Masonic Research Society
observed by Rose Croix Chapters of Scottish Rite, April 17)
of Maundy Thursday, made obligatory on each Rose Croix Chapter of the
is a festival almost as old as the world, for it has been observed in
or other from time immemorial. It began with early man's naive wonder
at the coming
of spring, an event to him of the very greatest importance, since it
the return of the sun god from the death of winter to the resurrection
of the vernal
equinox. "The year's at the Spring," that was his feeling, and this
took a thousand forms of expression, some of them magical, some
of them a joyous human merry-making. Whatever the form the kernel of
the same; the god of light, warmth, and life, whatever may have been
his name Mithra,
Attis, Cama, Osiris, Ormuzd, Dionysus had been dead through the winter
now he had come back to life again, and would bestow life on his
there were solemn rejoicings.
who retain ancient Zoroastrianism in something like its original form,
the event in a very old manner. They call their festival "Jamshedji
Other religions have departed farther from the ancient forms but
the idea and the feeling. The Jews gave to their vernal festival the
a national memorial service to keep fresh in the minds of the people
from bondage in Egypt, the land of darkness, and called it the Passover.
ceremony of the Lord's Supper has an historical connection with the
Jesus and His disciples went to an upper room to observe the Passover
feast. Under normal circumstances there should have been a servant at
hand to wash
their feet, a service made necessary by the fact that all men wore
walking abroad and consequently gathered up sand and dust; but there
was no such
servant available, and the disciples, who had gone on ahead, were
themselves as to who would perform this menial act. When Jesus arrived
gave them all a silent rebuke by taking up a towel and basin to wash
Himself. But it will be better to give the story as found in the New
John XIII, 1-15:
before the feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was
come that he
should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own
in the world, he loved them unto the end.
supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas
son, to betray him;
knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that
he was come
from God, and went to God;
riseth from supper, and laid aside his garments; and took a towel, and
that he poureth water into a basin, and began to wash the disciples'
feet, and to
wipe them with the towel wherewith he was girded,
cometh he to Simon Peter: and Peter saith unto him, Lord, dost thou
wash my feet?
answered and said unto him, What I do thou knowest not now; but thou
said unto him, Thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus answered him, “If I
not, thou hast no part with me.”
Peter saith unto him, Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my
saith to him, He that is washed needeth not save to wash his feet, but
every whit: and ye are clean, but not all.
he knew who should betray him; therefore said he, Ye are not all clean.
after he had washed their feet, and had taken his garments, and was set
he said unto them, Know ye what I have done to you?
call me Master and Lord: and ye say well; for so I am.
I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet; ye also ought to
wash one another's
I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you."
Passover had been among Jews the Last Supper came to be among
Christians, and then
with a very close connection with Easter Day. And since it was always
of the early Church to accommodate itself as closely as possible to the
customs already in popular use both Easter and the celebration of the
became substituted for the ancient religious ceremonies of the vernal
that in its very act "of making all things new" the new religion
many things very old, and thus enabled the religious man to retain his
customs as ancient as the world.
The act of
washing the disciples' feet, originally a simple rebuke to men untaught
in the wisdom
of humility, became in time a rich symbol of all service. Bishops and
the feet of the poor and everybody that was able distributed baskets of
the needy. Some historians of the Church believe that the word "Maundy"
came thus into use, being derived from the Saxon "maund" or "mond,"
meaning "basket"; others, with a sounder reasoning perhaps, trace the
term to a corruption of the first Latin word in the saying "A new
give I unto you," which in the Vulgate read, Mandatum
novum do vocio. In either event the Maundy Thursday rites
been quite generally practiced throughout Christendom, and still, in
retain a very old form. One of the best examples is furnished by
a very complete description of which may be found in Curious Survivals
Dr. George C. Williamson (Herbert Jenkins, publisher), a page or two of
here quoted with the publisher's permission:
"Perhaps the most interesting
of the ancient
ceremonies retained in the Church of England is that in connection with
of Maundy money, which takes place annually in the Abbey. The last
England who actually washed the feet of poor men on Maundy Thursday was
but this ceremony, in commemoration of the act of Our Lord, is still
in Catholic countries, and was, until recently, one of the notable
events of Holy
Week in Vienna, when the Emperor of Austria took the chief part in it.
takes place in Spain with its accustomed ceremonial, but in England the
day is commemorated
only by the distribution of the silver currency, struck specially for
and given away to a certain number of poor men and poor women, who have
as suitable recipients for the bounty.
"English sovereigns have always
great importance to this ceremonial. Elizabeth observed the day with
bounty, and there is a remarkable miniature in existence, representing
of Maundy money. Charles I and Anne also distributed the Maundy money
imposing and stately ceremonial, and today, linen scarves or towels are
all officials connected with the Royal Almonry, and by the children of
Almonry, who also take part in the ceremonial. These are, of course,
the towel which Our Lord girded about Himself, when He the disciples'
"The ceremonial is one of the
when the public see the Yeomen of the Guard in their full uniform, the
body in the kingdom, whose record dates back to 1485, and who still
wear, with proud
distinction, the Tudor crown ornament which commemorates their original
Moreover, those who are to take part in the ceremony carry with them
flowers and foliage, reminiscent of the day when the Yeomen of the
a preliminary ablution of the feet of the beggars with ceremonial
herbs, prior to
the washing of the feet by the Sovereign.
"The money is borne into the
Abbey by one
of the Yeomen, who carries on his head a splendid silver-gilt dish, and
of the purses, red and white, with which originally they were bound to
of the persons who used them, hang over the borders of the dish, with
The number of pennies given away corresponds with the age of the King,
as well as the pence in the white purses, equaling years of the King's
money consists of pieces of the value of fourpence, threepence,
twopence and a penny,
the total number of pence agreeing with the number of the years of the
and the coins are current coin of the realm, although specially struck
for the purpose.
I am inclined to think that there might be some difficulty if one of
was presented as the fare in an ordinary omnibus, because of its
size, and the chances are that the 'bus conductor would not recognize
it as current
coin, but it is really so, and but for its size, the coin would pass
hand to hand.
"As a matter of fact, however,
group of silver coins has a higher value than its intrinsic importance,
are always eager to add it to their collections. The red purse should
it a pound, in gold, and thirty shillings, an allowance in lieu of
given in kind; it does not in these later days contain gold coins, but
is made in paper. In addition to this Maundy money, there are three
other sums of
money distributed on the same day, known as the Minor Bounty, the
Bounty and the Royal Gate Alms, and these, in accordance with ancient
distributed at the Royal Almonry Office, to some 'hundred aged,
disabled and meritorious
persons, who have been personally recommended by the clergy of selected
throughout the different dioceses of England and Wales.
"Gate Alms no doubt derived its
the money that was given to those beggars who clustered round the gates
of the Royal
Palaces, and the duties of the King's Almoner, with regard to poor
people, are expressly
laid down in some papers belonging to the time of Edward I, where it is
he was to collect and distribute the fragments from the Royal table,
and give away
the King's cast-off robes, but it is particularly noted that he was not
to do so
either to 'players, minstrels or flatterers.'
"Cardinal Wolsey, when first be
Maundy celebration, or, in the old phrase, 'made his Maund' (the word
course, from the word mandatum, and being carried out in obedience to
commands) did so at Peterborough; and on the occasion in 1530, gave
and three red herrings to each recipient of his alms. It is to his
the Almonry owes its present seal. On this seal is represented a great
ship, Henri Grace de Dieu, in full sail. This important vessel was
built by Wolsey
in 1512 and presented by him to Henry VIII, and when he was the King's
had it represented on the seal he used for the documents in connection
ceremony, and this seal still exists, and is in use, at the present day.
"The great monasteries also had
and also some of the chief noblemen, and the office still survives and
is used in
various ancient hospitals, and in some few other places.
"It is of interest to notice
that the Lord
High Almoner and his assistant, the Sub-almoner, remove the ceremonial
they wear when they enter in the procession of the Maundy, and gird
linen towels before they make the presentation. The ceremony must have
more imposing in the old days, when the Sovereign himself took
prominent part in
it, but it is still an exceedingly interesting and picturesque one, and
one of the
most important survivals of an ancient religious observance. In Monte
Italy, it is carried out with great elaboration, and the recipients are
pilgrims, but in addition to the washing of feet, they are the
recipients of a big
loaf of bread, and a piece of money, and are then taken in to the large
and given a substantial meal. Similar procedure takes place in many
monasteries throughout Europe." (Page 179 ff. The accompanying
are from this same book.)
It is worthy
of notice in this connection that Maundy Thursday, with its ceremony of
Supper, the Coena Domini, has been the inspiration of some of the most
art of the past thousand years. It appears in Da Vinci's picture, "The
Supper"; in the epics of Calderon; in Wagner's "Parsifal"; and it
has been the source of all the beautiful "grail (or graal) literature"
("grail" referring to the cup used by Jesus), of which Tennyson's Epics
of the King is the most familiar example. The finest use of it in
is Lowell's Vision of Sir Launfal, in which are lines of almost
"The Holy Supper is kept,
In whatso we share with another's need;
Not what we give, but what we share,
For the gift without the giver is bare;
Who gives himself with his alms feeds three,
Himself, hungering neighbour, and Me."
be difficult at this late day to trace the use of Maundy Thursday in
Chapters of the Scottish Rite to any one origin. As there used, it is
Jewish or Pagan, but a re-writing of inspirations from many sources so
as to make
the ceremony stand in a universal tradition.
Freemasons," writes Conley, "it has no religious significance, but it
is a feast dedicated to freedom, and the right to worship God according
to the dictates
of our own consciences, in which good men of all creeds and faiths may
relinquishing the essential doctrines of their own religion. It is this
that gives Masonry the character of universality."
Preston and the Preston Lectures
By Bro. Captain C.W. Firebrace,
P. G. Steward,
P. M. Lodge of Antiquity, No. 2, England
paper was read before the Jubilee Master's Lodge, No. 2712, Dec. 21,
1923. Its author
is introduced by Bro. Robert I. Clegg, Associate Editor, now in
England, in a recent
letter, of which a paragraph may be quoted:
take the very greatest pleasure in this word of introduction to you of
Firebrace, who has the very enviable distinction of not only being a
of the oldest of Masonic lodges, 'Antiquity, No. 2,' but is honored as
lecturer. I have greatly enjoyed the opportunity of listening to the
first of these
addresses which he has given in London and is a splendid introduction
to the others
which it is expected he will present. I know that you will he highly
receive a copy of this address for publication in THE BUILDER, and
he will forward others when they are presented to the brethren, and in
give our brothers in the United States an equal opportunity to profit
by what Bro.
Firebrace is doing so excellently on this side of the Atlantic."
students have no need to be told that William Preston was one of the
Masons that ever lived, so influential indeed that nobody can expect to
the present ritual without knowing something about this remarkable man
and his work.
Consult THE BUILDER as follows: 1915. pp. 7, 31, 292; 1916, pp. 166,
167, 302, Cor.
31; 1917, p. 212; November C.C.B., 7; 1919, March C.C.B., 3; September
see also "Philosophy of Masonry," by Roscoe Pound; "The Grand Lodge
of England," by A. F. Calvert, and The Short Talk Bulletin, M.S.A.,
No. 2. See frontispiece, this issue.
which go by the name of Prestonian are so interwoven with the life of
that to trace their origin and history is practically to give an
account of his
it almost from the outset; the first ten years were devoted to their
the remainder to the promulgation of his system. Of his life in the
we know but the bare outline; few details are extant, and his name is
in any of the letters or memoirs of the time. Through his position in
house of William Strahan, who published the works of Johnson, Gibbon,
Hume and many others, he became well acquainted with these eminent men
and we are told that his literary skill was such that authors submitted
to his correction
of their style. He may even have blue-pencilled the Lives of the Poets,
bad grammar in the Decline and Fall. These great men honored him with
and presentation copies of their books found their way into his
library, but he
was never an intimate, he had no part in their lives. In Masonry it is
here he stands out, a leader almost from the first, a true friend to
Mason, and it is from Masonic records, and chiefly from the minute
books of the
Lodge of Antiquity, that we learn what manner of man he was.
He was born
in Edinburgh on July 28, 1742, the second son of William Preston, and
to the Signet. His father lost his fortune through troubles resulting
from the Rebellion
of 1745, and died in 1751. The younger William after completing his
Edinburgh University became amanuensis to Thomas Ruddiman the
grammarian, and was
by him apprenticed to his brother Walter Ruddiman, an Edinburgh
printer. With his
employer's consent he came to London in 1760, and being furnished by
a letter of introduction to William Strahan, a brother Scot, he
in his house as compositor. It is evidence of his industry and ability
that he remained
in the same employ during his whole life. He was soon promoted to the
and later to the general superintendence of the whole business. William
at his death in 1785 left him an annuity, and in 1804 he became a
partner with Andrew
Strahan whose confidence and friendship he maintained till death. He
no feminine influence seems to have touched him. Masonry was his early
and to her he remained constant to the end.
He Becomes a Mason
date of his admittance into Masonry is not recorded. In March, 1763,
Masons founded a Lodge No. 111, under the Constitution of the Atholl,
Grand Lodge, to which they had been recommended by the Grand Lodge of
It met at the White Hart in the Strand, and Preston is said to have
been the second
person initiated in it. He was then twenty or twenty-one years of age.
other members, afterwards joined a lodge acting under the older
the Moderns, and they prevailed on their brethren at the White Hart to
their allegiance. A new Constitution was granted, and thus was founded
Lodge, No. 325, which still works in London and is now No. 134.
turned his attention to the study of Masonic science, and for the next
was occupied with the arrangement and digestion of the Masonic
Lectures. In this
he was assisted by many zealous friends, whom he assembled for the
purpose of discussion
and mutual improvement. He sought knowledge from every source, by
by correspondence and conversation with prominent Masons at home and
to quote from the Memoir by Stephen Jones in the "European Magazine"
April, 1811, "He has been frequently heard to say that in the ardor of
enquiries, he has explored the abodes of poverty and wretchedness, and,
was least expected, acquired very valuable scraps of information."
his History of Freemasonry, laughs at his credulity and stigmatizes him
as a romancer
and a Masonic visionary, but we must remember that the age of critical
had not then been born, and in every branch of knowledge much was
accepted in simple
faith which now would not receive a minute's consideration. He may have
but what he wrote he believed. A remarkable young man, this Scotsman of
twenty, for whom the frivolous pursuits of London and the fascination
intercourse had no attraction, and who, in those days when drinking and
the pastimes of high and low, frequented taverns only for the purpose
knowledge, and assembled his friends for mutual instruction! Judging by
taken in later life he was of pleasing appearance, and his faculty for
and keeping them testify to the attraction of his manners and the
of his character. Throughout his life we find him vigorous in action,
in emergency, quick perhaps to feel and resent a slight and holding to
with the tenacity characteristic of his countrymen, but facing his
undaunted courage, bearing adversity with fortitude when they gained
the upper hand,
but showing no malice when the victory was won. And in his later years
he had his
reward in the respect and love in which he was held by his Masonic
in the lodge for which, as he himself expressed it, he ever retained so
veneration, the Lodge of Antiquity.
He Delivers the First Preston
In 1772 the
first Lecture was finished, and on May 21 he delivered it at a grand
gala held at
his own expense at the Crown and Anchor Tavern in the Strand in the
the Grand officers and many other brethren. In the same year he
published the Illustrations
of Masonry, which he later greatly altered and enlarged, and of which
were published in his life time. The whole system of the Lectures in
the three degrees
was completed in 1774, and were publicly given by him at the Mitre
We now come
to his connection with the Lodge of Antiquity, which he joined on June
and was elected Master on June 15. His occupancy of the chair lasted
three and one-half
years, and during that time several Lectures were given by him in the
find a very interesting minute dated March 5, 1777, when a "Chapter
was held. The proceedings show us the scheme which Preston had devised
his system, and which he later carried into effect when he founded the
of Harodim. There were present eighteen members and nine visitors. The
is an extract from the minute:
"Lodge opened in the Third
Degree in an
adjacent room. Procession entered the Lodge Room, and the usual
observed, the Three Rulers were seated. A piece of music was then
the 12 Assistants entered in procession and after repairing to their
Chapter was opened in solemn form. Brother Barker then rehearsed the
A piece of music was then performed by the instruments. Bro. Preston
the third Section. An Ode on Masonry was then sung by three voices.
rehearsed the 4th Section, after which a piece of solemn music was
Brearley rehearsed the 5th Section, and the funeral procession was
which a solemn dirge was played, and the Ceremony concluded with a
Bro. Berkley rehearsed the 6th Section, after which an anthem was sung.
was then closed with the usual Solemnity, and the Rulers and twelve
the procession round the Lodge, and then withdrew to an adjacent Room,
Master's Lodge was closed in due form."
as Chief Ruler, John Wilson, the S.W., was Senior Ruler, and William
held no office in the lodge, was Junior Ruler. Among the twelve
In the following
December occurred the unfortunate incident which led to the quarrel
with Grand Lodge,
and eventually to the expulsion from the Society of Preston and nine
of the lodge. The incident itself was a trivial one. The brethren after
a sermon preached by their chaplain in St. Dunstan's Church walked back
to the Mitre
Tavern, a distance of a few yards, in their clothing without having
to Grand Lodge for the necessary permission. But Preston, by his
success in raising
the lodge from the low state to which it had sunk under the Mastership
of his predecessor
John Bottomley, had roused the jealousy of the older members, and he
had also offended
the Grand Secretary, James Heseltine, who had also been until recently
of the lodge. Preston had been appointed Assistant Grand Secretary, in
he might prepare a new edition of the Constitutions.
