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in this Magazine Copyright 1923 by the National Masonic Research
Goethe, Master Mason
By Bro. W. Harvey McNairn,
an article of so many excellencies that to praise it would be
presumptuous. It tells
of Goethe, the author of Faust, a world figure in literature along with
and Shakespeare, and one of the greatest teachers of the race that has
Freemasonry mirrored itself in his mind as a universal brotherhood
within the circles
of which men may learn to live happily together in forgetfulness of the
of religion, race and politics; he saw it as an earnest and prophecy of
time coming when the brotherhood of man will be something more than an
dream. How noble is such a conception, and how wise, when compared with
now being made in some quarters to drag back into the lodge the old
and sectarian bitterness thrown aside by our forefathers long ago!
This is a
story of the Craft in days long past, and in a world of men and ideas
from that in which we live and move. In it we have a picture of
Freemasonry as practiced
in the eighteenth century by the court circle of a little Saxon Duchy.
In it we
see how the Craft freed itself from the shackles of a dangerous and
which threatened to destroy its usefulness and its appeal to our common
In it we catch glimpses of that immortal figure who, amid the crowding
a busy life, gave of his time, his influence and his abounding talents,
the interests of that Order which he recognized as one of the most
for good in his time.
After a hundred
years of quiet development, during which the ritual, up till then
exclusive possession of the operative trade, was enriched in its
symbolism and philosophy,
purified in its literary form and rendered more dignified and stately
in its ceremonial,
Freemasonry revealed itself to the world at the beginning of the
as a great spiritual system, with an infinite appeal to just and
upright men of
all races and creeds. It is not surprising, therefore,, that the
with great rapidity over the civilized world, and that each nation
the kaleidoscopic variety, some plan that appealed to its particular
and political system. In England, the land of its origin, the ideal of
seems to have been the most highly prized contribution of Freemasonry.
was that within the tyled temple, peer and artisan sat side by side,
the artificial barrier of race or caste. Hence also rose those great
which are the pride of the Craft and an inspiration to lovers of
mankind over all
On the Continent,
where the blood-bought privileges of political and spiritual freedom
had not yet
been purchased, the lodge became the symbol of liberty of conscience.
was it possible for men to give full expression of their ideas without
of the prison or the gibbet darkening their assemblies. And in Germany,
the study of the philosophy and symbolism of Freemasonry, even before
the end of
the eighteenth century, had already begun to occupy a great deal of
It is then
with a Masonic atmosphere of this kind that we have now to deal. The
are all here: the ritual, the "table lodge," or banquet, the virtue of
charity, and added to them an enthusiasm for liberty of thought and an
in the deeper significance of the usages of the Craft.
Goethe A Universal Genius
von Goethe is the great outstanding figure in German literature. Poet,
philosopher, scientist, statesman, he, more than any other modern man,
is the type
of the universal genius. It is no wonder then that German Freemasons
pride to his connection with their Order, and that no German history of
is complete without many references to his influence in promoting its
in the Fatherland.
He was born
in Frankfort on the Main, on the 28th of August, 1749, of parents of
and social standing, and was intended for the law. He studied at
Leipzig, his father's
university, and at Strasbourg, and on receiving his degree, returned
home to practice
his profession. But the humdrum of a legal career was ill-suited to his
temperament, and a few years later, he joined the court circle of the
of Weimar, where he found his surroundings so congenial that he spent
the rest of
his life there, giving his services to his Prince, and at the same time
that series of works in poetry and prose which have made for him a
which will remain as long as literature is studied.
Goethe Was a Mason
But it is
not his life and writings, interesting as such a study is, that must
attention at present. The story of his connection with the Ancient and
Fraternity of Freemasons has been the theme of very many books and
magazine articles, few, if any, of which, are available for English
a young man he had learned something about Freemasonry, had become
distinguished members of its select circle, and had recognized the
social and fraternal
advantages which it offers. In his Poetry and Truth, he says: "The
German intellectual and literary culture at the time presented the
newly-broken ground. Among business people there were far-sighted men
on the lookout
for skilful cultivators and prudent managers to till the unturned soil.
respected and well-established Freemason lodge, with whose most
I had become acquainted through my intimacy with Lili, found a fitting
bringing me into touch with them; but, from a feeling of independence,
appeared to me madness, I declined all closer connection with them, not
that these men, though forming a society of their own in a special
yet do much to further my own ends, so nearly related to theirs." (1)
attitude of aloofness towards the Society did not long persist. Unlike
contemporary and friend, the poet Wieland, who did not see Masonic
light until he
had reached the age of 76, Goethe had the advantages of membership
upon him during a journey which he made with the young Duke of Weimar
in the latter
part of the year 1779. Many times during the four months of their tour,
that the entre of the lodges would have offered him opportunities of
with men of weight and personal charm, opportunities which were not
Accordingly, only three days after his return he began inquiries
presenting his petition to the local lodge. (2) But it was not until
the 13th, February,
that he addressed the following letter to Privy Councillor, J. F. von
that time Worshipful Master of Lodge Amalia:
"I take the liberty of
importuning you with
a request. For a long time I have had occasion to wish that I might
belong to the
Society of Freemasons: this desire became very strong during our
journey. It is
only on this score that I have missed the opportunity of walking in
with persons whom I have learned to respect. It is the social feeling
leads me to seek for admission. To whom could I better entrust this
to your Excellency? I await the kindly guidance of what you advise in
I await, moreover, your gracious hints, and sign myself respectfully,
"Obedient servant, Goethe." (3)
of this letter, Privy Councillor, Baron Jakob Friedrich von Fritsch,
was not very
favorably disposed towards its acceptance. Six years previously, when
the Duke had
proposed appointing Goethe to a position in his cabinet, Fritsch had
dissented, and had even presented his resignation from the council in
although the charming manner and generous nature of the younger man
soon won over
his irascible and gruff colleague, the truce was only temporary. From
time to time
the eagerness and optimism of youth clashed with the conservatism of
aged Junker. No doubt this will account for the fact that four months
the desire expressed in his petition was gratified.
It so happened
that there was then staying in Weimar probably the best qualified man
in all Germany
to advise Goethe before his admission and to guide his subsequent
Joachim Christoph Bode, musician, teacher of languages, translator of,
books, The Vicar of Wakefield, and the publisher of several of Goethe's
some twenty years older than Goethe. He was a deep student of Masonry
and had accumulated
a library of some eight hundred volumes covering the whole subject of
a remarkable achievement in those days. In recognition of his services
to the Craft
he had been elected, some years before this date, the Deputy Grand
Master of the
Grand Lodge of Hamburg, which, then, as now, stood for pure,
Masonry of three degrees. (4) It was to this man, whose honesty of
purpose was so
clearly seen, that Goethe applied for guidance, and it is a reasonable
that for the remaining thirteen years of his life, Bode was one of
On the 23d
of June, 1780, the eve of the Festival of St. John the Baptist, the
occasion of the German Masonic year, Goethe, then in his thirty-first
duly initiated in the Lodge Amalia in Weimar. He had previously made
stipulations, first, that he should not be blindfolded, but that his
word of honor
to keep his eyes closed should be accepted instead, and secondly, that
of the Grand Lodge of Hamburg should be substituted for that ordinarily
in use in
his lodge, which then followed the Rite of Strict Observance. (5) In
we probably see the influence of Bode, who occupied the chair during
Fritsch, whose right it was to preside, was not fully reconciled to the
of the poet, and felt it impossible to take any part himself, in the
had been unfavorably disposed towards the candidate to begin with, the
of the Strict Observance ritual, of which he was a staunch supporter,
help in smoothing away the difficulties. This no doubt accounts for the
nearly a year elapsed without any move being made towards passing
Goethe to the
Fellowcraft Degree. Accordingly, on the 31st of March, 1781, he again
the Worshipful Master in the following letter:
"May I, your Excellency, on the
of a lodge meeting, also urge my own small interest? While I submit
myself to all
the rules of the Order, though unknown to me, yet, I wish, if it be not
to regulations, to take a further step, in order that I might approach
the essentials. I desire this, not only on my own account, but also on
the Brethren, who are frequently in the embarrassing position of having
me as a stranger. Should it be possible to advance me to the Master's
your convenience, I would learn of it most thankfully. The pains which
I have given
to the useful knowledge of the Order have, perhaps, rendered me not
of such a degree.
"However, I freely leave all to
courteous discernment, and sign myself with unchanging esteem,
"Your Excellency's "Most
As a result
of this petition he was passed to the Fellowcraft Degree on the eve of
23d June, 1781, the anniversary of his initiation. Lodge meetings were
infrequently in those days, and nothing is known of Goethe's activity
but it is safe to conclude that he was present at the convocation held
on the 5th
of February, 1782, in which his princely friend, Carl August, Duke of
or, as it is usually written, Duke of Weimar, was made a Mason. A month
the 3rd of March, they were both raised to the degree of a Master
after, Goethe, as was the custom among members of Strict Observance
to the degree of a Knight Templar.
after his entrance into Lodge Amalia, the Duke took his stand strongly
to the rite of Strict Observance, and on the occasion of the next
festival of St.
John, a bitter discussion arose in open lodge. In this argument, the
Master Fritsch, an unwavering adherent of the old system, was supported
and opposed by Friedrich Justin Bertuch, the Duke's secretary, and in
his day an
eminent and capable ruler of the Craft. The Convent of Wilhelmsbad, a
meeting which gave the death blow to the Strict Observance, had not yet
but the feeling of dissatisfaction and unrest was, as we shall see,
day more critical. The Master seems to have delivered an impassioned
which he expressed his "disgust and weariness and, indignation at the
errors, deceptions and frauds in the Masonic world, and his uncertainty
as to which
system one should follow." (7) Bertuch then presented a motion that
in the present unrest, that peace, without which the ideals of the
fail, cannot be preserved" the Lodge should "discontinue its work."
to understand all this it is necessary to review, briefly, the rise,
and fall of this fantastic Masonic system which was then undermining
the unity of
European Freemasonry, and which, had it become dominant, would probably
the appeal and the usefulness of the Craft.
One of the
many extraordinary excrescences which defaced the primitive simplicity
during the latter part of the eighteenth century was the Order of
The fundamental doctrine of this rite was that Freemasonry was derived
Knights Templars. During the persecution which followed the suppression
of the Order
in 1307, its leaders, so ran the theory, under the disguise of Masons
to Scotland where they carried on their ritualistic work and secured
of their knighthood under the protection of the lodges of Operative
The lodges of speculative Masons were therefor nothing more than
Conclaves of Knights
Templars under a different name, and the ceremonies there practiced
were those which
they had jealously guarded. It necessarily followed that, although the
of knighthood had been separated from the Craft degrees, in which in
old time the
operative brethren had been permitted to take part, every speculative
be a Knight Templar. In order to emphasize this theory each member was
as Eques, or knight, and was required to select an additional Latin
for himself, which was filed with the registrar. For instance, the
leader of the
system called himself "Eques ab Ense," knight of the sword. But the
glory of the system was the fiction that the supreme government was in
of men of high Masonic rank and social and political distinction. Who
were, no one was allowed to know. They were called "the Unknown
and their commands were to be implicitly obeyed.
of this rite was a German nobleman, Karl Gotthelf, Baron von Hund and
a man of a childlike simplicity and credulity, and according to some of
of inordinate vanity. One might also be justified in suspecting that he
characterized by a judgment somewhat lacking in strength and common
sense. He received
his higher degrees in the Chapter of Clermont, which was held in Paris
in 1754 for
the purpose of reorganizing the Craft. Not long after he elaborated his
which had an extraordinary vogue in Germany for more than half a
century. The Fraternity
seems to have been torn with dissensions; the more conservative members
retain the ancient simplicity of ritual and tradition which had come to
England, while the Modernists longed for the spectacular innovations
doctrines of the new system. It was this struggle which led to the
the work in Lodge Amalia for twenty-six years, and which, on its happy
in 1808, made it impossible for their old Worshipful Master, Fritsch,
to wield the
gavel once more.
this, however, the founder of the system, von Hund, had met his
at the Congress of 1775 to reveal the names of the "Unknown Superiors,"
and to produce his documentary evidence of Masonic rank, he was unable
to give satisfactory
answers. He was consequently discredited, his order divided and he died
in the following
Goethe Retained His Interest
twenty-six years in which the lodge was dormant, neither Goethe nor the
their interest in Freemasonry. But the times were not yet propitious
for the resumption
of the work. It was necessary first that the host of charlatans,
and the rest, who had invaded the Order, and reduced it to the low
which it then was, must be cleared out, and the eagerness for the
brought within reasonable bounds.
On the 14th
of October, 1806, was fought the battle of Jena, and Napoleon's
commenced their march into Germany. Under these distressing
circumstances, the Freemasons
of Jena felt that the ministrations of the brotherhood would be of the
comfort and efficacy in "dissipating the dark clouds which surrounded
In response to their petition to be allowed to found a new lodge,
Goethe was appointed
by the Duke to his first commission as a Masonic statesman. After due
of the case, he gave as his advice that Jena was not the place nor that
time for renewed Masonic activities.
But a pleasanter
task was soon to be his. A few months later conditions had sufficiently
to warrant a consideration of the possibility of reopening Lodge
in April, 1808, the Duke appointed Goethe, Bertuch and seven others a
to undertake the preliminary steps.
It was a
fortunate circumstance that a very distinguished ritualist and
Friedrich Ludwig Schroeder, the author of a famous system of Masonry
his name, was at that very time at Weimar with the purpose of laying
his plan before
Goethe, as the highest arbiter in all literary matters. The poet, who
been opposed to the claims of the higher degrees, as he knew them, was
impressed with the simplicity and directness of the new ritual. He
recommended it to the Duke, at whose command he wrote the following
letter to the
Lodge Gunther of the Standing Lions, at Rudolstadt, which was working
Grand Lodge of Hamburg:
"Time and circumstances caused
us in 1782
to discontinue the work of our Lodge Amalia and to allow it to stand
idle till now.
Time and circumstances now cause us to open our Lodge Amalia once more,
more there to renew our labors. In this we, as Masons, have not been
idle. We have
observed, in the world of nature and of men, the spirit of the time,
and the results
of its operation in the progress of Masonry towards its perfection,
without lodge connection, we have endeavored, as far as it was possible
to fulfil in truth, our Masonic obligation. In the meantime we have
a great deal of experience and valuable enlightenment concerning the
aims and character
of our Order. These facts have influenced us to decide to discontinue
of Strict Observance, for a long time in use in the Lodge Amalia, as it
is no longer
useful, and to accept that of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Lower
Saxony at Hamburg,
under which you also work. This system is much more purified, more
corresponds better with the spirit of our time and knowledge. We have
to unite ourselves with the aforesaid Provincial Grand Lodge. Not only
Worshipful Master and brethren of the Lodge Amalia signed with me, but
brethren who live here, and still others who have united with us in the
of the Lodge Amalia according to the above system. All this is done
with the highest
approbation of our revered and august brother, Carl August, our beloved
this letter was intended to be an application for the consent of the
lodge at Rudolstadt,
and it would seem that such consent was forthcoming, for the work of
was carried through.
It was Goethe's
wish that they should re-elect Fritsch, the Worshipful Master of the
its suspension, but the loyalty of that unbending man to the now
System of Strict Observance did not waver and he would not consent to
a system which sought to trace the origin of the Craft to a society of
instead of the aristocratic, medieval Knights Templar. Accordingly, at
meeting on the 27th of June, 1808, Bertuch was elected Worshipful
Master. The election,
however, was not, unanimous, for the ballots showed that a substantial
wished to place Goethe in the Master's chair.
On the 24th
of October the lodge was at length successfully started upon its new
it remains to this day, using the same ritual, and proud of the
so closely connected with this critical period of its history.
poet, who was that year under treatment for the gout, was unable to be
The seventeen charter members were all officials of the little court of
and five of them close personal friends of Goethe, a fact which attests
and ability and congeniality. Pietsch, in his little book on Goethe's
adds enthusiastically, "and what a lodge!"
Goethe Is Asked To Become
of Goethe's Masonic career is simply told. He attended the meetings but
and as time passed his visits were at longer intervals. He never held
yet his influence among the brethren was great for two years later when
lodge had increased in numbers to fifty, Bertuch felt constrained to
lay down the
gavel and Goethe was elected to the chair, but the pressure of public
become so very great that it would have been impossible for him to have
the responsibility, and he was unable to accept the position. In fact,
time had he for the lodge business that he felt constrained to apply
for a demit,
which he did in the following letter, dated 5th, October, 1812,
addressed to Bertuch's
"Your honor would do me an
if you would look upon my absence as being regular, and not unMasonic,
release me from my obligations to the society. I would unwillingly
this honorable and interesting connection, but it is impossible for me
lodge regularly, and I do not wish to set a bad example by my absence.
may learn the particulars by word of mouth, until which time I shall
did not sever his connection with the lodge, and probably the
resignation was not
accepted nor the demit granted. The last occasion on which Goethe was
the regular work of the lodge was on the 5th of December, 1815, when he
satisfaction of seeing his only son, Julius August Walther, made a
Mason. The young
man was then twenty-six and his father sixty-five and although the
of August Goethe was a source of anxiety and sorrow to the poet, his
was a great advantage to Lodge Amalia. He became an enthusiastic Mason,
Junior Steward, which office he held until his death in 1830, and
as an intermediary between the lodge and his father. Possibly a good
deal of Goethe's
assistance in the interests of the lodge was due to his desire to
further the advancement
of his son.
help feeling at times that, in their desire to exalt the dignified
standing of the
Order, the German historians have rather over-emphasized Goethe's
interest in the
Craft. A biographer who could speak of him as "the greatest poet of all
(12), or as one who had lived "perhaps the richest and most beautiful
that has ever been vouchsafed to any mortal" (13), might easily be so
by his enthusiasm for Freemasonry and for his hero as to exaggerate the
the one held in the heart of the other. Indeed, some of their own
take this view. Kneisner, in his History of German Freemasonry, says:
had not often visited the lodge, and took no part in its meetings when
it was reopened."
