge of Perfection ‒ 14th Degree ‒ of
and Accepted Scottish Rite was also opened by Illustrious C. S.
an Honorary 33rd Degree. No fewer than 17 Master Masons received higher
at the temporary Masonic Hall on the Austrian Glacis on that date, but
interesting portion of the ceremony was an adjournment to the Temple of
the working of several degrees in the Emperor's Robing Chamber. W. Bro.
installed as first V. M., and amongst the officers was Bro. C. C. Wu,
son of the
well-known Chinese diplomatist and statesman, Dr. Wu Ting-fang.
degrees just mentioned form part of the complete system known as the
Accepted Rite of Freemasonry (U. S. A.), which was established more
than a century
ago in Charleston, South Carolina. Its Shanghai members were
consolidated on the
19th of September, 1901, into the following bodies:
Lodge of Perfection, No. 4, under Bro. G. A. Derby.
Chapter Rose Croix, No. 3, under Bro. G. A. Derby
Council of Kadosh, No. 2, under Bro. John Goodnow.
Consistory, No. 1, under Bro. John Goodnow.
and Accepted Rite, under the "Supreme Council of England," is thought
to have originated in France about the middle of the 18th century. As
been remarked, the Grand Lodge of England concerns itself with none but
three degrees with the Royal Arch, but it will be of interest to the
Craft as well
as to the general reader to have a list of the thirty-three degrees as
under the Ancient and Accepted Rite. They are the following:
- Entered Apprentice.
- Master Mason.
- Secret Master.
- Perfect Master.
- Intimate Secretary.
- Provost and Judge.
- Superintendent of the Buildings.
- Elected Knights of the Nine.
- Illustrious Elect of Fifteen.
- Sublime Knights Elected.
- Grand Master Architect.
- Knight of the Ninth Arch.
- Grand Elect, Perfect and
- Knight of the Sword of the East.
- Prince of Jerusalem.
- Knight of the East and West.
- Sovereign Prince of Rose Croix.
- Grand Pontiff.
- Grand Master of all Symbolic
- Noachite or Prussian Knight.
- Knight of the Royal Axe, or
Prince of Libanus.
- Chief of the Tabernacle.
- Prince of the Tabernacle.
- Knight of the Brazen Serpent.
- Prince of Mercy, or Scotch
- Sovereign Commander of the
- Knight of the Sun.
- Grand Scotch Knight of St.
- Grand Elect Knight of Kadosh.
- Grand Inspector, Inquisitor
- Sublime Prince of the Royal
- Sovereign Grand Inspector
of Masonic activity, the working of the Mark Degree in a separate
lodge, has so
far been left unnoticed. The District of N. China possesses but two of
the Orient Mark Lodge, No. 482, E. C., at Shanghai, and the Northern
Lodge of China
of Mark Masons, No. 583, E. C., at Weihaiwei. The former was
established in 1894,
its first Master being Bro. F. M. Gratton. The latter first saw the
light in 1906.
The Mark Degree is conferred under other constitutions without the
Masonry Has Fine
Record for Charity
has many claims to the honor and respect of the world, but none based
on surer foundation
than its first and foremost practice, the practice of charity. We have
the brotherhood dates its beginning on the China coast from the year
1844, but when
we find that the first Charity Fund was not founded till thirty years
in 1874, we must not jump to the conclusion that Craft benevolence
that time. It was not so. Whatever was required to minister to the
needs of those
in distress came freely from the pockets of individual brethren or the
of individual lodges. In 1874, however, a Masonic ball surplus of $529
nest-egg of the first combined fund in which all Shanghai lodges of
could find membership. At first a rather haphazard undertaking, the
fund made but
slow progress, working, so to speak, from hand to mouth. Bro. Gratton
it under bye-laws in 1888, and since then its progress had been ever
upward. Its present invested funds amount to Tls. 32,500.00 and are
all lodges in the district.
and district has followed Shanghai's example and now has a thriving
of its own. In times gone by it subscribed freely to the Shanghai Fund.
has done the like, and the volume of its fund is a telling tribute to
of its small community.
be said of the high standing of prominent Masons in China in other
walks of life.
The list includes at least one Bishop, many high church dignitaries,
officials, various Knights, a large body of representatives from the
many heads of firms, and a vast body of "just and upright" men who have
carried on the traditions of the Craft after the manner which, in all
led monarchs themselves to become "promoters of the art." One of the
prominent of Masonic historians was Bro. R. F. Gould, once Secretary to
Municipal Council, and a member of the Northern Lodge.
The two public
schools of Shanghai, for boys and girls, owe their origin to that
founded by the
Masonic Fraternity in 1886. For years the lodges provided a liberal
prize fund which
has now been consolidated and forms three valuable scholarships tenable
years. The Craft hold in perpetuity the right to nominate four free
or girls, in the Municipal Schools, in return for their outlay on the
As a further
outgrowth from the ranks of the Fraternity may be mentioned the Masonic
Shanghai. This institution dates from the 1st of April, 1882, has its
the Masonic building on what is one of the very best sites in the Model
and has always filled a well-recognized position in Shanghai clubdom.
It is not
likely that there exist many cities where Masonry is stronger, in
its Western population, than it is in Shanghai.
Old Tyler --
By Rob Morris
bless the Old Tyler! how long he has trudged,
Through sunshine and storm, with his "summonses due!"
No pain nor fatigue the Old Tyler has grudged
To serve the great Order, Freemasons, and you.
God bless the Old Tyler! how oft he has led
The funeral procession from Lodge door to grave!
How grandly his weapon has guarded the dead
To their last quiet home where the Acacia boughs wave.
God bless the Old Tyler; how oft he has knocked,
When, vigilant, strangers craved welcome and rest!
How widely your portals, though guarded and locked,
Have swung to the signal the Tyler knows best!
There's a Lodge where the door is not guarded nor tyled
There's a Land without graves, without mourners or sin
There's a Master most gracious, paternal and mild
And He waits the Old Tyler, and bids him come in!
And there the Old Tyler, no longer outside ‒
No longer with weapon of war in his hand ‒
A glorified spirit, shall grandly abide
And close by the Master, high honored, shall stand.
Lodge Become A Nursing Mother?
Bro. Donald Hughes, California
is a genial philosopher who has the knack of expressing his opinions
with such good
humor as to please even those who most violently disagree with him. We
that he will let us publish three or four other essays about which he
has been gossiping
in a number of recent letters.
a little! It is a harmless pastime with occasional utility, and
seldomly does anybody
serious harm, more especially if the so-called philosopher is as
grandfatherly as myself. There is sometimes a little excitement to be
had out of
it, too; hardly anybody can ever tell what a philosopher is aiming at
until he gets
there, and then sometimes, as the Irisher said, it isn't the place at
all but another.
You remember Professor Huxley's gentle jibe at good Bishop Berkeley? He
sainted metaphysician began his discourse with tar water and ended with
Huxley added, it may be recalled irrelevantly for the sake of the fun,
pages on tar water were much the better!
The Editor has asked me to contribute to THE BUILDER a few of my
have warned him of my awful habit of digressing, of pausing by the way
about this and that, of all my literary lapses, my ingrained
other faults, but he has insisted natheless; perhaps after I have once
all over the inside of the magazine he will recant. (Others have done
Public taste in letters is all for speed and jazz. People want their
served up in rapid little packages, like bullets. They have gazed so
much on the
face of the flapper that they have lost taste for gazing on the face of
shop girl going to work attired in satin slippers, and a few other
things, is setting
the fashion for books. "Make it snappy!" is our motto. The bread of
has become gingerbread; the wine of life has become Coca-Cola.
I am not
comfortable in this atmosphere. To me it is a heresy to suppose that
of the world can be crowded into an Outline, or that the poetry of
be expressed in five lines of vers libre, or that the drama of life can
in one act. I like the rigor of the game but, like Charles Lamb's Mrs.
I prefer to play it with my friends in front of the open fire. The
essay is my favorite literary form; its leisureliness pleases me, its
and about through its subject; the sense it conveys of plenty of time,
as if the
author knew well enough that we human beings may as well begin to
practice the eternal
life right now. You can make a machine as rapidly as you please, but
make a human being that way; life grows, and growth takes time, under
sun and the unhurried rains, with time for doing nothing and for
dreams. All that
is as true in our lodge life as anywhere else. It grinds me to see the
rushed through, with candidates "initiated" in gangs, and everybody
up to the pitch of haste; we shall never teach our novices the lesson
unless we take time for it. Let that pass! What I started to
is history, among other things. Not history in general, in the sense of
that has ever happened, but history as understood by Trevelyan, Wells,
Breasted, Macaulay, Greene, Hume, Hallam, Gibbon, Freeman, Bishop
Stubbs, and all
those disciples of Clio who write big books and organize themselves
societies. Do their labored disquisitions have any value above the
they furnish bookworms like you and me? Can one make any practical use
chronicles? Can history be applied? Is there any method for plotting
out the future
on the strength of what we have learned about the past? Are Guglielmo
Stoddard and President Herbert Spencer Hadley warranted in telling us
is coming to on the strength of what happened two thousand years ago in
these queries amount to, I believe, may be jammed into one short
question of four
words ‒ is history a science?
Is an Art
I agree with Mr. Trevelyan in his Clio, a
Muse [Lib 1914], where he argues that history
is an art rather
than a science because it is of the essence of any real science to
permit its devotee
to foretell the future, whereas the historian can do nothing of the
kind, as anyone
knows from the sorry failure that has attended every well-meant effort
of an historian
to don the mantle of the prophet. The astronomer can tell you to the
Halley's Comet will next put in its appearance because he knows when it
here before, but no historian on top of Mother Earth can make any
A thing can occur ten thousand times in the historian's realm and then
obvious reasons for this, of course. Man is by nature an unpredictable
mere fact that he possesses such a thing as a history means that his
world is always
making new beginnings, new departures, new experiments; unforeseen
into it; if it were everlastingly repeating itself there would be no
news to tell
about it, and hence no history, which is news about the past. Who
foresaw the railway?
the automobile? the aeroplane? wireless? What biologist can tell when
will take a Mendelian leap into an utterly unexpected variety, with a
new kind of
blood, a new cast of human brain? Because the unexpected happens,
nobody can tell
what to expect, therefore there can be no prediction and consequently
is an artist. Like every other practitioner of that gild he picks and
his possible materials for those which suit him, leaving out of account
other artist may consider of first value, for the purpose of shaping
substance into impressive forms that please him and may possibly please
that the historian is an artist, I have in mind the large true sense of
and not merely a painter of pictures. Now the one chief and all
of all art is human nature. The artist's proper study is mankind. Even
the art of
architecture has man for its theme; a building takes its shape' and
in order to reveal the geological nature of the stones but to exhibit
and aspirations of the men who will live or work inside it. Every
artist, in any
possible medium, is out to show man something about himself, to reveal
him to himself,
to put him into completer possession of himself, so that he can the
and govern and enjoy his own life. This is as true of those forms of
art which seem
farthest removed from us as of the more immediate and intimate forms,
such as lyric
poetry. Art is a history of human life presented through the forms of
it may ignore facts but it cannot ignore truths. Our Ritual, which as I
is one of the masterpieces of the world's art, is a history of the
human heart in
some of its deeper moods and more tragical moments.
