Masonic Research Society
Table of Contents
and Masonry ‒ Anti-Masonry in the Book of Mormon
Bro. S. H. Goodwin, Grand
contributed to THE BUILDER for February and March, 1921, two studies of
and Masonry, both of which are recommended to be read in connection
with the present
study, which will be concluded next month. The former articles were
book form in August of that year; the book met with such a demand that
impression was made in the following October. One hopes that Bro.
Goodwin will find
it possible to issue, in the same form, these new essays, even more
if possible, than their predecessors.
IN a previous
paper the writer presented certain aspects of the contact of Mormonism
the historic and local background of which was provided by the Nauvoo
the development of this peculiar people.
In the present
study of the same general subject our investigations take us back to a
fifteen years earlier, to the beginnings of the Latter Day faith, and
into the then
primitive and sparsely inhabited region of western New York. Further,
as we begin
our study of the subject in hand we shall find ourselves in the midst
unique, even in the colorful experiences of the American people, and
‒ even threatening annihilation ‒ to the long established and highly
respectable Institution of Freemasonry.
period to which attention is here directed is that within which the
excitement had its rise, and reached and passed its peak. 'The years
which may roughly
serve to mark the boundaries of that period are 1826 to 1831, or 1832,
Within those limits the Anti-Masonic furor, tremendously accentuated
by, but not
primarily due to, the disappearance of William Morgan, reached and
passed the height
of its amazing course.
time indicated ‒ though interrupted by absences of varying lengths ‒
the Mormon prophet, had his home in Manchester, N. Y., not far from the
the infected area; and in no single instance did he go beyond the
influence of the one event which for nearly, or quite, a decade
other interest or consideration in the public mind. In this
environment, and during
those years when the flames of hatred and bigotry and religious
fiercest, Joseph Smith brought to light and published his "Golden
the Book of Mormon. In what here follows the writer undertakes to point
of the prophet's reactions to his environment, and to assemble some of
in support of the contention of this paper.
Disraeli, when considering the origin of Dante's Inferno, called
attention to the
fact that the somber Florentine was greatly influenced by his
environment ‒ by the
objects and feelings which occupied his own times. Indeed, he did not
affirm that the entire work of the Italian bard is "a picture of his
of his own ideas, of the people about him.'' (1)
may be thought of this characterization of Dante's work, if applied to
for which Joseph Smith was responsible, its accuracy, in many
particulars at least,
can be easily demonstrated. In very considerable portions of the Book
exhibiting, to be sure, varying degrees of attention to detail, the
has preserved, unmistakably, "a picture of his times, of his own ideas,
the people about him." This fact is practically admitted (as perforce
be) by the more thoughtful of the church writers who have undertaken to
give a rational
account of the origin of the Book of Mormon. (2)
Book Shows Traces of
traced to their sources in local conditions prevailing in western New
this latter-day prophet had his home, many of the incidents, and
and doctrines, and stories of visions and dreams, as well as numerous
colloquialisms, and errors in grammar which stud the pages of this
Bible". (3) With these we are not here primarily concerned. They are
to in passing because they furnish corroborative proof of the
in this paper. Our principal task, as intimated in an earlier
paragraph, is to show
how, under the transparent disguise of a similar organization ‒ said to
among the ancient peoples of South America ‒ innumerable reflections of
episode which burst into fierce flame in 1826 are easily discernible.
parallel so closely, and comprehend so fully the manifold charges which
hatred of their enemies heaped upon the Masons in the period specified,
present writer is forced to regard the usual explanation given by
as being wholly inadequate to meet the situation. (4)
For the benefit
of readers who may not be familiar with the claims made for the Book of
its "Author and Proprietor", and by his disciples, a brief statement
those claims is given place here.
of Mormon purports to be "the record of God's dealings with the people
America from the era of the building of the Tower of Babel to four
hundred and twenty-one
years after the birth of Christ." The records whence it was compiled
which there were tons) were written during a period of a thousand
years. They were
preserved through the centuries on "plates", a part of which, at least,
were of pure gold. The abridgement of those records, for which the
was responsible, was also engraved on "plates", and these were
in a stone box, together with two stones in silver bows which were
attached to a
breast-plate ‒ which constituted the Urim and Thummim ‒ and this box
on a hill near Manchester, Ontario County, New York. (5)
as noted above, was the home of Joseph Smith during much of the time
Here, or on the hill referred to, on Sept. 22, 1827, slightly more than
after the disappearance of William Morgan, the "plates" were finally
to the prophet. During that year and the two succeeding years, in which
of Mormon was in course of preparation, the Anti-Masonic excitement
passed all bounds
of reason and became a disease. No profane, it appears, escaped the
subject of this study implies, and the Book of Mormon seems clearly to
that the Mormon prophet, in common with his neighbors, was a victim of
In the treatment
of the subject, the material at hand will be considered under three
the Morgan affair and its effect upon the public mind; second,
selections from the
Book of Mormon which may fairly be taken as being illustrative of their
and third, contemporary opinion.
writer on the political aspect of the Anti-Masonic period characterizes
mysterious abduction of William Morgan and the excitement which
as forming "one of the most singular and interesting pages in American
(6) Morgan appears to have been of the "rolling stone" variety ‒ a sort
of ne'er-do-well. He was a native of Virginia, where he married in
middle life one
who was young enough to be his daughter. He is said to have followed a
vocations to gain a livelihood: soldier, merchant, brewer, and stone,
mason, at none of which were his efforts rewarded by success. At some
point in his
career he became a Mason ‒ of the time and place of this event,
is known, as no record of his initiation has been found. Following the
loss by fire
of the brewery in which he appears to have had a small interest, he
Canada to New York and for a time was in Rochester, where, it seems, he
financial assistance by the Masons of that city. In time, and not long
events now under consideration, he drifted into the little village of
county town of Genesee County.
It is not
an easy matter to determine just the sort of man he was, for the
have come to us vary so greatly, and are so manifestly determined by
the point of
view and colored by the prejudice of the writer. Here, for example, is
one of his
partisans who declares that William Morgan "was man of honor and
He was a gentleman in his manners, and possessed of mental powers
superior to his
humble occupation in life. He was well informed, of a generous, humane
disposition. Though 'a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief', yet
never led him to descend to any acts of meanness. Amid the shafts of
'the proud man's contumely, and the oppressor's wrong', he still
preserved the equanimity
of his temper, and the dignity of his character * * * his noble soul
the bare idea of a dishonorable deed. * * * Captain Morgan was, indeed,
a man without
guile; brave, frank, and unreserved; modest in his demeanor, delicate
in his expression;
and respectful to the feelings of those with whom he associated." (7)
Real Morgan Is Described
In view of
the bit of literary work with which Morgan's name is linked, and of the
he set about this self-imposed task because of anger over some slight,
real or imaginary,
and of the further fact that he expected his Illustrations of Masonry
to place his
finances upon a stable foundation, one may be pardoned for an
inclination to discount,
very materially, the highly idealistic characterization quoted. And an
reason for caution may be found in the fact that the pen which drew the
was that of an aspiring, but uniformly unsuccessful politician, who
sought to profit
by the excitement which he helped to create and extend; whose talents
but whose character failed to win the confidence of stronger men, who
used the Morgan
episode to further their own interests. (8)
On the other
hand, Morgan is represented as being "an idle and dissolute man * * *
placed within the jail limits, in consequence of debt". (9) According
seceding Mason and strong advocate of Anti-Masonry, "more can be said
will do good to his memory, * * * he was of rather a prepossessing
a quick, intelligent, but sly and sinister-glancing eye; he had
received a common
school education, but had added to it by considerable reading; he was a
and his nights, and sometimes his days also, were spent at tippling
occasionally, to the great neglect of his family, he joined in the
of the vilest and most worthless men. * * * his disposition was
and vindictive.'' (10)
that Morgan had not been long in Batavia when the information was
that he had in preparation, and was about to publish, a book which
the secrets of Freemasonry. It also appears that D. C. Miller, an
and publisher of the local newspaper, was to print this book and share
in the profits
of its sale. (11) From a source unfriendly to Masonry ‒ although in the
corroborated by others ‒ we learn that "the knowledge of these facts
great commotion, among the members of the Masonic fraternity in that
in a wide extent of surrounding country. There was a great heat and
of expression in relation to the expected work, and an open avowal by
it should never see light.” (12)
Became Of Morgan?
Of what followed
various accounts are available. The subject in hand does not require
that any of
these should be considered here, but this much may be said: Morgan was
taken from Canandaigua ‒ where he had been placed in jail for debt ‒ by
a few misguided
members of the Craft, carried to Ft. Niagara, a hundred miles or more
from his home
in Batavia, ferried across the river to the Canadian side, soon after
the Fort, where, it is said, he was known to have been as late as Sept.
he disappeared, and no subsequent search succeeded in establishing his
or what became of him. Judicial enquiry did establish the facts here
and the men who were shown to have had part in the abduction were
punished for their
inexcusable folly. It should be added that, after a most searching
the same tribunal exonerated these men from participation in any crime,
for which they were punished, and which at the time was, by law, a
(13) The popular belief was that Morgan was put to death by Masons.
This was affirmed
without any qualification, and often with much fullness of detail,
in the Anti-Masonic press, and by practically every writer and orator
the lists against Freemasonry. But after four years of effort and
the nearest to proof of the alleged fact that seems to have been
presented to the United States Anti-Masonic Convention, held at
the statement: "Several persons have been informed, by those who were
to be cognizant of the guilty secret, that such was the fact.'' (14)
opinion, later shrewdly manipulated by self-seeking politicians,
condemned not only
those individual Masons, who were shown to have had a part in the
also the Fraternity as an institution. It was held, and proclaimed
Masonry, by reason of the character of its obligations and teachings,
held responsible for the seizure and murder of Morgan. (15)
As the student
of the period passes from a consideration of the immediate cause of the
which swept like a prairie fire over the affected areas, to a
contemplation of the
excitement itself, and some of the multitudinous ways in which it found
his amazement well-nigh passes all bounds. Occupying, as he necessarily
point of observation far removed and detached from the events and
passions and contributing
causes of the matter under review; with practically a full century of
between him and them, and with all the jangle of confusing and
and embittered and impassioned claims and counter-claims stilled
forever, he takes
up the printed record, unmoved by the volcanic and tremendous forces
to their foundations every relationship ‒ and many institutions ‒ and
fairly dumbfounded by what that record discloses. The writer disclaims
of attempting to present anything like an adequate picture of
conditions as they
existed in western New York, and elsewhere, where the infection of this
spread from 1826 to 1830. He will be quite satisfied if he succeeds in
a rough sketch of events which powerfully reacted upon the minds of the
those days ‒ including the Mormon prophet reminiscences of which appear
to be reflected on the pages of the Book of Mormon.
the disappearance of Morgan and his failure to return to his family in
stories began to circulate of alleged incidents connected therewith,
multiplied concerning the reasons for his forcible removal. Conditions
for the unusual ‒ all that was required was the initial impulse, and
this was supplied
in the mystery attending the disappearance of the author of
Illustrations of Masonry.
that almost immediately after the fact became known that Morgan had
been taken away
from the Canandaigua jail, neighbors of the family in Batavia began to
as to his whereabouts, and sought to uncover the reasons for his
from home. Finding that their investigations failed of results, a
committee of ten
prepared, and issued to the public, an address bearing date of Oct. 4,
briefly rehearsed the steps thus far taken, and the facts ascertained,
upon the people of western New York to assist in solving the mystery.
document was given wide distribution through the press of the state,
and from this
time forward one circumstance followed close upon the heels of another,
combined to whip to a fever pitch the excitement of the people.
was soon developed that the men who were responsible for the abduction
were members of the Masonic Fraternity, and this focused public
interest and attention
upon that organization. Mass meetings and conventions followed in quick
Resolutions, increasingly vitriolic in tone, condemning the guilty,
speedy apprehension, trial and punishment, and presently, denouncing
as a menace to the welfare of the people and the state, were adopted
and scattered to the four winds. Addresses, orations, sermons and
articles on the
one general theme multiplied, and were given wide publicity through the
and in pamphlet form.
them men who had been highly honored by the Craft, swept from their
feet by the
storm, renounced all connection with the institution ‒ "publicly wiped
stain of Freemasonry from their skirts", and soon were lined up with
who denounced and reviled the Order which, up to that time, they had
held in highest
esteem. Concerning these men a bitter enemy of Masonry ‒ himself a
‒ declared: "A Mason converted to Anti-Masonry, is two-fold gain: once
loss to the enemy, and again in the increase of our ranks. None are
truer to our
cause, none are more dangerous to Freemasonry, none are so hated and
the adversary, as renouncing Masons.'' (18) As is usual with men who
a trust, no length seemed too great for them to go in their accusations
They came together in conventions, drafted long lists of
specifications, in which
practically every crime in the catalogue was enumerated and charged to
and to these, resolutions were attached in which they pledged undying
the Brotherhood. At one of these gatherings was adopted what the
pleased to designate, the "Anti-masonic Declaration of Independence".
This was signed by more than one hundred renouncing Masons. Concerning
a vindictive opponent of Masonry spoke: "This list we will look upon,
and remember. They have done a service to mankind, not inferior to that
of the signers
of the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America.
will be proud of them, and point to them, saying, Behold our
Masons none seemed more determined, persistent, and bitter in their
ministers of the several denominations, and, perhaps, none better
served the cause
of Anti-Masonry. By reason of their calling, training, experience in
and the position they held in the esteem of the communities they
was a powerful influence in molding sentiment and inflaming and
opinion. While not a few of these men entered the opposition ranks from
rooted in religious convictions, others, beyond a doubt, were swayed by
for public approbation, and still others took this step because of fear
of the disapprobation
of, or in consequence of, pressure exerted by church conferences, or
reference should be made, in passing, to an incident which throws not a
on the Anti-Masonic situation, and makes clear the fact that that
movement did not
originate in the Morgan episode. In July, 1826, a book was published
under the title
of ‘An Inquiry Into the Nature and Tendency of Speculative
Freemasonry’. The author
was a Baptist preacher, and seceding Mason, John G. Stearns by name,
who has the
doubtful distinction of being "the first American Mason to publish his
and the reasons for them". (20) It seems that Stearns was a Mason when
Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y., for his literary and theological
There "he was interrogated in 1819, whether he was a Mason; and being
while there to abstain from Masonic associations, he replied that he
had made up
his mind to have nothing more to do with Masonry''. (21) Coming from
as it did, at this particular juncture ‒ two months before the
abduction of Morgan
‒ and followed a few months later by a summons to the author from his
lodge to appear
for trial, and this, together with his reply being given to the press,
to create such a demand for the book that it soon passed to a second
within three years five editions had been put out. This work exerted a
influence, and was speedily followed by others of a similar character.
it an Anti-Masonic writer of the times declared: "Mr. Stearns' volume *
is one of the ablest productions which has appeared on the subject. Its
to the cause of Anti-Masonry has probably been greater than that of any
the kind." (22)
related above is significant from the further fact that it clearly
shows that at
least as early as 1819, seven years before the trouble in western New
College appears to have been the center of an active Anti-Masonic
the winter following the abduction of Morgan the first trials were held
of men accused
of participation in the affair. Three of these men confessed to having
had a share
in transporting Morgan from the Canandaigua jail to Ft. Niagara, and
to serve terms of varying lengths, up to two and one-half years, in the
These events added immeasurably to the popular excitement. The
the examination of witnesses and the bringing out of details eagerly
sought by the
public, and the light sentences led to the belief, and the charge, that
Masonry had interfered and blocked the course of justice. The judge who
was accused of being a Mason, and unsparingly criticized, although in
he was careful to point out that the matter did not rest in his hands.
had left the offense of kidnaping to be determined by the common law,
it as a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine and imprisonment in the
common jail. (23)
The legislature was petitioned to assist in ferreting out the guilty,
strengthen the arm of justice in such manner as to reach this case,” by
a special court to take cognizance of the cases growing out of the
because it was affirmed, "the ordinary process of our courts is not
to reach the many branches of this conspiracy". (24) The Governor was
to offer suitable rewards for the discovery of Morgan and the
apprehension and punishment
of those who were responsible for his disappearance, and this he did,
on at least
three different occasions.
Public Mind Became Inflamed
In this state
of the public mind, only that which exaggerated, or went to extremes,
met with general
approval. A natural consequence of this condition was that newspapers
came in for
a share of harsh criticism and condemnation. To the fevered, inflamed
opinion seemed not to give as much attention or space to the one
subject of supreme
interest as it was thought should be given. They were accused of being
or muzzled by Masonry; of being “parse by a power unseen, and
controlled by an influence
of unlimited operation". (25) Due to Masonic influence, it was charged,
papers throughout the country suppressed information, and refused space
to the reports
of proceedings of "Morgan meetings", as they were called, and yet, the
most impartial periodical of the times, perhaps, reported in its issue
16, 1827: "It is no uncommon thing, so great is the excitement, to find
five to six columns in one New York paper about it;" and then one
paper was named, in a recent issue of which, "seven and one-half of its
columns were filled with it." (26); But this did not satisfy.
people would read about nothing else. The result was, as told in the
an Anti-Masonic committee: "In the region where this outrage had been
the criminal apathy or connivance of the conductors of the press,
alarmed the people;
they arose in their might and established independent papers." The
these Anti-Masonic publications reached a very considerable figure, of
were in Pennsylvania, 46 in New York, 9 in Ohio, 5 in Massachusetts,
and the remainder
scattered in six other states and territories. In the words of the
above, these Anti-Masonic papers were "established by the zeal, and
by the liberal contributions of the middling and unambitious classes of
with no motive but the attainment and dissemination of those alarming
they sought for in vain, through the ordinary channels of
The work of these papers was supplemented by a profusion of pamphlets,
various phases of the one subject that was uppermost in the public
mind, and by
exposes which purported to give all the work of the several degrees.
