Masonic Research Society
Sign and a Summons!
after reading this please turn to Bro. Robert J. Newton's inspiriting
the next page. Read it with care ‒ and with prayer! It presents with
language a tragical state of affairs that must soon become the business
Mason in America. Do not read it as "one more scheme" put forward by
anxious to start something" which is "one more excuse for begging
it is none of these things, or anything like them. Bro. Newton and his
are one and all responsible Masons, many of them leaders in the Craft.
nothing to gain from their efforts save the satisfaction of knowing
they have wrought
to bring our Fraternity to a realization of one of its most pressing
We are confronted
by countless problems that are interesting, and many that are
important, but this
is the most urgent of all, because it involves so many lives. It is so
vitally morally urgent, that the Mason who turns aside from it with
will have something laid up against his conscience that shouldn't be
of our brethren go out to the Southwest every year to escape death. If
in the front line trenches of a battle they would not be in greater
of them perish, a majority, perhaps; of those that do a pitiable number
them unprotected wives and children.
agony is not necessary. Tuberculosis, if the victim is given half a
chance, is curable,
but its cure costs time and money, and for that reason very few are in
to wage the battle alone. What is more natural than that a brother in
such a plight,
hundreds and thousands of miles from home usually, should turn to his
for relief! It is a sarcastic commentary on our ineffectual methods for
of charity needs on a national scale that usually he turns in vain. It
is a matter
of record that in scores and scores of cases he does not even receive a
his lodge secretary! He dies believing that Freemasonry is merely a
matter of fine
words, and hopeless of having his family looked after by those brethren
obligated to such a duty.
of the Southwest are generally doing everything they can; many of their
as Bro. Newton indicates, know from experience how bitter a thing it is
to win out
from the clutches of tuberculosis. But those lodges are nearly always
slender finances, and scattered thinly across a vast territory, most of
If every one of them were to devote itself to tuberculosis relief to
the very limit
of its powers still would their combined efforts be utterly inadequate
with the needs, which are so desolatingly heart-breaking to every man
who has knowledge
is not local. It is national. It is not for the Southwest to meet; it
is for the
entire national Fraternity. Our brethren go there from every Grand
Lodge in the
Union; it is the moral obligation of every Grand Lodge to care for its
would dare to advance in speech or print the argument that the powerful
of the East and the Middle West should stand by to let the small Grand
the Southwest assume their burdens for them, and carry out their
Yet that is precisely what they are now doing, almost every one of
them, so far
as tuberculosis is concerned!
fill up every page of this issue with detailed accounts of the neglect
by thousands of tuberculous Masons who flee to the dry warmth of the
escape the fatal winters back home. We do not believe that Masons are
the kind of
men who need thus to be harrowed into doing the brotherly duties
required of them
by their own obligations. We believe that if the Fraternity is brought
to a realization
of the facts it will act, and that gladly. Experience thus far has
will you not acquaint yourself with the facts? Will you not help to
make these facts
everywhere known? Will you not try to bring them home to your lodges
and to your
own Grand Lodge? Will you not do this at once? We can say on our own
honor, in the
name of the National Masonic Research Society, after careful first hand
that these facts are as Bro. Newton has stated them.
If we could
plunge into the waters to save one drowning man we would do it, would
we not, however
much of a stranger he would be! Here is a situation where, without
risks to ourselves, we can save from an equally certain death not one,
not strangers, but brethren!
Accuse!" A Challenge to Freemasonry
Bro. Robert J. Newton,
connection with this bugle-like call the editorial on the preceding
page. Bro. Newton
has been moving heaven and earth in his tireless efforts to bring to
a realization of the facts concerning the greatest need in Masonic
land has ever known. Bro. Francis E. Lester, P.G.M., New Mexico,
by the awful problem of the White Plague in the Southwest and also
has asked us to say for him that he endorses, emphasizes and commends
to the prayerful
attention of all readers everything that Bro. Newton here says. Letters
to Bro. Newton will be forwarded promptly if sent to THE BUILDER.
speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am
sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal."
in America, become sounding brass"?
Is it "a
Does it speak
with the "tongues of men and of angels"; high sounding platitudes about
its principles, its teachings, its origin and its mission ‒ and fail in
Does it preach
of altruism and brotherhood ‒ and fail to practice that which it
Is it more
concerned with the pomp and ceremonies of its Ritual than it is with
spirit of its faith?
Has it been
false to the vows of brotherhood, sworn to before its sacred altars?
living Freemasons who will dare accuse it?
Freemasons who have cursed it ‒ and died?
We ask you,
who read these questions, to apply them to yourself, to your Blue Lodge
and to the
Grand Lodge of your state, and to answer them in the light of your
your own practice of Freemasonry, and of the charitable activities of
your own lodge
and Grand Lodge. We do not accuse, but we ask you to do so, and to make
three million Freemasons in the United States, members of thousands of
together by the most sacred oaths of brotherhood, sworn to aid and
assist each other,
their wives, widows and children.
and as lodges, they try to keep the faith. They do their duty, as far
as they are
able, and as they see it. They visit the sick and bury the dead. They
help according to their ability.
Lodges of most states maintain homes and schools for the orphaned
children of Freemasons.
Some Grand Lodges maintain homes for the aged and helpless brethren,
the recognized lines of charitable activity beyond which few Masons and
lodges ever go. And because most lodges are limited in their funds, the
for charity is necessarily small.
take much credit to the Fraternity for their works of charity. How much
work of benevolence cost each individual Mason? Is it not true that
is the cheapest, or least expensive, organization to which most men
civic luncheon club demands more money from its membership than the
gives to his Masonic lodge.
Have we done
our full duty, as men and brethren, to each other?
no other field of charity and benevolence to which we might turn? Are
there no other
needs to be met?
Is it not
true that the care of the orphaned, the widowed, and the aged is a duty
by all peoples claiming the least degree of civilization and that such
work is but the beginning, and should be but a small part of the
service which we
Is not our
failure to measure up to our opportunities, and the needs for
due to a lack of vision on the part of our leaders and ourselves?
the average Freemason, cheerfully and liberally, contribute to any
charity which would save his brethren from sickness, suffering and
We, who live
in the great Southwest, the land which for more than a century has been
for the sick and suffering, especially for the unfortunates afflicted
with the Great
White Plague, believe that Freemasonry has overlooked and neglected a
opportunity for putting into practice the beautiful teachings of the
We believe that Freemasonry has a great duty to perform in providing
for the hospital
care of the members of our "Grand Lodge of Sorrow," the brethren
from consumption. And we also believe that the Freemasons of all
America will gladly
meet their call for help, provided our leaders give them this
opportunity to prove
that fraternity and brotherhood are facts and not mere words.
Of the three
millions of Freemasons in America today, at least 60,000 are afflicted
according to the estimates of the United States Census Bureau and of
60,000 men, approximately 40,000 have tuberculosis in the active stage
hospital care if they are to have any chance of recovery, and also for
of their loved ones from infection.
40,000 active cases, 4,400 die each year and Freemasonry is often
called upon to
spend more for the care and education of widows and children than it
cost to save the lives of the fathers.
is a communicable, preventable and sometimes curable disease. Patients
in the first
stage, and some patients in the second stage, may have their disease
hospital care extending over a sufficient period of time.
is primarily a poor man’s disease. If you are not poor when you get it,
be poor by the time it gets you. The expense of treatment during the
year or more
usually required to restore the patient to a self-sustaining basis is
the financial ability of the average victim.
is also far beyond the resources of the average lodge of Freemasons.
Lodge in the United States has any fund for expense of hospital care of
suffering from consumption.
Freemasonry fails him in the hour of his greatest need.
of the 40,000 active cases of tuberculosis?
thousand die annually, but 5,000 more take their places.
Some of them
are financially able to care for themselves and do so and many recover.
them work as long as they can, for when they stop work, wives and
take their places as breadwinners. They go from bad to worse,
physically and financially.
At last pride succumbs and they appeal to their lodges, or to organized
He Is Assisted
to its financial ability, the lodge aids them. In the larger cities
this aid is
supplemented by the assistance of charity and anti-tuberculosis
societies. In the
smaller places and in the country, none of this additional assistance
Some of the patients are sent to local county or municipal hospitals
for the few
remaining weeks of life, for no private hospitals, except the
hospitals, will accept them. Other patients receive small sums weekly
to help maintain
the family. And quite a large number, how many it is impossible to say,
them in the advanced and hopeless stage of the disease, are aided to go
seek the benefit of a change of climate, sometimes accompanied by their
more often alone.
It is customary
to give the brother a railroad ticket, a small amount of money and the
seek out the Masonic lodge in the city of his destination.
the sick brother arrives and seeks the aid and comfort of his brethren
in his new
place of residence, he often finds that many of them are in the same
himself and are financially unable to help him.
for recovery are in exact proportion to the amount of money he may
have, or may
secure, for without money he cannot command the hospital care which is
even in the favorable climate of the Southwest. He gets some help from
among whom he has cast his lot, for no Masons are more brotherly then
the men of
the Southwest, especially those who have fought, or are fighting, the
for life. He gets some help from his home lodge. He lingers, and may
win out, for
many seemingly hopeless cases do so. If he loses he spends the last few
as a charity patient, in some city or county hospital, or perhaps a
When he dies the home lodge may pay the expense of his removal and
burial at home.
the short and simple annals of the poor ‒ and sick ‒ in the Southwest.
by the thousands, all races and creeds of men. Some thousands have
have built up the cities of this favored land and have made the desert
the rose. But many thousands have died, unhonored and unsung, and some
Potters' Fields, among them men to whom we vowed the vows of
brotherhood, who might
have lived ‒ if we had answered YES to the question that is as old as
"Am I my brother's keeper?"
come west are those who have the spirit of the fighter. They will not
give up as
long as there is life left in the body. For every one who comes to the
may be five, or maybe ten, who stay to die at home. These, also,
wherever they may
be, in city, town, or in a farm home, need the help of their Masonic
has done nothing to help its sick and dying brethren in the years that
thousands of whom might have been saved, must it not plead guilty to
or neglect of its vows and obligations at least, in answer to the
were asked to propound to yourself and to your lodge?
But to a
dying brother, who realizes that his life is the penalty for such
neglect, may it not seem worse than that? For in addition to his
there may be added a mental torture the fear that the brotherhood which
has forgotten its vows to him may also forget the vows it made for the
care of his
When we think
of these things, should we not fall down before our altars and cry out,
must we do to be saved?"
in danger of losing its soul?
If so, it
can find it again in service.
It can organize
for the help of its sick brethren.
Mason, no subordinate lodge, and no Grand Lodge can meet the need.
We have no
Grand Lodge of the United States to which we can appeal to bring united
the entire Masonic Fraternity of America. Yet such united action is
to do this work on the scale which is required to meet the need.
Need Ten Hospitals
brethren are scattered throughout the length and breadth of the land,
of cities, towns and villages, on thousands of farms. Because of the
a healing climate, the Southwest has far more than its share.
brethren, who need and want hospital treatment, should be cared for in
and a chain of at least ten such hospitals should be established, and
throughout the United States to meet the needs of every state.
5,000 hospital beds should be provided for their care.
be cared for as long as necessary to restore them to health, to their
can should pay all or part of the expense of their care and treatment,
so that no
needy brother may be denied the same care. Those who cannot pay must be
by the Fraternity in fulfillment of our obligations.
It May Be Done
How may this
Why can we
not have a National Masonic Sanatorium Association for this work of
relief and charity.
If we can form a national organization for educational work, why can we
not do the
same thing for hospitalization of the consumptives among our brethren?
and incorporation of such an association may be authorized by any Grand
by any of the governing bodies of the Scottish or York Rites of
should consist of all Freemasons, lodges and Grand Lodges and other
which may contribute to its support.
of hospitals, or sanatoria, can be financed by voluntary contributions
‒ of Freemasons.
A national campaign can be organized and the money secured just as it
has been collected
by the great Protestant churches in their campaigns for millions of
educational, missionary and hospital work.
of such hospitals can be financed by assessments levied for that
purpose by the
Grand Lodges affiliated with the Sanatorium Association, and by gifts
from those who helped to build.
of 6,000 hospital beds in ten hospitals may total $12,500,000, or an
less than $4.17 for every Freemason in the United States. Thousands of
of such hospitals may cost $1,000 a bed annually, or a total of
$5,000,000, an average
of $1.67 a year for each Freemason.
would be insurance against tuberculosis for all Freemasons.
care would save the majority of the nearly 5,000 men who now die
when restored to usefulness, would produce in the remainder of their
of dollars in excess of what it cost to save them.
would save thousands of dollars it now expends to care for their widows
double its strength in the next decade, for all good men would seek
a body of men who translated their ritual into terms of service.
or any other plan for the care of our Masonic brethren suffering from
is carried out, and our vows and obligations made a living force, of
import than the hundreds of lives and thousands of dollars saved, or
than any increase
of our strength. will be the fact that Freemasonry, in America, has
found its soul
‒ and saved it.
Have we a
leader anywhere who will take up this cross of service and carry it
dead woods of ritualism and the slough of ceremonialism to the high
hills of true
fraternal brotherhood, where it may be lifted up and draw all sick and
Masons, unwilling members of our Grand Lodge of Sorrow, beneath its
answer the call?
Passing of Dr. Kuhn
William F. Kuhn died suddenly at his home in Kansas City, Mo., Sept. 2,
unexpected word of his passing came as a shock to his friends and
throughout the American Fraternity, of which he had as many, one may
any Craftsman that has ever labored amongst us. There is no need to
recall his career
as a physician, or all the high offices in Masonry held by him, or to
personality, so richly endowed; all this is familiar to every Mason.
devoted almost all of his time during the past three years to his
duties as General
Grand High Priest, General Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons. His one
was to organize a national educational movement among Royal Arch
to that now in progress among so many lodges. The Royal Arch was not to
him a mere
Side Order but a Rite rich in history and lore, in possession of a deep
sided ritual, with untold latent possibilities for influence; and he
all Grand Chapters might be persuaded to bend their efforts to
riches to every member. What could be a more suitable monument to his
to carry out his dream? One cannot think of any other memorial that
him so much, as he now watches from the Unseen.
convinced that one reason for the irregular attendance especially of
myself who are advanced in years is the late hour in the evening to
which in most
lodges the meetings are kept up, and I offer two suggestions which have
on this point. One is that Masters of lodges see to it that their
sharp on time; no doubt that is a lesson which a great many Masters
learned already, but at least in some rural lodges I find a shocking
the clock, and to begin a meeting half an hour or three-quarters of an
the advertised time means a lateness of dispersal which interferes with
night's rest. We all admit the difficulty which in this respect besets
lodges in the country. The long distance some members have to travel,
burden of hard work and responsibility at home which cannot be evaded
even for a
single evening; and of course when a lodge has become accustomed to
the hour of meeting it is a herculean task to get back to promptitude.
But the effort
is well worth while and may indeed save the life of a lodge. Let the
his Wardens, by personal interviews, or, if necessary, by personally
the first time or two the necessary number to form a quorum, be on hand
a few minutes
before the appointed time and let them unfalteringly begin on the
stroke of the
clock, and the trouble will soon right itself."
Andrew B. Baird, P.G.M., Manitoba
Stone Of 1606
By R.W. Bro.
REGINALD V. HARRIS, Grand Historian, Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia
be good to read this article in conjunction with Bro. Harris' article
in Nova Scotia published in THE BUILDER of August last; and with the
article of last month. Bro. Harris' critical analysis of the claims of
Scotia stone to be the monument of the earliest known appearance of
on this continent was published in "Transactions of Nova Scotia Lodge
Jan. 31, 1916; as here given he has altered it somewhat.
Masonic students and historians regard as the earliest trace of the
Freemasons or Freemasonry on this continent so far as we are now aware,
by the inscriptions on a stone found in 1827 upon the shores of
two accounts of the finding of this stone. The first, from the pen of
Chandler Haliburton (known to us as the author of "Sam Slick" [Lib 1887]), was written in the year of
finding of the stone or very shortly afterward, and is to be found in
and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia [Lib 1829; Vol 1, Vol 2], published in 1829 (Vol. II.,
155 ‒ 157), as follows:
"About six miles below the
ferry is situated
Goat Island, which separates the Annapolis Basin from that of Digby,
and forms two
entrances to the former. The western channel, though narrow, is deep
preferred to others. A small peninsula, extending from the Granville
one of its sides. On this point of land the first piece of ground was
cultivation in Nova Scotia by the French. They were induced to make
on account of the beauty of its situation, the good anchorage opposite
it the command
which it gave them of the channel, and the facility it afforded of
giving the earliest
notice to the garrison at Port Royal of the entrance of an enemy into
Basin. In the year 1827 the stone was discovered upon which they had
date of their first cultivation of the soil, in memorial of their
of the country. It is about two feet and a half long and two feet
broad, and of
the same kind as that which forms the substratum of Granville Mountain.
