Masonic Research Society
Present Day Tendencies and
Dangers in Freemasonry
By Bro. Louis Block, P.G.M.,
We are living
in an age when it takes but little urging to spur a man to follow
injunction to "Prove all things". In fact, there never was a time when
people were so ready to submit all things to "the acid test" even going
so far as to jump at conclusions, and discard a thing before the test
is half done.
are materials, machinery and methods being tried in rapid succession,
but the probe
is being pushed into parties, governments, societies, institutions,
fraternities. Nor can the Masonic institution hope to escape trial
along with the
today any real excuse for its continued existence?
Has it any
solution to offer of the trying problems that vex and harass not only
soul, but the soul of the world as well, till one questions whether the
worth the candle, or life worth living at all?
no more escape standing up to answer this question than can any of the
rest of human
institutions that the modern world is putting on trial.
us quite so much good as to now and then take stock of our
institutions, to find
out what they mean, and what they really stand for.
To do that
we must go back to first principles. We must dig down to the foundation
out upon what the thing is bottomed. The world just now is showing a
for this sort of thing.
In the field
of religion a great controversy is raging between the "modernists" and
the "fundamentalists". The former are for a freer interpretation, for
the loosening of creedal chains, while the latter claim that in going
back to the
ancient creeds they have gone down to the foundation, although one is
to wonder whether the true Foundation does not lie far deeper than all
creeds in a Great Life and a Great Love that gave birth to a new
not so much that we have belief, but far more that we love one another.
Let us now
go down to the foundation of Masonry, and find, if we can, upon what
sort of footing
our building is based. We have been taught from time immemorial that
of the Masonic Institution was to make its votaries wiser and better
happier, that we should receive none knowingly into our ranks but such
as were moral
and upright before God and of good repute before the world. This was on
that such men when associated together would naturally seek each
and happiness equally with their own. In order that they might not
in well-doing it furnished them with a great common platform upon which
"meet upon the level, act by the plumb, and part upon the square." It
obliged them to that great "Religion in which all men agree, leaving
particular opinions to themselves; that is, to be good men and true, or
men of Honor
and Honesty, by whatever Denominations or Persuasions they may be
whereby Masonry becomes the Center of Union, and the Means of
Friendship among Persons that must have remain'd at a perpetual
must all admit, is just about the broadest creed to be found in all
it is upon the broad foundation of this "Ancient Charge" that our
Institution is based. It is upon such a foundation and in the spirit of
said "My Father worketh hitherto, and I work" that we are taught to
incessantly, making a persistent and proper use of the Trowel, an
for the "noble and glorious purpose of spreading the cement of
and affection, that cement which unites us into one sacred band or
society of friends
and brothers among whom no contention should ever exist, but that noble
or rather emulation, of who best can work and best agree".
is whether an institution so conceived and so founded has any part to
worthwhile function to perform amid the perplexities that pursue us at
Let us see.
let us take a look at modern life. What's the matter with it? Very,
In the first
place, we have allowed the plain and simple life of the pioneer days to
a thing so infernally intricate, so infinitely involved, so
that the human mind stands appalled at the thought of it. No longer are
few, and plain and simple, but many and multiplex. We want so many
things in such
great variety and in such quick succession that half the time we don't
we want. Our houses, our minds and our lives are so gorged with many
we are able to digest and assimilate scarcely any of them. From the
cradle to the
grave it is the same. Our children have it put upon them early in life.
a little sister cuddled a rag-doll to her heart, she must now perforce
pet a Parisian
puppet festooned with fashionable furbelows. Little Bobbie must be
denied his hobby-horse
and must get mixed up in a meccano set. Where once the little red
school house did
the business we now have the kindergarten, the primary school, the
and the high school, and these with all sorts of fads and frills
fastened upon them.
We must get into everything, and have everything, and "put on" a whole
kennel full of "dog", even if we have to cheat our creditors and betray
our friends to do it. A mortgage goes on the home so we can grab a
auto, or a radio. Corned beef and cabbage have given away to camembert
Dad can no longer sit down to "supper" in his shirt sleeves, but must
climb into dress clothes before he can be "served with dinner". We no
longer dare to have a plain and simple bellyache, but must get along
or colitis, or appendicitis. We dare not even go simply and: plainly
must be cursed by a "complex". And when at last it comes to the matter
of making an escape from this mundane sphere we realize that the simple
of dying has become so elaborate a piece of procedure, that it were far
had we kept walking around instead of trying to meet the "mortician's"
bill. Once we might have been simply and plainly planted by an
undertaker, but "them
days is gone forever!"
We Lust For Speed
In the midst
of all this and making the muddle worse, we have been bitten by the
have fallen a victim to the skidding-sickness. We have developed a
for rapid motion. Nothing can go fast enough to suit us. Express trains
from Chicago to New York, ocean greyhounds scoot us from New York to
London in a
few short days, and high-speed cars hurl us to hell in a jiffy. We
can't be patient
or deliberate about anything. We are rabidly restless and can't bear to
We must keep in motion. "Where do we go from here?" is the common cry.
"We don't know where we are going, but we are on our way!" We want what
we want when we want it. Ready-built houses and ready-to-wear clothing
are the rule.
We are willing to wait for nothing. Everyone is on the jump. We hurry
here and there,
chasing first this thing, and then that, darting about like wild
water-bugs at a
sewer's mouth. We are ready to "try anything once", and always crazy to
try something new. When jazz fails to give us joy, then our madness
in the Marathon dance.
that something is wrong society tries to find a cure in new laws. Then
we have such
perfect pestilence of law-making that humanity heaves a great sigh of
moment Congress or the Legislature adjourns. We have too much
government in business
and far too little business in government. We have a cataclysm of
each crowd crazy to hog things for its particular class, and "to hell
the other fellow". We have a whole raft of radical legislation, and
for law than ever before. Russia may have her Soviet slaughters, but
God pity the day! has her Mer Rouge murders and her Herrin massacres.
menace the land with dissension and disunion, disruption and disaster,
that divides and destroys.
have we as Masons to do with all this? What can we do about it?
the first place, we can awake to a realization that it is high time we
rested content with a mere recitation of our ritual, rules and
there is coming to us, now as never before, a clarion call to promptly
put our precepts into practice. To realize again that
"A man of words and not of
Is like a garden full of weeds."
from time immemorial, has been ever sternly and soberly and seriously
and never riotously radical. Masonry has always had in her heart a
for things frantic and foolish, and has ever firmly stood for these
make for stability and order, for strength and establishment.
What Does Masonry Stand
with far too many of us is that we don't know what our Masonry really
of us, I wonder, have ever truly realized that when the Master in the
East has charged
us saying "In the State, you are to be a quiet and peaceful subject,
your government and just to your country. You are not to countenance
or rebellion, but patiently submit to legal authority and conform with
to the government of the country in which you live", there was then and
laid upon our shoulders the performance of a duty as sacred, as solemn
and as binding
as anything contained in the obligation taken at the altar?
practice our Masonry until we have first learned to know it. Once we
to know it we will clearly see that there is not one of our modern
but what can be solved by a faithful application of Masonic principles
can be no salvation if the principles are merely preached and
practiced. Yet if
they are practiced untold good will be done.
simply transform the world, if, for a single year, each and every one
of us would
simply live up to our ancient religion "to be good Men and true ‒ Men
If we are
the sort of men we have prided ourselves upon being the sort who seek
welfare and happiness equally with our own, we will help one another to
our Masonry means ‒ do this by admonition, discussion, debates, study
Here is where our study clubs, our research societies and our service
all else we must help each other to live the life, in the shop and the
in the office and the factory, in the home and on the street, so that
influence of "good men and true" may be met with everywhere.
For at the
bottom the fault of the present state of things is not legal or
personal and individual. It is not the system that is wrong, but the
men who run
it. It's high time we quit blaming a system for our own shortcomings.
"The fault, dear Brutus, is not
in our stars,
But in ourselves, that we are underlings."
is "one made of many" and if each one of the many does his duty then,
and only then, will the "Temple of our Liberties" endure. It will not
do for any one of us to wait for the other to do his duty. Each one
must be up and
doing, acting of his own volition, sweeping before his own door, hosing
row. It is the old question of Hiram Abiff over again; the question of
moral responsibility, of individual fidelity, regardless of personal
loss or sacrifice.
no need for new laws, new systems, new forms of government. There is a
for plain old-fashioned individual performance of duty.
"Honour and Fame from no
Act well your part ‒ there all the honour lies!"
all our preaching of precepts, all our ritualizing, will be as
"A thing full of sound and fury,
a glorious gospel, as we her votaries well know, but glorious as that
be, there is another far more vitally important and that is the gospel
of the individual
Mason as shown in his individual life.
"The Gospel According To You" --
a sweet old story translated for
But writ in the long, long ago ‒
The Gospel according to Mark, Luke and John ‒
Of Christ and His mission below.
Men read and admire the gospel of Christ,
With its love so unfailing and true;
But what do they say, and what do they think,
Of the gospel according to you?
'Tis a wonderful story, that gospel of love,
As it shines in the Christ-life divine;
And, oh, that its truth might be told again
In the story of your life and mine!
Unselfishness mirrors in every scene;
Love blossoms on every sod;
And back from its vision the heart comes to tell
The wonderful goodness of God.
You are writing each day a letter to men;
Take care that the writing is true;
'Tis the only gospel that some men will read ‒
The gospel according to you."
The Menace Within
When a candidate
seeks admission into our fraternity we compel him to sign a petition in
solemnly states that "he is prompted to solicit this privilege by a
wish of being serviceable to his fellow citizens".
Is that pure
"bunk", or does it really mean something?
We are prompted
to put this question by reason of the fact that there have arisen in
a number of organizations pretending to be Masonic that are anything
to be "Masonic" by reason of the fact that they permit no one to join
them who is not a Master Mason because of the fact that their
membership is composed
of Masons only, the thoughtless Mason and the uninformed non-Mason,
that these societies are Masonic, despite the fact that none of them
have been either
recognized or ratified by any governing Masonic body.
thus practically parading under false pretenses and practicing a fraud
innocent and unwary, thereby putting Masonry in a false light before
We say parading
advisedly, for their votaries seem set upon strutting the streets clad
in gay, gaudy
and garish garments, flaunting flaming banners, tearing the public
peace to tatters
with the blare of the trombone and the boom of the bass-drum.
the citizen on the sidewalk cries, "See, there go the Masons!" The
forsooth! These devotees of dazzle and din!
And the newspapers,
who hate things hidden, to whom nothing secret is sacred, who persecute
and pray to the god of Publicity, help him to believe that Masonry is
And, my brethren,
unless we are awake to the danger that threatens us, Masonry is apt to
into just that.
are growing in number. The other day the writer counted up fourteen of
Masters and Grand Lodge Correspondents have assailed them in no
and not without reason, for they are a real menace to Masonry.
gain no lasting foothold among men were it not for their pretended
holding of a
Masonic certificate of good character. In the past, to say that a thing
was to certify to its high standing. The story of Masonry's devotion to
doctrines of friendship, morality and brotherly love, of the relief of
and distressed, and her dispelling of the darkness of ignorance by the
truth, has placed her upon the topmost pinnacle in the esteem and
respect of men.
These "side organizations" well know this, and they seek to slip into
places of power and influence by means of their alleged Masonic
passports. But unless
this menace is soon curbed, the day is not distant when a certificate
membership will have lost all its meaning and value.
organizations are a menace to Masonry in many ways.
One of the
queer things about them is that the zealots who espouse the cause of
organizations seem to have so little respect or reverence for the very
membership in whose ranks they make a prerequisite for joining their
Their candidate chasers invade the sanctity of the lodge room,
interfere with the
workers, make the candidate feel that the degree work is but of passing
a matter of mere incident on the way to the "real thing". Treating the
Blue Lodge degrees as mere stepping stones, they tread beneath ruthless
beautiful flowers of the ritual, in a mad effort to rush the candidate
fold. Before the apprentice is dry behind the ears he is harangued and
brow-beaten and bulldozed, into joining their gang and "having a good
The immemorial dignity and decorum of the lodge is disturbed, its noble
and high doctrines are discounted and disparaged, its high ideals are
the dust, and the bewildered candidate comes to think that the Order
frivolity and not for service.
Masonry Is Sane, Steady,
has endured down the ages, solely because of its serious and earnest
because of the sane, steady and sober quality of its aims and ideals.
strive to slur over all these and to substitute in their place a silly
pleasure and a light-headed lust for excitement. Their rituals far too
of vulgarity and their horse-play verges at times even upon the obscene.
It is upon
this sort of thing that these side-orders seek to have set the stamp
and seal of
Masonic approval, and we seem content to stand complacently by and let
their "politics", their petty piques and quarrels, their disappointed
ambitions to have high-sounding titles, and wear resplendent robes,
into the sacred
precincts of the lodge-room, disturb the work of the builders and
destroy the peace
and harmony of the Craft.
of men who are won to the Order by this sort of thing do it no good,
for they are
not worth having ‒ are not fit material for the building "of the house
made with hands, eternal in the heavens".
when Masonry was known as "a system of morality veiled in allegory". If
this thing is not checked, how long will it be before it comes to be
called a frenzy
of frivolity, fed by folly"?
scatter Masonry's force. They lower its aims and purposes, destroy its
and blur the vision of its lofty ideals. They tend inevitably to wreck
and influence by destroying its solidarity, and threaten to take away
power to serve mankind.
We are coming
to have far too many "play-grounds in Masonry", too much of a rush for
"refreshment" in an institution anciently dedicated to "labor".
Masonry is in a mighty poor business when it feeds modern society's
passion for passing pleasures. If there ever was a day when men needed
to quit dallying
with delights and attended to business, it is now. For the popular call
seems to be for the man who will be "a good fellow", who will forget
business, let it slide, and in the end make of himself an object of
We are taking
far too many men into the Order who do not know what an earnest thought
who care less. Far too many who have neither the brains nor the desire
to seek back
of the symbol to the great idea thereby symbolized. These men lie
within the belly
of the Order like leaden lumps that will not be digested, and they are
not an asset,
but a liability.
And it is
these very "side-orders" that lure these light-headed liabilities
our fold-bad cess to them! and at a time when, God knows! we don't need
do need earnest men.
If by any
chance this mushroom growth of these Masonic side-shows results in any
a reaction against a humdrum and lifeless recital of the ritual by
who have no idea of the meaning of the words that glide so glibly from
then the remedy is not far to seek.
For, as Brother
Weston of Vermont has so clearly pointed out, all the lodges need to do
is to make
the ritual interesting by means of lectures, readings, discussions and
tending to make its meaning clear; for a man simply cannot put life and
the words he utters unless his soul is first set all aglow with their
meaning is there, hidden, buried, concealed within the ritual, and our
depends upon our working it out.
we will do this we will be pouring Paris-green upon these parasites.