like to say here that we shall never understand the art of fiction
until we come to think of it as an attempt to give us this same kind of
The notion that it is a novelist's business to construct frothy tales
out of his
fancy to furnish pastime to idle souls seems to me a libel on all the
wise and true
practitioners of that great art. Imagine a Conrad, a Willa Cather, a W.
a Balzac, a Henry James wasting his time at such petty stuff! It is
Those and all others like them have in view the serious purpose of
telling the truth
about human life; when they deceive us by telling lies about it they
cease to be
great novelists. And that is the trouble in chief with so many of the
that often become so popular (no need to mention any names); they
man's nature, and therefore practice deception on the unwary minds that
Is Given As an Example
as in point here Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim [Lib 1923]. This admirable and heroic
cherished in his boyhood among the Polish plains far removed from salt
dream of becoming a sailor on an English ship, and then lived out his
all the odds of race and language. That done he turned novelist and
him ‒ he has recently passed into the Unseen ‒ the most valuable body
given us by any writer of this present day. The professional critic may
books for the skillful managements of his themes, or for his
but others of us love them for their truth. Perhaps there was never a
never a young sailor who caved in when he believed his ship to be going
such a hidden and barbarous land as that in which he tried so nobly to
shame; but what does it matter? The story of this young "Tuan" is a
of human nature, true and revealing, and every reader is the wiser for
it; wiser, that is, not alone because he understands others better, and
better, but for knowing his own nature better. And what a mystery is
of ours! It is our own, but at the same time not our own, much of it
our own self-grasp as distantly and strangely as the Malay Archipelago
or the Indian
Ocean, so that to have it laid bare to ourselves, and interpreted, is a
to our wisdom, and enables us to know and therefore to manage our lives
To write a novel, such as this, is as much a feat as to write a great
either event the purpose is a truthful unveiling of human nature. The
makes his interpretation by means of known facts about the past; the
means of truths won through the imagination. One is as valuable, for
or any other purposes, as the other.
I have long
believed that we make a great mistake in supposing that a historian is
concerned with the so-called "dead past." For one thing, it is not a
as a rapid reading of the biographies of historians will prove. Some of
been learned pundits completely divorced from the present, and more
the size of a stone in King Tut's tomb than about the living world; but
most part (one recalls Macaulay, Gibbon, Mommsen and a score beside)
they have been
more interested in present affairs than the majority of men are, and
for that very
reason have become historians. For another thing, the past is not
not much of it anyhow, but very much alive, most of it quite busily at
work in our
present day. For time, as Bergson made us see with his persuasive
a continuum, like the flow of a river, carrying with it into the future
has gathered up in the past. Consider your own life! The experiences of
have not been left behind you, like stones lying inertly on a road;
functioning inside you, influencing you as much now, perhaps, or even
at the time they occurred. To condemn history, which is literature
old events, in the name of the urgent needs of the present is to be
about that same present. Almost everything that lives and moves in our
world derives its momentum and its vigor from past generations.
understanding of the matter we can easily see in what sense history,
of times past, can be put to the service of the present and of the
future. By knowing
what men have been in the past, how they have behaved in certain
motives have moved them, what inspirations have drawn them along, what
animated them, we are the better enabled to understand what is going on
and what we may reasonably expect will grow from present conditions in
This is the truth of Goethe's profound saying, already quoted, I
times in THE BUILDER, that "men change but man remains the same." There
can be no predictions of matter of fact but there can be anticipations;
of the future based on knowledge of men in the past. For these reasons
and in this
sense I believe that Ferrero, Stoddard, Hadley and the others are
their province in warning us ‒ about the trends in the present world
knowledge of how we humans have behaved under similar conditions in
City Is a Key to Our
A rapid survey
of a number of such books as are represented by those of these authors
‒ I have
a stack of them on the table before me as I write ‒ shows that the
thing which bulks
largest in their troubled view of our modern world is the preponderant
the large city in our life, and of the industrial and economic system
that has brought
these huge towns into existence. There is no need here to go into a
of the problem of the city as envisaged by them, for space is limited;
it will be
sufficient to quote an utterance, already become familiar, of James
Bryce, who was
as keen a critic of his own times as he was a keen historian, and who
better than most in bringing the lessons of the past to bear on the
of the present. He said these words to a group of Americans about to
for home, and they were directed at American cities, but their
application is general:
"Go back to the splendid world
sea; but don't you make a failure of it. You cannot go on twenty-five
in your great cities as you have been doing. Don't you do it. If you
do, you will
set us liberals back in Europe five hundred years."
quotation, and for a striking work on the whole subject, see The
Challenge of the
City [Lib 1907], by Josiah Strong; his
statistics are now out
of date, but his general treatment is as valid as ever.)
of the city is the key to a number of the most perplexing problems of
For consider. In a stable rural community an individual is buttressed
by the whole neighborhood; he is linked to his neighbors by a lifetime
and to many of them by ties of blood. If he is out of work he doesn't
need to appeal
to some stranger in an employment bureau; if he loses all his money he
upon "organized charity, scrimped and iced, in the name of a cautious
Christ"; if he becomes ill the neighbors come in to help nurse him; and
he dies penniless he isn't buried in a Potter's Field. He has moral
himself; his character has roots in the neighborhood.
Put the same
man in a great city to live among indifferent strangers and nobody will
whether he lives or dies. He no longer wages the battle of life upheld
by a neighborhood but goes it alone, and as a result may very well
morally and physically bankrupt. The time comes when he is overwhelmed
by his own
sense of isolated helplessness.
the same industrial process that has thus herded him and his family
into a roaring
community of strangers has been reacting on those left in rural
communities. A farmer
no longer raises produce for a local market well understood by himself
but for a
distant city market over which he has no individual control; the
of prices by distant influences may cause it to turn out that a bumper
bankrupt him; and in the course of time he will very likely find
to money lenders sent out from the towns. What will men do under such
The historians tell us they will most probably do what they have nearly
when similarly situated: they will begin to call loudly upon the
government to help
them out; they will ask it to guarantee wages for them, and prices;
they will want
all manner of subsidies and grants from the public purse. The national
will become more and more complicated, adding bureau to bureau, until
becomes a despotism; and meanwhile the dependent and helpless groups
and blocs will
have become pauperized, because it is as plain as the nose on your face
that a man
who accepts money from his government is indirectly accepting it as a
those classes that have money wherewith to pay taxes. Once this process
way it automatically perpetuates itself; the very subsidies create new
further subsidies, and so on ad infinitum. It is an old, old story!
of offering tangible proof of these rather sweeping generalizations let
you to the last report of the Census Bureau, capitulated and summarized
In 1915 the average state in the Union increased its per capita tax on
us from $4.66
in 1915 to $10.71 less than ten years later. In the same period the per
indebtedness for the average state increased from $4.31 to $8.12. The
cost of government
increased 158.7 per cent in the same years. There is only one possible
of these stark figures: they mean that power, wealth and activity is
in government. It seems to me that this process is getting a strangle
hold on our
own government, and I am afraid that the deadly process has only just
far as such things are concerned we face a melancholy future. We shall
the "Great State" or the "Servile State" that so many publicists
are writing about, but what is much worse, a Maternal State, a state
that has become
a mere nursing mother to its weak citizens.
It was this
thing that poured so much rage into the sensitive soul of Nietzsche,
may have been his faults otherwise, saw into the core of this whole
clairvoyant clearness. "Why do we go on with a system," he demanded,
automatically breeds classes of weaklings? Do we not know that when
have become numerically powerful they will pull everything else down to
level? Strength will be submerged in weakness, and the foolish will
govern the wise!"
It perturbs me to see so many Masons swept into this habit of calling
on their own
central government, the Grand Lodge, in this selfsame manner. One might
to judge from a dozen indications, that the individual Mason and the
lodge had lost all power or ability, the way they ask Grand Lodge to
become a nursing
mother for them. They want Grand Lodge to manage their charities, to
their new building enterprises, to look after them as if they were
they even become afraid to ask a man into lodge to give a speech
without first creating
a Grand Lodge bureau to do it for them. What has become of the old
of character by which our early brethren went out into the wilds beyond
where there were no Grand Lodges? Has it all leaked out of our natures?
It is idle
to justify this steady centralization of activity on the score that we
and order; you can't have discipline among sheep!
When I was
a young man I was so much oppressed by the various and sundry social
me that I almost became a professional reformer. It seemed to me that
find no better way of investing his life than in an effort to help tidy
up and clean
up and better organize our communal life; and I believed that much of
could be accomplished without impossible difficulty if only "the
could be brought to recognize the evils and to accept the methods. Like
of the group in which I worked I devoured barrels of books. They were
and they are still to be recommended: books by Henry Demarest Loyd,
Professor Rauschenbusch, Elisha Mulford, and scores more like them. I
recall what an excitement it caused when H. G. Wells first arrived on
it seemed to some of us that we could never tire of his brilliant
cataracts of words,
his tireless preaching of a new "World Order."
Well, I remained
as much interested in seeing our social life made more sound and
beautiful as ever
I was but somehow I lost interest in most of the reforms specifically
In analyzing them in after years, I have come to believe that I lost
them because at the core of the majority of them I found an
unconfessed, or half
confessed, scheme to throw all the problems upon the shoulders of the
State or National
Government. The same thing is true, as I understand them, of most of
being proposed today. (I am not discussing politics.) Your typical
things bettered but he usually wants them bettered by the State. He
wants to shift
the responsibility from the individual on Main Street to some other
Washington. He loses sight of the patent fact that the individual in
has no more ability or wisdom or idealism than the individual on Main
that if the individual in Washington manages life for the individual on
poor Main Street will be worse off at the end than before.
I am not
trying to break any lances against national or united effort in
Masonry, least of
all in the field of Masonic education, or for the sake of such
work as the project of a National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanitarium; but
I do believe
that we need to be on our guard lest we become a Fraternity governed
which is the last way any real man wishes to be governed.
To my own
way of thinking there is a very deep distinction to be made among all
of centralized Masonry. If such a program asks Grand Lodge to serve as
of the whole, and as an agency through which individual Masons and
lodges can better
perform their work, we can have general unity of action without
unless I have misunderstood its methods the George Washington National
project could be so described, for in most cases its money was raised
voluntarily, Grand Lodge being only a machinery of collection. But if
out some such program Grand Lodge takes the place of the individual and
of the local
lodge; if it acts in lieu of men; if it takes money from its own
treasury that should
come from the member or his lodge; if, in short, it acts because
failed to act, then it has become a paternalism.
