Masonic Research Society
Freemasonry and the Demands
of the Times
By Bro. S. Parkes Cadman,
D.D., New York
who is one of the most delightful companions in the world, gave
the dinner table to so many wise things about Freemasonry, some of them
and all of them most pertinent, that Ye Editor asked him to say the
to the Craft at large through THE BUILDER. What follows is not in the
form of his
vivacious table talk but it contains the substance ‒ except for a few
he described as "too prickly for publication, and maybe dangerous
Our illustrious brother addresses multitudes of persons every year from
platform and over the radio; many of these audiences are composed
wholly of Masons,
for he is an enthusiastic member of "our magnificent Fraternity" (as he
himself describes it). From 1895-1901 he was pastor of the Metropolitan
New York; since 1901 he has been pastor of the Central
Brooklyn. Among his published volumes "Charles Darwin and Other English
[Lib 1911] "The Three Religious Leaders
of Oxford" [Lib 1916] and "Ambassadors of God"
[Lib 1921] have been notable.
this mighty Craft of ours can make itself a power for good in this
second to none if only we can get our tremendous strength hitched up to
and problems of this hard-hit suffering world. Isn't the whole world in
a bad way
just now? It surely is! The times we live in are simply crying aloud
for just the
kind of service that Freemasonry can render and I believe that we
ourselves from the sleep-walking we have fallen into, bestir ourselves
a bit, and
start out to discover what demands the times are making on us. Three
us in this country! What an army of righteousness it is if only it will
army indeed ‒ an organized body of picked men militant in their demands
end, human suffering be relieved, hatred and malice done away, and
out of the seats and centers of government. Why don't our Masonic
leaders get busy
about this big job; let them mount the towers, unlimber their trumpets,
the call to us in the ranks. "Here we are, Lafayette!" yes, but let us
learn to say, "Here we are, World!"
sectarianism, and racial strife are among the really big evils of our
day, and account
more largely for what is wrong with the world than most of us would at
Hatred is the opposite of charity; bigotry makes free thinking
is the arch enemy of universality; racial strife makes genuine
any one of these is doing as much damage to our race right now as the
horses of the Apocalypse." Can Freemasonry compound with any of these
not for a moment! I am absolutely opposed in every sense of the words
to all the
hysterical efforts being apostle par excellence of toleration in all
into any propaganda, movement, cabal, or any other effort, secret or
any form of religious, racial or political sectarianism.
And I am
equally opposed to every effort whatsoever to introduce social hysteria
ranks; play is good and sociability is necessary but not to the
exclusion of everything
else, least of all if they interfere with the grave and necessary work
of the Craft.
One of the saddest sights in the world is to see a Masonic lodge,
an altar, every heart open to the glance of the All-Seeing Eye, and
the hallowed influence of that great symbol the Letter G, transformed
into an appendage
to a vaudeville performance, or hastily put out of the way for some
form of hokum,
jazz, dancing or what not. Mind you, I am not at all opposed to good
fun, and wholesome sociability, which are all good and necessary
things; but there
is a time to dance, a time to play, even a time for horse-play if we
feel the need
of that kind of fun, but when that time interferes with the hours set
Freemasonry's great task and achievements it is well for us to call a
great danger of the countless interests and activities that are now
the Craft is that these things which should be secondary will become
that what should be diversion on the side usurps the place of the real
work of the
lodge. We are in danger of getting out of focus and of dispersing our
which as I have just said, and as a wise and kind Heaven knows, are
by our times.
has asked me what I would do if I were to become today the Worshipful
a lodge. I know one thing I would do: I would thank God for such an
of service. I love the Masonic lodge; it is the one place in my
without embarrassment or with any form of obtrusive tolerance I can
meet as man
to man my Jewish neighbors, my neighbors of foreign birth (we have
them in my city), my free thinking neighbor, my neighbor who never
attends my church
or any other church, my neighbors of no creed or any creed, all my
beings of every possible social and economic stratum. I submit that
such an organization
as that is a prophecy and earnest of the coming of the Kingdom of God.
as the Master of it I would feel as I feel in my present employment,
that I am a
humble ambassador of the good will of God to a world that seethes with
the ill will
of torn, separated, misguided men.
I would try
my best, as goes without saying, to hold up to a high standard the
‒ the monthly communication, the conferring of degrees, finding work
for the unemployed,
lending a helping hand to the needy, calling on the sick. In addition
to that I
believe I would try to do a few things not officially required. If a
citizen came into my community with a real message I would invite him
to speak to
my brethren, whether he were a Mason or not. I think I should expect my
to be good citizens in every possible way; and I would try to get them
to read something
about Freemasonry itself. All Masons are interested in the public
schools; I am
interested myself, but I do believe that as at present operated our
are falling far short because they so completely omit anything in the
way of moral
or religious training. It would amaze you to know how many gangsters
in New York and Brooklyn have graduated from school, but with no more
of moral obligation than so many Hottentots. Perhaps I would try to get
to lend its influence in that direction. Freemasonry as a whole should
do it, because
if there is anything we stand for it is the primacy and all-importance
of the moral
life. What is the meaning of our Ritual if not that?
In all such
ways, and in every other possible way, I would endeavor to have my
lodge go to work
to help build the community. We are builders; what are we building?
try to build this present world into a fit place to live in? It is the
the times. A lodge may not be able to do much for the world at large;
have to, but it can do a lot for the community immediately surrounding
helped build America; we can help build it anew to the end that the
now so corrupts our politics and social life may be driven out, as the
the thieves from the Temple.
It is a great
misfortune that the forces of Freemasonry are so divided. I regret it
of my life that we have in this land forty-nine Grand Lodges. Can't we
together? If a general Grand Lodge is impossible (I do not always
believe that it
is; it wouldn't be if we didn't have so much selfishness, lust for
so much of the spirit of the politician in our midst) why can't all our
and other national leaders hold an annual conference to the end that
the moral influence
of the Craft be delivered to the world through one united utterance?
like to see all the Grand Lodges of the world united. It would be a
great step toward
international peace. But at the same time I want to see God and the
Holy Book kept
at the center of the Craft. I know how things are in Europe; I have
been there many
times. I know how an emancipated free thinking Latin citizen looks upon
to him they stand for many things that have never entered our own life:
I should like to see him join us in holding Freemasonry to its original
Even for a united world-wide Freemasonry I would not be willing to give
or the V.S.L.; such a price would be too much to pay for unity.
has no quarrel with any church. It can (and should) work with all the
its own grand purpose is identical with that of religion, and because
its own creed
is broad enough to include all the creeds. It has no quarrel with any
or any political party; these things are not for us, but at the same
time we are
the custodian of such principles of citizenship as underlie all
we have within our midst a sufficient influence to maintain integrity
in every government, whatever it may happen to be. The main thing for
is to hang together, live together, keep together, work together, pray
and together strive to build in the midst of earth the Temple of right
living, which is the goal of all our efforts. Whatever makes for
prejudice, and creedal or racial hatred is un-Masonic though it should
by all the Grand Lodges in the hemisphere; whatever makes for unity and
for toleration and for kindliness, for our two great dogmas of the
God and the Brotherhood of Man, IS Masonic, and we should work for it.
three million American Masons learn how to make ourselves felt in this
don't wish to get into politics or to take sides for or against any of
in the church. We do wish, however, and desire, and the times asks us
for it, to
give our aid and support to the completion in this continent of that
proud and magnificent
nation which our forefathers, Masons many of them, dreamed about and
Together, brethren, let it be done!
as an Active Mason
By Bro. Charles H. Callahan,
Grand Master, Virginia
the work on the great Washington National Memorial at Alexandria, Va.,
begun the question has frequently been raised, Was George Washington an
or was he merely, like a few other illustrious men, contented to have
his name on
the roll? This question has been answered once and for all, one may
the one man who knows most about the subject, Bro. Charles H. Callahan,
"Washington, the Man and the Mason," [Lib 1913] in an address delivered
before the Grand Lodge of South Carolina, held
at Charleston, S.C., March 14, 1923. A part of that address is given
SOME of our
friends have said that George Washington was a very poor Mason, if a
Mason at all;
that if he presided over a lodge it was because the lodge wanted to
Perhaps this is true. And some of our Masonic friends have asked me,
why erect a
memorial to Washington at all, and if so, why erect it at Alexandria?
Now, let us
see just for a minute what was the condition of Masonry in Washington's
got his degrees in 1752 and 1753. He took up a military career, and was
in the army until 1758, away from Mt. Vernon. He returned in 1758 and
widow Custis, and installed her and her children in Mt. Vernon at the
for fourteen years he led the quiet life of a farmer, fifty miles from
lodge, which was at Fredericksburg. It would have been a physical
to have any record of his visitations to that lodge for the very
that the records were lost from 1755 to 1790. If he ever attended that
could find nothing recorded of the fact because of the destruction of
came with all of its harrowing consequences, and Washington and the
was dragged into the struggle for American independence, he to lead the
Commissioned as Commander-in-Chief in Philadelphia, he wended his way
and took command of the Army, and almost immediately after he assumed
military lodge was organized in the Connecticut lines, and before the
had half closed there were ten of those militant organizations in the
Army alone. Each province had its own soldiers, and those soldiers were
to go beyond the borders of that province.
there was a general army called the Continental Army, and it was in
Army that ten lodges were organized. The records have been picked up
together as best could be done, and there has been brought to light by
together of these destroyed records the fact that Washington,
the beginning of the Revolution, became a zealous and active Mason. The
closed, and he returned home on Christmas Eve, 1783, and the records of
No. 39, showed that two days afterwards he accepted an invitation to
attend a banquet
given by the lodge. The records show that he did attend that banquet,
that he attended
five times later, before he was made Master of No. 22. Immediately upon
he was called away to preside over the new Government. And it was
during that period
of his life from the time that he installed that untried government
which today influences the political virtues of the world that
most active and stands out as one of the most potential figures in
We must judge
not from his activities in the lodge, not from his activities in the
but from the deference which was shown to him by the leading Masons of
Upon the conclusion of the Revolutionary War the provincial Grand
Lodges were conducted
on the elective system. Gen. John Sullivan, Major General in the
became the first Grand Master of his lodge… Robert Livingston, who
Washington in as President of the United States, became Grand Master of
and presided over its destinies for fifteen years, to be succeeded by
Col. Aaron Ogden became Grand Master of New Jersey, and R.B. Marshall
He had been the Worshipful Master of the first army Union Lodge
organized at Cambridge,
moved from Maryland to South Carolina during this period and returned
and became the second and third Grand Master of your Grand Jurisdiction
independent system. Edmund Randolph became the first Attorney General
administration while he was Grand Master of Virginia and Governor of
became Grand Master of the first Grand Lodge of Georgia; North Carolina
Generals and three Governors as their first Grand Masters, and each had
officers in the Revolutionary War; each and every one of them fought
side by side
with Washington and each and every one of them in the transition from
the old to
the new system of lodges deferred to Washington as the Freemason. The
of Massachusetts dedicated its first constitution to him; the Grand
Lodge of New
York did the same; the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania followed suit; the
of North Carolina did the same thing; and the Grand Lodge of Virginia,
elected him its first Grand Master, which he declined, also dedicated
to him. Wherever he journeyed, whether in the north or south, whether
as a private
citizen or public functionary, he was tendered all the horrors of a
Mason, and was
recognized as such by the greatest Masons in the Grand Lodges of this
that or any other time, and I challenge contradiction. Is it
conceivable that these
men who bad organized these Grand Bodies would cater to a man who was
not a zealous
Freemason? Were they of that type? The Revolutionary War was won by
live Americans, and Washington stands out as the greatest figure in the
world of that day, and be stands out as the greatest figure in the
military world of that day.
That is the
reason why we should build a memorial to Washington, the Mason. But,
the last analysis, it is not a memorial to Washington, the Mason,
alone. It is a
memorial to every Mason whose Grand Jurisdiction deems worthy a place
in that Temple,
and that is a part of the Constitution. In this Hall of Fame, says that
there shall be set apart a space which shall be allotted to each Grand
identifying itself with the Constitution, upon which to erect memorials
illustrious dead. There is not a man in this hall, there is not a man
sound of my voice that this Grand Lodge could not honor if they want to
a place in the Memorial to your own Washington. It is your temple, for
It belongs to no section and shall be confined to no age or specific
than to honor worthy men of our Craft.
Conditions of Freemasonry
By Bro. Joseph E. Morcombe,
Associate Editor, California
must learn to let go of the old that ages in order to lay hold of the
old that ages
will look at life, and the things of life, through his own spectacles.
tinted by his own temperament, and most likely by his own prejudices.
he may declare that this and that are self-evidently true, he can
express no more
than a personal reaction to what are accepted by himself as the
The value of any reasoned judgment is not so much in the conclusions
in the mode of approach ‒ the finding of a new angle from which to
or tendencies. Thus in writing of present-day conditions of American
best that can be hoped for is a survey that may be within reasonable
the exact truth. However faulty the reasoning or inadequate the
effort here is to present a fairly clear picture of the Craft, to
measure its more
recent progress and to guess, if no more, at the direction of its
travel into the
It is to
repeat a threadbare commonplace for one to assert that the present is a
change. As matter of fact life itself is the sum of change, and human
not be static and continue to exist. But in this our own time events
common have forced shifts and changes so great and sudden that all
things are unsettled.
Ideas and institutions that had been regarded as most stable have
and betrayed weaknesses hitherto unsuspected. Petrine foundations and
have alike been tested and often found wanting. Wise men are digging
about the bases
of their social structures, to discover what parts are weakened or
so repairs may be made, and collapse avoided.
seem a strange preface in speaking of an institution that has somewhat
boasted of its immutability. For there have been and still are brothers
have it that Masonry cannot suffer change. For them the landmarks are
and he who would suggest innovation, whether in form, method or ideals,
as a profaner of the temple. Yet every social agency is governed by the
being; life is predicated on adaptability to changing environment. The
time is littered with the ruins of institutions that have failed to
to changing conditions.
human things," says Carlyle, "are, have been and forever will be, in
and change… How often, in former ages, by eternal creeds, eternal forms
and the like, has it been attempted, fiercely enough, and with
to chain the future under the past ... Man's task here below, the
destiny of every
individual man, is to be by turns Apprentice and Workman; or, say
Teacher, Discoverer; by nature he has a strength of learning, for
also a strength for acting, for knowing on his own account… The true
not, nothing that was worthy in the past departs; no truth or goodness
by man ever dies, or can die; it is all still here, and, recognized or
and works through endless change."
It is the
growing sense of impending change ‒ of insecurity if you will ‒ that in
of the present writer is the most remarkable and most encouraging
condition in present-day
Masonry. In our Fraternity, as in all other truly living institutions,
a clash of opinions, becoming increasingly vehement as the issues are
defined. The differences between modernist and fundamentalist are not
the churches; in every social agency there is debate between the static
elements. In proportion as there is vigor to such discussions will be
of the institution. One might have despaired a few years ago of any
life in Masonry; today he will be encouraged by the evidences of mental
and of thought devoted to the better things of the Craft.
some few radicals in Masonry ‒ stormy fellows, who would
as preliminary to any rebuilding, to whom repair and adjustment are
They are matched at the other extreme by a diminishing number of
who would yield no jot or tittle of the heritage received from the
great body of thinking Masons, however, are between these extremes;
and fundamentalists are alike concerned for the welfare of the Society,
much they may differ as to the means that should be employed to assure
From the discussions that have already begun, and that will be carried
on with increasing
vigor, we can believe that the proper course will emerge. Only the most
of the conservatives will hold out against the necessity for change;
and method will require the wisdom of the Craft to decide. The very
nature of the
brotherhood precludes aught that is revolutionary. Masons whose thought
considering will agree, with Bacon, that "men in their innovations
the example of time itself; which indeed innovated greatly, but
quietly, by degrees
scarce to be perceived."
are short-lived; they exhaust themselves of very fierceness. They mark
that God has placed through the centuries, whereon with bleeding feet
men have beaten
out some grain of truth from the gathered chaff of error and of wrong.
of some of the wild-eyed prophets of disaster no thinking American will
revolution. But there are also revolutions of thought that silently
shake all social
edifices. Who will deny that some such revolution is even now causing
in our country? Our whole social system is being subjected to strains.
Men are inquiring
as to open wrongs and hidden iniquities. At such time no individual or
can sit by indifferently.
others, are realizing that the Craft, as a social agency, must assume
its full share
of responsibility; must seek out its duty and bend every energy to its
It is not enough to say, at this juncture, that every real Mason can be
upon to act as a good citizen should. Good causes are carried to
victory by mass
effort. The potentiality of Freemasonry in the United States is beyond
have dreamed. It can and should be used to strengthen the forces that
for the triumph of good. The matters that are of partisanship are not
province; the great problems that affect human life in all
justice is concerned ‒ these certainly are not foreign to Masonry,
unless all our
professions are to expend themselves in words. It is for Masonic lodges
out the truth in the affairs that are vital to the community or the
found out the right, there is but one side the Craft can take.
There is a New Note in the
Freemasonry of Today
however, is not an argument, but rather a brief survey of the
situation. One must
be dull indeed who has not recognized in the Masonry of today a new and
note; a growing desire on the part of brothers to be informed in such
their Masonry will have a richer meaning. They are carefully and
steps toward a more practical and positive conception of the Craft.
They are asking
that it shall aid them more effectively to self-realization, that it
give them an outlet for energies hitherto repressed or expended in
lines less responsive
and less deserving of confidence. American Masonry is seeking to
descend from the
sterile heights, is slowly but surely equipping itself to strive
valiantly for God
and humanity. Who, then, shall say it nay?
To the mind
of this writer it is but part of this same spirit of change for the
men are seeking the spirit of Masonry with less regard for its letter.