On the upper
part are engraved the square and compass of the Free Mason, and in the
large and deep Arabic figures the date 1606. It does not appear to have
by a mason, but the inscription has been cut on its natural surface.
"The stone itself has yielded
to the power
of the climate, and both the external front and the interior parts of
alike suffered from exposure to the weather: the seams on the back of
it have opened,
and, from their capacity to hold water and the operation of frost on it
confined, it is probable in a few years it would have crumbled to
pieces. The date
is distinctly visible, and although the figure 0 is worn down to
one-half of its
original depth and the upper part of the figure 6 nearly as much, yet
no part of
them is obliterated ‒ they are plainly discernible to the eye and
by the finger.
"At a subsequent period, when
was conquered by the English, some Scotch emigrants were sent out by
Alexander, who erected a fort on the site of the French cornfields,
the Treaty of St. Germain's. The remains of this fort may be traced
with great ease,
the old parade, the embankment and ditch, have not been disturbed, and
their original form. It was occupied by the French for many years after
of 1632. "
account of the finding of the stone is contained in a letter written
years after the event, and now in the possession of the New England
Society from the pen of Dr. Charles T. Jackson of Boston, the
and geolist. It is in the following words:
"June 2, 1856."
"When Francis Alger and myself
made a mineralogical
survey of Nova Scotia in 1827 we discovered upon the shore of Goat
Island, in Annapolis
Basin, a grave-stone partly covered with sand and lying on the shore.
It bore the
Masonic emblems, square and compass, and had the figures 1606 cut in it.
"The rock was a flat slab of
common in the vicinity. At the ferry from Annapolis to Granville we saw
rounded rock with this inscription 'La Belle 1649.' These inscriptions
intended to commemorate the place of burial of French soldiers who came
Scotia, 'Annapolis Royal, Acadia,' in 1603.
"Coins, buttons and other
belonging to these early French settlers, are found in the soil of Goat
"The slab bearing date 1606, I
over by the Ferryman to Annapolis, and ordered it to be packed in a box
to be sent
to the Old Colony Pilgrim Society (of Plymouth, Mass.), but Judge
Thomas Haliburton, Esq., prevailed on me to abandon it to him, and he
now has it
carefully preserved. On a late visit to Nova Scotia I found that the
Judge had forgotten
how he came by it, and so I told him all about it.
C. T. Jackson."
( Addressed )
J.W. Thornton (Present.)
is accompanied by a photograph of the stone made some thirty years
the square and compasses and the figures 1606, rudely cut and much worn
and weather, but still quite distinct.
later refer more particularly to the stone itself and the two accounts
of its finding,
but wish first to refer to the subsequent history of the stone which is
it was given by Robert Grant Haliburton (son of Judge T. C. Haliburton)
to the Canadian
Institute of Toronto with the understanding that the stone should be
the wall of the building then being erected for the Institute. It was
to be placed
in the wall, the inscription facing inside in one of the principal
Fleming wrote that he received the stone from Mr. R. G. Haliburton for
of being placed in the museum of the Canadian Institute, Toronto, in
it might be properly cared for. There is an entry respecting it in the
the Institute, acknowledging its arrival and receipt. Sir Daniel Wilson
President, and on March 21, 1888, read a paper on Traces of European
in the 17th Century, and exhibited the stone found at Port Royal
bearing date 1606.
Sir Sanford Fleming further adds:
myself seen it more than once since its being placed in the Canadian
When the building was erected on the northwest corner of Richmond and
Toronto instructions were given by Dr. Scadding to build it into the
wall with the
inscription exposed; but, very stupidly, it is said the plasterer
covered it over
with plaster, and even the spot cannot now be traced, although the
plaster has been
removed at several places to look for it. Before these facts were made
me, or any trace could be had of the stone, I had a long correspondence
Institute authorities, and I further offered a reward of $1,000 for the
it could be found but it was all to no purpose. I regret extremely that
I can throw
so little light on it at this day. If ever the present building be
taken down diligent
search should be made for the historic stone, perhaps, the oldest
It is a most
regrettable fact that this priceless stone should have ever gone out of
The necessity for a Masonic museum in this Province needs no argument
things as this happen.
Probably More Correct
to the two accounts of the finding of the stone itself, there can be
little or no
doubt that Judge Haliburton's account written at the time of the
discovery and on
the spot, by one who had made a study of the locality and of its
history, is correct;
and that Dr. Jackson's account, written from recollection thirty years
found the stone, cannot be relied upon as to the place of discovery.
historical facts stated by Judge Haliburton as to the place of the
by the French establish beyond any doubt that the stone marked with the
was found on the peninsula extending from the Granville shore opposite
As to the
inscription on the stone, although the stone is not now to be found for
there can be little or no doubt as to the particulars of that
Haliburton undoubtedly wrote his description of the stone with it
him. Dr. Jackson's account made after he had seen it a second time,
and the photograph made before the stone was sent to Toronto further
the fact that the stone bore the date 1606 and the “square and
the Mason, though these emblems would seem to be too much worn away to
a good photographic reproduction, a condition not to be wondered at
after an exposure
to the weather for over two hundred years.
On the other
hand, some who have examined only the photograph have doubted whether
on the stone (other than the date 1606) were really the square and
the Freemason. The fact that these marks appear not to have been cut so
well has suggested to them that they are surface scratches such as
might have been
made accidentally in digging with a pick or spade. An examination of
however, clearly shows that the marks are more than mere scratches ‒
and more lasting, as they must have been to survive the attacks of the
for more than two centuries. Judge Haliburton in describing the stone
does not appear to have been dressed by a mason but the inscription has
on its natural surface." It is quite impossible today to decide whether
inscription was the work of a skilled or unskilled workman.
to the explanations and theories respecting the inscription. Judge
it as a stone "upon which they (the French) had engraved the date of
cultivation of the soil, in memorial of their formal possession of the
theory may be urged the fact that the first cultivation of the soil by
settlers was in 1605 and not 1606; Champlain's map showing gardens is
also that they had taken possession of the country in 1604; and the
that a national emblem, such as the fleur-de-lis, would be used rather
than a Masonic
emblem for such purposes. That this is exactly what they did is evident
record of Argall's capture of Port Royal. In Murdoch's History of Nova
states that in 1614 “Argall destroyed the fort and all monuments and
marks of French
national power. It is recorded that he even caused the names of Demonts
captains and the fleur-de-lis to be effaced with pick and chisel from a
stone on which they had been engraved."
not only shows what emblems the French used to commemorate their
occupation of the
country, but also that if this stone was visible it does not
commemorate a national
Did Not Commemorate Founding
of a Masonic Lodge
that the stone might commemorate the establishment of a lodge of
virtually nothing to support it, though it is perhaps more than a
matter of interest
that during the winter of 1606-7 the French colonists, under the
leadership of Champlain,
established a sort of club or society styled the "Ordre du Bon Temps,"
consisting of fifteen members. Each member in turn became the caterer
to his brethren,
a plan which excited so much emulation among them that each endeavored
his predecessor in office, in the variety, profusion and quality of the
for the table during his term of office. Lescarbot, a member of the
the historian of these early events, says that on each such occasion
the host wore
the collar "of the order and a napkin and carried a staff." At dinner,
he marshalled the way to the table at the head of the procession of
supper he resigned the insignia of office to his successor, with the
drinking to him in a cup of wine. The little company included several
names: Poutrincourt, the real founder of Port Royal; Champlain, the
founder of Quebec,
two years later, and the historian of many events at Port Royal;
son; Lescarbot, advocate, poet and historian of this early period;
one of the first settlers of Quebec; Robert Grave, Champdore, and
Daniel Hay, a
social club was Speculative Freemasonry is highly improbable. The
colony was a French
settlement, and Speculative Freemasonry was not known in France for
more than a
hundred years afterward, namely in 1718. The corporations and gilds of
and architects, we are told in Rebold's General History of Freemasonry
[Lib 1868], were suppressed in 1539 by
I., although a sort of trade unionism seems to have existed from about
a correspondence with each other is believed to have taken place
between the unions
at Marseilles, Paris, Lyons, and certain cities in Belgium. These were
operative bodies and consisted of not only masons and stone cutters,
but of members
of other trades, carpenters, architects, decorators, etc.
That a union
of these workmen may have existed at Port Royal is not of course
that it contained any speculative members is exceedingly improbable. In
evidence is lacking of the admission of Speculative Masons into Masonic
to 1646, and in Scotland prior to 1634.
If such a
speculative lodge existed at Port Royal in 1606 or if the Ordre du Bon
even in a remote way connected with any trade, either Champlain or
their very detailed accounts of these early days would have mentioned
which would establish beyond any doubt such relationship. The entire
any such facts must be taken as conclusive in this matter.
for consideration one other theory respecting the stone, that of Dr.
it was "undoubtedly intended to commemorate the place of burial of
This expression of opinion by Dr. Jackson in 1856 may have been founded
given him by Judge Haliburton on his "recent" visit to Nova Scotia, and
may indicate that the judge had also changed his mind. Whatever the
facts, the gravestone
theory would seem to have more to support it than any other.
to the stone itself. As described by Judge Haliburton who had
possession of the
stone from 1827 until his removal to England in 1859, it evidently
by two and a half feet; undoubtedly monumental size and shape.
as to the place where it was found.
in his Voyages gives a plan of the fort erected by him in 1605. This
a burying ground and a garden outside the eastern parapet or palisade.
theory that the stone commemorated the first cultivation of the soil
may have been
based on the fact that it was found on the site of the garden but it is
clear that it might also be a gravestone, although Dr. Jackson says in
of 1856 that it was found "upon the shore" "partly covered with sand
and lying on the shore."
that the stone is a gravestone, two questions present themselves:
are the square and compasses on the stone?
gravestone is it?
It will be
convenient to answer these two queries together.
in his history tells us that during the winter of 1605-1606 six members
of the little
colony died. While Champlain does not give the names of those who
life nor whether they died' before or after Jan. 1, 1606, yet from his
Lescarbot's account it would not be difficult to draw a very strong
all died before the New Year dawned. I think we may safely assume that
is not the gravestone of any of these six settlers.
In the spring
of that year (1606) Poutrincourt, who had gone home with DeMonts in the
1605, induced Mare Lescarbot, an advocate of Paris, to join the colony.
Port Royal on July 27, where they remained until Aug. 28, when
on an exploratory voyage down the American coast, as far as Cape Cod,
behind in charge of the colony. Lescarbot, in his New France, has this
to say about
the work done while the rest were away:
I set about making ready the soil, setting off and enclosing gardens
sow wheat and kitchen herbs. We also had a ditch dug all around the
fort which was
a matter of necessity to receive the dampness and the water which
oozed underneath our dwellings, amid the roots of the trees which had
been cut down
and which had very likely been the cause of the unhealthiness of the
no time to stop here to describe in detail the several labours of our
Suffice it to say that we had numerous joiners, carpenters, masons,
locksmiths workers in iron, tailors, wood sawyers, sailors, etc., who
their trades, and in doing so were very kindly used, for after three
a day they were free.
while each of our said workmen had his special trade, they had also to
set to work
at whatever turned up, as many of them did. Certain masons and stone
their hands to baking and made as good bread as that of Paris."
Let us note
in passing the use by Lescarbot of the two words "masons" and "stone
cutters." The original French words in Lescarbot's history are "masson"
(mason) and "tailleur la Pierre," the former being a word of wider
than the other, including any operative on the construction of a
either stones, bricks, plaster or cement, the latter word denoting
including not only the work of cutting inscriptions, but approaching
the work of
party meanwhile spent some weeks exploring and when near Cape Cod a
party of five
young men landed in defiance of orders and were attacked by Indians.
killed and buried on the spot by their comrades; the other two were
one of them, Duval, a locksmith, lived to take part in a revolt at
Quebec two years
later; the other was so pierced with arrows that he died on reaching
on Nov. 14, 1606, where he was buried.
winter of 1606-1607 there were four deaths but these occurred in
February and March,
1607, and not during the year 1606, according to both Champlain and
therefore, the stone was erected to mark the grave of one of the
colonists who died
during the year 1606, it must have been the grave of the man who died
on Nov. 14,
1606, or shortly afterward of wounds received at Cape Cod.
his profession or trade?
We know Duval
was a locksmith, and though this is very scant light for us to be
guided by, it
is probable that his companions on their wild episode on shore with the
were members of the various trades which Lescarbot says were at Port
Royal at this
time. This is merely assumption, and not conclusive. If he had been a
man of standing
either Champlain or Lescarbot would have named him. They name none of
died at Port Royal.
Had Their Own
We must not
forget that at that time the carpenters of France had their own mystery
gild, worked on lines somewhat akin to Operative Masonry, and using the
compasses as their emblem.
be well illustrated by a short quotation from Felix Gras, the eminent
poet and novelist, whose works were so highly esteemed by the late W.
In his Les Rouges du Midi, a book dealing with the French Revolution
1792), he describes a visit paid by Vauclair, a carpenter from
Marseilles, to Planctot,
a carpenter residing and working in Paris.
"As we stood outside the door
we could hear
the smooth 'hush hush' of a big plane as it threw off the long
shavings, but the
planing stopped short at our loud knock, and then the door flew open
and there was
Planctot himself. It was plain that he knew Vauclair on the instant,
of shaking hands with him, he turned his back and rushed off like a
crazy man… In
a few minutes we heard the clatter of old Planctot's wooden shoes on
He had come to greet Vauclair according to the rite and ceremonial of
He had put on his Sunday hat and his best wig; and before he said a
word he laid
a compass and a square down on the floor between himself and Vauelair.
At once Vauelair
made the correct motions of hand and foot, to which Planetot replied
then, under their raised hands, they embraced over the … compass and
is several times called "le maitre," "the master," which I take
to denote his standing in the Craft. I think there can be no historical
the existence of such a craft gild among French carpenters at the
beginning of the
17th century; that is, about 1606.
Let us summarize
our theories: First, the stone was a gravestone; secondly, it marked
the last resting
place of a French settler who died in 1606; thirdly, this settler was
workman and may have been an operative mason or stone cutter; fourthly,
Masonry, unknown in France in 1606, was not practiced by the French
the emblem of square and compasses would seem to be a trade-mark or
used by operative masons as their emblem, and possibly by carpenters as
In a word,
the stone marked the grave of either a mason or stone cutter or
possibly a carpenter
who died Nov. 14, 1606, and not that of a Speculative Freemason.
king may make a noble knight,
And breathe away another;
But he in all his power and might,
Cannot make a brother.”
for Lodge Ceremonial
Bro. Ray V. Denslow,
Associate Editor, Missouri
who holds many high offices in Missouri Masonry, has for years devoted
attention to costumery scenery, and to paraphernalia in general in the
work of conferring
degrees; at our request he has written down here a number of
toward fixed principles in this art of ceremonial, an art sadly
neglected, one may
suppose, to judge by the slackness and lack of intelligence with which
it is generally
are giving place to new; Freemasonry, ever a progressive science,
except in a few
scattered jurisdictions, has readily adapted itself to meet new ideas
century conditions. The Masonic trail from 1717 to 1924 has been a long
with wrecks and ritual tinkers and philosophical interpreters and what
while rough and rugged has been the path, long and toilsome the march,
of the Ancient Landmarks has weathered the storm and is with us today,
before us the assurance that his is the only true landmark, in much the
as does the custodian of the only true cross.
Preston, Cross, Pike and other ritualists were to return today they
certain fundamental words and signs, but they would certainly enter a
instead of a handful of men, they would find millions; where formerly
been communicated by dozens in the back room, office, or home, they
would now discover
large classes numbering into the hundreds, receiving the degrees at the
a large corps of experienced actors and ritualists, presented in
spacious buildings, specially constructed. Where formerly the fee was
fixed at "whatever
the traffic might bear," and consisted in many cases as an individual
today we find a fixed fee and a modern business organization with
The old manner
of conferring a degree consisted principally of the obligating of a
probably occasional lectures and charges. The impression conveyed to
was solely by the mouth-to-ear method. Modern psychology has taught us
that an impression
on the mind through the medium of the eye will be clearer and easier
so we find the modern director of degree work combining these two
methods and striving
to appeal not only to the ear, but to the eye as well.