But if that
doesn't work we may need a new set of Masonic police regulations that
will put these
bums in the bastille where they belong.
for Definite Things
By Bro. George H. Dern,
P. G. M., Utah
a Nebraskan by birth, was made a Mason at Salt Lake City, in Utah, in
received the high honor of the Grand Mastership in that jurisdiction in
will recall a memorable article of his in THE BUILDER, December, 1921,
Symbolism of the Third Degree and its Application to Every Day Life"; a
of that fine piece of interpretation with the discussion below will
show how full-orbed
is his comprehension of Freemasonry. An explanation of why the
did not pass was contributed to THE BUILDER, May, 1923, by Bro. Senator
Fess; in the same number appeared a report of the attitude of Grand
that bill. In connection with these studies the reader should review
Public School Number of August, 1922.
it has occurred to many Masons as somewhat strange that Masonry
the United States has until lately been advocating a specific piece of
namely the Towner-Sterling Bill. Perhaps some good brethren may think
this a violation
of the section in most if not all Masonic codes which provides that
of political, sectarian or other subjects not strictly of a Masonic
prohibited in every lodge in this Grand Jurisdiction." In the hope of
up any such doubts or misgivings the following observations are
happens in the lives of men that they are in the midst of a great
change or evolution
without realizing it. They are so engrossed with their immediate
so bound by custom and established routine, or regard their old views
as so obvious, that they do not see or comprehend the big movements
that are carrying
mankind along with them. When such tendencies become perceptible they
may be deplored
by persons of a conservative cast of mind who venerate the past as the
of all wisdom and are shocked when "God lets loose a thinker in the
who proposes something new to meet new conditions. But progress is the
law of all
nature, and the world moves forward, not backward, despite our puny
efforts to check
signs of a change in the attitude of Freemasonry. Those of us who have
long enough to have become thoroughly indoctrinated know that it has
deemed improper to commit Masonry to any specific program except the
brotherly love. It has been the rule that in all public matters Masons,
with and guided by Masonic precepts and ideals, should act as
according to his own judgment, and never as a united organization.
Masonry Should Stand For
past few years, however, many Masonic leaders have been laying
upon the necessity of Masonry standing for definite things, and
presenting a united
front in advancing those things. Very many Masons who do not pretend to
in the Craft complain that it is hard for one who is not an officer to
keep up an
active interest in Masonry because we do not stand for anything
concrete. They say
that merely coming to lodge and seeing the same old degrees conferred
over and over
and over again be comes tiresome to a man with an active intellect;
that for gathering
in social functions to reiterate what fine thing Masonry is and what
Masons are does not result in any real accomplishment, and that we
ought to be more
than a mere mutual admiration society; that Masonry is a great, big,
that does not know what to do with itself nor how to use its strength.
Mason will readily agree with these sentiments; but as for having
for definite things, that is a delicate matter and must be handled
old-timers who put in our codes the provision that political, sectarian
subjects not strictly of a Masonic character should not be discussed in
very wise, and assuredly it is not proposed by anybody to abandon that
policy, upon which our fellowship rests, and which is our strength and
Masonic principles there can be no difference of opinion among us, and
be safely discussed with the utmost freedom, as well as their
application to our
everyday problems. But when we get into public questions we at once
controversial matters, about which Masons will differ as widely and as
as outsiders. I cannot attack a man's pet opinions without hurting his
and when I do that I make him angry. If I assail his political or
he gets just as angry as he does when I make slighting remarks about
or his automobile. Our opinions are our property, and the most natural
the world is to defend what belongs to us, and to resent any attempt to
or belittle it. For example, suppose someone in a Masonic meeting
to make a speech against the protective tariff, which many good Masons
consider as sacred as the holy Grail. Immediately peace and harmony
would beat a
hasty retreat, and the meeting would blow up with a loud report.
Suppose we should
declare against the right of working men to strike. Many good, sincere
think such a declaration right and proper, whilst many other equally
good and sincere
Masons would regard it as a vital blow at their fundamental human
rights. And so
our unanimity and concord would vanish, and we should speedily be
divided into wrangling,
jangling cliques and factions. Clearly we must be careful to do nothing
destroy us from within.
We Don't Want Masonry to
Run the Country
But the danger
of disintegrating Masonry itself is not the only objection. We do not
want to see
Masonry, as an organized body, undertake to run the whole country, any
we want to see the Roman Catholic Church or the Ku Klux Klan run the
it would be un-American. In a democracy all the people should rule, not
class or sect, even though that class be so high-minded a body of men
as the Masons.
Furthermore, no organization whose sessions and deliberations are
secret, as ours
are, has any right to try to dominate public affairs, because "popular
moves in the light of day, not in dark and secret places; it appeals to
mass of people for support, not merely to the members of a particular
it values power only for public ends, not for the aggrandizement and
of any single institution." And so it would be a gross perversion of
pretensions as upright, liberty-loving Americans if we were to organize
as a national
body for the purpose of dictating or controlling the affairs of the
nation, no matter
how pure our intentions might be.
it is a proper function of Masonry to fight against other organizations
very thing, and that is one of the reasons why Masons are always
interested in progressive
educational legislation; but let us be very careful about building up a
machine that would be certain sooner or later to abuse its power.
And so this
suggestion of standing for something definite has its pitfalls, and we
to be too definite. Or perhaps it would be better to say we ought to be
in limiting the scope of our united action. But there are plenty of
things in the
fundamental Masonic principles that have a direct and broad public
and in the support of which all Masons can afford to unite and battle
side by side.
we are seekers after Light-that is, knowledge, wisdom, enlightenment.
If Light is
good for us it is good for everybody, and we can engage in no greater
the diffusion of Light amongst all the people ‒ that is, public
education. So when
Masonry interests itself in education it is interesting itself in a
is not and should not be political in the sense of being controversial;
that is not and should not be sectarian, and never will be so long as
prevent it; a subject strictly of a Masonic character, since it is of
the very essence
one of the primary teachings of Freemasonry is good citizenship, and we
only a right but a duty to be interested in anything that promotes good
What is the real purpose of our free public school system but to train
for citizenship? What other justification is there for taxing me to
educate my neighbor's
you have the syllogism:
Masonry stands for good
Education promotes good citizenship.
Therefore, Masonry stands for education.
be a captious critic indeed who would deny a Masonic lodge the right to
public education, or even a single concrete phase of it, as expressed
in a specific
piece of legislation.
of Freemasonry in New Jersey
By Bro. Ernest A. Reed,
P. G. M., New Jersey
To tell the
story of Masonry in the State of New Jersey one must go back to the
duly constituted Masonry in the New World. All available records seem
to show that
modern Freemasonry was formally introduced into the American colonies
Cox, or Coxe, who on June 5, in the year 1730, received a deputation
from the Duke
of Norfolk, Grand Master of the Free and Accepted Masons of England,
him Provincial Grand Master of the Provinces of New York, New Jersey
deputation, which is on file in the archives of the Grand Lodge of
Brother Coxes residence as New Jersey; and of this there can be no
doubt for the
histories and records of our state also bear witness of this fact.
Grand Master Coxe was an important personage in the province. He was
the son of
Dr. Coxe of London, one of the great proprietors. He was a member of
the old New
Jersey assembly and at one time its speaker. He served for many years
as Chief Magistrate
and upon his death was buried at Burlington, New Jersey.
steps Coxe took to establish lodges in America is not very clear. The
the Grand Lodge of England do not show the appointment of any Deputy
or other officers of a Provincial Grand Lodge, nor the congregating of
lodges; but records were not very well kept in those days, nor was it
to report all proceedings to the Grand Lodge, and it is possible that
some of the
old lodges in Pennsylvania were instituted by him. Perhaps his failure
lodges in the province of New Jersey may have been due in a measure to
Governor, Lord Cornbury, whose unpopularity in America led to his
recall. Yet Coxe
was known throughout the province as an eminent lawyer and upon his
return to England
in 1731 he was received in the Grand Lodge of England as "The Right
Grand Master of North America."
show in addition to Coxes appointment as Provincial Grand Master in
Riggs appointed in 1737 and Francis Goelet in 1751. There were other
in England at this time and other Provincial Grand Masters were sent by
America. In 1753 George Harrison became Provincial Grand Master of New
from him the first lodge in New Jersey got its charter. In May, 1761,
for a lodge was made to Provincial Grand Master Harrison by a number of
in what was then the town of Newark. William Tukey, Esq., was appointed
Worshipful Master and the lodge was to meet at the Rising Sun tavern, a
near what is now the heart of a great city.
minutes of this famous lodge for the years from its institution are
still in existence
in the archives of St. John's Lodge, No. 1, of Newark. From 1764 till
1768 the minutes
were suspended. In 1769 they were reopened again, continuing till 1772.
darkness of the Revolution they ceased altogether. When the Grand Lodge
of New Jersey
was formed St. John's Lodge was represented and a warrant was given to
was numbered 2 on the New Jersey register, a lodge at Bedminster which
warranted by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in 1767 being given No. 1.
at Bedminster became extinct, however, and St. John's Lodge was allowed
its number. St. John's Lodge is still active and known throughout the
breadth of the land as the oldest lodge in New Jersey and one of the
oldest in America.
In 1762 the Provincial Grand Lodge of Massachusetts gave a warrant for
a lodge in
Elizabeth Towne, New Jersey (now Elizabeth) and in 1763 a warrant was
given by the
same Grand Lodge for a lodge at Prince Towne (now Princeton), but both
lodges have become extinct and their records lost.
Many Military Lodges Existed
were in existence in the armed forces of the Revolution. New Jersey
lying as it
did between two greater fields of operation, New York and Philadelphia,
concourse across which the contending armies marched, sometimes in
in retreat. The Leicestershire Regiment, or the British 17th Regiment
of Foot, as
it was commonly called, had a famous lodge known as Unity Lodge. During
hasty retreat across New Jersey following the abandonment of Fort Lee
on the Hudson
River he was closely followed by the British, and this regiment was a
part of the
pursuing force. Washington's march led through Newark, Elizabeth, New
Princeton to Trenton, where he crossed the Delaware River into
British 17th Regiment stopped at Princeton, occupying the college town.
of the British Army, including Rall's regiment of Hessians, marched on
re-crossing of the Delaware on Christmas night and his thrilling
victory over the
Hessians at Trenton needs no recital here; nor does that other exploit
British believing they had him cornered, rested for the night, and
awoke to the
sound of cannon and musket fire at Princeton, twelve miles away, and
Washington had escaped.
had waited the arrival of reinforcements. These included in part the
of Foot, which had received orders to march from Princeton to Trenton
at dawn. As
they filed out of town over a little bridge, they saw Mercer's Division
army moving up the opposite bank of the stream. Both forces tried to
reach and hold
the top of a small hill nearby, which became the scene of the battle.
was led by General Hugh Mercer, a member of Washington's own lodge,
Lodge, No. 4, of Fredericksburg, Va. In the fighting General Mercer was
from his horse by a blow from the butt of a British musket; but he
until mortally wounded. He died in a farm house nearby.
In the confusion
of the fighting and British retreat an American soldier, one of four
men left of
Major Haslett's command from Delaware, picked up on the battlefield the
which had been granted to Unity Lodge in the British 176 Regiment of
Foot by the
Grand Lodge of Scotland. The warrant was carried back to Delaware and
the archives of Union Lodge of Middletown. In this engagement the
of the 17th Regiment, Brother William Leslie, was wounded. By order of
he was cared for by the American surgeons and placed with the American
the farm wagons which served for ambulances in those days. As the
little army after
its victory wound its way through the hills of western New Jersey,
Leslie died and
was buried with military honors, and, as tradition tells us, with
in the graveyard in the little town of Pluckamin.
A new warrant
to replace the one lost in battle was later given the British regiment
by a Grand
Lodge of Pennsylvania, and this in turn fell into the hands of the
forces of General
Wayne, "Mad Anthony," at the time of the surprise and capture of Stony
Point, New York, the British regiment at that time forming a part of
but the warrant was courteously returned by General Samuel H. Parsons,
of American Union Lodge of the Connecticut Line.
lodges among the American troops and three at least among the forces
that made up
the New Jersey line. Perhaps the best known military lodge on the
was American Union Lodge of the Connecticut Line, as its name
indicates, a lodge
formed among the troops from Connecticut. The warrant and minutes of
are preserved among the records of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut; but
at the time
this lodge came into being there was no Grand Lodge of Connecticut and
was granted by Deputy Grand Master Gridley of Massachusetts, the same
laid out the breastworks at Bunker Hill and who was acting Grand Master
of the death in battle of Grand Master Joseph Warren. The minutes are
and show every location of the Connecticut troops.
Lafayette Visits a Lodge
is referred to here because of its famous session of Dec. 27, 1779,
while the American
Army lay in winter quarters at Morristown, New Jersey. It was a
celebration of the
old Masonic festival, the Feast of St. John the Evangelist. The minutes
of the lodge
give every detail of this meeting. The records show sixty-nine persons
one of whom was Washington, the Commander-in-Chief. There was a
addresses and a general good time. Some of the lodge paraphernalia used
occasion was borrowed from St. John's Lodge of Newark, and the old
minute book of
St. John's Lodge, No. 1, has a record of the fact that "Sundrie
taken out of the lodge chest and lent to Brother Thomas Kinney and
Brewin to carry as far as Morris Towne, etc." There has always been a
that Lafayette was made a Mason on this occasion and a well-known
history of New
Jersey as well as a recently published and popular work on Masonry
state this as
a fact. There is no record to substantiate it, however, and the list of
while including the names of many prominent persons in the armed forces
of the Revolution,
does not include the name of the distinguished Frenchman; moreover, the
made by Lafayette himself on the occasion of his visit to the Grand
Lodge of Delaware
as related in the memoirs of the beloved Dr. Chaytor [Lib*], who was
that occasion, seems to prove beyond question that Lafayette was made a
a military lodge in the American Army at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.
many of the old lodge records have been lost, but those that remain
details of Colonial life. The old minute book of Burlington Lodge shows
Masons of Burlington paid the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for the
warrant of Burlington
Lodge a fee of "2,160 Doll's Cn'l Curr'y", which seems an enormous sum
to pay for a warrant; but when we note it is to be paid in Continental
we realize that this is simply an evidence of the extraordinary
the currency of the time. Later on we find that the lodge reimbursed
for the amount advanced to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania and an
of six pounds was sufficient to meet the need.
On Dec 18,
1796, a convention was called at New Brunswick for the purpose of
Grand Lodge in the state of New Jersey. The officers selected on that
the following, whose names and titles are given as they appear on the
Hon. David Brearly, Esq., Chief Justice of New Jersey: Right Worshipful
"The Hon. Robert Lettis Hooper, Vice-President of New Jersey: Deputy
"William Leedle, Esq., late High Sheriff of Morris: Senior Grand Warden.
"Daniel Marsh, Esq., Representative in the Assembly of New Jersey:
"John Noble Cumming, Esq., late Colonel in the Army of the United
"Maskell Ewing, Jun., Esq., Clerk of the General Assembly of New
"Joshua Corshon, Esq., High Sheriff of Hunterdon: Grand Treasurer."
session of this body convened at New Brunswick on Jan. 30, 1787, and at
the present Grand Lodge of New Jersey came into being. Hon. David
Brearly was elected
Grand Master, an office to which he was re-elected for three successive
the session of July, 1787, the Grand Master was absent; but a letter
from him was
read which shows that he was at the time representing New Jersey in the
Convention at Philadelphia. Brearly had been a Lieutenant Colonel in
the army of
the Revolution and was a warm personal friend of Washington. He was a
the state and federal conventions, and his signature appears on the
of the United States. For nine years he was Chief Justice of New Jersey.
of Masonry in New Jersey under the Grand Lodge of New Jersey has been
events of unusual interest; peace and harmony have prevailed. Masonry
numerically till the Grand Master of New Jersey presides today over
members of our Craft congregated into some 240 lodges. A number of
years ago the
Grand Lodge purchased a handsome estate near Burlington for the purpose
a home for feeble and indigent Masons and their wives, or their widows
The buildings have been added to from time to time, and at present
and additions are in progress which will add greatly to the comfort and
of our aged and youthful guests. Our present family consists of about
one-third of whom are boys and girls. Additional property has been
time to time and today the home includes a farm of 150 acres, all under
New Jersey are deeply interested in all activities of the Craft
throughout the land,
and have entered wholeheartedly and substantially into the great
movements; the George Washington Masonic National Memorial Association,
Masonic Research Society, and the Masonic Service Association.
