Masonic Research Society
Bro. S. Parkes Cadman,
D. D., New York
contributed to THE BUILDER for May last an essay so forceful that after
months special copies of it are still being requested. In the present
Cadman returns to his attack on sin and unreason and reiterates his
appeal to Masons
to stand guard over our precious moral heritage. He is making similar
Masons from the platform every little while; Ye Editor has been urging
it upon him
to collect these addresses into a volume that they may have the
permanence and wide
hearing they deserve. Will not Dr. Cadman's admirers in the Brotherhood
Editor in this effort to persuade so busy a man to add yet one more
his many duties? A review of his latest book was published in the
September of this year, page 285.
when the secret societies of Continental Europe were organizations that
about the feet of tyrannical rulers who sniped treason everywhere.
majority of such rulers have vanished, and those who remain are shorn
of their power,
the traditional enmity between them and secret societies persists, and
English speaking Masonry from that of the European Continent. The Royal
Windsor has been identified with our Order for nearly two centuries. It
is an accepted
procedure for one or more of the princes of that house to enroll as a
Edward VII, before he came to the throne, was the Grand Master of the
Order in Britain.
The Duke of Connaught now holds that office, if my memory serves me
the Prince of Wales belongs to the Fraternity as a matter of course.
citizens of every shire in Great Britain follow the example of these
although limited in politics by a strictly interpreted
constitutionalism, have great
influence in the social life, not only of Great Britain but of the
In a recent
history of Secret Societies and Subversive Movements [Lib 1924], Mrs. Nesta H. Webster infers
while conspiracies and plottings against the established government in
state are congenial to the secret societies among continental peoples,
are nothing more than fraternal and loyal organizations so far as we
and our English
speaking brothers are concerned. Indeed, this talented authoress goes
so far as
to assert that our type of Freemasonry and the Roman Catholic Church
are the two
chief bulwarks of faith and morals against assaults from the secret and
of disruption. This theory will not commend itself to many of my
readers, any more
than to many Christians of the Roman Catholic persuasion. Yet there is
to be said in its favor since both Masons any many Roman Catholics,
along with the
bulk of Protestants generally, are conservative in their attitude on
religious issues. None who maintain a firm belief in God as the Father
of all men,
and in the Bible as the Great Light of Masonry and of mankind can be
but conservative in view of the present welter of opinions publicly
detrimental to the whole structure of our culture as a nation.
is made upon marriage in particular, and the accepted codes of sex
morality in general,
by those who have a common and utterly foreign point of view. The
leaders of this
invasion come in the main from Eastern and Central Europe, but they
allies in English speaking lands, who ridicule faith in another and a
‒ self existent, independent, absolute, from whom all true religion and
proceed. They are materialists to a man and not a few literary women
in their ranks. Samuel Merwin, the well-known American novelist,
declares that these
propagandists are "Freudian in morals, futurists in painting,
suggestive in music, perverse in literature, Bolshevists in politics."
does not have to admit all the articles of this sweeping indictment,
but it gives
Masons food for serious reflection. So long as many earnest brethren
among us are
liable to misdirect their reformative energies the real antagonists of
are likely to elude them. It can be said of some of these brethren that,
"Twice they vanquish all their
And twice they slay the slain."
up men of straw for the sheer pleasure of knocking them down again may
Masonic brethren of a certain kind, the foes they should defeat occupy
positions in journalism, and in the republic of letters, from which
a considerable quantity of filth.
I am not
an alarmist nor have I lost my trust in the healthy mindedness of the
but recent abominations upon the part of young criminals are but the
of a widespread mischief wrought by non-moral writers and publicists
who take advantage
of our freedom to sap its foundations. Croce, the best philosopher of
people, is alive to this evil. He defends monogamous marriage, not only
as the responsible
and disciplinary act which insures the continuance of parenthood, but
as the legitimate
and necessary fulfilment of one of the noblest functions of human
beings. It is
superfluous for me to undertake its defense in these columns, which are
to its sanctity and to that of the family. Our Order has enacted
bearing upon a Mason's conduct in all questions relating to domestic
But the shameless
exhibitions I have mentioned, the demoralizations of a debauched drama,
paganism of clever paragraphists of the press, the scandalous escapades
wretched creatures, rich or not rich, who occupy the front pages of the
supply its daily sensation, require far more drastic treatment than
Masonry as a
working system has yet introduced. It is high time for those who still
the Theism of Israel, in the Christianity of Christ, in the obligations
and in the fundamentals of our individual and national life, to awaken
out of their
fatuous slumber. Their enemies are in the field and there is nothing
their operations. They produce and defend conscienceless assassins.
fringe of sentimentalists who oppose the penalties attached to capital
aid and abet them.
Masons do practically to resist this contagion? They can be active in
its symptoms in cults, groups, lecturers, pressmen, columnists, and
who ridicule the plain morals we profess. Once these symptoms are
is the foresworn duty of every Mason to cut them out of his life and
that of his
family; and reject the papers, magazines and books that print this
. Disregard those subtle pleas about eugenics and psychoanalysis and
imagination and enthralling style which are nothing more nor less than
personal uncleanness and social degradation.
or read in the prevalent clamor of talk that men and women have the
right to express
themselves in any way that instinct and impulse may urge. It is said
that to repress
these instincts and impulses is contrary to life's best estate. The
hogs of the
stye, had they reason and speech, would echo such pleas and arguments.
But the men
and women whom we have known in our homes and churches, in our cities
and upon the farmsteads of the country sides are not prepared to
surrender the America
they have inherited from God-fearing ancestors to Orientalized
abhor the turpitude and lust, half concealed and half revealed by
backgrounds lie in moral anarchy. They feel that the decency we
associate with our
wives and mothers must be passed on to our sons and daughters undefiled
river of death.
speaking Masons who were wise enough years ago to reject affiliation
lodges that were and are largely atheistical and political have been
justified. Some of the sickening results of that mongrelized system,
which is neither
truly Masonic nor religious, have been transplanted to our shores.
truth, relief of suffering, defense of the real values of life still
make us strong
in the Deity who ordained them to resist the onslaught now being made,
and if nation-wide
Masonry undertakes the effective rebuke of its dirty crusades it will
earn the renewed
gratitude of our citizenship and insure its own causes.
The Three Degrees -- [A Poem]
By Bro. David S. Lofthouse,
WHEN, by a word, the Architect divine,
Called into being this vast universe,
He also formed, with wonderful design
Man, in His likeness, upright and averse
From doing aught his destiny to mar.
But darkness came and man till time shall end
Must struggle upward, waging endless war
Against the foes that constantly attend.
When his uncertain chequered life began,
The choice was his to make that life sublime,
For, as a builder, 'tis his lot to plan
And raise a building till the end of time.
The edifice, if well-constructed, stands
A great and grand memorial of hours
Well spent, a monument built up by hands
Strained to the very utmost of their powers.
For life is not stagnation; how debased
The limpet's mean existence, such a fate
For him who, by the Great Designer, placed
To forge toward highest heaven were to rate
Him of a servile nature not his own.
True actions, high ideals, firm resolves,
By these man's truest character is shown
And prove he, from the hand of God, evolves.
The finer, rarer qualities of soul and mind
Demand insistently that they be not denied
That which is theirs by right, and so they seek to find
Some noble thought, some splendid imagery, wide
As the widest sea; or as the loftiest hill
Majestical, clear as a limpid, crystal stream:
Or as a summer night, silent profound and still
Or as the fleeting fancies of a wondrous dream.
So from the Halls of Science comes a stirring cry,
And Nature, with a face now frowning, now all smiles,
Invites to contemplation of the earth and sky;
Of this so complex life, its arts and earning wiles,
Its riddle, vast, inscrutable, unfathomed still
Despite the learning and the wisdom of the years,
Despite philosophy, research or thought, or skill,
Incomprehensible, stupendous as the spheres.
And thus, forever, through the corridors of time
The mysteries of Nature and of Science, hid
From all but noble minds attuned to the sublime,
Make their imperious demand, and heard amid
Clam’rous, intruding tongues, compel attentive thought
And contemplative study; yielding rich requite
To those who, knowing wisdom to be hardly bought
Yet fail not in pursuit of all pervading light.
Darkness, the Grave and Death; three dreaded foes
Confront and threaten mortals from their birth,
Invading palaces and halls of mirth,
Respecting not the humblest cot; for those
Who, lost within a labyrinth of woes,
Oppressed by visible obscurity,
Yet seek to penetrate futurity,
A radiant luminary shines and glows:
Its-rising gives unto the faithful peace,
Its ardent rays dispel the deepest gloom;
The burdened heart finds comfort and release
From haunting visions of impending doom:
Threats which the King of Terrors hurls, now cease,
The shining star illuminates the tomb.
Ohio Masonic Record
Bro James J. Tyler, M.
discovery has been made by, W. H. Cathcart, secretary of the Western
Society, Cleveland, Ohio, in the form of a printed copy of the
proceedings of the
Grand Convention of Free and Accepted Masons at which time the Grand
Lodge of Ohio
had its origin. Added interest is taken in the little pamphlet of seven
pages because on the title page appears the signature of George Tod,
from Erie Lodge, No. 47 (now Old Erie, No. 3, Warren, Ohio), secretary
of the convention
and the first Right Worshipful Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge
was made by Mr. Cathcart upon opening the drawer in a desk and going
over some old
papers, no one evidently having been acquainted with its existence,
Western Reserve Historical Society possesses all the papers which
belonged to George
is in a remarkable state of preservation, the paper being but slightly
by age. The title page reads as follows:
for the Society
Brothers Parcells & Barnes
paragraph recites that "at a meeting of delegates from all the Lodges
State, at Chillicothe, on the first Monday of January, in the year of
our Lord one
thousand eight hundred and eight, and in the year of Light five
thousand eight hundred
and eight, were present, to-wit:
Robert Oliver, R. A.
Ichabod Nye, R. A
William Skinner, R.A.
From Union Lodge No 1 (Marietta)
Thomas Henderson, M. M.
Francis Mennessier, M. M.
From Cincinnati Lodge No. 13.
Thomas Gibson, R. A.
Elias Langham, R A.
From Sciota Lodge No. 2. (Chillicothe)
James Kilbourn, From New England Lodge No. 48. (Worthington)
George Tod, P.M.
John W. Seely, P.M.
From Erie Lodge No. 47. (Warren)
Isaac Van Horn. P.M.
Lewis Cass, R. A.
From Amity Lodge, No. 105. (Zanesville)
of twelve delegates is remarkable because of the fact that Lewis Cass,
of Michigan, is mentioned. He later became Secretary of War in the
of President Jackson. George Tod was the father of one of the “war
Ohio, David Tod. The first Grand Master chosen by these delegates was
Putnam, cousin of the noted Revolutionary war veteran, General Israel
1778, General Rufus Putnam founded the first organized, lawful English
at Marietta, Ohio.
narrate that Robert Oliver was called to the chair and that George Tod
secretary. The credentials of the delegates were examined and after
those of New England Lodge, No. 48, were ruled out.
deliberated through four consecutive days, and its labors resulted in
adoption of the following resolution proposed by Bro. Lewis Cass and
Bro. John W. Seely.
That it is expedient to form a Grand Lodge in the State of Ohio."
drafted and adopted a few simple rules in the form of resolutions for
of a Grand Lodge, among which was one appointing as the time the first
January, 1809, and Chillicothe as the place, for holding the first
of the Grand Lodge of Ohio.
then proceeded to elect, by ballot, the following officers of the Grand
Rt. W. Grand Master.
Thomas Henderson, Rt. W. Deputy Grand Master.
George Tod, Rt. W. Senior Grand Warden.
Isaac Van Horn, Rt. W. Junior Grand Warden.
Henry Massie, Grand Treasurer.
David Putnam, Grand Secretary.
Philemon Beecher, Grand Senior Deacon.
Levi Belt, Grand Junior Deacon.
Charles Augustus Steuart, Grand Marshal.
Peter Spurck, Grand Tyler.
Lodge met the following year at the time and place designated. The Most
Grand Master not attending, the Deputy Grand Master presided.
letter from Worshipful Bro. Rufus Putnam was read:
the Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and
for the State of Ohio your Brother sendeth Greeting:
was with high sensibility and gratitude I received the information that
Convention of Masons, convened at Chillicothe, in January last, elected
me to the
office of Grand Master of your most ancient and honorable society; but,
sensibly I feel the high honor done my by the Convention, and am
disposed to promote
the interest of the craft in general, and in this State in particular,
I must decline
the appointment. My sun is far past the meridian; it is almost set; a
only remain in my glass; I am unable to undergo the necessary labors of
and important office, unable to make you a visit at this time without a
and hazard of health which prudence forbids.
the Great Architect, under whose all-seeing eye all Masons profess to
you in His holy keeping, that when our labors here are finished, we
the merits of Him that was dead, but now is alive, and lives
forevermore, be admitted
into that temple not made with hands, eternal in the heavens ‒ Amen. So
friend and brother,
Dec. 26th, 1808.”
At this Grand
Communication one of the delegates from Erie Lodge, No. 47, Samuel
elected as the second Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Ohio. He was a
lawyer, the nephew, namesake and protégé of that Governor of
Connecticut who was
a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and who himself became the
Note by the
Author ‒ The Robert Oliver delegate from Union Lodge, No. 1, is the R.
of American Union Lodge No. 1, mentioned in Bro. M. M. Johnson's
the Story of Freemasonry in New Jersey," page 109, THE BUILDER, April,
On page 110 of the same article a record is quoted from the Grand Lodge
to the effect that delegates from American Union Lodge were prevented
in 1808, but this old record shows that delegates were present at the
of that year. The records of the Grand Lodge of Ohio show that they
were not present
the following year on Jan. 2, 1809, on the day set for holding the
first Grand Communication:
the time it would have been necessary for them to commence their
journey, an alarming
and unprecedented inundation had laid that town under water, and the
confusion inseparable from such a situation, probably prevented the
God Is Light
Bro. H. L. Haywood, Editor
THE man who
is abroad at night-fall sees a profound change come over the world. The
grows purple; orange and red settle about the nearer hills; a mist
creeps up the
valleys, and earth and sky grow strangely beautiful. After a little,
and purple change to a deep gray; the horizon grows black; nearer
things begin to
fade away, until at last nothing at all remains visible. A darkness
envelops everything, even the mind, so that the mountain which a little
filled up half the sky is now as if it were not; there is no distance:
nothing left but a sensation of blackness. The man gropes slowly along;
against boulder and ruts; he cannot find his path; he grows confused
the home toward which he was making his way is now lost in some unknown
He is compelled to lie on the ground lest he inadvertently walk over
some bank and
fall to the rocks below.
hours, day breaks again. Light comes. Once again he can see things as
The sky is no longer a blackness but a great blue depth in which gray
by. Each common thing becomes itself again; the tree is a tree, the
rock is a rock,
the mountain stands where it did before. The traveler now walks swiftly
fear of losing his way, because he sees here and there beyond him the
by which he guides himself to his home. Such is light. It enables one
to see things
as they really are; it helps one to find the path home; it restores to
a man his
God is light.
What the sun does for a world lost in night, God does for the human
mind. In the
mere thought of Him the darkness lifts; we see things as they are, and
not as in
a mirage; we find the path that "leads us thither where we wish to go";
we walk and live in certainty, in confidence, and therefore in peace.
The man who
walks through a world which he believes to be a blind, dead thing,
composed of unliving
forces and indifferent energies, where the human soul itself is the
of a chain of chances, where his very being rests in the keeping of
forces to which
it means no more than a fly on the highway, that man must necessarily
live in uneasiness
and fear, ever afraid lest the blow fall and he cease to exist, ever
own senses, ever looking forward from catastrophe to catastrophe. To
such a one
God comes as a great light. All things fall into normal proportions;
grows solid beneath his feet; he treads the path before him with
God in Himself
is light. He understands everything there is. Unlike us, He is such by
that He does not need to feel His way about, blindly putting out one
the other, puzzled and alarmed; but He is perfectly at home with the
every conceivable circumstance, He knows immediately what to do, and is
do it. There is no great sphinx to Him, no appalling enigma; all is
and He knows each and everything as it really is. The meaning of this
outcome of the human race, the purpose of suffering, the mission of
death, the future
of us all, these things bear down upon our minds like a great weight,
but to Him
they are all as plain as the ground beneath one's feet at noon time.
Some men live
like passengers who have no confidence in the captain's ability to
handle a ship;
their fears rob every moment of its joy. They should learn that there
is no possibility
of God's failure. To Him the good ship Earth, every atom of it, every
upon it, and every inch of the Great Deep over which that "divine ship"
sails, is as clearly known as if it were all transparent glass. For to
are no puzzles, no mysteries, no fears, no dreaded outcomes, but
clarity, the certainty, the calmness of daylight, because He is Himself
When I am
most harassed and driven, I like best to think of God. It heals the
hurts of my
mind to feel that the One who knows the most about all things is the
One who does
not fear or worry. It makes me believe that if I lived in such light I
have no fears either, but would endure a little while, knowing that
sooner or later
all things will make for our peace. When I once found myself very close
it gave me great ease of heart to know that my own being was in the
of an aggregation of helpless and blind energies, but of One who was as
to care for me, to carry me through the Great Experience, as I had
been, in the
days of health to carry my own babe across the room.
Craft and the Great Plague
Bro. Robert J. Newton,
If a deluge
of letters can be accepted as a fair indication the challenge issued by
in his "J'Accuse!" in the October issue, followed by Bro. Skinkle's
and Bro. Potterton's statement of the large ideals of Masonic relief in
number, has come home to the heart of the American Craft. In the
below Bro. Newton presents with telling emphasis facts and figures
about our Tuberculosis
problem, prepared, so he writes privately, for the brethren "from
who desire to "be shown" about this tragical situation. Grand Master
Knox, of Idaho, has already expressed his deep and active interest in
project, may many others follow! The American Craft has no other such
for service. Communications from Masonic bodies and individuals will be
to Bro. Newton; the limitations of space make it impossible to publish
many of them
in THE BUILDER. If you have an idea, a suggestion, or a criticism send
it in; it
will help, whether published or not.
IN the Editor's
appeal entitled "A Sign and a Summons," in the October BUILDER,
the Masonic tuberculosis problem, he said, "Brother Mason, will you not
yourself with the facts? Will you not help to make these facts
And the brethren
are responding. They are interested in the appeal made for Masons
consumption. Many of them, with the well-known and much advertised
ask to be "shown". What are the facts? Upon what do we base our appeal
for help? I submit the following for their information:
1921, I addressed a letter to the National Tuberculosis Association and
to make an estimate of the number of deaths and number of living cases
among 2,500,000 Freemasons. Following is a copy of this estimate given
date of Nov. 23, 1921:
Statistics among Masons ‒ 1921
Estimate by the National
the registration area for the period 1910 to 1915 (the only period for
information is available) the tuberculosis death rate for males over 20
The tuberculosis death rate for both sexes, all ages, during the same
150.2. Therefore, the death rate for an exposure of males over 20 years
times that of the death rate for the exposure of the population in
tuberculosis death rate (all forms) in the registration area for 1919
The death rate for males over 20 in 1919 would approximate 188.4. The
deaths in 2,500,000 males over 20 would approximate 4,710. I think one
say that 4,700 Masons died annually of tuberculosis.
