Masonic Research Society
Bro. R.J. Meekren, Associate
a study, wise and luminous, of a question that has been pondered by
Masons. What is there in Freemasonry that has actually come down from
What is the soul, the inward essence, that gives vitality to the whole
of symbols, legends and allegories, so many of which apparently speak a
to a modern man? After reading Bro. Meekren's answer it will be worth
while to turn back for a re-perusal to a similar study of his, albeit
the legend of the Third Degree, published in this journal last June,
page 177. Bro.
Meekren is in England for some months where he is enjoying an
opportunity to make
researches at first hand in those fields in which he feels so much at
difficulty in undertaking to write on a Masonic topic is that one never
to begin. I had it in mind to discuss the relationship of the Ancient
and primitive initiations to our Speculative Masonry, what use could be
made of them in seeking light upon our own origins: and there was a
to begin with a disquisition upon symbolism, and the evolution of
meaning in the
use of traditional symbols. But had that been undertaken it would
involved a preliminary discussion of something else. And after all it
Mason to keep himself within due bounds, even when writing articles for
magazines! (Verbum sat sapienti!)
generation of Masonic students, perhaps even as far back as Dr.
Stukely, were much
impressed by the resemblances between Freemasonry and what they knew of
Mysteries. Dr. Oliver is a prominent case in point. Yet he is only one
and is only typical of what, till comparatively recently, was not only
but practically the only school of Masonic scholarship, and one that
in spite of a general reaction to the other extreme, has exponents who
must be treated
seriously and with respect, however one may object to their arguments
with their conclusions.
scholars were handicapped by mistaken ideas of what the Mysteries of
and other Mediterranean peoples really were. There seems indeed to be
the same ignorance
in many quarters today, but while it was then unavoidable, now it is
It will not be necessary to set-out in any detail for readers of THE
type of speculation. All those who read at all about Masonic subjects
come across it ad libitum if not ad nauseam. The Mysteries were taken
to be occult
or mystical schools of transcontinental philosophy. The myths of
Baldur and the like were treated as consciously devised allegories, and
was interpreted by a literal reference to the Old Testament. The myths
literary forms, and the notices of the Mysteries in the better known
mingled together, all being supposed to be but variants of one
original, that is
to say of Freemasonry, which was originated by Solomon, or Moses, or
Enoch, or even
Adam. What was found in one place was freely transferred to fill up a
without any warrant in fact or original authority and the result
described in purely
of Osiris has perhaps been the favorite one of such writers, possibly
is known in such great detail. And this oft-repeated tale really has
to certain legends known to most Masons which it would be needless here
out. But these are not all above suspicion. It is even possible that
has been modified under the influence of Osirian myth. In the oldest
the former there is no mention of the Acacia, which figures so
curiously in the
account of the last Osiris, but Cassia definitely takes its place. It
been very easy for learned brethren, full of the idea of a Masonry
the building of the Temple at Jerusalem or in the Wilderness of Sinai,
or the Garden
of Eden, to assume that "Cassia" was an ignorant corruption of
One may note Mackey's scorn for the humble "Cassia" in his
It would have been so easy to make the change ‒ so easy indeed as to
suspicions. In any case the Osiris myth in the form we have it in
other Greek authors, the form used for comparison, is a very late one.
it was produced, or put together, or at least set down, in the
in an atmosphere not essentially different from that of today, under
of eclectic learning and archaeological pedantry.
Mysteries Taught No Occult Secrets
in their literary forms at least, had nothing much to do with the
would have to be used with the same caution and discrimination that
would be needed
if one were to reconstruct the Masonic ritual from articles and notes
on the subject
in Masonic periodicals. On the other hand, there was no deep mystical
by the Mysteries nor did they possess any occult secrets. Though it was
that those making the first researches into the subject in modern times
fancied that some transcendent doctrine, some wonderful teaching that
herd was not able to receive, was hidden by the veil of secrecy. In
references there are undoubted hints to this effect, but whatever there
was of that
had been read into the Mysteries by just such earnest-minded initiates
the fine spun webs of symbolism in Masonry today, the sort of thing
with which we
are all familiar.
and primitively the chief content of these secret religious
institutions was not
a common body of knowledge but a common emotion. There were
doubt, but they would be of a simple straightforward type ‒ rules of
morality, of special taboos, of ritual requirements, very similar, one
mutatis mutandis, to the contents of the familiar charges of a
advent of the scientific and critical method in studying the problems
religion a new field has been opened to the zealous Masonic symbolist.
It is very
easy to range through collected accounts of savage customs and tribal
to find analogies to Freemasonry. It has been discovered that in
Australia the candidates
(that is, the boys who are being "made men") are hoodwinked (they are
not, as a matter of fact, completely blindfolded, but generally merely
to keep their eyes on the ground), that they receive an apron (I simply
do not know
what this refers to; in some other countries and among other races
girdles or loin
clothes are worn after initiation) and pass through a succession of
seems to refer to the fact that after the initiation the youth only
comes by a gradual
process to full rights in the tribe) and other like correspondences.
This sort of
thing is utterly misleading, not to say absurd. The real connection, if
would not be in any such trifling and obvious matter, details that seem
in the character of the ceremonies and the nature of the human mind
than marks of
relationship. One parallel has been overlooked by writers of this
class. Most savages
mark or mutilate the body in their initiatory rites; in Australia,
and the knocking out of teeth; elsewhere tattooing and cutting marks on
breast are in vogue. A hundred years ago it was popularly believed that
was branded ‒ though upon what part of his person was not known.
Perhaps it is better
not to proceed too far on this line of research, though there are
legends of red-hot
pokers or gridirons on which the victim had to sit! But let this
remain, as it is,
wrapped in mystery!
Signs Among Savages
method has been of great value in many fields of investigation. It has
been a key
to unlock unsuspected treasures of relationships, and has led to the
and elucidation of many puzzles. But the kind of procedure spoken of
resembles the comparative method in the most superficial manner. By the
the facts available are brought together and compared without
the other an artificial whole is built up out of isolated facts to fit
hypothesis ‒ somewhat like those skeletons of mermaids fashioned by the
out of selected bones of monkeys and fishes. There is no value, for
calling the oldest "medicine" man present at the "Borah" ceremonies
a "Worshipful Master" ‒ or the two next senior to him "Wardens".
There is absolutely no parallel. Any group, society or institution
tends to produce
rulers or leaders ‒ such analogies prove altogether too much. Or again,
the statement, so often repeated, that various races and tribes in
of the world are acquainted with and use the Masonic signs is very
unsafe to say
the least. In the first place such statements are too general to be
Where definite cases are adduced the evidence is usually third or
fourth hand, and
in any case the original signs of Freemasonry seem to have been
forms of very natural and commonly used gestures, the differentiative
largely in a convention which is very familiar to every "York" Rite
at least. Under such circumstances there is nothing more easy than to
assertions, and nothing much harder than to prove them. There is one
that appears to have been used at the emergence of Freemasonry into the
period ‒ that is, 1717 or thereabouts ‒ which is now apparently
obsolete in the
Symbolic Degrees. This does seem to have been employed in diverse times
‒ such as in Ancient Egypt, Assyria, India, South America ‒ as a
Often represented as being made by divine personages. But what its
meaning was is
not clear, nor even if it meant anything like the same thing in the
where it appears. And here again it may be merely a coincidence that it
a supposed Masonic sign. For this latter may have really been no more
than the conventional
form of a gesture most natural to human kind under the stress of
is the use of seeking for analogies to Freemasonry in the myths and
ancient and alien peoples? The fault is not with the general method,
but with the
uncritical way in which it has too often been carried out. The idea is
in itself. As a matter of fact, from the objective point of view,
a traditional survival. To the anthropologist it is as instructive as a
would be to a biologist. The myth-making faculty has been supposed to
be quite dead
and utterly foreign to the minds of civilized men ‒ whereas it is not.
It has been,
and is, flourishing like the Psalmist's "green bay tree" right in our
midst. In Masonry we have a ritual whose origin is simply swathed in
layers of myth,
and yet still exerts a potent influence over the minds of those who
come in real
touch with it. Aside from the ritual itself there are all kinds of
myths about it,
and these have simply grown ‒ they have not been invented by any one
man ‒ though
it must be admitted that writers like Oliver, Morris et al did much to
water a plant that really needs very little cultivation to grow and
as a minor instance: There was recently published in a Masonic
periodical of repute
a detailed exposition of a part of the last chapter of Ecclesiastes.
When it came
to the metaphor of the "silver cord" a purely mythical Oriental custom
was adduced, to-wit, that it was usual to hang lamps by silver cords.
actual figure was in the mind of "the Preacher," and it is very
it was a very definite and concrete one, it is impossible to believe it
so inane as this. This invention of reasons, what is called technically
myth", is exactly on a par with mammoth bones being explained as
or that the cross bill bird got its beak twisted by pecking at the
nails that fastened
our Lord to the cross.
It is now
generally known that the Mysteries, properly so called, had their
origin in a far
more primitive, not to say savage, state of society than that of the
Greeks or Romans; that they were in fact survivals. Institutions
similar to their
hypothetical originals are to be found among most of the primitive
peoples of the
world, and they there appear a "totem ceremonies", tribal initiations,
and the like. Now one feature that all these have in common is the
working of magic.
The bear or other totem is wakened in the spring by magical dances. The
ceremonially planted, the emu is imitated that it may increase, the sun
new power by midsummer bonfires, or fiery wheels, or burning arrows.
And here it
may be noted that the primary reason for the secrecy which veils these
quite practical. It is that they are dangerous. Originally they are
but it does not do to talk about them except at the proper time, which
in the end
comes to this that the only place to learn them is at the enaction of
themselves and so eventually they are mysteries to all but the
initiated. For the
spoken word is of great magical power, and of all words the name is the
To speak of the devil is to raise him. It may be here that we have a
clue to the
original meaning of the Lost Word.
Did It Originate?
the ultimate origin of all this is to be looked for would be difficult
to say. There
are strange hints that it may be as far back as the Cro-Magnon cave
even the earlier Aurignacian flint workers, but for our present purpose
the present space) it is fortunately as unnecessary as it is impossible
to go into
this. But it must, however, be emphasized that this magical outlook is
element in all the activities of primitive man, as much so apparently
in the inter-glacial
periods in Europe as it is today in Africa and Australia. When a savage
do anything he is as practical about it from his own point of view as
we are, though
he mingles with his material means purely magical rites and
incantations. In a higher
stage the two sides begin to be differentiated and the magic becomes
awful and tends to be worked only occasionally, and by special persons.
But to the
primitive mind the two things have never been differentiated or
magic is an affair of every-day life. The savage still mixes the
expression of his
desire or need in word and gesture with his action to attain the end in
him the former is as necessary as the latter (to some extent it may be
and the root of all magic is the expression, by symbol, by song (that
by dramatic dance of the individual and, still more, of the collective
the tribal initiations the boys are taught certain things that it is
that men should know. And this to us seems the real practical purpose
of the institution.
To the savage this aspect is largely, if not entirely, incidental. The
in his mind is to magically enable the boy ‒ hitherto an indeterminate
‒ to become a man, to endue him with the powers a man must have, to
entirely from the influence of women and the things of his childhood.
Now as culture
advances and tribes amalgamate into races and nations, and religion
emerges from undifferentiated magic ‒ one cannot here go into the
question of the
origin of religion ‒ all kinds of things may happen. The final result
may vary all
the way from the awful secrets of the initiation becoming the games of
to, on the other hand, the ceremonies becoming the property of a select
society. And where this last has occurred we get such secret
organizations as flourish
in parts of Africa and elsewhere. Or else we get such institutions as
of Demeter and Kore in Eleusis, of Dionysus in Thrace, of Zeus in
Crete. In many
cases they become, quite naturally, organizations of men of a certain
class or occupation.
The earliest and most universal of these last is perhaps that of
men, or shamans. Instances of these are to be found almost everywhere ‒
in New Guinea,
West Africa, South America, ancient Egypt and Babylonia. Of the last
part of the
ritual is still extant on inscribed clay tablets. But though such
perhaps more likely to become the machine and trades union of
the undifferentiated magic of primitive man could quite easily find
of development and survival. As man, after having been a hunter,
entered the pastoral
stage magic ceremonies were required to increase his flocks and herds,
and as he
became a tiller of the soil magic was again necessary to secure the
his fields and to ensure the sun and rain necessary to his crops and to
destructive tempests. The far-famed rites of Eleusis were originally
purely of this
character. That their agricultural forms were later developed into a
bond of union
for all the Greeks, of whatever city or tribe, is a close and curious
the evolution of Speculative out of Operative Masonry.
that has always had something of the magical and uncanny about it is
the craft of
the metal worker. In the folk lore of Europe the blacksmith is always a
who is liable to do wonderful things, or who bargains with supernal or
powers on terms of equality. Wayland Smith is a well-known hero of
legend, and even
Asa Thor was a smith and forged his own wonderful hammer. The world
‒ and especially iron ‒ have magical properties in themselves, they are
medicine," and naturally the man who knows how to work them becomes
with occult powers. The smiths of the Abyssinians, a caste apart, are
The gypsies of southeast Europe are fortune tellers and metal workers.
swords of Damascus were said to have been wrought with accompanying
and to have been tempered in human blood, while the swordsmiths of old
and performed ceremonial rites of purification as a necessary
beginning to forge a new masterpiece. And here incidentally it may be
always in magical ceremonies the participants must divest themselves of
of a metallic kind. And the root idea of this is probably that metal is
and disturbing element, and upsets the spirits and powers of the old
‒ the magic of bone and chipped flint. The special significance this
have will be seen later.
Builders Used Magic
So far we
have found traces of primitive initiation rites becoming specialized
into what may be called "occupational" forms ‒ agricultural, pastoral
and shamanistic, and one still more specialized craft. But men as well
food and making tools have always in some degree made shelters for
is, have been builders. And here we find ourselves deep in magic again.
of the forest must be propitiated before a clearing can be made. The
must be marked out according to prescribed ritual ‒ for luck. The earth
her due to ward off all the evil she might bring for the offense of
ground. Wherever we go, at whatsoever level of culture it may be, we
observances and sacrifices to be made before it is safe to build,
before the building
is safe to use, before it is sure to stand. In Dahomey the pillars of
palace were dropped on living slaves in the holes dug to receive them.
In the Pacific,
prisoners were made to hold the corner posts of the chief's house and
alive. And as soon as people rise to a state of society complex enough
to have specialized
occupations, what is more natural than that those who follow the craft
should become the custodians of the rites necessary for the safety of
they erect. The magic is as necessary as the technical skill. Of course
remain in the gilds of magicians, as it apparently did among the
Etruscans and the
Romans, and as it still does among the Chinese. Yet in medieval legend
it is always
the Masons who build the child into the wall that their work may stand
and the craft
be honored thereby. And possibly even today in southeastern Europe the
may have his shadow measured by stealth that the rod may be built into
of the new house ‒ by which he will be sure to die within the year. Or
in which the first bricks are laid may be mingled with the blood of a
That such things were done is certain. That the builders were ignorant
of them is
It may be
as well at this point to re-capitulate the conclusions thus far
reached. No attempt,
it will have been noted, has been made to give the detailed facts on
which the argument
has been based. But this is certainly not because the various steps
have all been
hypothetical in character, but rather that the evidence has been
collected in such
masses that it is difficult to know how to select from it, and most of
it is reasonably
accessible, though of course it is not to be found all in one place,
with a Masonic reference. We may then, without much risk, assume the
First: that what we call the magical was indiscriminately mixed with
in the activities of primitive men, though to his thinking all was
Second: that this magic, or at least its forms, has survived in various
and combinations in all higher cultures even to our own. Third: that
collective magic especially tends to survive in institutions and select
of the "Mystery" type. Fourth: that with the increasing complexity of
the social structure, and the division and sub-divisions of functions
such institutions show in some cases a tendency to become occupational.
of these occupational institutions and societies that of magicians or
is practically universal. From this by further differentiation emerge
in all the
higher cultures, two professions ‒ that of priest and physician. Other
fundamental occupations are the agricultural and pastoral. And then,
than these, as specialized crafts, the trades of the metal worker and
With Many Trades
Now the term
"builder" has been used intentionally because it is indeterminate. The
type of building at any given time or place depends on two
factors, both obvious ‒ the material most available, and the level of
of the builders. But practically the material has always been wood,
earth or stone.
The skin tents of nomads and the snow houses of the Esquimaux need
hardly be considered
since they are exceptional. But whatever the material used, or chiefly
fundamentals of building, both practical and magical, would be very
much the same.
Whatever may be the variations in form to be found the underlying
constant. From these primitive beginnings, wherever a people have risen
barbaric level the more specialized crafts of carpenter, bricklayer or
appeared. All three, but especially the first and the last, use some
form of striking
implement ‒ some form of axe or hammer ‒ both evolved from the original
of the cave man. Both the axe and the hammer are the world over
regarded as being
in themselves sanctified, full of manna or magic power.
Now as soon
as more ambitious structures than mere temporary structures are
tools are required ‒ some form of measuring rod, or gauge, and some
test angles. It is not at all necessary to suppose that these last were
invented and re-invented, many times, but the striking tools go back to
primitive weapon of the earliest men of all, the rude hammer stone held
in the hand.
So much then
for the approach of this side. Let us now attack the problem in
reverse. Our last
step would indicate that it would be not only among masons that we
should look for
such survivals, but that they might also be expected among other crafts
connected with building. That this may actually have been the case in
two facts tend to show. In Scotland, the "wrights," who included
bricklayers and plasterers and so on had an institution and a form of
called the "brithering" that on the outside sounds very like a
of what seventeenth century Operative Masonry may have been. The other
is that in
France the Compagnonnage seems in very early times to have included
connected with building, besides masons, and what may perhaps be the
seems at first to have been confined to carpenters.
helps to remove a difficulty which if not always clearly discerned has
in the way of tracing back the Masonic Fraternity to remote antiquity.