You may read
from your descriptive folder that Niagara is one of the wonders of the
if you can stand on the brink and watch it for a few moments while tons
pour itself into the abyss below, you will know that this is one of
You may read that the Washington Monument is 555 feet high ‒ but walk
up it once
and you will not question; and so it is with the California trees, and
Park, and other wonders – seeing is more than believing ‒ seeing is
the up-to-date Freemason knows that in addition to teaching the great
embodied in Masonic rituals, it is also possible to educate the
other lines as well; by the use of scenery we can teach him
architecture and geography;
and by our costuming we may lead him into a study of history, for the
cover a wide period of history.
The new method
requires a discussion of five fundamental ways of conveying our
(1) the ritual, (2) the scene, (3) the costume, (4) the accessory, (5)
In an article of this length it will be impossible to do more than
with probably an occasional word of warning.
As the individual
is the instrument used in imparting the Ritual, we shall deal briefly
the speaker (or actor) must understand what he is trying to teach. He
must be more
than a mere phonograph; he must know that his purpose is to instruct.
Time is wasted
and opportunity lost when our Ritual is entrusted to the ignorant or
A professional or even a semi-professional elocutionist can do much to
efficient rendering of the Ritual.
is the scenic background for the speaking parts; they can make or mar a
many cases. Some degrees have little to commend them except the
scenery. The great
danger is that the imagination of the scenic painter runs riot when
upon the background for a scene somewhat remote. We have often read of
Jew" and we are positive we had him located when we beheld some of his
in the precincts of a Greek Temple during the conferring of one of our
degrees. We have had the rare fortune of witnessing the immortal Cyrus,
Persia, rambling in and out of a Roman Forum; and we are certain that
gods whom we beheld in an Assyrian palace were more than uncomfortable.
self-supported, impossible domes, imaginary combinations of
are but few of the architectural jumbles inflicted upon us today to
mind of the educated man, the student, or the traveler who knows
to state, the scenery should be accurate and not overdone; it should
itself, but should fit in as a part of the whole. Certain scenic
novelties at times
may be allowed; proper lighting is desirable.
our background and arranged our characters on the stage it is necessary
clothe them properly and accurately. If we but remember that we are
building a picture
and not a circus performance, we shall avoid masses of color and
and endeavor to adapt our costumes to the background, keeping in mind
effect of various colors. Concerning the average costume in use it is,
as a rule,
overdone. Plush, silk and satin are comparatively modern. Ermine was a
gift of the
medieval ages. We can never adjust ourselves to seeing King Solomon
strut up and
down the stage in a heavy plush robe trimmed with ermine "doo-dads" and
German crown, revealing a wide expanse of Hart, Schaffner &
Marx pants and W.
L. Douglas shoes below his royal robe. This criticism would also hold
good in one
of the semi-military degrees; where once our novitiate was pledged to
and obedience, he is today garbed in the most expensive broadcloth and
in all of the bullion at the disposal of its manufacturer ‒
representing a character
neither ancient nor modern. The proper costuming for degree work in the
rites and jurisdictions includes a study of Egyptian, Babylonian,
Grecian, Roman, Jewish, Medieval, Ecclesiastical, German, Turkish,
and Symbolic costumes, which covers, one must admit, a wide range of
we should list such articles, scepters, shields, candles, vessels,
candle-sticks, ornaments, cross, etc., used in the interpretation of
Each period of history has its own type of accessory; the designer must
be an investigator-historian
rather than salesman. A crown of a certain type denotes a definite
period just as
much as the figures "1924" denote a year. How striking is the average
army or court guard on the Masonic stage, with their tin helmets and
shields? Hottenroth, Planche, Racinet and other authorities are
available and there
is little excuse to longer perpetuate such absurdities.
Just as the
scenic artist overdoes his part and as the costumer overdoes his, so
does the average
musician improve (?) the ritual with an elaborate program of music. The
in this respect is to remember that music is incidental; it should
never be so conspicuous as to obtrude. Dignity, brevity and simplicity
the musical program of Masonic degree work.
conferring of Masonic degrees is an art yet in its infancy. The student
a careful study of the five fundamentals above outlined will find that
field of possibilities will open up to him that will at once prove
educational and, when properly applied, do much to place our degree
work above the
commonplace or mediocre.
appeared in the Freemasons' Magazine for Aug. 1, 1865, page 319. It is
Few men in
the British Army have passed a more distinguished career than the late
Sir Charles James Napier. In Spain, whilst wounded in a fierce conflict
and an uplifted
sabre of an opponent over him, he made the Masonic sign and the sabre
harmless, but he then became a captive. So much for the honor and
humanity of a
French soldier. A similar occurrence happened to the gallant General in
latter period of service, and to the last he continued devoted to
was exemplified in his dying hour near Portser, his death bed being
his son-in-law, Col. McMurde, and others allied and belonging to the
gazing, while prostrate, upon the trophies of victory which adorned his
and upon the brotherhood assembled there, he passed from life in
calm and resigned to the will of the Great Architect of the Universe,
at his own request, the Sublime Degree of being raised as a Master
Mason on his
death bed, whilst the immortal spirit of this splendid soldier ascended
to sit beside
the great Captain of his salvation. Every Master Mason will understand
mind of this hero, whilst the uninitiated will see that in his record
there is a
truth revealed which they, without the light, cannot comprehend.
Bro. James B. Nixon,
President Toronto Society for Masonic Research, And
N.W.J. Haydon, Associate
the Grand Lodge of Canada proved to be something more than a name. It
was very much
alive, and was being received into fraternal relations by the other
that of Ireland being the first to extend them, followed by those of
and several others in the United States. At its convention in 1856, the
lodges were re-numbered, showing thirty-nine on the register who had
met the requirements,
as some who had been represented the previous year had not. An
important act was
the condemnation in the strongest terms of the wearing of Masonic
emblems for business
In the same
year, the Provincial Grand Lodge received at its convention in October,
R W. Bro.
T. D. Harington, Provincial Grand Master of Quebec, who read a letter
from the Grand
Secretary in England, announcing the proposed remedies for Canada, and
a statement of the lodges, working or dormant, under their authority.
thereto was heartily endorsed by the convention, but the good results
of this interest
was severely affected by the reports of the proceedings at the
referred to above, and the Provincial Grand Lodge expressed its
indignation in a
series of resolutions to be sent to England with yet another petition.
however, did not prevent them from strictly forbidding their members
with “the self-styled Grand Lodge of Canada.” The committee on these
met in January, 1857, and reported that in addition to the duties laid
they had also asked on behalf of the thirty lodges they represented to
as "The Grand Lodge of Upper Canada, with full and unrestricted
which action was confirmed and a copy sent to R. W. Bro. Harington.
of these resolutions again upset the placid life of the English Grand
office, and W. Bro. Beach, being about to visit Canada, was appointed
by the Earl
of Zetland, Grand Master, to enquire into Masonic matters there "and
if possible, a course which would be acceptable to the Canadian
reply stated that the movement towards independence was too strong to
that personal friendships were taking many brethren from the Provincial
to the Independent
Grand Lodge, that the latter body had organized a Grand Chapter, and
the only way
to avoid further secessions was to grant sovereign rights as had been
Crossing this came a letter from the Grand Secretary to the Provincial
in Toronto stating that the resolutions had been referred to a
created by Grand Lodge for the sole purpose of transacting all business
the Grand Lodge and all Provincial Grand Lodges who would do all
possible to prevent
was read at the Provincial Convention in June, 1857, R. W. Bros. Ridout
being in the East, but the good effect it might have had was nullified
statement from the Earl of Zetland, Grand Master, which while granting
refused the request to appoint "subordinate Provincial Grand Masters."
The tone of this was so ill-liked that another series of resolutions
declaring that the Provincial Grand Lodge saw no way to preserve the
and stability of freemasonry in Canada, save by complete independence,
a committee to meet one offered by the Grand Lodge of Canada "to
terms on which a reunion may be accomplished."
the Grand Lodge of Canada had prospered exceedingly. At its second
M.W. Bro. Wilson presiding, thirty-four lodges were represented, and so
interest was shown in the new Constitution that no less than fifty-six
were offered. A committee was appointed to meet that of the Provincial
and to meet their proposals in every way that did not affect "the
of Freemasonry in Canada."
year there were sharp debates in England over the Canadian impasse and
faithfully preserved in M. W. Bro. Robertson's History. The Grand
Master and his
supporters appeared to consider the preservation of the dignity and
their offices as of first importance, while the friends of the
urged that such loyalty and goodwill and the efficiency of responsible
should receive first consideration. The result was that the history of
political colonial relations of 1775 repeated itself in the Canadian
between 1840-57, though without the added horrors of armed rebellion,
and the custom
of making inherited social rank a prerequisite to executive
as was inevitable, another tablet to its Hall of Failures.
Successful Plan of Union
A plan of
union was finally worked out between the Provincial Grand Lodge of
Canada West and
the Grand Lodge of Canada, with the result that the Provincial Grand
Lodge met in
Toronto in September, 1857, Sir Allan MacNab favoring it with his
lodges were represented and as a first step towards a union on equal
following the precedents given by Preston in his record of the Union of
Grand Lodges of England, the Provincial Grand Lodge organized itself
Ancient Grand Lodge of Canada" with forty-seven lodges on its roll. Sir
was elected first Grand Master and R. W. Bro. Harington, Provincial
of Quebec, received the honor of Past Grand Master for his services. R.
was appointed Deputy Grand Master and installed by M. W. Bro.
with Grand Senior and Junior Wardens; all the Past Provincial Grand
were accorded similar rank in the new Grand Lodge.
hundred and fifty-eight marked the happy consummation of the
in April M. W. Bro. Harington prepared Articles of Agreement for
the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of Canada, and the
Lodge of Canada, and a program of ceremony, as carefully thought out to
case as that by which President Roosevelt brought together the
Japan and Russia at Portsmouth, N. H., at the conclusion of their war,
On July 14,
the Grand Lodge of Canada met in the hall of King Solomon's Lodge, M.
W. Bro. Wilson
on the throne, forty-four lodges being represented; two distinguished
M. W. Bro. Tucker, Grand Master of Vermont, and R. W. Bro. Rob Morris,
Master of Kentucky. The events leading up to the meeting were detailed
by the Grand
Master in his address, as also the adoption of the Articles of
Agreement. At the
evening session a deputation from the Ancient Grand Lodge of Canada was
who announced that their lodges also had adopted the Articles of
assured of every fraternal welcome, the deputation retired to their own
two blocks away, and the Grand Lodge was called off.
At 9:30 p.
m. the heavy sound of marching men was heard on the quiet air, and word
of the approach of the Ancient Grand Lodge. Instantly Grand Lodge was
every member on the alert, and the door tyled. As soon as the hundred
brethren had assembled in the anterooms, the alarm was given and headed
by Sir Allan
MacNab they entered and were received with full honors. Amid echoing
W. Bro. Wilson descended from the East and going to M. W. Bro. MacNab
hand saying, "M. W. Sir, you are indeed most welcome." After this their
seats were resumed, members of the two Grand Lodges being placed
the cheering continued and on the faces of the older members tears of
at the happy fruition of their efforts. The Articles of Union were then
unanimously ratified and confirmed and the Union declared perfect and
Grand Lodge met in the hall of St. Andrew's Lodge to elect officers. M.
Wilson became Grand Master and R. W. Bro. Ridout, Deputy Grand Master
All the other officers were balloted for. In the afternoon M. W. Bro
Tucker of Vermont
installed M. W. Bro. Wilson, who in turn installed and proclaimed his
R. W. Bros. Harington, Stevens and Morris were suitably honored and a
ordered to be struck in commemoration of the occasion.
hundred and thirty-nine brought recognition from the Grand Lodge of
England of the
Grand Lodge of Canada, in authority over the whole country west of the
Provinces, except for such private lodges and brethren as might prefer
their previous allegiance. As the Provincial Grand Lodge of Montreal
to exist, lodges in its territory were ordered to choose between the
of England and the Provincial Grand Lodge of Quebec, and although the
of Canada did not like to have a separate Provincial Grand Lodge in its
the exceptions were granted.
Lodge Felt the Effect
of Canadian Confederation
grew and prospered until 1867 when confederation took place. By this
West became Ontario, and Canada East was renamed Quebec; so that while
one Masonic Province there were two political Provinces within the same
this eventually led to new friction. At first there was talk of a Grand
the whole Dominion, but this was rendered impossible by the brethren in
and New Brunswick forming their own Grand Lodges.
1869, seventeen Past Masters of eight lodges in or near Montreal,
headed by R. W.
Bro. J. H. Graham and three other P. D. D. G. M's, decided to form a
for Quebec and so informed M. W. Bro. A. A. Stevenson, then Grand
Master for the
two Provinces. But as he found on enquiry that these brethren had acted
authority even from their own lodges, and that in two of these the
subject of separation
had never been discussed, he refused to recognize them as having the
precedent to such a step and ‒ when they continued in their rebellion ‒
them from their Masonic privileges.
of their irregular methods did not deter the advocates of autonomy,
in October of the same year they held a convention at Montreal where
of eight lodges were present, and a Grand Lodge for the Province of
Quebec was organized
with a full staff of officers, the Grand Master being the J. H. Graham
above. As these lodges were a minority of those working in that section
of the jurisdiction
of the Grand Lodge of Canada, and as two of them and eight of their
were suspended brethren, it was, of course, impossible for the Grand
Master to give
them that fraternal recognition of their desire for independence, which
doubt, have been granted had the regular procedure been followed.
spot continued in the Masonic life of Ontario until, at the annual
in Toronto in 1874, an agreement was ratified whereby the Grand Lodge
withdrew from the Province of Quebec and a formal recognition was
extended to the
Grand Lodge thereof, after which the lodges still loyal to their mother
were also placed within its obedience.
In 1876 a
new schism came into being through the action of certain brethren in
had received a dispensation to work as "Eden Lodge." Owing to local
this warrant was ordered to be withdrawn, but permission was granted
to pass and raise those already initiated. The members refused to
accept these conditions
but instead retained their dispensation and five of them with the
former D. D. G.
M. of the District, R. W. Bro. F. Westlake, at their head, secured from
Government Letters of Incorporation as "The Grand Lodge of Ancient,
Accepted Masons of Ontario." The basis of their action was the claim
Grand Lodge of Canada having withdrawn from Quebec and there being
in all the other Provinces of the Dominion, there was no longer any
Grand Lodge for Ontario alone. Other reasons given were that the
were used improperly and the Board of General Purposes was too
cumbersome and expensive.
be, of course, but one result of this action, which was that the five
were suspended from all privileges in Freemasonry, which action was
copied by other
Grand Lodges generally.
later the schism seemed to have been dissolved, as their seal was
M. W. Bro. W. H. Weller, and the majority of the members were healed in
lodges at London. But other members continued the rebellion until 1896,
were concluded whereby their Provincial Charter was transferred to M.W.
R. White and the Grand Secretary as trustees for their property and all
voluntarily surrendered. All members who applied were healed, Harmony
being formed for this purpose, and Grand Lodge honors were conferred on
their Past Masters who had "aided materially in bringing about the
of outstanding interest to Freemasons generally remain to be told, the
more so as
I believe they are unique in the history of Canadian experience.
Lodge Was Chartered To
Meet In Jerusalem
1873, M. W. Bro. W. M. Wilson issued a warrant for the formation of "
Royal Solomon Mother Lodge’ to meet in the city of Jerusalem, or in
in Palestine." The petition was signed by many distinguished brethren,
Robert Morris, LL. D., Alex. A. Stevenson, Albert G. Mackey, John
C. Cregier, Robert Macoy, John Sheville, Rolla Floyd and other brethren
of the American
colony in that city. M. W. Bro. Rob. Morris of Kentucky was the first
W. M., and
the warrant was accompanied by a gift of the Three Great Lights of
with a complete set of the collars, jewels and clothing required for
the application for this warrant was sent this Grand Lodge is explained
in our Proceedings
for 1901, from which it appears that requests had been made,
informally, to the
three British Grand Lodges, and on being warned of a probable
rejection, to those
of the United States, all of which declined as well. As the country of
was then unoccupied territory, Masonically speaking, although there
in the Turkish Empire of which it is a part, any sovereign Grand Lodge
a lodge within its boundaries without invading the rights of any other,
and M. W.
Bro. Wilson decided to follow an established Masonic precedent by
acceding to the
request of the distinguished brethren named above, though, whether he
their request had been so frequently denied previously is not mentioned
in his report.
Bro. Morris' Freemasonry In the Holy Land
deals with this episode on page 471.
In 1901 certain
by-laws sent from this lodge for approval were disapproved because they
entailed privileges "enjoyed by no other lodge in this jurisdiction."
Further, because distance had made proper supervision impossible, and
it was found
that many undesirable practices had become customary amongst its
members, M. W.