Framingham Demonstration showed a probability of nine active cases to
This means that if 4,700 Masons died of tuberculosis, there are 42,300
needing treatment. There are two additional ways of reckoning the
for tuberculosis. The first applies to the general population. One per
cent of the
general population has tuberculosis in an active form, and an
additional 1 per cent
has tuberculosis in an arrested form. The second method of reckoning
for tuberculosis is taken from the statistics of examinations by the
Two point four (2.4) per cent of the men physically examined were
rejected for tuberculosis,
all forms. The first degree, 1 per cent, is too low for an exposure of
20. The second, 2.4 per cent is too high, for it included men at the
ages. The morbidity rate for Masons would probably be between these
two, about 1.6
per cent. This rate gives 40,000 cases, which tallies fairly well with
of 42,300 active cases as figured by taking 9 times the number of
Philip P. Jacobs, Publicity Director."
are asked to take note of the fact that this estimate is based upon the
reports for the years 1910 to 1915, the only years for which such
available in November, 1921.
note that this estimate was made upon a Masonic population of 2,500,000.
More Recent Estimate Is
years later, I again asked the National Tuberculosis Association for a
of these figures and a new estimate of the number of deaths and living
upon a Masonic population of 3,000,000, which is nearer correct at the
than the previous figure of 2,500,000. This new estimate is based upon
Bureau reports for the years 1920 and 1922, which are now available.
Statistics Among Masons ‒ 1924
Estimate by the National
the registration states for 1920, tuberculosis death rate for males
years of age was 165.2 per 100,000. The tuberculosis death rate for
all ages, during the same year was 113.2 per 100,000. Therefore, the
for an exposure of males over twenty years of age was 1.5 times that of
rate for the ordinary exposure.
tuberculosis death rate (all forms) in the registration states for 1922
The death rate for males over twenty years of age in 1922 would
THEREFORE THE NUMBER OF DEATHS AMONG THREE MILLION MALES OVER TWENTY
YEARS OF AGE
WOULD APPROXIMATE 4,400 ANNUALLY.
Framingham demonstration showed a probability of nine ACTIVE cases to
THIS MEANS THAT IF 4,400 MASONS DIED FROM TUBERCULOSIS, THERE ARE
UPWARDS OF 40,000
CASES NEEDING TREATMENT."
estimates based upon National vital statistics show a decrease in the
cases and deaths throughout the country and of course a corresponding
the ranks of Masonry. Any group of three million males would contain an
of cases and have an equal number of deaths. Note that there are one
times as many deaths and cases among males over twenty years of age as
in the general population.
is made in both estimates to the Framingham Demonstration. For the
benefit of those
who are not students of sociological and public health activities we
In 1916 the
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company made an offer of a gift of
to the National Tuberculosis Association to finance the expense of a
and complete tuberculosis and health study of a typical American
Mass., was selected for this purpose in November, 1916.
was carried on during a period of seven years and the reports are now
and it is from this study, as well as from the reports of the Census
the foregoing estimates have been made.
to the National Tuberculosis Association one person in every one
hundred of population
has tuberculosis in an active form and one person in every one hundred
in an arrested, or latent form. Among three million Masons this would
active cases and 30,000 arrested or latent cases. However, the Census
indicate that there are one and one-half as many deaths among males
as there are in the general population, so it is reasonable to assume
are more living cases among men than among the general population. The
of the National Tuberculosis Association of 40,000 active cases needing
Does Tuberculosis Cost?
of the problem which has heretofore received no attention is the
economic cost of
tuberculosis to the Fraternity. How much does it cost us in dollars and
is an estimate prepared by the National Tuberculosis Association
covering this phase
of the subject:
Cost of Tuberculosis
among 3,000,000 Masons
are three items to be considered in the economic cost of disease.
First, what is
lost to the country because of the deaths, second, what the individual
wages; third, what it costs to provide for his care while he is sick.
a number of other items which might be added, such as provision for the
the sick person. Tuberculosis takes three-fifths of its toll during the
‒ fifteen to forty-four ‒ during which years family responsibilities
to life tables showing the life expectation including all deaths, as
tables made with tuberculosis excluded, tuberculosis cuts off two and a
of life from the complete expectation of every individual under present
conditions. It is agreed that a loss of one year of life is equivalent
to a loss
in value of $100 to the country. Therefore, the loss for each person
among the general
population is $250. Among the 3,000,000 Masons this loss to the
New York City it was found that a tuberculosis family was under care on
for a period of two years, four and a half months. Probably for one
year the patient
is totally unable to earn. The average annual earnings of employees
in various industries is estimated as $1,000. Among 40,000 tuberculosis
to earn, about $40,000,000 is being lost each year in wages.
length of stay in a sanatorium ought to be at least six months. The
cost per patient for six months is about $500. For 40,000 Masons, if
they all received
sanatorium care for six months, the total cost would be $20,000,000.
When it is
remembered that the cost of caring for them must be borne whether they
are in sanatoria
or not, and that the period of disability is ordinarily more than six
is undoubtedly not too high.
estimates of the economic cost of tuberculosis among 3,000,000 Masons
total as follows:
lost in national wealth due to loss of years of life
lost in wages because of sickness.
cost of caring for the patient.
of this kind are based so entirely on limited data that the total may
the figures presented are the only ones obtainable at present."
Masonic Survey Was Made
In 1922 the
Tuberculosis Sanatoria Commission of the M. W. Grand Lodges of Texas,
New Mexico made an investigation, limited by meager funds, of the
situation in the
Southwest, to which part of the country thousands of consumptives
resort in search
of health or a longer lease of life. Such facts as we were able to
gather were included
in our report, which also contains the recommendations of the
Commission and much
additional matter pertinent to this subject, and which we have been
unable to print
because of lack of funds. Following is a portion of this report:
commission has no definite instructions to secure any facts as to the
consumptive Masons who come to the Southwest seeking health, an effort
to get some information from the Masonic lodges of West Texas, Arizona,
and Colorado, as to the number of applicants for aid and the amount
their care and treatment.
letters were sent to all lodges, but very few responded to the request
Lack of records showing the cause of distress made it impossible for
them to give
us the facts we sought, and we are unable to furnish any complete
Relief and Employment Bureau of San Antonio records do not show the
cause of distress
when relief is given. Secretary Leland S. Woods estimated that at least
of tuberculosis are given some assistance every year at an expense of
This includes Masons or members of Masonic families. About one-half of
is refunded by the lodges to which the afflicted brethren belong.
Relief Bureau of El Paso reports that approximately 25 Masons were
in El Paso sanatoria at all times during the years 1917-18-19, at an
the Relief Bureau of $50 monthly. During 1920-21 the average dropped to
14 and the
expense to $35 monthly. The home lodge reimbursed the bureau for the
of the expense. On Aug. 14, 1922, there were 185 members of El Paso
treatment for tuberculosis, the expense of which was borne individually
or by the
lodges of the city. Few of these patients were natives of the city and
with lodges in El Paso after they came to the city in search of health.
No. 4, of Tucson. Ariz., reports the expenditure of $3,000 in the last
for the care of the sick, practically all suffering from tuberculosis.
not include additional funds secured from home lodges for the same
largest amount was expended in 1921, and this would seem to indicate
that the number
of sick brethren coming to that city is increasing.
No. 2, located at Phoenix, reports that they care for a large number of
Masons from the North and East every year, but that the expense, in
is borne by the home lodges.
No. 6, at Albuquerque, reports that there are many brethren who are
tuberculosis sanatoria in and about the city, and that the number
coming to the
city seems to be increasing. Home lodges have refunded money expended
of the brethren.
Club, an organization of Masons who are patients at the U. S. Veterans'
No. 55, and of Masons who are residents of Fort Bayard, N. M., reports
has been given to 38 Masons and members of Masons' families since Nov.
at a total expense of $2,529.27. This relief consisted of monthly
Masons who are not receiving Government compensation and have no
income, and also
takes the form of emergency loans and family relief. The club Secretary
12 Masons, who are not service men and who cannot therefore receive
who need hospital treatment for tuberculosis, but who are financially
pay for same end' who must work to maintain themselves. These 12 men
at the station and there are other brethren, the total number of whom
ascertained, in like circumstances in the vicinity of Fort Bayard.
Of the brethren
assisted by the Sojourners' Club only three claimed New Mexico as their
and the remainder came from 19 other states of the American Union.
in smaller cities have given aid to sick brethren from all parts of the
but few have kept records of this fraternal assistance. It is
impossible to compile
any exact statistics showing the total number of such brethren who have
help, or to give any figures showing the number of Masons who have come
to the Southwest
because of tuberculosis. Every Mason living in the Southwest knows of
one or more
such eases, and every Mason in the North and East knows of brethren who
to the Southwest seeking health. The number is legion.
States Public Health Service made a study of the Inter-State Migration
Persons, during the years 1914-15. The reports were published in
bulletins of the
service and are available on request to the surgeon-general. Much
was secured by the officers of the Public Health Service in this
survey. It was
found that the migration of the far-advanced cases was decreasing but
the number of first and second stage cases moving to the Southwest was
on the increase.
Much destitution and suffering among the sick was found.
by the Public Health Service was made at the request of the state
of Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and California, and the request
survey was made at the suggestion of the Southwestern Conference on
The conference submitted several bills to the Congress of the United
to secure hospital care for the consumptive sick from northern and
About the time the effort was near successful culmination, the war
ended all chance
of securing the necessary legislation for some years. About this time
Tuberculosis Association made an estimate that no less than 10 per cent
of the population
of Colorado New Mexico, Arizona, Southern California and West Texas
In this same bulletin the Association stated that the health
that not less than 10,000 hopelessly diseased consumptives come west to
year, and that 50 per cent to 60 per cent of them are too poor to
provide the necessaries
of life, and they are either starved to death or compelled to accept
charity which this part of the country affords.
information on this subject is contained in an article by Miss
Jessamine S. Whitney,
statistician of the National Tuberculosis Association entitled "The
Migratory Tuberculosis in Certain Cities of the Southwest."
survey covered six of the leading health resort cities of the
Southwest. In the
six cities there was a total of 7.319 tuberculous individuals cared for
in part by the municipal charity agencies, an average of one indigent
person to every 155 of the entire population of these cities. In
where a similar study was made there was found only one tuberculous
person to every
231 of the population.
burden carried by the Southwest in the care of these sick from other
states can be appreciated when it is understood that 75 per cent of the
the Southwestern cities are non-residents, while in Cleveland, Ohio
only 11 per
cent of those under the care of social agencies are classed as
sick men and women of the Southwest are citizens of northern and
Of this large number of non-resident sick, 16 per cent made application
to some local agency within one week of their arrival in the Southwest.
applied for help within one month of their arrival. Fifty per cent
asked for assistance
within three months and 90 per cent of them were in need of help and
for it within one year.
per cent of all known non-residents were men and 28 per cent women
it is the men primarily who roam in search of health. Thirty per cent
of the men
brought their families with them. Seventy per cent are classed as
men and are, therefore, the biggest part of the problem, numerically.
of the following states in the order named furnish half of the
migration to the
Southwest Illinois. New York, Missouri, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Michigan.
Oklahoma, Nebraska and Minnesota. One-fourth of the migration to San
from other Texas points, and many Texans go to New Mexico and Arizona
from an official report to the great national organization, which has
led the light against the Great White Plague in America, will give just
idea of conditions in the Southwest.
Shall We Masons Do?
as suggested in the article in the October BUILDER. Raise money, build
take care of the sick and restore them to health and to their families.
to each individual Freemason will be small.
Woodmen of America, The Woodmen of the World, and other fraternities,
and churches are doing this for their membership. Why should
Freemasonry be the
last, when it should be the first in benevolent work?
Dr. J. G.
Pace, Superintendent of the Modern Woodmen Sanatorium, says in his 1921
who have graduated from the Modern Woodmen Sanatorium have earned
dollars since leaving the institution, as shown by the annual report
our graduates, or ex-patients."
to all of the other arguments, brethren, the care of our Masonic
brethren in Masonic
Hospitals will be a good business proposition.
Note Concerning Abraham
Lincoln and Freemasonry
Of late years
a great many articles have been published in Masonic periodicals
concerning a possible
connection between President Lincoln and the Masonic Order. We have
just come upon
an item that will be considered of some value by brethren so
interested, and is
here offered as a contribution to the data that has been accumulated.
17, l 865, only three days after Lincoln had been shot by John Wilkes
Lodge, No. 333, A. F. & A. M., Springfield, Ill., adopted a set
to express the lodge's great sorrow at Lincoln's death. Of this
by five members of the lodge as a committee, two paragraphs are here
"RESOLVED, That as the
and neighbors of our late beloved and now revered President Lincoln, we
sorrowfully deplore his death....
"RESOLVED, That the decision of
Lincoln to postpone his application for the honors of Masonry, lest his
should be misconstrued, is in the highest degree honorable to his
of the two paragraphs just quoted proves conclusively two very
First, that Lincoln at the time of his death was not a member of the
that he had planned, at such a time as he might believe suitable, to
the degrees. This resolution, coming from friends and neighbors of
Lincoln so short
a time after his death, is the highest degree of authenticity and,
a prominent place in Lincolniana, so far as Masonry is concerned. Also
that at the time of his election Lincoln was not, as has often been
alleged, a non-believer
in God, else a man of his sincerity of mind would not have considered
in an Order of which belief in God is the first requisite.
of the Heavenly Brightness
Bro. Donald Hughes, California
THE SECRET ‒ My son, it has now been many years since first you sought
us out in
our Hidden School. You arrived at the end of a weary day, worn and
with the burden of a great search upon you.
‒ I came from a place very far away. From my childhood I had cherished
fear of death. The Tragedy of the End was one I dared not to confront.
told me that if I sought you out you would teach me how to escape
death. I have
learned the Great Secret. My feet are now on a path that has no ending.
will break and evenings will fall forever, but I shall heed them not.
will never be called upon to weep above my grave. My gratitude for your
more than I can express.
And are you now satisfied? Is there not something else to be desired in
of your happiness?
‒ Nothing. What more could I wish? Endless life is mine; is not a man's
after he has put the Shadow behind him?
Perhaps. Your feet have indeed found the Path that has no Ending. Is
there not something
you may wish to find as you journey along it?
‒ What could there be? I shall start upon it at dawn tomorrow, with no
If that be your intention, my son, let me then have this last hour with
the dusk falls. Even in so short a time it is possible that I can teach
wisdom. Let us follow this path a little on which we now stand. See, it
the hills toward the mountain that has overlooked the valley in which
you have been
abiding with us these many years. You will notice that as we leave the
us we meet with no more gardens. A garden is a man's out-of-doors home…
Now we find
the trees thinning away; like us they crave for companionship… Here the
begins to grow more sparse; there is little soil upon these heights… At
grass fails us; its tender blades demand more than these naked rocks
can give them…
And now we have reached the summits where only eagles are at home… You
‒ Yes, I had always supposed this to be the outermost sentinel of a
chain of snowy
No, it is only the wall of our valley. You are taken aback to find the
of this high plateau before you?
‒ It appears to be endless.
It is. Those flat reaches stretch on forever.
‒ But the sky is boundless with blue and golden splendor!
It is a land where no birds sing.
‒ But it is very beautiful. There are no shadows upon it. Its floor is
like a carpet
of beaten brass!
It is a land of little rain.
‒ It is immensity itself, filled with magnificent distances!
You would not come upon a house were you to walk across it through
You would encounter no pilgrims upon that road which lies across it.
‒ The road! I had not seen it before! It loses itself in the horizons.
think it had been laid along the edge of a rule. Whither does it lead?
It is the Highway of Endlessness. It leads nowhere. It is upon that
road that you
are to begin your journey tomorrow. What would you say if you were to
it through numberless life-times without meeting another being like
if you never came upon a human habitation? how would you feel if you
were to find
yourself with nothing except the knowledge that your path will never
come to an
‒ Master! That would be an eclipse of the Heavenly Brightness!
Yes. But you asked for nothing else. You came to us with only one fear
‒ the fear
of the Tragedy of the End; you had only one desire ‒ that no night
should ever fall
upon your existence; you made only one request of our wisdom ‒ that we
you the Secret of Endless Existence.
‒ I have learned the Great Secret.
Yes, but it has not given you the joy you expected. Why not begin your
once? The Road is at your feet.
‒ Master! Master!
You are filled with a tumult of new fear and apprehensions. The
prospect of that
everlasting solitariness fills you with dread. You are already wishing
might remain with us in our Valley. You came seeking only the first
life. Did it never occur to you that Life has many Dimensions?
‒ I discover that I have been an ignorant child.
You came seeking Endless Life; it is Eternal Life that you need.
‒ Eternal Life!
Yes. That is life made perfect in all its Dimensions ….. My son, have
you ever heard
of the Brethren of the Mystic Tie?
‒ I have seen their emblems above the lintels of a door. I have heard
are Travelers toward the Light.
They are, and more. They are a Hidden Brotherhood that has learned the
Labor and Refreshment. But they are more even than that. They possess a
for which you are now greatly hungered. It is the mighty need of your
their wisdom that causes your unhappiness.
‒ What is their Great Wisdom?
It is the knowledge of the Divine Geometry. The Brethren of the Mystic
ago discovered the dimensions of the Holy City of Man. They learned, as
learned, the lesson of the Mystic Twenty-Four Inch Gauge, that
existence is endless;
but they learned other lore to which you are a stranger. They know the
the Square, that life must have breadth, else its mere length would
drive us insane;
and of the Plumb, that life must have height and depth, else it is thin
with no satisfaction for our hearts. What will it profit a man to
travel the Road
of Endlessness if his soul is eaten out with loneliness all the way!
‒ I find myself weighed down with a new ignorance. Is it too late for
me to turn
To one who has learned the Secret of Endlessness it is never too late.