Preston Is Expelled
work was almost completed, Heseltine associated with him John
senior member of the lodge. Preston resented sharing with a newcomer
the honor to
which he considered he was alone entitled, and resigned his office.
Noorthouck, therefore, seized the opportunity to attack Preston, and
breach of the Regulations to Grand Lodge, and Heseltine supported them
to the utmost
of his power. The quarrel dragged on throughout the year 1778. But for
hostility of Heseltine it might have been settled amicably, but in the
end he carried
his point and Preston and his adherents were expelled in January, 1779.
had already in November, 1778, decided "to withdraw themselves from the
and from this time onward there were two Lodges of Antiquity, Preston's
but in friendly relations with the Grand Lodge of All England at York,
lodge, which remained faithful to the Grand Lodge in Queen Street. On
Preston withdrew his name from all the other lodges of which he was a
in bitterness of spirit he decided in October, 1781, to retire from
He accordingly resigned his membership in the Lodge of Antiquity.
Deprived of his
vigorous direction, that lodge fell upon evil days and might have
had not he been persuaded to return in October, 1786. He was elected
took up Masonry again with all his old energy, and quickly restored the
a condition of prosperity.
In 1787 he
realized his scheme for rendering the Lectures, of which he had already
on the lodge Chapter Night in 1777, and instituted the Grand Chapter of
The minute books of the chapter have long been lost, and such knowledge
as we have
of its constitution and proceedings are derived from the minute books
of the Lodge
of Antiquity, Stephen Jones' Memoir of Preston, The Illustrations of
from a little book entitled The Pocket Companion or Freemason's Guide
to the Science
of Masonry, in Three Parts. It is dedicated "To the Council, Assistant
other officers and Companions of the Grand Chapter of the Antient and
Order of Harodim, for whose use it is principally intended." The author
anonymous but was almost certainly Preston himself. Part I, The First
published in 1790, and is in the possession of the lodge. Part II, The
was published in 1792, a copy being in the Grand Lodge Library. I have
not met with
a copy of Part III. In the Introduction to Part I, it is claimed that
of Harodim is coeval with the building of King Solomon's Temple, and
that it was
established by the 3300 eminent Masons who assisted Solomon.
Illustrations of Masonry we learn that the chapter was governed by a
two Vice Patrons, a Chief Ruler and two Assistants, with a Council of
There was also a Chief Harod and a General Director. Stephen Jones
tells us that
at a later period Lord Macdonald presided as Grand Patron, and James
William Birch, John Spottiswoode and William Meyrick as Vice Patrons.
will be remembered as having been mainly instrumental in procuring
in 1778.) The Lectures were divided into Sections, and these again into
The sections were assigned annually by the Chief Harod, to skillful
Sectionists, who in turn distributed the clauses to Clause Holders.
as had mastered all the sections were classed as Lectures. The chapter
meetings in the year, opening at four o'clock for private business.
Dinner was at
five, and the public lecture, to which visitors were admitted on
payment, took place
at eight. From the Pocket Companion we gather that the proceedings at
were similar to those at the lodge chapter night already described.
were provided during the Lecture, and after each section a toast or
drunk. A list of these Lecture toasts is given at the end of the book.
He Is Re-Instated
the other expelled brethren were re-instated and their character
vindicated by Grand
Lodge on Nov. 25, 1789, and steps were soon after taken to re-unite the
of Antiquity. This union was happily effected on Nov. 12, 1790, under
of William Birch, Preston being unanimously elected Deputy Master.
With a view
to bringing the Chapter of Harodim into correspondence with Grand
Lodge, the Harodim
Lodge, No. 558, had been founded in March, 1790. This lodge united with
of Antiquity in December, 1792, and for the rest of its existence the
the lodge maintained a close connection. But its members gradually fell
difficulties supervened and in spite of efforts to keep it alive it
ceased to exist
Its end may
have been hastened by the establishment by Preston in 1796 of a Lodge
Here the sections and clauses were rehearsed by the brethren who
them at the regular lodge meetings. This Lodge of Instruction lasted
with some intervals
of abeyance until 1836.
three years, when bad health compelled him to relinquish it, Preston
held the office
of Deputy Master until 1815. He died after a long illness on April 1,
was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. During his lifetime and up to the
a section from one of the Lectures was illustrated at the lodge
time permitted. The brethren taking part were styled Lecturers and
and the clauses were annually assigned and the names of the Clause
in the summonses. They were generally given in the form of question and
the senior members or "Lecturers" asking the questions and the junior
or "Clause Holders" giving the answers. But sometimes the Lecturers,
Stephen Jones, Meyrick, and others, gave a clause alone, and the words
or "in Harodim Style" is added after their names. This would appear to
show that the Lecturers in the Chapter of Harodim sometimes used a
omitting the questions altogether. This method seems to have been used
when he first delivered the Lectures in public, and by the participants
at the lodge
chapter night in 1777. The Prestonian Lecture was certainly delivered
in this way,
and after its institution, the question and answer method dropped out
of use in
the lodge. The clauses were illustrated by one brother only, and the
the word "Harodim" no longer appears.
He Founds the Preston Lectureship
will the Masonic charities benefited to the extent of 1000 pounds, and
he also bequeathed
"To the Right Honorable the Earl of Moira, Acting Grand Master for the
three hundred Pounds, Three per cent Consolidated Bank Annuities, the
which shall be applied by him to some well-informed mason to deliver
Lecture on the First, Second or Third Degree of the order of Masonry
the system practiced in the Lodge of Antiquity during my Mastership."
Prestonian Lecture was founded. It was given for the first time in the
Antiquity on May 25, 1820, by W. Bro. Stephen Jones, P.M., Preston's
friend and Masonic legatee. He delivered the first two sections of the
when it was verified by the brethren present, that they had been worked
on the Prestonian
system and were considered sufficient to establish Jones' claim to the
of the fund. The M.W.G. Master, the Duke of Sussex, then Master of the
retired before the Lecture, and the Deputy Master, Bro. McGillivray,
to report to him to that effect. Bro. Jones was again appointed
Lecturer in 1821,
1822 and 1824.
appears to have been given in the lodge in 1823, 1825 or 1826. Bro.
Secretary of the lodge, succeeded Jones and delivered the Lecture every
to 1854, with the exception of 1853, when owing to his indisposition
Bro. John Henderson
took his place. Bro. Thompson died in 1855. He was the last survivor of
for 1857 was given on Jan. 20, 1858, by Bro. Collings in the Royal York
Perseverance, No. 7. A portion was also delivered in April, 1858, in
the Grand Stewards'
Lodge by Bro. Johnson, P.M., but the official Lecture for that year was
October in the Lodge of Antiquity by Bro. Thistleton, the Secretary. A
in the Grand Lodge Library containing the Lecture of the First Degree
has an introduction
from which it would appear that this Lecture was again delivered about
1863 or 1864, but the place and Lecturer's name are not recorded. No
been given since that date.
Copies Still In Existence
of Antiquity possesses a collection of MSS. containing sections of the
written in question and answer by different members of the lodge. None
to be earlier than 1806 and none are in Preston's handwriting. Similar
in the Grand Lodge Library. We have also some printed syllabuses of the
Second Degrees and part of the Third Degree. Two editions were issued,
between 1808 and 1813, the second with many variations, in 1828.
Of the Prestonian
Lectures, the Lodge of Antiquity has a copy of the First and Second
Degrees in the
handwriting of W. Bro. John Henderson. Their date is unknown but they
been written before 1827. We are told, however, that Bro. Henderson
took them before
the year 1838 from Bros. Meyrick, Burckhardt, Thompson and others of
This copy was presented to the lodge by Bro. Henderson's executor in
1867. The Lecture
of the Third Degree is written in a printed copy of the By-laws of
1788. It is in
Masonic cypher. The heading states that it is by Bro. John Turk, P.M.,
of the Universal
Lodge, and "carefully revised by Bro. William Preston, Esq. 1816."
are also in the Grand Lodge Library three MS books containing the
Lectures of the
three degrees. These are later copies. There is also there a note book
belonging to Bro. John Henderson. This contains inter alia the Lectures
of the First
and Second Degrees in question and answer, an early fragment of the
Lecture of the
Third Degree, and a full version deciphered from Bro. Turk's copy.
In the sixty-five
years which have elapsed since the delivery of the last Prestonian
has been almost forgotten except by those who are students of Masonic
this paper serves to bring before you some idea of the work and
character of our
revered Past Master, I shall be well content.
By Alfred Korzybski
Introduction by the Editor
utterances in science are not always accompanied by a blare of
trumpets. It happens
once in a while that an entirely new idea is given to the public
channels in a form so modest as almost to escape attention. Riemann's
paper "On the Hypothesis Which Lie at the Base of Geometry [Lib*],"
in 1854, is a case in point; so also Minkowski's "Space and Time,"
published in 1908, which established a new starting point in scientific
Count Korzybski's paper, given herewith, may fairly be considered a
because, though it has not yet reached the general public, it has been
by scientific thinkers as an outstanding achievement. Some day it will
be used to
date a new manner of thinking in the subject with which it deals.
reason it is recommended to the most careful attention of the reader.
be read, not once but many times. One need not be frightened away from
it by the
fact that it is a document of exact science, because while the language
may at first
be strange the ideas themselves are such as may be readily grasped by
man; and ultimately the language itself will be found to make this
easier than if
more familiar words were used. This same thing is also largely true
theory, for while it is very difficult for a layman to follow the
on which it is based, the theory itself rests on principles not
difficult to comprehend.
In his connection one recalls a sentence from Relativity and
by T. Percy Nunn, Professor of Education in the University of London:
doctrine about absolute and relative motion is plain common sense, but
when it is taken seriously, are revolutionary and startling."
also be recommended to the thoughtful reader for yet another reason: it
us a scientific base for our own great Masonic doctrine of Brotherhood.
an exceedingly important thing, as a moment of reflection will prove.
and from the present point of view, science may be described as an
effort to know
what facts are and what are the relations among them. If any human
ideal is out
of joint with facts, and with the relations among them, it can never
hope of realization
but remains a romantic dream on which it is useless to waste our time.
Is the doctrine
of Brotherhood such a romance of the mind? There are many who think so,
Masons; they do not really believe and strive for it because, secretly,
it impracticable a beautiful hope but not something made necessary by
the very structure
of our human world. The all important thing for us Masons in Count
is that, first, he shows that Brotherhood is a law of man; and,
secondly, he lays
bare the rigid logical process which proves that it is a law of man;
shows how ultimate world Brotherhood may be obtained. It is because he
that a Mason who takes his Masonry seriously should read, ponder and
now living through the most revolutionizing period in human thinking
the world has
ever known. Science is experiencing a renaissance the like of which has
before. Einstein's entirely new conception of the universe has come
the public, but Einstein is only one of a group of thinkers equally
able and equally
revolutionary using "revolutionary" in its exact sense. Whitehead,
Keyser, Poincare, Wittgenstein, Huntington, Veblen, Carmichael,
Cassirer and a dozen
others have entirely rebuilt the foundations of science. Count
with this group. His signal achievement has been to do for the science
of man what
Einstein has done for physics and astronomy. One of the results of his
is embodied in his Manhood of Humanity [Lib 1921], reviewed in THE BUILDER,
1922, page 256. Other results will be embodied in a forthcoming book to
as this is of the greatest importance to Masonic thinkers because, as
it will help us to establish a scientific foundation under our doctrine
a thing we need so badly for, in this country at least, no serious
ever been paid to the scientific implication of Masonic philosophy.
learn how to think Masonry scientifically, we shall be able to rid the
all the rubbish of foggy, half-informed, wild thinking which now so
it. In other words, the thinking of Masonry and the technique of
Masonry must be
made rigorously scientific or we shall go on to the end of our days
phantoms or thinking in the dark. Such a thing has never been attempted
Masonry (it has been in some other countries) but sooner or later we
must come to
it. It will be very interesting to discover how many members of the
Research Society are concerned about this matter. If a sufficient
feel the importance of such an undertaking, THE BUILDER will undertake
permission from Count Korzybski to publish his "Faith and Freedom," an
essay that complements and completes the arguments contained in "The
of Doctrines." Professor Keyser's Mathematical Philosophy [Lib 1922] was reviewed in these pages
October, 1922, page 319; it is published by
E.P. Dutton & Co., 681 Fifth avenue, New York, N.Y.; $4.70.
and then there appear in the history of humanity gigantic thinkers who
mold our mental processes for centuries to come. In our own time we are
such a turning of the page in human history. The birth of a new era is
a host of men in all walks of life feel it unconsciously and work
toward it. A few
leading mathematicians have made these unconscious strivings of mankind
without them we would feel our way but in the darkness, which is a
slow, very slow
process of guesswork, whereas with their work our path is clear.
I hope the
reader will understand the inherent difficulties which beset any
attempt to give
a general summary of a new epoch which is still making its own
foundations. In the
space allotted for this writing only a very few of the most momentous
be sketched, and I make no pretense to finality. The aim is to draw the
of scientists and thinkers to the fact that something of grave
importance for all
our human future is going on, and to encourage inquiry and
collaboration, thus accelerating
What I here
call the inevitable is the coming of the empire of sound logic a logic
scientific knowledge of human nature, adjusting human beliefs,
and conduct to the essential facts and laws of human nature, and
pseudo-sciences of ethics, economics and government into genuine
sciences for promoting
of Man," of which we all dream, can be accomplished only and
the "Brotherhood of Doctrines."
It will be
found that when what Professor Cassius Keyser calls the "Great
has been eliminated by sound logic, all that is dismal, destructive,
despairing will become constructive, hopeful and favorable to human
Such an inquiry
will show that there still persist many doctrines originally
established by myth
and magic; and, although at the first glance they seem harmless, their
effect retards human progress, knowledge and happiness.
of human thought may be roughly divided into three periods, each period
evolved from its predecessor. The beginning of one period overlaps the
a base for my classification I shall take the relationship between the
and the observed. This relationship is clearly fundamental because
there can be
no "observer" without something to observe, and also no "observed"
without somebody making the observation. To put it otherwise there is
no such thing
as a "fact" free from the share of the observer's mind. In speaking
these periods I shall not take into account individual thinkers,
because in many
instances it may be found that certain thinkers (Plato, Lucretius,
in a given period were far ahead of their contemporaries, and that
or discoveries which had no great influence in their own time were
of the latest developments of science, therefore I shall only speak
those currents of thought which have immediately affected the fate of
period may be called the Greek, or Metaphysical, or Pre-Scientific
Period. In this
period the observer was everything, the observed did not matter.
period may be called the Classical or Semi-Scientific still reigning in
where the observer was almost nothing and the only thing that mattered
was the observed.
This tendency gave rise to that which we may call gross empiricism and
period may be called the Mathematical, or Scientific Period. It began
in 1854 with
George Boole's The Laws of Thought. This work started an internal
logic and also in mathematics which ultimately resulted in the last few
the merging of both the discovery that logic and mathematics are one.
In this period
mankind will understand (some understand it already) that all that man
is a joint phenomenon of the observer and the observed.
otherwise call the three periods:
The Absolutist Period.
The Relativist Period.
characteristic of the first two periods was that they both used
and often fallacious subject-predicate, Aristotelian logic which must
it did, in a philosophical impasse. The confusion became so acute that
two thinkers were able to understand each other except through sympathy.
The Old Logic Hampers Everything
It may be
proved also that the direct result of this faulty logic has hampered
the natural sciences and progress in all fields of human affairs. The
mankind, despite all the beauty and culture in it, has been in greater
history of misery and periodical collapses, wars and revolutions.
The old complete,
consistent "absolutism" leads obviously to blind fanatical theories.
mixture of absolute and relative concepts and words leads to confusion
paradoxes. Consistent "relativism" clarifies this whole hopeless mess
and probably will lead toward some "absolute" if such a thing exists.
In the new
mathematical-scientific era the simple truth has been discovered that
all we know
is a joint phenomenon of the observed and the observed, which means
that for science
and life logic is as vital a factor as "facts" because, for human
there are no "facts" free from the share of the observer's mind.
cannot be established by gross empiricism because it deals only and
with particular observations, and this is why the orthodox tradition
to doubt and unwarranted pessimism, so characteristic of that period.
if there is such a thing as general knowledge, its foundation must be
of gross empiricism. Most probably such a thing does exist and its
origin may be
traced to the constitution of the human mind itself to sound modern
ask, How about "intuitions," "emotions,"etc.? The answer is
simple and positive. It is a fallacy of the old schools to divide man
elements; all human faculties consist of an inter-connected whole. We
deal with logic because laws of thought are the only aspects of the
are tangible and invariant, the eternal laws of thought which can be
When the problems of these aspects are solved, the others, the vague
"intuitions," "emotions," etc., will fall into line automatically.
As Keyser has pointed out, it matters what an animal is; with man it
only what man is, but even more what we humans think man is. The
tragedy of man
has been and is that in creating his institutions and ethics he has
never been conscious
have given a hint as to how the source of general knowledge can be
found in the
inherent constitution of the human mind. If I may, I shall give more
us imagine that in the night, during our sleep, the universe, ourselves
should "grow up," ten, one hundred, or "n" times. Is there any
human possibility of detecting in the morning this remarkable event? It
is a well
proved fact that the answer must be negative. Man could not detect the
room had, let us say, ten steps in the evening before the change; it
ten steps in the morning after the change. It is obvious that such
so-called "absolute" space is not an absolute space; this example does
away with absolute space. But it is easy to see that the number ten (or
has remained. Similar reasoning proves that, to the best of our
all absolutes have gone except number, whatever number is. If we could
squeezing out some wisdom, some general knowledge, from number, which
is this "only
absolute left," we should be entitled to expect that this wisdom would
the germ of absolute knowledge. As a fact this is being done by a few
deals formally with what can be said about anything or any property. As
can easily see, we are witnessing the birth of the wonder of wonders
the birth of
what may be called "qualitative" mathematics. Here it may be explained
why mathematics has this exclusive position among other sciences. It
must be emphasized
that it was not some special genius of the mathematicians, as such,
that was responsible
for it. With the birth of the rational being man rational activity
(no matter how slowly) and this rational activity manifested itself in
of human endeavor no matter how slight this rational activity was.