By Bro. Arthur C. Parker,
are many who can kindle the emotions, and more still who can arouse the
but few who know how to set the mind aglow. Brother Parker, who
contributed a memorable
article to THE BUILDER last May, is one of these. The present article
is one of
a series of three bearing the general title "Secrets of the Temple,"
is here printed by permission of Brother George K. Staples, 33 degree,
of Buffalo Consistory, who arranged to publish the series in book form.
series has been translated into Italian and is now appearing under the
the Grand Lodge of Italy. The two companion studies will appear in
these pages in
due time, and will be followed by a discussion of the Swastika, now
especially for THE BUILDER. The Scottish Rite, Northern Jurisdiction,
its appreciation of Brother Parker's services in leading his brethren
to think Masonically
by electing him to receive the 33 degree next September. Brother Parker
is now an
associate editor of THE BUILDER.
UPON a clay
tablet found amid the ruins of an ancient city upon the Euphrates was
words of a hymn ‒ a hymn about a Word. The song is old, five thousand
and perhaps twenty-five centuries older than any Hebrew scripture, and,
in any event,
it antedates the final development of those writings. Shall we pause to
The Word that causes the
heavens on high to tremble,
The Word that makes the world below to quake,
The Word that bringeth destruction to the Annunakis,
His Word is beyond the diviner, beyond the seer!
His Word is a tempest without a rival.
The Word of the Lord the heavens cannot endure,
The Word of Enlil the earth cannot endure,
The heavens cannot endure the stretching forth of His hand,
The earth cannot endure the setting forth of His foot!
Here we have
an ancient hymn of Babylon in which the wise priesthood of a great
praises to a word. But what this word is we are not told, yet the word
The adjustment and the readjustment of the Babylonian pantheon was
than an effort to discover the key-word of the world. Nor was the
effort of Egypt
with its grotesque procession of zoomorphic deities anything less.
And so religions
have come and gone, through darkness, superstition and ignorance,
striving to find
the great secret of welfare and the magical potency that once possessed
the secret that would unlock the doors of the invisible.
search for the great name that shall open all things is as old as man.
still believes that there is a divine mystery concealed in some word,
and all through
the ages he has thought that he should discover that name. The Hindoo
the word AUM, and in it feels that he has a key-word to paradise. Even
revelation, the gods tell their names, man has believed that the real
name was concealed
either totally or within the enigma of the name or in its numerical
within the name Elohina (Elhim) the mystic finds the number 3.1415, and
that Elhim is the master word by which the circle of eternity may be
names are studied by the Cabbalists for their esoteric numerical value.
of the alphabet are also given values in other terms. Thus the sacred
Aleph-Vau-Mem (AUM) would mean: A = Man + Power; U = Creation +
Passage; M = Woman
+ Mother. This word is a mystic triad by which creative energy is
invoked, but in
a spiritual sense.
name makers, therefore, in making names sought to choose letters that
values and certain numbers. Now the numbers of a name might be added so
as to produce
another number, for example: Solomon would in Greco-Egyptian have the
of S-L-M-N. S=60; L=30; M=40; N=50. These numbers added give 180. This
a series of 20 nines. Nine is the perfect number and is three times
sound of the voice" ‒ such is the meaning of 180, but nine means "My
and protection". Again let us interpret each letter of this word
means a circle commenced. L=30, means the expansion of the circle.
M=40, means an
uninterrupted continuation (feminine passivity). N-50, means a final
Let us still
further examine this mystical name of Solomon. The word plainly says, I
am a circular
line, extended, continued and concluded. It says, moreover, that it
four parts, of the following measures: 60, 30, 40, 50. These total 180,
or the number
of degrees in a half circle. Therefore, the circle is divided into the
degrees indicated; i.e., 60+30=90; 40+50=90. Whether this is
geometrical or astronomical
matters little, for from a study of these angles we can work out, if we
taste, a whole scheme of Solomonic wisdom. The best interpretation is
that the word
represents the rising of the sun in the east (Sol), that it passes the
S and L and arrives at zenith between L and M (OM), and sets in the
M and N, or ON, and ON is the city or abode of the Sun, the Egyptian
name for Heliopolis.
is not introduced to mystify or to create the idea that some mysterious
lies behind every name, for most names are so corrupted from the
that they cannot easily be analyzed Kabbalistically now. We merely
name to emphasize that the ancients had meanings back of names, and
that these meanings
might often be discovered. Yet, if a mystical name of a god did conceal
it was so devised that a key-name was used before the real name could
Thus a man named Solomon might have hidden his name under a substitute
called himself Davidson, Wiseman, or Jedidiah or some similar name, by
might be harder to divine the mystery of his "Word" or to "get his
given a new name at the beginning of their initiation into the
mysteries, but this
name only suggests the real new name that they are to have. The real
only to him who overcometh and who hath eaten of the hidden manna. It
is then that
he receives a white stone and in the stone a "new name" written. (Rev.
ii, 17.) Nor must it be thought that there are not those who have eaten
of the "hidden
manna" and who know their new names.
of names has not entirely ceased even in civilization. Each of us
desires to keep
his name "good", for "a good name is rather chosen than fine ointment",
"but the name of the wicked shall rot".
labour "to make their names known". Men are willing to expend millions
of dollars to spread their names over the face of the globe, as
while others by doing great deeds are pleased to see their names become
are part of our personality, and this extends even to our signatures.
This is true
to such an extent that there are those who pretend to read the
character of a man
by his handwriting.
vain it is to strive for the immortality of our names to the neglect of
of our souls.
the search for the unknown Word goes on, and man seeks to discover his
name. How easily the truth might be known if we would but interpret
aright the text:
IN THE BEGINNING WAS THE WORD, AND THE WORD WAS WITH GOD, AND THE WORD
The nations of the earth since the first awakening of man's religious
turned their minds toward heaven and inquired, "Who is it that has made
earth and all things thereon?" And likewise men have inquired, "Who
protect me and give me power, who shall deliver me, and whom shall I
call upon for
this men evolved names of spirits, of gods, of duads and triads, and
sought by means
of these names to discover Deity. Thus it is that man's great quest is
to find God
and to know Him. To depict this quest is a task that tempts the
author's pen, for
it is a subject of thrilling interest.
far afield, let us look toward the Hebrew Bible, to see how these
the search. Let us scan the first line of Genesis and read from the
"In the beginning Gods created-". But let us be more specific; the word
translated here "gods" is the Hebrew plural word Elohim (Alohim). Let
us pause; why should the scriptures say "gods"? The answer is not afar
off; the ancient Hebrews had more than one god!
scholar admits this and seeks to enlighten us upon the ancient Hebrew
But we need not go afar to see that even the scriptures as we have them
But in this
word El (o) him we have the root Al, El, Il, and in that word we have
religious history of Babylon and Semitic Asia Minor of antiquity.
al means "turning toward" and further elucidation, as suggested by
Delitzch, shows that it means "that which a man, turns toward as a
thought of their gods as dwelling up above in the place toward which
man turns his
eyes in and above the sky. A Babylonian hymn calls the sun-god "the
which all the eyes of the inhabitants are turned". (Cf. Job xxxvi, 25.)
following this idea, the oldest of Semites gave to the God-one who
dwelt above and
ruled the sky world the name il or el. It was He to whom they looked.
of Il or El by the early North Semitic tribes as well as to the south
was an established
fact as early as 2500 B.C., 1300 years before the rise of the religion
times these Els or Elohim were conceived as plural beings, duads and
more. Suffice to relate that the names of the early Hebrew gods were
many and all
of the local gods or baals, and particularly Ashtar and Yerahme'el.
These to the
Hebrews were all Elohim, just as to the northern Semites of Palestine
Baalhim or baals. The word El, or Al, was a far-spread name and from it
took the name of their Deities, and later the Mohammedans used it in
their word for God ‒ Allah.
out an interesting origin for the name El and ascribes it to the
This word was used as the title of the chief god of the Phoenician
trinity who was
Yerahme'el. The title may have been thus applied but as a word it was
used far earlier
than this special application of it.
In the historical
fragments that we have given we have only indicated the world search,
for the "lost word". In the new dispensation we are given a clear
of how we may discover that word and apply it. Lost? Why should it ever
lost? In all ages there have been those who possessed that word, but
been the few who had paid the price of learn. It was folly, to think
that this "word"
could ever be communicated by word of mouth or by outward sign, for it
can be known
only from one source and by one means.
Freemasonry under the old operative system there were three masters
sitting in the
west, "thereby better enabling them to observe the rising of the sun in
east". Each master bore a rod as the symbol of his office. Each rod was
different length, as follows: Solomon's rod was five units in length,
Hiram of Tyre's
four units, and Hiram Abiff's three units.
to Masonic tradition upon each rod was a name, just such sort of names
Masons use, though not the same names by any means.
By the use
of the rods, placed end to end, a right angle triangle can be formed.
rods of three inches, four inches and five inches placed end to end in
of a triangle will form a perfect right angle at the point where rod 4
3. Rod 5 makes the hypotenuse.
to our ancient traditions upon the slain Hiram's rod was the full name
or perhaps the first and most important syllable. His rod was essential
in forming the ineffable word but in completing the right angle.
It was Hiram
Abiff's rod for which the Craftsmen were instructed to search, and not
The early ritual makers have erred, I think, in making a square the
Thus is explained
the calamity that is depicted in our third degree, but the ritual as
1717 has obscured and even mutilated the secrets as well as the
meanings of more
word was lost and with it one of the three standards of Solomon's
system of mensuration.
Little wonder that Andonairarn received a place of honour succeeding
only Adonairam could make another metal rod equal to that which was
lost, but oven
he could not engrave upon it the lost syllable Yah or word Yabweh.
It is the
philosopher who points the way by which we may recover that word, for
it is the
real word and not any substitute that makes men and Masons good men and
when we have given ourselves as the price, the name enters our hearts;
it so enters it becomes an impulse that translates itself in the
expression of a
Master of England
By Bro. Dudley Wright, England
Master of England, reigning as he does over the United Grand Lodge and
all its dependencies,
is the most widely known and influential individual, no doubt, in the
a brother of whom Masons everywhere delight to hear and to honor, as
much for his
record as statesman and soldier as for the high place he holds in the
that readers of THE BUILDER would be interested to see a biographical
England's Grand Master, we asked Bro. Wright to contribute the article
in order in this same connection to say that Bro. Wright himself is
and more taxed to respond to the demands being made on his pen. His
in journals here, there and everywhere over the English speaking world
frequency, and always in connection with a solid contribution to
How he manages to do it all is a mystery to his fellow scribes. May he
to keep at it for many a year to come!
HIGHNESS, Prince Arthur William Patrick Albert, Duke of Connaught and
Earl of Sussex in the Peerage of the United Kingdom of Great Britain
Duke of Saxony and Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was born at
London, on the 1st of May, 1850.
the Army in 1868, was promoted Captain in 1871, Major in 1875,
in 1876, Colonel in 1880, Major-General in the same year,
1889, General in 1893, and Field-Marshal in 1902. He is
Colonel-in-Chief of the
6th Inniskilling Dragoons, the Highland Light Infantry, the Rifle
Brigade, the Royal
Dublin Fusiliers, and the Supply and Transport Corps. He is also
Colonel of the
Grenadier Guards and the Army Service Corps, Honorary Colonel of the
Horse, the Royal East Kent Yeomanry, the Duke of Connaught's Own Sligo
Reserve Artillery, 6th Battalion Hampshire Regiment, 3rd Battalion the
Royal West Kent Regiment, 3rd and 4th Battalions Highland Light
Infantry, the 18th
County of London Battalion, and the London Regiment (London Irish
Rifles). His Royal
Highness is also Colonel-in-Chief of the following regiments of the
The 13th Duke of Connaught's Lancers, the 31st Duke of Connaught's Own
the 7th Duke of Connaught's Own Rajputs, and the 129th Duke of
Connaught's Own Baluchis.
He was Brigade-Major at Aldershot in 1873-4; Brigade-Major, Cavalry
1875; Assistant Adjutant-General, Gibraltar, 1875-6; Brigadier-General,
1883; Major-General Bengal, 1883 to 1886; Lieutenant-General, Bombay,
Lieutenant-General, Southern District, 1890-1896; Lieutenant-General
in Troops at Aldershot, 1893-1896; General Commanding the Forces in
General Commanding the 3rd Army Corps, 1901-1904; Inspector General of
and President of the Selection Board, 1904-1907; Field-Marshal
and High Commissioner in the Mediterranean, 1907-1909, and was
and Commander-in-Chief of the Dominion of Canada in 1911, which
position he held
of Connaught saw service in Canada during the Fenian Raid in 1870 and
Medal and Clasp. He commanded the Brigade of Guards in the Egyptian War
and was present at the battles of Mahuta and Tel-el-Kebir, when he was
in dispatches and was thanked by both Houses of Parliament, receiving
with Clasp, the Bronze Star, Second Class Order and the Medjidie, and
the C. B.
He had the Royal Victorian Chain and is a Knight of the Most Noble
Order of the
Garter, of the Most Noble Order of the Thistle, of the Most Illustrious
St. Patrick, Grand Master and Principal Knight of the Grand Cross of
the Most Honorable
Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of
of India, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint
Saint George, Knight Grand Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the
and Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order. He is also a
Knight of the
Golden Fleece of Spain, Knight of Saint Andrew of Russia, of the
Annunciata of Italy,
of the Elephant of Denmark, of the Legion of Honor of France, of the
of Japan, of the Seraphim of Sweden, of the Tower and Sword of Portugal
and of the
Spanish Military Order of Merit.
conferred upon him the Doctorate of Civil Law, while Cambridge and the
gave him the degree of Doctor of Laws, and the Punjab University gave
him the Doctorate
His Marriage and Family
On the 13th
of March, 1879, His Royal Highness married Princess Louise Margaret
Agnes of Prussia, third daughter of the late Prince Frederick Charles
and brethren will remember his grief at her death on 14th March, 1917.
three children of the marriage, the eldest, Brother Prince Arthur
Albert, K.G., K.T., P.C., who was appointed Past Grand Warden in 1914,
on the 13th of January, 1883. He married the Princess Alexandra
Edwina Louise, Duchess of Fife, on 15th October, 1913. The elder of the
Princess Margaret Victoria Augusta Charlotte Norah, married in 1905 H.