Let us then
return to our brethren. Their road is not a bleak and unbroken
infinity, but winds
and winds, with many a halt, and, many a hill, and countless feet upon
and Masonry ‒ Anti-Masonry in the Book of Mormon
Bro. S. H. Goodwin, Grand
step in our discussion of the subject brings us to a consideration of a
examples of the effects of this Anti-Masonic environment upon the
To get the full force of this reaction to those abnormal conditions,
have before him a compilation of all the charges made by the
Anti-Masons, and check
these by passages dealing with the same matters to be found in the Book
In all the
discussions of the one absorbing subject, on the platform and in the
alleged characteristics of the Masonic Institution were singled out for
and where these did not furnish the topic they came in for a large
share of attention
and denunciation. Among these, and given an unenviable pre-eminence in
of Masonry's offendings, was the matter of obligations, or "oaths", as
they were more frequently designated. It is doubtful if a single
occurred in the period we are now considering, during which these
were not held up to ridicule and contempt. One has but to turn to the
of the day and note how this word is sprinkled over its pages to find
of this statement. (44) And in the treatment of this subject no epithet
to be too severe, or to suggest to auditors or readers the possibility
no arraignment, however scorching or malevolent, overtaxed the
those who sought the destruction of Masonry; no picture of the
enormities of Masonic
"oaths", however absurd in outline, or shocking and impossible in
failed of public approval. In a word, to the highly inflamed
imagination of Anti-Masonry,
Masonic "oaths" embodied all that was horrible, irreligious and
Evidence of contact and familiarity with this situation by the "Author
Proprietor" of the Book of Mormon is to be found in many passages in
"And Akish did administer unto
which were given by them of old who also sought power, which had been
from Cain"; "And now I Moroni do not write the manner of their oaths …
for they are had among all the people"; "… and he applied unto those
he had sworn by the oath of the ancients"; "… and they adopted the old
plans, and administered oaths after the manner of the ancients`';
stir up the hearts of the more part of the Nephites … that they did
unite with those
bands of robbers, and did enter into their covenants and their oaths";
behold, it is these secret oaths and covenants …"; "… those secret
and covenants and cloth hand down their plots, and their oaths and
and their plans of awful wickedness". (45)
against Masonry were drawn from almost every conceivable source by
those who sought,
and confidently predicted, the overthrow of the Masonic institution.
the Bible, and from public documents and state papers, were torn from
and were made to do duty as militating against Freemasonry. A singular
of this is to be found in the use made of a certain passage from
Address [Lib 1899]. In two paragraphs of his
final message to
the people he refers twice to "combinations and associations" which
formed "with the real design to direct, control, counteract, or awe the
deliberation or action of the constituted authorities," as endangering
principles of the government. Beyond any reasonable doubt, Washington
had in mind
the "democratic societies", to which he refers in his correspondence,
and which then, and previously, had been operating in behalf of the
of France. He had felt the keen sting and sharp power of hot criticism
these societies had been responsible, and clearly saw the end toward
were driving, and he warned the people against this danger. By no
fair construction or interpretation can those words be made to apply to
Yet, from a hundred Anti-Masonic platforms; in newspapers, and
pamphlets, and books
they were unblushingly and increasingly proclaimed as having been aimed
at the Masonic Institution. And where they were not referred to the
they were digged, the words ''combinations" and "associations" early
came to occupy an outstanding position in the popular vocabulary of
and denunciation. (46)
words, and especially the more significant of the two, "combinations,"
should be unmistakably echoed in the Book of Mormon, and this in its
need occasion no surprise: "… these workers of darkness and secret
"… cursed be the land forever … unto those workers of darkness and
" … like unto him … who beguiled our first parents, … and stirreth the
of men unto secret combinations of murder and all manner of secret
works of darkness";
"And there are also secret combinations, even as in times of old,
to the combinations of the devil, for he is the foundation of all these
"And it came to pass … there was continual peace in the land, all save
the secret combinations which Gadianton the robber had established";
thus they did put an end to all those wicked, and secret, and
in which there was so much wickedness"; "And the regulations of the
were destroyed, because of the secret combination of the friends and
those who murdered the prophets"; "Now this secret combination, which
had brought so great iniquity upon the people, did gather themselves
was another word early seized upon and recoined in the mint of
Anti-Masonry ‒ some
time before the Morgan agitation convulsed western New York ‒ and
thrown into circulation
to express the abhorrence and detestation felt by those who sought the
of the Masonic Institution. "Men of every profession, occupation, and
in life," declares one of the enemies of Freemasonry, and a
"have borne public testimony to the profanity and abominations of the
order." (48) The frequent recurrence of this word in passages in the
Mormon, descriptive of the doings and character of the secret society
have been active among the progenitors of Mormonism, affords another
of Joseph Smith's reaction to his surroundings. In a single chapter it
times in as many verses, and nearly always linked with other words
heinous doings, as "murders, and robbings, and plunderings, and
and abominations"; "secret murders and abominations"; "works
of darkness, and wickedness, and abominations)'; "their secrets and
"their secret abominations". In such a passage as the following the
is unmistakable: "Woe be unto you because of that great abomination
come among you; and ye have united yourselves unto it, yea, to that
which was established by Gadianton.” (49)
Crime Was Charged
To the thoroughgoing
advocate of Anti-Masonry, Freemasonry appeared as a veritable Pandora’s
so much as one redeeming feature. As already intimated, there was not a
a crime, that was not directly charged to the Craft. Not only had
and murdered Morgan, but many other murders were specifically laid at
and, in the language of an ex-President of the United States, "clusters
crimes perpetrated" to further the objects of Masonry. (50)
In many passages
in the Book of Mormon, which deal with the doings of an alleged ancient
the influence of the author's environment is plainly visible. "I must
destroy the secret works of darkness, and of murders …"; "And he went
unto those that sent him, and they all entered into a covenant, yea,
their everlasting Maker, that they would tell no man that Kishkumen had
Pahoran"; "But behold, Kishkumen, who had murdered Pahoran was upheld
by his band, who had entered into a covenant that no one should know
"And it came to pass that Helaman did send forth to take this band of …
murderers, that they might be executed according to law"; "… therefore
they began to commit secret murders … And behold those murderers … were
a band who
had been formed by Kishkumen and Gadianton … and there were many, even
Nephites, of Gadianton's band"; "Satan did stir up the hearts of the
part of the Nephites, insomuch that they did unite with those bands …
and did enter
into their covenants and oaths … that they should not suffer for their
urged with great vehemence and persistency, especially after grand
juries had been
summoned, as already noted, had used their best endeavors ‒ without
success ‒ to
run down the guilty ones, and had been discharged, was that the ends of
were not served because officers of the law, more particularly the
Freemasons. And when several men who were suspected of participation in
affair were brought to trial, and acquitted because of insufficient
judgment at once declared that beyond a doubt such a termination of the
due to the influence of Freemasonry and to the fact that judges and
Masons, or dominated by Masons. (52)
Prophet Paints a Lurid
prophet's reaction to these charges appears in numerous instances. "And
the people in such a state of awful wickedness, and those Gadianton
the judgment-seats … doing no justice unto the children of men …
righteous … letting the guilty and the wicked go unpunished"; "And …
there were men who were judges, who also belonged to the secret band of
"And those judges were angry with him because he spake plainly unto
their secret works of darkness." (53)
accusations were brought against Masons and Masonry, all of which are
in the Book of Mormon, but which cannot be considered at length here.
additional brief list will help to an understanding of the character
and scope of
the crimes and misdemeanors imputed to the Craft.
It was charged
by Anti-Masons that Masonry tried offenders against its own laws and
even to the infliction of the death penalty; that it was a menace to
destructive of the liberties of the people, and ruinous of Christian
practice; that Masonry is devilish, satanic in its origin, operations
that it pretended to an antiquity to which it had no just claim; that
political power and placed its adherents in high positions to further
its own selfish
and infernal ends; that it acts in secret because it fears the light of
deeds being evil; that Masonic obligations require that Masons shall
protect a brother,
right or wrong, and that Masonry had become so powerful that means for
cannot be found in the executive authorities, or judicial
establishments of the
country. All these and other charges, not set forth here, but which
as common in western New York as the air itself, during all of the time
by Joseph Smith in the preparation of the Book of Mormon, are
faithfully and fully
reflected in that book. (54)
fully the extent to which the Mormon prophet reacted to his
environment, in the
particulars under consideration, requires the reading of the passages,
reference has been made, in their connection. This course will leave no
doubt that, to say the least ‒ and however the fact may be accounted
for ‒ the secret
society which is alleged to have operated among the ancient Americans,
and unmistakably paralleled, in principle and practice, and with
in detail, all that fanatical hatred, inflamed by popular passion,
characteristic of Freemasonry at the time when Joseph Smith was
dictating the contents
of the Book of Mormon. The conviction that the excoriation of Gadianton
followers is a reflection of the Anti-Masonic conditions in western New
the midst of which the prophet did his work, will be greatly
strengthened by an
examination of the evidence, furnished by this "American Bible", of
palpable points of contact with, and admitted reminiscences of,
division of the material available for our present purpose is more
either of the two divisions already considered. Its significance,
however, is not
to be gauged by this fact alone. Here we have to do with contemporary
testimony is that of men who belonged to the very times in which Joseph
and published the Book of Mormon. So far as the records show, neither
one of the
witnesses now to be called had any reason whatever for attributing the
society" passages of the Book of Mormon to the Anti-Masonic excitement
than the reasons current and generally accepted by the people of the
time and place.
In this matter these men reflected ‒ and apparently with no ulterior
motive ‒ the
convictions and beliefs of those who certainly were in a position to
know how this
matter was regarded by the people in that part of western New York.
In an earlier
paragraph reference was made to the restless, turbulent, chaotic
characterized the religious world for some time previous to the birth
Zeal for doctrine, which accompanied the emotional, passionate
expression of devotional
feeling, carried no hint of the importance of doing justice to the
opinions of others,
or of teaching and practicing a wider charity. The tossing of the murky
this uncharted theological sea strewed the shores with all manners of
isms and sects
‒ the flotsam, it would seem, of long years of religious bigotry and
men who were more or less responsible for keeping these waters in this
state, was an Irishman, well-versed in religious polemics, a
and unyielding controversialist, a protestant divine, Alexander
Campbell by name.
During the year in which the "plates" were turned over to Joseph Smith,
he organized a church ‒ the first fruits of his activities and the
first of a new
denomination, the "Disciples of Christ," or "Campbellites".
As a "faithful watchman on the hills of Ephraim", he shirked no battle
and was prepared for any emergency.
edition of the Book of Mormon was published in 1830, in the early part
of the year,
it would seem, and not long after Campbell secured a copy and proceeded
its contents. His findings were presented to the public in the columns
of the Millenial
Harbinger, a monthly paper published by him at Bethany, Virginia, which
of Feb. 7, 1831. The caption of the article, which later was published
form, was "Delusions. An Analysis of the Book of Mormon." A hint as to
the method and purpose of the reviewer is found in the words ‒ from the
of the pamphlet: "With an examination of its internal and external
and a refutation of its presences to divine authority."
of the acerbity of the comments ‒ a feature which characterized all
of the period, especially in the realm of religion ‒ this bit of work
searching, interesting and valuable; it blazed the May, apparently, for
number of more recent critics of the "Golden Bible". Our interest in
criticism, however, centers in the few comments which show that he
accepted the Masonic origin of the numerous secret society passages in
that "Masonry was invented about this time (in the period covered by
of Helaman); for men began to bind themselves in secret oaths to aid
in all things, good or evil." He notes the fact that Moroni "finishes
what Mormon his father left undone, and continues the history till A.
and that he "laments the prevalency of freemasonry in the times when
should be dug up out of the earth." (56) Under "Internal Evidences",
Campbell presents many details illustrative of the influence of
the author of the Book before us, among them one which bears directly
on our subject.
Number seven, of the series of paragraphs under this caption, reads:
"This prophet Smith, through
his stone spectacles
(57) wrote on the plates of Nephi in the Book of Mormon, every error
truth discussed in New York for the last ten years. He decides all the
‒ infant baptism, ordination, the Trinity, regeneration, repentance,
the fall of man, the atonement, transubstantiation, fasting, penance
religious experience, the call to the ministry the general
punishment, who may baptize, and even the question of Freemasonry,
and the rights of man. All these topics are repeatedly alluded to. How
benevolent and intelligent this American Apostle than were the holy
Paul to assist them!! He prophesied of all these topics, and of the
infallibly decides, by his authority, every question. How easy to
prophecy of the
past or the present time!! … But he is better skilled in the
controversies in New
York than in the geography and history of Judea.'' (58) Concerning this
reflections of local issues in the Book of Mormon, a recent and
of the Mormon Church says: "…, the list is pretty accurate, but by no
complete." He, however appears to take exception to the reference to
in the somewhat cryptic statement: "In the item of Freemasonry, Mr.
hate spills over a little." (59)
observer, and occasionally sharp critic, of things American, who wrote
soon after the Book of Mormon first saw the light, was E. S. Abdy,
of Jesus College, Cambridge." Abdy came to this country in the company
other Englishmen, one of whom was commissioned by his Government to
prisons of the United States. Abdy himself was interested chiefly, it
in slavery as it then existed in this country, but he by no means
to this subject. He traveled about in much the same way as had his
Young, in France fifty years earlier, and in his book, Journal of a
Tour in the United States of America [Lib 1835; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3], he has given us an
and valuable account of conditions as he found them.
In the course
of his travels ‒ which covered the period extending from April, 1833,
1834, he passed leisurely through that part of western New York which
had been the
home and scene of the abduction of William Morgan, as well as of the
of the Mormon prophet. Here, among others, he fell in with an
ex-postmaster of Rochester
who, evidently, was strongly Anti-Masonic in his views, and who was
with Joseph Smith. Abdy also came into contact with Mormonism and the
in Ohio and Kentucky, and early in his travels had access to a "copy of
translation Smith pretended to have made of the 'Shaster' he said he
had found under
a tree." Later, in his narrative, our author devotes more space to the
and their Bible. From this portion of his record the following excerpt
he ‒ as well as those with whom he mingled ‒ regarded those passages in
of Mormon which refer to secret societies:
"One passage in this curious
says Abdy, "clearly points to the place of its concoction and the
of its author, who would doubtless ground a claim for the prophetic
spirit on this
very objection from the unbeliever. It alludes most unequivocally, to
Ontario County, in the State of New York, being the place where
excited such a spirit of hostility to the 'craft'. 'Satan,' says the
stir up the hearts of the more part of the Nephites insomuch that they
with those bands of robbers, an] did enter into their covenants and
that they would protect and preserve one another, in whatever difficult
they should be placed; that they should not suffer for their murders,
plunderings, and their stealings. And it came to pass, that they did
signs, yea, their secret signs and their secret words: and this that
distinguish a brother, who had entered into the covenant, that,
his brother should do, he should not be injured by his brother, nor by
did belong to his band. who had taken this covenant, and whosoever of
should reveal unto the world their wickedness and their abominations,
tried, not according to the laws of their country, but according to the
their wickedness which had been given by Gadianton and Kishkumen.' “
Contemporaries Had No
statement quoted above, and the character of the extract from the Book
one can hardly escape the conviction that the contemporaries of Joseph
Smith ‒ those
into whose hands came copies of the 1830 edition of the "Golden Bible"
‒ had little, if any, doubt as to the source of the many Anti-Masonic
or echoes, in the Book of Mormon. For a reading of the three volumes of
will furnish conclusive proof of the fact that the author of that work
reflects and presents the opinions, prejudices and viewpoints of the
he visited. Upon these he comments; these he criticizes or commends;
and from a
consideration of them, and other sources of information, he arrives at
his own conclusions.
Manifestly, he was not the only one who traced the origin of the
the Book of Mormon to the furore incident to, and the conditions
growing out of,
the disappearance of Morgan; in this he simply records the opinion
by the people of that community and period.
It may be
that the annals of the doings of Akish, Kishkumen and Gadianton found
in the Book
of Mormon are historical, instead of being palpable and perfectly
of conditions existing at the time, and in the locality in which Joseph
and did his work ‒ as the present writer firmly believes to be the
case. If historical,
trustworthy and conclusive evidence in support of such a claim ‒ or any
testimony ‒ seems not to have been uncovered by anyone. On the other
are so many known facts which unmistakably support the position taken
in this paper
that little, if any, room appears to be left for question.
It is quite
possible, to be sure, that the matters selected for consideration in
have not been arranged and presented to the best advantage, so that
get the full force and value of their testimony. But the writer is
that anything like a fair appraisal of the facts will amply justify the
those portions of the Book of Mormon which record the alleged doings of
American secret society, owe their origin and character to the pressure
to which the author of that book was as constantly exposed, and was as
as were his contemporaries.
* * *
on Speculative Masonry [Lib 1830], Odiorne; 1830; pp. 58-101
Proceedings U. S. Anti-Masonic Convention; Philadelphia, 1830 [Lib 1830], pp. 43-53, 76, 97, 110f,
AntiMasonic Review [Lib 1828]; 1828; vol. 1; pp. 26f, Elf,
85, 98; vol. 2;
1829; pp. 33-44, 306f;
An Inquiry Into the Nature, etc. [Lib*], J. G. Sterns; 1826; pp. 97-98,
of Mormon [Lib 1860]: Ether 8:15, 20; 9:5; 10:33,
Alma 37:27, 29,
Helaman 6:21, 25, 26, 30; Third Nephi 4:42, cf.
Pearl of Great Price [Lib 1913], 1891, pp. 14-16.
Observer, vol. 1, Jan. 16, 1829 [Lib*]; p. 4;
AntiMasonic Review [Lib 1828 see above], 1828, vol. 1, pp. 296, 301,
325; vol. 2, 1829; p. 242,
Proceedings U. S. Anti-Masonic Convention, Philadelphia [Lib 1830 see above], 1830; pp. 16, 41, 92, 107,
Catalogue Anti-Masonic Books [Lib 1852], Henry Gassett; 1852, pp. 13,
of Mormon [Lib 1860 see above]: Alma
37:30, 31; 2nd Nephi 9:9; 26:22; Helaman 3:23, 3rd Nephi 5:6, 9, 7 6.
Also see Helaman
2:8; 7.25, 28, 8.1, 3rd Nephi 4:29, 6 28, 7:9, Mormon 8:27, Ether 8 18,
22, 24; 9:1, 11:15; 13:18; 14:8, 10.
Review [Lib 1828 see above], 1828;
vol. 1; pp. 252, 303, 314; vol. 2, 1829, pp. 247, 249,
National Observer [Lib*], Jan. 16, 1829, p. 4;
Proceedings Grand Lodge of Maine [Lib*]; 1830; p. 195;
Proceedings Anti-Masonic Convention Philadelphia [Lib 1830 see above]; 1830; p. 52.
of Mormon [Lib 1860 see above]: 2nd
Nephi 10:15; Alma 37:21-37; Helaman 7:25, Mormon 8:40, Ether 11:22.
Anti-Masonic Convention, Philadelphia [Lib 1830 see above], 1830 pp. 14, 89, 153, 162,
Catalogue Anti-Masonic Books [Lib 1852 see above], H. Gassett; 1852; pp. 2-12;
Opinions on Speculative Masonry [Lib 1830 see above], Odiorne, 1830 p. 204;
Letters on the Masonic Institution [Lib 1847], J. Q. Adams, 1847, pp.
of Mormon [Lib 1860 see above]: 2nd
Nephi 9:9, 10:15, Alma 37:29; Helaman 1:11; 2:3, 10; 6:17, 18, 21, 29;
Nephi 5:5, 6.
