Masonic Research Society
What a Fellowcraft Should
was written in response to a number of requests, most of which,
have come during the past few weeks. It appears that in the scope of
literature the Second Degree has suffered from a certain unfortunate
follows is not in any sense designed to fill this gap, or to deal
a rite deserving of a volume to itself, but a hint and a suggestion
written in the
hope that other scribes may be inspired to write on the same theme. It
profitable and delightful to have in these pages several discussions of
IN the old
days of English Operative Masonry a man was first made an Entered
being bonded (or indentured) to a Master Mason for a period of some
he was then made a Fellow of the Craft. By this is meant that he was
member of the lodge in full standing with every right enjoyed by all
and that he had become a master of his trade, or Master Mason, the two
meaning the same thing. From that time on he was free to travel where
in search of employment, to receive Master's wages (an Apprentice
received no wages
except his board and keep, and possibly something in the way of
i.e., and apron, gloves, a few tools perhaps), and to become, if good
an employer, or Master of workman, or perhaps to superintend the
erection of some
It is difficult
at this far remove in time to know what manner of ceremony was employed
at the entering
of an Apprentice, but we may be sure that some kind of ritual was
the Apprentice was made to listen to a traditional history of the
Craft, such as
have been preserved in our Old Charges; was made to take an oath (very
its form) to keep inviolate all the secrets of the trade and of the
the master and his dame with whom he would live; and it is also
probable that the
Master of the lodge would give him certain bits of advice at the time,
the shape of what we should now call "lectures." Many Masonic
have believed that no ceremony at all was used when this workman, freed
bonds, was made a Fellow of the Craft, but it would appear reasonable
that such a step, involving as it did so complete a change of status
its own secrets, such as grips and words, some kind of ceremony was
used. If this
was the case then two degrees were employed by the old Operative
Masons, the second
being the Fellow Craft or Master Mason ceremony.
formation of the first Grand Lodge of Speculative Masons in London,
two degrees (or the original one degree, if one prefers) were so
and by whom it is impossible to say) that at last they were re-divided
degrees, a system that has since become so firmly established in the
it will remain as long as Freemasonry endures. Our Second Degree,
its present form, dates from early in the eighteenth century, but that
mean that the material built into it came then into the Craft for the
for such was not the case, as some of it must have existed before 1717.
So much by
way of history. It would be interesting to trace the degree's
development from the
time it left the hands of Desaguliers and his fellows, through
Preston, Webb and the others, but that would leave no space for an
the ideas embodied in its symbolism as it now stands, which is the
The Degree of Middle Life
monitors it is evident that the men who gave its present shape to the
it to cover that part of a man's career which falls between his youth
and this old
age. The lodge symbolizes the world as a whole; the Apprentice the
it, the Master Mason one about to leave it, the Fellowcraft a man in
of his powers, equipped to carry its burdens and trained to do its work.
of the world"! this great enterprise of organized human life! How is it
be carried forward? Not by ignorance, surely, for it is the essence of
to be helpless; neither can it be done by unskilled hands, for life is
and involves an endless amount of technique. No, it rests on the
shoulders of those
who have knowledge, skill, and experience, and such is the principal
idea of the
Fellowcraft Degree. It is the drama of education, the philosophy of
As such it
deserves far more attention than usually is accorded it if one may
judge by lodge
practices in general. Frequently there are not half as many brethren
lodge as when the "first" or the "third" is exemplified, and
in too many cases the paraphernalia used, the manner in which the work
on," and the general atmosphere of the occasion are such as to suggest
to the lodge the "second" is a kind of a half-way ceremony that doesn't
deserve much thought or skill for its exhibition. The irony of such a
escape notice, because the Fellowcraft rite is dedicated, as even a
tyro can see,
to enlightenment, which is in itself one of the grand aims of the
Order. Of all
the degrees in the entire hierarchy of ceremonies, from the first
degree until the
last of the "Higher Grades," it would appear to be precisely that
which should receive at the hands of the Craft its most loving care,
its most anxious
attention. It would not be an exaggeration to say that in itself it
than repay any man for the effort and cost of his Masonic initiation,
it is so wise
in its teachings, so profound in its truths, and so useful to have in
To know and to practice it is to be made wise in the art of life, than
other art can ever be half so important, or nearly so valuable.
The Pillars and the Pavement
pillars that figure so prominently in its ceremonies are reminiscent of
mighty columns that stood out in front of King Solomon's temple, not to
its roof but as symbolical reminders of truths and forces in government
and in religion.
Our earlier monitorialists made much of the names of these pillars,
they suggested the massive powers which, pillar-like, uphold the,
vast scheme of things, with its immeasurable spaces and its
Before such a Power as that it is meet that a man bow down in worship,
in order to have engraved inside his heart the truth that the Almighty
Himself a builder and a maker, and that the most godlike man is he
whose life is
the most constructive.
angle of vision the pillars suggest the fact of birth, which has within
and larger meanings than one will discover at first thought. One does
into a well-furnished manhood by chance, like a drunkard blundering
through a doorway,
but by virtue of labor and preparation: on the one side is the
with its wisdom concerning the earth, its facts of sense, its physical
its manual tasks; and on the other the celestial globe, with its wisdom
of the spiritual
life, of the intellect, the conscience, and the imagination.
pavement is most frequently explained as symbolizing the checkered
nature of human
life, especially in middle life, when the heat is intense, and the way
is hard owing
to the many burdens to be carried; but one has the feeling that to the
it may have had another suggestion. The makers of the cathedrals loved
especially in Italy where the Cosmati family* became famous for its
ability to lay
checkered floors, or inlay with colored metals and glass. According to
old books and pictures (especially one by Holbein) the black and white
pavement when laid in a church or cathedral symbolized the eternity of
in contrast to which a man, as he walked across the earth, was very
humble and very
transient. There is more than a merely pious sentiment in this, for it
is a part
of wisdom to remember "that the sweet days die," that in a very little
while the end will come when we must lay down our tools and call the
The trestle board of one's life should be adjusted to that scale, for
world is eternal, so that its white days and black nights stretch
one's own strength soon vanishes, therefore he is well advised who
more than he can do, or who learns not to waste the moments that are so
out of a boyish delusion that there is always plenty of time ahead.
* The Cosmati were a Roman family, seven members of which, for four
generations, were skilful architects, sculptors and workers in decorative geometric mosaic, mostly for church floors. Their name
is commemorated in the genre of Cosmatesque work, often just called "Cosmati",
a technique of opus sectile ("cut work") formed of elaborate inlays of small triangles and rectangles of colored
stones and glass mosaics set into stone
matrices or encrusted upon stone surfaces. Bands, panels and shaped
intricate mosaic alternate with contrasting bands, guilloches and simple geometric shapes of plain white
marble. Pavements and revetments were executed in Cosmatesque
were inlaid with fillets and bands, and immovable church furnishings
like cathedras and ambones were similarly treated. (rhm)
Operative and Speculative
connection between Operative and Speculative Masonry is so familiar,
and is explained
so well in the lectures, that there is no need here to enlarge on the
is good to remember that we are an Order of Builders. Our forefathers
in the Craft
wrought at buildings which to this day remain, many of them, in our
midst to remind
us of the majesty and loveliness of the architectural art. But we are
men; of ourselves first, and next of the world of manhood at large,
other the while as is meet that brothers do. It is easy to tear down,
to find fault, to destroy; it is a thing at which many beasts are
expert; to construct,
to erect, to preserve, that is more difficult, and nobler, requiring
art and a mind
that loves life with its values and its beautiful purposes.
A true Freemason
will not waste his time, or demean himself, by tearing down another's
wall. He respects
every man's temple, though it be erected to other gods than his own and
in his heart a reverence for every attempt made by anybody whatsoever
to raise toward
heaven the palaces of our human dream. One is reminded here of
sentence, "So builded we the wall!" Sanballat and his tribesmen were
iconoclasts, tearers down, but Nehemiah and his fellow workers, fellows
in the builder's
craft, let them childishly throw stones and try to pull down the
was to build the wall of the Temple, and they did it.
are Builders of the Brotherhood. They are sworn and dedicated to make
to prevail in all the relations of life, so that in society at large
will be felt
the same kindliness that makes a family circle so delightful. There is
sentimental in this; it is not a vague dream floating gossamer-like
before our eyes,
but an urgent necessity if the human race is ever to win its ways out
of the hells
in which it now suffers: it is the task of statesmen, the goal at which
aim, and it is something which if we men do not do it will never be
appears to be something implacable in the nature of things, something
not bend or swerve to suit our human fancy or to enable us to escape
of our acts, but moves majestically onward, so that if we men live in
ill will we must suffer the results. No arm is stretched down out of
the sky; no
wholesale miracle is performed; we must find a way to live happily
together or else
continue indefinitely to have within our lives all the agonies due to
and unkindness. Brotherhood is for the salvation of the race from its
pain; is there any task greater than that?
The Winding Stairs
no winding stairs in Solomon's Temple, no stairs at all except for the
led to the little rooms in the outer walls, therefore the winding
stairs in the
Fellowcraft Degree are manifestly symbolical. This is made all the more
by the fact that the steps are divided into groups of 3, 5 and 7, a
inherited from the days when these numbers had for men a mystical
has perhaps escaped us. Concerning the definitely symbolical meanings
of these things
there will ever be a deal of debate, but there call be little
difference or opinion
concerning the general idea involved. Human life, if it is ever to
if it ever arrives in the Holy of Holies, is, to quote the beautiful
old words of
Emerson, "an ascending effort." We can never rest on our oars. Always
it is effort, effort, and then more effort, climb after climb, step
Something in the depths of our souls seems to demand it; the manner in
world is built makes it necessary.
do not stand vertical or in a straight incline, but wind. It reminds us
of one of
the most sparkling books of recent years, a volume by Allen Upward
called The New
World [Lib 1914], in which that learned
English barrister works
out a theory that all vital activity in this world is spiral in its
pattern so that
life itself winds about and about in its ascending effort. There is
than fancy in this, if one may trust his own experiences, for in our
upwards towards more strength, wisdom and grace we now and again seem
to some point from which we started except that we are above it, and
our old truths in a new light.
The Liberal Arts and Sciences
of the Middle Ages divided their curriculum into seven branches, in two
one of three and one of four, called respectively the trivium and the
the former comprised usually grammar, rhetoric, and logic; the latter
music, astronomy and geometry. It is this old-time arrangement of
studies that remains
in the degree to symbolize an effective schooling. There is no need to
arrangement or to attempt to justify its use in this day and age; the
is that in Freemasonry the Liberal Arts and Sciences symbolize an
however this thing to be said about the medieval curriculum: it was a
in the humanities, and that is something worth thinking about. The
tendency in schools
nowadays is to give a student either a scientific course, so as to
equip him for
one of the technical professions, or else a course in business methods
with a view
to fitting him for office or factory. This is all well and good but it
is not a
complete education, and our educators will someday regret their
surrender to the
utilitarians who have demanded "a schooling that pays." Life is more
a profession, finer than a trade, it has ends and needs above and
outside of these,
important as they are. One has a religious and also an imaginative
with the universe which deserves to be developed and instructed; it is
just as important
to look upon the stars with the eye of reverence or as things of beauty
as to measure
their diameter or estimate their distances in space; the fields and
hills are to
be loved for their own sake, as well as to be converted into tillage
There are such things as art, poetry, music, and worship, and these too
are to have
a place in school. Also it is necessary for a man to understand his own
and the nature of the men and women with whom he lives, a need
satisfied by literature,
painting, and music. Every laborer is a man first, with neighbors and a
and a life to live; to give him nothing but a training in his craft is
to rob him
of his most precious birthright. The old ideal of the Liberal Arts, the
is nearer the truth and need of things than any ultra-modern drill in
technique. We need to understand nature; yes; but we need quite as much
Geometry and the Letter
men in the world were childlike in mind to a degree difficult for us to
The natural scheme of things must have puzzled them almost beyond
a medley it was! what a chaos! the simplest sequences of events, such
as the succession
of the seasons, was unknown to them so that they were like babes
into the dark, unable to make it all out. To men living under such
discovering of order, of number, of geometry must have broken with a
the coming of a new religion. Little wonder that they made so much of
them sacred and attributing to them all manner of secret and occult
as if the relations among the forces and substances of creation were
operation of an Infinite Mind. If modern philosophy gives a different
it that does not detract from the value of the old thinking.
and file of men, so it appears, have in the back of their minds a vague
matter in itself is a formless thing without character or structure, so
picture of creation is that some outside Power took charge of the
of brute stuff and impressed upon it shape and order in much the same
a clay modeler imposes upon a lump of dirt the likeness of a human
to this view there is no such thing as order in the nature of things;
order is fugitive
and transient, a something from without. But such is not the finding of
There is no such thing as matter by itself, matter as an abstract
are such things as water, air, gasses, wood, stone, metals, soil, etc.,
every such substance has a structure unimaginably complicated, so that
in the nature of things. Geometry is a revelation of that order, a
reducing to line
and diagram of the everlasting relations among all the substances and
of the universe. Can anything be more sublime than that?
reason to believe that the Letter G stood for this precious science,
though in our
day and more particularly in American lodges it is a symbol of
either event, and in the last analysis, the significance is the same,
Sacred Letter would have reference to that which is the Origin of the
of the universe.
The God of
Heaven and Earth is the beginning and end of all Masonic mysteries; it
is from Him
that we have come, it is unto Him that we go, and in all the journey
canopy of His love is over us. The definitions of His nature, the
His attributes may be left to the arguments of the theologians and the
of the metaphysicians; the fact of His existence admits of no argument;
it is "sure
as the most certain sure," the alpha and the omega of thought.
of Thomas Henry Huxley in a book recently published argues that in our
men of scientific training are finding out a new approach to God;
instead of trusting
to vague reports from the past or to ancient traditions, they are
he says, into the nature of life and the structure of the universe at
If this be so the scientist will find God as surely as the saint,
because He is
beings are not intruders from another world, temporary pilgrims from
outside the universe; we are part and parcel of the universe, as much a
the natural scheme of things as the blowing clover or the falling rain.
but one system of reality; this is it; we are a part of it. The soul in
immortal spirit, our inmost thoughts and ideals belong as much to this
reality as clods or boulders, so that in the very structure of the
is that out of which spirit can come, self-consciousness, thought,
and dreams, so that the scheme of things is not a soulless mechanism, a
dirt, a flux of blind forces, but a Something that can bring souls into
and sustain them. The Letter G is inscribed on the forehead of
creation, it is written
on the tiniest atom.
It is a mistake
to suppose that education is a mere device to train a man in a
handicraft, or a
collection of pieces of information of more or less practical use;
at last to truth, and God is the truth about the universe. This is the
of Holies, the true Inner Chamber into which, at the last, a
and the vision he has there, the consolation, the strength and the
everlasting life together make up the wages he receives. Such wages are
to earn which it is worth every man's most manly endeavor, and that at
What A Fellowcraft Should
This is what
a Fellowcraft should know ‒ the need, the nature, and the purpose of
along with the attendant realization of the disastrousness of
ignorance. A human
being begins life in utter helplessness; he cannot even lift his head
from the pillow.
The same human being must at last become a man, full grown and equipped
to do his
own share of the work of the world, live his own life as a man should,
the universe as an intelligent being. The sum total of the influences
this gap between helplessness and maturity is education; books,
and experience are means to that end. It is the conscious shaping of
of growth, the purposive direction of experience toward the end of a
manhood that is the grand end and goal of every Mason who must needs be
with the study of learning, and the admiration of virtue; stirred up
with high hopes
of living to be brave men, and worthy patriots, dear to God, famous to
By Bro. W.J. Barclay, Canada
a tale of old times in language as beautiful as its theme, and so
conceived as to
enable us to recover the human scene out of which Hiram went to build
Temple in Jerusalem. Bro. Barclay is a native of Beith, Ayrshire,
now a resident of Vancouver, B. C., Canada. During twenty years'
experience as a
journalist he contributed to many magazines, Masonic and otherwise. He
a Mason in Glenwood Lodge, Souris, Manitoba; was W. M. of his lodge in
1904; is a member of North Vancouver Chapter, Royal Arch. Bro. Barclay
regularly to "The Square," a beautiful Masonic monthly published in
under the editorship of Bro. R.J. Templeton, whose work is winning an
circle of attention.
the heat of the sun, an elderly woman reclined upon a couch on the
of a palace in the ancient city of Tyre, overlooking the entrance to
its busy harbor.
Near her, a dark-skinned slave girl stirred the air with a large fan of
plumes. Her gaze wandered over the comings and goings of the boats of
and over occasional merchant galleys returning from, or outward bound
wonderful voyages of barter and adventure in far-off lonely seas, that
mariners of Phoenicia renowned throughout the ancient world.
gaze of Nedoure, widow of Benaiah, centered upon a galley, deeply
its way towards the city. She could faintly hear the crash of cymbals
for the double banks of rowers, and memories of the past ‒ seldom,
in these latter years ‒ stirred more vividly than usual in her mind.
years had passed away since such a ship as this she was watching had
the harbor, bearing homeward in its bosom the poor crushed body of her
the victim of an unhappy accident. For more than a year he had been
absent on the
Island of Cyprus superintending the erection of a temple for the
for Benaiah of Tyre was a master builder who excelled in architectural
and was skilled in the founding of brass and bronze.
of Nedoure moved inaudibly in prayer ‒ not to Baal, or to Moloch, or
even to the
more beneficent Melcarthe, tutelary deity of Tyre. Her prayer was
addressed to the
great Jehovah of the Israelitish nation, for she was a woman of the
Tribe of Naphtali:
of the abundance of Thy mercy, O God of my fathers, visit not the sins
mother upon her children. Keep their hearts free from the pollution of
worship, that they may continue ever to follow in the light of Thy
ways, as has
been taught by Thy holy prophets."
death of her husband, the life of Nedoure had been a happy one; but
never had she
forgotten the anathemas hurled by the religious leaders of Israel upon
married into an alien people, a practice which tended to weaken the
of the great family of Jacob, and to forgetfulness of their faith in
were a tolerant people. They were no addicted to any singular or
unsocial form of
worship. Their widespread commercial dealings led them to mingle with
without scruple or reluctance. Benaiah had never sought to change his
and he had respected her anxious efforts to instil her own beliefs in
of their two children. The constant influence of a loving wife and fond
rather its reaction on himself. The creative principle which the
under the name of Baal; its antithesis, the destroying principle, which
as the fire god of Moloch; and the active, protecting, providential
regulated human affairs and was worshipped as Melcarthe, were
recognized by his
cultured mind as the probable agents of the dread Jehovah.