Bro. R. B. Hungerford ordered that the charter be withdrawn.
item refers to Capitular Masonry, about which no special mention has
been made so
far to avoid lengthening an already extended paper.
In 1886 a
petition was received from Companions residing in Melbourne, Australia,
a few of
whom had been members of the Grand Chapter of Canada. The record states
Companions had "appealed to us for encouragement, advice and
owing to friction with the Capitular methods of other Constitutions
working in that
country, and their request was granted.
In 1888 this
precedent was followed by M. E. Comp. R. B. Hungerford, who issued
two more chapters in the same city, and there was then formed
Chapter of England objected to these warrants being issued on the
ground that it
had always held that the jurisdiction of Colonial and Dominion Grand
not extend outside their own borders. Our Grand Chapter contended that
as each Grand
Chapter in the several British Provinces is the peer of the Grand
Chapter of England,
the Grand Chapter of Canada had equal right to establish subordinate
any country or colony where a supreme governing body does not exist.
In 1889 following
the inauguration of the Grand Lodge of Victoria, Australia, a Supreme
was formed for the same Province, but was not generally recognized
owing to irregularities
of procedure, and its authorities added to the handicap of the Canadian
In 1893 one
of the Canadian chapters seceded to the Grand Chapter of Victoria, but
were received for three more warrants from that Province, which were
M. E. Comp. J. E. Harding, although those already there had received no
from the chapters under the other Constitutions, or the Grand Lodge of
of a union was generally conceded by all concerned, however, and
of appointed committees were held to that end. Finally, in 1895, a
union was consummated
"on terms honorable to our Companions in our Australian District, as
to those of the Grand Chapter of Victoria," due credit being given to
of the Canadian Companions who had made possible for Capitular Masonry
in that Province
to have its own Grand Chapter and its Masonic independence.
Has Reigned During
we have had few Masonic experiences deserving special mention. In 1875
of Manitoba assumed the toga virilis with the parental blessing, and
later, in 1905, gave birth to the Grand Lodge of Alberta. The Grand
Lodge of Saskatchewan
was established in 1906, as a result of the political organization of
so that at this date (1924) the only lodges in Canada, working in their
unity, but having no Grand Lodge of their own, are those in the Yukon
which forms District No. 10 of the Grand Lodge of British Columbia.
present cause for dissension lies in the retention of our original
"The Grand Lodge of Canada," although our boundaries are now confined
to those of our own Province. The elder brethren, who helped to make
a fact, naturally uphold it with a proper pride; some of the younger
ones ‒ unassociated
with their efforts ‒ are willing to change it, and there are some who
bitter controversies of 1869-74 and urge its abolition.
In 1888 this
title was modified by the addition of the words "in the Province of
but experience has proved that the use of this phrase is generally not
especially outside of Canada. This was so particularly noticeable in
M. W. Pro. W. H. Wardrope attended the Masonic Peace Celebration of the
of England, where the representatives of many other Grand Lodges were
that in 1920 he moved in Grand Lodge that the words "of Canada" be
out. After prolonged discussion the matter was left until the next year
when, after further discussion, the motion was "declared lost."
more acute troubles have been smoothed away by the lapse of time and
this is not
likely to be an exception.
danger as darkens our horizon lies in our enormous increase of
by an equally high standard of quality, which has led to much
expenditure of time,
money and energy in side issues. This is not peculiar to ourselves,
we can safely trust the inherent purpose that brought our Order into
keeps it going, to dissolve these accretions when the lessons they can
become part of our Masonic consciousness.
Stop Blowing Bubbles”
W. O. Saunders
account of the origin of the Shriners' Hospitals for Crippled Children
in Collier's Weekly Sept 13 last, is copyrighted by that journal, and
by special permission.
A BOY in
Atlanta fell under a moving railway train, and one of his legs was
repair. The leg was amputated and infection set in. The boy had no
friends or money.
heard about the case. He took the boy to Dr. Michael Hoke, an
and told Mike Hoke to save the boy at any cost and send him the bill.
wrestled with the case for weeks and finally sent the boy away well and
with an artificial leg. Forrest Adair waited for the bill. No bill
came. Then he
wrote Dr. Hoke. The bill came in a few days; it was $5. Forrest Adair
are you doing, kidding me, sending me a bill for $5 for three months'
I'm not kidding you," the surgeon answered.
I'm not going to stand for this," said Adair. "I want you to understand
that I'm thoroughly able to pay for what you did for this boy and I
the hat for him."
afraid you just don't understand," said the surgeon. "There are some
in this life more satisfying than the money rewards we get for our
work. I have
been repaid a thousand times in the case of that boy, by his gratitude
and joy at
being restored to a life of health and usefulness."
The two men
stood with eyes fixed on each other for a long time, then they sat down
named seven or eight specific cases of poor children in Atlanta who
would be crippled
for life because there was not in all Georgia an institution in which
be cared for during an operation, and hospitalization was out of the
of the poverty of their parents.
only give them my technical skill," said the surgeon; "I haven't the
to supply beds and nursing for the weeks and weeks it takes to
limbs and spines."
Adair Takes Hold
Adair is perhaps the most forceful man in Atlanta. He has given several
to charity and he has a way of making his hardest-boiled friends help
because he knows the joy that giving will bring to all who give. After
talk with Dr. Hoke he interested the Scottish Rite Masons of Atlanta in
a little hospital for crippled children. And then in 1917 a ten-bed
born. That Scottish Rite hospital grew and grew until today it has
and plans are being made for twenty-five more. In eight years 5,000 of
crippled children of indigent parents have been restored to health and
their feet, raised from despair to normal boyhood and girlhood,
years of helplessness and possible pauperism to the certainty of health
citizenship. This is what the Scottish Rite Hospital in Atlanta has
done for the
children of Georgia.
not only captured the imagination of Atlantans, but its fame spread and
came from far and near. W. Freeland Kendrick, at that time Imperial
the Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, now Mayor of
visited the hospital in Atlanta in 1918. There he saw the wonders being
and the smiles of crippled children about to be made as other children
him with an idea.
about 560,000 Shriners in North America. Noble Kendrick knew what a
Shriners could do if interested, and at Indianapolis in 1919 he told
the Scottish Rite Hospital for Crippled Children in Atlanta and
proposed that Shriners
establish similar hospitals in every important city in America. The
indifferently. The motion was lost ‒ and forgotten.
in 1920 Noble Kendrick went before the Shrine again. But nobody wanted
to hear about
kids with crooked spines, clubfeet, rotting bones, and that sort of
thing. The thing
was again about to be tabled when Forrest Adair arose. He told them in
his own way
about what a handful of Scottish Rite Masons had done for the children
And then he said:
awakened about two o'clock this morning by a Shriner playing a baritone
my window. He was all lit up, but he was going strong with that horn,
and the tune
he played was 'I'm Forever Blowing Bubbles.'
see here, Nobles, we've been just blowing bubbles, without ever a care
but ourselves. Let's do something besides blowing bubbles; let's
justify our existence
in a big and beautiful way and get some real fun out of the business of
what could be done even with an assessment of $2 a year on every
Shriner; an insignificant
sum to the individual Noble but a princely million and better when
pooled. The idea
‒ certainly a splendid one ‒ went over with a bang. That was back in
Shriners have hospitals for crippled children in St. Louis, Mo.;
Shreveport, La.; San Francisco, Cal.; and in St. Paul and Minneapolis.
been bought for similar hospitals in Chicago, Philadelphia, Montreal,
Mass., and in Honolulu, Hawaii. Plans are under way for the erection of
– more if necessary – to reach the 460,000 crippled children in the
alone. It costs about $300,000 to build one of these hospitals and
a year to maintain it. The Shriners are at present spending more than a
a year out of their assessment of $2 apiece, and they will raise that
when more is needed. It means that at last, here on the threshold of a
new and better
century, millions of hitherto hopelessly crippled children are to have
a new life,
a chance to laugh and romp and grow up to be cheerful, useful
instead of charges upon their families and society.
surgery is comparatively a new thing; it has made its great progress
past decade without its miracles getting the publicity they deserve.
the method of straightening out a club foot has been to force the foot
by virtually breaking every bone in it. The operation was torturous and
Dr. Hoke goes into the thin and wasted leg, chisels the femur in two,
entire femur around and, lo, the foot that turned backward is
bone of the leg in its new position knits in a few weeks and in a
short time the patient is able to walk.
recently a flat foot was treated by forcing the bones of the arch back
by painful manipulation that seldom effected a permanent cure. Dr. Hoke
contrary bones of the flat foot, constructs a one-piece permanent arch,
arch forever retains the shape he gives it.
miracles of orthopedic surgery are many. But that isn't the story I
wanted to tell.
I wanted to give the inside story of how a great idea was sold to a lot
men in America when it was properly presented.
folks may seem busy and selfish, they are almost always humane at heart
to do good when someone shows them the way. You will generally find
that the hearts
of men are right when you speak to their hearts.
to the United States of America
the Report to the
M. W. The Grand Master by R. W. Bro. Sir Alfred Robbins, P.G.W.,
of the Board of General Purposes, United Grand Lodge, England
thousands of American Masons who followed with such keen interest Bro.
Robbins' visit to these shores as an official ambassador of good will
from the United
Grand Lodge of England will find his formal report, made to the Grand
the United Grand Lodge of England, a notable document, good to read and
careful study. It appeared as an Appendix to Bro. Robbins' Report of
the Board of
General Purposes over date of Aug. 1, 1924.
I HAVE the
honor to submit a report on the Mission to the United States of
America, with which
your Royal Highness was pleased to entrust me.
the Quarterly Communication on June 4, I was welcomed by your Royal
Grand Lodge on the day of my return to this country, I used these
would like to express, here and now, my deep appreciation of the warmth
of the enthusiastic
welcome which was given, in various jurisdictions in the United States
to the accredited representative of the United Grand Lodge of England.
standing in this hall, I have traveled, on behalf of Grand Lodge, over
miles; I have visited ten American Jurisdictions, and I have spoken at
in twenty American cities. And I come back to my own country with the
of the devotion of those Grand Lodges to the principles for which the
of England has always stood, and of their personal thanks to and
admiration of yourself,
M. W. Grand Master, for the manner in which you have so long presided
over the destinies
of the English Craft." This tribute I desire to repeat with emphasis
I would venture
to recall the circumstances which led to my undertaking the Mission to
Five years ago, the United Grand Lodge of England had the privilege of
of twenty-nine leading representatives of various American
Jurisdictions ‒ in the
main Grand Masters, Past Grand Masters and Grand Secretaries ‒ on the
the Especial Grand Lodge holden at the Royal Albert Hall on June 27,
1919, in Celebration
of Peace. During their stay in England these distinguished brethren
more than once
expressed a strong hope that their visit would in some way be soon
later I personally received from time to time invitations to different
Grand Jurisdictions. It was not, however, until the end of last year
that I was
in a position to accept any of these; and then, with the approval of
Highness, I arranged to make a journey to the United States during the
The Board of General Purposes, in reporting this to Grand Lodge on Dec.
expressed the belief that the interchange of fraternal information
secured by such
a visit would be of great mutual service, as being conducive to a
between the English-speaking members of the Craft; and later it uttered
that the visit would strengthen still further the bond of friendship
and good will
between the British and American peoples. It was in that belief and
hope that I
arranged to leave this country on Feb. 27, of the present year, bearing
message from your Royal Highness to our American brethren:
the occasion of the visit of Bro. Sir Alfred Robbins, P. G. W.,
President of the
Board of General Purposes, to the United States, I take the opportunity
through him to the brethren of all Jurisdictions in friendly
association with the
United Grand Lodge of England my fraternal good wishes and sincere
desire for their
continued happiness and prosperity.
is my earnest hope that the tenets of our Order may assist still
further the bond
of friendship and good will, which so happily exists between our two
I shall watch with sympathy every endeavour to promote these feelings
by the development
of Freemasonry in the purest and highest aspects."
of the Tour
the details of the tour, it at once became apparent that, in the less
months that could be given to the undertaking before returning in time
for the Quarterly
Communication in June, severe limitations would have to be imposed. I
if the invitations to visit several Jurisdictions bordering on the
as well as certain Grand Lodges in the Middle West, were accepted, I
should be bound
to decline at that date any outside this definitely circumscribed line.
constrained by considerations of time as well as of personal strength,
I, with sincere
regret, was compelled to decline very cordial invitations to visit the
of California, Utah, Nebraska, Georgia, North Dakota and Delaware; but
from representatives of all these the most cordial good wishes, as also
Grand Masters of Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Wisconsin and
as well as the Grand Secretary of New Hampshire, all of whom met me
during my stay
in the United States; while the Grand Master of Louisiana sent by
telegram his especial
regards. And I would premise that an absolute rule during the visit was
not to attend
any Masonic gathering, or one even indirectly associated with Masonry,
I had not been invited, or was not accompanied, by the Grand Master of
in which it was held.
March 6 in New York, I was welcomed by the leading brethren of that
who gave an equally hearty Masonic "send off" on my leaving the same
on May 28. By the kindness of friends, my headquarters throughout the
were at Montclair, N. J., a few miles south of New York, whence on
March 10 I proceeded
to Boston and attended a meeting of the Fourth Estate Lodge, to see the
working of an important degree. On the next evening, I was present at
Convocation of the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Massachusetts, where I
very hearty welcome; and the following day, after being privileged to
be at a confidential
meeting of the District Deputy Grand Masters of the Massachusetts
their Grand Master, I went to the regular communication of their Grand
again had a cordial greeting. This was assisted by Bro. Thomas R.
Marshall, of Indiana,
Vice-president of the United States from 1913 to 1921, who was emphatic
in his fraternal
greetings. In the evening the Grand Master of Massachusetts invited to
in my honor the Past Grand Masters and Grand Officers of his
Jurisdiction, as well
as the Grand Masters of two neighboring states, two others being
attending by a heavy snow blizzard, which also had hindered hundreds of
from distant parts of the state from being in Grand Lodge. During my
until March 14, in the course of which I had a personal interview with
of the state, I had the opportunity for frequent consultation with the
of the Jurisdiction on matters of Masonic policy, in which information
and received on both sides; and it may be here noted that similar
place in every Jurisdiction I visited.
Is In New York and New
In the course
of the two following weeks, I had special consultations with
of New York and New Jersey, and was entertained at a large gathering of
members of the former Jurisdiction by their Grand Master; and on March
31, I went
for five days to Washington, there to meet the brethren of the
Jurisdiction of the
District of Columbia, which has Washington for its center. In the
capital city of
the United States, I met not only representative members of the Craft,
their Grand Master, but was made most heartily welcome by Bro. John H.
Grand Master of Kentucky, who has a vivid memory of the reception given
visiting London at the Peace Celebration, and is now the head of the
of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, a very powerful Masonic body
in the United
States, which has its counterpart in this country in the Ancient and
Under his escort, I inspected the preliminary work now being pursued
for the erection
of the George Washington National Masonic Memorial, in Virginia, as
well as the
Temple of the Alexandria Washington Lodge, the original lodge room of
which is filled
with relies of the first President of the United States, who lived at
nearby, and was the first Master of this Virginian Lodge.
Washington, I had the especial privilege ‒ through the introduction by
B. Kellogg, the American Ambassador to this country ‒ of interviews
with the President
of the United States (Mr. Coolidge) and the Secretary of State (Mr.
Charles E. Hughes),
as well as with the Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court
W. H. Taft). The last of these distinguished Americans is a Mason, and,
capacity, attended a banquet given in my honor at the House of the
Temple, at which
were present a number of United States Senators, members of the House
and leading American admirals, generals, scientists and literary men,
of the Masonic Fraternity. In my interviews with the President and the
of State, and in response to their questions, I stated the nature and
my mission, which was to promote ‒ and, in a large degree, through
by full, free and frequent intercourse, the already friendly relations
English-speaking peoples in general and those of this country and the
in particular; and that statement in each case was approvingly
visiting Washington, I had a conversation in New York with Bro. John W.
former American Ambassador to England, who had the Brevet Rank of Past
conferred upon him at the Especial Peace Grand Lodge of June 27, 1919.
recalled with much interest that Masonic incident regarding himself, as
others in connection with the period of his residence in London; and he
cordial wishes for the success of my mission.