Why was it
that the men concerned in one particular trade, and a highly
specialized one too,
should have become the custodians of ancient mystic lore? But when we
the institution may not have been originally confined to Masons only
but was inherited,
as it were, by them as being a sub-division of the whole craft of
building the problem
takes a new aspect; and we can see that while the medieval Freemason
have developed and invented his undoubtedly new technique from the very
that is, he need not have received his art directly from the stone
masons of the
preceding cultures of Rome and Greece (though a strong case can be made
the hypothesis that he did) yet in any case he must have had a building
of some sort, behind him, in some style and material. The basis for the
of secret rites thus becomes pyramidal instead of columnar, a network
a single line.
rites of Freemasonry are archaic survivals seems to the present writer
There are no real parallels to it among the usages of the trades gilds,
merchant. The Compagnonnage offers only an apparent exception, for the
of crafts unconnected with building is certainly of late date. The
and like organizations of the Middle Ages were associations of
mutual profit and safety, exactly as are trades unions and
today. With changing conditions they very generally disappeared.
still survives. Why? Surely only because it was more than a trades
union ‒ because
of its ancient and magical initiation.
two objections may be raised. It has been held by authorities of weight
Third Degree and all it implies was invented and added to the "body of
by the scholarly brethren who were concerned in the re-organization of
in 1717, or, in a variant of what is essentially the same hypothesis,
of the Stuart cause in the seventeenth century. I have at some length
given my reasons
elsewhere for believing that Freemasonry as we know it is in its
essentials of remote
antiquity, though the present arrangement is certainly modern, as well
as the greater
part of the moral and symbolic explanations. One argument only need be
here. The legend of the Third Degree in its earliest known forms (as it
today its archaic character is effectively masked) is not a thing that
or even could be, deliberately invented by civilized men ‒ even with
the aid "of
sundry hints from the Targums," or the Kabbala, or anything else.
There Magic In Freemasonry?
of the two objections that might be made is that there is nothing
apparent of a
magical character in Symbolic Masonry, and only the very slightest
allusion to foundations
in its ceremonies. But we could hardly expect anything else; anything
that was very
apparent could with difficulty have survived the successive
expurgations and improvements
to which our rites have been subjected in the last two hundred years.
Yet even so
the traces are more than a few. The non-use of metals occurs at once.
to the familiar explanation, is commemorative of the account of the
the Temple without the sound of axe or hammer or any metal implement.
is of course comparatively recent, but curiously this Biblical account
an instance of the same magical taboo. "To lift up a tool of iron"
a stone was to pollute it for religious use according to ancient Hebrew
force of the prohibition had broken down by Solomon's time, and yet,
stones were wrought in the quarries, the form of the old taboo was in
again the intense horror of old Masons generally (though not now
must be admitted) of any movement in the lodge "widdershins about," as
the Scotch put it, that is, against the course of the sun. Another
thing that might
be mentioned is the very curious resemblance that the old "diagram" of
the lodge (now rather inadequately represented by our charts and floor
to the templum of the Roman augurs, and to the magic circles of
and others. But it is obvious that this is not an easy subject to
discuss in public,
and in any case would take too much space to go into it at all fully.
The real argument
is the resemblance in general of our ceremonies to primitive and
whom this is all entirely new may be inclined to doubt, and to ask why
be such survivals. The full answer would be a treatise on social
as a short method of reply one might ask in return, Why is offering the
hand a universally
understood token of friendship and good will among us, or why is
raising the hat
an act showing respect? The circumstances under which these actions had
meaning have long since passed away, yet they remain in full force as
And our life is full of such conventions which are survivals of things
once natural and obvious.
For any who,
while admitting the existence of such survivals in custom, may yet
an organization existed secretly transmitting a system of such
survivals could exist
a very curious and interesting parallel can be pointed out; material
has quite recently
been collected to show that the witchcraft of the Middle Ages and even
that of the
New England states, was no sporadic superstition but was definitely
organized (in a manner, by the way, remarkably resembling that of
meeting by inherent right) and that this organization was at times and
places so powerful that the authorities of Church and State had very
good and practical
reason to fear it. It appears in effect to have been the survival in
of a primitive pre-Christian religion, whose deities were by the Church
equated with the powers of darkness, and which in consequence more and
a point that its adherents should in every way renounce Christianity
here it may be pointed out that the objection that the Church had to
(in France) was that it concealed heresy, witchcraft and blasphemy ‒
that is, enmity
and antagonism to Christianity in itself. That Freemasons have been
accused, in some countries, of worshipping Satan is of course a
‒ and yet it is not absolutely invented out of whole cloth, for it was
supposed, after the emergence of the Institution into publicity early
in the eighteenth
century, that Freemasons "raised the devil" in their lodges. This
of the populace may well have been passed along from times long
anterior to the
historical period of the Order, though it may quite likely have been
by deliberate mystification on the part of convivial and jocular
died when their raison d'Ítre ceased, when the conditions in society
that had called
them forth had passed away. Freemasonry on the other hand was not
by laws aimed, in part at least, specifically at its suppression as an
This suggests that the gild (of Masons) and the lodge were entirely
distinct entities, even where the membership was identical. And this
prove a clue to the solution of some other puzzles. But what was it
to hold Masons together working and honorary, Operative and
Speculative, in spite
of legislation and social change? Perhaps the power of the magic of
always lay in the social and collective emotion in which all the
the rites felt a mysterious bond of union with each other and with
and vague, greater than anyone of them. Perhaps after all we have done
than re-name and re-classify these things. We refer it all to
of magic, while the original reality still remains as potent as ever.
has unfortunately been written away from the writer's library and
notes. A few references
have, however, been made from memory that are believed to be accurate
as far as
1. The account
of the "brithering" of the "wrights" is to be found in Lyon's
History of the Old Lodge of Edinburgh [Lib 1873]. But the reference is given
in Gould's History.
2. The best
known authority on the Compagnonnage is Perdiguier [Lib 1841 (French – Parts
I + II)],
whose works, however, are very
rare. The substance of his account is to be found in Gould's History
[Lib 1884 (4 Volumes see Bibliography)]. Lionel Vibert's monograph
on the subject should also be consulted.
for March and April, 1915, under heading "The Sublime Degree".
4. Most works
on folk lore have references to this subject. The authorities quoted in
to the article on the "Great Journey" in THE BUILDER, present volume,
page 274, are all useful. The best collection of material on
Simpson's "Buddhist Prayer Wheel" [Lib 1896].
5. The Witch
Cult in Western Europe (author's name forgotten!) [Lib 1921 (Margaret A.
On the Mysteries
in general there has of late years been much written, but most of it
Besides the Golden Bough [Lib 1922], see Lang's Myth Ritual and
[Lib 1901; Vol
1, Vol 2] and Simpson's Jonah Legend
Miss Harrison's Themis [Lib 1912] and Cook's Zeus [Lib 1914-40,
3/2] may be
of the Craft
If God Is Love -- [A Poem]
L. B. Mitchell, 32d
God is love, then love is God
From soul to source, the same,
For from His own sweet alchemy
Came the undying flame
Within whose glow is forged the bands
That bind man to the earth
And qualify him in its plan
For all he is of worth.
God is love and man was made
By it to do and dare
It is by free will and accord
That nature's conscious prayer
Must answered be by him alone
As aspirations lead
Him onward in the chosen way
That will his merit plead.
God is love, 'tis love alone
Gives value to the world;
Its soul, as such, could never be
If not with it impearled.
It gives man to himself as MAN
Refines his gold from dross
Without all creation would
Be but a total loss.
God is love, the immanence
Of it pervades the space,
'Tis in the very heart of life
And thereby growth in grace
Inheres in him who beauty sees
In nature's wondrous plan,
E'en to its old intention that
Expressed itself in MAN.
once described the vaporings of a poor sentimentalist as "the moaning
of predetermined pathos." Isn't that pretty nearly the world's record
takes home those we loved ‒ fair names
and famous ‒
To the soft, long sleep, to the broad, sweet bosom of death;
But the flower of their souls he shall take not away to shame us,
Nor the lips lack song forever, that now lack breath;
For with us shall the music and perfume that died not dwell,
Though the dead to our dead bid welcome, and we ‒ farewell!”
Respectable Lodge of the
Reunion of True Friends and the Inquisition; Rome,
from the French by Bro. A.L. KRESS, Associate Editor, Pennsylvania
translation has been made from the French Tradition of an old book,
Life of Joseph
Balsamo Known Under the Name of Count Cagliostro [Lib 1791]. The title page informs us
that the book is an "Extract of the procedure
instituted against him at Rome in 1790, translated after the original
at the Apostolic Chamber, enriched with interesting notes and adorned
with his portrait."
The French edition was published in 1791, was sold at Paris by Onfroy,
and at Strassburg
by one Jean George Treuttel. The identity of the writer is not
presented here composes Chapter IV of the book and is entitled "Lodge
Uncovered at Rome."
attempting to review the career of Cagliostro and his connections with
Masonry, some explanation is necessary as to the purpose of the book.
propagator of "Egyptian Masonry," was arrested, tried and imprisoned by
the Catholic Inquisition in 1790, because of his activities in
propagating his rite.
The Inquisition authorities caused the Italian edition of the above
book to be printed.
It is of course anti- Masonic and purports to be an expose not only of
Masonry" but of "Ordinary Masonry." While the book related chiefly
to Cagliostro, this one chapter is devoted to exposing a regular lodge
which the Inquisition raided in Rome. Cagliostro was not, however, a
member of this
the reader should keep in mind the fact that it is the
speaking, the members of the Craft should find the narration of the
customs of this
old lodge interesting. Needless to say, the work has no value as to the
of Freemasons Uncovered
WE have already
remarked that the government of Rome, in spying on the person of
had uncovered a lodge of Freemasons instituted at Rome, which was held
in a house
near the quarter known as Mount Trinity. The same evening, following
of Cagliostro, (2) justice made a descent on this house; but it was
easy to see
that the sectarians had been warned; for those who lived there had
to their own safety, and only the Masonic tools were found along with a
of the papers and books relative to the sect, which might be of some
However, the little left behind, chiefly a register book, added to the
of various well-informed persons, suffice to make known the origin,
and circumstances of this lodge. The order of events would have made us
recital in Chapter II, where we have given an abridged idea of Masonry
but it has been deemed more appropriate to report it here, rather than
the personal history of Cagliostro. The reader must recall what has
been said on
this subject in Chapter II.
of this lodge were seven in number, five Frenchmen, an American and a
already associated with foreign lodges "lamenting," it relates in the
book of the lodge, "of living in darkness and being unable to make
in true science, they decided to seek a place enlightened, sacred, far
all profanes which might remain forever hidden and impenetrable, and in
harmony and peace might forever reign." The place so recommended, which
had the name of Respectable Lodge of the Reunion of True Friends, was
of which we have spoken where the first assembly was held Nov. 1, 1787,
once or twice weekly; sometimes also, but rarely, it met in another
first meeting they commenced to make proselytes; in the following, they
some men who had not yet been admitted to any lodge, and they
affiliated also those
from foreign lodges who might be introduced in their capacity as
this lodge also provided visitors to foreign lodges and they were
certificates and secret instructions which are not explained in the
made no distinction as to citizenship, age, origin or of rank. They
men, old men, married men, Italians, Frenchmen, Russians, Poles,
already associated with different lodges, such as those of Perfect
Equality of Liege,
Patriotism of Lyons, Secrecy and Harmony of Malta, Council of the Elect
Concord of Milan, Perfect Union of Naples, of Warsaw, A'by, (3) Paris
which are there named. The reception or affiliation of a large number
are given, but their names, surnames and ranks were recorded in the
books of the
lodge. They indicated also by mysterious and ambiguous phrases those
which doubtless were held of such importance that they could not trust
and explanation even in the most secret registers.
this lodge with some regularity, they believed it necessary from the
to be approved by and affiliated with the mother lodge in Paris.
Towards this end,
they asked and received from this lodge in fact the statutes,
instructions and regulations
for the internal and external guard of the lodge and for the conduct of
Every six months they sent to the mother lodge an exact and authentic
not only of all the members and the grades and offices of each one, but
all that which was accomplished and decided in each meeting. There was
a representative of this lodge, through whom they carried on a
with this Orient. They were warned also not to make use of the post for
of mail, but of stage coaches and carriages.
often came from the lodge in France to the one here regarding the
internal and external
affairs of the society as well as certificates and patents which some
of the brothers
requested with the prescribed formalities. Every six months there was
secret formalities from the mother lodge to the one here and then to
were united with it, a word, known as the "mot de guet." (4) In this
every member of the lodge affiliated with the mother lodge in Paris was
recognize everywhere his brothers as true Freemasons.
or six months it was their duty to send a free gift to the mother lodge
as a contribution
to maintain the common center of Masonry. In November, 1789, this lodge
from the one at Rome "an extraordinary free gift", for which all the
were taxed at least an ecu (5) each and they sent eighty ecus.
Touch with Sister Lodges
correspondence with the mother lodge, the one in Rome also kept in
touch with the
lodges at Lyons, Malta, London, Naples, Messina, Palermo and others in
reading of letters from these lodges, done in the lodge by the
Venerable, or Secretary,
is noted in many places in the registers. Replies were also noted in
nothing indicated the precise object of this correspondence. It has
also been proposed
to call for a list of all lodges united with the one in Paris, to cause
to be printed
the rules and regulations and to receive women into this lodge. The
result of the
first proposition was not given. As to the printing, it was at first
afterwards suspended; "on account of the difficulties which exist in
these are the words of the register: with reference to the affiliation
they took some time to decide and to consider the difficulties in which
might find itself in the different parts of the work. It mentions also
in the register
the record of three keys which protect the rules, the books of the
and symbolic grades which came from Paris and official notices to the
most interesting discourses given in lodge either by the Venerable or
by the Orator;
among others described is one which has for a title: "Remus and
nothing in this lodge, so far as grades, offices, ceremonies and rites
which differed essentially from the practices already known of other
lodges of ordinary
Masonry. There are, as we have already said, several grades to which
one may successively
be raised: Apprentice, fellow, master, elect master and finally Scotch
appears that in this lodge only the first three degrees were conferred;
and no person
was admitted unless his qualities had been already known to the lodge,
he had been accepted by two unanimous ballots.
before becoming a fellow, and the fellow before becoming a master, had
to be put
to the test for a space of three months and give proofs of attachment
and zeal for
the order. The graduates were subject to a contribution proportionate
to the degree
which they received; and this contribution was more or less graded
the property of the candidate. (6) For the degree of apprentice, one
paid 20, 12
or 8 ecus; for that of fellow 7, 5 or 3 ecus, for that of master 8, 6
or 4 ecus.
Freemasons of other lodges who wished to become affiliated with this
one paid according
to the master's degree. Besides this, each member paid quarterly
one-half an ecu
and monthly three paoli for the usual need of the lodge; then half an
for Masonic repasts which were held monthly on the days and at the
they met. Those who wished to be furnished with certificates or patents
an ecu; those who missed the meetings without notifying the lodge were
paoli; too (paoli) (7) if they gave notice of their absence; one if
fifteen minutes after the hour fixed. Then at each meeting a collection
up, each one giving what he pleased.
are the offices and posts of this society: first, the Venerable;
second, the Vigilant,
or First and Second Superintendent; third, the Terrible Brother;
fourth, the Master
of Ceremonies; fifth, the Treasurer; sixth, the Almoner; seventh, the
eighth, the Chief Expert. Every year they nominated by ballot new
persons for these
offices, or confirmed the old ones. The Venerable presided at all
in his absence the First or Second Superintendent or Vigilant occupied
The Terrible Brother received and conducted candidates at the time when
admitted, and this name of Terrible was given him because he was the
of the terrors which inspired them; the Master of Ceremonies was
charged with the
instruction of novices passing the ballot, putting the box in
circulation for the
poor. (8) The Superintendent announced to the lodge those who wished to
and conducted them from the door to the place to which their grade
to be seated. The Orator or Chief Expert had the task of giving
discourses on the
occasion of receptions, or on the day of St. John, protector of Masons,
to the brothers their duties on the occasion and instructing them on
it. The Treasurer
received all money from dues, contributions and fines, and the Almoner
was the one
who distributed the collection. The first had to render an account of
the second was not obliged to, and distributed charity at his pleasure.
the Secretary examined certificates and patents, entered the actions of
and read the register of the preceding lodge for verification if
disputes and errors among the brothers were heard, decided and punished
in the lodge.
The usual penalties were pecuniary fines, penances (such as being kept
the lodge without sword), (9) suspensions from office, or annulment.
Those who violated
secrecy were threatened with the indignation of every lodge, with
death. However, it does not follow from this that these threats had
ever been put
into execution; one finds several instances of penances in the
register, but without
any explanation which brought them on.
lodge was composed of two compartments which occupied two rooms of the
first was known as the "Chamber of Reflections." It was hung with
on a table was a death's head, beneath which were two inscriptions with
words not understood. The second [chamber] was called "The Temple"; it
was decorated in various ways, according to the several ceremonies to
However, there was always a throne where the Venerable was seated: on
were hung here and there various Masonic emblems; the sun, the moon,
the stars and
two columns on both sides of the throne: the brothers were ranged on
of this throne; they wore aprons of white skin; around the neck a band
silk, in the form of a deacon's stole; gloves on the hands, and they
a naked sword, mallet, compass or Masonic square, according to the
prescribed by their rite. When the lodge was opened economic affairs of
were discussed, gifts received from other lodges were exhibited, the
or advancement of some brother was proposed. At nearly every meeting
either a profane
(it is thus Masons call whoever is not of their society) was initiated,
brother apprentice was admitted to the degree of fellow or a fellow
became a master.
several ceremonies observed at the initiation of an apprentice. (Here
description of ceremonies not to be printed here.)
This is all
that can be said about the lodge instituted at Rome. If its secrecy,
chief object cannot perfectly be explained, we have already seen the
to be attributed to the fact that the lodge was warned at the time that
was to be made. Not only were the books and the most important papers
the principal members had escaped and they alone perhaps know the
enigma, we say,
perhaps, for the lodge not being very old it would be surprising if
its secrecy, object and mystery had not yet been communicated to its
for the rest in summing up the ideas we have given in the course of
on Masons, their rites, ceremonies, customs and principles, a little
suffices to realize that wickedness and madness characterize them.
Let us render
thanks to Heaven that we were furnished the means of destroying the
made to introduce this folly and wickedness in our august capital. The
word of a God-made man who has promised that, despite the snares of
hell, the faith
for which He has shed His precious blood will always be pure in the
church of St.