Today we know
that all man can know is an abstraction. I use the term "abstraction"
in the sense of Whitehead: "To be an abstraction does not mean that an
is nothing. It merely means that its existence is only one factor of a
element of nature." The process of constructing those abstractions is
arbitrary. From the time man began he has been plunging into this
process of constructing
arbitrary abstractions it was and is the very nature of his being.
Man Blundered Into Mathematics
in the beginning, man did not know anything about the universe or
himself; he went
ahead spontaneously. It is no wonder that some of his abstractions were
fact; that some of them were devoid of meaning, and hence neither true
but strictly meaningless; and that some of them were correct. In this
process of constructing abstractions he started from that which was the
to him namely himself and ignorantly attributed his human faculties to
all the universe
around him. He did not realize that he man was the latest product in
he reversed the order and anthropomorphized all around him. He did not
and this is true even today in most cases, that by so doing he was
building up a
logic and a language unfit to deal with the actual universe, life, man
and that by doing so he was building for himself a mental impasse,
through his inconsistency
and naive observation. In a few instances good luck was with him; he
made a few
abstractions which were at once the easiest to handle and were correct,
corresponding to actual facts in this actual universe.
Let us see
how numbers originated and what was their significance. Anyone may see
is an actual difference between such groups as X or XX or as XXX,
whatever the class
was composed of, be it stones, figs, or snakes. And man could not miss
the peculiar similarity between such X class of stones or such XX class
etc., and here happened a fact of crucial significance for the future
of man; he
named these different classes by definite names; he called the class of
classes X "one," the class of all such classes XX "two," XXX
"three," etc., and number was born!
Here as everywhere
else "le premier pas qui coute" ("it is the first step that costs");
having created number the rest followed as a comparatively easy task.
not miss for long seeing, that if such a class X is added to such a
class X he gets
such a class XX, but the other day he had called such classes by names
and "two," so he concluded that "one and one make two" mathematics
was born exact knowledge began.
combined with his human faculties has helped man to discover one of the
of number was the most reasonable, the first truly scientific act done
by man; in
mathematics this reasonable being produced a perfect abstraction, the
instrument by which to train his brain, his nerve currents, in the
ideal way befitting
the actual universe (not a fiction) and himself a part of it. Now it is
understand from this physiological point of view why mathematics has
must be said about the other disciplines. They started with fictions
until this day they persist and, playing in vacuo, bring havoc into the
started aright the others did not!
triumph of human thought was, and forever will be, the discovery of new
methods embracing larger and larger parts of the whole these are the
of man's progress.
A Review of Mathematical
Philosophy by Keyser is one of these milestones of everlasting
this monumental work there are discoveries of the gravest importance.
one of the very few in the world, as far as I know, who is blazing a
new trail in
this field. Whoever is interested in human progress, and who of us is
read and re-read this book. The peculiarity of such works is, that the
their bearing is so vast that it takes time and meditation to digest
their seemingly simple content. Neither must it be forgotten that the
logic and its progeny, our language and habits, work against us.
may be reassured that this "new" wisdom is much easier than the old
Mathematics is nothing else than common sense refined and elevated to
the rank of
science it is natural to man it covers his "intuitions"; whereas the
logic was not equipped to deal with the living thought without an
generally speaking, it rarely covered "intuitions" and common sense.
will get the first sharp mental shock by reading the title which tells
us that mathematical
philosophy that is, the only rigorous scientific philosophy is the
fate and freedom … it will become increasingly evident as we advance
that the work
we are to be engaged in is fundamentally the study of fate and freedom
and intellectual freedom … Without more talk and without danger of
we may, I believe, now speak of ideas as constituting a world the world
With that world all human beings as humans have to deal there is no
escape; it is
there and only there that foundations are found foundations for
for philosophy, foundations for art, foundations for religion, for
ethics, for government
and education; it is in the world of ideas and only there that human
beings as humans
may find principles or bases for rational theories and rational conduct
whether individual life or community life; choices differ but some
choice of principles
we must make if we are to be really human if, that is, we are to be
when we have made it, we are at once bound by a destiny of consequences
power of passion or will to control or modify; another choice of
principles is but
the election of another destiny. The world of ideas is, you see, the
empire of fate.
the human intellect, then, a slave? No: it is free; but its freedom is
it is limited by fact and by law by the laws of thought, by the
of ideas and by their unchanging eternal relationships. Intellectual
freedom to think in accord with the laws of thought, in accord with the
ideas, in accord with their inter-relations, which are unalterable. And
of human freedom no institution erected in its sacred name if it does
to the eternal conditions of intellectual freedom can stand."
of logical fate and freedom, its formulation and elaboration, is of
that, were it the only one in the book, the book would live forever.
reflection, its practical bearing becomes evident in that all our
"Brotherhood of Man" or "Democracy," etc., are beautiful words
but meaningless so long as we do not inquire into the basic premises
those doctrines and investigate if the premises are true; because, if
should prove to be false, this "logical fate" would drive us to
Sad experience is daily making it more evident that a scientific (not
inquiry is imperative. As a fact we have not hitherto had the method by
approach or handle human affairs in a truly scientific spirit, but once
is discovered, we have no more excuses for continuing to welter in the
perhaps, nothing wrong with "human nature," but there is something
wrong with our old premises and logic. As a fact, every human activity
has at its
foundation some doctrine as an inherent, unconditionally inseparable
part of it.
Because of this logical fate, the analyzing of these doctrines, which
human activities, becomes the most important nay the all-important fact
the future of man.
the best of my knowledge, is the discoverer of a new mathematical
this can be accomplished; in a wonderfully precise and clear way he
theory of postulates and doctrinal functions. Most of what he has to
say is either
entirely new, or given in a new form; he illustrates his thesis
many examples so as to make it perfectly clear to the reader. By the
elaboration of this logical fate which dominates our lives, by the
elaboration of the theory of the doctrinal function, Keyser goes to the
not only of all actual, but all potential human knowledge; to the roots
of all human
problems and relations.
What is the
importance of such theoretical works? Let me answer by an example:
were built without the knowledge of exact sciences; quite true, but
what was the
waste in effort, the price in life and happiness which such ignorance
the people! A Galileo, a Newton, a Leibnitz for instance, discovered
some new facts,
give us some new definitions and formulated some new methods of
handling old problems
and at each stage of civilization such discoveries and their logical
transformed deeply all our knowledge and therefore affected enormously
achievements. As a matter of fact at the bottom of every "practical"
there is some theory, and it is not a paradox to say that history
proves that the
most "practical" achievements are always "theoretical" discoveries
because they are the factors which make the former possible.
discoveries and knowledge as expounded in Keyser's work will deeply
human activities, because they will enable man to revise un-criticized
which, until now, we have accepted as truth. "Thought unexpressed is
concealed, and concealed thought light hid under a bushel fades and
the thinker. Expressed, however, it lives and grows, engendering its
its flame to the flame of other thought, and so that radiance which is
is' increases and tends to abide."
book deals with many interconnected ideas of universal interest of
they form a system which is bound to abide. A short list of his
subjects is an evidence
of this: Intellectual Freedom and Logical Fate Mathematical Obligation
Humanistic and Industrial Education Human Ethics not a Branch of
The Model of Principles and Platforms Criticism and the Sword of the
Laws and the Laws of Thought Basic Concepts Propositional and Doctrinal
Marriage of Matter and Form Its Infinite Fertility Doctrines as
One Doctrinal Function the Matrix of Infinitely Many Doctrines
Identical in Form,
Diverse in Content Essential Discriminations Distinction of Logical and
Postulate Properties Truth and Criticism Mathematical Philosophy in the
Critic Autonomous Truth and Falsehood The Prototype of Reasoned
Disguised as in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of
States, the Origin of Species, the Sermon on the Mount Transformation
all Thinking Its Study the Common Enterprise of Sciences The Problem of
Kindred Problems Invariance The Ages-old Problem of Permanence and
Change The Group
Concept Variables and Limits Mathematical Infinity Hyperspaces Open
Avenues to Higher
Worlds Forms of Intellectual Emancipation Mathematics of Psychology.
of Mathematics Science and Engineering Change of Emphasis from
Non-Human to Human
Energies Science as Engineering in Preparation Engineering as Science
Mathematics the Guide of the Engineer Engineering the Guide of
Humanity, etc., etc.
Such a book
is bound to make a strong appeal to intelligent people. All intelligent
will find some of their burning questions answered. For instance,
parents are asking,
Why should our children study mathematics? What is the educational
value of mathematics?
Scientists are asking, How is mathematical science related to the other
enterprises of Man? Sociologists must ask afresh, What is Man? and how
thinking help to make the social sciences genuine sciences? Engineers
to know, How can we humanize engineering? and so on.
"What Is That To Me?"
the "practical" man, the man in the street, says, What is that to me?
The answer is positive and weighty. Our life is entirely dependent on
doctrines of ethics, sociology, political economy, government, law,
etc. This affects everyone consciously or unconsciously, the man in the
the first place, because he is the most defenseless.
As a fact
most of the so-called scientists reject logic entirely because the old
misleading, and they are entirely ignorant of this "new" logic, though
it is seventy years old. I explained before that science is a joint
logic and facts, and there can be no escape from the conclusion that
as ignore sound logic are not scientists at all but merely clerks in
offices; and yet the people listen to them and are too often hypnotized
nonsensical conclusions so misleading and immeasurably harmful.
the next generation, their future welfare and happiness? If they are
logic and false doctrines, mental cripples are produced, destined for a
misery. Is this what parents want for their beloved ones? What of the
men and women who in the literal sense are the builders of the next
What do they know about the latest progress of knowledge? Or are they
still in the
dark ages of ignorance? In the light of these questions, the man in the
sufficient reason to be vitally interested in this subject.
The new sciences
are not strictly "popular." Scientists who have spent their lives in
studies of classical texts, and who are not capable of following up a
of sound reasoning, and even some mathematicians and engineers who have
technic without bothering to inquire into its meaning or justification,
to resent these views. The layman must understand the reasons for such
cannot be concealed for long; but if ignorance, dullness, apathy retard
this will mean one or two more generations of misery. It may take a
still more terrible
World War to whip mankind into the realization that man should use his
the knowledge already at hand.
of Keyser, besides their great scientific value, have another quality
found in other scientific writers, namely, an unexcelled style of their
his writings not only jewels of thought but jewels of style and
language as well.
To sum up.
A diagram may help to visualize the power of one of the discoveries of
A -----------B Old non-scientific assumptions, postulates, \ Logical
E \ destiny coordinations, wars \ revolutions \ New scientific as C
-------\ D New
scientific, true sumptions, postulates Logical coordinated, systems,
Destiny ideas, ideals This diagram makes it evident that ‒
change in (A) the old
premises, postulates, necessarily involves changes
in (B): it explains why the World War having exposed many old, hidden
(A), must affect our social, economic, political and other relations,
therefore, no return to the old (B) is possible.
is impossible to start with
old (often false) premises (A) and reach new
ideals (D) and convince all; because in such case Logical Destiny is
would-be reformer, whoever he may be; because inconsistencies (E)
arise, which prevent
the general acceptance of the high-sounding, logically unsound
doctrines. For example,
we may preach "Brotherhood of Man" and still practice the "Wolfhood"
new, better civilization (D)
must start with new, truer, scientific premises,
postulates (C); then, and then only, Logical Destiny will again be our
of enemy (E).
the old civilization
everyone blames everyone else for everything; Nations
blame Nations, Religions blame Religions, Labor blames Capital, Capital
etc. Logical destiny proves that no one is to be blamed. In false
premises are the
roots of guilt all the rest, the consequences, are but the outgrowth of
understanding at once abolishes ALL REASONS FOR BITTERNESS in
individual life, community
life, international life: it proves that a "League of Sound Logic" is
the best "League of Nations" because effective under the subtle
laws of Logical Fate Unified Doctrines Will Unify Man.
So it may
be hoped that those who most earnestly believe in the "Brotherhood of
will be re-inspired and be the most eager to investigate and understand
in the establishment of the "Brotherhood of Doctrines," because there
and only there will be found the foundations of the higher aspects of
for Brotherhood among men.
of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons the United States
By Bro. C. C. Hunt, Associate
ON Oct. 24,
1797, a convention of committees from St. Andrew's Chapter, Boston,
Albany, and Newburyport Chapter, met in convention at Masons' Hall,
and resolved to take steps necessary to forming a Grand Royal Arch
Chapter for the
states in the northeastern part of the United States. Thomas Smith Webb
chairman of this convention. They therefore issued a circular letter to
in these states asking them to send one or more delegates to represent
at a meeting to be held in the city of Hartford, Conn., on the fourth
of January, next ensuing.
Most of the
chapters invited accepted the invitation and on Jan. 24, 1798, the
the several chapters met at-Hartford, Conn., and organized the Grand
Chapter of the Northern States of America, consisting of the states of
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont and New York. A
adopted and officers elected, among them being Ephraim Kirby, of
as Grand High Priest, and Thos. Smith Webb, of Albany, N.Y., Grand
meeting of the Grand Chapter after its organization was held on the
of September, 1798, in the city of Middleton, Conn. The second meeting
on the second Wednesday of January, 1799, at Providence, R. I. At this
the Constitution was amended and the name changed to the General Grand
Royal Arch Masons for the Northern States of America. This change was
made because of the fact that some of the states had organized Grand
their own under the original Grand Chapter, and the name was changed to
Grand Chapter to indicate the superior body.
was also made for future organization of other State Grand Chapters,
and for meetings
every seven years after 1799, instead of annual meetings as had been
the case before.
meeting was, therefore, held in 1806. At this meeting requests for
received from Georgia and South Carolina. Therefore the Constitution
was again changed
to enable them to take in Grand Chapters from other states. The new
name was General
Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons for the United States of America.
time other Grand Chapters have been organized under the General Grand
at the present time all the Grand Chapters in the United States, with
of Pennsylvania, Virginia and Texas, are members of the General Grand
As to the
present General Grand Chapter ritual, there was a memorial presented to
Grand Chapter at the convocation at Indianapolis in 1912, from the
Royal Arch Masons of Mississippi, in which attention was called to the
"… in the ritual as promulgated
by the General
Grand Chapter, there are numerous instances in which the same idea is
in a different phraseology, which makes it difficult to retain. The
is not a matter of any great importance, but the feet that it varies in
instances has proven a source of great embarrassment in the propagation
of the work,
because the mind is burdened needlessly in an endeavor to express in
more ways than
one, an idea that is identical.
"Your Memorialists think that
it is worthy
of your consideration, that latitude should be given to the several
to follow the work of their several Grand Lodges where there is a
between the lodge and chapter work, in the same jurisdiction. In the
existing in cities, where one set of brethren do the work of the lodge
that of the chapter, this it not a matter of very much importance, but
towns or cities where the same brethren are the workers in the lodge
also, it is exceedingly confusing to have to use one phraseology in the
another in the chapter to convey an identical meaning and your
that no harm could come from granting the Grand Chapters liberty to
follow in the
work of the chapter, the work of the Grand Lodge."
committee to whom this memorial was referred reported that they found
of the Mississippi companions well founded, and recommended certain
changes to make
the ritual more uniform. This report was unanimously adopted, but did
correct evil complained of, and at the convocation at San Francisco,
Cal., in 1915,
the Grand Chapter of Iowa presented a memorial calling attention to one
forty-five other changes which should be made to harmonize the work.
No. 49, of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, also presented a memorial asking that
the Past Master's
Degree be rewritten. Both of these memorials were referred to a
committee on ritual,
but in the meantime the General Grand High Priest had recommended that
be appointed to rewrite and revise the entire ritual, to bring it into
changes which had already been made. This recommendation was adopted by
Grand Chapter and the committee on ritual recommended that the memorial
be referred to the special committee, which was done. Companions Wm. F.
Williams and Harry W. Harvey were appointed on the committee and
report at the Triennial Convocation at Baltimore in 1918. This report
of a complete revision of the ritual and was adopted.
This is the
present General Grand Chapter ritual, and the above briefly recites the
leading up to its adoption. The essentials which go with this ritual
are the old-time
essentials of the General Grand Chapter. The committee reported that
they made no
change in this whatever.
Concerning "The Story
of Freemasonry in New Jersey"
By Bro. Melvin M. Johnson,
who are familiar with Bro. Johnson's "Freemasonry in America Prior to
[Lib 1916] will be interested to know
he has revised and expanded that book into a new volume under the
Beginnings of Freemasonry in America," [Lib*] to be issued during the
of Freemasonry in New Jersey," by Bro. Ernest A. Reed, published in THE
November, 1923, page 329, is exceedingly interesting, particularly as
such an able pen. But Bro. Reed has been misled by his sources in some
so that I believe a further discussion will be as acceptable to him as
It will assist me if the reader, before going on with the following,
attempts a reason for the failure of Daniel Cox to establish lodges in
of New Jersey, and later speaks of Cox's "return to England in 1731."
