Masonic Research Society
General Account of the Swedish Rite
Bro. A. B. C., Michigan
good fortune two studies of this important subject, so little known on
of the world, reached us at the same time, almost in the same mail.
of both authors, one of whom prefers to remain incognito, they are here
together for, though they contain some details in common, they are
treatments of the theme, and thereby readily supplement each other. So
known about Swedish Masonry, and so many requests for information are
any reader who can add to the account here given something by way of
fact or of criticism is urged to do so.
of Masonry in Scandinavia is of interest to American Masons, not so
much on account
of the sources from which it springs, as on account of its development
influence of French and German philosophers in the eighteenth century,
influences from mystics, such as Swedenborg, visionaries, such as von
plain impostors, such as Cagliostro and Saint Germain. In developing,
its own lines which were apart from those of the English-American
if it was based on the same sources, until it blossomed in what is
called the Swedish
system, which at present dominates, with its more than 50,000 members,
the three Scandinavian countries, but also, through die Grosse
Landesloge von Deutschland,
the greater part of Northern Germany.
no doubt that Scandinavian Masonry has its origin in English Masonry,
the customs of the existing Scandinavian Operative Mason gilds have had
influence in the forming of the rites of the three first degrees, is
hard to tell
even if it looks so. Always Masonry in Scandinavia has been surrounded
by the greatest
secrecy not only as to the ceremonies, the passwords and the rites, but
to the traditions and the history. Admittance to the archives of the
of Sweden has been given only to a very insignificant extent and to
those of the
Danish Grand Lodge not at all. In Germany the question of opening up
of the Grosse Landesloge to allow historians to examine its acts called
serious conflict which caused its Grand Master, Crown Prince Friederich
of the noblest princes who ever occupied the German throne, to resign
from his office
in 1874. In a speech given in June, 1870, at the Centenary Festival of
he seriously advised it to open up the archives to an honest and
adding: "Our acts teach us that all Masonic knowledge is contained in
plan of the first degree. Well, let us work to make this truth a
But later on Schiffman, a Provincial Grand Master and a Protestant
the Crown Prince had appointed for said investigation, was excluded
from his lodge,
as having revealed its secrets.
Not in any
way has Masonry in Denmark and Norway contributed to the development of
of the world; it has not broken any independent road to the goal but
lines which were laid out first by German, and later on by Swedish
Danish Masonic lodge was founded in 1744, and received in 1745 its
the Grand Lodge in London. Later on, through the years, several lodges
in Denmark, mostly getting their charters from German lodges and
the rites and the rules of those, and some even worked in the German
development does not show any clear and firm lines as Danish Masonry
for some time
was leaning on German Masonry, on "the Strict Observance," and later on
for some time on the so-called rectified system from Lyons; but in 1853
system was introduced into the Danish lodges, essentially through the
of King Frederick VII., who at that time was Grand Master and very
Masonry. Denmark was then constituted as the eighth Masonic Province.
the first lodge was founded in 1750 and as long. as Norway was united
it followed the Danish lead; but after 1813, when it was united with
naturally it accepted the Swedish Rite.
Swedish Lodge Was
Founded In 1731
the first Masonic lodge was founded in 1731. But the founder, Count
did not have any actual patent entitling him to found it, although it
looks as if
he had been initiated as Master Mason at Paris. In 1737 a lodge was
founded by Baron
Scheffer and this lodge had a charter from Lord Derwentwater, Grand
Master of the
English Grand Lodge at London. Some other lodges were founded but
Masonry did not
find much sympathy until Count Posse, in 1751, founded the lodge St.
which lodge in 1752 got a patent from the Count of Clermont, the French
at Paris. The then existing lodges united with this new lodge and the
King of Sweden
took over the office as Grand Master thereof. The system embraced seven
three St. John's degrees, two Scotch fit. Andrew's degrees, one St.
br:s degree, and as the seventh the elected br:s degree. The system was
the rites were French and in all it had no special or peculiar
from this time on Swedish Masonry was led into a quite peculiar channel
by K. F.
Eckleff, a high Swedish official. He had tried to become admitted as
member of the
Lodge St. Jean but in vain, why is unknown. In 1756 he founded in
company with six
others a Scotch lodge, "Innocente," and then in 1759 he arranged a
Chapter." His title for doing so was based on a patent, which meanwhile
undated, not giving any locality, nor signed, but supplied with three
some symbolical figures, the meaning whereof not being clear. This
certified by F. Aescher, secretary, a person about whom nothing is
the legality of this document was never contested. In 1761 this lodge
with the existing Grand Lodge and in 1770 the lawfulness of this new
Lodge was acknowledged by the Grand Lodge of England in London. Baron
over the office of Grand Master and K. F. Eckleff was elected Deputy
Obscurity reigns as to the sources of Eckleff's system, but undoubtedly
it is based
on the English book of Constitution and especially on that of 1738, but
have been remodeled and added to. The actual development of this
revision it is
not possible to follow. Modern historians assert that Eckleff's patent
and the rite
of his chapter are based on the customs and the rites of the Operative
that the rites of the first to sixth degrees are based on the tradition
of a connection
between the Masonic Order and the Knights of St. John; and the rites of
to ninth degrees on the legend of the Knights Templar.
In 1766 Eckleff
sold a copy of his papers to a friend, a German doctor, named von
made use thereof in founding the Grosse Landesloge von Deutschland at
later in 1776 he sold his position, his patent, and his papers to Karl,
Soedermannland. This Duke is a very interesting personality. Addicted
and theosophic ideas he took over the leadership of Swedish Masonry and
did a great
work in working together the material, which he had got from Eckleff,
and material which he collected at Geneva, in Italy, and in Bohemia. As
1776 he had a committee organized to revise the rites; and this work
was done about
the year 1800. Unhappily it is impossible to find the material from
which the new
rites were formed. It is said that the Duke had it burned, but whether
this is true
or not it is impossible to tell.
Karl took over the leadership of Swedish Masonry the management rested
in the hands
of a Grand Master an Over- , and an Under- , Architect, and nine other
As early as 1775 he had a Steward Lodge arranged in accordance with the
pattern, to which lodge later on the Stuart legend was linked, for
the name was changed from Steward to Stuart.
the Stuart Legend Originated
In this connection
it will be necessary to mention the origin of the Stuart legend. A
von Hund, who had been initiated in Masonry at Paris, and who was
by the myths and legends connected with the different knightly orders
part in the crusades, had about the year 1750 formed a Masonic system
Strict Observance," which essentially was based on the legend of the
Templar, the escape of the Count of Beaujeau, nephew of Jacques De
Molay, to Scotland,
etc.; and in this system he put in the idea of a Grand Master, who had
all the reins
in his hands and who one day was going to call the Knights Templar to
to lead them to splendid exploits. In the beginning this Grand Master
but ‒ how it happened nobody can tell, whether it was a fancy of von
Hund or an
invention of one of his friends ‒ suddenly the Stuart Pretender put up
in the system as this unknown Grand Master and consequently his
restoration to the
throne of England became the goal of "the Strict Observance."
death of von Hund, Duke Karl tried to be elected as Grand Master of all
which were following the "Rites of the Strict Observance" and he
therein, being elected as such in 1776. But this event called forth a
the different lodges which followed the system; several lodges withdrew
and refused to acknowledge his authority and at last in 1781 he
resigned from the
office. But while the Duke was trying to get elected as Grand Master of
lodges at the same time he tried to get in connection with the
Pretender, Karl Edward,
who was living at Florence. First he sent a friend and confidential of
his to him
and later on, when he was elected Grand Master, he wrote him a letter
to acknowledge the Duke's newly acquired title as Grand Master, telling
he, the Duke, always should honor him as a father, to which letter the
replied that "inasmuch as he was in the darkness as to the mentioned
he could not remark anything further. Some years later King Gustav III.
a brother of Duke Karl, paid the Pretender a visit at Florence and
moved the broken-down
man to surrender his Masonic rights to Duke Karl in return for a yearly
In 1781 Sweden
was constituted as the ninth Masonic and the Order was firmly linked to
power; and when Duke Karl ascended the Swedish throne as king, the ties
still stronger. The royal princes were considered born Freemasons and
of the Higher Degrees were considered as belonging to the Swedish
System Was an Hierarchy
Completed The System Formed A Real Autocratic Hierarchy. At the head of
the vicar of the Wisest Solomon with his council, called Sanhedrin,
nine secular and two ecclesiastical officials. Below this are standing
the two Land
Grand Masters and twelve officials, who have seats as chapter officials
of the eleventh
degree. The tenth degree is formed by the members of the chapter and
them the high officials, seven in number, are taken. The members of the
are called St. Andrew's elected br :s; members of the eighth degree,
elected br:s; of the seventh degree, Solomon's elected br:s; Stuart's
the sixth degree; St. Andrew's Masters the fifth degree; St. Andrew's
and Fellowcrafts the fourth degree; and at last comes the three St.
remarked, a German doctor, von Zinnendorf, bought from Eckleff a copy
of his papers
and made use of them for founding in 1770 the Grosse Landesloge von
At first this lodge had many troubles, but at last in 1773 it was
the English Grand Lodge. As the system was built on Eckleff's papers
and as these
were not complete, the system was not quite in accordance with the
and for this reason in 1819 a committee was sent from Berlin to
Stockholm to examine
the matter and then the rites of the Grosse Landesloge were made to
those of the Swedish system. A treaty of friendship was concluded in
which it was
expressed "that one doctrine, one and the same descent, on secrecy, one
and one system united with indelible ties the br:s of the Grosse
those of the Swedish lodge." The German royal house protected the lodge
many of its members became officials of it and at present the lodge has
a very prominent
position among German lodges.
Masonic system forms an imposing structure. Its strength lies in this,
that it is
an organic unit, as each degree is a logical consequence of the
previous one, with
which it is standing in intimate connection, which hardly may be said
of the many
High Degrees of the different other Masonic systems, as mostly they
the many social High Degrees, which were formed in France in the
and are without any logical connection with the three St. John's
degrees. The Swedish
system is like a ladder, reaching up from the bottom of a deep well.
steps from the bottom of the well upon the first rung of the ladder to
it to the light, which faintly he discerns at the orifice; but his
climbing is slow,
as he is not allowed to pass from one rung of the ladder to the next
until his masters
have examined his knowledge and learned whether he is worthy to reach
Only some few reach the uppermost rung of the ladder.
This is not
the place to take up or to discuss the historical truth of the
different myths and
legends upon which the system is built and which are interwoven in its
all events, when seen from a historical viewpoint they are no worse or
Anderson's picture of the developing of the art of building in his Book
as in reality the principle "the end hallows the means," a principle
unjustly has been abused as Jesuitic, entitles any Masonic system to
make use of
what myths and legends it likes, if only they contribute to the aims
and ends of
Masonry ‒ to make man understand the relationship of the self to the
the individual to the whole, and of his adjustments to larger ends,
his own personal ends, his relationship to God and to his fellowman. It
is the moral
value, not the historical truth of a legend, that counts.
is hierarchic but not theological; it is based on the Christian faith
and it had
to be as a consequence of the legends upon which it is built, but it is
and practically it leaves to the members to form their own faith
according to their
conscience. That Jews are not admitted to the Order under the system is
due to the
historical fact that in the latter part of the eighteenth century Jews
allowed to enter or to stay in Scandinavian countries.
is autocratic, but also this is due to the conditions existing in the
at the time when the system was formed. Strifes and conflicts were
in Europe among Masons, in England, in France and in Germany, and the
the Swedish system saw that a system had to be built on authority and
if it Were to last. Of course it might be said that an autocratic
individualism; this is true, but on the other hand an extreme
with it as a logical consequence grave dangers and undoubtedly this is
the case everywhere in the world and also in this country. Masonry
without a certain discipline and a certain restraint on individualism;
our old book
of the questions teaches us this, when at the question, What is a
gives as answer, "A Freemason is a free man, who understands to master
passions and to bend his will under the laws of reason."
New Age stands as yet
Half built, against the sky
Open to every threat
Of storms that clamor by.
Scaffolding veils the walls
And dim dust floats and falls
As moving to and fro, their
The Masons ply.
Do not expect
easily to convince men of the truth or to lead them to think aright.
human intellect can weave its mists over even the clearest vision.
of the Swedish Rite
Bro. Burton E. Bennett,
Rite of Freemasonry dates from about 1775. The three first degrees is
Masonry and to this is added some of the "high degrees." It contains a
strain from the Rite of Strict Observance in its Templarism and has
III., King of Sweden, formed the Rite and the King of Sweden has ever
the head of it. The Rite consists of twelve degrees. The King is Grand
the Order and is the only one who takes the twelfth degree. It is
called the "Vicar
of Solomon." Only high nobles take the eleventh degree, called
of the Chapter," and only persons of great prominence can receive the
degree, called "Member of the Chapter." These three degrees really form
a class in themselves; this class is called the "Illuminated Chapter"
and the members of it "Brethren of the Red Cross."
working part of the Swedish Rite consists substantially, it is seen, of
degrees. The three Craft degrees are, of course, (1) Entered
Apprentice, (2) Fellowcraft,
and (3) Master Mason. The fourth degree is called the "Scottish
and is preliminary to the fifth degree known as "Master of St. Andrew."
This is what is known in the Modern French Rite as "Scotch Master," or
Ecossais degree. The Ecossais system of degrees depicts the losing and
of the true word; they are what is known to us as Scottish degrees or,
to be exact,
"Scotts' " degrees ‒ for they are not Scottish at all. The degree of
Master" of the York Rite is an Ecossais degree. It is also seen in the
of the Royal Arch degree. The fifth degree entitles the recipient to
which shows how closely Masonry in Sweden is bound up in the government.
degree is "Knight of the East." The "Knight of the East," proper,
depicts the erection of the Second Temple by the Israelites at
Jerusalem when they
were released from captivity at Babylon by Cyrus the Great, King of
degree is the "Knight of the Red Cross," the tenth degree of the York
Rite. It is one of the degrees founded on the Revelations of St. John
the New Jerusalem with its twelve gates. It is the fifteenth degree of
Rite and the sixth degree of the French Rite.
degree is called "Knight of the West," or "True Templar." Templarism
until very recently has been hard to understand because it is based
wholly on fiction.
In the Templar system the origin of Freemasonry is attributed to the
the Crusades. After the Moslems had conquered the Holy Land they
profaned the holy
places and the Crusaders that were left were at the mercy of the
Saracens and were
cruelly persecuted by them. The Templars built up a system of Masonry
in the Temple
of Solomon and through it concealed the mysteries of the Christian
the Templars were completely driven out of the East some of them took
Scotland where they established Masonry and from there it was carried
and to France. The moving cause of all this fabricated nonsense was to
("high degrees") a most commanding rank in both the political and
world and make those who possessed these "high degrees" "high and
mighty Masons" to whom the great and noble, even, must look up.
degree, "Knight of the South," is an Hermetic degree and comes from the
new Gold Rosicrusians, who flourished during the last quarter of the
century, when they permeated Masonry. They claimed to be able to make
gold, to prolong
life, and restore youth, to summon spirits from the vasty deep and to
the power and knowledge of God. Outside of this mesmeric,
spiritualistic and witchcraftic
society, only possible (to any great extent) in a superstitious age,
there was no
other, or real Rosicrusian society, no matter what some Masonic writers
There were only men who believed along occult lines, and joined Masonry
purpose of finding "lost secrets."
degree is called the "Favorite Brother of St. Andrew." This is another
one of the mythical crusading degrees and was formed in France,
the middle of the eighteenth century. This degree comes from one found
in the Rite
of Perfection. The twenty-ninth degree of the Scottish Rite comes from
Of all the
Orders of Knighthood only one is confined exclusively to Freemasons.
Duke of Sundermanland, a zealous Freemason, ascended the Swedish throne
the Order of Charles XIII., to which only Freemasons are admitted. The
King of Sweden
is the perpetual Grand Master and the number of Knights in it is
limited to twenty-seven.
only five Orders of Knighthood in Sweden and one of them was founded
more than six
hundred years ago. They are as follows: (1) Order of the Seraphims,
founded in 1285;
(2) Order of the Sword, founded by Gustave I. in 1522; (3) Order of the
created in 1748 by King Christian I.; (4) Order of Wasa, founded in
1772 by King
Gustave III., and (5) Order of Charles XIII., founded by King Charles
XIII. in 181.
Your Loins Be Girded About, and Your Insights Burning"
Bro. Paul R. Clark, New
a modern business man, trained in the schools of action, and insistent
think about Masonry? What could he have Masonry do? How would he
release and apply
he forces latent in a lodge? One will find an answer to these queries
direct and unambiguous and now and then a bit startling, in Brother
Read and consider, and reply, too, if you wish.
characteristic found in most leaders and prophets is vision. Keen
students of Freemasonry
recognize its great possibilities. Masonic thinkers also admit quite
shortcomings. They also speak quite frankly concerning the lack of
the part of too many of the Masters of the Craft who have not learned
between the shell and the kernel.
get what they want ‒ at least the desire always precedes the
attainment. We must
first have the vision of Freemasonry, as it might be if the rank and
file took Masonry
seriously and were willing to consecrate a part of their lives to it.