7, I witnessed the Ceremony of Initiation, well performed by leading
in the Jonkheer Lodge at Yonkers, not far from New York, being there
by the Grand Master of New York, and his successor, the then Deputy
I next visited, on the 9th, the City of Philadelphia, where the Grand
brethren of Pennsylvania gave me the most cordial of receptions. The
Mayor of Philadelphia
extended to me a civic welcome, and I was the official guest of the
my stay; the Grand Master brought together a large gathering of the
of his Jurisdiction, who expressed the warmest sentiments of amity and
for the Grand Lodge of England; and I was given more than one
opportunity to inspect
the Grand Lodge Library, a finely arranged and well displayed
of close Masonic study. The great friendliness of feeling here shown
when I went, on April 15, to Trenton for the regular communication of
Lodge of New Jersey, which I addressed on the following day, having
spoken the previous
night at an assembly of the Grand Master, Past Grand Masters and
of the state. In these Grand Jurisdictions, as in every one visited
during my stay
in America, I read the personal message of your Royal Highness. It was
greeted with sincere warmth and with expressions of appreciation of the
your Royal Highness has done for Freemasonry, especially during the
years' tenure of your Grand Mastership.
arduous part of my undertaking began with the fortnight I spent in four
of the Middle West, opening with that of Missouri. On April 19 I
to St. Louis, a distance from New York of 1,051 miles, and on the 21st,
specially welcomed by the National Masonic Research Society of the
I spoke at an emergent meeting of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, the
most fraternal and hearty. The following day, the Grand Master showed
me much of
Masonic interest in and around St. Louis, and gave me the opportunity
intercourse with some leading brethren; and that night I proceeded to
the University City of the state, where I not only addressed the Grand
Missouri, but witnessed some admirable working in Acacia Lodge. On the
24th, I journeyed
to Kansas City, in the same state, a distance of 278 miles from St.
Louis, and there
I was entertained by the Orient Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, as well
as, on the
26th, by the Ivanhoe Lodge of Kansas City, one of the largest private ‒
or, as they
are there termed, subordinate ‒ lodges in the United States. After
at the dedication of a new portion of the very spacious and striking
I attended a very large meeting of the lodge to witness the ceremony of
in the presence of the Grand Master, the 4,000th Mason, now a
of Ivanhoe Lodge. Throughout my week in the State of Missouri, I was
by the Grand Master to every Masonic gathering, and I am grateful for
all the help
Late on the
night of April 26, after the Ivanhoe ceremony, I went forward to the
State of Iowa;
and, after being heartily welcomed on the way at Marshalltown by the
the Marshall Lodge, I proceeded to Cedar Rapids, the well-known Masonic
the Jurisdiction. In that city I witnessed some Iowa working at the
in the presence of over two thousand brethren from different parts of
visited twice the Iowa Masonic Library, a very fine institution which
me as admirably designed and managed; attended a meeting of the Grand
Council by his special invitation; was entertained, with the leading
the Grand Master, and that night went on to Chicago to be greeted by
of Illinois. After two days in Chicago, where my pleasant experiences
and even emphasized, being especially welcomed by the Grand Master and
colleagues in the Illinois Jurisdiction, with his District Deputies, I
on the night of May 1, to Columbus, to be met by the brethren of Ohio,
their Grand Master, with the same cordial enthusiasm that had
accompanied me throughout
the journey. In this last city I addressed, under the presidency of the
a gathering of about 2,000 Masons, assembled from all parts of the
The next morning I visited the New England Lodge at Worthington, one of
lodges in the state, where an emergent meeting of the Grand Lodge of
Ohio was convened
to greet me, and it was due alone to the sudden and severe illness of
son that I did not have a promised interview with the state governor.
Ends Visit to Middle
On the evening
of May 3, I ended my fourteen days' visit to the Middle West, in the
course of which
I had traveled by rail and motor car over 3,000 miles, including five
and had spoken in ten Masonic centers of activity. Any record of this
part of my
tour would not be complete if I did not mention the very great pains
that were taken
by the various Grand Masters to ensure my convenience, as in each
instance I was
greeted, before leaving one Jurisdiction, by the Deputy Grand Master or
of the one next to be visited, and was escorted by him to my
destination, a mark
of regard which was very highly appreciated.
two days, I attended the Grand Lodge of New York on May 6 and 7, and
the message from your Royal Highness with which I was charged. Not only
was my welcome
from this very large gathering of the heartiest, but "the Grand
‒ as the Grand officers and Past Grand officers of the state are known,
very closely to our Grand Officers' Mess ‒ gave on their own account a
greeting. On the 13th, I paid a visit to Baltimore in order to address
Lodge of Maryland, where the Grand Master and his brethren paid me
and, on the following day I went to Elizabethtown to inspect the very
and excellently arranged Pennsylvania Masonic Home. The next day I
returned to New
York to be welcomed at a special banquet by the National Masonic
of the United States, at which attended representatives of Grand Lodges
parts of the Union whom I had not previously had the opportunity to
on the following night, there was a reception in my honor at Newark to
active Masons of the Jurisdiction of New Jersey. This concluded the
of my Masonic stay, though on May 20 I was the guest in New York of the
brethren of that Jurisdiction who, nearly two months earlier, had
me, and who throughout had given me the warmest sympathy and support,
as well as
afforded the fullest aid and information.
tour I had the honor to present, by your Royal Highness' command, the
official badge of a Representative from a friendly Grand Lodge to the
Lodge of England, to six distinguished American brethren who had not
received this mark of honorable distinction. There were the Grand Lodge
of the Jurisdictions of New York, Illinois, New Jersey, Maryland,
Delaware and the
District of Columbia. In every ease the presentation was made in the
with the expressed approval of, the Grand Master of the Jurisdiction,
arid in each
it was welcomed by the assembled brethren, as well as by the brother
concerned, with open manifestation of approval and enjoyment.
It will afford
an indication of the extent of Masonic territory covered during the
mission if there
be given, according to the latest available official statistics, the
of the various Grand Lodges visited in its course:
more than one million and a quarter American brethren were addressed
respective Grand Lodges and Grand Masters.
return home I have had both time and opportunity to consider generally
what I had
learned from this visit to the United States, and the chief lesson I
drew from all
my experiences ‒ and this is a counsel to be given to brethren on both
the Atlantic ‒ was to avoid hasty judgments formed on first
impressions. In regard
to such differences as are plainly visible between the system of Grand
lodge government in the United States and our own Jurisdiction ‒
is ever to be understood, in degree but not in doctrine ‒ national
and local circumstances always and most steadily have to be borne in
mind. A marked
divergence in national psychology accounts for the one difference which
to the Englishman
is most apparent, and that is that what we as Masons present to the
mind's eye is
in America represented to the bodily vision. It is impossible openly to
on so delicate a matter, but I would record the opinion that the manner
the dramatic story of our earliest-known workings has developed into
the acted drama
now seen across the Atlantic, demands closest study from those Masons,
and American, who desire to know what are the differences in practice
here and there,
and how and why they arose.
a study is undertaken, it would always have to be with full realization
of the temperamental
and psychological differences between the English and the American
peoples ‒ differences
more easily observed than accounted for. It would be difficult to
explain why the
English brother who is as scrupulous to conceal marks of his Masonry
from the outside
world as his American brother is ready to display them, and who, in his
observances is as reticent of emotion as the American is ready with
have in Craft Masonry a far more ornate display and difference of
in Grand Lodge or private lodge, than is used by the overwhelming body
or Blue Masons in the United States. This is a problem which affects us
there also are problems which directly touch American lodges alone, as
those which directly touch English lodges alone. Concerning these,
which, at the
most, are non-essential in their basis, it is well that each body
both toleration and patience, and not seek to impose its opinions, even
the one on the other.
As to Masonic
practice generally, American Masons appear to pay a degree of deference
to the precise
words of James Anderson on constitutional points, and of William
Preston on points
of practice, which English brethren who have studied those eighteenth
writers at closest hand are unprepared to share. In this country we do
either as an infallible authority, and our belief is that much of our
come from having been able to differentiate with clearness between what
is of permanent value and what personal opinion.
But it is
always to be borne in mind that the forty-nine Grand Jurisdictions
which exist in
the United States are entirely independent of each other, having no
acting on their own regulations, and by their own methods of
their several boundaries. As a consequence, the composition of the
Lodges, the method of selection of the several Grand Masters, and even
of service of these higher officers, vary greatly with the
Jurisdictions, just as
does the working of the private or subordinate lodges.
that is strange and often exuberant, the fraternal observer cannot fail
to be impressed
not only by the skill and assiduity with which, despite extraneous
the concerns of American Symbolic lodges are managed, and the zeal and
which their leaders promulgate the genuine principles and tenets of
but by the almost limitless patience the brethren display in the
discharge of their
Masonic work. This last characteristic is the more noteworthy in face
of the overwhelmingly
large size of very many of the lodges; but it is good to recognize the
of order displayed within the doors of the Grand Lodges and private
while the strict regard paid to the presiding officer is voluntary
the best kind. It further is well not only to note but to appreciate
the keen interest
in Masonic problems, both practical and philosophic, and the informed
Masonic questions of international interest, manifested by the foremost
in the Jurisdictions I visited.
Comments On D.D.G.M.
however, one striking difference in Grand Lodge methods of government
my keen attention, and appears worthy of our consideration. Even in the
American Jurisdictions, no such divisions exist for purposes of local
as our Provincial or District Grand Lodges; but the supervision of the
undertaken, and their discipline directly maintained, by a system of
Grand Masters. Each of these has a comparatively, though varying, small
lodges given directly into his charge during his term of office, which
may, or may
not, be for longer than a year. The District Deputy Grand Master is
for visiting every lodge under his charge during the year, and
reporting on its
work to the Grand Master, who in many cases meets these officers of his
before each Grand Lodge communication, and enjoins them as to their
duties and the
manner in which good results can be obtained. To some extent, this is
done in many
of our provinces by a system of visitation under the Provincial Grand
direction. But that system is not universal, and, in any case, it does
to London, and, therefore, a closer examination of the American plan,
with an attempt
to estimate its full value, would, I believe, be of much use to
of American Masonic activity are especially to be noted ‒ the great and
exercise of benevolence and the ardent expansion of temple building. In
American Masons mainly rely on a Grand Lodge levy rather than on the
though individual gifts, and especially for benevolent objects, are
many and munificent.
I had the privilege of visiting the Masonic Homes of Pennsylvania,
Ohio, at Elizabethtown, St. Louis and Springfield respectively, while
of time prevented me from inspecting the great New York institution at
each of these, girls, boys and aged Freemasons and their widows and
female relations have their separate homes, situated within the same
area, and all
are splendidly looked after. It would be impossible in so vast a
country as the
United States to have three centralized institutions such as we possess
but there is a growing tendency to erect these homes in Jurisdictions
have not previously existed, and to extend such as are already in full
York, indeed, at the Grand Lodge communication I attended, determined
to make a
very strong effort in the way of extension.
phase of what may be termed Masonic aid-work demands note and
attention. In various
American Jurisdictions there have been established Masonic Bureaus,
Boards and Masonic Service Associations. Certain of these appear to
functions here attempted to be covered by Employment Exchanges and
and the first-named are an extension of Masonic effort into the
employer and employed which invites careful investigation. It is
claimed for these
bodies that they have earned the confidence of both sides to the labor
and their existence and energies are not to be ignored.
to temple building, American effort is not confined to the large and
which are being erected all over the country for individual lodges and
but is extended to the George Washington National Masonic Memorial.
This last great
building, when complete, will cost over a million pounds, the main
raised by a levy of one dollar on every subscribing member of an
on approval of the project by its Grand Lodge. It is being erected not
Mount Vernon, Va., the first President's home, and near the town of
where he was the earliest Master of Alexandria Washington Lodge, still
of which he remained a working member to the end. The edifice will from
rallying point and place of pilgrimage for American Masons wherever
it is regarded as truly symbolising the unity of American Freemasonry.
But a very
great difficulty that often presents itself to the visiting Englishman,
with which, front instinct, he is out of sympathy, arises from the
and remarkably strong bodies in the United States which, though not
in some way associated with Freemasonry. In this regard, considerations
populi as well as genius loci must always be held in mind, and it would
to dogmatize regarding detailed matters which immediately concern
not our own. But, without attempting to enter into particulars
semi-Masonic or pseudo-Masonic American bodies, I would definitely
state the opinion
that Masonry, as we know it here, stands in no need of extraneous
over which the authorities of the Craft have no control, but for the
which Freemasonry generally is apt by the outside world to be held
I, therefore, am strongly of opinion that the rulers and administrators
of the Craft
would be well advised to watch with the closest attention any attempts
similar bodies into the English Jurisdiction.
of the Welcome
In the course
of the visit I was made an honorary member of the Grand Lodge of New
Jersey, a distinction
never previously conferred on any brother not an American, and only on
one in that
country. The same honor was accorded in the Jurisdiction of Missouri,
in which my
only predecessors in honorary membership were three, two being the
soldier and patriot, Lafayette, who assisted materially to secure
and his son, both of whom received the honor in 1825, and the other
being Past Grand
Master Jonathan Nye, of Vermont, in 1842, for distinguished services
Freemasonry during the Morgan upheaval, which for a time threatened the
of the Craft in the United States. The Grand Chapter of Royal Arch
Masons of Missouri
likewise voted its honorary membership, while the Brevet Rank of Senior
was conferred in the Grand Lodge of Maryland, and Massachusetts
presented the Henry
Price medal, the highest honor that Grand Lodge gives to one who is not
of the state.
my welcome generally, for the continuous warmth of which sincere thanks
to every American brother, of whatever Masonic rank, who assisted to
greet me, I
will not attempt to distinguish between hosts. But I feel bound to
with profound gratitude, the recognition given everywhere of the
country from which
I came and of which, in a distinct degree, I was regarded as a
every gathering I attended ‒ Masonic, public and social alike ‒ the
Union Jack was
flown side by side with the Stars and Stripes, and the English national
sung as well as the American. Even as an act of courtesy to one from
afar, it moved
me deeply; as a token of widespread desire for better understanding
intercourse between our two peoples, it filled me with hope.
the outward and visible signs of a greeting which was given me as
the United Grand Lodge of England. In that capacity I made clear to
Lodge addressed what were the fundamental principles for which our body
and from which, in no circumstance, will it depart. To each I gave an
that the United Grand Lodge of England stands as firmly as it ever did
by the principle
of reverent and absolute recognition of an Almighty Being, with a
His will, and that it was never less likely than now to depart from
base. I am rejoiced to state that every Masonic gathering addressed
gave the most
cordial and ungrudging assent to the principles thus defined, and I
the full assurance that the American Freemasonry we recognize in its
is as true as is English Masonry to the essential principles and tenets
of the Craft.
now testimonies come from leading brethren in every Jurisdiction
visited, from Massachusetts
to Maryland in the East, and from Missouri to Ohio in the West, that
this mission has cemented more closely the ties which bind English and
Freemasonry. They declare that their brethren stand where they always
side by side with English Freemasons on the fundamental principles of
and they hold with us that, as long as English-speaking Masons do not
these principles but maintain them to the utmost, Freemasonry will be a
growing influence in the world's affairs. If, in any degree, my visit
to deepen and widen the belief in our essential principles, its main
object ‒ that
of bringing American and English Freemasonry into closer relationship ‒
been fully attained.
Who Were Masons
Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
JOHN KALE, a conspicuous figure in the early history of our country, is
character not only because of his splendid service as a general
officer, but also
for being a close friend of Washington and Lafayette. He was born June
in the village of Heuttendorf in the Province of Margraviate, which was
sovereignty, and not in Alsace or Bavaria as some writers have stated.
He was of
humble origin and for some years in his early life was a waiter. He
died Aug. 19,
1780, at Camden, South Carolina, of wounds received in a battle against
De Kalb was
trained in the French Army and rose to be a brigadier. He first came to
in 1762, being sent here as a secret agent by the French government. It
De Kalb that Lafayette gained an introduction to the American
Commissioners in Paris.
He joined with Lafayette in relinquishing the honors and emoluments of
in the French service in order to share the fortunes of a people in
one of the great powers of the earth. Congress made him a major general
1777. He joined Washington's army and became active in the military
Philadelphia during the autumn preceding the winter encampment at
The following year he was in command in New Jersey. While at Morristown
in the spring
of 1780 he was placed at the head of the Maryland Line; with these
the Delaware continental troops he marched southward in April to
Lincoln, then besieged in Charleston, but was too late. He was second
under General Gates in the South and in the battle at Camden on Aug.