Peter; the efficacious protection of the Holy Apostles who have
and defended it at the price of a grievous martyrdom; the zeal of the
personally watches over His flock and who spares no efforts which human
suggest, have preserved us so far and they have restored our
tranquility for the
future against the attempts of these ravenous wolves. Please God, may
all the rest
of the world, convinced as it ought to be by the expressive ruins of
rid itself forever of this dangerous infection.
and Comments on the
Note: It is evident that this was a regularly constituted lodge of
under the French Rite. Probably this lodge was under the jurisdiction
of the Grand
Orient of France, which founded the French Rite in 1786.
It is interesting
to see that one lone American was one of the founders. Their purpose in
a lodge was well expressed. Despite the dangers of meeting in the city
seat of the Inquisition, they held meetings for over two years before
It should be noted they were duly affiliated with the Mother Lodge at
they were wise in not using the posts for sending mail. The civil and
authorities of that period had a bad habit of examining all letters.
Louis XV of
France made a regular practice of it.
must have prospered. We read that 80 ecus were sent as a gift to the
each member giving at least one ecu. That would represent from 60 to 80
use the word "grade" instead of "degree". Mackey states that
the French Rite consisted of seven degrees, adding, as sixth, Knight of
and seventh, Rose Croix, in addition to the five given in the
translation. It would
be interesting to know if this Rite is so practiced today. He says it
is or was
practiced in France, Brazil and Louisiana. Note that two unanimous
required for admission. The three months' probation between degrees was
not a bad
idea. One wonders just what proofs were required.
scale for initiation fees should be noted. As an ecu was approximately
to sixty cents in our money, the first degree would have cost from
$4.80 to $12,
the second from $1.80 to $4.20 and the third from $2.40 to $4.80, or a
$21, $13.80, $9.00 respectively for all three degrees. The total dues
for the year
Fines would have been for absence without notice 30 cents; with notice
lateness 10 cents; all in addition to a collection at each meeting for
What would some of the Craft think today if they were called on so
designations of the officers. Venerable is the title given in French
lodges to the
Master; the First and Second Superintendents correspond to Senior and
the Terrible Brother, so far as receiving and conducting candidates, to
Deacon. The Almoner dispensed charity and visited the sick and needy.
Encyclopedia under "Lodge" for further explanation.
the whole book the writer dwells constantly on three things: first,
oath; second, blind obedience to superiors; third, the close union of
Just as in the next to the last paragraph the impression is constantly
that the mystery and object of the order was with-held from the rank
and file. It
does seem rather thoughtless of the members of this lodge that they did
behind to be captured and so disclose their secrets. The fact that a
lodge was founded
"in our august capital" seems to have worried the biographer.
how futile are any attempts to "expose" the Secrets of Masonry, when
rest in the hearts of Masons!
2. He was arrested on St. John's Day, Dec. 27, 1789. Probably this same
selected for raiding this lodge as it was generally known that Masons
on St. John's Day.
3. English equivalent not known.
4. Watchword, i.e., password.
5. Aku, an old French coin worth about three francs, or sixty cents.
6. i.e., ability to pay.
7. An old Italian coin worth about ten cents,
8. i.e., taking up a collection for the needy brothers.
9. Original text not quite clear.
Napoleon Made a Mason?
Bro. David E.W. Williamson,
Associate Editor. Nevada
been known this long time that Napoleon I was a member of the Craft in
there has been much uncertainty as to where and when he was initiated.
has had the good fortune to come upon an item of fact that throws much
this question, and at the same time makes it evident how the great
ON the 3rd
of December, 1797, Napoleon Bonaparte, homeward bound to Josephine and
from dictating to humbled Austria the treaty of Campo Formio, and happy
mystified the German plenipotentiaries gathered at Bastadt by his
drove into the city of Nancy, the heart of Lorraine. It was a mere
episode in his
journey, scarcely worthy of a note in history and passed over in
silence by his
biographers, but it is of curious interest to Masons because it was
a humble annalist of Lorraine to mention it and thus to prove that
to the Craft more than six months before the time when it is generally
that he was initiated.
late war Bro. Dr. John W. Grant,, of Reno, Nev., then Captain of the
in France, became acquainted with Charles Bernardin, Past Master of a
lodge in Nancy,
who presented him with a book, in two volumes, of which Bro. Bernardin
is the author,
its title, translated into English, is, Notes to Serve as a History of
at Nancy Up to 1805, and it should be better known than it is, for it
mine of information about the Masonic lodges of the Lorraine capital
installation until the Revolution, with much of interest that happened
period. Bro. Grant brought the two volumes back to the United States
with him and
from them is translated this, which Bro. Bernardin himself quotes from
Lorraine de M. Noel, in the library of Nancy, volume 1, page 617:
remember having had in hand the engraved plate which proves that
passing through Nancy after having signed the treaty of Campo Formio,
lodge and, although but a Master Mason, was received with all the
Introduced under an arch of steel, the Master offered him the gavel. If
does not deceive me, the grandfather of M. Dumont was then one of the
of the lodge. That visit was made on Dec. 3, 1797. I was very young but
recall the impression made by the conqueror of Italy at Nancy. Never
was the city
in a like agitation. All the houses were lighted up. He was invited to
go to the
theatre and as soon as it was known that he had accepted the
invitation, the hall
was invaded by sheer force and without payment. 'La Belle Arsen' was
in the famous air 'Triumph, fair Alcindor,' Mlle. Rousselois
Bonaparte.' All our poets ‒ Blaise, Laugier, Gentiliatre ‒ made
couplets in honor
of the general."
of this, Bro. Bernardin writes:
"I cannot doubt the assertion
of the celebrated
historian of Lorraine, as he was himself a Freemason and a member of
St. John of
Jerusalem Lodge from March 5, 1810, and could very well have had in his
plate to which he alludes and have received an account of that visit
from the mouths
of those who assisted at it, I have found no trace of it in the
archives of the
lodge, but this is not extraordinary because the meetings had not been
a year. It awoke immediately afterward and assembled on Dec. 9. Is it
not just this
visit that drew it from its lethargy? It is quite possible."
no question but that Bonaparte was at Nancy on the date given. His
tells us that he left Milan on Nov. 17, 1797, and travelled through
to Rastatt by way of Aix in Savoy, Berne and Bale. At Rastatt he was
chief of the
French legation but, announcing suddenly that he had received letters
from the Directory
summoning him to Paris, he left the congress without ceremony and
proceeded to the
capital of France. Nancy was on his road.
Was Napoleon Initiated?
of when and where Napoleon was made a Mason has been often debated but
it has come
of late years to be assumed that the event must have taken place in
of Malta, and the general opinion has been well summarized in the
Revision of Mackey's Encyclopedia of Masonry, which says: "It is said
initiated at Malta between June 12 and July 19, 1798." Yet a study of
movements should make this seem unlikely, even if we did not have the
quoted from M. Noel about his visiting a lodge at Nancy on Dec. 3,
1798. He had
long had his eyes on Malta, it is true, and only a month before he
the Lorraine city he had sent Poussielgue, secretary of the French
legation in Genoa,
to corrupt the knights, a mission that proved successful. Indeed,
according to Hazlett:
"It is related that Carrarelli, seeing the strength of the place when
entered, observed to the Commander-in-Chief, 'It is well we had friends
to let us
in.'" Napoleon took Valletta on June 10, 1798, and it is stated in the
of Napoleon [Lib 1918], by John Holland Rose, that he remained there only
days. Certainly the French fleet reached Cape Aza, Africa, on June 29.
days on the Island of Malta were busy ones for Napoleon and it does not
that he could have been made a Mason at the moment. There would
scarcely have been
time. There was a lodge of Freemasons there, either active or dormant,
it is true,
because Clegg's Mackey's History (volume VII, page 2260) tells us that
a lodge had
been re-opened there under the old name of "Secrecy and Harmony" on
2, 1788, the officers of which all were Knights of Malta. But this
under a charter from the Grand Lodge of the Moderns in London, Gould
tells us in
his Military Lodges [Lib 1899], and it is impossible that an
would have admitted to the Fraternity the chief of the armies of a
which England was then actively at war.
could have been initiated at the age of twenty, the most likely period
of his becoming
a Mason would admittedly have been when he visited the Palais Royal
before the Revolution.
His poverty and lack of sociability, to which Mme. Junot testifies in
[Lib 1831-37, (French - 25 Volumes – see Bibliography)], would have made such an
while he was attached to the Regiment Le Fere at Auxonne, taking into
further fact that he was not in sympathy with his brother officers, who
He was transferred in the spring of 1791 to the Regiment Grenoble at
his biographers all agree that at this time he "plunged into politics"
and joined the Club of the Friends of the Constitution. Then he went to
and he did not return until May, 1792, when, owing to the fact that he
had to busy
himself to obtain a commission in the army and also because of the
which Freemasons were subjected in France in that year, he would hardly
membership. In May, 1795, we find him in Paris, where among his friends
younger Robespierre, Carnot, the two Lameths and Generals Bernonville
all of whom are known to have been Masons. After his marriage to
Josephine, in March,
1796, he went out on his Italian campaign, during which it is
improbable that he
would have been initiated, although there were, according to Gould's
eight lodges authorized in the French armies between 1790 and 1800.
glance at his career, then, there would be only the time he spent at
Marseilles in 1791, or the months in Paris between May, 1795, and
April, 1796, when
he would have been likely to have been inducted into the Fraternity.
and wherever he may have been initiated, Napoleon never took his
In none of his reported conversations at St. Helena does he speak as a
the Craft and he showed when he became Emperor that he regarded the
something that might be fostered, but no more. All his brothers
belonged, of that
there is no doubt. He usurped control of the Grand Orient of France and
Bonaparte Grand Master, with Louis Bonaparte Associate Grand Master
Adjoint). Perhaps the appointment of Cambaceres in place of Louis, in
show some light on how Napoleon really regarded Masonry, for France at
had many "table lodges," as they were aptly called, where dining was
principal attraction, and Cambaceres was famous in Paris as a bon
to M. Noel's mention of Napoleon's visit to the lodge at Nancy, the
Bro. Bernardin has especial value because it is the first positive and
date in which he is said to have visited a lodge. Bro. Haywood, in
this subject, kindly drew my attention to the exhaustive paper by Bro.
in volume XVIII, 1914 [Lib*], of the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, on
I and Freemasonry." But Bro. Tuckett's splendid article does not begin
when the great French military genius was made a Mason ‒ that is, when
a lodge as a poor, blind candidate seeking light ‒ and, no matter what
he might later have joined, such as the Philadelphes, the Illuminate
and the like,
into the history of which Bro. Tuckett goes, he must first have been a
the foot of the steps. French Masonry is not different from ours today
in this respect
and it is reasonable to believe that it was not different in the time
As summarized by Bro. Tuckett, himself, his conclusions are:
"(1) That the evidence in
favour of a Masonic
initiation previous to Napoleon's assumption of the Imperial Title is
"(2) That the initiations took
the body of an Army Philadelphe Lodge of the (Ecossais) Primitive Rite
the third 'initiation' of the 'Note Communiquee' being an advancement
in that Rite;
"(3) That these initiations
took place between
1795 and 1798." -A.Q.C., VoL XXVII, 1914, page 115 [Lib*].
to the life of Napoleon and to the circumstances which would be
favorable to his
becoming a member of the Craft, it seems to me, will make my own
this point of the time of initiation more probable, as they certainly
are more definite.
At any rate, the statement of M. Noel will serve as a new point of
future investigators. It is definite, it is circumstantial, it is made
by a man
who was alive at the time, who was a member of the lodge at Nancy soon
and whose membership and standing in the Fraternity are vouched for by
a notable figure in Freemasonry in France.
the War of the Revolution
Bro. Robert Freke Gould
As a means
of assisting readers to possess themselves of as much information as
masons who were active in the War of the Revolution, arrangements were
Gale & Polden, publishers, London, to republish the last
chapter of Gould's
"Military Lodges," [Lib 1899] which retails at
$2.65 postpaid. The title
of the volume in its entirety gives a complete description of the
ground it covers:
"Military lodges: The Apron and the Sword, of Freemasonry Under Arms;
an Account of Lodges in Regiments and Ships of War and of Famous
Soldiers and Sailors
(of all countries) Who Have Belonged to the Society." Brethren who have
a special study of Freemasonry of the Revolutionary period will serve
us all if
they will check up each of the names included in Gould's list. It is
in a few instances he was misled, as regards the Lees, for example; it
that any member of that family ever belonged to the Craft.
Washington was elected Commander-in-Chief of the American Army, and on
same day that he received his commission the battle of Bunker Hill was
which Major-General Joseph Warren, Grand Master of Massachusetts, lost
According to a national biographer, "this was the first grand offering
Masonry at the altar of liberty, and the ground floor of her temple was
at its eastern gate."
was initiated in the Fredericksburg Lodge, Virginia, in November, 1752,
a Master Mason in August, 1753. In 1779 he declined the office of Grand
Virginia, but accepted that of Master of Alexandria Lodge, No. 22, in
state in 1788. As President of the United States he was sworn in ‒
April 30, 1789
‒ on the Bible of St. John's Lodge, New York. In 1793 he laid the
the Capitol, and is described in the official proceedings as "Grand
pro tem, and Worshipful Master of No. 22 of Virginia". His death
1799, and he was buried with Masonic honors on Dec. 18 of that year. On
day the news of his death reached Philadelphia, where Congress was
a national tribute was paid to his memory on the 26th of December. The
were among the chief mourners, and Major-General Henry Lee, a member of
and also a "brother", was the orator of the day. The now familiar
"First in War, First in Peace, and First in the Hearts of His
which so justly describe the estimation in which Washington was
regarded by the
American nation, were used on this occasion by General Lee in his
‒ father of the great Confederate General, Robert E. Lee ‒ who was
as "Light Horse Harry", commanded an independent partisan corps in
and three years later joined the army of General Greene, in whose
Lord Cornwallis "Lee's Legion" formed the rear-guard.
in all were at work in the American Army during the Revolution, the
which, "St. John's Regimental," was granted a warrant by the Provincial
Grand Lodge of New York, in July, 1775.
Union" in the Connecticut Line, though of later date, was the first
in the Continental Army, with which it is described as having moved as
of light in parts of Connecticut, New York and New Jersey. Washington
the Massachusetts Line ‒ at whose meetings the Commander-in-Chief was a
visitor ‒ was constituted at West Point in 1779. The first Master was
Patterson, and the first Wardens Colonels (afterwards Generals)
and John Greaton.
No. 27, in the Maryland Line, received a warrant from Pennsylvania in
first Master was General Mordecai Gist, and the Wardens Colonel
Otho Williams and Major Archibald Anderson.
of the American Field Lodges of the Revolution have been preserved,
except a portion
of the minutes of "American Union" and some returns of the "Washington
Lodge". The latter merely inform us that in 1782 two hundred and fifty
had been borne on the roll of the lodge. The former are of a more
The principal officers of the army and the general in command are
as visitors, and at all the banquets, while the first toast was
or "Congress", the second was invariably "Warren, Montgomery and
Wooster", followed by the Dead March. Dr. Warren was the first man of
to lay down his life in the cause of American Liberty. Richard
Montgomery was of
Irish birth, and after serving at Louisburg, Martinique and Havana
entered the American
Army as Brigadier-General and was killed at the attack on Quebec in
The services of David Wooster as a naval and military officer extended
years, through four years, with Spain, with France, with France again,
with England. He was mortally wounded, as a Major-General in the
while leading an attack on the British troops in 1777.
an abundance of testimony to show that while Commander-in-Chief of the
Army, Washington both countenanced the formation and encouraged the
labors of the
army lodges, that he found frequent opportunity to visit them and that
it no degradation to his dignity to stand there on a level with his
1777, the army retired to Valley Forge, and it was there ‒ according to
which seems to be of a trustworthy character ‒ that General Lafayette
The French officer, though he had been received very warmly and kindly
Washington, experienced much uneasiness from the circumstance that he
been entrusted with a separate command. During the winter he learned
was a lodge working in the camp. Time hanging heavily on his hands and
of duty being monotonous, he conceived the idea that he would like to
be made a
Mason. His wish, on being made known to the lodge, was soon gratified,
being present and in the chair at the time of his initiation. [See
I was made a Mason," said Lafayette, "General Washington seemed to have
received a new light. I never had from that moment any cause to doubt
confidence. It was not long before I had a separate command of great
On the 27th
of December, 1779 ‒ the headquarters of the army being then at
Morristown, New Jersey
‒ "American Union Lodge" met to celebrate the festival of St. John. At
this meeting a committee was appointed from the lodges in each line and
of the army, to consider the expediency of a General Grand Master being
to preside over all the lodges in the Republic. There were present on
thirty-six members of "American Union" and sixty-eight visitors, one of
whom was General Washington.
of the various lines met three times in convention, and though the name
as Grand Master designate does not appear in their address to the army,
yet it was
formally signified to the Masonic governing bodies of America then
he was their choice. The idea of a General Grand Master or
Lodge has often been revived, but on no occasion, except when it was
by the army lodges of the Revolution, with the faintest chance of being
northern forces under Washington were stationed on the banks of the
Newburg, during the winter of 1782. So well established at this time
had the camp
lodges become, and so beneficial in their influence, that an
assembly-room or hall
was built to serve (among other purposes) as a lodge room for the
The scheme was entrusted to General Gates to carry into execution and
all the regiments
were called upon for their quota of workmen and materials. The building
for the first time in the early part of 1783, and "American Union" met
there in the June of that year preparatory to celebrating with
Lodge," at West Point, the festival of St. John.
brother, Captain Hugh Maloy, aged 93, residing at Bethel, in the State
was still living in 1844, who had been initiated in 1782 in General
marquee. On that occasion also the General occupied the Master's chair,
and it was
at his hands that the candidate received the light of Masonry.
generals of the Continental Army were among the Masonic compeers of the
and first President of the United States:
who led troops of North Carolina ‒ of which state he was afterwards
Grand Master ‒ under General Gates, and was engaged at the disastrous
Camden in 1780.