She Lives Among Aliens
happiness had been marred at times of introspection, when memory
carried her back
to the green hills of Naphtali. She felt she must ever remain on
outcast from her
own people, for they, had not looked with favor upon her marriage. She
faithfully to serve the God of Israel, but it was with a certain
her surroundings. Nor could she regard with satisfaction the future of
who were tied more closely to this land of idol worship ‒ the land of
A mist of tears welled into her eyes and a further prayer rose to her
voice of her daughter, Elissa, woke the mother from her melancholy
dear, the dew of those far away fields in Naphtali thou hast so often
told us about
has fallen upon thine eyes."
to her brother, who had entered the verandah with her:
thou them dry, Hiram."
face of her stalwart brother bent down to obey the playful command of
happiness is in the strength of her son, and in the beauty of a
The maternal benediction of a mother of Tyre was the answer of Nedoure
to the greeting
of the loving mischievous pair who had so softly surprised her. Then,
as she recalled
the work upon which her son had been engaged that day, she asked:
thou been successful with the great castings, Hiram?"
are according to my highest expectations," he replied.
when wilt thou lead thy lions to their new home?" broke in Elissa, in
their coats shall have been groomed to a sufficient lustre by my
answered Hiram, smilingly. And he added, "I will bargain with Megara
Elissa, shalt be allowed to feed them every time they roar with the
pain of hunger."
was to a pair of colossal bronze lions that Hiram, son of Benaiah, had
by a wealthy merchant to erect as decorations on each side of the wide
that led to his palatial home. The foundry and workshops of Benaiah had
to prosper under Hiram's management. But the artistry of the son had
special distinction. The call upon his talents was constant for the
of the temples of the gods and the luxurious homes of the merchant
princes in that
wonder city of commerce.
doth business call thee now, my son?" enquired Nedoure, the solicitude
mother noting that he was dressed for some important occasion.
not, mother, if it be a matter of business. A messenger from my lord
the king, whose
name by his favor I bear, hath summoned me to his presence."
father, as thou knowest, Hiram, was greatly favored at the court. In
his youth he
had travelled in many lands and had gathered much knowledge. It was his
make live in words that which he had seen. Our lord delighted in his
when thou wast born he bestowed his name upon thee, saying he would
give it a double
chance to live in the memories of men when the greatness of Tyre might
poor sculptures will avail but little to merit such remembrance. Thou
mother, how my father once told us of the vast monuments that stand by
of Egypt, a wonder to all beholders, but the names of their builders
have been long
things of the heart, my son, are more enduring than mountains of stone.
to a trust reposed in us, even unto death, will continue in the hearts
of men unto the end of time."
and took her daughter by the hand.
thou returnest, Hiram, thou shalt tell us why the King hath sent for
thee. We are
curious to learn with what new commission thy skill will be put to the
his departure, and mother and daughter entered the house. When they
apartments, Nedoure turned to her daughter:
hour agone I watched a ship pass into the harbor that had a familiar
mother, has Mazaroth returned?"
not for certain, child. My mind was so full of thoughts of the past
that at the
time I was not reminded of him. If thy Mazaroth hath returned he will
claim my consent
to your marriage, and as yet my judgment wavers, for he is not of our
child, do not weep! Listen, and I will tell thee a tale of another
young girl who
is now grown old and weary." Elissa dried her tears. She sensed the
was about to hear would be the love story of her own mother.
a fertile valley among the southern foothills of Lebanon," began
a pause to collect her thoughts, "dwelt this maiden with her father and
elder brother. It was a beautiful land that had been apportioned of old
to the Tribe
of Naphtali. In the distance could be seen the mighty crests of Lebanon
the blue sky, with winter on their heads, spring upon their shoulders,
their sloping sides, and summer at their feet. For years the Kingdom of
been torn with strife between the houses of Saul and David. At length
and when he was crowned king at Hebron the elders of the people from
among the twelve
tribes were required to attend and render him their submission. Among
from Naphtali was the maiden's father, taking gifts to the king of
corn, wine, oil
and fine linen.
the return journey evil befell. In the midst of Israel there was one
city left in
possession of its firs inhabitants because of the covenant our father
with them when he purchased the Cave of Machpelah as a burial place.
This was the
city of Jebus. A band of marauders from thence attacked and scattered
party of elders from the tribe of the north. The maiden's father was
wounded and left for dead by the roadside. It was the great highway by
caravans of Tyre travelled to Egypt and to Elath on the Red Sea.
Happily, such a
caravan, returning to Tyre, found the wounded man. A young Tyrian
builder, who had
been to Egypt gathering knowledge of his art, was wondrously kind to
his wounds and causing his servants to carry him on a litter. When
their ways diverged,
the young man and his servants separated from the caravan and brought
the aged man
safely to his home in the vale of Lebanon in the land of Naphtali.
young Tyrian lingered in that hospitable home for many days. Sown in
watered with the eloquent language of the eyes, and warmed in the
sunshine of a
noble presence and pleasing address, the flower of love soon blossomed
in the maiden's
heart. The young man sought her father's consent to their marriage, but
he had learned to love the young man as a son, consent to the marriage
of a daughter
of Israel with a worshipper of strange gods was something to which he
felt he could
not agree. The maiden wept many bitter tears, and the young Tyrian
the old man's blessing, promising to return again.
a year passed away before he returned. In that time great changes had
in the maiden's home. Her aged parent had never recovered from his
wounds, and was
gathered in love and honor to his fathers. Her elder brother was now
head of the
household, and the maiden's position was very different from what it
had been when
her father lived. Disconsolate and full of sorrow, the return of the
was most welcome to her in her loneliness. Her brother steadfastly
refused his consent
to their marriage, and in the end they fled to Tyre and were married
thou wilt have guessed ere now, Elissa, the story is that of thy father
Never lived a nobler man and kinder husband than he. Yet the laws of
the commands of Jehovah. If I have offended Him in this, my tears and
surely inclined Him towards compassion where love and duty did so
was silent. Elissa put her arms around her mother's neck and kissed her.
I understand, mother dear, thy reluctance to grant the prayer of
Mazaroth. Let us
hope the Most Holy Lord will show us that the ways of true love and
not always divergent paths."
it may be so, my daughter, but I have looked, and longed, and hoped for
for many years."
Hiram Brings News
daughter continued to talk for a long time together. They were at
by the announcement that Hiram had returned. Permission having been
entered. It was evident from his subdued, serious manner, and from the
glow in his
dark eyes, that he was the bearer of important news. He crossed the
room and knelt
by his mother's side.
face paled with foreboding that some misfortune had befallen.
hath happened to thee, Hiram?" she asked, anxiously.
tidings I bring, mother. Several ancient men of the Hebrew nation were
with my lord,
the King. They are bearers of a scroll from Solomon, their ruler,
asking that a
Tyrian architect be sent to erect a great temple to Jehovah at
Jerusalem. My lord
hath appointed me to undertake the work."
art to build a temple to Jehovah at Jerusalem?"
King hath so ordained."
her son in silence as the full import of the announcement grew in her
returning colour suffused her features with maternal pride beyond the
power of utterance.
Embracing him as tears of happiness flowed softly down her cheeks, she
length words with which to express somewhat of the fullness of her
be the Name of the Lord! He honoreth the faithful among His servants.
those who put their trust in Him, for He hath delivered me from the
all my people. Truly, Elissa, I see at last the vision of the two paths
Thou, Hiram, hast been reared to reverence and worship Jehovah, and
thou hast the
wisdom of building which is lacking in Israel. Seest ye not, my
children, how the
purposes of God are bong worked out in our lives?"
drew her daughter to her with a gesture of love:
too, shalt be happy, Elissa. My path hath been made straight, and mine
been opened to the unfathomable ways of God's Providence in dealing
with His children.
Let us give thanks unto the Lord, for He is good; His mercy endureth
To An Aged Brother -- [A Poem]
folded hands you sit so quietly
No inward seethe or outward moil I see;
But facing toward the sunset and the stars,
Serene you are, and helpful, too, to me.
While still before me are the many years
For health, for life, for love and happiness;
Yet I, with fume and fuss, do soil the air
With weak emotions and unquietness.
Ah! teach me, dear old White Haired Friend, to walk,
Ere life is dust, the calm and lowly ways;
Not as a weakling, fretting toward the dark,
But as a gentle servant through my days.
of the Old Operative Masons
By Bro. P.A. Fenger, Denmark
the "secret" of Freemasonry about which one hears so much? Nowadays we
know it to be a secret in the heart, but time was, so Masonic
when it was a trade secret after the fashion of the secret processes
that are today
patented, copyrighted or otherwise protected by law. If so, the
What was that trade secret? Learned works have been written in an
attempt to answer
the question, notable among which was a paper contributed to "Ars
by Sidney Klein, to be found in Vol. XXIII, page 107. With these
efforts to solve
a problem of Masonic history the paper herewith is to be classed. Bro.
a consulting engineer of Copenhagen, Denmark, who has enjoyed
to make a study of the matter dealt with. His essay was recommended for
in these pages by Bro. F.J.W. Crowe, author of a number of important
including the revision of Gould's "Concise History."
feature of the four small London lodges which united in 1717 was a
oath of secrecy, so extraordinary and strict that those not initiated
infer that the Masons were in possession of secrets of corresponding
The natural result of the presumed secret knowledge was a rapid
increase in membership.
However, as the secrets revealed in no way corresponded to the severity
of the oath,
there began a searching after and invention of mysteries of all kinds.
had been operative crafts dating from the Gothic period, and the oath
formulated when these crafts were at their height. Is it possible that
at that time had a trade secret; or did they only aim at segregating
as "a state within a state" in order to be free to keep justice and
their incomes without interference from others?
of Anderson mentions geometry and architecture as the principal
sciences of the
Craft. In his paper, read Dec. 27, 1725, at the inauguration of the
of New York, Bro. Drake mentions geometry and architecture; yet in both
sciences are treated as open and no hint is made of Masons possessing
beyond that of well-informed persons of their time.
geometry the pupil is taught to construct a pentagon and, in connection
also to divide a line according to the "golden cut" (sectio aurea).
geometric relation is expressed by the equation
a/b = b/(a+c)
which can be written as
b = a(1 +
(sqrt(5))/2 = a X 1.618.... = a X q
exists among any three consecutive members of a series of the form
a/q(^2) ; a/q; a ; a q(^2); a q(^3)
the same relation is found in the following series of whole numbers in
member is formed by addition of the two preceding ones
3; 5; 8;
13; 21; 34; 55
It is an
acknowledged fact that the proportions of the "golden cut" throughout
ancient times were considered to be of special merit, and that Greek
themselves to have found them in the ideal human body. Likewise the
that age concerned themselves with this proportion.
In the pentagram,
a symbol of great importance among the Pythagoreans, this proportion
all the component parts.
cut" was in itself not a secret but it can be maintained that in the
times mystic ideas were connected with it, and it should be noted that
no information regarding the practical use of the "cut" in
Vitruvius seems purposely to avoid direct mention of its application.
A Modern Instance
a violent dispute arose among the architects of Norway. The cathedral
erected about the year 1200, the most historic monument of the country,
centuries a ruin, was to be re-erected in its original splendor; but
were so sparse and so low, that opinions regarding its original
perturbation when the historian, Macody Lund, asserted that the
of the church could be re-constructed with certainty and exactness
after a systematic
geometric procedure. Having overcome the initial unanimous incredulity,
gradually gained adherents and its proponent finally succeeded, aided
from his government, in setting forth his ideas and proofs in a
upon the subject. (See note 1)
principal aim was the re-construction of the church in certain vertical
the correctness of which he endeavored to prove from faint traces in
the ruin and
by his geometric system, while his method and his opinion of the Gothic
of common interest.
are so long and intricate that we can only account for them here
briefly. He maintains
that Gothic architects based the ground plan of a church upon a system
squares which, through division by four, were in turn sub-divided into
so that in the ground plan all dimensions could be derived from the
length of the
side of the original square by division by 2.
Lund system is a geometrical method which can be applied in different
ways, so that
dissimilar buildings of the same dimensions may be erected according to
it. It must
be admitted that when the architect has once settled upon the principal
of the ground plan and the elevation, then he is no more entirely free
in that the
remaining details for the greater part naturally follow according to
the rule but
this restraint engenders the style.
Not a small
number of Danish architects agree with Macody Lund. Some have tried
to design according to his system. They do not regard this system as
merely a possible
one, but rather the essential element ‒ the backbone ‒ of Gothic
ascribe the failure of modern Gothic buildings to the fact that the
designed with a free hand, ignoring the support and restraint of this
If we agree
with be supposition that the Gothic architects used such a geometrical
we must also agree with the two following:
of the artisans were
initiated in this system. Each artisan was not
necessarily acquainted with the chief dimensions of the great
cathedral, the erection
of which lasted more than a century, but the system was equally applied
such as windows, carved chair backs and reliquaries ‒ objects entirely
left to the
execution of the artisans.
the architects and the
artisans have kept the system a secret. There
are no written accounts extant (note 2) and it is not known that a
textbook of dimensions
has ever existed. The system has been kept so secret that to this day,
could be denied. As witnesses only the buildings remain on whose stones
Was This The Secret Of The
Craft knew the Gothic system and esteemed it of great importance to
keep it secret.
of secrecy which has been preserved is formulated so that it not only
to reveal to the uninitiated what they may learn, but it also forbids
them to write
about it or to draw it, not even for their own use in the Craft. This
is quite to
be understood for indeed the system could hardly be revealed to a
merely through uncautiousness or loquacity. Nothing but a written
drawings and examples of its use and importance ‒ by its mere existence
be of danger.
the building of Gothic churches ceased and other styles of architecture
in which the system was not used. The old customs of the Craft,
including the oath
of secrecy, were conscientiously preserved. Even if the older members
mentioned the system sometimes, it was of no interest to the younger
and naturally the system became quite forgotten, when the architects no
instruction in it and the artisans no longer applied it.
the period preceding 1717 was one of absolute stagnation with regard to
and the four lodges united because their membership being so
diminished, one lodge
was insufficient to celebrate a festival in a befitting manner.
the members had preserved the customs and the oath, but in their minds
applied only to the ceremonies. The fact that the (Craft, two hundred
had been in possession of a trade secret, at that time of the utmost
had entirely disappeared from memory and tradition, because their
true to their oath ‒ had never confided it to paper.
Note 1. ‒ Bro.
Macody Lund. Ad Quadratum [Lib*]. A/S Nelge Erickson Forlag,
Kristiania 1919. ‒ English translation published by B.T. Batssford. See
Lund. Alb. Cammermeyers Forlag, Kristiania 1917.
Note 2. ‒ The only exception is: Beltrami. Annuali
della fabbrica del duoms di Milano. 1877.
rites and ceremonies of primitive man are still in use here and there
in the world,
some of them, as the following will show, at our very doors. The Hopi
an agricultural people of Arizona who maintain their old religious
of which are built up about the planting and reaping of their crops.
was granted to publish here an explanation of their principal symbol,
The Sun Shield
by the Fred Harvey Company of Kansas City. An examination of these
show how the unsophisticated mind makes use of symbolism, a subject of
interest to Masons.
live in seven isolated towns perched on three almost inaccessible mesas
Arizona ‒ a semi-desert region with seemingly endless open spaces,
where hardy desert
plants do their best to cover the nakedness of the country. Along the
are a few cottonwoods and on the mesas some juniper and pinyon trees,
while in the
sheltered places some rare and beautiful flowers are found.
rainfall sinks almost immediately into the sandy wastes, so there are
rivers in Hopi-land, and springs ‒ the most valued of all the Hopi's
‒ are few and far between.
Here in this
land of little rain the Hopi have planted their fields, set up their
with fervent supplication to their many gods have wrestled unceasingly
desert for a living. Out of its rocks they have built their houses,
with the fibers
of its plants and skins of its animals they have clothed themselves; of
they have molded their pottery and with its grasses woven baskets of
are solely an agricultural people; their very existence depends on the
the earth. Every spot on the desert where moisture lingers long enough
a crop of corn or beans or melons is cultivated and protected from seed
harvest against the desert's ever-shifting sands ‒ an eternal battle
a never-ceasing prayer for rain!
naturally shape the religious beliefs of a primitive people, causing
them to deify
the elements. So the Hopi have their gods of wind and rain, of thunder
of sunshine and storm; of famine and plenty.
ceremonials these mythical deities are represented by masked dancers,
The symbol representing each deity is painted on the masks and the
dancers are thereby
supposed to be transformed into the deities themselves, who act as
between the people and their still higher gods.
is used in the Soyaluna ceremony, which is celebrated during the month
In charge of the Soyal Fraternity, the largest religious organization
this nine-days' ceremonial is a supplication to the Sun God to pause in
flight and return to the pueblos. Many Bahos or prayer-sticks are
the ceremony, after which they are put in corrals that their stock may
tied to fruit trees to produce bountiful crops, and placed in springs
an abundant water supply.
is the most important symbol in the Soyaluna ceremony, for the Sun God
is the All-Powerful
deity of Hopi mythology. The colors in the shield have a symbolic
represents the north, green the west, red the south, white the east,
and black the
heavens. Thus is depicted the entire Hopi universe.