One may wonder
at times whether relaxation of the old regulations as to the quality of
is always wise. Yet, to take the matter of physical perfection as an
old requirement was frequently carried to absurd lengths. Trivial
were regarded by some authorities as sufficient to bar men of high
quality and unexceptionable
character. Today stress is laid rather upon qualifications of head and
less on missing finger-joints or crooked toes. Only again one asks
whether in many
cases the eagerness to secure members does not prompt repudiation of
rules of selection. This also opens inquiry as to the great numbers
that are clamoring
for admittance at the doors of all our lodges. Are these all "duly and
prepared" in heart and mind? Or are they brought hither by expectations
can never be satisfied, and by desires that are not in harmony with the
purposes of Masonry? Because of this unprecedented influx our lodges
to labors that are, at the best, but secondary. It is an absurdity to
these are Master Masons, properly instructed and having skill of craft,
been perfunctorily conducted through the initiatory ceremonies of the
here also is cause for encouragement. Grand Lodges have recognized the
the education of a Mason is not completed when he has learned a few
signs and grips
and can make passable answers to some short catechetical form.
are being prepared and experimented with, having as object the
information of brothers,
so that they can more effectively work as builders on the temple of
always well-meant and sometimes wise efforts to further Masonic
has been a dropping of much that before brought ridicule upon the
few persist in attaching to the institution a mystical or occult
content or significance.
These are the jugglers of words; men whose ballast of reasoning is
to hold down the lighter cases of imagination, and who go ballooning in
whithersoever the vagrant winds of fancy may blow. Men of today are apt
from that one who claims to discover portentous secrets in some
dust-heap of time,
or who affects by jumbled numbers or unmeaning words to come upon a
Our Freemasonry Is Forward
of our time is forward looking. What it may have received from the past
will be jealously preserved. But not every dust-covered relic of a time
is worth preservation. The antique tools and arms of our predecessors
may have place
in a museum; they are no longer for use for our generation. Our great
a matter-of-fact affair. Its manner of birth and course of development
well known to us so that we can put its history under scrutiny, nor
fear that we
are profaning some sacred thing in putting out our hands in inquiry or
Freemasonry is, and has been from the beginning, a middle-class
society. Its membership
is a fair cross section of the best and staunchest elements of our
We have among us no school of the prophets, no workers of magic,
whether white or
For the most
part the Craft is made up of intelligent men, honest and reliable in
all the relationships
of life. The society was formed for mutual assistance, and its purposes
as signified in the ternary of Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth. It has
in the good opinion of the world, the loyalty of its adherents, and it
any other secular society in its potentialities. That it has enemies is
unduly stressed by some. The greatest enemy of Freemasonry is to be
itself ‒ the ignorance of some and the indifference of many more. These
noblest aspirations, and render ineffective the efforts of brothers who
vision and would lead the Craft to fields of resultful labor.
It is no
disheartening study to view the Masonic field. We discover a great
slowly but surely to its appointed work for human good, becoming
possessed of a
conviction of its high mission, unwilling longer to waste time and
energies in mere
barrack ground maneuvers, but demanding a place in the armies of
in vain the distance beacons, forward, forward let us range;
Let the great world spin forever down the ringing grooves of change."
Egyptian Order of Sciots
By Bro. Jesse M. Whited,
Associate Editor, California
to many requests for information concerning the Order of Sciots, we
Whited, Pharaoh of the Supreme Pyramid, to prepare a statement
concerning that organization
which has grown so rapidly on the West Coast. Further information may
he had by
addressing THE BUILDER or by writing to Bro. Whited direct at 354 Pine
Egyptian Order of Sciots originated in San Francisco in 1905, to apply
in a practical
way the precepts of the great Masonic Fraternity. The form of
provides for a Supreme Pyramid meeting annually in November, with power
subordinate bodies. The Supreme Pyramid is composed of the Toparch, or
officer of the subordinate bodies, which are known as "Pyramids," and
elective representatives from each Pyramid.
as Masons are endeavoring to furnish a new interpretation of service to
Composed of Master Masons in good standing it aims to apply in civic
affairs the truths inculcated in the Blue Lodge Ritual. They
openly for American institutions including the public school and
It is not "avowedly" anti-anything, but openly and frankly American and
Masonic. From a dozen members in 1905 the organization has grown until
it is composed
of 42 Pyramids in California and one in Nevada, with a combined
membership of 21,000.
work is founded upon an event that occurred about 1124 B.C. when the
the Isle of Chios in the Aegean Sea and discovered there an association
the "League of Neighbors," which was organized for the purpose of
promoting the welfare and happiness of its members. "Boost one another"
is the slogan of the order.
stated objects is the union of all Master Masons in a closer bond of
fellowship and cooperation. The Sciots hold that their most important
duty as citizens
is to stand for the enforcement of law and order, to participate in
and municipal affairs by the exercise of the franchise. The Pyramid is
an open forum
for the discussion of questions of general interest, under the strict
that there must be no partisan or personal discussions, and that the
name of the
order must not be used to further purely political or religious
purposes or indulge
in direct anti-religious propaganda.
based on political, social or financial standing is denounced. Clean,
entertainment, clean advertising in a clean press are sponsored as the
concomitants of an established social order. The Sciots teach that
assistance and cooperation in your business affairs can be made kindly
There is needed sometimes the strong grip, not of a dues-paying lodge
but of a friend to help you over the rough places of life; a kind word
your defense. A watchful care over you in your journey through life is
than the most beautiful requiem, the most glowing eulogy, or an
In line with
the order's application of "operative Masonry," the various Pyramids
devoted their activities to such matters as the establishing of
the children in the Masonic Home at Covina, Cal.; sponsoring and
of the Order of De Molay; assisting financially the Salvation Army and
with such groups as the students of the University of California in
Masonic clubhouse. Teachers' associations have been aided to advance
of the public school. As a force for good in the community, the Sciots
hold a valued
place. The world needs their good offices not only as Masons but as
its teachings, pyramiding respect for law and its sanctity through
first and foremost objectives.
By Bro. Arthur C. Parker,
the misfortune of most writers on the American Indian and his affairs
know their subject only from books, and hence lack that sympathetic and
insight which is necessary to a complete understanding; also they are
so academic in their interest that their pages grow as dry as the grass
Not so with Bro. Parker, who knows his subject "in his blood" and who
writes with a poetical flair that comes only from the most sympathetic
interest. The second (and more thrilling) part of his narrative will be
next month; it will contain a vivid description of an actual Indian
Our thanks are due to the Buffalo Consistory, A.A.S.R.N.M.J.U.S.A. and
to the author
for permission to republish here what has been printed in book form
under the title
"American Indian Masonry."
A TALL bronze
skinned guide led the way over an ice rutted road. The journey toward
East had been commenced. Following the guide in single file were four
and yet three,
for one was the conductor in whose presence the three were assured
safety from all
danger not of their own making. In all there were five, for such is the
It was in
the land of the Senecas, those most powerful confederates of the famous
of the Iroquois. To this land in the Valley of the Cattaraugus had
Commander-in-Chief of Buffalo Consistory with three other members of
Accepted Scottish Rite of Masonry. The time was midwinter in the moon
the appointed time when the great Thanksgiving of the Senecas takes
place in a nine
day celebration. During this season of gratitude to the Great Spirit
fraternities and ceremonial associations hold sessions and a few of
them give public
exhibitions. Not so, however, with one whose work is all in secret, and
chamber only those purified and loyal are admitted.
led on and the four followed, three being candidates for initiation.
light held by the guide cast an uncertain ray upon the trail that
moonless winter night. It was not an easy path nor was there sound
footing on this
trail to that which was sought. At length a lodge was reached. Behind
there were faint gleams of light. Four sharp knocks were given and the
a crack while a sentinel stepped out to examine those who craved
admittance. A curious
passerby might have seen by a hurried glance that the form of the lodge
was an oblong,
that there were two altars, upon one of which was placed a tray of
incense and a
heap of strange paraphernalia. But the door soon closed, and hours
sounds of a peculiar chant, the blend of wild forest sounds mingled
with a strange
rushing noise like that of a great cataract floated out from the walls
of the lodge-house.
What was happening within?
Is There an Undiscovered
traveler or the ethnologist returns from his journey to one of the
places and comes again into the society of his friends and brothers, he
there are certain subjects that are of perennial interest and that men
to know what he has learned of them. Not the least among these subjects
It is not the Freemason alone who is curious of Freemasonry; every man
the society of his fellow men and who sees in the symbols that are
found in the
world about him moral lessons that admonish him to virtue, sees also in
the potentialities of Masonry. Thus the student who has penetrated the
and places of Earth is called upon to tell what other races and peoples
mystic orders that bind men to morality and brotherly devotion.
we are asked what the native Red Man has of Masonry and if he has
signs, grips and
words like those of the ancient Craft. Oftentimes the question comes
American Indians Masons?" Rumors have long been afloat that there are
that have Masonic lodges and that Masons traveling amongst them have
by familiar signs and words and even led into lodges where ceremonies
in due form. Is it then true that in some way our ancient brethren have
in unknown parts and among scarcely known people and have communicated
that we hold must be inviolate; or that they have issued dispensations
veiled lodges by which they may work under competent jurisdiction? How
much of Masonry
do these extra-limital Masons know, and how well do they keep and
conceal from the
profane their secret arts? If, perchance, they did not receive their
moderns, where in the annals of antiquity did they discover it?
the questions that are directed to the traveler who has observed the
the outer-peoples of the world. In asking such questions the
more than he may rightly do, but then, he only desires a correct
the true facts of the case
Was the Red Man a Craftsman
the southwest the Indians erected no great buildings of stone. In the
especially along the coast, there were elaborate building of wood,
built in the
familiar log cabin style, but having carved pillars, posts and heraldic
Not strange to relate, perhaps, is the fact that in these two areas
and craftsmanship was so highly specialized, numerous fraternities
existed. In other
regions, especially in the area of the Great Plains, the dwellings were
On the east coast and extending well into the Mississippi valley on the
side many of the Indian nations were village and town dwellers living
in bark covered
houses, some of them large and roomy. The Iroquoian peoples, for
example, had "long
houses" built of poles, tree trunks and bark. Their towns were
stockades of tree trunks, sometimes three rows being used. Unlike the
the plains who must move as the buffalo herds moved, the east coast
more or less sedentary. They were thus able to build up a compact form
and to evolve a well-knit system of social organization.
into the earth where once arose these ancient towns of the red men we
durable artifacts made by their craftsmen. Working only with tools of
bone they made many beautiful objects, the form and symmetry of which
admiration and applause of modern observers. The archaeological museums
contain numerous examples of the Indian's handiwork. From these things
that the Native American of old had a keen eye, a skillful hand and a
sense of balance
and harmony of form that is scarcely equaled today. Take any well-made
hatchet-head of stone (sometimes called celts, and often erroneously
stones"), and by placing it on a smooth, level surface you will
it can be spun on one side, the axis being plainly visible and the
Here is a demonstration of a studied attempt to perfect the art of
balance and of
knowledge of form is proven by an inspection of their implements. They
polished spheres, ovoids, crescents, circles, squares, circular disks,
hemispheres, pyramids, etc. In drawing geometrical designs, however,
went beyond an octagon. The Indian, it will be seen, had his form of
the level, the square and the compasses.
be some who will state that the Indians never made objects that reveal
but that such things are the work of the "mound builders." Such persons
are not well informed of modern research, for if they were they would
the mound builders were Indians and that the old time theory of the
Builders" is an exploded myth. Indians built the mounds and made all
artifacts found in them. Documents have been discovered that prove that
and Spanish explorers saw the Indians erecting mounds. All the
now know that America had no "mysterious race that was vanquished by
(To be concluded
of Cryptic Masonry
By Bro. George W. Warvelle,
Masonry, as that Rite is known which includes the degrees of Royal and
(and sometimes the degree of Superexcellent Master), has its name from
that its ceremonies are symbolically connected with a crypt or secret
growth during the past few years has been extraordinary, a significant
view of the fact that it stands on its own bottom and is not used as a
to some other Rite. Bro. Fay Hempstead, Little Rock, Ark., is General
Bro. Henry W. Mordhurst, Fort Wayne, Ind., is General Grand Recorder.
has contributed to the literature of the Rite a number of essays of
one of the most useful of them being a historical review, the first
part of which
follows. The next General Assembly will be held at Portland, Me., Sept.
8 and 9,
many systems of Exalted Masonic Symbolism now practiced in the United
have received a more general recognition or hearty acceptance than the
allegory known as the Rite of the Secret Vault. Yet, like the great
mass of our
traditions, degrees and ceremonial observances, its origin is unknown,
and its early
history, for the most part, consists merely of legends that are
incapable of verification
and, in some instances, unworthy of belief. Its fundamental principles
be traced to the English Masonry of the revival, but there is no
evidence that the
degrees, as such, were ever known or practiced outside of our own
to the commencement of the present century, and the preponderating
opinion of Masonic
archaeologists now is that they are the works of the early American
I have, in my former addresses before these conventions, endeavored to
in a general and possibly not altogether satisfactory way, these phases
of the subject,
and to present to you my own views and conclusions with respect
thereto; yet, as
fancy and fable have well-nigh obscured the real facts, much must
left to conjecture, and it therefore follows that any conclusion,
formed, must still be open to doubt and susceptible to impeachment.
I stand on more certain ground, and in the remarks which follow, I
to show, in brief epitome, the growth and development of the Cryptic
Rite on the
lines of fairly authenticated history.
from our consideration the apocryphal story of the transmission of the
Frederick the Great and their subsequent exploitation by the Inspectors
of the Rite of Perfection, it may be said that the history of Cryptic
a coherent and connected system, commences with the year 1818, and that
its present existence to the zeal or cupidity, or both combined, of
Jeremy L. Cross.
It has been clearly established that Cross received the degree of
Select Mason from
Philip P. Eckle, at Baltimore, in May, 1817, and thereupon actively
the work of its dissemination; that early in 1818 he, in some manner,
of the degree of Royal Master Mason, which, prior to that time, had
controlled by Thomas Lownds and his associates, and that he then
conceived the project
of uniting the two and forming a new system, to which he gave the name
and Select Masters. The exact time when this was consummated has never
ascertained, but Josiah H. Drummond who has carefully run down the
early Cross Charters,
fixes the event at some period between May and August of the year 1818.
not seem, however, that the plan was fully perfected until the year
this period, then, may be dated the commencement of the Cryptic Rite
and its existence
as an organized branch of Freemasonry.
But in order
to obtain a more intelligent conception of the development and progress
of the Cryptic
degrees during the years which have intervened since Cross first gave
it will be necessary to indulge in a brief retrospect of the high
during the same period, and to institute a few comparisons between the
and other countries where they are practiced.
purport of all "high degrees" was superior knowledge; the possession of
some part of the mysterious arcana unknown by or denied to the great
mass of the
initiated. As a necessary corollary, membership was limited in point of
and the exclusive character thus imparted, formed one of the earliest
incentives for their acquisition. This was the general condition of
in the United States at the time Cross entered upon his Cryptic
mission, and which
so continued for many years, and this, practically, is its special
in England and Continental Europe at the present time. It was not
the multitude would either desire or appreciate the more profound
the high degrees, nor was it intended that they should participate in
secrets, and in all countries, except our own, this policy has never
from. During those early years many initiates failed even to attain the
Degree, while the number who were admitted to the mysteries of the
Royal Arch were
few indeed. In the chivalric orders the same rule prevailed. The
was then, as now, the popular branch of these orders, but as they
appealed at that
time only to the intellectual and religious element of the Craft, their
were ever of the most limited character. If we may judge from the
of the first thirty years of the present century, I think I make no
when I say that in point of numbers and influence the Cryptic Rite
indeed, it did not exceed, that of the Order of the Temple, and this
was its comparative
standing when, in 1829, the blight of Morganism fell upon the Masonic
1830 to 1840 the high degrees, generally, were in a dormant condition.
to 1850 there was a period of convalescence, but it was not until 1860
recovery was effected. About this time the A.A.S.R. commenced to relax
exclusive character, by the creation of working bodies; two years later
Encampment gave impetus to Templarism by discarding the ancient badge
of a Mason
‒ the apron ‒ which, prior to that time, had always been worn, and
adopting a showy
uniform and the mimicry of military usages. The Council, which, in the
had measurably kept pace with other organizations, then commenced to
suffer by comparison,
yet at all times its numbers have been fairly in proportion to the
number of Master
Masons in the country, and gauged by the standards which prevail
to which I have just alluded, its growth, though not large, has yet
satisfactory and in keeping with its traditions and declared exclusive
In this review
I shall treat this subject by topics, rather than attempt to follow a
sequence, and as an introduction to the events of later periods, shall
a few words with respect to
during the experimental stages of constitutional organization the
grades" were handled mainly by itinerant lecturers and degree peddlers,
an article of merchandise, for the benefit of the ambitious and
credulous. Men purchased
what was offered with little or no inquiry as to the seller's title or
convey, while manufactured pedigrees and forged deeds were generally
to satisfy those who perchance might demand an inspection of the
like most of the other "high degrees" practiced in the United States,
those of the Cryptic curriculum will not bear severe critical
investigation in tracing
the derivation of the authority by which they are conferred. While
there are legitimate
and recognized sources from which they flow, yet the channels of
many cases, are either unknown or unconnected with the original
fountain. The records
of a number of jurisdictions show that in many instances Councils were
on no other authority than such as they assumed for themselves or the
powers of some self-constituted "deputy" or "agent," while the
degrees, in numberless instances, were "conferred" individually by
oral communication and without any pretense of authority or semblance
of right other
than that which accompanies mere possession.
remains of the early history of Cryptic Masonry in many jurisdictions
abundant examples of the foregoing remarks, and the beginnings of the
Rite in Massachusetts
afford, perhaps, as good an illustration as can be cited. It would seem
early as 1817 several Royal Arch Masons residing at Boston who, in some
now known, had obtained the degree of Royal Master, after a mutual
determined, of their own motion, to establish a Council. They
accordingly met and
organized by the election of officers, selection of a name and adoption
and from that time on continued to confer the degree of Royal Master on
as were found to be qualified and desirous of receiving it. The Council
rapidly in numbers and popularity; individuals from other parts of the
to Boston and received the degree and, on returning home, assisted in
Councils in their respective localities. Thus the degree was diffused,
and as late
as 1826 only two Councils in the state are known to have had charters,
resting solely on its own authority and acting in an independent
capacity. The same
conditions will be found to have prevailed in many other states. But
time, the great
healer, has long since cured these congenital infirmities, while the
of attraction and cohesion have welded into a compact and homogeneous
mass the contending
and ofttimes incongruous elements which compose the early and widely
of the country.
a few unauthenticated instances of communication by certain of the
General," the primary dissemination of the degrees, in organized
under constitutional authority, must be conceded to Wilmans and Eckle
and Lownds at New York, the former controlling the Select, the latter
Degree. The Baltimore body, if indeed it can be called a body, never
seems to have
developed into a permanent organization, but rested rather in the
caprice of the
"chiefs" who controlled, or assumed to control, the degree of Select
By these men temporary Councils were organized whenever it was deemed
and the degree was conferred upon persons of their own selection.