True Radical Is Described
If I find
myself in a quarrel with many of my Masonic brethren on our own Main
is because they are falling into this habit. They may call themselves
but at bottom they are not radicals at all. A radical should be
fearless and daring,
willing to fight alone with his back to a wall. All the efforts to have
become a nursing mother are not of that character; it is the timid,
individual who wants to be nursed and chaperoned through life. I
believe that we
need a new radicalism in Masonry, a radicalism that will boldly place
exactly where it belongs, asking for no charity, with each individual
to stand the gaff in his own right, and not begging for help from
outside. For that
reason I was rejoiced to come upon a paragraph or two in Bro. Ashley A.
Report on Foreign Correspondence in the Grand Lodge Proceedings of
Maine for 1924.
His words cap off my argument better than my own:
"The writer of this report
no higher praise than to be termed a Masonic conservator of the school
H. Drummond or a traditionalist of the type of Albro E. Chase, because
in the truest
meaning of the word these men of Maine were radicals of a vital type
they are invariably termed conservatives. How far have we traveled from
meaning of the word ‒ radical, ‒ may be seen when we consult the
lexicon and find
it to mean ‒ one who goes to the roots of truth. Surely no one thinks
of a radical
today in that way. The usual meaning of the word is quite different in
of the majority of men, and the type which comes before our vision when
we say ‒
radical ‒ is that of the superficial doctrinaire, the irresponsible
the long-haired type of fanatical reformer with an easy panacea for all
and international maladies and disorders. Masonry seems to have few of
of radicals, and in this sense it is a kind of misnomer to use the term
Freemasonry.' This is not to say, however, that there are many who seem
to us to
have overstepped the bounds of a wholesale and radical conservatism The
and purpose of this brief essay is to make clear that there is
precisely this reality
at the heart of Freemasonry, as we have this year and last year
observed it throughout
the world ‒ a wholesome and radical conservatism. Several Grand
have our fraternal respect veneration and cordial good-will, incline in
of legislation, attitude and interpretation, rather too much toward the
and even positively dangerous, while others no less devoted to the
ideal and progress
of the Fraternity veer the other way, toward the old and tested and
and ancient landmarks of the Order. Maine would unquestionably belong
to the latter
class. It would be both invidious and fraternally ungracious to point
of the former. It may well be that those who are inclined toward the
dangerous will keep the conservative from crystallizing and becoming
pull them ahead, while on the other hand, the old fogyism of the
(the alleged conservatives) may exert their influence in a no less
in holding the aggressively dangerous (the alleged radicals) from going
away from the well-tried landmarks. In short, they may accomplish in
jarring as it often is what neither alone would do so well."
By Bro. Joseph Robbins, Illinois
Asylum! here we meet
And tell our vows at Friendship's shrine
Father! guide Thou our wandering feet,
And make the hearts before Thee Thine.
Beneath the bannered Cross we stand
From worldly noise and strife apart,
And, trusting, grasp the offered hand,
That holds within its palm the heart.
From off our pilgrim sandals brush
The dust of busy, toiling day
And here, in evening's quiet hush,
Bending before the Master, pray ‒
That in our hearts, without alloy
May dwell the love that Christ hath shown,
Responsive to a Brother's joy,
And making all his griefs our own.
With firm reliance on Thy name,
May we the path of duty tread
O'er frozen ways, or through the flame,
Whence Molay's martyr-spirit fled.
And when, at last, this mortal dust
Shall put on Immortality;
O, grant us then serenest trust
In Thine unending verity.
of Masonry in the United States
Bro. H.L. Haywood, Editor
V – First Grand Lodges
stated on page 314 of THE BUILDER for October, the Grand Lodge of
in 1721 a regulation to the effect that no lodge could come into
existence as duly
and regularly constituted without a warrant from the Grand Master. This
came into effect gradually. Such lodges as had existed from time
as had been organized since 1717 and could show otherwise a clean bill
were accepted as legitimate or duly regularized.
is evident," writes Gould, in his History, Vol. IV (American edition
4]), p. 240, "that brethren who had left
the old world, and brought to their new homes a knowledge of the Craft,
much within their rights in holding Lodges in Philadelphia, Portsmouth
and elsewhere in America, as those who assembled in like manner in
England and Scotland…
The Fraternity there in Philadelphia must be held to have been as much
and as legally
a Grand Lodge as that of 'All England at York.' "
As also previously
noted, the old St. John's Lodge at Philadelphia functioned at one and
the same time
as a "private" lodge and as a Grand Lodge. The records of this lodge,
as given in Liber B, go back to February, 1731 (New Style), at about
so it is believed, it first perfected a formal organization, with
as Master. When Button left for Newfoundland William Allen was elected
to take his
place. On June 24, the brethren assembled as a Grand Lodge, and Allen
was made Grand
Master. It should be understood that this was a "Grand Lodge" according
to the ancient customs, and not in the sense now used; this means that
Lodge" was a general assembly of the brethren and that all Masons were
attendance, wherever their membership might be; it is probable that the
were more or less nominal, and acted as such only at the feast on St.
Lodge thus working according to the ancient style was evidently not
Until 1757 it never had (so far as we know) more than three lodges on
and the fourth lodge, organized under its authority in that year, later
its allegiance, under circumstances to be described. Its membership was
a restricted class, and the interest of these men appears to have waxed
with circumstances, as during the anti-Masonic flurry of 1737 in
Grand Mastership. During a period of fourteen years no notice of the
Craft had appeared
in a Franklin's Gazette; perhaps it was because the brethren preferred
but it may be also that interest had lapsed. If such was the case it
took on a new
lease of life in 1752, for in March of that year a movement was put
under way by
the Grand Lodge and the First Lodge to erect a Freemason's Hall to be
by the brethren. On March 13, 1754, a subscription list was passed
gratifying results", except that the lodge which met at Tun Tavern held
for a time, though it joined the enterprise later. A three-story brick
was erected on what is now Sansom Street, Philadelphia; in this the
until 1782, some of the rooms meanwhile being used for general public
as when in 1777 a number of Quakers were incarcerated in it on
suspicion of Royalist
sympathies. It was popularly known as "Mason's Lodge" and was the first
specifically Masonic building to be erected in the Colonies.
As the Revolution approached the original Grand Lodge and its
stricken with decay; to some extent, no doubt, because so many of their
were on the Royalist side, and because so much of their life was
the veins of a new set of lodges working under the Ancient Grand Lodge
of which more anon. The last official meeting of the brethren in
Mason's Lodge was
on Feb. 25, 1782. The title of the building had been vested in the
trustees of the
three lodges; the survivors, Bros. Shippen and Swift, were empowered by
to sell the property in 1785; two-thirds of the money realized was
returned to individual
Masons; the other third went to the First Lodge and by it was turned
over, 500 pounds,
to the City Corporation for charitable purposes.
Of the various
Grand Masters of this first Grand Lodge the most important was, next to
William Allen, closely associated with Franklin through a long course
He was a Philadelphian by birth, born there Aug. 5, 1704. After
studying law at
the Temple in London he returned to practice in the city and was soon
one of its
prominent leaders. He purchased the lots on which Independence Hall was
his own name and paid for them with his own money; and while mayor
opened that historic
building with a banquet, as we may learn from Franklin's Gazette under
date of Sept.
30, 1736. He served as member of the Assembly and in 1750 was made
of the Province. Being, like so many of his friends, a confirmed
Royalist, he returned
to England at the advent of the Revolution and while there published a
book to show
how England might retain the Colonies. He returned to Philadelphia
after the war
and died there Sept. 6, 1780. According to Libel B he must have been
in 1731, because he is thus referred to under date of June 24 of that
year; we know
of a certainty that he was Grand Master in the following year, and that
Franklin his Deputy. In 1750 he was appointed Provincial Grand Master
by Lord Byron, Grand Master of England.
Morrey (or Murray), elected Grand Master June 28, 1733, less is known.
He was a
merchant of old Quaker stock, and evidently related to prominent
He died in August, 1735. Franklin succeeded him in office and by virtue
of a deputation
from Henry Price, already referred to, figured as "Provincial Grand
for the Province of Pennsylvania." After Franklin came James Hamilton,
Grand Master July 3, 1735, born in Philadelphia in 1710, later residing
for a while, in which town he lived during his incumbency. Hamilton was
of William Allen. In 1745 he was Mayor of Philadelphia, and in 1748 was
Lieutenant Governor of the Province. His death occurred in New York,
Aug. 14, 1783.
Hopkinson Was Elected
On July 8,
1736, the Grand Lodge elected Thomas Hopkinson to succeed Hamilton.
born in London, April 6, 1709, studied law, and, after coming to
forged to the front, becoming a member of the Provincial Council, first
of the American Philosophical Society, and the incumbent of other
important; he was the father of one of the signers of the Declaration
his grandson, Joseph. Hopkinson, was the author of "Hail Columbia." He
died Nov. 5, 1751. The anti-Masonic scare, occasioned by a catastrophe
to a mock initiation, came at the end of his administration; he issued
to the public in order to clear the Fraternity of any guilt in this
occurrence and ridiculous misadventure. The Grand Master for 1737/8 was
in the larger affairs of the city. William Plumstead (or Plumbstead)
was born in
Philadelphia Nov. 7, 1708. He held many offices of public trust, being
1754, and was active in Masonic circles. Benjamin Franklin appointed
him Grand Treasurer
in 1749; and he was one of the Committee elected to build the "Mason's
His death occurred in Philadelphia, Aug. 10, 1765. Plumstead was
succeeded by Joseph
Shippen, Jr., born Nov. 28, 1706, a grandson of the first Mayor of
under Penn's charter. It was his misfortune to reach the Grand
Mastership in June,
1738, at the time when the anti-Masonic crusade was so strong that the
lapsed into more or less inactivity. One of his Grand Wardens was Dr.
associated with the Bell Letter episode. He was made Senior Grand
Warden under Franklin
in 1749 at the first Grand Lodge held under the Oxnard warrant. Shippen
eighty-seven years of age.
sketches of the early Grand Masters, included here to show what manner
of men governed
the Philadelphia Craft in its early years, are given as being typical
of the brethren
who worked in, or under, the first Grand Lodge; they were, many of
in public affairs, belonged to the "best families" and moved in
circles; and it is probable that all the lodges then in activity were
recruited from the same social strata. Bro. Sachse believes it was
because of this
fact that a great transformation was worked in Philadelphia Masonry,
1758, which it is now in order to describe.
Appeared on the Scene
will recall that in 1751 a new Grand Lodge sprang up in England as a
rival to the
original Grand Lodge organized in 1717. (See The Study Club, April,
1924, page 111.)