R. H. Prince
Gustavus Adolphus, Crown Prince of Sweden, and her sudden death, on the
anniversary of her father's birth, came as a terrible blow to the Grand
The marriage of the younger daughter to Commander Ramsay, in the spring
when, of her own free will, she abandoned the rank and title of
to be known as Lady Patricia Ramsay, is well within the memory of all.
of the seventieth anniversary of the birth of the Duke of Connaught
gave an opportunity
for a display on the part of the press, all over the world, as the
of public opinion, to bear testimony, not only to his popularity, but
also to the
eminent services he had rendered to the nation throughout the whole of
career. A writer in The Times said:
Duke of Connaught was born on May Day, 1850, seventy years ago. Not
only in the
United Kingdom, but in many distant parts of the Empire, large numbers
of the King's
subjects will join this morning with real sincerity in the good wishes
of his family
and near kinsmen. For longer than most of us can remember, during the
his mother, his brother and his nephew, the Duke has been a well-known
popular figure in the life of the country, and both as a man and a
soldier has won
for himself an abiding place in its affections.
great interest of his life has always been the Army. From its guns to
from the standpoint of a Woolwich cadet to that of a Field-Marshal, he
through and through. He has served in turn as engineer, gunner,
and Hussar. At Tel-el-Kebir he commanded the Brigade of Guards, and
during the campaign
was three times mentioned in despatches; in 1886 he was appointed to
the post of
Commander-in-Chief at Bombay, and afterwards commanded the troops at
in Ireland, and in the Mediterranean, where he was also High
1904 to 1907 he held the post of Inspector-General of the Forces, and
war was appointed Colonel-in-Chief of the Volunteers and Inspector of
He would certainly have succeeded the Duke of Cambridge as
that dignified office had not been abolished. As it is, he remains a
a real friend to the Army, and a practical and devoted soldier who for
years has worthily upheld the military ‒ but never militarist ‒
traditions of his
godfather, the great Duke of Wellington.
is only one side of his life and character. He is deeply interested in
welfare of the! people, as well as of the Army, and is a generous
supporter of charitable
and benevolent schemes for the benefit of his fellow citizens in the
As for the Empire, he has always shown himself its loyal and
more especially in South Africa and Canada. His work in Canada as
was of particular value, and the fruits of it were plainly visible
during the Prince
of Wales' tour in the Dominion. When he went there, fears were
expressed in certain
quarters as to the wisdom of the appointment of a Royal Duke. It was
felt that some
independent spirits might regard the establishment of a reign of Court
as an unwelcome innovation. But when the Royal Duke was found to be
took him and his family to her heart, and his unfailing tact and
in all the problems and activities of the Dominion soon made him a
In consenting to an extension of his term of office during the war,
when his experience
as a soldier was of so much service to those who were engaged in the
and training of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, he put his own
feelings in the
background, in spite of his consideration for the delicate health of
and so added to the debt which the Dominion as well as the Mother
is, above all, a man of unfailing energy, who always must be doing
sooner has one appointment or one journey come to an end than he has
another. Not only during the war, when, like the whole of the Royal
King and Queen downwards, he set a fine example of unswerving and
to duty, but throughout his life he has constantly been at the disposal
of his country.
He has still, we may hope, in all human probability, many years of
happy and useful
life in front of him, and he is today what he has always been, a fine
an upright and honorable English gentleman, who has well-earned the
respect and affection with which his fellow-countrymen regard him."
On the same
day many other tributes appeared in the daily press all over the world.
good wishes will go with the Duke of Connaught today on the attainment
of his seventieth
birthday. In the Army, in public life, as Commander-in-Chief in the
and still more in his later period as Governor-General of Canada, the
Duke has done
whatever duty has fallen to him with a zeal and thoroughness that have
won him a
place in the affection of the people of the Empire. Quietly and
efficiently he has
illustrated the real service that can be given to the State by a member
of the Royal
Family not in the direct line of succession who brings brains and good
will to his
tasks. His career in the Army was fruitful of much good, but we think
of the soldier than of the great gentleman whose whole life has been
one of devoted
service. It was a happy chance that the Duke of Connaught was
Canada when war broke out. The Dominion required no stimulus to
exertion, but was
much in need of the expert guidance that the Duke could give from his
in the Army, and that he placed at the disposition of the Canadian
His Interest in Freemasonry
have been privileged to attend any of the many Masonic gatherings at
which the Grand
Master was present can bear willing witness to his deep interest in all
over whose affairs in England he has presided with such distinction for
years, but the Grand Master was at his best, perhaps, when presiding
over one of
the lodges of which he was the permanent Master. An incident of a very
took place a few years since, on the occasion of the installation of
the Duke of
Connaught as Worshipful Master of the Royal Colonial Institute Lodge,
at Freemasons' Hall. He not only invested his Deputy Master, to whom it
he would delegate the investiture of the other officers, but insisted
on his right
to invest all his officers, Tyler included, to their great pride and
the time of his initiation the Duke of Connaught has taker the keenest
in all matters appertaining to the Craft. His initiation took place in
of Wales Lodge, No. 259, on 24th March, 1874, the ceremony being
performed by his
royal brother, H. R. H. the Prince of Wales, then Worshipful Master of
afterwards King Edward VII. He passed on to the next degree on 22nd
and completed the steps of his admission into the Craft on 27th April
of the following
year, the day immediately preceding that on which the Prince of Wales
as Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England, at which ceremony
of Connaught had the honor and privilege of being present. He became an
of other lodges, notably the Royal Alpha Lodge, No. 16, of which he was
1881; the Aldershot Army and Navy Lodge, No. 1971; the Navy Lodge, No.
Jubilee Masters' Lodge, No. 2712; the Nil Sine Labore Lodge, No. 2736;
the Old Wellingtonian
Lodge, No. 3404, and the Royal Colonial Institute Lodge, already
mentioned, of most
of which he is the permanent Master.
In 1877 the
Duke was invested Senior Grand Warden of England, and his younger
brother, the late
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, was at the same time appointed Junior
but the only occasion on which the three royal brothers were present at
time at a communication of the Grand Lodge was at an Emergency Meeting
held on 15th
March, 1882, to congratulate H. M. Queen Victoria on her escape from
the hands of
the assassin. The next important event in the Duke's career was his
in 1878, to the office ‒ which he still holds ‒ of Great Prior of the
Order of the
Temple in Ireland, and then, after the lapse of a few years, he was, in
and installed Provincial Grand Master of Sussex. The installation
place on 22nd June of that year, in the Dome of the Royal Pavilion,
the presence of one of the largest gatherings of Freemasons ever held
The Installing Master was again the Prince of Wales, who was assisted
by the late
Lords Herschell and Beresford.
He Leaves For India
afterwards the Duke of Connaught left England for India, where he had
been in command of the Meerut District, to take over the command of the
the Presidency of Bombay, but he was fortunately able to return to
England to take
part in the state functions connected with the celebration of the
Jubilee of Queen
Victoria as Sovereign of the British Dominions. He was among the
of the Order who attended the memorable meeting in the Royal Albert
the auspices of his brother, the Prince of Wales, Grand Master, on 13th
when an Address of Congratulation was voted to Queen Victoria.
Meanwhile the Duke
of Connaught had been appointed to the vacant position of District
of Bombay, and had graciously taken charge of the dutiful Address of
to the Queen on the attainment of her Jubilee, voted by the Bombay
Lodge, and he personally presented it to Her Majesty, it being the only
save that voted by Grand Lodge, which was thus honored.
the Duke of Connaught has held the appointment of First Grand Principal
Arch Masonry and Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons
and Wales and the Colonies and Dependencies of the British Crown. He is
Soverign of the Connaught Chapter of the Antient and Accepted Rite,
meeting at Aldershot,
as well as a member of the 33rd degree of that body, of which he is
also the Grand
Patron. In Knight Templary he was installed in the Duke of Connaught
Preceptory, No. 153, in the United Provinces, India, and in 1901 he
with the Connaught Preceptory, No. 172, meeting at the Officers' Club
of which he is the permanent Preceptor. He is also Grand Master of the
of the Temple and Hospital.
in the various Masonic Institutions is no less keen. In 1878 he
presided at the
eighteenth anniversary Festival of the Royal Masonic Institution for
Boys; in 1892
he acted in the same capacity for the Royal Masonic Institution for
Girls at the
104th anniversary Festival, while in 1897 he was pleased to preside at
Festival of the Royal Masonic Benevolent Institution. He is Patron of
Institutions. He has taken a very deep interest in the formation of the
War Hospital, and when this Institution reverted to its original
purpose of a Masonic
Hospital and Nursing Home, in 1920, he was the first to welcome the
to express a hope and desire for their well-being.
and only personal appeal to the Craft as Grand Master was on the
occasion of the
memorable Masonic Peace Celebration, in the Royal Albert Hall, in 1919,
originated the appeal for funds to raise a Central Home for Freemasonry
in the metropolis,
which should be worthy not only of the Craft in England, as the Mother
but be a fitting memorial to the many hundreds of brethren who gave
as a sacrifice in the Great War.
In 1920 the
Duke of Connaught took the place of his nephew, Bro. H. R. H. the
Prince of Wales,
and went to India as the representative of his King and country. While
found time to grant audience to the brethren of the several District
in India, and thus cemented bonds in the world-wide fraternity. On his
England he lost no time in paying a visit to the communication of the
Lodge of England, when he gave an exceedingly interesting account of
In the course of his remarks he said:
the very greatest pleasure in visiting the District Grand Lodge of
Madras, of Bengal,
of the Punjab and of Bombay and I am sure you would all have felt very
very much touched with the splendid welcome they gave me in each of
The Masons there were very keen and alert. They were doing their duty,
following the great precepts of our Craft. Besides that, they were
in numbers. I know of no part of the British Empire where Masonry can
be of greater
use in cementing these good feelings which should exist among the
castes and creeds than the great Empire of India. I am certain, from
all I saw,
and you may be gratified to learn it, that everything was in good
and everywhere I found zealousness and keenness. I found that charity
was ever thought
of, and that the great precepts of Freemasonry were understood and
carried out in
the best possible manner. It was a great satisfaction to me as Grand
meet the brethren of India again. You will remember that I was District
of Bombay for five years, and I found that they had never forgotten me.
remembered the different occasions on which I had been with them, and I
you that I was very much touched by the warmth of their reception. Each
on presenting me with a highly valued memento of my visit to their
Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
Louis, Kossuth, the celebrated Hungarian patriot and liberator, was
born in Monok,
Hungary, in 1802, being Slavic in decent and Lutheran in religion.
Through his father,
a lawyer, he obtained a good education, including classic instruction
in the Piarists
school at Ujhely, followed by a course at Eperies, completing with a
legal and philosophical
training at the college of Patak, in the last named of which he was
a spirit of hatred for Austria.
well read in history and also in language, knowing the various Magyar
and Slovak, German, French and Latin; in later life he became very
English. After leaving college he rose from one position to another,
noted as a liberal, was popular with the middle class and was, for a
of the large estates of the Countess Szapary in Zemplein. In the diet
he was proxy for a member in the upper house, possessing in that
capacity a voice
but no vote. This experience was of some importance in his career
because the diet
ranked among the more important assemblies of modern Hungary; and its
close upon the Polish tragedy of 1831, were watched with great interest
by the populace,
especially by patriots, although any publication of them was hindered
restrictions. The liberals, the party in opposition, were persuaded by
resort to the extraordinary means of a lithographed newspaper which
Orszaggyalesi tudosositasoz, meaning Parliamentary Communications.
communications were dictated by Kossuth to a number of copyists who
the same, and this crude sheet obtained no little circulation. Kossuth
connected with another organ, but this venture fell through when the
prohibited its publication, whereupon he had it placed under the
protection of the
County of Pesth; but even so the government again prohibited it. On May
Kossuth was tried for treason and sentenced to four years in prison. On
of this move, great agitation developed among the populace so that the
carried the elections for the next diet of 1839-40. Because of this
rise in power
they were able to secure the release of Kossuth and some of his fellow
a victory for liberal principles which met with many popular
invited to use the columns of the Pesth-Hirlap (Pesth Journal), a
started in January, 1841, with fewer than one hundred subscribers.
Within a very
short time he had made this paper so popular that its circulation
increased by thousands
and that in spite of the opposition of the aristocracy and the clergy.
Szechenyi, of an old and aristocratic family, denounced Kossuth as a
and demagogue, in a book called Relet Nepe (The People of the East).
who was a kind of half liberal, wished to give the people their liberty
as a gift
from above; Kossuth demanded it as an inherent right and threatened to
by force if necessary. With public opinion behind him, and
encouragement from some
powerful newspapers, Kossuth was able to swing the election of 1843;
developed in connection with his own paper, the result of which was his
from the editor's chair, and the paper was transformed into an organ of
The affair was what we would now call a "double cross."
exhausted by a tariff cunningly devised to keep it dependent on various
this was one of the principal grievances of the mass of the people.
some of the nobility who for family or other reasons were opposed to
Kossuth formed the Vedegylet (a protective union) the members of which
and women) bound themselves to use only home-made products when
societies took a hand in it, and soon a general boycott was declared
influences set loose by the French Revolution of 1848 were at their
proposed an address to the Emperor Ferdinand of Austria urging the
Hungary to its former independence. The move was at last successful and
was received in the capital with the honors of a liberator. Ferdinand
Louis Batthyanyi with the forming of an independent Hungarian Ministry
Kossuth was made minister of finance. To this office he directed all
created a treasury, organized a militia, formed many new battalions
soldiery, established armories and generally aroused the spirit of the
proclamations, speeches and articles, many of which he published in a
called Kossuth Hirlapja. But dangers lay ahead. The south of Hungary
was torn by
racial struggles, also by religious. As a result of these internal
the nation became engaged in a quarrel with Italy, and Jellachich, with
army, crossed the River Drave with intent to subdue the country. Many
the Hungarian ministry resigned and others fled as the enemy approached
Austria joined in so that their combined forces swept all resistance
although Kossuth created an army, raised money and called upon the
people to rally
to the defense of their homes. On August 11, 1849, Kossuth resigned his
favor of Gorgey, who surrendered to Russia two days afterward. Kossuth
in Turkey from which Austria and Russia sought to capture him by means
Turkey, however, encouraged by England and France, resisted the Russian
threats. After his wife and children had managed to join Kossuth he was
get aboard the U. S. Frigate Mississippi at Trieste Sept. 1, 1851, a
there by the United States to bring him to this country. He visited
D. C., in 1852, where he was introduced on the floor of the Senate. He
in many cities, including Philadelphia, New York, Baltimore, Cincinnati
He was made a Mason in Cincinnati Lodge, No. 133, Cincinnati, Ohio, in
admirers have raised a beautiful monument to his memory in Cleveland,
this has become a shrine for a large number of Hungarians and their
and also for patriotic Americans who know his story and love him for
By Bro. Henry Taylor, Missouri
IN the far
off days before what we call civilization began to be man had to combat
of nature with a slender outfit of tools, instruments, and weapons.
Each and every
one of the few things he had wherewith to work meant more to him, far
any tool or implement can possibly mean to us. That may be one of the
the symbolical meaning which came to be attached to so many of the
things used by primitive man. It may be the explanation of the fact
that the fiber
or leather rope which was used for countless purposes came to have so
great a significance.
Some anthropologists believe that in the long period during which man
learning to domesticate animals the rope was almost the only means
whereby he was
able to control them; accordingly that rope became for him the very
symbol of his
mastery of brute nature, and often it stood between him and starvation.
as it may ‒ the theory is reasonable enough ‒ the rope, or cable, or
early came to have symbolic and mystical meanings, proving that men
could use it
with their imagination as well as with their hands.
halters, etc., meant many things in ancient religions and secret cults.
of the religious cults of Nearer Asia, the region from which radiated
so many of
the religious forces that profoundly influenced our own religion, the
the cult was a god, usually the sun under a thin disguise, who was once
a year hanged
to a tree, there to die for the sake of his people; for that reason the
rope became a sacred thing. When a candidate was initiated in several
of the mystery
secret cults he was led into the temple, often a dark cave, with a
rope, and, in
case he fainted away from fright, as frequently happened, was dragged
out by it.