Gist, who fought gallantly for his country from the commencement to the
the Revolutionary War, was Master of Army Lodge, No. 27, president of
of Masons from the military lines at Morristown, New Jersey, and,
Master of South Carolina.
who served with distinction in the Continental Army, was afterwards
Grand Master of Georgia.
who accompanied General Gates as chief of the staff in the campaign of
commanded a division in the subsequent war with Great Britain in
1812-15, was Governor
of New York in 1804 and Grand Master from 1830 until his death in 1844.
commanded a regiment in the expedition which captured Havana and was a
figure in the war of the Revolution. His tombstone bears the
dared to lead where any dared to follow."
"The Father of the Northwest," was for some time chief engineer of the
American Army and commanded a brigade under General Wayne in 1792. He
was made a
Mason in "American Union Lodge" in 1779, and elected Grand Master of
one of the most famous of the generals of the Revolution, was elected
New Hampshire in 1786 and Grand Master in 1789.
whose popular title was "Mad Anthony," won great renown by his capture
of Stony Point (New York), only bayonets being used. He succeeded St.
Clair in command
of the Western Army and gained a brilliant victory over the Miami
Indians in 1794.
A monument to his memory was erected by the Masonic Fraternity at Stony
de Kalb, mortally wounded at the battle of Camden, was buried with
Masonic honors by his victorious enemies; Count Casimir Pulaski, the
leader, killed at Charleston in 1779, and Benedict Arnold, whose
and devotion during the earlier stages of the war were, alas, totally
the infamy which characterized his proceedings towards its close.
James Nicholson (an active member of the Fraternity) was placed in 1776
at the head
of the list of captains in the Continental Army, a position which he
the close of the war. His brothers, Samuel and John, were also Masons
captains. The former, who served with Paul Jones in the engagement
between the Bon Homme Richard and Serapis, afterwards received the command
of the frigate Deane, in which he
very successfully; Stephen Decatur was a member of the same lodge as
Nicholson, and like the latter a captain in the United States Navy from
establishment. He commanded the Delaware sloop of war and afterwards
Commodore Edward Preble, a member of the "Ancient Landmark Lodge" in
(Maine), entered the navy in 1779 and commanded the American Squadron
at the bombardment
of Tripoli in 1804; and Commodore Whipple, a member of "American Union
during its early days at Marietta, who burned the Gaspe in 1772, on of
brilliant officers of the land or sea service.
field lodge after the Peace of Versailles (1783) was formed in the
of the United States", commanded by General Anthony Wayne in 1793, and
said that nearly all the members were killed in the Indian War. In 1814
of the Northern Army applied to New York for a "marching warrant",
was referred to the Grand officers, and later in the same year a
was established by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, to be held wherever
for the time being should be stationed in the United States.
Jackson at various times commanded armies in the field, but is best
known in connection
with his decisive victory over the British at New Orleans in 1815,
which put an
end to the war. He subsequently became President of the United States
Master of Tennessee.
H. Winder, who commanded on the losing side at Bladensburg, the other
of the same war (1814), was elected Grand Master of Maryland in 1821.
Stephen Austen the liberator of Texas, and "Sam" Houston, the
hero of the Texan War of Independence, were Freemasons; also Colonel
backwoodsman and member of Congress, who fought on the same side and
after a hard
siege surrendered to General Santa Anna, by whose order he was put to
the other survivors in 1836.
Two or more
lodges accompanied the American Army during the Mexican War. The chief
Generals Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor, were not members of the
Craft, but the
latter always entertained a high opinion of the Institution. Shortly
after his inauguration
as President of the United States, in 1849, he said that many of his
and officers of the army with whom he had been associated were Masons,
he should have been one himself had circumstances been more favorable
to his joining
a lodge, and he added, "I would do so now, but have got to be too old."
Worth served during the last war with England and was present at the
Chrystler's Farm, Chippewa, and Lundy's Lane. In 1842 he commanded the
defeated the hostile savages in Florida, and subsequently greatly
himself in the leading battles of the Mexican War. A monument was
dedicated to his
memory by the Grand Lodge of New York in 1857.
John A. Quitman,
Grand Master of Mississippi, commanded a division of General Scott's
army, and when
the City of Mexico was taken he was made its Governor until peace was
were freely established on both sides during the late Civil War, but
of that great conflict was decidedly unfavorable to their utility. The
was to issue dispensations, and when the regiments in which they were
mustered out of the service, or the individuals to whom they were
to civil life, the lodges ceased to exist. More than a hundred of these
were issued during the war, the largest number granted by any single
being thirty-three, which was the case in the state and Masonic
Indiana. There are no lodges in the standing army of the United States,
this a sufficient reason will be found in the fact that the few
regiments of the
regular army are generally ‒ if not invariably ‒ divided into small
at widely different posts.
holding high military rank during the Civil War were very numerous, as
may be imagined
from the circumstance that "Miner's Lodge," No. 273, Galena (Illinois),
consisting of about fifty members, alone supplied five generals to the
Among them were John A. Rawlings (p. 89), Ely S. Parker, a Seneca
Indian, and William
R. Rowley, all of whom were on the staff of General Grant, together
with John Corson
Smith, who served through all the grades from private soldier to
and has since been Lieutenant-Governor and Grand Master of his state.
brethren commanded armies in the field: George B. McClellan, Winfield
whose bayonet charge at Williamsburg won from McClellan the compliment
proverbial, that "Hancock was superb"; N.P. Banks, John A. McClernand,
John A. Logan, George E. Pickett, who led the famous final assault on
lines at Gettysburg in 1863; Robert E. Patterson and Benjamin F.
whose life a plot was formed by Confederate prisoners, but given up on
that he was a Freemason
Masonic veterans of the war General James A. Garfield was, and Major
now is [written in 1899] the President of the United States. Generals
of Fort Sumpter fame, and Albert Pike, scholar, orator, poet and
were also of the Fraternity. The valuable library of the latter at
Arkansas, was about to be destroyed by the Federal troops during the
war, but General
Thomas H. Benton (Grand Master of Iowa), in command of the Union
and by making the house his headquarters not only preserved the library
A. Miles now commands the American Army and another general (and
A. Alger, has just vacated the office of Secretary of War.
for the formation of military lodges were issued by the Grand Lodge of
and North Dakota during the late war with Spain. Many prominent
officers of the
army and navy who took part in that short conflict are Freemasons, and
General William R. Schafter and Admiral Schley, the former of whom
American land forces before Santiago de Cuba, and the latter the
performed such brilliant service off the coast.
‒ Gould is very possibly in error here. The time and place of
are still undetermined.
Who Were Masons
Bro. G. W. BAIRD, P.G.M.
District of Columbia
DE WITT CLINTON
was born in Little Britain, New York, March 2, 1769, a descendant from
Dutch and Huguenot ancestors. He was educated at Kingston Academy and
University, graduating from the latter school at the head of his class
one of the most brilliant political careers of his period, which was a
time of storm
and stress, when many things were in the melting pot. He was elected to
York State Assembly in 1797 and to the United States Senate in 1802, at
he was only thirty-three years of age. While in the Senate he did much
the attention of the country to the aggressions of the Spanish on the
a region that had not yet been made a part of the United States.
his place in the Senate to become mayor of New York City in 1802, which
held continuously except for one or two years until 1815. During this
term of office
he occupied a seat in the State Senate, the holding of two offices
being then not
deemed an irregular thing. In 1811 he became Lieutenant Governor of the
in 1812 was defeated for the Presidency of the United States, receiving
of the two hundred and nine votes cast. In 1817 he was elected Governor
of the state,
was re-elected in 1820, was out of office during 1822-24, was again
elected in 1824
and held office until his death in 1828, during which year he died at
It was during
his term as governor that the Morgan episode occurred which caused so
in Freemasonry by launching the anti-Masonic crusade, which worked so
to the Craft that at one time it appeared to be going out of existence.
Clinton instituted a vigorous investigation of Morgan's disappearance
but he passed
away before that mystery was cleared up, if, indeed, it may be said
ever to have
been cleared up. I have often thought that if Governor Clinton had
given as much
attention to Thurlow Weed, Thaddeus Stevens and other corrupt
politicians he might
have found opportunity for criminal charges of another nature.
made a Mason in Holland Lodge, No. 16 (now No. 8), Sept. 3, 1790;
of his lodge in 1792; was made Warden in 1793, and Worshipful Master in
of that same year. In 1806 he was elected Grand Master of the Grand
Lodge of New
York and served continuously until 1819. He was exalted a Royal Arch
Mason in 1791
in Chapter No. 1; was elected G. H. P. in 1798 and was twice reelected.
He was promoted
to the dignity of General Grand High Priest of the General Grand
Chapter of the
United States in 1816 and was re-elected year by year until 1826. He
was also a
Knight Templar, his Templar diploma being inscribed "The Castle of
Lodge Rooms, May 17, 1792." He became Grand Commander of the Grand
of New York in 1814 and continued in that office until his death.
During the last
twelve years of his life he was Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of
States. In addition to all these Masonic honors he was also a 33d, A.
and A. S.
R., Northern Jurisdiction.
In his "History
of Freemasonry in the State of New York" [Lib 1922] Bro. Ossian Lang speaks of
"De Witt Clinton was a
of remarkable ability and phenomenal popularity in his time. He was
in establishing the foundation of the great education system of the
state, and carried
through the opening of the Erie Canal almost single-handed. These two
alone mark him as one of the master builders of the polity of the
state. As Masons
we owe him particular gratitude for his zeal for the Fraternity which,
leadership, became a power for good in civil life. De Witt Clinton died
His life was one of service to mankind. Honorable in all his dealings,
to the advancement of the welfare of his fellowmen, he will ever be
a true exemplar of Freemasonry by the Fraternity over whose affairs he
as Grand Master for fourteen years."
first buried in Albany, New York, but his remains were afterwards
removed to Greenwood.
of Masonic History
Bro. H.L. Haywood, Editor
X. – The First Grand
of all male citizens for law making and law enforcing purposes were an
institution in England. Every town or shire had its own; the assembly
court) of the shire met twice a year; the Witan-a-gemote, at which all
of the kingdom were to assemble, was convened once a year. In the
course of time
these assemblies came to be made up of representatives, but originally
citizen was supposed to be present in person. The gilds of Operative
all other gilds of the period, also had their own assemblies. Much is
made of these
in the Old Charges but the references therein are so meagre and at
times so confusing
that to date it has not been possible to quite make out just how the
were organized and managed. R.F. Gould was of the opinion that the
referred to in the Old Charges were nothing other than the general
referred to, but G.W. Speth and others of Gould's associates could not
him because they found so many evidences to show that Masons had their
assemblies like other gilds. It may well be that the Masons did have
their own assemblies
but held them at the same time and place as the general meeting of
citizens in order
to save time and inconvenience. For the present purpose it is not
necessary to argue
the point; the fact remains that Masons in old times had some kind of
central, assembly at fixed intervals at which matters appertaining to
in general were taken up.
increased and the machinery of government became more complicated these
were discontinued, at any rate one would so judge from the scant
By the time lodges began to be made up of Speculative members it
appears that no
assemblies were held at all, and that lodges existed independently of
with no central governing authority over them. Each of these autonomous
make Masons at its own discretion, and according to the old rules, so
that it was
not necessary, as it now is, for a group of Masons to first secure a
forming themselves into a lodge.
Such is the
picture we must keep before our eyes when we think of Masonry as it was
in the beginning
of the eighteenth century. Here and there, scattered about over the
independent lodges; in some cases the membership was wholly Operative,
so that every
member was engaged in the building trade; in other cases non-Operative
up a portion of the membership, and in a few cases all of it. The
of the Craft was maintained by adherence to the old customs and by use
of the Old
Charges, which, in many cases one may suppose, functioned much as
charters now do.
– First Grand Lodge Is
It was in
the midst of such circumstances that the first Grand Lodge was
organized in London,
1717. William Preston, whose Illustrations of Masonry did so much to
shape the popular
conception of Masonic history, says that after the London fire several
were organized in London and that Sir Christopher Wren was a kind of
of them all, and when Wren had grown too aged to look after the affairs
of the Craft
a move was set under way to organize a Grand Lodge. Inasmuch as the
that Wren was a member of the Lodge of Antiquity, and therefore in the
is nothing improbable in Preston's account, but Preston has been so
much in doubt
for his accuracy in matters of fact that one must let the point rest in
only source of knowledge we possess of the formation of the first Grand
the pages of Anderson's Constitutions, 1738 edition. Therein one may
read the account
which follows, the words of which are so familiar to every student of
the Rebellion was over, A.D. 1716, the few Lodges at London.... thought
fit to cement
under a Grand Master as the center of Union and Harmony, viz., the
Lodges that met,
- At the Goose and Gridiron
Ale-house in St. Paul's Church yard.
- At the Crown, Ale-house in
Parker's-Lane, near Drury-Lane.
- At the Apple-Tree Tavern in
Charles Street, Covent-Garden.
- At the Rummer and Grapes Tavern
in Channel-Row, Westminster.
and some old Brothers met at the said Apple-Tree, and having put into
the oldest Master Mason (now the Master of a Lodge), they constituted
a Grand Lodge pro Tempore in Due Form, and forthwith revived the
of the Officers of Lodges (called the Grand Lodge), resolv'd to hold
Assembly and Feast, and then to chuse a GRAND MASTER from among
they should have the Honour of a Noble Brother at their Head.
On St. John
Baptist's Day, in the 3d Year of King George I, A.D. 1717, the ASSEMBLY
of the Free and Accepted Masons was held at the aforesaid Goose and
Dinner, the oldest Master Mason (now the Master of a Lodge) in the
a List of proper Candidates; and the Brethren by a Majority of Hands
Anthony Sayer, Gentleman, Grand Master of Masons, who, being forwith
the badeges of Office and Power by the said oldest Master, and
install'd, was duly
congratulated by the Assembly who pay'd him the Homage."
Lamb, Carpenter Grand Wardens Capt. Joseph Elliot
– The Four Old Lodges
doubtless several Time Immemorial lodges in or about London, but either
of these were invited to participate in the formation of Grand Lodge or
some reason the names of other participating lodges were omitted from
According to the Engraved List of 1729 the lodge which met at the Goose
was constituted in 1691. This old lodge made several removals after
1717, and once
or twice changed its name; it moved to Mitre Tavern in 1768 and
commenced to call
itself Lodge of Antiquity, No. 1. This lodge was neither large nor
in 1774 it had the singular good fortune to elect as its Master the
Preston, who gave it prestige and power. When all lodges were
the Union of the "Antients" and "Moderns" Antiquity was unjustly
given rank No. 2, the precedence having been granted to a lodge formed
"Antient" charter in 1735.
of the "four old lodges", which was meeting at the Crown Tavern in
lacked vitality from the beginning; after moving about from place to
place it died
out entirely in about 1736, and was struck off the engraved list in
1740. In 1752
a number of brethren, none of them having been members of the lodge
petitioned that it be resuscitated, but inasmuch as Grand Lodge did not
able to carry on their application was rejected.
lodge among the old four met in Apple-Tree Tavern, in which place the
Lodge was planned. Mr. Anthony Sayer, first Grand Master, was a member
of this body.
It also moved about, and in 1723, so we are told by Anderson, received
a new charter,
why, it is impossible to say. For some reason, perhaps because of this,
it was in
1729 shifted down the list to eleventh place. In 1740 it was moved up
to tenth place,
and in 1756 was given sixth place. In 1768 it changed its name to Lodge
and in 1818, after uniting with Cumberland Lodge (organized in 1753),
the title Fortitude and Old Cumberland Lodge, No. 12.
Of the original
No. 4, Bro. A. F. Calvert, to whose The Grand Lodge of England I am
in this particular connection, gives this interesting and condensed
"From 1717 to 1736, original
No. 4, which
became No. 3 in 1729 and No. 2 in 1740, was the premier Lodge of the
period of the
Revival. It is considered probable that the members of Nos. 1, 2 and 3
for the most part of working masons and brethren of the artisan class,
lodges were operative lodges, while No. 4 may be considered the
speculative or gentleman's
lodge par excellence, and all the leading men in the Craft in the early
from it. While the brethren belonging to the other three old Lodges
both as to number and social position, No. 4 had a roll of seventy
among the persons of rank and Masonic eminence belonging to the society
Duke of Richmond, who established the Committee of Charity, Lord
Paisley, the Duke
of Queensberry, Lord Waldegrave, Sir Richard Manningham, Count La
Lippe, Baron des
Kaw, Sir Adolphus Ongleton, Earl de Loraine, Sir Thomas Prendergast,
Count Walzdorf, Marguis des Marches, Mr. William Cowper, Grand
Secretary, and Bros.
George Payne, Desaguliers and James Anderson.
"The other three Lodges, with
of about fifteen each, were of small account in comparison with the Old
which during the first twenty years of the existence, of Grand Lodge
may be said
to have been responsible for its policy and development. Then the
has been experienced by so many old Lodges, after a period of
and prosperity, set in, and after about 1735 a falling off was
discernible in its
membership, its attendance at Grand Lodge, and its contribution to the
it had been largely instrumental in founding. In 1746, the members of
2 at the Horn, at Westmr.' were required to give their reasons for
from the general meetings of the Society 'for a considerable time
past', and on
3rd April, 1747, it was decreed that the Lodge 'be erased out of the
Book of Lodges.'
For four years the order was in force, but on 4th April, 1751, we read
Lodge minutes: "'Bro. Lediard informed the brethren that the Right
Bro. Payne, L.G.M., and several other members of Lodge lately held at
Palace Yard, Westminster, had been very successful in their endeavors
the said Lodge, and that they were ready to pay 2 gs. to the use of the
and therefore moved that out of respect to Bro. Payne and the several
who were members thereof, the said Lodge might be restored, and have
rank and place in the List of Lodges, which was ordered accordingly.'