16, 1780, he
was at the head of the Maryland and Delaware troops, which held their
Cornwallis concentrated his whole force upon them. De Kalb fell pierced
wounds before his regiment gave way. Three days later he died at
in 1825, Lafayette laid the cornerstone of a monument erected to his
monument "was inaugurated on the day succeeding the laying of the
9th March, 1825. The procession was headed by volunteer soldiery,
followed by Kershaw
Lodge of Freemasons, of the town and vicinity, then came the hearse and
of De Kalb, six Revolutionary officers bore the palls; a war horse was
them, General Lafayette and suite, Revolutionary soldiers, the civil
and some of the leading corporations of Camden brought up the rear…
to lay the cornerstone of the monument which was not completed for some
The base is formed of twenty-six massive blocks of granite, twenty-four
bear, respectively, the names of the twenty-four states then composing
the twenty-fifth has the inscription Focus esto perpetual, and the
with the obelisk of white marble fifteen feet high, cover the ashes of
On the side
which fronts the south, on De Kalb Street, are the words:
rest the remains of Baron De Kalb
German by birth, a cosmopolitan in his principles."
On the north
gratitude for his zeal and services
citizens of Camden have erected this monument."
On the east
love of liberty induced him to leave
the old world to aid the citizens of the new in their struggle for
His distinguished talent and many virtues weighed with Congress to
appoint him Major
General in the Revolutionary Army."
On the west
was second in command in the battle
he fought near Camden on August 16, 1780, and there nobly fell covered
while gallantly performing deeds of valor in rallying the friends and
enemies of his adopted country."
is from the Life of John Kalb [Lib 1884] by Friedrich Kapp, the best
is not all. Referring to his marriage to Miss Robais, at Paris, April
10, 1764 (page
36), the author says:
"It was probably the religious
‒ both being Protestants ‒ which first brought Peter Von Robais [father
of the lady]
in contact with Kalb… The wedding took place on the 10th April, 1764,
ceremony being performed in the Protestant chapel in the Dutch
On page 249
of the same book this appears:
"At the opening of the third
decade of the
present century the inhabitants of Camden, and especially the
Freemasons, of which
Fraternity he had been a member, conceived the design of erecting a
This is all
the evidence we can give that De Kalb was a Freemason, a Protestant,
and an unhyphenated
American. In Cardinal Gibbons' paper on eminent Roman Catholic heroes
in the American Revolution, published in the "Mirror," Baltimore,
June, 1896, De Kalb is given as one of them, but this is an error as
can be seen
from the above quotations.
name was John Kalb; he added the "Baron" and the "De" for his
own reasons. The same sort of thing is done today, is well understood,
memorial has been erected to De Kalb at Annapolis. It is of bronze on a
pedestal and bears a plaque inscribed in this manner:
"Sacred to the memory of the
Baron De Kalb,
Knight of the Royal Order of Military merit; Brigadier in the Armies of
Major General in the service of the United States of America. Having
honor and reputation for three years and forty days, a last and
glorious proof of
his attachment to the liberties of mankind and the cause of America, in
near Camden, in the State of South Carolina, on the 16th of August,
leading on the troops of the Maryland and Delaware lines against
and animating them by his example to deeds of valor, he was pierced by
and on the 19th following expired, in the 48th year of his age. The
the United States of America in gratitude to his zeal, service and
merit have erected
rules not by the power of the sword but by those imperishable virtues
directly from God, charity and brotherly love. She visits the lonely
cot and the
lordly couch to relieve the distressed and unhappy, smooths the
wrinkled brow of
age, whispers words of cheer into the ears of the unfortunate, and
with higher and nobler aspirations. She knows no creed or religion,
save a belief
in an ever-living God, and welcomes to her lodges men of every faith,
the brotherhood of man in the universality of Masonry.”
Masonry in the United States
Bro. H. L. Haywood, Editor
II. – The First American
period (properly so called) of American Masonry began early in the
and its first known date, as will appear farther down, is connected
and New England. New England was at that time almost a nation in
set off in custom, thought and interests from other parts of the land,
or less self-contained. Its population was almost entirely composed of
or their descendants, the second and third generations of which were at
during the first quarter of the century; it is said that at the time of
98 per cent of all New Englanders were of that stock. The entire
population of New
England in 1700 has been estimated at about 105,000, with 70,000 in
town life were at the bottom of the civilization, and the towns were
by mercantile interests, a fact that set New England in sharp contrast
to the important
states of the South, where the center of gravity lay in the country,
was controlled by the owners of great estates. New Englanders were
given to shipping,
trade, and manufacturing, and therefore laid emphasis on the virtues of
and thrift. Because they lived in towns they could support schools and
organized churches, and could take part in politics, a thing not easy
states where the population was more sparse, and scattered through the
the ideals of democracy were powerful among the New England population,
were, during the period in review, sufficiently Old World to adhere
to a system of social classes, of which gentlemen were at the head,
order by yeomen, merchants and mechanics. The social system was
stratified in this
fashion, and so also was the church, for worshippers were given pews
this manner of precedence. In the Harvard catalogues of the time the
names of students
were classified in the same manner.
system was permitted but not much encouraged, and what slaves there
consisted of house servants; there were few of them in the factories
so that manual labor never came to be looked upon as a disgrace. The
denunciation of slavery was issued by Judge Samuel Sewall in 1700;
ideas did not gain much circulation until Revolutionary times.
were organized according to the congregationalist, or self-governing
the people in general were habitually religious, as befitted the heirs
of the Pilgrims.
Clergymen were high class men, scholarly, imbued with a practical
much given to taking part in public affairs; moreover, they and their
intensely patriotic, and filled with horror of "European religion."
Andros attempted to introduce the Church of England into Massachusetts
he was met
by a storm of protest.
the people governed themselves politically pretty much according to
their own tastes
and without much interference from abroad, but in that year the English
a system of Royal Governors for Massachusetts, an event that marked the
of an English political control that increased gradually until the
it was thrown off for once and all. The majority of these Governors
gentlemen of wealth and fastidious tastes and somewhat impatient of the
of life in the province. Gradually they introduced aristocratic modes
until at last they moved in the center of miniature royal courts; they
rode in gilt
carriages; served expensive feasts to their friends; dressed
sumptuously in fine
linen and silk; and lived generally in great style. The Age of Homespun
as one Massachusetts historian writes, the Age of Brocade took its
One of the
prominent and arresting figures in this Age of Brocade was Jonathan
in addition to the political distinction of occupying the office of
of the province, stands forth in Masonic annals, so far as they are now
the first known Mason in the Western Hemisphere. Born Jan. 8, 1681, of
a Boston merchant and prominent councilor, he enjoyed from the
beginning the best
that the upper classes could afford, an education in Harvard, from
which he graduated
in 1699, and then a trip abroad, where he became acquainted with
King. After being polished off he returned to his native city to become
wherein he prospered so that he became prominent in public matters,
regard to the many attempts being made at the time to give the province
currency. In 1729 he was sent to England as an agent for the province.
and upon learning of Governor Burnet's death (the Royal Governor, and
son of the
famous scholar bishop of that name), Belcher used his already acquired
at Court and secured for himself, not without some trickery so his
were wont to allege, the appointment in Burnet's place. His commission
Jan. 8, 1730, but he did not land in Boston to assume his new and
until August of that year, when he alighted in Boston Harbor from a
with some pomp and éclat.
of Royal Governors, as already stated), began in 1692 and lasted until
Eleven were commissioned during that period (one did not serve), and
sixth in the list. He was a polished sociable man but somewhat
irritable as to temper,
and his term was not altogether happy to himself, as was inevitable
under the changing
conditions of the time, for the provincials were growing more and more
having a Governor appointed by a faraway King, and they always made
paying his salary. Belcher had the usual difficulties, made the usual
found it hard to reconcile the interests of his fellow New Englanders
applied also over New Hampshire) with the interests of his Royal Master
He sent 500 Massachusetts men to assist Admiral Vernon (a picturesque
was not "rum" named after him?) at Cuba in his fight against the
and that did not set well at Boston, where little interest was felt in
imperial wars. What with the everlasting salary question and other
too numerous to mention Belcher was removed from office, May 6, 1741,
years of service, in deference to popular clamor.
Made Governor of
He was vindicated
at the English Court and promised the next suitable appointment that
This came in 1745 when he was appointed Royal Governor of New Jersey, a
with honor and success. During that term he assisted Jonathan Edwards,
who had so
profoundly stirred the religious life of Boston during the “Great
1717-1744, "to put Princeton College on its feet." (George Whitefield,
the English revivalist, who preached to the Masons of Georgia in 1738,
in Boston during the last part of Belcher's term there.) Belcher died
in New Jersey
August 31, 1757, and was buried, at his own request, in his native town.
Belcher had been a Mason we know from his own testimony. On September
as we learn from its own records, the First Lodge at Boston (about
which more anon)
delivered to him a congratulatory address in which they expressed to
him their thanks
because "we have had your Protection while in the most Excellent
In his reply he said:
"I take very kindly this mark
of your Respect.
It is now Thirty Seven years since I was admitted into the Ancient and
of Free and accepted Masons, to whom I have been a faithful Brother,
to the Art of Masonry.
"I shall ever maintain a strict
for the whole Fraternity; & always be glad when it may fall in
my power to do
them any Services.
record R. F. Gould remarks:
Governor Belcher does not name the place of his initiation, it is
it took place in London, and the words he uses to describe his
the Society will justify the inference that on being made a Freemason,
Masonic secrets then existed were' communicated to him in their
as we may imagine was the case when Ashmole became a member at the
and in the parallel instances of the reception of: gentlemen at York…"
felt for Governor Belcher by his brethren of Massachusetts is shown by
addressed to him by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, after he had
removed to New
Jersey. This letter, signed by Charles Pelham, secretary, expressed the
"the sincere and hearty Congratulations of Our Lodge on your present
accession, may meet with a favorable acceptance," and was dated
1747. The Governor replied with feeling and appreciation on the sixth
of the following
month. While in the Jerseys it was impossible for him to enjoy any
activity in lodge
because none had as yet been established there.
Belcher's son Andrew graduated from Harvard in 1728, was later a
student of law
at the Temple, London, was made a Mason some time prior to July 30,
1733, at which
time he was appointed Deputy Grand Master of the new St. John's Grand
Lodge by its
organizer, Henry Price; and his second son, Jonathan,
Lieutenant-Governor of Nova
Scotia, followed Erasmus Phillips as Provincial Grand Master of the
provinces during the years 17601765. The record of these sons, when set
Belcher's own active membership in the Fraternity of fifty-three years,
that the family was not contented with a merely nominal allegiance to
John's Lodges Are Explained
noted in the quotation from Gould, it is now not known in what lodge
was made a Mason; wherever it was, and however organized, it was
to a number of other lodges scattered about over England at that time,
before the organization of the first Grand Lodge at London. If a group
possessed a copy of the Old Charges and sufficient knowledge of the
felt themselves authorized to form a lodge, and often did so, asking
Such a lodge might function for a few years, keep its own records, and
out of existence, leaving no trace behind it, the records becoming
lost. It is possible that some such lodge met in King's Chapel in 1720
in the preceding chapter) and it is certain that they did exist
for instance, about which more anon. Such were frequently called "St.
of the first Grand Lodge was the beginning of the end of this old
system that had
been inherited from the days of Operative Masonry and which, though it
well enough under that regime, was impossible for a worldwide
law and order would inevitably become necessary. The new Grand Lodge at
jurisdiction only over London and Westminster, but as time passed and
the new system
gained headway and prestige, it gradually extended the boundaries of
until at last it had been extended over the whole of America, as well
as the whole
of England and much territory beside. In 1721 Grand Lodge adopted and
a new regulation; and this in time became the law for Masonry
"VIII. No set or number of
withdraw or separate themselves from the lodge in which they were made
or were afterwards admitted members, unless the lodge becomes too
even then without a Dispensation from the Grand Master or his Deputy;
and when they
are thus separated they must either immediately join themselves to such
as they shall like best, with the unanimous consent of that other lodge
they go (as above regulated) or else they must obtain the Grand
to join in forming a new lodge.
"If any set or number of Masons
upon themselves to form a lodge without the Grand Master's warrant, the
lodges are not to countenance them, nor own them as fair brethren and
nor approve of their acts and deeds but must treat them as rebels,
until they humble
themselves as the Grand Master shall in his prudence direct, and until
of them by his warrant, which must be signified to the other lodges, as
is when a new lodge is to be registered in the list of lodges."
It is necessary
to keep the above strictly in mind if one is to thread his way through
of early Masonry in the United States because much hinges upon it,
regards the often mooted question as to the "oldest lodge on the
etc. Prior to 1721 and according to the "old customs" any lodge, if
by Masons, was legitimate and regular, if one wishes to import those
into a period before their use should properly begin; but afterwards
lodges were regular and duly constituted that received warrant from a
or from some Provincial Grand Lodge, or else, if previously organized,
regularization under some existing Grand Lodge.
in the above paragraph, there has been for many years a great deal of
over the question as to where Freemasonry first made its appearance in
a controversy that for the most part has been kept up between the
advocates of Massachusetts
and Pennsylvania. It is not in order in the present connection to enter
discussion; the facts on both sides will be presented as impartially as
in succeeding pages. Meanwhile Massachusetts advocates can safely claim
own jurisdiction the honor of having on record the membership of the
American Mason in the person of Governor Jonathan Belcher.
* * *
Boston and Massachusetts.
Of the innumerable
works available the following may be mentioned:
Memorial History of Boston, Including Suffolk County, Massachusetts,
edited by Justin
Winsor; four volumes; Boston, 1882. [Lib 1881; Vol 1,
Boston Days and Ways, Mary Caroline Crawford, Boston, 1909 [Lib 1909].
Botolph's Town, Mary Caroline Crawford, Boston, 1908. [Lib 1908]
the Place and the People, M. A. DeWolfe Howe, New York 1903. [Lib 1912]
1492 ‒ 1750, R. G. Thwaites, New York, 1923. [Lib 1915]
Revised History of Freemasonry, Clegg; Chicago, 1921; IV., p. 1517.
[Lib 1906; 7
Clegg’s Revision – See Bibliography)]
of Freemasonry in America, Johnson, New York, 1924, p. 49. [Lib*]
England Freemason, I., p. 67. [Lib*]
History of Freemasonry in Canada, Robertson; Toronto, 1900; I., p. 140.
of Freemasonry in Rhode Island, Rugg; Providence, 1895; p. 20. [Lib*]
of Freemasonry, Gould, Yorston edition, 1889, III.. p. 21; IV., p. 229.
4 Volumes (See
History of Boston (above cited), II., p. 57. [Lib 1881; Vol
Boston Gazette; September 28, 1741. [Lib*]
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts; 1871; pp. 316, 176, 1888, p. 156; 1883,
p. 161; 1872,
p. 22; 1914, p. 22. [Lib*]
Cyclopedia of American Biography. [Lib 1888;
of Massachusetts Bay, Hutchinson, Boston, 1746. [Lib 1795; Vol
of the Colony of New Jersey, Smith; Burlington, 1765. [Lib 1865]
of New Hampshire Belknap; Philadelphia, 1784. [Lib 1812; Vol
New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 1865. [Lib 1865]
Last item contains Belcher's
Letters; see general index of same for other Belcher references.
BUILDER, 1915; p. 112.
Monthly Magazine, XXVIII., 33. [Lib*]
* * *
- When did the
of American Masonry begin?
- What states now constitute New
- What was the character of its
population in 1700?
- What was at the bottom of New
- What effect did towns and town
life have on New England?
- What were the New England
- Was slavery permitted in New
- When did the attack on it begin?
- How were New England churches
- What effect did they have at
- What is meant by "Royal
- When was the first Royal
Governor appointed for Massachusetts?
- What is meant by the "Age of
- Who was the first known
- Tell something about his life.
- When did he become governor of
- What were his experiences as
- Why was he removed?
- When did he become governor of
- When was he made a Mason?
- How do we know this fact?
- In what kind of a lodge was he
- What was the Masonic record of
his two sons?
- How were Masonic lodges
organized prior to 1717?
- What were such lodges called?
- When and where was the first
Grand Lodge organized?
- Give the substance of its
regulation No. VIII.
- What is meant by "regular and
- Do you know who was first made
a Mason in your own state?
- What is the oldest existing
lodge in your own state?
- When was your own Grand Lodge
Us Call A Halt!"
too much rushing and grouping and teaming in degree work. There is
than perfunctory degree grinding. Degrees should be stately in their
dignity and individual in contact. But what can be said of Masters and
who profess to have given the solemn third degree to each of 4
candidates in 15
minutes? The mills of God grind slowly. Let us call a halt or the grist
spoiled by these high-powered artists of milling legerdemain. They mean
are mistaken. God knows we all make mistakes.
W.N. Ponton, G.M., Canada
OF FREEMASONRY IN AMERICA [Lib*] by Melvin M. Johnson, P.G.M., Mass.
George H. Doran for M.S.A. National Masonic Library. Blue cloth;
410 pages. May be purchased from National Masonic Research Society,
Exchange, St. Louis.Price, $3.65postpaid.