Druid priests often wore a chain about the neck. Among some Brahmin
wore a cord, either about the waist or the neck, to symbolize their
In some of the medieval courts it was the custom to place a rope about
or middle of an accused person to make him realize that he was at the
mercy of the
It is probable,
judging from the very slender array of facts available, that in nearly
all the secret
religions and fraternities of the ancient and medieval world the rope
was used for
a more or less practical purpose, though that practical use inevitably
came to be
associated with symbolical meanings. Initiation has always been an
ordeal, and must
be, and consequently it has usually been necessary to keep the
candidate under absolute
been much dispute among our scholars as to the origin of the word
Some trace it to a German root, others to Dutch, a few to French and a
few to a
Hebrew term. Thus far there has been no general agreement among them
the term means some kind of a rope that is used for drawing something,
as when a
scow is drawn along behind a tug, or a canal boat is dragged by a
horse. It is a
cable by which a thing is towed along.
been an equal division of opinion as to the meaning and use of the
Cable Tow in
Freemasonry. (It never appeared in any dictionary until the Standard
where it is given as a Masonic term, and even so is erroneously
Pike saw in it nothing but a physical device for managing the
candidate. Dr. Mackey
seems to have agreed with Pike. Lawrence saw in it a symbol of the
Mystic Tie. Rowbottom
made it to mean Masonic duty, which is the moral tie. Others give it a
meaning and there are others still, as one would guess, who find in it
way to work one's self into the meaning of a Masonic symbol is to trace
of its use by the fraternity. I believe it is a safe canon of Masonic
that every symbol is interpreted by its use. In English Masonry of two
ago the Cable Tow appeared only in the First Degree and then with no
meaning at all. This would indicate that in the older system of
it had nothing more than a physical use. This surmise is strengthened
by the fact
that in English Speculative Masonry of today the rope appears only in
Apprentice Degree, and is there explained as being a means for
controlling the body
of the candidate.
When we pass
over to our American system we discover a significant fact. In the
the Cable Tow is described in the same way as in the corresponding
section of that
degree as worked by our English brethren; but, and this is the
it also appears in the Second and Third Degrees, in both of which it is
quite symbolical meaning. This appears to prove that the symbolical use
of the Cable
Tow grew up among American lodges. Why it grew up there it is probably
to discover, seeing that no records are made of such things, but we may
our brethren added the Cable Tow to the two latter degrees in order to
work more symmetrical; that they gave to it such a symbolical meaning
as most naturally
occurred to them, and that they let it remain in the First Degree as it
in order not to change things more than necessary.
brethren had in mind when they gave the Cable Tow a place in our system
is made perfectly clear, it seems to me, by the few words of
are given in each of the two latter degrees. The Cable Tow is the
symbol of all
those forces and compulsions which regulate a man's conduct from
without; it is
not removed until the man is able to control and govern himself from
a physical thing it is set over in opposition to that Mystic Tie which
isn't a physical
thing at all, but inward disposition of the mind and heart. This, if we
it aright, is a summons to examine into certain truths which it is of
importance to us that we clearly understand.
It is self-evident
that men, being as they are, cannot be held together in an orderly
the systematic use of force, understanding by force those secular
the law enforces itself ‒ police, courts, penitentiaries, fines and the
system. It is an unfortunate thing that this should be so, for it is
the most barbarous
side of social life, but it seems unavoidable, for there are so many
men and women
of an unsocial nature who, without the restraint of force, would soon
whole social system into anarchy.
this to be a fallacy. He believed that if we would do away with
marshals, courts, armies and navies there might ensue, a period of
that after a while the normal common sense of the majority would
to restore peace and order. Force degrades our nature. The law's
methods make more
criminals than they cure. Armies lead to war. Not to fight the devil
not to return blow for blow, but to practice non-resistance, that, so
to him, would lead us all after a time to live a more neighborly
agree with Tolstoy, and more agree with him up to a point, the
pacifists for example;
and there is no question but that force does, in a certain way, degrade
but it must be remembered that social force exists not only to punish
also to regulate the actions of men in a world which is so complicated
that no individual
can find his way about in it undirected. Tax laws, for example, are not
their nature but they are necessary, and the great majority would pay
no taxes were
they not compelled; and as much may be said of many other matters.
if laws were laid aside, and policemen dismissed, it would not be long
women and children would be kept in control by some other similar
social force so
that in the long run little would be gained.
Men Must Wear The Cable
But it is
all-important in this connection to note that the uses of external
necessary, are very limited, and that because it has no method whatever
into the hidden springs of human conduct. It can't get at our motives.
It has no
way of controlling our private characters, or of moving the heart. A
man may keep
the public laws, at least he may very successfully escape all
punishments by law
and yet know nothing of those other laws which wield a different kind
and have no power of inflicting punishment of a physical character ‒
the law of
kindliness, of brotherliness, of forgiveness, of love, of purity and
The whole system of social force is at best a cumbersome thing which
at few points. It is easily evaded and avoided, and there are whole
regions of life
where it cannot come at all.
The man who
knows no other law of conduct than that which backs the policeman and
is an inferior man. In the eyes of Freemasonry he is a profane, one who
been initiated into the secrets of manhood. Those secrets are in the
belong to thoughts, ideals, feelings, motives, impulses, aspirations,
all that world which is hidden away in the soul from which a man's walk
are determined. If a man is controlled from without, and doesn't steal
from us merely
because the law watches, how are we to know that he will not break into
when he thinks the law does not see him? If he tells the truth only to
his business or his reputation, how are we to believe him when these
absent? If his conduct is regulated by forces outside himself, will he
be or do,
how are we to know what he will be or do, when he chances to come into
those external forces are not operative? Such a man is one who is led
about by a
Cable Tow. But the Master Man, as Freemasonry depicts him, is one whose
is regulated from within. He has the law in his heart. There is a court
in his conscience,
a government in his soul. Wherever he is, and under what ever
will remain an upright man because his rectitude is a thing of his
nature. The Cable
Tow which binds him to the social and moral order, and which holds him
to his duty,
has passed inward and become a mystical thing of the spirit.
So also with
his love. Many there are who know how to be very brotherly and sociable
find themselves in a brotherly atmosphere, but whose kindliness withers
that air; he who is truly a Master Mason will have love in his heart,
and from his
heart it will flow to his brethren wherever and whatever they may be. A
of affection reaches to them, nothing can break it, nothing can loosen
What is the
length of this Cable Tow? It is as long as the arm that stretches out a
hand. It reaches as far as a brother's cheering voice. It goes as far
dollar can go. It can travel as far as good will can travel. Wherever
can carry a letter it can be carried. The length of a Master Mason's
Cable Tow is
precisely equal to the extent of his influences.
of Masonic History
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Editor
Part VII. Freemasonry and
the Gild System
1. The Gild System in General
Angles and Saxons settled in ancient England (Britain it was then
called) they at
first maintained their military form of organization, so that each
a kind of camp; but as time went on and villages became permanent, a
of social order began slowly to evolve. The first step in this was the
of the kin-bond, wherein blood relatives stood together for support and
the individual and his family being mutually responsible. This gave way
in the course
of time to voluntary associations founded not on blood relationship but
ties, existing to protect the individual against the group, to preserve
the settlement, and for a variety of similar purposes. These
as "artificial" in contrast to the "natural" bond of blood,
were the first gilds in England, in virtue of which fact it cannot be
anybody ever "discovered" or "invented" gilds; they grew out
of natural conditions in response to social necessity, just as they had
existence among the Greeks and Romans centuries before, the former
"thiassoi", etc., the latter, "collegia". It is generally believed
by the more dependable authorities that it is very possible that there
been some historical continuity between the gilds of early England and
collegia, but the historical remains of the period are too scanty to
enable us to
make sure on that point. If such a continuity ever existed it was more
in Italy, where the collegia longest endured, and which, like most
countries, had a gild system of its own.
"gild" (sometimes spelled "guild") continues to be a puzzle
so far as its etymology is concerned. The North Germans had "geld",
money; the Danish, "gilde", a religious feast in honour of the god
the Anglo-Saxons, "gild", from same root as "yield", and meaning
a fixed payment of money; the Bretons "gouil", a feast or holiday; the
Welsh "gmylad", a festival. In later times, when gilds became
common, the North Germans used the word "gild"; the South Germans,
the French, "metier"; and the Italians, "arte". In the sixteenth
century England the word was generally superseded by "company",
or "mystery", the last name derived from the Latin "ministerium",
or trade, and having no reference to anything mysterious, being
preserved in our
usage to this day, as when we speak of the arts, parts and mysteries of
gilds, as it is believed, were organized in Italy. In France they were
before Charlemagne, and are first mentioned in the Carolingian
Capitularies of 779
and 789. Commercial and craft gilds began to become common in France,
Norway, Denmark and Sweden in the eleventh century. The oldest known
as the written laws for the government of a gild were called, occur in
the eleventh century. The gild principle proved so successful and was
so many uses that by the twelfth and thirteenth centuries it became the
feature of the social and economic life of Europe.
One of the
commonest early uses of that principle was in the "frith", or peace,
which became very popular in North Europe in the sixth century ‒ the
then to suppress piracy ‒ and in England the century later, where they
to in the Laws of Ine. These were voluntary associations of men
organized for mutual
defense, to supplement defective laws, and to police the community in a
national governments were not known and when the authority of the town
weak. We saw this system at work in our own land under pioneer
conditions, as in
the case of the Vigilantes, and even today, in spite of our elaborate
for the enforcement of law and the protection of citizens, impatient
men in some
communities strive to make or enforce law by similar methods.
In the course
of time gilds multiplied until they came to be used for every
for good-fellowship, for drinking, for insuring a decent burial, for
hunting, travel, art and for banking; priests and friars organized,
woodsmen and shepherds; there were gilds for men, women, children, for
for poor, in the country and in the town. Functions now performed by
armies, schools, stores, factories, hospitals, trade unions, and most
of the other
innumerable forms into which social organization has differentiated
then held in keeping by gilds.
gild had prayers for the dead; a common chest for incidental upkeep and
relief of the widows and orphans of deceased members; periodical
banquets; admitted members on an oath, sometimes two; administered
ordinances for the regulation of its own activities; punished members
conduct, and co-operated in many ways with the town or national
of these societies were small, the largest on record being the Corpus
at York, which once boasted of 15,000 members. Sometimes many gilds in
consolidated, but there was never a country-wide merger. Of the city of
is record of one gild in 1130; of eighteen in 1180, and of 110 in 1422.
In the time
of Edward III there were listed more than 40,000 religious and trade
gilds in England;
the census of 1389 showed 909 in Norfolk alone. This proliferation
first serious set-back during the Reformation when Henry VIII despoiled
gilds; it died down rapidly with the advent of the capitalist system,
and came to
a dead stop, except in a few unimportant instances, in the last
prohibited them in 1789-91; Spain and Portugal, 1833-40; Austria and
Italy, 1864; Scotland, where the development had followed Continental
1846, and England in 1835.
In its heyday
the gild system was very closely connected with the church, so closely
writers credit the church with its origin; almost every gild had its
before whose image it kept a candle burning, and many set aside sums of
the sustenation of a priest, the maintenance of a chapel and for
church charities and church schools. Oftentimes a gild had its own
a very large number, as already noted, were devoted exclusively to
these religious fraternities were suppressed in England in 1547, and
were at the same time forbidden to give money to churches. A number of
Catholic fraternities now existing are lineal descendants of the old
a result of their alliance with the church many gilds, otherwise
devoted to purely
secular pursuits, participated in pageants and in mystery, morality and
plays, the forerunners of our modern drama. These plays were staged on
in a "procession" from one exhibition point to another across the town,
and always it was a day of excitement when they were shown, and vast
Expenses were divided among the gilds and parts allotted, as at
Norwich, where the
mercers, drapers and haberdashers presented the creation of the world;
Paradise; the smiths, the fight between David and Goliath; or as at
glovers gave Adam and Eve; the carpenters, Noah's ship; the tailors,
the three kings,
etc. It is of record that on a few instances parts were taken by gilds
I am of the opinion that the drama of our Third Degree may very
probably have been
originally an old mystery play, which may have found its way to us
Masons' gild that participated in it.
It used to
be the fashion to say that the gild corporation and the town
corporation were identical,
or that the former gradually metamorphosed into the latter, a view
given a very
wide circulation by Brentano; this idea has been abandoned. There was
always a close
connection between town government and gild government, but the two
distinct, except possibly in two or three negligible instances. In many
man had to be a gild member before he could become a citizen, but the
were always subordinate to the town authority. The manner in which the
themselves will be described later.
It is a remarkable
fact, and one worthy of especial remark to us Masons, that many gilds
not at all engaged in the craft as patrons or as a means of bestowing
or some special privilege. "Indeed," writes one of the best
E. Lipson, "the members of many London companies frequently came to
a very faint connection with the business of the company to which they
a fact that makes it easier for us to understand how non-operatives
came to be admitted
into the old Masonic gilds, or lodges. "They included in their
writes another authority, "most of the wealthy men of the nation, and
[gild] halls now standing in the city of London testify to the proud
which they are so generously decorated that the men who made England
what she was,
the men who built her commerce, won her wealth and risked their lives
in extending England's commercial supremacy, were mighty in the gilds."
IV, Henry VI and Henry VIII were gild members, so also Edward III, who
to a gild of armourers. There is therefore nothing extraordinary in the
Elias Ashmole and other worthies of his time sought membership among
II. The Merchant Gilds
system in general had two grand periods of development, the first of
in the merchant gilds, as were called those associations formed in all
(save a few, among which was London) for the purpose of managing and
trading and commerce. Such a gild included all engaged in a given kind
including wage-earners as well as proprietors, and the object was to
merchants to maintain a monopoly of, and an efficient organization of,
all the merchandising
in a given community. These organizations grew apace and waxed powerful
in time the foster parents of English commerce; more than 100 towns in
seventy in Ireland and Wales had them. They reached their zenith in the
century, began to disappear in the fourteenth century and were almost
superseded by craft gilds in the fifteenth century.
gilds engaged in so many activities, some private, some public, that it
to describe them in full; among the most important of their functions
was the control
of import and export of wares; the limiting of the number permitted in
the regulation of wages and prices, and the inspection and
standardization of goods.
Every member had to pay "scot" and "lot", as the general taxes
were called, and take oath to obey the rulers and ordinances, as well
his annual dues. As a reward for his membership he was privileged to
share in business
transactions and in bargains, and was given a "status" in the community
very much coveted. If he fell ill he was cared for; his family was
in case of his death; in unemployment he was helped to find a position,
and he was
protected against quarrels and unjust dealings. The gild was governed
by an alderman
("elder man") and his associates, two or four in number; it had its own
treasury; passed its own ordinances; could fine or otherwise punish its
and in some instances had its own court. At periodical meetings ‒
speeches" ‒ the brethren passed or revised ordinances, admitted new
feasted and elected officers.
developed in scope and complexity it became increasingly difficult for
merchant to retain their monopolies; gradually there grew up a new
system to supersede
the old, known as craft gilds, in which not commerce but a handicraft
was the unit;
there was a struggle between the new system and the old, but the old at
way and in the fifteenth century ceased to be. Craft gilds were not, as
been alleged, the offspring of the merchant gilds, for there was no
between them; they were variously two similar but quite distinct and
of the gild principle due to economic changes.
III. Craft Guilds
primary purpose of the craft gild was to establish a complete system of
control over all who were associated together in the pursuit of a
The merchant gild, working usually in the smaller towns, organized a
the craft gilds, springing up everywhere, from London to almost every
each separate part of every industry, or vocation, as an independent
example, where the merchant gild had organized the leather business as
craft gilds broke it up into specialties, so that tanners, saddle
makers, bridle makers, shoe makers, slipper makers, boot makers, etc.,
their own fraternity. This high degree of specialization was extended
to the arts,
to social interests, amusements and education; it was even extended to
so that in one church might be a gild of priests, of musicians, of
singers, of actors
in the mystery play, and a gild to look after the altar besides to see
that it was
properly dressed with rich cloths and its candles always burning.
devoted wholly to some one handicraft performed an astonishing number
and became a little family world to each member in which he found his
his school, his business, his hospital, his sick, health and life
against enemies, employment bureau, a court to which to be responsible
for his conduct
and laws and ordinances for controlling his conduct. The old debate
writers as to whether the medieval operative Masonic gilds possessed
elements would seem to be singularly beside the point; every gild was
full of "speculative"
elements, even the pig drivers and sheep herders, who, like the rest
had their patron
saints, their religious festivals and burned a candle at the altar.
free grammar schools were founded and maintained by the gilds," writes
in his excellent Economic History, "which formed one of the main
education in the Middle Ages; and one gild, that of Corpus Christi,
its memory by founding the famous college that still bears its name. In
the gilds contributed to the spread of learning, and the voluntary
efforts of artisans
helped to keep burning the lamp of knowledge." He could have added many
examples. Dean Colet turned over to a gild the management of his St.