"But the restored Old Horn
Lodge as an independent
body failed to recover its former prestige and prosperity, and after a
years of abortive endeavor, it appeared to be on the verge of
extinction. But in
1774 the Somerset House Lodge, which had been formed by Bro. Dunckerley
Prince in 1762, removed to H.M.S. Guadeloupe in 1764, revived at a
Somerset House,' in 1766 and numbered 279 in the List for 1767, was in
condition. Its list of members included the names of such notable
Masons as James
Heseltine, William White, James Galloway, Rowland Berkeley, Rowland
Holt, Hon. Charles
Dillon, the Duke of Beaufort and the Duke of Buccleuch. It was a
liberal and regular
subscriber to Grand Lodge Charities, its influence was powerful in the
Lodge, and its founder, Dunckerley, exercised a positive genius in
and organization. The Lodge in 1774 possessed every enviable attribute
exception of antiquity, and that advantage it acquired by absorbing the
number and immemorial constitution of the Old Horn Lodge which, with
its roll reduced
to fifteen members, was then creeping to collapse."
– Early Grand Masters
Sayer, the first brother ever elected to the distinguished office of
as we now understand that term, is a dim and pathetic figure who in
as we are able to gain of him through the mist of time appeals to our
more than to our admiration. In 1717 he was installed Grand Master "by
said oldest Master Mason present"; two years thereafter Desaguliers
him Grand Warden, so that, whatever his shortcomings may have been, he
a man of some position at the first. Five years afterwards he appealed
to the Grand
Lodge over which he had once presided for charity, but there is no
record to show
what relief he received, if any. In 1730 he was summoned before Grand
Lodge to explain
why he had assisted in the irregular constituting of lodges. On April
21 of that
same year he again appealed for help and received 115£ from the General
But in August of the same year he was again summoned to answer
his irregular conduct; Grand Lodge minutes contain the following entry
of Dec. 15, 1730:
Sayer likewise attended to answer the Complaint made against him, and
both parties, and some of the brethren being of Opinion that what he
had done was
clandestine, others that it was irregular only, and the Lodge was of
it was irregular only; whereupon the Deputy Grand Master told Bro.
Sayer that he
was acquitted of the Charges against him and recommended it to him to
so irregular in the future."
star was evidently in eclipse. During or shortly after 1733 he became
Tyler of Old
King's Arms Lodge, No. 28. Shortly thereafter he received charity from
He died in 1742, receiving a Masonic interment at which a number of
Masons were present. It has been conjectured that Bro. Sayer may have
been one of
the old Operative Masons who never became a whole-hearted supporter of
the new regime;
if so, this may explain his irregularities. In any event his conduct
in its early years the new Grand Lodge met with many difficulties from
well as from without, and that the new order of things had to win its
the feeling that its very existence was an innovation in the ancient
Payne, the second Grand Master, proclaimed June 24, 1718, was a man of
stripe; from his activities one may guess that unlike Sayer he was one
of the most
zealous leaders in the work of re-organizing the Craft from an
Operative basis to
a Speculative one, and there is no doubt but that to him Masonry is
than one can say. Of his private life little is known save that he was
to the Tax Office and of some substance. His popularity among the
brethren is shown
by their electing him Grand Master a second term in 1720, to succeed
of whom more anon. According to Dr. Entick it was Payne who first
English aristocracy and nobility in the Order, which, if the statement
is well founded,
was in itself sufficient give him a great name in our annals in view of
reaching results that ensued when a "noble brother" became placed "at
the head" of Grand Lodge. Payne was especially interested, it would
in readjusting the old constitutions to the new uses of the
and it was he who made, in 1720, the first draft of the General
incorporated, with some alterations, in Anderson's Constitutions of
1723. He was
faithful and active up to the very end of his life and served as a
member of the
committee appointed to have charge of the revision of the Constitutions
But the most
influential of the first Grand Masters was the third, Dr. John
(see Bro. Dudley Wright's article on another page), whose influence was
that Mackey gave him the credit for creating Speculative Masonry,
which, if it be
an excessive statement, does not much exaggerate our debt to this
He was the son of a French Protestant refugee who fled from religious
after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Desaguliers was made, in
1714, a fellow
of the Royal Society, to which learned body he made contributions so
he became a personal friend of Sir Isaac Newton and on at least two
called to lecture before the king. Of his Masonic activities Bro.
"In the year of Desaguliers'
(1719-20) 'several old Brothers that had neglected the Craft returned
to their Masonic
allegiance; a few Noblemen were initiated into the Order, and some new
constituted.' The Grand Master himself 'forwith reviv'd the old regular
Toasts or Healths of the Free Masons.' In 1721, on the occasion of the
Desaguliers made 'an eloquent Oration about Masons and Masonry,' and
later he obtained the consent of Grand Lodge to his proposal 'that, in
have the Grand Feast conducted in the best manner, a certain number of
should be chosen who should have the entire care and direction of the
together with the Grand Wardens.' To invent after-dinner speeches,
orations, and revive the once of the Stewards, was to render practical
the Craft, and by securing the attendance of many eminent Masons and
noblemen as members, Desaguliers was instrumental in placing the new
a broader and more popular basis. Sayer was a nonentity whom chance
the Grand Chair; Payne was a man of substance and intelligence who was
the advancement of the Order; Desaguliers himself, of the three, lent
to the office of Master. And the fact remains that Masonry languished
third Grand Master enlisted the interest of some noble brothers in the
and in 1721, when the Duke of Montagu accepted the Grand Mastership,
at one bound into notice and esteem.' In that year Desaguliers visited
of Edinburgh, and was affiliated as a member of the Scottish
Fraternity. On the
subject of this memorable event, we read in Lyon's History of the Lodge
"Att Maries Chapell the 24 of
years ‒ James Wattson present Deacon of the Masons of Edinr., Preses.
day Doctor John Theophilus Desaguliers, fellow of the Royall Societie,
in Ordinary to his Grace James Duke of Chandois, late Generall Master
of the Mason
Lodges in England, being in town and desirous to have a conference with
Warden, and Master Masons of Edinr., which was accordingly granted and
duly qualified in all points of Masonry, they received him as a Brother
– Dr. James Anderson
Of Dr. James
Anderson, whose name is known wherever Masons assemble, and who shares
the most prominent place in the sun of early Masonic fame, not much is
certainty, though Thorpe, Vibert, Robbins and a number of other English
have searched high and low for every possible scrap of information. He
in Aberdeen, Scotland, but moved to London where he served for many
years as a Presbyterian
minister, and where he was chaplain to the Earl of Buchan. It is not
or where Anderson was made a Mason, but it was perhaps in Scotland for
he was evidently
familiar with the terminology of the Scottish Craft, some of the terms
he introduced into English lodges. His Masonic fame rests on his
the first edition of which was published in 1723, the second in 1738.
to the latter edition his own account of this transaction appears in
Sept 29, 1721. "His Grace's Worship and the Lodge finding Fault with
Copies of the old Gothic Constitutions, order'd Brother James Anderson,
digest the same in a new and better method."
1721. "The Duke of Montagu appointed 14 learned Brothers to examine
Anderson's Manuscript, and to make Report."
1722. "The Committee of 14 reported that they had perused Brother
Manuscript, viz., the History, Charges, Regulations, and Master's Song,
some Amendments had approv'd of it; Upon which the Lodge desir'd the
to order it to be printed."
in which, and the reasons for which, he brought forth a second edition
in 1738 [Lib
1738] are given in the Minutes of the Grand Lodge of England, Feb. 24,
Doctor Anderson, formerly Grand Warden, presented a memorial setting
whereas the first Edition of the General Constitution of Masonry,
compiled by himself,
was all sold off, and a Second Edition very much wanted; and that he
had spent some
Thoughts upon Some Alterations and Additions that might fitly be made
to the same,
which was now ready to lay before the Grand Lodge for their approbation
were pleased to receive them.
was Resolved Nemine con that a Committee be appointed consisting of the
and former Grand Officers, and such other Master Masons as they should
to call on to revise and compare the same, that when finished they
might lay the
same before the Grand Lodge ensuing for their approbation.
further represented that one William Smith, said to be a Mason, had
privity or Consent pyrated a considerable part of the Constitutions of
to the prejudice of the said Br. Anderson it being his Sole Property.
was thereupon Resolved, and Ordered That every Master and Warden
present shall do
all in their Power to Discountenance so unfair a Practice, and prevent
Smith's Books being bought by any Members of their respective Lodges."
At this remove
in time it is almost impossible for us to avoid reading back into those
our own ideas of Freemasonry, but it is pretty certain that the few
first met informally in the Apple-Tree Tavern in 1716, and then again
in a more
formal manner at the Goose and Gridiron Tavern in the following year,
had no far-reaching
plans wherewith to bring into existence a world-wide fraternity. Some
of them, like
Sayer perhaps, had no thought save to place the old Craft on more
leaving it unchanged in its nature; others, it may be, had schemes for
a new order
of things; but it is most probable that the majority were interested
only in the
affair of the moment and were content to let things take their course.
In any event
those brethren, to whom we look backward with an interest that would
now amaze them
could they know of it, builded better than they knew, so that as a
result of their
efforts there are today some millions of us over the world bound
together by the
Mystic Tie. The old Freemasonry, in which there had long been a mixture
and Speculative elements, was once and for all made wholly Speculative,
of the old usages were retained; a new form of organization was devised
has tested to the full; and from some now unknown fountain of genius
there was brought
into the world an art and a philosophy of life that today attracts the
wisest. Of these things we can be certain, even if the actual course of
obscure, and of these things we can be proud, for there have been few
events in the last five hundred years than the establishing of the
first Grand Lodge
in London, 1717.
* * *
Encyclopedia (Revised Edition)
10; Anderson, 57; Antiquity, Lodge of, 65; Book of Constitutions, 112;
207; England, 242; Freemasonry, Early British, 283; Gilds, 296; Grand
Grand Master, 307; Hall, Masonic, 314; Lodge, 449; London, 452;
579; Revival, 622; Speculative Masonry, 704; Wren, Sir Christopher, 859.
Author's Lodge Transactions, I, II, III.
The Builders, Newton. [Lib 1914]
Concise History of Freemasonry, Gould. [Lib 1951]
Constitutions of the Freemasons, Anderson, 1738 edition. [Lib 1738]
Evolution of Freemasonry, Darragh. [Lib*]
Four Old Lodges, Gould. [Lib 1879]
The Grand Lodge of England, Calvert. [Lib*]
History of Freemasonry, Gould. [Lib 1884/89; 4 Volumes – see
History of Masonry, Findel. [Lib 1866]
Mackey's History of Freemasonry, Clegg. [Lib 1906; 7 Volumes – see
Minutes of the Grand Lodge of England, edited by Songhurst. [Lib*]
National Dictionary of Biography. [Lib*]
New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Waite. [Lib*]
Origin of the English Rite, Hughan. [Lib 1884]
Preston's Masonry, Oliver. [Lib 1867]
Short Masonic History, A, Armitage. [Lib 1909/11; Vol 1, Vol 2]
Story of the Craft, Vibert. [Lib*]
Tradition, Origin and Early History of Freemasonry, Pierson. [Lib 1870]
of England, 1719; Deputy Grand Master, 1722, 1723, and 1725
Bro. Dudley Wright, Associate
DESAGULIERS, the third and the most renowned of the Grand Masters of
born at Rochelle on the 12th of March, 1683. His father, the Rev. John
was a French Protestant clergyman, who fled to England with his son
when the latter
was about two years of age in consequence of the persecution engendered
by the Revocation
of the Edict of Nantes. It is said that the son was concealed in a
barrel and thus
smuggled on board the refugee vessel. The father took orders in the
Church of England and, after a brief residence in Guernsey, became
minister of the
French Chapel in Swallow Street, Piccadilly, known afterwards as the
Later he also opened a school in Islington, where his more renowned son
Grand Master of English Freemasonry matriculated at Christ Church
where he gained his Baccalaureate in Arts and entered into Deacon's
in 1710. His bent, however, lay in the direction of experimental
and the same year that witnessed his ordination saw him installed as
this subject at Hart Hall, Oxford (now demolished), in succession to
Two years later ‒ on May 3, 1712 ‒ he proceeded to the degree of Master
and on Oct. 14 of the same year he married in the church of Shadwell,
of William Pudsey, of Kidlington, Oxford. According to the Oxford
he graduated as Bachelor and Doctor of Civil Law on March 16, 1718. In
of Fellows of the Royal Society, from 1719 to 1744, the year of his
death, he is
described as LL.D. This is, undoubtedly, a mistake ‒ one copied, by the
Robert Freke Gould, Calvert and others ‒ as Oxford does not confer this
but it does confer the degree of "D.C.L.", one which is highly prized
by the alumni. His wife had pre-deceased him, as she was buried at St.
on July 21, 1753.
gave up his residence in Oxford in 1713, when he removed to London,
Westminster, where he remained until that thoroughfare was pulled down
to make way
for the construction of the new bridge at Westminster. He is said to
have been consulted
repeatedly by Parliament upon the design of Westminster Bridge, in the
of which Mr. Charles Labelye, who had been for many years his
assistant, was appointed
supervisor. He also erected a ventilator in a room over the House of
the request of the House of Commons.
in the realm of natural philosophy were such that he was styled by Dr.
"an indefatigable experimental philosopher", while he numbered among
patrons Sir Isaac Newton. On July 29, 1714, he was elected a Fellow of
Society ‒ then, as now, and as it has always been, regarded as the blue
scientific attainments and honors. Desaguliers, however, had the very
of being elected as an honorary Fellow, or its equivalent, inasmuch as
he was excused
from paying his subscription by reason of the number of experiments
which he showed
at the meetings of the Society. He was, indeed, the first to introduce
of lectures in experimental philosophy in the metropolis. He was also
member of several foreign academies and a corresponding member of the
of Sciences at Paris. Smiles says that his "lectures were much admired
he had so happy a knack of illustrating them by experiments that he was
by the Royal Society to be their demonstrator". Subsequently
elected to the office of Curator of the Royal Society, which post he
held to within
a year of his death. There does not appear to have been a stated salary
office, but remuneration was accorded him corresponding with the number
and communications which he made to the Society, these sums varying
from 10 pounds
to 50 pounds. Maty in his Index to the Philosophical Transactions of
the Royal Society,
gives him as the author of fifty-two papers read before the members,
the list covering
exactly three quarto pages.
Desaguliers was awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society as an
of his successful experiments, while he also received recognition from
who heard him lecture in Holland in 1730.
Annals of Dunfermline [Lib 1879], by Dr. Ebenezer Henderson,
we learn that on
Aug. 26, 1720, Desaguliers was made a free honorary burgess of
Dunfermline. It would
appear that this honor was conferred upon him at the instance of Sir
Provost of Dunfermline from 1705 to 1734, who was his friend. Dr.
in Scotland in 1721 on business connected with the Edinburgh and
Supply, and it is on record that in August of that year he visited the
Edinburgh (St. Mary's Chapel), No. 1.
Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh in 1773,
to Dr. Anderson (the author of the first published Book of
Constitutions) and Dr.
Desaguliers as "two persons of little education who had aimed at little
than making a pretext, not altogether contemptible, for a convivial
The second part of the insinuation is amply disproved by the serious
both undertook in the organization of the Constitutions of the Order.
As to the
first, Dr. Anderson was an acknowledged scholar of his time, and the
work done by
Desaguliers for the Royal Society, apart from his other achievements,
to disprove the statement.
of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society for fourteen
years contains articles from the pen of Dr. Desaguliers, all of which,
as will naturally
be assumed, bear evidences of considerable research. In addition,
between 1711 and
1735 he published the following works:
of Mechanical and Experimental Philosophy, first published in two
volumes in 1734,
a second edition being called for in 1745, and a third in 1763.
Concerning Electricity, published in English and French in 1742.
on Fortification (translation), published in 1711.
published in 1715. Nichols in his Literary Anecdotes says that this was
from the French and involved him in some dispute with Edmund Curll, the
who was associated with the Rawlinsons, whom he admitted to a share in
Curll, in order to promote the sale, had puffed it in a very gross
induced Dr. Desaguliers to publish a letter in a periodical called "The
Talk", then being published by Sir Richard Steele, in which he informed
public that whenever his name hereafter "was or should be printed with
egregious flatterer, Mr. Curll's, either in an advertisement or at the
of a book except that of Fires Improv'd, he entirely disowned it".
Lectures, published in 1717.
of Water and Other Fluids (translation), published in 1718.
of Experimental Philosophy Prov'd by Mechanicks, published in 1719.
Elements of Natural Philosophy, published in 1721, new editions being
1726 and 1737.
Building Dragons, or a full account of a most horrid murder to be
14th of February next, published anonymously in 1726.
of the Mechanism of an Automaton.
System of the World, an allegorical poem, published in 1728.
of Experimental Philosophy, published in 1724, a new edition being
issued in 1725.