The fact is, that while Cox was appointed June 5, 1730, as Provincial
of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania for two years he was not on
of the Atlantic at any time during those two years. During that entire
remained in England endeavoring to perfect certain property rights to a
of North America, which he claimed had been granted to his father. When
in January, 1730/1, Cox attended the Grand Lodge in London he naturally
in accordance with the commission which he held, although he had never
his article Bro. Reed makes this statement:
"Perhaps the best known
military lodge on
the American side was American Union Lodge, of the Connecticut Line, as
indicates, a lodge formed among the troops from Connecticut. The
warrant and minutes
of this lodge are preserved among the records of the Grand Lodge of
but at the time this lodge came into being there was no Grand Lodge of
and the warrant was granted by Deputy Grand Master Gridley of
same Gridley who laid out the breast-works at Bunker Hill and who was
Master on account of the death in battle of Grand Master Joseph Warren.
are well kept and show every location of the Connecticut troops."
of this paragraph needs revision. The facts concerning American Union
quite interesting. The Grand Lodge of Connecticut does not possess the
warrant to which Bro. Reed refers. It has what purports to be a printed
a commission issued by John Rowe as Grand Master, to Joel Clark,
Esquire, to be
Master of American Union Lodge, "now erected in Roxbury or wherever
shall remove on the continent of America, provided it is where no Grand
is dated Feb. 15, 1776. It is not a warrant for a lodge and from its
terms it is
not clear whether the lodge was warranted before that time or not. The
is, as stated, merely the appointment of a brother as Master of the
when constituted was not "of the Connecticut Line." At that time there
was no Connecticut "Line." There were at least three regiments of
troops in or about Boston, but there were no "line" troops until the
of the Continental Army, many months later. American Union Lodge was
the troops who were in Roxbury, and probably of the Connecticut
I have not yet located Joel Clark.
American Union Held a Memorable
We know that
on Dec. 27, 1779, a festival meeting of the lodge was held at
Morristown to celebrate
the festival of St. John the Evangelist. Bro. George Washington was
at that meeting there was a proposition for the appointing of a General
for the United States. By that time the lodge was undoubtedly composed
if not wholly, of brethren of the Connecticut "line."
this lodge was located in Ohio, and the original records of the Grand
Lodge of Massachusetts
of March 11, 1793, contain a reference to a letter received from "R.
Master of American Union Lodge, No. 1, in the Federal Territory North
West of the
12, 1803, the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts received a petition from
Lodge of Marietta (Ohio), praying for "a renewal of their charter by
Lodge, and to be received under its jurisdiction and patronage."
action was taken on this petition. On Sept. 10, 1804, an official list
of the lodges
and their rank was adopted by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, and
Lodge of Marietta, Ohio, is listed with the date of its charter as Feb.
10, 1805, the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts received returns from this
on Dec. 9 of the same year it was represented by somebody at the
The roll of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, published Dec. 9, 1806,
lodge; but on Sept. 14, 1807, a list is made up of lodges "which have
made any returns or any payment at all to the Grand Lodge, owing
perhaps to their
not being visited, to distance, or want of funds." American Union Lodge
Marietta, state of Ohio, appears on this list.
of the Quarterly Communication of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts held
10, 1819, reads in part as follows:
Committee appointed to consider the subject of American Union Lodge,
now or formerly
under the jurisdiction of this Grand Lodge, report That from the best
they have been able to obtain, it appears, that sometime in 1802, a
number of Brethren
in the Town of Marietta, in the State of Ohio, obtained from this Grand
renewal of a travelling charter, which in the year 1776 was granted to
to be used in the Town of Roxbury, and elsewhere, and which had now
the hands of the said Brethren at Marietta.
in the year 1808, the several Lodges in that State of Ohio, met in
delegates at Chillicothe, [Ohio], for the purpose of forming a Grand
that State the convention proceeding in the Business for which they
elected their Officers, and appointed a day for their installation…
"An extraordinary Freshet
delegates from American Union Lodge attending. The Convention however
met and proceeded
to install the Officers elect, this being done in the absence of the
American Union Lodge, whom your Committee had requested that the
be postponed until they should be able to attend, gave offence to said
having assembled, they voted to recede from the compact, and remain
of the Grand Lodge of Ohio. But a large minority of said Lodge, were
to adhere to the compact and become subordinate to the Ohio Grand Lodge
and as they
state from conscientious seceded from A.U. Lodge, petitioned the Grand
Ohio for dispensation to hold a regular Lodge under its jurisdiction;
being granted they were constituted and organized under the same name
of the Lodge,
from which they had seceded, so that there are two Lodges now existing
in the same
place, bearing the same name, the one adhering to the jurisdiction of
Lodge of Massachusetts, the other to that of Ohio These are the
out of which your Committee believe the difficulties and disagreements
Lodges have been produced.
Committee find on the records of the Grand Lodge, confirmation of the
statement respecting the renewal of the Charter of A.U. Lodge, and also
the fact, that they hold the same so long as they comply with the
requisitions of this Grand Lodge. How far they have complied with this
your Committee are not able to say, because they do not know whether
the said Lodge
is holden to pay similar fees with other Lodges under this jurisdiction
as the Charter of A.U. Lodge probably contained terms of limitation
its validity with the establishment of a Grand Lodge in the State of
Ohio, as they
have never paid any fees to, or been represented in this Grand Lodge,
and as they
profess to have the right to confer degrees in Masonry of which this
have no cognition and aside from all these considerations did they not
distance which A.U. Lodge is located from this Grand Lodge and the
there would be in her uniting with the Sister Lodges in the State of
the harmony, and interest of the Craft in that region so much demand We
of the opinion that the said American Union Lodge, has no just claims
to the protection
of this Grand Lodge, and no fair pretensions to the privilege of
under its jurisdiction And that it is her imperious duty, a duty she
owes to this
Grand Lodge, to the Craft at large, and to her own best interests,
relinquish all rights and privileges derived from the Grand Lodge of
and unite zealously and cheerfully with the Grand Lodge of Ohio in
the pure light of Masonry through the regions of the West.
of which is respectfully submitted
Zach. G. Whitman,
That this Grand Lodge consider that the Grant on conformation of a
Charter to American
Union Lodge, from this Grand lodge, has expired by the conditions
and that it is their duty to conform to the Grand Lodge of Ohio, as
foregoing report and resolve were read and accepted, and the
Secretary directed to transmit a copy of the resolve, with the doings
of this Grand
Lodge, on the memorials presented to the Grand Lodge of Ohio, and
Original Charter was Granted
original charter of this lodge was not granted by Deputy Grand Master
was granted by John Rowe. The printed copy of the appointment of Joel
the name of John Rowe at the top and the signature of Richard Gridley
is the first
name signed at the bottom. Those familiar, however, with the form of
commissions issued by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts will know that
Master signs well up on the left hand margin of the charter. The other
sign at the bottom. Those who have seen the printed copy, therefore,
Rowe did not sign the commission. It is evident to a Massachusetts
Mason that he
did sign it just as much as Gridley signed it. The original charter
has long since been destroyed by fire. When so destroyed it was in the
the proper officers of the lodge at Marietta, Ohio.
It has been
claimed that Union Lodge, No. 40, of Danbury, Conn., is the successor
Union Lodge. This is very doubtful and quite improbable. The only
evidence to support
this claim, so far as the writer is aware, is a letter written Jan. 5,
Major Jonathan Heart, who was then Master of American Union Lodge,
urging that the
warrant for Union Lodge, No. 40, be granted. Major Heart himself took
of American Union Lodge from Connecticut, where he had been a Grand
Ohio, where he was an officer of the Federal Forces at Fort Harmar,
To him is
due the establishment of the lodge at Marietta. As a Past Grand
Lecturer of Connecticut,
it is hardly probable that if the charter had been replaced by the
charter of Union
Lodge, No. 40, of Connecticut, Bro. Heart would have continued to use
as authority for his lodge in Ohio; nor would the lodge itself in 1803
likely to seek a renewal of its charter by the Grand Lodge of
was the engineer who laid out the breast-works at Bunker Hill, but he
was not acting
Grand Master on account of the death in battle of Grand Master Joseph
Warren was Grand Master of "Massachusetts Grand Lodge," a Grand Lodge
founded in 1769 by virtue of a commission from the Earl of Dalhousie,
Master Mason of Scotland, appointing Joseph Warren to be Grand Master
in Boston, New England, and within one hundred miles of the same. This,
was an "Antient" Grand Lodge, established during the schism when the
Lodge of Scotland was in communication with the "Antients" and not with
the "Moderns." [See Study Club in this issue.]
Two Grand Lodges in Massachusetts
At the time
this Grand Lodge was established there had for a long time been a
Lodge in Boston founded on July 30, 1753, by virtue of a commission
issued by Montague,
then Grand Master of England. This Grand Lodge was known as "St. John's
Lodge." At the time that American Union Lodge was chartered, John Rowe
Richard Gridley were Grand Master and Deputy Grand Master respectively
of St. John's
Grand Lodge, and Joseph Warren was Grand Master of Massachusetts Grand
schism in Massachusetts was healed by the union of the two Grand Lodges
although the schism in England between the "Antients" and the "Moderns"
was not healed until 1813.
be very glad, if it be desired, to furnish citations for every
statement which is
made above. My point in calling attention to this is not only to
correct some errors
into which Bro. Reed has unwittingly fallen, but also again to point
out how necessary
it is for the student of the history of Freemasonry to examine the
before he makes statements of things which are supposed to be
has undoubtedly quoted statements which others have made and which he
true, but I doubt if there is any field of history where so many
have been either carelessly or unguardedly made as in the field of the
Masonry. When one so-called historian makes a statement, someone else
to be true, quotes it, and the error spreads. It is safe to make
assertions of historic
fact in Masonic matters only when one has verified statements which he
reference to competent contemporaneous evidence. In the light of recent
and discoveries, there is no history extant of Masonry in this country
any great reliance can be placed published prior to Clegg's Revision of
It is most unfortunate to give further credence and currency to errors
deliberate mis-statements) of the past by their republication.
I use the
words "deliberate mis-statements" advisedly. Some conspicuous examples
are pointed out in my Beginnings of Freemasonry in America about to be
the Doran press as a part of the National Masonic Library.
of Masonic History
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Editor
Part XI. – The Great Cleavage
in Freemasonry; An Account Of The "Ancient" Grand Lodge
OF all the
chapters in the long and varied history of our Craft not one is more
or more important to know than that which relates how there grew up
first Grand Lodge (described last month) a rival Grand Lodge, how the
bitter rivals, and how at last a union was brought about. Therefrom a
learn how certain changes came into the Craft which still puzzle him,
to a certain extent, why Masonic ceremonies in America differ from
in England, and also among various American states. Necessarily only a
of many events can be attempted here; those who would seek details are
to the books listed at the end of this article, and especially to
and Fictions, by Henry Sadler, the classic in this field.
I. Causes That Led to the
It is absolutely
impossible to work out a connected and detailed history of all the
causes that led
at last to the formation of a new Grand Lodge, and for the same reasons
to lay one's finger on a certain year or place and say, here is where
The thing came about gradually and out of many forces at work.
One of the
main results of the formation of the first Grand Lodge established at
1717 was that Operative Masonry was completely laid aside in favor of
Masonry. Such a radical change in the inmost nature of the Craft could
not but arouse
opposition. It is supposed, for example, that the difficulties into
Sayer fell, after he had served as the first Grand Master, may have
been due to
his dislike of the new regime, he having been an old Operative Mason.
How much trouble
the great change caused, or long it lasted, is now impossible to
it seems evident that a resentment against the new order of things
lasted long in
some quarters, and that whole lodges refused for many years to
acquiesce in so complete
a departure from the old ways.
of trouble in the early years of the first Grand Lodge was the adoption
of the "Paragraph
Concerning God and Religion" in Anderson's Constitutions. Prior to 1717
rank and file of Craftsmen had been of the Christian persuasion and the
to judge by its own Constitutions, had been frankly Trinitarian
Christian. The new
Constitutions, now associated with the name of Anderson, changed all
to its somewhat ambiguous wording a Mason was required to be only of
"in which all good men agree". This did not please those who wished to
see Freemasonry remain specifically Christian, consequently they made
records of the first Grand Lodge itself it is evident that all was not
Help to a Brother;
the first Cause, or Motive, of the Institution
PRINCIPLES of the CRAFT,
arising from a strict Observance thereof;
Sort of MEN ought to be initiated into the
what sort of MASONS are fit to govern LODGES,
their Behaviour in and out of the Lodge.
used in the Jewish and Christian Lodges,
Ancient Manner of
new Lodges, with all the Charges,
and NEW REGULATIONS,
Manner of Chusing and Installing Grand-Master
other useful Particulars too numerous here
which is added,
greatest Collection of MASONS SONG ever presented
View, with many entertaining PROLOGUES
TEMPLE an ORATORIO,
it was performed for the Benefit of
Brother LAURENCE DERMOTT, Sec.
for the EDITOR, and sold by Brother James
Bedford, at the
in St. Paul's ChurchYard.
is a facsimile, of the Book of Constitutions
used by the "Ancient" Grand Lodge. It was composed by Laurence Dermott,
complaint of "irregular makings", but little was done to head off that
evil; also it appears that Grand Lodge affairs were managed with
laxness, if not
sometimes with downright carelessness. A fair example of this is
furnished in the
case of Lord Byron, who was elected Grand Master April 30, 1747. That
sometimes known as "the wicked Lord Byron", appeared before his
only five times in five years, and seems to have paid little heed to
The carelessness aroused so much feeling that "it was the Opinion of
Masons to have a consultation about electing a new and more active
they "assembled for that purpose" and would have carried it through had
it not been for the intervention of Bro. Thomas Manningham, M.D. From
from similar instances that could be named, one may judge that Grand
Lodge did not
keep a very tight hold of the reins, a fact that will help to explain
Innovations Had Been Made
A worse thing
"worse", that is, from the point of view of the conservative brethren
at the time was that the first Grand Lodge deliberately made a few
in the old forms, a thing that came about after this wise, so it is
Freemasonry became more or less popular in London numberless men became
of making their way into lodges without the troublesome cost of a
To meet their needs certain so-called "exposes" were published, the
notable of which was Masonry Dissected, by one Samuel Prichard [Lib 1730], described as a "late member
of a Constituted Lodge". Upon this, clandestinism became so rife that
Grand Lodge, in self-defense, determined upon making changes in the
that would enable regular lodges to detect the frauds. It is now next
to learn with certainty just what these changes were, but according to
of the Grand Lodge of 1717 and to scattered references in Grand Lodge
were somewhat as follows: The installation ceremony of the Worshipful
either abolished or suffered to go by default; the Third Degree was
symbolism of the preparation of a candidate was changed; one of the
secrets of the First Degree was transferred to the Second, and vice
of the old "geometrical secrets" long practiced among "ancient
Masons" were either entirely omitted or else changed out of all
etc. As a proof that such charges of innovations were not without
fact is an entry in the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of 1717, 1784
which says, "Some variations were made in the established forms," and
this goes on to explain that these changes were made, "more effectually
debar them [i.e., clandestines] and their abettors from the Lodges."
cause that contributed to the new developments has to do with the Royal
subject peculiarly difficult to deal with, especially on paper and then
space. Laurence Dermott, the creative genius of the new Grand Lodge
more anon), once wrote these words:
"A Modern Mason a member of a
the Grand Lodge of 1717 may safely communicate all his secrets to an
the member of a lodge under the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge
started in 1751,
but that an Ancient Mason cannot with safety communicate all his
secrets to a Modern
Mason without further ceremony."
these words, and some others not necessary to be included here, Bro.
Fred J.W. Crowe,
in his revision of Gould's Concise History [Lib 1951], page 256, remarks that,
is little doubt that these differences consist of changes in the Third
the introduction of the Royal Arch."
The Royal Arch Became an
here is that in their re-organization of the Ritual, Desgauliers and
in the early days of the Grand Lodge of 1717 left the Third Degree
without its logical
conclusion, so that a certain vital secret was lost but not found; and
of the brethren, in order to complete the symbolism, either adapted or
supplementary ceremony to make good the loss. In so doing they ran
counter to the
practices of the Grand Lodge of 1717 and thereby became stigmatized as
Firm in their belief that they were right and the Grand Lodge was
wrong, they persisted
in their course until at last they founded a Grand Lodge of their own.
stated above, is a "theory", but there are facts to support it, and it
is reasonable on the face of things.