If the desire
were strong enough, the brothers on the right and left could and could
which would surprise even a wooden Indian.
To most people
a vocation is necessary but more and more big men are turning to an
an outlet for their inborn desire to do something worthwhile for their
before they pass beyond. Why not try Masonry? Service in the Blue Lodge
character. If you can think of anything greater than this ‒ you will
have to do
some fast head-work.
When we begin
to attract men "for the line" because of their Masonic perfection
of because of their ability to excel in Masonic symbolism he shall
startle the world!
How can we hope to reach port when our Craft is in the hands of pilots
so much of their time to theoretical symbolism instead of practical
What is needed
is a deep-seated conviction on the part of a few leaders in each lodge
that a change
is necessary; then a willingness to apply what seems to be a reasonable
and the backbone and nerve to stick to it through thick and thin even
results do not at first seem to be worth the effort. It is a long
uphill pull, especially
when there is precedent, prejudice and tradition to overcome.
No man can
estimate with any degree of accuracy what this old world has lost by
tendency in human nature to reject everything that is new. After
and prejudice, the greatest enemy of originality is fear of ridicule
which the world has for those who propose something that is out of the
Past Masters frequently incarnate this resistance to so-called
innovations and novelties
in Masonic activities. We shall make more progress in bringing
to the hearts of its membership when Masters of the lodge divest
themselves of this
tendency to "throw a monkey-wrench into the machinery" when the
activity is being discussed in our lodges. New blood, the younger
element in our
Craft, do not continue to be interested in anything just because their
If properly directed, their longing for something more vital than they
can be utilized for the benefit of the Craft.
like plants, need trimming occasionally, and the trimming should not be
the hands of inexperienced Masons. But, if the Worshipfuls and R. W's
will not do
the trimming the younger members of the Craft will ‒ they will "trim"
themselves. That is what has been going on for some time. Unable to get
want in the lodge and realizing how difficult it is to change the Craft
their prerogative and stay away from the meetings.
Inaction and Ruts
attempt to sell a person anything and your sales talk fails to arouse
desire on the part of the prospective customer to ask questions, you've
times out of ten.
be "sold" on Freemasonry. If the desire can be created it must be by
methods than we are now using. If we are so thin-skinned that we can't
stand a little
constructive criticism we are in a bad way. Honest criticism will never
a big man or a live lodge and if heeded it usually leads to progress.
like still water becomes stagnant with age. It is better to be accused
indiscretion once in a while than be eternally guilty of Masonic
first great care of Masons when convened" is to get out of Masonic ruts
doing nothing; and the second great care is to stay out. Masonic
muscles, are either flabby or sturdy, depending upon whether they are
should strive for Masonic perfection. Dogtrot be over concerned about
of failure. We shall have at least come nearer to the goal by trying
and our Craft
will be better for the effort. Someone has said: "If you think you are
go ahead. If you happen to be wrong you may back down; but if you have
and haven't started, you are in a rut and the only difference between a
a grave is the length and breadth of it."
needs a little opposition to develop its latent powers! Too much
men and organizations indolent and self-satisfied. The Mexican boll
weevil was considered
a calamity by the South a few years ago. Recently the City of
Enterprise, in Coffee
County, Alabama, erected a monument to this pest. Why? Because it
proved to be a
blessing! It taught the South that it couldn't afford to "put all its
in one basket" ‒ in other words it visualized the necessity for
organizations, corporations and individuals are just as lazy as they
dare to be.
A little opposition might help rather than hinder the Craft.
drift along with the tide of "What-Was-Done-Before." It takes a live
to breast the current. The Master of a lodge who can buck the current
habit and local traditions, especially when coming from the Past
Masters who were
willing to be "fair weather sailors", is worthy of your support ‒ even
if he does make a few mistakes.
To find one
real satisfactory Masonic idea to arouse Freemasonry from its "twilight
you may have to try ten ‒ don't be afraid to fail. As Edmund Vance Cook
isn't the fact that you were licked that counts; it's how did you fight
‒ and why?"
and tradition are all right in their places, but too much respect for
dry rot. It is surprising how many proposed activities which Masons
on the ancient landmarks, can be done with propriety in a lodge.
think we have inherited all the traits of the present order and they
for their own lack of initiative. This is rank Masonic ignorance. The
truth of the
matter is that we have acquired most of our present shortcomings.
pessimist says, "It has always been like this." The optimist casually
remarks, "We are getting along all right." The Masonic factomist says,
"What are the facts?" and then is willing to try out a reasonable
even if it is an innovation.
figures are stubborn things. There may be some very illuminating
which might tell us very interesting things and from which we might
draw some startling
always what it is today; opinions change with what you ate for dinner.
of Masons who do not attend the lodge regularly and take little or no
its labor are vital facts which we must face.
a deplorable admission and often only too true which is made by some
many Masters: "Raise a child or a Mason in the way they should go and
they grow up they will do as they please."
experience teaches us this important lesson: it is frequently easier to
top rounds of the ladder than it is to stay there. Students recognize
of this truth to Freemasonry. Master Masons need our support most after
the top. The reason for this is "just as clear as mud" to many Masons
‒ but here it is anyway: the "top of the ladder" to most Masons is
a smattering of Masonic symbolism!
What we fail
most to realize is that every brother who is raised to the sublime
degree of Master
Mason has just completed an air castle ‒ it is up to the leader of the
build a foundation under it. Their dreams or air castles may not be the
but if they are, the disappointment to some of them must be staggering.
is a wide margin in the hearts of Masons between their anticipations
and their realizations,
they are Masonically sick and need a doctor. When a brother is sick
is the usual custom to visit him personally; when he is sick
Masonically we give
him absent treatment and then wonder why he doesn't recover.
donate money when a brother is financially in trouble, dues are
deferred and every
assistance is given during the financial embarrassment. There are
thousands of Masons
dead broke and insolvent Masonically and we never lend a hand! We ought
the Salvation Army Slogan: "A Mason may be down but he is never out."
But instead of getting out in the highways and the byways to preach
and try to reach some of our brothers who are Masonically in the
tile the lodge" and put through a fresh batch as fast as the Ritual
and then wonder what the trouble is.
who are considered as such by their brethren are not working at their
chief reason for this is that what goes on in the lodge doesn't hold
Most of the ritualistic work is not unlike whispering a message in a
too frequently measure their progress by the degrees which they receive
the degree with which they throw their influence into the problem of
real light in Masonry and teaching the application of Masonic teachings.
total membership of our lodges by the number of brothers present: the
a fairly accurate picture of whether we are alive or just think we are.
in a Masonic lodge are its membership, but the thing that "makes the
are the net profits, which are the number that attend and how they
is a germ of Masonic ideals in the hearts of Masons who attend lodge
it is dormant and inactive. When we admit that they are beyond recall,
failure. These ideals can be resuscitated. The pulmotor that will start
must compete with the movies, the theatre, radio, lectures, automobiles
playing, to say nothing of the golf links.
of the ritualistic work of the average lodge fails to get under the
skin of the
brothers present: this is why they don’t come oftener.
very little doubt that many lodges are having considerable trouble
getting out much
more than a "baker's dozen" percentage of the total membership except
on the working of the Third Degree when "eats are served".
many of them purely social, are attracting a larger percentage of their
than Masons. "The same old grind ‒ nothing new vitalizing or gripping,"
is the comment often given when the question is put to a Mason who
time" to attend his lodge.
We have all
seen the brothers on the side lines slip out before the work is half
That this is the rule rather than the exception doesn't seem to awaken
us to the
necessity of looking for the cause.
A Mason who
has a high regard for the possibilities of the Craft, a man of mature
a public spirited citizen and who stands high in his profession,
recently made the
statement that he thought more of Masonry before he joined the Order
than he did
This is the
typical "cross section" of the staggering percentage of Masons who are
"lost" and who need Masonic salvation.
It is a well-recognized
fact that too many lodges devote too large a percentage of the
available time within
the lodge to Symbolism and Ritualistic Masonry. Men of vision, leaders
chosen vocation and men who are considered public-spirited, do not
spend their time
on forms and symbols.
the rank and file, those who do not consider themselves leaders or
an active interest in constant repetition of creeds, dogma, symbols and
Masonic idealism is expressed in its works, not in its beliefs and
Masonic service! Don't get the "cart before the horse"! Give a
brother something more gripping than symbolic light in Freemasonry and
take the "P" out of Preaching.
something that stand for something else. Forget the thing the symbol
and you have an empty shell ‒ a mummery, a jargon of words, signs and
men don't remain interested in titles, platitudes and forms.
is entitled to be called a "Master Mason" after he has raised to the
of Master Mason. This doesn't make him a Master of Masonry any more
long pants on a boy of fifteen makes him a man. Symbolically he has
top round of the ladder: actually he hasn't begun to climb. The tragedy
is that few have the ambition to climb.
"doesn't take" on the average brother when it is confined to the
he received during the first three degrees. If it does take then the
toxin of greater
or more potent forces quickly neutralize the Masonic influence and the
not immune to the influences against which Freemasonry teaches.
rather have laughter in the home than gold plate on the side board?
is a symbol of success as success is measured by some people. When we
much time on the symbols we lose the true meaning of the thing itself.
is less emphasis on "mass or group symbolism" in the lodge and more
work among those in the Craft who have a sincere desire for real light
as many different shades of Masonry in a lodge as there are members ‒
has a different conception of what it means to him ‒ but too many admit
islet a vital part of their lives.
To many Masons,
Masonic illiteracy is a crime. To such as these, Masonic education is
study clubs. Live men seldom become enthusiastic about something they
about. This is the reason we should discriminate between "lip service"
and real service.
who is Masonically educated has a good chance of becoming a real
regardless of what you choose to tag him in the meantime.
Are you a
Mason? Symbolically, yes. You have received all the symbolic light that
call for in our Ritual. The average brother doesn't grasp one-third of
what he heard
when he passed through the three degrees and has forgotten 90 per cent
of what he
did grasp. To get real light in Masonry one must be willing to study
it. There is
only one man in fifty who can study anything alone; that is why the
study club movement
symbolic words demands so much of our time that we have little time
left for getting
an understanding of the meaning of the symbols. We haven't scratched
in most of our lodges.
their works ye shall know them," is the message that came from the lips
the greatest spiritual leader within the memory of man.
will be just as vital in the affairs of men as the rank and file of the
that compose it are, Masonically, "working at their trade."
to Cape Cod and from the Canadian border to the Gulf are community
everywhere you place your finger on the map you will probably find a
at work, awaiting the call of some leader who will start the leaven
opportunity for real service is given to every Master Mason who can get
for this great possibility. The solution is with you in your lodge.
and warp of the Masonic fabric are the brothers on the side lines.
Designs in the
tapestry may be conceived by a few leaders in the Fraternity but the
in the hands of the rank and file of the Craft.
slacker is the brother who has confused `'opportunity for pleasure"
for service", and then complains about devitalized Masonry!
that "the only way to have a friend is to be one". We can learn much
this. The only way to develop real, genuine Masonic friendship is to be
"Being a Mason" starts with a desire and ends with Masonic knowledge
its practical application in our very-day lives.
are willing to give something to the Craft we shall take very little
out of it that
will be worthwhile. Too many are playing the "put and take" game ‒ with
emphasis on the taking. The average lodge and an auto are alike in at
respect ‒ there is always work to be done around both.
If you want
to have fresh milk on the table at 7 A. M. (Masonically speaking)
someone has to
get up at five o'clock in the morning and milk the cow. Are you willing
to do your
share of the lodge chores?
lodge but don't tile your mind and park your Masonic intelligence in
When Operative Masonry held full sway in England, Masons were known by
in the lodge, not what they believed in.
We need something
more than just routine labor ‒ Masonry is starving for brain work ‒ and
fact is that we don't realize there are oodles of brains and
intelligence in the
Craft. The problem is to get at it and use it. The old two-cylinder
was an efficient machine compared with its latest twin-six sister when
is hitting on only four cylinders.
We talk about
our progress, the phenomenal increase in our membership, etc., but the
what we accomplish now with our increased possibilities is low.
have increased faster than our membership: if you are willing to
then we must admit we are falling behind. The call for real service
dedication of our time and intelligence to our Craft is as patent to
as two and two equal four.
I would rather
be able to report to the Grand Master that every member of my lodge
voted (one way
or the other) at last year's elections than that we increased our
umpty per cent during the same period. The Star Spangled Banner is a
it is all right to cheer and doff our hats as it passes down the avenue
brass band playing the national anthem. Next time you do this remember
"Little over 48 per cent of the total votes are ever cast at a national
and the stability of our Democracy depends upon whether we
our rights as citizens." Let us of the Masonic Craft set the example
this gospel far and wide.
rampant in our Government, because you and I are indifferent. A Mason
regularly and attends lodge occasionally is a better Mason than one who
lodge regularly and votes occasionally. Statistics prove few do either.
doesn’t teach us our obligation to our citizenship it isn't worthy of
If the Craft
could be known only by the progress it has made in getting its members
their duty as citizens at the polls at election, it will have
schools, a revision of our judiciary system, the proposed amendment to
Constitution relating to child labor are but a few of the problems
us as citizens. Groping in the dark like poor blind candidates, most of
us are making
no effort through our lodges to dispel this darkness and help to mold
Us Keep Our Eye
On The Ball"
If you know
anything about baseball or golf, you know what this means. It applies
Freemasonry. Freemasonry must "fish or cut bait". We can't stand still.
We must keep up with the procession or step out of the line.
eye on the ball! The heart of Masonry is "The Fatherhood of God and the
of Man!" If the average Mason can grasp this in the first ten years of
Masonic life he has a brilliant mind. This is not a slam at his
is criticism of the methods we use in our lodges.
give him a chance to find out what it is all about. Until we devote
more of our
time and attention to watching the ball we shall miss it entirely.
If the Masonic
Craft can interpret its Masonic teachings in terms of real live active
of Man, there isn't a problem confronting us which it couldn't solve.
But Not Least
One of the dangers of identifying yourself too boldly with a
movement is that your friends may accuse you twenty years from now of
being a reactionary.
thing any man can do in this world is to encourage another who has a
that the world should hear. Don't be afraid of ridicule. Opposition to
a new thought
or a new idea has been and still is almost insane in its obstinacy.
and the "reactionaries" in your lodge, in your club, in your business
and in every walk of human activity are here to stay and like the "poor
always be with us". Don't under-estimate the resistance you will
in trying to "divest Masonry of its legion of superfluities".
and bigness of Masonic teachings will never perish as long as we keep
our ears close
to the ground and our hand on the pulse and are willing to maintain an
thin-skinned; it can stand a little criticism and it might be necessary
the ground a little here and there in order to make way for a larger
vital in the affairs of men that we can truthfully say, "A structure
with hands eternal in the heavens.”
Bro. James B. Nixon,
Toronto Society for Masonic Research, and Bro. N. W. J. HAYDON,
(To be concluded)
IN May, 1824,
the Provincial Grand Lodge assembled at Kingston to lay a cornerstone
honors, this being the first time that ceremony was performed in this
and in the autumn of that year the new warrants at last arrived from
the clouds had begun to gather again, for R. W. Bro. Fitzgibbon and V.
W. Bro. Turquand
both found their Masonic duties too onerous and desired to resign. The
appointed W. Bro. Rev. Wm. Smart of Brockville to act for him in the
but withdrew his warrant, being advised that he had no power to issue
It was, therefore,
with considerable hope that responsible brethren awaited the return of
R. W. Bro.
McGillivray to again straighten out the tangles and the annual session
of the Provincial
Grand Lodge in August was adjourned to suit his arrival. However, a
made towards the organization of a Masonic Home and school for the
orphans of brethren.
R. W. Bro.
McGillivray did not arrive at York until September 16, by which time
all the visiting
delegates had returned to their homes.
he accepted the resignation of R. W. Bro. Fitzgibbon and appointed Bro.
in his place. To meet the growing needs of the Provincial Grand Lodge
that the annual meetings should alternate between Kingston and York,
the appointment of a Grand Visitor who should travel among the lodges
the purpose of Masonic instruction and as an auxiliary to the
not, as was proposed, as a censor, or as a delegate to the Provincial
for the lodges. A very important step forward was made by joining with
Grand Master for Lower Canada in sending a petition to the Grand Master
praying that in the event of the death, resignation, or suspension or
the Provincial Grand Master the work of the Provincial Grand Lodge
should not be
interrupted until his successor be appointed, as was then the rule, but
special conditions "in the Canadas" be recognized by allowing the
Provincial Grand Master and other officers to carry on until a new
Master be regularly installed.
necessary step was the formation of a register for the Provincial Grand
it was found that lodges were using numbers given by both the first and
Provincial Grand Lodges as well as those given by the Grand Lodge of
some working under dispensations granted by R. W. Bro. Fitzgibbons had
reported and were without proper authority.