As was to
be expected, the churches took a prominent part in the controversy. The
consideration was characterized by frequent religious revivals; great
meetings" brought together thousands of people whose minds were
susceptible to mystical phenomena; the Bible was practically the only
the church was the only means of social intercourse; it dominated the
consciousness. (28) Reference has been made to the activities of
ministers. Under their leadership, or independently of it, organized
entered the fray with a fervor, bigotry, and bitterness of invective
which at first
blush passes comprehension. But the reason for this becomes plain when
it is recalled
that for a quarter of a century or more there had been great religious
and confusion, and turmoil, and doctrinal controversies ‒ surprisingly
and unchristian in character ‒ out of which had been born several
and a multitude of sects and isms. Among these a wordy warfare had been
one another. Now they joined forces in an attack upon what was
conceived to be a
In this assault,
the Presbyterians appear to have been in the van, but they were
scarcely a step
in advance of the Congregationalists, Methodists, Baptists, and
Lutherans, and even
the Universalists, who up to this time had been fighting for a
foothold, and whose
liberality and detestation of spiritual tyranny it was supposed would
be a safeguard
against any attack of bigotry, did not escape the infection. (29) At
State Conferences, Conventions and Consociations ‒ and by individual
‒ resolutions were adopted, aimed not only at ministers' but at the
as well, ordering all who were connected with the Fraternity publicly
or suffer excommunication from the church. (30):
According To Formula
the action taken was not quite so extreme. Here is an example of the
‒ a resolution adopted by the Genesee Consociation, in June, 1828:
That the Consociation will neither license, ordain, or install, those
any connexion with the institution of Masonry, or who will not
disapprove and renounce
it; nor will we give letters of recommendation in favor of such persons
in any of the churches in our connexion.'' (31) Churches refused to
listen to preachers
who belonged to the Craft, and insisted, where their pastors were
Masons, that they
should not only renounce Masonry, but denounce it as well, and this,
not in any
terms they might choose, but according to a fixed and approved formula;
are on record where churches dismissed their ministers because they
the Fraternity. (32)
activities multiplied incredibly, all of which were calculated still
inflame the passions, and to solidify antagonism to Masonry.
carried innumerable editorials, special articles and letters which
abounded in the
most extravagant assertions and claims. As a sample of the lot, here is
a letter (Italics and all) which appeared in one of the newspapers
about a year
after Morgan had disappeared:
Lodge and Chapter in this [Batavia] and other places," declares the
“acted in concert and under the direction of the Grand Lodge of the
State, and the
said Grand Lodge did cast lots who should come out and despatch Morgan
if necessary to suppress the development of Masonic secrets." (33) And
was written by a seceding Mason!
were summoned and after having used every means in their power to
truth, reported, that while many rumors were afloat, sufficient
evidence for an
indictment could not be secured. Still another Grand Jury spent four
days and examined
forty-six witnesses, and reported back that no facts had been disclosed
they "could impeach, or make presentment, or indictment against any
for the offense aforesaid, or for any opulence connected "hereunto".
held of men who were charged with conspiracy to abduct William Morgan,
and its consummation,
but the testimony was not of a character to connect the defendants with
and they were acquitted. (34)
On the 24th
of June, 1827, a meeting was held at Batavia, the people, some 3,000 in
"of all ages and sexes," and from various parts of Genesee county,
together to consider "the question which has produced so much
the western part of the State". Resolutions were adopted in which,
things, the people present pledged themselves not to support any Mason
Late in September,
following the meeting just referred to, one Timothy Monroe was drowned
in Lake Ontario.
A month, or thereabouts, later the body was recovered. It was at once
and accepted, as the body of William Morgan. A coroner's jury so
the testimony of a number of witnesses, including Mrs. Morgan. In due
time the widow
of the drowned man learned of the discovery of the body, and the
statements of some
of the witnesses at the inquest led her to suspect that the body was
that of her
husband. Upon her representations disinterment was made, and a second
held and the body was identified by the widow, a son and a friend, as
beyond a doubt
that of Timothy Monroe. Concerning the first inquest, the editors of
to be the most impartial paper of the period, expressed the opinion:
description of the clothing of Timothy Monroe, no shadow of doubt
the jury had been mistaken, or deceived on the testimony of the
we hope, mistaken," (35) and the body was finally buried as that of
Monroe. This incident added greatly to the excitement that had
prevailed for more
than a year.
politicians, without a party and with no other means of furthering
their own interests
and gaining the attention of the people, took advantage of the
situation, and through
skilfully manipulated conventions rode into prominence and power, if
not into place.
Masons regaled the curious at largely attended gatherings by
exemplifying the several
degrees and lecturing on the atrocities of Freemasonry; excited mothers
met in conventions
and passed resolutions declaring that their daughters should never
a candidate for sheriff announced in his advertisement that if elected
use his "best endeavors to prevent Masons from being selected as
(37); candidates for office, and even the President of the United
States, were interrogated
concerning their attitude toward Masonry (38); by virtue of the fact
that an agent
of the Government was in charge of Ft. Niagara when Morgan was taken
memorial was presented to Congress asking for an investigation (39). In
touched every interest, found its way into every walk of life. It
entered the home
and divided families; it shattered friendships that had weathered every
it ruptured social relations; it denied the sacrament to communicants;
it rent churches;
it ruined business and impoverished many. Its effect upon Masonry was
and disastrous. Before the biting fury of this storm hundreds of Masons
like rats from a sinking ship; lodges went down like block houses, and
Lodges in some states barely continued to exist, or entirely suspended
Smith Was Not Immune
leave of this phase of the subject the reader is reminded of the fact
that the preceding
paragraphs are not to be regarded as a comprehensive account of the
Only so much has been presented here as, it is hoped, will enable those
not looked into the Anti-Masonic episode to gain a fairly accurate
of the character of the environment in the midst of which Joseph Smith
and published the Book of Mormon. Enough has been said, it would seem,
the impartial student of that particular period that it is highly
anyone who lived in the very thick of such intense, prolonged and
‒ unparalleled in our history, we are asked to believed ‒ (41) an
which none was immune; which left no interest or institution untouched,
or as it
was before, and which entered with unhallowed tread the most sacred
scattered devastation wherever it came ‒ it is not only improbable, but
that the Mormon prophet alone, of all the people of that region,
by the Anti-Masonic upheaval. That he did not constitute an exception
in this respect,
the Book of Mormon itself, more particularly the first edition,
furnishes most conclusive
proof. And the fact is significant that church apologists admit, as
they must, the very great influence of environment upon the "boy
and they do not challenge the testimony offered in support of this
fact, save in
a single particular ‒ Freemasonry! "The Book of Mormon says nothing of
masonry," declares one of the leading teachers of the church. (42)
to him all references to secret societies found in the Book of Mormon
societies which existed among the Jaredites and the Nephites ‒ ancient
nations! One inclined to be a little skeptical, and the student who
seeks to discover
facts connected with the period and events, here being passed under
certain to find difficulty in accepting such an explanation. They will
this does not adequately account for the inclusion in the Book of
Mormons a part
of the history of those "ancient secret societies" ‒ practically every
charge laid at the doors of Freemasons by their enemies during the
of the time we are considering, and this with a most significant and
fidelity to detail! (43)
(To be concluded)
- Curiosities of Literature [Lib
1+2, Vol 3, Vol 4], Isaac Disraeli, vol. 2 p.
The Founder of Mormonism [Lib 1902], I. W. Riley; 1903, p. 164.
- New Witnesses for God [Lib
1909-11; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3], B. H. Roberts, 1909, vol. 3,
409, 413, 415,
Mormon Point of View [Lib 1904], N. L. Nelson, 1904, p. 115.
- Psychological Tests for the
Authorship of the Book of Mormon [Lib 1917], W. F. Prince; American
of Psychology, vol. 28; 1917; pp. 373-489;
The Founder of Mormonism [Lib 1902], I. W. Riley; p. 148f;
Delusions: An Analysis of the Book of Mormon [Lib 1832], Alex. Campbell, many
Two Thousand Changes in the Book of Mormon [Lib 1898], Lamoni Call; 1898; much of
- New Witnesses for God [Lib
1909-11; see above], B. H. Roberts, 1909 ‒ vol. 3, p.
- The Myth of the Manuscript
Found [Lib 1883], Geo. Reynolds, 1883; p. 43;
History of the Church, Period I, Joseph Smith [Lib 1902-1932; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3. Vol 4, Vol 5, Vol 6, Vol 7], B. H. Roberts, vol. 1; pp.
Mormon Point of View [Lib 1904], N. L. Nelson; 1904; pp. 107,
- The Anti-Masonic Party: A Study
of Political Anti-Masonry in the U. S. [Lib
1827-1840, Chas. McCarthy
Annual Report, American Historical Association [Lib 1903; Vol
- Anti-Masonic Review [Lib 1828]; vol. 1; 1828, pp. 55 80,
Opinions on Speculative Masonry [Lib 1830], J. C. Odiorne; 1830, p. 194.
- Autobiography of Thurlow Weed
[Lib 1883; Vol 1, Vol 2]; vol. 1; 1883; pp. 46 86, 306.
- History of Freemasonry in New
York [Lib 1892; Vol 1 missing, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4], C.T. McClenachan; 1892; vol.
- W. L. Stone, quoted by
Drummond, History of Portland Lodge, No. 1 [Lib*];
1881, p. 112.
- It appears that this was not
Miller's first venture in printing works of
this character. Some twenty years before he brought out a new edition
and Boaz [Lib 1797 (not Miller’s version)], a book that was first
published in 1762. Miller was initiated at Albany
N. Y., about the time he was at work on the book just named. See The
S. D. Greene [Lib 1873]; 1873, pp. 45-46.
- Proceedings of the U. S.
Anti-Masonic Convention, Philadelphia, 1830 [Lib
Whittlesey's Report; pp. 15-32.
- History of Freemasonry in N. Y.
[Lib 1892; see above], McClenachan; 1892; vol. 2; pp.
- Proceedings of the U. S.
Anti-Masonic Convention, Philadelphia; 1830 [Lib
Whittlesey's Report, p. 21;
Niles Register; 1829 [Lib 1829]; vol. 35; p. 355.
- Anti-Masonic Review, vol. 1
[Lib 1828 see above]; 1828; pp. 57, 209, 244, 275;
Opinions on Speculative Masonry [Lib 1830 see above], J. C. Odiorne, 1830, pp.
115f, 164-165, 275;
An Inquiry Into the Nature, Etc. [Lib*], J. G. Sterns, 1826 pp. 106, 09
- The Anti-Masonic Party [Lib
McCarthy, Annual Report American
Historical Association, 1902, p. 368,
History of the People of the U.S. [Lib*], McMaster, 1900; vol. 5, pp.
Autobiography of Thurlow Weed [Lib 1883; see above], 1883, vol. 1; pp. 355-359;
Mormon Group Life [Lib*], Erieksen; 1922; p. 14.
- The Broken Seal [Lib 1873 see above], S. D. Greene,. 1873, pp.
- The Anti-Masonic Review, vol. 2
[Lib*]; 1829, pp. 130-131.
- Catalogue Anti-Masonic Books
[Lib 1852], H. Gassett; 1852; p. 88; cf.
Proceedings U. S. Anti-Masonic Convention, Philadelphia; 1830, p. 98.
- The Anti-Masonic Review, 1829;
vol. 2, p. 248. [Lib*]
- The Anti-Masonic Review, 1829;
vol. 2, p. 241 [Lib*]
- Opinions on Speculative Masonry
[Lib 1830 see above], J. C. Odiorne, 1830; p. 33,
Note; of. Letters on the Masonic Institution [Lib 1847], J. Q. Adams, 1847; p. 229.
- History of Freemasonry in N.Y.
[Lib 1892; see above], C.T. McClenachan 1892; vol. 3;
Freemasonry in Michigan [Lib 1897/98, Vol 1, Vol 2], Conover, 1897 vol. 1; p.
Niles Register, 1828 [Lib*], vol. 35, p. 253.
- Niles Register, 1827 [Lib*];
vol. 32, pp. 59, 60, 121. The Committee on Courts
and Justice ‒ in the Legislature ‒ to which these memorials were
that it might be discharged from further consideration of the subject
in view of
the fact that a majority of the Committee were Masons. This request was
and a special committee of Anti-Masons was appointed, but the
resolutions it presented
were rejected by the Assembly, by a vote of three to one.
- Proceedings U. S. Anti-Masonic
Convention, Philadelphia 1830, p. 42; [Lib
The Anti-Masonic Review [Lib 1828 see above], 1828; vol. 1, p. 62.
- Niles Register; 1827 [Lib*];
vol. 32; vol. 32; pp. 59, 60.
- Proceedings U.S. Anti-Masonic
Convention; Philadelphia; 1830; pp. 41, 42.
[Lib 1830 see above]
- Mormon Group Life [Lib 1922], Ericksen; 1922; p. 14.
- Memoirs of the Life of
Nathaniel Stacy [Lib 1850]; 1850; p. 250.
History of Utah [Lib 1890], H. H. Bancroft; 1891; pp.
- The Anti-Masonic Movement, E.
S. Gibbs; [Lib*]
Proceedings Grand Lodge Massachusetts, 1917, p. 497. [Lib*]
- The Anti-Masonic Review [Lib
1828; vol. 1; p. 226,
Opinions on Speculative Masonry [Lib 1830 see above], Odiorne; 1830; p. 128;
Niles Register [Lib 1829 see above]; 1829; vol. 37, pp. 53, 149.
- Cf. McMaster, History of the
People of the U. S. [Lib*]; 1900; vol. 5; p.
- S. D. Greene, National Observer
[Lib*], Oct. 2, 1827.
- Niles Register, 1827 [Lib*];
vol. 32, pp. 59, 60, 82, 181, 326.
- History of the People of the U.
S. [Lib*], McMasters, 1900; vol. 5; p. 117;
Niles Register, vol. 33 [Lib*], pp. 161, 162.
- Autobiography of Thurlow Weed
[Lib 1883; see above]; 1883; vol. 1; pp. 298f.
- Niles Register, 1830 [Lib*];
vol. 38; p. 339.
- Masonic Light on the Abduction
of Wm. Morgan [Lib 1886], P. C. Huntington; 1880; pp.
Niles Register; 1828 [Lib*]; vol. 35; p. 5.
- Niles Register; vol. 34 [Lib*];
- History of Portland Lodge, No.
1 [Lib*], Drummond, 1881, pp. 130f;
Early Records Grand Lodge Vermont [Lib 1879], 1794-1846, pp. 373f 407f,
History of Freemasonry in the State of N. Y. [Lib 1922], Ossian Lang; 1922; p. 176;
Freemasonry in Michigan [Lib 1897/98, see above]; Conover; 1897; vol. 1; pp.
- Niles Register; 1827 [Lib*];
vol. 32, pp. 59, 60.
- New Witnesses for God [Lib
1909-11; see above], B. H. Roberts, 1909, vol. 3; p.
Mormon Point of View [Lib 1904 see above], N. L. Nelson; 1904 p. 183,
- The Founder of Mormonism [Lib
W. Riley, 1903, p. 160;
The Latter Day Saints [Lib 1912],
Kauffman, 1912, pp. 125, 126;
Psychological Tests for the Authorship of the Book of Mormon [Lib 1917],
Prince American Journal of
1917, vol. 28, pp. 373f
the Book of Mormon, Schroeder, American Journal of
1919; vol. 30; pp. 66-72.
Relations to American Freemasonry
Bro. David McGregor
of Union Lodge, No. 2, Orange, N. J.
that readers who have not followed previous discussions in THE BUILDER
the full significance of Bro. McGregor's contribution we ask his
permission to make
a word or two of explanation concerning the points at issue. The
arises out of the friendly rivalry between the Grand Jurisdictions of
and Massachusetts as to which can justly claim, on the basis of
in the establishment of regular and duly constituted Freemasonry in
In the letter alleged to have been written by Henry Bell to Dr. Thomas
the writer affirms that Daniel Coxe had issued a charter to a lodge in
in the autumn of 1730. Massachusetts brethren argue that we have no
proof that any
such letter ever existed, and affirm that Daniel Coxe could not have
charter because he was in England during the two years covered by his
and therefore never exercised the authority that had been given by him.
In his Beginnings
of Freemasonry in America, page 56, Bro. Melvin Johnson states the
position in this manner: "There has appeared no evidence, however, that
exercised this deputation or even that he was on this side of the Ocean
said two years." Bro. McGregor now comes forward to prove that Coxe was
this country during that period and offers the evidence. At the same
time he comes
to the support of the famous Bell letter. Consult THE BUILDER Vol. I,
174, 229, 251, 245; Vol. II, pages 70, 211, 317, Vol. V, page 35, also
1923, page 329 and April, 1924 page 109. See also The Study Club in
IN THE Builder
of April last there appears an article by Bro. Melvin M. Johnson,
P.G.M. of Massachusetts,
criticizing one by Bro. Ernest A. Reed, P. G. M. of New Jersey, on
in New Jersey," in which Bro. Johnson says:
"The fact is, that while Coxe
June 5th, 1730, as Provincial Grand Master of New York, New Jersey, and
for two years, he was not on this side of the Atlantic at any time
two years. During that entire period he remained in England… When
therefore in January
1730-1 Coxe attended the Grand Lodge in London, he naturally was
recorded in accordance
with the Commission which he held although he had never exercised it."
To give expression
so emphatically to such unqualified statements of fact, based solely on
of evidence to the contrary, especially by one who is recognized as an
on American Masonic history, and who so strongly condemned the tendency
"to give credence and currency to errors of the past by their
is, to say the least, surprising. Doubtless the fact that such opinions
so long unchallenged has given rise to the belief that they must be
true; but recent
research on the part of the writer has uncovered documentary evidence
to prove that
Coxe did return to America, and was a resident of New Jersey during
part of the
period covered by his deputation, viz., from June 24, 1730, to June 24,
is to be found in the records of the Supreme Court of New Jersey, and
in the voluminous
manuscripts of James Alexander now in the possession of the New York
and New Jersey
Historical Societies; and the strange thing is that such readily
has remained so long unnoticed.
however, to present this indisputable evidence, it may be well to say
about Alexander. He came to Perth Amboy in 1715 as surveyor-general of
West Jersey, an office he held for many years. He was a prominent
lawyer and attorney
general of both New York and New Jersey; is especially remembered as
Peter Zenger in his fight for the liberty of the press; and also as the
Major General William Alexander (Lord Stirling) of Revolutionary fame.
engaged James Alexander's services in certain suits of ejectment
entered by him
against several residents of Maidenhead (Lawrenceville) and Hopewell
lands he claimed as his.
Account Book, Vol. I, page 309, under date of May 17, 1729, the
appears: "Received of Daniel Coxe in his Maidenhead suit 3.3.9 pounds."
At the foot of page 323, under date of April 19, 1730, he has entered:
of Reed in behalf of Col. Coxe 12 pounds proclamation money towards
the suit in Chancery." On the following page under date of July 11,
find: "Received of Col. Coxe in his suit ads. Smith procl. 4.10.0
On that same day he argued this suit before Governor John Montgomerie,
It will be
noticed that the first and third items acknowledge the receipt of money
from Coxe himself, while the second item acknowledges the receipt of
money on Col.