The Seven-Branched Candlestick
By Bro. C.C. Hunt, Associate
writes as follows:
Grand Chapter insists on the display of the seven-branched candlestick
in the M.E.
Degree in the Royal Arch. I have read carefully I Kings, II Chronicles
I can find nowhere where it is mentioned in the Temple of King Solomon,
but in front
of the veil before the Holy of Holies the ten golden candlesticks
connected by golden
chains are mentioned. Josephus in Book VIII, Chapter 4, page 79, tells
taking from the temple the golden candlesticks (plural). In the
11th edition, Vol. XXVI, page 606, is mentioned ten golden
lampstands. Page 607 of the same volume mentions one golden candlestick
table for shewbread in the sanctuary. In the Royal Arch Degree a
tabernacle is where
the Council meets and naturally Zerubbabel would imitate as far as
seven-branched candlestick made by Moses by the command of God.”
it strikes me that maybe this difference occurs from the fact that
a temple, whereas Moses and Zerubbabel only worshipped in a tabernacle.
enlighten me? Of course, what Grand Chapter orders must be done, but
still it may
be in error. Sorry to bother you with all this, but I would like to
know how I stand.
As far as the working of the M.E. Degree is concerned, it cuts very
Mackey in his Encyclopedia says: 'In the tabernacle, the seven-branched
was placed opposite the table of shewbread. What became of it between
the time of
Moses and that of Solomon is unknown, but it does not appear to have
in the first Temple. In Masonry it seems to have no symbolic meaning,
be the general one of light.'"
The use of
the seven-branched candlestick in the Most Excellent Degree is correct
to the General Grand Chapter ritual, and has, I believe, an important
reference in the work of that degree. The Temple plan followed that of
very closely. We are told in our Masonic work that the Tabernacle was
for King Solomon's Temple. The Temple, of course, permitted greater
than the Tabernacle, but the same general plan was followed.
for the Tabernacle were given to Moses in the mountain. (Exodus,
Chapters 25 to
31.) These directions included the form by which the candlestick was to
and Moses was enjoined to see that he followed the pattern there given
25: 40.) The actual work of making the candlestick was entrusted to
31:2-8) and the office was duly performed by him. (Exodus 37:17-24.)
was to be placed on the south side of the table of shewbread (Exodus
lighted by night only. (Exodus 30:8. I Samuel 3:3.) Caldecott says:
light of day was no longer able to find its way into the Temple, owing
to the double
doors and the partition, ten such candlesticks were made, of which five
on either side of the Holy Place."
"In Solomon's temple, instead
of one candelabrum
there were ten upon golden tables ‒ five on the north and five on the
of the Holy Place. The larger number fitted the larger space and the
of the worship (I Kings vii. 49). The Chaldaeans carried them to
Babylon (Jer. 1ii.
9). In the second temple there was only one candlestick (Eccluc. xxvi.
17; 'as the
clear light is upon the holy candlestick, so is the beauty of the face
in ripe age').
Antiochus Epiphanes removed it (I Macc. i. 21), and Judas Maccabaeus
(Mace. iv. 49); and it remained in Herod's temple until the destruction
when Titus carried it to Rome, and it figured in his triumphal
procession and was
sculptured upon his arch, although it would seem not altogether
War, VII. 5, 5). It was then deposited in the Temple of Peace.
According to one
account it fell into the Tiber from the Milvian Bridge during the
flight of Maxentius
from Constantine, Oct. 28, 312; but the usually accredited story is
that it was
taken to Carthage by Genseric, 455 (Gibbon iii. 291), recovered by
to Constantinople, and then respectfully deposited in the Christian
Church of Jerusalem
533 (id. iv. 24). Nothing more has been heard of it." (Page 384.)
brief, is the history of the golden candlestick.
to the letter of inquiry noted above, it would seem to be the opinion
of the writer
that the ten golden candlesticks of the Temple were different in form
used in the Tabernacle, but such was not the case. In II Chronicles,
4:7, we find
the statement, "He made ten candlesticks of gold according to their
The revised version translates this "according to the ordinances
them." Another translation gives it "according to the form which they
were commanded to be made by." The ordinances concerning them are found
Exodus 25:31-40, which gives the form used in the Tabernacle, and
same form must have been followed for the candlesticks used in the
Temple. It would
also seem that there were ten tables of shewbread (II Chron, 4:8).
In I Chronicles,
28:15, reference is made to the "candlesticks of gold and their lamps
‒ "Each candlestick and the lamps thereof." Notice the plural "lamps"
with each candlestick. Notice also in II Chronicles 28:16, reference to
of shewbread. Thus it will be seen that there is no reason why the
candlestick should not be used in the Most Excellent Degree as well as
in the Royal
Arch. It is not necessary to duplicate the elaborate furniture of the
our Most Excellent Degree. The single table and candlestick of the
the second Temple has the same symbolism as the ten of the first Temple.
no discrepancy in the references from the Encyclopedia Britannica. The
candlesticks mentioned on page 607 of Vol. XXVI refer to the Temple,
single golden candlestick mentioned on page 607 refers to Zerubbabel's
might also say that the Jewish Encyclopedia claims that the reference
to ten candlesticks
in Jeremiah and in Kings is an interpolation. If that is the case it is
that it is an interpolation in Chronicles, also.
I do not
agree with Mackey in stating that the candlestick has no symbolic
meaning in Masonry.
It is true that no symbolic meaning is attached to it in the ritual,
but the very
fact that it is used as part of the furniture of the degree indicates
that it has
the same symbolism there that it had in its place in the Temple, which
the seven lights represent the seven planets, which, regarded as the
eyes of God,
behold everything. The light in the center signifies the sun, the chief
of the planets.
The other six planets represented by the three lamps on each side of
light are Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Uranus was
as a planet by Sir William Herschel in 1781 A. D. and the earth was
as receiving light from the planets instead of being considered a
candlestick was especially holy, and it was forbidden to make copies of
it for general
purposes. For other purposes than that of its place in the Temple the
be five, six, or eight, etc., instead of seven.
chapter of Zechariah gives a symbolical meaning to the seven-branched
which is very appropriate to our chapter work. In fact, part of this
is quoted in the work of the degrees. From this chapter, taken in
other passages from the Bible, it will be seen that the seven-branched
represents a stone with seven eyes, and the seven lamps are the seven
eyes of the
Lord. With these eyes He sees the plummet in the hands of Zerubbabel.
are the eyes of the Lord which run to and fro through the whole earth."
also II Chron. 16:9.)
It is not
by might nor by power that Zerubbabel is to accomplish his great task
the Temple, but by the spirit of the Lord overseeing his work through
In Revelation, the Lamb of God is likened to the seven-branched
seven horns and seven eyes which are the seven spirits of God sent
forth into all
It has been
thought by some that the words of Christ, "I am the light of the
were suggested by the seven-branched candlestick of the Temple, but it
is more likely
that he was simply referring to the prophecies concerning the Messiah
and of which
it may be the candlestick was the symbol. How fitting it is that this
the symbol of the spirit of the Lord and the light of His countenance
us through His eyes, beholding and encouraging us in the noble and
of fitting ourselves as living stones for the spiritual building which
is to be
our eternal dwelling place, should have a place in the ceremonies of
the Most Excellent
Master's Degree, the sign which symbolizes the completion of that work
and the dedication
of the Temple to the service of the only true and living God!
A Striking Incident in English
WHEN a few
months since it was announced that the Marquess of Zetland had resigned
of Provincial Grand Master for North and East Yorkshire, which he had
1874, much anxiety was experienced by the members of the province,
its formation in 1817. Has been in the successive charge of the first,
third Earls of Zetland, the last-named having been created first
gave place to gratitude when it was announced that the Grand Master,
the Duke of
Connaught, had been pleased to appoint as successor to the Marquess his
the Earl of Ronaldshay, thus preserving a succession unparalleled in
of English Masonic history. Although Lord Ronaldshay has succeeded to a
to which he might be considered entitled by heredity and tradition, his
has not been determined on these grounds alone. He possesses special
for Masonic rulership. During the five years he was Governor of Bengal
he was District
Grand Master of an area greater than that of the United Kingdom and had
over brethren of varied races and religions. As long since as 1910 he
Senior Grand Warden of England and last May he succeeded Lord Bolton as
of Royal Arch Masonry in North and East Yorkshire.
was carried out by Lord Ampthill, Pro-Grand Master, who brought with
him a personal
message from the Grand Master who desired him to tell the brethren how
gratefully he appreciated the services rendered by Lord Zetland, who
for half a
century had been not only a pillar of strength to Freemasonry but also
one of the
most conspicuous ornaments to their great society. They were fortunate
had, said Lord Ampthill, such a Provincial Grand Master and, speaking
as the representative
of Grand Lodge, it was a source of pride that one who is so highly and
should have been for so long a time among the principal rulers of the
Craft in England.
They thanked Lord Zetland for the services he had rendered to
Freemasonry, by his
earnestness and zeal, by his wisdom and justice, but, above all, by his
in public and private life. Particularly did they hope that
T.C.A.O.T.U. would spare
him to see his son carrying on the traditions of his rule and those
which his distinguished
ancestors had maintained in the Craft for more than a hundred years,
traditions to higher stages of progress, towards the realization of the
which Freemasonry exists, and adding further lustre to the splendid and
services to Freemasonry of the House of Dundas.
its early history Freemasonry everywhere applied the unlimited
resources of architectural
skill to developing divine ideas through symbolized stone. Operative
to God the grandest temples on earth, and filled them with aspiring
mystic arches. Freemasonry worked out in granite blocks the thoughts
of the middle ages. Popular imagination found its correct exponent and
conveyed its most impressive lessons of faith and submission in these
works of art.
No other means could so accurately evoke that Christian emotional
the rude and rugged character of social life at this period. The single
presented itself to the Masonic architect was to find suitable
expression for the
heart yearnings and moral aspirations of the people. This purpose was
a persistent zeal which resulted in art productions of wondrous beauty
So long as architects realized the anticipations of the Middle Ages, so
Freemasonry, through the erection of superb edifices, furnished an
for national ideas, just that long Masonry continued to create
of worship, and preserved a vigorous existence as an operative science.
popular thought found expression by means of printing presses, church
began immediately to retrograde and with it Operative Masonry rapidly
and then many of the abstruse and abstract principles of the building
art were totally
Cedars Of Lebanon: How "The Cedar Grove" Was Organized
By Bro. Walter Booth Adams,
M.A., M.D., Syria
our readers will have in memory the delightful paper by Bro. Dr. Adams,
in this journal, April, 1923, page 108. When asked "to write some
he responded with the following account of sociable activities among
wives and sweethearts" in far away Syria. Members of the "Tall Cedars"
will be especially interested to read how "The Cedar Grove" came to be
established in sight of the Cedars of Lebanon.
with me from Lebanon, my spouse, with me
Down with me from Lebanon to sail upon the sea;
The ship is wrought of ivory, the decks of gold, and thereupon
Are sailors singing bridal songs and waiting to cast free.
Come with me from Lebanon, my spouse, with me from Lebanon
The rowers there are ready and will welcome thee with shouts
The sails are silken and scarlet, cut and sewn in Babylon,
The Scarlet of the painted lips of women thereabouts.
And there for thee is spikenard, calamus and cinnamon,
Pomegranates and frankincense and flagons full of wine
And cabins carved in cedar wood that came from scented Lebanon
And all the ship and singing crew and rowers there are shine.
Come with me from Lebanon, my spouse, with me from Lebanon
They're hauling up the anchor and but tarrying there for thee;
The boatswain's whistling for a wind, a wind to blow from Lebanon
A wind from scented Lebanon to blow them out to sea.
THE key of
F seems to fit your song; while I am away up in G." I remarked to three
house officers on the dock just as was embarking the last time to
travel East again
to my Syrian home. "The badge looks Masonic," I said, "the square
and compasses are there on a blue field, but I don't understand that
'F' in place
of the 'G'." All three officers opened their wallets and drew out their
as I did the same; and they explained that the "F" stood for "Federal."
In other words, there were about 500 Masons in the Federal service who
united in a club for mutual help and as "a play-ground" for themselves
and their families. It was a new one to me. "The Syrian Grotto," whose
badge I saw often, interested me for I have spent thirty-three years of
in Syria; while the Crescent and Sword of "The Shriners" had been
to me long before I traveled East, this "play-ground of freezing
as one called the thirty-two degrees. These associations of Masons I
with, but "The Tall Cedars" I did not know of until a year ago when I
was telling Judge Dawkins of Baltimore of our Cedar Grove while home on
and he remarked, "That is singular. I am a Tall Cedar," and he fished
from his pocket a button bearing a cedar tree. And soon after we read
Harding being received into "The Tall Cedars." Our name was quite
of the association in America. We knew not of it when we organized.
On my arrival
in Syria, where I have taught in the medical school of The America
Beirut since 1890, I had much amusement in putting certain questions to
colleagues whom I knew had been members of our Craft many years,
whereas I had taken
my obligations while on my furlough in the home land. But that is
My American friends, members of the Fraternity, were also pleased and
for a little mental arithmetic will show that I am not as young as I
used to be;
but at any rate, as the women voters say, "I'm over 21."
days after our return we were invited to the summer home in Lebanon of
one of the
American residents of Beirut to celebrate his birthday. Soon after our
other cars came and discharged their loads of professors, instructors,
Relief workers, and business men, with their wives, head nurses in the
hospital and other young ladies who were the daughters or sisters of
were a jolly party. We all soon found an appetite; for it was so great
a change from the warm sea coast city to the delicious coolness of a
2500 feet above that beautiful blue sea. We followed our guide out into
where little tables were scattered about among the profusion of
flowers, while overhead
were hung strings of gay Japanese lanterns of many hues. Just as we
and thanks had been returned to the Great Giver of all, and our host
that it was "an automat banquet" and the men would wait on the ladies,
the great, golden, full moon rose over a shoulder of one of Lebanon's
shed her beauty on the scene. The ladies in summer dress, the flowers,
cut, the great and lesser lights, and the food, and perhaps more than
all the camaraderie
and good-fellowship made it a memorable scene.
As the latest
initiate and one just back from the home land I was asked to make a
speech. No Masonic
banquet, at any rate no American one, would be complete without "a few
So while chewing on the chicken salad and other good things I chewed on
that popped into my head while I fletcherized. It was this, and I
proceeded to develop
the idea when called to my feet: "This is too delightful an occasion
be perpetuated. We have found ourselves and each other and the finding
good. Let us 'do the American act' and organize, and so make this a
on St. John's day in June and on the other St. John's day in December.
Beirut is included in the Lebanon, famous for its Cedars more than for
else, and since many of us have enjoyed most delightful periods of
camping in the various groves of the Cedars of Lebanon, suppose we call
informal, joyous association 'The Cedar Grove.' Let us have a chairman
the conclaves and a secretary-treasurer to manage the arrangements."
has since been called "The Tall Cedar," and that happens to be now my
office, and the secretary-treasurer is "The Little Cedar." And the
bless 'em, we have called them "Cones" as they are borne on the
of the trees and are the mothers of small cedars yet to be planted! A
and it was made so, and we took some more ice cream all 'round! I
cannot make you
realize the balmy coolness of that air, cool without any chill in it ‒
may live in California.
The Second Conclave
conclave was in the same hospitable home, in the Christmas vacation
this time. We
made it a basket picnic, but our hostess also provided hot viands and
good it was to sit in a nearly complete circle before that blazing open
roses they brought back in their cheeks those who in the afternoon had
the top of Aleih rhountain! What appetites we had! How beautiful was
tree in the great bay window bearing a gift for each one of us! And the
speeches, the stories! And the moon! Shone it ever so brightly as we
Lebanon to our homes in flivvers and automobiles over the beautiful
That second conclave assured us that "The Cedar Grove" had taken root
and was a living thing.
conclave was last summer - an afternoon on the shore, a supper and a
in the sea at Dubeiyeh, where are the waterworks that pump the supply
to the city
of Beirut. Mr. von Heidenstam ‒ our half Swedish and half Scotch friend
- and his
English wife were our hosts in their beautiful garden by the sea. The
spread under arching trees with blooming rose bushes all about us and
in our ears
the Flashing fountain mingling its note with the murmuring sea.
saplings were planted in "The Grove" ‒ in other words, we received some
new members with a pretty ceremony into the association.
of Dubeiyeh is wonderful. We looked across St. George's Bay, where that
knight is said to have slain the dragon, to the ancient city of Beirut
on a hilly
promontory jutting some five miles out into the Mediterranean.
I say, and it is. A clay letter from the governor of Beirut to the
the now world famous Tut Ankhamen was found at Tel el Amarna, Egypt,
ago, and that letter was written 3500 years ago. How much older this
city is than
that we do not know. And behind the little town of Dubeiyeh rises the
promontory on which are inscribed tablets with the names and
achievements of various
conquerors who have gone over that barrier on the coastal road from
yes, and Kings earlier than he, and Egyptian Pharaohs, and Arab
to Lord Allenby in 1918 ‒ his tablet is there, too. But I am dipping
and am on the edge of history. My only excuse is that both are all
about us, in
the air we breathe in this land, whether we are at our ordinary
avocations or at
refreshment in "The Cedar Grove."