During the entire
period of its exploitation by Williams, Eckle and Niles, commencing at
and ending with the assumption of jurisdiction by the Grand Chapter of
in 1824, it does not seem that anybody, bearing any similitude to those
subsequently established to control or confer the other degrees of
ever organized. There was indeed a vague and ill-defined something
known as the
Grand Council over which Eckle was supposed to preside as "Grand
but this body never materialized sufficiently to afford a good view,
and from all
that we can learn it would seem that Eckle, as Grand Puissant, held and
the degree in a sort of proprietary right.
the other hand, subjected his degree of Royal Master Mason to
by the organization, in 1810, of a permanent body for its control and
and this body, which has successfully withstood all the mutations of
time and the
vicissitudes of fate, is still in existence as Columbian Council, No.
1, of New
two bodies, mediately or immediately, is derived the Cryptic system
Cross in 1818, and promulgated by him and his "deputies," as well as
and imitated by others who came after him.
For a number
of years Cross was very active in establishing Councils and conferring
The common report says that he found the business very lucrative and as
his charter fees ever found their way to his reputed principal, the
Council of the Select" at Baltimore, there is much reason to believe
rumors were not altogether unfounded. Finding the growing demand beyond
to supply without aid, he deputized one Cushman to assist him in the
work and a
number of Councils were organized by his lieutenant. Rival peddlers
upon the scene, the most active of whom was John Barker, who worked as
of the "Supreme Council of the United States," and by virtue of the
power" in him vested by the "Grand Constitution of the Thirty-third
sold Cross' lectures and organized Councils. The combined efforts of
together with others of lesser note, soon had the effect of producing a
and wide-spread diffusion. Cryptic Masonry became popular; it was cheap
and at the
same time "way up," and had nothing interfered to stop its onward march
we may reasonably assume that it would in time have developed the full
its still latent symbolism and have become one of the great Masonic
the world. But being an exotic, it was acutely sensitive to every
and when by 1830 the fires of fanaticism had been fanned to their
nearly every Council in the country had ceased its labors and passed
into a condition
of dormancy. For a period of ten years, or from 1830 to 1840, the
Cryptic page is
almost a blank. Then came a slow awaking, but in many localities
dormancy had passed
into death, and so complete was the extinction that even the memory of
and Grand Councils was lost until in after years the student, groping
amid the debris
of long forgotten days, discovered and brought to light the old records
evidences of former life. From 1840 to 1850 may be termed the period of
and from this latter date until the present time the Rite has made
but with periods of depression that can be better explained in
connection with other
topics embraced in this review.
degree of Royal Master seems to have been originally conferred on
that of Select Master has always been considered as an extension or
of the Royal Arch Degree, and its earliest known exploitation was as an
of a Chapter or under Royal Arch auspices. This was its distinctive
it remained under the control of Companions who first gave it publicity
and the only authority for its dissemination ever received by Cross,
the retention of this idea, and although it was soon abandoned by him,
was visible for many years, and is still urged in those jurisdictions
domination continues to be exercised.
In the year
1824 it was formally incorporated as a part of its system by the Grand
Maryland, and thence-forward, until very recent years, continued to be
its regular scale of Capitular degrees. About this time numerous
"agents" and emissaries were driving an active and lucrative business
in the sale of the degrees, which induced the Maryland Companions to
appeal to the
General Grand Chapter. The matter came up at the session held in 1829,
when a resolution
was adopted recommending the Councils to place themselves under the
State Grand Chapters, and granting authority to the Grand Chapters to
arrangements as might be found necessary for conferring the Cryptic
degrees in the
Royal Arch Chapters of their obedience. While the General Grand Chapter
recognized the degrees of Royal and Select Master as legitimate parts
of the Capitular
system, it did little or nothing in the way of carrying out the
resolution of 1829,
and in 1844, upon the revival of Cryptic interest, the matter again
it when, after reaffirming the resolution of 1829, a rule was entered,
conferring of the Cryptic degrees should be subsequent to that of the
In 1850 a committee was appointed to inquire into the expediency of
forming a General
Grand Council for the United States, but this committee reported that
was inexpedient, and the matter was dropped. In 1853 the Cryptic
question was again
presented, but by this time Councils and Grand Councils had very
jurisdiction and labor, and the question was definitely settled by the
of a resolution declaring that the General Grand Chapter and the
of Royal Arch Masons affiliated with and holding jurisdiction under it
had no rightful
authority or control over the Royal and Select Degrees, and thereafter
no question growing out of the government or working of the same. Thus
until the Session of 1877, when petitions were received from several
asking permission to take cognizance and jurisdiction of the Cryptic
permit the conferring of same by their constituent Chapters. The matter
to a committee, who reported adversely to the prayer of the
petitioners, but the
General Grand Chapter was "on the fence" that year, and consideration
of the report was postponed until the next ensuing Triennial session.
In the meantime,
the Grand Chapters pursued their own course, and when the General Grand
in 1880, nine of its constituents had practically absorbed the Councils
Of the attitude
of State Grand Chapters but little can be said based upon official
action. In Virginia,
at an early day (1841), a mistake of fact induced a dissolution of the
and a surrender of the degrees to the Chapter which has ever since
Michigan, at its organization, assumed control over the degrees as of
always maintained that position, but in most of the states they were
when conferred under the auspices of the Chapter. After the decisive
action of the
General Grand Chapter in 1853, the state bodies generally disclaimed
and from that time until the "merger," the Cryptic degrees were
as an independent and totally distinct branch of the American Masonic
(To be concluded
Who Were Masons
By Bro. GEORGE W. BAIRD,
P.G.M., District of Columbia
Captain George H. Derby
DERBY, the father of American wits, was, after graduating from West
Point in 1846,
commissioned second lieutenant in the Ordnance and then, after three
months of service,
was transferred to the Engineers. In 1847 he was promoted "for gallant
meritorious conduct at the battle of Cerro Gordo, Mexico"; in 1860 he
was born in Dedham, Mass., in 1823, and died in New York in 1861, at
the early age
of thirty-eight. As a wit he had no peer, ante-dating Artemus Ward,
Bill Nye, Mark
Twain and the other well-known American humorists, though his humor was
a serious wound in the Mexican War which incapacitated him for very
so, there being no retired list in the army at that time, he was
employed on such
surveys as the Lighthouse Establishment and other inland services
demanded. He was
a member of San Diego Lodge, No. 35, San Diego, Cal., and was a Past
he affiliated with that lodge.
conducted the explorations in Minnesota in 1849, and from that region
went to the
Pacific Coast. He had not the distinction of being a "forty-niner" but
came near being a "spring of fifty." The writer has found many pioneers
of the Golden State who knew Derby well. He made the first survey of
of San Diego, the second largest on the west coast, and had charge of
Roads Department of the Pacific in the early days. In 1856 he became
the United States Coast Survey, and also Lighthouse Engineer.
But he never
seemed to have enough to keep him busy. Over the pen name of "John
also "Phoenixiana," he wrote the famous "Squibob Papers," [Lib
"The Ladies' Relief Society," [Lib*] "Inauguration of the New
[Lib*] etc., and at times wrote editorials for the San Diego Herald.
was a prominent political paper with much power in California. Once
when the editor
had to leave town for a few days he left Captain Derby in charge and
changed the politics of the paper in one well written editorial. The
particularly pleasing to the "slopers" from one end of the state to the
other, so that the laughter was loud and long.
accurate in his figures and, being a particularly good draughtsman,
made very acceptable
reports to the War and Treasury Departments. But when writing reports
of his surveys
he managed to incorporate many humorous stories. An example of these
yarns is found
in one of his books wherein he tells of his determination of the
terminals and the
length of Kearney Street, which at that time was the principal
thoroughfare of San
Francisco. After making his triangulations he plotted his work, only to
he had shoved the terminal of the street out into the water, near
he tried another method. He invented a "go-it-ometer" which he placed
on a soldier's back so that the apparatus would register each step
taken by the
man. But the man, though he made a satisfactory start, passed a beer
a grind organ was played and went in and danced twenty miles in a few
this, Derby, who was at his wits end, secured some information from the
an omnibus, plotted it out on paper and turned it in.
who at the time was out of the army and head of a bank in San
Francisco, told the
present writer another Derby story. Derby came into the bank (where he
funds), picked up a check and wrote on it "one cigar, George H. Derby";
he handed this to the teller who promptly tore it up and informed the
the bank did not sell cigars. Without a smile Derby re-wrote the check.
the teller took it to Sherman who wrote the notation "twenty-five
on it and told the teller to give Derby a cigar. Sherman knew that the
have to pass the accounting officers of the Treasury Department and
that Derby would
have trouble to explain, therefore they would have a joke on him.
of War invited all army officers to draw and present to the Department
changes in army uniforms such as would seem best to them. Derby, who
was a particularly
clever freehand sketcher, entered the competition and sent in a number
which are still in the War Department. Jefferson Davis was Secretary of
War at the
time and, being a West Pointer himself, gave this competition personal
Mr. Davis may have had many faults, but he was at all times a gentleman
of the old
school and the personification of dignity, so that no one dared to
attempt any familiarity
with him. He seemed particularly pleased with Derby's beautiful
drawings and explanations
until he came to the uniforms for the cavalry. Derby's sketch showed
with a hook attached to the back of his trousers on which it was
saddle-bags be hung when the cavalryman was not astride his horse! This
Mr. Davis very much. He called in the Chief of Engineers with a view of
Derby court-martialed for gross disrespect, but the Chief advised him
to let it
pass lest the joke recoil upon the Secretary himself. Mr. Davis took
but in looking over the several sketches again, he found others as
In 1861 Derby
was stricken down with a sunstroke when erecting a lighthouse on the
west side of
Florida; he was taken to New York but soon died. His body was buried in
lot in Bellefontaine Cemetery at St. Louis, Mo., but about twenty years
removed to the Military Academy at West Point and re-interred, and over
it was placed
a modest memorial. Captain Derby descended from Revolutionary stock.
Among his ancestors
were men of great learning. His grandmother was Mrs. Horatio Townsend;
was John Barton Derby of Salem; his mother was Mary Townsend of
Medfield. He was
a descendant of Roger Williams of Rhode Island and also of Governor
of Massachusetts. Captain Derby married Mary Angeline Coons of St.
Louis and had
three children, Daisy Peyton Derby (Mrs. Black); Mary Townsend Derby;
McClellan Derby, the last named of whom is still living and is a
in the army. From Bro. Cyrus Field Willard, editor of the "Master
San Diego, Cal., I learned, as I stated above, that Captain Derby
San Diego Lodge, No. 35, as a Past Master. He had been initiated in
Fair With a Candidate
seeks admittance into a Masonic lodge and is not sought, comes of his
own free will
and accord, and is not stimulated by any motive of a selfish kind; the
for membership is laid upon his shoulders. Nevertheless, and even so, a
obligations to him so that in taking such a step he deserves personal
from the brethren with whom he wishes to affiliate himself. In
to become a Mason he should have the assistance of those who are
to the end that at the very beginning of his new relationship he will
be made to
feel the fine spirit and friendliness of the Craft.
It is a good
thing for a committee to visit him personally, also the Worshipful
Master if that
is possible, for oftentimes a few private words of information will
doubts and misunderstandings. If a questionnaire is to be filled out by
question should be carefully explained, its purpose being made clear so
will not place on it his own private interpretation; and the questions
be in the form of an inquisition but should rather present in query
form all the
main "points of fellowship," which in our times are more than five.
these questions should be in strict harmony with the by-laws of the
lodge, and with
the code used by the Grand Lodge having jurisdiction, for a
not be so framed as to exclude from membership an applicant on such
grounds as under
any given code would not exclude him. That would be to set up unwritten
the laws of a lodge or a Grand Lodge.
night of his initiation the main thing is to help him to approach the
the Craft in the right frame of mind, not frightened as if he were to
be put through
a humiliating ordeal, and not in a flippant mood looking toward horse
play. To secure
this a wise Master will see to it that the preparation room is
attractive in appearance,
comfortable in its appointments, and that no dull-witted jokes are
at the candidate's expense; also it is a fine thing for the Master, or
lodge officer, to meet the candidate before he enters the lodge with a
to the candidate," several forms of which are in more or less general
and which need not be long or heavy but so phrased as to set the key
for what is
this personal attention to the candidate cease after he has been
raised. Why shouldn't
a committee visit him once again, this time to explain to him something
workings of the lodge, how to visit other lodges, how to find a niche
in the lodge's activities, and how to learn something about the mighty
of which he has become a member? If too many candidates are raised to
personal attention possible the Master could easily arrange to meet
with a class
of new members every other month, have a little social hour with them,
talk to them as a group about such things.
One of the
principal causes of the slackness of interest on the part of members
new and old
is just the lack of contact between the lodge and the individual. One
does not need
to seek farther, or go into profound discussions of it, to learn the
cause of most
of the indifference which now plagues lodges so much.
I have two
copies of Rebold's General History of Freemasonry, published at Toledo,
translated by J. Fletcher Brennan. One of the volumes has for a
frontispiece a "View
of the Interior of Solomon's Temple"; and the other has a picture of
Athens" for the same purpose. Both books stop at page 358 and omit all
dealing with British America, references to which are included in the
index in both
instances. What are these volumes worth? They are both in the original
so that the omission just mentioned was evidently intentional. Will
please communicate with me?
N.W.J. Haydon, 564 Pape Avenue, Toronto, Canada.
Masons of Ireland
By Bro. J. H. Edge, Ireland
Some Paragraphs Concerning Daniel O'Connell and Elizabeth St. Leger,
has written to ask if John Wesley, founder of the Methodist Church, was
of the Craft. Instead of the usual reply in the Question Box we are
a portion of the paper contributed to Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Vol.
page 131, by Bro. J. H. Edge, which contains a reply to the inquiry
along with much
other interesting matter beside. Readers interested in Irish Masonry,
something is said in the Study Club Department this month, should take
care to read
the entire article, which is entitled "A Short Sketch of the Rise and
of Irish Freemasonry."
WE can point
with pardonable pride to the long roll of illustrious Irishmen who have
‒ men who differed widely in their religious and political views, but
who were enabled
at the same time to unite in the common brotherhood of the Masonic
Order. Dean Swift
was a member of the same lodge in London which enrolled on its books
his life ‒
long friends, John Arbuthnot and Alexander Pope. For some years we
claimed the great
John Wesley, though an Englishman, as an Irish brother, owing to the
fact that a
Rev. John Wesley was a member of a lodge in Downpatrick, and a
contemporary of his
famous namesake. It has now been ascertained that this member of an
was not the earnest evangelist who founded the world-wide brotherhood
By way of a slight compensation we are proud to claim as a brother,
though he was
an Englishman and a member of an English lodge, Samuel Wesley, nephew
of John Wesley,
the evangelist, and son of the Rev. Charles Wesley, the melodious hymn
Wesley evidently inherited the remarkable musical genius of his family.
he composed and conducted a Grand Anthem for Freemasons. A few years
later, he composed
a Grand Mass for the Chapel of Pope Pius VI., and received in
appreciation of it
an official Latin letter of thanks from the Sovereign Pontiff, and
then, as a sort
of counter-balance, he composed for the Church of England a complete
set of Matins
and Evensong, which at once took rank among our favorite Cathedral
first Duke of Wellington, was christened Arthur Wesley, and he did not
use the surname
of Wellesley until he was twenty-nine years of age. He was a near
relative of the
founder of the Methodists; both were born leaders of men, and in
character, straightforward conduct, and wonderful powers of
were many points of resemblance between the two cousins. The Iron Duke
in Ireland; and Dangan Castle, Trim, and Mornington House (now the
office of the
Irish Land Commission), Dublin, both claim to have been the places of
He was certainly initiated as a Freemason in a lodge held in Trim, and
Roll of the lodge in 1790 as 'A. Wesley.' He did not, however, take any
in the working of our Order during his arduous and eventful career.
Tribune of the People, Daniel O'Connell, became a Freemason in 1799,
an active and prominent brother for several years. Not satisfied with
being a member
of the lodge in Dublin in which he was initiated, and of which he
he was one of the founders of a lodge in Tralee, and was affiliated to
Lodge No. 13, Limerick. O'Connell was a loyal son of the Roman Catholic
He was also a liberal-minded, largehearted man, and often helped his
fellow countrymen. Many striking incidents have been related of this
Irishman, but I do not think it is generally known that one of the very
to which he put his membership of the Imperial Parliament, after he
gained for himself
and his co-religionists Catholic Emancipation, was to demand justice
for an Irish
Protestant named George Dallas Mills, who had been a clerk in the
Dublin post office.