Smiles described this as "the best book of the kind that had appeared
of Reflecting Telescopes, contained in his Appendix to Dr. Gregory's
Catoptrics and Dioptrics, published in 1735.
to have published only one item in the realm of theology, a
preached at Hampton Court before George I in 1717.
an Introduction to the English edition of Dr. Nieuwentyt's Religious
in the form of a letter to the translator, John Chamberlayne, F.R.S.,
in the course
of which he wrote:
"When an atheist has the
impudence to call
himself a philosopher, and some well-meaning persons that have not much
Nature are apt to be prejudiced against the study of it; as if the
vain Deceit against which the Apostle has warned us had been the
the works of the Creator: Whereas it was only the Sophistry of the
to disguise Error and defend the system of superstitious Heathen
"He that reads Nieuwentyt will
that a Philosopher cannot be an Atheist; and if it were true, that a
in Physics will give a proud man a Tincture of Atheism, a deep Search
will certainly bring him back to a Religious Sense of God's Wisdom and
On his arrival
in London in 1714, he was appointed Chaplain to the Duke of Chandos
had extended his patronage to Dr. Kiell), who presented him with the
living of Stanmore
Parva, of Whitchurch, in Middlesex. In 1717 he lectured before George
I. at Hampton
Court, in addition to preaching the sermon already mentioned, when he
with a benefice in Norfolk of the annual value of 970, which was
by George II., before whom he also read his lectures, for a more
in Essex, and the appointment as Chaplain to Frederick, Prince of
Wales, the son
of that monarch. Desaguliers also lectured before other members of the
In Cooke's Preacher's Assistant he is described as Chaplain to the Earl
which was the title of the eldest son of the Duke of Chandos, while, in
was appointed Chaplain to Bowles' Regiment of Dragoons. It should be
Desaguliers was also the inventor of the planetarium, an instrument for
distances of heavenly bodies.
to Dr. Oliver, Desaguliers was initiated into Freemasonry, in the old
met at the Goose and Gridiron Tavern in St. Paul's Churchyard, one of
the four lodges
subscribing to the formation of the Grand Lodge of England in 1717, and
as the Lodge of Antiquity, No. 2, but the date of his initiation cannot
He was installed as Grand Master on June 24, 1719, and during his year
Anthony Sayer, Past Grand Master, held the position of Senior Grand
Warden. On the
occasion of his installation the custom of drinking toasts was
also officiated as Deputy Grand Master in 1722, 1723 and 1725. It is of
to note that Desaguliers and George Payne, his predecessor in the
office of Grand
Master, were two of the officers who constituted the lodge held at the
on June 27, 1731, believed now to have been amalgamated with the Lodge
(U.S.A.) "Evening Post" of Oct. 6, 1739, contained the following news
"London, Friday, 1st June, was
in Bunhill Fields, the corpse of Dr. Anderson, a Dissenting Teacher, in
a very remarkable
deep grave. His Pall was supported by five Dissenting Teachers and the
Desaguliers. It was followed by about a Dozen of Free Masons, who
Grave; and after Dr. Earle had harangued on the Uncertainty of Life,
Brethren, in a most solemn dismal Posture, lifted up their Hands,
sigh'd and struck
their Aprons three times in Honour to the deceased."
to a passage in Cawthorn's poem, "The Vanity of Human Enjoyment,"
in his later years, experienced a reverse of fortune. The lines run:
"Can Britain, in her fits of
One-half her Indies in a Roman ‒ ,
And still permit the weeping muse to tell
How poor neglected DESAGULIERS fell?
How he who taught two gracious kings to view
All Boyle ennobled, and all Bacon knew;
Died in a cell, without a friend to save,
Without a guinea, and without a grave!"
did encounter any misfortune ‒ and there is no record or evidence
beyond these lines
that he did ‒ it was evidently not of the dire character which the
poet, in his
exaggeration, would lead people to imagine. Desaguliers did not die in
a cell. He
passed away on Feb. 29, 1744, at the Bedford Coffee House over the
in Covent Garden, whither he removed on the demolition of Channel Row,
and, so far from being without a grave, he was buried in the Savoy on
the 6th of
March following. It is scarcely plausible that the members of Grand
Lodge, who befriended
their first Grand Master, Anthony Sayer, when misfortune overtook him,
he had previously incurred their displeasure, would permit so
distinguished a successor
as John Theophilus Desaguliers to suffer want or privation.
fact that he is described as being unattractive in appearance, short in
and thick set, as well as extremely short-sighted, Desaguliers was one
of the most
forceful personalities of his time, and his influence upon the Craft
was both important
He had four
sons. The first, named after his father, John Theophilus Desaguliers,
was born on
March 7, 1714, baptized at St. Andrew's, Holborn, and died on Aug. 19,
second son, also John Theophilus, was born in Channel Row on Aug. 18,
1718. He took
Orders in the Established Church and was Vicar of Cratfield and
Laxfield in Suffolk,
where he died at the age of 34 on Nov. 28, 1752. He was buried on Dec.
in Cratfield Chancel under a stone by the vestry door. His third son,
was born in Oct. 17, 1719. He had for his godfathers John, Marquess of
son of the Duke of Chandos, and "Mons. le Chevalier Newton" (Sir Isaac
Newton); and for godmother, Cassandra Cornwallis, probably a relative
of the Chandos
family. His fourth son, Thomas, was born on Feb. 5, 1721. His
godfathers were Thomas
Parker, Earl of Macclesfield and Lord High Chancellor of England, and
Campbell, Earl of Islay. His godmother was Theodore, Countess of
Clifton and daughter
of Lord Clarendon. He became a Major-General in the army and Equerry to
In the Byrom
Papers, issued through the Chetham Society, there are several
references to the
exhibition of Dr. Desagulier's inventions. The following notice, which
in the "Daily Courant" of May 2, 1722, is also of interest:
"The Proprietors of the Engine
Water by the Help of Quicksilver, do hereby give Notice to such
Gentlemen as are
desirous to see what Quantity of Water can be rais'd by that Means, to
and by what Power; that there is an Engine set up in Dr. Desagulier's
Yard, at his
House in Channel Row, Westminster; where any Gentleman may see it
perform from Three
to Five in the Afternoon, every Wednesday and Friday during the months
of May and
June next, 1722, beginning on Friday the 4th of May Instant."
* * *
takes the last highway must thread alone
The way is dark for him, and reft of sight
He goes as goes a pilgrim into night,
His errand and his destiny unknown.
“And he, this pilgrim, with his staff and scrip,
Whom we can reach with no assistant arm,
Sets on his journey with unquivering lip
And the stout heart that feared no mortal harm.
“So we who knew him, and to whom were known
His gentleness and courage to endure,
Know, through the shadowed way he treads alone,
His step still moves unfaltering, and as sure.”
Lodge's Cable Tow
Press carried recently an item that must have caught the attention of
across the land. It was to the effect that a certain artist, once
had passed obscurely away in a great city, that the body had been
buried in Potter's
Field, and then after a time had been exhumed and re-interred in a
"costs having been defrayed" by a small group of artist friends "and
the Masonic Fraternity." Perhaps the reader will feel, as did the
a little thrill when reading those words, "and the Masonic Fraternity."
It is good to think that the Mystic Tie holds fast to a man even after
he has been
buried in Potter's Field, that neither death nor misfortune can break
it, or any
all, and on second thought, the words may perhaps cause a Mason to feel
a bit ashamed.
Where was this man's lodge while he lay ill in the free wards of the
Why was he permitted to die alone? Why was it left for his dust to feel
grip of the Lion's Paw? Why did not his brethren sit at his side when
"the body's masterful negation"?
gives one pause and raises many questions about lodge conditions in the
day, especially in this land where so many of them have outgrown all
of giving the human touch to an individual lost in a throng of members.
If a lodge
exists for any reason under the sun it is that a brother shall not have
to lie alone
in a free ward, or die by himself, or be buried in Potter's Field.
cited here may possibly be out of case, for it may have been this
fault that he passed on unattended, and under a cloud; or else an
attempt may have
been made, but unsuccessfully, to help him. One may hope that the
was the fact, but even so there is no doubt but that there are a great
that make no attempt to keep track of their members, and that many a
he needs it the most, a man's being a Mason means nothing to him at
all. Such things
should not be.
It is one
of a lodge's chief duties to keep in touch with every one of its
members, a thing
not at all impossible seeing that at least once a year he makes himself
paying his dues. Where is he now living? What is he doing? Is he in
need? If a lodge
cannot answer such questions about each and every man on its list there
wrong with it; it is probably engrossed with affairs of no importance
at all as
compared with such matters.
In many cases
lodges grow neglectful of the individual because they are so large, but
it is probable
that in more cases still the negligence is due either to indifference
or to a lack
of method. It should not be a hard thing for a Worshipful Master, upon
responsibility for attending to these matters ultimately lies, to know
about every brother in his lodge. Those that are shut in by accident or
should be visited; the aged should be remembered in all possible ways;
of employment should be assisted to find work, and if any have fallen
display no interest in the Craft, they should be reminded of their
and that a man should either take his part or demit. If any are not
worthy of these
services they are not worthy of membership.
to the personal work on the part of lodge members and officials, one of
methods for keeping contact is to have an annual roll call. Once a year
members could be summoned to lodge; the Secretary could call off each
name on his
books, and the Worshipful Master could ask for information concerning
not immediately accounted for. In this wise all the members would be
their lodge duties and the risk that some brother lies in a free ward
or is on his way to Potter's Field, could be reduced to the vanishing
a lodge is too big to do such things it is too big to exist; it should
up into smaller and less unwieldy units. To know that in all the
one brother is forgotten; that the one individual has not been
overlooked by the
ninety and nine, is a far finer thing, and infinitely more Masonic,
than the pride
of large numbers or the boast of magnificent temples.
* * *
not be a doctrinaire pacifist in order to hate war. Many men who do not
that any group of pacifists have as yet discovered a feasible method
an end to organized bloodshed nevertheless pray and work for the
the world with as much earnestness as any pacifist. Our human race has
been an armed
camp long enough. There is a wiser philosophy than government by force;
a better law than the law of the jungle.
that if any one nation were to disarm itself, especially if it be rich
in land and
money, such an act would invite rather than allay further strife,
because the instinct
for plunder remains strong among some peoples; others believe that
for some time afford to stand defenseless before Asia, with its
it may be that there is some point to these arguments, but even if so
the fact is
neither here nor there. Preparedness against possible outside attack is
war among civilized nations is quite another.
a time when all the scourges of human life were believed to come from
plague was due to the anger of a god; a fire was a visitation of
came by supernatural decree; shipwreck, as the old-fashioned insurance
still describe it, was an "act of God". All this meant that these
were mysteries; men did not know what caused them, therefore they felt
for them and made no intelligent effort to stop them.
But as rapidly
as men learned that the plague was a disease caused by bacilli, and
that by their
own actions they brought the terrible death upon them, the plague
became a crime
‒ that is to say, it became a matter of conscience. If the official
public health nowadays grow careless in their duties they are held for
and punished as criminals. So with fires, wrecks, crimes and all such
learned how they are caused we consequently know how they may be
averted and therefore
are guilty of crime if we permit them to occur.
The all significant
thing today as regards war is that peoples are very rapidly discovering
They are learning that there is no necessity for it in the nature of
that if it happens some group of men are guilty of wrong or of
unwisdom. Such men
bring a calamity upon us that is not necessary, therefore they become
sin, and war is a crime.
In the moment
that we see how war can be averted, we become inhuman if we permit it.
one can believe, was made evident by the recent World War, the recoil
of which is
still shaking the Western Hemisphere to the very foundations of its
We did not accept that vast carnage as a providential decree, giving us
to prove our courage or to win the glories of martyrdom, but we looked
upon it all
as a hideous mistake.
some talk for a time of hanging the individual most charged with
for it as a common criminal. The World War was a crime by men against
most terrible crime, perhaps, ever perpetrated; at any rate it appears
that an increasing
number are coming so to regard it. This does not mean that the millions
in it were criminal (to hold such a vicious opinion is one of the vices
pacifism) or that millions of brave men died for nothing; their
not be in vain, nor will the silent agonies of countless widows and
orphans go for
nothing. God of dreams! such a thing could not be! But what it does
mean is that
in the light cast by the very fires in which our old world was
destroyed we suddenly
saw, as by an apocalypse, that such a war, or almost any other war,
need not be
of Nations has become, in this country, an issue of partisan politics,
it cannot very well be discussed in a Masonic journal. Nevertheless
this may here
appropriately be said of it that behind it all, and acting as the
motive power among
those who continue to labor for it, is the conviction, not often
or clearly defined, that since war can be averted the nations should
together how to do it. It matters very little in the long run if the
impotent or if such a method must be entirely discarded in favor of
different, or if we learn at last that its purposes can best be carried
out by more
local and gradual means; what matters much is that the attempt at
League is a moral gesture, indicating that at last the responsibility
for war has
been accepted as being on the conscience of the civilized world.
In what way
can Freemasonry help to bring home to men this fact, that among
war is a crime? By continuing to do what it is doing with more effect
and on a larger
scale. Our Fraternity is already the greatest peace society in
it does not teach peace as a dogma or mention the subject in its
rituals or its
constitutions; but its teachings are such and its influence in each
is such that, in proportion as its principles are translated into
action, war must
cease. If men must be brothers so must nations.
It is more
difficult for two populations to compose their differences than it is
for two individuals
to learn to live in peace, but it can be done, however difficult it may
it must be done. If Freemasonry does not mean all this it is difficult
to know what
cannot all Freemasons the world over unite in a League of Brothers in
order to put
an end to war? The one great obstacle in the path of such a purpose is
that as things now stand the various Masonries in the world are not
Masonry is diametrically opposed to Latin Masonry. The Grand Lodge of
the Grand Orient of France do not recognize each other. The Grand
Lodges of America
cannot enter into formal relations with foreign Grand Lodges, and so it
a way out? Can Freemasonry be made, in deed and in truth, a world-wide
We do not know what the future may hold for us but at the present
moment one would
have to answer this in the negative, and that for a score of reasons,
the most inclusive
of which is that many Grand Lodges would first be compelled to
reorganize both their
machinery and their principles, and that is not to be expected.
it is possible, laying official recognition aside, for us even now to
for universal agreement so as to unite the influences of world-wide
has an unofficial power as well as an official; there are a score of
ways in which
Masons may seek intellectual and moral agreements above technical
Is it a dream? Perhaps it is. But so is universal brotherhood,
and all the other ideals worth striving for. It is a task for our
leaders whose earnestness and purposes may well rise to meet such an
‒ an opportunity to help bring home to the conscience of men how stupid
is a battlefield.
People of the Black
OF THE EGYPTIANS [Lib 1923], by Brian Brown, published by
York. Third volume issued in the Wisdom of the Ages Series. May be
the National Masonic Research Society, St. Louis. Blue board, black
294 pages; illustrated; price $2.65 postpaid.
ancient times the land that is now called Egypt was called by the
people, then inhabiting
that part of Africa, 'Kam,' a word that means 'black' or 'dark-colored'
to the dark color of the muddy soil in their land. To the Hebrews this
known as 'Kham,' or 'Ham,' and in the Bible the Egyptians are referred
to as 'Sons
of Ham' or 'Children of Ham.'
people had a god called 'Ptah' to whom they raised a temple ‒ the
temple was called
'He-Ka-ptah' or House of 'Ka' ‒ of 'Ptah.' This name, that was in the
confined to 'Memphis,' gradually spread to other parts of the Nile
Valley, and by
degrees the whole country became known as 'HeKapath' to other people
with whom these
people had contact.
Greeks changed the name into 'Aiguptost and the Romans changed it into
so from these names we get the name in its present form ‒ 'Egypt'."
were the first great people of antiquity ‒ perhaps one had better say,
people of greatness. At a time when the Tiber rolled through a
Greece was peopled by barbarians, and while the Hebrews were wandering
on the desert, they had already built up a civilization, the
achievements of which
and many of the arts of which continue to fill us with admiration after
years. They taught the Babylonians the a b c's of organized life; they
shape to the religious genius of the Hebrews; they taught the
philosophers of Greece
many things; in their decline they laid their hand upon the culture of
long after their greatness had become a memory the dreams of their
the arts of their scientists gathered themselves together into a stream
that poured like a Nile River across the Middle Ages, so that today
much that is
living and active in our modern life derives from them.
Freemasons have felt a peculiar interest in Egypt these many years, and
many reasons. In the period when it was believed that Freemasonry had
among the Ancient Mystery cults the Egyptian Mystery of Isis and Osiris
was a favorite
object of study. Those who believe that much in our present ritual was
from medieval occult and mystical sources are concerned with the
Gnosticism, Hermetism, Alchemy and other such esoteric teachings of
days long past
may be traced, many things in them, to the people of the Nile. Because
of such Egyptian
influences in Freemasonry (real or assumed) these same brethren look
back to the
Egyptian cults for the first meaning of many Masonic symbols, an
of which was furnished readers of these pages by Bro. Thomas Ross in an
published September, 1922, page 265.
To all such
Masons Brian Brown's ‘Wisdom of the Egyptians’ is a book to be
than most books because it assembles in convenient compass just such
of the old Egyptian teachings one is most interested to know, and that
and sanity, a thing not always to be said of popular works on the
subject. The book
is beautiful in its typography, well arranged and composed in a style
its only lack ‒ a sad one ‒ is that it carries no index. May this
the author many bad dreams!
furnishes a condensed but running narrative of Egyptian history, not
very much weighted
down with the unavoidable tables of names, dates and dynasties. Chapter
with a similarly condensed account of the religion of the Egyptians ‒
one ought to say, seeing that those old people had as many faiths as
we, and differed
much among themselves on every doctrine, as witness their belief in a
life to come,
the various versions of which are well summarized by Mr. Brown. Chapter
with The Ptah-Hotep and the Ke'gemini, the two oldest books in the
so it is believed, respectively four thousand years and three thousand
years before Christ. These old writings are hard to understand ‒
impossible to understand
to most of us ‒ but they have a curious interest; much out of them is
this chapter. In Chapter IV most readers will find the greatest
interest, for it
tells all about the famous Book of the Dead, which wasn't a book at all
in the strict
sense but a collection of scattered texts, written through a course of
by many hands and in many places, the general purpose of which would
appear to be
to furnish worshippers with the appropriate magic for dealing with the
come. The present scribe once tried to read the Book of the Dead (in
of course) but couldn't get much out of it; if any brother has made a
attempt, congratulations to him!
have gone through G. R. S. Mead's beautiful work on Thrice Greatest
1906; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3], with its enticing hints of
wisdom and its suggestions of Hermetism in our Masonic mysteries, will
from Chapter V, which is devoted to Hermes Trismegistus, who was not a
man at all,
but Thoth, official scribe of the Egyptian gods:
him was attributed as 'scribe of the gods' the authorship of all sacred
were thus called 'Hermetic' by the Greeks. These, according to Clemens
were forty-two in number and were sub-divided into six portions, of
which the first
dealt with priestly education, the second with temple ritual, and the
geographical matter. The fourth division treated of astrology, the
fifth of hymns
in honor of the gods and a text-book for the guidance of Kings, while
was medical. It is unlikely that these books were all the work of one
and it is more probable that they represent the accumulated wisdom of
in the course of ages to the great god of wisdom."
is exceptionally interesting to a Mason; it is on "Egyptian Magic" and
explains some of the ancient emblems and amulets used in those far-off
this a paragraph or two may be quoted:
"Next to the scarab, the
attached much importance to the Eye Amulet, which, from the earliest
was first represented by the point within the circle was associated
with the god
of the pole star, which, from its fixity, was taken as, a type of the
as time rolled on, and thus a fitting emblem of fixity of purpose,
poise and stability.