William Shakespeare secured his "little Latin and less Greek" at a gild
school in Stratford-on-Avon.
have described craft gilds as "the trade unions of the Middle Ages",
this is most inaccurate. As Sidney and Beatrice Webb have stated so
clearly in their
magnificent History of Trade Unionism [Lib 1920] there was no connection
between the two, and only a superficial resemblance. The craft gild was
body, often so interwoven with municipal government that learned
writers have confused
the two; it controlled trade not in the interests of workmen merely but
the public included; membership in it was compulsory, and so recognized
and national laws; its ranks included employers as well as employed,
and these two
groups did not come into conflict until later, with the rise of
it accepted into membership only trained men, all others, servants,
left outside and considered as "cowans"; it was a purely local
with a territory limited by the community boundaries; and in addition
to the regulation
of wages, hours and general trade conditions, it was also engaged, as
above, in many activities of a purely social character, and unrelated
to the trade
At the head
of the typical gild were the wardens, two or four, usually elected by
but sometimes appointed by the mayor, holding office for one year,
whose duty it
was to supervise the work turned out by the craft and to see that
were maintained. The assembly usually met once a year, but sometimes
and at stated intervals. The gild often had its own court and members
on oath. The general membership was divided into the three grades of
(fellow crafts) and apprentices, but any journeyman might become a
master so that,
so far as skill was concerned, there were only two classes. Women were
into many gilds and were permitted to take apprentices and to hire
admirable feature in the whole gild system was the institution called
which was a method for training youths in their vocation never since
not often equalled. A boy was "indentured", or contracted, to some
for a term of years, which in earlier times might last from one to ten
in 1563 was everywhere (in England) fixed at seven years. The master
and board, technical training, sometimes a small salary, sometimes
his conduct, and generally stood to the boy in loco parentis; the boy
in his turn
was obliged to be no bondsman, of good physique, a faithful workman and
his master's welfare. The beginnings of this system have been traced to
became a vital part of the whole economic system in the thirteenth
were usually registered with the town authorities and otherwise given a
status in the community. The terms and experiences of his position
passed into popular
speech, remaining in use until the present day, coloured all social
often was celebrated in literature, as in Goethe's Wilhelm Meister.
custom, as the reader will already have discerned, remains imbedded in
our own Masonic
system to remind us that a candidate for our "mystery" stands as much
in need of training as the youth of old times who knocked at the door
of a gild;
if our statesmen and rulers ever come to understand Masonry as they
its possibilities in the world, the reconstitution of the apprentice
system in our
Fraternity, and a more thorough and intelligent use of it, will be one
first concerns. To expect a man to be able to understand or practice
without adequate preparation is a ridiculous now as it was when Masonic
devoted to architecture and the building crafts. We are not called on
to raise fabrics
of wood and stone into the sky, but ours is an even more difficult
task, for it
is our duty to build manhood and to reorganize the whole world into the
brotherhood, surely a high calling, and demanding skilled workmen!
of his indenture completed, the apprentice graduated into the ranks of
becoming thereby a fellow of the craft, i.e., entitled to its liberties
on equal terms with all others. This passing to a higher grade was
some proof of his skill a "masterpiece" in many cases or an examination
before the wardens. (Wardens were known as "deacons" in Scotland,
some of our Masonic nomenclature was derived.) In Europe the young
out on a "wander tour" in order to see something of the world and of
practices of his craft in other places, but this custom never secured a
in England; usually (in some cases compulsorily) a journeyman
yoeman, "young man") hired himself out to some master for two or three
years at wages and then, with a little money of his own, set up in his
hired journeymen, indentured apprentices and became a master.
In the course
of time the masters, being the moneyed class, tended to arrogate to
and more power and to adopt legislation in their own interests, and the
as their numbers increased, learned to combine to secure their own
after a permanently wage earning class was developed. Upon this
to form gilds of their own, often in despite of the authorities, a
thing that became
quite common by the fifteenth century. On the continent, especially in
centers and in Germany, this conflict between masters and men often
broke out into
pitched battles with much shedding of blood (the Medici family emerged
a welter to the control of Florence), but in England the struggle was
By the sixteen seventeenth century journeymen gilds were quite subdued
to remain subordinate to the masters who grew more and more
oligarchical. In many
of the large cities the masters secured all control in their own hands,
with the coming of modern capitalism and manufacturing and the whole
gradually rise of nationalism the whole gild system broke up and
away. Some of the craft societies still survived so late as the latter
half of the
eighteenth century, but their privileges were formally and finally
parliament in 1835.
of the medieval Masonic gilds from which Freemasonry evolved, or at
least with which
it has at least a certain amount of historical continuity, must be
another chapter, as demanding more space reserved than is here
available. In the
present connection it is not necessary to call a Masonic reader's
attention to the
fact that whatever that historical connection may have been and to what
modern craft is indebted to the old gild system, Freemasonry was in its
of a piece with that system and inherited many things from it, so that
it is quite
impossible to understand our Fraternity today apart from the craft
gilds of old
in which apprentices, fellow crafts and masters united in the one hand,
lived together in brotherhood to the end that the word might be served
enabled to earn masters' wages and to perfect themselves in their
English Life and Manners in Later Middle Ages. [Lib 1913]
J. DeW. Addison. Arts and Crafts in Middle Ages. [Lib 1914]
Ars. Quatuor Coronatorum, II, 159; II, 165; [Lib 1889]; V, 125 [Lib 1892]; IX, 28 [Lib*]; XV, 153; XV,
F. Armitage, The Guilds of England. [Lib 1918]
W. J. Ashley, An Introduction to English Economic History. [Lib
1888-1906; Vol 1, Vol 2]
E. Bain, Merchant and Craft Gilds. [Lib 1887]
L. Brentano On the History and Development of Gilds. [Lib 1870]
H.M. Chadwick, Studies of Anglo-Saxon Institutions. [Lib*]
E.K. Chambers. The Medieval Stage. [Lib 1903; Vol 1, Vol 2]
Jas. Colston, Incorporated Trades of Edinburgh. [Lib 1891]
H.C. Coote, The Romans of Britain. [Lib 1878]
W. Cunningham, Growth of English Industry and Commerce. [Lib 1903; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3]
W. Denton, England in the Fifteenth Century. [Lib 1888]
O.J. Dunlop, English Apprenticeship and Child Labour. [Lib 1912]
Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol XII, 14. [Lib*]
E.A. Freeman, History of the Norman Conquest of Freemasonry; (?) [Lib
1867; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4, Vol 5, Vol 6]
R.F.Gould, Concise History of Freemasonry. [Lib 1951]
R.F.Gould, History of Freemasonry. [Lib 1884; Vol
1, Vol 2, Vol
3, Vol 4]
N.S.B. Gras, Introduction to Economic History. [Lib 1922]
A.S. Green, Town Life in the Fifteenth Century [Lib 1894; Vol 1, Vol 2]
J.R. Green, Short History of the English People. [Lib 1894]
C. Gross, Bibliography of British Municipal History [Lib 1897]; Gild Merchant. [Lib 1890; Vol 1, Vol 2]
J.L. and B. Hammond, The Village Laborer. [Lib 1912]
M.D. Harris, Story of Coventry. [Lib 1911]
James Hasting, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. VI. [Lib 1914]
W.C. Hazlitt, Livery Companies of City of London. [Lib 1892]
K. Hegel, Städte und Gilden. [Lib 1891, Vol 1, Vol 2, (German)]
F.A. Hibbert, Influence and Development of English Gilds. [Lib*]
A. Jessop, Coming of the Friars. [Lib 1892]
J.J. Jusserand, English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. [Lib 1891]
S. Kramer, English Craft Gilds and the Government. [Lib 1905]
J.M. Lambert, Two Thousand Years of Gild Life. [Lib 1891]
Lethaby, Medieval Art. [Lib 1904]
E. Lipson, Economic History of England. Lib 1929/31; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3]
A.S. MacBride, Speculative Masonry. [Lib 1914]
Machiavelli. Florentine History. [Lib 1912]
Mackey, Revised History of Freemasonry. [Lib 1906; (7 Volumes –
A.L. Miller, Notes on the Early History and Records of the Lodge,
Aberdeen 1 ter.
H.B. Morse, Gilds of China. [Lib 1909]
A.W. Pollard, English Miracle Plays. [Lib 1898]
M.B. Reckitt, Meaning of National Guilds. [Lib 1920]
George Renard, Guilds in the Middle Ages. [Lib 1919]
J.E.T. Rogers, Economic Interpretation of History. [Lib 1888]
H.G. Selfridge, Romance of Commerce. [Lib 1918]
L.T. Smith, York Mystery Plays. [Lib 1885]
T. Smith, English Gilds. [Lib 1870]
Edgcumb Staley, The Guilds of Florence, [Lib 1906]
J. Thomson, An Essay on English Municipal History. [Lib 1867]
G. Unwin, Gilds and Companies of England. [Lib 1908]
L.Vibert, Story of the Craft. [Lib*]
P. Vinagradoff, Edtr., Oxford Studies in Social and Legal History.
A.E. Waite, New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry. [Lib*]
Ward, Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods. [Lib*]
S. and B. Webb, History of Trade Unionism. [Lib 1920]
H. Zimmern, The Hansa Towns. [Lib 1889]
Encyclopedia (Revised Edition)
Masonry, 24-30; Apprentice, 70-72; Architecture, 75; Assembly, 83;
Craft, 184; Craftsman, 184; Deacon, 197-198; Fellow Crafts, 261-262;
262; Foreign Country, 269; Gilds,. 296-297; Journey, 373; Journeyman,
473-476; Mysteries, 497-500; Roman Colleges of Artificers, 630-634;
* * *
A Note on the Comacines
I have recently
encountered a note on the Comacine Masters which should be included
with the chapter
on that subject published in this department last month. It was
contributed by A.
L. Frothingham to "Dictionary of Architecture and Building", edited by
Russell Sturgis; the article is headed "Guilds" and is, so far as I
discover, the solitary reference in that work to Freemasonry. Having no
in etymology I am unable to pass judgment on Mr. Frothingham's theory,
but am under
the impression that etymologists in general would not agree with him.
on the point will be appreciated. Students will do well to read the
article in its
entirety; in the present connection there is space for only one
great deal of grave nonsense has been written by grave authorities on
commacini; chapters and even volumes have been based on the supposition
means 'a native of Como,' and that this region was so specifically the
the revival of architecture under the Lombards as to give its name to
of architect; master from Como = architect. Such a fact would be
without a parallel
and is, besides, an etymological blunder. The word com-macinus is from
stem as macio, the common Latin word for stonemason, with the addition
of the collective
prefix, and may also be connected with the current Byzantine word for
architect, mechanicos." ‒ H.L.H.
* * *
In What Sense Infallibility
Is Claimed For the Pope
I have often
wondered if Roman Catholics have the same idea about the infallibility
of the pope
that outsiders have. Where can one find the Roman Church's own official
of papal infallibility ?
of papal infallibility was defined by the Vatican Council held in Rome
and reads in this fashion: "Therefore faithfully adhering to the
of the Christian faith, which has come down to us from the beginning ….
and define it to be a doctrine divinely revealed, that the Roman
Pontiff when he
speaks ex cathedra ‒ that is, when he in the exercise of the office of
doctor of all Christians' by virtue of his supreme Apostolic authority,
a doctrine regarding faith and morals to be held by the Universal
Church, by the
divine assistance promised him in Blessed Peter, possesses that
which the Divine Redeemer willed His Church to be endowed in the
definition of a
doctrine regarding faith or morals."
that he is infallible only when he speaks as pope, and not as a private
when as pope he gives the official definition of a doctrine; when he
treats of faith
and morals or matters vitally related thereto; and when he makes it
that he is promulgating a decision binding "on the universal church."
What this amounts to is that he acts as the register or mouth-piece of
in its official capacity, and that, according to the idea, the church
infallible. The infallibility of the pope developed out of the
the church, the former dogma was not officially accepted until 1870,
has been held in Roman communion for many centuries.
Introducing Brother F. H.
At an annual
meeting of the National Masonic Research Society held at Cedar Rapids,
4, 1923, the Board of Stewards, after a minute and comprehensive
canvass of all
our activities, decided that it would be wise to so reorganize our
management as to make for increased efficiency and economy, as well as
that the future of the Society be absolutely secure. To that end it was
that the general offices of the Society be retained at Cedar Rapids,
C. C. Hunt as General Secretary, and that the publication office of THE
membership offices, financial offices, and all other activities
the business management of the Society's affairs be removed to St.
Louis to be under
the care of Brother F. H. Littlefield, who at that meeting was chosen
devolving on the executive head of this Society require that he possess
of qualifications not often found. He must have managerial and business
experience with publishing, a first-hand knowledge of Masonry in its
and a heartfelt dedication to a task that entails a considerable amount
and moral responsibility, without hope of fee or reward. In Brother F.
our Board of Stewards found these qualifications very fully developed,
fortunate in being able to secure his services. As president of the
PUBLISHING COMPANY, editor and proprietor of THE MISSOURI FREEMASON,
and for many
years intensely active in all the Masonic bodies in Missouri, as well
important business concerns. He possesses the ideal experience and
the managing head of this Society. It is an honor to introduce him to
and readers, a pleasure to be associated with him, and it is safe to
him a successful outcome of his labors, now already begun, in the
expansion of our work.
H. L. HAYWOOD, Editor.
* * *
commissioned by the National Masonic Research Society to assume a large
of the practical executive duties in connection with this Society and
in the publication
of THE BUILDER, I feel that a brief statement of our present plans and
the future should be given to our membership.
Masonic Research Society is a corporate body (not for pecuniary profit)
solely for the purpose of fostering Masonic education, research,
thought and expression.
We desire that each member and reader should be fully informed as to
character of its organization, and in a succeeding number we propose to
its Articles of Incorporation and By-Laws for your information.
inception, nearly nine years ago, one of its principal operations has
been the editing
and publishing of THE BUILDER as the official journal of the Society.
It has made
a splendid reputation in the world of Masonic thought and literature,
contributions from the ablest Masonic thinkers and writers of the time.
and the business offices of the Society, are now removed from Cedar
Rapids to St.