Freemasonry in Civil War
Civil War the Hartford and the little Albatross ran the blockade of
and took up the patrol of the Mississippi River between Vicksburg and
two strongly fortified points on the river. During that patrol the
of the Albatross, Lieutenant Commander John E. Hart, was killed in
action. It was
thought impossible to send his body either up or down the river, and
did not want to bury his body in the river; so a flag of truce was sent
the little town of Saint Francisville to search for brother Masons and
their good offices to give the dead captain a Masonic funeral. Two
named White, looked up the Master of the nearest lodge (S. J. Powell,
Grand Master) who was serving in a cavalry regiment (Confederate) who,
with a competent
number, buried Captain Hart with Masonic honors. Service was also held
in the Episcopal
Church. The body was buried in the Masonic lot, and the grave marked.
was a member of St. George's Lodge in Schenectady, N. Y. He entered the
in 1841 and was graduated in 1845.
Geo. W. Baird.
By Bro. Dudley Wright, Associate
triangles ‒ one of the emblems of the Holy Royal Arch ‒ is one of the
symbols in the world. It has been found on the Cave of Elephanta, on
the great image
of Deity; it is the Brahmanic symbol of "The Angel of the Presence";
Hindus employed it as a means of protection; it was found at Ghunzee,
on the wall
of the temple; it was in common use among the Jews; it was employed in
the Moslems used it on the coinage of Morocco, date Anno Hegira; it has
on medallions in Normandy and Brittany; discovered on the breasts of
on their recumbent effigies in their priories; not long since it was
found in a
Galilean synagogue in Palestine of the Roman period; it is part of the
of some English cathedrals (notably Lincoln and Lichfield) and
churches; and it
has been discovered on innumerable monuments of bygone ages among all
religions. It is a common symbol in Asia at the present day. Drummond
it as an ornament in a Moorish harem in the form of a chandelier ‒ a
consisting of two intersecting triangles. He also found it in a
synagogue, in front
of the recess wherein the Ark was deposited, the lighted lamp being in
glass tumbler held within a brazen frame, formed to represent the two
To the Jew
it was a symbol of the Sephiroth; to the Moslem, of the Deity; while to
it represented the Creator in the capacity of Mediator, working out the
of humanity under two natures. It appears in every religious system
that came under
Semitic influence and was used by the Kabbalists to illustrate their
Perfect Consciousness or Synthesis. Among the Jews also it was used as
the center being left blank for the inscription of a short prayer; it
for its efficacy that the diagram should be graven on parchment and,
worn on the left side. It was said to be efficacious in fathering all
It was also used by Jewish women as an amulet for protection in
childbirth, in which
case the Hebrew letters of the verse "For unto us a child is born" were
scattered promiscuously in five of the outer triangles, leaving the top
triangle blank. It also protected the lying-in mother and her child
the evil eye and demons, and explicit directions for its use are given
in the Book
of Raziel, where its authorship is ascribed to Adam.
calls it the "Seal of Solomon," but the Seal of Solomon is the
or pentagram ‒ five-pointed star, which tradition says Solomon employed
up demons. Levi did not mean this, for he describes the emblem to which
as "the interlaced triangles; the erect triangle of flame color, the
triangle colored blue. In the center space there may be drawn a Tau
cross and three
Hebrew yods, or a crux ansata or ankh, or the triple Tau of the Arch
who with intelligence and will is armed with this emblem has need of no
he should be all-potent, for this is the perfect sign of the Absolute."
also appears as a magical implement in The Magus or Celestial
by Francis Barrett, published in 1801. Bro. Rev. Stewart Stitt in his
Maldivian Talismans says that "with the sun in the center of the circle
in the center) and the other six planets placed in a particular order
on the points
of the triangles, it was meant to signify the solar system. Each of the
represented not only certain sounds, numbers, colors, mental qualities,
but also the different features of the countenance of the One Ruler of
while the signs of the zodiac belonging to each, in their turn,
various organs of the body."
The Jews Call It The Magen
Jews the emblem is known as the Magen David, or the Shield of David,
the word Magen
meaning "shield," or protection; and one writer in a recent issue of
Jewish Guardian (London, England) ‒ which has kindly given permission
for the reproduction
of the following illustration ‒ backing his theory on Isaiah XI, 2,
as a heavenly sparkling star, representing the six potent qualities
He says that
when the prophecy of Isaiah was distorted by those who interpreted it
were made to exterminate the sons of Jacob and the Hebrew religion;
they were burnt
at the stake together with their books containing their traditions. It
that they were compelled to conceal the significant meaning of this
Magen David, with its six points, in order that it should survive in
times of horror:
thus that emblem has remained mysterious. Another writer suggests that
it was the
signature or seal of King David. It may be mentioned here that it was
used as a
seal, both to official and personal documents by Sir Robert Moray, the
initiate into Freemasonry on English soil, which took place in the
five years prior to the initiation of Elias Ashmole.
was frequently engraved upon synagogues and sacred vessels until its
use was prohibited
by the late Chief Rabbi, Dr. Hermann Adler. It was adopted as a device
by the American
Jewish Publication Society in 1873; by the first Zionist Congress at
Basle and its
official organ; by a well-known firm of Palestinian wine merchants; by
Cross Societies; and by the Jewish quasi-Masonic Order of the Shield of
view of God which permitted no images of Him was and is opposed to the
of any emblems or symbols and neither the Bible nor the Talmud
recognize their existence.
The Magen David is not mentioned in rabbinical literature, says a
writer in the
Jewish Encyclopedia, and, therefore, probably did not originate within
which was the official and dominant Judaism for more than two thousand
a Magen David was discovered on a Jewish tombstone at Tarentum in
of a probable date of the third century C.E. Its first mention in a
is in the Eshkol-ka-hofer of Judah Hadassi in the twelfth century, and
states that the sign called "David's Shield" is placed beside each of
the names of the seven angels, Michael, Gabriel, etc.
Hemming Is Quoted
in his Masonic Lectures, says that "the hexagon is composed of six
triangles, is equal in all its relations, and retains the quality of
divisible into similar triangles, according to the geometrical
in the divisions of the trilateral figure, and may, therefore, be
the most perfect of all multilateral forms. From a general inquiry it
that the three most perfect of all geometrical diagrams are the
the square, and the equal hexagon."
also says that "the second natural division of the circle is made by
the measure of which, being transferred into the half circumference
with the compasses,
always cuts it into three, or, if transferred upon the whole circle,
absolutely into six equal portions, which is an introduction to a
multitude of other
no less certain divisions, and innumerable proportions between great
and small figures."
was considered by all nations as a sacred figure because of the
creation of the
world in six days. The six points of the interlaced triangles among the
denoted health and were described as "the consistence of a form." The
two intersecting triangles were also regarded as emblems of creation
fire and water, prayer and remission, repentance and forgiveness, life
resurrection and judgment. It signified perfection of parts, because it
is the only
number under ten which is whole and equal in its divisions. Pliny and
naturalists endeavoured in vain to assign a reason for nature's
preference for a
hexad in the crystal. It was an ancient symbol of marriage, because it
by the multiplication of three, the male; with two, the female number.
The Magic Words
a time there lived an Oriental Potentate who imagined himself afflicted
with a fatal
malady. At first the greater, then the lesser, doctors were summoned,
each of whom,
in succession, upon his failure to cure, was beheaded. Finally the
obscure Dr. X
was summoned; after an exhaustive examination he pronounced the malady
and all but incurable, yet there was one remedy that would cure ‒ the
wear the shirt of a happy man. This seemed indeed simple but in fact
difficult; months and even years elapsed and yet no one was found who
had not some
shadow in his life. The search continued; at last a happy-go-lucky
tramp was found
‒ he knew not the meaning of care, sorrow, suffering or want. In
triumph he was
conducted before the Ruler, who cried, 'I must have your shirt' ‒ then
with peals of laughter, replied, 'Majesty, I have none.'
thing is often beyond the reach of the poor. Not so with happiness,
which is abstract;
there is plenty to go around ‒ the more that prevails the more there
seems in reserve.
Happiness is blithe and winsome and at every step she throws herself in
waiting for us to take her into our embrace. What a lovely creature and
is she to be wooed and won! Why then so difficult? Is hot the fault
exults in ecstasy at his hoarded gold; he thinks himself happy. May we
the miser's happiness to the coarse daub of the crude artist as
compared to the
finished work of genius? Is not the fault ours if we cannot win this
A bride in waiting for everyone, only you must know how to woo. You
cannot win this
prize by direct action; human history is strewn with the wreckage of
those who have
thus tried to win her.
is a royal road; it is broad and straight and the carpet is soft and
smooth. I have
the wondrous secret; these are the magic words: Morality, Charity and
Love ‒ look again and you will see they spell "HAPPINESS".
Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.
G. M., District Of Columbia
Robert R. Livingston
LIVINGSTON, better known as Chancellor Livingston, came from an old and
His father was a very well-known man, so also was his brother Edward,
who was a
politician of note and in 1801-02-03 was District Deputy Grand Master
of New York.
Chancellor Livingston was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New York
until 1800 inclusive, this being the first Grand Mastership of the
Grand Lodge of
the state of New York strictly so-called, for the former Grand Body was
a Provincial Grand Lodge. Robert R. Livingston was but 38 years of age
when he first
became Grand Master. He had been Worshipful Master of the old Union
the English constitution in 1771, a lodge which appears to have
suspended its labor
during the War of the Revolution.
was born in New York in 1746 and died at Clermont, N. Y., March 26,
1813. The state
of New York placed a statue of him in the Capitol at Washington, D. C.,
as one of
the two most representative citizens of the state; the other l being
He was educated in Kings College, afterwards Columbia College, | where
in 1765, and was admitted to the bar in 1773. He formed a partnership
with the famous
John Jay. For a time he held the office of recorder for New York, but
order to take part in the War of the Revolution. He was elected a
member of the
State Assembly from Duchess County and later was elected a member of
States Congress. He was placed on the committee to draw up the
Declaration of Independence,
the other members being Franklin, Jefferson, Adams and Sherman. In 1777
he was made
Chancellor of the state of New York; upon this he resigned his seat in
but was again elected to that body later. Under the United States
he was for three years Secretary of Foreign Affairs.
of the State, it was his good fortune to administer the oath of office
George Washington, as first President of the new nation, at which time
was Grand Master of Masons in the state of New York. In 1801 he was
sent as Commissioner
to Prance, when Napoleon I was first consul; it was one of the most
and critical periods in the history of France, but Livingston was an
of his country and acquitted himself with honor in his difficult
At the moment
when there was much desire on the part of the French to cultivate
with the American Republic, Livingston opened the negotiations which
the Louisiana Purchase. It was a grand coup! Livingston's negotiations
made it possible
for our nation to come into possession of that immense territory west
of the Mississippi
River extending almost to the Sierras, and all this for only fifteen
This made it unnecessary to build the canal projected by President
the Potomac to the Ohio River, for the Louisiana Purchase gave the
nation an outlet
to the Gulf of Mexico.
had a vision of the possibilities and future of the United States
almost as clear
and as far-reaching as that of Washington himself. It was this vision
him to help finance Robert Fulton's steamboat schemes. Fulton first
built a boat
for experiment on the Seine River in France, but for want of sufficient
the machinery broke through the bottom of the vessel; nevertheless
the possibilities of a steamboat and when Fulton tried again on the
his experiment was a success.
introduced merino sheep into this country with great success and was
the first to
utilize gypsum in the manufacture of fertilizer. He was a founder of
the Fine Arts
Academy and its first president. His essay on agriculture was received
his essay on sheep raising became a standard treatise. Because of such
and writings the regents of the University of the State of New York
him the degree of LL. D. Livingston was one of the original members of
of the Cincinnati. The beautiful memorial shown in the accompanying
in bronze, of life size, was presented to the Nation's Hall of Fame, in
Capitol, and stands near that of George Washington. Its inscription
as "the first Chancellor of his state, administered the oath of office
first President of the United States, is the gift of New York." The
was E. D. Palmer and the statue is called "one of the best in the
did a great and lasting work in building up Freemasonry in the state of
His Grand Mastership fell upon a critical period, just at the time when
Masons were getting control of their lodge affairs in their own
country, and when
there was much misunderstanding, bitterness and strife. It was owing to
leadership that the Grand Lodge was able to weather many storms. A
rather full account
of Livingston's Masonic career will be found in History of Freemasonry
in the State
of New York by Ossian Lang, a very valuable and interesting book.
Texas Grand Chapter Reinstated
last Bro. William F. Kuhn, General Grand High Priest, issued a
will interest every Royal Arch Mason in the United States. It explains
is here reproduced by permission of the General Grand High Priest:
Mo., Dec. 7, 1923.
To the Chapters
and Grand Chapters under this Obedience:
15, A. D. 1923, I, General Grand High Priest of the General Grand
Chapter of Royal
Arch Masons of the United States of America, issued an Edict, severing
relations with the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Texas, on
account of invasion
of the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter, "until the Grand
Royal Arch Masons of Texas shall recall the charter issued to the
chapter in the
City of Mexico, Republic of Mexico."
the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Texas, at its annual
on Dec. 3-4, 1923, sustained the action of its M. E. Grand High Priest,
J. H. Gartland,
recalling the charter issued to Attest: Mexico City Chapter, No. 414,
and thus complying
with the requirements of the Edict, therefore,
Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter, do hereby take great
annulling said Edict, and to declare fraternal relations between the
Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the United States of America and the
Royal Arch Masons of Texas, restored.
Priests of Grand Chapters and High Priests of Subordinate Chapters will
to express my sincere appreciation to the thirty-seven Grand Chapters
their Grand High Priests or through the action of the Grand Chapter
direct, so promptly
sustained the General Grand High Priest in the enforcement of the
Edict, and thus
maintaining the unity and authority of the General Grand Chapter, and
the apparent rope of sand which has bound the Grand Chapters together,
into a chain
of steel whose links are mutual helpfulness, sympathy, willing
assistance, and Capitular
power and zeal.
my hand and seal this seventh day of December, A. D. 1923, A. I. 2453.
William F. Kuhn,
General Grand High Priest.
General Grand Secretary.
What Masonry Is
not a toy to be played with, nor a pastime merely to be enjoyed, nor
yet a society
of like-minded spirits organized that the idle moments of the day may
be spent in
pleasurable conversation or in the exchange of witticisms. Masonry is
force which brings together in one body men of different occupation and
from the different avenues of life, and unites them into a moving,
aggressive body, where as one they become a dynamic power for the
political, moral and spiritual elevation of the human race The Master
Mason is not
narrow in his vision, nor prejudiced in his view, nor small in his
his duty to God and his fellow man. He can see the virtues of others,
in his own heart, the transcendent beauty of a life of service and he
himself in the luxury of giving the best there is in him for the common
of his kind. And thank God we have Master Masons in the jurisdiction of
Geo. C. Williams, P.G.M., Delaware.
of Masonic History
By Bro. H.L. Haywood
on "How to Organize and Maintain a Study Club" will be furnished free
to those asking for it in any quantities up to fifty or one hundred.
information address the National Masonic Research Society, 1950 Railway
St. Louis, Mo. The Society answers questions, lends books, clippings,
of charge to clubs. Text books recommended are "Symbolical Masonry" and
"Great Teachings of Masonry," both by H.L. Haywood, the former of which
should be used in beginning.
Part X. – How Operative
Masonry Changed To Speculative Masonry: The Period of Transition
If my short
study of Operative Masonry published last month I adverted briefly and
to the fact that in the days when Masonic lodges were most completely
or devoted to actual building activities, there was a certain element
in the membership, a thing made necessary by the conditions under which
buildings were erected. Oftentimes the work was under the general
of a bishop or other church authority who, in the nature of things,
would have to
have the freedom of the lodge; at the same time there were employed
to take care of the books, and possibly also learned men to assist in
some of the more technical problems. Where a cathedral was erected by a
it was necessary that its representatives be given access to records
be permitted to have a share in directing the activities; also, it may
be, men of
high station entirely outside the Craft were occasionally, and for
political or social, admitted to some kind of footing within the
example is furnished in the Cooke MS., of date about 1450, wherein it
is said of
"Prince Edwin" that "of speculative he was a master"; the meaning
of this may be either that this dignitary was friendly for the Craft,
or else that
he knew something of the "geometry" which lay at the basis of all
design. In any event men were admitted to some kind of lodge membership
no pretense of practicing the art, a fact that need cause no surprise
for it was
quite in keeping with the principles and practices of the guilds. The
of these non-Operatives may possibly have had some effect on lodge
the nature of the case such a brother could not take oath to keep the
about which he was to learn nothing; neither could he be required to
produce a master's
piece, as regular apprentices were, because he would not possess the
skill. So little
is known about this matter that one can only indulge his faculty for
nevertheless it is of some consequence in one's effort to recover a
picture of lodge
usages in the olden days. The main point just here is that from
earliest times it
was not deemed unlawful or irregular for Operative lodges to accept on
of footing of membership non-Operative men; with this in mind it will
to understand how in later years non-Operatives became accepted in such
as at last to out-top Operatives altogether.