Later it was one of the hieroglyphic signs of the sun ‒ god Ra, and
the one supreme power casting his eye over all the world, and instead
of the point
within the circle is sometimes represented as a widely open eye. This
also assigned to Osiris, Isis, Horus and Ptah; the amulet known as the
Eye of Osiris
being placed upon the incision made in the side of the body ‒ for the
embalming ‒ to watch over and guard the soul of the deceased during its
through the darkness of the tomb to the life beyond.
"It was also worn by the living
health and protection from the blighting influence of workers in black
for the stability, strength and courage of Horus, the wisdom and
Ptah, and the foresight of Isis."
gives "The Vision of Hermes," and Chapter VIII tells "The Story of
the Book of Thoth."
the tale of the volume, the telling of which should have made it
that a man will receive much for his $2.50. By way of extra measure a
is included, almost unique of its kind in that it contains only words
With the author's permission we shall steal the whole list for the
benefit of Ye
of the Dead [Lib 1913; Vol
1, Vol 2, Vol 3], three volumes, translated by
A. Wallis Budge, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.
Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection [Lib 1911; Vol 1, Vol 2], two volumes. Translated by
Wallis Budge; G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.
Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt [Lib 1912], by Prof. James H. Breasted,
Scribner's Sons, New York
History of Egypt by Prof [Lib 1912]. James H. Breasted; Charles
Sons, New York.
A Short History of the Egyptian People [Lib 1914], by E. A. Wallis Budge; E. P.
& Co., New York.
Egyptian Literature [Lib 1914], by E. A. Wallis Budge, E. P.
Co., New York.
The Ptah-Hotep and Ke'Gemni [Lib 1912], translated by Battiscombe
John Murray, London, and E. P. Dutton & Co., New York.
The Religion of the Ancient Egyptians [Lib 1905], by George Steindorff, Ph.
P. Putnam's Sons, New York.
The Book of Talismans, Amulets and Zodiacal Gems [Lib 1914], by Wm. T. and Kate Pavitt,
Egyptian Magic [Lib 1899], by E. A. Wallis Budge; Kegan
Trubner & Co., Ltd., London.
Ancient Egypt and Assyria [Lib 1916], by G. Maspero; D. Appleton
Co., New York.
Life and Times of Akhnaton [Lib 1922], by Arthur Weigall; G. P.
Sons, New York.
The Kings and Gods of Ancient Egypt [Lib 1912], by Alexander Moret
by Mme. Moret; G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.
The Glory of the Pharaohs
[Lib*], by Arthur Weigall; G. P. Putnam's
Sons, New York.
Personal Religion Before Christianity in Egypt [Lib 1909], by Prof. Flinders Petrie;
& Bros., New York.
First Steps in Egyptian Language [Lib 1895], by E. A. Wallis Budge; E. P.
& Co., New York.
Hermes and Plato [Lib 1919], by Edward Schure; John M.
Thrice-Greatest Hermes [Lib 1906; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] three volumes, a translation
the Extant Sermons and fragments of the Trismegistus Literature, by G.
R. S. Mead,
B. A.; John M. Walkins, London.
Ancient Egyptian Legends [Lib 1920], by Margaret A. Murray, John
and E. P. Dutton & Co., New York.
Egyptian Scarabs [Lib 1906], by Percy Newberry; J.
Constable & Co.
Myths and Legends of Egypt [Lib 1874], by Lewis Spence, in the
Legend Series; Frederick A. Stokes Co., New York.
* * *
English Estimate of Roosevelt
ROOSEVELT [Lib 1923], by Lord Charnwood. Published
by The Atlantic
Monthly Press. May be secured through the National Masonic Research
232 pages, with chronology, index and frontispiece. $2.50 net.
made a comfortable place for himself on American bookshelves when he
in 1916, his Abraham Lincoln [Lib 1917], the best biography of
so one may agree with many critics, ever written by a foreigner. The
of restraint, clarity, precision of thought and delicately balanced
gave its distinction to the Lincoln are in the new book, although the
different in every way.
is a type of the English scholar-politician which Roosevelt himself so
conspicuous in this land, alas, by his absence. He graduated from
Oxford in 1887
and has since been a tutor in Balliol, his college; a member of
Mayor of Litchfield. He is a humanist with a systematic knowledge of
the past but
with his eyes fixed, like those of Lord Morley, of whom he sometimes
on the present; also he has a first-hand knowledge of this country,
which he first
visited in 1887, and a broad vision of international relations. It is
of scholarship, first-hand knowledge and detachment of view that gives
to his book
a quality not found in any of the other Roosevelt biographers, notable
have been Bishop, Hagedorn and Thayer. There are some things in it that
of Thayer's Life of John Hay, and others that call to mind Trevelyan's
Revolution. Like the last named work there is in the volume an
to interpret the American and English people to each other. Lord
of writing, as well as the motive that led him to compose another work
on a distinguished
American, is best set forth in his first paragraph, which reads in this
"This fugitive study of a
may at several points help to make clearer issues which are momentous
it is written with no desire to give offense, but no obsequious fear of
it may contribute to frank and sympathetic discussion between two great
Above all, it may arouse more interest in a powerful and a noble man,
it was for a considerable while to rivet and indeed fatigue the
attention of civilized
mankind, then to undergo eclipse, and to die when the eclipse was
total; and it
may do this last while the recognition of greatness in the modern world
to be peculiarly needed. It can claim to do no more. Candidly my reason
it is this, that, having been invited to do so, I am disabled from
refusing by a
boyish hero-worship which I conceived very long ago for Theodore
Roosevelt ‒ then
and ever since unknown to me."
If the reader
who follows after this to the end of the volume never experiences quite
of satisfaction that recommended Lord Charnwood's Lincoln to him, if
does not altogether hit the bull's-eye the reason lies, perhaps, in the
the author’s inviolable restraint is not quite so effective in the
presence of such
a figure as Roosevelt as it was when dealing with the almost canonized
fame of one,
of whom Roosevelt once described himself as a disciple. Roosevelt gave
more than individual; he was many men in one, a crowd, almost a tumult,
the cosmopolitan stir of our national life found a home and a voice,
in fact, confusing to outsiders but easily enough understood by his
There was a gusto in the man, a multitudinousness, like that in one of
figures of the Renaissance. Much of that escapes out of Lord
but even so the portrait is authentic as line drawings may often be.
interest of the book is in Roosevelt's public activities, all of which
and appraised from an international point of view.
Roosevelt was a Mason. He was initiated in Matinecock, New York, Jan.
2, 1901, when
governor of the state; was passed to the Second Degree March 27 of the
and was raised April 24 following. An account of his raising appeared
in the Masonic
Standard for April 27, 1901, interesting enough to be republished here
"The lodge room of Matinecock
at Oyster Bay, was last Wednesday night filled to its utmost capacity
gathering of Masons as ever assembled in this state to do any Masonic
were probably 500 brethren present. The 3d was conferred on Bro.
"R. W. Edward M. L. Ehlers,
presided as Master. The candidate passed a perfect examination in open
W. Frank E. Half, D. D. G. M. of the 1st District, and R. W. Theodore
G. Treas., assisted the Master in the first section. The song, "The
My Light and My Salvation," was sung by Bro. Leonard E. Auty, of Hope
124, East Orange, N. J., was most effectively rendered, and the musical
by W. Bro. Harry Alton Russell, Org., added much to the impressiveness
of the work.
Bro. Dr. Root, of Matinecock Lodge, a warm personal friend of the
as Senior Deacon.
"In the second section, M. W.
M. W. Wm. A. Brodie and M. W. John W. Vrooman, Past Grand Masters,
assistance. The Grand Master, M. W. Charles W. Mead, raised the
candidate. The historical
lecture by M. W. Wright D. Pownall was an eloquent and ornate
explanation of the
symbolism of Freemasonry.
"After the work of the degree,
R. W. William
L. Swan presented Bro. Roosevelt with a Masonic Monitor, and R. W.
Edward M. L.
Ehlers presented him with a Master Mason's certificate. A banquet
followed the meeting.
"The visitors from this city
went to Oyster
Bay on a special train and returned at 10:40 p. m.
"There were present:
"M. W. Charles W. Mead, Grand
W's Charles Smith, of Oneonta, as D. G. M.; James B. McEwan, of Albany,
as S. G.
W.; John Salisbury, as J. G. W., Theodore A. Taylor G. Treas.; Edward
M. L. Ehlers,
G. Sec., Rev. George R. Van De Water and Rev. John Laubenheimer, G.
A. Beckett, of Hoosick Falls, G. Mar.; Isaac Hersch and Wm. E.
Wilkinson, G. Stewards,
James H. Rollins, S. G. D., Wm. H. Whiting, G. Lect.; Alex. A. Clark,
G. Lib.; W's
Martin B. Cohn of Adelphi Lodge, as G. St. B. Andrew Ferguson, G. Tiler
W's James Ten Eyck, of Albany, P. G. M.; George W. Fortmeyer and
P. G. M's, of New Jersey; Fredk. S. Stevens, Luke A. Lockwood and John
P. G. M's, of Connecticut; R. W's Wilmon Whilldin, Charles S. Crisp,
James T. Hanrahan,
Townsend Scudder, Charles W. Drake, Fredk. P. Morris. Fredk. J.
Milligan, and scores
of visiting Masters and Past Masters."
at its simplest is a wonderful contrivance; it is a bow always tending
If you bend a piece of cane into an arch between two piles of books,
the books have
to be heavy enough or they will be pushed asunder by the elastic bow.
An arch is
perfectly safe, and, indeed, inactive, as long as it is imprisoned, but
restraining forces be an ounce too little and it will break out like
too weak a dam, and a moving arch is as terrible as a flood. The
when they had found their theory of construction, did not lock up their
great masses of masonry, like the Roman architects, but they set arch
to fight arch,
until two, four, eight or a dozen were balanced on one slender pier.
like the jets of a fountain, and spread like the branches of great
trees so that
old writers really thought that the architecture had been suggested by
W. R. Lethaby.
Box and Correspondence
"Knights Templar," Etc.
correct, "compass" or "compasses", "chapiters" or
"chapitres", "Knights Templar" or "Knight Templars"?
W. P. B., New York.
Encyclopedia gives only "compasses", using it also in the compound
and compasses." This is preferable to "compass", though the latter
is used in some jurisdictions. Webster gives "compass" but says the
is generally employed in the plural form. One speaks of a "pair of
"Chapiter" is archaic and means "capital" when used in architecture;
it is pluralized as "chapiters." Mackey gives "Knights Templar",
the form used generally, though in some instances "Knights Templars" is
employed; "Knights Templar" is more in accord with the grammatical
for forming plurals of compounds.
* * *
Book About Foreign Masonry
I find a book about all the foreign Masonic bodies? Being a member of
I am always interested in discussions about these things, and would
like to read
up on it.
D. Y. U., Georgia.
there is no such book available, at least so far as we know. However,
you will find
just what you need in the Grand Lodge Proceedings of Alabama for 1923
which is embodied a very complete account of foreign Grand bodies
written by Oliver
Day Street. It is a report so valuable that it should be issued
separately in book
form. Bro. George A. Beauchamp, Montgomery, Ala., is Grand Secretary.
may be able to secure a copy from him, at least as a loan.
* * *
THE BUILDER give us a department about the affairs going on in all the
It would be of the greatest value. Where can one find such a thing?
S. L. P., Ohio.
be most desirable but physically impossible, because of lack of space.
wish for you already have to hand in the Fraternal Correspondence
as a part of Grand Lodge proceedings by all Grand Lodges, save two or
are prepared with great care by the chairman of the Committee on
(other names are used) usually appointed by the Grand Master; they
often run into
two or three hundred pages and consist of a condensed account of the
of every Grand Lodge in the land, and many foreign Grand bodies as
well. In the
whole scope of Masonic publications there is not a more valuable source
than these reports. They should be widely read, especially by the young
would gain from them a most comprehensive understanding of the Craft,
in such reports that include comments and interpretations made by the
of whom are among the wisest heads in the Fraternity. Ask your Grand
a copy of your last Grand Lodge proceedings; you will find the
Report near the end of the volume.
* * *
made a statement in a talk before our lodge that seemed rash to me. He
said he had
learned from an old book he owned that in the early days Masons didn't
any such a building as Solomon's Temple had ever existed; was all an
something like that. What can you tell me about this?
H. K. L., Oregon.
was about as rash as anything could well be. The Book of Kings, which
full account of the building of Solomon's Temple, is a document of the
to which historians attach the same value they give to other ancient
your friend had seen a copy of Manual of Freemasonry [Lib 1845], written by Richard Carlile,
who was born in Devonshire, England, 1790,
and died there in 1843, after having spent nine years of his life in
of his so-called exposes of Freemasonry were gathered together and
book form in 1845. On page 4, of Part I of that poor volume, he says,
researches have taught me that that which has been called Solomon's
existed upon earth; that a nation of people called Israelites never
earth, and that the supposed history of the Israelites and their Temple
more than an allegory." You will find a note about this man on page 168
Mackey's History of Freemasonry Vol 1 [Lib 1906; pp 160] by Clegg. It is a
fact that Masons sometimes can't tell the difference between such a
book and an
authentic volume on Masonry; the present writer found a book
circulating among the
members of a city lodge and being read as giving an explanation of
it was nothing else than a so-called expose that had been written
nearly a hundred
years ago by an anti-Mason.
* * *
Do You Examine
In a late
issue of THE BUILDER you ask, "How do you examine visitors?" This
to my mind some things I had seen that I did not think were proper for
and am sending a few rambling remarks. I am a member of Highland Lodge,
Buffalo, New York, and for years have watched committees in different
to examine visitors.
be honest to yourself and your lodge when you vouch for a brother on a
neither can you be honest to all visitors by holding them to a strict
of the ritual, for a large per cent have never learned it. Always give
the benefit of the doubt on examination. A visitor must always prove he
has a right
to visit. It is not up to the lodge to admit him because he has a card
to date. He must show he has received Masonic light, and has absorbed
to reflect the same to any examiner at any time. An examiner cannot be
and examiner at the same time and for this reason he should, in a
work with the visitor to prove his right to visit, not to try to
impress on the
visitor his superior knowledge. Never tell a visitor he is not correct.
you get. Work from that to anything else he may advance and in this way
often be surprised how the rusty visitor will refresh himself.
cent of the visitors do not have their credentials signed and feel
vexed when you
tell them they are no good as identification. Can you examine such a
one and be
honest to your lodge?
coming into my state where Grand Lodge demands Grand Lodge certificates
will tell you their state does not issue any and you probably have had
a dozen from
same state. They have never asked their Secretary for one.
is the fellow who wears a pin, has located in your town, wants to visit
one of your members to bring him out and then, finding the member has
to vouch for him, feels peeved that he can not get in because he was
not told he
would have to bring credentials and be examined.
often have the pompous visitor who starts in with a request to the
Tyler for a committee.
He don't care how they come because he is right. You ask for
credentials. He shows
his Shrine card as a life member; next Scottish Rite; life member
Grotto; life member
Tall Cedars; life member, etc., but Blue Lodge card two or more years
does not pay much attention to Blue Lodge; has too much to do in ‘Upper
and is shocked that life member cards will not admit him without an
When you try to explain that if he is dropped in Blue Lodge for not
paying his dues
the life membership cards are of no use and he loses his standing in
the Upper Bodies,
he thinks you are crazy. Will probably tell you he was a member of Blue
you were born!
run into the true Mason. Rusty to be sure, but a Blue Lodge man. Tells
you he has
not had a chance to visit in years ‒ sailor, railroad man or night
worker, as the
case may be, but will try and prove he has a right to visit, and if he
can not it
is entirely his fault for not getting around more regularly. You feel
at home at
once and go after him in a way that makes him feel he is among friends
who are trying
to help, not hinder.
In the grips,
words and signs he will probably get twisted, but by keeping at it you
will be able
to tell if he received them from a lodge or got them elsewhere, and
nine out of
ten times he will prove himself. Never say, "That is not the proper
word." Wait for him to work it out for himself, and if he cannot and
to be the exception, simply tell him you cannot vouch for him. You are
to tell him why. His instructor should do that for him, not his
examiner. It is
better that ninety-nine rusty Masons be turned away than that one
allowed to enter your lodge.
acting on committees know from what Grand bodies members are eligible
to visit in
their own Grand Lodge jurisdiction? How many have access to records
or members under charges or know how to get this information?
I think in
too many cases it is like what one of our traveling members ran on to
in the oil
country. Examiners asked business? "What lodge are you a member of?"
and so." "Who travels for such and such belongs to that lodge." "Do
you know him?" "Yes." "I guess he is O. K., Bill, let's take
him in." This actually happened in my own state.
I think it pays:
- See that the visitor's
credentials conform to your Grand Lodge's requirements,
and are properly signed.
- Tyler's obligation.
- Enough floor work to satisfy
examiner and brothers acting with him.
- Be sure to get all signs and
grips, or brother visiting may not be able to
give grip and word on opening of lodge.
- Remember that the states are
full of clandestine and nonaffiliated Masons
who are always looking for someone to vouch for them. Be honest with
before you show favors to visitors.
from the sidelines and having no official standing, I will sign,
* * *
of an English
I meet brethren from another country, I always like to hear of the
between their methods and ideas and ours. Possibly you may be
interested in the
same way so I enclose a copy of the "Traditions" of my mother lodge;
are given to every brother when he has taken his Third Degree. The
object is to
obtain some measure of uniformity in the lodge. If our American
it a matter of general interest I shall be glad to read their comments
L. F. Hemmans, England.
a copy of which follows, are kept pasted in the by-laws. American
find it of value to compare the customs obtaining in West Wiekham lodge
found in the average American lodge; it would be worthwhile in this
have some comments on the etiquette (or possible lack of it) in lodges
on this side
Morning dress means ordinary
dark clothing with dark tie. With evening dress
a white tie must be worn; but a dinner jacket, not being full evening
a black tie.
must be worn outside the coat or jacket, but inside the evening dress
must be worn with morning or evening dress, except by the Candidates
and the Principal
Officers when communicating or receiving the G.
All Brn. entering or leaving
the lodge must square it; for this purpose it
is not necessary to go right round the lodge.
"Masonry" is "an art founded on
the principles of Geometry;”
the science we practice is “Freemasonry” and should always be spoken of
The "manner usually observed
amongst Freemasons" is with the hand
raised perpendicular and not horizontal. (B. C. 75.)