Louis, with all the collected manuscripts, library and equipment
intact. Ample provision
is made for its valuable reference library and its editorial and
Its new offices are in the Railway Exchange, the largest office
building in the
world. The material resources and conveniences are in no way impaired,
and we expect
them to develop improvement in the future.
is the continuation of the high standard of Masonic journalism that THE
has established. To this we pledge our most sincere efforts. Everything
on as before. There will be no diminution in our various services to
Brother H. L. Haywood is here with us as Editor-in-chief and will
enlarge the staff
of our associate editors with talent from all parts of the Masonic
will continue to function as the official journal of the Society. It
will not enter
the field of competitive or commercial journalism, or lend itself to
or political propaganda. It can exist on our present membership through
future, and as that membership increases it will augment its services
to the Craft
and improve its editorial, artistic and typographical qualities in
every way possible.
our headquarters to St. Louis the Society will not lose its contact
with the many
faithful brethren of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, the parent of Masonic
the United States. Brothers Parvin, Hunt, Block and Moses continue
with our Society and THE BUILDER, and through their kind co-operation
we are assured
full use of the matchless resources of that very valuable institution,
I am frank
to say, and I say it with all sincerity, that though I had long been a
somewhat familiar with its activities, I have been agreeably surprised
just how extensive the work of the Society is, how far its influence
many brethren are engaged in special work under its direction; this,
the fact that the membership is so loyal, inspires me to believe that
we have a
great future before us. There is a family feeling among us all, a
feeling that THE
BUILDER belongs to each and every one, and that each member is in a
sense an editor
and contributor; I shall hope to see that spirit continue, deepen and
* * *
A Temple Of Light
By the time
these words are in print the cornerstone of the George Washington
will have been laid, surely, if one will consider it all around, the
cornerstone laying since American Masonry began to be, and the most
both for the brilliancy of the assembly of Masons in attendance and for
significance of the structure itself. Like one of the great towers that
the harbors of old Greece and Rome to guide the sea-weary ships to
their goal, it
will lift its galleries far above Alexandria, where Washington lived,
the proud capital also called after his name, a striking testimony
of eyes to the presence of Freemasonry in the nation’s midst, itself a
memory, a temple of light.
memorial will be rooms for Lodges, Chapters, Commanderies and
for the Memorial Association, libraries, museums, an art gallery, an
and a replica of the Alexandria lodge room of 1802 to contain the
of Washington, as precious as they are priceless. The exterior will
spirit of these activities, and the whole together will stand a
monument of national
unity in memory of him who made the nation.
By the same
token it will visibly embody Masonic unity also, a proof that if the
Craft is divided
by its jurisdictional machinery into forty-nine Grand Lodges, it is
one jurisdiction by the indivisibility of its spirit, everywhere the
same, and growing
more and more self-conscious. There is no need for a national Grand
Lodge; we are
already a national Grand Lodge, albeit, like the Grand Lodge above, "it
to be seen in a certain way, under certain conditions. Some people
never see it
at all. You must understand, this is no dead pile of stones and
It is a living thing"; living and life-giving.
in the land, on every night, Masons meet, of all creeds and classes,
from the youngest
Entered Apprentice, talking about the Shrine, to the whitest veteran
Morals and Dogma; in little brick buildings, on the coast of Maine; in
valleys of Massachusetts; on the sand stretches of Florida; along the
streets of Indiana villages; in windy towns on the wheat lands of the
sparse little settlements of the intermountain countries; in the new
old villages of California; in adobe towns on the red deserts of the
in the old cities of Louisiana; here, there, everywhere, up and down a
these companies of chosen men are building a brotherhood on the mother
underneath the jealousies that make war on the surface. What a quiet,
gentle brotherhood it is, silently weaving the nation together, helping
the American soul! Its moral idealism filters into every nook and
men's hearts even when they are least aware, and helps to hold the
It is this spirit brooding in the heart of the Craft that is uttering
the great Memorial now building, and makes it a shaft of unity, a
temple of light,
more than any mere pile of steel and marble could ever be.
A Valuable Contribution
to Masonic History
EARLY HISTORY AND RECORDS OF THE LODGE, ABERDEEN [Lib*], by A. L.
Miller, P. M.
May be purchased through the publisher, Aberdeen University Press, Ltd.
Aberdeen, Scotland. Price, 5/.
contains only 74 pages, this little book, printed beautifully on fine
bound in Quaker gray cloth, is more justly entitled to a place on the
five-foot shelf of books than many a more ambitious volume that is
often found there,
and that because it is solid substance all through, which is more than
can be said
of so many Masonic volumes, often built on hearsay and padded out with
R. F. Gould said of the records of Aberdeen Lodge that "some are
by any others of a similar character in interest and value." The first
record of any kind of Mason in the old Scotch city is of date 1264. It
is said that
St. John's Masonry was introduced in 1357. The old memorials of the
in 1398, refer to many Masons. "Lodge" (spelled "loge") is first
mentioned in 1483, the earliest record of the word in the Scottish
of the town issued to the lodge a Seal of Cause, or charter, in 1521,
it. There is a record of a warden being appointed with jurisdiction
over three counties
in 1590. From 1587 on the other crafts federated and worked under one
set of officers
with a convener’s court, but the "Mason Lodge" remained apart and
a jurisdiction over its own affairs. This fact is worthy of note as
being one of
many similar instances where the Operative Masons maintained a stubborn
as regards other gilds and sometimes, it appeared, as regards town
in some cases there seems to have been some friction engendered and
forbade the organization of a Mason gild. The Aberdeen Lodge had active
certain clergy among them, a fact, it is possible, that explains why it
two or three
times lost its own building by fire.
Masons had a building of their own, other than their temporary work
huts, as early
as 1483 and it is believed by some authorities that the lodge of that
ceased to exist so that Aberdeen Lodge of today may boast of a great
W. J. Hughan, the most cautious of Masonic historians, held it to be of
a date not
later than 1570 at least.
lodge's most precious possession is the old Mark Book, begun in 1670,
a list of members with their marks, laws and statutes, and a version of
Charges, given in full in an Appendix, which was published by Hughan
by him as No. 22 among extant copies of the Old Charges.
records contained in the old Mark Book one learns some interesting
things. It proves
that in the old days Fellowcraft and Master Mason were one and the same
as far as
rank is concerned, so that there were only two grades of membership,
and Fellow, or Master. The apprentice took an oath and had the Old
to him, comprising his initiation ceremony, but there is nothing to
show that any
ceremony attended his passing to the higher rank, save that he was
to produce a masterpiece. In 1670, forty-seven years before the
founding of the
first Grand Lodge (London), non-operatives outnumbered operatives in
the lodge membership
four to ones and contained in their list many notable and some
including four noblemen, a professor of mathematics, three ministers,
four carpenters and several men of other trades. It will be seen that
was a real society, not a mere trade union, keeping its feasts on St.
John in December,
looking after its poor, and once a month holding its regular meetings
at which time
there was much good fellowship but no disorder. Nearly all the Scotch
the time admitted "speculative" members, many of whom were very active
and held office.. This is one of a thousand similar facts to prove that
Freemasonry was a gradual evolution out of medieval Operative Masonry.
of Aberdeen Lodge are the oldest known to have been preserved; for some
reason no minutes of an English lodge prior to 1717 are in existence.
been much speculation, most of it worthless, about the mysterious
often encountered in the records of Scotch Masonry. Brother Miller,
basing his statement
on the memorials of his own ancient lodge, has something interesting to
say on the
term was common in the Scottish lodges in the early days, but what the
Mason Word was remains unknown. The conclusion has been come to that
the only degree in the early Masonry of Scotland, and consisted in the
the candidate for apprenticeship the legend of the Craft and the
the Mason Word. In the Aberdeen rules reference is also made to 'the
oaths we received
at our entry to the benefit of the Mason Word.' So far as is known,
there was no
ceremony in connection with advancement to the rank of Fellowcraft, or
Master was chosen each year, but the Warden held office indefinitely;
were a Clerk, an Officer (his functions are not described): and a
Boxmaster was chosen annually. He was selected 'only from among the
the Master keeps one key and the Warden another.' At that time,
Keymasters appear to have been the Master, Warden and Boxmaster. but in
is the date of the first minute recording an election, two Keymasters
in addition to the ordinary office-bearers, to act along with the
the Mason Box were kept the Mark Book and the money of the lodge. The
box had three
locks, one of the keys being in the custody of each Keymaster. Their
therefore obligatory at any meeting at which it was necessary to open
Box; we have seen from a previously quoted regulation that the clerk
was not to
write in the Mark Book unless the three Keymasters were present."
governing dues payable by non-operatives opens a little window into the
the lodge. Says one author:
following are the provisions for the dues payable by the non-operative,
or, as they
are termed in the rules, the gentlemen Masons. The apprentice
contributed four rix
dollars of composition, a lion apron and a pair of good gloves to every
in the lodge, 'or if the entering Prentice have not whereupon to
and gloves, he must pay two rix dollars for them, which makes up six in
one dinner, one speaking pint and his contribution to the Box, as we
have paid before
him, with one merk piece for his Mason mark, one merk piece to our
officer for calling
a lodge; this is the least we take for Entered Prentices.' Of the entry
apprentices, one-half was paid into the Mason Box, and the other half
spent as the
will of the company thought fit. When advanced to Fellowcraft, the new
the lodge had to provide a dinner and a pint of wine, or what the will
of the company
pleased. There is also provision for making strangers who had been
entered in another
lodge, Master Masons of the Lodge of Aberdeen."
One of the
most interesting pages in the book, and recommended as throwing light
obscure passages in our present ritual, is this:
"Probably the most important
the Laws and Statutes, from the Masonic point of view, is in the third
ordains that 'no lodge be holden within a dwelling house where there is
in it but in the open fields, except it be ill weather, and then let
there be a
house chosen that no person shall hear nor see us.' Compare with this
of the fifth rule: 'We ordain likewise that all entering Prentices be
our ancient outfield lodge in the Mearns in the parish of Nigg at the
the point of the Ness.' Gould makes the following reference to these
the rules: 'We meet with, in the Laws and Statutes of the Aberdeen
Lodge in 1'670,
the only allusion ‒ antedating the era of Grand Lodges ‒ to the
practice of lodges
being held and apprentices entered in the open fields.' These two
to indicate that it had long been the practice of the members of the
lodge to hold
their meetings in the open air in some secluded spot which would ensure
for their proceedings; they also seem to infer a greater regard for
secrecy in their
initiations than would have been necessary for the mere reading over of
Charter and the communication of the Mason Word. They accord with the
that, in the old days, lodges were enjoined to assemble on the highest
in the lowest valleys. According to a tradition of the lodge, the
Masons were accustomed
to hold their meetings at Carden's Haugh, Rubislaw, and in the hollow
Masons were called "domatic," non-operatives were known as "gentlemen,"
or "geomatic." In 1781 the Operatives seceded and formed a lodge of
own, still existing as Operative Lodge, No. 150. The Grand Lodge of
organized in 1736, but it was long in enforcing its authority over
Many "irregular" lodges flourished in or about Aberdeen in 1752. The
Constitutions" enforced by Grand Lodge wrought many changes.
constitution of the lodge remained much the same until 1736 when the
effect of the
foundation of the Grand Lodge of Scotland began to show itself. In that
minutes first refer to candidates being entered, passed and raised, and
appear then to have given their simple ceremony of admission and
adopted the three
degrees of modern Masonry. In 1737 a Senior and Junior Warden were
1739 the Master was first styled Right Worshipful Master. In 1740 two
in 1754 three Stewards were added. In 1757 a Depute Master was
appointed. In 1776
a clergyman was admitted a member and made Chaplain to the lodge. In
his being a clergyman he was admitted free of all dues, a custom known
Scottish lodges of the time. The use of the interesting word Keymaster
until 1756, after which year no further appointments to that office
One of the
most interesting pages in this book is that which refers to Dr. James
author, or at least compiler, of the Book of Constitutions of 1723,
employed as the foundation of Masonic laws. Dr. Anderson was an alumnus
College, Aberdeen, and it is considered most probable that he was a
member of the
Aberdeen Lodge, though the minutes of the period are unfortunately
lost. Gould was
of the opinion that Anderson very probably introduced into English
of the terms then used in Scotch Masonry.
It will be
profitable to read in conjunction with Bro. Miller's substantial little
writings on the subject, all available: Notes on the History of Masonry
A. M. Murero [Lib*]; Merchant and Craft Guilds (of Aberdeen), E. Bain;
Essays and Papers Relating to Freemasonry [Lib 1913], p. 105, R. F. Gould; Ars
Coronatorum, Vol. II [Lib 1889], pp. 159, 165. These studies,
if read together,
will furnish one with a more accurate and vivid conception of what
Masonry was like
before 1717 than many long histories.
* * *
A Book of Knowledge and
AND THE CRAFT, A PRACTICAL EXPLANATION OF THE WORK OF FREEMASONRY
[Lib*], by Rollin
C. Blackmer, C. M., M. D., LLD., Past Master, Past High Priest, Past
Published by The Standard Masonic Publishing Company, St. Louis, Me.
May be purchased
through the National Masonic Research Society, 1950 Railway Exchange,
Mo. Black cloth, 297 pages, with portrait. Price, $3.00 postpaid.
Washington was initiated at Fredericksburg, Va., there stood in the
demijohns of rum, facetiously called J and B. The thing was typical of
of the day, which was a time of hard living and much drinking
everywhere. The festive
board was the center of attraction in many lodges and the fraternity
there were many good men and great in its membership, was usually
looked upon as
a kind of social order, an institution devoted to good fellowship, rare
came over the fraternity during the Revolution. Bro. George Washington
much to do with it for he was an active Mason and through his devotion
to the Order
led many of the outstanding patriots to unite with the Craft, so that
it increased in responsibility and dignity until at last, owing to the
of the times and the solemn, serious crises of the war, it was welded
into a solid brotherhood filled with a new national consciousness and a
of the leadership of God.
was followed, as by a kind of reaction, by the anti-Masonic crusade.
The fury and
devastation it suffered from its enemies left the Craft dazed and
weakened in influence and decimated in numbers that Jeremiahs
its speedy extinction. In one way that terrible grilling wrought good
it proved how unwise a thing it is for lodges to meddle in party
politics, and how
wicked a thing it is for Masonic leaders to use the name of Masonry to
political kites. After the bitter lessons learned between 1820 and
1840, he would
be a foolish counsellor indeed who would recommend that Freemasonry
in such affairs.
fraternity had recovered from this prostration the Civil War came upon
it so that
once again it found itself passing through a furnace of fire. The
record of the
Craft during that time of fraternal strife is a glorious one and
embody it in a history, lest the men of future generations forget how
at one time
Masonry proved itself strong in the ordeal of battle.
period of slow growth which lasted from about 1870 until 1900 or
by that four-year period which had cast a dark gloom over the entire
Masonic membership was filled with a serious religious consciousness
and a very
sensitive fear lest the Order become too popular or its secrets be made
beginning of the present century a new mood came over the Order
the beginning of the era of expansion which continues even now.
grown to the largest fraternity in the world, an organization in this
land of nearly
three million brethren, solidified by an acute national consciousness,
to all manner of public service. Everywhere is activity, growth,
and an almost nervous zeal; lodges increase with an amazing rapidity.
has grown Wore complicated and its problems have been multiplied and
The time has arrived when the individual Mason is so bewildered in
trying to find
his way about among the Rites and auxiliary organizations that some
kind of guidance
for him in the shape of Masonic literature and education is a
necessity, while those
carrying the responsibility of managing such a huge institution would
themselves helpless to handle the situation without the help of Masonic
Books and journals, once looked upon with a certain degree of suspicion
in danger of revealing the "secrets" of the Craft, are now encouraged
and sought after as being a practical necessity.
The Lodge and the Craft is one of a score of volumes that have come
during the past few years as a result of the evolution above described;
it is intended
to assist the brethren in their understanding of their work and of the
mechanism through which it is necessary that Freemasonry carry on its
It is a volume in which masses of solid information are closely crowded
and so organized and arranged that a newly made brother can follow it
understanding. It covers the work of the three degrees, explains the
forms of Masonic
organization, deals with the ancient landmarks, symbols and emblems,
and in its
last chapters contains some excellently wise advice concerning the
the lodge and the practice of Masonic jurisprudence. Brother Blackmer
has for many
years been an active worker in several of the Rites, thereby
discovering what it
is that Masons most need to know; this experience of practical affairs
him to make a judicious selection out of a store of knowledge that is
in its extent. The book is especially valuable to beginning students
and to Study
Clubs. It was originally composed with an eye to the needs of the Grand
of Missouri, but such local references as it contains are of so slight
as not to affect its use by members of the Craft in all jurisdictions.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
over his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
Study Club course. The Society is now receiving from fifty to one
each week; it is manifestly impossible to publish many of them in this
Masonry's Oldest Recorded
to a Masonic orator who claimed for our fraternity a very great
antiquity it occurred
to me to learn what is the oldest recorded date actually connected with
Can you tell me, please? The orator could not but he kindly referred me
Y. W. L., Ohio.
Masonic MS., the Regius, is usually dated at 1390 A. D. but it is
evident from a
study of this aged document that the Craft was of hoar age even then.