Mills discovered frauds and abuses in the management of his department,
them to headquarters. The Government, on investigation, found Mills was
the post office, and, of course, dismissed the delinquents, but took
course of dismissing Mills also. O'Connell's chivalrous intervention
He obtained a life pension for the man who had been so infamously
Catholic Church showed at an early date its hostility to the Masonic
the eighteenth century by issuing numerous Bulls, Letters, and Decrees
beginning with the Bull, In Eminenti [Lib 1738], of Pope Clement XII., dated
28th April, 1738. Notwithstanding such denunciations, the majority of
brethren were at the commencement of the last century of the Roman
This did not arise from any wilful disobedience to the directions of
but rather either from ignorance of their church's wishes or from the
had then been issued not having been ecclesiastically promulgated in
perhaps even from other causes, such as doubts as to whether the
on the subject were temporary or perpetual. The Roman Catholic Church's
has continued to the present day, as is evidenced by the various
a peremptory Encyclical Letter of Pope Leo XIII., of April 20, 1884.
[Lib 1884; Humanum Genus 1884]
in a letter which appeared in The Pilot newspaper of the 24th April,
his reasons for having left our Order. It is only fair to his memory,
and also to
ourselves, to give his letter in its completeness. It was read at the
time in Grand
Lodge, and is as follows:
O'Connell Renounces Freemasonry
To the Editor of The Pilot,
London, April 19 (1837).
A paragraph has been going the
rounds of the
Irish newspapers purporting to have my sanction, and stating that I had
one time Master of a Masonic Lodge in Dublin, and still continue to
belong to that
I have since received letters
addressed to me
as a Freemason and feel it incumbent on me to state the real facts.
It is true that I was a
Freemason and a Master
of a lodge. It was at a very early period of my life, and either before
censure had been published in the Catholic Church in Ireland
prohibiting the taking
of the Masonic oaths, or at least before I was aware of that censure. I
to state that having been acquainted with it, I submitted to its
many, very many years ago, unequivocally renounced Freemasonry. I
offered the late
Archbishop, Dr. Troy, to make that renunciation public, but he deemed
I am not sorry to have this opportunity of doing so.
Freemasonry in Ireland may be
said to have (apart
from its oaths) no evil tendency, save as far as it may counteract in
the exertions of those most laudable and useful institutions ‒
of every encouragement ‒ the temperance Societies.
But the great, the important
objection is this
‒ the profane taking in vain the awful name of the Deity ‒ in the
wanton and multiplied
taking of oaths ‒ of oaths administered on the Book of God either in
derision, or with a solemnity which renders the taking of them, without
motive, only the more criminal. This objection, which, perhaps I do not
enough, is alone abundantly sufficient to prevent any serious Christian
to that body.
My name having been dragged
before the public
on this subject, it is, I think, my duty to prevent any person
supposing that he
was following my example in taking oaths which I now certainly would
not take, and
consequently become a Freemason which I certainly would not now do.
I have the honour to be,
Your faithful servant,
We must all
respect our fellow-countryman for obeying the dictates of his
conscience. We not
only would not wish, but would prohibit, any man from joining our Order
if we knew
that he considered it wrong to do so; and we would not attempt to
retain a brother
among us if, like Daniel O'Connell, he believed that to remain a
be a sin, or lead to a waste of time or money. The very circumstance
their church's directions have been made quite clear on the point, so
Catholics have belonged to our Craft in Ireland, shows conclusively
that Irish Freemasonry
does not sap or meddle with the religious faith of its members.
I shall just
add a few words on O'Connell's references to temperance and oaths.
the date of his letter, a Temperance Association had been started in
the Rev. Nicholas Dunscombe, an Episcopalian clergyman; Richard Dowden,
layman; and William Martin, a member of the Society of Friends; and
O'Connell's letter was being written these three men were joined by the
Mathew, a Capuchin monk, who, by his burning enthusiasm and earnest
became the leader of the crusade. O'Connell very properly favored this
It had a great deal to do with restricting excessive drinking at all
including Masonic banquets. Now-a-days there is no excessive drinking
at our Masonic
entertainments; and we as brethren welcome the increasing number of
lodges among us.
As to the
superfluity of oaths, involving and indiscriminate and indefensible
misuse of the
Divine Name, the only excuse ‒ and it is a very lame one for such a
system is, that
it was only too common in Courts of Justice and in all societies one
ago. The practice of taking oaths has been virtually abolished in Irish
It was never an essential part of our ritual; and affirmations, instead
when the majority of the brethren present so wished it, were quite
allowed in olden times. We still require signs and passwords, for the
have already stated [in portion of the essay not here published]; but a
promise not to reveal them, unless in accordance with our rules, can
now be given
in whatever manner is binding on the conscience of the candidate.
A Lady Was Made a Mason
To turn to
a less grave subject. You have all, doubtless, heard it alleged that
there was one
lady who became a member of the Craft. I think most of us regarded the
as merely a myth, just an idle story invented by some outsider with the
ridiculing us. Late investigations have tended to prove its
authenticity. The lady
was the Honorable Elizabeth St. Leger, daughter of Lord Doneraile. The
of her initiation is said to have taken place in a lodge held in
about the year 1712, when she probably was not more than eighteen or
of age, as she was born in 1693. She had overheard Masonic matters and
it was thought
advisable to admit her into our Craft under the obligation of secrecy.
husband, Richard Aldworth, to whom she was married in 1713, was present
at her admission.
She continued during the rest of her life to take a keen interest in
We have no positive proof that any other woman was ever admitted in
too, sail on, O Ship of State!
Sail on, O UNION, strong and great!
Humanity with all its fears,
With all the hopes of future years,
Is hanging breathless on thy fate!
We know what Master laid thy keel,
What Workmen wrought thy ribs of steel,
Who made each mast, and sail, and rope,
What anvils rang, what hammers beat,
In what a forge and what a heat
Were shaped the anchors of thy hope!
Fear not each sudden sound and shock,
'Tis of the wave and not the rock;
'Tis but the Capping of the sail,
And not a rent made by the gale!
In spite of rock and tempest roar,
In spite of false lights on the shore,
Sail on, nor fear to breast the sea!
Our hearts, our hopes, are all with thee,
Our hearts, our hopes, our prayers, our tears,
Our faith triumphant o'er our fears,
Are all with thee ‒ are all with thee!
By Bro. W.J. Barclay, Canada
will be remembered for his "A Woman of Naphtali," in THE BUILDER
last. The present tale, founded on an actual incident, was sent to The
B. C., for Canadian publication, and to these pages for publication in
leaned on the bride-rail of the whaler Aurora as the good ship plowed
her way through
the Polar Sea. He was in high spirits, for another two hundred barrels
of oil would
complete his cargo. It was the second summer of his present voyage.
at Herschel Island, he had taken his ship to Siberian waters, and
though his luck
had been good, it had not equaled that of the other ships of the fleet.
Now he was
on his way to meet the whales coming down the west coast of Banks Land,
confident expectation of filling up and getting out of the Arctic
before the freeze-up.
big bow-heads in these northern waters is a good deal of a gamble.
There is a regular
sequence of feeding grounds known to whalers where their prey is to be
and ‒ sometimes ‒ found. In May and June it is off the Kamschatkan
coast, then it
is through the Behring Straits to Northern Siberia; after that it is
down the west
coast of Banks Land, and finally it is westwardly along the Canadian
this time it would be September, and the course of the whales would be
far, unknown regions of the Beaufort Sea. That would end the season,
for no whaler,
however keen, would dare to follow them up there in the shortening days
storms of winter's approach.
position on the bridge, Captain Norwood looked out over the sea. The
was dipping towards the horizon in the north. Sea and sky were full of
color ‒ purple
and blue in blending shades, with a background of blazing orange and
the orb of day (or, rather, of night, in that region) shone through a
The lavish hand of the Great Architect withheld nothing from His
of beauty because so few of His creatures were there to see and
In the waist
of the Aurora half a dozen Eskimos, hired at Herschel Island to help in
and boiling down, were seated on the deck listening to old Qivitok tell
of the supernatural, so eagerly relished by these primitive folk ‒ how
Kumagdlak destroyed a band of attacking enemies by shooting them with
had bone points made from the small of men's legs, and how he made the
his enemies swerve in their flight by waving the thong of the bag his
carried him in on her back when he was a baby.
eyes of Captain Norwood picked up a distant object some points off the
bow. He turned his glasses on the object, and found, as he had
expected, that it
was an Eskimo in his kayak.
fellow's a long way off shore," he remarked to the mate, who had just
upon the bridge.
he's headed out ‒ not in," added the mate. "Those critters are sure a
fearless, venturesome breed in their own environment."
out fishing were no novel sight to him, and the mate presently
descended to the
main deck to direct some work. Captain Norwood continued to regard the
A Famous Sign Is Given
his interest quickened, and he straightened up from his leaning
posture, and again
put the glasses to his eyes. The occupant of the kayak, who had laid
paddle across the little craft, was, with freed arms, making a sign ‒ a
out of place in that lonely Arctic sea.
was puzzled and perplexed. But perhaps it was accidental? It must be
he argued to himself. An Eskimo! How could an Eskimo make such a sign?
In his uncertainty
he continued to watch through his glasses. Then, for the second time,
the sign was
given. It was no accident! The kayak was now close a-bearn and plainly
pointed to cross the Aurora's course. Undoubtedly, the Eskimo had made
meaningly. He had made it towards the ship distinctly. However absurd
might appear, from whatever source the man in the kayak had learned the
was no mistaking his action. What was to be done about it? Captain
the night, long ago in far off British Columbia, when he had been
taught in a Masonic
lodge never to disregard that sign, for it would surely be-token a
in distress. He pushed a lever, a bell rang in the engine room, the
ceased to beat.
All on board
turned in surprise to look at the bridge. Then sailors and Eskimos
crowded to the
ship's side to watch the near approaching kayak.
that man on board, Mister!" ordered the captain, as the kayak drew
aye, sir!" responded the mate, giving the necessary instructions to the
a shouting and clamour of tongues among the ship's Eskimos, who
is Sorqak, the soul stealer!"
men, do not let him come on board!"
about the mate, but he shoved them aside, and in their own tongue
ordered them away,
emphasizing his words by swinging a rope's end in the air.
A kayak is
the crankiest craft that floats on water, and there was some difficulty
the captain's orders. However, the Eskimo unlaced the thongs that bound
cover around his body, and with the help of one of the crew who went
over the side
on a rope ladder, he was assisted up to the deck. The kayak only
weighed a few pounds,
and it, too, was hauled on board.
was an elderly man with long hair heavily streaked with grey. He was
strong and in good health, but his face was haggard and deeply lined.
a wan smile as he stepped aboard amidst his excited and unfriendly
regarded his strange visitor for a few seconds with curious interest.
that his ship was stopped, he signalled to the engine room, and once
more the Aurora
proceeded on her way.
the bridge, Captain Norwood called to the Eskimo, who stood uncertainly
mate, "Apuren!" (come). Then he led him to his cabin, and the mate took
charge again on the bridge, wondering at the sudden interest his
captain was evincing
in a stray Eskimo picked up at sea for no earthly reason that he could
had spent twenty-five seasons in the Arctic. He had acquired a fair
of the Eskimo tongue during the long idle winter night and short hard
day, for every whale ship has a number of these northern people engaged
in winter and helpers in summer. He knew some of the curious beliefs of
He knew that an Eskimo believes every person to consist of three things
‒ a soul,
a body and a name; that the soul lives outside the person, but follows
it as a shadow
follows a man in the sunshine; that, nevertheless, the two are
inseparable as long
as the person lives; that only great magicians can see the soul, which
but looks exactly like the person, and that if it gets lost, or if some
steals it, the person will pine away and die.
the cabin, Captain Norwood closed the door and seated himself. The
to such surroundings, diffidently remained standing.
called you Sorqak, the soul stealer?" questioned the captain.
name is Sorqak; but they speak lies ‒ I do not steal souls."
do you come from, anyway?"
saw my sign, White Man, and I will tell you. I am of the Kogmolik
people, as are
Qivotok and the others?'
are a long way from your home?"
The "Soul Stealer"
Tells His Story
answered the Eskimo. "They drove me out of the tribe because they said
away the soul of Avunang, who walked over a cliff and fell into the
was sick, and because I am an Angekoq (a subduer of spirits ‒ a
magician) and had
cured many people when they were sick, the wife and brothers of Avunang
me. They brought presents and I promised to ask the help of my spirit.
must have been a long way off, for I fasted and beat upon the drum and
name until I was weary, weary. Then my eyes closed and my hands hung
down. I found
myself in a deep ravine down which poured a great waterfall. I knew I
was on the
way to the underworld. I followed the ravine a long, long way. Down
under the earth
it widened out suddenly and I found myself in a country with a thick
dark blue sky
over me. It was not light there as it is up here. The sun was smaller
than the sun on earth. It was winter there, but there was no snow; it
Ice lay over the sea. I saw three men pushing their sledge over the
they had no dogs. One of the men was my father; the other two I did not
told me it was pleasant down there. There were plenty of seals walruses
They invited me to go to a river where there were many salmon. When we
a long distance my father pointed to a ravine down which I had come and
back unless you wish to remain here.' Just then I saw the soul of
on the ice. I grasped it and ran towards the ravine; but the two men
ran after me
and tore away the soul of Avunang. When I returned to earth the
relatives of Avunang
cursed me. The sick man had risen from his bed shouting 'Sorqak!
Sorqak!' and had
run to the cliff and fallen over. They said I had stolen his soul to
magic. They were afraid and drove me from the village with stones and
paused, and there was silence in the cabin for a time. Captain
Norwood's pipe had
gone out. He lit it again before speaking. Then he asked:
what do you want to do now, Sorqak?"
Man," answered the Eskimo, "I have wandered to the eastward ever since
the Great Warmer (the sun) has come back to the sky. I am weary of
seeing no faces
of men or of women and children. When your great ship comes to another
me ashore among them. I do not want to go back."
the sign, Sorqak, where did you learn that sign?"
I was a young man, before my father died, he taught me many things. He
the sign, and he said that his father before had taught him that when
in great difficulty
or danger the sign should be made."
silence in the cabin again for a while as Captain Norwood puffed
his pipe. Then he turned to the Eskimo:
we come to the shore of Omeurak (Banks Land) and find the people who
I will give you food and a new seal spear and I will set you among
of the Eskimo lightened up. He smiled and said:
are good to me, my brother."
* This story is
founded on an
incident related by Captain Norwood, of the Arctic whaling fleet, to
Bro. T.R. Moulton,
of the Customs Service, Vancouver, while Bro. Moulton was in the
in Northern Canada.
of Masonic History
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Editor
Part XII – Various Grand
Lodges; York, Ireland, Scotland Etc.
IN Part X
of the present series of brief studies I gave a sketch of the
organization of "the
Mother Grand Lodge of the world," formed in London, 1717; and in this
last month gave a similar account of the founding of the Ancient Grand
account could not be complete without some word concerning the
formation of other
Grand Lodges, especially since two of them functioned in England
itself. I shall
begin with the Grand Lodge at York, known as
I. The Grand Lodge of All
Many of the
earliest legends and traditions of the Craft cluster about the
of York so that to this day it is a revered name amongst us, and
especially in the United States where we hear mention every day of the
York Rite. According to an old legend, Edwin called a General Assembly
at York in 926, but this is generally doubted, and that because there
are no records
to prove it. But we do know that for at least two centuries Operative
better organized in York than in most countries, and we have still in
the old Fabric Rolls in which was kept a record of the building of York
to show us what manner of men the old Masons were and how they
conducted their affairs;
these "Rolls", or records, cover the years 1350 ‒ 1639.
It is probable
that a lodge organized by those Operative Masons continued on long
after their work
was finished. According to Hughan the records show that at least as
early as 1643
a lodge was in existence there. This lodge, like so many others,
succumbed in the
course of time to pressure, and began to admit "gentlemen Masons",
men who had no intention of practicing Operative Masonry, and this
element came in time to dominate, so that shortly after the beginning
of the eighteenth
century it assumed entire control. According to an inventory made in
1779 the lodge
possessed at that time a MS. book containing records beginning with
March 7, 1705
‒ 6, but this precious volume was somehow lost, and seems now beyond
existing lodge minutes go back to 1712, which was five years prior to
of the first Grand Lodge. At that time it would seem that there was in
"Mother Lodge", described in latter years, but inaccurately, as having
been a Grand Lodge, and that this lodge chartered others; but even so
possessed little strength because the "Mother Lodge" held no meetings
at all, at least so far as the records show, during the years 1717 ‒
1721. An awakening
came after a Grand Lodge (properly so called) had been established in
after a Book of Constitutions had been published. York Masonic
assemblies had been
presided over by a President, but in 1725 the style was changed to
and Charles Bathurst was elected to that office; what had been a
lodge transformed itself into a "Grand Lodge", and adopted the name
Lodge of All England."
was no open friction between this Grand Body and the Grand Lodge
there was apparently little or no active cooperation, and in the Grand
All England itself there was not much strength; after it chartered a
(none of them outside of England) it ceased gradually to function
the years 1740-1750. Then, after having remained dormant, it was
awakened in 1761
to new activity, after such manner as the following minute explains:
Ancient and Independent Constitution of Free and Accepted Masons,
belonging to the
City of York, was, this Seventeenth day of March, in the year of our
Revived by Six of the Surviving Members of the Fraternity by the Grand
opened, and held at the House of Mr. Henry Howard, in Lendall, in the
by them and others hereinafter named."
of the defunct Grand Lodge made possible one interesting episode in the
of Grand Lodges, as will later appear, but it proved in the long run
in the course of time the Grand Lodge of All England passed gradually
out of existence
through a process of absorption, perhaps, by the ever growing Grand
had been established in 1717 and in 1751.
of the Ancient Grand Lodge, organized on the latter date, of which an
given last month, desired above all things to claim for themselves as
great an antiquity
as possible; it was for this reason, no doubt, that they fell into the
describing themselves as "Ancient York Masons"; this was only a dodge,
without legitimate right or excuse, and it has caused a certain amount
since. I have only now, on the day I write, been reading the
Proceedings of one
Grand Lodge in the United States in which this Grand Lodge claims
descent from York
because it was chartered by the "Ancients" and these "Ancients",
so it is alleged in the volume, were York Masons; they had called
As a matter of fact the York Grand Lodge chartered no lodges in
America, and the
use of the name "York" is in all such cases illegitimate, though it may
be accepted by way of paying tribute to an ancient Masonic center, and
to one of
the best loved cities in the world. On this matter I shall conclude
with a quotation
from W.J. Hughan, taken from Clegg's Mackey's Revised History of
"All the 'York' Lodges
succumbed on the
decease of their 'Mother Grand Lodge,' and there has not been a
the Antient York Grand Lodge anywhere whatever, throughout this (19th)
It never at any time chartered Lodges to meet out of England, and was
to the 'Athol Masons' [or 'Ancients'] of London, though the latter
unfairly, style themselves 'Antient York Masons,' a title affected
since by several
Masonic bodies, with as little authority."