R. W. Bro.
McGillivray returned to England in February, 1826, so much disappointed
at the poor
success of his efforts to instill regularity into the Masonic affairs
of Upper Canada,
that he threatened to resign. Although he did not do so, his business
took him to
Mexico between 1829-36, and he did not return to Canada until 1838. The
saw three meetings of the Provincial Grand Lodge at the first of which
R. W. Bro.
Beikie was installed as Deputy Provincial Grand Master and it was made
the Provincial Grand Lodge was indebted to R. W. Bro. McGillivray for
of pounds advanced by him to carry various lodges over their financial
This was gradually repaid, and their first Constitutions were printed
at a cost
of 75 pounds. At the third meeting the idea of the first strictly
was discussed and the office of Grand Architect was created to keep it
there being "no funds then visible" for the project.
of that year R. W. Bro. Beikie wrote to R. W. Bro. McGillivray asking
to be relieved
of his office as the expenses connected therewith were too heavy for
him. At this
time the lodges at Amherstburgh and Cornwall, the extreme points of the
Grand Jurisdiction, were 500 miles apart so that proper superintendence
difficult and expensive under the conditions of the times. Sussex
was this year the first on record to take up Masonic study, as they
Abraham Kingsley to deliver a series of lectures to them.
Is Felt In
might be made here of the Morgan trouble, which so greatly affected the
the United States that anti-Masonry became part of the platform of a
candidate and rendered many lodges in New England dormant for years.
This man had
lived at York between 1820-22, but returned to Rochester, N. Y., in
1823, and visited
a lodge in Batavia, claiming to have been made in Canada, for which
there is no
evidence. On the same basis he was admitted to a chapter at LeRoy,
N.Y., and was
accepted as a charter member of another at Batavia. But his known
the cause of so much objection that a new charter list was drawn up
signature. This offended him sorely and he contracted with David
Miller, of Batavia,
to publish the so-called Illustrations of Masonry. Miller had been
but (was)refused advancement of his bad reputation. The costs of
too much for the pair and Morgan was arrested for debts. One of these
was paid and
he was taken away, being very willing to leave his creditors and family
and imprisoned at the fort at Niagara where he was visited by several
were attending the installation there of Col. King as a Knight Templar.
that at this installation two brethren were chosen by lot to cross the
a parcel, which they started to do, but having "lost it overboard"
has never been supported; nor has the other story that he was ferried
handed over to two Canadian Masons by whom he was taken to Hamilton to
make a new
start ever been proved. It is simply in keeping with his known
character that he
disappeared and it is equally true that the body buried as his at
Batavia was identified
by its clothing as that of another man, a fisherman, who had also
to 1834 it appears as though the indifference of the Grand Lodge of
its lodges in Upper Canada was only equaled by the neglect of the
Lodge officers of their duties, but it should be added in extenuation
were chosen more for their social standing and their ability to carry
burdens of office, than for any special interest in the welfare of the
Provincial Grand Secretary, V. W. Bro. Turquand, complained bitterly of
on his resources; which was brought by the duties of his office, and
Provincial Grand Lodge voted him various sums, these were never
adequate. It is
not surprising, then, to find in a few years an agitation for the
formation of a
Grand Lodge for Upper Canada.
In 1834 the
town of York became incorporated as the city of Toronto and its
strength as a Masonic
center was such that the local brethren were desirous of its becoming
seat of Masonic government, as well as of political power. It is
recorded that a
resolution was passed in St. Andrew's Lodge forming a committee to
the Grand Lodge of England to that end. Apparently the results were
and in November, 1835, a convention was held at Oxford, now Ingersol,
local action, and in February, 1836, we read in the minutes of Mt.
London, that a Grand Lodge was formed with Bro. Wm. Putnam elected as
and a full complement of officers. This effort did not endure, and in
Auldjo, a friend of R. W. Bro. McGillivray and an officer of the United
of England, being about to leave for Canada, was appointed by the
latter as his
Deputy, to appoint such Provincial Grand officers as might be necessary
and to report
to him on conditions as he found them.
no record of such report having been made and from 1829 to 1845 the
Lodge appears to have been dormant; at all events it published no
from W. Bro. W. J. Kerr, of Toronto, and W. Bro. T. M. Jones, of
officers of the Provincial Grand Lodge, referring to a proposed Grand
been preserved. but it seems evident that the political troubles of the
to engrossing, accompanied as they were by military action. Between
1838-39 R. W.
Bro. McGillivray again visited Upper Canada, and in November of the
reported to the Grand Master outlining a plan for another
reorganization. His death,
in 1840, seems to have extinguished whatever interest had been aroused
by his work in Canada. It is impossible to account for the apathy of
the Grand Lodge
of England in relation to Canada. As in 1795-1800, and 1817-22, so
moneys sent were not acknowledged and urgent letters were left
in 1842, R. W. Bro. Ziba M. Phillips, who had been Deputy Provincial
in 1822, and was the only officer of that rank living in Upper Canada,
circulars from Brockville calling for a new Masonic Convention at
lodges only were represented, as those west of Kingston did not
respond. A strong
desire for independence was shown, and Bro. the Hon. R. B. Sullivan was
for Provincial Grand Master in "Canada West" under the Grand Lodge of
Grand Lodge Is Organized
was received to this, nor to a similar appeal sent after the next
1843. A better attended convention was held the next year at Smith's
Falls, R. W.
Bro. Phillips presiding, at which those present constituted themselves
into a Grand
Lodge though still acknowledging the authority of the Grand Lodge of
body also was short-lived, but it had the effect of stirring the
in the Western District, especially those of St. Andrew's Lodge, which
the original Provincial warrant issued by R. W. Bro. McGillivray. As a
T. G. Ridout, Worshipful Master of this lodge, having to visit England
was authorized to see what he could effect towards reviving their
warrant and connection
as a Provincial Grand Lodge and requesting that he be appointed as
At this time
is recorded another of the extraordinary features that marked our
the Mother Grand Lodge. In December, 1841, Sir Allan MacNab was
initiated in St.
Andrew's Lodge; in January next he was passed in Barton Lodge,
Hamilton, but he
was not raised until December, 1842. While still a Fellowcraft he
and at Edinburgh in August received from the Grand Lodge of Scotland a
Provincial Grand Master for Canada generally! Just why, or how, is not
as he was a prominent man it must have been due to social pressure.
was not announced to the brethren concerned, either by him or
otherwise, but it
would have had little weight as such allegiance as they owned was to
the Grand Lodge
of England. Then, in 1844, while on a visit to England, he received by
the appointment of Provincial Grand Master for Canada West, and again,
of this step was made either by him or the Grand Lodge!
In May, 1845,
Barton Lodge assembled to consider the proposal to send W. Bro. Ridout
and not until then did Sir Allan announce his appointments and produce
to the very great surprise and dissatisfaction of his Masonic
could not but then admit that he held the reins of government. In
the third Provincial Grand Lodge was organized at Hamilton, with the
new chief presiding
and twenty-seven delegates in attendance from the seven most important
Bro. Ridout had departed on his journey, but the Provincial Grand
his value to the Craft by appointing him Deputy Provincial Grand Master
as other necessary officers. On his return Bro. Ridout not only
accepted the position
and met its duties, but carried also those of his chief, for Sir Allan
did not attend
again until June, 1848, nor did he issue any warrants under his Scotch
Upper Canada. Between his appointment in 1844 and the final meeting of
Grand Lodge in 1857 it is recorded that out of thirty-three meetings he
the Provincial Grand Lodge at Brockville, headed by R. W. Bro.
to issue warrants and act in other ways as the Provincial Grand Master
it had authority to, so correspondence followed in which he frankly
offered to unite
with the brethren at Toronto "if a union could take place on fair and
1847, the Provincial Grand Lodge at Toronto, having grown wealthy,
applied to Parliament
for an Act of Incorporation so that its lodges could hold property, and
the first Board of General Purposes was formed, with W. Bro. Sir John
of St. John's Lodge, of Kingston, as president. At their annual
convention in this
year their lodges gained permission to bring with them to Grand Lodge
each its own
symbolic banner, none of which were to be larger "than one yard square."
1848, two decisions of importance were reached, the first, necessitated
increased membership under unsettled conditions, being that "no brother
resign while under charges for unMasonic conduct." The second
unification of the work, which was at this time a medley of English,
and American (Webb), depending on where the officers had been taught.
In 1850 the
Grand Lodge of England was petitioned to grant larger powers to the
Lodge as the great difficulties attendant on each lodge making its own
to England resulted in their not doing so at all, whereas if these were
the Provincial Grand Secretary, the necessary supervision could be
followed in 1852 by a resolution that the formation of an independent
in full control of its own affairs was the only way out of the many
which Canadian Masons were subjected. At this time, too, the first
steps were taken
towards establishing the system of benevolence now in use. Again in
1853 this request
was repeated, with the reminder that drafts sent and duly paid by the
banks in London
had never been acknowledged. It is recorded that the lodges in Toronto
were so annoyed
by the neglect of the Grand Secretary to send receipts or other
money was no longer sent him except by brethren going to London, who
to hold the funds until the certificates or warrants were prepared and
In 1854 the
second step was taken towards the erection of a temple in Toronto by
of an annual sum from the Provincial Grand Lodge to that end, to be
sufficient was obtained to complete the project. Notice had to be
taken, too, of
the growing activities of lodges warranted by the Grand Lodge of
Ireland. A convention
of these lodges, called by King Solomon's Lodge at Toronto in November,
memoralized their Grand Lodge for power to form an independent Grand
Lodge for Canada
West. The reply offered them a Provincial Grand Lodge and asked them to
name a Provincial
Grand Master. But at their convention in May, 1855, it was decided to
to the convention of the English lodges at Niagara Falls, with a view
action, and their influence had a decisive effect.
saw the Provincial Grand Lodge at Niagara Falls and it was decided in
view of the
inattention to their requests on the part of the English authorities to
R. H. Townsend, of London, as a "special agent of this Provincial Grand
with full power to act and, further, to employ a "working brother in
England, to act as agent of this Provincial Grand Lodge in London." One
only wonder at and admire the long-suffering loyalty to a callous
by our Masonic ancestors.
1855, a committee of the Grand Lodge of England reported, acknowledging
the causes for complaint on the part of the Provincial Grand Lodge of
and recommending that the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of England
to permit the request of the petition concerning remittances and
returns. But this
was only locking the stable after the horse was gone for, at the
convention at Niagara
Falls, a motion was put by V. W. Bro. Wm. Mercer Wilson, G.S.W., W.M.,
Lodge, Simcoe, that "delegation from all the lodges in the Province,
all jurisdictions, be invited to meet at an early date, to take the
. . . for the purpose of forming an Independent Grand Lodge." This
lost, because of the report from England, but the strong influence of
where independence had long been favored, coupled with the weight of
the Irish delegates,
resulted in an impromptu meeting of the Independent party at Niagara
day following the convention, when it was decided to meet at Hamilton
and "proceed with such matters as may be deemed desirable for the
Masonry in this province."
the representatives of forty-one lodges assembled at Hamilton in
October with R.W.Bro.
Chas. Magill, of Barton Lodge, P.G.J.W., in the chair, and a resolution
detailing in courteous but unmistakable language the many grievances
the Craft had suffered at the hands of the authorities in England, and
"in order to apply a remedy to the evils … it is expedient, right and
duty to form a Grand Lodge of Canada." This passed after some
but one dissentient, who ‒ strange to say ‒ was R. W. Bro. Kivas Tully,
King Solomon's Lodge, Toronto, the rallying point of the Irish section,
he could not act without instructions from his lodge though,
personally, he heartily
concurred. A constitution was adopted and the first Grand Master was
M. Wilson, with R. W. Bro. G. Bernard, of St. George's Lodge, Montreal,
as his Deputy,
and R. W. Bros. W. C. Stephens, of Acacia Lodge, Hamilton, W. B.
Simpson, of Sussex
Lodge, Brockville, and W. Eadan, as the first District Deputies for the
Central and Eastern Districts of the newly formed Grand Lodge.
On Nov. 2,
the convention met again at Hamilton and the new Grand Lodge officers
by M. W. Bro. the Hon. H. T. Backus, P. G. M. of the Grand Lodge of
which an address and statement of the event and the causes antecedent
was sent to
all Masonic jurisdictions with a request for fraternal recognition.
above, forty-one lodges organized themselves into a sovereign Grand
Lodge for Canada,
but there were nineteen lodges which chose to retain their allegiance
through their Provincial Grand Lodge, and these held a convention in
October, 1855, at which twelve lodges were represented, with R. W. Bro.
T. G. Ridout
presiding. Despite their past experience, they decided to again
demoralize the authorities
at home, expressing their loyalty and asking for suitable action. They
relations with the independent lodges. No reply was received and at the
in May, next year, the loss of seven lodges was recorded. Against this
some comfort from a report of Bro. Townsend, their special agent to
which it appeared that the Mother Grand Lodge had been forced to notice
the delinquency of its executive officers. He had appeared at the
in March, 1866 with the result that a resolution was passed granting
reserving only the right to appoint Provincial Grand Masters from names
by the Provincial Grand Lodges and extending similar privileges to all
Grand Lodge: when request should be made. This would, probably have
but the Earl of Zetland, Grand Master, spoiled the good effect by
making a statement
of excuse for his neglect in which he voiced a pride of office which
offensive to his Canadian brethren, as well as to many of his own Grand
so that the matter was a cause for heated discussion at their next
in June and September, as well as in Canada when the reports arrived
the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New York, who had been first
asked to install
M. W. Bro. Wilson and his officers, and had refused, was unwise enough
criticise them for doing exactly what his own Grand Lodge had done some
years before as a result of similar treatment.
(To be concluded)
Bro. John J. Lanier,
J. LANIER, Fredericksburg, Virginia, has devised a unique method of
that may be used in a lodge itself, in a Study Club, or in an informal
of Masonic students. The Lodge of Instruction, properly so called,
deals only with
the Ritual; Masonic lectures deal with all manner of subjects; Bro.
Lanier has combined
the two in a ritual that is entirely apart front the regular work, but
at the same
time interprets its deeper meanings, and is so devised that, with the
a few characters, it may be exemplified by the officers of a regular
in unofficial session. A small section of this drama of instruction is
with the author's permission, the whole of it being too long for
interested in this new plan of Masonic education may address the
author. Bro. Lanier
has published a number of books, among them being The Master Mason;
Citizenship; Washington, the Great American Mason; The Daughter of
Hiram Abif; Masonry
and Protestantism, etc.
is heard at the door)
‒ Worshipful Master, I hear someone knocking for admission.
See who presumes to disturb our solemn assembly.
(Goes out, returns and says) ‒ Nine Master Masons are waiting without ‒
Bishop, a Rabbi, a Buddhist, a Mohammedan, a Parsee, a Confucian, a
a Scientist, and an Agnostic.
Brother Junior Deacon, you say that among the Brethren there is an
Agnostic is one who neither denies nor asserts there is a God and does
not see how
anyone can. He must be a member of a lodge with whom we are not in
and make further investigation.
‒ I have made further investigation, and find that I was not as careful
as I should
have been in making my first report. The Brother is a member of this
is not an Agnostic in the sense of one who is doubtful of the existence
but is agnostic about Masonry.
He says that
Masonry is not worthwhile; that it has no light he cannot get
elsewhere; that it
has no philosophy; is nothing but a poor kind of social club whose
not taken seriously.
only at the earnest request of the Bishop who believes that our Lodge
will remove his agnosticism.
Brother Junior Deacon, your explanation is satisfactory. Admit the
admitted, approach the altar and make the proper signs, after which the
TO THE GREAT
ARCHITECT OF THE UNIVERSE, THE ONLY GOD, IN WHOM WE LIVE AND MOVE AND
HAVE OUR BEING,
BE ASCRIBED ALL POWER, DOMINION, AND GLORY, NOW AND FOREVER, AMEN.
ALL ‒ So
may it be.
standing before the altar)
Our Lodge of Instruction will continue with a short catechism of the
our Masonic Lodge represent?
What do you see before you?
The holy altar of Masonry.
What do you see on it?
The Great Lights of Masonry.
What enables you to see these?
The Lesser Lights of Masonry.
What do they represent?
What does this teach you?
Through nature to God.
Because without the Lesser Lights we could not see the Greater Lights.
In ancient times men erected altars on "high places" and offered burnt
sacrifices on them. Why did they do this?