There is a
yet older memorial in the form of an entry in the Corporation Records
London, which proves that as early as 1356 rules for the regulation of
of London were passed before the Mayor, Aldermen and Sheriffs of the
city. No other
fraternity in existence can prove by written records such an antiquity.
* * *
Luther Burbank A Mason
I write to
inquire if Luther Burbank, the great plant wizard of California, is a
is one of my heroes whom I should like to think of as a brother in our
B. W. M., North Carolina.
Burbank was raised in Santa Rosa Lodge, California, Aug. 13, 1921. It
was a memorable
event which the then Grand Master George F. Rodden, a gracious and
who will live long in the memories of the Craft of California,
in a paragraph of beautiful prose: "Because the roster of Masonry is
with the names of famous men, it might be assumed, logically, that to
would occasion but little comment. Familiarity often engenders
try as we will to hold steadfast to the principle of democracy and to
that in Masonry all men are upon a level plane, we cannot avoid being a
and proud when a man, who, by his virtues and ability, has won for
respect, admiration and international fame, evidences his faith in us
affiliation. On Saturday evening, Aug. 13, a great body of Masons (many
distant places) assembled at Santa Rosa, there to witness or
participate in the
raising of Luther Burbank. Seer and wizard, with a life of achievement,
of his craft in all the world, he that night gave us a lesson in those
of modesty and humility which distinguish the truly great, and which
should be of
much splendid value to all who profit thereby. The Grand Master was
an invitation which he was more than pleased to accept."
* * *
Grand Lodge Statistics
that Masonic membership in United States now runs to more than three
you give me the exact figures?
is somewhat in error, but not far off. According to a compilation made
by Bro. C.
C. Hunt on July 1, 1923, our national membership totals 2,850,910.
Grand Lodges run as follows:
District of Columbia
Total ........................... 2,850,910
figures may be compared the findings for foreign Grand Lodges as
prepared by Bro.
C. C. Woods, Fraternal Correspondent, Grand Lodge of Missouri:
New South Wales
Prince Edward Island
* * *
The Democracy of Death
I read a beautiful piece of eloquence about death. Some lines keep
my head, like these:
is a democracy in which all men lie at last on an equality. There is no
honor in the grave." Do you chance to recognize the lines? If so, who
S. W. A., North Carolina.
is doubtless J. J. Ingall's apostrophe to the grave. It is worth
the democracy of the dead, all men at last are equal. There is neither
station nor prerogative in the republic of the grave. At this fatal
philosopher ceases to be wise, and the song of the poet is silent.
his millions, and Lazarus his rags. The poor man is as rich as the
richest and the
rich man is as poor as the pauper. The creditor loses his usury and the
acquitted of his obligation. There the proud man surrenders his
dignities, the politician
his honors, the worldling his pleasures, the invalid needs no physician
laborer rests from unrequited toil.
at last is nature's final decree in equity. The wrongs of time are
is expiated, the irony of fate is refuted, the unequal distribution of
capacity, pleasure and opportunity which makes life so cruel and
in the realm of death. The mightiest captain succumbs to that
who disarms alike the victor and vanquished."
* * *
"If within the First
Square or Angle of My Work"
Club committee has been asked the following question: what is the
meaning of "If
within the first square or angle of my work?" We should greatly
any light you may be able to shed upon the subject.
L. C. H., Arizona.
"If within the first square or angle of my work," is found in a certain
part of the work of some states. Back in the early days of the society,
from Idaho requested an explanation of this phrase, I noted as I was
some of the old files of THE BUILDER; apparently, no one could then
shed any light
on it. I hope he will see this also.
oldest American ritual known to me, which I believe to date back to
1805 or 1808,
I find the following notation which sets forth the explanation that was
by whoever inserted the phrase in the ritual:
the building of King Solomon's Temple, the Fellowcrafts had certain
angles or squares
marked out for them to work in and they were under no obligation to
attend any sign
or token given them beyond that angle or square."
words, they were assigned certain sections of the work and had no
outside of these sections. You will see that the phrase corresponds to
one, "if within the length of my cabletow." It has that same
hesitate to even guess as to how this phrase came to be included. It
might be simply
a fanciful invention and then again, the idea might be found in
Josephus or some
other early Jewish writer. The most interesting feature is how this
to be handed down from perhaps 1808 and included in the work in some of
States while generally discarded in the East.
A. L. KRESS.
* * *
Secrecy As Regards Lodge
Is a Mason
obligated to keep the business and financial affairs of his lodge
locked up in a
faithful breast or is secrecy binding only on the ritualistic part?
have leaked out of our own lodge recently that have brought the subject
to the fore,
so that your opinion will be appreciated.
A. R. W.,
Master for 1921, Bro. John R. Flotron, expressed an opinion on that
is to be recommended to brethren everywhere. Read and consider it as
"I find a general laxity throughout this Grand Jurisdiction in the
the business concerns of the lodge. A large portion of our members do
not seem to
be aware of the fact that the business of a lodge is just as secret as
work, especially so with reference to the ballot, which is one of its
institutions It is not given to all men to be honored by becoming
members, but Masonry
does not contemplate placing upon such men a mark of character in the
in which they live.
Musical Setting for "Every
In the September
BUILDER you refer to the poem "Every Year" by Albert Pike and how he
to rewrite it.
In this connection
it may be interesting to know that there are those now alive who recite
that General Pike visited San Diego sometime after the Civil War. My
Arthur M. Ellis, of Los Angeles, authority on early Masonry in
But the fact
I desired to call to your attention is that the organist of the San
of Perfection has and plays the music to which this poem was set, by
Col. E. T.
Blackmer, who was the Venerable Master of this Lodge of Perfection for
the one mainly responsible for the vigorous Scottish Rite Consistory
in this city.
He was a
very dear friend of mine and shortly after he composed the music to
Year" he played it on the piano to me and sang the song softly over to
As it is
not generally known that the poem has been set to music by Col.
whom Blackmer Lodge is named) and the music can probably be obtained by
the organist of the Lodge of Perfection I thought it best to advise you
C. F. Willard, San Diego, Calif.
* * *
The Scottish Rite In The
was born in Bedford, Iowa, and was "raised" in that town by Taylor
No. 156, immediately after returning from the Philippines with his
51st Iowa Vol.
I have been
active in Masonic work in this territory since that time, more
particularly in Scottish
Rite; and for some years have been compiling data for the archives of
original letter we have is dated Nov. 20, 1873, from Pitkin C. Wright,
Iowa, addressed to Governor John Owen Dominis (the Consort of Queen
in which he writes that "he has been commissioned by Or. Comd. Albert
as General Deputy of the Supreme Council and to organize, establish and
bodies in the Sandwich Islands." Wright signs his name as P. Gr. Com.
show that Wright did come to the Islands in 1874 and installed the
bodies up to
and including the 18th in that year.
We are most
fortunate in having twenty-two original letters from Albert Pike
to either Governor Dominis or King David Kalakaua, both of whom
for their active work in Masonry. We have had eleven thirty-thirds in
and our present membership is now over 700.
Walter R. Coombs, Honolulu.
* * *
Magnus Johnson Not A Mason
I have had
some inquiry as to whether or not Magnus Johnson, the newly elected
Senator of Minnesota,
is a Mason.
to assure myself, I talked with him about it and will say he is not.
Nor does he
belong to any other fraternal society.
He did at
one time belong to The Court of Honor but dropped it a few years ago.
He is not
opposed to secret fraternal orders and in his talk with me said he knew
were for and accomplish a great deal of good.
I write this
thinking that you also may have inquiries regarding him. I have known
him for about
sixteen years and he lives within the Jurisdiction of Plumb Line Lodge.
A. F. &
A.M., No. 173, Kimball, Minn.
A.C. Douglass, Kimball, Minn.
* * *
Secretary for Fifty-Two
over THE BUILDER for March, 1923, I came across "Forty-fifth Term as
We can beat
that record in South Carolina. Bro. Tillman Faulkner was elected
Secretary of Star
Lodge, No. 99, of Graniteville, S. C., on Dec. 3, 1868, and served
till his death in 1920. In all that long period he missed only four
of his lodge, and those were missed during the last two or three years
of his life
10, 1916, Comp. Charles Frank Jackson was called Home after serving our
Arch Chapter as Grand Treasurer for fifty-eight years. Perhaps the
interest your readers.
J. L. Michie, South Carolina.
* * *
Scottish Rite Fees In China
In THE BUILDER
last December appeared a letter from Bro. William Moister in which he
certain brothers had to pay in the neighborhood of $500.00 for the
Degrees taken somewhere in the East, probably in China. I wonder if it
will be too
late for me to offer a suggestion to explain these probably exorbitant
It is possible that the brethren in question were talking in terms of
which, in our case, is the Mexican dollar. The fees here in Shanghai
for the Scottish
Rite are $340.00 Mexican. If to this was added the cost of a journey
and return it is probable that it did cost these brethren about $500.00
to get the
Rite. If they had to stay a week here the total cost to them would
been not less than $600.00 Mexican. Bro. Moister does not mention the
these degrees were taken. If it was two years ago the Mexican dollar
was then worth
$1.11 in United States currency. The brethren therefore were not so far
all in what they told Bro. Moister.
E. J. Hudson,
District Grand Secretary,
District Grand Lodge of China,
71 Szechneu, Shanghai, China.
It is better
to surpass one's self than one's fellows.
* * *
It is said
that Roy Chapman Andrews has discovered a nest of petrified dinosaur
in Mongolia. Amateur symbologists, please copy. Doesn't this prove that
existed among the dinosaurs? Referred to the shade of Le Plongeon.
* * *
Sir John Robertson Ross, historian of the Craft in Canada, bequeathed
his fine Masonic
library to the Grand Lodge of Canada. It has been housed in the Yonge
* * *
Joseph Fort Newton has recently accepted the post of Educational
Director in the
Masonic Service Association; he will have his office in New York where
he is pastor
of the Church of the Divine Paternity.
* * *
American, every lover of liberty, every well-wisher to his posterity,
swear by the
blood of the Revolution never to violate in the least particular the
laws of the
country and never to tolerate their violation by others. As the
patriots of Seventy-six
did to the support of the Declaration of Independence, so to the
support of the
Constitution and laws let every American pledge his life, his property
and his sacred
man remember that to violate the law is to trample on the blood of his
to tear the charter of his own and his children's liberty. Let
reverence for the
law be breathed by every American mother to the lisping babe that
prattles on her
lap; let it be taught in the schools, the seminaries and in the
colleges, let it
be written in primers, in spelling books and almanacs, let it be
preached from the
pulpit, proclaimed in the legislative halls of justice. In short, let
the political religion of the nation.
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1929. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 563. - 14.2 MB.
The Economic History of England
Vol 2 - Age of Mercantilism
Lip31EH2 / auth. Lipson Ephraim. - London : A & C Black, Ltd,
1931. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 473. - 12.3 MB.
The Economic History of England
Vol 3 - Age of Mercantilism
Lip31EH3 / auth. Lipson Ephraim. - London : A & C Black, Ltd,
1931. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 550. - 14.2 MB.
The English Craft Gilds
Kra05 / auth. Kramer Stella. - New York : Columbia University Press,
1905. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 152. - 6.2 MB.
The Gild Merchant Vol 1
Gro90GM1 / auth. Gross Charles. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1890. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 356. - 15.0 MB.
The Gild Merchant Vol 2
Gro90GM2 / auth. Gross Charles. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1890. -
Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 459. - 20.4 MB.
The Gilds of China
Mor09 / auth. Morse Hosea B. - London : Longman, Green & Co,
1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 106. - 6.3 MB.
The Guilds of Florence
Sta06 / auth. Staley Edgcumbe. - London : Methuen & Co, 1906. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 719. - 22.2 MB.
The Hansa Towns
Zim89 / auth. Zimmern
Helen. - London : T Fisher Unwin, 1889. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 304. - 24.4
The History of Trade Unionism
Web20 / auth. Webb Sidney. - New York : Longmans, Green, and Company,
1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 806. - 33.0 MB.
The Incorporated Trades of
Col91 / auth. Colston James. - Edinburgh : Colston & Company,
1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 298. - 17.6 MB.
The Livery Companies of London
Haz92 / auth. Hazlitt William C. - London : Swan Sonnenschein &
Co, 1892. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 709. - Illustrated - 48.6 MB.
The Medieval Stage Vol 1
Cha03MS1 / auth. Chambers Edmund K. - Oxford : Oxford University Press,
1903. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 462. - 21.3.
The Medieval Stage Vol 2
Cha03MS2 / auth. Chambers Edmund K. - Oxford : Oxford University Press,
1903. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 491. - 18.6 MB.
The Norman Conquest of England
Fre67NC1 / auth. Freeman Edward A. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press,
1867. - Vol. 1 : 6 : p. 680. - 36.6 MB.
The Norman Conquest of England
Fre67NC2 / auth. Freeman Edward A. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press,
1867. - Vol. 2 : 6 : p. 681. - 34.6 MB.
The Norman Conquest of England
Fre67NC3 / auth. Freeman Edward A. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press,
1867. - Vol. 3 : 6 : p. 801. - 42.5 MB.
The Norman Conquest of England
Fre67NC4 / auth. Freeman Edward A. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press,
1867. - Vol. 4 : 6 : p. 879. - 60.0 MB.
The Norman Conquest of England
Fre67NC5 / auth. Freeman Edward A. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press,
1867. - Vol. 5 : 6 : p. 940. - 110.6 MB.
The Norman Conquest of England
Fre67NC6 / auth. Freeman Edward A. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press,
1867. - Vol. 6 : 6 : p. 284. - 28.3 MB.
The Old Guilds of England
Arm18 / auth. Armitage Frederick. - London : Weare & Co., 1918.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 231. - 8.9 MB.
The Romance of Commerce
Sel18 / auth. Selfridge H Gordon. - London : John Lane, 1918. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 516. - 39.4 MB.
The Romans of Britain
Coo78 / auth. Coote Henry C. - London : Frederic Norgate, 1878. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 504. - 13.4 MB.
The Story of Coventry
Har111 / auth. Harris Mary D. - London : J M Dent & Sons, 1911.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 376. - 16.4 MB.
The Village Labourer
Ham12 / auth. Hammond John L and Hammond Barbara. - London : Longmans,
Green, and Co, 1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 427. - 18.1 MB.
Town Life in the Fifteenth
Century Vol 1
Gre94TL1 / auth. Green Alice S. - New York : Macmillan and Co, 1894. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 458. - 12.5 MB.
Town Life in the Fifteenth
Century Vol 2
Gre94TL2 / auth. Green Alice S. - New York : Macmillan and Co, 1894. -
Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 485. - 15.6 MB.
Two Thousand Years Gild Life
Lam91 / auth. Lambert J Malet. - Hull : A. Brown & Sons, 1891.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 438. - 15.1 MB.
Goe07 / auth. Goethe
Johann W / trans. Carlyle Thomas. - London : Chapman and Hall, Ltd,
1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 752. - Three Volumes in One - 27.7 MB.
York Plays, the Plays Performed
by the Crafts
Smi85 / auth. Smith L Toulmin. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1885. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 634. - 14.0 MB.