The brethren behind the Grand Lodge of 1751 believed themselves to
adhere more closely
to the old working and regulations and therefore fell into the habit of
themselves "Ancients"; the older Body they nicknamed "Moderns"
it is most probable, as Henry Sadler has abundantly shown, that a
was also party responsible for this "schism," as Gould and others have
not very happily described it, for the Ancients were made up, for the
and at least in the beginnings, of Masons drawn from among workmen,
many of them
from Ireland; Laurence Dermott, their creative genius, was an Irish
their Grand Lodge was organized to follow closely the pattern of the
In the middle
of the eighteenth century Philadelphia was an important port to which
seafaring men, along with laborers of all description; it was most
natural for men
of these classes, not in sympathy with the social exclusiveness of the
lodges, to prefer lodges under "Ancient" warrants. Furthermore, many of
the brethren who migrated into Pennsylvania and its sister colonies
of, or had been made Masons in, military lodges; and since it was the
Lodge and the Grand Lodge of Ireland that had discovered the device of
warrants for lodges in the armies and navies, it naturally followed
that these Masons
newly come to Philadelphia were predisposed to favor the Ancient
these causes, and to the fact already mentioned that many of the
of the city were Royalist in their sympathies, Modern Masonry gradually
the background so that by 1793 it had become entirely replaced by its
the original Grand Lodge there had been, until the middle of the
"subordinate lodges" ‒ St. John's, warranted in 1731 or previously;
No. 2, warranted by Franklin in 1749; and Lodge No. 3, warranted some
1749. In 1757, probably to meet the changed social conditions in the
No. 4 was added to the list, opened in due form on July 2 of that year.
It was in
this last named lodge that the first definite defection appeared. A
Lodges Nos. 1 and 2 accused its W. M. and two of his officers with
this they did not deny. In the following January they showed their
to remain Ancients by calling together a committee for the purpose of
the Ancient Grand Lodge of England for a warrant. Such a warrant was
was Grand Master) under date of June 7, 1758, was given the number 1;
and was listed
on the Ancient Grand Lodge list as No. 69. Following the precedent set
by the Ancient
Grand Lodge and the Grand Lodge of Ireland, this lodge vacated the
number 1 position,
and took for itself number 2, probably leaving the first number open
for a Provincial
Grand Lodge to be organized later. It began work under the new warrant,
in January, 1759, with forty members, and chose for itself the official
"Lodge No. 1 of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons in the City of
and Province of Pennsylvania." During the year this lodge divided
two sections, under two sets of officers, except for the treasurer, and
met on different
nights ‒ a strange procedure not now possible to explain.
determined to form a Provincial Grand Lodge. On Feb. 13, 1760, they
Ball to be their first Grand Master, and on the following day asked
at London to issue them a warrant therefor. This request was complied
with in the
course of time, and Grand Lodge issued a warrant July 15, 1761. The
brethren learned of this but, for some reason, the document failed to
second warrant was issued but it also became lost. A third was made
under date of
June 20, 1764, and this time reached Philadelphia safely in 1764.
William Ball was
installed as Provincial Grand Master with solemn ceremony Feb. 2, 1764.
One of the
first official acts of this new Grand Body was to issue a warrant for
of Lodge No. 3, composed of members drawn from Lodge No. 2. In the
Grand Lodge warranted a lodge in Cantwell's Bridge, Delaware, and
in Maryland, New Jersey, Virginia, etc. It met with the difficulties
to new organizations, but these it surmounted, and in the course of
time it solidly
established itself as one of the Mother Grand Lodges of this country.
caused it to sever its official relations with the English parent body,
and in 1786
it was dissolved, and a new Grand Lodge organized in its place, as
remains to be
described in later chapters; the present Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania
break in continuity from that year.
Of the persons
prominent in this Ancient Grand Lodge Bro. William Ball was easily
first. He was
raised in Lodge No. 2 under the original Grand Lodge in March 1750/1.
He was again
raised in the "Ancient way" in 1759 or 1760, but retained his
in his mother lodge until 1763. As Provincial Grand Master he served
from 1761 to 1781, and then again, after Grand Lodge became independent
for the year 1795. He was born on his father's estate, now included
within the city
of Philadelphia, Oct. 6, 1729. He learned the goldsmith trade, and
it in Philadelphia; but retired in middle life as one of the richest
men in the
Colony. He died May 30, 1810, and was buried with Masonic honors.
On the general
field covered by this article the most important literary source is
in Pennsylvania 1727-1907, Barratt and Sachse; Philadelphia; 1908, Vol.
1908; Vol 1]
equal importance is Old Masonic Lodges of Pennsylvania "Moderns and
1730-1801, Julius F. Sachse- Philadelphia; 1912- Vol. I. [Lib 1912; Vol 1]
the following: History of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free
Masons, Stillson, Hughan, etc.; Boston and New York; 1891. [Lib 1891]
Freemasonry in Rhode Island [Lib*], Henry W. Rugg; Providence; 1895.
Freemasonry [Lib 1889; Vol
4], Robert Freke Gould; Cincinnati
and Chicago; Vol. IV.
Freemasonry in Canada [Lib 1900; Vol 1], John Ross Robertson;
Freemasonry in Maryland [Lib*], Edward T. Schultz; Baltimore; 1844,
in Michigan, Jefferson S. Conover; Coldwater; 1897, Vol. I. [Lib 1897; Vol 1]
Revised History of Freemasonry Robert I. Clegg; Chicago; 1921. [Clegg’s
not found – See Bibliography for Mackey’s 1906 edition in 7 Volumes]
of Freemasonry in America [Lib*], Melvin M. Johnson; New York; 1924.
Franklin as a Free Mason [Lib*], Julius F. Sachse; Philadelphia 1906.
Freemasonry in the State of New York [Lib 1922], Ossian Lang; New York; 1922.
the Most Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons
in New York
from the Earliest Date [Lib*], Charles T. McClenachan; New York; 1888,
Lodge No. 61, F. & A. M., Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania [Lib 1897], Oscar Jewell Harvey;
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Vol. III, page 124, [Lib 1890]; Vol. XVII, page 137, [Lib 1904];Vol. XXVIII, page 270,
[Lib 1915]; Vol. XXIX, page
308, [Lib 1916].
Masonry in the State of New Jersey, and the Entire Proceedings of the
from Its First Organization, A. L. 5786 [Lib 1817], Joseph H. Hough; Trenton;
of Freemasonry [Lib 1951], Robert Freke Gould; New
Lodges [Lib 1899], Robert Freke Gould; London;
1899. In above
references consult index.
Pennsylvania worthies in addition to above see the following on William
Pennsylvania: A Primer [Lib 1904], Barr Ferree; New York; 1914,
Account of the Old State House of Pennsylvania [Lib 1891], Frank M. Etting;
1891, pages 12, 24, 35, 52, 58, 122, 132, 136, 147, 151.
Archives [Lib*], Samuel Hazard; Philadelphia; 1852, page 362.
A Primer [Lib 1904], Barr Ferree; New York; 1914,
pages 135, 140,
Account of the Old State House of Pennsylvania [Lib 1891], Frank M. Etting;
1891, pages 16, 18, 25, 34, 39, 122, 136.
A Primer [Lib 1904], Barr Ferree; New York; 1914,
Account of the Old State House of Pennsylvania [Lib 1891], Frank M. Etting;
1891 pages 25, 126.
Account of the Old State House of Pennsylvania [Lib 1891], Frank M. Etting;
1891, pages 35, 151.
A Primer [Lib 1904], Barr Ferree; New York 1914,
pages 79, 84,
111, 113, 139, 141, 142, 145, 163, 170, 174, 214, 227, 229, 234, 235,
Account of the Old State House of Pennsylvania [Lib 1891], Frank M. Etting;
1891, pages 16, 25, 33, 38, 40, 41-44, 49, 53, 65, 81, 85-87 94, 97,
101, 106 109,
118, 119, 124-126, 154.
Archives, Samuel Hazard; Philadelphia [Lib*]; 1852, pages 294, 295 297,
344, 467, 548, 766, 420.
Archives, Samuel Hazard; Philadelphia; 1852 [Lib*], pages 622, 636.
Account of the Old State House of Pennsylvania [Lib 1891], Frank M. Etting;
1891, pages 7, 65.
is thrown on the Shippen family by a volume of correspondence entitled
Papers Relating Chiefly to the Provincial History of Pennsylvania [Lib 1922], edited by Thomas Balch;
On the general
field see THE BUILDER: 1916, page 230; 1917, page 254; 1918, pages 165,
pages 35, 155.
- What was the regulation adopted
- When was it enforced in the
- In what sense was St. John's
Lodge a Grand Lodge?
- Who was its first Grand Master?
- What was the first Masonic
building erected in this country?
- When and by whom was it built?
- How was it disposed of?
- Give a brief sketch of the
career of William Allen.
- Of Thomas Morrey.
- Of James Hamilton.
- Of Thomas Hopkinson.
- Of William Plumstead.
- Of Joseph Shippen.
- To what social class did these
- What effect did this have on
the future of Philadelphia Masonry?
- Give sketch of the Ancient
- When was the first Grand Lodge
- Why did the Grand Lodge of 1751
come into existence?
- How did Ancient Freemasonry
come to be established in Pennsylvania?
- Tell what you know about Lodge
- Why did it secede from the
original Grand Lodge?
- How did it secure its warrant?
- Tell how the Ancient Provincial
Grand Lodge was organized in Philadelphia.
- Who was its first Grand Master?
- In what states did it warrant
- Give a sketch of William Ball.
- What light does the history of
Pennsylvania Masonry throw on Masonry of today?
- How many Grand Lodges use the
word "Ancient" in their title?
- Do you know what influence
Pennsylvania Ancient Masonry had on the American
* * *
to Organize a Study
on "How to Organize and Maintain a Study Club" will be furnished free
to those asking for it in any quantities up to fifty or one hundred.
information address the National Masonic Research Society, 1950 Railway
St. Louis, Mo. The Society answers questions lends books, clippings,
of charge to clubs. Text books recommended are "Symbolical Masonry" and
"Great Teachings of Masonry," both by H.L. Haywood, the former of which
should be used in beginning.