Review [Lib 1828 see above]; 1828;
vol. 1; pp. 235, 237, 289, 290;
History of the People of the U. S. [Lib*], McMasters; 1900- p. 114;
The Anti-Masonic Party [Lib 1902], McCarthy;
Annual Report, American Historical Association [Lib*], 1903, p. 371.
of Mormon [Lib 1860 see above]: Helaman
7:4, 5; 8:1, 4, 28; 3rd Nephi 6:26, 27, 28, 29, 30.
Review [Lib 1828 see above], 1828,
vol. 1; p. 296; vol. 2, 1829; pp. 32, 245
Proceedings Grand Lodge of Maine [Lib*], vol. 1; pp. 195, 197, 198, 202.
Opinions on Speculative Masonry [Lib 1830 see above], Odiorne; 1830; pp. 12-18,
Proceedings Anti-Masonic Convention; Philadelphia [Lib 1830 see above], 1830, pp. 31, 39, 79-83, 95,
Book of Mormon [Lib 1860 see above]: Helaman 6:30; 3rd Nephi 3:9, Ether 8:14, 15,
25, 9:6; 10:33; 11:22; 3rd
Nephi 1:27; 2:12; 5:6; 6:26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 7:6, 11.
On the origin and antiquity of Masonry, see:
the Pearl of Great Price [Lib 1913 see above] (1891), one of the four
standard books of the
Mormon Church, for some significant passages. Note particularly the
Mahan", pp. 14-16.
- In connection
with this, suggestive matter is to be found in such articles and books
Riley's, The Founder of Mormonism [Lib 1902],
Prince, article in American Journal of Psychology, vol. 28 [Lib*];
Campbell's, Delusions [Lib 1832]: An Analysis of the Book of
Mormon. Also, and
The Mormon Point of View [Lib 1904], Nelson; 1904; pp. 113-124,
An Analysis of the Book of Mormon [Lib 1832 see above], Alex. Campbell; 1832; a
pamphlet. Note especially pp. 8, 9, 10.
- A Brief
History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints [Lib 1905], Anderson; 1893; pp. 24-25;
History of the Church, Period I, Joseph Smith [Lib 1908], B. H. Roberts, 1902, vol. 1;
The Mormon Point of View [Lib 1904 see above], Nelson, 1904, pp. 143-146.
An Analysis of the Book of Mormon [Lib 1832 see above], Campbell; 1832; p. 13;
The Mormon Point of View [Lib 1904 see above], Nelson; 1904; p. 183, Note.
- The Mormon
Point of View [Lib 1904 see above], Nelson, 1904, p. 183.
of a Residence and Tour of the U. S. of North America, April, 1888(?),
1884(?) [Lib 1835; Vol 1, Vol 2,
Vol 3], E. S. Abdy, vol. 3,
54-59; vol. 1; pp. 320-325;
Book of Mormon [Lib 1860 see
above]: Helaman 6:21-24; passage quoted by
* * *
Journal of Psychology, 28; 373-489 [Lib 1919]; 30; 66-72 [Lib 1919].
An Inquiry into the Nature and Tendency of Freemasonry, etc. J. G.
Annual Report of the American Historical Association, 1902. [Lib 1903; Vol
The Anti-Masonic Movement, E. S. Gibbs. [Lib*]
Proceedings Grand Lodge Massachusetts 1917. [Lib*]
Anti-Masonic Review; 1; 2.
Autobiography of Thurlow Weed; 1. [Lib 1883; Vol 1, Vol 2]
The Book of Mormon. [Lib 1860]
A Brief History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints [Lib
1905], E. H. Anderson.
The Broken Seal, S. D. Green. [Lib 1873]
Catalogue of Books on the Masonic Institution in Public Libraries
etc. [Lib 1852], Henry Gassett.
Delusions: An Analysis of the Book of Mormon [Lib 1832], A. Campbell.
Early Records of the Grand Lodge of Vermont, 1794-1846. [Lib 1879]
The Founder of Mormonism [Lib 1902], I. W. Riley.
Freemasonry in Michigan Conover; 1. [Lib 1897/98; Vol 1, Vol 2]
History of Freemasonry in N. Y., C. T. McClenachan, 2, 3. [Lib 1892; Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4]
History of Freemasonry in the State of N. Y. [Lib 1922], O. Lang.
History of the Church, Period I, Joseph Smith [Lib 1902; Vol 1]; B. H. Roberts, 1, 10-16.
History of Utah [Lib 1890], H. H. Bancroft.
History of the People of the U. S. [Lib*], J. B. McMaster; 5; 109-120.
History of Portland Lodge, No. 1 [Lib*], Drummond.
Journal of a Residence and Tour of the U. S., etc., E. S. Abdy; 1; 3.
Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3]
The Latter Day Saints [Lib 1912], Kauffman.
Letters on the Masonic Institution [Lib 1847], John Quincy Adams.
Masonic Light on the Abduction of William Morgan [Lib 1886], P. C. Huntington.
Memoirs of the Life of Nathaniel Stacy. [Lib 1850]
Mormon Group Life [Lib 1922], E. E. Ericksen.
The Mormon Point of View [Lib 1904], N. L. Nelson.
Myth of the Manuscript Found [Lib 1883], G. Reynolds.
The National Observer, Oct. 2, 1827 [Lib*]; Jan. 16, 1829.
New Witnesses for God, B. H. Roberts, 3. [Lib 1909; Vol 3]
Niles Register, 32 [Lib 1826], 33 [Lib 1827]; 35 [Lib 1829];
37 [Lib 1831]; 38 [Lib 1830].
Pearl of Great Price [Lib 1913], Joseph Smith.
Proceedings of the Anti-Masonic Convention; Philadelphia; 1830 [Lib 1830].
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Maine:1830. [Lib*]
Opinions on Speculative Masonry, etc. [Lib 1830], J.C. Odiorne.
and the "Henry Bell Letter"
Bro. Melvin M. Johnson,
P. G. M., Massachusetts
IN THE BUILDER
for April last I said interalia, "The fact is that while Coxe was
June 5, 1730, as Provincial Grand Master of New York, New Jersey and
for two years, he was not on this side of the Atlantic at any time
two years. During that entire period he remained in England," etc. In
last month Bro. David McGregor criticizes me for having made such a
statement based on statements made by others and on the lack of
evidence to the
is just. That statement was inadvertent. In my book, The Beginnings of
in America [Lib*], published shortly after the April articles what I
said on this
subject was more carefully stated as follows: "There has appeared no
that he (Coxe) exercised this deputation, or even that he was on this
side of the
ocean during the said two years," etc. That statement was correct. Up
publication of Bro. McGregor's November article there had appeared no
Assuming the facts stated by Bro. McGregor to be correct (and I have no
doubt them), it now seems probable that Coxe did cross to this side of
shortly after June 5, 1730, and was in New Jersey from the latter part
1730, until sometime in November of that year. I have made a reference
to this article
in the second edition of my book which is now on the press.
discovery by Bro. McGregor is a valuable contribution. It, however,
does not in
the least change the conclusions stated in my April article and in my
fact that Daniel Coxe was in New Jersey during these four months does
the conclusion that he did in fact exercise his deputation.
Franklin in 1730 in his Pennsylvania Gazette published accounts of
and in December of that year he published a long article on
Freemasonry. In February,
1730, Franklin was made a Mason in Philadelphia. He immediately became
His intimacy with the affairs of the Fraternity is shown by his draft,
of a committee report containing what was almost a set of by-laws for
In 1734 he signed himself as Grand Master. His well-known
characteristics and his
position in the Fraternity forbid any doubt as to his intimate
knowledge of the
then affairs of Freemasonry in Pennsylvania.
Wrote To Henry
On Nov. 28,
1734, he wrote two letters to Henry Price, one official and one
personal. In the
official letter which he signed as Grand Master, and wrote (as he
at the request of the Fraternity in Pennsylvania, he said that Masonry
in 1734 needed "the sanction of some authority derived from home." He
further asserted that if Henry Price would grant them "a Deputation or
the Grand Master of Pennsylvania would yield his chair whenever Henry
Master of North America, should be present.
did not say that in Pennsylvania they needed more authority derived
from home, but
that they needed some authority, clearly indicating that then they had
did not ask for "recognition"; he prayed for "a Deputation or Charter."
These words had then the same clearly defined meaning they have now. If
of Pennsylvania had theretofore received authority from Coxe, they did
anything from Henry Price in 1734. If Coxe had given them any authority
term of his commission (June 24, 1730 ‒ June 24, 1732), they certainly
known it in 1734. They would not have sought nor received, nor acted
under the appointment
made Feb. 21, 1734-5, by "Henry Price, Grand Master of His Majesty's
in North America" of Benjamin Franklin as Grand Master of Pennsylvania.
Franklin when he signed the letter of Nov. 28, 1734, as Grand Master
the request of the Lodge," knew what he was writing en cathedra. It is
submitted that the brethren who officially requested their Grand Master
the petition to Price knew more about the facts of that day and
some partisan historians of the second century thereafter, who have
convince the Masonic world that what Franklin, Price, and their
as to the facts of their own day and in which they were the actors was
evidence and argument be disregarded, these letters are definite and
establish that Pennsylvania Masonry was wanting in authority, i. e.,
was not "duly
constituted", until Feb. 1734/5.
having made a valuable discovery of a letter apparently genuine,
showing a fact
hitherto unknown, proceeds to jump to the conclusion that the "Henry
really existed. It therefore becomes necessary briefly to review the
that there ever was such a letter as the Henry Bell letter was long ago
by Bro. Sachse, who certainly did not fail to press Pennsylvania's
claims to their
limit. (See note No. 1.)
story was that a "gentleman of a mysterious turn of mind" ‒ name
‒ came into the office of the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of
"in the year 1873, when the Craft were preparing for the dedication of
new Masonic Temple" exact date unknown ‒ and showed "one of the clerks"
a letter. The unknown clerk copied a single paragraph of the “Henry
presented by the unknown "mysterious gentleman." Immediately the
the "mysterious gentleman" and the "letter" vanished into thin
air. Since that day they have all as completely disappeared as the
of Atlantis. If any of them ever were in Philadelphia, they must have
departed to some "undiscovered country from whose bourne no traveller
Lives there the Mason so credulous as to believe that if such an
had ever been in the office of the Grand Secretary of Pennsylvania in
trace of it and its possessor would instantly have disappeared!
Account is Given
story (which was told by Bro. MacCalla) dated the incident back to
1872. He supplied
as the name of the "mysterious gentleman," "a Mr. Bancker (since
deceased)." What was his full name? Where did he live? Where and when
die? Who took over his effects? How did he come by the "letter"? What
became of the "letter"?
supplied as the name of the clerk, "Brother Francis Blackburne." What
is known about him? Has he ever made the statement over his own
signature that he
ever saw the "letter"? If there ever has lived a man who would or will
say that Bro. Blackburne stated to him that he (Blackburne) had seen
we have never been told so categorically. No man has ever yet said, so
far as we
can learn, that Bro. Blackburne himself ever made such a statement.
of course, with his long years of service in the Temple in
Philadelphia, had a perfect
opportunity to know all these details. Yet Sachse abandoned any claim
to the genuineness
of the incident.
in the world would accept as evidence (much less as proof) the story
which any known
person has ever told in writing about this incident ‒ or either in a
has been reported.
1874, the Grand Master of Masons in Massachusetts, in The New England
asked for information about the "letter," but his questions remain
to the present day.
once more, we ask for information. What was the balance of the
whose custody was the "letter"? Where had it been for one hundred and
twenty years? And even more to the point, where is it now? The answer
Like the whiffenpoof, "there ain't no such animal never."
repeated requests and demands during the last forty years, the document
been produced for examination. No known living or dead man has ever
he has seen it. Unless and until it is produced or accounted for, no
be given to it or to any conclusions based upon it. For one seriously
any argument upon it is so ridiculous that his readers can hardly be
being inquisitive as to the soundness of his other historical
discovery of the Coxe letter of 1730 and his publication of the facts
about it ought
to be appreciated. For myself, at least, I thank him. Let us hope that
be many more discoveries which will be made public so that they may be
to the test of examination and verification. How much better this is
than the attitude
of a certain brother who has said, in effect, that he has discovered
the author of The Beginnings of Freemasonry in America didn't know and
wouldn't tell him. Real historians want demonstrable facts. No honest
will conceal facts or distort them or attempt their manufacture. No one
to be regarded as an authority who is not willing to throw any or all
into the discard whenever new discoveries show them to be wrong.
the Carmick Ms.
other word. In a statement by Bro. Haywood on page 243 of the November
he dubs the Manuscript Constitutions, dated 1677 and owned by the Grand
Massachusetts, as spurious. (See Note No. 2.) We fail to see his excuse
this. There never was a better authenticated ancient document. Bro.
any other brother who is interested, may see it in the Temple at Boston
he wishes, and may subject it to the most critical examination. The
that the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts in Boston owns genuine Manuscript
dated 1677 is, to my mind, no evidence that there was any Freemasonry
in 1677. Likewise the fact that the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in
owns similar genuine Manuscript Constitutions dated 1727 is, to my
mind, no evidence
that there was any Freemasonry in Philadelphia in 1727.
If we are
to accept Bro. Haywood's conclusion that if the 1727 manuscript "be
as genuine it proves that a lodge, or lodges, must have been active in
in 1727," then he ought to draw the conclusion that the 1677 manuscript
that a lodge, or lodges, must have been active in" Massachusetts in
it seems to me that either "contention is unworthy of serious
A lot of
this controversy is wide of the mark. Much of it is barking up the
wrong tree. Nobody,
so far as I know, doubts that there were Freemasons in Pennsylvania in
same is true as to Massachusetts. There is positive proof of at least
in Boston as early as 1705, a man so prominent that he became Governor
Probably no Masonic student doubts that Freemasons met not only in
and in Massachusetts, but also in other of the Colonies as early as
1730, and perhaps
earlier. It is likely that they met as "lodges." Before the
of the Grand Lodge of England and its assumption of jurisdiction over
that had been the custom wherever Freemasons had met. It is doubtful if
shall know when and where the first of such meetings in America was
held. All that
Massachusetts claims is that within its borders was the first "duly
Freemasonry in the Western Hemisphere, and that Henry Price was, as he
(and as Franklin admitted for himself and his associates) the "Founder
Constituted Freemasonry in America."
Note No. 1. See
Old Masonic Lodges of Pennsylvania; Vol. I, page 10 [Lib
1]. ‒ M. M. J.
Note No. 2.
When questioning Bro. Johnson's disposal of the Carmick MS. I
offered no opinion as to the spuriousness or genuineness of that
document or of
the Massachusetts MS. dated 1677, such a discussion lay outside my
point was that the Carmick MS. deserved a different treatment at Bro.
hand. His manner of treating it will be found at the top of page 56 of
of Freemasonry in America: "At one time it was attempted to claim for
year proof of Masonry in Philadelphia because of the finding in 1756 of
copy of the 'Old Charges' dated 1727. The contention is unworthy of
The Grand Lodge of Massachusetts owns a similar manuscript dated 1677
no claim by virtue thereof." This tells the reader of Beginnings
the Carmick and does not tell him why it is useless. Thus far in my
Club articles I have ventured no opinion on the subject as to the
priority of Massachusetts
or Pennsylvania in the establishment of Masonry in America; I shall
hope to do that
later. The facts now known show that the first lodge in America to be
and formally brought into existence according to the regulation adopted
by the Grand
Lodge of England in 1721 was the First Lodge in Boston, so constituted
‒ H. L. H.
Who Were Masons
Bro. George W. Baird,
P. G. M., District Of Columbia
prominent in our history more justly earned for themselves the title of
Rufus Putnam was a pioneer in the State of Ohio, a pioneer in early
Masonry, a pioneer
in Ohio law, and a pioneer ‒ one of the earliest ‒ against slavery.
was born in Sutton, Worcester County, Massachusetts, April 9, 1738, the
it happened, in which Pope Clement XII issued the first Roman Catholic
Freemasonry. He died in Marietta, Ohio, May 1, 1824.
At the age
of nineteen he enlisted in the war against France and saw four years of
service. In 1761 he gave up military life, married, and took up farming
In 1773, after having become proficient as a surveyor, he spent eight
Florida with his cousin Israel, equally famous as a soldier and
pioneer, and while
there assisted in arranging for the migration of several hundred
families from New
England into the province now known as the State of Florida.
outbreak of the Revolutionary War he enlisted in the Continental Army
with the rank
of Lieutenant-Colonel of Engineers. Very soon thereafter his skill in
became so noticeable, especially in view of the fact of his having had
experience, that General Washington highly complimented him upon his
commissioned him an engineer with the rank of Colonel in 1776, and he
held the post
of Chief Engineer until 1778, at which time Kosciusko succeeded him.
impregnability of West Point was very largely due to his plans.
that while Colonel Putnam was in the army at West Point, the Masons, of
Washington was the most conspicuous, celebrated the festival of St.
John the Baptist
in an army lodge on the Hudson River. It is probable that this inspired
Putnam to apply for membership. He was raised in American Union Lodge
Sept. 6, 1779,
at a meeting held two miles from West Point.
In 1783 Washington
secured for him a commission as Brigadier General. After the
Continental Army was
disbanded at the close of the Revolution, General Putnam spent several
helping to organize a company that later settled on the Muskingum
River, where a
settlement was made, now known as the town of Marietta. Putnam laid out
and thus may be thought of as a father of the State of Ohio. From that
time on he
passed from one station of influence to another, with a career too full
to be described here. After the settlement of Marietta a charter of the
Union Lodge was employed as authority for organizing a lodge there, and
its first Junior Warden. When the Grand Lodge of Ohio was organized in
1808 he was
unanimously chosen Grand Master, although by that time he had become
too aged for
active service in the Masonic ranks. His beautiful letter of
resignation is still
very interesting to read:
"To the Grand Lodge of the Most
and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons for the State of
Ohio, your Brother
"It was with high sensibility
I received the information that the Grand Convention of Masons at
January last, elected me to the office of Grand Master of our Most
Ancient and Honorable
Fraternity. But however sensibly I feel the high honor done me by the
and am disposed to promote the interests of the Craft in general and in
in particular I must decline the appointment. My sun is far past its
is almost set. A few sands only remain in my glass. I am unable to
undergo the necessary
labors of that high and important office. I am unable to make you a
visit at this
time, without a sacrifice and hazard of health which prudence forbids.