Be the facts
what they may, it is certain that after the new Grand Lodge was formed
it made use
of the ceremony known as the Royal Arch and practiced it as a part of
ancient Freemasonry. The results of this have been succinctly described
Hughan in a communication quoted on page 1185, Mackey's Revised History
by Bro. Robert I. Clegg:
"The Royal Arch Degree was not
these 'Antients' [as the new Grand Lodge came to be styled] but only
them as an authorized ceremony. In self-defense the 'Moderns' [as the
of 1717 was dubbed], who had worked it before the origin of the 'Atholl
[another name for the new Grand Lodge], but not officially, gradually
gave it more
prominence. In 1767 they formed a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons
Warrants for Chapters, pushing the degree more even than the
not recognized by their Grand Lodge; so at the Union of the two Grand
December 1813, the way was prepared for the inauguration of the 'United
in 1817, the ceremony being adopted as the completion of the Master
not as a separate and independent degree."
important of all the theories as to the rise of the new Grand Lodge is
out by Henry Sadler, though the word "theory", in view of the many
he has marshaled in his Masonic Facts and Fictions, is too weak to
suggest the cogency
and power of his reasoning. I must content myself with giving a very
of the results arrived at in this remarkable book.
important result of Sadler's work has been to abolish the old notion
that the "Antient"
Grand Lodge resulted from a "schism", or "secession" from the
older Grand Lodge. The "schismatic" theory was given currency by the
Grand Lodge, and it came to be generally accepted among its supporters
even Gould, who was usually so independent in his theorizing, clung
it long after others had been convinced of Sadler's views, for the
it was deemed wise to make a revision of his Concise History. Sadler
made it clear
that the "Antient" Grand Lodge grew up, not out of a split-off from the
Grand Lodge of 1717 but from independent causes, and that in a day
before the doctrine
of exclusive jurisdiction had been adopted there was no illegality in
such a step.
most important result of his researches was that the primary
inspiration in the
founding of the "Antient" Grand Lodge came from Irish Masons who had
in London, and who had not been recognized by the Grand Lodge of 1717.
that a majority of the members of the first lodge warranted by the
were Irishmen, and that they closely copied the usages and customs of
Lodge of Ireland, and that in the loose talk of the times they were
dubbed "Irish Masons". Most of these men were of the "lower"
classes, painters, tailors, mechanics, laborers, and so on, thereby
sharp contrast to the membership of the lodges working under the Grand
Were Close To The G.L. Of Ireland
differed much in their practices from the older Grand Lodge and at the
in so differing, stood close to the customs of the Grand Lodge of
own summary of this may be given:
"It will doubtless suffice if I
the chief remaining points of connexion and similarly without further
Book of Constitutions, and the By-Laws for private lodges; Craft
the Royal Arch degree; Grand Lodge Seals, and the method of affixing
them with the
same colored ribbons [same, that is, as the Grand Lodge of Ireland],
which so far
as I know were not used by any other Grand Lodge; Certificates in Latin
Constitution of a lodge for Grand Officers only, and the names of the
in the front of the register; System of registration in the books of
the Grand Lodge;
the fact that the 'Ancients' were designated 'Irish Masons', their
Lodges', and their warrants 'Irish Warrants', by independent and
at various periods, from about fifteen years after their organization
in 1751 up
to the end of the last century" [that is, the eighteenth century].
new Grand Lodge was once under way, and after it had begun to come into
with the older body, of course the defenders of the "Antients" began to
make up arguments to defend their own position; to a large extent such
were merely special pleading, and not now to be taken with much
by way of example, was Dermott's that the earlier Grand Lodge had been
in an illegal manner. In his Ahiman Rezon, 1778 edition, he says that
a Grand Lodge there must have been the Masters and Wardens of five
and asserts that "this is so well known to every man conversant with
laws, usages, customs and ceremonies of Master Masons, that it is
needless to say
more." Dermott must have known at the time that such a statement was
there never had been such a law. As time went on this argument was
replaced by another
to the effect that the "Antients" had set up house for themselves
the older Grand Lodge had been guilty of innovations, which, though it
true enough, could not very well stand because the "Antients"
had been guilty of many innovations of their own; for they had brought
Masonic system an entirely new degree, an innovation of the first
order, one would
II. Formation of the "Antient"
It is time
to give an account of how the "Ancient" (I shall hereafter give it the
modern spelling) Grand Lodge came into existence.
I shall say a word about Laurence Dermott, who figured so much in all
recommending the reader betimes that he peruse W.M. Bywater's Notes on
Dermott and His Work [Lib 1884], published in London, 1884.
Dermott was born
in Ireland in 1720, twenty-two years before the birth of William
Preston, who first
saw the light of day in Edinburgh, July 28, 1742, and who alone of all
in Freemasonry of that generation shares with Dermott an equal fame.
initiated in Ireland in 1740, and went through the chairs of Lodge No.
where he was installed Worshipful Master June 24, 1746. It appears that
he was fairly
well educated for those days, and Gould is of the opinion that he
a little Hebrew, which will account for the fondness he had of covering
with Hebrew characters that ancient and difficult language! He moved to
probably as a youth, with little in his pocket but many schemes boiling
in his head,
which head was tireless, alert, witty, sarcastic, and often a bit
waging war on his foes, of which his energy made him many. It seems
that he engaged
himself as a journeyman painter (Preston became a journeyman printer,
it will be
remembered) and that he prospered so that in after years he spent much
charity and in his Masonic activities. In late records he was described
as a wine
merchant, and it appears that he enjoyed the luxury of gout. Once made
a Mason he
never rested but devoted himself to it as to a mistress, with
never permitting himself to become discouraged, and always in the front
battle. Aside from his genius in putting a Grand Lodge under way his
was the composition of his Ahiman Rezon (meaning "Worthy Brother
the Constitutions of the new Grand Lodge, and afterwards adopted by
many other Grand
Lodges, our own Pennsylvania, Maryland and South Carolina among them.
The "Grand Committee"
So much for
Dermott. The extent of the "irregular makings" so often complained of
in the records of the Grand Lodge of 1717 may be shown by the fact that
of these the Grand Lodge erased from its list at least forty-five
1742 and 1752. Brethren so dealt with, along with many free-lances, and
independent, or "St. John's lodges," (about which many interesting
might be written) came together and formed a "Grand Committee" of "the
Most Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons";
formed itself into "The Grand Lodge of England according to the Old
which Grand Lodge afterwards came to be called the "Ancient" Grand
in contradistinction to the "Modern," as the older Grand Lodge became
dubbed. The earliest record of the Grand Committee is of date July 17,
that day Lodges No. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 "were authorized to grant
and Warrants and to act as Grand Master." The office of Grand Master
vacant until a "noble brother" could be found to accept the position;
and the place of Lodge No. 1 was left standing to be occupied by the
Lodge, a thing suggested no doubt by the Grand Lodge of Ireland having
same thing. John Morgan was elected Grand Secretary in 1751 but it
he was lax in his duties, therefore Laurence Dermott was elected to
take his place
Feb. 5, 1752, after which time the Grand Secretary's most bitter
enemies could not
complain of any laxness whatsoever, because Dermott became the leading
all that followed, and it was to his genius that a group of
malcontents, drawn from
what at that time were the lower or middle classes, were able to forge
to grow more rapidly, time taken into consideration, than their rival
One of the
expedients hit on by Dermott was the warranting of military lodges, a
done before, and which accounts for the rapid growth of Ancient Masonry
in the American
Colonies, for owing to the use of warrants to army lodges the British
this continent became Masonic missionaries. The Modern Grand Lodge
suit in this. Another expedient was the frank and open pushing of the
Degree; it is easy to understand that a system offering four degrees
more appeal to the generality than one offering only three. Also the
able to secure formal endorsements from the Grand Lodges of Ireland and
and in addition thereto a certain amount of active support from those
In a list
of the Grand Secretaries of the Ancient Grand Lodge it will be noted
served eighteen years:
1752-70, Laurence Dermott.
1771-76, William Dickey.
1777-78, James Jones.
1779-82, Charles Bearblock.
1783-84, Robert Leslie.
1785-89, John McCormick.
1790-1813, Robert Leslie.
still is the list of Grand Masters elected:
1754-56, Edward Vaughan.
1756-59, Earl of Blesington.
1760-66, Earl of Kelly.
1766-70, Hon. Thomas Mathew.
1771-74, John, third Duke of Atholl (also spelled Athol, Athole).
1775-81, John, fourth Duke of Atholl.
1783-91, Earl of Antrim.
1791-1813, John, fourth Duke of Atholl.
1813, Duke of Kent.
It will be
observed that of the sixty years during which the Ancients had a Grand
Duke of Atholl occupied the throne for thirty-one years; it was for
that the Ancients were often called "Atholl Masons," and for a
reason that the Moderns were sometimes called "Prince of Wales Masons."
They Grew Rapidly
and energy of the Ancient leaders, in addition to the superior
their degree system, is shown in the rapidity with which the new Grand
headway. In 1753 a dozen or so lodges were on the list; during the next
and largely owing to Dermott's activity, twenty-four were added;
between 1760 and
1766, while the Earl of Kelly was nominally Grand Master, sixty-four
more were taken
in charge. By 1813, when the Union was effected, the Ancients claimed a
of 359 lodges, though it is certain that in many cases the names of
were still carried.
adopted as their Book of Constitutions the Ahiman Rezon, largely the
work of Dermott,
though he closely followed in the main the lines of the Constitutions
of the Grand
Lodge of Ireland and at the same time borrowed with a free hand the
used by the Moderns, first published in 1723; the first edition of the
appeared in 1756. [Lib 1764 (This is the
version found on the Internet at this time – for other versions see
following the Constitutions already in use Dermott was able to avoid
of too wide a departure from Freemasonry as already practiced, and at
the same time,
though unwittingly, prepared the way for the Union that came
afterwards, a fact
of happy augury for the Craft at large.
of two Grand Lodges, both with their headquarters in London, naturally
great deal of confusion and misunderstanding among ordinary Masons; in
such brethren held no brief for either party, so that in some cases it
is of record
that a man held office in lodges under both constitutions; but for the
there was a good deal of bitterness among the partisans, though it must
that the Ancients were more avid of controversy than the Moderns, and
that in almost
every instance when all olive branch was extended it was from the
latter named camp.
An example of the irenic attitude of the Moderns is furnished by
Preston, who says
that while in 1801 charges were preferred against brethren under the
their activities in Ancient lodges the matter was suffered to drop.
In 1797 a
move was made looking toward union but the project fell through. Two
however, the two Grand Masters, the Earl of Moira for the Moderns and
the Duke of
Atholl for the Ancients, acted together to have the Craft specifically
from the Act to Prevent Secret Societies in England. Also, as another
paved the way for a merger, the Modern Grand Lodge succeeded in
securing the endorsements
of the Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland in such wise as to place
on a somewhat doubtful footing, a thing that completely reversed the
so far as those two Grand Bodies were concerned.
The Union Is Effected
as 1809 committees met to consider the "propriety and practicability of
On Oct. 26 of that year the Earl of Moira (for the Moderns) warranted a
lodge to serve as a means for bringing about a merger; this lodge held
meeting on Nov. 21 and then resolved to call itself "The Special Lodge
On April 10 of the year following the Earl of Moira informed his Grand
both he and the Grand Master of the Ancients "were both fully of
it would be an event truly desirable, to consolidate under one head the
of Masons that existed in this country." These proceedings were
to the Grand Lodge of Ancients, where this frank avowal of a desire for
met with unfeigned cordiality, so that after concessions were made by
though more heartily by the Moderns, it was agreed all the way around
should be ironed out, and a union be made. "The Grand Assembly of
for the Union of the Two Grand Lodges of England" was held Dec. 27,
due and solemn ceremonies the long wished for merger was consummated,
officers showing, almost without exception, a fine and statesmanlike
the month preceding the Duke of Atholl had resigned the Grand
Mastership of the
Ancients in favor of the Duke of Kent, the latter being placed in the
1; at the time of the Union the latter nominated the Duke of Sussex as
Master of the United Grand Lodge of Ancient Freemasons of England" and
Each of the
two Grand Lodges participating appointed a committee of nine expert
or Past Masters and these were then formed into a Lodge of
Promulgation, the purpose
of which was to work out a form of ritual acceptable to all. This lodge
its work from 1813 to 1816, often against opposition; but while its
work was of
consequence and official, the real fusing of the two systems went on
circumstances in the private lodges, so that the influence of the Lodge
was more academic than real.
of preparing a new Code of Regulations for the United Grand Lodge was
a Board of General Purposes; its work was approved by a Special Grand
23, 1815. Meanwhile, and in order to bring about the closest relations
between the new United Grand Lodge and the Grand lodges of Scotland and
an International Commission was formed and began its deliberations June
continuing until July 2 following. As a result it was declared that
Grand Lodges were perfectly in unison in all the great and essential
points of the
Mystery and Craft, according to the immemorial traditions and
of Ancient Masons;" eight resolutions, called the International
IV. By Way Of Conclusion
of all this re-organization on the ritual has been so well summarized
by Bro. W.B.
Hextall that I shall quote his paragraph in full from Ars Quatuor
XXIII [Lib*], page 304: (the reader should consult that entire volume)
"A conclusion to which I
is that for many years after the Union-speaking approximately, until
a good deal of 'give and take' concerning ritual went on unofficially,
as well as in the Provinces, and that our Craft ceremonies, as
practised from 1830,
and earlier, considerably deviated from those which were ascertained in
of Promulgation, 1809-11; worked in the Lodge of Reconciliation,
1813-16; and approved
by Grand Lodge on 5th June, 1816. The material from which we have to
is slight, but at the same time cogent; and when (to name a few points
find duties originally assigned to the Senior Deacon transferred to his
the entrusting with the means of satisfactory proof leading to the
otherwise performed; and the admission of a member or visitor 'by proof
of his having
ascertained the degree in which the Lodge is opened from an inspection
of the three
great lights at the entrance' (Lodge of Promulgation minutes, January
fallen into complete disuse; it is difficult to avoid realizing that,
to a large
extent, the subject of Craft working must have been placed in the
that quite apart from the means of instruction officially provided in
to assist brethren to find their way out of this welter Lodges of
into existence, some of which grew to be permanent institutions; it was
as a result
of the influence of these that the various "workings" came into use in
England, "Emulation," "Stability," "Oxford," etc.
If one will
take a sufficiently wide view of the history of English Freemasonry
from 1717 until
the Union had been everywhere accepted he will see that the whole
period takes on
the character of a grand transition, and that in this perspective the
and machinery of the Great Cleavage along with the subsequent official
act of Union
drop into second place as events, great in importance, but of the
nature of incidentals.
The change from Operative to Speculative Masonry officially made in
1717 was profound
beyond our usual understanding of it; and such a change could be
after many years, much experiment, and a long evolution. In this view
result of the Union was that it brought finally about the complete
and solidification of Speculative Freemasonry, fixed its character for
to come, established in the United Kingdom the firm principle of
Jurisdiction, and made possible the establishment inside the Craft of
and Authorities which today prevent the dispersal of its energies and
of its forces. Even until now that influence is at work; and it will
work until, out of its inevitable logic, a way will be found to unite
Freemasonry the world over, of which consummation we can all sincerely
say, So Mote
* * *
Encyclopedia (Revised Edition)
37; Ancient, or Antient, or Atholl Masons, 55; Antiquity, Lodge of, 65;
Constitutions, 112; Christianization of Freemasonry, 148; Dermott,
Grand Lodge, 306; Grand Master, 307; Innovations, 353; Ireland, 357;
of the, 430; Preston, William, 579; Prichard, Samuel, 583; Ramsay, A.
M., 607; Reconciliation.
Lodge of, 611; Royal Arch Degree, 643; Schisms, 668; Symbolic Degrees,
Grand Lodge of England, 815; York Grand Lodge, 867.
all eds., Laurence Dermott. (There are
versions in Bibliography keyword ‘Ahiman Rezon’)
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, V, 166 [Lib 1892]; VI, 44, 65 [Lib 1893]; VIII, 233 [Lib 1895]; XI, 190, 202 [Lib*]; XXIII,
162, 215 [Lib*]; XXIV, 268. [Lib 1911]
Atholl Lodges, R.F. Gould. [Lib 1879]
Book of Constitutions, edited by Entick. [Lib 1756, 1767]
Book of Constitutions, edtd. by Noorthouck. [Lib*]
Builders, The, Joseph Fort Newton. [Lib 1914]
Century of Masonic Working, F.W. Golby. [Lib*]
Concise History, R.F. Gould. [Lib 1904, 1951]
Grand Lodge of England, A.F. Calvert. [Lib*]
History of Freemasonry, Findel. [Lib 1866]
History of Freemasonry, R.F. Gould. [Lib 1884/89, Vol
1, Vol 2, Vol
3, Vol 4]
History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, Murray Lyon. [Lib 1873]
Illustrated History of the Lodge of Improvement, Henry Sadler. [Lib*]
Illustrations of Masonry, Wm. Preston. [Lib (9 Editions
available in Bibliography)]
Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry, R.I. Clegg. [Lib*]
Masonic Facts and Fictions, Henry Sadler. [Lib*]
Memorials of the Masonic Union, W.J. Hughan. [Lib 1913]
Military Lodges, R.F. Gould. [Lib 1899]
Minutes of the Grand Lodge of England, W.J. Songhurst, Ed. [Lib*]
Notes on Lau. Dermott, W.M. Bywater. [Lib 1884]
Origin of the English Rite, W.J. Hughan. [Lib 1884]
Short Masonic History, Fred Armitage. [Lib 1909/11; Vol 1, Vol 2]
Story of the Craft, Lionel Vibert. [Lib*]
* * *
series of Study Club articles will be brought to a conclusion in the
after which it will be published in book form. Readers are asked to
assist me to
delete all errors in matter of fact from the volume by calling my
attention to any
such detected in the Chapters as they have appeared in THE BUILDER.
will be accepted as a personal favor. The next series will very
studies in American Freemasonry.
* * *
"Articles of Union
between the Two Grand Lodges of Freemasons of England”
As a supplement
to the Study Club paper this month, and by way of completing the
account there given
of the manner in which the "Antients" and "Moderns", the rival
Grand Lodges, were amalgamated into, or were made to be superseded by,
Grand lodge of Ancient Freemasons of England, the Articles of Union,
1813, are here given in full. The student will find this, along with
all the other
important official documents and records, in W.J. Hughan's "Memorials
Masonic Union," [Lib 1913] 1913 edition, Bro. John T.
Thorp editor. The
book should be studied with great care.