And yet we
have the testimony, not only of the historians, but also of his Masonic
that his interest was deep and lasting. "Although he never held office
and continued to be until his advanced age, the spiritual center of the
(14) Or as Pietsch expresses it, "he was the center of crystallization
beloved lodge." We are also told by Pietsch that, whenever possible, he
the meetings of the "Historical Select Union." This was an inner
restricted to Master Masons and devoted to a study of the history,
philosophy of the Order. The originator of the rite had designed the
Union in the
hope, which was abundantly justified, that with the opportunity of
Masonic knowledge, the desire for higher degrees would be less
after the reopening of the lodge a Select Union had been attached to
the Lodge Amalia.
This was in 1810. That these opportunities for gaining an understanding
of the fundamentals
of Freemasonry were not lost by Goethe is claimed by Caspari, who says,
like Lessing, comprehended the potential depth of the Masonic life. He
had a presentiment
that here a great evangel would be preached, that must become
world-wide, if only
it could be separated from the dross." (15)
definite statement of his Masonic activities was made at a service held
in the lodge
in commemoration of his death, at which the Worshipful Master, K. W.
the son of the previous Master of the name, stated that "at every
event, at every great celebration of the lodge, he had taken so active
a part that
all the more important addresses, songs and general arrangements had
of his previous examination and approval." (16)
It is important,
in our study of Goethe's Masonic life, to refer to some of these
1813, his friend and fellow poet, and brother in the Craft, Wieland,
passed on to
"the Eternal East," and Goethe undertook to prepare the funeral
"To the Fraternal Memory of Wieland." That this was considered a
duty is shown by the fact that before he delivered it standing beside
of his departed friend, it had been sent for examination and approval
to the Worshipful
Master of the Lodge, Ridel.
In 1821 the
then Worshipful Master of the Lodge, Ridel, died, and his memory, and
that of four
other brethren who had passed home before him, was the object of a
Lodge of Sorrow,
which was held on the 15th of June. The oration delivered upon this
of sufficient value to be printed, and Goethe undertook the
responsibility of writing
an introduction. In it he says that the distinguishing characteristics
of the Order
"lead us to renounce our particular ambitions and to consider higher
aims," and that the Lodge of Sorrow is the place "where this
life as well as the undistinguished appears in its individuality; where
we see examples
for ourselves in the departed."
On the 23rd
of June, 1830, the lodge celebrated the jubilee of his admittance into
The previous day a delegation had called upon him with a diploma of
and invited him to attend the meeting, but his advanced age, he was
his 81st birthday, made it impossible to be present in person. However,
a short poem for the occasion, and this is naturally very highly prized
by the Lodge
Amalia. Its literary merits are, it must be admitted, not very high,
but it stands
with Burns' famous "Farewell to Torbolton," as among the few poems
have been dedicated to Masonic lodges by poets of the first rank. It
may be translated
rather freely as follows:
"Fifty years have passed
Like a few days they have flown,
Fifty years, returning never,
From the earnest, dim unknown.
"Yet a living, high endeavor
Shows itself forever new.
Love of friends that naught can sever,
Human worth, forever true.
"And our bond of union, surer
As the years pass, widely spread,
Gently shine with light e'er purer,
Like the faint stars overhead.
"Let us then in happy union,
Firmly stand in true communion,
As of old it used to be."
at the honor done him by his mother lodge was expressed in a letter
which he wrote
about three weeks after to his friend and Brother Zelter, a well-known
of the time. He writes:
"It is quite pleasing that you
your Masonic jubilee at the same time as mine. On the eve of St. John's
I was a member of the Order for fifty years. The gentlemen have managed
with the greatest courtesy, and on the next day I replied in a friendly
their sentiments." (17)
Masonry in Goethe's Writings
Masonic studies are mirrored in his writings. The varied and
of forgotten lore along which one is led when studying the history and
of the Craft, could not fail to attract the mind of the poet. Indeed,
it has been
suggested by one of his biographers that his interest in studies of
this kind was
one of the main reasons why he was first attracted to Masonry. "It is
with Goethe's inclination towards the symbolical as it is revealed in
though also with sociable considerations, that he became a Freemason."
While this may be true, it is clear that the evidences of his Masonic
are numerous and distinct. "After he became a member of the Society, he
no great work which did not ring in Masonic accord, he completed
nothing which did
not lead back to a Masonic origin." Although this statement of
be exaggerated, it is a well-known fact that all through his works,
both prose and
poetry, there are numerous references to Freemasonry. These have been
brought together and collated. Indeed, a study of them would require a
respectable size for any adequate presentation.
Many of Goethe's
songs are made use of by the lodges, and practically every one of their
contains a beautiful lyric, the first verse of which runs:
"In all such pleasant weather,
When flushed by love and wine,
This song we'll sing together,
And hand to hand entwine.
May God keep us united,
Who us hath higher led,
The love-flames he had lighted,
Be by our friendship fed." (19)
was written several years before he entered the Society, and
consequently has no
distinctively Masonic reference. The song which is best known to
readers as being most definitely a Craft poem is called "The Masons'
and has been translated by Carlyle. It has been already published in
and so only the first stanza need be quoted:
"The Mason's ways are
A type of existence,
And his persistence,
Is as the days are
Of men in this world." (20)
Masonic Greatness Lies In
Masonic eminence consist? It is not in the accumulation of degrees,
as these may be. It is not in the receipt of honors, nor the holding of
rank, though to serve the Craft with distinction is a privilege to be
all good men. It is not even the attainment of scholarship, though a
Masonic philosophy cannot fail to have its effect in upbuilding
character. It is
not any of these that can place a man in the proud position of being a
the fullest and completest sense. It is to exemplify in one's dealings
those virtues of charity, of kindness, of tolerance which the Ritual so
inculcates by precept and by symbol. It is to be a brother, not only to
of the faithful, but to every man, irrespective of color or creed or
economic conditions, or ignorance, or unfavorable heredity and
reduced to those depths from whence he can be rescued only by the
of those more favorably situated. Judged by these criteria, Goethe
seems to have
shown himself a real Freemason in his dealings with his fellow men. To
again: "Not only in the lodge did Goethe reveal himself as a perfect
but also he knew, as no other man did, how to sustain the Masonic ideal
in the outer
world, and to reveal it in all departments of spiritual culture and
He was always ready to help those in distress, and that his
from the goodness of his heart is shown by the unostentatious way in
which he bestowed
them. "To his prince and the country, to a share in whose government he
been called, he was the truest and most energetic servant; to his
friends, the most
devoted friend; to his parents, the best and most lovable child, and to
the fondest father." (21)
It is clear,
then, that the great heart of the poet ever beat true to the guiding
of the Craft; that his interest though not evidenced by regular
still profound and lasting, and that it is with no unjustifiable pride
Masonic historians refer to his name as the most illustrious on their
A society that numbers among its membership such famous men as Lessing,
Mozart, Haydn and Fichte can justly claim the respect of all thinking
men, but brighter
than all these shines the unquenchable light of Goethe.
1. Goethe ‒
Dichtung und Wahrheit (Poetry and Truth
[Lib 1908; Vol 1, Vol 2]), trans. M.S. Smith,
2. H. Duntzer ‒ Life of Goethe, trans. T.W. Lyster, N.Y. 1884, P. 306.
3. J.Pietsch ‒ Johann Wolfgang v. Goethe als Freimaurer (J.W. Goethe as
Leipzig, 1880, p. 8. [Lib 1880 (German)]
Handbuch der Freimaurerei (General Handbook of
Freemasonry, an Encyclopedia), 3rd Ed. Leipzig, 1900, 1:114. [Lib 1900;
Vol 1 (German)]
5. Pabst ‒ Geschichte der Loge zum Goldnen Apfel in Dresden (History of
of the Golden Apple in Dresden), quoted by Handbuch. [Lib*]
6. Pietsch p. 12
7. Pietsch p. 15
8. Handbuch, 1:103
9. Handbuch, 1:468-471
10. Pietsch, p. 17.
11. Handbuch, 1:373
12. Pietsch, p. 4.
13. Pietsch, p. 62.
14. F. Kneisner ‒ Geschichte der Deutschen Freimaurerei (History of
Berlin, 1912, p. 114. [Lib*]
15. Otto Caspari ‒ Die Bedeutung des Freimaurertums (The Signification
Berlin, 196, p. 97. [Lib*]
17. J.G. Findel ‒ Geschichte der Freimaurerei von der Zeit ihres
auf die Gegenwart [Lib 1878 (German)] (History
of Freemasonry From the Time of its Origin Down to the Present [Lib 1866 (English)]), 2nd ed.
Leipzig, 1866, p. 601.
18. R.M. Meyer-Goethe, Berlin, 1905:253. [Lib 1905; Vol 1, Vol 2 (German)]
19. Sammlung mauerrischer Gesange, herausgegeben von der Grosz National
zu den drei Weltkugeln (Collection of Masonic Songs, issued by the
Mother Lodge of the Three Globes), Berlin, 1865, p. 71 [Lib*]
BUILDER, V:260 Sept., 1919
21. A.W. v. Simmerman, quoted by Handbuch.
By Bro. William Fielding,
ONE of the
most impressive moments of the initiatory ceremony is a certain rite
known as Circumambulation.
The candidate himself is at a loss to understand the meaning or purpose
and it is probable that after the ceremonies are completed he seldom
or ever gives it a thought.
of this rite is usually given as a symbolical representation of the
of life. We men come into this world in ignorance and helplessness:
others we must permit ourselves to be led about: and on the way we
obstacles, many dangers, and many fears. Of this experience, so we are
Circumambulation is a picture. There is nothing in this interpretation
that flies against fact or offends the reason, but we may be sure that
far more to it than this.
is very old and well-nigh universal. The Egyptians, in many of their
used it much, as when images of Isis or Osiris would be carried about
or around the altars. The Jews had solemn ceremonies of a like nature,
as when the
priests would march in a circle about the sacrifices: and so did the
shared with the Jews so many of their customs. To this day it is used
by many branches
of the Brahmans. The priest must drive about a sacred tree or pool
during his initiation.
On arising in the early morning he faces the sun, then walks about in a
keeping the center to his right. The Laws of Manu prescribe that in the
ceremony, the bride is to circumambulate the domestic hearth. Ancient
considered such a ceremony so important that they built stone galleries
to accommodate the pilgrims and worshippers who came to pay homage to
of Buddha by walking around it.
us that Achilles led his squadrons three times about the body of
Patroclus, in this
fashion, so we may suppose, paying the dead hero divine honors. In
dances Circumambulation was often reversed: the movement from right to
called the "strophe," that from left to right, the "antistrophe."
The Romans laid great stress on the necessity of making the movements
right to left because they deemed the leftwise movement a piece of
black magic that
would bring ill upon them: our own word "sinister" was born from that
idea and still reminds us that the use of the left hand is not as
fortunate as the
right. Roman marriage customs, many of them, like the Laws of Manu,
tell us that among Celts of all nationalities the rite has been
Doctors would make circuits around the sick in order to invoke the
powers of healing;
mourners followed the dead in going about the graveyard before
interment was made:
and often in religious ceremonies priests and people began by making a
about the church, as is still the case in Roman Catholic ceremonies
when a bishop
is enthroned. J.G. Frazer, in his Balder [Lib 1922; pp 565], describes a Scotch
of Circumambulation practiced in the highlands as late as 1850.
It is probable
that in Freemasonry the rite has been used from the beginning. In one
of the very
old York rituals we find that the Apprentice when he came to
demonstrate his fitness
to be made a fellow, passed from station to station where the Master
and the Wardens
each one put his master's piece to a different test. These are but a
drawn at random from countless numbers. We might have run up a list of
from the habits of American Indians, as in the Pawnee ceremony of
about which Miss Fletcher has written so entertainingly in the
Bulletins of the
U.S. Bureau of Ethnology: and we might have drawn many examples from
of Central American natives and South American. The cases already given
rise to this rite in the first place? The clue is furnished us in a
to the priests of Apollo at Delos, as preserved in one of the hymns of
"we imitate the example of the sun." In our northern hemisphere the sun
rises in the east, and then appears to move to the west by way of the
all ancient peoples, and almost all peoples now living in a state of
(there are exceptions, as in the case of the Eskimos) look upon the sun
as one of
the principal sources of life and power, and accordingly worship him.
is a product of sun worship.
is an origin anterior to this. Why, did ancient peoples believe that
sun's pathway through the skies was an act of worship! It is because
in what anthropologists have come to call "sympathetic magic." Nearly
all early peoples believed that they could gain control of, and power
forces and gods and demons by imitating them. The modern Red man will
beat his drum
and scatter dust in the air in order to compel the rain to come; the
is the thunder; the dust falling is the rain; this imitation, according
to the logic
of magical ideas (which logic is now almost completely lost to us) is
itself a method
of compelling the gods of the rain to pay heed. The man who prays for
to magic, makes it rain. In the Ancient Mysteries, many of them, the
was a drama in imitation of the experiences, perhaps the tragic life
of the god.
who practiced his ceremonies in harmony with the orderly forces of
nature, who always,
as it were, kept to the right hand, was a practicer of "white magic":
while that one who reversed the normal processes, who made the thunder
go back into
the sky, and the rain go back into the cloud, was a practicer of the
As I have
said above, the whole logic of these magical doctrines is lost to us:
it is doubtful
if, by the greatest stretch of the imagination, we can bring ourselves
or feel as ancient peoples did. But there is one idea enshrined here in
of this ancient ceremony that we can understand. It is the idea of
was fond of the saying, "Nature conquers Nature." It kept him in mind
of the fact that man is powerless to conquer her, though he talk much
it is only when he sets a greater natural force against a lesser that
he can persuade
Nature to do his bidding, as when the sailor adjusts his sail to the
winds in order
to overcome the inertia of the water, or a woodman cuts away the root
of a tree
in order that gravity May bring down the great trunk. The farmer
conquers by learning
how to keep step with the seasons, by harmonizing his sowing and
the rain, the frosts, and the dew, by rotating his crops, by learning
how to fit
his own small powers in with the great powers of sun, soil, and the
rain: and so
is it, in one form or other, with us all.
some extent or other, and under one disguise or other, the Rite of
is the ceremony of the harmonious adjustment of one to one's world. The
must pay homage to the Master, he must salute the Wardens, he must
learn to keep
step with his guide, and how to approach the East; and he must be made
that he will never know the power and privileges of Masonry unless he
to harmonize his life with the laws and forces of Masonry.
literature on Circumambulation is coextensive with the literature on
magic, mythology, and primitive culture in general. This would include
works as Frazer's Golden Bough [Lib 1922], Tylor's Primitive
Culture [Lib 1920; Vol
2], Brinton's The Myths of the
World [Lib 1896], etc., etc. One of the best
treatises extant is that contributed to Hasting's Encyclopedia of
Religion and Ethics
by our illustrious Masonic scholar, Count Goblet d'Alviela [Lib 1908; Vol
3, pp 657]. The little article
in Mackey's Encyclopedia [Lib 1914] is also very good, though it
has little to say about modern practices of
the Rite. See also Plutarch's Isis and Osiris [Lib 1850]. In THE BUILDER see Volumes
IV and V, consulting the indexes. Note especially Volume III, page 245.
Year," An Explanation
By Albert Pike
M. Packard, West Newton, Mass., is a granddaughter of Albert Pike who
has in her
possession a number of mementoes of the great Mason, notable among
which are a number
of original manuscripts and letters. When these invaluable relics, the
which would make the blood run faster in the veins of any member of the
laid on the table before Ye Editor, he immediately asked permission to
these pages Albert Pike's explanation of his famous poem, "Every Year,"
about which there has been at times some controversy. Brother R.M.
Packard, a member
of this Society, very generously offered to make this possible through
the use of
a Photostat, and to him we are much indebted for that kindness. It may
also be added
here, and by way of indicating to what further extent we Masons are
to Brother and Mrs. Packard, that they secured from the other members
of the family
consent that Brother Dr. Joseph Fort Newton should prepare an authentic
of Albert Pike. He is now at work on that task.
more than once accused of plagiarism in composing "Every Year." The
of the following "Explanation" is that it disposes of this question
as first published, without my consent or knowledge, in a San Francisco
made up for Elias C. Boudinot, to be sung by him out of five verses of
by Colonel Halpine C. Miles O'Reilly, under the following circumstances:
I heard Dr.
Duncan, of the U.S. Volunteer Service, sing the five verses at
Vicksburg after the
Civil War, and afterwards at Washington, without knowing by whom they
I do not think that he knew ‒ if he did, I never heard him mention the
learned these verses from him and was in the habit of singing them, and
him, I changed them in part, correcting defective rhymes and what
seemed to me crude
and in bad form, making a single verse out of the second and third,
added four verses,
and afterwards had what was so produced printed, as in part new and in
there being eight verses in all, without name of any author. I never
Halpine's name mentioned in connection with it until years afterwards.
as he wrote it, or as it has been since published as his, is as follows:
The Old Bachelor's New Year
Oh! the spring has less of brightness
And the snow a ghastlier whiteness
Nor do summer blossoms quicken,
Nor does autumn fruitage thicken
As it did ‒ the seasons sicken
It is growing cold and colder
And I feel that I am older
And my limbs are less elastic,
And my fancy not so plastic ‒
Yea, my habits grow monastic
'Tis becoming bleak and bleaker
And my hopes are waxing weaker
Care I now for merry dancing,
Or for eyes with passion glancing?