II. An Infant Among Grand
a Scotch printer who came to London in 1760, was made a member in 1774
of the Lodge
of Antiquity, a "time immemorial body" that held rank (and does still)
under the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of 1717 as the oldest lodge
on the list.
Because of his zeal, learning and ability, and because of his
inauguration of the
Preston lectures, as well as his writing the famous Illustrations of
published in 1772) Preston ranks with Desaguliers, Anderson, Dermott
and one or
two others as among the most brilliant names in the history of English
Preston's admittance to the Lodge of Antiquity that famous old lodge
had been on
the down grade but through his energy, and because he brought a new
blood into it by means of the initiation of a number of young men, his
soon brought it to a high degree of efficiency once again.
attracted the attention of Grand Lodge so that he was made assistant
James Heseltine being Grand Secretary. Heseltine believed that a new
the Constitutions of Grand Lodge should be published so he engaged
Preston to take
up the task. After he had done so, and the book was about ready for
Heseltine suddenly insisted that Noorthouck, Treasurer of the Lodge of
should be given an equal share in the enterprise. Preston resented this
and as a
result fell into a quarrel with both brethren, especially with
Heseltine, who was
not noted for an irenic disposition.
feelings were still hot Preston was inadvertently and innocently led
into a violation
of Grand Lodge rules, a thing that happened after this wise. On Dec.
27, 1777, Preston
led his lodge to divine service at St. Dunstan's Church, Fleet street;
ended he and his brethren, attired in their aprons and gloves, walked a
across to the Mitre Tavern. Now it happens that in 1747 Grand Lodge has
resolution prohibiting all public processions except with the express
the Grand Master, therefore the Lodge of Antiquity had become guilty of
violation of the rules.
immediately pounced upon this as a means of getting a thrust at
Preston. In making
a reply Preston stepped into a trap by taking the position that since
Lodge possessed a "time immemorial" charter and had not been brought
existence by Grand Lodge, it had a right to regulate its own domestic
furnished Heseltine and his friends with a new weapon that they were
not slow to
use; Preston was expelled by Grand Lodge.
the Lodge of Antiquity split in two. That portion headed by Preston and
immediately applied for a deputation from the Grand Lodge of All
England (at York:
see above) and thereupon set themselves up as a new Grand Lodge, using
Grand Lodge of All England South of the River Trent; it was constituted
of this baby Grand Body is as short as the simple annals of the poor.
that it warranted several lodges but thus far only two such warrantings
verified. The move was evidently out of joint with the times. After a
during which Preston largely lost interest in Masonry, he succeeded in
memorial considered by Grand Lodge and, after he had made his
repentance, was in
May 1789 restored to full standing in Grand Lodge. Upon this the Grand
All England South of the River Trent passed out of existence. It left
no mark behind
it on the developments of the Craft and was never at any time anything
a private schism.
III. The Grand Lodge of
Next in seniority
to the Grand Lodge of 1717, and sharing with it and with Scotland the
of establishing world-wide Freemasonry, is the Grand Lodge of Ireland.
a time when little was known about Irish Freemasonry, especially of the
century, but such ceased to be the case upon the publication of Dr.
Crawley's Caementaria Hibernica [Lib 1726] ("The Freemasonry of
a magnificent work which ranks with Gould's larger history as to its
but far surpasses that massive production in the grace and appeal of
‒ a thing in which Dr. Crawley easily stands supreme among the greater
of the Craft.
to whom the present paragraphs are almost entirely-indebted, shows that
was well known in Ireland at least as early as 1688, and that at a very
(comparatively speaking) the type of ritual later adopted by the Grand
1717 was practiced by Irish Masons. One of the proofs of this is found
in the records
of the initiation of Miss St. Leger, the most famous of all "lady
Her case shows, first, that a Speculative Lodge was working at
Doneraile in 1710;
second, that two degrees were then practiced; and third, that the
were strikingly similar to those employed after the "Revival" in 1717.
that century two Grand Lodges flourished side by side in Ireland, one
of them, with
its headquarters at Cork, being the Grand Lodge of Munster; little is
the beginnings of either one of them, but a record shows that the
Monster body was
in action at least as early as 1726, and that it had at that time at
least one subordinate
body, of which minutes are extant of date Feb. 2, 1726. One very
of these minutes is that they mention the appointment of deacons, the
mention in the history of the Craft. Scotland had employed deacons in
preceding but of a different kind. On this subject Dr. Crawley wrote a
important to be read:
"We must carefully distinguish
Deacon of the early Scottish Minute Books and the Deacon of the Irish
former occupied almost, if not altogether, the highest post among his
having precedence over the Warden, and presiding over the meeting when
required. The latter held the lowest official position in the lodge,
and was mainly
concerned with ritual. The former correspond to the Dean (i.e., Deacon)
the latter to the lowest order of the ministry, the Deacon of
The similarity does not go beyond the name."
In 1733 the
Grand Lodge of Munster ceased to exist by absorption or fusion,
probably, with the
Grand Lodge of Ireland, having headquarters at Dublin. So little is
the founding of this Grand Body that we must rest content with knowing
that by 1725
it was in full swing because in that year it had as Grand Master,
Earl of Rosse. It appears that the Munster lodges came under its
authority in 1731
or thereabouts and as a result of the influence of the Grand Lodge of
third Grand Master, James, 4th Baron Kingston.
In 1805 one
Alexander Seton led a revolt, growing out of a quarrel that had to do
with the Higher
Degrees, and with some friends and abettors set up a schismatic Grand
Lodge of Ulster.
This distracted the activities of Ireland for nine years only.
relations between English and Irish Freemasonry at that early date is
shown by the
first Book of Constitutions published in Ireland; this was compiled by
Grand Secretary at Dublin, and was an almost exact counterpart of the
of 1723. In 1751 a Book of Constitutions, properly revised for Irish
uses, was prepared
by Edward Spratt, Grand Secretary; this version, as noted in the
of the present series, served as a model for Laurence Dermott's Ahiman
to being the first section of the general Craft to employ deacons the
of Ireland is also notable in that it was the first to grant a lodge
we now understand the term, when such an instrument was granted to the
of Ireland in 1731; and also in that it was the first to grant
i.e., warrants for military and naval lodges, a fact that afterwards
played an incalculable
part in the developments of Freemasonry at large.
The Grand Lodge of Scotland
of Freemasonry in Scotland is a subject of peculiar value to the
because it makes clearer than that of any other country just how
gradually evolved into what we have come to call Speculative
in Scotland, more than in Ireland or England, the records are less
broken. By dint
of piecing one scrap of information with another one can gain a pretty
picture of the whole process.
is in the traditions of the English Craft Kilwinning is to Scotland.
one old book "a number of Freemasons came from the Continent to build a
at Kilwinning and with them an architect or Master Mason to superintend
on the work. This architect resided at Kilwinning, and being a gude and
intimately acquainted with all the arts and parts of Masonry, known on
was chosen Master of the meetings of the brethren all over Scotland. He
for the conduct of the brethren at these meetings, and decided finally
from all the other meetings or lodges in Scotland." (Quoted from
Revised History of Freemasonry [Lib 1906; Vol 3 (pp 630)], page 663.) Kilwinning Abbey
in the County of Ayr, on the southwest coast of Scotland, about
from Glasgow, and was founded in 1140 by Hugh de Morville.
This is the
basis of the "Kilwinning tradition" and as such was accepted by the
of Laurie's History of Freemasonry [Lib 1859]; but D. Murray Lyon, the
of Scottish Masonic history (see his History of the Lodge of Edinburgh
[Lib 1873]), attacked it, and with so
success that it has been pretty well abandoned, at least by general
admittedly authentic Constitutions used by the Scotch draft are "The
and Ordinances to be observed by all the Master Masons within the
realm; set down
by William Schaw [Lib 1598], Master of Work to his
Majesty and General
Warden of the said Craft with the consent of the Masters hereafter
are found in the minutes of the Lodge of Edinburgh, also called St.
which fill six volumes, extend from Dec. 28, 1598, to Nov. 29, 1869,
other material of incalculable value. Along with the Schaw Statutes
must be placed,
as of almost equal importance, the St. Clair Charters. The former of
these two precious
documents was evidently written in 1600 or 1601, and was signed by
This document sets it forth that whereas the Lords of Roslin had from
to age" been considered the official patrons and governors of the Craft
Scotland, and whereas they had become negligent the Craft had, by
of all Masons, agreed that henceforth William Sinclair should become
patron and judge under the King." The second St. Clair charter is
of the first, and was written, so it is believed, about 1628.
important document in Scottish history is the "Edinburgh Kilwinning
This was used by the Kilwinning Lodge in the seventeenth century and
also by lodges
founded by Kilwinning, which was a "Mother Lodge," chartering
bodies in something like the fashion later employed by Grand Lodges.
point about this Manuscript is that it is a close copy of an English
Constitution, thereby implying that even at that early date the
influence of English
Freemasonry was being felt in the northern Kingdom.
In the sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries many non-Operatives, often lords of high
admitted members in Scotch lodges; these non-Operatives exercised a
on the Craft, as had been the case in England; and also, as in England,
element came in time to dominate, so that by the beginning of the
a definite movement set in toward a complete transformation of the
This tendency was doubtless greatly stimulated in 1721 when Dr. John
Desaguliers, who had played so important a part in the founding of the
Lodge at London in 1717, visited the lodge at Edinburgh. Two meetings
during his visit at which non-Operatives of high station were entered
The minutes of these meetings, according to Lyon,
"render it probable that taking
of his social position, he had influenced the attendance of the Provost
of Edinburgh and the other city magnates who accompanied them as
Masonic fellowship in order to give a practical illustration of the
which his name was so closely associated with a view to its commending
adoption by the Grand Lodges of Scotland."
29, 1735, Canongate Kilwinning Lodge appointed a committee for "framing
to be laid before the several lodges in order to the choosing of a
for Scotland." To further this project in August of the following year
Douglas of the Lodge of Kirkcaldy was made a member of Canongate
then appointed Secretary in order to make out "a scheme for bringing
a Grand Master for Scotland." Meanwhile it had been arranged that the
lodges of Edinburgh should hold counsel looking toward the same end,
and as a result
four lodges, Mary's Chapel, Canongate Kilwinning, Kilwinning Scots
Arms, and Leith
Kilwinning, assembled at Edinburgh, Oct. 15, 1736. Other meetings were
the project was brought before all the lodges in Scotland. Out of about
lodges thirty-three assembled in Edinburgh Nov. 30, 1736, and there
into a Grand Lodge.
to the traditions embodied in the St. Clair MSS. the real chief
authority of the
Craft was embodied in that family; but at the assembly just referred
St. Clair presented a formal document in which he relinquished all
claims to any
such jurisdiction. He was immediately elected Grand Master.
nearly all the lodges in Scotland applied for warrants from the new
for several years thereafter many of them retained their Operative
very brief account ‒ altogether too brief to present an adequate
picture of the
founding of the Grand Lodge of Scotland ‒ it will be seen that in
Scotland the transition
from Operative to Speculative Freemasonry was made gradually. And while
Speculative Freemasonry undoubtedly exercised considerable influence in
there was never at any time any appeal to the Grand Lodge of England
warrants. Bro. Clegg, in his Revised Mackey's History of Freemasonry,
a succinct statement of this important fact in a paragraph excellent to
Freemasonry of Scotland produced from its own Operative Lodges its
Lodge, precisely us was the case with the Freemasonry of England. In
it has differed from the Freemasonry of every other country where the
element never merged into the Speculative. The latter was always a
direct and independent
importation from the Speculative Grand Lodge of England, wholly
distinct from the
Operative Freemasonry existing at the same time."
Study Club article for April, 1924; also article on Preston in same
* * *
Encyclopedia (Revised Edition)
37; Aitchison's-Haven Lodge, 42; Aitchison's-Haven Manuscript, 42;
121; Burns, Robert, 124; Chapel, Mary's, 142; Deacon, 197; Desaguliers,
Francis, 220; Ecossais, 228; Grand Lodge, 306; Harodim, Grand Chapter
of, 319; Ireland,
357; Kilwinning, 381; Kilwinning Manuscript, 382; Lawrie, Alexander,
Old, 464; Preston, William, 579; Ramsay, Andrew Michael, 607; Schaw
666; Schaw, William, 667; Scotland, 671; St. Clair Charters, 715; St.
716; York Constitutions, 866; York Grand Lodge, 867; York Legend, 867.
Ireland), VIII, 53, 79, 110, 172 [Lib 1895]; IX, 4, 18, 153 [Lib*]; X,
XI, 190 [Lib*]; XII, 164, 167 [Lib*]; XIII, 130, 142 [Lib 1900]; XV, 100 [Lib*]; XVI, 69, 174
XVII, 93, 137, 230 [Lib 1904]; XXI, 58, 181 [Lib 1908]; XXIV, 68 [Lib 1911]; XXVI, 131, 196 [Lib*].
A.Q.C. (on Scotland), I, 10, 139, 193 [Lib 1895]; II, 164 [Lib 1889]; III, 172 [Lib 1890]; VI, 69, 108 [Lib 1893]; VII, 56, 101, 137 [Lib 1894]; VIII, 4, 45 [Lib 1895]; IX, 171 [Lib*]; XI, 195
XIV, 131 [Lib 1901]; XIV, 131, 177 [Lib 1901; XXIV, 30 [Lib 1911].
Caementaria Hibernica, W.J. Chetwode Crawley. [Lib 1726]
Collected Essays on Freemasonry, R.F. Gould. [Lib 1913]
Concise History of Freemasonry, R.F. Gould. [Lib 1951]
Early History and Records of the Lodge, Aberdeen 1 ter, A.L. Miller.
Grand Lodge of England, A.F. Calvert. [Lib*]
History of Freemasonry, Findel. [Lib 1866]
History of Freemasonry, R.F. Gould. [Lib 1884-89; Vol
1, Vol 2, Vol
3, Vol 4]
History of Freemasonry, Laurie. [Lib 1859]
History of Freemasonry in York, Hughan. [Lib*]
History of the Mother Lodge, Kilwinning, Robert Wylie. [Lib*]
Illustrations of Masonry, William Preston. [Lib 1867]
Irish Master Masons Handbook, Fred J.W. Crowe. [Lib*]
Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry, Clegg. [Lib*]
Unpublished Records of the Craft, Hughan. [Lib*]
A Word to
New Members of the National Masonic Research Society; With an Extra
Word or Two
for Old Members
who have recently come into the family of the National Masonic Research
from The National Trestle Board, and also those of you ‒ a goodly
number ‒ who have
joined our circle during the past year or so will find it worth your
while to draw
up to the table for a few minutes in order to learn what the Society
and THE BUILDER
"are all about." In case this telling of what it is about fails to
upon some point about which you feel curiosity write us a letter. We
have no secrets.
Masonic Research Society, as its name clearly indicates, is a society,
not a private
commercial enterprise owned by some individual or group of stock
holders for profit.