IN THE NAME
OF GOD, AMEN
Worshipful His Royal Highness, Prince Augustus Frederick. Duke of
Sussex, Earl of
Inverness, Baron Arklow, Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of
and Grand Master of the Society of Free and Accepted Masons under the
of England; the Right Worshipful WALLER RODWELL WRIGHT, Provincial
of Masons in the Ionian Isles; the Right Worshipful Arthur Tegart, Past
and the Right Worshipful James Deans, Past Grand Warden; of the same
for themselves and on behalf of the Grand Lodge of the Society of
the Constitution of England: being thereto duly constituted and
empowered: on the
Worshipful His Royal Highness Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and
Strathearn, Earl of
Dublin, Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter and of
the Most Illustrious
Order of Saint Patrick, Field Marshal of His Majesty's Forces, Governor
Colonel of the First or Royal-Scots Regiment of Foot. and Grand Master
of Free and
Accepted Masons of England, according to the Old Institutions; the
Thomas Harper, Deputy Grand Master; the Right Worshipful James Perry,
Grand Master; and the Right Worshipful James Agar, Past Deputy Grand
the same Fraternity: for themselves and on behalf of the Grand Lodge of
of England, according to the old Institutions: being thereto duly
empowered: on the other part.
AS FOLLOWS ‒
There shall be, from and after
the day of the Festival of Saint John the
Evangelist next ensuing, a full, perfect, and perpetual union of and
two Fraternities of Free and Accepted Masons of England above
described; so as that
in all time hereafter they shall form and constitute but one
Brotherhood, and that
the said community shall be represented in one Grand Lodge, to be
constituted, and held, on the said day of the Festival of Saint John
next ensuing, and from thenceforward forever.
It is declared and pronounced,
that pure Ancient Masonry consists of three
degrees, and no more; viz: those of the Entered Apprentice, the
the Master Mason, including the Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch.
But this article
is not intended to prevent any lodge or chapter from holding a meeting
in any of
the degrees of the Orders of Chivalry, according to the constitutions
of the said
There shall be the most perfect
unity of obligation, of discipline, of working
the lodges, of making, passing and raising, instructing and clothing
that but one pure unsullied system, according to the genuine landmarks,
traditions of the Craft, shall be maintained, upheld and practiced,
Masonic world, from the day and date of the said union until time shall
be no more.
To prevent all controversy or
dispute as to the genuine and pure obligations,
forms, rules and ancient traditions of Masonry, and further, to unite
and bind the
whole Fraternity of Masons in one indissoluble bond, it is agreed that
and forms that have, from time immemorial, been established, used, and
in the Craft, shall be recognized, accepted and taken, by the members
of both Fraternities,
as the pure and genuine obligations and forms by which the incorporated
of England and its dependent lodges in every part of the world, shall
and for the purpose of receiving and communicating due light and
settling this uniformity
of regulation and instruction (and particularly in matters which can
expressed nor described in writing), it is further agreed that
be made to the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland, to authorize,
appoint any two or more of their enlightened members to be present at
Assembly on the solemn occasion of uniting the said Fraternities; and
that the respective
Grand Masters, Grand officers, Masters, Past Masters, Wardens and
and there present, shall solemnly engage to abide by the true forms and
(particularly in matters which can neither be described nor written),
in the presence
of the said members of the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland, that
it may be
declared, recognized, and known, that they all are bound by the same
and work under the same law.
For the purpose of establishing
and securing this perfect uniformity in all
the warranted lodges, and also to prepare for this Grand Assembly, and
all the members of both Fraternities on the level of equality on the
day of Re-union,
it is agreed that as soon as these presents shall have received the
the respective Grand Lodges, [Note] the two Grand Masters shall appoint
worthy and expert Master Masons or Past Masters, of their respective
with warrant and instructions to meet together at some convenient
in London, when each party having opened in a separate apartment a just
lodge, agreeably to their peculiar regulations they shall give and
and reciprocally the obligations of both Fraternities, deciding by lot
take priority in giving and receiving the same; and being thus all duly
enlightened in both forms, they shall be empowered and directed, either
a lodge under the warrant or dispensation to be entrusted to them, and
to be entitled
the LODGE OF RECONCILIATION, or to visit the several lodges holding
under both the
Grand Lodges for the purpose of obligating, instructing and perfecting
Past Masters, Wardens, and members, in both the forms, and to make a
return to the
Grand Secretaries of both the Grand Lodges of the names of those whom
have thus enlightened. And the said Grand Secretaries shall be
empowered to enroll
the names of all the members thus remade in the Register of both the
without fee or reward: it being ordered that no person shall be thus
registered whom the Master and Wardens of his lodge shall not certify
under their hands, that he is free on the books of his particular
lodge. Thus, on
the day of assembly of both Fraternities, the Grand officers, Masters,
and Wardens, who are alone to be present, shall all have taken the
which each is bound, and be prepared, to make their solemn engagement,
will thereafter abide by that which shall be recognized and declared to
be the true
and universally accepted obligation of the Master Mason.
As soon as the Grand Masters,
Grand officers, and members of the two present
Grand Lodges, shall, on the day of their Re-union have made the solemn
in the presence of the deputation of Grand or enlightened Masons from
Ireland, to abide and act by the universally recognized obligation of
the members shall forthwith proceed to the election of a Grand Master
for the year
ensuing; and to prevent delay, the brother so elected shall forthwith
pro tempore, that the Grand Lodge may be formed. The said Grand Master
nominate and appoint his Deputy Grand Master, together with a Senior
Grand Warden, Grand Secretary, or Secretaries, Grand Treasurer, Grand
Grand Sword Bearer, Grand Pursuivant, and Grand Tyler, who shall all be
and placed; and the Grand Incorporated Lodge shall then be opened, in
under the stile and title of the UNITED GRAND LODGE OF ANCIENT
FREEMASONS OF ENGLAND.
officers who held the several offices before (unless such of them as
may be re-appointed)
shall take their places, as Past Grand officers, in the respective
they held before; and in case either, or both of the present Grand
Pursuivants, and Tylers, should not be re-appointed to their former
then annuities shall be paid to them during their respective lives out
of the Grand
THE UNITED GRAND LODGE OF
ANCIENT FREEMASONS OF ENGLAND shall be composed,
except on days of Festival, in the following manner, as a just and
of the whole Masonic Fraternity of England; that is to say, of
The Grand Master,
Past Grand Masters,
Deputy Grand Master,
Past Deputy Grand Masters,
Provincial Grand Masters,
Past Grand Wardens,
Past Provincial Grand Masters,
Joint Grand Secretary, or Grand Secretary if there be only one,
Grand Sword Bearer,
Twelve Grand Stewards, to be
delegated by the
Stewards' Lodge, from among their members existing at the Union; it
and agreed that, from and after the Union, an annual appointment shall
be made of
the Stewards if necessary,
The actual Masters and Wardens
of all Warranted
Past Masters of lodges, who
have regularly served
and passed the chair before the day of Union, and who have continued
regular contributing members of a Warranted Lodge. It being understood
Masters who, from and after the day of the said Union, shall regularly
chair of their respective lodges, but one at a time, to be delegated by
shall have a right to sit and vote in the said Grand Lodge; so that
after the decease
of all the regular Past Masters of any regular lodge, who had attained
at the time of the Union, the representation of such lodge shall be by
Master, Wardens, and one Past Master only,
And all Grand officers in the
Grand Lodges shall retain and hold their rank and privileges in the
Lodge, as Past Grand officers, including the present Provincial Grand
Grand Treasurers, Grand Secretaries, and Grand Chaplains, in their
according to the seniority of their respective appointments; and where
shall have been contemporaneous, the seniority shall be determined by
lot. In all
other respects the above shall be the general order of precedence in
all time to
come, with this express provision, that no Provincial Grand Master,
be appointed, shall be entitled to a seat in the Grand Lodge, after he
retired from such situation, unless he shall have discharged the duties
for full five years.
The Representatives of the
several lodges shall sit under their respective
banners according to seniority. The two first lodges under each Grand
Lodge to draw
a lot in the first place for priority; and to which of the two the lot
No. 1 shall
fall, the other to rank as No. 2; and all the other lodges shall fall
that is, the lodge which is No. 2 of the Fraternity whose lot it shall
be to draw
No. 1, shall rank as No. 3 in the United Grand Lodge, and the other No.
rank as No. 4, and so on alternately through all the numbers
respectively. And this
shall forever after be the order and rank of the lodges in the Grand
in Grand Processions, for which a plan and drawing shall be prepared
the Union. On the renewal of any of the lodges now dormant, they shall
after all the lodges existing at the Union, notwithstanding the numbers
they may now stand on the respective rolls.
The United Grand Lodge being
now constituted, the first proceeding after
solemn prayer shall be to read and proclaim the act of Union, as
and sealed with the great seals of the two Grand Lodges; after which
the same shall
be solemnly accepted by the members present. A day shall then be
appointed for the
installation of the Grand Master and other Grand officers with due
which occasion the Grand Master shall in open lodge, with his own hand,
new great seal to the said instrument, which shall be deposited in the
of the United Grand Lodge, and be the bond of union among the Masons of
Lodge of England, and the lodges dependent thereon, until time shall be
The said new great seal shall be made for the occasion, and shall be
of both the great seals now in use; after which the present two great
be broken and defaced; and the new seal shall be alone used in all
and other documents to be issued thereafter.
The regalia of the Grand
officers shall be, in addition to the white gloves
and apron, and the respective jewels or emblems of distinction, garter
gold; and these shall alone belong to the Grand officers present and
Four Grand Lodges, representing
the Craft, shall be held for quarterly communication
in each year, on the first Wednesday in the months of March, June,
December, on each of which occasions the Masters and Wardens of all the
lodges shall deliver into the bands of the Grand Secretary and Grand
a faithful list of all their contributing members; and the warranted
lodges in and
adjacent to London shall pay towards the Grand Fund one shilling per
each member, over and above the sum of half a guinea for each new made
the registry of his name, together with the sum of one shilling to the
as his fee for the same, and that this contribution of one shilling for
shall be made quarterly, and each quarter, in all time to come.
It shall be in the power of the
Grand Master, or in his absence of the Past
Grand Masters, or in their absence of the Deputy Grand Master, or in
of the Past Deputy Grand Masters, or in their absence of the Grand
Wardens, to summon
and hold Grand Lodges of Emergency whenever the good of the Craft
shall, in their
judgment, require the same.
At the Grand Lodge to be held
annually on the first Wednesday in September,
the Grand Lodge shall elect a Grand Master for the year ensuing (who
and appoint his own Deputy Grand Master, Grand Wardens, and Secretary),
shall also nominate three fit and proper persons for each of the
offices of Treasurer,
Chaplain, and Sword Bearer, out of which the Grand Master shall, on the
in the month of December, choose and appoint one for each of the said
on the Festival of St. John the Evangelist, then next ensuing, or on
day as the said Grand Master shall appoint, there shall be held a Grand
the solemn installation of all the said Grand officers, according to
There may also be a Masonic
Festival, annually, on the Anniversary of the
Feast of St. John the Baptist, or of St. George, or such other day as
Master shall appoint, which shall be dedicated alone to brotherly love
and to which all regular Master Masons may have access, on providing
with tickets from the Grand Stewards appointed to conduct the same.
After the day of the Re-union,
as aforesaid, and when it shall be ascertained
what are the obligations, forms, regulations, working, and instruction,
to be universally
established, speedy and effectual steps shall be taken to obligate all
of each lodge in all the degrees, according to the form taken and
the Grand Master, Past Grand Master, Grand officers, and
Representatives of lodges,
on the day of Re-union; and for this purpose the worthy and expert
appointed, as aforesaid, shall visit and attend the several lodges,
within the Bills
of Mortality, in rotation, dividing themselves into quorums of not less
each, for the greater expedition, and they shall assist the Master and
promulgate and enjoin the pure and unsullied system, that perfect
unity of obligation, law, working, language, and dress, may be happily
to the English Craft.
When the Master and Wardens of
a warranted lodge shall report to the Grand
Master, to his satisfaction, that the members of such lodge have taken
enjoined obligation, and have conformed to the uniform working,
then the Most Worshipful Grand Master shall direct the new Great Seal
to be affixed
to their warrant, and the lodge shall be adjudged to be regular, and
all the privileges of the Craft: a certain term shall be allowed (to be
the Grand Lodge) for establishing this uniformity; and all
of any regular lodge, which shall take place between the date of the
Union and the
term so appointed, shall be deemed valid, on condition that such lodge
to the regulations of the Union within the time appointed; and means
shall be taken
to ascertain the regularity, and establish the uniformity of the
Lodges, Military Lodges, and lodges holding of the two present Grand
Lodges in distant
parts; and it shall be in the power of the Grand Lodge to take the most
measures for the establishment of this unity of doctrine throughout the
of Masons, and to declare the warrants to be forfeited, if the measures
shall be resisted or neglected.
The property of the said two
Fraternities, whether freehold, leasehold, funded,
real or personal, shall remain sacredly appropriate to the purposes for
was created; it shall constitute one Grand Fund, by which the blessed
Masonic benevolence may be more extensively obtained. It shall either
the trusts in which, whether freehold, leasehold, or funded, the
thereof now stand; or it shall be in the power of the said United Grand
any time hereafter, to add other names to the said trusts; or, in case
of the death
of any one Trustee, to nominate and appoint others for perpetuating the
of the same; and in no event, and for no purpose, shall the said united
be diverted from its original purpose. It being understood and declared
any time after the Union, it shall be in the power of the Grand Lodge
the whole of the said property and funds in one and the same set of
shall give bond to hold the same in the name and on behalf of the
And it is further agreed, that the Freemasons' Hall shall be the place
the United Grand Lodge shall be held, with such additions made thereto
as the increased
numbers of the Fraternity, thus to be united, may require. And it is
between the parties, that, as there are now in the Hall several whole
of Past Grand Masters, a portrait of the Most Worshipful His Grace the
Duke of Atholl,
Past Grand Master, of Masons according to the Old Institutions, shall
there in the same conspicuous manner.
The fund, appropriate to the
objects of Masonic benevolence, shall not be
infringed oil for any purpose, but shall be kept strictly and solely
charity, and pains shall be taken to increase the same.
The distribution and
application of this Charitable Fund shall be monthly,
for which purpose a committee, or Lodge of Benevolence shall be held on
Wednesday of every month, which lodge shall consist of twelve Masters
(within the Bills of Mortality); and three Grand officers, one of whom
more are present) shall act as President, and be entitled to vote. The
Masters to be summoned by the choice and direction of the Grand Master,
or his Deputy,
not by any rule or rotation, but by discretion; so as that the members,
to judge of the cases that may come before them, shall not be subject
or to previous application, but shall have their minds free from
prejudice, to decide
on the merits of each case with the impartiality and purity of Masonic
to which end it is declared, that no brother, being a member of such
lodge, shall vote, upon the petition of any person to whom he is in any
or who is a member of any lodge, or Masonic society, to which he
belongs, but such brother may ask leave to be heard on the merits of
and shall afterwards, during the discussion and voting thereon,
A plan, with rules and
regulations, for the solemnity of the Union, shall
be prepared by the Subscribers hereto, previous to the Festival of St.
shall be the form to be observed on that occasion.
A revision shall be made of the
rules and regulations now established and
in force in the two Fraternities, and a code of laws for the holding of
Lodge, and of private lodges; and, generally, for the whole conduct of
shall be forthwith prepared, and a new Book of Constitutions be
composed and printed,
under the superintendence of the Grand officers, and with the sanction
of the Grand
Lodge. Done at the Palace of Kensington, this 25th Day of November, in
of our Lord, 1813, and of Masonry, 5813.
FREDERICK, G.M. L.S.
WALLER RODWELL WRIGHT,
P.G.M. Ionian Isles. L.S.
ARUTHUR TEGART, G.W. L.S.
Lodge, this first day of December, A.D. 1813. Ratified and Confirmed,
and the Seal
of the Grand Lodge affixed.
FREDERICK, G.M. (Great Seal)
WILLIAM H. WHITE, G.S.
JAMES DEANS, P.G.W. L.S.
EDWARD, G.M. L.S.
THOMAS HARPER, D.G.M. L.S.
JAMES PERRY, P.D.G.M. L.S.
JAMES AGAR, P.D.G.M. L.S.
Lodge, this first day of December, A.D. 1813, Ratified and Confirmed,
and the Seal
of the Grand Lodge affixed.
ROBERT LESLIE, G. S.
Note. This sanction was given by both
Grand Lodges meeting on the same day in London,
Wednesday, Dec. 1, 1813, the "Moderns" at the Crown and Anchor Tavern,
Strand, the "Ancients" at Freemasons Hall.
On Nationalizing American
A SWING around
the circuit of American Grand Lodges will convince any unprejudiced
there is almost everywhere abroad a determination to nationalize
Let not a reader become alarmed! This has nothing to do with a scheme
for a National
Grand Lodge, but quite the contrary and that for obvious reasons.
knows that a National Grand Lodge, whatever may be the theories for or
is inherently impossible, and that because the formation of such a body
a complete revolution in the organization of the forty-nine Grand
existing in this country. No, it is not this that is held in mind by
those who seek
a closer and more unified amalgamation of all the forces of American
have in view rather a closer co-operation of the organizations already
and a more widespread understanding of the general purposes and ideals
of the Craft
to the end that all of us, from Maine to California and beyond, may the
enabled to work together for the far-off event toward which Freemasonry
a moment what may be done to bring this about without adding a new cog
to the machinery
already existing. We can all assist to encourage and to distribute a
literature, to be created by representative and competent spokesmen
from all parts
of the land. There can be a systematic co-operation of all Grand Lodge
so that each Grand Lodge is kept constantly in touch with what is being
all other Grand Lodges; for example, if a Grand Master issues an
on a subject of general interest he can see that all his brother Grand
a copy, etc. Conferences of Grand Masters and of Grand Lodge officers,
such as were
held at Washington last November, can be made an habitual thing, so
that each Grand
Lodge can share in the fruits of the labor of other Grand Lodges. Where
maintain some kind of service, such as an Educational Bureau, it can
courtesies and assistance to neighboring Jurisdictions. Lastly, and not
further a list of suggestions equally obvious, all this may be brought
home to the
individual Mason everywhere if he can be persuaded to read the
Report in his own Grand Lodge Proceedings, a thing that should somehow
because of all the pages of printed matter published each year in the
name of Masonry
those Reports are easily the most valuable so far as the nationalizing
of the Masonic
mind is concerned. All this is only another way of saying that among
Grand Lodges, like private members can practice Masonic brotherhood, to
that there be not anywhere sectional feeling or exclusiveness but
everywhere a sense
of the solidarity and unity of American Masonry as a whole.