Love is less and less entrancing
Oh, the days that I have squandered
And the friendships rudely sundered,
Of the ties that might have twined me,
Until time to death resigned me
My infirmities remind me
Sad and sad to look before us
With a heavier shadow o'er me
To behold each blossom faded,
And to know we might have made it
An immortal garland, braided
Round the year.
Many a spectral, beckoning finger,
Year by year,
Chides me that so long I linger,
Year by year;
Every early comrade sleeping
In the churchyard, whither, weeping,
I ‒ alone unwept ‒ am creeping
Year by year.
verse Dr. Duncan and Boudinot did not sing.
verses made out of the first five, for Mr. Boudinot, were printed on
(A song Old
and New ‒ the New in Italic)
The Spring has less of
And the Snow a ghostlier whiteness
Nor do Summer showers quicken,
Nor Autumn fruitage thicken,
As they once did, for we sicken
It is growing darker, colder,
As the heart and soul grow older
I care not now for dancing,
Or for eyes with passion glancing,
Love is less and less entrancing
Of the loves and sorrows blended
Of the charms of friendship ended
Of the ties that still might bind me
Until Time to Death resigned me,
My infirmities remind me
Ah! how sad to look before us
While the cloud grows darker o'er us
When we see the blossoms faded
That to bloom we might have aided,
And immortal garlands braided
were followed by the last four of the poem which I afterwards published
as my own.
A copy of
the poem, "Old and New," on note-paper, was given to a lady from
who was expressly informed that it was not to be published; but when
to San Francisco she lent it to someone who had it published, all in
i.e., without the distinction between the old and new portions made by
type. A copy of the journal in which it was so printed came to me, and
sent to its editor a copy as printed on note-paper, asking its
publication, to relieve
me of the imputation of having published part of an old poem by an
as my own.
was complied with, but it was too late. The mischief was done, for the
poem as printed
first in that journal was widely copied and the error could not be
Then I wrote
three verses, in lieu of those of Col. Halpine, and printed the poem as
Boudinot, whom Pike mentions above, wrote a letter to the Editor of the
Sentinel, which is incorporated here by way of corroboration.]
Editor of Arkansas Sentinel:
poem, with the above refrain, has been going the round of the
newspapers of the
country and credited to Gen. Albert Pike. It has appeared in different
all purport to be composed by the General. I know personally that
General Pike has
made no claim to the authorship of several of the different versions of
which have appeared in the papers, and ascribed to him; and as I have
responsible in some measure for placing him in a position unpleasant, I
a short explanation in order from me. "The Old Bachelor's New Year" was
written by Charles G. Halpine, well known to the reading public as
Twelve years ago I sang some of the verses to General Pike, who was
them; but he suggested and made several changes in the verses.
Afterwards he revised
them in other particulars, until the verses of "Every Year," printed
numbered 2 and 3, found their way into print without my knowledge or
the name of Albert Pike as the author. The last poem ‒ number 4 ‒ was
Albert Pike, and is the only one to which he claims authorship.
versions mentioned by Mr. Boudinot are printed above in Pike's account.
complete version claimed by (Boudinot's number 4), and therefore to be
authentic and on his authority, is that which follows.]
Life is a count of losses
For the weak are heavier crosses,
Lost with sobs replying,
Unto weary Autumn's sighing
While those we love are dying,
The days have less of gladness,
The nights more weight of sadness,
Fair Springs no longer charm us,
The wind and weather harm us,
The threats of Death alarm us,
There comes new cares and
Dark days and darker morrows,
The ghosts of dead loves haunt us,
The ghosts of changed friends taunt us,
And disappointments daunt us,
To the past go more dead faces,
And the loved leave vacant places,
Everywhere the sad eyes meet us,
In the evening's dusk they greet us,
And to come to them entreat us,
"You are growing old," they
"You are more alone," they tell us,
"You can win no new affection,
You have only recollection,
Deeper sorrow and dejection,"
The shores of life are shifting,
And we are seaward drifting,
Old places, changing, fret us,
The living more forget us,
There are fewer to regret us,
But the truer life draws nigher,
And its Morning-star climbs higher,
Earth's hold on us grows slighter,
And the heavy burden lighter,
And the Dawn Immortal brighter,
By Bro. Joe L. Carson, Virginia
brief sketch ‒ too brief ‒ was written by a brother who owes it to the
write more than he does. He was personally acquainted with Hughan,
Lane, Crossle, Crawley and others among the giants across the sea; also
it is worthy
of note, and of being here placed on record, that Brother Carson
Sadler in his search for the materials for his epoch-making work,
and Fictions. It is usually supposed that all modern Speculative
descended from the Grand Ledge organized in London. in 1717, but this
is not quite
true to the facts, for that Grand Lodge had a competitor to deal with
or thereabouts until 1813, when the "United Grand Lodge of England" was
formed by an amalgamation of the two. Lodges in this land were formed
by both these
Grand Bodies, so that almost as many must trace their origin) to the
or Antient, Grand Lodge as to the other, and this helps to explain the
in ritual which continue to puzzle so many. Until the end Gould, who
did more than
any other to fasten on the Antients the stigma of "schismatics",
to capitulate to the wealth of proof advanced by Sadler, not even
though his colleague
and adviser, Hughan, strongly urged him to change front. This was one
of the principal
reasons that led Brother Fred J. W. Crowe to revise Gould's Concise
revision was critically reviewed in The Builder January, 1922, p. 23.
should also consult a communication from Brother Crowe, published on p.
183 of the
June issue, same year.
Grand Lodge, known as the "Antients," in their Warrant No. 11, dated
June, 1755, called "The Antient Grand Lodge" ‒ in Warrant No. 63, dated
14th April, 1757, called "The Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons"
‒ in Warrant No. 65, dated 27th December, 1757, called "The Most
Honourable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons" ‒ in Warrant No. 15,
17th May, 1758, called "Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted York Masons"
‒ in Warrant No. 44, later No. 47, called "The Grand Lodge &c
to old constitutions granted by His Royal Highness, Prince Edwin of
York. Anno Domini
‒ Nine Hundred Twenty & Six."
Lodge was also known as "The Atholl" Grand Lodge because the third and
fourth Dukes of Atholl so long occupied the Grand Masters' chairs, and
were known as "Antients," "Schismatics," "Seceders,"
Irish-Masons," etc., just as the members of the Mother Grand Lodge of
variously called "The Modern Grand Lodge," "The Regular Grand Lodge,"
"The Constitutional Grand Lodge," were known as "Moderns" and
"Prince of Wales Masons." As a matter of fact brethren of these rival
Grand Lodges were frequently distinguished from each other by the names
In the following
short article, I will use the term "Antient" and "Modern" in
referring to these respective Grand Lodges. About the year 1740 the
business, which had for a century flourished in and around Dublin,
to decline as the competition of the industry established in
attracted the operatives by the prospect of better wages and more
Gradually the migration continued until finally whole "convoys" of
weavers crossed the Irish Channel and, with their families, settled in
these settlers were numbers of Irish Freemasons. As a matter of fact,
Antient Grand Lodge roll contained the names of many of these brethren;
they formed a very large majority of the first adherents to this body.
their names in the occupation column, hundreds of them are described as
members of Lodge No. 26, Dublin, was Laurence Dermott, who "had
served all offices" and "had been regularly installed Master and
upon the 25th day of June, 1746." Dermott was a painter by profession,
and well educated; who, with many other members of this old lodge
followed the stream
of migration to London.
In the Modern
Grand Lodge minutes of 11th December, 1735, we find the following
being given to the Grand Lodge that the Master and Wardens of a Lodge
desiring to be admitted, by virtue of a deputation from the Lord
Grand Master of Ireland. But it appearing there was no particular
from his Lordship in this affair, their request could not be complied
they would accept a new Constitution here."
be more natural than these Irishmen saying to each other, "Our Grand
Authority is as good and better than any New Constitution they can give
therefore, in consequence of the Grand Lodge doors being closed in
they naturally joined the "St. John's," or irregular lodges, nearest
place of residence in London, or by virtue of their "dispensation from
Kingston" assembled themselves in lodges of their own formation, free
the trammels of any higher authority. These lodges became the rallying
Irish Freemasons. In them they found a Masonic home in lodges, working
beloved ritual and speaking the "Language of the Tribes." That such was
the case is proved by the fact that in less than a score of years,
after the refusal
of the Moderns to recognize or admit the "Irish Deputation" as visitors
into their aristocratic assembly, these very brethren and their lodges
enough to organize themselves into a Grand Lodge in 1753, a Grand Lodge
sixty years was powerful enough to shake the very foundations of the
in 1813, at the "Glorious Union," they practically dictated their own
terms, which were akin to unconditional surrender by the Modern Grand
Masonic historians would have us believe they had been seceders, who,
from believing their Grand Lodge more "Antient" than that of the
believed, and were undoubtedly correct in their belief, that their
ritual and procedure were more ancient.
early days, indeed, they were not looked upon as seceders, for Brother
Grand Secretary of the Moderns, in his famous letter of 8th August,
"They are a set of men who first made their appearance about the year
This does not look like schismaticism, and Heseltine would not have
if he could.
Dermott, in his appearance in the Antient Grand Lodge, was at once
Secretary by the powerful majority of Irish votes, and the "Ahiman
which he immediately proceeded to publish, bears a remarkable
resemblance to "Spratts'
Irish Constitutions." The title "Ahiman Rezon" was first used by
and originated with Dermott.
period the "Moderns" so altered their ceremonies and ritual in many of
their vital parts that the members of the Antient Grand Lodge, or the
of Ireland and Scotland, were unable to work an entrance to the Modern
recognize each other in ancient Masonic manner.
On his election
as Grand Secretary, Dermott had to undergo a "long and minute
to Initiation, Passing, Installations, and general regulations,
&c, and Brother John Morgan declared that Brother Laurence
Dermott was duly
qualified for the office of Grand Secretary." Brother John Morgan was
Grand Secretary of the Antients. If, therefore, Dermott was so well
all points and had just arrived from Ireland, the Irish and Antient
have been very close kin to each other if not exactly alike.
Moderns themselves acknowledged their formidable rival to be Irish we
proof. In 1766 an Antient Mason is described in their books as an
Mason." In 1776 the Antients are called the "Irish Faction." In 1786
Antient Warrants were referred to as "Irish Warrants," and Antient
were, in 1793, dubbed "Irish Lodges."
the members of the first lodge in the Antient roll were Irishmen, many
of them belonging
to Lodge 26, Dublin, the lodge, as I said before, to which Dermott
belonged ‒ Dermott,
now their Grand Secretary, and afterwards their Deputy Grand Master.
and the Grand Lodge of Ireland had the same method of affixing Grand
The seals were affixed on the same colored ribbons and in the same
manner. The Moderns
never used ribbons for seals or warrants at any time. The Irish
all degrees up to the Royal Arch, and often higher, as also did the
and Antients had their certificates in Latin and English, the Moderns
of registration in the books of the Irish Grand Lodge and those of the
their Book of Constitutions, their By-Laws of private lodges, Grand
etc., etc., were very similar if not exactly alike, and both entirely
from those of the Moderns.
the Grand Lodge of Ireland extended a speedy and hearty recognition to
Grand Lodge. From the minutes of the Grand Lodge of the Antients, March
we learn from a letter under the hand of Brother John Calder, Grand
the Grand Lodge of Ireland, that "The Grand Lodge of Ireland did
in a strict union with the Antient Grand Lodge in London, and promised
to keep up
a constant correspondence with them." "Ordered that the Grand Secretary
shall draw up and answer in the most respectful and Brotherly terms,
general thanks of this Grand Lodge shall be conveyed, and assure them
that we will,
to the utmost of our powers, promote the welfare of the Craft in
From the date of that recognition, in 1758, to the date of the
in 1814, the fraternal communications with the Grand Lodge of the
so much so that wherever the Grand Lodge of England is mentioned it was
Lodge of the Antients that was meant.
relations with the Moderns were thus severed, year by year official
were regularly passed between the Grand Lodge of Ireland and the
Lodge of Scotland was almost as uncompromising in holding aloof from
the Grand Lodge
of the Moderns. It was not until the International Compact restored
to the Freemasonry of the British Isles that she dropped her hostility.
As a matter
of fact, the Grand Lodges of both Ireland and Scotland, as well as the
seem to have been ignored by the Grand Lodge of the Moderns, nor did
body seem to have greatly cared to extend its fraternal relations to
any of them;
perhaps its aristocratic learnings inclined it to view with supreme
the claims of brethren who had their being in less favored social
of visitation was refused and the Grand Lodge of Ireland felt
constrained to place
in their minutes a resolution, "That they do not feel it possible to
order for the admission of 'Modern' Masons into Antient Lodges."
In 1759 the
Moderns refused assistance to the Irish Brother, William Carroll. The
of Charity followed the ill-omened example by turning down every
relief from adherents of the Moderns. The Grand Master of Ireland,
of Leinster, assisted by the Grand Master of Scotland, installed the
Duke of Atholl
as Grand Master of the Antients in 1775; conversely, in 1786, the Earl
Grand Master of the Antients, presided in the Grand Lodge of Ireland on
Day, signing the minutes as "Grand Master of England."
years fencing and compromise, in which there had to be a great deal of
and take," the spirit of brotherhood overcame all other feelings and
the "Glorious Union of December, 1813," happily united these warring
and the Antients and Moderns joined hands to form "The United Grand
England.” This was followed, in 1814, by the International Compact, the
official document ever promulgated among English-speaking Freemasons,
forever all points of communion, intercourse and fraternization between
Lodge of Ireland, the Grand Lodge of Scotland and the United Grand
Lodge of England.
in the face of such evidence, believe that these Antient brethren were
"Rebels" or "Schismatics"? The stigma has been on the fair name
of the Antient Grand Lodge so long it appears only fair to let Ireland
into her own," give Irish Freemasons credit for the salvation of Craft
at a period when Modern rubbish was beginning to bury the ancient
a landslide of quasi-Masonic ceremonies, and call the Antient Grand
Lodge by its
proper name, the "Anglo-Irish Grand Lodge."
It is on record that the Fourth Duke of Atholl,
about nine months before he attained his majority, on March 1, 1775,
passed, raised, installed as Master and elected as Grand Master all in
‒ The Masonic Record.
FRIDAY, JUNE 24, 1803.
GRAND PROCESSION OF HIBERNIAN
EXPECTED TO PARADE. CONTRARY TO THE LAWS,
THE HOURS OF TEN AND FOUR FROM
TO A NEW BUILDING, PELL'S GARDENS.
NEAR SALT-PETRE BANK.
THENCE TO CANNONBURY HOUSE.
SOCIETY IS CALLED THE
IRISHMANS WAKE OR ROYAL MARINERS LODGE.
meeting will be conducted and headed by
PEDLER, DEPUTY GRAND.
SCOUT, GRAND SCRIBE.
PADDY O'BLARNEY, * MASTER OF THE CEREMONIES
OF FALSE WITNESSES AGAINST AMERICAN
other gentlemen of equal respectability,
family at VINEGAR-HILL near WEXFORD.
ADMIT MEN OF COLOUR, If unwilling to engage
the ROYAL NAVAL and the REGULAR ANTIENT
which unfortunately for us has stood
thousand years and still appears like
a rock &,
at our attack. We have therefore come
that all persons who will REVOLT
ANTIENT ESTABLISHMENT, and VIOLATE the
SACRED TIES, AS WE HAVE DONE, and who will
in OVERTHROWING the REGULAR ORDER
(will be admitted gratis)
CHARITY CHILDREN will be procured and march,
BILLY PAUNCH’S COAT SHED, GREEN BANK, of
WHARF, to sanction our proceedings, all
garb of Morality.
to be opened every Wednesday evening
7 o'clock, at the VIRGINIA on Pells Street,
Order of the Society,
O'BLARNEY, * W. M.
TYLER AND LECTURE MASTER.
B. 15 Chimney Sweeps will attend the
dressed in Masonic Paraphernalia.
MY JEWELS, QUICK! To THE HIBERNIAN
LODGE, PELL'S STREET
the PUBLIC LEDGER AND OTHER PAPERS OF FEB.
rod in pickle, PAT.
PRINTER. 21 EAST SMITHFIELD. LONDON.
OF "MODERN GRAND LODGE’S POSTER REVILING
SIZE 22 X 17 1/2 INCH ‒ 1803.
OF THE POSTER
Pedler ‒ Thomas Harper ‒ D.G M. of the
Antients. A goldsmith and jeweller in Fleet St.
Scout ‒ Robert Leslie
‒ Gd. Sec. Antients.
Paunch ‒ William Burwood ‒ G.S.W. Antients.
Coal merchant and tavern keeper at Green Bank, Wapping.
Mariners' Lodge ‒ Held in Virginia Coffee
House, Corn Hill, and afterwards in their hall Pell St., Ratcliff.
was written by one Doctor Francis Columbine Daniel, a Modern Mason
Lodge No. 344. His intention was to bring ridicule upon the Antients,
on Thomas Harper, Robert Leslie and Miriam Burwood.
Knowledge A Necessity
By The Editor
One of the
chief obstacles in the path of the great enterprise of Masonic
education is the
feeling that a knowledge of the Craft is a luxury in which a few may
but has no other function or need. As a matter of fact, nothing is more
to us all. To carry on our work as Masons without a clear understanding
we are about and how to do it, is as impossible as to run a business,
with no understanding
of trade or commerce.
If one of
us untraveled persons were to be unexpectedly abandoned in the heart of
would find himself in a predicament; he could not make his wants known
to the natives
with their so different tongue; he could not find himself about the
unintelligible names; he would not even know how to protect himself
dangers in a place with the ways of which he had no familiarity at all.
a pass a man might unwittingly do something exceedingly rash, or he
miserably still and do nothing, or, what would be even more unpleasant,
his untaught actions, make himself ridiculous. To become the butt of
not by any means the least of misfortune.