It began in 1915 as a voluntary association of individual Masons, drawn
the Rites, willing to pay their own way, to the end that many active
Masons "that must have remained at a perpetual distance" might have a
"center of union, and the means of conciliating true friendship" in
activities. In the management of this organization every member is
entitled to a
voice and a vote.
of Stewards, which functions in somewhat the same capacity as a board
is elected from the membership, five each year. Prior to the annual
meeting of the
Society held last October every member received a personal letter
inviting him to
attend; hereafter such notices will be published in THE BUILDER at a
elected annually by the Board of Stewards, presides at the annual
meeting and during
the year handles such matters as are appropriate to that office. The
presides in event of the President's absence. The Board of Stewards may
together by the President at any time or place necessity may demand,
to a bylaw recently adopted, stewards may vote by mail on such
questions as are
not sufficiently important to warrant calling a meeting. The General
as secretary to the President and Board of Stewards and takes care of
as has to do with matters of general policy. The Executive Secretary
of the publication of THE BUILDER, of all business matters, the book
the membership department, and all activities involving the expenditure
he is the Society's business manager. Literary and educational
activities and the
editing of THE BUILDER are in charge of an editor-in-chief appointed by
Executive Secretary nor any other officer receives pay, and such
salaries as are
received by employees are either nominal or according to the usual
affairs are managed with the utmost economy in order that every dollar
from dues (your dues) can do its full stint toward carrying on the
rendered by the Society to the Masonic Fraternity.
is open to every Master Mason in good standing in any country of the
present membership list, now larger than it has ever been before, shows
every country in the habitable globe. Membership is taken out for one
year at a
time, dues payable in advance.
is the official journal of the Society, and is not in any sense a
It is sent monthly to each member as one of the prerogatives of his
and every member is invited to a voice in its editing and is asked to
criticism, or otherwise help to make it as representative and valuable
It is not an organ of personal opinion or of any one school of Masonic
against any other school. Contributions are accepted or rejected solely
on the ground
of their general merit, and then regardless of the school of Masonic
so that the journal can act as a free and fraternal forum of Masonic
activities. The editor-in-chief is assisted by a board of associate
by a large number of other individuals, each a specialist in his own
department is maintained as a convenience to members so that they may
to secure new or second hand Masonic literature at the least possible
with the least risk of spending money for useless material. Whatever a
need to know about Masonic books is furnished gratis, and always with
Grand Lodge Proceedings, pamphlets, etc., are clipped each week and
are loaned on request for study or speech making purposes. At present
on nearly 20,000 topics are available.
inception the Society has been active in the promotion of all forms of
especially in the form of study clubs. It co-operates with any
or Masonic body in organizing study clubs and then continues to assist
them as long
as they function. A department of THE BUILDER is devoted to these clubs.
to this the Society has formed several groups of students for special
work in Masonic
research, the members of which maintain contact through the mails; some
groups are soon to be ready to publish their findings in book form. Any
of associating with such a group or of organizing one himself may do so
a letter to the editor-in-chief.
is giving a great deal of assistance to authors, or prospective
authors. Where a
man is qualified for such work he is assisted to secure the necessary
data and literature;
his manuscript is criticized; and he is then assisted to find a
publisher and a
market. During the week immediately preceding this writing three such
were sent to headquarters.
In all these
activities the Society is assisted in all ways by the Iowa Masonic
its unmatched resources and equipment; of its staff three brethren are
our official family.
One of the
largest of the activities at headquarters is replying to requests for
concerning Freemasonry. If a question is possible of answer the
its worldwide membership, can find the answer. This service is given
gratis to all
to give the reader some conception of the ground covered by these
requests for information
100 letters were taken at random from the mail reaching Ye Editor's
one week and classified with the following results:
about the Blue Lodge, 1; Cryptic Masonry, 1; Scottish Rite, 4; other
foreign Masonry, 2; history, ritual and symbolism, 10; speeches, 7;
8; books, 20; authorship, 2; jurisprudence, 2; is such and such a man a
social affairs in lodges, 2; request for publication, 1; clippings sent
by Society, 3; study clubs, 3; comment on items published in THE
offered, 20; Roman Catholicism, 1; literature wanted, 1; unclassified,
total shows that several letters contained more than one request for
of giving all this information to you, Brother New Member, is to tell
you that this
service is put at your disposal. Avail yourself of it at your need. If
to find a place for yourself among those engaged in special research or
to lend a hand to the enterprise of Masonic education let us know. If
you find that
your Masonic friends are interested in such work nominate them for
sending a letter to THE BUILDER.
* * *
Masonry as an Order of Merit
democratic America, we can boast of no Order of the Bath or Garter, no
the Legion of Honor or Iron Cross; but there may well be reason for
decorations of merit created by 100,000 or 500,000 or 1,000,000 members
of an organization
founded to alleviate suffering, to inculcate good morals, loyalty to
to do good unto others ‒ whether such an Order Of merit is not as
honorable as one
created by prince or potentate who links his name with ribbon, cross,
The former are the outgivings of armies which meet in private, but
of benevolence and peace are known of all, mighty influences for the
spread of true
fraternity. They are often hardly less resplendent than decorations
royalty, but are often more worthily bestowed.
Stevens' Cyclopedia of Fraternities.
* * *
BUILDER contained more than its share of errors, most of which were
but sufficiently irritating for all that. No "alibis" are offered.
of first page, left side, "transcontinental" should have been
which makes quite a difference; and "Admis" ( God save the mark! )
have been our old friend "Adonis". Beg your pardon, Bro. Meekren!
quotation on page 100, April issue, should have read Mandatum novum do
typographical slip. Beg pardon, Ye Editor!
An item concerning
John Ross Robertson appeared in Ye Editor's corner for November that
was based on
a clipping from a Canadian Grand Lodge Proceedings; it appears that the
was erroneous. Bro. William Harvey McNairn, of McMaster University,
kindly supplied accurate data, as follows:
"John Ross Robertson was not a
had the extraordinary honor of being able to decline a knighthood and a
(which with us goes by appointment) upon the same day. He did not
bequeath his library
to the Grand Lodge, but to the Toronto Public Library, which however
handed it over to the Grand Lodge. Our friend Bro. N.W.J. Haydon is at
* * *
Records Covering 323 Years
of Edinburgh, No. 1, has records and membership rolls dating back to
1599, and has
been in continuous activity since. The Grand Lodge of Scotland was
1736, nineteen years after that of England, which was organized in 1717
and is the
mother Grand Lodge of the world.
An Interpretation of the
Blue Lodge Work
MASONRY” AN INTERPRETATION OF THE THREE DEGREES,” [Lib*] by H. L.
THE BUILDER; published by George H. Doran Company, New York as Vol. 1,
Masonic Library. May be purchased through the National Masonic Research
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Blue cloth, 360 pages, index,
discussion. Price, $2.15 postpaid.
is the Science of Morality, veiled in Allegory, and illustrated by
This famous old definition of Freemasonry, for which we are indebted to
I believe, specifies three outstanding features. Masonry is first of
all an ethical
system, but its teachings are not spread out on the printed page for
man, though a fool, to glance at and forget; they are, on the contrary,
hidden from all but those who earnestly seek, by a series of
allegories, or stories
of traditional history, which of themselves are interesting and
beautiful. And permeating
the whole, like the grains of pure gold in a quartz vein, are the
by means of which the lofty ethical principles are illustrated and
taught. It follows
then, that he who would discover the quintessence of Freemasonry must
seek the elucidation of its rich symbolism.
simple foundation has been erected the noble structure of the Craft, a
in many an echoing aisle, and adorned with countless storied memorials
of an unforgotten
past. Many there are who enter its portals, and though impressed with
see not beneath it all the firm foundation of moral teaching, overlaid
with a rich
and beautiful symbolism, which supports the whole structure. Without
this, the superstructure
would be but a flimsy erection, to be demolished by the first adverse
a castle of cards. But founded on this underpinning, it has grown into
a noble fame,
which has already braved the storms of uncounted winters, and which
continue as long as men live out their little lives of struggle and
who directs our attention, and guides our reflection to a study of
which support the whole Masonic structure, is a benefactor of the first
though the exposition be bare and unadorned. But what shall we say when
thoughts implied in this rich symbolism are embodied in a diction of
and great beauty! This great achievement has been accomplished by Bro.
H. L. Haywood
in his recent book, Symbolical Masonry. We had read most of it
piecemeal as it appeared
in THE BUILDER, but the unity of the whole is best appreciated in the
indeed, it has to a considerable extent been re-written and much new
book is destined to be a great success seems to be a foregone
books on Masonic symbolism have been written, but none of them in so
and attractive a form. The format, the paper, the letter-press, the
all of a dignity so often lacking in Masonic books.
book is not merely calculated for quiet reading by the study fire; it
well adapted for the use of study classes, and indeed, this is its
as the author clearly intimates in the opening pages. The arrangement
of the subject
matter facilitates this, and an appendix of questions to aid in
and a full and well-arranged index, completes the volume.
begins with a history of the Craft of remarkable clearness and
the important points are adequately touched upon, and yet the whole is
within the compass of twenty-three pages, closing with these noble
in brief, is the story of Freemasonry. What a story it is! It began in
a far foretime
in a few tiny rivulets of brotherly effort; these united into a current
with healing waters across the pagan centuries; many tributaries
augmented its stream
during the Middle Ages, and in modern times it has become a mighty
river which sweeps
on irresistibly. And now, if I may venture to change the figure, its
halls are homes
of light and life; therein men may learn how to live the life that is
Well may one unclasp his shoes and uncover his head as he enters a
a symbolism white with an unutterable age is there, and voices eloquent
old, old music, and a wisdom drawn from the thought and travail of a
then carries us through the three steps in Freemasonry, explaining the
as they arise during the neophyte’s progress from the outer door to the
of the East. This is not done with the cold accuracy of a scientific
with the warmth and vision which the vital interest of the subject so
merits. Around the symbols of Freemasonry the author has woven a work
at times, and when the occasion warrants, rising to a stately cadence
his prophet's vision of the dignity and destiny of the Order, as
witness the following
sentences which close the chapter on "The Lodge":
member who finds the eternal verities growing dim from absorption in
the heat and
burden of his daily task has them made real to him again as he sits in
surrounded on all sides by the impressive symbols of God, of Truth and
Truly the body of men thus living and working becomes itself an
of the far-off coming of the Universal Brotherhood, and stands in the
midst of a
warring humanity as an earnest of the good time coming when the engines
of war and
the implements of all contention will be laid aside forever."
To the beginner
in Masonry who desires an explanation of the many strange and
he has met in the lodge; to the scholar who requires a convenient
epitome of Masonic
symbolism for handy reference; to the Master of a lodge who needs a
text book for
a study class or from which to draw material for addresses, this book
all that is necessary.
W. HARVEY McNAIRN.
* * *
New Edition of Gould's Concise
HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY," by Robert Freke Gould. Published by Macoy
It Masonic Supply House. Blue cloth, index, addenda, 480 pages. May be
through the National Masonic Research Society. $6.30 postpaid.
Frederick J. W. Crowe's revision of Gould's The Concise History of
issued in 1920 by Gale & Polden, London [Lib 1951 (revision by
Crowe of 1951 –
this is a reprint of the 1920 revision)], a long and critical review was published in
these pages, January 1922, page 23. In that review some complaint was
of the liberties that had been taken with the book as it had left
Seventy-five pages or so had been entirely omitted; the reviser had
emendations in the text without showing he had done so; the section
devoted to "The
Great Schism" had been entirely replaced without leaving Gould's own
standing alongside; and while statistics had been revised no effort had
to bring some of the important items of subject matter down to date at
all. A reply
to these strictures, gracious and candid, was published by Bro. Crowe
in THE BUILDER
of June of the same year, page 183.
The new Macoy
edition, of which note is now to be made, removes cause for most of
because, as stated in the Preface, "except for statistical changes in
Chapters, and the insertion, indicated by brackets, of new historical
which, in a few places only, Gould's own text has been almost
without withdrawing an iota of informative statement on his part);
for bringing the book thoroughly but guardedly up to date, the present
the original Concise History intact."
pages of matter on the Comacine Masters from Bro. Joseph Fort Newton's
has been added to chapter two, and in the form of addenda Bros. Sidney
Jacob Hugo Tatsch have contributed some paragraphs concerning present
organizations, including the National Masonic Research Society, the
Association, Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research, etc. Statistics have
with the assistance of Bro. Ossian Lang, Grand Lodge Historian, New
On one point
it may be possible to take issue with the undesignated editor of this
he says that "Gould's policy (indicated in his own Preface) of avoiding
has been adhered to." Footnotes are a nuisance in a book designed to be
seriatim from first to last but Gould's Concise is not that kind of a
one man reads it so, a dozen use it for reference only, and then in
order to gain
information on some one question. Gould wrote his Preface above
referred to in 1903,
twenty-one years ago, and quoted or otherwise used many books and
authors no longer
familiar to the average Masonic reader, consequently it would now be a
if some information about these sources could be incorporated in
the great accumulation of new facts made since 1903 has made obsolete
some of Gould's
opinions and outlawed a few of his arguments; it would be of practical
to a reader, especially if he is a beginning student, to be assisted to
by an editor, who could add in succinct form the new knowledge or else
sources of the same. One of the typical cases of several that come to
mind is Gould's
treatment of the Roman Collegia. It appears that Gould relied for the
on Coote, who wrote his works on early British history long before
dug up the bulk of such knowledge as is now available on the Collegia,
in certain fundamentals of this subject he needs revision. The same
applies to the
Rosicrucian question and other such matters of vital importance in the
this apparatus of critical notes (such as one finds in modern editions
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire) an editor could at the same time
all the references to Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, which would in itself be
a much appreciated
service to students who have access to those incomparable sources;
could give reference
to the appropriate pages of Gould's larger History; and at the same
time could include
titles of books valuable on the subjects treated in such wise as to
furnish a reader
a complete bibliography on Masonic history, a thing lacking from the
book as it
may be made. Gould apparently had almost no literary sense; as
into his mind he wrote them down, crammed them in, and then interlarded
citations, quotations and digressions, of which the last was a favorite
and dangerous as it was favorite, so that the result was a composite of
facts and confusing ramifications. The present writer, if he is
permitted to inject
a personal word here, has read the book through some ten or twelve
times, and keeps
it ever in reach; it is one of the most useful reference works in
alas! all this use has never reconciled him to the literary
formlessness of the
volume, or made it any easier for him to pick his way through the
Gould appeared to be willing to let the reader get along as he best
great dictum, that a writer must not only write so as to make it
possible to be
understood, but so as to make it impossible to be misunderstood, never
our "Masonic Thucydides".
facilitate the use of the book and also add to its salability (here one
glance toward the publisher) if the whole volume were to be
re-chaptered and each
chapter given a descriptive head. These shorter and more coherently
could then be further divided by descriptive subheads, all of which
could act as
signboards by the way and thus ease the journey of the traveler through
to most readers a toilsome journey. Such helps as these would in nowise
with the text itself.
If a reader
is curious to try an experiment let him turn to page 272 of the new
and try to follow the story. First he is in Irish history; suddenly he
into Scotland; then back suddenly to England, with puzzling digressions
and once again sharply brought back to a mixture of Irish and Scotch.
could be well-nigh eliminated by a few subheads or sideheads.
The new edition
is convenient to the hand, and printed in good clear type. In its light
and gold lettering it appeals to the eye, though the illustrations are
worst ever. It is the most complete of all editions thus far issued of
classic, and therefore the most useful, especially to American readers.
* * *
Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry
ORIENTE LUX," [Lib*] by Alfred H. Henry. Published by The Stratford
Boston, Mass. May be purchased through the National Masonic Research
Louis, Mo. Red Cloth, 248 pages, no index. Price $2.65 postpaid.
is one of the puzzles of history. By whom was it founded, and where?
what does it
teach? how large is its membership? who compose it? He would be a
patient man indeed,
and learned in forgotten literatures, who could offer a hard and fast
reply to these
questions. Bro. Arthur Edward Waite published his Real History of the
in 1887 and thereby cast light on the mystery; but he is now, so he has
engaged on a new history of the brotherhood and no doubt will add much
to our knowledge.
The Rosicrucians [Lib 1907], by Hargrave Jennings,
published shortly before
the Waite volume, dealt, as a reviewer put it, with "practically
under the sun except the Rosicrucians." Except for these two works, and
some periodicals, such as Mercury, the public has been left largely in
Lord Lytton wove a romance about the sect in his Zanoni [Lib 1888]; so did Harrison Ainsworth in
and Shelley in St. Irvyne [Lib 1888; Vol 1]. If one adds to these the
that dealt with Rosicrucianism incidentally, such as Mrs. Pott's
Francis Bacon and
His Secret Society [Lib 1891], Harold Bayley's The Lost
Language of Symbolism
[Lib 1912; Vol
1], and Gould's History of
Freemasonry [Lib 1884-89
Volumes – see Bibliography)], the transactions of lodges and learned
societies (there are a few essays
on the subject in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum), he will have about
exhausted the list
of volumes available to the general public and will meanwhile, perhaps,
no very definite conclusions for himself.
value of Mr. Henry's Ex Oriente Lux to the average reader not a
that in it will be found, in elementary form, something of the
teachings of the
sect as now organized in this land, for the book is, as the author
it, "A discussion [in informal lecture form] of the Method of Approach,
the fundamental Principles of Rosicrucian Doctrine, on the part of
those who have
become habituated to Western ideas and modes of thinking."
It is difficult
to make a critical appraisal of this book, even though one may
its author and his aim the most sympathetic good will, and that for two
reasons. For one thing the teachings of Rosicrucianism are largely
as Roman Catholic theologians would express it, and also because those
derive their authority, at least according to the claims made, from
outside of common knowledge. How can one know anything about the "Great
hidden in some remote country, of which Rosicrucians claim to be
and disciples? or of the Rosicrucian teachings not given to the public?
or of those
"Ancient Mysteries" (to which be peace!) which are evidently
in Rosicrucian circles in a manner not at all in consonance with the
general scholarship, and of which the Brotherhood is said to be "the
custodian"? Confronted by these mysteries an outsider has no recourse
lay his hand over his mouth and say nothing.
difficulty in the way of appraising Ex Oriente Lux is that its author
of so many abstract highly generalized words about which hardly any two
agree in definition; here are a few, selected at random, and all of
Absolute, Omnific, Manifestation, Life, Affirmation, Spirit, Hidden
Any one of these terms, or of a hundred others like them, may mean any
one of a
thousand things, but the author furnishes no definitions of them, so
that a reader
soon finds himself in cloudland, and somewhat worried by his situation.
use of what William James called "solving words" ‒ words that appear to
mean much, but usually do not in the connections in which they are
used, and often
used blindly, like magical formulas ‒ is treacherous at best, and all
the more so
in an attempt to make clear to readers doctrines already sufficiently
will suffice. If one inquires of the author as to what he means by a
House" he receives this amazing reply:
"The Sacred Books of the East
all have their
Light and Wisdom of the Hidden House as their theme. Ancient Mystery
all Schools of Interpretation of its Symbolic teaching.