Operative Masonry Declined
In the fifteenth
century Operative Masonry began to decline; in the following century it
out of existence, and that chiefly owing to the Protestant Reformation
All gilds were suppressed by Henry VIII (see Statutes of 37 Henry VIII,
c. 4, and
I Edward VI, c. 14) and monastery corporations were dissolved, their
confiscated by the Crown. Cathedrals were no longer erected; in the
eyes of the
Puritans, who rapidly came to the front, they were monuments of the
and therefore deemed dangerous so that many of them were defaced or
the same bitterness was directed against all other structures of a
so that the old lodges of Operative Masons, called originally into
erect such, found themselves without occupation. Some of them, so it is
turned their attention to the palatial homes for the rich country
gentry, but most
of them perished or else maintained a languid existence.
operated to the same end. The civil wars left the country exhausted.
sprang up with new traditions, and some of the old centers of gild life
the background. At the same time, and owing to a dearth of laborers,
were imported from France, the Netherlands, Germany, and Italy, and
these had other
customs and traditions. In the world of thought other revolutions,
silent but powerful,
took place, one of them giving rise to the foundation of the famous
of which eminent members of the first Grand Lodge were members, some of
active. In other words the whole life of England underwent a profound
that such an organization as the Craft of Freemasonry had to change
with it, and
found itself in a set of circumstances quite different to those that
in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
It is a fact
of some significance that the number of non-Operatives accepted in
to have increased as the Craft as a whole waned away; most of our
writers have seen
in this the connections of cause and effect, and there is no reason to
in error. The oldest lodge minutes still extant in England date from
the early eighteenth
century; but in Scotland the records are much older, the minutes of
dating from 1642, Aberdeen from 1670. From those minutes, and from
other old records,
we learn that not only were non-Operatives early taken into membership
lodges but that they (the non-Operatives) took an active part in lodge
Bro. Murray Lyon, whose History of the Lodge of Edinburgh has so long
been a standard
work, says that the first authentic record of a non-Operative being
made a member
of a lodge is of date June 8, 1600, when John Boswell, Laird of
Auchinleck, is named
among the brethren. Two years prior to that time, however, still
must have been on the rolls because we know that in 1598 William Schaw,
believes to have been an honorary member, signed and promulgated two
sets of statutes,
or codes of laws, one for use by the Craft in general, the other for
use by the
lodge of Kilwinning. Schaw signed himself as "Master of the Work,
the Masons." In July, 1634, Lord Alexander, Viscount Canada, Sir
and Sir Alexander Strachan were admitted to the lodge of Edinburgh. As
of the Scottish Craft par excellence, Lyon's words of comment in this
are worth quoting:
"It is worthy of remark that
few exceptions, the non-Operatives who were admitted to Masonic
fellowship in the
lodges of Edinburgh and Kilwininng during the seventeenth century were
quality, the most distinguished of whom, as the natural result of its
position, being made in the former lodge. Their admission to fellowship
in an institution
composed of Operative Masons associated together for purposes of their
in all probability, originate in a desire to elevate its position and
influence, and once adopted the system would further recommend itself
to the Fraternity
by the opportunities which it presented for cultivating the friendship
the society of gentlemen, to whom, in ordinary circumstances, there was
of their ever being personally known.
the other hand, non-professionals connecting themselves with the lodge
by the ties
of membership would, we believe, be activated partly by a disposition
the feelings which had prompted the bestowal of the fellowship, partly
to penetrate the arcana of the Craft and partly by the novelty of the
as members of a secret society and participants in its ceremonies and
Old Scotch Lodge Records
given expression to the surprise felt by most of our scholars at the
fact that lodge
records should go so much farther back in Scotland than in England; he
so many minute books are still preserved in Scotland, dating long
before the institution
of the Grand Lodge, even some from the seventeenth century, and yet
are found in England, seems inexplicable." Alnwick Lodge records go
1703. It appears that a non-Operative lodge existed at York, to judge
by the records,
as early as 1705. The extinct Haughfoot Lodge had a non-Operative
a ritual and ceremony as early as 1702. These entries show that
were in vogue years before the founding of the first Grand Lodge of
Masonry in London, 1717.
extant record of a man having been made, a non-Operative Mason on
English soil is
that of Robert Moray who was "made" at Newcastle, by members of the
of Edinburgh with the Scottish army, May 20, 1641. But the most famous
of all the
earliest non-Operative Masons by far was Elias Ashmole, made a Mason at
Oct. 16, 1646. Ashmole was born at Lichfield in 1617, was educated for
became a captain during the Great Rebellion, was elected a Fellow of
the Royal Society,
had conferred on him the degree of M.D., was made Windsor Herald, and
to all these interests and activities denoted much time to a study of
astrology, botany, history and various other subjects. His third wife
was the daughter
of his friend, Sir William Dugdale. An industrious collector of curios
of antiquarian value, he presented his collection to Oxford University,
is still known as the Ashmolean Museum. He was author of a History of
His diary was first published in 1717 [Lib 1927], and then a second time, as a
of appendix to Lilly's History of His Life and Times, in 1774. The
two items concerning Freemasonry, as follows, spelling and punctuation
as in the
(Ashmole MS. 1136)
1646. [folio 19, verso]
Oct. 16th. ‒ 4:30 P. M. I was
made a Free Mason
at Warrington in Lancashire, with Coll: Henry Mainwaring of Kanincham
The names of those that were there of the Lodge; Mr. Rich Penket
Warden, Jr. James
Collier, Mr. Rich Sankey, Henry Tattler, John Ellam, Rich: Ellam and
years appears another extract that contains mention of the Mason's
Company of London.
It is here given in full:
March 1682. [folio 69. verso]
10th. ‒ About 5 P.M. I recd. a
Sumons to appe.
at a Lodge to be held the next day, at Masons Hall London.
11th. ‒ Accordingly I went, and
about Noone were
admitted into the Fellowship of Free Masons.
Sr. William Wilson Knight,
Capt. Rich: Borthwick,
Mr. Will: Woodman, Mr. Wm. Grey, Mr. Samuell Taylour, and Mr. William
I was the Senior Fellow among
them (it being
35 years since I was admitted). There were present besides my selfe the
Mr. Tho: Wise Mr of the Masons
Company this present
yeare. Mr Thomas Shorthose, Mr. Thomas Shadbolt, Waindsford Esqr., Mr.
Mr. John Shorthose, Mr. William Hamon, Mr. John Thompson, and Mr. Will:
Wee all dyned at the halfe
Moone Taverne in Cheapside,
at a Noble Dinner, prepaired at the charge of the New-accepted Masons.
The Mason's Company
Company doubtlessly referred to in the quotation just above is the
subject of an
invaluable book by Edward Conder bearing the title Hole Crafte and
Masons. [Lib*] This body of Masons was incorporated in 1410-1411 and
grant of arms in the twelfth year of Edward IV 1472-1473) from William
Clarenceaux King of Arms. The city records of London show that this
body must have
been functioning as early as 1356 because rules for its guidance were
that year. In 1530 the name was changed to the "Company of Freemasons."
Conder thinks there is good reason to believe that this Company began
early in the thirteenth century.
point here, in the light of our present purpose, is the fact that
this Mason's Company was another, and perhaps subsidiary organization,
Accepcon" (Acception). It met in the same hall and was somehow
one may learn from Conder:
"Unfortunately no books
connected with this
Acception ‒ i.e., the Lodge ‒ have been preserved. We can, therefore,
our ideas of its working from a few entries scattered through the
these it is found that members of the Company paid 20s. for coming on
and strangers 40s. Whether they paid a lodge quarteridge to the
it is impossible, in the absence of the old Quarteridge Book, to state.
however, is quite certain from the old book of accounts commencing in
the payments made by newly accepted Masons were paid into the funds of
that some or all of this was spent on a banquet and the attendant
that any further sum required was paid out of the ordinary funds of the
proving that the Company had entire control of the Lodge and its funds."
as if members of the Acception were not Operative Masons; if that was
the case it
is plain that non-Operative Masons were admitted on some footing as
early as 1619,
and probably long before that. If this supposition be sound it follows
kind of non-Operative, or Speculative Masonry, was in existence in the
more than a century before the founding of the first Grand Lodge. Also
appear that Ashmole was in attendance on the "Acception" at the time
to in his second entry quoted above. On the strength of this fact some
Bro. A.E. Waite for example, have suggested that the seed from which
symbolical Masonry had its origin may have been planted there by such
men as Ashmole,
who were interested in symbolism, ritual, occultism and all such
was known of a society of Freemasons during the latter half of the
century is proved
by reference to such in a few books of the time. Randle Holme (the
third of that
name), in his Acadamie of Amorie, published in 1688, refers to the
"I cannot but Honour the
Fellowship of Masons
because of its Antiquity; and the more, as being a member of that
before the appearance of the Holme volume Dr. Robert Plot published the
History of Staffordshire [Lib 1686], in which he referred to
Freemasons in a vein
"To these add the Customs
relating to the
County, whereof they have one, of admitting Men into the Society of
that in the moorelands of this County seems to be of greater request,
else, though I find the Custom spread more or less all over the Nation;
I found persons of the most eminent quality, that did not disdain to be
Fellowship. Nor indeed need they, were it of that Antiquity and honor,
that is pretended
in a large parchment volume they have amongst them, containing the
History and Rules
of the craft of masonry.
"Into which Society when they
they call a meeting (or Lodg as they term it in some places), which
at lest of 5 or 6 of the Ancients of the Order, when the candidats
gloves, and so likewise to their wives, and entertain with a collation
to the Custom of the place: This ended, they proceed to the admission
of them, which
chiefly consists in the communication of certain secret signes, whereby
known to one another all over the Nation, by which means they have
ever they travel: for if any man appear though altogether known that
can shew any
of these signes to a Fellow of the Society, whom they otherwise call an
mason, he is obliged presently to come to him, from what company or
he be in, nay, tho' from the top of a Steeple (what hazard or
he run) to know his pleasure and assist him; viz., if he want work he
is bound to
find him some; or if he cannot doe that, to give him mony, or otherwise
him till work can be had; which is one of their Articles."
a friend of Dr. Plot's and also an antiquarian, wrote the Natural
History of Wiltshire
at about the same time, on one pen copy of which he inscribed a
"Memorandum. This day, May the
Monday, 1691, after Rogation Sunday is a great convention at St. Paul's
the Fraternity of adopted masons, where Sir Christopher Wren is to be
brother, and Sir Henry Goodric of the Tower, and divers others. There
kings that have been of this sodality."
Was Wren A Mason?
to Wren raises a question about which there has been a long continued
the famous architect, the builder of St. Paul's, and of London after
the great fire,
a Mason? Of course, he was an architect and therefore a member of the
Craft in a
general sense, but was he a member of a lodge? Gould devotes fifty-four
of his most
heavily shotted pages to prove that he was not, and that any statement
to that effect
is fable pure and simple. Bro. F. De P. Castells wrote a trenchant
these pages in a splendid essay published in Transactions of the
Vol. II, page 302. "We all admire Gould's erudition," he remarks; "his
History is a monumental work. But in this matter he has shown himself
than wise, for he has placed himself in a false light, in which we see
him as a
carping critic, cavilling, parrying with facts, and casting doubt upon
suggesting the thought of Wren being a Mason." Some will believe,
that Bro. Castells has a little overstated the matter, but that is
nor there; he rests his own case on four pieces of evidence; first, the
of 1738 [Lib 1738 pp 108]; secondly, an excerpt from
the Postboy, a London
paper which, in its announcement of Wren's death, refers to him as
Freemason"; thirdly, the Aubrey notation quoted above, and fourthly,
statement [Lib 1867] to the effect that "Wren
the old Lodge of St. Pauls during the building of the cathedral." But
would appear to be the clincher in Bro. Castell's argument [Lib 1925] is given in his postscript,
there is so much matter of interest that it may well be quoted in its
"What precedes was delivered as
Since then, however, having seen the records of the Lodge of Antiquity
Rylands has brought to light, I feel that the question is absolutely
Lodge had once records that went back to 1663. But when an Inventory
was made in
1778, everything anterior to 1721 had disappeared. This is referred to
in a Memorandum
as 'the outrage,' because it was a case of misappropriation. Still, the
now extant are ample to satisfy any one. Thus, the Minutes of a Meeting
June 3, 1723, give the substance of what the Brethren had decided: 'The
set of Mahogany
Candlesticks presented to this Lodge by its worthy old Master, Sir
ordered to be carefully deposited in a wooden case lin'd with cloth to
purchased for the purpose.' The reason for this was that as 'the worthy
of the Lodge had died, they were anxious to preserve the candlesticks
mementos of his connection with the Lodge. There is also a Memorandum
about a 'General
Assembly of a great Number of Free Masons Held on the 24th of June,
is remarkable for including among those present 'Christopher Wren,
Esq.,' the only
son of the architect, whose name reappears in a similar way eight years
the son was one of those who helped to bring the premier Grand Lodge
thus we can understand that the father should have appointed him as his
the Fraternity celebrated the Capestone in 1710. And yet Gould, when he
History, did not know that anyone had ever claimed the son as a member
of our Order!
The question has been raised whether the original Lodge of Antiquity
was one of
Speculative Freemasons. The three Candlesticks afford good ground for
but let the Members of the Lodge speak for themselves. In the Minutes
of a Meeting
on November 3, 1722, we read: 'The Master reported the proceedings of
Lodge and Bro. Anderson's appointment to revise the old Constitutions.
It was the
Opinion of the Lodge that the Master and his Wardens do attend every
the revisal of the Constitutions that no variation may be made in the
This zeal to maintain the old order enables us to affirm positively
that the Grand
Lodge of 1717 did not create Freemasonry, but simply re-organized the
quotations and from the considerations of early Operative practices
in the opening paragraphs of this paper it is evident that the element
membership and principles was in the Craft from early times; and that a
interpretation of Masonic history would suggest that this element came
and that owing to changes without and within the Craft, to over-balance
influence, resulting at last in a complete re-organization of the
according to a more radical view, which also needs to be considered,
element could not, of itself and without extraneous assistance, have
powerful enough to work the many changes that took place in the
of 1717. Other influence must have been at work, as this view holds,
and that from
outside the Craft, to cause such revolutionary changes as undoubtedly
Some of the arguments put forward by those holding this position
is really known about the formation of the first Grand Lodge, but it
that much friction was engendered among the "old members" and the
old lodges by the radical changes that were made by the first Grand
fact might mean that innovations in ritual and regulations were made
and that this
aroused the enmity of the "old brethren" who dreaded innovations; if
it would show that new material was introduced from the outside, else
not otherwise have been any dissatisfaction with the new order of
The Temple Symbolism
be possible to offer the elaborate system of symbolism built up about
Temple as a case in point just here. The oldest Masonic MS. does not
back to King Solomon but far beyond him to Nimrod and to Euclid. In the
MS., dated at about 1550, Hiram Abif is mentioned, but merely as one
many. In 1611 the King James Version of the Bible made its appearance
and aroused an almost universal interest, particularly in the Old
of Solomon and his Temple. Late in the same century and early in the
this interest was so general that many models of the Temple were
exhibited in populous centers, and handbooks describing them received
a thing that must have been peculiarly interesting to the old Masons,
who had probably
long cherished traditions concerning that historic edifice. When
the first edition of his Constitutions he incorporated in a foot-note a
explanation of the name "Hiram Abif," a thing he would not have done
not his readers been already interested. The inference from these
facts, thus briefly
sketched, is that there had long existed in the Craft a germ of
interest in Solomon's
Temple; that this germ found itself in an environment favorable for
when interest in the matter became popular; and that this development
found a place
in the Ritual early in the eighteenth century in a form now thrice
this reading of the matter is well founded it follows that the Temple
is a case of development inside the Craft due to external conditions.
the view that the "revival" in 1717 was due largely to influence from
outside sources point to Kabalism, Knight Templarism, Rosicrucianism,
etc., a consideration of all of which would require too much space; but
one other "outside" influence may be referred to now, for it has not
as much attention as it appears to deserve. I refer to the English
club, which was
so potent a social influence in the English life of the eighteenth
every man, rich or poor, belonged to one; there were drinking clubs,
literary clubs, fat men's clubs, Odd Fellows' clubs, Chinese clubs,
clubs for men
with large noses, and for small, and every other imaginable form of
for purposes of sociability. In a day when daily newspapers were
books were scarce, these clubs were centers of gossip and general
well as societies for the propagation of various "causes," all of which
is embalmed forever in the essays of Addison, Steele, Goldsmith and the
of the time. Did the early lodges of Speculative Masons come into
existence in response
to this need for clubs? The question needs a more thorough ventilation
than it has
yet received, because there is something to be said for it. Gould, it
will be recalled,
attributed Desaguliers' membership in the Craft to his desire for club
Bro. Arthur Heiron has shown how powerful was the club influence in
Freemasonry in his excellent book Ancient Freemasonry and the Old
Dundee Lodge [Lib*].
For my own part I do not believe in the "club theory" of the origin of
Speculative Masonry, but the matter is offered here as an example of
which look toward outside influences as explaining the transformation
Freemasonry into Speculative, and as a suggestion to students that they
a fascinating field.
By way of
conclusion it may be said that until more is known concerning the
it will be necessary for every Masonic reader to feel his way through
the dark as
well as he can, keeping his judgment on many matters in suspense, for
as yet little
is really known, and that is often enough conflicting; nevertheless and
it would appear to some of us that what we do know shows an unbroken
between the old Operative Masonic lodges and the Institution which
in 1717, and that in a large way the practices and principles of the
were continued into Speculative Freemasonry; we still have Apprentices,
and Masters; we still meet in lodges as of old, under the government of
and Wardens; we observe close secrecy, and make use of ceremonies of
divided into grades or degrees; holding it together, like a solid
the emblematic and symbolical use of builders' tools and practices, and
at the center
of it all stands the most famous building in history and the most
under such circumstances of drama and mystery as helps every Freemason
to understand himself, and the world, and God, and the secrets of the
is life indeed.