This is a
picture, over-colored perhaps, yet not greatly exaggerated, of the
plight in which
an initiate finds himself after he has been raised to the Sublime
Degree of Master
Mason and given the freedom of the lodge. In the new world into which
he has been
born he hears a language with which he is only a little familiar; he is
set to do
unwonted tasks; he is at great difficulty to find his way about among
and customs that are as unlike the habits of the outside world as
be. It is perfectly obvious that this man must do one of two things; he
retreat and not run the risks of activity where he knows so little, or
else he must
learn something about the great organization with which he has united.
In the old
days when Masons were engaged in the actual tasks of erecting
buildings, the initiate
was not thus left to his own devices, but was indentured to a Master
to teach him the rudiments of the trade; he was instructed carefully in
of a lodge; and he was not permitted to engage in the occupations of a
he had learned something of the art. Above all, he was not allowed to
sit idly by,
or to have no further connection with the lodge except to pay his dues.
saw to it that he was given his place, set his task, and instructed in
his new calling.
Grand Lodges of Speculative Masonry ‒ which is engaged in building men
cathedral, a more delicate and difficult task ‒ are beginning to learn
necessity for some such instruction of the initiate. They believe it is
expect a man to learn all about so complicated a thing by himself; they
that it is expecting too much of him to become active in such a Craft
out of his
own initiative. Consequently, they are beginning to encourage the
Study Clubs, to create an adequate and intelligible literature, and to
interest in Masonry among Masons. Also it is coming more generally to
that petitioning for membership in a lodge is in itself a tacit
agreement to assist
in carrying on the lodge's activities, and that a member, by virtue of
is honor bound to learn something about Masonry in order that he may
take his place
and fulfil his duties, so that the individual himself is more and more
need for some sort of education in the arts, parts and mysteries of
One thing is certain: a man cannot hope to pass through the chairs with
himself, or engage in any other activity of his lodge, or enjoy his own
privileges in Masonry, or ever have a true and intelligent
understanding of Masonry,
without a little study of it. Such study is not a luxury for the few,
but a necessity
for the many; it is a duty, a practical need.
much to learn about Masonry, because it is so very great. There are,
more than two
and three-quarters of millions of men under the obedience of Grand
Lodges in this
land alone; and there are nearly three-quarters of a million brethren
foreign lands, if it is allowable to call any land foreign to a Mason
hath made mankind one vast brotherhood, Himself the Master, and the
world His Lodge."
in the United States more than 700,000 Royal Arch Masons; about 275,000
of the Council and about 375,000 Knights Templars; in the Scottish Rite
some 500,000, and the Shrine, which is so closely allied to the Masonic
so called, has passed the 500,000 mark.
The Craft Is a Complicated
of this vast fraternity is almost as rich and multifarious as that of a
people, so that the organizations necessary to carry forward such an
amount of activity
are numerous and, to the novice, bewilderingly complicated. The first
Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason, are administered
under the jurisdiction
of lodges and Grand Lodges, and together comprise what is familiarly
known as the
Blue Lodge ‒ more accurately called Symbolical, or Ancient Craft
degrees called Capitular (meaning done in a chapter) are conferred in a
Chapter, and these chapters, in most cases, are under the supervision
of the General
Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons. The three Cryptic degrees (having
a vault or underground passage) are conferred in a Council, and
councils are under
the jurisdiction of the General Grand Council, Royal and Select
Masters. The three
Templar degrees (so called from connection through tradition with the
Jerusalem) are conferred in a Commandery, and Commanderies are governed
by a Grand
Encampment of Knights Templars.
Scottish Rite degrees are conferred in the Southern Jurisdiction by
bodies; four to fourteen, inclusive, in a Lodge of Perfection; fifteen
inclusive, in a Chapter of Rose-Croix; nineteen to thirty, inclusive,
in a Council
of Kadosh; and thirty-one and thirty-two, inclusive, in a Consistory.
degree is conferred in Supreme Council. In the Northern Jurisdiction
are differently distributed, as follows: four to fourteen, inclusive,
in Lodge of
Perfection; fifteen and sixteen, inclusive, in Council, Princes of
and eighteen, inclusive, in Chapter Rose Croix; nineteen to thirty-two,
in Consistory; and thirty-third in Supreme Council. There are two
one the Northern, having jurisdiction over all Consistories north of
the Ohio River
and east of the Mississippi, and the Southern, which rules over all
to all these bodies, which comprise what may literally and accurately
as Freemasonry in this land, there are scores of auxiliary, or
closely allied and requiring Masonic membership, or blood relatives in
the Shrine; Eastern Star; Grotto; Sciots; Tall Cedars; Red Cross of
Rainbow; Job's Daughters; Daughters of Nile; National League of Masonic
Service Association, etc.
of Masons never go farther (as we say) than the Blue Lodge, but it
would be a mistake
to assume that Blue Lodge Masonry is elementary or simple; on the
contrary, it is
something very profound and world-wide so that a man may devote himself
to the study
of it for a lifetime and never come to the end. The winning of Masonic
properly begins with the first three degrees, and with the magnificent
built up about them, and the equally magnificent and very humane
which they express themselves in the life of men.
In this land
all Blue Lodges operate under the authority of Grand Lodges, of which
we have forty-nine,
one for each state, including the District of Columbia. Each Grand
Lodge is sovereign
and supreme in its own jurisdiction and will permit no other Masonic
to organize lodges inside its boundaries, a principle known as "the
of exclusive jurisdiction." Attempts have been ever since the
to organize a National Grand Lodge, and even now an occasional
a plea for such a body, but it is pretty certain that such a thing will
for it would require every Grand Lodge to depart from its own
landmarks, and that is impossible to contemplate.
these Grand Lodges are thus separate and apart, like independent
there is another sense in which they are all one, because they employ
the same ritual
(except for various modifications to be studied in these pages in the
adhere to a set of landmarks, customs and practices which render it
them to cooperate in many ways. When a Grand Lodge believes that some
Lodge has wandered from the true Masonic path it withdraws Fraternal
as we say, and forbids its members visiting in any of the subordinate
the offending Grand Lodge. (Kansas and New Hampshire have recently
a split.) Each Grand Lodge maintains its own institutions, charities,
set of officers,
has its own traditions, landmarks and history. Nothing is more
to study how all these Grand Bodies maintain a real and deeply rooted
unity in spite
of all their differences, and nothing is more necessary to a Mason than
such a study,
unless he is content to remain in utter ignorance of Freemasonry.
"It Is the Dead Who
When a Mason
comes to learn about this world-encircling organization which has
conferred on him
the honors of membership, he will discover that these Lodges, Chapters,
and Commanderies and Consistories, are one and all governed by the past
in a way
true of no other institution except the Roman Catholic Church. The
so beloved of Albert Pike is almost literally true among us, that it is
who govern, the living who obey. Freemasonry cannot initiate a
candidate, or pass
a law, or strike out on any new path whatever without first consulting
its own history;
nor can any man capture the most elementary understanding of the work
of any or
all of the degrees except he first learn something of that story.
is a structure in which there are a few things new and many things old;
there are stones, statues, pictures, pedestals, capitals and carvings
nation under the sun, and inscribed with all the languages of the
or dead, so that if one is to trace out the origin and meaning of each
it he will have to travel far through many records and make
acquaintance with all
mankind. Every scribe who has ever tried to write a history of Masonry
this difficulty, that he does not know where or when to begin, and is
to discover how to crowd into one book a story that touches upon all
the ages and
borrows something from almost every civilization and culture that has
The evolutions and affiliations of our ritual, philosophy, symbology,
and history go out in all directions and in some way link onto tribes
whom most of us have utterly forgotten, and in many cases of whom few
of us have
ever heard. The rank and file cannot, of course, ever have the wish or
to acquaint themselves with so rich and inexhaustible a history as
this, but everyone,
unless he is content to remain in utter ignorance, must learn something
of it all
in broad outline and in principle. If we are going to abide by the
we must understand what the landmarks are, and what they mean.
Society is a vast and complicated organism, and to govern and manage it
is in itself
almost a profession. There are many offices to be filled; many tasks to
many committees to serve; laws to pass, interpret and enforce; and
there are millions
of dollars invested in building and charity funds which must be
protected and wisely
administered. The rules and regulations for carrying on such activities
Masonic jurisprudence, and that also is a subject rich in interest,
each Mason must learn something.
this Society is at work in the world today, as it should be,
influencing the lives
of men and helping to shape the policy of nations. Things are going on
all the time, and Masons, in the name of their obedience, are helping
the work of the world. Unless one is content to live blindly in his
lodge, and continue
untouched by the breath of the rife that quickens everywhere, he will
need to know
something about Masonic history as it is now making itself. The past
that we inherit
is not a dead thing that lies inertly in our possession; it is alive
creating today and shaping the unborn tomorrows.
Masonry Is Full Of Riches
and apart from all this ‒ perhaps I should have said, over and above
all this ‒
there remains the discovery of what a privilege it is to be a Mason. In
there are unsearchable riches for the individual mind. Some of these
days a fine
and beautiful literature will grow out of the Masonic life; dramas will
poems created, music composed and pictures painted to express the
secret gifts which
the Craft is able to confer on the heart and imagination of the private
We shall discover ourselves in ownership of a treasure, the value of
which we have
until now largely overlooked, and we shall want to appropriate for our
all these unsearchable riches. Thus it comes about that the study of
not a thing for students merely, for the few, carried on in bookish
corners to satisfy
a craving for erudition, but is the breath and moving power and active
all, without which it is impossible for lodges and Grand Lodges to get
their business, or for individuals ever to enter into the fullness of
which is theirs. Its purpose is to put Masons into possession of their
and to make Masonry prevail in the world.
By Bro. Henry Taylor, Missouri
In the candidate's
experiences of initiation the hoodwink plays a larger part than we are
wont to think.
To him it is one of the most impressive of the things that are done to
darkened, his other senses are all the more alert; what he touches,
hears or smells
takes on an added significance. His imagination is aroused, everything
so that some of the simplest things done about him, steps taken or
words said, assume
almost terrifying magnitudes. His fears and apprehensions are
In this state he is, so far as his emotions and mind are concerned, in
a state of
such impressibility that every stage of his experience leaves behind it
memory. The reader may verify this for himself by recalling his own
especially of his First Degree, though there were times afterwards when
in darkness possessed an even greater power to move him to fear and
awe. It is,
no doubt, because darkness heightens all the sensibilities, and thereby
the effect of the ceremonies, that the Hoodwink is used. It is an
early discovered by those in charge of initiations, for it is a matter
that in the most ancient ceremonies the candidate was made to walk in
either by shutting all light from the room or by the use of the
Hoodwink. It was
so in the ceremonies of Eleusis, of Isis and of Mithras; it was
doubtless so in
a hundred other secret fraternities of which no records remain to us.
our own rites, it should be carefully noted that the purpose of the
not to hide things from the candidate. There is nothing to hide.
Moreover, all that
there is is later on revealed, for the Hoodwink is removed in the early
the ceremonies. The Hoodwink is a thing to be used to bring about a
of mind, and to suggest certain ideas, and may, therefore, be
classified as a symbol.
manner in which the candidate finds himself clothed, and the way
whereby he finds
himself rendered helpless and utterly dependent on his guides, the
be considered as a symbol of the weakness and destitution of the
is a process of birth into a new world, or into a new relation, or into
a new order
of experience: relative to that new world into which he is about to
enter, the candidate
is like the babe unborn, a helpless creature lying bound in its
mother's womb. Accordingly
he is in darkness: not yet born he has no use of his eyes, and no light
to see if he could use them.
and meaning of the Hoodwink, as the candidate himself knows and feels
it, may be
thus interpreted, but there is a larger meaning to the Hoodwink,
considered as a
thing apart, as one of the many symbols of the lodge, which, if we will
it aright, will lead us into an order of ideas from which much light
I have come to believe, after some study of the matter, that the
Hoodwink, and the
rites and experiences attendant upon it, deserves a place among the
landmarks (if I may thus use a word usually reserved for other
connections) of our
system of symbolism.
for its meaning as one of the major symbols it is significant to note
that the Hoodwink
is removed (symbolically, that is) by the declaration that there must
and that there is light. When the light comes the darkness flees away.
does not cause anything to come into existence that was not already
there; it creates
nothing; it furnishes the candidate with no new faculties or senses; it
nothing but light.
is true in a great way of human experience everywhere. The "profane" is
one to whom a thing has not yet been revealed; he cannot see. But it is
anyone has deliberately and arbitrarily forbidden him to see; his
blindness is in
himself, and is his own fault. There at his side is the object of his
it may be, the great truth of which he has dreamed, but he sees nothing
because his eyes are holden. When he has learned how to open his eyes,
and he can make his own that for which he has searched. The real
initiation is an
internal awakening whereby he who before was blind to that which lay
can now behold it, who now can make his own that which he needs.
order of speech this is fitly called "revelation," which word carries
within itself its own truest definition. Revelation does not create
that which did
not before exist; it lifts the veil and makes apparent. One stands
before a window
which opens out upon a range of the Alps, but the blind is drawn and
are as if they were not; then the blind is lifted and the mountains
to the eye. That is a picture of what takes place in revelation.
first man drew breath in this life it was true that objects acted
toward each other
in that invariable manner which we describe as gravity, but this
gravity was as
though it were not until at last, in this far end of history, Sir Isaac
his Hoodwink lifted and his eyes opened. That same first man walked
about upon a
spherical earth which turned upon its own axis and revolved about the
sun, but it
was not until Copernicus and his followers learned to see this which
had so long
existed that for us it became a fact. In both cases nothing was
created, a blind
When in our
own lodges the candidate is brought to light it is in order that he may
vision of the Great Lights of Masonry, which same lie before him as
the Holy Book, the Square and the Compasses. Now there is no need here
that we undertake
an interpretation of these symbols; it will be understood what are the
represented by them. The point is to note that the things for the sake
Masonry exists are things that Masonry did not bring into existence and
in no sense its private property. Always and forever God is, and God is
of us all; always and forever man is the brother of man, whatever man
believe about it; always and forever the human being is immortal, and
all the laws
of righteousness are as universal and immutable as gravity itself. But
just as the
law of gravitation was hidden from human minds for millennia of time
came minds capable of seeing it, so with these matters, the purpose of
initiation is to "open the young man's eyes" in order that he may be
into possession of those truths. Masonry does not create, it reveals,
and the removal
of the Hoodwink symbolizes that fact.
In the case
of the scientists above mentioned the act of vision came after a long
preparation. That intellectual preparation was to them their own proper
initiation. In making one's own those moral and spiritual realities of
is composed, and which is its function to put into the possession of
something more than intellectual preparation is required, though it
must ever be
remembered that Masonry is a patron of education and the sciences, as
well as of
the moral and religious life. A preparation of the whole man is needed,
of the hands,
the ears, the emotions, the memories, as well as the intellect.
For it is
true that, as the old saying attributed to St Francis has it, "We know
as we are." In proportion as a man grows impure all that is meant by
ceases to exist or grows remote and apparently unreal. "Blessed are the
in heart for they shall see God." In proportion as a man develops the
of lying and of being a lie, the truth will fly from him and seem to
pathway to moral reality lives through character.
This, I believe,
holds true of that which is the search of searches, the one Grand
Object of all
Initiation ‒ the knowledge of God. Why is it that to so many men God is
He were not? It is not because God Himself sets out to conceal Himself
own children; it is not because, for some profound reasons of
providence or creation,
it is necessary that God veil Himself. It is because these men have
never made that
internal preparation whereby alone God can be known. The path to Him is
secret of all paths, not because He has arbitrarily chosen to make it
so, but because
it leads through the hidden motives of the heart and the innermost
chambers of the
soul. One of our poets has written of this with penetration:
"I made a pilgrimage to find
I listened for His voice at holy tombs,
Searched for the prints of His immortal feet
In the dust of broken altars; yet turned back
With empty heart. But on the homeward road
A great light came upon me and I heard
The God's voice ringing in a nesting lark;
Felt His sweet wonder in a growing rose;
Received His blessing from a wayside well;
Looked on His beauty in a lover's face;
Saw His bright hand send signal from the sun."
We can afford
to ignore the note of unreal sentimentality in these lines in order
that they may
furnish us with a concrete picture of that which is the ultimate secret
in all initiations
whatsoever. As you read, as I write, God is about us each; He is here
as He is in any other world whatsoever; we are as well able to find Him
to know Him here as we shall ever be. There is no veil between us and
world in which He dwells; this world in which we live is as much His
world as any,
and He is here if only we can learn to know Him. And we can learn to
know Him if
we rightly practice the profound saying that the pure in heart shall
see him. The
gentle Linnaeus inscribed over his doorway the sentence, "Live
God is present." We might, without irreverence to that wise teacher,
the saying to read, "If you live innocently God will be here." For all
knowledge comes to us through the soul, and if the soul itself is
veiled and clouded
by passion and untruth, how shall we know? How shall we know anything
that is worth
knowing? "If thy heart were right," says Thomas a' Kempis, "all
would be to thee a book of holy doctrine."
have conducted us to the true meaning, I venture to believe, of
of Occultism. There is and can be no esotericism in the sense that God
into the ears of a few favorites the ultimate truths and left the rest
to us, the
uncounted millions of the rest of us, outside the closed circle of
ones. There is no esotericism in the sense that in order to discover
any truth we
must join some secret society. No secret society in existence, one may
say with a touch of dogmatism, possesses any truth that the wise men of
have not long ago discovered. The truths taught by all the occult
truths that men tell each other on the street corners. But there is a
one may say that it is almost an eternal esotericism, for it is
it will ever cease to be, and it consists in this, that truth is
by those who are inwardly prepared to possess it. A man who possesses
may help another to see it; may teach him many things that help him to
eyes, but after all is done the major part remains to the seeker
himself. He must
open out the paths through his own mind and heart; he must inwardly
Until he does the light cannot be his, and to him those who do possess
it are living
in an esoteric privilege.