Who Were Masons
Bro. George W. Baird,
P. G. M., District Of Columbia
notable Grand Masters of Pennsylvania in the early part of last century
James Milnor held a distinguished position, alike for his magnificent
‒ he was in many ways, in appearance and spirit, very much like
‒ and his unusual abilities. He had been made a Mason, in the
of his age, at Norristown, Pennsylvania, in the old Lodge No. 31 of
that town; this
was in August, 1795. In the following year he transferred his
membership to Lodge
No. 3 in Philadelphia. During 1798-9-1800 he held the office of Senior
in 1801 and in 1803 he was Deputy Grand Master; in 1805 he was elected
and held that office to and including 1813, the longest term held by
any Grand Master
in the history of the present Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
was born in Philadelphia June 20, 1773, of Quaker parentage. After a
course and graduation from the University of Pennsylvania, he took up
of law, and was admitted to the bar when only twenty-one years of age.
first in Norristown, and later opened an office in Philadelphia. He
fell into difficulties
with his Quaker brethren when his marriage was solemnized by an
In a few
years he arose to a position of prominence in Philadelphia. After
serving as a member
of the city council from 1805 to 1809 he was elected to Congress, in
which he held
a seat until 1813. It was during his political career that he began to
a call to enter the Episcopalian ministry. After serving as assistant
the Associated Churches in Philadelphia he accepted an invitation to
of St. George's Church, New York City. This was in 1816. As a Christian
he prominently identified himself with the Bible Society, the American
and many important charities. In 1830 he went to England as a delegate
of the American
Bible Society, and while abroad traveled in France, Wales, Ireland and
Milnor possessed a charming manner, a wonderful control of language and
it is said
was one of the gentlest leaders imaginable, an ideal Grand Master, one
He was a leader of men, not a driver. His religion was sincere, earnest
His portrait shows a benign handsome face. He was a prolific writer,
always on religious
or moral subjects: he published "An Oration on Masonry" delivered
the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in 1811; "A Plea for the American
Society" in 1826; "A Sermon on the Death of De Witt Clinton" in 1828,
He died in
New York City April 8, 1845. His funeral at St. George's Church was
an immense throng. Of his memorial his biographer, Mr. John S. Stone,
"His remains repose beneath the
from which he so often delighted to dispense the symbols of his
Savior's love; while,
in the recess on the body of the base rises a beautiful marble bust
which, by its
faithful likeness, speaks continually of the long-lived feelings of
love and emotion."
Grand Master Milnor took in disseminating the Holy Scriptures, that
book of the
law and the testimony so revered by Masons, endears him to us all.
Perhaps he builded
more wisely than he knew; for that book, the rule and guide of a
has had much to do with the preservation of our inherent rights.
he was not a zealot, and did not fear that some breath of adverse wind
the ship of truth. During the height of the anti-Masonic craze, when
some of the
best heads inside and out the Craft became very much be-addled, and
ministers led in a most unchristian attack on Freemasonry, Dr. Milnor
steadfast as a rock. A country clergyman asked of him if it would be
wise for him
(the country clergyman) to withdraw from the Order out of deference to
Dr. Milnor's reply has been preserved for us by Sidney Haydon:
you wish to renounce Masonry?" asked Dr. Milnor.
was the reply, "I love Masonry too well."
do as I do," was the rejoinder. "Put down your foot firmly, and say, 'I
am a Mason, and am proud of it!' and if anyone asks you what Masonry
tell them 'Love to God, and good-will to man!' "
man revealed himself in that reply! It was such men as he that built
the ever enduring
structure of the Craft in these states!
Editor-in-Chief - H.L. HAYWOOD
LOUIS BLOCK, Iowa
ROBERT L. CLEGG, Ohio
GILBERT W. DAYNES, England
RAY V. DENSLOW, Missouri
GEORGE H. DERN, Utah
N.W.J. HAYDON, Canada
C, C. HUNT, Iowa
CHARLES F. IRWIN. Ohio
A.L. KRESS, Pennsylvania
R. J. MEEKREN, Canada
JOSEPH E. MORCOMBE, California
JOSEPH FORT NEWTON, New York
ARTHUR C. PARKER, New York
JESSE M. WHITED, California
DAVID E. W. WILLIAMSON, Nevada
To the Members
of the National Masonic Research Society:
hereby given that on Monday, Feb. 2, 1925, a meeting of the National
Society Jill be held at the Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids, Iowa,
at 7:30 p.m.
This is an
adjournment of the Annual Meeting of Oct. 2, 1924, and the annual
report of the
officers and election of members of the Board of Stewards will take
of the Board of Stewards whose terms expire are:
N. R. Parvin,
Grand Secretary, Iowa,
W. F. Kuhn, deceased,
Jos. Fort Newton, New York City,
Jesse M. Whited, California,
Oliver Day Street, Alabama.
also given that there will be presented for adoption an amendment to
Section 1, of the By-laws, changing the date of the annual meeting of
from the fret Thursday of October "to the first Monday of February in
C. C. Hunt, Secretary.
his hood down over his eyes while passing Lake Lucerne. He did not deem
sin, but believed the enjoyment of loveliness should be postponed until
Some who scoff at this old saint because of his superstition may, if
their own minds as carefully as did he, discover themselves to be
thinking in the
same way - or shall one say, not thinking! Such men somehow believe
that the solutions
of our human problems will be found out in some distant time, where or
know not. They live now without much happiness, without much success,
knowledge, because they assume that the inner nature and explanation of
been indefinitely reserved. They cease trying to develop themselves
believe it of no use, thinking that, once death is behind them, such
be granted them by a sudden revelation. Or they believe that the true
of things is somehow hidden behind a veil, hung at the back of the sky,
only to elect souls. This is a trick the human mind plays on itself,
out of its
habit of expectancy and its vice of postponement. All that exists, from
of it to the bottom, and in all its breadth, is as eligible to us now
as ever it
can be. They who have found this out sometimes describe themselves as
eternal life in the midst of time.
* * *
FOR all his
wit, his humor, his abundant humanity, Mark Twain was exceedingly
was made evident throughout the latter portions of Albert Bigelow
Paine's Mark Twain:
A Biography [Lib 1912; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] (published by Harpers'), than
it would be difficult to recall a biography in which the subject
himself is more
tangibly present. In the Autobiography, edited by Mr. Paine, recently
by Harpers', this misery of soul is rendered more evident still, and in
as makes clear what were the causes of it. Mark Twain was an atheist.
impossible for him after reaching maturity to believe or think that a
that can be described as God in any sense of that name, or that human
is such as makes that faith possible. This incalculable misfortune came
to take possession of his whole mind; no doubt he did not wilfully
contrive to have
it so, but it became so, and that because of certain deeds, or habits
some of which may be traced to his early days. It made a pessimist of
him in the
absolute sense of the word, and contributed to all his humor a flavor
more easily felt than defined.
He had too
much honor and candor of mind to have any desire to conceal all this
from the world,
though it was doubtless responsible for his leaving some books to be
his death. In his Autobiography he interrupts his long and loving
account of the
life of his daughter Susy to pen a diatribe against the whole scheme of
as bitter as any uttered by Schopenhauer or Dean Swift. It will sound
to many ears:
"A myriad of men are born; they
and struggle for bread; they squabble and scold and fight; they
scramble for little
mean advantages over each other; age creeps upon them; infirmities
follow and humiliations
bring down their prides and their vanities; those they love are taken
and the joy of life is turned to aching grief. The burden of pain, care
grows heavier year by year; at length ambition is dead, pride is dead,
dead; longing for release comes in their place. It comes at last ‒ the
gift earth ever had for them, and they vanish from the world where they
no consequence; where they achieved nothing; where they were a mistake
and a failure
and a foolishness; where they left no sign that they existed ‒ a world
lament them for a day and forget them forever. Then another myriad
takes their place
and copies all they did, and goes along the same profitless road, and
they vanished ‒ to make room for another, and another, and a million
to follow the same arid path through the same desert and to accomplish
first myriad, and all the myriads that came after it, accomplished ‒
utterance shows what atheism is made of. It is a complete misreading of
to which beliefs and unbeliefs are only incidental. The paragraph
quoted makes that
clear. "A myriad men are born." In saying this he doubtless had in mind
such creatures as gnats and flies; it was a favorite idea of his; but
men are not
creatures, or such things as gnats and flies, nor are they born in
labor, sweat and struggle for bread." This is a wilful exaggeration,
an ill-regulated habit of mind; men do labor, sweat and struggle
because they enjoy
to do so, as did Mark Twain himself; but their lives are not wholly
made up of such
strivings, and there are countless goods for which they labor other
than for bread.
"They squabble and scold and fight." Some of them do, all of them do at
times, but if they do it is because they choose to, not because the
them. "They scramble for little mean advantages over each other." If
Twain did such things himself he made a mistake; there was no power
compelling him to. If he attributed his own weakness, failure and
the whole scheme of things, that also was a blunder.
does not lessen the nation's admiring regard for the man or spoil its
of his rugged books, our legacy from his genius, in which, with a humor
as the sunlight and a humanity as strong and tender as father love, he
lets us know
what manner of man he really was, and what, with his misinterpretations
out of mind,
he knew human life to be. It was his own private misfortune that he did
his nature better than he did, of what there was in himself of
greatness and power
that should have made any form of atheism impossible. It is sad that
one so noble
should have suffered so deeply when no such suffering was necessary.
of atheism has long been held of primary importance in Freemasonry; it
with in the Constitutions, has its place among the landmarks, and is
today the determining
factor in all attempts to bring into fraternal union with American
those of other countries that at this point have lost their way. No
atheist is eligible
to membership in the Craft. There is no just or conceivable way in
which he could
be made eligible; all the realities of the case render it impossible.
being is perfectly equipped to live in this world with happiness and
There is no. horrible mystery, like some lowering monster, hidden away
scenes. This world is not a vale of illusion, nor is man an orphaned
helplessly in bewildering shadows. Birth is not a thing that can be
is a thing that need not be feared. There is THAT at the basis of all
renders pessimism a vain and useless error. The knowledge of these
facts, the habits
of thought and life developed out of them is indicated in Freemasonry
by faith in
the Sovereign Grand Architect of the Universe, a Builder that leaves no
All that Masonry is or does comes by inevitable logic out of such a
in the light of it, moves by the power of it. Naturally the man who
does not so
think and work cannot be at home in the lodge, because his whole manner
is necessarily incompatible with that human wisdom which it is the
Old Book on Symbolism
AND MODERN CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM [Lib 1922]. By Thomas Inman. Published
For sale by National Masonic Research Society Book Department. Fourth
200 illustrations, index, 147 pages. Price, post paid, $1.60.
is a conventional device intended to suggest some idea. If it stands
for no idea
the devise is an emblem, such as a nation's flag, which means one thing
governmental regime, something else under another; or it is merely an
figure such as printers use "to dress up a page," or architects
employ, often for no "reason" at all. The devices employed by
have the specific purpose of suggesting ideas, and all of these ideas
the "system of Masonic teaching." Thus the "square" in Masonry
is a symbol intended to suggest the idea of dealing "squarely" with
fellows; the "compasses" are intended to stand for the idea that one
preserve his moral nature intact, so that no unruly passions will
disrupt it. The
thing that makes these symbols "Masonic" is the feet that they stand
ideas Freemasonry desires to teach to its members. The display of them
in a lodge
room serves to keep every brother in remembrance of all the Masonic
ideals; it is
as if the lodge said to him, "I cannot always be teaching these things
spoken or written language, therefore I say them by means of these
been in universal use. Many of those employed by the Craft are being
used, or have
hitherto been used, for all manner of purposes by all manner of
All-Seeing-Eye, the Swastika, the Circle, Triangle, Cross and scores
each instance Masonry uses them for its own purposes, endows them with
its own meanings,
interprets them in its own way. To a Mason it matters very little for
a symbol has been used outside the Craft; its Masonic meaning is that
Craft intends it to have. For these reasons it is always futile to
attempt to lug
into the Masonic system the interpretation of a symbol borrowed from
source, Masonry is not a savage cult, an "Ancient Mystery," an Egyptian
religion, an occult secrecy; it is Masonry.
a student of Masonic symbols often finds it of great value to know how
symbols, or others similar to them, have been used by groups other than
For such a purpose Thomas Inman's Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian
certain virtues that recommend it. In some ways it is not a pleasant
book to read.