Coxe's account through an intermediary, suggesting the thought that he
on May 17, 1729, and on July 11, 1730, but not on April 19, 1730. That
he was in
New Jersey until late in 1729 is proven by a deed given by him to his
Coxe, Jr., on Aug. 27, 1729; and by giving his bond as administrator of
of Charles Weston, of Burlington, on Oct. 2 of that year. On Feb. 12,
1730, he received
a deed from Daniel Bird of London for an extensive tract of land in New
indicating that he had reached London some time previous, and we know
from the records
of the Grand Lodge of England that he was there on June 5 when he
received his deputation
as Provincial Grand Master.
stated, the wording of his entry in the account book under date of July
would make it appear that he had returned to Jersey. This of itself,
not be accepted as positive proof of such a claim unless supported by
evidence. Fortunately we are able to present something more positive
in the form of a letter written by Daniel Coxe to James Alexander,
July 31, 1730, in reply to a letter he had just received from Alexander
and in which
he refers him to the contents of a letter written to Mr. Murray,
on the 29th inst., dealing with the subject of Alexander's inquiry,
only that Coxe was in Trenton on July 29, 1730, but had been in Perth
time previous to that date; while at the same time it strongly confirms
that he was in Jersey on July 11. We have other reports to prove that
a resident of New Jersey until late in 1730. On Aug. 28 he signed a
deed at Burlington
for land to William Merrill at Hopewell, and from the records of the
of New Jersey we learn that he gave his bond on Nov. 16, 1730, "at
by his certain writing" for 1750 pounds to be paid to Cap. Warren or
It has thus
been clearly shown that Daniel Coxe did return to America and was a
New Jersey about four months of the year 1730.
It will be
noticed that Coxe's deputation was dated June 5, 1730, although it was
not to go
into effect until June 24. This leads us to inquire what was the reason
of its being
granted nineteen days ahead of time? Our answer is that he might take
of an opportunity to sail for America on or about June 5, in order to
the Court of Chancery as soon as possible in the suit he had pending
interval of five weeks between the date of his deputation and his
on July 11 was not an unusual performance at that time. The New York
Nov. 22, 1731, was disappointed that "it did not find by the London
of the 15th of September last that they have not any account of the
death of our
late Governor Montgomerie", which occurred on July 1, 1731, thus
six weeks for the transmission and publication of news; while in the
of May 31, 1736, we find a notice to the effect that "On Saturday last
Warren in His Majesty's ship, The Squirrel, arrived here eight weeks
and on Thursday last a ship arrived at Philadelphia having had five
The Captain Warren referred to is the same person that is mentioned in
a photographic copy of which is here reproduced in order that there
might not now
or hereafter be any doubt upon its authenticity, as has been in the
case of the
noted Bell letter, on account of our Pennsylvania brethren not being
able to produce
We feel that
the publication of this letter at this time justifies a reconsideration
of the criticism
that has been directed against Bell's letter, whereby its authenticity
has been seriously questioned, even though the Grand Lodge Library
Pennsylvania stated that it bore all the marks of being genuine, and
they had no
doubt of its being correct. It is to be deeply regretted that the
letter is not available so that the question of its authenticity might
settled; and it is also unfortunate that Bro. Francis Blackburn did not
letter in full when he had the opportunity to do so in 1873, as the
have been helpful in confirming its veracity. Yet as it stands, there
be sufficient circumstantial evidence to render the statements in that
acceptable to an unprejudiced mind.
of this letter said to have been written by Bro. Henry Bell of
Lancaster, Pa., to
Dr. Thomas Cadwallader of Philadelphia on Nov. 17, 1754, is as follows:
"As you well know, I was one of
of the first Masonic Lodge in Philadelphia. A party of us used to meet
at the Tun
Tavern in Water Street and sometimes opened a Lodge there. Once in the
fall of 1730,
we formed a design of obtaining a charter for a regular Lodge, and made
to the Grand Lodge of England for one, but before receiving it we heard
Coxe of New Jersey had been appointed by that Grand Lodge as Provincial
of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, we therefore made application
and our request was granted."
Know Little about Henry
As to the
identity of the writer we know little save that the name of Henry Bell
the tax list of Derry Township, Lancaster, Pa., about that time. The
the letter, Dr. Thomas Cadwallader, was a prominent citizen of
had been educated in the Friends' Academy and then took up a course in
and surgery in London. On his return he established an extensive
practice in Philadelphia
and became a noted physician. He was admitted to membership in St.
No. 1, on June 6, 1737; and on June 24, 1738, was appointed one of the
of the Grand Lodge.
actively identified with the public life of the city and was associated
in many of his public activities. He was one of the founders of the
Society and of the Pennsylvania Hospital. He moved to Trenton for a
time and while
there was selected in 1746 to be the first Chief Burgess (Mayor) of the
Coxe, Jr., son of Col. Daniel Coxe, being also one of the members of
In 1750 he again took up his residence in Philadelphia, where he became
associated with the new Pennsylvania Hospital.
the complete text of Bell's letter we are forced to venture a surmise
as to the
object of his that time, and on that particular subject; there was
special reason for his doing so, which reason may be found in the fact
in 1754 the brethren of the "Grand and First Lodges of Philadelphia"
a subscription list for the building of a Masonic lodge, which was
on June 24, 1755, the first of its kind in America, and in which
ceremony Dr. Cadwallader
took a prominent place. In view of such a ceremony it may be that
to Bro. Bell asking for what information he could give as to the
the first lodge in Philadelphia, more particularly the part played in
it by one
who had been a noted resident of the town which had so signally honored
him by making
him its first mayor. He was evidently aware that Bell had taken an
active part in
that movement which is implied by the first sentence quoted in the
you well know."
intent of the letter was to establish the regularity of -St. John's
Lodge, and it
is scarcely conceivable that Bro. Bell would make such an historically,
statement to another brother Mason, eminent in the public life of the
city and in
the ranks of Masonry, and one so closely associated with Franklin,
Allen and Daniel
Coxe, Jr., without it being founded on truth, and the burden of proof
as to its
being unreliable rests upon those who would seek to discredit his
of this burden, those have sought to do so on two grounds: first, that
does not appear among the original members of St. John's Lodge; and
the time mentioned, "the fall of 1730," would not permit of doing all
he claimed was done in time to institute the lodge late in 1730, or
early in 1731.
Two Objections Are Considered
the first objection, it is easily possible that Bell found it necessary
from Philadelphia before the lodge was duly constituted, although he
had taken an
active part in the preliminaries of organization; even the first
Button, found it necessary to do so a few months after his
installation; nor does
Bell's letter make any claim to his having been a member of it. The
with it that he lays claim to is that he was "one of the originators".
As to the
second point, it must be remembered that this letter was written
after the event, and it is not surprising that he was rather indefinite
as to the
exact date; there are but few of us frail mortals who can charge our
precision as to dates so long gone by. Of course the second criticism
was made solely
on the theory that Coxe was in London in the fall of 1730, which has
untenable; his presence here during that period must be looked upon as
one of those
corroborative facts which the Grand Lodge Library Committee of
desirable to give full credit to the letter, and make its statements
There appears, therefore, no just reason why Bell's statement should
not be accepted
as fact, and that Coxe should be credited with exercising his
authority, at least
in this one instance.
willingly admit that St. John's Lodge, No. 1, of Philadelphia, was the
constituted lodge in America, which entitles the City of Brotherly Love
to the honor
of being known as the Mother of Freemasonry in America, we feel that
is at the same time entitled to the credit of having as one of its
a brother who is equally entitled to be called the Father of American
inasmuch as he was the first Grand Master in America, and the medium
and through whom only, the institution of the first legitimate lodge of
Accepted Masons in America could and did take place.
Bro. Sidney Morse,
Secretary, Bureau of Social and Educational Service, New York
all the seas were one sea
What a GREAT sea that would be!
And if all the trees were one tree
What a GREAT tree that would be!
And if all the axes were one axe
What a GREAT axe that would be!
And if all the men were one man
What a GREAT man he would be!
And if the GREAT man took the GREAT axe
And cut down the GREAT tree
And let it fall into the GREAT sea
What a splish splash that would be!
a time, as the fairy tales say, there was born in the royal palace of
of Bagdad a prince destined to be renowned in story as the great
early course of his education was drawing to a close, the Caliph one
the Grand Vizier, Abin El Yusef, and set on foot an inquiry for a
for the heir apparent. One after another the most famous scholars of
that era of
learning sought to embrace the opportunity of having as their disciple
Caliph. But each applicant desired to teach only a single subject and
be largely ignorant or disdainful of other branches of learning. The
mathematician, Abdullah El Hasin, knew little of dialectic and avowed a
of its value. Even masters of the same forms of knowledge could not
themselves how these subjects ought properly to be imparted. In short,
fiercely and agreed only in holding all knowledge but their own in
state of affairs was reported to the Caliph his brow darkened.
Summoning the Grand
Vizier, he said:
from finding a suitable tutor for the Prince, you have added to my
heir to the Caliphate is not to become a mathematician, a dialectician,
or a philosopher,
but a king and ruler of men. He must learn obedience and reverence for
age and for
the wisdom of the fathers. How can he fail to imbibe prejudice from the
of these pedants? How can he arrive at truth among such contradictory
Reverence he is not likely to learn from men who have no respect for
to teach them what is due to one another. Go among them and announce
that this is
the Caliph's test. The Prince's tutor must have equal knowledge of
He must be at peace with himself and with all the world. He must have a
reputation for wisdom. He must have skill in all the arts of peace and
proclamation that I will endow such an one with honor and riches. I
will give him
a Princess to wife, a portion from my own table and equal authority
over the Prince's person."
was made and ambassadors were sent to foreign parts to extend the
tidings. At first
the wiseacres declared that no one had ever heard of such a man but,
the hope of reward, scholars, priests, warriors and impostors from all
the world began to flock to the royal city by the Tigris. Examinations
directions of the Grand Vizier were conducted daily, but to no avail.
No one gave
the slightest promise of passing the Caliph’s test. The city and its
with hungry hordes of chagrined place-seekers, all of whom refused to
until the prize had been actually awarded. The Caliph's test was the
topic of the
hour. The ordinary interests of the realm languished. At last, to check
of rival claimants, the Caliph announced the pains of death against him
the test unsuccessfully. Danger served only to fan the zeal kindled by
of the proposed achievement. Hundreds paid with their lives the penalty
rashness. When finally a number of the most renowned scholars in the
had been executed, he one day summoned the Grand Vizier and bade him
proclamation. "For," said the Caliph, "I see that Wisdom is humble
and abases herself. It may be that she is not to be found by
proclamation of rewards
and honors, nor by awaiting her in courts or palaces. Let us make
for her among the lowly. The duty of every age is to transmit to
usufruct its heritage from the fathers. The education of the Prince is
my chief concern. If you fail in this, you fail in all things. I give
you a year
and a day to bring me one who shall pass my test. Otherwise I must
successor and banish you to perpetual exile."
Grand Vizier Had a Weary
Vizier, bending low, received to aid him in his search the Caliph's
made his way from the royal palace with a sad heart. Having furnished
a belt full of jewels and gold from the royal treasury, he bade adieu
to his favorite
wife, Sadie, left his harem in the charge of his chief eunuch,
with many misgivings, set out upon his journey.
take too long to recite all that befell the Grand Vizier. Suffice it to
he visited by turns every district of the Caliph's empire. All doors
flew open to
the royal signet. The fame of his quest outran him. The faithful vied
other in directing his attention to every subject who had any, even the
reputation for wisdom. As he traveled away from Bagdad he found, to his
few indeed who knew even by reputation the eminent doctors there
community had its own wise men who embodied the traditional lore of the
There were many of blameless life and catholic sympathies, but they
learning. They had much lore of stars, desert, and mountains; of beasts
of the field and those of stall and garden; of measuring and surveying;
in war and government in peace; of the nature of men and women and the
love of little
children; of justice and of true religion; but of mathematics,
astronomy and other
sciences, and of dialectic, philosophy or theology they had never
such men were unfit to venture their lives on the test of the Caliph.
nights, under the gorgeous eastern firmament, gloriously blazoned and
with the stars, did the Grand Vizier consult on the state of the
with these common men. As the year of his quest drew to its close and
seemed more and more to be unattainable, he lost sight of his own
unhappy lot in
a heart-felt yearning to undo, by means of the vast fund of wisdom he
had thus unwittingly
acquired, the mistakes of his earlier years in the Caliph's service. At
when less than a month remained before his banishment would become
Grand Vizier, in his camp on the eastern foothills of the Hindu-Kush
chanced to hear rumors of a vastly wise Nan, an anchorite, dwelling in
overlooking the desert of Gobi. Resolving to leave no stone unturned,
to throw all upon a single cast of the die. Descending to the bed of
and thence by the valley of the Tarim, he made his way by incredible
of the last evening but one of the Caliph's year were chilling alike
his body and
his spirit as he toiled, painfully and alone, up a rocky pathway toward
to the sage's cavern. The aged man arose at his approach and welcomed
him in silence
but with gentle dignity. The two broke their fast without speaking. The
of the past year had taught the Grand Vizier that the words of the wise
in proportion as they are precious. When at last the full moon arose,
the weird expanse of the ancient desert into the likeness of a wide,
sea, the aged seer broke the silence.
are not unheralded," he said, "nor unexpected. You have lost yourself
in the search and have thus found the will and the way to serve your
You have accordingly been led by Allah to the one place on earth where
can be satisfied. With prayer, vigils and much mortification of the
flesh, for many
years, I have sought the secret of wisdom. I have been successful. But
my life has
unfitted me to enjoy its fruits. The Caliph has wisely asked for his
rather than power, riches or honor. Hence all these may be added unto
him. The Prince
is destined to be by far the most celebrated among the Caliphs of
Bagdad. To you
it has been granted to receive a revelation of the sources from which
wisdom is derived."
the Grand Vizier as he was about to acknowledge with joy this welcome
the sage busied himself with drawing together upon an open patch of
stone at the
entrance of his cave the embers of his scanty fire. Blowing gently upon
until they glowed again, he scattered among them a few grains of
mysteriously, and whisperingly gave utterance to the mighty Name.
a thin column of fragrant smoke rose from among the ashes. As it curled
upward a light gust of air, like a tiny whirlwind, caught it up and
from its base. Slowly at first but with gathering intensity an
of smoke or mist, like the top of an inverted pyramid, spinning
spirally, made its
way toward the open sands down the vista of a gorge fronting the
A low hum sharpening to a hiss and then deepening to a shrieking roar
ear of its accelerating progress. The mighty funnel, writhing and
twisting as it
went, swept the sands of the desert aloft as some gigantic waterspout
the waves of the sea. In plain view of the awe-struck onlookers it
itself, rotated slightly and, such was its magnitude, clean-swept the
sand of centuries from the primeval rock, and for a vast space laid
bare the hidden
bones of the world. Smoke, mist and sand finally vanished and only the
of the gale vibrating stridently across the moonlit void and the
of the sands were left to offset the sense of unreality.
Magic Is Completed
At last the
sage signalled the Grand Vizier to rub with his palm the Caliph's ring.
As he complied,
instantly, from all quarters of the globe, its entire human population,
spirits, was summoned to appear. Men, women and children of all races
past and present, were swept by the four winds from every land, washed
by the seven
seas. Grasped by the all-compelling vortex they were caught up and
aloft. At the touch of the wondrous current each human frame
miraculously fell apart
into its component elements. Limb fell from limb and organ from organ.
fibres and cells parted company, to reassemble, like with like, as the
of a new and greater whole. Rapidly the majestic drama was enacted. Ere
set the entire range of the Thian Shan was darkened by the shadows of a
in human form towering majestically among the stars.
heart that ever beat had gone to the making of this heart of Man. Every
that ever thought was united in this brain of Man. Even in stature the
body of Man,
the product of the combination of earth's billions of living and dead,
the globe many times her own diameter. With few strides Man could have
planet, overstepping earth's greatest rivers, fording her oceans and
loftiest mountains in his march. Thus he stood, capable of treading
cities and armies
beneath his feet, or of destroying the beautiful world itself with a
of his mighty fist.
of Man could not be seen. The dumb roaring of the blast subsided. The
commenced once more to vibrate, but this time with a prelude of softest
Suddenly the earth quaked once and again. The gigantic frame shuddered
to wrestle with an inward agony. Life had commenced. The functions of
all the individual
members, set up anew, poured as it were into one mighty caldron the
of their individual selves. The contents and workings of every man's
suddenly fused into one. All feeling, emotion and sentiment of the
hearts of every
man found itself in the heart of one.
What a heart
was there! Into its mighty depths was poured the fierce glow of
and the ecstasy of Christian martyrdom. Heroism of warriors and
fanaticism of zealots
blent with melting tendernesses of lovers, of mothers and of little
gentle sympathies and affections of saint, sage and poet, united with
affections of camp, court and market-place. Not one was lost, but from
was created a greater than them all, a mighty cord of universal
human sympathy that, rendered audible by some heavenly instrument,
listener's soul as if by the fabled music of the spheres.
In like manner
was built up the great and common brain. As each group of cells in the
every man discharges a distinct function and thus represents certain
acquired by the interplay of blood and breeding, so were grouped those
the united brain that registered similar memories. Thus met the
thoughts and minds
of those that had knowledge of the stars and those that knew about the
so of all other branches of our knowledge. And as the mind of man
opposing errors but they will kill one another and all will fall dead
in the presence
of Truth; so after brief war, from the shock and conflict of opinions
and inward harmony. As when with fierce reaction in the alembic of an
many crude ingredients resolve themselves into a sovereign elixer, so
from the crux
of meeting creeds, systems, prejudices and opinions seething together,
the clear elixer of Truth.
became ecstatic. The Heavens opened. And from their bonded depths a
hovering enraptured above the form of Man. At length a deep toned voice
the heavenly close in accents unmistakably human. A new self had been
a universal consciousness in which all mankind had part. Humanity had
Becomes the Teacher
the sage signalled the Grand Vizier to rub the Caliph's ring. As he
mist swiftly settled upon the desert. The gigantic outlines of
universal Man became
indistinct in its shadows and were quickly blotted out. The full moon
Grand Vizier's spirits fell. But ere he could voice a question or
whether he waked or dreamt the bulk of an approaching figure took shape
the mist and a stranger entered the circle of light radiated by the
tiny fire. Although no more to outward seeming than the normal stature
he bore indelibly stamped upon his person the impress of his origin. He
was no other
than Humanity, the universal Man! The Grand Vizier's quest was at an
of that austere mountain side might have been supposed to see a group
of three men
bowed with years, the world worn Vizier, the prematurely aged victim of
and, oldest of them all, the Universal Spirit of Mankind. His figure
less than the entire thought content of the race. His memory was one
knowledge. His recollection embraced all erudition. His sympathies
ranged from the
greatest to the least of human affections. His nervous system tingled
skill and aptitude of craftsman or of artist. But, in fact, it was not
and decrepit old man who answered to the Grand Vizier's inquiring
glance. The universal
spirit had assumed a younger form. He seemed as one whose earthly life
had yet to
run more than half of the allotted three-score years and ten. Ruddy,
erect and vigorous,
his form and eye bespoke the fire of a warrior, the energy of an
gentle dignity of his carriage betokened a reverent respect for wisdom
and for age.
were held about those dying embers it were too long to tell. Enough to
to the ancient manuscripts of the historian, Ben Rydyl (discovered in a
at Granada, nearly a century after the expulsion of the Moors), that
from the Thian Shan to the valley of the Tigris presented no
to the universal wisdom.
convened his court upon the morrow to appoint the Grand Vizier's
head of the opposing family of Ommiades, as his successor, and to
announce the deposed
minister's banishment. But to the immense confusion and discomfiture of
no less than to the Caliph's joy, who should appear at the nick of time
Grand Vizier himself! And in his company appeared the long-sought tutor
the resulting examinations, by conquering in succession the most
warriors, artists, craftsmen, poets and musicians who opposed his
good his claim to the humble title of El Mu'allim (the teacher) for
which he modestly
avowed a preference.