Of the inward
and constitutional lack of faculty, the Hoodwink is the fitting symbol.
for that darkness which is due, not to accident, or to tyranny, but to
a lack in
the soul itself, which the darkened one alone has the means to remove.
Great Men Who Were Not Masons
I am greatly
indebted to you for recent assistance, and also for opportunity to see
Makers of America, by Dr. Madison Peters. I note that Dr. Peters claims
for the fraternity, but you write that he was not a Mason. The Grand
Massachusetts has also written that he was not.
I also read
in some Masonic literature, issued I believe by the Grand Lodge of New
James Madison was a Mason, but you say that he was not. Dr. Peters says
I wish we could prove Peters right because Madison had a chief hand in
Constitution of the United States.
is needed in these matters and I hope you are bent on accuracy and
than accuracy. Once we learn who were and who were not Masons, we can
intelligently in our account of the part Masonry has played in American
I hope you
will find out positively about General Winfield Scott, General Meade,
and Admiral Dewey.
not a Mason. I once wrote John Hay, who was one of Lincoln's two
ask that question, and he replied in the negative. Neither can we claim
Charles W. Eliot of Harvard for our membership. He has written me
himself to that
Henry R. Rose, New Jersey.
right, Brother Rose, in demanding accuracy in these matters; to claim
man right and left, regardless of proof, is a piece of vulgarity from
which we shall
profit nothing. Meanwhile, let us have for THE BUILDER your own
findings in regard
to these important matters, yours and any other brother's who may be
work. As for accuracy we may reply in the words of the girl in The Lady
of the Decoration,
that "we do our darnedest."
Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
Commodore Edward Preble
is not familiar to the average citizen, Edward Preble's is one of the
names in the history of the Naval Service, and one of the most
interesting. He was
born in 1761 on what was then called Falmouth Neck, Maine, the site of
the now populous
city of Portland. He died there in 1807, and was buried in the old
the grave being marked by "a simple stone, with the inscription, 'In
of Edward Preble of the United States Navy. Died August 25, 1807, aged
Commodore of the U. S. S. Constitution.'" "Commodore" was a title
of courtesy and was, and still is, bestowed upon an officer commanding
one ship. The first commission our government ever issued to a
commodore was to
D. G. Farragut in 1862.
the very modest stone above mentioned no memorial to Commodore Preble
is in existence;
but there is a very superior portrait in oils at the Naval Academy, a
of which accompanies this article. I am indebted to Rear Admiral Henry
present Superintendent of the Academy, for this courtesy.
began his career as a sailor on board a privateer in 1777 and continued
in that service. All ships depended on sails in those times, so that
life was strenuous
from the time anchor was weighed until it was let go again and the
up and furled. It was an imperative thing that a youth know how to knot
as well as to reef and furl; such education left little time for
leisure, but it
built into his nature the habits of industry and discipline.
In 1779 our
hero entered the provincial marine of Massachusetts as a midshipman,
of which were not so strenuous so that he found some time for study. It
to discover how much he, and other men under similar circumstances,
managed to learn
from books. He was in the action between the Protector and the British
General Duff during the Revolution. Afterwards he was captured and
confined on the
prison ship Jersey in the harbor of New York. When released he joined
war vessel Winthrop and remained with that ship until 1782, during
he once distinguished himself by boarding, with fourteen men, an armed
off Castine and carrying her off under fire of the enemy's shore
peace was declared Preble returned to the merchant service, in which he
fifteen years. The nation was too poor at that time to afford a navy in
In 1799 he
was commissioned a lieutenant in the Navy and was given command of the
a small ship stationed in the Windward Islands; but later, in the same
promoted to a captaincy and given command of the Essex. While on this
once convoyed home from Batavia a fleet of fourteen merchant vessels to
their being pillaged by the French, who were then preying on our
In 1803 he
was placed in command of the fleet sent by our Government against
Tripoli, his flag
ship being the old Constitution. He came to anchor with a part of his
Tangier and there carried on the negotiations that prevented a war with
A month later he declared a blockade of Tripoli. The Philadelphia,
of Captain Bainbridge, had been run upon the rock by the Tripoli seamen
captured, but was afterwards destroyed at anchor by Lieutenant Decatur,
also a Mason,
in February, 1804.
On July 25
of the same year Captain Preble appeared before Tripoli with fifteen
eight small ships borrowed from the Neapolitan government, and began an
which he concentrated on the Tripolitan squadron, protected by shore
Of these he captured three and sunk three more. On the 7th he made
but with less success, as the Tripolitans remained nearer shore. In
he lost one of his own vessels. He renewed the attack on the 28th, upon
of the enemy vessels was sunk, two were driven ashore and the others
during this engagement the Constitution itself lay nearly an hour
shot of the mole to deliver a destructive fire on the town batteries. A
Preble once again returned to the attack, but this time was so hotly
he was obliged to haul off his whole fleet. The Intrepid was then
a fire ship, with one hundred barrels of powder and one hundred and
above the powder, which Captain Somers and Lieutenant Wadsworth, with
volunteered to take into the harbor to explode; but the shore batteries
fire upon her and exploded her prematurely, and not one of the
Soon afterwards Captain Samuel Barron arrived aboard the frigate
President and relieved
Preble of command. Upon his return to the United States Preble was
given the thanks
of Congress and a gold medal.
Secretary of Massachusetts writes me that Edward Preble was initiated
in St. Andrews
Lodge, Boston, May 8, 1783, and took the Fellowcraft Degree February 9,
The Struggle for Mental
FREEDOM OF THOUGHT [Lib 1913], J. B. Bury, No. 69 of Home
Published by Henry Holt & Company. Cloth, 252 pp.,
bibliography, index. May
be purchased through book department of the National Masonic Research
collapse of the civilization of the Roman Empire there gradually grew
up in its
place another civilization which may be described as Medievalism, and
its perfect and adequate literary expression in Dante's Divine Comedy
[Lib 1867] and in Thomas Aquinas's Summa
22 Volumes – See Bibliography], and which reached its most perfect political
and moral expression in the
Holy Inquisition. The root of this entire system was supernaturalism.
believed that over and outside of this known human world there stands
non-human world, in which alone is truth, and life, and God; between
these two worlds
was a wall great and high through which no mortal could make his way.
But it was
further believed that this wall had been broken through from the other
that there had been built up in the human world a great supernatural
by means of which men could be governed out of heaven, and this
known as the Roman Catholic Church, which was not a church at all, in
day sense, but a world order having final authority over everything, so
its keeping were the keys of heaven and hell, and all other things
such a system it was deemed a crime for men to think or act for
in their own nature there was nothing but corruption and error. This
on Europe like an incubus until at last it had destroyed science,
and left the mind of man atrophied and afraid.
Such a state
of affairs could not be indefinitely tolerated, for man has in himself
for life and more life that cannot forever be brooked; therefore, under
of brave and mighty souls a war was made upon Medievalism until at last
it was broken
and shattered, and left like a mossy ruin on a hill apart. The history
of this struggle
between light and darkness, between life and death, between freedom and
is one of the most thrilling and enthralling in all the annals of our
in that history there is no chapter so illuminating as that which tells
of how we
men wrested from authoritativeness the right to think for ourselves,
and to shape
our lives to happiness in the world as it actually is.
is on record in a number of works of great scholarship, among which are
of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe [Lib
2] by W. E.
H. Lecky; History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in
Christendom, by A.
D. White [Lib 1910; Vol 1, Vol 2]; A Short History of
Ancient and Modern [Lib 1906; Vol 1, Vol 2], by J. M. Robertson; The
of English Rationalism in the Nineteenth Century [Lib 1906; Vol 1, Vol 2], by A. W. Benn; A History of
of the Middle Ages [Lib 1901; Vol
1, Vol 2, Vol 3], by H. Lea; History of
Other Essays [Lib 1907], by Lord Acton; the Cambridge
[Lib 1911-26; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4, Vol 5 and 8 Volumes
to which many specialists contributed;
and The Conflict Between Science and Religion [Lib 1892], by J. W. Draper.
with all these works, so far as the average busy man is concerned, is
require an amount of erudition and of time which he does not always
have at his
disposal, so that he is like one who cannot travel in a country for
lack of means
to enter it. It is this fact that helps us to appreciate the value of
book, A History of Freedom of Thought, by J. B. Bury. Professor Bury is
one of the
very chief of living scholars and historians, as the reader will know
who has seen
his History of Greece [Lib 1900], History of the Eastern Roman
Empire [Lib 1912], History of the Later Roman
[Lib 1923; Vol 1, Vol 2], and his piquant book on St.
In the History of the Freedom of Thought, to which it is the purpose of
essay to call attention, he writes with as much scholarship as in his
but he has designed it in matter and manner so as to make it easy to
read by those
who have not a large background of historical knowledge. It is
published as No.
69 of The Home University Library, produced by the Henry Holt &
contains only 250 pages, in clear and pungent language, along with an
seven chapters in addition to an Introduction, the titles of which will
convey a sense of the scope and sweep of the book than any amount of
Reason Free (Greece and Rome); Reason in Prison (The Middle Ages);
Prospect of Deliverance
(The Renaissance and The Reformation); Religious Toleration; The Growth
(Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries); The Progress of Rationalism
Century); and The Justification of Liberty of Thought.
faults here and there, as goes without saying, and there are some
born out of a burning zeal for his subject, but such shortcomings are
consequence; the principal thing is that Professor Bury infects his
his own enthusiasm for the cause of Freedom of Thought, and at the same
him with a clear outline of the story of how men have striven to wrest
free from superstition without and within. This is sufficient to
recommend the work
to us Masons, for if there is anything true of Freemasonry it is that
to break a lance in the warfare for humanity, and teaches to all men
and graces of toleration, freedom, enlightenment, and the utmost
liberty of the
mind. "Let there be light," such is the Masonic word; we have need of
every possible aid in making that word prevail, because there yet
remains in the
world, for all the upheavals that have taken place in it, a vast amount
ignorance and fanaticism.
* * *
A Great Work On Symbolism
of Churches and Church Ornaments [Lib 1893], a Translation of the First
of the Rationale Divinorum Officiorum, written by William Durandus,
with an Introductory
Essay and Notes by J. M. Neale and Benj. Webb. Third Edition. Published
& Company, London. May be purchased through the National
Masonic Research Society.
was born in Provence in or near the year 1220. He first attracted
by a learned work on canon law; afterwards he became, in turn, Chaplain
Clement IV; Auditor of the Sacred Palace; a captain of Papal Forces, in
he proved himself a soldier fearless and valiant, and lastly Bishop of
high office of which he became incumbent in 1286. It was during this
he composed the work here under review, described by the learned
editors as being
"the most valuable work on Symbolism which the Middle Ages can furnish."
was the first book, except for works of the Biblical writers, ever to
the printing press. It first appeared from the press of Fust in 1459,
eight years after the reputed natal date of Christopher Columbus.
appeared during the fifteenth century and thirteen during the
sixteenth. The edition
here noted was translated from the editions of 1473 and 1599.
praise can be said of this translation. The editors contribute, out of
wisdom, a wonderfully beautiful Introductory Essay on symbolism that
one will find
it hard to equal for quiet insight and gentle, almost delicate,
expression. As for
the text itself, that is more perfect still, as chaste in manner as a
always instinct with beauty. William Durandus has been well dealt with
by his friends
after these four hundred years.
To our brethren
of those old times a church was not the same thing as among us, but far
was a place in which to worship; a shrine of the actual presence of
God; a community
center; a public exhibition of art, and a great writing in stone and
the common folk loved to ponder over in a time before the printed page
of. Into the facades of the greater buildings the Masons somehow
managed to incorporate,
by sculpture, picture and inscription, almost all of the then known
that a cathedral was not only a Bible, as Ruskin once described it with
embowering the mysteries of redemption, but also an encyclopedia
crowded with the
equally sacred mysteries of the arts and sciences. Properly considered,
structures remain until now as an index rerum of the best that was
thought and known
in the Middle Ages, so that one gains a new insight into the length,
and height of the genius of the operative builders who wrought their
lives and souls
into their work.
then, was far more than a building. Every part and detail of it had
and uses. A post had to serve as the suggestion of the pillars of
wisdom as well
as to uphold a roof; a door was the hint of an entrance into divine
things as well
as the means of admittance to a room; the roof, and the tiles upon it,
the door posts, the capitals, the aisles, the altar, and each and every
served the many purposes of thought and imagination and fancy as well
as of utility.
The people went to read and to think as well as to worship, for their
structures of theology and of the arts more than buildings. How natural
it was for
the builders and architects of these wonderful old edifices to
transform their own
work into a ritual, their tools into emblems and their guilds into
thought and religion! In this we have a plain hint, so it appears to
of the origin of our own ritual, for the men who created Freemasonry
were the same
men that built the churches of which William Durandus wrote with such
of our Masonic symbolism are advised to possess themselves of this
work. They will
find in it many a hint as to the original meanings of much that we
witness on our
lodge floors and in our emblems. Here and there are explanations of the
of the altar, circumambulation, orientation, colors, sacred numbers,
degrees, allegory, the Agnus Dei, cement, crypts, the door, entrance,
sanctuary, stones, tiles, veils, walls, and countless other such
subjects as we
Masons have become familiar with.
As You Make It -- [A Poem]
E. S. Kiser, In the Craftsman
the preacher, life's a sermon,
To the joker, it's a jest;
To the miser, life is money
To the loafer, life is rest.
To the lawyer, life's a trial
To the poet, life's a song;
To the doctor, life's a patient
Who needs treatment right along.
To the soldier, life's a battle
To the teacher, life's a school,
Life's a good thing to the grafter
It's a failure to the fool.
To the man upon the engine
Life's a long and heavy grade;
It's a gamble to the gambler,
To the merchant, life is trade.
Life is but a long vacation
To the man who loves to work;
Life's an everlasting effort
To shun duty, to the shirk.
Life is what we try to make it ‒
Brother, what is life to you?
The Lot of Us -- [A Poem]
is so much good in the worst of us,
And so much bad in the best of us,
That it best becomes the best of us
To praise the best in the worst of us,
And ill becomes the worst of us
To mock at the faults in the best of us.
Then let the best and the worst of us
Extol the good in the both of us
And hide the fault in the lot of us."
Urgent Necessity for More
One of our
contemporaries, who writes pungently, and out of a rich knowledge of
recently argued the point that Masonic research has exhausted its
lack of anything more to do. It is probable that this brother had his
on England when he wrote these surprising words, because it is the only
of which they may be said at all; but even of England they are not
in spite of the herculean efforts of many distinguished English
students a very
great deal remains to be done by our cousins across the water. It was
only the other
day, and in a private letter, that one of the most brilliant of these
bewailing the fact that so little had as yet been accomplished in
clearing up the
history of Freemasonry in England, and in making known to the rank and
file of the
Craft what Masonry is now doing in the world. He said that much remains
about the Grand Lodge era, and especially about Anderson, upon whose
whole edifice of Masonic jurisprudence has been pretty largely built.
As for our
own land, and there is no need to labor the argument by other
there are many countries that would better serve as horrible examples,
has not made a good start, let alone exhausted the field. It is true
of books have been written, but of what value are they, most of them?
and often they are so utterly lacking in scholarship that they are so
as to be absolutely pernicious.
We know almost
nothing at all about Masonry prior to the Revolutionary War, and what
do know is hidden away in scraps and pieces in old magazine files and
books. Of the Revolutionary period itself, and of the period between it
Civil War the same thing can be said, except for the Anti-Masonic
craze; and so
also with the Civil War period, the Masonic records of which have never
mined out. Of the post-bellum period, and of Masonry's activities in
World War we know as little; at least, we have not much done into
This is said
of Symbolical Masonry. The same thing could be said, and with even
of the other bodies. We have no thorough and up-to-date history of the
Rite; we do not even have biographies of Albert Pike, or of Dr. Mackey;
no histories of the Royal Arch, of Cryptic Masonry, or of Knight
least nothing of any value.
If this is
not a condition crying loudly out for more research and study and
writing, one would
be hard put to imagine one that would.
would not be a means to satisfy a mere antiquarian or academic
interest; it is a
necessity if we are ever to get through with our Masonic tasks, as
hospitals or boards of charity, or new temples, or even, one might add
vein, as circuses and balls. The Masonry of today, which is so powerful
and so militant,
is by its very nature dependent on the Masonry of yesterday; our
jurisprudence, and our ideals all hark back to the past, and without an
and available knowledge of that past our rulers are certain to go
astray and to
embroil us in many difficulties, and the great numbers of brethren whom
in the life of the lodge will go on to the end without an adequate
appreciation of all that Masonry means. The present is not safe in our
we have the past wholly in our possession.
Masonic research is not confined entirely to the past. One of its great
to educate Masons now living, and to enlighten them as to the
activities of the
Order in this present day. If that isn't a practical kind of necessity
If anyone supposes that these tasks are now complete he should look
abroad a bit;
for he will discover that there is just now no more urgent need than
research be carried forward.