The General Point Of
IT is difficult
to review this unique and useful work of Melvin M. Johnson from whom we
to expect the "last and best word" on whatever subject he sheds the
light of jurisprudence, the rays of research, the vision of wide
horizons. His definitive
analysis of what true Landmarks are brought home to us the master
touch, as his
addresses while Grand Master and his various articles since published
him as both scholar and teacher. "And gladly would he learn and gladly
Facts are stubborn things and sometimes not stimulative of popular
this M. W. Brother of light and leading has such sureness of touch,
reasoning, and clarity of diction (especially evidenced in his summing
even those who do not hail from Massachusetts (which naturally receives
emphasis) are carried on by this catenarian chronicle of letters and
excerpts concerning the foundations and the founders of our regularly
Craft. Would that some equally expert brother would piece together the
years of Canada, which challenges interest in connection with its
and Regimental Lodges, and its continuous historic Colonial status!
Great Book the Volume of the Sacred Law commences "In the Beginning"
Sir Thos. Browne in his Religio Medici describes it even as a human
"The singularest and superlative piece that hath been extant since the
So mutatis mutandis may we say of this finite Book dealing with a
period of time,
an area of place and space. Dealing as he does with facts and factors
it is well
that the Author is sure of himself, and while he is not didactic or
he has that dynamic penetrativeness of confidence and assurance which
is very convincing.
He gives us too the ipsissima verba of copious and discriminatingly
from originals and verified copies, and he vivifies the past. With him
loquitur! We can quite well believe that some Pennsylvania Craftsmen of
and sincerity may not agree with all his deductions and conclusions,
but he is positive
that no one can dispute his well-established facts. As Charles Lamb
Scot generically so we may describe Bro. Johnson specifically as having
falterings of self-misgivings; dim instructs, embryo conceptions, have
in his brain or vocabulary.” Yet while an earnest advocate of any cause
espouses, he is of too judicial a temperament, and too learned in his
to darken counsel by words without knowledge.
only literary criticism that one might offer to this Book of
Remembrance of Men
and Memories of olden time this epitome of Craft Builders, many of them
Franklin, and Henry Price, and the Gridleys, Master Craftsmen and
in the truest sense would be directed to the many pages of items from
do not appear to be of especial significance or to be necessary to
case which the Author has already proved. Fullness of detail is however
fault and illustrates the care and particularity of the writer. The
of manuscripts and the fine series of photographs of those whose
form an important part of this chain of significant events, leave
nothing to be
desired, and are fine "in substance and in form" both as to artistic
and illuminating material.
continuity of the Grand Lodge founded by Henry Price, July 30, 1733,
and of the
First Lodge in Boston, now St. John's Lodge, for 191 years of good work
will would appear to be established beyond controversy, unless other
other Jurisdictions should hereafter be discovered; but the reader will
more than "temporalities", far more than dry data, in this vital and
volume into which the writer has infused so much of his own dominant
and forensic and academic experience. Intimate association with the
great men and
minds of those formative and plastic days, when American civilization
moulded and fashioned in the clinical laboratory of the Commonwealth to
a touch here and there of the confluence of many streams which together
"River of the Arrow", with its now strong tide of purposeful progress,
will assuredly delight and reward all readers, old and young, erudite
in the university of life and of experience. The quaint language of
days, the concentrated "fulfilment in their words", the scrupulous
of quotation from journalists, statesmen, and simple workmen in the
both please and satisfy. One example of a greeting from one "household
faithful" to another, an interchange between Boston and Antigua of
suffice but pages of this Journal could be filled with similarly
and Ever Dear Brethren
All the Brethren
here salute you well beloved with the greeting of St. John, wishing
that all prosperity
may attend you, and that no malicious cowan may ever with profane ears
approach even the lowest step of your Worshipful Lodge in order to
listen to the
wisdom or pry into the beauty or disturb the order and harmony thereof.
We are dear
Brethren your sincere affectionate Brethren and Humble Servants
is described in words that are applicable to Bro. Johnson himself:
of understanding, clearness of apprehension and solidity of judgment
in him by a liberal education and close thinking."
was introduced into the Colonies by "occasional Lodges meeting
the old Customs", at an unascertained period in the early part of the
Century. This after all is all that can yet be affirmatively stated,
as Samuel Johnson said, "A man will turn over half a Library to make
so that we moderns may hear again the articulate audible voice of the
years teach much that the hours do not know, and we have learned much
reservoir of information about Freemasonry, then as now of mature age
and on the
tongue of good report, with its tap-roots deep in fertile soil and its
clear. Bro. Johnson has interpreted the spirit of the age, and of the
men who devoted their lives to their country and their Craft, but it
must be remembered
that then as now there was a legion who never were listed breaking the
way for the
W.N. Ponton, P.G.M., Canada.
* * *
The Student's Point
has written a review of Bro. Johnson's book from the point of view of
reader and with the spirit and eloquence he has long since taught us to
his fire-tipped pen; with his consent, and not as trying to supplement
his own study, so adequate for its purpose, it may be permitted another
to examine The Beginnings of Freemasonry in America from a student's
point of view.
The volume under discussion is one that warrants two such studies, or
more; it is
unique in its own field.
it is only those who have labored through the extant literature on
are in a position to know. That literature is abundant, so far as the
volumes is concerned, but it is tantalizingly diffusive, difficult to
usually written with a calm disregard of all the laws of history. There
are a few
shining exceptions, of course: Gould's History of Freemasonry,
especially the American
edition, the piratical publication of which was a blot on our
and Hughan's History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders; and Mackey's
History of Freemasonry, by Robert I. Clegg, the best of them all; etc.
these the great and rich story of the American craft, with its record
two centuries of growth and development, is to be found only with much
scattered, like the mutilated body of Osiris, among Grand Lodge
Histories, local lodge histories, old magazine files, special essays,
and so on. The great bulk of this miscellaneous material is vitiated,
from a student's
point of view at least, by the lack of careful scholarship, and by a
too easy willingness
to trail at second or third hand after previous writers who in turn had
the rigors of original research. The outcome of it all is that, aside
from the series
of chapters in the great works above mentioned, we do not possess a
body of studies
of American Masonic history at all comparable to the work done in their
by our brethren overseas or by our own historians in non-Masonic
fields. The fact
of greatest significance about Bro. Johnson's work is that he has
new beginning, a new point of departure. If his lead is followed, as
one may devoutly
hope it will be, we shall not much longer rest content with having our
confined to a few chapters scattered through histories of Masonry in
with seeing it written piecemeal, here a little and there a little, out
malproportioned, and most difficult to come at.
made no attempt to write a running narrative, even for the
comparatively brief period
covered from the traditional beginnings down to 1750. His sole purpose
was to assemble
inside the covers of one book all known recorded items concerning the
Craft of those
years, and this he has done with more trouble and expense to himself
than the casual
reader may guess. These items are given in entry form, chronologically,
another, with only enough explanatory gloss to set them in their proper
The resultant is not a story for easy reading by the fireside, but a
of data, similar to those in secular history which are so rapidly
old-time literary narratives in colleges and universities. When a
similar work has
been accomplished for the field from 1750 to the present, the literary
will find his materials ready to hand, and fit to be used without fear
into those errors of fact and misinterpretation which have disfigured
of so many "histories" until now.
who have been forced to read through those "histories" can know how
they meet the tests of genuine original research. Usually their authors
without demur the statements of some earlier writer, and those
statements have frequently
rested on very slender evidence, or none at all; old theories, often
have thus been repeated time after time, until the mere repetition has
the appearance of solidity. Even the cautious and painstaking Gould
more than once
fell a victim to this vice, as when he relied on Norton, one of the
partisans that ever lived. The only way out for any student of our
history is to
get back as closely as possible to the original records, examine them
care, and then take pains not to twist them to suit some preconceived
It may be
said that Bro. Johnson has succeeded in using and establishing this
method. As to
his results in all cases, especially in regard to some of the more moot
there will be many opinions. One can guess that the most violent
be aimed at his treatment of Daniel Coxe on page 56 If., where he
asserts that "there
has appeared no evidence, however, that he [Coxe] exercised this
the Duke of Norfolk, appointing him Provincial Grand Master of New
York, New Jersey
and Pennsylvania for two years from June 5, 1730] or even that he was
on this side
of the Ocean during the said two years". It happens that Bro. David
of New Jersey has contributed to THE BUILDER an article soon to be
proof that Coxe was most certainly here during at least one of those
point is of strategic importance because of its bearing on the old
Pennsylvania and Massachusetts as to which can claim the right to the
of regular and duly constituted Masonry on this side of the water.
Also it is
probable that a number of brethren may join with Bro. Ponton, in his
in felling that Bro. Johnson gives the lion's share of his attention to
Bro. Johnson replied to the criticism in a letter to the writer with a
he will not object to my quoting:
book of mine was not written to establish a case. It was written to
The number of items from Boston is a matter not within my control. It
automatic. I put a reference in this book to every single event, large
now known concerning Masonry in the Western Hemisphere prior to April,
there happen to be more items from Boston than from any other place you
see that I could not help it. I took all there was from anywhere not
with a desire
to prove any case but to give the student and future historian all the
there is to have. It merely happens that there are as many known items
Boston as appear in the book, but having adopted the plan of putting
in I could not very well leave any of those items out merely because
the book seems
overloaded with Boston items. I fully realize that myself but it could
not be helped."
be a few minor errors to correct in a second edition. On page 388 of
the Index "John
Belcher" is given instead of "Jonathan Belcher". On page 47 the date
concerning the John Eliot item is given date of 1670; it should be
1654. In the
lower paragraph on page 44 a statement is accredited to Peterson's
History of Rhode
Island and Newport in the Past that should be referred to J. L. Gould's
the Chapter. The author has already made public his desire to profit by
of any such slips.
of Freemasonry in America should not be considered as an isolated book
to be read
by and for itself, but as a contribution toward a new method in our
and as a contribution toward a new structure of scholarship. A world of
to other investigators. The period between 1750 and the Revolution is a
territory, awaiting its Columbus; the Masonic records of the
itself are in a condition of almost absolute confusion; the interim
Revolution and the Anti-Masonic craze is almost equally unworked; the
on Anti-Masonry are in better condition but need to be put into
form; the era of recovery between that madness and the Civil War is in
a fog; the
story of Masonry's shining record in the dire period of civil strife
be told by some man of broad learning and literary genius; the detailed
of the important decades between the War and 1900 are buried away in
volumes of Grand Lodge Proceedings, and other hundreds of volumes of
our disconcerting experiences in the World War await their chronicler;
and as for
the evolution and crystallization of our Ritual, which broke into such
controversies about the tousled head of Rob Morris, that subject
deserves a half
dozen volumes in itself. The brethren who have been declaring that the
work of Masonic
research is completed have surely forgotten these needs.
Alfred Robbins' Report
Concerning His Visit to the United States
AT the center
of every effort made to bring about a more perfect solidarity among all
bodies the world over stands the very evident fact that the Freemasonry
speaking peoples comprises more than 90 per cent of the world's
is based on estimates made in 1920, at which time there were some
in all lands, some 3,027,750 (with 2,353,242 in U. S.) in English
leaving 280,281 in all other lands. From this it is evident, first,
speaking Masonry will always find it difficult, or impossible, to
speaking Masonry to alter any of its fundamentals for the sake of
and, second, that the maintaining of solidarity among English speaking
solidarity for almost the entire Masonic world. It is the last
lends its greatest importance to Bro. Sir Alfred Robbins' recent
to the Grand Lodges of the United States, a formal report of which is
elsewhere in this issue. Neither Bro. Robbins nor the present writer
of having it inferred that non-English speaking Masonry is any the less
for having so small a percentage of total membership; nevertheless on a
interpretation of the actual conditions, and in view of forces at work
in the Masonic
world, it is of the highest importance to the Craft everywhere that all
of English speaking Masonry work together in closest harmony.
On the same
realistic basis, and with the same provisos, it is also necessary to
note that Britain
and the United States divide between them the great bulk of English
Any judicial weighing of influences exerted by the various portions of
world would of course have to take into consideration many factors
other than the
statistics of membership, for bulk does not always mean influence; but
even so statistics
mean much, and in the present connection, very much, so that it is of
to world Masonry that British and American Masonry be brought into the
fraternal relationship and enjoy the most cordial possible mutual
It was out of a realization of this, and with a desire to help bring it
that Bro. Robbins paid us his visit.
If one may
judge from Bro. Robbins' own report, evidently prepared with the close
characterizes all his utterances, and from the comments on his visit
made by the
more than a hundred Masonic journals of this country, that visit was a
If that success was due, as undoubtedly is the case, to a large extent
to his own
personal charm and address, it was due also to the genuine welcome he
and to the cordial feelings everywhere entertained toward English
Masonry, the mother
of us all. The visit was a good thing for the entire Masonic world.
benefit should come from this temporary but official ambassadorship?
ventures to express the hope that it will be instrumental in helping to
working arrangements whereby brethren on both sides of the sea may be
learn more of the facts about each other. As things now stand a good
deal of fog
hangs over the scene so far as these two branches of the Masonic family
We American Masons, one may take it, are ready to confess our own
have read many English books, and something of English Masonic history,
but we are
not as well informed as to the present day practices of our British
we should be; and that accounts for our being led astray oftentimes
when we believe
ourselves to be most closely adhering to the constitutions and
landmarks of the
One may also
venture to say, and out of no spirit of nagging criticism, that our
may find it worth their while to learn more about us. If one may judge
English Masonic press, and from such reports of English Masonic thought
as are contained
in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, the fascination in the study of American
not yet been discovered to any great extent by our trans-Atlantic
cousins. The Ars,
to mention that one typical case, have devoted but a few pages to us in
almost forty bulky volumes. May we not hope to see our history, our
and our ritual brought more nearly into the focus of British attention
It is devoutly to be wished.
In such an
event our British brethren would discover the reason or necessity for
some of our
practices which now mystify them. They would find that our close
adhesion to Preston
and Anderson, to which Bro. Robbins adverts, has been brought about
pressure of our jurisprudence problems; that our variations in Ritual,
surprise to an English visitor, have been due to historical causes,
most of them
beyond our control; that our etiquette has taken shape from our social
that our insistence on the application of Masonry to every day
conditions has been
due to our general social consciousness; and that our swarm of
Orders may God grant them wisdom! is all of a piece with our typical
to sit still for five minutes at a stretch.
A lack of
knowledge concerning such simple facts on both sides of the sea may,
under the stress
of special circumstances, lead to serious misunderstandings, hence the
of our going to school to each other. Masonry does not exist in a
vacuum; as a living
organism it must adjust itself to the world in which it is to function,
shape accordingly. Agreement in details or in private opinion we can
and should not expect; but in principle, spirit, and in general purpose
we can always
agree, and shall, if only there be extended from both sides of the
ocean the good
offices of practical friendship typified by the visit of Bro. Sir
my brethren, is not a religion but a moral science, "founded upon the
principles of morality and virtue"; it tolerates all peoples of every
and nation who believe in God and obey His commandments; all are
accepted into our
common brotherhood, each to worship God in his own peculiar way and
the dictates of his own conscience.
N. Murphy, P.G.M., Mississippi
of Masonry in Ireland
the two hundredth anniversary of the founding of the Grand Lodge of
Lodge of Research, No. 200, of Dublin, has arranged to publish "The
History of the Grand Lodge" by Bros. Lepper and Crossle. All who know
talents of these two distinguished scholars will need no further
guaranty of the
excellence of the work. The History has been compiled from original
records in Ireland
and England, much valuable information, hitherto unpublished, will be
to Masonic students for the first time. In view of the fact that the
employed in this land came from Ireland through the Ancient Grand Lodge
students will find this history especially valuable. The National
Society recommends it without reservation. Copies of the first volume
must be subscribed
for in advance. The names of those sending in subscriptions before the
end of this
year will be published in the volume. The price will be one guinea
Readers may write
for further information to The Builder.
* * *
DAWES, BRYAN, ETC.
of the following public men are Masons: Coolidge, Dawes, Davis, Gov.
Bryan, La Follette,
Wheeler, W. J. Bryan, D.
Coolidge is not a Mason; neither is General Dawes, nor Governor Bryan.
Wheeler and La Follette are both Masons, 32d. So is John W. Davis, who
is also a
K.C.C.H. Bro. W. J. Bryan is a Mason.
* * *
Book on Temple Architecture?
Do you know
of any book on the architecture of the Masonic temple that would be of
to a lodge about to build?
M., New York.
no such book exists, at least we have never been able to find one. We
it upon several publishing houses to produce such a book but thus far
they do not
appear to have seen the light. A large opportunity exists for somebody
preparing such a volume. Won't a Masonic architect volunteer?