It is related
that the young prince welcomed most kindly his new instructor, who thus
equal skill in every manly accomplishment with universality of
knowledge. The future
conduct of his education was transformed by the love he bore El
Mu’allim from a
thing of heaviness to a means of constant inspiration and delight. In
by unconscious imitation, half by conscious effort, the prince imbibed
part of the wisdom and accomplishments of El Mu'allim. At the
of the latter (which occurred on the occasion of the Caliph's death)
but little to choose between the conduct of the disciple and the
master. The renown
of the great Haroun-al-Raschid is the all-sufficient testimony to the
worth of the
tutor, El Mu'allim, which the merits of his illustrious disciple have
And it is
regarded as a significant thing by the original historian, in support
of the authenticity
of this legend, that Haroun-al-Raschid himself should have sought for
the commonalty of his realm, having often, in the guise of adventure,
in the khans and bazaars, with shopkeepers, craftsmen, travelers and
thus kept at all times in closest touch with human good in "widest
spread." Thus he sought, in the opinion of Ben Rydyl, in emulation of
master, to himself embody the spirit of human brotherhood and the
substance of the
practical knowledge and wisdom of his race.
and Home Association
E. N. Davis, Corresponding
Report For 1922
property cost, $23,000,000; average per bed, $3,584.64 investment.
annual cost, $6,600,000; average per patient, $30.
property cost, $35,605 000; average per bed, $5,355.65.
annual cost, $7,200,000; average per patient $32.13.
per patient, 18.34 days. Average cost per patient per day, $1.75+.
Letter from Bro. Gene
T. Skinkle, Illinois
in the year word went out to the Round Table of Masonic editors that
and beloved Gene T. Skinkle had resigned the tripod of Oriental
Would he also resign from activity in the Order? Ye Editor immediately
to ask that important question. No, he replied, he would stay in the
good old game,
but not as an editor. He was retiring into an attic at Wilmette, Ill.,
therefrom issue such edicts and pronunciamentos anent things Masonic as
might move him. The project for a national Masonic Tuberculosis
Hospital in the
Southwest moved him mightily, as witness his hand in the following:
to you, and to Bros. Robert J. Newton, of Texas, and W. O. Saunders,
of congratulation and appreciation for what I consider two of the best
on practical Masonic progress published in many years. I refer to the
the October edition of THE BUILDER captioned "J'Accuse! ‒ A Challenge
and "Let's Stop Blowing Bubbles," both of which are worth reading and
re-reading ‒ and then considering seriously and deeply. We need more
and more Newtons,
Mike Thomases, Louis Blocks, Forrest Adairs, W. O. Saunders and such
Masons and a few less feeding, smoking, entertaining limelight Masons.
than thirty years I have been out with a sledge hammer pounding Masonic
and waste, praying for a Moses to lead "the children of light" out of
the wilderness of words, into the promised land of practice, and others
"seeing the signs" and blazing the trail to redemption. The day is
when, I hope, preaching will give way to PRACTICE.
Newton's estimates of cost and operation of Tuberculosis Hospitals is
is evidenced in the report of the Secretary of the National Methodist
Home Association for the year 1922, extracts from which, and my own
of averages of investments per bed and cost per patient, I enclose
friend and brother, W. Freeland Kendrick; 33d, saw the star and
followed its guidance
when, after a visit to the hospital at Atlanta, Georgia, he fought for,
secured the support of the Imperial Council of the Shrine to the
development that is proving such a blessing to crippled and maimed
children in America.
33d, of Iowa, had a dream of Masonic concentration to practical
purposes and saw
his dream come true in the organization of the Masonic Service
33d, of Texas, demonstrated practical Masonry when, as Grand Master, he
be built the dormitory for the Lone Star State University.
Daly, 33d, and James McCready, 33d, of Illinois, are doing splendid
for the Masonic Orphan's Home, at LaGrange, and the Old Mason's Home,
knows what Forrest Adair, 33d, has accomplished for practical Masonry
to repeat his record would require the space of many of your editions.
New York, George K. Staples, 33d, has worked for years in behalf of the
of the waifs from the streets and alleys; and in Pittsburg, Pa., "Uncle
Brown, 33d, and his Nobles of Syria Temple, have kept an eye on the
boys and kept
them out of troubles. So also "Freer" Kendrick (the Mayor) keeps an eye
on the "kiddies" of Philadelphia.
others, many others, that could be cited illustrating diversified
progressive developments. For instance, through the courtesy of Bro.
Librarian of the Grand Lodge Library and Museum, London, England (where
I. Clegg, 33d, of Ohio, was a recent visitor), I have before me the
reports of the three British Masonic charitable institutions, the Royal
Institute for Boys, the Royal Masonic Institute for Girls, and the
Benevolent Institution for Aged Masons and Widows of Freemasons. These
are not Grand
Lodge dependencies, but are supported by individual Masonic
contributions and are
governed by officers elected by vote of the contributors. It may be
of THE Builder will be interested to learn that the contributed income
for the three
charities named, for the year just passed, was "well over 300,000
or nearly a million and a half dollars figured in American money. The
Board grants annuities or pensions to aged Masons to the amount of 100
to widows one-half the amount of the deceased Mason's grant. Also a
are admitted to the Institute Asylum at Croydon.
Are Guilty Of Profligate
I have treated
particularly in this article on several isolated, local and independent
activities (outside of the Shrine Hospital and the British charities)
show what has been and can be done when Masons get right down to
of the lessons they are teaching. Enough money has been promiscuously
spent in wasteful, unnecessary extravagance in the past years to have
supported the practical, necessary institutions the practical Masons
are now calling
for so piteously, and the profligacy will continue unless our Grand
Lodges and Grand
Masters call a halt on the waste and pass laws to compel our lodges and
Masons to conserve their incomes and devote the savings to practical
of Masonic teachings.
What is most
needed at this time is concentration and business application to
United on any one purpose, the three million Masons in the United
States could accomplish
anything they started out to do; divided, their aims and purposes are
in results and, many times, futile in accomplishment.
united support of the Fraternity in this country the crying need of
Hospitals in the Southwest will cease to be a dream and our 60,000
will be assured of comfort, care and necessary medical attention, free
anxiety and worry of the future for their loved ones.
Masonry has a total membership of nearly three millions in the United
Shrine a membership of about 600,000. Two dollars per annum from each
the Orthopedic Hospitals; $2.00 per annum from each Symbolic Mason
would give an
income of five times the income derived from the Shriners, and
$6,000,000 per annum
would build and pay the operating expense of the Tuberculosis Hospitals
needed for our suffering brethren. Concentrate on this, talk it over at
meeting, set it to music and sing it to your home folks, publish it in
fraternal papers, give parties and dance to it ‒ in other words, make
up your minds
to start this movement ‒ and go right out and GET IT. DO IT NOW!
amount of money being spent for purposes of fun and sociability as
monies devoted to relief and charity has been discussed by many Grand
the past three or four years. One such pronouncement on this subject,
of many others that might be quoted, was made by Bro. Arthur Potterton
Master of New Jersey. It is offered here in support of Bro.: Skinkle's
that every lodge adopt the budget system of controlling its finances;
to include in addition to the regular earring charges, items for
and incidentals, and when the amount of the budget shall have been
the dues of the members be adjusted to make the lodges self-supporting.
be no doubt that Relief is one of the three principal tenets of
Masonry, and the
only one that calls for a material sacrifice. Throughout the Craft, as
well as those
not in our Fraternity, the belief is general that Masonry teaches
charity and helpfulness,
and that belief is responsible for the high regard in which Masonry has
been held. Many of those who have had opportunities to observe and who
do so have been forced to admit that the per capita outlay for
has not kept pace with the material prosperity of our lodges, while on
hand the expenditures usually classed as "Refreshments and
have increased to such an extent as to create in the mind of the
the thought that Masonic Lodges are little, if anything. more than
whose efforts are directed, not to help the broken and helpless, to be
around us, who know little else but want, hunger and discouragement,
but to providing
dances, amusements and refreshments for the members.
to decline to a mere source for supplying these demands? Can nothing be
impress our brethren that the funds of a lodge, beyond paying necessary
are a sacred trust, and to be expended only in the way called for by
past year almost $150,000 was expended by our lodges for entertainment
while only about one-third of that amount was expended for Charity.
It is my
belief that this is wrong ‒ a wrong that will soon work incalculable
injury to our
Fraternity. With a showing like that what chance have we to attract to
the solid, serious and charitable men we so seriously need, and who
alone can keep
our Fraternity on the high level it has occupied in the past.
lodges are many men who are leading more truly Masonic lives than those
ranks, whose selfish demands on our lodge treasuries are so strongly
keep them in such financial condition as to be unable or less able to
meet the calls
that can be heard by all whose ears are attuned to the cry of distress.
in our lodges is steadily growing worse and the difference between the
"refreshments" and that for Charity is steadily growing greater.
To have reached
the high place that Masonry has attained in the respect of the world ‒
our enemies ‒ is one thing, but to keep that place is quite another
thing. The first
was the work of many generations of earnest men who saw in Masonry only
opportunity for doing good in the world; the second is for the present
in our hands,
and no greater responsibility can ever come to us. Is
met as it should be when we find so large an amount expended for
and refreshment" and such a comparatively small amount for Charity,- as
reflected in the financial statements of the lodges for last year?
I am one
‒ and there are many more ‒ who believe such a condition to be a
I can never
have a better opportunity to call this state of affairs to your serious
consideration, and I believe I should be false to my duty if I failed
to do so.
It is my opinion that something definite and decisive should be done
now, to impress
on OUI' membership that the funds of their lodges do not belong to
them, and that
they are for the time being only the trustees of such funds, charged
with the solemn
duty of disbursing them in Masonic ways only. I am as well aware as one
that hitherto our lodges have had full power to use their funds in any
liked, but if they are risking the high standard of their Masonic
teaching and thereby
lowering the reputation of our Fraternity, is it not a matter that
it is and I, therefore, recommend that no lodge be permitted to use a
of its yearly income for entertainment and refreshment than it does for
of this recommendation would have the double effect of increasing the
to Charity and of reducing the amount selfishly expended on ourselves.
M. Harris on the Origins
of American Masonry
One of the
most illustrious of all American Masons in the eighteenth century was
the Rev. Thaddeus
Mason Harris, one time Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge of
Grand Master, and Corresponding Grand Secretary. He was born at
in 1767 and died at Boston, April 3, 1842. His first Masonic
publication was a collation
described as The Constitutions of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity
of Free and
Accepted Masons [Lib*], which he published in 1792. His best known
volume was a
collection of speeches published under the title of Masonic Discourses
[Lib 1819] in 1801. In 1798 he
the request of the Grand Lodge of his State, a sketch of early Masonic
From that volume the following paragraphs, here printed because of
value, have been taken. An excellent sketch of Bro. Harris was
published in the
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts for 1917, page 471.
will note how the author describes the formation of a lodge as
whereas we now use the term "constitution".
in Masonry from the First Origin in New England
ST. JOHN'S GRAND LODGE (sometimes called the Grand Lodge of Modern
Masons) AT BOSTON,
as descending from the Grand Master of England.
of an application from several brethren residing in New England, Free
Masons, to the Right Honorable and Most Worshipful Anthony, Lord
Grand Master of Masons in England, he was pleased, in the year 5733
[1733 A. D.]
to constitute and appoint the Right Worshipful Henry Price, Provincial
of New England aforesaid.
receipt of this commission the brethren assembled July 30, and the
Charter of Constitution
being read, and the Right Worshipful Grand Master duly invested and
a Grand Lodge was formed under the title and designation of "St. John's
Lodge," and the following officers chosen and installed: "Right
Andrew Belcher, Deputy Grand Master; Right Worshipful Thomas Kennelly,
Warden; Right Worshipful John Quann, Junior Grand Warden, pro tempore.
was then presented by several worthy brethren residing in Boston
praying to be constituted
into a regular lodge, and it was voted that the same be granted. [This
styled "The First Lodge in Boston," or "St. John's Lodge."]
Masonry founded in North America. The anniversary of St. John the
Baptist was celebrated
June 24, 5734 [1734 A. D.], in ample form, after the manner of Masons.
being presented from Benjamin Franklin and several brethren residing in
for a Constitution for holding a lodge there, the Right Worshipful
having this year received orders from the Grand Lodge of England to
in all North America, was pleased to grant the prayer of the
petitioners and to
send them a deputation, appointing the Right Worshipful Benjamin
first Master ‒ this celebrated philosopher and statesman died in
1790, age 84 ‒ which is the beginning of Masonry in the State of
from the brethren resident in Portsmouth, in New Hampshire, for the
a lodge there, was also granted, denominated "The Holy Lodge of St.
Masonry introduced into Boston, and thus it was propagated in the two
New Hampshire and Pennsylvania. It is for that Masons should more
the Masonic character of the philosopher Franklin, who not only was
the sacred mysteries, but was active in the introduction of it into the
of Brotherly Love," where its prosperity, purity and power are alike
and cheering. It is one item of the glory of the ancient Institution
that such worthy
men as Franklin and Washington enjoyed its privileges and influences,
were honorably active in multiplying lodges and teaching Masonic
science and morality,
and while they were practicing upon its sublime and immortal virtues.
Night and Death -- [A Poem]
Joseph Blanco White.
Night! when our first parent knew
Thee from report divine, and heard thy name,
Did he not tremble for this lovely frame,
This glorious canopy of light and blue?
Yet 'neath a curtain of translucent dew
Bathed in the rays of the great setting flame,
Hesperus with the host of heaven came,
And lo! creation widened in man's view.
Who could have thought such darkness lay concealed
Within thy rays, O. Sun, or who could find,
Whilst fly and leaf and insect stood revealed,
That to such countless orbs thou mad’st us blind?
Why do we then shun death with anxious strife?
If light can thus deceive, wherefore not life?
Who Were Masons
Bro. George W. Baird,
P.G.M., District of Columbia
IN the biography
of Sir Christopher Wren, written by the English Architect, James Elmes
[Lib 1852], London, 1823, we find:
"In 1666 Sir Christopher Wren
Deputy Grand Master under Earl Rivers… He was Master of St. Paul's
Lodge, now the
Lodge of Antiquity, of which his Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex is
and attended the meetings for upwards of eighteen years."
was very possibly based on William Preston's Illustrations of Masonry.
the modern school have long doubted the authenticity of Preston's
it seems to me that we have good grounds for believing that Wren was a
the Craft. These grounds are set forth in Bro. Ryland's Records of the
Antiquity and in Bro. A. F. Calvert's The Grand Lodge of England.
Because of the
skepticism of some of the best scholars I hesitated to include Wren
Men Who Were Masons," but finally decided to do so, leaving it to the
reader to omit Wren if he wishes to.
a versatile genius. He made many inventions, including "the wheel
and mezzotint engraving"; wrote on astronomy, on instruments of
application, hydraulics of ship building, whale fishing, methods of
longitude, etc. These exhibitions of his intellectual power, in
addition to his
world-famed genius as an architect, explains why there gathered about
him the men
who formed the Royal Society, England's most famous scientific
elected professor of astronomy in Gresham College at London and
professor of astronomy
at Oxford three years later. After this he was for a time assistant to
Denham, the surveyor-general. In 1663 he designed the Chapel of
at Cambridge and in the same year was commissioned to make a survey of
Cathedral with a view to so restoring that building as to adapt the
to the famous Corinthian portico added by Inigo Jones.
1666, St. Paul's Cathedral was completely gutted by the fire which
London. Wren was chosen to rebuild it. After a great many difficulties,
the whole city participated in debates concerning plans submitted by
Wren and by
his adversaries, work was begun on the new structure June 21, 1672. The
was set thirty-five years later and Wren was, fortunately, still alive
to see it.
We can find no record of a Masonic service having been used either at
of the cornerstone or its dedication.
* * *
Christopher Wren as
Man and Architect
Bro. William B. Bragdon,
little study of a great architect arrived at the same time as Bro.
printed just above, almost in the same mail, and since they discuss the
the two are here published one after the other There has been a long
debate to determine
if we have solid grounds for claiming Wren as a Mason; Gould waved it
as a fabrication of Preston's imagination, but there are some of us who
that in Bro. Ryland's careful history of the Lodge of Antiquity is
for holding that Wren was a Mason.
WREN, the son of a clergyman, was born at East Knoyle, Wiltshire,
England, on Oct.
20, 1632. He graduated from Wadham College of Oxford University in
distinguished himself in such subjects as geometry and applied
collegiate life still further, we find him a Fellow of All Souls in
1653, a professor
of astronomy at Gresham in 1657, and Savilian professor of astronomy at
1660. Thus his early training and educational inclinations disclosed an
mathematical mind, which was to develop later a proficiency in
As an architect
Wren is unquestionably the most famous product of England, and the
St. Paul's Cathedral, in London, his greatest popular achievement. Most
characters rise to fame through circumstances as well as genius, and
the great fire
in London in 1666, which destroyed the old St. Paul's and fifty or more
offered him an exceptional opportunity.
be impossible in so short a sketch to trace the history of his
new St. Paul's, which was begun in 1675 and finished in 1710. After
the architect for the restoration of the old church just previous to
the fire, and
then again for the new rebuilding, his designs were criticized and his
at almost every turn.