* * *
ENCYCLOPEDIA (Revised Edition)
10; Anderson, 57; Antiquity of Freemasonry, 66; Apprentice, Entered,
81; Constitutions, 175; Cromwell, 186; Degrees, 203; Desaguliers, 207;
223; Edwin, 230; Fellow Craft, 261; Free and Accepted, 281; Freemason,
Early British, 283; Geometry, 295; Gilds, 296; Hermetic Art, 323;
Kabbala, 375; Kilwinning, 381; Legend, 433; Lodge, 449; Mason, 471;
474; Operative Art, 532; Points of Fellowship, 572; Progressive
Masonry, 591; Scotland,
671; Speculative Masonry, 704; Stone-Masons, 718; Symbolic Degrees,
752; Wren, 859;
Coronatorum, Author's Lodge Transactions, I, II, III. [Lib*]
Constitutions of the Freemasons, Anderson. [Lib 1859]
A Short Masonic History, Armitage. [Lib 1909/11; Vol 1, Vol 2]
Natural History of Wiltshire, Aubrey. [Lib 1847]
Grand Lodge of England, Calvert. [Lib*]
Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry, [Lib 1906 (7 Volumes – see
Clegg. Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons, Conder. [Lib*]
Evolution of Freemasonry, Darrah. [Lib*]
Ahiman Rezon, Dermott. [Lib 1805]
Club Makers and Club Members, Escott. [Lib 1914]
History of Masonry, Findel. [Lib 1866]
Concise History of Freemasonry, Gould. [Lib 1951]
History of Freemasonry, Gould. [Lib 1884/89; Vol
1, Vol 2, Vol
3, Vol 4]
Ancient Freemasonry and the Old Dundee Lodge, Heiron. [Lib*]
Acadamie of Armory, Holme. [Lib*]
Masonic Sketches and Reprints, Hughan. [Lib 1871]
Spirit of Masonry, Hutchinson. [Lib 1795]
Medieval Architecture, Kingsley. [Lib*]
History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, Lyon. [Lib 1873]
Guild Masonry in the Making, Merz. [Lib 1918]
History of Lodge Aberdeen, Miller. [Lib*]
The Builders, Newton. [Lib 1914]
Essay on the Usages and Customs of Symbolical Masonry in the 18th
Preston's Masonry, Oliver. [Lib*]
Tradition, Origin and Early History of Freemasonry, Pierson. [Lib*]
Natural History of Staffordshire, Plot. [Lib 1686]
Illustrations of Masonry, Preston. [Lib 1867 (for several
Freemasonry Before Existence of Grand Lodges, Vibert. [Lib 2010]
Story of the Craft, Vibert. [Lib*]
New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Waite. [Lib*]
Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods, Ward. [Lib*]
* * *
Trade Gilds in the East
Here is a
note that may possibly add to the value of the Study Club article on
BUILDER, November 1923.
"The workmen are united in
have existed since the Persian dominion, and are still regulated by
These gilds, however, are not as exclusive as those in Georgia. The
the rank of Master is accompanied with the same kind of ceremonies. On
of certain solemnities and public processions, each trade is called on
to act in
its corporate capacity. Each has likewise to bear its share of the
thus, for instance, the Gild of Shoemakers has to provide the beds for
hospital, the Gild of Tailors the seats, and so forth. The Armenian and
constitute separate gilds; A Tartar shoemaker told me that his trade
over by any old Master, who was elected, exercised jurisdiction,
journeymen, and initiated them into the rank of Mastership, an honor
is from a work entitled Transcaucasia [Lib 1854], by Baron von Haxthausen,
in 1854. The author had special opportunities for studying the
conditions of the
region about Tiflis, inhabited by Armenians, Georgians, Persians,
The theory, which is held by many, that the origin of Masonry was
trade gilds, gives some importance to the paragraph. There is evidence
trade gilds are not exclusively European; they are found in the East,
far East too, probably derived from Persia, for they date from the time
ruled, and these gilds are governed by "Persian laws." These bodies are
presided over by a head or "Master," and initiatory ceremonies are
‒ N.W.J. Haydon, Canada.
I thank God
that I belong to this great fraternity and can take upon myself the
of Master Mason.
Warren G. Harding.
honest occupation to which a man sets his hand would raise him into a
if he mastered all the knowledge that belonged to his craft.”
James Anthony Froude.
Anti-Masonry Within The
has written to remind us that the Masonic Fraternity is rapidly
centenary of the Anti-Masonic Crusade, and to suggest that the first
the present century might be brought to a glorious conclusion in a
crusade by Masonry
against its own enemies, and thus make the twentieth century redress
the wrong done
by the nineteenth. The suggestion made by this lover of poetic justice
belated; the Fraternity, like the country, is already full of crusades;
past us to left and right like the charge of the Light Brigade, and the
if we may parody the famous words about that charge, is war, but it is
At any rate, it is not splendid in the eyes of the governors and rulers
of our Craft,
who, in volume after volume of Grand Lodge Proceedings, are laboring to
brethren against the menace to Masonry in the growing carnival of
south, east and west, wherein brethren are trying their best to harness
up the influence
of Masonry to some movement that properly has nothing to do with it, or
trying to lead Masonry itself into activities for which it never was
part of it is that some of the best Masons in the country, believing
has a war on its hands, are falling a victim to the horrible fallacy
all things are fair. You must fight the devil with fire, they say; it
is a question
of main strength and awkwardness, so one must not be too squeamish
let us catch our foes by hook or crook, then knock their heads in by
If it were
in order to start cracking heads these very brethren are the ones to
For all their zeal they are enemies of the Craft. Like Samson they pull
temple upon their own heads in their efforts to destroy their foes. The
Masonry cannot be carried forward by un-Masonic methods. The habit of
every rumor that puts a foe in a bad light, of giving currency to
of spreading baseless tales, is singularly unbecoming among men
solemnly sworn to
seek and to uphold the truth above all things. The mean trick of
backbiting at brethren
who hold different opinions about Masonic policies is not in accord
with the vows
of Masonic brotherhood. The propaganda that fans into flame the
passions of race
hatred is the absolute denial of the principles of a Craft that has
its constitution the means "whereby Masonry becomes the center of union
the means of conciliating true friendship among persons that must have
at perpetual distance." The men who seek once again to exaggerate the
lusts of religious prejudice have forgotten that it is the very genius
to uphold "that religion in which all men agree, leaving their
to themselves; that is, to be good men and true, or men of honor and
whatever denominations or persuasions they may be distinguished." Those
may countenance mobs, lynchings, riotings and tar and feathers should
"a Mason is a peaceable subject to the civil powers, wherever he
works, and is never to be concerned in plots and conspiracies."
can never compound with the spirits of passion, prejudice, race hatred,
intolerance, and it is reassuring to find so many Grand Masters
determined to see
to it that individuals are made to understand this fact.
majority of brethren who are persuaded to support any such activities
act not out
of a deliberate indifference to the principles of the Craft, but are
else do not sufficiently understand Masonry; therefore the remedy
always is, aside
from the obvious duty of our officials to see that our laws are
enforced, a larger
measure of Masonic education, not in Masonic history or philosophy, but
in the practice
of the Masonic life. The Masonic ideal is one of the noblest in the
world, and one
of the truest; it is rooted in the everlasting realities. Wherever it
is made to
live in a man's soul it will of its own charm and strength keep him
safe from disfiguring
lusts and dividing passions. It possesses the expulsive power of all
ideals to drive
out those things which are its opposite. The one crusade for putting to
anti-Masonry is the combined effort of us everyone to make Masonry
first of all
prevail within our own hearts.
* * *
while ago the PHILADELPHIA NORTH AMERICAN published an extensive
editorial to commend
the work of the fraternal secret societies of the United States. It is
unusual in the editorial itself that attracts attention, but the fact
of the publication
of any editorial at all on such a theme. Usually the daily press passes
such discussions, except to record local lodge happenings, and in its
of social and political conditions ignores the influence of lodges
reasons are obvious. Every one of these organizations stands for some
very much feared or hated by other sections of the population,
therefore as a matter
of policy the dailies find any discussion of their aims, activities or
a dangerous experiment, more so in that the members of some orders are
whenever themselves or their enemies are discussed that a newspaper
censure if it finds fault with them and praises anything in the
reasons may possibly excuse the privately owned dailies from discussion
of the work
of fraternities, it is difficult to understand why writers of
histories, who have
no axe to grind or jealousies to fear, should so seldom pay attention
to the work
and influence of secret societies. But such is the case. The historians
the Gibbons', the Mommsen's, the Fererro's and the like, almost never
refer to the
Roman collegia or to the mystery cults, which is as if a future
historian of the
United States would overlook our churches and public schools.
of the Middle Ages calmly pass by the swarms of secret societies which
everywhere, honeycombing society beneath the surface like the
catacombs; the Manicheans,
Gnostics, Patari, Cathari, Albigensians, Troubadours, Culdees, Druids
and all the
other more or less secret brotherhoods do not figure in the standard
works on the
period which ignore everything that didn't occur in plain view or was
left out of
public documents. Even the gild system, which was a kind of government
government, is frequently dropped into a foot-note or left out
altogether in order
to make space for the royal families, their amours and their wars. And
as for the
profane historians of architecture, they become so engrossed with the
that they quite forget to say anything about the builders. Historians
have the same blind spot in their eyes; they devote pages to the
details of a battle
and nothing to the work of the scores of orders, most of them
patriotic, which worked
like a ferment in our early national life. By the same token we can
in the future, historians of the World War will be guilty of the same
they will tell their readers nothing about the activities of American
in lending aid and support to the government, nor will they explain why
a few fraternities,
our own among them, had so much influence at Washington in 1918.
Nothing is more
certain than that much history, some of it of the first consequence,
has gone on
underground, unrecorded in state papers or formal chronicles, and
the public news.
* * *
The Bok Peace Plan
In an editorial
published in THE BUILDER, December, 1923, page 377, members of the
Research Society were requested to express their opinion of the plan
be adopted by The American Peace Award, for which Edward Bok offered
$100,000. A resume of the peace plan selected by the judges is
and a ballot form is added to be used by those who care to vote on the
way or another. This ballot may be clipped or copied and mailed direct
to The American
That the United States shall
immediately enter the Permanent Court of International
Justice, under the conditions stated by Secretary Hughes and President
That without becoming a member
of the League of Nations as at present constituted,
the United States shall offer to extend its present co-operation with
and participate in the work of the League as a body of mutual counsel
Substitute moral force and
public opinion for the military and economic force
originally implied in Articles X and XVI.
Safeguard the Monroe Doctrine.
Accept the feet that the United
States will assume no obligations under the
Treaty of Versailles except by Act of Congress.
Propose that membership in the
League should be opened to all nations.
Provide for the continuing
development of international law.
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo.
Do you approve
the winning plan in substance?
(Put an X
inside the proper box)
Are you a
Avenue, New York City
If you wish
to express a fuller opinion also please write to The American Peace
Try a Lecture Bee
One of the
fine old customs of the Order that has gone by the board but deserves
to be revived
is the "working of the lectures". Nowadays when we have no candidate we
have no work, but the time was in our land when the working of the
of more interest and importance than the initiating of candidates. This
of the lectures usually took place as the lodge was seated round a
table. The Master
put the questions; each brother in turn arose and gave the answer ‒ if
Are you the
Master of a lodge? Why not set aside a night every month or every two
this practice? It should be a certain method for increasing the
interest of the
brethren, and for giving them all an opportunity to take some part.
What a fine
way for "brushing up" on the lectures! After a few evenings spent as
described a lodge could make use of some such method as employed in the
bees"; divide up to see which side might be able to answer the most
correctly. The Master or some other brother could put the questions.
We talk much
about innovations in the work, and dread the danger of such things,
usually on the
assumption that an innovation is something added to the work as already
but isn't it just as much an "innovation" to leave something out? In
the "working of the lectures" we have been guilty of a real innovation.
Moonlight Vs. Moonshine
SCHOOLS [Lib 1922], by Mrs. Cora Wilson Stewart
published by E.
P. Dutton & Co.; may be purchased through National Masonic
Blue Cloth, 194 pages, illustrated. Price, $2.00.
IT is not
often that Ye Booke Reviewer finds it possible with a clear conscience
to give a
volume such an unqualified hearty fervent send-off as this volume now
in hand. A
man who can read it without laughter and tears is made of cast-iron,
or some other of the base metals, and bad cess to him if such there be,
probably isn't! It is a true tale made up of actual experiences in one
of the most
moving and dramatic movements since the signing of the Declaration of
And the best part of it is that its author was herself the guide,
friend of the whole enterprise.
Wilson Stewart was Superintendent of Schools of Rowan County, Ky., in
day an incident occurred in her office, which she describes after this
"A few days later a middle-aged
into the office, a man stalwart, intelligent and prepossessing in
he waited for me to dispatch the business in hand, I handed him two
books. He turned
the leaves hurriedly, like a child handling its first books, turned
them over and
looked at the backs and laid them down with a sigh. Knowing the
scarcity of interesting
books in this locality, I proffered him the loan of them. He shook his
"'I can't read or write,' he
the tears came into the eyes of that stalwart man and he added in a
tone of longing,
'I would give twenty years of my life if I could.'" (Pages 11-12)
other such incidents occurred it came to her mind, "Why not open our
at night for these illiterate adults?" But roads were bad, often
and the country was full of feuds, so that being abroad on a dark night
business. Then it was she had the happy inspiration, "Why not open
on moonlight nights?" That solved the problem. On Labor Day, 1911, all
teachers in the county made a house-to-house canvass with a pressing
to every grown man and woman to enroll.
Sept. 5, the brightest moonlight night, it seemed to me, that the world
known, the moonlight schools opened for their first session. We had
number that would attend, and an average of three to each school, one
fifty in the entire county, was the maximum set.
waited with anxious hearts. The teachers had volunteered, the schools
had been opened,
the people had been invited but would they come? They had all the
excuses that any
toilworn people ever had. They had rugged roads to travel, streams
to cross, high hills to climb, children to lead and babes to carry,
the hard day's toil; but they were not seeking excuses, they were
and so they came. They came singly or hurrying in groups, they came
miles, they came carrying babes in arms, they came bent with age and
canes, they came twelve hundred strong!" (Pages 15-16)
of them learned to write their names the first evening and such
rejoicing as there
was over this event! One old man on the shady side of fifty shouted for
he learned to write his name. 'Glory to God!' he shouted, 'I'll never
have to make
my mark anymore!”
were so intoxicated with joy that they wrote their names in frenzied
trees, fences, barns, barrel staves and every available scrap of paper;
who possessed even meager savings, drew the money out of its hiding
place and deposited
it in the bank, wrote their cheeks and signed their names with pride.
began to go from hands that had never written before to loved ones in
and in far distant states, and usually the first letter of each student
the County School Superintendent. In a movement full of romance and
is no incident more romantic or more delightful to record than the fact
first three letters that ever came out of the moonlight schools came in
the first, from a mother who had children absent in the West; the
second, from the
man who 'would give twenty years of his life if he could read and
write', and the
third from the boy who would forget his ballads 'before anybody come
along to set
'em down.' This answered the anxious question in our hearts as to
whether the moonlight
schools had met the need of those who had made the appeal." (Pages
second year was opened a teachers' institute was held for the purpose
team play among the teachers inspired to try their hand in Moonlight
a result of the first experiment conducted by Mrs. Stewart. The kind of
those women is revealed by one report.
"'I went to the school-house
the first evening,'
she said, 'and nobody came. I went the second and there was nobody
there. I went
the third, fourth and fifth and still no pupils. I said "I'm going to
Bruce and the Spider, I'm: going to try seven times," and on the
when I got to the schoolhouse I was greeted by three pupils. Before the
I had enrolled sixty-five in my moonlight school and taught
to read and write.'" (Page 34)
As a means
to inspire the grown-up students with a zeal for further progress the
adopted of giving prizes, on which occasion everybody gathered at the
for a gala time.
learned gave an exhibition of their recently acquired knowledge. They
read and wrote,
quoted history and ciphered proudly in the presence of their world.
They did it
with more pride than ever high school, college or university graduates
on their commencement day.
were next presented with Bibles, and as they came up one by one, some
stalwart, some bent and gray, to receive their Bibles with gracious
words of thanks,
it was an impressive scene ‒ and when the Jezebel of the community came
and accepted her Bible and pledged herself to lead a new life
was hardly a dry eye in the house.
"Lemonade was a thing rarely
seen in those
parts, a treat indeed, so it was served as the final reward, not from a
as it is served in most places, but from the most available thing to be
Tabor Hill ‒ a lard can. As they passed in line around the receptacle
to be served,
an old man rose in the back part of the house and said in a loud voice,
certainly have changed in this district. It used to be that you
couldn't hold meeting
or Sunday-school in the house without the boys shooting through the
used to be moonshine and bullets, but now it's lemonade and Bibles.'"
women responsible for this war on ignorance next turned their attention
to the whole
state. "We even enlisted the politicians and put them to some use."
a time Governor James B. McCreary (may his tribe increase) issued a
giving the new movement his own high sanction and calling on all
citizens to lend
suitable for moonlight school purposes were difficult to find,
therefore a little
newspaper was at first devised; this was followed by a reader, with
as carried a punch. Witness the following:
Clay County, another of the mountain counties, a large crowd of men and
for a contest. Among them was a tall, lank, under-nourished man, who
rose and with
a look at his wife that carried indictment read this lesson with
'God made man.