For two reasons. They erected their altars on high places because they
their gods dwelt there, with whom they came into communion by sharing
a real meal. The worshippers ate the gross forms of food, while the
gods ate finer
forms which went off in the gases and odors.
You said altars were erected for two purposes to God in ancient times.
told me only one. What is the other reason?
To propitiate the wrath of their gods.
What does the altar which is placed in the center of every Masonic
It is the symbol of sacrifice.
What is that sacrifice?
We must sacrifice our lives for our families, our country, and our God,
You are right, my Brother; the altar of Masonry is the symbol of Love's
the Brotherhood of Man.
that the First Great Light in Masonry is the Holy Bible. Beginning with
and proceeding down the line, each of you will tell me what the Holy
Bible of Masonry
RABBI ‒ The
The Old and New Testaments.
The Zend Avesta.
‒ The Vedas.
‒ The writings of Confucius.
‒ The Holy Bible of Masonry is written in the soul of mankind, which
sages and thinkers have transcribed into the sacred books of all great
I can therefore take my obligation on any of the books the brethren
‒ I agree with the Philosopher, but in addition will add that the
God is written in the constitution of the universe as well as in the
souls of men;
in the rocks, in every dewdrop; "in the meanest flower that grows," as
Wordsworth says; and as Paul says, "The invisible things of Him are
seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal
power and Godhead."
‒ My reason is my guide to Deity, as the Scientist has said, for when I
my soul I find there the name of God written on His last and greatest
the soul of man. I find this is taught in the sacred books of all
You are all right, and your answers show the universality of Masonry,
that God has not left Himself without witness in any nation.
I will ask
you all to answer this question together. Whom does the Great Light of
that God is?
‒ The Father of spirits.
‒ I assent to that, for as Anaxogoras said: "If an ox could think, his
would be an infinite ox," which means that the First Great Cause can
be no less than man is. I am a person, and no less than I am can be the
my existence and being. Therefore I believe in the personality of God.
Where do you find the Fatherhood of God taught?
ALL ‒ In
the sacred books of all nations.
Will our good Bishop give us the words in which his sacred book teaches
"God is the Father of spirits, and they that worship Him must worship
spirit and in truth."
Will the Rabbi tell us where his sacred book teaches the same truth?
RABBI ‒ In
many passages, such for instance as these: "I will be a father to thee;
is my son; thou, O Jehovah, art our father ;" and in Genesis where it
"Let us make man in our image, after our likeness."
What is the Second Corner Stone of Masonry?
ALL ‒ The
Brotherhood of man.
The Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of man are two Corner Stones
What are the other Corner Stones?
ALL ‒ The
immortality of Man and Prayer.
Where is the immortality of man taught?
ALL ‒ In
the sublime degree of a Master Mason.
‒ We are getting some light in this Lodge of Instruction.
I told you, my Brother, that your agnosticism was not well founded.
‒ My good Bishop, as I have often told you, I am glad to be rid of it.
ALL ‒ Let
the good work go on.
We have been worshipping God under the symbol of light for thousands of
RABBI ‒ Yes; when our Scriptures speak of God as light we borrowed that
This is certainly interesting. We are getting more light than we
expected. But we
must conclude our catechism with the Fourth Corner Stone of Masonry,
which is Prayer.
What is Prayer?
Prayer is communion of spirit with spirit, the finite with the infinite.
Have you not left out of your definition of Prayer the ideas of
petition and changing
the will either of God or man?
The communion of spirit with spirit contains the idea of petition, and
the will of man to conform to the will of God. We leave that to the
of the one who prays.
Should the Brethren desire it, we shall be glad to give them our
highest idea of
prayer, which your own poet Wordsworth has so beautifully and perfectly
We shall be glad to hear it.
Prayer is communion of spirit, when spirit with spirit meets face to
Wordsworth describes in these beautiful lines:
"In such high hour
Of visitation from the living God
Thought is not, in enjoyment expires.
No thanks we breathe, we proffer no request;
Rapt into still communion that transcends
The imperfect offices of prayer and praise,
The mind is a thanksgiving to the power
That makes us. It is blessedness and love,
The first virgin passion of the soul
In communion with the glorious universe."
it to you, Worshipful Master, for what it may be worth to the Brethren.
Thank you, my Brother; we are sure that many will find it helpful. We
the great contribution the sages of India have made to our Craft, and
not only to
the sages of India, but the sages of all the nations here represented.
Prayer -- [A Poem]
Lord, give me the power every day
To voice some word of hope, some sign of cheer
Some happy line to buoy again a heart
That's weighted down by hopelessness and fear.
Teach me to show, in flaming words of Truth
The way to some weak Brother on the road,
Return to him the manliness of youth
To stand erect beneath his heavy load.
I would not take from him his right to show
The world that he can rise again and walk
Can conquer all his burdens and his care
And all his tempting devils gaily mock.
But let me say some heartening word to him
To strength his back and call to life his Will;
The story of Our Brother's rugged Cross
And how He bore Himself upon the hill.
Lodge of New Brunswick
permission from ``Freemasonry in Canada"; compiled by
Osborne Sheppard, Hamilton,
of Freemasonry in New Brunswick may be said to have commenced the 7th
1783, when Jared Betts wrote from St. Ann's, N. S., now Fredericton,
of New Brunswick, to Joseph Peters, Secretary of the Master's Lodge,
No. 211, Halifax,
to know if he could proceed under a warrant which he held, granted by
is described as the Grand Master of Ireland. The authority to this
warrant was denied
and a dispensation was actually issued from the two warranted lodges,
Nos. 155 and
211, then existing at Halifax. On August 22, 1792, a warrant was
granted by the
Provincial Grand Lodge at Halifax to Ephraim Betts and others, at St.
Solomon's Lodges, No. 22 ‒ now No. 6 ‒ registry of New Brunswick. New
was made a separate Province in 1784, and the first lodge instituted
7, 1784, was Hiram Lodge. The second lodge instituted was St. George
1788. The third lodge, New Brunswick, was instituted at Fredericton in
In 1795 Hiram
Lodge "rebelled" against the authority of the Provincial Grand Lodge at
Halifax by which it had been warranted as No. 17. On September 7, 1796,
was withdrawn by the Provincial Grand Lodge, and all its members,
number, were "expelled for apostasy," etc. There were, so far as can be
ascertained, five lodges in New Brunswick contemporary with Hiram
Lodge, viz.: New
Brunswick, No. 541, at Fredericton; St. George, No. 19, at Maugerville,
No. 29, at Kingston, Kings County New Brunswick, 1792; Solomon's, No.
22, at Fredericton,
1792; Hiram York, No. 23, at Fredericton, 1793. The first of these
lodges was chartered
by the Grand Lodge of England, and the others by the Provincial Grand
Lodge of Nova
Scotia. All of these ceased to exist many years ago. Of the lodges
existing at present
in New Brunswick, St. John's Lodge, No. 2, is the oldest, and was
5, 1802, under al warrant issued by the Provincial Grand Lodge of Nova
ceremony was performed by the R. W. Bro. William Campbell, Deputy Grand
is undoubtedly a fact that steps were taken toward the formation of a
as early as the year 1829, and the Rev. Benjamin Gerrish Gray, D. D.,
Trinity Church, was actually elected as Grand Master, no further
taken, and the Grand Lodge so attempted to be formed apparently died a
In the year
1867, however, after the confederation of the various Provinces of
was a meeting of the Masters and Past Masters of lodges held in the
city of St.
John on August 16, 1867, looking to the formation of a Grand Lodge.
There were present
representatives from Albion Lodge, St. John's Lodge, Carleton Union
Lodge of Portland,
New Brunswick Lodge, Hibernia Lodge and Leinster Lodge. It was resolved
meeting to address a circular to all the lodges in New Brunswick under
of England, Ireland and Scotland, stating that this meeting deemed it
that a convention be held to consider the present position of Masonic
the Province, and to take such action thereon as may be deemed
necessary, the lodges
so addressed to be requested to authorize their Masters, Past Masters
to meet in such convention. Pursuant to this resolution a meeting was
held in the
city of St. John on the 9th and 10th of October, 1867. There were
from Albion Lodge, St. John's Lodge, Solomon's Lodge, Carleton Union
Lodge, Union Lodge of Portland, Woodstock Lodge, St. George Lodge,
Howard Lodge, Northumberland Lodge, Miramichi Lodge, Zetland Lodge, New
Lodge, Hibernia Lodge, Sussex Lodge, Leinster Lodge, St. Andrew's
Lodge, and Lodge
Grand Lodge Is Formed
W. Bro. B.
Lester Peters, P. M., of Albion Lodge, was called to the chair and W.
P. M., of St. John's Lodge, was requested to act as Secretary. At this
was resolved to form a Grand Lodge of New Brunswick. The delegates from
Lodge asked and obtained permission to retire from the convention, and
from Howard and Zetland Lodges stated that, though personally in favor
of the resolution,
they had no authority to record a vote for their respective lodges. The
of the lodges unanimously voted in favor of forming a Grand Lodge of
R. W. Bro. Robert T. Clinch was unanimously, and by acclamation,
elected Most Worthy
Grand Master. Bro. Clinch, however, while appreciating the compliment
declined to accept the office on account of the official position he
held as District
Grand Master under the Most-Worthy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of
which he had not resigned. In consequence thereof, W. Bro. B. Lester
unanimously elected in his place as the first Most Worshipful Grand
Master of the
Grand Lodge of New Brunswick, together with the following: William
Grand Master; Hon. William Flewelling, Senior Grand Warden; David Brown
Warden Rev William Donald, D. D., Grand Chaplain, and William H. A.
Treasurer; William F. Bunting, Grand Secretary.
22, 1868, the Grand Master-elect and the other Grand Officers were duly
"in the presence of a large and influential gathering of the Craft," of
the Registries of England, Ireland and Scotland, "from all parts of the
by W. Bro. John Willis, Past Master of Hibernia Lodge, and the Senior
of the jurisdiction. The Grand Lodge was thereupon "consecrated and
was adopted proffering equal privileges to all outstanding lodges in
which should adhere to the Grand Lodge of New Brunswick, on or before
the 31st of
March, following; and that any lodge not of allegiance to Grand Lodge,
on or before
the 31st of May, succeeding, should be dealt with by the Grand Master
as he in his
wisdom and discretion determine, until the next communication of Grand
all the lodges in New Brunswick came under the authority of the Grand
received new warrants. The Centennial of the Introduction of
Freemasonry into New
Brunswick was celebrated July 1, 1884, and consisted of an imposing
by different Masonic bodies in the city of St. John and the Province of
About 500 Freemasons, accompanied by seven bands of music, appeared in
The procession marched through the principal streets and passed the
the first lodge in the city, which was in Britain, near Charlotte,
thence to the
Mechanics' Institute where interesting services were held, consisting
of an address
by the M.W.G.M. John Valentine Ellis, in which he detailed the history
of the Craft
in the Province of New Brunswick up to that time.
of and of and in the name of the Centennial Committee the Grand Master
both visitors with the medal which had been struck in commemoration of
is divided into five Masonic districts, with a District Deputy Grand
each, viz.: No. 1, City and County of St. John and Counties of Kings
No. 2, Counties of Westmoreland and Albert; No. 3, Counties of Kent,
Gloucester and Restigouche; No. 4, Counties of York (except the town of
Carleton, Victoria, Madawaska and Sunbury; No. 5, County of Charlotte
and the town
Bro. CHAS. A. COOKE,
P. G. D. Of C., Saskatchewan
stand out in high relief in the history of Masonry in the Province of
Of necessity, the first of these was the launching of the then baby
of the Dominion, this auspicious event, fraught with high hopes that
been amply realized, taking place on the ninth day of August, 1906.
of the brethren resident in the newly organized Province ‒ the
territory which is
now Saskatchewan having been given provincial status by the Dominion
in 1905 ‒ to spread their wings, was reached early in 1906, and on the
August day mentioned an enthusiastic and zealous band of brethren
assembled in the
city of Regina, there to erect another Grand Jurisdiction to be known
as the Grand Lodge of Saskatchewan. Grand Lodge officers of the Grand
of Manitoba, hitherto holding sway over this territory, were present in
to assist in the institution of the new Grand Lodge, and to demonstrate
presence their good wishes for its future.
At this time
there were comprised in the new jurisdiction some twenty-four
with an enrollment of approximately 700 Masons. These lodges, in order
were: No. 1, Kinistino (Prince Albert). 2. Wascana (Regina). 3. Moose Jaw. 4. Qu'Appelle
(Fort Qu'Appelle). 5. Indian Head. 6. Qu’Appelle. 7. Moosomin. 8. Ashlar (Whitewood).
9. Maple Leaf (Maple Creek).
10. Evening Star (Grenfell). 11. Northwest Mounted Police (Regina). 12.
13. Duck Lake. 14. Sintaluta. 15. Amity (Carnduff ) . 16. Saskatchewan
17. Carlyle. 18. Melfort. 19. Battle (Battleford). 20. Weyburn. 21.
Rosthern. 23. Britannia (Lloydminster). 24. Wolseley. There were also
working under dispensation.
At the time
of writing, the number of lodges on the Grand Register total 177 with a
membership of over 12,500.
Many of the
brethren who played a prominent part in the organization of the new
are still with us.
M. Wor. Bro.
W. B. Tate, Grand Master of Saskatchewan in 1910, and for the past nine
Secretary of this jurisdiction, was, at the time of formation of the
D. D. G. M. for District No. 8 under the Grand Lodge of Manitoba, a
the whole of the southern portion of Saskatchewan. He was among those
identified with the birth of the new jurisdiction.
M. Wor. Bro.
Alex. Shepphard, Grand Master in 1922, was the first Grand Treasurer of
holding that office for a period of fourteen years, vacating it only
to the Grand West.
M. Wor. Bro.
C. O. Davidson, the first Deputy Grand Master, is still an active and
worker in the jurisdiction, as is M. Wor. Bro. H. Jagger, who was the
of the Grand Senior Warden's chair.
took an active part in the formation of Grand Lodge and are still
to the ranks of Masonry are: M. Wor. Bro. L. T. McDonald, Grand Master
M. Wor. Bro. W. M. Thompson (1915); M. Wor. Bro. R. Young (1918); Rt.
J. N. Bayne, P. D. D. G. M., and Wor. Bro. W. M. Martin, a former
premier of this
Province, who was Master of Wascana Lodge, No. 2, when Grand Lodge was
One of the
most persistent advocates of the new jurisdiction was the late M. Wor.
Bro. G. B.
Murphy, who was already a P. G. M. of Manitoba, and who was made an
G. M. of Saskatchewan. He passed to the Grand Lodge above last year.
Splendid Record of Benevolence
among the notable milestones in the history of the jurisdiction, is the
record of Benevolence. At the institution of the Grand Lodge of
nucleus of a Benevolent Fund was established as the result of a grant
from the Grand Jurisdiction of Manitoba. In 1910 M. Wor. Bro. Tate,
advocated the formation of a governing body of trustees to take in hand
pertaining to Benevolence, and this was done, when, in 1913, a special
of Grand Lodge assembled to compile and adopt a revised constitution.
was made until the prospective heavy demands on the fund, resultant on
War, inspired an appeal from M. Wor. Bro. J. McCauley, sitting Grand
assistance. Contributions on a basis of $10 per member have built up
the fund until
today it stands at over $150,000 invested in Government bonds and other
securities. The principle of the fund must forever remain intact, only
accruing therefrom, together with an annual per capita assessment of
being applied to relieve cases of need. The growth and administration
of the Grand
Lodge Benevolent Fund makes a thrilling story of which every member in
is justly proud.
achievement that marks the growth of this Grand Lodge in recent years
was the Masonic
Scholarship Scheme evolved and brought to a successful issue by M. Wor.
M. Weir in 1921. Upwards of $20,000 was contributed to this scheme by
of the jurisdiction to be used for purposes of Scholarship Endowment
The cost of Normal School training in the case of approved candidates
by the fund, conditional on the candidates undertaking to teach for a
not less than one year at schools, selected by the governing committee,
rural districts. In all, fifty scholarships have been awarded.
Meetings Are a
as has been proven in actual practice, by no means least effulgent of
the high lights
of Saskatchewan Masonry, is the system of annual district meetings
1916 by M. Wor. Bro. W. M. Thompson. For purposes of efficient
jurisdiction is divided into sixteen districts, in each of which once a
year a joint
assembly of the constituent lodges is called together. The meetings are
over by the D.D.G.M. for the respective districts and are honored by
of the Grand Master, the Grand Secretary and such other officers of
as can conveniently attend. Degree work is exemplified under the
direction of the
Grand Secretary, with a view to complete uniformity throughout the
and invariably several excellent addresses on the symbolic teachings of
are contributed by brethren of the district in addition to the messages
by the Grand Lodge officers.. Having been privileged to be present at
many of these
gatherings in various parts of the jurisdiction, I can testify to their
value and importance to the Craft. Nothing, thus far, has approached
meeting in educative potentiality, and we know of no more effective or
means of developing the true spirit of Masonry.