* * *
Modern Science and the Science
article in another part of this issue brings to the front, and in a
new, quite unexpected
way, how important a place geometry has come to occupy in modern
The great revolution now going on in science, in comparison with which
due to Copernicus and to Sir Isaac Newton were of almost secondary
its roots in mathematics and had its start when Loubacheski showed up
of Euclid's geometry.
Such a thing
as this would have greatly excited the old Operative Masons, to whom
Masonry were terms so nearly synonymous that they fained to believe
Euclid had been
one of the founders of the Craft. It is easy to understand how they
came to feel
such reverence toward what many persons consider a dead cult for
diagrams ‒ lines, angles, curves, all made on paper, and apparently
having no conceivable
relation to the throbbing life in men's veins. The Operative Masons
wonder of geometry through their own daily experiences and while
solving the most
"practical" problems. By means of it they transformed dead and
stone into the organic and living unity of a cathedral; made arches to
fly up fearlessly
toward heaven, and mighty buttresses to suspend in the air, like birds'
rose windows, filled with infinite traceries, beautiful as a dream; and
how to express by curve and angle the ideas arising in their minds.
this. Because the structure was not organized out of guess work but was
in exact principles by vigorous rules each individual workman was able
himself at the right point and in the right time; the work of hundreds
resulted in perfect unity; and the craftsmen themselves, bound by the
ties of their science, lived in brotherhood.
All of which,
if we wish so to view it, is a parable of what may again take place,
but on a larger
scale. More of human differences than one would suppose are due to
errors of fact
and to inexact thinking; instead of applying the plumb, the level, and
to their thinking, the majority drift along aimlessly, or else let
filled with passions and prejudices. Out of such a welter no unity, no
can come. But if as a result of a new development in science our great
are rescued from partisanships and bitter feelings and placed on the
foundations as physics, chemistry and mathematics there is some hope
that a general
agreement among men may be reached. In that event we should find
ourselves as citizens
not struggling in a welter of cross purposes and disturbing prejudices
but we should
all become like the craftsmen of old, trained workmen, each engaged at
his own task
on a structure that will endure. In such an event Masonry would come
into its own
to a degree, and after a fashion, such as few of us now dare to dream
or hope for.
* * *
Shakespeare and the Apprentice
antiquarians who have entertained the hope of proving that Shakespeare
was a Freemason
should jot down in their note-books the new Shakespeare item brought
by E. H. Sothern a while ago, not because it has any direct bearing on
but as furnishing a splash of color to data otherwise sufficiently
drab. This find,
dug up from among the innumerable manuscripts housed in the British
of a few pages in the bard's own hand-writing, thus being the only
specimen in existence,
all the others being mere signatures and some doubt about them; indeed
it has been
questioned if Shakespeare knew how to write at all, because it has
looked as if
the reputed signatures had been made by different persons who signed
his name for
him, he putting down an "X". The new item will dispose of this question
once and for all, unless all the manuscript experts are astray, because
of a passage of a play copied off by him.
entitled "Sir Thomas Moore," was written by Anthony Munday. It appears
that this drama proved objectionable to the official censors who
and sundry scribes to revise it. It is believed that Shakespeare
revised or copied off a revision of a passage in the third act and
the tale, so far as the present point is concerned. The scene shows a
of London apprentices, drawn from various crafts, indulging in a riot
on the streets;
the cause of this riot was the presence in the city of a large number
always a bone of contention in those days; the apprentices declared
that these aliens
consumed such large quantities of food as to force up the price of
living; and that
they had introduced into the city such noxious vegetables as parsnips,
about many vile diseases. Between these terrible vegetables and the
influx of competing
workmen the apprentices were so beside themselves that they threatened
the whole fabric of social order. Thereupon Sir Thomas Moore as sheriff
made them a speech, one passage of which was written, so it is
believed, by Shakespeare,
and reads in this wise:
"For to the king God hath his
Of dread, of justice, power and command
He hath not solely lent the king his figure
His throne and sword, but given him his own name
Calls him a God on earth. What do ye then,
Rising 'gainst him that God himself installs,
But rise 'gainst God?"
It is to
be hoped that the youths were quieted by this pompous bomnast!
If it is
accepted that Shakespeare wrote this in his own hand then he knew how
and that will knock one of the main props out from under the Bacon
theory, for the
Bacon enthusiasts have always held that the poet was too illiterate to
dramas, almost every one of which implies a deal of general culture.
This will have
some bearing on Masonic studies because it has been held in some
quarters that Lord
Bacon, the real author of the Shakespearean plays, was, for purposes of
safety in an intolerant time, a Rosicrucian or member of some other
and assumed a disguise behind the name "Shakespeare" to shield himself
from the authorities. A few extremists have credited him with being a
or even with having founded the Order. Those who have coquetted with
will do well to make a little study of Anthony Munday's exhumed play
and the circumstances
must be something after death
Behind the toil of man
There must exist a God divine
Who's working out a plan;
And this brief journey that we know
As life must really be
The gateway to a finer world
That some day we shall see.”
"The Blue Lodge Classic"
Builders, A Story and Study of Masonry," [Lib 1914] by Dr. Joseph Fort Newton.
by The Torch Press, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and now also by George H. Doran
V in the M. S. A. National Masonic Library. For sale by National
Society, 19~0 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Blue cloth, 317 pages,
striking thing to be said of this now familiar book is that while it is
the mark of 50,000 copies no formal review of it has yet been published
country, except for a tribute by Bro. Malcolm Bingay in The Masonic
written two or three years ago. Like Masonry itself the fame of it has
from ear to ear, each individual being moved to tell his neighbor of it
ten years, it circulates like blood in the arteries of the Craft in
bids fair to do the same in other lands. Written in the beginning on
from the Grand Lodge of Iowa as a guide to the young Mason it has
become a handbook
for Masons everywhere, young and old alike, and become also in the
Blue Lodge Classic."
opened up a new trail in Masonic literature, at least in the United
were no precedents, no patterns to copy by, so that its success is all
remarkable in that it shows its author to have had prophetic vision in
to his gifts as a writer and his knack of scholarship. Those who have
the responsibilities of authorship under such conditions cannot
what a blood consuming task it is. It happens that the present scribe
put in a year
of work in the same great Masonic library in which Dr. Newton had made
his own studies
two or three years before, therefore he has some knowledge whereof he
can remember all too vividly what a wearisome toil it was, and how easy
would be the famous task of hunting needles in a hay-stack. Thousands
but such books! dry, dull, dreary, crabbed, without indexes usually,
citation of authorities, no saving salt of humor, nothing (save in a
of the transforming touch of genuine literature in it all! To discover
a few flowers
of fact blossoming in that jungle of conjecture made one feel like
when, from that peak on which John Keats placed him, he looked down on
! "Those days" (one should say "them" to make the quotation
exact) are not yet "gone forever" but they are going, and that because
others have been inspired by The Builders to follow the same trail.
the pith and point of Bro. Newton's interpretation of Masonry one must
his general outlook on life, which is that of the Christian mystic,
bred in many
schools of letters, who looks out of the eyes of the poet on a world
that is too
marvelous for words to describe, save those of ecstasy and wonder. To
him man is
neither a clod nor a clown, but a being with divinity in his soul,
him; and our race, though its tale is pathetic enough, and the way dim,
is a pilgrimage
of souls on the Great Quest for that which abides amid the flying
years, for that
which is of some worth among so much that fades. Freemasonry is a part
of that Quest,
with its own manner of lighting man on his journey, and no quarrel to
be had with
the other Aiders and Helpers by the way. In such a setting Masonry
becomes one of
the Great Poetries of the world, spiritualized and redeeming, far above
matters about which Masons sometimes make such a posher; and because
grows out of such a vision there is a beauty upon the book that remains
the heart; long after the last page has been forgotten.
He must be
a crabbed soul indeed who would read such a volume as if it were ever
meant as an
encyclopedia of facts, and in order to quarrel with its author over
matters of detail.
Nevertheless one can hope that one of these days our friend will find
out of the great press of his duties to revise some portions of it in
of what has been discovered since 1914 and to make corrections of some
in dates, names, etc., as on pages 216 and 217 where two proper names
and a date is given as 1753 instead of 1751. At the same time it would
help a beginner
if it were made more clear that some items in the historical portion
matters of conjecture or else of the author's own theories of the
matter, as in
the case of the Comacine Masters, which is a question still before the
would also help if the bibliography were re-written so as to give
since the omission of a word often makes it impossible to locate a
title in a catalog.
And there are many Study Clubs that would welcome an additional chapter
for Discussion" in order that so excellent a text be made more
H. L. H.
* * *
J.F. Newton's Collected
Masonic Papers And Addresses
Men's House, Masonic Papers and Addresses," [Lib*] by Dr. Joseph Fort
Cloth, 261 pages. Vol. Vl, M. S. A. National Masonic Library. Published
H. Doran, New York. May be purchased through National Masonic Research
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis. Price, $2.15 postpaid.
dreariest hour you ever spent in a lodge room. Imagine that the room
ill lighted, poorly ventilated, and the seats uncomfortable, that only
were present, and that the ceremonies were poorly rendered by men
of the meaning of it all, everything perfunctory, dull, uninspired. Now
how it would have been for some man to enter and, in a half hour of
transform and transmute it all into something sacred and revealing,
witness, rich with meaning, memorable in its impressiveness, and
not by importing into it a content it did not have, but by laying bare
already there, though hidden from unseeing eyes.
as this is the secret of Bro. Joseph Fort Newton's great and ever
in the Masonic Craft. By his luminous comprehension of "The Mission of
and his eloquent and persuasive language in describing "The Ministry of
he has been able to open the eyes of the young men in every lodge room
to see what
is the inner nature and ultimate appeal of that Masonry to which so
many of us lay
claim but which so few of us possess in any real sense. He is one who
sits in The
Interpreter's House, not primarily interested in matters of fact, but
that the multitudes who enter the Body of Freemasonry remain not
unawares of the
great Soul that throbs within it.
His new volume
The Men's House, so named from the initial essay contained in it, is a
of papers published in Masonic journals, several of them in THE
BUILDER, and addresses
delivered on important occasions. These are grouped severally, as
"Practice," "Personalities," and "Prophecy," reminding
one of the similar grouping of the chapters in The Builders into
"History", and "Interpretation" so that while the chapters themselves
are unconnected the book as a whole possesses an underlying unity. The
in The Men's House are more or less evenly divided among twenty-three
are so many things to choose from it is impossible to be specific
except to say
that in this collection are several of Dr. Newton's papers that have
long been sought
after, notably "The Men's House," a vividly condensed sketch of Masonic
history; "The Mission of Masonry," and "The Ministry of Masonry,"
circulated for years in pamphlet form by the Grand Lodge of Iowa; "The
of God," a Masonic sermon; "The Doctrine of the Balance," a study
of one of the ideas central to the Scottish Rite; "The Patriarchs," a
particularly beautiful tribute to the aged in the Craft; and "Solemn
the Funeral Chime," a little classic in interpretation of David
Masonic hymn. There is no need to add, as a kind of practical
postscript, that those
brethren who seek inspiration and suggestions for Masonic addresses
will find this
volume valuable to their hand.
is Educational Director of the Masonic Service Association and editor
of its journal,
"The Master Mason."
80 per cent of the Passenger train conductors of the United States are
ESTIMATE OF MASONRY
OF MASONRY, [Lib*] by H. L. Haywood, editor The Builder. Published by
Doran, New York. Vol. II of M. S. A. National Masonic Library. For sale
Masonic Research Society. Cloth, index, $2.15 postpaid.
is a philosophy of individualism; unto each man is given the privilege
through his own heart and conscience his soul's salvation. What road he
find, at last, peace with God must be his own determination; the Order
that we have a firm faith in God ‒ and he can express that faith in any
suited to his nature; it matters not whether he be orthodox or liberal,
Jew or gentile.
His individual creed has nothing whatever to do with Freemasonry.
only teaches that when a man has strived by all the power of his being
to find the
peace of God in his own heart through a belief in the Great Fatherhood
and a love
of all mankind as brothers, he has found Masonry's only secret; that as
is reared by the strength of each individual stone, so shall society
through the strength of each individual life.
Now it so
happens that into our Order from time to time there come individuals
who are too
modest and self-effacing to be true members of the Craft. In this
modesty they realize that they are unworthy of any individual effort to
themselves; that they are hopeless. And so casting aside all such ideas
their energies to saving the other fellow! And the more the "other
resents it, the greater their zeal. They lack the patience of the
years; they are
"direct action" gentlemen. With no time to waste on futile effort in
themselves they want the "other fellow" shot at sunrise if he does not
This is one
foreign substance in the cement of Freemasonry ‒ the man who has no
time to seek
for virtue in his own heart because he feels he has to devote all his
time to finding
evil in the heart of another.
another set which does not hurt the ancient Craft in the same painful
way, but which
does create chaos in the minds of the sincere who are seeking light.
These are the
occult and esoteric minded gentlemen who insist on weaving around the
lessons of Freemasonry a weird and wonderful past without warrant of
fact. The Masonic
historians of, let us say, the mid-Victorian period delighted in
They varied their programs some dating the Order from Adam and others
of the more
conservative school making Noah the first of the brethren.
Freemasonry is coming into its own. We are getting out of the darkness
and miasmatic marsh of metaphysical mush, the intellectual
anachronistic nursery nonsense. We are getting light, at last, in
Masonry. A new
school of Masonic writers and historians are coming to save that which
is pure spiritual
gold in the Order and is burning away the dross.
the leaders of this new, clean, fine and wholesome common-sense school
I would place
Bro. H. L. Haywood, editor of THE BUILDER. Not that I always agree with
him. I don't
think I would admire him so much if I always found myself in complete
with him, because he would bore me.
Once in a
while in his writings I get a faint aroma of the marshlands of which I
I forgive him this, as he, valiant soul, has had to go through the
darkness of the
forests of prejudice and the dangers of the marsh to bring the jewels
of the Order
into the light. More power to his brilliant pen! His monument will be,
that he has delved into the amazing, appalling array of weird and
of the Craft, has exploded their fallacies, has saved from them the
of truth, and is still afire with ardor for the Craft and with his
in his fellow man and ‒ God bless him ‒ with ever and anon a whimsical
book, The Great Teachings of Masonry, is a supplement to his first
Masonry. If the average Mason, seeking light, will take Bro. Haywood's
with Dr. Joseph Fort Newton's masterful book, The Builders, he will get
education in the origin, the philosophy and the law of the Order.
make an ideal combination: Haywood, the brilliant reporter, Newton, the
preacher of a great cause.
is," writes Bro. Haywood, in his new volume, "no authorized
of Freemasonry. The newly initiated brother does not find waiting for
him a ready-made
Masonic creed, or a ready-made explanation of the ritual ‒ he must
out for himself."
In this spirit
is his book written. There is none of the dogmatic in his effort. But,
so that the
Masonic seeker can "think things out for himself," Haywood points the
can we arrive at a philosophy of Masonry?" he asks. "How are we to
the authentic interpretation of the teachings of Masonry? What is the
procedure whereby one who is neither a general scholar nor a Masonic
may gain some such comprehensive understanding of Masonry as has been
… In short, how may a man get at it?"
of his book is to answer these questions, and as far as I am able to
judge, he has
He does not
attempt to force upon his readers his own preconceived views. He
suggests. In his
fine chapter on symbolism he says:
value for us is like gold hidden away in the mountain ‒ the miner must
dig for it.
And that in itself is a virtue, because many men are cursed by the
refusal to use
their own faculties. They go through the whole of their lives parroting
thoughts, and such a life is necessarily lacking in the pleasure of
discoveries, which is one of life's richest joys."
greatest of Masonic philosophers: "Men changes but Man remains the
Haywood rises to splendid heights when he presents the purposes of
Masonry as follows:
“Racial distinctions, sex,
color, language, creeds,
governments, these have broken our human family into divers and often
groups; but while men change in language, in theories, and in customs
to generation, there is that in man which does not change, either in
time or place,
a common humanity which ever remains the same, and stretches under the
the earth retains her unbroken identity beneath the many inequalities
of her surface.
From the mist-hung distance of remotest times down into our own hour
man has thought,
loved, labored, dreamed, prayed, hated, fought, the while he has walked
and perilous ways of life.' His spirit has sought goodness, truth and
he has evermore craved the companionship of his fellows. It is the
too many creeds, moralities and sects, be they political, social or
they eater to the accidental and temporary needs of men, and too often
than unite our hard driven, struggling race. It is the glory of
it speaks the revealing word to that in each of us which is universal,
to build in the midst of years 'an institution of the dear love of
which the mind is free to think, the hand to do, and the heart to love."
and eager Mason owes to Pro. Haywood an unpayable debt of gratitude for
volume Symbolical Masonry. Every older Mason owes him alike for his,
The Great Teachings
of Masonry. He is one of those rare few who know how to tell "what it
about" so that the one being told will understand. The spirit of the
is not lost in a Niagara of words; he does not diffuse light, he gives
Malcolm W. Bingay.