Woman makes bread.
It takes the bread
That woman makes
To sustain the man
That God made.
But the bread
That some women make
Would not sustain any man
That God ever made."' (Page 76)
the Great War in 1917. Thirty thousand young Kentuckians filled
who were unable to sign their own names. How teach them to read and
write? War is
more dangerous to an illiterate than to others because he cannot even
or take advantage of any other form of general intelligence. The story
of how this
situation was met is as thrilling as a chapter from Thuycidides, and it
is a matter
of regret that it cannot be reproduced here.
school movement spread from state to state like the contagion of a new
until at last the National Education Association established an
of which Mrs. Stewart was appropriately made chairman.
IS A SHAME AND A CRIME
all the decades," she writes, "prior to the one ushered in by 1910,
was not a state, county, city or school district which had as its
purpose the absolute
removal of illiteracy. When the startling announcement was made by the
at the beginning of the new decade that five and a half million men and
the Nation had confessed that they could not read or write, there was
expression of shame or pity or even of surprise. It was accepted as a
‒ the waste product of an inefficient school system. Even the press,
and looking for unusual conditions to exploit, found nothing worth
these tragic figures." (Page 145)
governors, Henry J. Allen, of Kansas, became one of the most
enthusiastic. On page
156 of Moonlight Schools he is quoted thus:
"Two men met on a mountain
began to talk about how soon their county would be 'Cleared up.' They
were not referring
to weeds or underbrush or timber, to insects, reptiles or malarial
fever. They were
referring to elimination of illiteracy. Nothing just like it has found
in any educational system, in any age; the sureness of faith of those
the simplicity of their efforts, the general response. I have seen
studying the same books in one moonlight school. 'There are 2,442
the county,' said a man to me in one of the counties in the Cumberland
'It will take two years to wipe out illiteracy.' Think of the calm
faith of it!
I believe that the story of the moonlight schools is the most exalted
that has been told in the educational effort of America." (Page 156)
is not merely an inability to read and write; it is an inability to
and that because, in our modern world, we depend so much on print for
of our lives.
itself is more or less dependent upon the ability to read and write. In
is disease so prevalent or life so menaced as in illiterate sections.
influenza epidemic of 1918, doctors and nurses found themselves
helpless in communities
where illiteracy prevailed. The death-rate is high where illiteracy
exists and infant
mortality mounts to the topmost round. Here the precautions of
sanitation are little
known and practiced, and innocent children pay the penalty with their
say you have six children,' said an illiterate mother to an educated
nothing. I've buried twelve."' (Page 169)
very beginning of it the inspiration behind this whole movement, now of
importance, has been Mrs. Stewart herself, a woman of great soul, clear
in whom the divine fire burns with a singular selfishness. If ever a
a monument she does.
* * *
MANUAL OF LECTURES
MASONIC LECTURES [Lib*], by D. R. Brock. Bremen, Ga. Paper, 60 pages,
cents postpaid; per dozen, $3.60; per hundred, $2.00. May be ordered
THE aim of
the author was to put into cheap and handy form such lectures as are
in the monitorial portions of the work, along with appropriate poems,
materials of a like character. Besides the pages of his own composition
out of the best lectures employed in his Grand Jurisdiction such as in
were the best. It is therefore more or less representative of the
in Georgia. The author has prepared editions in other states by
amending items here
and there to suit local needs.
* * *
IN THE DAYS
OF POOR RICHARD [Lib 1922], by Irving Bacheller
Published by Bobbs-Merill,
Indianapolis. Cloth; 414 pages; price $2.00.
greatest Americans ‒ Franklin, Washington, Lincoln ‒ two are prominent
in this book,
and both of them were active Masons. The heart of Mr. Bacheller's tale
is the Revolutionary
period itself and it suffers, therefore, as a novel, by having its
away from the center, but they are living beings for all that, and a
rely on the truthfulness of the setting. Many famous personages move in
as the story progresses from one excitement to another, of which
Franklin is chief,
then Washington, Howe, Benedict Arnold, Putnam, Hancock, Hamilton,
a large choir besides of fighting men whose names, emblazoned so large
red first page of our history as a nation, have come to be almost
the great names "in the tale of Troy divine." Mr. Bacheller is always
aware of the moment and spaciousness of the period and never forgets,
his readers to forget, that they were heroes. Franklin himself was as
any of them, and not at all the shopkeeper preaching a village morality
as he is
often depicted. Brethren who never grow weary of reading or hearing of
Franklin may safely add this historical novel to their Frankliniana.
of THE BUILDER for October last is completely used up; will such
brethren as have
no further use for their copies send them to headquarters. They can be
put to good
The Question Box and Correspondence
find room for a list of good books about the public school? I think
that many Masons
would find it of value.
difficult to select a representative list out of the hundreds of titles
the following are chosen as being typical of all the various types of
theory along with a few written from an antagonistic point of view. One
of the most
useful of all volumes to a Mason is a paper-bound book of 96 pages
free distribution by the North Dakota Society for the Advancement of
by the Scottish Rite Bodies of that state under the authority of the
Southern Jurisdiction, it is entitled The School Bell. A number of
copies have been
sent to THE BUILDER to be given to such brethren as wish to use them.
name and address if you need one. The other titles given herewith will
most of them, in any average public library.
of Medieval England [Lib 1915], A. F. Leach.
History of Education [Lib 1920], E.P. Cubberley.
Readings in the History of Education [Lib 1920], E. P. Cubberley.
Secularization of American Education [Lib 1912], S.W. Brown.
Development of the Free Schools in the United States [Lib 1918], A. R. Mead.
Religious Freedom in American Education [Lib 1903], Crooker, Joseph H., American
Separation of the Church From the Public School [Lib*], W.T. Harris in
of the National Educational Association, 1903 p. 351.
Sectarianism in National Education [Lib*], H.W. Crosskey.
Bible and the Public Schools [Lib*], W. H. Smythe.
Progress of Education in the Century [Lib 1907], Hughes and Klumm.
Education and Social Movements Lib 1919], A. E. Dobbs.
Cyclopaedia of Education edited by Paul Monroe. [Lib 1892 (Sonnenschein’s
Cyclopedia by Fletcher)]
Text Book of the History of Education [Lib 1906] Paul Monroe.
Our Colonial Curriculum [Lib 1907], 1607-1776, Colyer,
Catholic School System in the United States, Its Principles, Origin and
[Lib 1908], J. A. Burns.
Growth and Development of the Catholic School System [Lib 1912], J. A. Burns.
Religious Education and Democracy [Lib 1917], B. S. Winchester.
A Social Theory of Religious Education [Lib 1919], George A. Coe.
Abelard, and the Origin and Early History of Universities [Lib 1893], Gabriel Compayre.
* * *
Fifty-Four Years an Active Mason
I am sending
you today a January 1923 number of THE BUILDER. I spent last winter in
California and instructed my folks not to forward to me papers or
to my address here but to hold them for my return. I do not need two
copies of this
number and return one thinking that you may have a call for it in the
ago when I wished to have a volume of THE BUILDER bound by a bindery
here I could
not get a number that I had loaned to a brother and you could not
furnish it, because
your supply was exhausted. Thinking that this might happen again to
I return this. I have eight bound volumes of THE BUILDER, less one
number in one
volume, and prize them highly. I am now in my eightieth year and may
not be here
to enjoy them much longer but I will leave what I have to my only son
Chicago, Ill., who is a 32d man. Have been a member 54 years in Jay
Lodge, No. 87,
Portland. Ind. where I was made a Mason.
Levi L. Gilpin, Indiana.
letter is here printed not as offering new information on things
Masonic but as
an expression of the beauty of the Masonic spirit, which when it abides
in a man's
heart bears fruit in thoughtfulness, appreciation, and courtesy. Bro.
one of the Masonic grandsires who came into this Society in its
* * *
SIXTY-SIX TIMES A TREASURER
One of the
finest records of sustained heartfelt loyalty to Freemasonry is that of
John T. W. Ham, the venerable treasurer of his lodge in Dover, New
he was born July 1, 1838. He was prevailed upon by Brother Isaac P.
New York, to tell his own Masonic history, which he does after this
1863 I was made a Mason and the night I took my third degree I was
and am still holding that office. Later I was made a chapter and
and was elected treasurer in each body; and yet still later was made a
the commandery, and also its treasurer. I still hold that office in all
In 1902 I was elected and received the 33d of which I am very proud. If
I am not
mistaken in my count I have been elected treasurer 266 different times."
John T. W. Ham.
is also proud of Brother Ham, and should be. A brother who remains at
his post for
sixty consecutive years in one town deserves that and all the other
honors of the
Craft. If all the high honors went to the brethren who actually do the
work of Freemasonry
there might be fewer to receive them, but there would be a great deal
* * *
In the Ye
Editor's Corner of the October BUILDER this appears: "A brother has
this question: 'What is the greatest danger now facing Freemasonry?
What would be
your reply? "'
as stated leaves the reader in some doubt as to
"Whether the beast that made
Was going out or coming back."
he means what danger does Freemasonry face, I would say, None!
are those calling themselves Masons who, in the opinion of some more
diligent, fact the twin dangers of apathy and ignorance. The place, we
told, to seek for anything lost is at or near the point where the loss
A certain symbolic loss occurred in the hall where the inquiring
brother was raised.
Let him persistently frequent that spot and his efforts to recover that
lost will not go unrewarded, and apathy and ignorance being vanquished,
we may safely
"The sword in the hall
The spear on the wall"
the eight hours apportioned to the service of God and man in seeing
that our light
(life) so shines that all men seeing our good works will be pleased to
give to the
great fraternity that commendation it so richly merits.
J. H. Jones, Iowa.
* * *
AS DEFINED BY THE G. L. OF ILLINOIS
to each petition used in the Grand Jurisdiction of Illinois is a
the nature and purposes of Freemasonry so adequate in its scope and so
that permission was secured from Bro. Owen Scott, Grand Secretary, to
To the Subscriber
of the Attached Petition for the Degrees in Freemasonry
As the exact
nature of the institution of Freemasonry is unknown to you, it is
that before signing the attached petition you should be informed on
and phases of that institution which may affect your decision to apply
has in all ages required that men should come to its door entirely of
free will, not as the result of importunity nor from feelings of
from a favorable opinion of the institution, a desire for knowledge,
and a sincere
wish to be serviceable to their fellow creatures.
a system of morality based on the belief in the existence of God, the
of the soul, and the brotherhood of men; therefore no atheist can be
made a Mason.
It strives to teach a man the duty he owes to God, to his country to
to his neighbor, and to himself. It inculcates the practice of every
makes an extensive use of symbolism in its teachings. It interferes
religion nor polities, but strives only after light and truth,
to bring out the highest and noblest qualities of men.
be clearly borne in mind that Freemasonry is not to be entered in the
hope of personal
gain or advancement. Admission must not be sought from mercenary or
Anyone so actuated will be bitterly disappointed. The aim of the true
is to cultivate a brotherly feeling among men, and to help the
distressed to the
extent of his ability.
be too strongly emphasized that Freemasonry is not a benefit society,
practice of charity is a fundamental virtue taught in Freemasonry. We
do not pay
so much a year to entitle us to draw sick pay, or other benefits, or to
for those we leave behind. There are other excellent societies founded
one's country is an essential qualification in Freemasonry, and those
only are acceptable
who cheerfully conform to every lawful authority. Disloyalty in any
form is abhorrent
to the teachings of Freemasonry and is regarded as a serious Masonic
is not contrary to the beliefs of any man of upright heart and mind and
has in it
nothing inconsistent with his civil, moral or religious duties.
* * *
The Oldest Masonic Twins?
I am sending
you herewith a photograph of Amasa and Anson Hungerford, twins
belonging to the
Masonic Order. If they live until May 25, 1924, they will become eighty
age. Their home is at Belleville, N. Y. Are they not the oldest twins
in the Order?
J. Brodie Smith.
* * *
An Egyptian Circumambulation
back to the subject of Circumambulation already discussed two or three
THE BUILDER (September 1923, January 1924) I have to add an item that
how the rite is practiced in Egypt. The paragraph is quoted from Muslim
Modern Egypt [Lib*], by Winifred S. Blackman:
"Having removed his or her
entering the building, the visitor then walks from left to right round
erected beneath the dome, three, five, or seven times reciting
passages from the Koran. These perambulations accomplished, the servant
of the sheikh
takes a broom, kept for this special purpose, and carefully brushes out
footprints in the interior of the building."
Wm. Harvey McNairn, Canada.
* * *
"The Oriental Order
encountered some references to a new "side degree" called "The Oriental
Order of Masonry" organized by Rev. H. R. Coleman, of Kentucky, Ye
to Bro. W. H. McDonald, editor of the Masonic Home Journal, Louisville,
organ of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, for information on the subject.
very graciously replied in a letter that readers of THE BUILDER will
care to see:
is now about eighty-five years of age. He was Grand Chaplain of the
of Kentucky for about thirty years. He traveled in the old country,
lodges and added many degrees to his knowledge of Masonry and received
of Palm and Shell which can only be conferred by the Sheik in Egypt. He
by the Sheik under the seal of Egyptian country as a Master for the
The signature and seal of the Sheik, I presume, are genuine. He also
with him many coins and tokens, a vast supply of shells already
with the signet ring made from soft iron with the star and crescent
is now a paralytic and is at the Old Masons' Home at Shelbyville, Ky.,
get about. Just after the stroke came to him, he came to Louisville and
assistance of some others conferred the degree upon the Grand Master,
Warden, Grand Treasurer and some three or four of the Past Grand
Masters and upon
myself. To me he delivered all of his paraphernalia, regalia and placed
shoulders the mantle of the Order in North America or anywhere in the
Hemisphere. I also have a commission as the Grand Master of North and
as well as Central America, but have not the time to devote to its
thing I lack in the conference of these degrees is the knowledge of the
language. Bro. Coleman can, I presume, get it off pretty well. The
be given on a class of not less than five, as it takes that many to
confer the degree.
It is a very, very beautiful degree and if one travels in the Orient or
(sic.) anywhere, it would come in awfully nice in the way of getting
from those of the Eastern Hemisphere.
* * *
Freemasonry and Advertising
What is the
Masonic law about using the name "Masonry" in advertising? Is it
Is it illegal? I raise the question because a brother connected with a
nearby uses the square and compasses on his business cards; some of us
M. D. S., Colorado.
find this subject dealt with in detail in your own Grand Lodge
Proceedings for 1921
by Grand Master H. P. Burke. His statement is worthy of being printed
in full: "By
Section 296 of the Book of Constitutions, we have forbidden the use of
for advertising purposes, and the letter of the law is generally
obeyed. There is,
however, a general violation of its spirit by the indiscriminate use of
Masonic in the same connection. Commercial concerns are using it, not
only to attract
attention to their business, but in a manner and with the purpose of
impression that their enterprises are connected with, or approved by,
Insurance and accident companies are the most notorious violators
thereof. If the
use of the square and compass, which at most can but imply an
association, be forbidden,
then certainly the use of the term Masonic, which asserts that
be banned. This section, by interpretation or amendment, should be made
in all these eases, or be repealed.
this connection, I call your attention to an instance in which a
Association, operating in this jurisdiction, was soliciting funds
United States. I directed the Grand Secretary to advise other Grand
through their Grand Secretaries, that this Association had no
connection with organized
Masonry in Colorado, and was operating without our approval....
many quarters there is to be observed an unjustifiable appetite for
Newspaper advertisements of Masonic activities are lamentably frequent.
to me a particularly flagrant instance of this evil, in a locality
has been charged, is called to your attention by the submission of
clippings. These things are to be discountenanced, and ought to be
They constitute merely an indirect method of solicitation. All their
evil and all their tendencies destructive. No attempt should be made
save 'by the
regularity of our own behavior' to popularize the Craft. We want no
do not come of their 'own free will and accord,' 'uninfluenced by
or the improper solicitation of friends.' The greatest danger which
the fraternity is the danger against which its sages and leaders have
in Colorado and elsewhere from time immemorial ‒ too much popularity.
Our more active
lodges should investigate petitions more carefully and select their
judiciously. Their growth is too rapid to be always healthy. We should
worry about the enemy without. Now, as always, he is absolutely
impotent to injure
us. Freemasonry can only be torn down from within.
view of what has been hereinbefore stated, and considering the apparent
in the Masonic world, the time seems ripe for the re-statement by this
of the following fundamental principles:
The government of the Grand Lodge is neither a monarchy, an oligarchy,
nor a 'pure
democracy.' It is a representative, constitutional republic. Every
attempt to graft
upon it any of the distinguishing characteristics of the first three
is forbidden by the injunction against 'innovations upon the body of
The Grand Lodge, which is but the entire body of the Craft in the
acting through its duly chosen representatives, and restricted only by
has the sole power and authority to determine what is and what is not
and to fix the conditions under which a petitioner may enter
Freemasonry, or, having
entered, remain. Its only guide is its best judgment as to what is
required by the
good of the Craft, and from its decision there is no appeal.
The only title to Masonic office is the best judgment of the brethren
the officer appointing, uninfluenced by improper solicitation and
no consideration in mind but the highest good of the Craft.