* * *
from his early thirties on, was addicted to ill-health; he had
chronic headaches, and similar maladies due to his lack of exercise,
of his brain, and his proud and petulant refusal to have his teeth
As a consequence he was usually unable to work more than two or three
hours a day
lest his brain become congested. Therefore, to avoid having his brain
than was absolutely necessary, Spencer contrived just the sort of thing
expect from a superior but rather crusty bachelor ‒ he devised a pair
ear-pads which he would flip over his ears the moment an argument hove
If a friend were talking to him ‒ he never had many friends ‒ and the
dispute some point made by him, down would come his ear-pads! When
Spencer had called
in Sir Ray Lankester to give him some data on a problem concerning
began by offering some theories of his own at the very outset; Sir Ray
these theories, or at least started to, when down came the ear-pads! It
think of Elisha Mulford and his ear trumpet which he would quietly
his ear when a conversationalist became uninteresting!
What a handy
thing were those ear-pads of Spencer's! How convenient! You have a
theory, a friend
advances facts to oppose your theory, and presto, you save your theory
down the ever-handy earpads! Could one imagine a more admirable device
one's opinions intact? No need to stick your head in the sand like the
just pull on the ear-pads!
But it won't
do to poke too much fun at poor Spencer for wearing his ear-pads,
because we all
wear them, in one form or another, though we don't like to admit it.
there were the theologians in Spencer's own day. These brethren had
worked out a
set of theories to which they clung like grim death; indeed, they held
that a man
couldn't be saved unless he accepted them. Then along came Charles
Darwin, and Huxley,
and Wallace, and Spencer himself, with a wagon load of facts which
with the theologians' theories. Did the theologians pay heed? Not they:
want to hear about those upsetting facts, so they all pulled down their
and there you were! Some of them haven't yet removed them.
are others. In a certain New England town ‒ there is no need to mention
a group of active citizens had a survey made of their city. Experts in
of municipal activities were employed to ferret out all the facts
way in which that city was carrying on its business: after the data was
charts were made and set up on display in a downtown show window. The
put on exhibition on Saturday morning; before Saturday night all the
taken out of that window. The good citizens didn't want to hear the
themselves. "It will spoil the reputation of our fair city," "It
will ruin municipal patriotism," etc. So they pulled down the ear-pads.
happy that made the local political crooks and town bosses! They always
the citizens wear nice, effective ear-pads.
are the life-savers of partisan politics. A boy's father is a ‒ well,
in order to
avoid hurting any feelings, let us say ‒ Populist. Because his father
is a Populist
the boy becomes a Populist, he roots for Populist candidates, he votes
when there are any; he is always a loyal Populist. In his daily paper,
with friends, in contact with daily life in all its forms, that person
hears a great many things that run counter to his Populist
that change his theories? Not at all: when a word comes along that
with Populism he simply pulls down the ear-pads, and presto change, his
One of our
more recent presidents ‒ there is no need to give his name ‒ was so
averse to hearing
criticisms of his administration that he would always go off in a fit
of ill temper
whenever such a thing was brought to his attention. At last his
secretary fell into
the habit of standing as a screen between his chief and the public:
carefully sorted out in order that nothing unpleasant would grate on
the poor man's
sensitive ears. What a fine pair of ear-pads!
a good many wearers of ear-pads in the Masonic Fraternity, are there
not? More perhaps
than elsewhere, because there is in Freemasonry more opportunity for
Much in our history and in our teachings remains uncertain, and where
there is uncertainty
your bigot finds it all the easier to stick to his own theories,
they may be, or unsupported by facts. But where Freemasonry has done
work in a man it has opened his ears as well as his eyes, taught him
that it is
one's duty to listen as well as to see, and that it is no more possible
for a man
to be a real Mason who keeps earpads on his ears than it is for the man
a hood-wink on his eyes.
* * *
so-called from a bough of palm they usually carried, especially after
the holy places of Jerusalem. A Pilgrim had some dwelling place, a
Palmer had none.
A Pilgrim visited some particular place, a Palmer all sacred places. A
at his own charge, a Palmer professed willful poverty. A Pilgrim might
pursuit, a Palmer must be constant to his profession.
‒ Charles W. Moore.
Charges and What They Mean To Us
By Bro. H.L. Haywood
I. What the Old Charges
I have just
come from reading an article in one of the more obscure Masonic
periodicals in which
an unknown brother lets go with this very familiar remark: "As for me,
not interested in the musty old documents of the past. I want to know
what is going
on today." The context makes it clear that he had in mind the Old
A sufficient reply to this ignoramus is that the Old Charges are among
that are "going on today." Eliminate them from Freemasonry as it now
and not a subordinate lodge, or a Grand Lodge, or any other regular
could operate at all; they are to what the Constitution of this nation
is to the
United States Government, and what its statutes are to every state in
All our constitutions, statutes, laws, rules, by-laws and regulations
to some extent
or other hark back to the Old Charges, and without them Masonic
the methods for governing and regulating the legal affairs of the
Craft, would be
left hanging suspended in the air. In proportion as Masonic leaders,
Worshipful Masters and Jurisprudence Committees ignore, or forget, or
these Masonic charters they run amuck, and lead the Craft into all
manner of wild
and unmasonic undertakings. If some magician could devise a method
whereby a clear
conception of the Old Charges and what they stand for could be
installed into the
head of every active Mason in the land, it would save us all from
times without number and it would relieve Grand Lodges and other Grand
the needless expenditure of hundreds of thousands of dollars every
year. If there
is any practical necessity, any hard down-next-to-the-ground necessity
in Freemasonry today, it is for a general clear-headed understanding of
Constitutions and landmarks of our Order.
By the Old
Charges is meant those ancient documents that have come down to us from
century and afterwards in which are incorporated the traditional
history, the legends
and the rules and regulations of Freemasonry. They are called variously
Manuscripts", "Ancient Constitutions", "Legend of the Craft",
"Gothic Manuscripts", "Old Records", etc, etc. In their physical
makeup these documents are sometimes found in the form of handwritten
paper or parchment
rolls, the units of which are either sewn or pasted together; of
stitched together in book form, and in the familiar printed form of a
Sometimes they are found incorporated in the minute book of a lodge.
in estimated date from 1390 until the first quarter of the eighteenth
a few of them are specimens of beautiful Gothic script. The largest
number of them
are in the keeping of the British Museum; the Masonic library of West
England, has in custody the second largest number.
said these Old Charges (such is their most familiar appellation) form
of modern Masonic constitutions, and therefore jurisprudence. They
continuity of the Masonic institution through a period of more than
and by fair implication much longer; and at the same time, and by token
of the same
significance, prove the great antiquity of Masonry by written
documents, which is
a thing no other craft in existence is able to do. These manuscripts
and legendary in form and are therefore not to be read as histories
a careful and critical study of them based on internal evidence sheds
on the earliest times of Freemasonry than any other one source
whatever. It is believed
that the Old Charges were used in making a Mason in the old Operative
they served as constitutions of lodges in many cases, and sometimes
what we today call a warrant.
study of these manuscripts began in the middle of the past century, at
only a few were known to be in existence. In 1872 William James Hughan
Owing largely to his efforts many others were discovered, so that in
was able to list 62, and Hughan himself in 1895 tabulated 66 manuscript
9 printed versions and 11 missing versions. This number has been so
of late years that in "Ars Quatuor Coronatorum", Volume XXXI LIB*],
40 (1918), Brother Roderick H. Baxter, now Worshipful Master of Quatuor
Lodge, listed 98, which number included the versions known to be
Baxter's list is peculiarly valuable in that he gives data as to when
these manuscripts have been reproduced.
For the sake
of being better able to compare one copy with another, Dr. W. Begemann
all the versions into four general "families", The Grand Lodge Family,
The Sloane Family, The Roberts Family, and The Spencer Family. These
he divided further into branches, and he believed that The Spencer
Family was an
offshoot of The Grand Lodge Family, and The Roberts Family an offshoot
of The Sloane
Family. In this general manner of grouping, the erudite doctor was
followed by Hughan,
Gould and their colleagues, and his classification still holds in
have been made in recent years to upset it, but without much success.
One of the
best charts, based on Begemann, is that made by Brother Lionel Vibert,
a copy of
which will be published in a future issue of THE BUILDER.
known printed reference to these Old Charges was made by Dr. Robert
Plot in his
Natural History of Staffordshire, published in 1868 [Lib 1686]. Dr. A.F.A. Woodford and
James Hughan [Lib 1872] were the first to undertake a
Hughan's Old Charges is to this day the standard work in English.
in his History of Masonry would probably be ranked second in value,
voluminous writings of Dr. Begemann, contributed by him to
organ of the National Grand Lodge of Germany, would, if only they were
into English, give us the most exhaustive treatment of the subject ever
The Old Charges
are peculiarly English. No such documents have ever been found in
manuscripts are known to be of English origin. It was once held by
Findel and other
German writers that the English versions ultimately derived from German
but this has been disproved. The only known point of similarity between
Charges and such German documents as the Torgau Ordinances and the
is the Legend of the Four Crowned Martyrs, and this legend is found
versions only in the Regius Manuscript. As Gould well says, the British
"neither predecessors nor rivals"; they are the richest and rarest
in the whole field of Masonic writings.
Old Charges are placed side by side it is immediately seen that in
of the traditional history of the Craft they vary in a great many
they appear to have derived from some common origin, and in the main
they tell the
same tale, which is as interesting as a fairy story out of Grimm. Did
of this traditional account come from some individual or was it born
out of a floating
tradition, like the folk tales of ancient people? Authorities differ
much on this
point. Begemann not only declared that the first version of the story
with an individual, but even set out what he deemed to be the literary
by that Great Unknown. The doctor's arguments are powerful. On the
other hand, others
contend that the story began as a general vague oral tradition, and
that this was
in the course of time reduced to writing. In either event, why was the
written? In all probability an answer to that question will never be
but W. Harry Rylands and others have been of the opinion that the first
versions were made in response to a general Writ for Return issued in
words may be quoted: "It appears to me not at all improbable that much,
not all, of the legendary history was composed in answer to the Writ
issued to the guilds all over the country, in the twelfth year of
Richard the Second,
A.D. 1388." (A.Q.C. XVL page 1)
II. The Two Oldest Manuscripts
In 1757 King
George II presented to the British Museum a collection of some 12,000
nucleus of which had been laid by King Henry VII and which came to be
known as the
Royal Library. Among these books was a rarely beautiful manuscript
written by hand
on 64 pages of vellum, about four by five inches in size, which a
Casley, entered as No. 17 A-1 under the title, "A Poem of Moral Duties:
entitled Constitutiones Artis Gemetrie Secundem." It was not until Mr.
Halliwell, F.R.S. (afterwards Halliwell-Phillipps), a non-Mason,
chanced to make
the discovery that the manuscript was known to be a Masonic document.
read a paper on the manuscript before the Society of Antiquaries in
1839, and in
the following year published a volume entitled Early History of
Freemasonry in England
[Lib*] (enlarged and revised in 1844), in which he incorporated a
the document along with a few pages in facsimile. This important work
will be found
incorporated in the familiar Universal Masonic Library, the rusty
of which strike the eyes on almost every Masonic book shelf. This
known as "The Halliwell", or as "The Halliwell-Phillipps" until
some fifty years afterwards Gould rechristened it, in honour of the
in which it is found, the "Regius", and since then this has become the
more familiar cognomen.
a learned specialist in old manuscripts, dated the "Regius" as of the
fourteenth century. E.A. Bond, another expert, dated it as of the
middle of the
fifteenth century. Dr. Kloss, the German specialist, placed it between
1445. But the majority have agreed on 1390 as the most probable date.
impossible to arrive at absolute certainty on this point," says Hughan,
Old Charges should be consulted, "save that it is not likely to be
1390, but may be some twenty years or so later." Dr.W. Begemann made a
of the document that has never been equalled for thoroughness, and
arrived at a
conclusion that may be given in his own words: it was written "towards
end of the 14th or at least quite at the beginning of the 15th century
(not in Gloucester
itself, as being too southerly, but) in the north of Gloucestershire or
in the neighboring
north of Herefordshire, or even possibly in the south of
VII, page 35. [Lib 1894])
In 1889 an
exact facsimile of this famous manuscript was published in Volume I of
produced by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research, and was edited by
the then secretary
of that lodge, George William Speth, himself a brilliant authority, who
a glossary that is indispensable to the amateur student. Along with it
a commentary by R.F. Gould, one of the greatest of all his Masonic
it is exasperating in its rambling arrangement and general lack of
Manuscript is the only one of all the versions to be written in meter,
and may have
been composed by a priest, if one may judge by certain internal
the point is disputed. There are some 800 lines in the poem, the
portion coming to an end at line 576, after which begins what Hughan
calls a "sermonette"
on moral duties, in which there is quite a Roman Catholic vein with
"the sins seven", "the sweet lady" (referring to the Virgin)
and to holy water. There is no such specific Mariolatry in any other
the Old Charges, though the great majority of them express loyalty to
Church" and all of them, until Anderson's familiar version, are
Christian, so far as religion is concerned.
furnishes a list of fifteen "points" and fifteen "articles",
all of which are quite specific instructions concerning the behavior of
this portion is believed by many to have been the charges to an
initiate as used
in the author's period, and is therefore deemed the most important
feature of the
book as furnishing us a picture of the regulations of the Craft at that
The Craft is described as having come into existence as an organized
in "King Adelstoune's day", but in this the author contradicts himself,
because he refers to things "written in old books" (I modernize
of quotations) and takes for granted a certain antiquity for the
as in all the Old Charges, is made synonymous with Geometry, a thing
in those days from the abstract science over which we labored during
Poem [Lib 1390] is evidently a book about
Masonry, rather than
a document of Masonry, and may very well have been written by a
there is no way in which we can verify such theories, especially seeing
know nothing about the document save what it has to tell us about
In his Commentary
on the Regius MS, R.F. Gould produced a paragraph that has ever since
the pivot of a great debate. It reads as follows and refers to the
portion which deals with "moral duties": "These rules of decorum
read very curiously in the present age, but their inapplicability to
of the working Masons of the fourteen or fifteenth century will be at
They were intended for the gentlemen of those days, and the instruction
in the presence of a lord ‒ at table and in the society of ladies ‒
would have all
been equally out of place in a code of manners drawn up for the use of
a Guild or
Craft of Artisans."
of this is that there must have been present among the Craftsmen of
that time a
number of men not engaged at all in labor, and therefore were, as we
would now describe
them, "Speculatives." This would be of immense importance if Gould had
made good his point, but that he was not able to do. The greatest minds
of the period
in question were devoted to architecture, and there is no reason not to
that among the Craftsmen were members of good families. Also the Craft
was in contact
with the clergy all the while, and therefore many of its members may
well have stood
in need of rules for preserving proper decorum in great houses and
among the members
of the upper classes. From Woodford until the present time the great
Masonic scholars have believed the Old Charges to have been used by a
craft and it is evident that they will continue to do so until more
to the contrary is forthcoming than Gould's surmise.
Next to the
Regius the oldest manuscript is that known as the Cooke [Lib 1400]. It was published by R.
London, 1861 and was edited by Mr. Matthew Cooke, hence his name. In
Museum's catalogue it is listed as "Additional M.S. 23,198", and has
dated by Hughan at 1450 or thereabouts, an estimate in which most of
have concurred. Dr. Begemann believed the document to have been
written in the southeastern portion of the western Midlands, say, in
or Oxfordshire, possibly also in southeast Worcestershire or southwest
The 'Book of Charges' which forms the second part of the document is
the 14th century, the historical or first part, of quite the beginning
of the 15th."
(A.Q.C. IX, page 18 [Lib*])
MS. was most certainly in the hands of Mr. George Payne, when in his
as Grand Master in 1720 he compiled the "General Regulations", and
Anderson included in his own version of the "Constitutions" published
in 1723. Anderson himself evidently made use of lines 901-960 of the MS.
Quatuor Coronati reprinted the Cooke in facsimile in Vol. II of its
1890, and included therewith a Commentary by George William Speth which
is, in my
own amateur opinion, an even more brilliant piece of work than Gould's
on the Regius. Some of Speth's conclusions are of permanent value. I
his findings in my own words:
is a transcript of a yet older document and was written by a Mason.
There were several
versions of the Charges to a Mason in circulation at the time. The MS.
is in two
parts, the former of which is an attempt at a history of the Craft, the
which is a version of the Charges. Of this portion Speth writes that it
and away the earliest, best and purest version of the 'Old Charges'
which we possess."
The MS. mentions nine "articles", and these evidently were legal
at the time; the nine "points" given were probably not legally binding
but were morally so. "Congregations" of Masons were held here and there
but no "General Assembly" (or "Grand Lodge"); Grand Masters
existed in fact but not in name and presided at one meeting of a
"Many of our present usages may be traced in their original form to
III. Anderson's Constitutions
and Other Printed Versions
One of the
most important of all the versions of the Old Charges is not an ancient
at all, but a printed edition issued in 1722, and known as the Roberts,
is believed to be a copy of an ancient document. Of this W.J. Hughan
only copy known was purchased by me at Brother Spencer's sale of
etc. (London, 1875), for 8 pounds 10s., on behalf of the late Brother
and is now in the magnificent library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa,
tiny volume is easily the most priceless Masonic literary possession in
and was published in exact facsimile by the National Masonic Research
an eloquent Introduction by Dr. Joseph Fort Newton in 1916. The
Coxe edited a famous reprint in 1871. It is a version meriting the most
study on the part of the Masonic student because it had a decided
influence on the
literature and jurisprudence of the Craft after its initial appearance.
in one of the most interesting and momentous periods of modern
namely, in the years between the organization of the first Grand Lodge
in 1717 and
the appearance of Anderson's Constitution in 1723. It is the earliest
of the Old Charges known to exist.
printed version is that published in 1724 and known as the Briscoe.