"May the great Architect, under
eye all Masons profess to labor, have you in his holy keeping, that
when our labors
here are finished, we may, through the merits of Him that was dead but
is now alive
and lives forevermore be admitted into that temple, not made with
in the heavens. Amen. So prays your friend and brother,
"Marietta, December 26, 1808."
pioneers of Masonry were an heroic band. Cass, Johnson, Carson, Lewis ‒
like them; to such Putnam belonged. To Masonry they gave the same
devotion as to
the flag. In Masonic research, there are more than worthy of our study.
of Masonry in the United States
Bro. H. L. Haywood, Editor
IV – Benjamin Franklin's
IF by the
universal suffrages of public opinion George Washington and Abraham
to be considered our two greatest Americans it is safe to believe that
by the same
general consent Benjamin Franklin would be ranked immediately after
those two shining
names. Unlike the fame of those who are illustrious only when judged
the standards of their own times, Franklin's greatness is absolute. The
his influence extends across many countries and will outlast many
of today live in a world unbelievably changed from his, but we can
sit at his feet to learn many things from so many-sided a genius.
be a temptation to dwell at length on the story of his life and to
again the list of his hundreds of achievements were it not that his
is so rich in fact and incident as in itself to press against the
space. That career extended from 1730/1 to 1790 and was so filled with
that the most casual examination of it shows at once that Franklin,
other famous Americans in the Craft ‒ John Marshall, Mark Twain, et al.
‒ was not
satisfied with a merely nominal membership, but worked in the thick of
was a Mason as well as a member.
before becoming a Mason, and when only twenty-four years of age, he
his Pennsylvania Gazette, No. 108, Dec. 5 to 8, 1730, the first known
concerning Masonic lodges in America, quoted in the Study Club article
During preceding months of the same year he had published three items
lodges. Perhaps he had become interested in Masonry while working as a
England during 1725 and 1726. If so, it may be, as Bro. Julius Sachse
his Franklin as a Freemason a work to which I am greatly indebted
here), that from
the Fraternity he caught the idea of founding a secret society of his
returning to Philadelphia. He called this the "Leather Apron Club," a
name possibly suggested by the Masonic apron, but later changed it, at
time transforming its character, to "Junto," "a club for mental
exact date of Franklin's initiation is not known," writes Bro. Sachse,
it was before the legal year of 1730 expired, evidently in February,
This approximate date is based on Liber B. described last month, in
folio 10 of
which is an entry showing that on June 24, 1731, Franklin paid 2.2.6d
owing on his initiation fees and dues. The same record proves that at
the time he
was a member of St. John's Lodge, from which one may suppose that he
in that lodge. Within two or three months after this, presumably, he
the Gazette "Some Information Concerning the Society Called Free
an excerpt from Chambers' Universal Dictionary of All Arts and
Sciences. Bro. Sachse
believes that he must have been elected Junior Warden of the lodge on
the date just
given, June 24, 1731, and that since the term of elective officers ran
but six months
at that time he became Senior Warden six months afterwards, and
on June 5 of 1732. If such a surmise is correct, as there is every
reason to believe
that it is, the young Mason must have proved his ability as well as his
on June 24, 1732, Grand Master Allen (of whom more anon) appointed him
Warden, and at about the same time he was made secretary of a committee
consider of the present state of the lodge and of the proper method to
The report, in Franklin's handwriting, is described by Bro. Sachse as
oldest draft of By-Laws of an American Masonic Lodge", and he adds in a
"These By-Laws antedate the first By-Laws of the First Lodge in Boston
sixteen months, they having been adopted October 24, 1733." I am not
agree with our learned brother in this; the Committee's Report can only
by a stretching
of words be described as "By-Laws," for of the five paragraphs three
for the purchase of an outlay of "Books of Architecture, suitable
Instruments, etc."; paragraph numbered five adjures the brethren to
careful use of the ballot; and paragraph numbered six states that a
a complaint to make should first take it up with the Wardens.
(Paragraph four was
erased.) Such a document cannot be described as a By-Law in the strict
John's Functioned As
a Grand Lodge
It is now
a matter of almost certain knowledge that the St. John's Lodge of which
was made Worshipful Master in 1732 functioned also as a Grand Lodge
after the fashion
of a few old English lodges, notably the one at York. Franklin was
Grand Master in June, 1734, as we may learn from his Gazette of June 27
year. As indicating Franklin's close attention to lodge affairs, Bro.
that in five years he was absent from lodge only five times.
We may also
guess that many other brethren in North America were becoming more and
in the Craft from the fact that in 1734 Franklin found a sufficient
demand to warrant
his publishing an edition of the Constitutions [Lib 1734], of which the title page is
reproduced. This was the first Masonic book ever printed on this
continent. It was
a reprint of Anderson's Constitutions published in London in 1723;
omits the music,
substituting one song, contains a number of typographical slips, and
by eight and three-eighths inches. According to Bro. J. H. Tatsch (The
[Lib*], 1924, page 344) the existing copies are in the possession of
the Grand Lodge
of Massachusetts (bound up with the Beteilhe MS.), the Grand Lodge of
the Grand Lodge of Iowa, the Supreme Council, A.&A.S.R., N.J.,
the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, and the University of
book was advertised in May but was not ready for distribution until
August, in which
month seventy copies were sent to Boston, a fact indicating that Masons
In this connection
may be noted two of Franklin's letters, both of which have served as
the basis of
volumes of discussion. In April 1733, as will be explained in a later
Price of Boston received from Lord Viscount Montague, Grand Master of
England, a deputation appointing him "Provincial Grand Master of New
and Dominion and Territories "hereunto belonging." In August of 1734
Earl of Crawford, then English Grand Master, extended Price's authority
the whole of North America. On the 28th of the November following we
addressing a letter to the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, the body of
which is here
* * *
Charges, Regulations, &c.
of that most
Ancient and Right
For the Use
of the LODGES.
in Philadelphia by Special Order, for the Use
of the Brethren
in NORTH ‒ AMERICA.
In the Year
of Masonry 5734, Anno Domini 1734.
OF FRANKLIN'S REPRINT
* * *
have seen in the Boston prints an article of news from London,
importing that at
a Grand Lodge held there in August last, Mr. Price's deputation and
power was extended
over all America, which advice we hope is true, and we heartily
thereupon, and though this has not been as yet regularly signified to
us by you,
yet, giving credit thereto, we think it our duty to lay before your
Lodge what we
apprehend needful to be done for us, in order to promote and strengthen
of Masonry in this Province (which seems to want the sanction of some
derived from home, to give the proceedings and determinations of our
due weight), to wit, a Deputation or Charter granted by the Right
Price, by virtue of his commission from Britain, confirming the
Brethren of Pennsylvania
in the privileges they at present enjoy of holding annually their Grand
their Grand Master, Wardens, and other officers, who may manage all
to the Brethren here with full power and authority, according to the
usages of Masons the said Grand Master of Pennsylvania only yielding
his chair when
the said Grand Master of all America shall be in place. This, if it
seem good and
reasonable to you to grant, will not only be extremely agreeable to us,
also we are confident conduce much to the welfare, establishment, and
of Masonry in these parts. We therefore submit it for your
consideration, and as
we hope our request will be complied with, we desire that it may be
done as soon
as possible and also accompanied with a copy of the R. W. Grand
Master's first Deputation,
and of the instrument by which it appears to be enlarged as
by your Wardens, and signed by the Secretary; for which favors this
not of being able to behave as not to be thought ungrateful.
are, Right Worshipful Grand Master and Most Worthy Brethren, Your
and obliged humble Servts.
at the request of the Lodge,
Franklin, G. M.
Nov. 28, 1734."
Sent a Letter to Henry
On that date
Franklin sent a letter to Price himself here given in its entirety:
Brother Price ‒ I am glad to hear of your recovery. I hoped to have
seen you here
this Fall, agreeable to the expectation you were so good as to give me;
sickness has prevented your coming while the weather was moderate, I
have no room
to flatter myself with a visit from you before the Spring, when a
the Brethren, who are foreigners, being about to set up a distinct
Lodge in opposition
to the old and true Brethren here, pretending to make Masons for a bowl
and the Craft is like to come into disesteem among us unless the true
countenanced and distinguished by some such special authority as herein
I entreat, therefore, that whatsoever you shall think proper to do
therein may be
sent by the next post, if possible, or the next following.
Franklin, G. M.
Nov. 28, 1734.
S. ‒ If more of the Constitutions are wanted among you, please hint it
upon the letters:]
Mr. Henry Price
At the Brazen
the originals of these important documents were destroyed at the
burning of the
Masonic Temple in Boston, in 1863, but there can be no doubt of their
as here given. As to their significance there have been endless
opinions. Do these
two letters mean that Franklin was formally acknowledging Price's
Pennsylvania? Do they mean that in the minds of Franklin and his lodge
there was doubt as to the regularity and legitimacy of the Philadelphia
lodges)? Do they also indicate that Coxe had not exercised his
authority in Pennsylvania?
On page 42
of his Franklin as a Freemason Bro. Sachse presents the Pennsylvania
point of view
in a brief paragraph:
information appears not to have been correct, for on examination of
granted by Lord Montague on April 30th, 1733, it appears that his
limited to New England, and there is no evidence that he ever attempted
over the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, which continued to elect Grand
as prescribed in the Coxe deputation, until the appointment of Franklin
Grand Master in 1749 by Thomas Oxnard, of Massachusetts, which was of a
On page 3,
of Vol. I, Freemasonry in Pennsylvania, :1727-1907, written by Sachse
with Norris S. Barratt, is another passage expressing the same opinion
should be no question as to the regular constitution of our early
The appointment of Col. Daniel Coxe as Provincial Grand Master on the
of June, 1730, presents undeniable evidence that there were lawful
in Pennsylvania who were recognized as regular Freemasons. The
Col. Coxe gave almost unlimited powers to elect officers and continue
Lodge, without any further correspondence with the Grand Masters and
of England. In fact the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in 1731 was in all
practically an independent Grand Lodge, the third oldest Grand Lodge of
With the exception of the Grand Lodge of England, established in the
followed A. D. 1726 by that of the Grand Lodge of Munster, which merged
Grand Lodge of Ireland, 1729-30, the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania had no
in seniority or rival in rank."
Registers a Decided
Johnson gives expression to the counter view in his characteristically
on pages 126-7 of his Beginnings of Freemasonry in America:
"In the official letter,
as he himself says at the request of his Lodge, acknowledges its want
authority and prays that Price by virtue of his Commission from
Britain, which had
been extended over the whole of North America, would confirm the
Brethren of Pennsylvania
in privileges which they then enjoyed of holding their Lodge although
sanction of some authority derived from home.' He further admits that
Master of Pennsylvania would thereafter yield his chair whenever the
of North America, to wit, Henry Price, should be present. This letter
is a flat
and explicit admission made officially that the Brethren of
Pennsylvania had no
authority, and that they were irregular without it; and they prayed for
"Benjamin Franklin when he
signed the letter
of November 28, 1734, as Grand Master and 'at the request of the
Lodge,' knew what
he was writing ex cathedra. It is also submitted that the Brethren who
requested their Grand Master to send the petition to Price, knew more
facts of that day and generation than some partisan historians one
hundred and fifty
years later who have struggled to convince the Masonic world that
and their associates were all wrong as to these facts.
"Should all other evidence and
be disregarded, these letters are definite and final. They establish
Masonry was wanting in authority, i. e., was not duly constituted: that
was the 'Founder of Duly Constituted Masonry in America’.”
term as Grand Master expired he served several years as Secretary of
and at the same time continued to publish Masonic items in his Gazette.
One of these,
dated June 9 to 16, 1737, furnishes an account of how a number of local
carried off a mock Masonic initiation with such severity as to burn
their dupe to
death. This unhappy occurrence stirred up excitement in Philadelphia
and led to
a certain amount of condemnation of the Masonic lodge, thereby serving
as the first
known Anti-Masonic effort in this land, as will be noted more fully in
a later chapter
to be devoted to the melancholy theme of Anti-Masonry. Officers of the
a condemnation of the practical jokers and at the same time declared
of the Masonic brethren. A rival of Franklin's Gazette, Bradford's
Mercury, took up the affair and published several columns of
mostly aimed against the Masons.
of these exciting happenings reached Franklin's mother, who knew little
about Freemasonry, and caused her uneasiness lest her son had become
a disgraceful organization. After giving much thought as to how best to
her fears Franklin sent a letter to his father, dated from
Philadelphia, April 13,
1738, in which, while discussing a number of other topics, he wrote of
in this wise:
"As to the freemasons, I know
no way of
giving my mother a better account of them than she seems to have at
it is not allowed that women should be admitted into that secret
society. She has,
I must confess, on that account some reason to be displeased with it;
but for anything
else I must entreat her to suspend her judgment until she is better
she will believe me when I assure her that they are in general a very
of people, and have no principles or practices that are inconsistent
and good manners."
In his letter
to the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, quoted above, written under date
of Nov. 28,
Franklin suggested that Price, as Grand Master having authority "over
appoint a Deputy Grand Master for Pennsylvania. Bro. Melvin Johnson
locating a news item in the American Weekly Mercury, published at
under date of March 20 to 27, 1735, under a Boston heading of Feb. 24,
to the effect
that "on Friday last" Mr. Henry Price, "Grand Master of His Majesty's
Dominions in North America, Nominated and Appointed his Grand Officers
for the Year
ensuing," among which was "Mr. Benjamin Franklin, Provincial Grand
for the Province of Pennsylvania." This discovery has greatly
the position of those brethren who argue that the Pennsylvania Masons
and accepted Price's authority over their own lodges.
Is Again Appointed
was again similarly honored in 1749, at which time Thomas Oxnard was
Grand Master for all North America, he having received a deputation to
at the hands of John Ward, Grand Master of England, Sept. 23, 1743. On
1749, Oxnard appointed Franklin “Provincial Grand Master of
Franklin convened a Grand Lodge under this warrant on Sept. 5,
following, and this
Grand Lodge warranted a new lodge to meet in Philadelphia; Franklin's
William, was made a Mason in this lodge.
It was in
this same year that Franklin set afoot the organization of a college
in time the University of Pennsylvania; among the trustees of this new
meeting in November of 1749 were seven Past Grand Masters of the
Lodge. Christopher Saner, of Germantown, had some years before
the Masons of fostering public schools. "The people who are promoters
free schools," he had written, "are Grand Masters and wardens among the
Freemasons, their very pillars." The fact mentioned just above would
that Saner had not guessed wildly.
By this time
there were at least three lodges functioning in Philadelphia. One of
meeting at the Tun Tavern, petitioned "Mr. Benjamin Franklin" for a
under his sanction." The Philadelphia brethren evidently desired to be
in every sense of that word.
term of office under the Oxnard deputation was not of long duration,
for at the
meeting of Grand Lodge, March 13, 1750, William Allen exhibited a
Provincial Grand Master received direct from the Grand Master of
appointed Franklin as his Deputy. It is apparent -that he remained in
for some years because on June 24, 1756, when the new "Lodge," the
Masonic building to be erected in the United States, was dedicated,
Grand Master Benjamin Franklin, Esq." appeared in the procession
behind Grand Master Allen. The sermon preached on this occasion by the
Rev. William Smith, was afterwards, on resolution proffered by the
printed in book form from Franklin's press.
went abroad in 1757, returning in 1762; he retained his office during
or else resumed it after returning. He went abroad again, on missions
importance to the Colonies, in November, 1764. The Minutes of the Grand
England show him as a visitor to Grand Lodge Nov. 17, 1760, but there
is no other
known record of any Masonic activity while among the members of the
Body during his various sojourns in England. On going to Paris,
he almost immediately became active in lodge affairs, for he was made a
the famous Loge des IX Socurs ("Lodge of the Nine Sisters," referring
to the Muses), probably in 1777. From Kloss' History of Freemasonry in
we learn that he assisted at the initiation of Voltaire; and that on
Nov. 28, 1778,
he served as a Warden in a Lodge of Sorrow held by the Lodge of the
after Voltaire's death. Franklin filled the office of "Venerable"
corresponding to our Worshipful Master) in the Lodge during 1782; was
made a member
of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem; in 1785 was elected an honorary
the Lodge of Good Friends at Rouen; and was made the recipient at
of Masonic medals struck in his honor.
to Philadelphia in 1785 he found that the old Grand Lodge in which he
had been so
active had passed out of existence; and that the new Grand Lodge
erected to take
its place was severing all connections with the Mother Grand Lodges
abroad to the
end of setting itself up as a sovereign body in Pennsylvania. Bro.
that during the last years of his life Franklin remained an
unaffiliate. He died
in his eighty-fifth year, April 17, 1790. The ceremonies at the tomb
the direction of the Grand Master of Pennsylvania.
Was Silent About Masonry
private reason Franklin almost never mentioned Freemasonry in his
or his published writings. His Autobiography [Lib 1906], the earliest American
has no reference at all to his many lodge interests. His oft-quoted
the Masonic signs and tokens show what a book of his would have been
like had he
ever written on Masonry:
"These signs and tokens are of
value; they speak a universal language, and act as a passport to the
support of the initiated in all parts of the world. They cannot be lost
as memory retains its power. Let the possessor of them be expatriated,
or imprisoned; let him be stripped of everything he has got in the
these credentials remain and are available for use as circumstances
"The great effects which they
are established by the most incontestable facts of history. They have
uplifted hand of the destroyer; they have softened the asperities of
they have mitigated the horrors of captivity; they have subdued the
rancor of malevolence;
and broken down the barriers of political animosity and sectarian
"On the field of battle, in the
of the uncultivated forests, or in the busy haunts of the crowded city,
made men of the most hostile feelings, and most distant religions, and
diversified conditions, rush to the aid of each other, and feel a
social joy and
satisfaction that they have been able to afford relief to a brother
* * *
on the general events coincident with Franklin's early Masonic career
appended to Study Club article last month, page 314.
above referred to contain sketches of Franklin's Masonic career. For
Franklin as a Freemason [Lib 1906], Sachse; Philadelphia.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania, 1727-1907, Barratt and Sachse;
Philadelphia, 1908 Vol.
I [Lib 1908, Vol 1], page 3.
Beginnings of Freemasonry in America [Lib*], Melvin M. Johnson; New
Grand Lodge Proceedings Massachusetts [Lib*], 1871, page 356 If.
Grand Lodge Proceedings Massachusetts [Lib*], 1914, page 257.
Memorial History of Boston, Justin Winsor, Boston, 1882; Vol. II [Lib
1881, Vol 2], page 269.
History of Freemasonry [Lib 1884, Vol
4], Gould, American Edition, Vol. IV,
pages 236, 361.
The Freemason's Monthly Magazine, Chas. W. Moore; Boston; Vol. XV
21, 373; Vol. XVII [Lib*], page 7.
American Quarterly Review of Freemasonry [Lib 1958, Vol 1], A. G. Mackey; New York 1858,
The Builder, 1915, pages 174, 232, 233; 1916,
pages 60, 84, 93, 95, 181, 196,
229, 253, 294, 320, 325, 1917, page 164; 1918, pages 153, 170; 1919,
page 39; 1921,
page 264; 1922, page 351; 1923, page 174.
almost innumerable biographies or biographical studies of Franklin may
his own Autobiography [Lib 1906].