A story is
told of how he was ordered by the Worthy Council, who sat in judgment
over his plans,
to double the number of columns that were to support the great dome, as
body felt inclined to doubt the wisdom of the arrangement of Wren's
he did as he was bid, but a century later it was accidentally
discovered that half
of the columns lacked six inches of reaching the base of the dome and
without structural foundation. Wren's salary for planning and
supervising the erection
of St. Paul's, which cost an amount equalling $3,740,000, and is
fifth largest church in the world, was the trifling sum of $1,000 a
year. For this,
the Duchess of Marlborough says, he was content to be dragged up to the
top in a
bucket three or four times a week.
is every evidence that he did his work thoroughly nevertheless, and
control over his workmen with a moral and spiritual guidance as well as
One of Wren's orders, which is said was affixed in many parts of the
"Whereas, among labourers,
etc., that ungodly
custom of swearing is too frequently heard, to the dishonour of God and
of authority; and to the end, therefore, that such impiety may be
from these works intended for the service of God and the honour of
religion ‒ it
is ordered that customary swearing shall be a sufficient crime to
dismiss any labourer…"
also employed as architect for the rebuilding of the smaller parish
London, and it was here that he displayed his constructive genius to
advantage. In the rebuilding of St. Michael's Cornhill, St. Bride's
Mary-le-Bow Cheapside and St. Stephen's Welbrook he was the creator of
Renaissance type of steeple with conical or pyramidal spire on a square
which later influenced the American St. Paul's New York, Christ Church
St. Michael's Charleston, Trinity Newport, and "Old South" Boston.
He A Mason?
Wren's Masonic life is a more difficult undertaking. Tradition informs
us that he
was a member and Master of the "Old Lodge of St. Paul," which was
to the "Lodge of Antiquity." No proof exists, however, of this fact as
all the records of this lodge of that time have vanished.
In the archives
of the Lodge of Antiquity is a mallet which it has been claimed was
Sir Christopher Wren. In 1827 the Duke of Sussex attached to this
mallet a plate
engraved as follows:
L. 5831. A. D. 1827. To commemorate that this, being the same mallet
His Majesty King Charles II levelled the foundation stone of S. Paul's
A. L. 5677, A. D. 1673. Was presented to the Old Lodge of S. Paul, now
of Antiquity, acting by immemorial constitution, by Brother Sir
R.W.D.G.M., Worshipful Master of this Lodge and Architect of that
also has in its possession three gilt wooden candlesticks inscribed,
Chr. Wren Eq. A. L. 5680."
he is frequently mentioned by learned writers as Master of St. Paul's
also Grand Master of the Ancient Order of Free and Accepted Masons, it
to reconcile oneself to these statements without further proof.
or "Memoirs of the Family of Wren," from which we obtain our most
knowledge of his life, makes no mention of Sir Christopher Wren as a
by implication this fact seems apparent.
seem possible, however, that Wren could not have lived when he did and
as he did
without having been in some way identified with the Craft. He was not
only a confirmed
churchman, but he was anti-Roman in his beliefs. In addition, his
prominent Master Masons of his time, and his relations with the Royal
have brought him in close contact with Masonic teachings.
a member of Parliament for many years, and for fifty years held the
of Surveyor of the Royal Works. He died in 1723 and lies buried under
of St. Paul's Cathedral, where a tablet over the inner north doorway is
monumentum requiris, circumspice ‒ “Reader, do you ask (seek - rhm) his monument? Look around.”
Grand Lodge Auspices
Masonic education under direction of a Grand Lodge has been carried
forward in so
many Grand Jurisdictions during the past few years that the enterprise
may be justly
considered as having emerged from the merely experimental stage. A
number of Grand
Lodges have developed their methods independently of all outside
have worked through the Masonic Service Association or in conjunction
with the National
Masonic Research Society; in any event they have achieved results, an
which would show what devices might be adopted in any state without
much fear of
failure. Without attempting such an analysis in the present instance it
may be of
service to the workers in and under Grand Lodge Educational Committees
a few of the methods thus far verified by experience. The majority of
come under one or other of two heads: speakers, or programs featuring a
and the printed word in the form of leaflets, bulletins, magazines or
a program of speaking to be carried into local lodges it is best for a
to begin with the speeches rather than with the speakers. The purpose
in view is
not to have a given list of men heard in lodges, but to have certain
Masonry carried home to the brethren, therefore the speeches are more
than the speakers. A committee can study its own field to discover what
lessons of Masonry most needed by its brethren; in some cases a speech
can be planned
on Masonry in general, suitable to be given anywhere; in other cases
local will be preferred. After the subjects are chosen and laid out
be selected capable of delivering just those subjects and in just the
This arrangement will avoid the difficulty encountered in some states
a corps of speakers sent into lodges who talk about everything except
conditions are such as to warrant a speech on some non-Masonic topic
happens) the committee should nevertheless retain control lest a
himself and jump over the fence into a discussion of religion or
politics or other
forbidden topics. This control by the committee furthermore makes it
protect lodges against hearing wild misinterpretations of Masonry made
who have not had opportunity to become sufficiently well informed.
can be listed through local lodges, almost every one of which will be
glad to recommend
some capable brother on the roster, and these brethren can then be
booked for lodges
not too far from home, in order to keep down expenses. Such of them as
preparing their own speeches can be helped by a loan of materials and
they can have
their speeches O. K'd by the committee before delivery. The secretary
of the committee can meet with groups of these speakers at least once a
order to help train them by conference methods. If lodges report
attendance at a
speech, along with some indication of how well it was received, the
know at any given instance what is being accomplished by its staff in
After a speaker becomes sufficiently well established and proves that
he knows something
about Masonry and how to tell it, he can be used all over the state and
much to his own devices.
In the large
centers Masonic mass meetings can be held, all of the Masonic bodies in
territory participating. In such cases it is often possible to invite
of national reputation for the occasion, paying him his expenses and
fee. There should be no objections in such cases to a fee, because such
will often be a business or professional man who can ill afford to
remain away from
his office for two or three days at a time.
Use of Masonic Literature
Lodge committee should have at its disposal a Masonic library. This
need not be
large but it should contain the standard works, histories,
with as much material on the Masonry of its own state as possible,
Grand Lodge proceedings,
lodge histories, biographical sketches of its own celebrated Masons,
and a supply
of clippings and other loose material suitable for loaning to speakers.
of Grand Lodges have successfully used the Traveling Library method. In
such a case
the committee purchases a number of sets of standard Masonic books, ten
in number; these are put into substantial packing cases and loaned to
requests, for periods of three to six months, the lodge loaning the
its own committee or secretary in the same method as is used by a
If a lodge desires to purchase one of these outfits it is permitted to
do so, at
A few Grand
Lodges, notably New York, have been encouraging the formation of Book
to this method a number of brethren in a community, eight or ten of
among themselves each one to purchase a book at some average price, say
and at the same time each agrees to loan the book to each member of the
turn, until it has gone the rounds, when the original purchaser retains
it as his
own. In this manner each brother can read a number of books with very
to himself. The Study Club, to which THE Builder a department each
month, is a method
that may easily combine the use of a speaker with reading. The nearest
to such a club outside of Freemasonry is the Men's Bible Class of a
It may be made a voluntary undertaking among a group of brethren, or
else it may
be launched by a lodge, with official sanction, the small expenses
paid from the lodge's treasury. Such a club is a flexible organization,
adapt to local conditions. The usual method is for a number of brethren
to meet once or twice a month; to elect a president and
a study director, the last mentioned functioning much as does the
leader of a Bible
Class, in order to study systematically some branch of Masonry. A text
be used, or else a topic may be selected anew for each meeting. If such
can find a good director, and if it will stick faithfully to its
purpose, it can
be made one of the most enthralling of all methods for studying the
or history of the Craft, for its appeal can be almost infinitely varied.
outfits or moving pictures may be used in connection with any or all of
above suggested. Grand Lodge committees in Grand Jurisdictions
affiliated with the
Masonic Service Association can secure the use of movies produced by
others can make arrangements for appropriate films through a number of
companies, a few of which specialize in such services. Stereopticon
be made to order at a not exorbitant price.
In the early
days when these methods were new some Grand Lodge leaders questioned
them lest they
add more wheels to the machinery of organization; or get out of hand;
a new Side Order; or become nothing but a kind of Masonic chautauqua.
has allayed these fears. After all, the whole enterprise of Masonic
one of the proper functions of the Craft itself, for which the
has long existed. As our Fraternity increases in membership and its
the need for education becomes more urgent, lest the grand purposes of
lost behind a confusion of small activities, and Masons lose their
inability to find out what it is all about.
Story of Freemasonry in
LODGE AT HONOLULU ‒ A MASONIC HISTORY [Lib*], by Ed. Towse; P. M.
blue cloth; 118 pages; illustrations on gold paper. May be purchased
Masonic Research Society. $2.65.
IN the old
palmy days of whaling in the northern Pacific it was the custom for
ships to put in at Honolulu for stores. The great majority of these
men", five or six years away from home, rough adventurous fellows like
one meets with in Dana's Two Years Before the Mast, with a penchant for
while in port. Now it happens that among all these Yankees there was
whaler, M. Le Tellier by name, master of the bark Ajar, who had a keen
in Freemasonry, he having been made a member of a French lodge under
the aegis of
the Supreme Council, Scottish Rite, for France. In 1841 he appeared
among the American,
English, Scotch, Irish, French, German, Italian and Latin-American
Masons of Honolulu
with a commission from that Supreme Council empowering him "to set up
in the Pacific Ocean and elsewhere in his voyages; to issue warrants,
to call upon
the Supreme Council for charters; to make Masons at sight; to forever
be given the
grand honors upon his appearance in any lodge of his creation."
With a number
of these brethren supporting him, they having accepted his credentials
in good faith,
he organized on board the Ajax a lodge of Masons, destined to a long
Towse has written a history of this lodge from its beginnings, with
from year to year, all interspersed with sprightly comment, and with
on life in what were then known as the Sandwich Islands. The result is
of more human interest than most lodge historians have apparently
any lodge history has a right to possess, not the least fetching of
which is the
long list of brightly colored vignettes of prominent Hawaiians received
times into the lodge's very representative membership.
Tellier," writes Bro. Towse, "organized 'Lodge le Progres de
U. D. (Under Dispensation), aboard his bark in Honolulu harbor on an
in 1841, issued the warrant and sent for the charter. The Lodge
proceeded to business
at once and had had a continuous and most useful and honorable
existence ever since,
under its original name and the number 124 until the year 1905, when it
by the consent and with the assistance of the authorities of the
of France, to the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of California, first
name 'Oceanie,' later with the original name and with the number 371."
modesty caused him to omit the fact that he himself was made the
to California to negotiate the transfer of allegiance. He was at that
time a P.M.,
and Orator of the lodge. Added to the history of the lodge are six
chapters on various
topics. The first is the speech delivered by His Excellency Bro. J. M.
of Foreign Relations, on the occasion of the laying of the cornerstone
of the new
Royal Palace at Honolulu, Dec. 31, 1879. By that time two of the
had been members, Kamehameha IV, and Kamehameha V, and the then
Kalakaua, had "ascended all the steps of the craft, and … reached the
of Masonic honors." This is followed by the account, "printed on silk,"
of the "Grand Masonic Banquet at Iolani Palace given by His Majesty
in honor of his Brethren of the Mystic Rite at Honolulu, on St. John's
27, 1882." On page 113 is a sketch of Captain John Meek; on page 114 a
sketch of Kamehameha IV; and on page 116 a "Contemporaneous
We shall steal the last page entire; it furnishes information about
often sought after:
Lodge, No. 21, Honolulu ‒ Granted a dispensation by the Deputy Grand
Master of the
Grand Lodge of California January 12, 1852.
meeting held Feb. 10, 1852. Charter granted May 5, 1852.
Lodge, No. 223, Wailuku, Maui ‒ Dispensation granted by the Grand
Master of the
Grand Lodge of California July 10, 1872. Charter received October 18,
a few years, many of the members having left the Island, the charter
and dimits taken by the remaining brethren.
Lodge, No. 409, Honolulu ‒ Granted a dispensation by the District Grand
Queensland, Australia, working under the Grand Lodge of Scotland,
January 4, 1895
‒ Chartered August 1, 1895. This was under the name Pacific Lodge, No.
822. As favorable
opportunity offered the change was made to the jurisdiction of
Lodge, No. 330, Hilo Hawaii ‒ First meeting under dispensation held
1897. Chartered by the Grand Lodge of California October 15, 1897.
Maui No. 472 at Kahului, Maui ‒ Chartered from Scotland February 2,
from California October 18, 1918.
Lodge, No. 443, at Schofield Barracks ‒ Dispensation from California
1913. Chartered from California, October 15, 1914.
‒ 1924. Lodge forming on the Island of Kauai, to be under the
jurisdiction of the
Grand Lodge of California."
* * *
of a New Series
literature of the world has for these many years past been greatly
enriched by the
publication of transactions of the various English societies and lodges
research, so much enriched that students are ever on the lookout for
copies of them.
All such students will therefore welcome a most worthy addition to
sources of knowledge on themes not generally expounded in the popular
in the form of the TRANSACTIONS OF THE MERSEYSIDE ASSOCIATION FOR
[Lib*], holding its sessions generally at Liverpool. We regret that the
of space has caused a deplorable delay in our notice of the first
covers the year 1922-3. An account of the origin of the Association is
a "Preliminary" to the Proceedings:
formation of the Merseyside Association for Masonic Research is
entirely due to
the unremitting labours of W. Bro. the Rev. Archibald Ball, M. A., P.
P. G. Chaplain
(Scheshire). As far back as February, 1919, he mooted the idea, but not
to find a Brother willing to act as Secretary, nothing occurred until
1921, when about a dozen Brethren of Birkenhead and Liverpool met, at
in the Exchange Hotel, Liverpool, to discuss the need of a Research
Society or Association
in this district. Such was the enthusiasm that at a further meeting,
held on the
1st of February, 1922, the Association came into being, Bro. Ball being
first President, together with a full complement of officers."
Mumby, of Birkenhead, one of the most gracious Masonic gentlemen in the
made secretary, and the inaugural meeting was held in Liverpool, Sept.
By the end of the first year 250 brethren had become members. Bro. Ball
the ideal of the Association in his Foreword to the first volume of the
"The necessity of such an
Merseyside is proved by the great influx of members desirous of that
in Masonic Knowledge which they were enjoined to make at their
Initiation. The object
of the Association is the exploration of the Symbolism and History of
Our ancient Institution is realized to be something far removed from an
constructed machine or social club. It is a living, evolving organism,
of which has a meaning and a lesson."
volume of the Transactions proves that the Association began at once to
this fine ideal into reality. It contains these various contributions:
Research; What it Has Done and Can Still DO," by John T. Thorp, first
in THE BUILDER March, 1916; ''Some Points in Ritual," by Alex. T.
of Gilds and Freemasonry," by Rev. H. G. Rosedale; "The Third Degree,"
by Lionel Vibert; "The Growth of Modern Ritual," by J. Walter Hobbs;
"Masonic Old Charges," by Rodk. H. Baxter. The majority of these names
have long been familiar to students on this side of the Atlantic. The
edited by Bro. Chas. P. Sayles.
We have not
asked permission of Bro. Mumby to refer interested inquirers to him,
but we venture
to do so. His address is "Ashville," Kingsland Road, Birkenhead,
shining city, one
Happy in snow and sun
And singing in the rain
A paradisal strain....
Here is a dream to keep,
O Builders, from your sleep.
O foolish Builders, wake,
Take your trowels, take
The poet's dream, and build
The city song has willed,
That every stone may sing:
And all your roads may ring
With happy wayfaring.
Second Degree and the
We have been
told that at the building of King Solomon's Temple the Fellowcrafts
were paid their
wages in specie, that is to say, in cash. There is a curious connection
this degree and specie which may be new to some. At the porchway or
the great temple of Melkarth at Tyre, erected by King Hiram, and which,
formed the pattern after which the more famous temple of Solomon was
modeled, stood two great pillars, and a representation of the temple
appeared on the coins of Phoenicia. About 1100 B.C., it is said, the
Phoenicia founded Cadiz in Spain, a tradition which is cherished by
city. When coins were struck in the new colony the famous pillars
as an emblem of its Phoenician origin. Twenty-six centuries later
Charles V., Emperor
of Germany, and King of Spain, used the same symbol on one of his
coins. This was
currently called a "colonate" or "pillar piece," but in this,
as a matter of decoration pure and simple, each of the pillars was
entwined by a
scroll. As time passed the two scrolls were united and from this
evolved the familiar
every-day symbol carries us back across the ages to that famous
building which is
today the central symbol of our system.
Bro. William Harvey McNairn.
The Study Club
of Masonry in the
Bro. H. L. Haywood, Editor
III. – Beginnings in
in the concluding paragraph of last month's Study Club article there
has long gone
on a battle royal between the brethren of Massachusetts and of
Pennsylvania as to
which of these Grand Jurisdictions can justly claim the honor of being
the cradle of American Masonry. Brethren of South Carolina, Georgia,
and New Jersey
have also had a hand in this, with claims for their own states.
latter for subsequent consideration in due order it will simplify the
focus attention on the first two just here. My purposes do not require
to arrive at a decision as between these claims and counter-claims, not
the question is not important, or because all 'the evidence is not in,
a student, especially a beginner, will find it more worth his while to
his own opinions. I shall consider my own proper function served if I
can set forth
the facts as impartially as possible.
with Pennsylvania. In his Pennsylvania Gazette, No. 108, Dec. 3 to 8,
Franklin printed an "Account of Freemasonry in London" prefaced by this
there are several Lodges of Free-Masons erected in this Province
people have lately been much amused with conjectures concerning them,
we think the
following account of Free-Masonry from London will not be unacceptable
to our readers."
account" consisted of a story from London, under date of Aug. 12, to
that "By the death of a Gentleman who was one of the Brotherhood of
there has lately happen'd a Discovery of abundance of their secret
Signs and Wonders,"
etc. In other words, this was supposed to be a kind of expose of
The important point in the matter is that Franklin stated that "several
were then in existence in Pennsylvania. If he was correct in his
statement it necessarily
follows that organized Masonry had existed in the Province before 1730.
Was he correct?