The author appears to have been rabidly opposed to Christianity, at
least in its
orthodox forms, so that one detects a bias in much that he says. The
book is old,
the first edition having been published in 1869, and much water has
gone under the
mill since that time. The present edition has evidently been printed
used before; the illustrations are stiff old-fashioned line drawings.
along with a certain emphasis on sex worship that must be distasteful
to some readers,
tell against it.
can make allowances for such things and yet find much remaining of
The author's method is to write a section or chapter to explain each
explanation of a symbolical drawing of the Virgin and Child is typical:
a copy of a medieval Virgin and Child, as painted in Della Robbia ware
in the South
Kensington Museum, a copy of which was given to me by my friend, Mr.
whose kindness I am indebted for many illustrations of ancient
Christian art. It
represents the Virgin and Child precisely as she used to be represented
in India, in Assyria, Babylonia, Phoenicia and Etruria; the accident of
of no mythological consequence. In the framework around the group, we
the triformed leaf, emblematic of Asher; the grapes, typical of
Dionysos; the wheat
ears, symbolic of Ceres, l'abricot fendu, the mark of womankind, and
rimmon, which characterizes the teeming mother. The living group,
placed in an archway, delta, or door, which is symbolic of the female,
vesica piscis, the oval or the circle. This door is, moreover,
surmounted by what
appear to be snails whose supposed virtue we have spoken of under Plate
identification of Mary with the Sacti is strong; by-and-by we shall see
is as complete as it is possible to be made.
symbols thus treated are a number of especial interest to Masons:
Aleph, altar, anchor, arcane, architecture, ark, atheists, boundary
box, candlestick, Ceres, circles, coins, crescent, cross, crux ansata,
ark, delta, dualism in nature, east, Egyptian crosses, emblems,
fetish, fire, five, four, Gnostics, goat, hammer, hand, Hiram, Masonic,
Marks, etc., etc.
* * *
ELIAS ASHMOLE: FOUNDER OF THE ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM,
OXFORD [Lib*]. By Dudley Wright. Published by The
London Freemason. May be purchased through National Masonic Research
Department, 1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Paper, 35 pages.
WRIGHT has once again placed us all under obligation to his tireless
pen. If his
latest volume is not equal in bulk to its predecessors it suffers
nothing from the
fact, either in value or interest, for it tells us all we need to know
subject and that is sufficient.
to use an American cant expression of the day, "intrigues" us. He
tells us in his famous Diary that on Oct. 16, 1645, he was "made a Free
at Warrington." In the same private record he says that on March 10,
he "rec'd a Summons to appear at a Lodge to be held the next day at
Hall." From these data questions arise. Ashmole was not an Operative
what led him to unite with the Order? What influence did he have on
any, between 1645 and 1682? Was the lodge he visited at London the
of the Masons' Company of which Edward Conder has given us a history in
Crafte' Bro. Wright has crowded into six pages such known facts about
the lodges of his day as help to answer these questions.
lead to another. In the Masonic Ritual there are a number of elements
occult. Ashmole himself was an occultist, more particularly an
alchemist, and acquainted
with Moore, Lilly, Booker, Wharton and Dr. Fludd; could he himself have
into the rites of the old builders the "golden bough" of hermetism?
have believed this, at least in part, as did George Fort and Albert
have suggested its possibility, as did Bro. A. E. Waite. In any event
of Ashmole's Masonic connections opens the question of Masonic
occultism. It is
a fascinating question, even if difficult or impossible to answer in
state of knowledge.
in Masonry is a fact. Wherever the occult elements originated, from
they derived ‒ Gnosticism, Alchemy, Rosicrucianism, Kabalism ‒ however
to be interpreted, they are in the ritual, a challenge to the Masonic
as far as that it concerned, and more especially in this land, there is
a vast deal
of occultism still alive outside Freemasonry, multitudes of individuals
to believe in omens, signs, horoscopes, dreams, mystic numbers, and all
possess the same right to such beliefs as any others.
was the "science" of an earlier day, a matter of searching out the same
kind of facts for which the modern sciences are seeking; a method for
actual forces for practical purposes. In this it differed from
was religious rather than scientific in its nature, and sought its ends
and worship, although many men were occultists and mystics at the same
time. A few
of our sciences sprang from occultism ‒ astronomy came from astrology,
from alchemy, and physics, botany, anatomy were full of occultism in
The elimination of occultism from such sciences came as the result of
slow process; even so late as 1646 when Sir Thomas Browne, an alumnus
of the best
European universities of his time, wrote his Vulgar Errors as a blast
in science his own mind was itself so steeped in it that his very
themselves based on occultistic premises.
of the present day feels that he has an ancient and respectable
him. He believes that facts not known to the modern sciences may be
found in old
books; that there are forces in nature not yet discovered by present
and physicists; and that he has methods for employing them in behalf of
purposes known only to those initiated in secret philosophies. Such men
are as sincere
and as intelligent as any others, and their views are deserving of the
If this account
of the ease be true it may suggest to us how to make the right approach
to the understanding
of the occultist elements in our Craft. The Masonic occultist is
entitled to his
own day in court, deserving of all the courtesies, with a right to
state his own
ease in his own way; there is no just way of ruling him out of order;
and as for
those who may deride him as a fool or a charlatan he has his own to
to hand; he knows as well as anybody that men who live in glass houses
heave bricks about.
On the other
hand those of us who may not be Masonic occultists have the same rights
in the ease.
If the occultist makes statements, we can ask him for his facts,
credentials; if he challenges our beliefs, we have a right to challenge
he believes himself entitled to his own theory of Freemasonry, we have
privilege; if he betrays a leek of logic in his arguments we have the
right to point
them out; and he has no more license to try to force his beliefs on the
have those who hold otherwise. In short, occultism need not be made a
controversy, as is often unhappily the ease; it is a question of fact,
and all our
prejudices and emotions are worse than useless while we are attempting
to deal with
such a thing.
* * *
The Student of Things
IN EGYPTIAN [Lib 1895]. By Sir E. A. Wallis Budge.
AND EGYPTIAN MONOTHEISM. WITH HIEROGLYPHIC TEXTS OF HYMNS OF AMEN AND
ATEN AND ENGLISH
TRANSLATION [Lib 1923]. By Sir E. A. Wallis Budge.
Both books may
be purchased through the National Masonic Research Society, the former
the later at $5.
recently come to notice two books bearing the above titles. Sir Wallis
keeper of the Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities in the British Museum
and has spent
a great deal of his own time and money in trying to keep people
interested in those
old kings and pyramid builders who have for so many thousand years
rested in the
rocky tombs situated along the banks of the Nile. The First Steps in
us a very helpful account of the manner in which the ancient
inscriptions were read
and translated. The author gives us the ancient texts of nearly all the
inscriptions and furnishes us with so much information regarding
almost any fair student of languages should be able to pronounce the
words and separate
the phonetic elements of the hieroglyphic word from the signs which
ideographic. We do not say that a few hours' or a few days' study would
average student to read and translate Egyptian texts, but we do say
that the average
student could in that time acquire much that is worthwhile towards
It is scarcely
a century ago that travelers thought the cuneiform inscriptions on the
of the carved statues of Darias were simply trimming and ornaments. It
time before scholars could determine that the inscription was writing
at all. For
ages the most learned men could not translate the first letter or sound
We now know that the Egyptian alphabet does not differ materially from
so far as the sounds go, though there are many different figures
employed for the
same sound under different circumstances and meanings. We also find
that the Egyptian
has the same habit of dropping out vowel sounds that the Hebrew had.
in which the inscriptions should be read, Sir Wallis makes clear. We
are also forcibly
struck with the fact of how little the Egyptian texts differ during the
of their history. An Englishman or American of today cannot read
without a dictionary
and grammar the English of King Alfred of blessed memory, but we see no
it would have been especially difficult for Cleopatra to read the
of Queen Hattisue or Rameses, any more than the hieroglyphic writings
of her own
day. It may be quite possible that their spoken tongue changed from age
but their writing underwent very little alteration through the five or
years of its prevalence.
the Book of Tutankhamen, we must hold the impression that it was
the tomb was thoroughly investigated and its inscriptions read. Most of
of the book are devoted to the inscriptions belonging to the age of
father-in-law, Akhtenaten, who is known as the heretic king, because he
his patronage from the priesthood and temples of Thebes and the worship
and set up a city and worship of his own. Many writers have claimed
that his reformation
was a change from polytheism to monotheism. Sir Wallis' investigations
fail to bear
out any such claim. He says that when an ancient Egyptian invoked any
deity in prayer, he was sure to address that deity as the one and only
God in the
universe, self-creating and self-existing, and that when Akhtenaten
the solar disk, he addressed it as the one Only God, though he might
the same day
address Osiris and Horus in the same way.
seem that most of these names of deity used by the Egyptians referred
to the sun
under one or more aspects as regards time of year or situation in the
of course, they would address the sun as being the One and Only Living
practically destroys the theory of monotheism other than the theory of
which had existed for many centuries, and was a sensible and
of Deity; that the sun is the source of life and light upon the earth
is easy to
see, and we have only to suppose the sun to be the dwelling place of
make it also the Divine Wisdom, the Divine Word, the Divine Power, or
We understand that all generations of solar worshippers in Egypt
believed so far
in monotheism and when they picture the Solar God as in the mural
the tomb of Akhtenaten, showing every ray of light extending from the
to the food on the king's table with a human hand attached to it, the
personal enough to be addressed in prayer and praise. We have been much
and edified by these books. They are not specially adapted for children
of any age;
for students who have grown up they will be found helpful.