Parton, James - Benjamin Franklin [Lib 1864, Vol 1, Vol 2] Vol 1 1864, James Parton, two
New York, 1864.
Benjamin Franklin [Lib 1889], John T. Morse, Jr., Boston,
The Many Sided Franklin [Lib 1899], Paul L. Ford; New York 1899.
The True Benjamin Franklin [Lib 1899], S. G. Fisher; Philadelphia,
Franklin in France
[Lib 1887, Vol 1, Vol 2], E. E. Hale and E. E. Hale,
two volumes; Boston, 1888.
* * *
- What is your estimate of
Franklin's place in American History?
- Why may Franklin's greatness be
described "as absolute?"
- How long did his Masonic
- What was the first known
printed item concerning American lodges?
- What was the “Leather Apron
- “the Junto?”
- When and where was Franklin
- What is Liber B?
- What offices did he hold in the
Masonic lodge and when was he appointed Junior
- What is meant by by-laws of a
- Of what Grand Lodge was
Franklin Grand Master? When?
- How active was Franklin in his
- What is meant by the
- What was the first Masonic book
printed in the United States? When?
- Where are copies known to
exist? Describe it.
- What is the significance of
Franklin's letters to the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts
and to Henry Price?
- Do these two letters indicate
to you that Pennsylvania was then under the
jurisdiction of Price?
- Give the gist of Johnson's
- Describe the first known
- What would Franklin's letter to
his mother indicate as to his own feelings
- Describe and explain Johnson's
discovery concerning Price's appointment of
Franklin as Provincial Grand Master.
- When was Franklin again made
Provincial Grand Master? By whom?
- What part did early
Pennsylvania Masons take in public education?
- Under what circumstances did
Franklin become a Deputy Grand Master?
- What is meant by "Lodge of the
- Who was Voltaire?
- Was Voltaire an atheist?
- Where was he made a Mason?
- What part did Franklin take in
- Why, do you suppose, did
Franklin not mention Freemasonry in his public writings?
- Give a summary of his tribute
Unity and Love -- [A Poem]
these words be our motto,
Breath of our social sphere
Let each one give his quota
Of kindness, love and cheer
Real brothers we shall be,
Decreed by Heaven above
Our law shall be our high degree
Of Unity and Love!"
Bro. Dr. Wladimir Misar,
Grand Secretary, Vienna
noted the absence of any mention of the Grand Lodge of Vienna
(Grossloge Von Wien)
in Ye Editor's Study Club article on "Various Grand Lodges" in THE
of last June, Bro. Dr. Misar was kind enough to prepare an authentic
that Grand Body to fill that regretted omission, and with it sent
greetings to his
brethren in America.
in Austria dates back to the first half of the eighteenth century. The
Zu den drei Kanonen, was founded in Vienna, 1742. It was forbidden
under the Government
of the Empress Maria Theresa, but later was permitted by the Emperor
in whose time many famous men – Sonnenfels, Mozart, Haydn – were
members of Vienna
lodges, which in those times mostly worked under the obedience of the
Landesloge von Österreich, founded 1784, was dissolved under the
government of Francis
I and since then Freemasonry in Austria has been permitted only for
till the year 1918.
in the year 1871 another Austrian lodge had been constituted by great
Hungarian Masons living in Austria. This, the oldest of our existing
Humanitas, was founded in a place on the territory of Hungary, but near
Humanitas and a number of other lodges, partly emanating from it,
by Austrians in the territory of Hungary, all working according to the
of the Grand Lodge of Hamburg, were taken under the protection of the
Lodge of Hungary.
Great War there existed fourteen such lodges, all of them not being
Austria and therefore being obliged to perform their works of
in Hungary, in such places as Neudorfel, Pressburg, etc., situated near
In order to secure the possibility of the Austrian Freemasons meeting
on the Austrian
territory for purposes of administration, instruction, or social
of the Austrian lodges formed a parallel society of profane name and
publicly maintaining a social, cultural, educational or charitable
of the lodges also maintained special benevolent institutions. The
Humanitas, is known to have founded the first Austrian orphanage,
of the old Austrian Empire suggested the possibility of creating an
Lodge, which idea met with complaisant understanding at the Symbolic
of Hungary. On Dec. 8, 1918, the fourteen Vienna lodges assembled to
found the "Grand
Lodge of Vienna," the charter of which was issued by the Symbolic Grand
of Hungary, Jan. 25, 1919.
of new cultural and intellectual ascent for Austrian Freemasonry then
for new parts of the society remaining aloof from Masonry as long as it
the Vienna lodges by and by acquired members prominent both in social
and in intellectual
men of science, and famous artists adorn the Craft. The meetings reveal
a most interesting
selection of instructive lectures and the solemn initiations,
embellished by the
famous art of Vienna musicians, are festivals of ever memorable
since its beginnings on the basis of impartial humanity, without any
of theological or national character, Austrian Freemasonry has always
seen its first
and highest aim in moderating and reconciliating all opposites of any
human individuals, parties and nations.
of these convictions the Grand Lodge of Vienna in the year 1922
"The promotion of inward and outward peace" to be its chief program.
At the present
time there are working under the obedience of the Grand Lodge of Vienna
lodges with nearly 1500 members.
What Brotherly Love Consists
love is not found in beautiful words; it is not in public works; it is
it is not done for glory, for these can never be recorded as the real
Masonry. It is in the kind word, quietly spoken, in the little act of
the soul craves for aid and comfort; it is in the little touch of love
the heart is breaking; it is when your life, like the rose whose beauty
sweet perfume for you and me, touches the other life in sweet accord
tune, that it is recorded in everlasting history. Such service is
and the Divine in man and the all-seeing eye of the Great Architect of
will forever watch over it, and never, never let it die.”
of the Side
UNDER a headline
dated from Utica, N. Y., Oct. 6, 1924, the Associated Press sent out a
to the effect that with a view to fostering "a spirit of toleration in
politics and religion," fifty Protestants, nearly all of them Masons,
like number of Roman Catholics, most of them Knights of Columbus, "met
for the formal organization of the Hamilton-Jefferson Association,"
as a "non-secret, non-sectarian and non-partisan" undertaking.
of the association," we continue to read, "was brought about when
Arthur J. Foley, member of the Knights of Columbus, discussed its
Wm. Ross Lee, former District Attorney of Oneida County and a Mason.
The plan was
broached to Andrew F. Kelly, director of the Utica branch of the
Welfare Council, who, after approving it, suggested presenting it to
Elihu Root was named as the most prominent person allying himself with
be obviously impossible for such an association, if it ever becomes a
become a Side Order, and nothing is said to that effect, but even so
furnishes a perfect laboratory specimen whereby to make a dissection of
There is a distinction between a "Side Degree" and a "Side Order,"
for where the former originates within a regular Masonic body, and
the official control of that body (the Past Master's Degree, as worked
in many jurisdictions
is an example), a "Side Order" originates outside any regular Masonic
body among private individuals who happen to be Masons, and who make
use of Masonry
as a means to an end. What has come to be called "the Problem of the
arises not from the fact that it is an addition to the recognized
degrees the Order
of High Priesthood, never brought into question, may be described as
such an addition
but from the fact that private Masons make use of the name of Masonry
or extra-officially. An organization appends itself to Masonry but at
the same time
lies outside control by Masonry; therein lies the crux of the whole
may be thrown into the form of a series of questions. Have individual
Masons a right
to claim a connection with Masonry for extra-Masonic purposes? Has any
Body a right to confer such a privilege on private Masons? If such a
extended to one group for one purpose why not to some other for another
Can any group of Masons, as Masons, take action concerning questions
Lodges, Chapters, Commanderies and Consistories? What if such a group
name or influence of the Craft; how is it to be controlled by regular
leaders of the Craft are endeavoring to answer these perplexing
of which bristles with a hundred difficulties. It will be interesting
in this connection a catena of their answers and remarks, selected at
Grand Lodge Proceedings of the past year or two. These quotations are
with a view to making out a caseit is not the purpose here to make out
a case but
are lifted from our reference files regardless of their being pro or
Grand Lodge Proceedings: 1921
At our last annual
communication we were obliged
to repudiate one of those fraternal parasites which sought to fasten
the body of Freemasonry, appropriate its degrees and march beneath its
Others are appearing and causing much concern in this, as well as other
The same principles apply to all, and if we could turn back the pages
and write it anew, we might discountenance all. This, of course, at the
time, is impracticable. We have a condition to meet, due largely to our
and not a theory to vindicate. But we should take no additional step
down the road
we have mistakenly traveled in the past.
Grand Lodge Proceedings: 1921
It is our sincere judgment that
Masonry is suffering
in these modern days from two serious diseases. The first of these is
on the part of the majority of the members of the Craft to know the
the so-called "Higher Degrees." There are no higher degrees. There can
be nothing higher than the three degrees of Blue Lodge Masonry and
than to attain to that moral eminence which is involved in the term
A Master Mason has the mastery over himself. His passions have been
ambitions have been brought into harmony with truth and justice' his
directed into the channels of duty to God and his fellow men,
selfishness has been
conquered. He is a man, a master, the noblest work of God.
It is a serious mistake for our
members to come
into our lodges and immediately upon receiving the Master Mason Degree
rush a petition
into the chapter, or the consistory, and on into the Mystic Shrine
before they become
acquainted with the basic principles of Masonry, all of which are to be
the Blue Lodge.
Grand Lodge Proceedings: 1923
It is with regret that we
notice the very large
number of fraternal organizations which have been organized within a
all of which require membership in the Masonic Order as a prerequisite
or which require on behalf of the women members, relationship to some
the Masonic Order.
Grand Lodge Proceedings: 1922
It seems almost unnecessary for
me to mention
here my personal opinion and official action in regard to Masonic
two and a half million men who constitute the Masonic membership of the
are a tempting bait for many and sundry organizations of various kinds.
to attach themselves to Masonry for monetary gain, and to aid them in
their ranks Symbolic Masonry is the foundation and the life germ. It
seems to be
the opinion of many that if the least bit of this simon-pure Masonic
can be injected into the veins of their organization Masons will be
to join, and will follow their lead. It is useless to enumerate the
many of them are no doubt good and honorable, many beautiful, and
teaching in their
ritual morality in forceful drama and symbols. Many are possibly not so
Perhaps one who does not know has no right to speak, but I only wish to
word of caution and urge your most serious consideration of all
use the word "Mason" or "Masonry" to further their interests,
making membership in Masonry a prerequisite to their membership, and to
ask your attention to whether or not we should legislate against such
A clipping the Fulton County
Daily Report was
sent me, in which appeared an application for charter to be granted
American Fraternity." In this charter they propose "Uniting into one
fraternity those members in good standing who desire to affiliate and
with the following societies or fraternities, to-wit: Junior Order of
Mechanics, Free and Accepted Masons, Guardians of Liberty, Knights of
the Ku Klux
Klan and Daughters of America … except in the case of male members the
members of his family between the ages of sixteen and sixty … 'The
Fraternity' is to provide a ritual. … It being the intention of
petitioners to carry
on a fraternal and benefit society … provide a medium whereby a
may be found by putting into execution the precepts recognized and
taught by all
the aforesaid fraternities or societies," etc.
Masonry never having
"amalgamated" with any other society or organization, I felt aggrieved
that we should be so associated, and immediately entered my protest to
of the proposed "The Great American Fraternity," courteously requesting
him to exclude the Free and Accepted Masons from his application. He
do so. I sought legal advice, but to no avail. I entered in person and
my protest as Grand Master, but it seems that we have no remedy. I felt
it my duty
to do what I could to prevent our Fraternity from being a part and
parcel of such
At the time this is written no
license to do
business in Georgia has been issued; I am told that they have not met
of our state laws.
Lodge Proceedings: 1923
In the first place, Symbolic
Masonry never has
admitted of there being any fraternity other than that of Ancient Craft
and any attempt on the part of the Grand Lodge to introduce into its
subjects dealing with outside organizations is an admission that there
outside of the first three degrees, known as Entered Apprentice,
Master Mason. The right of any Grand Lodge to provide a penalty for one
of its Members
who joins an outside organization might be questioned, as we do not
believe it is
within the power of any Grand Lodge to make it an offense for a brother
some other organization so long as in so doing he does not become a
member of a
society which is inimical to the good name and reputation of Symbolic
Lodge Proceedings: 1922
The very romantic history of
the medical fraternity
advised us years ago that we had an organ in our interior called the
were told that it was a perfectly useless organ but, so long as it
behaved, it was
also a perfectly harmless one but when it began to misbehave, it could
only be cured
by absolute removal through the surgeon's knife. In recent years this
been afflicted with an increasing number of so-called secret fraternal
organizations which make membership in a Masonic lodge a requisite for
Born without cause reared in
the effect is well known trouble and disorder. Claiming to be a "little
to the Masonic Fraternity, it leaves to that organization its troubles,
organizer goes on to pastures still more green. The time is present
when this Grand
Lodge should stop this imposition and use the surgeon's knife of
is complete within itself. It needs no side organizations to develop
or support its growth among its membership. This Grand Lodge should
demand a thorough
investigation of all such organizations, and only until such
organizations are recommended
by the Grand Master and approved by the Grand Lodge should membership
permitted. I trust that the time is close at hand when it shall be
declared a Masonic
offense for any Master Mason to petition for additional work in Masonry
years have elapsed after his raising.
Grand Lodge Proceedings: 1923
In this respect, however, I
suggest that action
be taken by Grand Lodge, through our Jurisprudence Committee, to
exercise a general
supervision over any new bodies claiming to be co-ordinate Masonic
bodies and which
make as a prerequisite for membership, good standing in the Blue Lodge,
idea of preventing the formation of other organizations claiming to
Grand Lodge Proceedings: 1923
Gradually during the last
have sprung up in other states that require as a prerequisite to
in good standing in the Blue Lodge. Think of the audacity, brethren, of
as a foundation to build up organizations over which we have no
control, and whose
shortcomings will be laid to all those bearing the name of Mason. I
passage of a resolution which will make it a Masonic offense,
punishable by expulsion,
for anyone to join any order that requires membership in the Blue Lodge
standing as a prerequisite to its own membership, if that order has not
by this Grand Lodge.
Many of these orders have
but they contain nothing that Masonry does not teach. It is time that
we are getting
back to our own philosophy again. In our mad rush for badges, plumes
we have gotten away from the teachings of our forefathers in this great
one of the foreign jurisdictions where one of these organizations was
it became so active that it sought to elect the officers of the Grand
Lodge of that
jurisdiction and so control Masonry for its own ends. These
organizations are not
only useless, but they are a decided drain on all things undertaken by
Lodge. They are a detriment, and I hope that you will pass some sort of
with teeth in it, that we may have this settled before they start in
in any numbers.
Grand Lodge Proceedings: 1923
Many complaints have been made
by zealous brethren
during the year, from an entirely different viewpoint. Some to the
effect that Masonry
was being exploited for the purpose of furthering interests not
or in keeping with our time-honored principles. Others. that it was
high time for
Masonry to assert itself in an institutional way on some of the
of the day, in order to emphasize its right for existence.
In answer to the former, I am
of the opinion
that it is high time that this Grand Lodge make it known, with no
to the entire Craft in this Grand Jurisdiction, that it is a guardian
of the Ancient
Landmarks, the glorious history, the honor, the dignity and the
prestige of this
Institution, and that it will not permit its members to trail it in the
doing things as Masons which they would not dare to do in a Masonic
lodge, by using
Masonry to promote that which is contrary to Masonic principles and
By lending their support to methods of raising money that are not in
our profession, and when informed that such methods are unlawful, some
right to pursue these methods because other societies have been
permitted to do
so. Since when, my brethren, did this Institution fall so low that it
gives as its
excuse to civil authority for doing things contrary to law: "You have
others, and why not us?" Masonry does not deprive any one of its
his individual liberty as a citizen, in Freedom of thought, word and
he must be particularly careful. He must not use Masonry in the
promotion of anything
that is not strictly Masonic. Nor should a building, dedicated to
and benevolence, be used for anything that is not in keeping with these
It must not be overlooked that this Grand Lodge still retains the power
to enforce obedience among its members to a strict observance of its
Lodge Proceedings: 1922
During the year my attention
has been repeatedly
called to the activities of the various organizations which predicate
on Masonry. An investigation of these activities discloses conditions
a menace to Masonry more serious and destructive than anything that has
concerned it. Masonry in the past has been assailed from without and
its every assault. Now, however, it is being attacked from within by
and pernicious artifices.
Grand Lodge Proceedings: 1923
He [Grand Master Harry S.
Johnson] was of the
opinion that Craft Masonry in Ohio needed protection (!) from other
based on Masonry, and his method of defense was to make it impossible
for a Master
Mason to join any such body until one year has elapsed from the time of
his Master Mason's Degree, and also after a satisfactory examination
subject has engaged the attention of a number of Grand Lodges and some
of them have
adopted measures along the lines suggested. Query: Pushed to its
does the policy tend ultimately to the control of Masons as to what
they may affiliate with? We believe we can see that possible
eventuality, and that
it may lead to serious dissensions among the Craft.
of this issue shows the eleven Presidents of the United States of whom
we have evidence
that they were members of the Masonic Fraternity. This picture has been
separately on heavy engravers' proof paper suitable for framing at
fifty cents postpaid.
Beginning with the top row and reading from left to right their names
of initiation, passing and raising are as follows:
Polk (1795-1849) Initiated June 5, 1820. Columbia Lodge No. 31, Columbia, Tenn. Passed Aug. 7, 1820, raised
(1758-1831) Held membership in Kilwinning-Crosse Lodge, No. 2,
Virginia, and Williamsburg.
Lodge, No. 6, Williamsburg, Va.
(1767-1829) Was a member of Harmony Lodge, No. 4, Nashville, Tenn. Time
when made a Mason. Was Grand Master of Masons in Tennessee from Oct. 7,
Oct. 4, 1824.
(1791-1868) Initiated Dec. 11, 1816, Lodge No. 43, Lancaster, Pa.
Passed and raised
Jan. 24, 1817.
(1732-1799) Initiated in Fredericksburg Lodge, No. 4 Fredericksburg,
Va. Nov. 4
1752: passed March 3, 1753: raised Aug. 4, 1753.
(1808-1875) Raised in Greenville Lodge, No. 119, Greenville. Tenn.
but supposed to be between 1848 and 1852.
Garfield (1831-1881)Initiated Nov. 22, 1861, in Magnolia Lodge, No. 20,
Ohio; passed Dec. 3, 1861, and raised Nov. 22, 1864.
(1844-1901) Initiated May 1, 1865, in Hiram Lodge, No. 21, Winchester,
May 2, 1865, raised May 3, 1865.
Roosevelt (1858-1918) Initiated Jan. 2, 1901, in Matinecock Lodge, No.
Bay, Long Island, N. Y.; passed March 27, 1901; raised April 14, 1901.