Grand Lodge has set up a permanent committee on Masonic Education and
whose function it is to initiate and direct constituent lodges in
to the study of Masonic subjects. Much is expected of this committee.
is at work and we look for an increasing breadth of vision coupled with
and more virile conception of Masonry to develop throughout the
time goes on.
Lodge of Saskatchewan is full of vigor and hope, animated by a lofty
filled with true optimism for the future. Though now only in its
it has set up a record of which every Craftsman in the jurisdiction is
and to the maintenance of which each one of us is cheerfully yet
me what is the law about the wearing of Scottish Rite rings for this
S. L. A., Alabama.
law on the subject of wearing rings in the Southern Jurisdiction is
Article XIII, 1923 Statutes of the Supreme Council:
The ring of the Thirty-third Degree, for all Inspectors General,
or Honorary, is a triple one of gold, like three small rings side by
on it no advertisement by any device, figure or mark whatever, and
should be worn
on the little finger of the left hand.
Perfect Elus of this Jurisdiction should wear the ring of the Degree on
finger of the left hand (not counting the thumb); it should be a flat
without any mark or device on It.
has achieved success who has lived well, laughed often and loved much;
who has gained
the trust of pure women and the love of children, who has filled his
niche and accomplished
his task; who has left the world better than he found it, whether by an
poppy, a perfect poem or a rescued soul; who has never lacked
appreciation of earth's
beauty or failed to express it, who has always looked for the best in
given the best he had, whose life was an inspiration; whose memory a
to Candidate About To Receive the Apprentice Degree
that no man should seek admittance into the membership of a Masonic
first being made acquainted with its general spirit and purposes, the
of the correspondents of the Masonic News, Detroit, Mich., prepared at
one of their
sessions the address printed below, and here published by permission.
lodge may feel free to use it.
It is essential
that you have a proper conception of Freemasonry. You may have assumed
or been informed
that it is a purely social or benevolent institution or a religious
order all of
which would be wrong and misleading. It cannot be made too plain that
not in any sense a religion, nor in any sense allied to, or opposed to
although it teaches the service of God and Brotherhood of man. If you
have any bitterness,
hatred or intolerance towards any faith you are making a grave mistake
admission to Masonry, and you should stop now and postpone your
your mind is free from all prejudice and passion.
is Freemasonry? Shortly defined it is essentially a Society of men
as brothers in the work of building. Prior to the year 1717 ‒ when the
Lodge was formed in England, the work of the Order was largely
that time the work has been called speculative meaning-philosophical ‒
‒ contemplative, but the work of modern speculative Masonry is more
humanity and requires more individual loyalty and sacrifice than the
work of our
ancient operative brethren, important as it was at that time.
citadel of Brotherhood modern Masonry looks out on a world, torn and
continuous conflict with the destructive forces of greed and lust and
the world is big enough and rich enough to house and feed and clothe
it sees nations preying on nations and man on man like the beasts of
of Masonry is to better these unhappy conditions of life, by
establishing in the
midst of life an organization of faithful men pledged and trained to
of Brotherhood, justice and toleration, whose first duty is to
broadcast the influence
of the Order and press forward to the ultimate goal of universal
to that end build and develop the character of its members, so that by
example they will radiate and reflect these benign and constructive
is work, and enough, for every right-thinking man who seeks enrollment
in the cause
of human service.
to your Petition for initiation.
Each of you
declared in your Petition, not only that you were unbiased by the
friends and uninfluenced by mercenary motives, but were prompted to
opinion of the institution,
for knowledge, and
wish to be serviceable to your fellowmen.
of this declaration is your first qualification for admission.
you of any intentional falsehood or equivocation in making these
in case you signed the Petition hurriedly, or with an imperfect
its meaning and significance, it is expedient that it be explained to
you and that
you be given an opportunity of withdrawing before assuming the serious
lofty aims and purposes, you will readily understand that Masonry must
earnest workmen in its ranks. The solicitation of friends and mercenary
might undermine its undertaking, and hinder its advancement by the
the weak and selfish, who would be unfit as workers in a world campaign
force and greed.
It may be
assumed that you have a favorable opinion of the institution, otherwise
be foolish and useless to seek admission.
for knowledge means the knowledge obtained from Masonic reading and
and for instruction in Masonic philosophy, history and teaching, as
well as from
the practice of its precepts.
important statement in your Petition, however, is your avowed wish to
to your fellowmen. By this declaration you have expressed a desire to
cooperate with your brothers in the speculative work of the Order. To
be of service
you must work diligently. This does not mean lip service. Masonry
and genuine co-operation. It means you must control your passions and
dissensions that may be subversive of harmony. That you refrain from
and blasphemous language which are a reproach to the Craft. That you
for brotherly love can only be founded on respect and affection. That
to the Masonic virtues of truth, temperance, fortitude, prudence and
they cement Brotherhood and support society. That you will always be
help a deserving brother in distress, and preserve the honor and
reputation of Masonry
unsullied. Unless you are equipped with the armor of character, you
will be a listless
and indifferent soldier in the ranks.
degree in Masonry may be said to be the dividing line between the
of youth and the obligations of manhood.
this explanation and admonition are you individually willing to proceed
(If the answer
I am indeed
glad to hear you say so.
It is only
necessary to point out that these lessons will be impressed upon you in
degree by a series of instructive symbols, and that you should give
to all that will be said to you within.
things, my friends, put away all fear and nervousness. There is no
jesting or horseplay
in the Lodge Room, and nothing to fear or anticipate in the degree
work, no matter
what any of your Masonic friends may have thoughtlessly hinted to the
now answer the constitutional questions that will be put to you, and
submit to your
preparation by the Stewards.
who move about much in the Fraternity, or are familiar with the Masonic
with the Fraternal Correspondence Reports of Grand Lodges, know how
grown the cry, "We are making Masons too rapidly! Let us apply the
or put up the bars, and learn to go slow." But alas! the degree-mill
an old one, and dates back, if one may trust reports made at the time,
to the days
of good old Dr. Stukeley, who, as compared with ourselves, was almost
In the 1850's, even, and long after Dr. Stukeley, when the anti-Mason
had by no means as yet subsided, men thronged the doors of Masonry as
for entrance, and they were admitted in too large numbers to suit the
In 1858 the writer of the Fraternal Correspondence Report of the Grand
Illinois voiced his fears lest the Order overthrow itself and break
down of its
own weight, like Fulton's famous steamboat. To this the author of the
Correspondence Report of the Grand Lodge of Texas gave echo in vigorous
The Masonic philosophers of today will find the paragraphs, one of
worthy their perusal:
evil of opening the doors of the temple too wide is a manifest one. We
thought that many of our Grand Lodges, by fixing the initiation fee too
for instance in Illinois, at $15, were doing themselves a fearful
injury. The prosperity
of Masonry is not to be measured by the number of its initiates, nor by
of the increase of its lodges. Oftentimes the profane, looking with
the Fraternity, have an itching to know its secrets and are willing to
trifling amount to satisfy their curiosity, when they might be deterred
if the cost
were greater. Lodges, too, when as numerous as are those in Illinois,
too strong a desire to increase their membership for the pecuniary
increase promises, and are not sufficiently guarded in their
character. We confess we are of those who believe that the Institution
more rapidly in prosperity in one year if no new lodges were created,
nor any applicant
admitted, than it now does in five, with the hundreds of shingle
palaces that are
erected, and the tens of thousands of half-baked bricks that are
worked, or rather
chucked, into its walls. We can but think that the admitting of
the footing of regular lodges, which had showed so great a want of
as did those referred to by the above committee, was also opening the
door too wide
to them. Yet we are glad to see that the attention of the leading
Masons of that
jurisdiction, like Grand Master Dills, is being turned to the matter,
and hope that
not the least of the benefits that will result from it will be the
making of Masons
there, who can prove themselves such after they get outside the home
range ‒ a thing
which two out of every five your committee have met within 'private
from that jurisdiction have not been able to do. Hedge up the way,
let no man come in whom you can find any reasonable excuse to keep out,
you take a man in, work him up so that ever after he will not know
as a Mason."
yourself that friendship authorizes you to say disagreeable things to
The nearer you come into relation with a person the more necessary do
tact and courtesy
cases of necessity, which are rare, leave your friend to learn
from his enemies; they are ready enough to tell them.
Who Were Masons
Bro. GEO. W. BAIRD, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
was a member of Maryland Lodge, No. 16, being initiated May 9, 1780,
11 of the same year, and raised to the Sublime Degree of Master Mason
May 8, 1781.
was chartered September 21, 1770, with Thomas Russell as its first W.
M. From its
roster of members, between 1773 and 1781, it is evident that General
William Pinkney, General Smallwood, O. H. Williams, Archie Anderson,
Nicholson and a number of other revolutionary notables were in its
was born in Prince George County, Maryland, in 1756, and died in Paris
His remains were brought home and interred in the Georgetown University
ground in 1849, in the Carroll lot, and a memorial was erected; but in
Mount Olivet Cemetery was opened, the Carrolls were removed to it. The
illustrated on this page gives the year of Carroll's death as 1849, but
on a slab alongside correctly gives the date as 1846, confirmed by
was a cousin of Charles Carroll of Carrolltown, received a classic
his taste led him to agriculture, and he was probably one of the first
farmers in the Republic. His estate was very large, with hundreds of
that part of Maryland which became the District of Columbia included
much of Carroll's
land. It was called Duddington, and a few acres which he reserved in
the city of
Washington retained that name. That which he used as a residence
covered a "square"
of ground and was surrounded by a high brick wall; his trees were part
of the original
forest, and the great spring in it was preserved just as the Indians
had left it.
This estate, though dismal and forbidding in aspect, was, nevertheless,
one of the
show places of early Washington. The triangular lot on the hill,
front of Duddington, was known as Carroll's Hill, and it was said after
that he had bequeathed it to the Government as a site for the United
but it was made into Garfield Park instead.
elected to Congress from Maryland in 1781, and served until 1784,
during which time
he presented to Congress the Act of the Legislature of his state
assenting to the
Articles of Confederation. He was also one of the five Maryland
delegates to the
Convention which framed the Federal Constitution, a great governmental
that he very strongly advocated. He was again elected to Congress in
1789, and served
during both sessions.
He was appointed
by Washington, along with Thomas Johnson and Dr.David Stuart, as a
to lay out the District of Columbia; this commission also gave the city
As a commissioner, Carroll participated in the ceremony of fixing the
with Masonic ceremonies, of the Federal District on April 21, 1791.
also one of the commissioners to superintend the building of the
Capitol at Washington,
and was present at the laying of the cornerstone in September, 1793, by
Lodge of Maryland. President Washington participated in this ceremony.
died when the present writer was three years of age, but the writer's
was a member of Naval Lodge) knew Daniel Carroll personally and often
him about Freemasonry, in which Carroll was always interested. Carroll
of Roman Catholic parents and also buried in Mount Olivet, a Roman
which hung in the hall at Duddington, showed him as a heavy-set man,
smooth face, an abundance of hair and kindly expression. He was
dignified but easily
approached, and was fond of talking about his experiments with plants
and the wonderful
results obtained. Though possessing a university education, he was
simple in his
speech, was not at all eloquent, and always was very industrious. It
was said that
his popularity and integrity rather than his tastes led him into
politics. He was
a near relative of Bishon Carroll who inaugurated the Jesuit College,
as the Georgetown University.
of Masonry in the United States
Bro. H. L. Haywood, Editor
I. – The Early Traditions
A New Study
present article begins a new series of Study Club installments, the
for which is the history of Freemasonry in America. The limitations of
making this a detailed or exhaustive account, the purpose rather is to
of the more important events and developments of the American Craft as
Mason is most interested to know. Although the narrative will be
month by month each article will be complete in itself. Corrections,
or suggestions will always be thankfully received. A booklet on "How to
and Maintain a Study Club" will be furnished free upon request.
IN ye goode
old dates Masonic scribes vied with each other in an attempt to give
the greatest possible antiquity; some made it to begin, full formed and
panoplied, with King Solomon; others, more ambitious, gave credit for
it to Euclid, "that good clerk," or to Noah (one of Dr. Oliver's
characters), or even to Adam, the father of us all; while one theorist,
be eternal peace, declared that Freemasonry had existed throughout the
before the creation of this unhappy earth!
was not monopolized by brethren across the sea; American idealists
with the same heady wine until their debauched imaginations threw out
Masonic origins on this continent as wild as any that ever originated
in the caverns
of European fancy. Witness the case of Augustus Le Plongeon. [Lib 1909] In 1886 he published to the
American public his Sacred Mysteries Among the Mayas and the Quiches,
Ago: Their Relation to the Sacred Mysteries of Egypt, Greece, Chaldea,
Freemasonry in Times Anterior to the Temple of Solomon, in which he
"I will endeavor to show you
that the ancient
sacred mysteries, the origin of Freemasonry consequently date back from
far more remote than the most sanguine students of its history ever
will try to trace their origin, step by step, to this continent which
‒ to America ‒ from where Maya colonists transported their ancient
and ceremonies, not only to the banks of the Nile, but to those of the
and the shores of the Indian Ocean, not less than 11,500 years ago."
for the good Le Plongeon subsequent archeologists (real scientists, and
amateurs) learned that his relics were not 11,500 years old, but
than 1,000, so that his grandiose dream has evaporated into the thin
air from which
he drew it.
head but equally imaginative was our brother Charles W. Moore, one time
of Massachusetts, authority on jurisprudence, and editor of The
the first journal ever published in this land exclusively devoted to
the Craft, to own a complete set of which is now a privilege coveted by
In his issue No. 10, Vol. II, under date of Aug. 1, 1843, Bro. Moore
learned disquisition to show that perhaps America had been originally
by settlers from "the Carthagenian Empire," or else from the lost Ten
Tribes of Israel, and that from either or both of these sources came
mysteries which, so he alleged, were everywhere practiced in the
the forerunner and perhaps progenitor of American Masonry. "From all
circumstances," he wrote, "it has been conjectured that Freemasonry
on this continent prior to its discovery by Columbus." After making
he concludes with a word of sanity: "These speculations will probably
by a majority of our readers as rather matters of curiosity than of
In this last he proved himself a prophet, save that one might add that
have even ceased to be matters of curiosity; nevertheless his essay has
as indicating the currents of theory which ran strong in the Craft of
in its formative periods.
Nova Scotia Stone
Of a more
modest but less intangible character is the case of the Nova Scotia
stone of 1606.
In a letter to Mr. J. W. Thornton the discoverer of this decayed relic
account of how he came upon it, his communication being in part as
"June 2nd, 1856.
"Dear sir: When Francis Alger
made a mineralogical survey of Nova Scotia in 1827, we discovered upon
of Goat Island, in Annapolis Basin, a gravestone, partly covered with
sand and lying
on the shore. It bore the Masonic emblems, square and compass, and had
1606 cut in it. The rock was a flat slab of trap rock, common in the
"The slab, bearing the date
1606, I had
brought over by the ferryman to Annapolis, and ordered it to be packed
up in a box,
to be sent to the O. C. Pilgrim Soc'y (of Plymouth, Mass.) but Judge
then Thomas Haliburton, Esq., prevailed on me to abandon it to him, and
he now has
it carefully preserved. On a late visit to Nova Scotia I found that the
forgotten how he came by it, and so I told him all about it.
"J. W. Thornton,
C. T. Jackson."
On or about
1887 Judge Haliburton's son, Robert Grand Haliburton, gave this stone
to the Canadian
Institute of Toronto for insertion in one of the walls of a building
erected, the inscription to face the interior of one of the rooms; but
a plasterer stupidly covered it over with plaster, so that all trace of
it has ever
since been lost.
stone indicate that Freemasonry was known in Nova Scotia in 1606? Bro.