He was at that time only twenty-four years of age, and not yet a Mason;
at that time was considered a very mysterious affair about which many
afloat, so that it may very well have been that Franklin was merely
passing on a
bit of gossip without foundation in fact. On the other hand he had been
during 1725-6, where he might have learned about Freemasonry, had then
Pennsylvania for three years, and had been one of the publishers of the
since September, 1728; he was wide awake to everything going on in the
keen for news, and quick to catch at every movement of general
interest, so that
he may very well have ascertained the facts for himself. It is one of
the many points
on which each reader will wish to form his own opinion.
that opinion a reader will need to examine in this connection the
claims made for
the famous "Bell letter." That much discussed document, the very
of which has been called in question, was written in 1754 (or is
alleged to have
been written) by one Henry Bell, of Lancaster, Pa., to Thomas
Cadwallader, a physician
of Philadelphia. It reads in part:
"As you well know, I was one of
of the first Masonic Lodge in Philadelphia. A party of us used to meet
at the Tun
Tavern, in Water Street, and sometimes opened a Lodge there. Once in
the fall of
1730 we formed a design of obtaining a Charter for a regular Lodge, and
to the Grand Lodge of England for one, but before receiving it we heard
Coxe of New Jersey had been appointed by that Grand Lodge as Provincial
of New York New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. We therefore made application
and our request was granted."
If this letter
could be proved authentic it would be of the utmost importance, for it
many points at issue; but unfortunately that seems to be impossible.
P. MacCalla, editor of the Key Stone, one time Grand Master of
one of the carefulest Masonic scholars Pennsylvania has produced, gave
statement concerning the letter in an address to Quatuor Coronati Lodge
in which he said: "It [the Bell letter] was ‒ in 1872 ‒ in the
a Mr. Bancker (since deceased), and an extract was by permission made
from it by
Brother Francis Blackburne, a clerk in the Grand Secretary's office,
Philadelphia, in that year, but it has never been seen since. Besides,
does not appear to have been a member of St. John's Lodge, so that it
to have been the Lodge referred to in the letter as warranted by Coxe.
We can surmise
what we may, but we cannot at the present tine prove that Coxe
the Philadelphia St. John's Lodge of 1731-1738, or any other Lodge ‒
latter is implied in the Bell letter, if it is to be regarded as
authentic. In the
absence of the original, however, we may not fairly argue anything from
Committee of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania said of the letter: "The
was exhibited in the Grand Secretary's office, Philadelphia, in 1872.
It bore all
marks of being genuine, and we have no doubt of its being correct." But
Committee failed to furnish the grounds on which it based this
decision. By what
method did it prove a document authentic 118 years after it had been
had the letter been all the while? "These," remarked Sereno D.
"and numerous other questions, must be satisfactorily answered before
admit this piece of evidence." Gould and Hughan agreed with Nickerson,
so did John Ross Robertson. Bro. J. H. Drummond refused to admit even
of its genuineness. He says:
"Liber B [of which more anon]
the statement of the writer of the letter that he was connected with
is absolutely false. It shows that he was never a member of it, nor
made in it,
or had anything to do with it."
Johnson (Beginnings of Freemasonry in America [Lib*]) goes a step
farther and calls
the whole letter "a 'fake' pure and simple."
as already read, was not produced until 118 years after it had been
written; only an extract was published; Bell's name does not appear in
the St. John's
Lodge roster; there is no known record of the Coxe charter; the letter
if only one lodge existed in Philadelphia in 1730, whereas Franklin
said there were
several; after 1872 the letter passed utterly from sight and has
remained so; these
are a few of the reasons for questioning the authenticity of the
document. On the
other side of the argument is the plain statement made by the Grand
Committee, and such considerations as have been urged by Bro. McGregor
in his article
printed on page 328 of this issue.
item in connection with early Pennsylvania Freemasonry, also much
debated, is the
"Tho. Carmick MS.," of which a critical analysis was contributed to Ars
Quatuor Coronatorum, XXII [Lib*], page 95, by Bro. W. J. Hughan, the
excellence on the Old Charges. This MS. is a copy, or so it is
believed, of an older
document, which Bro. W. J. Songhurst believes may have originally come
an opinion based on certain peculiarities of diction. Dr. Julius
Sachse, who edited
it for the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania (it was published by that Grand
Body in 1908),
described it as consisting of "twenty-two pages, eight by six inches,
signed by Bro. Thomas Carmick, a connection of the Frazer family, whose
appears upon one of its pages." At page 20 is a signature by Persifor
to the effect that he owned it in 1756. Opposite Carmick's signature is
"1727." A complete transcription is given in A.Q.C., as above referred
If this MS.
be accepted as genuine it proves that a lodge, or lodges, must have
in Pennsylvania three years and more before Franklin's item in his
Hughan appears to accept its genuineness; he writes that the MS. "is
of the probability that the original from which this transcript was
made in 1727,
was used at initiations (as also the copy itself) by members of St.
Philadelphia." Bro. Johnson rejects all such claims: "The contention is
unworthy of serious discussion. The Grand Lodge of Massachusetts owns a
manuscript dated 1677 but makes no claim by virtue thereof." (See also
Grand Lodge Proceedings [Lib*], 1909, pp. 105-109.) This abrupt
dismissal of the
Carmick MS. will not satisfy all critical readers of The Beginnings of
in America; for one thing, Bro. Hughan found it worthy of serious
for another, it is difficult to see what the spuriousness of a MS. in
to do with the genuineness of a MS. in Philadelphia.
next to the case of Daniel Coxe (also spelled "Cox") we are on surer
at least so far as records are concerned, though it also raises many
yet answered. Coxe enjoyed the distinction of receiving the first
serve as a Provincial Grand Master on this continent. He was the son of
Coxe, of London, who had been physician to Queen Anne, and later
Governor of the
Province of New Jersey. The son was born in London, Aug. 3, 1673, and
to New Jersey early in life. He went to England in 1716, where in 1723
a book, A Description of the English Province of Carolina, in which he
enforce his claim, inherited from his father, to a vast region
comprising most of
the southeastern corner of what is now the United States. He was a
member of Lodge
No. 8, which met at the Devil Tavern, London, and had been constituted
in 1722 (not
"1772", as given by Gould). Records show that some time after 1728 he
returned to America.
On June 5,
1730, the Duke of Norfolk, Grand Master of England, appointed Coxe
Master for New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The deputation is
full in Quatuor Coronatorum Antigrapha, Vol. X [Lib*], pages 123-125,
that his authority was for a limited time only, from "the Feast of St.
the Baptist next ensuing" (June 24) "for the Space of two years."
The text shows that application for this authority had been "made unto
our Rt. Worshipful and well beloved Brother Daniel Cox of New Jersey
Esq. and by
several other Brethren free and accepted Masons residing and about to
the said Provinces." In the same volume of Q.C.A. ‒ it contains "The
of the Grand Lodge of Freemasons of England, 1723-1739, Illustrated
and Facsimiles, With Introduction and Notes by William John Songhurst"
is shown that Coxe was present at a Quarterly Communication of Grand
Jan. 29, 1731, and that his health was drunk, on proposal by the Deputy
as "Provincial Grand Master of North America."
that the Grand Lodge of England exercised authority over lodges on this
and that Coxe was undoubtedly considered officially in office, but
records nor any other prove that Coxe ever exercised his authority here
over a Grand Lodge or by issuing charters for the formation or
lodges, unless one is prepared to accept the very dubious testimony of
letter, above described. It has been almost universally alleged by
that Coxe was not even in these Colonies during his term in office, but
has offered proof in his article already referred to that this opinion
be revised. His proof, however valuable it is, has thus far a negative
it yet remains to show that Coxe issued a charter to St. John's Lodge
or any other.
In the meantime
one very important fact must stand; the deputation to Coxe proves that
and presumably before, there were Masons in New York, New Jersey, or
else nobody would have petitioned for a Grand Master; and that there
was a lodge,
or lodges, in existence sufficiently regular to meet the approval of
the Grand Lodge
of England, else Grand Lodge would have paid no attention to that
another important piece of evidence to prove that at least as early as
was an active lodge in Philadelphia: this is in the form of a lodge
in 1884 by Clifford P. MacCalla, which piece of good luck he himself
follows: "In 1884 I had the good fortune to discover, among the
the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Liber B. of St. John's Lodge,
City ‒ as the inscription on the cover of the vellum-bound volume
and which is well-known to you all. It is the original stock or ledger
by the Secretary with the members of the Lodge." In opening his records
secretary evidently made use of a book that had already served for
after twenty-three pages filled with an index of the Masonic entries
a number of records having no Masonic reference at all. The Masonic
in the back of the volume. The earliest accounts with members of the
under date of June 24, 1731, at which time there were evidently at
members. By carefully checking up the lodge members named in this
ledger Bro. MacCalla
showed them to have been of high standing in the community: eight were
the American Philosophical Society; nine were lawyers; seven were
judges; four were
mayors of the city; two, sheriffs; two, physicians; two, coroners; and
of the Province.
of importance in the story of early Pennsylvania Masonry will follow in
those already noted will, I trust, have made clear the principal point
as between the brethren of that Province and of Massachusetts as to
so far as the Pennsylvania side of the case is concerned. The point may
framed: The Grand Lodge of England adopted on June 24, 1721, a
in the preceding Study Club article) to the effect that no Masonic
lodge could be
accepted as regular and duly constituted except it show a dispensation
Grand Master or his Deputy; did St. John's Lodge of Philadelphia, shown
been active in 1731, have such a dispensation? If not, it was not
to the regulation adopted ten years before; if so, it was the first
lodge on this continent. So far as the present studies are concerned
must remain in suspense until other sides of the issue are set forth.
of 1730 was already one of the most interesting towns in the Colonies
with a history
behind it full of color, dramatic incident, and of promise of greater
come. Its population had not reached any great proportion, but the
people were astir
with life; there was a suggestion of electricity in the spirit of the
all the sobering influence of the Quakers, and the hampering effects of
conditions. The streets went unpaved until 1761, when Second Street
received a hard
surface at the cost of $7500, raised by a raffle. Street lighting did
not come in
until 1742; carpets were first used in 1750; umbrellas were looked upon
as a sissified
contraption until after 1771; carriages did not become popular until
after the Revolution.
Ladies in their best dresses went off to their soirees on horseback
mud. The first English school was opened in 1683. In 1699 Captain Kidd,
in story-tellers' yarns than he was in real life, played havoc with
shipping; four of his men were tried in the town for piracy. Kidd was
other pirates. Three newspapers were published prior to the Revolution:
Weekly Mercury, begun in 1719; Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette, dating
back to 1729;
and the Pennsylvania Journal and Weekly Advertiser, launched in 1742 as
to the Mercury. Slavery was common until after the Revolutionary
period. The famous
state house was first proposed in 1729; contracts were let in March
superstructure was erected during Franklin's term as Grand Master; the
met in one of its rooms in 1735; the chamber now known as Independence
added in 1742; and the little steeple in which Liberty Bell was hung
in 1751. A number of active Masons took a prominent part in this
enterprise as they
did in almost every other forward movement in the little city. Of these
Franklin was always among the chief; a detailed account of his Masonic
to be given next month, will assist to fill in the picture of
as it was known in its beginnings.
* * *
On the Bell
letter see Beginnings of Freemasonry in America [Lib*], Melvin M.
Johnson, New York,
1924, page 59.
History of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted
Stillson, Hughan, etc., Boston and New York, 1891, pages 221, 273.
History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould; Cin. and Chicago; Vol. IV,
[Lib 1889, Vol
History of Freemasonry in Rhode Island [Lib*], Henry W. Rugg;
History of Freemasonry in Maryland [Lib*], Edw. T. Schultz; Baltimore,
I, page 20.
Freemasonry in Michigan [Lib 1897/8, Vol 1, Vol 2], Jefferson S. Conover,
1897, Vol. I, page 6.
History of Freemasonry in Canada [Lib 1900, Vol 1, Vol 2], John Ross Robertson;
Vol. I, page 142.
History of the Most Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and
in New York From the Earliest Date [Lib 1892; (Vol 1 missing), Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4], Charles T. McClenachan, New
1888, Vol. I, page 70.
Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry [Lib*], Robert I. Clegg;
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum; Vol. XXII [Lib*], page 95.
for the Carmick MS. needs a thorough overhauling. See:
The Constitutions of St. John's Lodge [Lib*], Julius F. Sachse;
A.Q.C., Vol. XXII [Lib*], page 95.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania [Lib 1908-19; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3], 1727-1907, Norris S. Barratt
Julius F. Sachse, Philadelphia; 1908; Vol. I, page 2.
Johnson [Lib*], page 56. On this subject, as on all others connected
the careful student will need all the titles published by the Library
of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. The present librarian, Bro. J. E.
Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, will furnish a printed list.
Stillson & Hughan [Lib 1891] print the deputation in full,
Johnson [Lib*]; page 56.
History of Freemasonry in the State of New York [Lib 1922], Ossian Lang; New York; 1922,
[Lib 1900, Vol
Vol. I; page 140.
Gould, Vol. IV; pages 230, 362.
A. Q. C., Vol. III [Lib 1890]; page 124.
Vol. I; page
Gould, Concise History, Macoy Edition, page 437.
Barratt and Sachse [Lib 1908-19; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3]; Vol. I; page 443.
Rugg [Lib*]; page 24.
Schultz [Lib*], Vol. I page 20.
History of Lodge No. 61, F. and A. M., Wilkesbarre Pa. [Lib 1897], Oscar Jewell Harvey;
1897; page 15.
Q.C.A., Vol. X [Lib 1897]; pages 123 and 139, 140.
Clegg; page 1325.
History of Grand Lodge of Iowa, A. F. and A. M. [Lib 1910], Joseph E. Morcombe; Cedar
1910; Vol. I; page 33.
Massachusetts Grand Lodge Proceedings, 1888 [Lib*], pages 131-137.
Benjamin Franklin as a Freemason [Lib*], Julius F. Sachse,
Philadelphia; 1906, see
Franklin's 'Lodge of Masons' [Lib 1899], Sachse, Julius F.
Account of St. John's Lodge [Lib*], Philadelphia, and its Liber B.
James M. Lamberton.
[Lib*] pages 31, 63.
A.Q.C.; page 124.
Gould, Vol. IV; page 231.
Rugg [Lib*]; page 25.
Clegg, page 1602.
McClenachan [Lib 1892; (Vol 1 missing), Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4], Vol. I, page 72.
A.Q.C.; Vol. XXII [Lib*]; page 96 (by Hughan).
Barratt & Sachse [Lib 1908-19; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3]; Freemasonry in Pennsylvania,
I; page 2.
Philadelphia there are numberless books, of which three can be
A Short History of Philadelphia [Lib 1887]; Susan Coolidge; Boston; 1887.
Philadelphia, the Place, and the People [Lib 1912]; Agnes Repplier; New York;
The Romance of Old Philadelphia [Lib 1918], Jobn T. Faris, Philadelphia;
in addition to those already given.
The Evolution of Freemasonry [Lib*], Delmar Duane Darrah, Bloomington,
The Builders, Joseph Fort Newton [Lib 1914]; New York, 1924; page 206.
subject dealt with in this, and to be dealt with in succeeding
chapters, has been
discussed with unusual fullness in THE BUILDER; May 1915, page 111;
July 1915, page
163; August 1915, page 174, October 1915, page 229; November 1915, page
1916, page 70; July 1916, page 211; October 1916, page 317, page 320,
C. C. B., page 5, May 1917, page 156; May 1918, page 152; February
1919, page 35;
November 1923, page 329; April 1924, page 109.
* * *
- What is the important point in
Franklin's printed item?
- What was the date of this item?
- What is meant by an "expose"?
- How old was Franklin at this
- Give the substance of the "Bell
- Who was MacCalla?
- What was his estimate of the
- What did the Pennsylvania
Library Committee think of it? Nickerson? Drummond?
- Why is the authenticity of the
- What was the "Carmick MS."?
- What is Songhurst's theory
- Describe the manuscript.
- What is Hughan's estimate of
- Who was Daniel Coxe?
- What were his American claims?
- Where did he hold his Masonic
- When was he made Provincial
- Over what Provinces? By whom?
- Describe his deputation.
- What does his deputation prove?
- Did he ever exercise his
- What is meant by Liber B?
- By whom and when was it
- What does it indicate
concerning early Philadelphia Masonry?
- What is the point at issue
between Massachusetts and Pennsylvania?
- Describe Philadelphia as it was
- What do you know about Franklin
as a Freemason?
- What is meant by "duly
- What has been your own theory
as to where "duly constituted" Masonry
began in this country?
sends His teachers into every age;
To every clime and every race of men
With revelation fitted to their growth
And shape of mind. Nor gives the realm of truth
Into the selfish rule of one sole race.
Therefore, each form of worship that hath swayed
The life of man, and given it to grasp
The master key of knowledge ‒ reverence
Infolds some germs of goodness and of right.”
Books for Sale
I have been
appointed trustee to dispose of the Masonic Library of a deceased
are some six hundred titles all told, comprising encyclopedias,
histories, philosophies, symbolism, jurisprudence, constitutions and
anti-Masonry, pyramids, phallic and serpent worship, druidism,
and practically all the other subjects that come with the Masonic
field. Among the
more important items are a set of Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Vols. I to
set of the New Age Magazine, Vol. I to date; Hutton Webster's Primitive
thirteen George Oliver items, six Henry Sadler items, Upton's Negro
Hughan items; Leader Scott's Cathedral Builders etc. No lists will be
to dealers. Individual brother Masons in need of any of these titles
complete information by addressing a letter to the undersigned.
1611 Rucker Ave.,
Box and Correspondence
Two Great Pillars"
In Old Books
I had the
chance recently to see a rare curiosity in the way of an old English
book. It was
apparently printed at about Francis Bacon's time. The title page is
flanked by two
pillars; can it be possible that these had anything to do with our own
L. P. G., Virginia.
us, Bro. L. P. G., for condensing your fine long letter into a few
as the writer is neither a bibliographer nor the son of a
bibliographer, he offers
an amateur's reply to your inquiry, in the hopes that some reader
learned in such
matters will make himself heard. There MAY be some remote connection
design described by you and our own Great Pillars but the probabilities
much against it, and the probabilities are somewhat in favor of the two
on your old book representing the Pillars of Hercules, which stand at
entrance to the Mediterranean Sea, and which in Bacon's time very
in books and works of art as two huge posts or pillars. Again it is
your pillars were merely conventionalized representations of the two
of some cathedral or other public building. It was not at all uncommon
fifteenth and sixteen centuries for a front cover or title page of a
book to be
designed as the entrance to such a building, suggesting no doubt that a
about to enter a house of learning. In our files we possess a
photograph of the
Directorium humanae vitae, published in 1488-1493, which carries as a
illustration the cut of an entrance to some ecclesiastical structure,
two pillars; also the photograph of a Hortus Sanitatis, published in
1488, of which
the same may be said; similarly a work of Occam of 1497; also
in Terram Sanctam, the first illustrated travel book ever published, of
a Dutch Chronicle of 1530, resplendent with a fine double-headed eagle;
V. M., of about 1506; Robert Gaguin's La Mer des Croniques, etc., 1518;
of the Book of Ecclesiasticus, 1563; and so on. In all of these, two
appear, but in every ease they are evidently intended to represent the
of a building ‒ not any building in particular, but just a building, a
or monastery. In this same connection it is interesting to note that in
two of these
photographs appear the familiar square and compasses (or "compass," if
you prefer). They are very distinctly worked into the ornamental
initial of an Opus
Geographie, by Claud Ptolemaeus, published in 1522; and also into the
designs of Arithmetica Practica, by Orontius Finaeus, 1535. The last
item is especially
interesting to the Masonic bookworm. In its ornate design are eight
variously astronomy, music, geography, arithmetic, with Ptolemy,
and Algus correspondingly opposite. Ptolemy holds a sextant, our jewel
of a Past
Master, in his right hand; Geography holds a square in her left hand
and a pair
of compasses in her right. Were the square and compasses used in those
days as an
emblem of geography? Perhaps some erudite reader can tell us.