Taft (1857) Made a Mason at sight in Kilwinning Lodge, No. 385,
by Grand Master Chas. S. Hoskinson, Feb. 18, i909.
Harding (1865-1923) Raised in Marion Lodge, No. 7, Marion, Ohio, Aura
Great Symbolist Writes
MOVEMENT IN LITERATURE [Lib 1908], by Arthur Symons. Published
by E. P. Dutton,
New York. May be purchased through the National Masonic Research
193 pages, postpaid, $3.60.
ONE of the
very few masters among those recent men of letters who work in poetry,
literary criticism, Arthur Symons belongs to a group that began (in
least) with Pater, and became a power with Maeterlinck, Yeats,
the Goncourts, Huysmans and others, along with Anatole France, who has
The root of his genius is an almost tragical sincerity of effort to get
itself, to know and to comprehend it, not by means of literary
through immediate vision and unfearing insight, which is in essence
almost at one
with the secret of the most creative of the geniuses in religion. The
mark of those
geniuses, of whom the great mystics are most completely representative,
is a daring
desire to come into close touch with Reality itself, all shams
is not in any sense a religious genius but he possesses in unusual
arduous sincerity; and the human fear that paralyzes most men from
making any such
effort is as lacking in him as in them. Out of such a soul, and with
born of such an effort, he has in labor and countless sacrifices
created a literary
style in which sentences are living forces that startle and waylay,
miracles; in which the words, created anew from within, are sonorous
and remain vibrating in the memory long afterwards, like golden bells.
on a reader is disconcerting at first, because most readers approach a
expecting to find its author expressing himself in forms of the
These traditions are not in Symons himself and therefore not in his
books, not in
his Dramatis Personae, Studies in Prose and Verse, Studies in Seven
Arts, The Symbolist
Movement in Literature; and it is because these traditions with their
their set judgments, their worn vocabularies are not in him that he is
When a literary
man finds that a great tradition has broken up, after he and his
forbears had found
shelter within it for centuries, he has no alternative except to
retreat upon his
private self. He becomes, in a sense not doctrinaire, an individualist;
in the terminology of literary criticism such a period is termed a
Al individual is a decadent. The misuse of this word To describe a man
should be abandoned; it should not be permitted even to enter the mind
is thinking of such a man as Arthur Symons, or of that austere artist,
father, Walter Pater. If here and there some decadent, a Verlaine,
perhaps, or an
Ernest Downson who sought the path followed to its suicidal end by
Thos. Lovell Beddoes, John Davidson and Chatterton, "the marvelous boy
perished in his pride" who wrote his pathos and heartbreak into that
darkly melodious lines, Non sum qualis cram bonae sub regno Cynarae, if
such a one
collapses into a bankruptcy of the moral life it is not because he is a
but because he is human.
Movement in Literature is an appraisal of the work of a group of
decadents who discovered
the value of symbolism in the art of literature, and who as they
books perfected their understanding of those experiences and needs of
the mind that
symbolism, and symbolism alone, can satisfy. We Masons ourselves, who
talk so much about symbols, have never won an understanding as clear
and rich as
theirs. They learned that symbolism is not an invented ingenious device
least of all a thing for the purpose of concealing truth at any rate
not in this
age when learning does not need to hide itself underground. It dawned
on them that
every human mind must think thoughts in advance of facts; that many of
necessary ideas transcend knowledge; and that every mind must find a
way to deal
with experiences that lie outside the fields of present science. It is
for us to think, for example, in some fashion, the idea of the
universe, of immortality,
of God; but such ideas are larger than our knowledge, therefore they
as such they do not fly away from facts, or contradict truths, or move
in a mere
realm of fancy. When properly understood such symbols are as reliable a
thinking and as 'dependable a means for expressing truths as logic or
or science itself. Symbols are not playthings of the soul, but
necessities. If any
human being will carefully examine his own inner experiences he will
find that he
is using symbolism every day, in every moment of his existence, even in
has understood this importance of symbolism for these many centuries.
for all our books we do not yet possess save in very few instances any
of symbolism at all, literature I mean, in the only true sense of the
not merely pages of print. The same thing is true, for that matter, of
any of the
other of our major subjects, for the majority of our books are pedantic
oftentimes mere catalogues of unliving facts, remaining over, many of
them, as forlorn
survivals from an age that has passed. Ashes of print! that is a not
of scores of our manuals of labored information, bereft of any power
they may once
have possessed of opening up new and profounder revelations of Masonry
or of moving
the souls of men. Until we repent of this great sin of omission in such
as to make it possible for the masters of literature to come with us
and to work
in our name we have no choice but either to leave all our symbolism
lying half understood
in the depths of our consciousness, or else to go abroad, outside our
into literature at large, to learn our lessons from men who have never
portals of our initiations.
* * *
AND HIS SECRET SOCIETY: AN ATTEMPT TO COLLECT AND UNITE THE LOST LINKS
OF A LONG
AND STRONG CHAIN [Lib 1891], by Mrs. Henry Pott. May be
the National Masonic Research Society. Blue cloth; illustrated;
index. Price, postpaid, $4.50.
unique and much sought for book had passed out of print, and apparently
unobtainable, the National Masonic Research Society was fortunate
enough to discover
a publisher's remainder or a limited number of copies. Such brethren as
be able to add this item to their collection it is often referred to
may be interested
to know something of its contents; they are peculiar and in a certain
fascinating; and they have an importance from the fact that many more
have had their point of departure from them. The theory at the center
Bacon and His Secret Society is simple enough: the point of it is that
to set up a new order of culture through a secret school; that he
or utilized the Society of the Rosicrucians; and that Freemasonry is a
kind of split-off,
or lower grade, of the Rosicrucians.
of this theory the authoress makes a number of startling assertions, of
few contained in her Preface to the Second Edition are typical of many
she avers that "at the age of 15 Francis began to draw together his
Brotherhood,' the Rosicrucian Fraternity." Mrs. Pott says that a
"the last of his circle," [italics hers] told her this. "It has also
been announced to a Lodge of Masons, by the 'Supreme Magus. Ros. Cru.
[this was Dr. Wynn Westcott] that the Rosicrucian and Masonic Orders
are parts of
One and the Same Society. The Rosicrucians, a Secret Society, the
Society with Secrets. This statement after some objection from the
Lodge, was accepted
as an incontrovertible fact." These sentences are astonishing enough,
what follows! "The President of the Bacon Society also received from
Purdon-Clarke positive confirmation of the statement that Francis Bacon
founded modern Speculative Masonry." In Mrs. Pott's world miracles
All the biographies tell us that Bacon died in 1626, but Mrs. Pott says
is not true; Bacon did not really die then, but merely adopted aliases
on undetected. "Francis St. Alban [Bacon] the 'Magus,' the 'Miracle of
'died at the age of 106-7, in the year 1668."
Bacon and his connection with the Rosicrucians it happens, fortunately
a great work, fresh from the press, stands ready to be quoted. Bro.
Waite published in 1887 a since famous book entitled The Real History
of the Rosicrucians
it now happens that at the end of his long laborious career as a
scholar he has
found it possible to replace that work by another, The Brotherhood of
the Rosy Cross,
to be reviewed in some subsequent issue. Inasmuch as Bro. Waite knows
this subject than any other living person it is important just here to
from the pages in which he pays his respects to Mrs. Pott:
examination of Mrs. Pott's somewhat elaborate work presents her from
as her own court of appeal, as well as her own counsel. She has
Bacon directly or indirectly, with the bulk of important Elizabethan
and as it is impossible that he could have produced single-handed so
vast an output,
not to speak of the post-Elizabethan works which are also fathered upon
postulates 'united efforts.' In other words, Bacon was the center of a
for the advancement of learning.' It will be seen that the thesis
depends in this
manner on the accuracy of her credit side of the account, with which no
one is in
agreement except a few kindred enthusiasts to whom I shall advert
shortly. She tells
us in the next place that she has searched the history of Secret
the Middle Ages and has decided that the Rosicrucian Fraternity is 'the
one of all
others which would have been best fitted to promote Bacon's lofty
aims.' There is
no need to point out here, as an obvious answer, that the existence of
Society in the Middle Ages happens to be one of the chief questions at
doubt her purpose would be served equally well by saying that he
founded the Order
which is one of her alternatives. It is enough that her contention is
based on a
question of Baconian authorship, about which neither she nor anyone
like her has
been able to satisfy a single reasonable mind. When the evidence has
on supposed critical considerations we are embarked on a sea of false
and gratuitous speculations: when it is founded upon buried ciphers
they prove to
be arbitrary inventions by means of which any authorship could be got
out of any
us admit, however, for a moment the ruling of the court of appeal and
its findings. Let us say that Bacon wrote all which matters in English
from the Canterbury Tales [Lib 1907; Vol 1, Vol 2] to Sartor Resartus [Lib 1897]. Be it granted also that a
Secret Society to furnish amanuenses, or even aids in research seems
But what considerations are offers by Mrs. Pott to persuade us that he
the Rosicrucians, supposing that they preceded him in time, or
as a league of scriveners? I have searched the whole volume recommended
by Mr. A.
P. Sinnett and have found three pieces of alleged evidence.
is said in the Fama
Fraternitatis [Lib 1614]: 'After this manner began the
of the Rosy Cross at first by four persons only, and by them was made
Language and Writing, with a great Dictionary, which we still use daily
to the praise
and glory of God, finding great wisdom therein.' Herein, as we are
told, are the
head and heart of Bacon discovered certainly, because one of his most
schemes was the compilation of dictionaries. Unfortunately however, for
the Rosicrucian lexicon was obviously a glossary of words to accompany
language and its cipher alphabet, whereas Bacon's hypothetical
for encyclopaedic compilations, for repositories of knowledge. That is
between them, and thereon collapses the evidence.
second evidential point,
according to Mrs. Pott, is that Bacon's College
of the Six Days, described in The New Atlantis [Lib 1660], is the College of the
This as she says, 'we know,' the rejoinder to which is an equally
the third she produces a
selection from fifty-two alleged Rules or Laws
adopted by the original Rosicrucians; but with due respect to the good
of a deceased lady I have to submit that, as enumerated by her these
Laws are fraudulent.
The 'original' Rosicrucians, according to their legend, had an
agreement in common
together, embodied in Six clauses only, as we shall see in the proper
out of these she extracts three. The fifty-two Laws are those published
Richter in 1710, but Mrs. Pott has subjected them to a process of
editing in the
interests of personal predilections, as, for example, to shew that
were forbidden to issue Rosicrucian writings under the names of their
because the vast suppositious works of Bacon appeared under other
his own. Such are the heads of evidence that Francis Bacon belonged to
Society, whether as member and chief at his period or as its original
are of the same kind and the same value as those by which it has been
shew he wrote the plays of Shakespeare, The Faerie Queen, The Anatomy
and so onward through the centuries, almost to our own day."
Waite. He has overlooked one of the choicest of Mrs. Pott's
attributions of authorship.
On page 266 of her Second Edition she makes this delicious statement:
one-third of Preston's Illustrations is, we believe, taken directly
perhaps originally dictated by him." Shades of the Caesars! William
was born in 1742; if Mrs. Pott were correct in her theory that Bacon
died in 1668,
his death occurred seventy-four years before Preston's birth!
devotes her Chapter IX to Masonry. It is a vague and vaporous treatise,
ballast in it, and serves as a kind of narrow peninsula to her
argument, which is,
as already indicated, that Freemasonry is a lapse from Rosicrucianism,
and quite inferior offshoot; there is no need to discuss it because
there is no
knowledge of Masonry revealed in it.
to the judgment of the present reviewer Chapters IX and X are the most
in the book, for they deal with "Paper-Marks Used Until the Time of Sir
Bacon," and "Paper-Marks in and After the Time of Francis Bacon."
The bibliophiles who have chanced upon Harold Bayley's Lost Language of
is that by-way of research, whatever value he may or may not attach to
it; and such
brethren as have been unable to secure a copy of Bayley will find his
here condensed and his arguments very ably epitomized.
For all its
vagaries Francis Bacon and His Secret Society is a book one likes to
have on his
shelves, especially if he is fond of running down references and
checking up quotations.
The authoress has left behind her a mass of information about Bacon
saturated herself in his writings, real or imputed, for years, and her
is always refreshing.
* * *
New Catalog of Masonic
Books: Bound Volume for 1924: Annual Index
issue THE BUILDER completes its tenth volume, the first having been
1915. As in preceding years a volume will be issued during the next few
bound in goldenrod buckram, with a complete descriptive index, thereby
the twelve numbers into a book for permanent use; unused copies are
covers removed, to be sold at $3.75. Brethren desiring this volume will
an allowance of one dollar on returning their own file of separate
issues for the
year, providing they are in good condition; or they can have their own
for $2.75. Orders may be placed on file at once.
as do not have their volumes bound, an index is being prepared to cover
for the year 1924, to be printed separately. In order to prevent all
waste of funds
of the Society this index will be mailed only to those requesting it.
for it kindly see that your name and address is given in full and as
Society is happy to announce the completion of a new catalog of books
for general distribution without cost. Containing some 550 titles, none
secondhand, this is probably the most comprehensive Masonic book list
in English during many years. Titles of especial interest to Royal
Templar and Scottish Rite brethren are separately indicated.
feature of this new catalog is the large number of titles included not
Masonic but having value for Masons; this is the first time, perhaps,
that any attempt
has been made to work out a well-rounded list of such auxiliary
subjects. It makes
it possible for a Mason to find literature on any imaginable theme that
up in the course of his Masonic activities or of his reading; and
material in such non-Masonic books is more valuable or more authentic
than can be
found in the Craft's own literature. Members of Side Orders, speech
Clubs, members of social committees, musicians, architects and all
others in specialized
activities will find here their literary wants. So also will brethren
in the English
speaking world outside of the United States; all Masonic books
published in England,
Canada, Scotland, Ireland, Australia, etc., known to be available have
is described as to its general nature, size and binding, so that the
serve as a permanent bibliographical reference work. Readers who find
titles omitted will confer a favor by giving notice of the same for
a future edition.
is attractively printed on good paper, pocket size. All prices cover
Single copies will be sent postpaid on request; when more than one copy
send stamps to cover postage; brethren needing large quantities may
arrangements by mail. Address all letters and inquiries to Book
Masonic Research Society, 1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo.
* * *
Service Association, with headquarters at Washington, D. C., has
announced the publication
of The Little Masonic Library, a set of twenty volumes, 4 1/2 by 6 1/4,
cloth, stamped in gold, containing along with a number of works
such standard writings as Goodwin's "Mormonism and Masonry," Pound's
Jurisprudence," Shepherd's "The Landmarks," and many others of similar
calibre. The association is to be very much congratulated on this fine
in publishing. An extended review will follow in a succeeding issue.
The set will
retail at five dollars.
* * *
Roman Catholic Priests
Write About Freemasonry
MASONRY AND CATHOLIC EDUCATION [Lib*] by Rev. Michael Kenny, S. J.
International Catholic Truth Society. May be purchased through the
Research Society. Paper, 31 pages; price, postpaid, ten cents.
[Lib*], by Rev. Lotion Johnston, S.T.L. Published by International
Society. May be purchased through National Masonic Research Society.
Paper, 24 pages;
price, ten cents postpaid.
is a former editor of the Roman Catholic journal, America, and is now,
so he inscribes
himself in his little book on American Masonry and Catholic Education,
in Loyola University, New Orleans. The Rev. Mr. Johnston is Associate
Truth, the official organ of the International Catholic Truth Society.
Both of them,
like the International Catholic Truth Society itself, are active in
Freemasonry and their two books were written expressly for that purpose.
book is a collection of essays reprinted from Truth and deals with
Mr. Kenny's book attacks Freemasonry for its support of the public
and for what he fancies is its antagonism to Roman Catholic parochial
both cases the primary purpose of the authors has been to assemble as
as they can conjure together that will, in their view, make some kind
of a case
against the Masonic Craft.
It is evident
that neither of these authors has ever made a study of Masonry. If they
is difficult to understand why they have fallen into so many errors of
Kenny makes such statements as this:
"Freemasonry was founded in
1717 in a London
tavern on the basis of four moribund societies of working Masons, the
one of the great Catholic guilds which the Stuarts had utilized as a
communication with their British partisans. When the house of Hanover
two ministers (a French Hugenot and a Scotch Presbyterian) drew up the
constitution for a philosophical and benevolent society of speculative
not in mortar but on minds.... Introduced from England in 1729,
remained largely convivial in character, often of a bibulous type, till
Rite of Perfection was imported from France and a Supreme Council of 33
degrees was erected in Charleston, S. C., in 1801."
Most of this
is wrong. It proves that Mr. Kenny has not studied his subject. He
could have learned
the facts if he had been interested enough, but apparently he did not
wish to learn
them. If he had wished he could have learned them easily enough; and if
he had learned
them he would not have made the errors with which his book is filled.
In thus writing
about a subject on which he was not sufficiently informed Mr. Kenny
the most elementary principle of authorship, which is that no man has
right to publish a book on a subject about which he is ignorant.
* * *
FALLACIES OF SCIENCE [Lib 1924], by D. W. Hering Professor
Emeritus of Physics,
New York University. May be purchased through National Masonic Research
Cloth index, 295 pages. Price, $2.65 postpaid.
symbols used and believed in during the Middle Ages came into the
That Ritual is somewhat like a building in some old city, such as
Athens or Rome,
constructed of stones gathered from the ruins of other buildings that
had been built
in previous centuries; the building as it now stands may not be so very
some post or pillar in it may first have been carved out a thousand
years ago. This
effect of novelty, this unexpected juxtaposition of what is old and new
in it, partly
explains the charm of our Ritual. The root of it, that which gives
vitality to the structure, is a set of ideas that have meant much to
men for thousands
Within a Circle possibly may be the old alchemist sign for gold,
adapted to mystical
purposes by Operative Masons; the reference to "certain metallic
may have been inherited from the astrologists, who attributed to each
planet a peculiar
influence over men, and connected that influence with metals they
the planets. So with other symbols and allegories. One can observe such
outside of Freemasonry, as in our daily language; for example, we use
the word "influenza",
which comes from Italy, where originally it was referred to the same
of the planets just mentioned.
Fallacies of Science is a history of such symbols and theories by a
who has devoted a loving study to the rise and development of his own
tells us how astrology came to be, what theories it rested on, what it
the people who believed in it; who and what the alchemist were, and
what they were
trying to do; what magic was and why it was practiced; and makes
references in passing
to names more or less familiar to Masons, such as Cagliostro,
Paracelsus, and Dr.
Box and Correspondence
Rite Ring In Northern
me on which finger the ring of the 14th Degree should be worn by
members of the
Scottish Rite, Northern Jurisdiction.
G. T. M.,
Secretary-General, Bro. Robert A. Shirrefs, writes that "the ring shall
worn on the third finger of the left hand."