"The highest thought of Western
and thinkers ‒ the Poets from Goethe to Walt Whitman, including
and Lowell; the novelists from Bulwer-Lytton to H. G. Wells; the
Ralph Cudworth to Emerson and Wm. James and Henri Bergson ‒ has been
the conviction that light could be won by the earnest seeker, from
behind the veil,
which guarded a most precious body of truth from premature discovery
definition, which must profoundly surprise a reader, it is added that
presupposes the existence of this Hidden House, and its pre-eminent
Did Freemasonry derive this doctrine from the Rosicrucians? The author
thinks so because he quotes with seeming approval these paragraphs from
"the official organ of the Societas Rosicruciana in America":
"Freemasonry certainly did not
from Rosicrucianism. Yet, in a perfectly legitimate manner, the
was the parent of genuine Freemasonry.
"The Rosicrucians perpetuated,
both the Lesser and the Greater Mysteries. At a time when all arcane
persecution, it assimilated with various contemporary craft gilds,
an operative character, invested with legitimate symbology, and shaped
of the Temple Builders into a philosophic allegory.
"When freedom of thought and
assured, the gradual coalition of these gilds was attempted, and, from
the modern phase of Freemasonry was evolved. Thus Rosicrucianism is
what might be
called the foster-parent of Freemasonry, yet preserving to Freemasonry
all the enhancement
of the dignity of age and an illustrious and legitimate descent from
a number of statements which, if they could be substantiated, would
the entire structure of Masonic history as it has been built up by
careful and painstaking
scholarship during the past forty years. In such a connection the
burden of proof
falls back on the author.
* * *
A Note Concerning "The
In my review
of Bro. Joseph Fort Newton's The Builders, published last month, page
121, I incorporated
in the last paragraph the suggestion that a list of questions for
well be included, also that the bibliography could be made more
accurate as to titles.
Since that paragraph was penned a copy of the book as most recently
printed by Doran
for the M.S.A. National Masonic Library has come to hand and shows that
appeared late on the scene, inasmuch as the bibliography has been
revised and enlarged,
and the "Questions on The Builders," compiled by the Cincinnati Masonic
Study Club, Cincinnati, Ohio, have been added. These changes will
render yet more
valuable a book that has already proved of such great utility to Masons.
* * *
The Greek Idea of Mystery
To the Greeks
and to many primitive people the rites of birth, marriage and death
were for the
most part family rites needing little or no social emphasis. But the
concerned the whole tribe, the essence of which was entrance into the
the rite of initiation at puberty. This all-important fact is oddly and
enshrined in the Greek language. The general Greek word for rite was
was applied to all mysteries, and sometimes to marriages and funerals.
But it has
nothing to do with death. It comes from a root meaning "to grow up."
word telete means rite of growing up, becoming complete. It meant at
then rite of maturity, then by a natural extension any rite of
initiation that was
mysterious. The rites of puberty were in their essence mysterious,
consisted in initiation into the sanctities of the tribe, the things
sanctioned and protected, excluding the uninitiated, whether they were
women, or members of other tribes. Then, by contagion, the mystery
to other rites.
"Ancient Art and Ritual," [Lib 1913] Jane Harrison, p. 112.
** * *
A-1 Lodges in C-3 Environments
By Bro. Wm. N. Ponton, Grand
officers of a lodge are men of light and leadership, full of kindling
agenda will drag and there will be many empty interstices of precious
like nature, abhors a vacuum. Fill every minute with good craftsmanship
‒ draw out
latent talent ‒ generously but discriminately divide the work. It may
but I personally would like to see the opening formalities of the
much shortened, and the Junior Warden's lecture ‒ that gymnastic test
‒ considerably curtailed, or divided as it is in other jurisdictions.
your members not to come to lodge alone always bring a neighboring
brother ‒ there
is great joy as we walk and talk by the way and a pleasant companion is
as a coach. Rain or shine commence on time and have all your members
at every regular meeting one-half hour will be specially featured along
or inspirational lines, led by brethren whose pride it will be to
prepare and share.
The apprentices have covenanted to learn; we have covenanted to teach.
a good attendance it is not necessary to have buffoonery or vaudeville
at the refreshment
table. Do not mistake vulgarity for vivacity, or excitement for refined
pleasure. Do not go beyond the bounds of the Craft for "talent," except
in those rare cases where an outstanding public man (who may not be a
be desirous of propagating the knowledge of some subject of general
he has made peculiarly his own. Above all let your members go away
feeling that they have been factors in the work and social pleasure of
and not spectators and side-benchers only. The eyes and ears are the
way to the
heart. True Masons are as willing to please as to be pleased ‒ to share
‒ to enlarge the horizon of their friendships. Give them ample
opportunity ‒ set
the pace ‒ keep the step ‒ keep the touch. Rally together ‒ stand
together, lift together ‒ and all will be well. One final suggestion on
matter of present attendance and activity ‒ make and keep your
lodge-rooms and precincts
worthy of the "House Beautiful." Ventilate well both ideas and
You cannot have clear thoughts in foul air; you cannot have an A-1
lodge in C-3
Box and Correspondence
Scottish Rite Rituals Not
Is it possible
for an individual Scottish Rite Mason to purchase a copy of the
Scottish Rite Rituals?
M.G.T., Philippine Islands.
to yours relative to the inquiry from the Philippine Islands regarding
of the rituals of the Scottish Rite, 4d to 32d, beg to inform you that
provided only to the regularly authorized subordinate bodies of the
and never furnished to any individuals. Therefore, they are not for
sale at any
H.W. Witcover, Sec’y Gen'l, A.& A.S.S.R.,
* * *
Grand Lodge of England's
Is the report
true that the Grand Lodge of England is to remove from its present site?
A. J., Dist. of Columbia.
was some talk of moving but it has now been settled that the Grand
Lodge's new temple
will be erected on the present site in Great Queen's street.
* * *
Statistical Standing of
the Acacia Fraternity
Can you please
give me information about the size of the Acacia Fraternity in
comparison with other
to Baird's Manual the Acacia Fraternity ranks twenty-sixth among other
as to membership; it has 6,130 members as against Beta Theta Pi's
28,897, the largest,
and Beta Sigma Rho's 240, the smallest. Baird lists sixty-six
first to be organized was Kappa Alpha in 1825; the last, Omega Beta Pi,
ranks thirty-sixth in date, having been founded in 1904. The Triad,
of Acacia, edited by Bro. T. Hawley Tapping, 1511 Brooklyn avenue, Ann
reports Acacia as now having thirty-one chapters; Baird lists it
order of the number of chapters and twenty-sixth in order of number of
* * *
The Trial of the Knights
me where I can find authentic information about the celebrated trial of
find an excellent account of the suppression of the Templar Order in
November and December, 1916, written by Dr. Frederick Hamilton, Grand
Massachusetts. Charlotte Yonge's vivid story of the same catastrophe,
described as "the great crime of the Middle Ages," was published in THE
BUILDER, October, 1923, page 314. The most authoritative of all
accounts in book
form is to be found in Henry Charles Lea's A History of the Inquisition
of the Middle
Ages, Vol. III, Book 3, chapter 5 [Lib 1901; Vol
3], Harper's edition, 1888. Lord
the greatest Roman Catholic scholar of the last century, said of Lea
American has said the last word on his subject." Lea was an independent
impartial scholar who made the subject his life work. You can place
in his account. It contains some interesting matter about Jacques De
hero of the Order of De Molay. The Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. XXVI,
condenses much information into one paragraph:
"All France was at this time
under the jurisdiction
of the inquisition, and the inquisition could act without consulting
the Pope. The
Grand Inquisitor of France, William of Paris, was Phillip's confessor
The way was thus open for the King to carry out his plan by a perfectly
His informers denounced the Templars to the inquisition, and the Grand
‒ as was the customary procedure in the ease of persons accused of
heresy ‒ demanded
their arrest by the civil power."
* * *
That Famous Dollar Bill
has been circulating among our lodge members that a dollar bill of the
contains carefully disguised religious pictures or emblems, and that
of the bill was discharged from the Department for perpetrating it.
What is the
truth about this matter?
inquiry as yours was referred to Senator Simeon D. Fess by David H.
Ohio. Senator Fess sent the inquiry on to Louis A. Hill, Director of
States Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Mr. Hill's reply settles the
am in receipt of your letter making inquiry as to the design on the
States note of the 1917 series:
particular note was designed and engraved by a bank note company, under
with the Treasury Department before the establishment of the Bureau of
and Printing in 1872, and has been used in various series since 1869.
When the Government
took over all the material in the possession of the contracting bank
the die for this note was delivered to the Treasury Department and no
one in the
Government service has any knowledge of the identity of the designer or
or any knowledge or in formation as to the motive for the engraving
into the design
the serpent in the lower left-hand corner.
to the alleged portrait in the upper left-hand corner, which has been
as the portrait of the Virgin Mary and also of the Pope, an examination
ornament with a reading glass will disclose that it consists of the
petals of a
flower which may be seen best by holding the note with the upper
of the current series of all silver certificates, United States notes
notes will be superseded by a new series of uniform designs for all
classes as soon
as plates for same have been completed. This action will retire the
of 1917 series above referred to."
* * *
Information About Freemasonry
of mine in the British Army has written to ask me to find out for him
was established in India. Do Masons in India have a journal or other
source of information?
H. G., New York.
was carried to India by military lodges in the British Army. The oldest
lodge was established in Calcutta, 1730; next came a lodge at Madras,
then Bombay, 1758. Recommend your brother to subscribe for The Masonic
Northern India, addressing the Editor, P. S. Humm, 23 Abbott Road,
Gould's Concise History, a new and complete edition of which has just
by Macoy, condenses into one paragraph the data concerning the present
of Freemasonry in that ancient land, the home of Buddha and of the
Bombay, the most brilliant era of the Craft is inseparably connected
with the memory
of Dr. James Burnes, by whom, in order to throw open the portals of
to native gentlemen, a lodge ‒ Rising Star of Western India ‒ was
December, the first regular meeting there were two initiations, one of
being a Parsee and the other a Mohammedan, both ranking among the most
of their own people; and, in the following July, there were present in
native brethren, three of whom were followers of Zoroaster, two of
four of Mahomet, but all assembled with the followers of Christ to
worship the Masons'
God. In the three Presidencies ‒ with Aden and Burma ‒ there are at the
time 210 lodges under the English, 65 under the Scottish and 12 under
Twelve of these British lodges are located in Ceylon."
* * *
Grand Lodge Ranking According
the Grand Lodge of New Jersey rank among other Grand Lodges according
to its membership?
E. A. R., New Jersey.
to statistics compiled by Bro. C. C. Hunt June 30, 1923, New Jersey
in the list with 73,854. While you are at it you may wish to see the
all Grand Lodges, including Philippine Islands. The table here given
by Bro. C. F. Willard, editor of the San Diego Master Mason:
as of June 30
* * *
Dedication of House of the
One of the
members of our lodge has asked to know when the House of the Temple,
of the Scottish Rite, S. J., was dedicated.
D. W. A., Ohio.
of the Temple, located at 16th and S streets, Washington, D. C., was
Oct. 18, 1915. The Secretary General, Bro. H.W. Witcover, may be able
you with a copy of the General Program then used, if you will write him
In that connection you may be interested to read the historical account
in that program:
noble and imposing structure, to be dedicated to the uses and purposes
Rite Freemasonry, is a monument to the wisdom of the founders of the
power and influence of the Rite, and the beauty and symmetry of its
is Freemasonry carved in stone; it is a great symbol in itself,
epitomizes the old
truths which have come down through the ages from the most remote
saw the first dawn of human intelligence bursting through the thick
mists and fogs
of mere animal instinct when lighted by a spark of Love Divine.
no combination of words can fitly convey a sense of the beauty of a
sunset, a lily,
or an infant's smile, neither can any description adequately express
of conception, the lofty thoughts, the eclectic philosophy cemented
here into one
noble block destined to withstand the storms of time and be a beacon
which its ancient prototype will continue to project rays of Charity,
and Loving Kindness over the whole world.
many years the Mother Council of the World held its meetings in
in a building still standing. Its headquarters were then moved to
by steady growth and accretions of property the House of the Temple,
433 Third Street, N. W., became the Mecca of Scottish Rite Masons from
of the world. Therein died the greatest of Masons, Albert Pike,
by James C. Batchelor and Philip C. Tucker. After them came Thomas H.
James D. Richardson, all of whom have left a lasting impression on the
which the present Sovereign Grand Commander, the scholarly George F.
Moore, is confidently
expected to continue and increase by his faithful service and the
of the Rite.
these have created an atmosphere which will remain with the old House
of the Temple
for a long time to come, and the parting from such hallowed
associations will bring
a feeling of present loneliness and sadness.
the marvelous growth of the Rite demands greater facilities, greater
scope for the
exercise of its powers, which will be given it by this building,
only room and opportunity for efficient service, but an inspiration and
for redoubled efforts in the cause of Scottish Rite Freemasonry in its
self-imposed labor of assisting in the elevation Of humanity to a
of spreading the gospel of peace and concord through all nations and
diffusing the glow and warmth of compassion and sympathy for those
afflicted, and of fostering a sturdy patriotism, a good citizenship,
and manly independence,
not only amongst its immediate membership, but by their example
throughout the civilized
38,348 world. Esto perpetua."
* * *
What Were The Cherubim?
Of all the
degrees in Freemasonry that I have been privileged to take I am frank
to say I like
the Royal Arch about the best. Why can't we have more literature about
it? In that
connection may I ask, What were the cherubim?
D. B. T., Illinois.
Royal Arch literature is sadly lacking, but if the leaders in the Rite
in their plans that deficiency will be made up before very long. It is
to give a satisfactory answer to your query about the cherubim. In the
of Ezekiel you will find a description of "four living creatures." They
possessed the "hands of a man under their wings on their four sides;
had the face of a man, and the face of a lion on the right side; and
they four had
the face of an ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an
Ezekiel does not name these creatures but commentators have agreed in
cherubim. Ezekiel's pages, it should be noted, were written after the
the fourth chapter of the Book of Revelation is a similar description.
assembled about the Throne, "four beasts." "The first beast was like
a lion, and the second beast like a calf; and the third beast had the
face of a
man; and the fourth beast was like a flying eagle." Here again the
are not named but commentators have called them cherubim. Commenting on
Josephus, in his Antiquities, says, while describing the Ark, "Upon its
were placed two images, which the Hebrews call 'cherubim'; they are
but their form is not like that of any of the creatures which men have
Moses said he had seen such beings near the throne of God." In the same
he describes the creatures placed by Solomon in the Temple and
that they were in effect the same as those earlier used by Moses; the
called these cherubim.
that the Royal Arch banner on which the cherubim are emblazoned was
first used in
the middle of the eighteenth century in England, and was perhaps
designed by Laurence
Dermott, whose fertile mind did so much to shape the practices of the
Lodge, from which the first Grand Chapter of Royal Arch very possibly
to the meaning of the cherubim in the Royal Arch, that, is difficult to
seeing that Royal Arch writers and monitorialists have said little or
the subject: Webb does not mention the cherubim, nor does Cross in his
nor Mackey, in his Book of the Chapter [Lib 1870]. Sherville and Gould's Guide
the lectures as now usually given but offer no interpretations. It is a
awaiting research; would you not care to go into it yourself?
believed by many Assyriologists (Lenormant, for example) that the word
derived from the Assyrian "kirubi", and originally had reference to the
winged bulls which functioned as genii, each having the body of a bull,
wings, and the face of a man, the duty of which was to cover
worshippers with their
protecting power. Others trace the conception back to Egypt in the
of winged vultures, with wings outstretched. Consult Mackey's
1914], page 145.
* * *
A Book About Foreign Masonry
to a question in THE BUI1DER, March 1924, page 94, I may say that a
this question will be found in the Annual Directory published by M. W.
P.G.M., Grand Lodge Alpina, Switzerland, the price of which is, I
francs Swiss. Some two years ago he also published an illustrated Two
of Freemasonry which contains a great deal of information about
and the Grand Lodges with which it is in fraternal relations. His
address is, I
believe, 26 Beaux Arts, Neuchatel, Switzerland.
N. W. J. Haydon, Canada.
* * *
Anent Gould's List of Famous
list of Masons in the war of the Revolution [THE BUILDER, March 1924,
page 78] omits
several names on record in Albany, N.Y., at least one which should be
in the list,
as it is not generally known that he was a Mason. Brig. Gen. John
the roster of Masters Lodge, No. 2 (now No. 5), during the year 1778,
his name being
thirteenth of the twenty-six who signed that year.
with his war record as it will be recalled that he resigned early in
but must have gone back into the service promptly as the Battle of
which he took prominent part, was fought August 16, 1777. He was
Gen. of Militia and later of the Continental Army, and for part of 1778
was in command
of the Northern Department; and during that period joined Masters Lodge.
name after his on the roster is Daniel Shays, but that will not likely
find a place
on Bro. Gould's list. There are several other names on this roster
signed with military
titles prefixed. Col. Henry B. Livingston signed about one year before
and Lt. Col. Henry A. Van Rensselaer near the end of 1779.
to Bro. Ossian Lang, Gen. Morgan Lewis was initiated in Union, No. 1,
in 1778, but his name does not appear on its roster. No. 233 is vacant
left for some brother who failed to sign, but this is the only break in
of names. The signatures prior to No. 274 are not dated so it is
impossible to tell
whether 233 would come in 1778 or not. There are no names on the roster
No. 1, with military titles but in Masters Lodge, No. 2, the titles run
Major Geo. Knox to Brig. Gen. John Starke, with a few naval titles to
keep up the
prestige of the Navy.