* * *
Wrote "The Martyrdom
me through the Question Box what man wrote a book called Man and His
Does it have anything to do with Masonry?
W. T. Y., New York.
doubtless have in mind The Martyrdom of Man [Lib 1872], by Winwood Reade, one of the
extraordinary books of recent times, and one that has gone through
editions, the latest of which is an issue by Watts &; Co.,
Fleet Street, London,
E.C. 4, retailing at 2s. 6 d. Reade ( a nephew of Charles Reade, the
of The Cloister and the Hearth [Lib 1901], a book you should know)
planning a history of Africa but in working at his subject found it
incorporate in it a history of all religions, from primitive cults down
and at last also brought into it a survey of the evolution of the human
materials for which were accumulated before Darwin published his
Descent of Man.
As completed, the book was really a history of the world in one volume.
said of it, "This book has made me what I am." Sir Harry Johnson wished
that a copy might be given to every young man in the United Kingdom and
in the United
States upon reaching twenty-one. H. G. Wells paid a tribute to it in
to his The Outline of History [Lib 1922] after this manner:
few sketches of universal history by one single author have been
written. One book
that has influenced me very strongly is Winwood Reade's Martyrdom of
Man. This 'dates,'
as people say nowadays, and it has a fine gloom of its own; but it is
still an extraordinarily
inspiring presentation of human history as one consistent process."
is well said, for it is doubtful if a more pessimistic volume was ever
it is so exceedingly pessimistic that only its marvelous style saves it
too depressing for perusal by normal human beings, but that style is
pure and simple, enthralling, enchanting, unforgettable. Ye scribe will
the day when, standing in a summer excursion train for seven solid
hours, he plowed
through it from end to end without a stop, the last page as breathless
as the first.
difficult to believe that the pessimist who penned The Martyrdom wrote
Veil of Isis [Lib 1861]. It may be, Bro. W. T. Y.,
you have had this title in mind, for it has many things to say about
this fine tribute:
"The doctrines of Masonry are
the most beautiful
that it is possible to imagine. They breathe the simplicity of the
animated by the love of a martyred God. That word which the Puritans
'Charity,' but which is really 'Love,' is the keystone which supports
edifice of this mystic science. Love one another, teach one another,
help one another
That is all our doctrine, all our science, all our law. We have no
prejudices, we do not debar from our society this sect or that sect, it
for us that a man worship God, no matter under what name or in what
rail against us bigoted and ignorant men if you will. Those who listen
to the truths
which Masonry inculcates can readily forgive you. It is impossible to
be a good
Mason without being a good man."
* * *
an old magazine called: The Freemasons' Monthly? When? Where? Was
published in more than one edition?
L. H. L., Missouri.
According to Josiah H. Drummond's Masonic
Historical and Bibliographical Memoranda, The Freemason's
Monitor, or Illustrations of Masonry, by Thomas Smith Webb, was issued
times, first in Albany, N. Y., 1797, and last, New York, 1866. Rob
an edition, Cincinnati, 1859, with many changes and additions; and in
still another edition, which has been re-issued many times. Another
of this old classic was published by Enoch T. Carson, Cincinnati, 1858,
times re-issued since. The same may be said of an edition put out by
George W. Chaen,
Boston, no date given. Will bibliographical readers send further notes
[Lib 1775-1882; (Found 11 versions of Webb’s Monitor – see
Monthly Magazine was an octave monthly of thirty-two pages, published
edited by Charles W. Moor. It happens that the Drummond work quoted
just above contains
a paragraph concerning this great monthly, quoted here as furnishing
own opinion of one of the best Masonic journals ever produced:
and published by Charles W. Moore, he issued the first number in
it was begun as it ended, an octave of thirty-two pages, published
thirty-one years, month after month, he issued the magazine without a
The thirty-first volume closed in October, 1872, and he delayed the
of the thirty-second volume till January, 1873; he lived to complete
with it he finished his work on earth. This magazine was the first
was exclusively Masonic. Its effect on the jurisprudence of Masonry
cannot be estimated.
It is justly regarded as one of the most valuable works in a Masonic
(Was unable to
find a complete
set of the ‘Freemason’s Monthly Magazine’. The following can be found
in the Bibliography:
Vol 1, Vol 3, Vol 4, Vol 5, Vol 6, Vol 7, Vol 10, Vol 12, Vol 13, Vol
16, Vol 20,
Vol 21, Vol 22, Vol 23, Vol 24, Vol 25, Vol 29, Vol 31, Vol 32 –enjoy)
Our own set
of this valuable old magazine is bound in fraying sheepskin, after the
law books, and some of the volumes bear the autograph of T. S. Parvin.
If a reader
chances to own a set, or any volumes belonging to it, he will find
plenty of brethren
ready to buy.
* * *
of Lafayette to the United States in 1824-25, on invitation by
Congress, was a memorable
event. He was sought as a public guest in all parts of the country; his
amid a universal tumult of honor and praise: and the nation thronged
to testify with one voice its gratitude and love. Congress voted him a
$200,000 and a township of land. Lafayette's son, George Washington
‒ 1849), named after George Washington, and whom Lafayette sent to live
during the French Revolution, figured in French republican polities of
visit to the United States, he was the guest of honor at banquets in
all of our
principal cities, and the guest at many Masonic functions held in his
these times he was made an honorary member of many Masonic lodges, how
many I do
not know. He was made a member of Fredericksburg Lodge, No. 4,
the photograph of which appears herewith, was photographed by me in
November, 1923. It is owned by Mr. Fred I. Crane, formerly of New York,
I believe living somewhere in Louisiana. This badge was worn by Myron
engraver of it, who lived at Troy, N. Y., at a banquet given Lafayette
New York, 1825. It was given by him to his son, who gave it to Mr.
Crane. It is
printed on cream colored silk, and is in a perfect state of
preservation. At the
top are the holes made by the pin which held it on the lapel of Mr.
on the night of the banquet, ninety-nine years ago, and at the bottom,
lead pencil, is the date, 1825.
I wish to
know the names of all the Masonic lodges that made Lafayette an
This information will be appreciated by me, if the brethren who know
of which he was such a member, will write me giving the dates and the
names of the
‒ John J. Lanier, Fredericksburg,
* * *
Lodge in the World
BUILDER for May, 1924, Bro. L. B. Mitchell, of Michigan, asked
concerning the highest
lodge in the world. The highest lodge in the world is located in Cerro
Peru, at an altitude of 14,208 feet above the level of the sea. The
members of this
Scottish lodge, named "Roof of the World," have held meetings on a
of the mountain (15,575 feet high) on the side of which Cerro de Pasco
S. Stickney, Philippine Islands.
the history of Scottish Rite Masonry, I find mention in several places
of the "Secret
Constitutions" of that body.
Northern Jurisdiction, 1861-1858, shows that the Northern and Southern
"hold in their archives certified copies of the Secret Constitutions
from the Grand Consistory held at Paris in 1761."
Jurisdiction Proceedings, 1870, show that a copy of the Secret
transmitted by Bro. J. J. J. Gourgas to his successor and came into
Bro. J. H. Drummond through the hands of his predecessors.
I would appreciate
it very much if you would inform me through the Question Box in THE
these "Secret Constitutions" are. By whom, when and where were they
What was their purpose, and why secret?
you in advance for any information you may give me on the above matter,
J. A. G., Texas.
Field Willard, Editor of The Master Mason, San Diego, Cal., has been
to prepare an exhaustive reply to your inquiry for publication here:
to the questions submitted by your correspondent as to the "Secret
of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, I would say the reason they
"Secret Constitutions" is because that is their name as given in the
promulgated, according to the assertions therein, by Frederick, King of
better known as Frederick the Great.
was considered by many Masonic writers for a long time as an apocryphal
In this view the writer thoroughly coincided for a time, but after a
of all the facts and the written documents now in existence, he has
been led to
reach the same conclusion as Albert Pike expressed so strongly. That
is, that the
constitutions are genuine and were drawn up by direction of Frederick
by him despite all assertions to the contrary, and promulgated to all
where there were bodies of the Scottish Rite.
was initiated Aug. 14, 1738, as is well known. When the lodge "To the
Globes" was formed, in 1740, he turned it into the Grand Lodge of the
name, became its Grand Master and was borne on its list of officers as
1757. In 1758 the Scottish "Chapter of Clermont" was formed and added
to that Grand Lodge as higher degrees of Scottish origin On July 19,
chapter of Scottish degrees took the title of "Premier Chapter of
which is supposed to be the date when Frederick placed himself at the
head of the
Scottish degrees. According to the first circular letter issued by the
of the A. & A. S. R., in 1802, Charles Edward Stuart, known as
Pretender" of the royal line of Scotland, transferred his authority
Scottish degrees to Frederick, and this took place either on Oct. 25,
the Constitutions were adopted by the Grand Council of Berlin and
signed by Frederick,
or when the "Premier Chapter of Clermont" adopted that title two years
before. Charles Edward had formed a chapter of the Scottish degrees at
15, 1747, and was present at the meeting described in his diary by
Baron von Hund
in 1742, at Paris, when the Earl of Kilmarnock, then Grand Master of
also Master of the Lodge Mother Kilwinning, in a lodge under the
the Grand Lodge of Scotland, gave Baron von Hund the Templar and
which von Hund took to Germany, and which Templar degrees were given in
Lodge of Boston in 1769.
16, 1774, Frederick the Great granted his protection to the National
of Germany and officially approved the treaty with the Grand Lodge of
which the National Grand Lodge had been established. In the year 1777
Lodge, "Royal York of Friendship," now a Grand Lodge at Berlin,
by a festival the king's birthday (Jan. 24, 1712), on which occasion he
"I cannot but be sensible of
the new homage
of the Lodge Royal York of Friendship on the occasion the anniversary
of my birth,
bearing as it does the evidence of its zeal and attachment for my
person. Its Orator
has well expressed the sentiments which animate all its labors, and a
employs itself only in sowing the seed and bringing forth the fruit of
of virtue in my dominions may always be assured of my protection. It is
task of every good Sovereign, and I will never cease to fulfill it. And
so I pray
God to take you and your lodge under His holy and deserved protection.
this 14th day of February, 1777. [Signed] Frederic."
were two such constitutions, one of which is entitled "Constitution and
drawn up by Nine Commissioners appointed Ad Hoc by the Sovereign Grand
of the Royal Secret, Orients of Paris and B ," dated Oct. 25, 1762, and
other entitled "The Most Secret Institutes and Basis of the Most
Associated Freemasons, which is styled the Royal and Military Order of
Stone," dated May 1, 1786.
30, 1770, a Grand Chapter of Princes of the Royal Secret was formed at
Jamaica, by Stephen Morin and Henry A. Francken, the latter of whom had
Ineffable Lodge of Perfection in Albany on Dec. 20, 1767. With that
Lodge of Perfection
Francken left a copy of the Patent to Stephen Morin, given in 1761, and
was appended a copy of the Constitutions of 1762, and these were in the
of Enoch T. Carson (see page 617, Vol. IV, Gould's History, American
the original charter of that lodge was given in facsimile in THE
1920. As this copy of the Constitutions of 1762 was deposited only five
they were drawn up, it would seem strange that so much doubt has been
east on the
authenticity of these Constitutions did we not know of the bitter
supremacy between rival bodies.
of the Albany Lodge of Perfection says that Henry Andrew Francken was
to confer the degrees UP TO THE 29TH! The charter of the Grand Chapter
of the Princes
of the Royal Secret at Kingston, Jamaica, bears date of April 30, 1770,
and is positive
proof of the feet that the Constitutions of 1762 were genuine and that
a Supreme Council of Nine Commissioners at Berlin as this MS. is in the
for it says (Gould, IV, page 634, American edition), "And that ye shall
behave yourselves to all the statutes, rules and regulations of the
named by the Grand Chapter of the Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret
at the Grand
East of Paris and PRUSSIA. Consequently, by the deliberations dated the
7th of December,
1762, to be ratified and observed by the aforesaid Grand Chapter of
France ‒ to govern and regulate all Lodges, Councils, Grand Councils,
Consistories, from the Secret Master to the Royal Secret," etc. This
eight years after these Constitutions were drawn up and the words
conform to the
title of the Constitutions of 1762.
of the Albany Lodge of Perfection read: ‒
"Albany, 3rd Sept. 1770.
"Br. Stringer, Depy. Inspr.
the Body that he had receiv'd an Order from the Founder" (Francken) "to
transmit the Minutes of the Lodge & the state thereof to be
forwarded to Berlin:
in order that Minutes & Accounts might be regularly Enter's and
Posted in their
proper Books purchased for that use."
Pike, in his Historical Inquiry, on page 153, et seq., gives a view of
which is in consonance with the facts of history and which should be
read in its
entirety. "It will be seen,” he said, “that toward the end of his life
reasons for wishing to control Masonry." The long and carefully written
by Gen. Pike of events in Germany gives powerful and sensible reasons
for the acceptance
of the chieftainship of this Order, which enabled him to control
Masonry in Germany
by putting himself at its head and thus defeating: the intrigues of the
of 1786, after its title "The Most Secret Institutes and Basis," etc.,
goes on to say, "We, Frederick, by the Grace of God King of Prussia,
of Brandenburg, etc., etc. Supreme Grand Protector, Grand Commander,
Master and Defender of the Most Ancient and Honourable Society of
Ancient Free and
Associated Masons or Builders or of the Royal and Military Order of the
of Working in Stone or of Free Masonry."
Constitutions combine the various Scottish rites "known under the
of the Ancient, that of Heredom or Hairdom, that of the Orient (or
East) of Kilwinning,
that of Saint Andrew, that of the Emperors of the East and West, that
of the Princes
of the Royal Secret or of Perfection, the Philosophic Rite, and that
rite of all, known as Primitive" (which last had a rite of thirty-three
according to John Yarker). This document goes on to say:
"Wherefore, adopting as the
basis of our
conservative reformation the first of these rites and the number of the
of the hierarchy of the last,
"WE DO DECLARE them all to be
now and henceforth
united and aggregated into one single order which professing the Dogma
and the pure
and undefiled doctrines of the Ancient Art of Masonry embraces all the
the Scottish Rite united together under the title of 'The Ancient
Rite.' The entire doctrine will be communicated to Masons in 33
and Statutes adopted at this time provided for a council of nine
members in each
country of the 33rd and last degree and were signed by Frederic
French Ambassador at Berlin), Starek and Woellner (both well known
members of the
Higher Degrees), H. Wilhelm, and others whose names are now illegible.
is a certificate in Latin attached to the original Latin Constitutions
dated the 23rd of February, 1834, sealed with the seal of the Supreme
France and signed by Lafayette and eight others of nearly equal
prominence in Masonry
in France certifying that they had compared with it the authentic
French copy of
the "True Secret and Fundamental Institutes, Statutes, Constitutions
of the first of May, 1786" (V. E.) of which the official copies are
and have been carefully and faithfully preserved in all their purity
among the archives
of the Order. They, therefore, certified that the said copies were
literally conformable to the original documents. This certificate is
Sieter, one of the signers, and is given in full in Robert B. Folger,
A. & A.
Scottish Rite [Lib 1862], New York, 1862, page 263.
II of the Constitutions of 1762, there are but twenty-five degrees
would seem to show that it was the Rite of Perfection or Emperors of
the East and
West, while the Constitutions of 1786 raised the number of degrees to
as we now know them and christened the rite the "Ancient Accepted
see in the Charter of Albany Lodge of Perfection that Francken was
communicate "up to the 29th" degree, and it would seem from that fact
that Morin and Francken must have known of the new arrangement and
in the records of the Grand Lodge of France, at the sitting of Aug. 17,
Folger, page 37), which was five years after Morin received his patent:
considering the carelessness and the various alterations into the Royal
Art by Worshipful
Brother Morin, her late Inspector, the Worshipful Grand Lodge annuls
the Brief of
Inspector granted said Brother Morin and deems proper for the good of
Art to cause him to be replaced by Worshipful Bro. Martin, Master of
the St. Frederic
Lodge, and that his letters of Constitution for America be ratified."
does not seem to have been regarded by Morin or to have had any effect
on his activities
as the Grand Lodge was only one of the two powers that united to give
him his patent.
We find him four years later at Kingston, Jamaica, an English island,
the jurisdiction of the Grand Council of Berlin and Paris. The Albany
Lodge of Perfection
was instructed to send their minutes to the Grand Council of Berlin and
is there any evidence of any attention being paid to the Grand Lodge of
Lodge of France has originally been started as a Provincial Grand Lodge
by the Grand
Lodge of England and then called itself the National Grand Lodge of
France. In opposition
to these English lodges, there had been organized Scottish bodies by
the Grand Lodge
of Scotland before the National Grand Lodge of France was organized.
French historians this was done by Dr. Ramsay and the Grand Master of
the Earl of Kilmarnock, related in the diary of Baron von Hund as
having taken place
statement made by the Grand Lodge of France, it would seem that there
made by Stephen Morin who was an American of French Huguenot descent
born in New
York City, and it would seem that these alterations were ordered by his
and recognized in the Constitutions of 1786, for Frederick of Prussia
did not hesitate,
in 1740, to raise the local lodge, "The Three Globes," to the dignity
of a Grand Lodge by his own dictum, and his action was recognized by
the Grand Lodge
of England as perfectly proper.
a brief story of the Secret Constitutions of 1762 and 1786 to which all
Rite Masons yield obedience and over which barrels of ink have been
spilled in days
gone by, especially by the French writers opposed to the Scottish Rite
would be considered necessary or advisable, I should be glad to furnish
translations of these two Constitutions taken from the best authorities
much light on the development of the Scottish Rite.
Cyrus Field Willard, San Diego, Cal.