This was the
second publication of its kind. The third printed version was issued in
Benjamin Cole, and known as the Cole Edition in consequence. This
version is considered
a literary gem in that the main body of the text is engraved throughout
beautiful style. A special edition of this book was made in Leeds,
1897, the value
of which was enhanced by one of W.J. Hughan's famous introductions. For
modern and practical purposes the most important of all the versions
ever made was
that compiled by Dr. James Anderson in 1723 and everywhere known
familiarly as "Anderson's
Constitution." [Lib 1723] A second edition appeared,
much changed and
enlarged, in 1738 [Lib 1738]; a third, by John Entick, in
1756 [Lib 1756]; and so on every few years
by 1888 twenty-two editions in all had been issued. The Rev.A.F.A.
collaborator, edited an edition of The Constitution Book of 1723 as
Volume I of
Kenning's Masonic Archeological Library, under date of 1878. This is a
detailed reproduction of the book exactly as Anderson first published
it, and is
title page is interesting to read: "The CONSTITUTION, History, Laws,
Orders, Regulations, and Usages, of the Right Worshipful FRATERNITY of
FREE MASONS; collected from their general RECORDS, and their faithful
of many Ages. To be read At the Admission of a NEW BROTHER, when the
Master or Warden
shall begin, or order some other Brother to read as follows, etc."
word "follows" Anderson's own version of Masonic history begins with
"Adam, our first Parent,
created after the
Image of God, the great Architect of the Universe, must have had the
particularly Geometry, written on his Heart, etc."
Dr. Anderson launch his now thrice familiar account of the history of
an account which, save in the hands of the most expert Masonic
very little dependable historical fact whatsoever, but which, owing to
of its author, came to be accepted for generations as a bona fide
history of the
Craft. It will be many a long year yet before the rank and file of
have learned that Dr. Anderson's "history" belongs in the realm of
for the most part, and has never been accepted as anything else by
facts concerning Dr. Anderson's own private history comprise a record
brief as the short and simple annals of the poor. Brother J.T. Thorp,
one of the
most distinguished of the veterans among living English Masonic
scholars, has given
it in an excellent brief form. (A.Q.C. XVIII, page 9. [Lib 1905]) "Of this distinguished
we know very little. He is believed to have been born, educated and
made a Mason
in Scotland, subsequently settling in London as a Presbyterian
Minister. He is mentioned
for the first time in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of England on
29th, 1721, when he was appointed to revise the old Gothic
Constitutions ‒ this
revision was approved by the Grand Lodge of England on September 29th
in 1723, in
which year Anderson was Junior Grand Warden under the Duke of Wharton ‒
a second edition of the Book of Constitutions in 1738, and died in
1739. This is
about all that is known of him." In his 1738 edition Anderson so
his account of the founding of Grand Lodge, and contradicted his own
in such fashion, that R.F. Gould was inclined to believe either that he
disgruntled and full of spleen, or else that he was in his dotage. Be
that as it
may, Anderson's historical pages are to be read with extreme caution.
itself, or that part dealing with the principles and regulations of the
most certainly a compilation made of extracts of other versions of the
pretty much mixed with the Doctor's own ideas in the premises, and so
much at variance
with previous customs that the official adoption thereof caused much
among the lodges, and may have had something to do with the
disaffection which at
last led to the formation of the "Antient" Grand Lodge of 1751 or
The "Anderson" of this latter body, which in time waxed very powerful,
was Laurence Dermott, a brilliant Irishman, who as Grand Secretary was
the "Antient" forces for many years, and who wrote for the body its own
Constitution, called Ahiman Rezon, which cryptic title is believed by
some to mean
"Worthy Brother Secretary." The first edition of this important version
was made in 1756, a second in 1764 [Lib 1764], and so on until by 1813 an
had been published. A very complete collection of all editions is in
Library at Philadelphia. A few of our Grand Lodges, Pennsylvania among
to call their Book of Constitutions, The Ahiman Rezon [Lib 2007].
himself is still on the rack of criticism. Learned brethren are
checking his statements
(see Brother Vibert's article in THE BUILDER for August), sifting his
leaving no stone unturned in order to appraise correctly his
contributions to Masonic
history. But there is not so much disagreement on the Constitution. In
which did not give satisfaction to many upon its appearance, Anderson,
Lionel Vibert has well said, "builded better than he knew," because he
produced a document which until now serves as the groundwork of nearly
Lodge Constitutions having jurisdiction over Symbolic Masonry, and
which once and
for all established Speculative Freemasonry on a basis apart, and with
character, either as to religion or politics. For all his faults as a
(and these faults were as much of his age as of his own shortcomings),
is a great figure in our annals and deserves at the hand of every
student a careful
and, reverent study.
this very brief and inconclusive sketch of a great subject, I return to
statement. In the whole circle of Masonic studies there is not, for us
at any rate, any subject of such importance as this of the Old Charges,
insofar as they have to do with our own Constitutions and Regulations,
is very much indeed. Many false conceptions of Freemasonry may be
to an unlearned, or wilful misinterpretation of the Old Charges, what
what they mean to us, and what their authority may be. In this land
is a problem of supreme importance, and in a way not very well
comprehended by our
brethren in other parts, who often wonder why we should be so obsessed
by it. We
have forty-nine Grand Lodges, each of which is sovereign in its own
state, and all
of which must maintain fraternal relations with scores of Grand bodies
well as with each other. These Grand Lodges assemble each year to
the Craft, and therefore, in the very nature of things, the
organization and government
of the Order is for us Americans a much more complicated and important
it can be in other lands. To know what the Old Charges are, and to
constitutional law and practice, is for our leaders and law-givers a
A study of the Comacine question should have been published in the
Study Club this
month, but I was prevented from writing it by a rather extended
illness, and therefore
substituted the present article, already prepared. I shall hope to
include the Comacine
paper next month or the month thereafter. I ask my readers to let me
hear of any
errors detected in order that the same may be corrected before this
into book form. Also I regret the fact that we were unable to
incorporate in the
present number Brother Lionel Vibert's Chart of the Old Charges; this
in a future issue in the form of a two-page spread, valuable for
and for framing. I have to thank Brothers Vibert and R.I. Clegg for a
of this present chapter.
H. L. H.)
* * *
Works Consulted In Preparing
Gould's History of Freemasonry, [Lib
1, beginning on page 56;
A.Q.C., I, 127; [Lib 1895]
A.Q.C., I, 147;
A.Q.C., I, 152;
A.Q.C., IV, 73; [Lib 1891]
A.Q.C., IV, 83;
A.Q.C., IV, 171;
A.Q.C., IV, 201;
A.Q.C., IV, 36,198;
A.Q.C., V, 37; [Lib 1892]
A.Q.C., VII, 119; [Lib 1894]
A.Q.C., VIII, 224; [Lib 1895]
Hughan, Old Charges; [Lib ]
A.Q.C., IX, 18; [Lib*]
A.Q.C., IX, 85;
A.Q.C., XI, 205; [Lib*]
A.Q.C., XIV, 153; [Lib 1901]
A.Q.C., XVI, 4; [Lib*]
A.Q.C., XVIII, 16; [Lib 1905]
A.Q.C., XX, 249; [Lib 1907]
A.Q.C., XXI, 161, 211; [Lib 1908]
A.Q.C., XXVIII, 189; [Lib 1915]
Gould's Concise History, chapter V; [Lib
Collected Essays, 3; [Lib 1913]
Stillson, History of Freemasonry and Concordant
Orders, 157; [Lib 1891]
A.Q.C., XXXIII, 5; [Lib 1920]
Masonic Review, Vol. XIII, 297; [Lib*]
Conder, Records of the Hole Craft
and Fellowship of Masons; [Lib*]
Vibert, Story of the Craft; [Lib*]
Vibert, Freemasonry Before the Era of Grand
Lodge; [Lib 2010]
Findel, History of Freemasonry; [Lib 1866]
Hughan, Cole's Constitutions; [Lib*
Early History and Antiquities of
Freemasonry; [Lib 1881]
Pierson, Traditions, Origin and Early History
of Freemasonry; [Lib 1870]
Hughan, Ancient Masonic Rolls: [Lib*]
New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry;
Mackey's Revised History; Ward,
Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods: [Lib*]
A.Q.C., Antigapha, all volumes.
References Mackey's Encyclopedia (Revised Edition) [Lib 1914]
Quatuor Coronatorum, 80;
Benjamin Cole, 157;
Charges of 1722, 143;
Cooke's Manuscript, 178;
James Anderson, 57;
Robert Plot, 570;
Crowned Martyrs, 272;
B.F. Kloss, 383;
Halliwell Manuscript, 316;
Laurence Dermott, 206;
of the Craft, 434;
Operative Masonry, 532;
Roberts' Manuscript, 627;
Speculative Masonry, 704.
Shall We Live Again?
great soul found utterance in his later years for these thoughts, which
an echo in many hearts:
"I feel in myself the future
life. I am
like a forest once cut down; the new shoots are stronger and livelier
I am rising, I know, toward the sky. The sunshine is on my head. The
me its generous sap, but heaven lights me with the reflection of
"You say the soul is nothing
but the resultant
of the bodily powers. Why, then, is my soul more luminous when my
begin to fail? Winter is on my head, but eternal spring is in my heart.
at this hour the fragrance of the lilacs, the violets and the roses, as
years. The nearer I approach the end the plainer I hear around me the
of the worlds which invite me. It is marvelous yet simple. It is a
fairy tale, and
it is history.
"For half a century I have been
my thoughts in prose, and in verse; history, philosophy, drama,
satire, ode and song; I have tried all. But I feel I have not said the
part of what is in me. When I go down to the grave I can say like many
have finished my day's work.' But I cannot say, 'I have finished my
life.' My day's
work will begin again the next morning. The tomb is not a blind alley;
it is a thoroughfare.
It closes on the twilight, it opens on the dawn."
who could so far forget himself as to solicit, influence, or urge
anyone to become
a member of our Orders is recreant to the trust reposed in him.
position or wealth can form no excuse for solicitation to our
What Means "Ancient
Free and Accepted Masons"?
Can you give
us an explanation of the words, "Ancient Free and Accepted Masons,"
appears to be the official name of our Grand Lodge? The Secretary of
our local lodge
tells me that about one-half of the Grand Lodges in the country have
the same title,
but that the others have it shortened to "Free and Accepted Masons". I
know that there have been many explanations of these words taken
separately in back
numbers of THE BUILDER, but I should like to see them treated together.
D. L. H., Iowa.
"Mason" has been defined in many fanciful ways, as when one writer
it from a Greek word meaning "in the midst of heaven," and another
in it an ancient Egyptian expression meaning "children of the sun"; but
it is almost certain that the term came into existence during the
Middle Ages to
signify a man engaged in the occupation of building. Originally it had
trade significance; it was only after Masonry became a secret society
that it took
on a wider significance. Of course there were builders long before the
but they went by other names, just as today we often speak of them as
a term that came into use in the time of Queen Elizabeth.
of the Middle Ages, like all other workmen, were organized into
similar to, but by no means to be identified with, our trade unions,
known as guilds. These guilds were permitted to make their own rules,
and they were
given a monopoly of the work done inside their own territory. The
were usually more important than others, because their work was more
required a high degree of skill and intelligence; such of them as had
in hand the
erection of the great cathedrals possessed among their membership the
geniuses of the times, and wrought such works as to this day remain our
of building was, according to the customs of the time, held as a trade
the young men entering a guild of builders were solemnly obligated to
secrets of the craft. Inasmuch as the work was difficult these young
men were given
a long course of education under the direction of a Master Mason, in
which, so it
is believed. The tools and processes of building were used symbolically
and in order
to impress certain truths on the mind of the member. In this way, and
builders were in close touch with the church which employed systems of
as today we use books (the people could not read, but they could
the builder guilds came in time to accumulate a great wealth of
and an elaborate ritual. In the eighteenth century this symbolical
displaced the original craft of actual building, and Masonry became
as we know it now, so that we are Masons only in a symbolical sense.
called Masons therefore because we are members of an organization that
to the time when builders and architects were bound together in closely
guilds. But why are we called "Free" Masons? This is a more difficult
question to answer, as all our Masonic scholars have discovered, for in
a great amount of careful research, they have never vet agreed among
as to how the question should be answered. We have records of the word
been used six hundred years ago, but it is evident that even then
was a term of long standing, so that its origin fades away into the
dimness of a
very remote past.
the commonest theories is that the freemason was originally the mason
in "free stone," that is, stone ready to be hewn and shaped for the
in contrast to the stone lying unmined. Such a mason was superior in
skill to the
quarrymen who dug the stone from the quarry, and this is in harmony
with the fact
that in early days freemasons were deemed a superior kind of workmen
higher wages than "the rough masons"; but it does not explain why
tailors and other workmen were also called "free".
common theory has it that the early Masons came to be called "free"
they were exempted from many of the tiresome duties that hemmed in the
the Middle Ages, and enjoyed liberties such as the right to travel
to most workmen of that period) and exemption from military service,
etc. It is
held by some writers that the early Popes granted bulls to Masons that
from church restrictions, but no amount of search in all the libraries
or in the records of the Roman Church (that church did not issue bulls
until 1738 and afterwards), has ever succeeded in unearthing a single
or any record thereof.
are other theories. One has it that a Mason was free when out of the
bonds of apprenticeship
and ready to enjoy the full privileges of membership in his guild.
there were grades of workmen inside building guilds and only the
highest type were
permitted all such privileges, and that these were called "free" in
to their less advanced brethren.
the most acceptable of all these theories is that so brilliantly
advanced by G.
W. Speth in the past century, in which that learned brother held that
in the Middle
Ages there were two types of builders' guilds, those that were
stationary in each
town and those that were employed in the cathedrals and were therefore
to move about from place to place, or wherever cathedrals might be in
construction. Inasmuch as cathedrals represented the high-water mark of
learning in that day such workmen were very superior to those that were
on the humbler structures in the community, such as dwellings,
roads, etc., so that Freemasonry descended from the aristocracy of
myself never been able to make up my mind as between these various
that it appears to me that Speth's is the most plausible. It may be
of them are true at one and the same time; such a thing would not be
because Freemasonry developed over a large stretch of territory and
through a long
period of time.
is no doubt that in some cases this word has its face meaning and
serves to remind
us that our Craft is very old. The first Grand Lodge of Speculative
Masons was established
in London in 1717, but Masonry, even of the Speculative variety was
very old by
that date. Boswell was accepted into the Craft in 1600, Moray in 1641
in 1646. Our oldest manuscript, usually dated at about 1390, looks
backward to times
long anterior to itself. There is no telling how old Masonry is;
perhaps they are
not so far wrong after all who date it in antiquity. In any event it is
and has every right to the use of that word.
the majority of cases this word doubtless refers to the Grand Lodge
that came to
be organized in England shortly after 1750. When the first Grand Lodge
1717) was formed it was planned that it should have jurisdiction only
over a few
lodges in London, but as these lodges increased in number it extended
to include the county, and later on to include the whole country. A
of lodges remained independent ‒ they were often called St. John's
Lodges ‒ many
in the north of England, and others in Scotland and Ireland. As time
went on, there
grew up a feeling among the brethren of several of these independent
the new Grand Lodge was becoming guilty of making innovations in the
body of Masonry,
therefore, after a deal of agitation had been made, a rival Grand Lodge
and because its older sister Grand Lodge had made changes they dubbed
and because they themselves claimed to preserve the work according to
form, they called themselves "Ancient." This Ancient Grand Lodge was
in securing as its Grand Secretary Laurence Dermott, who had such a
genius for organizing
that in the course of time this newer lodge began to overshadow the
older. The rivalry,
often bitter enough to be described as a feud, lasted until 1813, when
step toward a union was effected; out of this effort at reconciliation
at last "The United Grand Lodge of England." Meanwhile the Ancients had
chartered a great many lodges in the colonies of America, and these, a
of them, carried on the name long after American lodges had severed all
with the Grand Lodges across the sea. In this wise the word "Ancient"
came into general use, and remains today imbedded in the official
titles of about
half the Grand Lodges in this land.
still hangs about the word "Accepted," but in a general way we may feel
pretty safe in thinking that it refers to the fact that after the
guilds began to break up and to lose their monopoly of the trade, they
"accept" into their membership men who had no intention of engaging in
actual building, but who sought membership for social purposes, or in
order to have
the advantage of the rich symbolism, the ritual and the philosophy of
The first man thus admitted of whom we have a record is Boswell, who
was made a
Mason in 1600, as already noted, but it is fairly certain that others
had been similarly
accepted long before. Indeed, there is good reason to believe that
had been taken into membership from the very earliest times, and it is
that the word was also applied to those members that devoted themselves
and planning, but not to physical work. Throughout the seventeenth
century the number
of accepted increased until by the beginning of the eighteenth century
were almost wholly made up of such members, and in 1717 the whole Craft
into. a speculative science, though it is true that many operative
in existence, and some are still functioning and claiming for
themselves the ancient
have to wait with patience until all problems concerning these various
cleared up, but meanwhile we can use them with a satisfactory degree of
as connecting us historically with a process of growth and development
far back in the Middle Ages, or earlier, and has continued until now.
has been a history filled with wonders, and even now there are few who
have a full
appreciation of the height and depth and length and breadth and
* * *
When Was The Pope Declared
Can you please
tell me when the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church was declared
please advise as to something to read on the subject.
whereby the authority and rights originally vested in the lay members
of the church
became pyramided in a hierarchy and at last transferred to one man is a
story, for the telling of which there is no room here. The
infallibility of the
Pope was believed in for many generations, especially by the church in
countries, but it was not officially made a dogma until so proclaimed
by the famous
Vatican Council, held in Rome in 1870. The decree was passed over
votes and was formally promulgated in solemn session on the 18th of
The best brief account of the Council is the essay by Lord Acton,
himself a Roman
Catholic and the greatest scholar in the Roman communion during the
which you will find in The History of Freedom and Other Essays [Lib 1907], published by Macmillan and
Co., and beginning on page 492. It is a treatise
of repressed fire and moral indignation that deserves a place among the
human documents of modern times.