Walter R. Marden, New York.
* * *
The Highest Masonic Lodge
ago I read in some Masonic publication of a lodge somewhere in South
the highest above sea level of any lodge in the world.
In the summit
of Owl's Head Mountain in the Province of Quebec, Canada, there is a
of solid rock in which Golden Rule Lodge, No. 5, of Stanstead, Quebec,
annual communication 2,580 feet above sea level and from which the
in New Hampshire, and the Green in Vermont, can be seen.
a world of beautiful sentiment connected with such heroic relations to
any information regarding this "highest lodge in the world" will be
L.B. Mitchell, Michigan.
of the Eastern Star," by Kennaston.
of Bagdad," by Sylvanus Cobb, Jr.
of Freemasonry," by Buck.
Vol. I, Ars
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. Both must be complete and with St. John's
of the Hole Crafte and Fellowship of Masons," by Edward Conder.
of Masonic Geometry and Symbolry," by H. P. H. Bromwell.
of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite," by Robert Folger.
THE BUILDER, 1918.
Burns and Freemasonry," by Dudley Wright.
Masonic Year," for years 1920, 1921 and 1924. Pubished by Masonic
* * *
anxious to secure loose copies of THE BUILDER for the years 1915, 1916,
1918. I wish them complete from the first number, twelve copies for
each year, unbound,
with original covers as issued. Any brother who may have these to
dispose of will
please address a letter to me giving price and other details."
Edwin B. Hill, Ysleta, Texas.
* * *
and prices to Book Department, National Masonic Research Society, 1950
St. Louis, Mo.
distribution: A leaflet containing President Harding's last speech, an
Hollywood Commandery, No. 56, K. T. Send your name and address on a
post card if
you wish a copy. They won't last long. Also a booklet on the "Mystic
of Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm."
* * *
of the present issue of THE BUlLDER have been printed than of any other
far published. We are growing.
* * *
No. 1, A. F. & A. M., Fargo, North Dakota, presents each new
with a membership in the N. M. R. S. Several lodges are now doing this.
get your lodge in line?
* * *
We are starting
a special research group on "the Bible in Masonry." Do you wish to join
it? Write Ye Editor.
* * *
Masonic architects! If you would like to publish a book on Masonic
with plans and illustration, write us; we have an interesting proposal.
* * *
It has been
proved that President Monroe was a Mason. We have ourselves recently
to show that President Arthur was also possibly a member. In event of
membership the list of known Masonic Presidents will be increased from
ten to twelve.
* * *
body wishing to use The School Bell in quantities is urged to write us
* * *
The New England
Craftsman has featured this fetching bit of poetry:
it strange that Princes and Kings
And clowns that caper in sawdust rings,
And common folks like you and me,
Are Builders for Eternity?
To each is given a bag of tools
A shapeless mass and a book of rules;
And each must make, ere life is flown
A stumbling block or a stepping stone."
May Book List
The Builder in Bound Volumes
1922 and 1923 cannot be sold separately; other years at $3.75 per
set of nine bound volumes.
By JOSEPH FORT NEWTON [Lib 1914]
most widely read of all Masonic books. Covers Masonic beginnings, known
and furnishes interpretation of the general ideals and teachings of the
review in THE BUILDER, April 1924.) Blue cloth, 343 pages, index
their Predecessors and Their Successors; [Lib 1910] Including Further Notes on
By W. RAVENSCROFT
only work on the subject available in English. Paper, fully
illustrated, 43 pages.
of Freemasonry [Lib 1951] By R. F. GOULD
in condensed form the materials of his larger "History." The standard
one volume history of Masonry in English. Cloth.
Index to The Builder' [Lib*]
years 1915 to 1919, inclusive. Paper 50 pages.
and Records of the Lodge [Lib*], Aberdeen 1ter By A. L. MILLER
valuable little book that explains much concerning Operative Masonry. (
review in THE BUILDER, November, 1923.) Cloth, 74 pages. $1.35
of Freemasonry [Lib 1914] By ALBERT G. MACKEY
large volumes of 943 pages combined. Second volume contains glossary
and meaning of all Masonic words in general use. De Luxe fabrikoid
of Freemasonry [Lib*] By DELMAR DARRAH
history of Freemasonry; heavy coated paper, firm green cloth binding,
back, many illustrations, index, 422 pages. $5.15
Before the Existence of Grand Lodges [Lib 2010] By LIONEL VIBERT
scholarly book; embodies findings of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of
Research on Masonic
history prior to 1717. A standard work. (Reviewed in THE BUILDER,
Cloth, 164 pages. $1.90
in America Prior to 1750 [Lib 1916] By MELVIN M. JOHNSON, P.G.M.,
only work in existence covering its period and subject. A careful
important data. Cloth, 225 pages.$1.35
Its Aims and Ideals [Lib*] By J. S. M. WARD
discussion of a number of controversial questions. Blue cloth, 232
Freemasonry [Lib*] By "UNCLE SILAS
on Masonry conceived in a new vein. Popular. Selling with rapidity.
Cloth, 60 pages. $1.00
of Masonry [Lib*] By H. L. HAYWOOD
of Masonry" in popular form. Expounds each of the important teachings
Craft in 18 chapters. Blue cloth, index, 187 pages, bibliography. $2.15
the Knights Templar [Lib 1842] By C. G. ADDISON
work for Masonic Knights Illustrated, cloth, 670 pages.$3.95
By ALBERT PIKE
to Pope Leo XIII's bull against Freemasonry. Paper, 52 pages. 15 cents
All Occasions [Lib 1922] (Anonymous)
to speech makers of the post-prandial variety. Cloth, 368 pages. $1.10
on Masonic Jurisprudence [Lib*] By ROSCOE POUND,
of the Department of Law Harvard University.
Based on lectures delivered in 1911-1912. Five chapters. Blue cloth,
the Craft [Lib*] By ROLLIN C. BLACKMER
review in THE BUILDER, November, 1923.) An exposition of the work of
the Three Degrees.
Cloth, portrait, 297 pages. $3.00
Revised History of Freemasonry By ROBERT I. CLEGG
most monumental work ever published in America. Seven large volumes
with total of
2376 pages; illustrated; De Luxe fabrikoid binding; exhaustive index.
and Traditions [Lib*] By DUDLEY WRIGHT
in THE BUILDER, February, 1922. Review by A. E. Waite reprinted in THE
July, 1922.) Cloth, 152 pages. $1.65
Makers of America [Lib 1921] By MADISON C. PETERS
account of Freemasonry in the Revolutionary Period. Last edition.
Cloth, 80 pages.$1.10
Lectures [Lib*], The By the Worshipful Master of Evans Lodge
chapters on Initiation, Fraternity Toleration etc. Gold embossed
binding, 8x11 inches
108 pages, limited edition. $5.15
of Masonry [Lib 1922] By W. L. WILMSHURST
of the general ideals and teachings of the Craft from a mystical and
of view. Black cloth, 216 pages. $3.25
Lodges [Lib*] By ALFRED LAWRENCE
about same ground as Gould's work on same subject, but condensed. Paper
45 pages. 35 cents
Schools [Lib 1922] By CORA WILSON STEWART
account of the war being waged on adult illiteracy in the United States
by the woman
who started the "moonlight school" movement. Cloth. 194 pages. $2.10
and Masonry [Lib 1920] By S. H. GOODWIN, Grand
for the Craft by the Grand Lodge of Utah. Deals with a little known
chapter in the
history of American Masonry. Paper binding, 38 pages. 25 cents
of Freemasonry [Lib 1915] By ROSCOE POUND, Dean of the
Law Harvard University.
chapters covering the leading Masonic philosophers. Blue cloth, 96
on The Builders [Lib*]
compiled by the Cincinnati Masonic Study Club to be used in connection
Builders" (see in this list under "B") by Joseph Fort Newton. Paper
13 pages, closely printed. 15 cents
and Freemasonry [Lib*] By DUDLEY WRIGHT
non-controversial statement, incorporating most of the important
Blue cloth 251 pages, index. $4.15
[Lib*] By H. L. HAYWOOD. Editor, THE BUILDER
brief interpretation of the Fellowcraft Degree. Pamphlet, blue paper,
Their Preparation and Delivery [Lib 1922] By ALEXANDER BURTON
text book for the budding orator. Cloth, 251 pages. $1.10
of Old Glory The Oldest Flag [Lib*] By J. W. BARRY, P. G. M., Iowa
of the Flag and Masonry. Reprinted from THE BUILDER. Paper covers,
20 pages. 60c
Masonry [Lib*] By H. L. HAYWOOD, Editor, THE BUILDER
suited for use by Study Clubs. Prefaced by a condensed history of
the work of the Three Degrees. Questions for discussion index, blue
cloth, 380 pages.$2.15
of the First Degree [Lib 1915] By A. W. GAGE
introduction. Good for Entered Apprentices. Pamphlet, paper, 12 pages.
of the Third Degree [Lib*] By J. OTIS BALL
study to be read by newly raised Masons Pamphlet, paper, 16 pages.
of the Three Degrees [Lib 1924] By OLIVER DAY STREET
important symbols of the Three Degrees. (See Review in THE BUILDER,
Blue cloth 96 pages, index, bibliography. $1.35
Freemason Should Know [Lib*] By FRED J. W. CROWE
information about the organization and activities of English
Freemasonry. Blue cloth.
Masonic Fraud [Lib*] By ISAAC BLAIR EVANS
Evans was the attorney employed by Masonic bodies in case against
review in THE BUILDER, October, 1923.) Authentic, complete, blue cloth,
History of Freemasonry [Lib] DUDLEY WRIGHT
valuable to students of the Order of the Eastern Star. Contains
accounts of So-called
"women Masons." Cloth, 184 pages $1.90
Masonic Research Society is a non-commercial organization that pays
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its service to the Craft. Its Book Department exists for no other
purpose than the
convenience of its members.
Masonic Research Society
1950 Railway Exchange
St. Louis, Mo.
History of Freemasonry Revised
Gou51 / auth. Gould Robert F / ed. Crowe Frederick J. W.. - London :
Polden Limited, 1951. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 401. - 10.3 MB.
of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages Vol 1
Lea01 / auth. Lea Henry C. - New York : Harper & Brothers,
1901. - Vol. 1 :
3 : p. 601. - 31.3 MB.
of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages Vol 2
Lea011 / auth. Lea Henry C. - New York : Harper & Brothers,
1901. - Vol. 2
: 3 : p. 598. - 30.7 MB.
of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages Vol 3
Lea012 / auth. Lea Henry C. - New York : Harper & Brothers,
1901. - Vol. 3
: 3 : p. 743. - 38.3 MB.
Cad21 / auth. Cadman S Parkes. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1921. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 357. - 11.7 MB.
Wit and Humour
Ano22 / auth. Anonymous. - New York : Edward J Clode, 1922. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p.
366. - 5.3 MB.
Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
- Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One with Graphics.
Art and Ritual
Har13 / auth. Harrison Jane E. - New York : Henry Holt and Company,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 261. - 8.3 MB.
Transactions Vol 001 - 1895
Ars95 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. - 29.8 MB.
Transactions Vol 002 - 1889
Ars89 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 221. - 18.0 MB.
Transactions Vol 003 - 1890
Ars90 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 277. - 23.5 MB.
Transactions Vol 006 - 1893
Ars93 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 311. - 20.3 MB.
Transactions Vol 007 - 1894
Ars94 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. - 83.6 MB.
Transactions Vol 008 - 1895
Ars951 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 358. - 94.0 MB.
Transactions Vol 010 - 1897
Ars97 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 306. - 63.8 MB.
Transactions Vol 013 - 1900
Ars00 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - 18.4 MB.
Transactions Vol 014 - 1901
Ars01 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 330. - 22.3 MB.
Transactions Vol 017 - 1904
Ars04 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 396. - 33.0 MB.
Transactions Vol 021 - 1908
Ars08 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 437. - 34.8 MB.
Transactions Vol 024 - 1911
Ars11 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 490. - 47.0 MB.
the Elexir of Life
Ain61 / auth. Ainsworth William H. - London : G J Howell and Company,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 258. - 13.3 MB.
Encyclical on Freemasonry
Pop841 / auth. Pope Leo XIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1884. - Vol. 1
: 1 :
p. 6. - 0.4 MB.
Pop84 / auth. Pope Leo XIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1884. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p.
24. - 0.5 MB.
Bull - In
Pop38 / auth. Pope Clement XII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1738. - Vol.
1 : 1 :
p. 4. - 0.2 MB.
Cra26 / auth. Crawley Chetwode. - 1726. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 20. - 2.0 MB.
Darwin and other English Thinkers
Cad11 / auth. Cadman S Parkes. - Boston : The Pilgrim Press, 1911. -
Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 286. - 8.3 MB.
Essays & Papers Related to Freemasonry
Gou131 / auth. Gould Robert F. - Belfast : William Tait, 1913. - Vol. 1
: 1 :
p. 313. - 14.3 MB.
Bacon and His Secret Society
Pot91 / auth. Pott Mrs Henry. - London : Sampson Loe, Marston &
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 419. - 21.6 MB.
Before the Existence of Grand Lodges
Vib10 / auth. Vibert Lionel. - London : Spencer & Co., 2010. -
Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 163. - 0.5 MB.
In America Prior To 1750
Joh16 / auth. Johnson Melvin M. - Cambridge : Caustic-Claflin Co.,
1916. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 242. - 4.7 MB.
Fin66 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - London : Asher & Co., 1866. -
Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 742. - Translated from the German - 17.8 MB.
of Freemasonry (Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
of Freemasonry (Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
of Freemasonry (Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
of Freemasonry (Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
of Freemasonry Vol 1
Mac06 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
- Vol. 1 : 7 : p. 316. - 13.4 MB.
of Freemasonry Vol 2
Mac061 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
- Vol. 2 : 7 : p. 341. - 10.4 MB.
of Freemasonry Vol 3
Mac062 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
- Vol. 3 : 7 : p. 328. - 12.9 MB.
of Freemasonry Vol 4
Mac063 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
- Vol. 4 : 7 : p. 324. - 13.1 MB.
of Freemasonry Vol 5
Mac064 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
- Vol. 5 : 7 : p. 318. - 13.9 MB.
of Freemasonry Vol 6
Mac065 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
- Vol. 6 : 7 : p. 328. - 13.8 MB.
of Freemasonry Vol 7
Mac066 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
- Vol. 7 : 7 : p. 398. - 18.7 MB.
Pik84 / auth. Pike Albert. - [s.l.] : AASR, 1884. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 40.
Pre67 / auth. Preston William and Oliver George. - New York : Masonic
Publishing and Manufacturing, 1867. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 404. - 25.3 MB.
Makers of America
Pet21 / auth. Peters Madison C. - New York : Trowel Publications, 1921.
1 : 1 : p. 65. - 1.8 MB.
Ste22 / auth. Stewart Cora W. - New York : E P Dutton &
Company, 1922. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 233. - 9.8 MB.
Goo201 / auth. Goodwin S H. - 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 140. - 1.4 MB.
History of the Rosicrucians
Wai87 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : George Redway, 1887. - Vol. 1
: 1 :
p. 456. - 18.1 MB.
Prose Works Vol 1
She88SP1 / auth. Shelley Percy B. - London : Chatto and Windus, 1888. -
: 2 : p. 429. - 11.9 MB.
Bur22 / auth. Burton Alexander. - New York : Edward J Clode, 1922. -
Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 251. - 10.4 MB.
Of The First Degree
Gag15 / auth. Gage Asahel W. - Anamosa : National Masonic Research
1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 6. - 0.3 MB.
of the Three Degrees
Str24 / auth. Street Oliver D.. - Anamosa : National Masonic Research
1924. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 52. - 0.4 MB.
of the Chapter
Mac70 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : Clark & Maynard,
1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 257. - 31.7 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th :
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6 MB.
Comacines Their Predecessors & Their Successors
Rav10 / auth. Ravenscroft W.. - London : Elliot Stock, 1910. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p.
94. - 3.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry and the Grand Lodge of Scotland
Lau59 / auth. Laurie William A. - Edinburgh : Seton &
MacKenzie, 1859. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 569. - 25.8 MB.
History of the Knight Templars; The Temple Church, and the Temple
Add42 / auth. Addison Charles G. - London : Longman, Brown, Green, and
Longmans, 1842. - Scanned at sacred-texts.com, May, 2006 : Vol. 1 : 1 :
- 1.8 MB.
Lyo73 / auth. Lyon David M. - Edinburgh : Blackwood and Sons, 1873. -
Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 480. - 17.4 MB.
Language Vol 1
Bay12 / auth. Bayley Harold. - New York : Barnes & Noble, Inc,
1912. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 386. - 12.9 MB.
Meaning of Masonry
Wil22 / auth. Wilmshurst W L. - London : William Rider & Son,
1922. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 254. - 1.2 MB.
Philosophy of Masonry
Pou15 / auth. Pound Roscoe. - [s.l.] : The Builder Magazine, 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 53. - 0.3 MB.
Rosicrucians - Their Rites and Mysteries
Jen07 / auth. Jennings Hargrave. - London : George Routledge &
1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 494. - 22.7 MB.
Sch98 / auth. Schaw William. - 1598. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 19. - 0.5 MB.
Der65 / auth. Derby George H aka John Phoenix. - New York : Carleton,
Publishers, 1865. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 260. - Illustrated - 7.6 MB.
Religious Leaders of Oxford and their Movement
Cad16 / auth. Cadman S Parkes. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1916. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 615. - 24.0 MB.
the Man and Mason
Cal13 / auth. Callahan Charles. - Washington : The Memorial Temple
1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 501. - 28.3 MB.
Lyt88 / auth. Lytton Edward B. - London : George Routledge and Sons,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 352. - 14.9 MB.