Greatest Of Universities
essentially an educational institution. Its streams of learning are
broad and deep,
and they are richly freighted with the priceless wisdom of the wisest
minds of all
lands and all times. Masonry is the greatest of all universities. Men
nationalities, faiths and opinions meet on the checkered floor on
respect, begotten of a common purpose, a desire to disseminate peace,
and good will among men, becomes the chief desideration of those who
in applying themselves to the study of the history, literature and
Masonry. Masons are learning that the mere knowledge of the ritual and
necessary and desirable, must, to be of any value, be based upon an
of the origin and meaning of the symbols, ceremonies allegories and
and taught in Masonry.
to Read in Masonry
IN A POKE"
IT is our
purpose to publish on this page for a few months a series of informal
what to read in Masonry. The need for this has been suggested by the
number of members of the N. M. R. S. who write that while they desire
to read about
Freemasonry in some of its countless phases they are at a loss where to
how to lay out a course of reading to suit their own particular
interests. It is
to be hoped that the papers in the present series may be interesting in
and that they will be lit up occasionally by sidelights on Masonic
their main purpose will be to bring together under separate heads such
of the thousand
or more Masonic books in English as are most worth reading, and that in
such a manner
as to give a brother some idea of a book before he undertakes to read
This is a
large field to cover. Freemasonry has existed a long while, and in many
has always been busy at many tasks, some of which have had their effect
history; and at the present it is grown to be so huge in size, so
worldwide in influence,
and so complex in organization that nothing less than a great library
hold all the volumes that to some extent or other contain records of
is convenient to lay out the field as a whole in general departments,
of which the
chief are history, philosophy, jurisprudence, ritualism, symbolism,
and miscellaneous ‒ the last named of which represents a variety of
easily classified, such as poetry, music, architecture, orations,
Masonry, Women in Masonry, Side Orders, and so on ad infinitum.
naturally includes all written records of the Craft's past activities
up to a year
or two ago; with such writings must also be included non-Masonic books
incidentally with Masonic themes: there are general histories of
which one can learn much about Operative Masonry; histories of
chapters on various forms of gild life; treatises on symbolism, etc.
The list might
be almost endlessly extended.
of Masonry covers a field almost as large, for under that head are
equality, liberty, toleration, democracy and a score of other subjects
It will be seen at a glance that books more or less useful for reading
matters are literally legion in number. Of course Freemasonry has its
philosophy and only such books as deal specifically with it are to be
described as Masonic philosophy; nevertheless the well-read student of
will find it necessary to read in literature outside the Craft.
thing may be said of Masonic jurisprudence. For while it must confine
Masonic constitutions, laws, customs, regulations and landmarks each of
its roots in the general ideas of law and of social order, so that the
focuses his mind on Masonic jurisprudence per se the more he needs an
literature as a general foundation. It is a misfortune that some of our
on jurisprudence were written by laymen with little knowledge of law.
turns to ritualism and symbolism he meets a similar condition. In some
form or other
ritual is as universal as the race, and so is symbolism, and the extant
on both Subjects is enough to occupy a man for a lifetime, providing he
to get to the bottom of a subject that appears to have no bottom.
It is not
to be supposed that there will be many ambitious enough to take all
their province, as Humboldt did, and it will not be the purpose here to
attempt to list books by the thousand. The above indication of the
extent and richness
of the general field were given to entice some brethren to enter it, or
those who have had the misfortune to read a few Masonic books of no
value to try
again with the expectation that where there is so much to read there
will be found
something abundantly worth reading.
Pig in a Poke”
widely read Mason ‒ widely read, that is, in general literature ‒ wrote
us a little
while ago that he considered the buying of books in general a pleasure,
he expressed it, "not Masonic books; they are too much of a risk; too
them have any standing. It is like buying a pig in a poke." There was
justification for such an attitude some years ago, but not now, what
with so many
Grand Lodge educational committees, Masonic libraries and such
the Masonic Service Association and the National Masonic Research
and ready to give advice as to what is worth owning among Masonic books.
is no need that a brother should lay out a lot of money before
beginning to read
he may be from the center of things he can almost always manage to
if only he will set his mind to it ‒ a feet proved up years ago by the
Most of the Masonic libraries in the country are very generous with the
their volumes, and always there are individual Masons here and there to
help a brother
along; a great many such exchanges of courtesy are carried on through
of this Society.
who do purchase an occasional Masonic book sometimes complain of
and frequently have sound justification for their complaint. There is a
this. For consider! The greater number of Masonic books are published
individuals or by small printing concerns; that means high costs of
and distribution. Few of these books ever enjoy the possibility of a
and that means a price in proportion. And then there are many books
that must be
imported, thereby adding to the original price the expenses incidental
to long shipping
and various import duties. Take it by and large, the prices on Masonic
nearly always reasonable, and in a melancholy number of instances
return very little
profit at all to the publishers and none to the authors.
An Author A Human Being?
It is a marvel
that we have as many books as we do, considering that last item. It is
forgotten that an author is also a human being. "Hath not an author
not an author hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions?
the same food, hurt with the same weapons, Subject to the same
by the same means, warm'd and cooled by the same winter and summer, as
is?" The answer is, if Shakespeare will forgive this paraphrase, that
even if some ultra-conservative brethren sometimes appear to believe
it is perfectly ethical to pay rent for a Masonic hall, it is somehow
to pay for a. Masonic book, and that while Masonry may pay a man a
salary for giving
all his time to be a Grand Secretary for a year (may their salaries, as
their tribe, increase) it iota traducing of all Masonic principles to
pay a man
for his time who devotes a year to writing a Masonic book! Masonry can
a "science of morality" as long as it persists in thwarting the
of its own badly needed literature by any such reasonings.
of all the drawbacks and the handicaps both publishers and authors have
from generation to generation, content to work underground when not
place in the sun, until now we have become the legatees of a rich
heritage of noble
books, good to read, pleasant to know, and not at all disgraceful to
It will be a privilege to recommend a number of lists of them in this
month to month.
Box and Correspondence Circle
VOLUMES OF "MASONIC REVIEW" I have a file of "Masonic Review,"
volumes six to thirty-one inclusive, and volumes thirty-three to
I should like any information concerning the missing years, where they
may be obtained,
what they may cost, etc.
T. J. Fitzpatrick, Bethany, Neb.
* * *
Magazine" For Sale
a query in THE BUILDER'S Question Box for November, on Moore's
Magazine," I am prompted to say that I am trustee for the sale of a
Library in which the "Freemasons' Magazine" is listed. There are for
thirteen volumes of the magazine in all, from Vol. I, 1841, to and
This has been priced at $25 for the set. The books are bound in
‒ Frank W. Chandler, Trustee, 1611 Rucker Ave., Everett, Wash.
* * *
On page 245
of the August BUILDER is a picture of some Indian silver brooches. You
the title that Dr. Orr (Bro. Orr) says that they were obtained from the
Now the Ojibways
did not make these brooches of Masonic motif, but obtained them from
There is no doubt of this. They did not come from "sailors or traders,"
for they are of Indian make. See my American Indian Freemasonry [Lib 1919]. I have collected many.
Arthur C. Parker, N. Y.
* * *
Trumbull Not A
Can you please
inform me if Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., Governor of Connecticut 1798-1809,
was a member
of the Craft? ‒ M. W. T., Connecticut.
Bro. James J. Tyler, of Warren, Ohio, we have received information from
B. Hall, Secretary, Masonic Veteran Association of Connecticut,
to the matter of Gov. Trumbull being a Mason. Bro. Brown, a Past Master
Lodge, of New Haven, has searched the records of that lodge and cannot
record to show that Gov. Trumbull was a Mason.
Goddard, who is Librarian of the Connecticut State Library, has also
records of Gov. Trumbull, as filed in the State Library, and cannot
find any reference
to his having been a Mason. It is, therefore, evident that he was not a
* * *
Church of England and
the Masonic Craft
- Has the Church of England ever,
at any time in its history, anathematized
Masonry or taken a position opposing it?
- Are there records of
Archbishops of York and Canterbury having been Masons?
- Are the present Archbishops of
York and Canterbury Masons?
- I recall reading at one time in
THE BUILDER of lodges in England composed
exclusively of priests of the Church of England; Are there such lodges
now, and where?
F. L. N., Colorado.
Church of England at no time in its history has anathematized Masonry,
up a position opposing it.
3. We are not aware of any Archbishops, whether of Canterbury or York,
Masons, though it is possible some of them have been, but it is certain
present Archbishops are not members of the Craft.
are no lodges in England composed exclusively of priests of the Church
but certain lodges are distinctly associated with church effort; and
Abbey Lodge, No. 2030, which is specially composed of clergymen and
of Westminster Abbey; and the Cathedral Lodge, No. 2741, which is
in relation to St. Paul's Cathedral. But these lodges do not stand
alone in being
specially associated with religious effort. The Epworth Lodge, No.
3789, is to all
intents and purposes Methodistic in its character, and embraces a great
ministers as well as laymen of both the Wesleyan Methodist and
Connexion. The Aretas Lodge, No. 4268, is a London offshoot of Epworth,
as we think
also is Peace and Concord Lodge, No. 3947, while there is a Manchester
No. 3921, which is plainly an offshoot of the original Epworth Lodge in
having the same ideas and style of membership. The Congregationalist or
body likewise have a lodge, the Streatham Hill, No. 3784, composed
almost, if not
entirely, of members of that denomination, including several ministers.
their apparent denominational character, these lodges work in the
utmost amity with
the lodges around them, and there is no sort of sectarian display or
among them, while anything in the nature of associating denominational
propaganda with Masonry has never been attempted by these lodges, and
would promptly be sternly deprecated by the authorities.
* * *
Daniel Boone A Mason?
I wish to
ask if there is any evidence to show that Daniel Boone was a Mason?
H. B., Ohio.
V. Denslow, Grand Secretary, Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons of
Missouri, has expressed
to us his opinion that Boone was not a member of the Craft. However, he
this: "I have a very good friend who lives in St. Charles and who is
with early historical conditions who seems to be very positive that
was a Mason. So far as I can ascertain, if Boone was a Mason he was
with any Missouri Lodge. He died about 1819 and this was before our
had very much of a start. It is possible that he may have been a member
or North Carolina."
Fred W. Hardwick, Grand Secretary of Kentucky, and Charles Comstock,
Historical Committee, Grand Lodge of Tennessee, have been unable to
proof of Boone's membership, but they refer to a resolution printed in
of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, 1852, page 53, as follows:
"Whereas, Daniel Boone, as the
and indefatigable pioneer, rendered incalculable service to our state;
at much expense, and trouble, the citizens of Frankfort have removed
from the State of Missouri to the cemetery at Frankfort, where they now
a conspicuous and eligible position; and whereas, no monument marks his
"Resolved, That the sum of
be appropriated by this Grand Lodge for the purpose of aiding in
erecting some lasting
monument over his grave, and that the treasurer of the Grand Lodge pay
over to Bro. E. H. Taylor, treasurer of said company; provided the same
be paid until the monument be contracted for."
has searched the Centennial History of the Grand Lodge ‒ of Kentucky,
by H. B. Grant,
but has found no reference to Boone save to the above resolution. Bro.
adds: "I recall seeing a picture of the burial of Daniel Boone, many
since, and one of the participants appeared to be wearing a Masonic
* * *
In the November
issue, page 349, you have an inquiry from L. H. L., "Was Webb's Monitor
in more than one edition?" I have a record of the following editions:
York, 1797. *2, New York, 1802. 53, Providence, 1805. 4, Boston, 1808.