V. Harris, Grand Historian, Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia, disposes of any
"The theory that the stone might commemorate the establishment of a
Freemasons has virtually nothing to support it." After examining
us summarize our theories: First, the stone was a grave stone;
Secondly, it marked
the last resting place of a French settler who died in 1606; Thirdly,
was probably a workman and may have been an operative mason or stone
speculative Masonry unknown in France in 1606 was not practiced by the
Lastly, the emblem of square and compasses, would seem to be a trade
mark or emblem
undoubtedly used by operative masons as their emblem, and possibly by
as well. In a word the stone marked the grave of either a mason or
or possibly a carpenter who died Nov. 14, 1606, and not that of a
has yet another connection with the prehistoric period of American
Masonry. In 1621
King James of Scotland made a grant of that whole territory (formerly
the, French), under the title of Nova Scotia, or New Scotland, to Sir
later on entitled Earl Stirling and Viscount Canada. His son, also
named Sir William,
but afterwards known by the courtesy title of Lord Alexander, resided
in the colony
four years and then returned to Scotland, where, on July 3, 1634, he
was made a
member of Mary's Chapel Lodge, at Edinburgh. Since the records showed
Alexander was "admitted a Fellow of the Craft" (spelling modernized)
Nickerson assumed that he must have been initiated an Apprentice while
in Nova Scotia,
in which case Freemasonry would have been in existence in that
of a century before the organization of the first Grand Lodge in
London. This is
so improbable that John Ross Robertson, the historian of Canadian
it as "mythical."
in Rhode Island
one may judge, is the story of how certain Jews brought Masonry with
them to Newport,
Rhode Island, in 1656 or 1658. Weefen's Economic and Social History of
(as quoted by John Ross Robertson) states, while speaking of the year
"It is said that fifteen families came in from Holland this year,
with their goods and mercantile skill the first three degrees of
Weefen does not stop to explain how this could have been possible
before the Craft had three degrees!
was lent to this fable by the Reverend F. Peterson's now discredited
Rhode Island and Newport in the Past. On page 101 of the 1853 edition
the spring of 1658, Mordecai Campannall, Moses Packeckoe, Levi and
others, in all
fifteen families, arrived at Newport from Holland. They brought with
them the three
first degrees of Masonry and worked them in the house of Campannall,
to do so they and their successors to the year 1742."
stated that this was "Taken from documents now in possession of N.H.
Esq." This aroused the curiosity of Bro. William S. Gardner, Grand
Massachusetts in 1870, who in that year asked of Bro. Gould, a W. M. of
at one time, for some details. Gould replied that the document in
"Ths ye [day and month
or 8 [not certain` which, as the place was stained and broken, the
first three figures
were plain] Wee mett att y House off Mordecai Campunnall and affter
gave Abm Moses the degrees of Maconrie."
stated that while he had nicely tucked the document away in an envelope
not at the time lay his hand on it.
letter to Gardner was sent to Bro. Thomas A. Doyle, Grand Master of
from 1865 to 1871, inclusive, he replied that he had "made many
these documents of brethren in Newport, members of Grand Lodge and
others, and do
not find that any one has ever seen them." He gives no credence to the
Bro. Henry Rugg, author of History of Freemasonry in Rhode Island
with Bro. Doyle. "Evidently no great reliance could be given," he
page 33, "to such a scrap of paper even were its genuineness assured.
the support of corroborative evidence."
(not a Mason) made issue with this conclusion, after an exhaustive
all the facts, and took the ground in his The Jews and Masonry in the
before 1810 [Lib 1910], originally printed in the
the American Jewish Historical Society, later in book form, that there
been something in the Gould contention. He was able to locate the name
in the archives of Rhode Island of the latter part of the seventeenth
believed that Gould (a tailor by profession) was a credible witness.
however, and in a private conversation with the present writer, he has
himself as being more than dubious about the whole matter.
is what every man must feel after examining the case. There were no
in 1658; nobody, except Gould, saw the alleged document; according to
his own report
it was almost illegible, with the date mutilated; and the story that he
the document is more than hard to believe, because it is difficult to
how any man, with such a find, would not immediately have turned it
over, to experts
or to some historical association. Nobody in his right mind is in the
habit of tucking
such precious discoveries away and then forgetting where. Another item
similarly difficult to verify and of equally uncertain authenticity so
far as its
Masonic connections are concerned, may be here mentioned as belonging
to the same period of time. According to the records of the Plymouth
colony at New Haven received from Cooper's Hall, London, in 1654, a
package of goods
(sent separately from others in the same consignment). It was consigned
Eliot, the famous "Apostle to the Indians", and was accompanied by a
to John Eliot to which was appended a peculiar hieroglyphic, an
integral part of
which was the square and compasses, or at least what appeared to be
it was the Masonic emblem it is impossible to know.
next item of tradition of substance enough to attract attention but of
the scene shifts to Philadelphia, upon which spot our attention will be
focused in succeeding chapters. Bro. Charles E. Meyer, writing in
History of Freemasonry
and Concordant Orders, by Hughan and Stillson [Lib 1891], page 219, states:
"In 1680 there came to South
John Moore, a native of New England, who before the close of the
to Philadelphia, and in 1703 was commissioned by the king as Collector
of the Port.
In a letter written by him in 1715, he mentions having 'spent a few
festivity with my Masonic brethren.' This is the earliest mention we
have of there
being members of the Craft residing in Pennsylvania or elsewhere."
in a footnote: "This letter is in the possession of Horace W. Smith, of
Mr. Smith! if ever he possessed such a document he was not able to show
it to anybody.
When Bro. Robert I. Clegg asked of Bro. Julius F. Sachse what evidence
obtained for this tale the scholarly historian of Pennsylvania replied:
is no proof whatever of this statement. I have never been able to get
on the track
of any such letter." (In Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry.)
Sachse dictum Bro. Melvin M. Johnson, in his Beginnings of Freemasonry
[Lib*] (published this year), to which writers in this field must be
all time to come, expresses emphatic agreement:
"This letter was for a time
evidence of meetings of the Fraternity in Philadelphia during the year.
however, never existed. Careful inquiry discloses repeated but
by the acquaintances of Mr. Smith to see the letter. If he ever had
such a letter
he could have produced it or accounted for its absence, but he never
did so. No
one among his contemporaries or among those having had the best
opportunity to talk
with him and to see the document if it existed can be found who
believes there ever
was such a letter."
King's Chapel Tradition
Of a somewhat
more definite character but yet lacking proof, and therefore belonging
to the prehistoric
period, is the tradition of a lodge held in King's Chapel, Boston,
1720, based on
a statement by Charles W. Moore. On page 163, Vol. III, of his The
Magazine (already referred to), he wrote:
and charters were, therefore, issued by the Grand Lodge at London, for
of lodges in all parts of the world. The first, for this country, was
the year 1720. It was a Dispensation authorizing the opening of a Lodge
city "Boston]. We have the fact from a clergyman of the Church of
Rev. Mr. Montague, once of Dedham who found it stated in an old
document in the
archives of King's Chapel [Boston]. The Lodge was regularly organized,
but was soon
It was under
date of April 1, 1844, that Moore wrote this; in the Masonic Mirror and
Intelligencer, of which he had previously been editor, and under date
of Jan. 27,
1827, he had made a similar statement, to wit:
"A year or two since, a
clergyman of the
Church of England, who is probably more conversant with the church in
any other individual living, politely furnished us with a document
wherein it appeared
that the first regular Lodge of Freemasons in America was holden in
Boston, by a Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of England, somewhere
about the year
1720. It produced great excitement at the time [i.e., the creation of
and the Brethren considered it prudent to discontinue these meetings."
as there are no existing minutes of the Grand Lodge of England prior to
1723, and no list of lodges prior to that date, it is impossible to
statement from records, so that it rests entirely on the statement made
He was a man of integrity, and familiar with Masonry, but there is no
what errors either he or his informant may have fallen. The status of
has been succinctly set forth by Bro. Melvin M. Johnson, in his
Beginnings of Freemasonry
in America: "The evidence, therefore, neither rises to the grade of
proof nor falls to the level of tradition."
other hints and rumors of the Craft prior to 1730 (such as the coming
of a ship Free Mason), but none others of sufficient importance to be
and such as have already received attention have been mentioned more as
for curiosity than as having had any influence on the development of
Any one of them, or all of them together, might be dropped out of sight
affecting the picture of the American Craft as it developed from 1730
which date evidences accumulated with an ever increasing crescendo,
both as to number
and importance, the more important of which, as well as such as have
the most enduring
and vital interest, will appear for study in future issues of this
* * *
On the Le
Plongeon "theory" see his book as quoted, also THE BUILDER, Jan. 1924,
On the Nova
- Bro. R.V. Harris' study of this
relic will be published in THE BUILDER in
full, next month or the month after.
- See also The Beginnings of
Freemasonry in America, Melvin M. Johnson, New
York: 1924, page 43.
- The History of Freemasonry in
Canada, J. Ross Robertson: Toronto: 1900: Vol.
I, page 136.
- History of Freemasonry in Rhode
Island, Henry W. Rugg: Providence: 1895:
- Mackey's Revised History of
Freemasonry, R. I. Clegg: Chicago: 1921: Vol.
IV, Page 1314.
- Transactions Nova Scotia Lodge
of Research, Vol. I, No. 2, pp. 20-39. Historical
and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia: 1829: Vol. II, pp. 155-157.
- On Lord Alexander. Robertson,
I: 138. Rugg, 19.
- The History of Freemasonry, R.
F. Gould: Yorston Edition: 1889: Vol. IV:
p. 229 (contains slight error). Clegg, p. 1318.
On Jews at
- Johnson, 44.
- History of the Ancient and
Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons,
and Concordant Orders, Stillson and Hughan: Boston and New York: 1891:
- Robertson, I, 138.
- Rugg, 31.
- Clegg, 1320, 1606.
- The Jew and Masonry in the
United States Before 1810, Samuel Oppenheim: published
in Publications of the Jewish Historical Society; also in book form by
Company: New York.
- Proceedings Grand Lodge of
Massachusetts: 1870: page 357; 1891: page 32.
- THE BUILDER, May, 1915, page
on Eliot package. Robertson, I, 139. Clegg, 1318. Johnson, 47.
On the John
- Johnson, 60.
- The Builders, Joseph Fort
Newton: New York: 1924: page 206.
- Clegg, 1518.
- Stillson and Hughan, 218.
Chapel. Johnson, 61.
- History of Freemasonry in the
State of New York, Ossian Lang: New York: 1922:
- Stillson and Hughan, 239.
- Robertson, I, 140.
- Rugg, 21. Clegg, 1565.
- Gould IV, 229.
- Proceedings Grand Lodge of
Massachusetts: 1883: p. 155.
- Quatuor Coronatorum Antigrapha
Vol. X: W. J. Songhurst, editor: London: 1913:
* * *
- What is the difference between
legend and tradition? Between tradition and
- What is meant by "historical
- Name some of the unhistorical
theories concerning the origin of Freemasonry.
- Who was Le Plongeon?
- What book did he publish?
- What was his theory about the
beginnings of American Masonry?
- Who was Charles W. Moore?
- What magazine did he edit?
- What was his conjecture
concerning the antiquity of American Masonry?
- When and by whom was the Nova
Scotia Stone discovered?
- Describe this stone.
- Why has it been supposed that
it had some relation to Freemasonry?
- What is Bro. Reginald V.
Harris' theory concerning it?
- What is your own theory?
- Who was Lord Alexander?
- When and where was he made a
- Give in your own words the
story of the Jews at Newport, Rhode Island?
- Why was it impossible for them
to have the "three degrees of Freemasonry"
at that time?
- Why cannot historians accept
- What was Samuel Oppenheim's
opinion of this tradition?
- Who was John Eliot?
- Was there any Freemasonry in
England in 1654? If so, what kind was it?
- Who was John Moore?
- What did he say in his letter
- Would you accept as historical
his story about his letter?
- What is Bro. Johnson's estimate
- Tell what you know about King's
Chapel of Boston.
- What is the tradition about
Masonry in that chapel?
- When was the Grand Lodge of
- At what date do its records
- When does the historical period
of Freemasonry begin?
- What is the practical advantage
to an American Mason of a knowledge of the
history of American Masonry?
- In what way is the Masonry of
today governed by the Masonry of yesterday?
print can not be read through a gold eagle. ‒ Speech at Springfield,
work is so rare an event that it should be encouraged. ‒ Note to Major
Men are not
flattered by being shown that there has been a difference of purpose
Almighty and them. ‒ Letter to Thurlow Weed, March 16, 1865.
part of one's life consists of his friendships. ‒ Letter to Joseph
I want in
all cases to do right and most particularly so in all cases with women.
to Miss Mary Owens, Aug. 16, 1837
no grievance that is a fit object of redress by mob law. ‒ Lyceum
justice may not always be the best policy. ‒ Message to Congress, July
If in your
own judgment you can not be an honest lawyer resolve to be honest
a lawyer. ‒ Notes for a law lecture, July 1, 1850.
I have said
nothing but what I am willing to live by and if it be the pleasure of
to die by, ‒ Address in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Feb. 22, 1861.
The Interpretation of
Pike was right in saying that "it seems to me that the symbolism of
is the soul of it, and constitutes its highest title to our
beginning student of this symbolism always encounters a great
difficulty in arriving
at Masonry's soul. Upon his first step toward a study and understanding
he is immediately confronted by a babel-like discord, so that the house
of the interpreter,
where he goes to hear what Masonic expounders and teachers have to say,
with the confusion of tongues. In countless cases he loses courage,
hope of learning what it is all about, and relapses into indifference,
or else grows
cynical, and takes the familiar position that Masonry's symbols are a
that nobody knows anything about them. In such instances the individual
misses the opportunity to become possessed of a great wealth of wisdom,
Craft loses the living support of one of its own members, at least so
far as such
things are concerned.
a way out? There is, and it is exceedingly simple in principle, even if
application of it may be a task as arduous as it is necessary. The way
out may be
stated in few and simple words: ‒ Every symbol in Masonry should
receive a Masonic
By this may
be meant any one of at least three things. First, it may mean that a
symbol is to
be explained in the light of the history of the Craft; if for centuries
has made use of it for certain purposes then that is its Masonic
it may be that in the Ritual the Craft has already given the symbol an
explanation; if so, that settles the matter. Thirdly, it may mean that
is to be interpreted in the light of the teachings of Masonry. If
given symbol is used, or has been used, outside of Freemasonry, as has
case with so many of them, and if it has thereby come to have a hundred
the one Masonic meaning out of the hundred is that which conforms to
the above tests.
How is the symbol to be interpreted in relation to our history, ritual,
that is the question; how it has been explained in other circles is not
except as general students.
scientifically accurate working out of Masonic symbolism by means of
of interpretation is the work of hundreds of men and many generations,
and has never
been completed, so that it is impossible to show in any one example
just what the
results would be, but it may be possible to cite one case for the
purposes of illustration.
in this light and as the case in point, the Apron. Aprons have been
from time immemorial, by Egyptian priests, Maya sages, shamans among
by nobody knows how many besides; when thus used it has been made to
manner of things, priestly authority, magical powers, celibacy, what
not, and it
has been employed in every manner of shape, size, color, sometimes
emblems, sometimes not, and made of a great variety of materials.
Why is it
that interpretations of the Masonic apron have been so confused and so
Largely because men have brought to its interpretation ideas borrowed
from all these
sources just referred to, and have assumed that because an Apron meant
thing to a Brahman priest therefore it means the same in Freemasonry;
such interpreters have each arbitrarily chosen his own non-Masonic
source of interpretation
there has been little agreement among them.
to this problem the canon described in the second paragraph of this
it will be seen that we Masons are interested in the Apron as it is
used in Freemasonry;
and that our task as interpreters of it is to answer the questions,
What does Masonic
history show to have been the use and meaning of the Apron? What does
have to say about it? What teaching or principle of the Craft does it
If when these questions are answered it is found that in Masonry the
Apron has a
meaning different to that employed in other quarters, that is neither
here nor there,
for as MASONIC interpreters we are concerned only with its Masonic
it follows that the explanation of Masonic symbols (what has been said
of the Apron
may be said of all others) can be neither private nor arbitrary but
must rest on
facts ‒ the facts of Masonic history, Ritual and teachings, a thing
out the great dictum of Gould, that the study of Masonic history and of
symbolism must be proceeded with conjointly; which will enable us, if
we apply the
canon rigorously, to avoid meriting the rebuke of Rylands, when he-
said that "on
very few questions has more rubbish been written than that of symbols
;" and it will also enable us to fulfill the requirements laid down by
who is always so well worth quoting on this subject: "The first
a symbol is that it shall really mean something; and the second is that
shall be worth knowing and remembering.”
* * *
Lodge as a Community
was walking down Main Street (now become a famous American institution,
Sinclair Lewis) with a friend of the cloth. It was in a village of some
souls, somewhere in the Middle West ‒ just where it is not necessary to
that it might have happened in any one of thousands of villages in this
"Do you people here have any place for a get-together? any community
asked Ye Scribe. Before Friend Pastor had opportunity to reply another
was met, immediately upon which Friend Pastor sharply turned his head,
in the opposite direction, the while his passing colleague did the
is no need now that you reply," said Ye Scribe, "it is plain that you
have not. Let us hurry on to the funeral." (Appropriately enough, such
Ye Scribe has many times pondered this matter. Why should the two
pastors of a small
town not speak to each other? Why should its two banks fight each
other? Why should
its school board be split into factions? Why should its two Sunday
Schools be unable
to hold a picnic together? Why should the proprietors of its two
glower at each other across the street? Why should the life of such a
be made uneasy by quarrels and feuds, so that neighbors will not greet
of a morning across the lawn?
to the "Why" is contained in the remedy for such a situation. What such
a town needs is a Social Center, a place where the community can act as
and as a community. Unfortunately most small towns have no such thing,
existing circumstances cannot have it, for the churches, which usually
only public buildings suitable for such purposes, are too often divided
of creed and dogma, so that what one undertakes the other will oppose.