* * *
One of the
boys from our town was selected as a "representative De Molay". Can you
please tell me what this signifies? Is this Order affiliated with
F. G., Tennessee.
of De Molay for Boys has no connection with the Masonic Fraternity
that all of its chapters must be sponsored by recognized Masonic
bodies. Great care
is taken by the heads of the body to make it clear to every boy that he
is not a
"junior Mason", or connected with Masonry in any way. The Order carried
on a contest last spring to select the one boy out of its total
representative of its ideals; this lad was sent abroad for a trip at
expense. Out of the long list of contestants an effort was made to
select one representative
boy from each state, and these boys were brought together into a
last month, at Bear Lake Camp, just above Estes Park, Colorado, some
miles out of Denver, and high up among the Rockies. More than a hundred
in attendance, plus a number of adults, supervisors, etc. The week's
De Molay methods was such a success that probably a similar school will
next summer. Three Tennessee boys drove all the way in a flivver, and
did they have, especially among the mountains, where their reluctant
a hard time of it; perhaps the boy you mention was one of this party.
If he was
he will never forget the experience. The present scribe chanced upon
far up among the peaks, late at night, helped them to hide their
flivver* in the
bushes, and took them to the end of the trail in his own Cadillac. (P.
S. It was
a rented Cadillac.)
flivver is an American
slang term used during the early
part of the 20th century to refer to any small car that gave a rough
one that is small, inexpensive, and old.
* * *
on "High Hills"
in the Question Box of THE BUILDER for June an inquiry from Bro. L. B.
of Michigan, requesting information relative to lodges that meet in
places of high
altitude. I append herewith a list giving some in this state that are
able to confer "high degrees": Corinthian Lodge, No. 42, Kokomo,
10,613 feet; Ionic Lodge, No. 35, Leadville, elevation 10,218 feet;
No. 51, Leadville, elevation 10,218 feet, Dorie Lodge, No. 25,
9,881 feet, Victor Lodge, No. 99 Victor, elevation 9,775 feet,
No. 47, Breckinridge, elevation 9,566 feet; Cripple Creek Lodge, No.
Creek, elevation 9,522 feet; San Juan Lodge, No. 33, Silverton,
L. Young, Jr., Grand Lecturer,
* * *
as a Canadian, to express my very hearty thanks for your excellent
The graceful compliment of giving up a whole number to Canadian
affairs, and the
cordial good will of your editorial, I hope will be duly appreciated by
I shall not fail to call attention to it at every opportunity.
of Canadian Masonry as compared with that in the United States is very
generous. While we cherish the memory of our own leaders and adhere to
our own ways,
it is good to know and to feel that fraternal intercourse is unaware of
line and that brotherly love prevails. Your special number is doing
much to promote
unity. Incidentally, it is also helping to correct the impression that
of the old thirteen colonies were generally in favor of the Revolution,
not true though so many of the leading Revolutionists were Masons; and
attention in the article by Bro. Harris to the fact that exclusive
does not prevail everywhere in North America. Unity in essentials is
all the more
valued where we have such diversity in non-essentials.
Let me again
thank you for your kindly introduction of Canadian Masons to their
It is very timely and will certainly do good.
Vroom, St. Stephen, N. B., Can.
* * *
Or "Knights Templars"?
As copy editor
with Kable Bros. Co., I have had many opportunities of becoming
matters that pertain to Masonry as I whip into final shape the
manuscripts of a
number of Masonic publications printed by this firm. I find, with few
that the plural form of Knight Templar is given as Knights Templar. As
Knights Templars is sometimes used, my curiosity became aroused, and I
investigate the matter. After careful investigation of the subject I am
the conclusion that the form Knights Templars is the correct one.
As the Tyler-Keystone,
a prominent Masonic publication, is printed here, I wrote its editor
about the matter.
He replied as follows:
regret very much that we cannot agree with Webster's dictionary on the
Templars.' We would not think of making the plural of Knight Templar,
any more than we would think of making the plural of grandfather,
or say 'reds apples,' for the plural of 'red apples.'
a recent issue of our paper we carried an article written by Judge
Newby, who is
at the present time Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of the Knights
of America. Judge Newby is a man who is learned in law and one who has
of his state. In his article he used the form 'Knights Templar.' In
book, Sidelights on Templar Law, he uses the form Knights Templar. So I
why Webster's dictionary should use the other form.
may be other authorities on Templar law that use the other form, but I
looked them up and know nothing about them."
our pointing out the fallacy in the analogy in the first paragraph of
We may say, however, by way of rebuttal, that the form Knight Templars
some time ago in a contribution to Oriental Consistory Magazine, by
Frank S. Land,
a prominent Mason and Grand Scribe of Order of DeMolay for Boys. On
we have noted that the editors of Masonic News and also of National
used the form Knights Templars. The Mutual Underwriter Magazine carried
of "The Knights Templars and Masonic Mutual Aid Association." Several
writers on historical subjects in Chambers Journal, a high-grade and
magazine of England, use the form Knights Templars.
with all this we went to the dictionaries. The publishers of Webster's
wrote us as follows:
plural form Knights Templars is unquestionably the historically correct
form Knights Templar seems to be a more recent variation, based perhaps
on the misconception
that the word 'Templar' is an adjective, whereas in this connection it
is a noun,
meaning 'one (a person) who occupies a temple.' Members of this order
called 'Knights or Poor Soldiers of the Temples' (that is, the Temple
at Jerusalem), and hence, for short, Templars Knights, or Knights
first citation found for the two words 'Knight' and 'Templar' used
together to designate
them is in 1610, in Holland's Camden's Britannica, 'A Church for
etc.' And in 1839 we find in Kneightley's History of England: … 'the
wealthy order of Knights Templars.'
for the Knights Templars in the United States, the first use of the
name that we
find (quoted in Oxford English Dictionary) is the title of a book
A Service for the Encampment of Knights Templars, etc.
of the information on which our form and definition were based was
a member of 'The Grand Commandery Knights Templars and Appendant Orders
and Rhode Island.'
following authoritative books, the editors of which you may be sure
the matter exhaustively, give the plural Knights Templars: Webster's
Oxford English Dictionary Century Dictionary, Encyclopedia Britannica,
Encyclopedia, Funk and Wagnalls' Standard Dictionary."
In view of
this overwhelming evidence against the present form Knights Templar for
we are puzzled to know why Masonry still retains and defends it. Our
Masonry, after reading much of its literature, has impressed us with
the fact that
Masonry is meticulously careful in matters historical that pertain to
If Masonry was justified in adopting a form that is wrong historically
when was the change made and why? Of all things in Masonry which should
correct it would seem that the very name of so prominent an order as
that of the
Knights Templars should have no doubt east about it.
Masonry to say about it?
E. Zimmerman, Illinois.
* * *
recall Bro. P. A. Fenger's "The Secret of the Old Operative Masons,"
in THE BUILDER, February, 1924, page 42. It transpires that this
underwent a series of misfortunes while going through the hands of the
in two or three errors, which, though at this long distance of time, we
correct. Reference to the Grand Lodge of "New York" should have been,
of course, to "York." More serious was the unintentional deletion of a
line in the penultimate paragraph on page 42. The latter half of the
in that paragraph should read, "so that in the ground plan all
be derived from the length of the side of the original square by
division by 2n”;
and this should be followed by another sentence: "Also the vertical
are derived from the same unit though here in proportion of the golden
being 1,618." The article would have been more easily intelligible with
illustrative of the Macody Lund system. It is here given. We make
to Bro. Fenger and promise never to do it again.
* * *
Greeley Was an Anti-Mason
I have a
question to ask that may be musty and old but I am curious about the
thing and would
like a reply in your Q. B. My question is this, Was Horace Greeley a
old war-horse of journalism has always interested me. Maybe you saw
write-up in The American Mercury for May?
saw (if you will pardon the unpardonable editorial "we") the Bradford
character sketch, and liked it, as "we" like almost everything that
writes. No, the old war-horse was NOT a Mason, not by a long sight or
be spelled "site"? Here is a quote from Patton's Life of Horace Greeley
to back up "our" statement:
apprentice [Horace Greeley] embraced the anti-Masonic side of this
and embraced it warmly. [Imagine him doing it any other way!] It was
he should. And for the next two or three years he expended more breath
the Order of Freemasons, than upon any other subject perhaps than all
put together. To this day secret societies are his special aversion."
Here is something
that settles the woman question once and for all. Does anybody know who
it? It was clipped from an old magazine which carries no information
about it except
that it had been delivered on St. John the Baptist's Day, 1870, at
sometimes complain that they are not permitted to enter our lodge and
the Craft in their labors, and learn all there is to be learned in the
We will explain the reason. We learn that before the Almighty had
finished his work
he was in some doubt about creating Eve. The creation of every living
thing had been accomplished, and the Almighty had made Adam (who was
the first Mason),
and created him for the finest lodge in the world, and called it
Paradise No. 1.
He then caused all the beasts of the field and fowls of the air to pass
and for him to name them, which was a piece of work he had to do alone,
no confusion might thereafter arise when Eve was created, whom he knew
trouble if she was allowed to participate in it, if he created her
being very much fatigued with the labors of his first task, fell
asleep, and when
he awoke he found Eve in the lodge with him. Adam being Senior Warden,
as the pillar of beauty in the South, and they received their
the Grand Master in the East, which, when finished, she immediately
called the Craft
from labor to refreshment. Instead of attending to the duties of the
she ought, she left her station, violated her obligation, let in an
who had no business there, and went around with him, leaving Adam to
the jewels. This fellow had been expelled from the Grand Lodge with
some time before. But hearing the footsteps of the Grand Master, he
his leave, telling Eve to go to making aprons as she and Adam were not
regalia. She went and told Adam and when the Grand Master returned to
he found his gavel had been stolen. He called for the Senior and Junior
who had neglected to guard the door, and found them absent. After
some time he came to where they were hid, and demanded of Adam what he
there instead of occupying his official station. Adam said he was
waiting for Eve
to call the Craft from refreshment to labor again, and that the Craft
was not properly
clothed, which they were making provision for. Turning to Eve, he asked
she had to offer in excuse for her unofficial and un-Masonic conduct.
that a fellow passing himself off as a grand lecturer, had been giving
and she thought it was no harm to learn them. The Grand Master then
asked her what
had become of his gavel? She said that she didn't know, unless that
fellow had taken
it away. Finding that Eve was no longer trustworthy, and that she had
to neglect his duty, and had let in one whom he had expelled, the Grand
the lodge, and turning them out, set a faithful Tiler to watch the door
with a flaming
sword. Adam, repenting of his folly, went to work like a man and a good
order to get reinstated again. Not so with Eve she got angry about it
on account of his reformation, was permitted to establish lodges and
work in the
degrees, and while Eve was allowed to join him in acts of charity
outside, she was
never again to be admitted to assist in the regular lodge of the Craft.
reason why a woman cannot become an inside Mason.
of Freemasonry in Europe
Reb68 / auth. Rebold Emmanuel. - Cincinnatti : American Masonic
Publication Association, 1868. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 431. - 25.6 MB.
Account of Nova Scotia Vol 1
Hal29NS1 / auth. Haliburton Thomas C. - Halifax : Joseph Howe, 1829. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 374. - Illustrated - 16.5 MB.
Account of Nova Scotia Vol 2
Hal29NS2 / auth. Haliburton Thomas C. - Halifax : Joseph Howe, 1829. -
Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 469. - Illustrated - 31.5 MB.
Boston the Place and the People
How12 / auth. Howe M A de Wolfe. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 383. - 19.4 MB.
Cyclopedia of American
Biography Vol 1
App88AB1 / auth. Appleton's / ed. Fiske James G. Wilson and John. - New
York : D. Appleton and Company, 1888. - Vol. 1 : 6 : p. 793. - 99.0 MB.
Cyclopedia of American
Biography Vol 2
App88AB2 / auth. Appleton's / ed. Fiske James G. Wilson and John. - New
York : D. Appleton and Company, 1888. - Vol. 2 : 6 : p. 803. - 48.1 MB.
Cyclopedia of American
Biography Vol 3
App88AB3 / auth. Appleton's / ed. Fiske James G. Wilson and John. - New
York : D. Appleton and Company, 1887. - Vol. 3 : 6 : p. 784. - 96.4 MB.
Cyclopedia of American
Biography Vol 4
App88AB4 / auth. Appleton's / ed. Fiske James G. Wilson and John. - New
York : D. Appleton and Company, 1888. - Vol. 4 : 6 : p. 799. - 126.5 MB.
Cyclopedia of American
Biography Vol 5
App88AB5 / auth. Appleton's / ed. Fiske James G. Wilson and John. - New
York : D. Appleton and Company, 1888. - Vol. 5 : 6 : p. 782. - 99.6 MB.
Cyclopedia of American
Biography Vol 6
App89AB6 / auth. Appleton's / ed. Fiske James G. Wilson and John. - New
York : D. Appleton and Company, 1889. - Vol. 6 : 6 : p. 840. - 136.2 MB.
Freemasonry in the Holy Land
Mor76 / auth. Morris Rob. - New York : Masonic Publishing Company,
1876. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 608. - 30.2 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
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History of Freemasonry in
Canada Vol 1
Rob00FC1 / auth. Robertson J Ross. - Toronto : George N. Morgan
& Co Ltd, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 1358. - 36.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry in
Canada Vol 2
Rob00FC2 / auth. Robertson J Ross. - Toronto : George N. Morgan
& Co Ltd, 1900. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 465. - 19.0 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 1
Mac06 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 7 : p. 316. - 13.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 2
Mac061 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 2 : 7 : p. 341. - 10.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 3
Mac062 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 3 : 7 : p. 328. - 12.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 4
Mac063 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 4 : 7 : p. 324. - 13.1 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 5
Mac064 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 5 : 7 : p. 318. - 13.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 6
Mac065 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 6 : 7 : p. 328. - 13.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 7
Mac066 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 7 : 7 : p. 398. - 18.7 MB.
History of Massachusetts Vol 1
Hut95HM1 / auth. Hutchinson Thomas. - Salem : Thomas C Cushing, 1795. -
3rd Ed. : Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 490. - 34.0 MB.
History of Massachusetts Vol 2
Hut95HM2 / auth. Hutchinson Thomas. - Boston : Manning and Loring,
1795. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 454. - 38.1 MB.
History of New Hampshire Vol 1
Bel12HN1 / auth. Belknap Jeremy. - Dover : O Crosby and J Varney, 1812.
- Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 354. - 19.8 MB.
History of New Hampshire Vol 2
Bel12HN2 / auth. Belknap Jeremy. - Dover : O Crosby and J Varney, 1812.
- Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 377. - 21.9 MB.
History of New Hampshire Vol 3
Bel12HN3 / auth. Belknap Jeremy. - Dover : O Crosby and J Varney, 1812.
- Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 356. - 20.0 MB.
History of New Jersey
Smi65 / auth. Smith Samuel. - Burlington : James Parker, 1765. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 620. - 38.4 MB.
Life of John Kalb
Kap84 / auth. Kapp FriederichLife of John Kalb. - New York : Henry Holt
and Company, 1884. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 350. - 12.5 MB.
Memorial History of Boston Vol 1
Win81HB1 / auth. Winsor Justin. - Boston : Ticknor and Company, 1881. -
Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 649. - 26.8 MB.
Memorial History of Boston Vol 2
Win81HB2 / auth. Winsor Justin. - Boston : Ticknor and Company, 1881. -
Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 672. - 29.9 MB.
Memorial History of Boston Vol 3
Win81HB3 / auth. Winsor Justin. - Boston : Ticknor and Company, 1881. -
Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 736. - 33.1 MB.
Memorial History of Boston Vol 4
Win81HB4 / auth. Winsor Justin. - Boston : Ticknor and Company, 1881. -
Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 736. - 33.8 MB.
New England Genealogical Record
Wat65 / auth. Waters Henry F. - Boston : New England
Historic-Genealogical Society, 1865. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 541. - 54.4 MB.
Old Boston Days and Ways
Cra09 / auth. Crawford Mary C. - Boston : Little Brown, and Company,
1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 516. - 28.9 MB.
Sam Slick The Clockmaker
Hal87 / auth. Haliburton Thomas C. - New York : John R Alden, 1887. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 89. - 7.2 MB.
St Botolph's Town
Cra08 / auth. Crawford Mary C. - Boston : L C Page & Company,
1908. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 426. - 16.6 MB - Illustrated.
Thw15 / auth. Thwaites Reuben G. - New York : Longmans, Green, and Co,
1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 340. - 11.4 MB.