Mass., 1812. 6, Andover, 1816. *7, Boston and Salem, 1816. 8,
9, Salem, 1818 (published by Flagg). *10, Salem, 1818 (published by
11, Salem, 1821. 12, Spanish only. There were no further editions as
published over the name of Morris, Carson, etc., are revisions and not
to the title of Webb's Monitor any more than Webb's is entitled to be
Of the editions listed, I have those marked * and they are available
for use by
D. D. Berolzheimer, New York.
* * *
Bro. H. E.
Zimmerman's contribution to the Question Box in THE BUILDER, vol. X,
No. 10 (October,
1924), contains, among others, the question, "If Masonry was justified
a form that is wrong historically and philologically, when was the
change made and
why?" I cannot answer the question, but I wish to deny the quasi
form Knights Templar is not wrong, certainly not philologically. On
that point I
would take issue with even the editor or compiler of a dictionary. The
of a dictionary need not be either a scholar, grammarian or
philologist, and his
opinion, as publisher, merits no greater consideration than would that
of any other
business man with equal education. Notwithstanding the publishers'
the contrary, "Templar" is an adjective, as much so as is "apple"
in the compound "appletree." Of all the trees growing in God's
high trees, low trees, spreading trees, scrubby trees, there is a group
of them that we identify as appletrees. Though the word "apple," as
used, performs the functions of a noun and is, then, a noun, in the
it performs the function of an adjective and is an adjective; as much
so as "high"
or "low" are adjectives, as commonly used. In a phrase or sentence it
is the use or the function of a word alone that determines what that
word is. So
"Templar" is an adjective in the phrase "Knight Templar." It
tells us what particular kind of a knight the Knight Templar is. Among
all the knights
in the world, rich, poor, fat, lean, good, bad, each a member of a
group with one
or the other of these characteristics, there is also a group of knights
the characteristic of being, each one of them, a Templar. In the phrase
Templar" the adjective, instead of preceding the noun, as it generally
in the English language, follows its noun. In the French language the
position for an adjective is after its noun and not preceding it. In
however, is that position for the adjective with respect to its noun
fixed or demanded. It depends somewhat upon the writer's mood whether
and charming maiden lightly skips across the green," or whether "A
young and charming," does so. A Knight Templar might just as well be a
Knight and, in the German language, that is actually what he is, a
joined into one word, even, exactly like our "appletree," where the
precedes its noun instead of following it.
there may have been Templars who had not the distinction of being also
this or that Order, and there undoubtedly were knights who were not
a member of the Order under discussion was a Knight Templar, and two of
Knights Templar exactly the same as, in the present day, two knights of
of the Garter are not Knights of the Orders of the Garters.
Dictionaries may and
do say that "Knights Templars" is the correct plural, usage may
it as being correct, but, logically and philologically and as a plural,
Templars is as wrong as would be "feetsteps," "spoonsfuls,"
or "cupsfuls." Horrors!
B.A. Eisenlohr, Ohio
* * *
Book For Sale
I have for
sale a copy of The Sufferings of John Coustos for Freemasonry, and for
to turn Roman Catholic, in the Inquisition at Lisbon, etc. Part II,
from page 78
to 400 inclusive, is occupied by a history of the Inquisition. Bound in
leather; covers loose. Published by Strahan, London, 1746. Offers will
H. I. Schmits, 1124 Chestnut Ave. Flat, Minneapolis,
* * *
Since Nov. 10, 1924
age 35, 574 Hamilton Avenue, North Bergen, N. J. About 5 feet 9 inches
pounds, medium built, fair complexion, smooth shaven, brown hair, blue
an old grayish suit with Masonic pin in coat. When last seen was
driving a Daniels'
sedan auto, license No. 124639, N. J. Carpenter and builder by trade.
If found please
notify Mystic Tie Lodge, No. 123, Union Hill, N. J.
May you have
a happy and prosperous New Year.
* * *
Sez the old
feller, see he: "This evolution theory is funny monkey business."
* * * Says
George Bernard Shaw: "Democracy prefers second-bests always." It
did when it preferred George Bernard Shawl
* * *
Alfred Robbins' now famous visit to this land attracted the attention
of men in
high places. President Coolidge wrote to congratulate him on his
mission as having
helped to cement Anglo-American friendship; Secretary Hughes asked the
Ambassador at the Court of St. James to congratulate Sir Alfred on "the
work he is doing to strengthen the ties which bind our countries
and Chief Justice Taft wrote to felicitate him on "the very fine and
impression which your visit to the United States gave to American
* * *
Lodge of Mexico has published a chart showing the genealogy and other
of all lodges now under its jurisdiction. The chart is accompanied by
of explanatory text. Thanks to the generosity of York Grand Lodge we
at our own request, a package of copies for free distribution. In
asking for a copy
please enclose stamp, and write your name and address plainly.
* * *
Here is a
cross-word puzzle. What word contains three of itself? No prizes are
the correct answer, because the correct answer is not anticipated.
* * *
should respect their parents it would naturally follow that parents
should be respectable.
Q. E. D.
Gene Skinkle's Holiday
Greetings -- [A Poem]
One of the
Christmas and New Year's events for a wide circle of his friends each
year is Bro.
Gene Skinkle's holiday greetings, entitled "Treasures" this time. We
it on to you for your "Golden Treasury" of friendly verse:
Fortune smiled on us, we will say,
When she gave us you for a friend one day;
To others she's given a golden hoard
To be wantonly scattered, or miserly stored.
But ours is the treasure that's cherished more
Than gleaming gold, or the sparkling gem
That graces the monarch's diadem.
For gems may be lost and wealth takes wing,
While friendship for aye to the heart cloth cling
Cheering, uplifting the faltering soul
'Long the rugged trail, toward the final goal.
So we thank Dame Fortune, and tender to you
Our friendship, as kindly and loving and true
As yours has been through the passing years
The friendship we cherish and love that cheers.
History of Freemasonry Revised
Gou51 / auth. Gould Robert F / ed. Crowe Frederick J. W.. - London :
Gale & Polden Limited, 1951. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 401. - 10.3 MB.
A History of Lodge No. 61
Har97 / auth. Harvey Oscar J. - Wilkesbarre : [s.n.], 1897. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 696. - 28.7 MB.
American Indian Freemasonry
Par19 / auth. Parker Arthur C. - Buffalo : Buffalo Consistory AASR,
1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 41. - 2.1 MB.
An Historical Account
Ett91 / auth. Etting Frank M. - Philadelphia : Porter and Coates, 1891.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 270. - 12.8 MB.
Ancient Pagan Symbolism
Inm22 / auth. Inman Thomas. - New York : Peter Eckler Publishing
Company, 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 205. - 13.6 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 003 - 1890
Ars90 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1890. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 277. - 23.5 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 017 - 1904
Ars04 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 396. - 33.0 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 028 - 1915
Ars15 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Reylands W. H.. - London :
AQC, 1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 268. - 215.4 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 029 - 1916
Ars16 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 418. - 20.3 MB.
Clio, A Muse
Tre14 / auth. Trevelyan George O. - London : Longmans, Green and Co,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 205. - 8.6 MB.
First Steps in Egyptian
Bud95 / auth. Budge Wallis. - London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner
& Co Ltd, 1895. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 330. - 18.2 MB.
Freemasonry in Michigan Vol 1
Con97FM1 / auth. Conover Jefferson. - Coldwater : The Conover Engraving
and Printing Company, 1897. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 607. - 39.8 MB.
Freemasonry in Michigan Vol 2
Con98FM2 / auth. Conover Jefferson. - Coldwater : The Conover Engraving
and Printing Company, 1898. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 513. - 32.5 MB.
Freemasonry in New York
Lan22 / auth. Lang Ossian. - New York : Grand Lodge of New York, 1922.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 248. - 5.5 MB.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania Vol
Sac08FP1 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1908. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 526. - 13.9 MB.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania Vol
Sac09FP2 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1909. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 518. - 11.8 MB.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania Vol
Sac19FP3 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1919. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 507. - 13.0 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
History of Freemasonry in
Canada Vol 1
Rob00FC1 / auth. Robertson J Ross. - Toronto : George N. Morgan
& Co Ltd, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 1358. - 36.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry in
Canada Vol 2
Rob00FC2 / auth. Robertson J Ross. - Toronto : George N. Morgan
& Co Ltd, 1900. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 465. - 19.0 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 1
Mac06 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 7 : p. 316. - 13.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 2
Mac061 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 2 : 7 : p. 341. - 10.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 3
Mac062 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 3 : 7 : p. 328. - 12.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 4
Mac063 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 4 : 7 : p. 324. - 13.1 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 5
Mac064 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 5 : 7 : p. 318. - 13.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 6
Mac065 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 6 : 7 : p. 328. - 13.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 7
Mac066 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 7 : 7 : p. 398. - 18.7 MB.
History of Masonry and
Sti91 / auth. Stillson Henry L. - Boston : The Fraternal Publishing
Company, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 866. - Illustrated - 57.8 MB.
Con23 / auth. Conrad Joseph. - New York : Doubleday, Page &
Company, 1923. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 414. - 22.4 MB.
Manhood of Humanity
Kor21 / auth. Korzybski Alfred. - New York : E P Dutton &
Company, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 278. - 13.7 MB.
Mark Twain Biography Vol 1
Pai12MT1 / auth. Paine Albert B. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishing, 1912. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 591. - Illustrated - 23.3 MB.
Mark Twain Biography Vol 2
Pai12MT2 / auth. Paine Albert B. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishing, 1912. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 579. - Illustrated - 26.1 MB.
Mark Twain Biography Vol 3
Pai12MT3 / auth. Paine Albert B. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishing, 1912. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 634. - Illustrated - 23.3 MB.
Key22 / auth. Keyser Cassius J. - New York : E P Dutton &
Company, 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 482. - 9.5 MB.
Military Lodges. The Apron and
Gou99 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Gale & Polden, Ltd.,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 280. - 13.7 MB.
Old Masonic Lodges of
Pennsylvania Vol 1
Sac12OL1 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1912. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 484. - 13.6 MB.
Old Masonic Lodges of
Pennsylvania Vol 2
Sac13OL2 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1913. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 483. - 14.5 MB.
Origin of Freemasonry in New
Hou17 / auth. Hough Joseph H. - Trenton : Joseph H Hough, 1817. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 750. - 22.8 MB.
Pennsylvania A Primer
Bar041 / auth. Barr Ferree. - New York : Leonard Scott Publishing
Company, 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 276. - 14.7 MB.
Prose and Poetry
Lam21 / auth. Lamb Charles. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1921. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 243. - 5.4 MB.
The Challenge of the City
Str07 / auth. Strong Josiah. - New York : Young People's Missionary
Movement, 1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 350. - 11.1 MB.
Bud23 / auth. Budge Wallis. - London : Martin Hopkinson and Company,
1923. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 185. - 6.4 MB.
Willing Letters and Papers
Bal22 / auth. Balch Thomas W. - Philadelphia : Allen Lane and Scott,
1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 298. - 8.5 MB.