Is not such
a condition an opportunity for the Masonic Lodge? It is by its nature
nonpolitical, and non-racial, upholding the ideals of brotherhood, and
to spread among men the cement of friendly affection, and therefore is
to serve as a rallying point for the community spirit. It could not
bring any kind
of local public activity into its own sessions, or under official
that would not hinder it from serving unofficially, and by way of
Why should it not make its own auditorium available for general public
plan lecture and entertainment courses through the winter? install in
one of its
rooms a little public library? equip a room which, under certain rules
might be generally used as a club by local men and boys? And why could
not its membership,
acting as citizens rather than officially as Masons, plan among
other enterprises as would help unify the life and spirit of the
It is of
record that a few lodges have already carried through some such
program; there is
no reason why others could not follow suit, especially since the lodge
receive in return the great reward of stimulated interest in its own
increased attendance, and a deeper appreciation of the value of Masonry
life. To say that such a service would not work would condemn Masonry
impracticable, for it would be useless to expect great things from the
the world at large if its ideal of life cannot be carried out in a
* * *
Is the Same Everywhere
our way," said the veteran from the Ozarks (this was at a Grand Lodge
"we folks take our Masonry what you might call seriously. It ain't
'tall to see fellers ride a horse-back fer miles to 'tend lodge and
then ride back
to home after dark, at two in the mornin'. 'Nd we ain't got no what you
fancy lodges, neither, for we've got morels one lodge thet meets in log
our way," replied the brother from Kansas City. "we folks also take our
Masonry seriously. I work all day in an office almost as high in the
air as one
of your hills. Everyone of us there is screwed up to a tension every
minute of the
day. After five o'clock I drive my car for one hour and fifteen minutes
to get home,
swallow my dinner in a hurry, change to my tuxedo, and then drive back
again to attend lodge. My lodge meets about twice a week and I am
for I am in the line. That isn't all of it, either, for I am in three
and they also meet more than once a month. I guess it is about the same
* * *
Masonry Clear From
All Forms of Gambling
a matter of which I feel constrained to speak in no uncertain tones. I
the practice of raising money for Masonic purposes by means of
or games of chance, which practice, I am sorry to say, has been called
tie my attention
as having come into vogue somewhat in this state.
are improper, unworthy of the dignity of a Mason, and in the main are a
of the laws of this commonwealth, which every Mason has sworn to obey.
A! the best
they constitute a studied attempt to evade the law, and no Mason should
in the position of seeking a way to evade the law of his state and thus
upon himself and the great Order to which he belongs.
ever stood for the highest standard of moral ethics and if it is to
real moral force which it has been throughout the ages it must not at
place the stamp of its approval upon anything that is even questionable.
I know that
the tendency of the present day is to look lightly upon the practices
of which I
speak. "Everybody is doing it ofttimes the excuse offered when a
has allowed himself to be led into the sanction of that which in his
own heart he
knows to be wrong. Masonry should stand firm against the present day
drift away from old-fashioned standards of right and honesty. My
brothers, we cannot
afford to raise funds for Masonic purposes by selling to him who will
buy the chance
to obtain something of value for a sum much less than that something is
by am other gambling pretense or device. All such is inherently
dishonest. Let us
as a Grand Lodge place the seal of our disapproval upon it.
Arthur M. Brown
Grand Master’s Address, February 6, 1924)
of the Egyptians
ART: INTRODUCTORY STUDIES, [Lib 1920] by Professor Jean Capart,
from the French by Warren R. Dawson. Published by Frederick A. Stokes;
may be purchased
through National Masonic Research Society, 1950 Railway Exchange, St.
Dark red cloth, index, extensive bibliographies, 179 pages. $5.20
spell of Egypt is due to its art. Except for the light it throws on the
of Judaism, Egyptian history carries little interest to most readers;
and philosophy did not enter, except indirectly and in a remote way,
into the main
current of European thought; its forms and practices in government did
shape law in the Western world; and its religion, while it played a
part in the
Greco-Roman world, and therefore left traces of itself in the cult life
Western peoples, left no deep impress on the theologies with which we
are familiar. It is the art of Egypt, its pyramids, its temples, its
its strangely conventionalized pictures, and its mysterious
has always appealed to the instinct for the exotic every one of us
feels in some
degree or other. And it is this same art, especially its symbols and
has interested Masons for many years, especially those who believe in
origin of some parts of the ritual; therefore Professor Capart's
will probably enjoy a wider hearing among Masonic students than books
largely with Egyptian history.
volume is a translation of the introductory chapters of Capart's Lešons
Egyptien [Lib 1920 (French)], published at Liege, Belgium,
1920. Its materials
originally formed the basis of a course of lectures delivered by the
with 1903, when he was made professor of Ancient Art and Archeology at
and at the University of Liege, his long established reputation as an
being responsible for his appointment at both places. The uniqueness of
of treatment as compared with other attempts in the same field is best
by his translator, who, on page 6, says:
studying the Lešons I was immediately struck by a conspicuous
difference in plan
between them and the existing works on Egyptian art. The latter, many
of them excellent
books, are really little more than catalogues of known works of art
chronological order, or disconnected studies of special points. No
other work known
to me has ever probed so deeply into the question of origins and of
has been based upon such evolutional lines as Monsieur Capart's book."
"evolutional" deserves emphasis, not as having anything to do with the
Theory of Evolution but as indicating one of the prime services
rendered by the
book. Among many popular writers, including a few Masonic scribes,
are often explained by reference to THE Egyptian religion, or theology,
or what not, as if all through its history Egypt clung to one set of
such matters; whereas the fact is that among the Egyptians, as among
all other peoples,
everything changed from place to place and from century to century, so
were many Egyptian religions, many theologies, many sciences. This
fact, so abundantly
set forth in Professor Capart's work, destroys at one stroke a deal of
among Masonic writers, and especially such as essay the tremendously
of explaining Egyptian symbols.
Art should be read by those undertaking that task. It sets in a new and
light many things often dealt with by symbologists, such as pillars,
amulets, emblems and the like, and in a manner easy to understand.
builders usually, like ourselves, dedicated a new public structure with
texts and bas-reliefs afford numerous details as to foundation
ceremonies of the
Ancient Egyptians. The king, accompanied by priests and priestesses who
divinities laid the first stone, made an offering to the gods of
specimens of the
building materials, and consecrated under the angles foundation
of pottery, model tools, amulets, and tablets bearing commemorative
of our own Great Pillars will be interested in this passage concerning
"Obelisks are not mere
ornaments; they were
considered as divinities 'of flesh and bone' who needed food offerings
religious texts meticulously prescribed The erection of an obelisk
cult ceremony of which representations may be found in the bas-reliefs
of the temples."
have sought for the origin of the lily work on the chapiters of our
among the Egyptians will be interested to learn that Egyptian
architects made use
of a number of plants for decorative and symbolical purposes: the
lotus, of which
two species were widely used, and which gives its name to the lotiform
papyrus (from which we have "paper"), used in two fundamentally
manners, giving its name to the papyriform column; the palm, used
without many changes
throughout all Egyptian history, giving its name to the palmiform
column; the lily,
sometimes identified as a variation of the palm, used on the liliform
a number of combinations and other varieties of these, some of which
in the accompanying illustration of the Temple of Isis at Philae.
were as human as we are. They had in their blood a genius all their
own, a racial
genius, which set them apart from other peoples; but aside from that
there is nothing
strange or occult in their architecture, their symbolism, or their art
The things that strike us as strange and often as weird were natural to
usually due to the peculiarities of their geography and climate; to the
stretched in a vast purple mystery under their lonely stars; to the
Nile that wound
through their midst, a liquid avenue into the unknown outer world, and
to the overhanging
cliffs under the shadow of which they built so many of their cities,
and out of
which carved so many of their temples and their monuments. Once the
mind has become
familiarized with these external influences it finds under the Egyptian
same human flesh out of which we are all molded. It is even refreshing,
to find them up to our modern tricks of manufacture and trade, as when
learned to make columns of wood camouflaged as marble, or as when their
workers turned out pieces of furniture very carefully veneered and dyed
of costly woods.
* * *
Master's Lectures: A
LECTURES, AS DELIVERED IN EVANS LODGE, No. 524, ANCIENT FREE AND
EVANSTON, ILLINOIS, U. S. A. [Lib*], by the W. M. of Evans Lodge. De
binding, 96 pages, edition limited to 461 copies: privately printed.
May be purchased
through National Masonic Research Society. $5.15 postpaid.
My only quarrel
with this book is that it does not reveal the name of its author; and
himself, though he has been importuned without stint, refuses to
paternity; therefore one of the most Masonic of all Masonic books must
go out into
the world without a pilot. But that will not matter so far as the book
it is quite able to go it alone.
I can say
this much about the author. I once gave him the soundest beating at
ever heard of. Nevertheless (I say it with all modesty) he can play
that is the surprising thing about it, for before I met him I had
pictured him as
a man of many years, with a bald pate, a pair of horn-rimmed
spectacles, and helplessly
absent-minded. What else should one expect of a man who has read
Greek and Latin, and writes like a philosopher! These are strange times!
is a business man, full of Rotary Club and pep, and is not bald, or
aged, or dyspeptic, or scholarly behaved, or bookwormish in his talk.
He uses the
most amazing line of slang ever heard outside of Chicago.
point to all this. Next to a book itself the most important thing is
the man behind
the book. Any man of grammar school education can read a list of
volumes on Masonry
and then re-write what he has read, feeding out to a bookworm audience
a lot of
stuff at second-hand; but it is different if one is out in the world,
the machinery of business, subjected to the wear and tear of
competition, busy day
and night, and then grow so interested in Masonry that he must write a
it, a book out of his own soul, inspired by a vision of Masonry's great
to daily life, and based on a first-hand experience of its unsearchable
has no place for the little selfish side of man. Its secrets are as the
him who looks at life in that way. It looks for the man with the bigger
the more universal spirit; it stops and stays with him only who sees
in the betterment of the human race who can take by the hand the fellow
who is down
and out, and put him on his feet, and send him on his way a better man.
are wonderfully practical and godlike when once we recognize them."
Thus he writes.
The Master's Lectures is a volume of twelve chapters, one for each
month of the
year, each one prefaced by a bit of lore about the month itself, and
many quotations from hither and yon. The subjects are as old as the
world, and as
new ‒ Initiation, Fraternity, Toleration, Faith, Truth, Charity,
[published in THE BUILDER, December, 1923], Symbolism, Philosophy,
The writer is like one apart, withdrawn from the racket about him,
on life, his eyes turned toward the faces of wisdom and truth; now and
then a passage
becomes poetical with a falling cadence, a note of musing melancholy,
as if the
author sees that for many men the Word has been lost as they rush
with the superstition of toeing. In this transfigurating atmosphere
a thing of beauty, timeless, eternal, the everlasting philosophy of
life for them
that have eyes to see, hearts to feel, minds to know. The book is a
the inner heart of the modern business man who, behind his boy-like
all his rushing about in the marts, knows an inner secret and is
sustained and upheld
thereby. That secret is his own real religion, innocent of dogma and
hidden life of his life, the Masonry of his soul.
were delivered once a month by the Worshipful Master to his lodge, and
printed in pamphlet form for such as could not attend; at the end of
the year the
lodge's educational committee gathered them into book form, beautifully
and bound, for use by brothers elsewhere. Whatever profit may accrue is
to the lodge, for further work of the same character. A highly Masonic
and one to be recommended to lodges everywhere!
H. L. H.
* * *
Interplay of Government
AND THE STATE [Lib*], by S. Parkes Cadman. Published by The Macmillan
be purchased through the National Masonic Research society. Cloth.
bibliographies; 370 pages. $2.65 postpaid.
readers who enjoyed Bro. Dr. Cadman's "Freemasonry and the Demands of
in the May issue of THE BUILDER, will be happy to know that he has
new book to the ever growing list of volumes that have given him a name
equal to that he has long enjoyed as a preacher. He is an amazing
Cadman is; how he manages to speak night after night to great audiences
in all parts
of the land, look after the interests of Central Congregational Church
and then on top of it all do so much reading and writing is a mystery.
But the mystery
is a fact, and one line of endeavor does not seem to interfere with the
Christianity and the. State is saturated with erudition and filled with
it is not an academic treatise for closest scholars alone but a tract
of the times,
having as its motive and purpose the answering of a question that is
every man who tries to hold to the ethics and principles of the
religion of the
Western World: How can a Christian man adjust his religious loyalties
to the often
conflicting political loyalties demanded of him by modern states and
May such a man become a political opportunist, or must he become a
This is the present day form of the old, old problem as to the relation
religion and politics. Bro. Cadman arrives at his solution of this
history, and by an examination of the interplay between Christianity
governments from the beginnings of that Faith until now. What that
solution is one
must learn from the book; it cannot be stated in a few words.
does not deal specifically with Freemasonry at any point, yet there are
in it that Masons will find peculiarly interesting, especially such as
the Holy Roman Empire and its collapse. That Empire no longer exists as
or ecclesiastical entity, but its spirit and ideals are imbedded in the
of some governments and in the world plans of the Roman Catholic
Church; and it
is through such instrumentalities that medievalism lives on, seeking to
world to itself. Dr. Cadman's manner of taking hold of this thorny
serve as a model. Instead of attacking it as a partisan, bent on
defending or destroying,
he appraises medievalism from the standpoint of world religion; and
instead of lumping
all things medieval together as belonging in that general discard known
Dark Ages," he releases from it those things that have timeless and
validity and insists that such things be preserved. This is a sound
is the attitude of Freemasonry which holds evermore to an ideal of
in time as well as of place, and "seeks the truth wherever found, on
or on heathen ground."
Box and Correspondence
G. L. PROCEEDINGS
and all through the "eighties"; Louisiana, 1883; Indiana, 1888;
1889; Illinois, 1887-8; Vermont. 1884-5-6-8; Missouri, 1887-8, etc.;
Maryland, A. F. & A. M.; Grand Chapter, Oregon, 1868-75, etc.
to National Masonic Research Society, 1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis.
* * *
And Masonic Presidents
please give me the following information: Was Abraham Lincoln a Mason?
the names of the Presidents who have been Masons.
F. R., Wisconsin.
is no evidence whatever to show that Lincoln was in any manner
connected with the
Craft, though he might well have been, seeing that no other institution
more nearly-embodies his views, at least of his later life. It is of
the following Presidents have been Masons: Washington, Monroe, Polk,
Johnson, Garfield, McKinley, Roosevelt, Taft and Harding. This
names; an addition of one to the list as usually given.
* * *
Benjamin Rush A Mason?
Was Dr. Benjamin
Rush, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, a member
of our Order?
F. D. B., Louisiana.
In a "Memorial"
published in THE BUILDER, October, 1918, page 296, Bro. George W. Baird
as a member, but since that writing Bro. Baird has found reason to
in error on the point. Dr. Julius Sachse, who made diligent search,
came to the
conclusion that Rush was never a Mason; others believe that he may have
a member but later recanted. In any event it is a point that needs to
* * *
About The Crusades
family enjoyed looking at the interesting pictures of the Crusades you
the June BUILDER. We should like to read something on the subject.
Won't you name
a few books?
D. L., Montana.
by M. M. C. Calthrop [Lib*], a title in The People's Books series, is a
introduction; so also is the older book, The Crusades [Lib 1874], by Sir George W. Cox, though
it is more technical, and devotes more space
to names and dates. The illustrations to which you refer were taken
from an edition
of Michaud's History of the Crusades [Lib 1900; Vol
3] published in the middle of
century, the most popular and readable of all the larger general works.
The Crusades [Lib 1894], by Archer and Kingsford; and
Crusaders in the East [Lib 1907], by W. B. Stevenson, one of
few works in English giving an account of the great movements from the
view of Moslem. Consult the article in Encyclopedia Britannica (11th
the Publications of the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, 14 volumes,
in the former you will find a complete bibliography, and in the latter
modern authorities concerning the Holy Places, which were the
objectives of the
Crusaders. For the Masonic point of view see Mackey's Revised History
by Robert Ingham Clegg; and The Knights Templar History [Lib 1842 see also
1852], by C. G. Addison. Good luck
you in your reading. You will find yourself in a realm of endless
wonder and all
primed, once you have negotiated the difficult curves of a vast
subject, to turn
for increased enjoyment to the tales of Bro. Sir Walter Scott [Lib 1904 (Ivanhoe)] to whose high genius for
romance the spirit of modern Knight Templarism
may be more indebted than has often been realized.