* * *
Contains Description of
TYRE [Lib 1920], by Wilfred H. Schoff,
published by Longman's
Green and Co., New York. May be purchased through the National Masonic
Society. Cloth; $2.10 postpaid.
painstaking study of Biblical history in connection with that of
Babylon has been
made by Mr. Schoff, who has brought to it deep learning, as might be
the translator of The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea [Lib 1912], The Pergolas of Hanno [Lib*]
the story of Isidore of Charax [Lib 1914]. Notwithstanding his
however, the student of Biblical lore will be slow to accept Mr.
that Ezekiel's description of Tyre is really meant for Babylon, a name
prophet was precluded from using owing to political exigencies. Mr.
out a plausible case, it is not to be denied, but the reader is
impelled to ask
himself whether, granted that the words of Ezekiel might be intended
they still lose any of their applicability with equal force to Tyre.
There is much
curious information in the work, however, especially that with regard
ships contained in a long "note" on pages 71, 72 and 73. The short
make the book one easily read and of these Chapter III, devoted to a
of the Temple of Jerusalem, will receive especial attention at the
hands of those
Masons who have made the study of the Temple symbolism their particular
D. E. W. Williamson.
low man seeks a little thing to do.
Sees it and does it;
This high man, with a great thing to pursue,
Dies ere he knows it.
That low man goes on adding one to one ‒
His hundred's soon hit;
This high man, aiming at a million,
Misses a unit.
That has the world here ‒ should he need the next,
Let the world mind him!
This throws himself on God, and unperplexed
Seeking shall find Him.”
A Lambskin Lecture
In West Australian
lodges it is the custom to deliver the following lecture, known as the
Lecture, immediately after the investiture of the initiate:
"It may be that in the coming
your brow may rest laurels of victory. On your breast may hang jewels
fit to deck
the diadem of an Eastern potentate. Nay, more than these, with the
light added to
the coming light, your ambitious feet may tread round after round of
which leads to fame, both within and without our mystic circle. Even
of our Fraternity may one day rest on your honored shoulders. But never
mortal hands, never again until your enfranchised spirit shall have
and inwards through the pearly gates, can any honor so distinguished,
of purity and perfection be bestowed upon you as that which has now
Let it be yours to wear through an honorable life and at death to be
laid on the
coffin which shall contain your earthly remains.
"And when at last your feet
shall have reached
the end of life's toilsome journey and from your nerveless hands' grasp
for ever the working tools of life, may the record of your life and
actions be as
pure and unsullied as that fair emblem which is now yours. May its pure
surface be to you an ever-present reminder for higher thoughts, greater
achievements, and when at last your naked soul shall stand, as one day
must, trembling and alone, before the Great White Throne, we, your
in all sincerity that it may be your lot to hear from Him who sitteth
as the Judge
Supreme, those words, those welcome words: 'Well done, good and
enter thou into the joys of thy Lord.'
It is just
as much the duty of Freemasons to develop right thinking and right
living as it
is to further educational activities along purely technical lines.
does not fit those who obtain it for living ‒ and we use the word in
sense ‒ is of no real value either to the individual or to the state.
The Missouri Freemason.
Box and Correspondence
Meaning Of "Mote"
someone explain the meaning of the word "mote" in the phrase, "So
mote it be?" It always sounds queer to me.
M. R. Y., Ohio.
an Anglo-Saxon word, derived from “motan," which meant "to be allowed,"
and which means, in Masonic uses and according to its tense, "So may it
The word "hole," pronounced "heal," is of similar origin, and
means "to cover up," or "conceal." It is said that this word
is still used in its original sense in Sussex, Cornwall, etc. "For
writes one authority, "in Sussex a house with a new roof is said to be
* * *
have a uniform Ritual as we have in each state? Where can one find
the English Ritual?
H. L., Missouri.
Ritual, Described, Compared and Explained [Lib*], by J. Walter Hobbs,
by The Masonic Record, London, is the book you want. In it you will
there is a "multiplicity of systems of Ritual" in England, though these
various "workings" do not seem to differ as much among themselves as do
ours from state to state. The workings most generally used are
Wend-end, Oxford, Logic, West London, North London, Metropolitan, etc.
these workings there are many Lodges of Instruction, some of them very
all of them governed by rules 158-161 in the Book of Constitutions.
existed before the Union of 1813, described in the Study Club this
month. The most
famous of all the workings are Stability and Emulation. The former is
to a Lodge of Instruction organized in 1817, with most of its founders
of "Ancient" lodges; one of these was the Rev. Dr. Hemming, after whom
the "Hemming Lectures" are named. From the first Preceptor, Philip
until now there has been an unbroken line of Preceptors. Bro. F. W.
Golby, the present
Preceptor, published a history of Stability Working in a volume A
Century of Masonic
Wording [Lib*], 1921. The Emulation Lodge of Improvement was founded
Its most famous leader was Peter Gilkes, initiated in 1786 in a
lodge. A history of this working was written by Henry Sadler, 1904,
History of the Lodge of Improvement. Every student of Ritual should be
with both of these books. Consult also Vol. III, Transactions Author's
review of The Masonic Ritual, by Bro. Hobbs, was published in THE
1924, p. 29.
* * *
Antiquity of Legend of Third
any way of learning how old is the Tragedy of H. A. in our Third
Degree? I have
read many theories of one kind and another. Can't you put into
condensed form what
our best authorities say on this important point?
H. B., Michigan.
was referred to Bro. David E. W. Williamson, who condenses into one
great deal of information:
to an opinion expressed in November, 1886 (See A.Q.C.), Bro. R.F. Gould
the Legend of the Third Degree was of comparatively recent origin, say
we find him writing in the A.Q.C. in 1890 (reprinted in Collected
Essays, p. 133
[Lib 1913]): "Our written traditions are
carried back ‒ speaking roundly ‒ to the fourteenth century and, to me
it does not appear one whit more extraordinary that our symbolical
have enjoyed an existence in a period of time equally remote." In the
upon this point in A.Q.C., Vol. XXXIII [Lib*] (1920, part ii), Robert
comments: "There is an indication of it in the Cooks MS. of early
century transcription, which is generally regarded as the oldest text
of all copies
of the Old Charges" (p. 114).
of modern origin is that expressed by W. J. Hughan at the Quatuor
of a paper on "The Genesis of the Third Degree" [Lib 1897]in 1897 (A.Q.C. C, p. 133),
but, so far as I have been able to understand
it, our Bro. Hughan was almost, if not wholly, alone in his contention.
though, as A.Q.C,, Vol. I, p. 30 [Lib 1895], we find Rev. A. F. H.
saying: "Where did the Freemasonry of 1717 come from? To accept for one
the suggestion that so complex and curious a system, embracing so many
and such skilfully adjusted ceremonies, so much connected matter,
so many striking symbols, could have been a creation of pious fraud or
conviviality, presses heavily on our powers of belief and even passes
over the normal
credulity of our species." (Quoted by Gould, Collected Essays [Lib 1913], 137.) Gould's paper on "The
Genesis of the Third Degree" is
the most complete presentation of the facts we have, as far as I am
aware, but scattered
through A.Q.C. are many isolated sentences pointing to the belief of
such men as
Edward Conder that the Master Mason Degree was the second degree until
time after 1717. For instance, in Conder's paper on "The Hon. Miss St.
and Freemasonry" in A.Q.C. VIII [Lib 1895], p. 20, you find: "At the
of her initiation all the principal points of the Craft were probably
this, the second, or, as we now call it, the third degree."
same volume, in his relatively little known essay on "The Duke of
the Order of Gormogons," Gould says (A.Q.C. VIII, p. 120): "The number
of Masonic Degrees known and recognized as such in 1723 * * * were two,
Apprentice and Fellowcraft, the former combining the degrees of Entered
and the latter being that of Master Mason, as we now have them." The
is made by John Lane, in his paper on "The Early Lodges of Freemasons"
(A.Q.C. VIII, 1895, p. 193), that "in 1717 and for years prior to that
there were numerous lodges, not only in London but also in various
other parts of
England, whose members assembled by virtue of what is now termed the
power of 'inherent right,' every lodge being a law to itself, and
nor attempting to exercise authority or jurisdiction over any other
lodge or the
members of any other lodge, nor rendering obedience to any person,
lodge or organization,
whatever," which is important.
especial point to Dr. Chetwode Crawley's comment on Prof. Swift A.
about descriptions of the Temple (A.Q.C. XII [Lib*], 135 et seq), in
which he says:
"It is fairly incredible that the legend could have been introduced by
of them [Anderson and Desaguliers] as a pure innovation. The
introduction of incomparably
smaller innovations in the same generation raised such a storm that the
England was split in twain for many a year. We may rest assured that
at large in the British Isles would not have accepted a totally new
for the tradition merely because it found favor with the lodges of the
London and Westminster."
I think the last statement by Crawley is unanswerable.
David E. W. Williamson.
* * *
Visit Peterborough Cathedral
like to call the attention of those readers who are likely to visit
the summer to the advisability of visiting Peterborough Cathedral and
buttress erected by the Masons of this district. The ceremony of
dedication is to
take place on Thursday, June 12, and will be performed by the Prov. G.
the Province of Norths and Hunts, the Lord Lilford, Past Grand Warden
ought to explain more fully how this has arisen. During the period of
which has occupied several years and will take several more before
was found necessary, owing to an underground spring which had been
portion of the building for centuries, to erect a buttress at the
of the building; both the work and the position being so eminently
Masonic it was
decided to hold a Masonic Service in the Cathedral of the united
Provinces of Northamptonshire
and Huntingdonshire, Leicestershire and Rutland, Cambridgeshire and
was accordingly held on Thursday, the 18th day of May, 1922, and it was
success, the whole of the amount required about 1,400 pounds being
raised. The whole
of the service including choir, etc., was purely Masonic, and the lady
the brethren were admitted by ticket at 2 o'clock.
procession consisting of the brethren from the Province of Norfolk and
who had previously assembled and clothed themselves in the Thomas A.
arrived at the west entrance at 2:10 and were followed by the brethren
of the Province
of Leicestershire and Rutland who assembled at the Vineyard, and the
the Province of Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire who assembled at
College, after which came the Choir and Robed Clergy, and were seated
as the clock
struck 2:30, at which time the service was due to start. The first
lesson was read
by the R. W. Prov. G. Master of Leicestershire and Rutland, the second
by the R.
W. Prov. G. Master of Cambridgeshire, the third by the R. W. Prov. G.
Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire and the fourth by the V. R. Bro.,
of Peterborough, the lessons, psalms, hymns, etc., were all specially
eminently appropriate. Fine weather graced the proceeding and numerous
were taken including moving pictures. Films of the procession were
shown at various
houses in different parts of the Kingdom, and were afterwards presented
in the Petersborough Masonic Museum. The completion of the work is at
hand and the
dedication will take place as I have mentioned at the beginning of this
There will be a Provincial Grand Lodge held at the same time and we
welcome any visitors, and will endeavor to show them objects of
interest to Masons,
in the Cathedral! including the Central Boss under the Parvise in the
J. G. Sturton,
18 and 20
Bridge St., Peterborough, England.
* * *
Concerning Famous Revolutionary
I have been
very much pleased with THE BUILDER for March and I thought that Bro.
was particularly good. I was glad to read Bro. Williamson's account of
Napoleon Was Made a Mason." Gould's chapter on "Masons in the War of
Revolution" is full of the enthusiasm and earnestness that he put into
of his writings, but there are some points that still need to be
cleared up. Lafayette
was made a Mason before he came to the United States. Mad Anthony Wayne
a Mason. So far as I have been able to learn none of the Lees of
Virginia were members
of the Craft. Light Horse Harry Lee, who delivered the classic oration
at the tomb
of Washington, does not appear in any Virginia record. I think the
Chapter on Masonic
History in the Study Club this month is particularly good; I found it
to see that cut of the Goose and Gridiron.
George W. Baird, District of Columbia.
of the Eastern Star," by Kennaston.
of Bagdad," by Sylvanus Cobb, Jr.
of Freemasonry," by Buck.
Vol. I, Ars
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum; both must be complete, and with St. John's
of the Hole Crafte and Fellowship of Masons," by Edward Conder.
of Masonic Geometry and Symbolry," by H. P. H. Bromwell.
of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite," by Robert Folger.
THE BUILDER, 1918.
of Freemasonry," by Buck.
Burns and Freemasonry," by Dudley Wright.
and prices to Book Department, National Masonic Research Society, 1950
St. Louis, Mo.
Life is not
as bad as it is.
* * *
It has been
a pleasure during the past two or three months to have so many active
the Society drop in for a visit at headquarters. If you chance into St.
sure to look us up. The latch string is hanging out.
* * *
apples did Adam and Eve eat? Since this question was put in this Corner
quite a number of mathematical brethren have submitted replies. Here is
Bro. Lincoln Stewart:
you are yet far from the solution of that apple proposition. It is
Eve when she 81,812 many; and that Adam when he 8184240-fy himself
against her intrigues.
total of 812,896,052 apples if packed in barrels would fill a string of
reaching from Hobeken, N. J., to a point just east of the stockyards in
* * *
History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
Supply Co., 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 594. - 24.5 MB.
A Concise History of
Gou51 / auth. Gould Robert F / ed. Crowe Frederick J. W.. - London :
Gale & Polden Limited, 1951. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 401. - 10.3 MB.
A Short Masonic History Vol 1
Arm09 / auth. Armitage Frederick. - London : H. Weare & Co,
1909. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 195. - 3.8 MB.
A Short Masonic History Vol 2
Arm11 / auth. Armitage Frederick. - London : H. Weare & Co,
1911. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 190. - 3.9 MB.
Col17 / auth. Cole Samuel / ed. Cole Samuel. - Baltimore : Benjamin
Eder, 1817. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 444. - 22.5 MB.
Der64 / auth. Dermott Laurence. - London : Robert Black, 1764. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 271. - 10.0 MB - Not Searchable - Illustrated.
Pen25 / auth. Pennsylvania GL of. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1825. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 287. - 13.1 MB.
Ahiman Rezon Full Copy
GLo071 / auth. GL of Pennsylvania. - [s.l.] : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 2007. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 266. - 2.3 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 001 - 1895
Ars95 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1895. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. - 29.8 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 005 - 1892
Ars92 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1892. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 356. - 92.0 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 006 - 1893
Ars93 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1893. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 311. - 20.3 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 008 - 1895
Ars951 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1895. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 358. - 94.0 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 010 - 1897
Ars97 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 306. - 63.8 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 024 - 1911
Ars11 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1911. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 490. - 47.0 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And56 / auth. Anderson James / ed. Entick John. - London : J Scott,
1756. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 345. - 25.6 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And67 / auth. Anderson James. - London : W Johnston, 1767. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 445. - 31.5 MB.
Collected Essays &
Papers Related to Freemasonry
Gou131 / auth. Gould Robert F. - Belfast : William Tait, 1913. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 313. - 14.3 MB.
Freemasonry In America Prior To
Joh16 / auth. Johnson Melvin M. - Cambridge : Caustic-Claflin Co.,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 242. - 4.7 MB.
General Ahiman Rezon
Sic93 / auth. Sickles Daniel. - New York : Robert Macoy, 1893. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 389. - 9.6 MB.
General Ahiman Rezon
Sic68 / auth. Sickles Daniel. - New York : Masonic Publishing &
Manufacturing Co., 1868. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 487. - 9.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
Fin66 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - London : Asher & Co., 1866. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 742. - Translated from the German - 17.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
Irish Ahiman Rezon &
Ire58 / auth. Ireland GL of. - Dublin : GL of Ireland, 1858. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 244. - 4.8 MB.
Manhood of Humanity
Kor21 / auth. Korzybski Alfred. - New York : E P Dutton &
Company, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 278. - 13.7 MB.
Pri30 / auth. Prichard Samuel. - London : Charles Corbett, 1730. - 20th
Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 35. - 1.7 MB.
Key22 / auth. Keyser Cassius J. - New York : E P Dutton &
Company, 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 482. - 9.5 MB.
Memorials of the Masonic Union
Hug13 / auth. Hughan William J. - Leicester : Johnson, Wykes &
Paine, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 169. - 6.7 MB.
Military Lodges. The Apron and
Gou99 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Gale & Polden, Ltd.,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 280. - 13.7 MB.
Notes on Dermott and his Work
Byw84 / auth. Bywater Witham M. - London : [s.n.], 1884. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 68. - 1.4 MB.
Origin of the English Rite of
Hug84 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : George Kenning, 1884. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 166. - 5.1 MB.
Sch14 / auth. Schoff Wilfred H. - Philadelphia : Commercial Museum,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 53. - 2.9 MB.
South Carolina Ahiman Rezon
GLo03 / auth. GL of South Carolina. - Lexington : Grand Lodge of South
Carolina, 2003. - 34th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 296. - 31.7 MB -
The Atholl Lodges
Gou791 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Spencer's Masonic Depot,
1879. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 113. - 2.0 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Lodge of Edinburgh
Lyo73 / auth. Lyon David M. - Edinburgh : Blackwood and Sons, 1873. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 480. - 17.4 MB.
Sch12 / auth. Schoff Wilfred H. - London : Longmans, Green, and Co,
1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 329. - 23.8 MB.
The Ship 'Tyre'
Sch20 / auth. Schoff Wilfred H. - London : Longmans, Green, and Co,
1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 170. - 4.1 MB.
The True Ahiman Rezon
Der05 / auth. Dermott Laurence. - New York : Southwick &
Hardcastle, 1805. - 3rd Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 277. - 17.0 MB -