* * *
Membership in The
of the Masonic Fraternity in the United States (2,971,662), from data
by the Grand Secretaries, June, 1924.
by C. C. Hunt, Deputy Grand Secretary, Iowa.
* * *
Bro. R. J.
Newton, in his article "J'Accuse!" in THE BUILDER, October, 1924, page
292, has sounded a call in which every Freemason should be vitally and
interested. Of all opportunities for Freemasons to practice charity,
this is, in
my opinion, the greatest. Why should the burden of caring for the
fall upon the lodges of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado? It
even if they were financially able to carry it. Let THE Builder herald
for the relief of our brothers stricken with the White Plague, that it
may be taken
up by our various Grand Lodges for action in the near future. We have
million Freemasons in the United States. Who would not gladly assent to
$2 per year
additional to their duties for this worthy cause? None I can assure you.
Dr. F. H.
* * *
Nature and Science," Etc.
In the July
issue (page 223) you give information about the Scottish Rite in
Canada. We have
had a Supreme Council in Canada since 1868. Brethren can always secure
through the office of the Secretary-General, Bro. W. H. Ballard, 196
May I be
excused for saying a word about the use of the term "Subordinate
in the heading of Bro. Price's article, on page 215 of the same issue?
Lodge can come into existence except by united action of a group of
can it bring a lodge into existence except by united action of its
members. So that,
in neither of its relations to its lodges, is it superior to them, or
are they subordinate
to it. Certainly, when a conflict of interest arises, it has to decide
the lesser and exercise its authority accordingly, but that authority
comes – not
from within itself – but from the powers conferred upon it by its
such authority can be withdrawn at their decision. Under no conditions
can the word
"subordinate" connote such an influence, and I submit that it is quite
out of place in such a relation as is referred to here.
Also I feel
compelled to take issue with Bro. A. L. Kress' reply to J. W. N.,
Sask., under the
heading, "Date of Death of H. A.," etc., in July, page 222. Even if we
do owe the phrase, "Hidden Mysteries of Nature and Science," to the
upon Preston of writers like Samuel Johnson and others whose works he
print, still it marked a definite responsibility of the Operative
therefore has a Speculative and real equivalent for us of today.
I see in
Bro. Kress' attitude one reason why our membership is pouring its
"Side Degrees," since they join us in the expectation of making
and find that we have, apparently, led them into a cul-de-sac with fine
work, as Kingsley wrote, not alone for physical needs, but as a law of
if we offer our members words instead of service, then are we only
brass and tinkling cymbals."
I heard a returned Past Master say recently at a lodge here,
Freemasonry, as practiced
in Switzerland, where he had lived several months, comes nearer than
any other jurisdiction
in an all-round service that will tax any man's capacity for
responsibilities and privileges of a Fellow of the Craft that are
summed up in the
phrase quoted above.
and other professional men who are members have no need to form
Rotarians, or Kiwanis, or Gyros, or Lions in order to find an outlet
their energies in good words; and the love of display, natural to
does not exhaust itself in the gaudy fripperies of Side Orders, but
in making the glow of health to appear on the faces of sick children
and the light
of happiness in the eyes of those less fortunate and competent than
Their own regalia is of the simplest, but the variety of service they
* * *
In the photographs
of the apron preserved at Brantford and of the large Dutch apron from
shown on page 302 of the October issue, appears a symbol of a hand
grasping a curved
object, which is closely similar to one that appears near the foot of
the left column
of the Arch, shown in the Halifax summons, illustrated in the August
and I stated that I had been unable to find just what it represented,
but I am now
able to supply that detail.
W. Bro. E.
G. Simpson, A. P. M. of Lodge 35, at Saintfield, County Down, Ireland,
published a history of the antiquities connected with his lodge, and in
it is an
illustration of an old floor-cloth, dating from 1809, whereon this Arch
together with a great variety of K. T., R. A., Craft and other Masonic
Degrees which have been worked in this lodge at various times. Amongst
them is this
one of a hand and I wrote to him inquiring as to its meaning.
He was good
enough to reply at considerable length, both as to this and the other
my inquiry, and I abstract the following: “It is a Hand grasping a
Pliant Rod, and
is stated on good authority to be the symbol of 'vengeance'. Modern
not recognize vengeance, but it was formerly found in Templar Masonry,
candidate took a vow of revenge on the murderers of Jacques de Molay
and his companions."
As this little history has been issued at the price of half a crown for
of the lodge's Annuity Fund, I would recommend to brethren interested
in the older
Irish Masonry, that they secure its good value for their own libraries
to Bro. Simpson for copies.
W. J. Haydon, Toronto, Canada.
* * *
and the Sick
I have read
and thought over the article by Bro. Robert J. Newton and your
"A Sign and a Summons" in the October BUILDER. Your desire to build a
number of hospitals for Masons afflicted with the white plague is truly
but you have a way to travel which is beset with many dangers. This is
how I see
is not a benefit society: that is very apparent from the low annual
dues of practically
all Blue Lodges, coupled with the fact that there is no medical
before admittance. Cast your eye around any lodge and you will find
cannot obtain life insurance due to the state of their health or
Further, no benefit society would have them as they could not pass the
medical examination. We have all heard this expression, "Well, if
happens to me, the Masons will take care of my widow.” Well, maybe they
if the widow is not old and incapacitated from earning a living, she
work for her living, and the Masons, you may be sure, will assist her
to that end;
it is being done every day. But if a Mason was not physically fit at
the time he
entered the Order, and he was perfectly well aware that it was not an
or benefit society, why should it be incumbent on the members of the
Order to maintain
him for an indefinite period?
I think that
Bro. Newton forecasts truly when he says that if these hospitals were
"Masonry would double its strength in the next decade," but not
as he says, "all good men would seek alliance with a body of men who
their ritual into terms of service." We are surely all sufficiently
wise enough to have to acknowledge that those men who knew or thought
they had the
beginnings of the disease would avail themselves of an opportunity to
when the disease manifested itself.
If we read
the physical disabilities for admittance that the ancient landmarks
laid down, we
can see that our ancient brethren took care to guard themselves against
of caring for brethren in any event, but limited that liability to
So that it
comes to this – If we are to live up to our obligation fully, we must,
in self protection,
demand that investigation committees must satisfy themselves that the
for admission is in a good state of health before acceptance, or else
he must sign
a release from the liability of the lodge and the brethren in the event
of ill health;
and I am not sure that this is feasible. It comes back to the old cry,
that we should
be more careful in whom we admit to our ranks.
I am quite
willing to pay another two dollars a year dues for such a maintenance
fund as you
outline, provided I feel reasonably sure I am not going to be imposed
upon. I would
rather pay such a sum for the maintenance of a hospital which would
take in anybody,
but giving preference to Masons.
Index For 1924
issue the tenth volume of THE BUILDER comes to an end. An index
covering all contributions,
subjects, titles, authors, etc., for the year will be off the press
soon. A copy
will be mailed free to each member upon request. Be sure to write your
address as plainly as possible. As in preceding years, this index will
to be bound up with the volume, being on same paper as the journal
Yuletide is on its way let us recall the exhortation the gentle
bugles of battle, the marches of
East, west, north and south, let the long quarrel cease;
Sing the song of great joy that the angels began,
Sing the glory to God and of good-will to man."
* * *
Bro. W. L.
Cummings, 228 Gordon Avenue, Syracuse, N. Y., has the goodness to offer
any brother paying postage, a copy of the Proceedings of the Grand
Lodge of Michigan
for 1874. Don't delay, there are only about twenty copies available.
* * *
A brief notice
in this Corner last September that we had for free distribution copies
of Bro. Arthur
C. Parker's Secrets of the Temple met with such a demand that the
supply was exhausted
in a few days. Bros. Parker and George K. Staples have now furnished us
with a new
supply. One copy free upon request. Send a two cent stamp.
* * *
I. Clegg, one of Ye Associate Editors, has returned after many months
to God's country,
after doing much successful research work in England and Scotland.
* * *
the last words to be printed in the tenth volume of THE BUILDER; it is
they express a sense of gratitude for the best year we have ever had,
and for the
aid and assistance of so many willing brothers.
History of LDS
And05 / auth. Anderson Edward H. - Salt Lake City : The Deseret News,
1905. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 195. - 8.0 MB.
American Quarterly Review of
Freemasonry Vol. 1
Mac58 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : Robt. Macoy, 1858. - Vol. 1
: 2 : p. 605. - 4 Issues in one Volume - 44.0 MB.
American Quarterly Review of
Freemasonry Vol. 2
Mac59 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : Robt. Macoy, 1859. - Vol. 2
: 2 : p. 579. - 4 Issues in 1 Volume - 41.4 MB.
Annual Report 1902 Vol 1
Ame03 / auth. Association American Historical. - Washington DC :
Government Printing Office, 1903. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 610. - 28.2 MB.
Annual Report 1902 Vol 2
Ame031 / auth. Association American Historical. - Washington DC :
Government Printing Office, 1903. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 528. - 28.4 MB.
War28 / auth. Ward Henry D. - New York : Vanderpool & Cole,
1828. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 382. - 26.3 MB.
Authorship of Book of Mormon
Sch191 / auth. Schroeder Theodore. - [s.l.] : JSTOR, 1919. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 10. - 0.9 MB.
Mor891 / auth. Morse John T. - Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1889.
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Benjamin Franklin as a Free
Sac06 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Lancaster : The New Era Printing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 187. - 13.2 MB.
Benjamin Franklin Vol 1
Par64BF1 / auth. Parton James. - New York : Mason Brothers, 1864. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 626. - 36.1 MB.
Benjamin Franklin Vol 2
Par64BF2 / auth. Parton James. - New York : Mason Brothers, 1864. -
Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 718. - 45.2 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And34 / auth. Anderson James / ed. Franklin Benjamin. - Philadelphia :
Unknown, 1734. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 52. - 1.1 MB.
Canterbury Tales Vol 1
Cha07CT1 / auth. Chaucer Geofferey. - London : Macmillan and Co,
Limited, 1907. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 499. - 8.4 MB.
Canterbury Tales Vol 2
Cha07CT2 / auth. Chaucer Geofferey. - London : Macmillan and Co,
Limited, 1907. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 485. - 8.1 MB.
Catalogue of Books
Gas52 / auth. Gassett Henry. - Boston : Damrell & Moore, 1852.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 284. - 5.6 MB.
Delusions - An Analysis of the
Book of Mormon
Cam32 / auth. Campbell Alexander - Delusions [1832. - Boston : Benjamin
H Greene, 1832. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 20. - 1.5 MB.
Fama fraternitatis (English)
Ros14 / auth. Rosenkreutz Christian. - 1614. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 14. -
Was99 / auth. Washington George. - Boston : Small, Maynard &
Company, 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 43. - 1.4 MB.
Foibles and Fallacies
Her24 / auth. Hering Daniel W. - London : George Routledge &
Sons, 1924. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 308. - 16.6 MB.
Francis Bacon and His Secret
Pot91 / auth. Pott Mrs Henry. - London : Sampson Loe, Marston &
Co., 1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 419. - 21.6 MB.
Franklin in France Vol 1
Hal87FF1 / auth. Hale Edward E. - Boston : Roberts Brothers, 1887. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 503. - 21.0 MB.
Franklin in France Vol 2
Hal88FF2 / auth. Hale Edward E. - Boston : Roberts Brothers, 1888. -
Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 485. - 19.8 MB.
Freemasonry in Michigan Vol 1
Con97FM1 / auth. Conover Jefferson. - Coldwater : The Conover Engraving
and Printing Company, 1897. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 607. - 39.8 MB.
Freemasonry in Michigan Vol 2
Con98FM2 / auth. Conover Jefferson. - Coldwater : The Conover Engraving
and Printing Company, 1898. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 513. - 32.5 MB.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 1
McC91NY1 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 4. - Volume not Found.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 2
McC92NY2 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1892. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 649. - 16.8 MB.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 3
McC93NY3 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1893. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 636. - 17.3 MB.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 4
McC94NY4 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1894. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 656. - 18.6 MB.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania Vol
Sac08FP1 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1908. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 526. - 13.9 MB.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania Vol
Sac09FP2 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1909. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 518. - 11.8 MB.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania Vol
Sac19FP3 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1919. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 507. - 13.0 MB.
GL of Vermont Early Records
GLo79 / auth. GL of Vermont. - Burlington : The Free Press Association,
1879. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 423. - 24.6 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
History of Utah
Ban90 / auth. Bancroft Hubert H. - San Francisco : The History Company,
1890. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 880. - 60.9 MB.
Rob08 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1908. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 82. - 2.9 MB.
Journal of a Residence and Tour
in the USA Vol 1
Abd35RT1 / auth. Abdy Edward S. - London : John Murray, 1835. - Vol. 1
: 3 : p. 406. - 23.3 MB.
Journal of a Residence and Tour
in the USA Vol 2
Abd35RT2 / auth. Abdy Edward S. - London : John Murray, 1835. - Vol. 2
: 3 : p. 423. - 25.0 MB.
Journal of a Residence and Tour
in the USA Vol 3
Abd35RT3 / auth. Abdy Edward S. - London : John Murray, 1835. - Vol. 3
: 3 : p. 417. - 24.1 MB.
Journal of Psychology Vol 28
Hal19 / auth. Hall G. Stanley. - Albany : Florence Chandler, 1919. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 624. - 31.0 MB.
Latter Day Saints History Vol 1
Rob02LD1 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1902. -
Vol. 1 : 7 : p. 603. - 31.6 MB.
Letters on the Masonic
Ada47 / auth. Adams John Q.. - Boston : Press of T. R. Marvin, 1847. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 321. - 7.6 MB.
Life Including his
Autobiography Vol 1
Wee83LA1 / auth. Weed Thurlow. - Boston : Houghton, Mifflin and
Company, 1883. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 691. - 33.7 MB.
Life Including his
Autobiography Vol 2
Wee83LA2 / auth. Weed Thurlow. - Boston : Houghton, Mifflin and
Company, 1883. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 642. - 28.0 MB.
Sta50 / auth. Stacy Nathaniel. - Columbus : Abner Vedder, 1850. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 526. - 32.5 MB.
Memorial History of Boston Vol 1
Win81HB1 / auth. Winsor Justin. - Boston : Ticknor and Company, 1881. -
Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 649. - 26.8 MB.
Memorial History of Boston Vol 2
Win81HB2 / auth. Winsor Justin. - Boston : Ticknor and Company, 1881. -
Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 672. - 29.9 MB.
Memorial History of Boston Vol 3
Win81HB3 / auth. Winsor Justin. - Boston : Ticknor and Company, 1881. -
Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 736. - 33.1 MB.
Memorial History of Boston Vol 4
Win81HB4 / auth. Winsor Justin. - Boston : Ticknor and Company, 1881. -
Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 736. - 33.8 MB.
Mormon Group Life
Eri22 / auth. Ericksen Ephrahim E. - Chicago : University of Chicago
Press, 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 318. - 13.0 MB.
Mormon Point of View
Nel04 / auth. Nelson Nels L. - Provo City : N L Nelson, 1904. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 108. - 9.1 MB.
New Witnesses for God Vol 1
Rob11NW1 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1911. -
Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 482. - 17.6 MB.
New Witnesses for God Vol 2
Rob20NW2 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1920. -
Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 476. - 19.0 MB.
New Witnesses for God Vol 3
Rob09NW3 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1909. -
Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 582. - 28.2 MB.
Niles' Register Vol 32
Nil26R32 / auth. Niles Hezekiah. - Baltimore : H Niles & Son,
1826. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 444. - 72.1 MB.
Niles' Register Vol 33
Nil28R33 / auth. Niles Hezekiah. - Baltimore : H Neiles & Son,
1828. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 451. - 73.8 MB.
Niles' Register Vol 35
Nil29R35 / auth. Niles Hezekiah. - Baltimore : H Niles, 1829. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 452. - 56.3 MB.
Niles' Register Vol 37
Nil30R37 / auth. Niles Hezekiah. - Baltimore : H Niles, 1830. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 448. - 77.7 MB.
Niles' Register Vol 38
Nil30R38 / auth. Niles Hezekiah. - Baltimore : H Niles, 1830. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 675. - 78.6 MB.
Old Masonic Lodges of
Pennsylvania Vol 1
Sac12OL1 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1912. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 484. - 13.6 MB.
Old Masonic Lodges of
Pennsylvania Vol 2
Sac13OL2 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1913. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 483. - 14.5 MB.
Ant30 / auth. Anti-Masonic Convention. - New York : Skinner and Dewey,
1830. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 165. - 17.8 MB.
Real History of the Rosicrucians
Wai87 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : George Redway, 1887. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 456. - 18.1 MB.
Car97 / auth. Carlyle Thomas / ed. MacMechan Archibald. - Boston : Ginn
& Company, Publishers, 1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 515. - 26.3 MB.
Web24 / auth. Webster Nesta H. - 1924. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 148. - 1.6 MB.
Odi30 / auth. Odiorne James C. - Boston : Perkins & Marvin,
1830. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 286. - 51.9 MB.
The Abduction and Murder of
Hun86 / auth. Huntington P C. - New York : M W Hazen Co, 1886. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 177. - 7.2 MB.
The Anti-Masonic Party
McC02 / auth. McCarthy Charles. - 1902. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 211. - 14.7
The Autobiography of Benjamin
Fra06 / auth. Franklin Benjamin. - Boston : Houghton Mifflin &
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 236. - 10.7 MB.
The Book of Mormon
Smi60 / auth. Smith Joseph. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1860. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
396. - 11.5 MB.
The Broken Seal
Gre73 / auth. Green Samuel D. - Chicago : Ezra Cook & Co, 1873.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 306. - 7.7 MB.
The Founder of Mormonism
Ril02 / auth. Riley I Woodbridge. - New York : Dodd, Mead &
Company, 1902. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 451. - 8.2 MB.
The Latter Day Saints
Kau12 / auth. Kauffman Ruth. - London : Williams and Norgate, 1912. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 373. - 13.7 MB.
The Lost Language Vol 1
Bay12 / auth. Bayley Harold. - New York : Barnes & Noble, Inc,
1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 386. - 12.9 MB.
The Many-Sided Franklin
For99 / auth. Ford Paul L. - New York : The Century Company, 1899. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 537. - 16.9 MB.
The Myth of Manuscript Found
Rey83 / auth. Reynolds George. - Salt Lake City : Juvenile Instructor
Office, 1883. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 104. - 5.4 MB.
The Pearl of Great Price
Smi131 / auth. Smith Joseph. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News Company,
1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 112. - 4.1 MB.
The Symbolist Movement in
Sym08 / auth. Symons Arthur. - London : Archibald Constable &
Co. Ltd., 1908. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 203. - 3.6 MB.
The True Benjamin Franklin
Fis99 / auth. Fisher Sydney G. - Philadelphia : J B Lippincott Company,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 393. - 7.8 MB.