* * *
I am desirous
of getting light on the following item, clipped from the Idaho
Statesman of about
two months ago: Mrs. Caroline Eliza Gray died at the home of her
daughter in this
city last Thursday at the age of 91 years. She had the distinction of
last member of the original party which was the forerunner of the
In the summer of 1863 the Masons of Knox county, Missouri, took their
daughters over 16 years old to the lodge room at Edina, Missouri, and
the First Degree of the Masons upon them, for protection. Mrs. Gray was
one of the
girls who received this degree, and was the last remaining member of
party. This act was the forerunner of the Eastern Star which was
organized in 1869,
and was for the same purpose, protection.
S. G. D., Idaho.
was referred to Bros. Ray V. Denslow, C. H. Briggs and R. J. Johnston,
named the present Secretary of Edina Lodge, No. 291. Bros. Denslow and
no information obtainable; Bro. Johnston writes that his lodge has no
the period, and says that their present charter dates from Oct. 15,
there had been granted a previous charter shortly after the Civil War,
The story is no doubt a fairy tale, like so many other marvels
attributed to early
Masonry of the Middle West, but it is possible that some reader may
on the subject; if so a word from him will be appreciated.
* * *
Ahiman Rezon in America
Can you give
me some information on the Ahiman Rezon as it is used in this country?
uses it, of course modified to suit our needs, and does this signify
that our work
is modeled more after the Ancients than the Moderns as the two once
existed in England?
I have been thinking along this line and I would like to have a little
the matter as to whether my own Grand Lodge's work is derived more from
than the Moderns. Is Dermott's work, or rather his influence as author
of the Ahiman
Rezon, observed in many of the Grand Lodges of our country?
H. L. F., South Carolina.
not confuse the Ritual with the Constitution and Regulations of a Grand
are two distinct matters. There is no relation between the Ritual a
might adopt and the Constitution it may use. If you will turn to THE
October, 1923, and read my article on "The Masonic Ritual in the U. S."
it will help you to get a better understanding of where we got the
Ritual in this
country. In the fall will appear three more articles developing this in
detail. To answer your questions: "Can you give me some
information on the
Ahiman Rezon as it is used in this country?" I may say that in the case
South Carolina you have preserved nothing but the title. All matter
found in Dermott's
original copy has been expurgated. There really is no reason why your
perpetuate the title. At one time Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia,
South Carolina, Georgia and New York either officially or unofficially
put out a
book of constitutions called "Ahiman Rezon." Some followed Dermott and
some did not. I believe Pennsylvania, South Carolina and possibly
Maryland are the
only states today preserving this title I am not sure about Maryland.
is the only state which seems entitled to call its Constitutions by
this signify our work is modeled more after the Ancients than the
Moderns as the
two once existed in England?
though it happens that our Ritual does follow that of the Ancients in
in the United States. As I said, a Grand Lodge might adopt either
Dermott's Constitutions regardless of Ritual. Most states based their
on Anderson and used the Ritual of the Ancients.
Dermott's work or rather his influence as author of the Ahiman Rezon
many of the Grand Lodges in this country?"
say, no. Just what effect the Ahiman Rezon has had on our jurisprudence
is a special
study in itself, which a brother is now working on. If you have in mind
I would still say no, as there is no reason to presume Dermott invented
of the Antients. Undoubtedly it existed long before he was made a Mason.
the South Carolina Ritual derived more from the Ancients than the
in every Grand Lodge in the United States. The only portions taken from
consist of slight additions made by Thomas Smith Webb in 1802-1805,
which were generally
adopted over here by every state but Pennsylvania.
A. L. Kress.
* * *
and the Founding
of the U. S. Government
How can one
go about it to make a study of the influence Freemasonry had in
organizing our government?
It is a subject I like to study. My chief interest in reading for
has been our history, and I am trying to learn what part our Order has
had in it
R. P. O., Pennsylvania.
research group is now working under the auspices of this Society on
Why not join it? It will give you the best opportunity possible in your
Address a letter to THE BUILDER. TWO paragraphs from the last pages of
M. Johnson's The Beginnings of Freemasonry in America will suggest how
large a field
it is, and how much we Masons can expect to gain from its study:
have now learned how the seeds were sown in America for the birth and
Freemasonry. Its influence upon the establishment and development of
of the United States does not so powerfully appear during the period
this book as it will when the Masonic history of the last half of the
is adequately presented. A study of the tremendous influence which
in the pre-Revolutionary days, in the years of that war, and throughout
period of American institutions, will demonstrate that Freemasonry has
a greater influence upon the establishment and development of American
and the fundamentals of this Government than any other single
general historians nor the members of the Fraternity since the days of
Constitutional Conventions have ever realized how much the United
States of America
'owes to Freemasonry, and how great a part it played in the birth of
and the establishment of the Landmarks of that civilization which has
given to the
citizens of this great land the liberty which they enjoy, and by
guided the development of all civilization of the world in those
the accomplishments of war are not the ultima thule of human endeavor."
* * *
explain through the Question Box the meaning of "worshipful" as used by
us in ‘Worshipful Master’?
W.Y.T., New York.
comes from the Anglo-Saxon weordh, meaning worthy, honorable.
of "That good man of worship, Anthony Woodville." (Richard Ill., I,
As originally used, "worshipful" meant that a thing was worthy of being
honored because of its character or nature; it came in time to be
to magistrates and incorporated bodies, and was sometimes used as a
term of ironical
respect. Skeats (Etymological Dictionary) defines "worshipful" as
from "worship," and says that "worship" stands for "worthship."
The "th" was not dropped until the fourteenth century. The idea at the
bottom of "worship" is "worth," which derived from an ancient
root wer, meaning to guard, or keep. Our word "ware" is from the same
root. "Worshipful" as used by us is a term of respect, and means in a
general way "worthy."
* * *
Jefferson Davis A Mason?
As a member
of your Society, I am writing to ask you to supply some information to
Lodge, No. 154, of Handsboro, Miss., regarding Jefferson Davis. Some of
Masons claim that Davis at least attended it, but there is some doubt
in their minds
about his being a member. The Secretary informs me that he has searched
records in his possession but does not find any light on this subject.
Lodge No. 154, was chartered in 1854.
Nathaniel H. Walker, Gulfport, Miss.
no records in our own files to show that Mr. Davis was ever a member of
Bro. E. L. Faucette, Grand Secretary, Grand Lodge of Mississippi,
have never been able to find in our records that Mr. Jefferson Davis
was a Mason.
Of course, if he visited Polar Star Lodge, No. 154, at Handsboro, he
must have been,
but we have not been able to ascertain from our own records that he
any reader furnish additional information?
* * *
Gibbon Was a Mason
I have just
read for the second time Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
It is one
of my favorite works. It has occurred to me to ask if Edward Gibbon was
in view of the fact that he was something of a skeptic I should suppose
he was not,
but I am curious to make sure.
L. P. G., Massachusetts.
was an earnest Mason. In the British Museum (Add. MSS. 34887) are two
one issued by the Grand Lodge of England (Modern), the other by his
were printed in full in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, XVII. [Lib 1904], page 22. The G. L. document
certified that Edward Gibbon was a Mason in
good standing, as appeared on the Register of the Lodge of Friendship,
No. 3, then
held at the Star and Garter Tavern, New Bond Street, London, and bore
date of December
19, 1774. The lodge document, certified to the same effect, was dated
March 8, 1775,
and was described as having been "given in open lodge." A.Q.C. gives
Gibbon item on page 162, Vol. X., over signature of E. J. Barron, in
writer quotes from Historic Studies in Vaud, Berne, and Savoy, From
to Voltaire, Rousseau and Gibbon, by General Meredith Read, "for many
United States Minister at Athens, and Consul-General at Paris during
War, who died shortly after the publication of his work."
"M. de Boehat was a fervent
I found in la Grotte [the house in which Gibbon lived at Lausanne] a
a discourse by him in defence of that body. George Deyverdun and Gibbon
in the footsteps of their illustrious predecessor, both being earnest
Masonic body in Switzerland was then under the direction of the English
authorities, and had no political affiliations." Vol. 2, page 297.
"The Gibbon manuscripts at
are preserved in a large tin box, on the under side of the lid of which
black silhouettes of Gibbon engaged in taking snuff and in taking tea.
document which I noticed lying on the top of the others was Gibbon's
a Master Mason." ‒ Vol. 2, page 367.
* * *
Class Lodges Permitted?
What is meant
by "class lodges"? Are they permitted in this country? If so, will you
give me a few examples?
D. S. A., California.
lodge" is one that limits its membership to men of some one type, or
or race, and does so deliberately, with by-laws to that effect. In this
there are no class lodges in this country, at least we have no records
of such and
have heard of none, except in one solitary instance. But in England
are more or less common, though they were not regarded with much favor
days, for it was believed that in Masonry all should meet upon the
of class or professional distinctions. There are army Lodges, navy
composed of lawyers, journalists, and in some instances lodges of
members of some
one church, or graduates from some school. While, as said above, lodges
and formally limited in membership are not permitted under American
here, there are in effect class lodges, for their members tacitly agree
to exclude members of some race, or to include within themselves
members of only
one race; or else their fees and expenses are such as automatically to
of certain financial (or lack of financial) standing. The present
scribe has given
addresses in lodges composed wholly of Jews, or that admitted to
membership no Jews;
lodges that were made up entirely of professional men, or laborers; and
in one instance,
a lodge wholly composed of Bohemians. In all these instances
exclusiveness was based
on a "gentleman's agreement." Of a similar character are lodges
colleges and universities. The idea behind the class lodge is the same
as that behind
a club, and the theory is that social life will be more agreeable among
men of the
same walk of life, or of the same race. Whether this idea will ever
root in American Masonry, and ultimately secure official sanction,
remains for the
future to decide; there are some developments to indicate that this may
of the burning questions of the future, along with the move toward
What do you think about it?
* * *
Doctrine of Selectiveness
is intended to be universal, as all of us Masons boast, why do we
persist in drawing
the color line, and the race line, and the poverty line, and the line
at the physically
unfit, and all the rest of these lines and fences? Why shouldn't our
Order be as
broad as the race, big as the world? We should be absolutely
democratic, it seems
H. L. K., Pennsylvania.
there! You are going pretty fast! Why shouldn't you go on to ask why we
Fraternity at all, seeing that we already have a human race to which
being belongs? You make altogether too long a jump from your premise to
Who has ever claimed for Freemasonry that it is universal in the
that you have in mind? It is its principles that are universal, not its
Brotherly love, relief, and truth are as sound and necessary among the
as in New York, but that does not imply that every Hottentot would
in a lodge. Such membership carries with itself certain obligations,
privileges, and all these predicate a member capable of meeting and
them. One of the evils of the present day is that we have let down the
easily, so that thousands have accepted membership who do not possess
qualifications, and become a burden on the Order, complicating its
adding to its strength. In principle, Masonry must be kept universal,
yes; but in
actual membership, no; like every other organized society it must
its members. You may call this the Doctrine of Selectiveness, if you
wish. It is
a doctrine that should be brought to the front, expounded, applied, and
and that because, through a peculiar paradox inherent in the facts of
the true and possible and desirable universality of Freemasonry can
possible without the rigid enforcement of a carefully defined principle
in its membership.
* * *
"Wives' and Daughters'
Degrees" in Florida
An item has
been going the rounds of the Masonic press of late to the effect that a
"Wives and Daughters' Degree" was being conferred in open lodge in the
state of Florida; somewhat exercised by this a number of readers have
ask if such a thing is possible. The ensuing reply to a letter sent to
Master of Florida shows that, of course, it is not:
before the Eastern Star was instituted in Florida, some of our lodges
made a gala
day of December 27, especially in the rural districts where they met
early in the
day and after disposing of regular business called the lodge from labor
invited the members of their families into the lodge room where
speeches were delivered
and various methods of entertainment employed, luncheon served and a
It was during
this interim that the "degree" known as the "Wives' and Daughters'
Degree" was conferred, but it was not done while the lodge was opened
part of the entertainment for the families of the members and probably
no more harm in it than there would have been in a regular chapter of
M. W. Bro. Long was one of the old school who was ever watchful lest
rules and customs be infringed, so that any brother may calm himself of
he may have felt regarding any un-Masonic practice supposed to have
or sanctioned by this venerable old patriarch.
‒ T. T. Todd, G. M., Florida.
* * *
I was interested
in a note in the latest number of THE BUILDER (June) to the effect that
brother had been installed Worshipful Master of one of the lodges of
constitution in the Territory of Hawaii. I am very glad to know that
brethren are taking this ground. It may interest your readers to know
that a Chinese
gentleman, Bro. Paonan Miensang Whang, was Worshipful Master of
in Peking, Massachusetts constitution, in 1917 and 1918; and that
another, Dr. Ssu
Pang Chen, is the present presiding Master of that lodge.
Frederick W. Hamilton, G. S., Boston, Mass.
a trip through St. Louis arrange to stop off for a visit with us. We
are easy to
find. The Railway Exchange stands up out of the center of the city like
It is said to be one of the largest office buildings in the world.
* * *
We have for
free distribution a limited number of copies of "Secrets of the
a booklet by Bro. Arthur C. Parker "Symbols of Masonry," by Bro. George
H. Imbrie; and two issues of the Missouri Grand Lodge Bulletin, one of
largely devoted to Kit Carson as a Mason, the other to Mark Twain,
come, first served.
* * *
I am happy
to pass on a request being sent out by the librarian of the Supreme
up this great Masonic Library at the Capital of the Nation, we want
pamphlets, proceedings ‒ Lodge, Chapter Council, Commandery, Scottish
histories, by-laws, circulars, etc. ‒ Masonic magazines ‒ Masonic
medals and souvenirs
‒ Masonic relies of all kinds.
Can you help
us by sending anything along these lines? We will be glad to pay the
shipment when necessary.
Wm. L. Boyden, 33d, Hon., Librarian.
A 'Phony Tennyson -- [A Poem]
My 'phone connections ‒ See?
And I would that my tongue could utter
The thoughts that arise in me.
O well for the telephone girl
That she's only in reach of my shout!
O well for the manager, too
That his lies cannot be found out.
And the horrible breaks go on,
To the ruin of business hopes;
But O for a chance to revenue myself
On the telephone central dopes!
Break, break, break
And I rave most bootlesslee!
But the tender grace of a placid mind
Will never come back to me.
New York Mail
Transactions Vol 017 - 1904
Ars04 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 396. - 33.0 MB.
Cap20 / auth. Capart Jean / trans. Dawson Warren R. - New York :
Frederick A Stokes, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 239. - 11.6 MB.
History of Masonry and
Hug91 / auth. Hughan William J / ed. Hughan William J. and Stillson
Henry L.. - New York : The Fraternity Publishing Co., 1891. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 863. - 63.4 MB.
History of the Crusades Vol 1
Mic00HC1 / auth. Michaud Joseph F. - New York : A C Armstrong &
Son, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 538. - 30.1 MB.
History of the Crusades Vol 2
Mic00HC2 / auth. Michaud Joseph F. - New York : A C Armstrong &
SOn, 1900. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 503. - 28.1 MB.
History of the Crusades Vol 3
Mic00HC3 / auth. Michaud Joseph F. - New York : A C Armstrong &
Son, 1900. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 570. - 31.0 MB.
Sco04 / auth. Scott Sir Walter. - New York : American Book Company,
1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 493. - 13.8 MB.
Lecons sur l'Art Egyptien
Cap201 / auth. Capart Jean. - Liege : Imprimerie H Vaillant-Carmanne,
1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 528. - 21.6 MB.
Sacred Mysteries among the
Mayas and Quiches
Plo09 / auth. Plongeon Augustus Le. - New York : Theosophical
Publishing Company, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 207. - 7.3 MB - Illustrated.
Ste07 / auth. Stevenson William B. - Cambridge : The University Press,
1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 402. - 20.1 MB.
Arc94 / auth. Archer Thomas A and Kingsford Charles L. - New York :
Putnam's Sons, 1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 504. - Illustrated - 12.7 MB.
Cox74 / auth. Cox George W. - New York : Scribners, Armstrong, and Co,
1874. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 251. - 7.8 MB.
The History of the Knight
Templars; The Temple Church, and the Temple
Add42 / auth. Addison Charles G. - London : Longman, Brown, Green, and
Longmans, 1842. - Scanned at sacred-texts.com, May, 2006 : Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 285. - 1.8 MB.
The Jews and Masonry in the
United States Before 1810
Opp10 / auth. Oppenheim Samuel. - New York : The Jewish Historical
Society, 1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 104. - 2.9 MB.
The Knights Templars
Add52 / auth. Addison Charles G.. - London : Longman, Brown, Green, and
Longmans, 1852. - 3rd Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 334. - 12.4 MB.