This fraternity, its activities, titles, ceremonies, symbols, and
emblems, are not
to be used for political or commercial purposes. It repudiates all
for its degrees, all advertisement, all unseemly publicity. It
tolerates no foreign
meddling in its affairs. It interferes with no man's religion and will
itself with matters of political or legislative policy."
of Freemasonry for advertising purposes in any way, shape or form is
and everywhere condemned inside the fraternity. Whether or not it is
on the laws of the state, and states differ much among themselves on
* * *
Another Version of "The
the greatest interest I read the different articles of THE BUILDER and
even if it
may happen that I do not agree with the contents of one, as a former
judge I acknowledge
the rightness of the old rule "audio tar et alters pars"; but once in
a while it looks to me that an article is so fundamentally wrong that
I feel inclined to protest or, if it should so prove, to learn if it is
I who am
the case when in the September issue of THE BUILDER I had read an
"The Great Journey."
calls a certain journey which the candidate has to make: "the most
moment of the initiatory ceremony;" according to my view he could have
a step further and called it: "the basis of our Masonic life." But I
with him that very few Masons, even Master Masons, have paid much
attention to this
ceremony and that generally they are quite ignorant as to the meaning
remarks "that the interpretation of this rite is usually given as a
representation of the great journey of life"; and further, "that there
is nothing in this interpretation in itself, that flies against fact."
he adds "that we may be sure that there is far more to it than this"
this "more" later on he explains as "the harmonious adjustment of
one to one's world." To prove the rightness of his theory the author
attention to the feet that "circumambulation is very old and well-nigh
He tells us that the Egyptians, the Jews and other people used
at solemn occasions and he tells of the marching habits of the North
and South American
Indians as part of their religious rites and he sums up by the theory
is an imitating of the wandering of the sun over the sky from East to
that the author is wrong herein. What the author calls
was not a mere wandering, a solemn march, it was a dance. In his book,
of Life, Havelock Ellis asserts: "Dancing and building are the two
and essential arts ‒ and dancing came first ‒ dancing is the primitive
of religion from the earliest human times we know of."
it is not easy for us, who have in mind the dance of the present time,
a walk or a march as a dance, but if we agree with Havelock Ellis in ‒
I do ‒ that: "the significance of dancing lies in the feet that it is
an intimate concrete appeal of a general rhythm, that general rhythm,
not life only but the Universe," then we can understand that the
around of the Faro Islanders to the singing of the ancient Northern
that the stepping and jumping of the quaint German religious sect in
town of Westphalia ‒ to mention examples of the present days ‒ are
in a primitive crude form.
to my belief, all of the different examples of circumambulation to
which the author
refers in the said article of THE BUILDER are religious dances and
there is no connection
between them and the circumambulation ‒ or as I prefer to call it "the
‒ of the Masonic candidate at his initiation as Mason and for this
reason I think
that we had better look away from them.
We Must Keep Our Eyes Open
when the author remarks that the circumambulation ‒ the travel ‒ of the
is to be interpreted as "a symbolical representation of the great
life" I believe that the author is again mistaken and I rest my opinion
the fact that the candidate has to make the circumambulation ‒ the
travel ‒ blindfolded.
We do not walk blindfolded through life. On the contrary, from our
boyhood we are
taught to keep our eyes open ‒ both practically and theoretically ‒ in
through life. The Masonic rites, even if often they are hard to
understand and still
harder to interpret, never allow an interpretation that does not agree
fact that the candidate is blindfolded during his circumambulation ‒
‒ shows that the travel is not a symbol of his travel through the
outside, or profane
world, but that it is a symbol of and an appeal to the candidate to
make a travel
through another world, almost more unknown to him than the darkest
continent ‒ to
make the travel through his own interior self. Our forefathers who
formed the Masonic
rites knew that, however strange it sounds, we know ourselves less than
our neighbor. We see the mote in our neighbor's eye but not the beam in
In blindfolding the candidate the lodge tries to force him to look into
interior, to force him to learn to know himself. It is a fact that our
thinking is developed when we close our eyes to shut out impression
from the outer
entrance to one of the Greek temples was cut "gnoti seauton," as a
advice to the worshiper to examine himself to find out what and how he
entering the temple to worship; and in the same way the lodge tries to
at the beginning of our Masonic life that the first thing we have to do
is to examine
ourselves to find out what in reality we are, as the knowledge thereof
for and the foundation of our Masonic life.
When we study
to interpret the Masonic rites it looks to me that we must bear in mind
that the Masonic Order, as at present it is, had for original
foundation real artisan
guilds ‒ whether we consider the Roman collegian, the fratres Comacini,
builders, or the German Bauhütten as the basis ‒ which little after
character through the admittance of non-artisans, the accepted Masons,
consequently in our interpretations we must first look to and examine
and the rites of those bodies.
countries in Europe after the candidate has entered the lodge room the
W. M. gives
the order: "Let the candidate travel as a Mason." And then the S. W.
him three times around the lodge room from W through N and E and S to
W. and after
the travel the S. W. gives the candidate a short lecture explaining the
idea of Masonry. Over here the W.M. does not expressly give such an
order, but even
if the candidate is not ordered to travel as Mason, in fact, does.
the question rises, Does this Masonic ceremony spring from the rites of
Masons' guilds? Are the Masons travelling in a peculiar way?
do, or rather undoubtedly they did so in the olden time. I admit that I
do not know
whether the apprentice had to make any travel at his initiation, but I
do not think
so, according to what I have been told of the ceremonies; but what I
have in mind
are the travels of the apprentice, as soon as he had been promoted to
‒ "Svend, Gesell." As soon as they had reached this rung of the
ladder they started travelling from town to town looking for a job.
Even if they
got one in a town, usually they did not stay very long on it; almost
were on the travel. Over here in this country where outside the larger
buildings are not usual and where, as far as I know, the artisans'
did exist, of course you never saw the travelling Mason; but in the old
‒ in Scandinavia and Germany ‒ especially before the times of the
railroad in my
boyhood very often I saw the travelling Mason "Gesell" on the road.
he had on his special working suit ‒ the garb of his profession ‒ the
pants, the short white cotton blouse covering his coat, and the white
Why Do Masons Wear White
By the way,
it looks strange that the Masons should make use of a white suit for
a suit that is so little practical for working purposes, as it gets
dirty very fast.
But do we not here have one of the old customs that is upheld, although
from which it sprang long ago is forgotten? From the oldest time known,
was worshiping the highest being and it is a fact that from time
worshiper, or at least that the person who was leading the religious
the officiant, was dressed in white. Of course there is no rule without
but the exceptions can be explained. For instance the Mohammedan imam
minister do not make use of a white dress when they are officiating.
dons his most plain dress when he is going to worship, but this is not
due to tradition
but to an expressly pronounced order given by the founder of his faith.
minister's black cassock I consider a protest against the white
surplice of the
Catholic Church. It looks to me to be possible that the Mason's white
which still is in use in the old countries, had its origin from the
that building is worshiping.
travelling Mason always had with him in a bag the different tools
belonging to his
profession ‒ the trowel, the level, "waterpass," and so on. Contrary to
most of the other artisans the Masons themselves owned their tools. The
got them as soon as they were made Fellowcrafts, "Gesell."
In my boyhood
I associated very much with the young Masons, who told me about the
customs of their
profession and I was told that the custom of travelling in the
aforesaid way had
been in use for centuries in the Scandinavian and German countries and
in Germany, where the Mason gilds were blossoming to a far greater
extent than in
Scandinavia. And yet many of the expressions of the Masons' profession
are pure German. I have had no opportunity to examine the travelling
the English Masons, but I suppose that they were just the same as above
it looks that the customs as previously mentioned were international.
Now to sum
up. My viewpoint is that the Masonic rites are built up from and
founded on the
practices and customs of the actual working Masons, as these offered
of a deeper understanding and interpretation it was possible to
underlay the different
tools and the use of them a moral content and a moral teaching could be
to the special travelling custom of the working Mason.
reason I believe that the travel, which the candidate has to make, is
to be interpreted
in this way, that thereby the lodge will teach him to travel through
his own interior
being, that he may know himself; and to do this travel he is dressed in
a worshiper of the highest being; and to have with him during the
travel his tools
‒ the trowel and so on ‒ that he may be able to repair and to correct
and wants that he may find in himself.
it is an old saying, "qui s’
I can not help asking your pardon, that
I have bothered you with this long letter which meanwhile is due to my
in your paper. I need not draw your attention to the fact that I am a
as my mistakes in the use of the English language show this, but I hope
will make to yours the saying: "at desint hires tamen est laudanda
C. B. Olivarius, Michigan. To have a word
from Judge Olivarius is a pleasure always, he is so deeply learned in
and in the world and a man who, in spite of contact with crime and
shame so many
years on the bench, has retained a human outlook on life. A Dane by
birth, he graduated
from the University of Copenhagen and then took up law, which he
until 1918. He was made a Mason in St. John's Lodge, Dagmar, under the
He received his Apprentice Degree in 1891, and his Master's in about
two years thereafter,
which is in keeping with the policy of the Swedish Rite in setting long
of time between the degrees; and in 1905 received his eighth, or
Freemasonry has interested him so much that at every opportunity he has
lodges in all parts of Scandinavia, in France, Belgium, Germany, etc.
it would interest readers of THE BUILDER we are now trying to persuade
him to lay
aside his modesty long enough to give us his observations and
reminiscences of the
Craft as it works in those foreign parts.
find fault with his interpretation of the "Great Journey" except
on this one point, that in England where Speculative Freemasonry arose,
our Ritual took shape, it was never the custom for a Mason out of his
indentures to spend one or two years as a journeyman, travelling about
of work, as was the ease in Continental lands; the custom was
discouraged from a
very early date, and in the fourteenth century was expressly prohibited.
things turn up in the mail. One brother asked us to help him buy a
why Greek he did not say; another importuned our assistance in raising
from his farm, which request we deemed the most complimentary ever
swain asked our assistance in meeting some attractive damsel; but the
treasured of all is a contribution from a budding poet. The verses have
the w. k.
King Solomon allusion and otherwise show earmarks of having come from
"The ladies dress like
And make their charms so coyly peep
That Solomon, when he was king
Was dressed, I'm sure, about twice as cheap."
* * *
reader, who has long sat at our fireside, has asked, "Who is your
novelist of the present day?" Joseph Conrad for this scribe! Who is
If ever there was a greater yarn than "Heart of Darkness" (in the
called Youth [Lib 1902]) one would like to see it.
* * *
has supplied us with a few more copies of the little booklet Story of
First come, first served.
* * *
Dakota Society for the Advancement of Learning, sponsored by the
Scottish Rite of
that state, have published a well printed and illustrated book called
Bell for use by Masonic lodges [Lib*], edited and compiled by Bro.
Alfred G. Arvold.
It is filled with solid information about public education in the
A package of copies was sent to us for distribution gratis to such
brethren as have
need for them. Send name and address. One copy at a time.
A Concise History of
Gou51 / auth. Gould Robert F / ed. Crowe Frederick J. W.. - London :
Gale & Polden Limited, 1951. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 401. - 10.3 MB.
A Short Masonic History Vol 1
Arm09 / auth. Armitage Frederick. - London : H. Weare & Co,
1909. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 195. - 3.8 MB.
A Short Masonic History Vol 2
Arm11 / auth. Armitage Frederick. - London : H. Weare & Co,
1911. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 190. - 3.9 MB.
A Social Theory of Religious
Coe19 / auth. Coe George A. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1919.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 366. - 17.2 MB.
Com93 / auth. Compayre Gabriel. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1893. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 329. - 9.8 MB.
Ancient Masonic Constitutions
And59 / auth. Anderson James. - New York : Robt. Macoy, 1859. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 114. - 5.2 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And38 / auth. Anderson James. - London : J. Robinson, 1738. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 249. - 16.2 MB.
Club Makers and Club Members
Esc14 / auth. Escott Thomas H S. - London : T Fisher Unwin, 1914. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 377. - 40.2 MB.
Cyclopedia of Education
Fle92 / auth. Fletcher Alfred E. - London : Swan Sonnenschein &
Co, 1892. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 571. - 50.5 MB.
Days of Poor Richard
Bac221 / auth. Bacheller Irving. - Toronto : George J McLeod, Limited,
1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 431. - 16.8 MB.
Development of Free Schools
Mea18 / auth. Mead Arthur R. - New York : Teacher College, Columbia
University, 1918. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 250. - 6.8 MB.
Education and Social Movements
Dob19 / auth. Dobbs Archibald E. - London : Longmans, Green, and Co,
1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 272. - 7.7 MB.
Freemasonry Before the
Existence of Grand Lodges
Vib10 / auth. Vibert Lionel. - London : Spencer & Co., 2010. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 163. - 0.5 MB.
Growth of the Catholic School
Bur12 / auth. Burns James A. - New York : Benziger Brothers, 1912. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 434. - 11.3 MB.
Guild Masonry in the Making
Mer18 / auth. Merz Charles H. - Louisville KY : Light Publishing, 1918.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 204. - 2.9 MB.
History of Education
Mon06 / auth. Monroe Paul. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1906. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 801. - 34.3 MB.
History of Freemasonry
Fin66 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - London : Asher & Co., 1866. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 742. - Translated from the German - 17.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 1
Mac06 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 7 : p. 316. - 13.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 2
Mac061 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 2 : 7 : p. 341. - 10.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 3
Mac062 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 3 : 7 : p. 328. - 12.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 4
Mac063 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 4 : 7 : p. 324. - 13.1 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 5
Mac064 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 5 : 7 : p. 318. - 13.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 6
Mac065 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 6 : 7 : p. 328. - 13.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 7
Mac066 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 7 : 7 : p. 398. - 18.7 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre67 / auth. Preston William and Oliver George. - New York : Masonic
Publishing and Manufacturing, 1867. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 404. - 25.3 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre61 / auth. Preston William and Oliver George. - London : R. Spencer,
1861. - 17th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 578. - 27.9 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre55 / auth. Preston William and Oliver George. - New York : Jno. W.
Leonard & Co., 1855. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 412. - 29.6 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre29 / auth. Preston William and Oliver George. - London : Whittaker,
Treacher, and Co., 1829. - 14th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 482. - 21.7
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre12 / auth. Preston William. - Unknown : [s.n.], 1812. - 12th Edition
: Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 248. - Formatted and Indexed by rhm; 1.2 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre96 / auth. Preston William. - London : G. & T. Wilkie, 1796.
- 9th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 57. - From GLBC Canada; 0.5 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre88 / auth. Preston William. - Unknown : Unknown, 1788. - p. 328. -
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre75 / auth. Preston William. - London : J. Wilkie, 1775. - Second
Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 327. - 10.0 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre72 / auth. Preston William. - London : Eidographic Reproduction
Publishing Co. 1887, 1772. - First Edition Facsimile : Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
295. - 5.2 MB.
Masonic Sketches and Reprints
Hug71 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : George Kenning, 1871. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 158. - 4.2 MB.
Medieval Schools In England
Lea15 / auth. Leach Arthur F. - London : Methuen & Co Ltd,
1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 431. - 16.9 MB.
Ste22 / auth. Stewart Cora W. - New York : E P Dutton &
Company, 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 233. - 9.8 MB.
Our Colonial Curriculum
Mer07 / auth. Meriwether Colyer. - Washington DC : Capital Publishing
Co, 1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 303. - 6.7 MB.
Progress of Education
Hug07 / auth. Hughes James L. - Toronto : The Linscott Publishing Co,
1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 534. - 18.0 MB.
Readings in Education
Cub201 / auth. Cubberley Ellwood P. - Boston : Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 717. - 37.3 MB.
Win17 / auth. Winchester Benjamin S. - New York : The Abingdon Press,
1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 296. - 10.8 MB.
Religious Freedom in American
Cro03 / auth. Crooker Joseph H. - Boston : American Unitarian
Association, 1903. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 214. - 4.0 MB.
Secularization of US Education
Bro12 / auth. Brown Samuel W. - New York : Teacher College, Columbia
University, 1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 168. - 4.2 MB.
The Apocalypse of Freemasonry
Cas25 / auth. Castells Francis de P.. - Edinburgh : Neill &
Co., Ltd., 1925. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 230. - 0.4 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Catholic School System
Bur081 / auth. Burns James A. - New York : Benziger Brothers, 1908. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 428. - 11.2 MB.
The Diary and Will of Elias
Ash27 / auth. Ashmole Elias / ed. Gunther R. T.. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1927. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 98. - 23.6 MB.
The History of Education
Cub20 / auth. Cubberley Ellwood P. - Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company,
1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 892. - 58.5 MB.
The Lodge of Edinburgh
Lyo73 / auth. Lyon David M. - Edinburgh : Blackwood and Sons, 1873. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 480. - 17.4 MB.
The Natural History of
Plo86 / auth. Plot Robert. - Oxford : At the Theater, 1686. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 532. - 56.6 MB.
The Natural History of Wiltshire
Aub47 / auth. Aubrey John. - London : J. B. Nichols and Son, 1847. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 148. - 14.5 MB.
The New Word
Upw14 / auth. Upward Allen. - New York : Mitchell Kennerley, 1914. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 318. - 7.0 MB.
The Spirit of Masonry in Moral
and Elucidatory Lectures
Hut95 / auth. Hutchinson William. - Carlisle : F. Jollie, 1795. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 370. - 13.8 MB.
The Story of the Monad
Nor23 / auth. Northern Pacific Railroad. - [s.l.] : Northern Pacific
Railroad, 1923. - p. 11. - 2.0 MB.
The True Ahiman Rezon
Der05 / auth. Dermott Laurence. - New York : Southwick &
Hardcastle, 1805. - 3rd Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 277. - 17.0 MB -
Hax54 / auth. Haxthausen Baron von. - London : Chapman and Hall, 1854.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 479. - 14.0 MB.
Con02 / auth. Conrad Joseph. - Edinbught : William Blackwood and Sons,
1902. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 413. - 17.1 MB.