* * *
You Give Us This Information?
asks for some information: "Can you advise me if the Colonel Driver, of
Bro. John W. Barry speaks as 'Old Glory Driver,' was a Mason, and if so
he raised? Can you tell me who suggested the motto 'In God We Trust'
for our American
coin, and if he was a Mason? I have somewhere read that he was a Mason
H. V. S., New Hampshire.
reference will be found on page 11 of his The Story of Old Glory,
published by the
National Masonic Research Society. He based it on Essex Institute
July, 1901, page 261.
inquirer we have this: "Somewhere I read a story ‒ it was some time
relating that the American degrees were conferred in a lodge in
England. I think
it was during the World War. Can you publish the facts if this is true?"
W. P. B., New York.
* * *
of Michigan, author of "A General Account of the Swedish Rite," in the
September issue, asks permission to correct an error that slipped past
and Ye Editor:
guilty of a lapses pennae on page 260 of my article, upper left-hand
mentioning Derwentwater as Grand Master in London instead of in Paris.
In his Frimureriet,
the Danish Professor Starcke tells us that Count Ch. Radcliffe
Grand Master of the English Grand Lodge at Paris in 1737, that he
resigned in the
same year, and no successor was elected. Undoubtedly Stareke ‒ who by
the way is
no Mason himself ‒ had his information from German sources."
F. Willard, editor of The Master Mason, San Diego, Cal., adds this
Derwentwater was Grand Master of the English (Provincial) Grand Lodge
according to Rebold's list, in 1735. According to the same list, p.
des Trois Grandes Lodges, Lord Harnouester was Grand Master of the
Grand Lodge of France only a part of the year 1737, for Rebold says,
page 45 idein,
'In 1737 Lard Harnouester, the second provincial Grand Master wishing
to England, demanded before his departure that he be replaced by a
Duke I'Antin, a zealous Mason, succeeded him in June, 1738.' If it can
that the Swedish lodges founded by Baron Scheffer in 1737 really had a
by Lord Derwentwater in 1737, it would tend to prove the surmise of
Gould that Lord
Derwentwater and Lord I. Harnouester were the same individual, only the
spelling of English proper names having confused the two to appear as
individuals. This is a lead worth investigating"
A sense of
humor is good sense.
* * *
contemporary (as the old manner hath it) published an article on
in a Crowded Street Car." "There ain't no sech animal."
* * *
don't appear to take their Arabic origin very seriously. All their
Kansas City were simon pure Egyptian.
* * *
Masonic Review announces suspension. Sorry it was necessary, Bro.
you can resume one of these days. We need you.
* * *
Lodge of Schenectady (have I spelled it right?) celebrated its 150th
Sept. 13. The whole city united to pay tribute to its remarkable
record. The Schenectady
Union-Star published a magnificent speech by that magnificent old
Mason, Bro. John
W. Vrooman, Senior Past Grand Master of New York, fifty-nine years in
* * *
Have you read anything on Einstein yet? Einstein's Theories of
Relativity and Gravitation,
edited by J. Malcolm Bird, pays a remarkable tribute to our old friend,
Proposition of that "learned clerk," our Bro. Euclid. Wonder how many
are in Fraternal correspondence with Euclid?
* * *
distribution, three N.M.R.S. leaflets: "An Interpretation of the Plumb
"A Word to the Candidate Before Initiation," and "The Trestle Board."
Don't be bashful. Enclose a two cent stamp.
is from the "Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts":
was a man driving along in his automobile, and the automobile broke
down. He went
to the door of the ranch house knocked, and a big Swede came to the
door. The automobilist
said, "Friend, do you have a monkey wrench around here?" "No. My
brother, he got a cattle wrench; my cousin, he got a sheep wrench, but
cold for monkey wrench."
* * *
Star sisters have been razzing us for publishing the anti-feminine
oratory in this
Corner last month. Here is something by way of retort:
to the humorous weekly Pele-Mele a philosopher says there are three
a woman must resemble in one way, but not another:
must be like a snail, which never leaves its house, but unlike a snail,
not put all she owns on her back.
must be like an echo, which speaks only when spoken to; but she must
not, like the
echo, always insist on the last word.
she must be like the town clock, always correct and always punctual;
but she must
not, as the clock does, make so much noise that she will be heard all
over the town.”
Changes in the Book of Mormon
Cal98 / auth. Call Lamoni. - Bountiful : [s.n.], 1898. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 122. - 6.0 MB.
A History of Lodge No. 61
Har97 / auth. Harvey Oscar J. - Wilkesbarre : [s.n.], 1897. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 696. - 28.7 MB.
A Short History of the City of
Coo87 / auth. Coolidge Susan. - Boston : Roberts Brothers, 1887. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 290. - 5.1 MB.
Annual Report 1902 Vol 1
Ame03 / auth. Association American Historical. - Washington DC :
Government Printing Office, 1903. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 610. - 28.2 MB.
Annual Report 1902 Vol 2
Ame031 / auth. Association American Historical. - Washington DC :
Government Printing Office, 1903. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 528. - 28.4 MB.
War28 / auth. Ward Henry D. - New York : Vanderpool & Cole,
1828. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 382. - 26.3 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 003 - 1890
Ars90 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1890. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 277. - 23.5 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 010 - 1897
Ars97 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 306. - 63.8 MB.
Catalogue of Books
Gas52 / auth. Gassett Henry. - Boston : Damrell & Moore, 1852.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 284. - 5.6 MB.
Curiosities of Literature Vol
Dis81CL1 / auth. Disraeli Isaac. - New York : Thomas Y Crowell, 1881. -
Vol. 1+2 : 4 : p. 924. - 43.0 MB.
Curiosities of Literature Vol 3
Dis81CL2 / auth. Disraeli Isaac. - New York : Thomas Y Crowell, 1881. -
Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 466. - 23.5 MB.
Curiosities of Literature Vol 4
Dis81CL3 / auth. Disraeli Isaac. - New York : Thomas Y Crowell, 1881. -
Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 472. - 22.1 MB.
Delusions - An Analysis of the
Book of Mormon
Cam32 / auth. Campbell Alexander - Delusions [1832. - Boston : Benjamin
H Greene, 1832. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 20. - 1.5 MB.
Discourses on Public Occasions
Har19 / auth. Harris Thaddeus M. - Philadelphia : Geo. Howorth
& M'Carty & Davis, 1819. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 359. - Also:
The Golden Remains of the Early Masonic Writers Vol 5 by George Oliver
- 18.1 MB.
Franklin's 'Lodge of Masons'
Sac99 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : Lippincott Press, 1899.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 28. - 1.0 MB.
Freemasonry in Michigan Vol 1
Con97FM1 / auth. Conover Jefferson. - Coldwater : The Conover Engraving
and Printing Company, 1897. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 607. - 39.8 MB.
Freemasonry in Michigan Vol 2
Con98FM2 / auth. Conover Jefferson. - Coldwater : The Conover Engraving
and Printing Company, 1898. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 513. - 32.5 MB.
Freemasonry in New York
Lan22 / auth. Lang Ossian. - New York : Grand Lodge of New York, 1922.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 248. - 5.5 MB.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 1
McC91NY1 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 4. - Volume not Found.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 2
McC92NY2 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1892. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 649. - 16.8 MB.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 3
McC93NY3 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1893. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 636. - 17.3 MB.
Freemasonry in New York Vol 4
McC94NY4 / auth. McClenachan Charles T. - New York : Grand Lodge of New
York, 1894. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 656. - 18.6 MB.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania Vol
Sac08FP1 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1908. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 526. - 13.9 MB.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania Vol
Sac09FP2 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1909. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 518. - 11.8 MB.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania Vol
Sac19FP3 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1919. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 507. - 13.0 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 01
Moo42FM01 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1842. - Vol. 1 : 32 : p. 392. - 26.3 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 02 -
Volume not Found
Moo43FM02 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1943. - Vol. 2 : 32.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 03
Moo44FM03 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1944. - Vol. 3 : 32 : p. 390. - 32.8 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 04
Moo45FM04 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1845. - Vol. 4 : 32 : p. 393. - 34.1 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 05
Moo46FM05 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1846. - Vol. 5 : 32 : p. 393. - 32.0 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 06
Moo47FM06 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1847. - Vol. 6 : 32 : p. 403. - 35.8 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 07
Moo48FM07 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1848. - Vol. 7 : 32 : p. 786. - 66.9 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 08 -
Volume not Found
Moo49FM08 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1849. - Vol. 8 : 32.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 09 -
Volume not Found
Moo50FM09 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1850. - Vol. 9 : 32.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 10
Moo51FM10 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1851. - Vol. 10 : 32 : p. 117. - 10.0 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 11 -
Volume not Found
Moo52FM11 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1852. -
Vol. 11 : 32.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 12
Moo53FM12 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1853. -
Vol. 12 : 32 : p. 393. - 30.4 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 13
Moo54VM13 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1854. -
Vol. 13 : 32 : p. 393. - 30.9 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 14 -
Volume not Found
Moo55FM14 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1855. -
Vol. 14 : 32.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 15 -
Volume not Found
Moo56FM15 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1856. -
Vol. 15 : 32.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 16
Moo57FM16 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1857. -
Vol. 16 : 32 : p. 262. - 15.6 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 17 -
Volume not Found [Book] / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston :
Hugh H Tuttle, 1858.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 18 -
Volume not Found [Book] / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston :
Hugh H Tuttle, 1859. - Vol. 18 : 32.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 19 -
Volume not Found [Book] / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston :
Hugh H Tuttle, 1860. - Vol. 19 : 32.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 20
Moo61FM20 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1861. -
Vol. 20 : 32 : p. 190. - 14.8 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 21
Moo62FM21 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1862. -
Vol. 21 : 32 : p. 792. - 63.4 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 22
Moo63FM22 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1863. -
Vol. 22 : 32 : p. 222. - 22.3 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 23
Moo64FM23 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1864. -
Vol. 23 : 32 : p. 393. - 23.0 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 24
Moo65FM24 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Hugh H Tuttle, 1865. -
Vol. 24 : 32 : p. 440. - 39.6 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 25
Moo66FM25 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Edward S Coombs Company,
1866. - Vol. 25 : 32 : p. 220. - 17.2 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 26 -
Volume not Found [Book] / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston :
Edward S Coombs Company, 1867. - Vol. 26 : 32.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 27 -
Volume not Found
Moo68FM27 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Edward S Coombs Company,
1868. - Vol. 27 : 32.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 28 -
Volume not Found [Book] / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston :
[s.n.], 1869. - Vol. 28 : 32.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 29
Moo70FM29 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Solon Thornton, 1870. -
Vol. 29 : 32 : p. 188. - 9.9 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 30 -
Volume not Found [Book] / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston :
[s.n.], 1871. - Vol. 30 : 32.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 31
Moo72FM31 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Arthur W Cooke &
Co, 1872. - Vol. 31 : 32 : p. 461. - 36.3 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 32
Moo72FM32 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Batchelder &
Wood, 1872. - Vol. 32 : 32 : p. 434. - 32.6 MB.
GL of Vermont Early Records
GLo79 / auth. GL of Vermont. - Burlington : The Free Press Association,
1879. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 423. - 24.6 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
History of Freemasonry in
Canada Vol 1
Rob00FC1 / auth. Robertson J Ross. - Toronto : George N. Morgan
& Co Ltd, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 1358. - 36.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry in
Canada Vol 2
Rob00FC2 / auth. Robertson J Ross. - Toronto : George N. Morgan
& Co Ltd, 1900. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 465. - 19.0 MB.
History of Masonry and
Sti91 / auth. Stillson Henry L. - Boston : The Fraternal Publishing
Company, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 866. - Illustrated - 57.8 MB.
History of the GL of Iowa Vol 1
Mor10 / auth. Morcombe Joseph E. - Cedar Rapids : GL of Iowa, 1910. -
Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 334. - 14.2 MB.
History of Utah
Ban90 / auth. Bancroft Hubert H. - San Francisco : The History Company,
1890. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 880. - 60.9 MB.
Latter Day Saints History Vol 1
Rob02LD1 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1902. -
Vol. 1 : 7 : p. 603. - 31.6 MB.
Latter Day Saints History Vol 2
Rob04LD2 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1904. -
Vol. 2 : 7 : p. 580. - 28.1 MB.
Latter Day Saints History Vol 3
Rob05LD3 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1905. -
Vol. 3 : 7 : p. 556. - 27.1 MB.
Latter Day Saints History Vol 4
Rob081LD4 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1908. -
Vol. 4 : 7 : p. 662. - 31.6 MB.
Latter Day Saints History Vol 5
Rob09LD5 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1909. -
Vol. 5 : 7 : p. 600. - 27.4 MB.
Latter Day Saints History Vol 6
Rob12LD6 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1912. -
Vol. 6 : 7 : p. 676. - 29.0 MB.
Latter Day Saints History Vol 7
Rob32LD7 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1932. -
Vol. 7 : 7 : p. 671. - 29.9 MB.
Letters on the Masonic
Ada47 / auth. Adams John Q.. - Boston : Press of T. R. Marvin, 1847. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 321. - 7.6 MB.
Life Including his
Autobiography Vol 1
Wee83LA1 / auth. Weed Thurlow. - Boston : Houghton, Mifflin and
Company, 1883. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 691. - 33.7 MB.
Life Including his
Autobiography Vol 2
Wee83LA2 / auth. Weed Thurlow. - Boston : Houghton, Mifflin and
Company, 1883. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 642. - 28.0 MB.
Sta50 / auth. Stacy Nathaniel. - Columbus : Abner Vedder, 1850. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 526. - 32.5 MB.
Mormon Group Life
Eri22 / auth. Ericksen Ephrahim E. - Chicago : University of Chicago
Press, 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 318. - 13.0 MB.
Mormon Point of View
Nel04 / auth. Nelson Nels L. - Provo City : N L Nelson, 1904. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 108. - 9.1 MB.
New Witnesses for God Vol 1
Rob11NW1 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1911. -
Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 482. - 17.6 MB.
New Witnesses for God Vol 2
Rob20NW2 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1920. -
Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 476. - 19.0 MB.
New Witnesses for God Vol 3
Rob09NW3 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1909. -
Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 582. - 28.2 MB.
Niles' Register Vol 35
Nil29R35 / auth. Niles Hezekiah. - Baltimore : H Niles, 1829. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 452. - 56.3 MB.
Wre50 / auth. Wren Sir Christopher. - London : T. Osborn, 1750. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 388. - 38.3 MB.
Rep12 / auth. Repplier Agnes. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1912.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 424. - 20.5 MB.
Ant30 / auth. Anti-Masonic Convention. - New York : Skinner and Dewey,
1830. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 165. - 17.8 MB.
Psychological Test for the
Authorship of the Book Mormon
Pri17 / auth. Prince Walter F. - [s.l.] : JSTOR, 1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 19. - 1.9 MB.
Sir Christopher Wren
Elm52 / auth. Elmes James. - London : Chapman & Hall, 1852. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 457. - 51.8 MB.
Odi30 / auth. Odiorne James C. - Boston : Perkins & Marvin,
1830. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 286. - 51.9 MB.
The Abduction and Murder of
Hun86 / auth. Huntington P C. - New York : M W Hazen Co, 1886. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 177. - 7.2 MB.
The Anti-Masonic Party
McC02 / auth. McCarthy Charles. - 1902. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 211. - 14.7
The Broken Seal
Gre73 / auth. Green Samuel D. - Chicago : Ezra Cook & Co, 1873.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 306. - 7.7 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Cloister and the Hearth
Rea01 / auth. Reade Charles. - London : J. M. Dent & Co., 1901.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 705. - 32.0 MB.
The Founder of Mormonism
Ril02 / auth. Riley I Woodbridge. - New York : Dodd, Mead &
Company, 1902. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 451. - 8.2 MB.
The Latter Day Saints
Kau12 / auth. Kauffman Ruth. - London : Williams and Norgate, 1912. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 373. - 13.7 MB.
The Martyrdom of Man
Rea72 / auth. Reade Wynwood. - London : Trubner & Co, 1872. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 553. - 16.5 MB.
The Myth of Manuscript Found
Rey83 / auth. Reynolds George. - Salt Lake City : Juvenile Instructor
Office, 1883. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 104. - 5.4 MB.
The Outline of History
Wel22 / auth. Wells Herbert G. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 1203. - Illustrated - 35.8 MB.
The Romance of Old Philadelphia
Far181 / auth. Faris John T. - Philadelphia : J B Lippincott Company,
1918. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 407. - 23.7 MB.
The Scottish Rite
Fol62 / auth. Folger Robert B. - New York : Robert B Folger, 1862. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 784. - 24.6 MB.
The Veil of Isis or the
Mysteries of the Druids
Rea61 / auth. Reade W. Winwood. - New York : Peter Eckler, Publisher,
1861. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 246. - 7.0 MB.
Webb's Freemason's Monitor
Web82 / auth. Webb Thomas S / ed. Fenton James. - Detroit : Richmond,
Backus & Co, 1882. - 7th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 146. - 6.6 MB.
Webb's Freemason's Monitor
Web67 / auth. Webb Thomas S. - Cincinnati : R W Carroll & Co,
1867. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 214. - 14.4 MB.
Webb's Freemason's Monitor
Web65 / auth. Webb Thomas S / ed. Fenton James. - Cincinnati : C Moore,
1865. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 145. - 12.4 MB.
Webb's Freemason's Monitor
Web61 / auth. Webb Thomas S / ed. Oliver George. - London : R Spencer,
1861. - 17th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 575. - 28.0 MB.
Webb's Freemason's Monitor
Web59 / auth. Webb Thomas S / ed. Morris Rob. - Cincinnati : More,
Wilstach, Keys & Co., 1859. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 407. - 18.6 MB.
Webb's Freemason's Monitor
Web55 / auth. Webb Thomas S / ed. Oliver George. - New York : Jno W
Leonard & Co, 1855. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 410. - 29.6 MB.
Webb's Freemason's Monitor
Web29 / auth. Webb Thomas S / ed. Oliver George. - London : Whittaker,
Treacher, and Co, 1829. - 4th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 480. - 28.4 MB.
Webb's Freemason's Monitor
Web18 / auth. Webb Thomas S. - Salem : Cushing & Appleton,
1818. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 314. - 13.8 MB.
Webb's Freemason's Monitor
Web081 / auth. Webb Thomas S. - Salem : Chushing & Appleton,
1808. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 336. - 12.6 MB.
Webb's Freemason's Monitor
Web88 / auth. Webb Thomas S. - Unknown : Unknown, 1788. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 328. - 13.0 MB.
Webb's Freemason's Monitor
Web75 / auth. Webb Thomas S. - London : J Wilkie, 1775. - 2nd : Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 326. - 10.3 MB.