During the prayers and at the
reference to the Deity in the Ancient-Charge,
the S. of Reverence is adopted, i.e., with the thumb parallel to the
at the close the hand is dropped and not drawn. During the Obl. the S.
is adopted, i.e., with the thumb in the form of a square; when the
sealed his Obl. the hand is drawn.
A Candidate for Passing and
Raising is required to give proof of proficiency
by answering certain questions (B. C. 183 and 195). If he cannot pass
he may be required to wait until the next convenient Meeting before
Degree. The proposer is responsible for giving his nominee the
When answering the question,
"How do you demonstrate . . .?" the
reply must be given without any movement of the hand or feet.
II Degree: ‒ in the H. S., not
only is the L. A. placed at a right angle,
but the thumb is also and is pointed over the L. S. 9.
III Degree: ‒ in the S. of S.,
the f . . . d is s ... n with the palm of
the hand and not with the tips of the fingers. In the fifth P. of F.
the hand is
laid flat on back.
No s...n in any Degree is
complete until discharged.
The practice performing with
the electric switch at the W. M's solemn allusion
to the Morning Star is modern, theatrical and most disconcerting. The
not be restored until after the Candidate has left the lodge.
A Brother visiting a lodge must
not give "Hearty Good Wishes" on
behalf of his lodge unless he be the W. M. or specially authorized by
Closing the Lodge: ‒ during the
words "May God preserve the Craft,"
the I. P. M. alone raises his hand, the other Brn. keeping up the S. of
The Festive Board: ‒ it is
quite unorthodox and irregular to speak of this
as "The Fourth Degree."
sign should be used when toasting a Brother.
A Brother who has ceased to be
a subscribing member of a lodge is precluded
by B. C. 152 from visiting any one lodge more than once until he again
subscribing member of some lodge.
Wearing Masonic emblems on the
watch-chain is a form of advertisement not
favoured by members of this lodge.
* * *
enjoys the distinction of having been appointed by his Grand Lodge to
be poet laureate
of the Craft in Michigan. During the present month he will reach his
milestone, having grown venerable in Freemasonry, the spirit and ideals
he has often wrought into verse, which is characterized by a rugged
By way of helping his Michigan brethren to celebrate the diamond
jubilee of his
pilgrimage in this life THE BUILDER sends him a friendly hail, and Ye
ventured to inscribe to him a little poem after this wise:
To The Poet -- [A Poem]
craft of song has small repute
Among the worldly wise;
They cannot find a worth at all
In what your arts devise:
Why not, they say go till the fields
Or build the wails of trade!
That labor of a man is best
By which some gold is made.
If you who sing should cease your art
Or hold your craft in doubt,
The soil itself would break in songs,
The stones would cry them out.
The Hidden Powers that wrought the soil,
The gold, and everything,
By equal force compel the bard
His fragile rhymes to sing,
And to the need for bread they made
Another need belong,
For while the flesh may crave for bread
The soul must crave for song.
So he who sings has right to gold
As he who builds a wall,
For what is not with music built
Is never built at all.
* * *
Wrote This Poem?
In the world-wide
realm of Masonry it is hoped that some brother of the National Masonic
Society may be able to name the author of "Enough for Me ‒ A Mason's
printed on page 367 of the December BUILDER. For many years, until it
much worn, I have carried the clipping from the discarded magazine in
vest pocket. I furnished a copy for The Bulletin, De Molay Consistory,
Iowa. It appears on page 280 of the May, 1923, issue of The New Age.
publicity is greatly appreciated and I trust the author may be revealed.
John T. Boylan, Minnesota.
* * *
Note About Missouri
In the January
BUILDER I notice that W. B. B., of N. Y., speaks of the organization of
Blue Lodges in Missouri that had the purpose of extending slavery into
well these pro-slavery times, and having lived in a neighborhood in
was not only anti-slavery, but much more so anti-Masonic, I have not
the least doubt
had these so-called Blue Lodges been really connected with Masonry, it
been noised abroad in that community very quickly, and very noisily, as
everything that anybody can imagine against Masonry.
N. C. Pike, Minnesota.
* * *
is called to page 42 of THE BUILDER for February, 1924. In the middle
of the first
column appeared a sentence a part of which read as follows:
the inauguration of the Grand Lodge of New York.” This was a
regrettable slip; it
should have read "the Grand Lodge of York," which was organized, as the
reader will recall in 1725. The Drake referred to by Bro. Fenger was
an historian who was made a Mason at York September. 1725. In the
to he connected Freemasonry with Euclid and Archimedes as experts in
spoke of the it work in that science as having been the basis "on which
learned have built at different times so many nobler super-structures."
remarkable address will be found in its entirety in Masonic Sketches
by W.J. Hughan. Our apologies to Bro. Fenger.
* * *
of the Eastern Star," by Kennaston.
of Bagdad," by Sylvanus Cobb, Jr.
of Freemasonry," by Buck.
Vol. I, Ars
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum; both must be complete, and with St. John's
of the Hole Crafte and Fellowship of Masons," TV Edward Conder.
of Masonic Geometry and Symbolry," by H. P. H. Bromwell.
of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite," by Robert Folger.
and prices to Book Department, National Masonic Research Society, 1950
St. Louis, Mo.
by our correspondence on the subject eight or ten times as many Study
been formed this year as ever before. The Study Club is no longer an
* * *
Bro. H. S.
Bennett, Willow Bunch, Sask., Can., has done a splendid piece of
research work in
preparing a Masonic glossary. We hope to publish this in book form this
poor editor! What would you do if you were to receive such a request as
tell me at your earliest convenience the names of all the Masons in the
Also give me a brief history of each and every degree used in
with an explanation of all their symbols, emblems and allegories. If it
much trouble I need also a little information about foreign Masonry."
difficult at times to maintain the pleasing fiction of editorial
* * *
stream of calls for books on speech making indicates that we are
raising a bumper
crop of lodge orators. May their tribe increase, and may they each and
the words of the old gentleman who, when arising to give a talk, began
"Gentlemen, I do not intend to make a speech. I wish to say something."
me. I am now off on a two weeks' speech making tour through the East
and into Canada.
If my correspondence is a little delayed, remember the pleasing words
of Ovid: Prefer
et obdura; dolor hic tibi proderit olim. (No! that is not giving away
* * *
any second-hand Masonic books to sell, or copies of THE BUILDER for any
History of Freemasonry Revised
Gou51 / auth. Gould Robert F / ed. Crowe Frederick J. W.. - London :
Gale & Polden Limited, 1951. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 401. - 10.3 MB.
A History of Egypt
Bre121 / auth. Breasted James H. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 727. - 33.3 MB.
A Short Masonic History Vol 1
Arm09 / auth. Armitage Frederick. - London : H. Weare & Co,
1909. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 195. - 3.8 MB.
A Short Masonic History Vol 2
Arm11 / auth. Armitage Frederick. - London : H. Weare & Co,
1911. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 190. - 3.9 MB.
Cha17 / auth. Charnwood Lord. - London : Constable & Company
Ltd., 1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 493. - 29.2 MB.
Ancient Egyprian Legends
Mur20 / auth. Murray Margaret A. - London : John Murray, 1920. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 124. - 4.9 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And38 / auth. Anderson James. - London : J. Robinson, 1738. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 249. - 16.2 MB.
Buddhist Praying Wheel
Sim96 / auth. Simpson William. - London : Macmillan and Co Ltd, 1896. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 314. - 15.4 MB.
Development of Religion and
Thought in Ancient Egypt
Bre12 / auth. Breasted James H.. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 398. - 17.6 MB.
Bud99 / auth. Budge Wallis. - London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner
& Co Ltd, 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 246. - 10.4 MB.
First Steps in Egyptian
Bud95 / auth. Budge Wallis. - London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner
& Co Ltd, 1895. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 330. - 18.2 MB.
Freemasonry in New York
Lan22 / auth. Lang Ossian. - New York : Grand Lodge of New York, 1922.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 248. - 5.5 MB.
Hermes and Plato
Sch19 / auth. Schure Edouard / trans. Rothwell F.. - London : William
Rider & Son Ltd., 1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 123. - 8.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
Fin66 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - London : Asher & Co., 1866. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 742. - Translated from the German - 17.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 1
Mac06 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 7 : p. 316. - 13.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 2
Mac061 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 2 : 7 : p. 341. - 10.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 3
Mac062 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 3 : 7 : p. 328. - 12.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 4
Mac063 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 4 : 7 : p. 324. - 13.1 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 5
Mac064 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 5 : 7 : p. 318. - 13.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 6
Mac065 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 6 : 7 : p. 328. - 13.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 7
Mac066 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 7 : 7 : p. 398. - 18.7 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre67 / auth. Preston William and Oliver George. - New York : Masonic
Publishing and Manufacturing, 1867. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 404. - 25.3 MB.
Kings and Gods in Egypt
Mor12 / auth. Moret Alexandre / trans. Moret Mme. - New York : The
Knickerbocker Press, 1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 328. - 13.6 MB.
Le Livre du Compagnonage Vol 1
Per41 / auth. Perdiguier
Agricol. - Paris : Pawuerre Editeurs, 1841. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 458. -
French - 20.9 MB.
Life and Times of Akhnaton
Wei22 / auth. Weigall Arthur E. - London : Thornton Butterworth Ltd,
1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 294. - 12.7 MB.
Life in Ancient Egypt and
Mas162 / auth. Maspero Gaston C C. - New York : D Appleton and Company,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 391. - 28.0 MB.
Life of Napoleon
Ros18 / auth. Rose John H. - Londeon : G Bell and Sons, 1918. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 1129. - 48.8 MB.
Literatur of Ancient Egypt
Bud14 / auth. Budge Wallis. - London : J M Dent & Sons Limited,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 290. - 25.0 MB.
Manual of Freemasonry
Car45 / auth. Carlile Richard. - Leeds GB : Celephais Press, 1845. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 333. - 1.2 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 01
Abr31BN01 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1831. - Vol. 1 : 25 : p. 353. - French - 11.8 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 02
Abr31BN02 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1831. - Vol. 2 : 25 : p. 2. - French - 0.3 MB - Volume not found in
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 03
Abr32BN03 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1832. - Vol. 3 : 25 : p. 363. - French - 11.8 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 04
Abr32BN04 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1832. - Vol. 4 : 25 : p. 376. - French - 11.8 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 05
Abr32BN05 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1832. - Vol. 5 : 25 : p. 366. - French - 11.2 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 06
Abr32BN06 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1832. - Vol. 6 : 25 : p. 373. - French - 11.1 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 07
Abr32BN07 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1832. - Vol. 7 : 25 : p. 2. - French - 0.2 MB - Volume not found in
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 08
Abr32BN08 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1832. - Vol. 8 : 25 : p. 356. - French - 11.3 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 09
Abr32BN09 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1832. - Vol. 9 : 25 : p. 344. - French - 10.6 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 10
Abr33BN10 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1833. - Vol. 10 : 25 : p. 371. - French - 11.4 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 11
Abr33BN11 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1833. - Vol. 11 : 25 : p. 328. - French - 10.7 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 12
Abr33BN12 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1833. - Vol. 12 : 25 : p. 371. - French - 11.4 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 13
Abr34BN13 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louia Hauman et Ce,
1834. - Vol. 13 : 25 : p. 344. - French - 10.2 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 14
Abr34BN14 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1834. - Vol. 14 : 25 : p. 348. - French - 9.4 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 15
Abr34BN15 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1834. - Vol. 15 : 25 : p. 349. - French - 10.9 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 16
Abr34BN16 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1834. - Vol. 16 : 25 : p. 368. - French - 13.2 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 17
Abr35BN17 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1835. - Vol. 17 : 25 : p. 359. - French - 13.1 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 18
Abr35BN18 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1835. - Vol. 18 : 25 : p. 375. - French - 12.7 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 19
Abr35BN19 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1835. - Vol. 19 : 25 : p. 367. - French - 13.6 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 20
Abr35BN20 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1835. - Vol. 20 : 25 : p. 326. - French - 10.4 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 21
Abr36BN21 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1836. - Vol. 21 : 25 : p. 351. - French - 12.3 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 22
Abr36BN22 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1836. - Vol. 22 : 25 : p. 329. - French - 11.5 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 23
Abr37BN23 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1837. - Vol. 23 : 25 : p. 368. - French - 11.4 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 24
Abr37BN24 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1837. - Vol. 24 : 25 : p. 266. - French - 8.0 MB.
Memoires de Mme la Duchesse
d'Abrantes - Vol 25
Abr37BN25 / auth. Abrantes Laure J. - Bruxelles : Louis Hauman et Ce,
1837. - Vol. 25 : 25 : p. 258. - French - 7.8 MB.
Military Lodges. The Apron and
Gou99 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Gale & Polden, Ltd.,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 280. - 13.7 MB.
Myth, Ritual, and Religion Vol 1
Lan01 / auth. Lang Andrew. - London : Longmans, Green, and Company,
1901. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 380. - 15.3 MB.
Myth, Ritual, and Religion Vol 2
Lan011 / auth. Lang Andrew. - London : Longmans, Green, and Company,
1901. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 392. - 17.1 MB.
Myths and Legends of Ancient
Spe74 / auth. Spence Lewis. - Boston : Davide D. Nickerson &
Company, 1874. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 421. - 17.0 MB.
Origin of the English Rite of
Hug84 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : George Kenning, 1884. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 166. - 5.1 MB.
Osiris and the Egyptian
Resurrection Vol 1
Bud11 / auth. Budge E. Wallis. - New York : G. P. Purnam's Sons, 1911.
- Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 441. - 24.6 MB.
Osiris and the Egyptian
Resurrection Vol 2
Bud111 / auth. Budge E. Wallis. - New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1911.
- Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 451. - 22.2 MB.
Personal Religion in Egypt
Pet09 / auth. Petrie W M Flinders. - London : Harper &
Brothers, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 184. - 6.1 MB.
Religion of the Ancient
Ste05 / auth. Steindorff George. - New York : G P Putnam's Sons, 1905.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 190. - 6.8 MB.
New06 / auth. Newberry Percy E. - London : Archibald Constable and Co
Ltd, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 268. - 8.7 MB.
Short History of Egyptian People
Bud141 / auth. Budge Wallis. - London : J M Dent & Sons
Limited, 1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 297. - 13.3 MB.
The Annals of Dumferline
Hen79 / auth. Henderson Ebenezer. - Glasgow : John Tweed, 1879. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 801.
The Book of Talismans
Pav14 / auth. Pavitt William T. - London : William Rider & Son,
Ltd, 1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 318. - 18.3 MB.
The Book of the Dead Vol 1
Bud13 / auth. Budge E A Wallis. - New York : G. E. Putnam's Sons, 1913.
- Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 417. - 22.5 MB.
The Book of the Dead Vol 2
Bud131 / auth. Budge E A Wallis. - New York : G. E. Putnam's Sons,
1913. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 377. - 18.4 MB.
The Book of the Dead Vol 3
Bud132 / auth. Budge E A Wallis. - New York : G. E. Putnam's Sons,
1913. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 44. - Vignette 2 and part of Vignette 19
missing - 4.8 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Four Old Lodges
Gou79 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Spencer's Masonic Depot, 1879.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 90. - 4.6 MB.
The Golden Bough
Fra221 / auth. Frazer James G. - [s.l.] : Project Gutenberg, 1922. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 664. - Formatted and Indexed from Project Gutenberg
File by rhm - 2.6 MB.
The Instruction of Ptah-Hotep
Gun12 / auth. Gunn Battiscombe. - London : John Murray, 1912. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 78. - 4.0 MB.
The Jonah Legend
Sim99 / auth. Simpson William. - London : Grant Richards, 1899. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 199. - 7.7 MB.
The Life of Joseph Balsamo
Vat91 / auth. Vatican. - London : C. and C. Kearsley, 1791. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 209. - 8.9 MB.
The Lodge of Edinburgh
Lyo73 / auth. Lyon David M. - Edinburgh : Blackwood and Sons, 1873. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 480. - 17.4 MB.
Har12 / auth. Harrison Jane Ellen. - Cambridge : Cambridge University
Press, 1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 591. - 32.7 MB.
Cha23 / auth. Charnwood Lord. - [s.l.] : The Atlantic Monthly Press,
1923. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 246. - 8.2 MB.
Thrice-Greatest Hermes Vol 1
Mea061 / auth. Mead George S. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
Society, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 497. - 15.8 MB.
Thrice-Greatest Hermes Vol 2
Mea062 / auth. Mead George S. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 411. - 16.5 MB.
Thrice-Greatest Hermes Vol 3
Mea063 / auth. Mead George S. - London : The Theosophicl Publishing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 390. - 16.4 MB.
Traditions of Freemasonry
Pie70 / auth. Pierson Arthur P. - New York : Masonic Publishing
Company, 1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 383. - 36.6 MB.
Wisdom of the Egyptians
Bro23 / auth. Brown Brian. - New York : Brentano's, 1923. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 163. - Illustrated - 2.1 MB.
Witch Cult in Western Europe
Mur21 / auth. Murray Margaret A. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1921. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 305. - 14.3 MB.
Zeus Vol 1
Coo12Z1 / auth. Cook Arthur B. - Cambridge : Cambridge University
Press, 1912. - Vol. 1 : 5 : p. 977. - 60.0.
Zeus Vol 2 Pt 1
Coo25Z2 / auth. Cook Arthur B. - Cambridge : Cambridge University
Press, 1925. - Vol. 2 : 5 : p. 956. - 91.2 MB.
Zeus Vol 2 Pt 2
Coo14Z3 / auth. Cook Arthur B. - Cambridge : Cambridge University
Press, 1914. - Vol. 3 : 5 : p. 556. - 37.2 MB.
Zeus Vol 3 Pt 1
Coo40Z4 / auth. Cook Arthur B. - Cambridge : Cambridge University
Press, 1940. - Vol. 4 : 5 : p. 1087. - 68.7 MB.
Zeus Vol 3 Pt 2
Coo40Z5 / auth. Cook Arthur B. - Cambridge : Cambridge University
Press, 1940. - Vol. 5 : 5 : p. 351. - 34.6 MB.