* * *
any information concerning the operation of Triangles? I understand
foreign Grand Lodges grant warrants for Triangles which, as I
understand it, consist
of three men who confer degrees up to such time as enough Masons are
made to start
a lodge. Does this conflict with any of the landmarks?
George C. Phillips,
P.O. Box 583, Altoona, Pa.
We Are In Receipt of a Few
If we have
not published letters of commendation in these pages it has not been
for lack of
appreciation of the kindly things said of THE BUILDER by its readers
space is always at such a premium for other purposes. For once we shall
blushes long enough to acknowledge a handful of bouquets which have
and unsolicited. They helped to sweeten the July mail, and our thanks
go to the
brethren who sent them in:
of the leading and best Masonic monthlies in the world, for the reason
that it is
full of advanced thought and solid Masonic food." ‒ South Australian
that the National Masonic Research Society is doing a world of good
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BUILDER is the best publication of its kind now avail: able for Masonic
and educational advantage, except perhaps, the 'Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum,' but I
question if even that is of the same particular value." ‒ G.W.
by day, in every way, THE BUILDER gets better and better." ‒ Warren E.
BUILDER gets better with each issue, and I am glad I am a charter
member in this
splendid organization." ‒ J. R. Dewey, M. D., Omaha, Neb.
more real stuff out of THE BUILDER than from any other Masonic source."
DeWitt, Hitchcock Bldg., Nashville, Tenn.
* * *
A Broadside Against Chain
indicated by the above title, although frequently mentioned and always
whenever referred to in fraternal correspondence in our Grand Lodge
seems to be an evil of greater magnitude than a number of the brethren
of, or else they are wilfully guilty of continuing this ridiculous
practice in spite
of the large amount of remonstrance it has provoked. The Grand Master
of Ohio, not
long ago, took the pains to issue a special edict condemning the
practice, a copy
of which was sent to every lodge in his jurisdiction, and in the same
year the Grand
Master of Connecticut declared the practice to be not only improper,
while many other high Masonic authorities have spoken in the same tenor
they have been pleased to term "the chain letter nuisance," and an apt
and appropriate term it is. Doubtless the waste baskets of many of our
contain many of them, but for the benefit of those who have escaped the
present herewith a copy of one only a few days old at this writing, as
"Copy this and send it to nine
you wish good luck.
"This chain started with an
officer and should go three times around the world.
"Do not break this chain, for
will have bad luck. Do it within twenty-four hours and count nine days
and you will
have some great fortune.
"'Remember, if you believe it,
a list of names of thirty persons through whose hands this foolish
scrap of superstitious
cant has passed.
not one brother in a large number believes in this silly prediction and
threat of bad luck, for if one-fourth the number addressed were to
comply with its
request, the number who would receive it in thirty days would exceed
of Masons in the United States.
were on the one I received, but if there had been only TEN and each had
with its direction, beginning with the first up to and including the
435,848,060 persons have received it, and if all up to the thirtieth
have been as
energetic in compliance with the request, the number of its recipients
the total population of the earth from the earliest dawn of
civilization down to
the present time. The paper mills of the United States do not produce
for such a gigantic "drive," which, considering the high price of
would impoverish the entire Masonic fraternity to finance.
I notice that two years ago the Grand Master of Louisiana ordered the
Craft to discontinue
the nuisance which, he said, "is as hard to kick as the proverbial
and I am writing this in order to supply some more ammunition for the
which I thought had been killed nine or ten times already.
taught to believe themselves to be under the care of an all-wise Father
all of the incidents of their lives and to put their trust in His wise
and the thoughtful Mason will not be cajoled or frightened by any
charlatanic bluff by lending himself to the furtherance of such
L. A. McConnell, Michigan
* * *
When Peary Was Made a Mason
looked through Bro. Baird's article on Rear Admiral Robert E. Peary in
for April last, but was unable to discover there the dates when Peary
was made a
Mason. As a result I was led to write to Kane Lodge, of New York City,
those brethren learned the following facts, which I believe you may
care to publish:
Peary was proposed Jan. 7, 1896, elected Jan. 21, 1896, initiated Feb.
passed Feb. 18, 1896, and raised March 3, 1896. Kane Lodge presented a
Mrs. Peary March 30, 1920. That lodge holds among its treasures a
Masonic flag presented
to Peary prior to his departure for the North, and flown by him at
in the Arctic. The Rag was formally returned to Kane Lodge after his
Lieut. R. E. Bassler, District of Columbia.
* * *
A Spurious Picture of Roosevelt
photographer of Spokane, Wash., is offering for sale a photograph of
the late President
Bro. Theodore Roosevelt, showing him with the regalia and jewel of a
Master of a lodge. Inasmuch as Bro. Roosevelt never held such an
office, the picture
conveys a false impression that Roosevelt himself would not have
lodges may, without knowing better, purchase the picture for display in
George W. Southworth, Massachusetts.
* * *
The Dr. Johnson Articles
begin to tell you how interesting to me were Bro. Heiron's Dr. Johnson
I used to live in London and have traveled nearly every street
mentioned. Dr. Johnson
frequented Lower Thames Street and Radcliff Highway, also Old Dundee
the rum and spices from Jamaica were unloaded. I should like to know
which is the
older, Old Dundee Lodge or the wharf. I should like to know the address
of the "Cockney
Mason," who contributed an item to Ye Editor's Corner in the July
brogue was great.
Thos. Wright, Montana.
Ernest E. Murray, Lewistown, Mont., can tell you who the Cockney Mason
Wright. As for your question concerning Old Dundee Lodge, we shall
refer that to
Brother Heiron, who can speak per curiam on that subject.
* * *
Concerning The Grave, Number
the March number of THE BUILDER, which I read as always from cover to
back, I was
struck by the concluding portion of a letter by A. L. Kress, of
the Grave. This is very specific in the English, which is laid down in
words: "There is a grave from the center three feet east, three feet
three feet between north and south and five feet or more
The reason for the depth of five feet or more feet is that according to
burial acts in the country a body must be buried at least two feet
below the surface,
hence the space occupied by the body is a parallelogram, or as it is
called, a double cube six feet long, three wide, three deep. This
with the altar of incense found in the Royal Arch when it states, "In
of the vault stood a block of White Marble, wrought in the form of the
incense. a double Cube" as regards the position of these two forms,
and vertical. The symbolism is apparent to all. With reference to six
a Masonic number, that is true. but the English method avoids the six
by continually using three, which is most appropriate to that degree,
when one recognizes that the Third Degree is only a part of a degree
which is only
completed when the Royal Arch is taken as after the inscription on the
the following sentence, "You may perhaps imagine you have this day
fourth degree in Freemasonry, such however is not the case. It is the
Degree complete," etc. Hoping that these remarks from an English
J. G. Sturton, England.
* * *
Fielding published his Tom Jones in 1748, only thirty-one years after
of the first Grand Lodge. This gives some point to a remark found in
Book II, chapter
4, which reads thus: "For the reasons mentioned in the preceding
from some other matrimonial concessions, well known to most husbands,
like the secrets of Freemasonry, should be divulged to none who are not
of that honorable fraternity," etc. Is it possible that the great
was a member of the Craft? Brother Heiron, the question is referred to
A Concise History of
Gou51 / auth. Gould Robert F / ed. Crowe Frederick J. W.. - London :
Gale & Polden Limited, 1951. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 401. - 10.3 MB.
A History of the Inquisition of
the Middle Ages Vol 1
Lea01 / auth. Lea Henry C. - New York : Harper & Brothers,
1901. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 601. - 31.3 MB.
A History of the Inquisition of
the Middle Ages Vol 2
Lea011 / auth. Lea Henry C. - New York : Harper & Brothers,
1901. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 598. - 30.7 MB.
A History of the Inquisition of
the Middle Ages Vol 3
Lea012 / auth. Lea Henry C. - New York : Harper & Brothers,
1901. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 743. - 38.3 MB.
A Poem of Moral Duties
Reg90 / auth. Regius Manuscript. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1390. - p. 70. -
Der64 / auth. Dermott Laurence. - London : Robert Black, 1764. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 271. - 10.0 MB - Not Searchable - Illustrated.
Ahiman Rezon Full Copy
GLo071 / auth. GL of Pennsylvania. - [s.l.] : Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, 2007. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 266. - 2.3 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
AQC Transactions Vol 001 - 1895
Ars95 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1895. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. - 29.8 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 004 - 1891
Ars91 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1891. - Vol. 4 : p. 305. - 80.7 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 005 - 1892
Ars92 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1892. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 356. - 92.0 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 007 - 1894
Ars94 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. - 83.6 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 008 - 1895
Ars951 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1895. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 358. - 94.0 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 014 - 1901
Ars01 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1901. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 330. - 22.3 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 018 - 1905
Ars05 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1905. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 256. - 15.0 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 020 - 1907
Ars07 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 443. - 61.5 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 021 - 1908
Ars08 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1908. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 437. - 34.8 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 028 - 1915
Ars15 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Reylands W. H.. - London :
AQC, 1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 268. - 215.4 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 033 - 1920
Ars20 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 303. - 23.6 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And23 / auth. Anderson James. - London : William Hunter, 1723. -
Fac-Simile by Jno. W. Leonard & Co., New York, 1855 : Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 119. - 6.0 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And38 / auth. Anderson James. - London : J. Robinson, 1738. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 249. - 16.2 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And56 / auth. Anderson James / ed. Entick John. - London : J Scott,
1756. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 345. - 25.6 MB.
Cambridge Medieval History Vol 1
Bur11MH1 / auth. Bury John B. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1911.
- Vol. 1 : 8 : p. 816. - 50.1 MB.
Cambridge Medieval History Vol
Bur11MH1M / auth. Bury John B. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1911. - Vol. 2 : 8 : p. 28. - 2.1 MB.
Cambridge Medieval History Vol 2
Bur13MH2 / auth. Bury John B. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1913.
- Vol. 2 : 8 : p. 962. - 52.8 MB.
Cambridge Medieval History Vol
Bur13MH2M / auth. Bury John B. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1913. - Vol. 2 : 8 : p. 29. - 2.4 MB.
Cambridge Medieval History Vol 3
Bur22MH3 / auth. Bury John B. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1922.
- Vol. 3 : 8 : p. 765. - 50.1 MB.
Cambridge Medieval History Vol
Bur22MH3M / auth. Bury John B. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1922. - Vol. 3 : 8 : p. 21. - 1.7 MB.
Cambridge Medieval History Vol 4
Bur23MH4 / auth. Bury John B. - Cambridge : The University Press, 1923.
- Vol. 4 : 8 : p. 1026. - 69.3 MB.
Cambridge Medieval History Vol
Bur23MH4M / auth. Bury John B. - Oxford : The University Press, 1923. -
Vol. 4 : 8 : p. 19. - 1.9 MB.
Cambridge Medieval History Vol 5
Bur26MH5 / auth. Bury John B. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1926.
- Vol. 5 : 8 : p. 1067. - 64.3 MB.
Cambridge Medieval History Vol
Bur26MH5M / auth. Bury John B. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1926. - Vol. 5 : 8 : p. 17. - 1.5 MB.
Cambridge Medieval History Vol
Bur26MH6M / auth. Bury John B. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1926. - Vol. 6 : 8 : p. 18. - 1.4 MB.
Cambridge Medieval History Vol
Bur26MH7M / auth. Bury John B. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1926. - Vol. 7 : 8 : p. 14. - 1.6 MB.
Cambridge Medieval History Vol
Bur26MH8M / auth. Bury John B. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1926. - Vol. 8 : 8 : p. 20. - 1.7 MB.
Collected Essays &
Papers Related to Freemasonry
Gou131 / auth. Gould Robert F. - Belfast : William Tait, 1913. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 313. - 14.3 MB.
Coo00 / auth. Cooke Manuscript. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1400. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 16. - 0.2 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 03
HasER03 - Burial to Confessions / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 3 : 13 : p. 922. - 86.8 MB.
English Rationalism Vol 1
Ben06ER1 / auth. Benn Alfred W. - London : Longmans, Green, and Col,
1906. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 476. - 12.4 MB.
English Rationalism Vol 2
Ben06ER2 / auth. Benn Alfred W. - London : Longmans, Green, and Co,
1906. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 546. - 14.8 MB.
Freemasonry Before the
Existence of Grand Lodges
Vib10 / auth. Vibert Lionel. - London : Spencer & Co., 2010. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 163. - 0.5 MB.
Freethought Vol 1
Rob06FT1 / auth. Robertson John M. - London : Watts & Co, 1906.
- Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 497. - 16.0 MB.
Freethought Vol 2
Rob06FT2 / auth. Robertson John M. - London : Watts & Co, 1906.
- Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 471. - 13.3 MB.
Geschichte der Freimaurerei
Fin78 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - Leipzig : Verlag von J. G. Findel,
1878. - 4th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 863. - German - 32.8 MB.
Goethe als Freimaurer
Pie80 / auth. Pietsch J. - Leipzig : Verlag von Hugo Zechel, 1880. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 66. - German - 1.3 MB.
Goethe Vol 1
Mey05GO1 / auth. Meyer
Richard M. - Berlin : Ernst Hofmann, 1905. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 481. -
German - 19.2 MB.
Goethe Vol 2
Mey05GO2 / auth. Meyer
Richard M. - Berlin : Ernst Hofmann, 1905. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 494. -
German - 17.1 MB.
Handbuch der Freimaurerei Vol 1
Mos00 / auth. Mossdorf Friederich. - Leipzig : Max Hesse Verlag, 1900.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 649. - German - 39.1 MB.
History of Freedom of Thought
Bur131 / auth. Bury John B. - New York : Henry Holt and Company, 1913.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 267. - 7.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry
Fin66 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - London : Asher & Co., 1866. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 742. - Translated from the German - 17.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
History of Greece
Bur002 / auth. Bury John B. - London : Macmillan and Co, Ltd, 1900. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 911. - 52.6 MB.
History of Masonry and
Sti91 / auth. Stillson Henry L. - Boston : The Fraternal Publishing
Company, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 866. - Illustrated - 57.8 MB.
Isis and Osiris
Plu50 / auth. Plutarch
/ ed. Parthay Gustav. - Berlin : Nicolaische Buchhandlung, 1850. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 325. - German - 24.5 MB.
Life of Goethe Vol 1
Dun83LG1 / auth. Duntzer Heinrich / trans. Lyster Thomas W. - London :
Macmillan and Co, 1883. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 482. - 20.5 MB.
Life of Goethe Vol 2
Dun83LG2 / auth. Duntzer Heinrich / trans. Lyster Thomas W. - London :
Macmillan and Co, 1883. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 537. - 24.4 MB.
Life of St Patrick
Bur05 / auth. Bury John B. - London : Macmillan and Co, Ltd, 1905. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 425. - 14.1 MB.
Old Charges of British
Hug72 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : Simpkins, Marshall &
Co., 1872. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 113. - 8.2 MB.
Poetry and Truth Vol 1
Goe08PT1 / auth. Goethe Johann W. - London : George Bell &
Sons, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 439. - 15.3 MB.
Poetry and Truth Vol 2
Goe08PT2 / auth. Goethe Johann W. - London : George Bell &
Sons, 1908. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 335. - 11.5 MB.
Primitive Culture Vol 1
Tyl20PC1 / auth. Tylor Edward B. - London : John Murray, 1920. - Vol. 1
: 2 : p. 517. - 24.1 MB.
Primitive Culture Vol 2
Tyl20PC2 / auth. Tylor Edward B. - London : John Murray, 1920. - Vol. 2
: 2 : p. 481. - 16.2 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 01
Aqu11ST01 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : R & T Washbourne, Ltd, 1911. -
Vol. 1 : 22 : p. 450. - 21.4 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 02
Aqu21ST02 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : Burns Oates & Washbourne Ltd,
1921. - Vol. 2 : 22 : p. 291. - 13.6 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 03
Aqu22ST03 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : Burns Oates & Washbourne Ltd,
1922. - Vol. 3 : 22 : p. 280. - 13.1 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 04
Aqu22ST04 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : Burns Oates & Wasbbourne Ltd,
1922. - Vol. 4 : 22 : p. 382. - 22.9 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 05
Aqu22ST05 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : Burns Oates & Washbourne Ltd,
1922. - Vol. 5 : 22 : p. 213. - 9.8 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 06
Aqu22ST06 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : R & T Washbourne, Ltd, 1914. -
Vol. 6 : 22 : p. 547. - 27.4 mb.
Summa Theologica Vol 07
Aqu15ST07 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : R & T Washbourne, Ltd, 1915. -
Vol. 7 : 22.
Summa Theologica Vol 08
Aqu15ST08 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : R & T Washbourne, Ltd, 1915. -
Vol. 8 : 22 : p. 430. - 21.7 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 09
Aqu17ST09 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : R & T Washbourne, Ltd, 1917. -
Vol. 9 : 22 : p. 577. - 30.6 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 10
Aqu18ST10 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : R & T Washbourne, Ltd, 1918. -
Vol. 10 : 22 : p. 359. - 18.0 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 11
Aqu22ST11 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : Burns Oates & Washbourne Ltd,
1922. - Vol. 11 : 22 : p. 279. - 12.6 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 12
Aqu22ST12 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : W E Blake & Son Limited, 1922. -
Vol. 12 : 22 : p. 346. - 20.2 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 13
Aqu21ST13 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : Burns Oates & Washbourne Ltd,
1921. - Vol. 13 : 22 : p. 323. - 16.7 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 14
Aqu22ST14 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : Burns Oates & Washbourne Ltd,
1922. - Vol. 14 : 22 : p. 329. - 16.1 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 15
Aqu13ST15 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : R & T Washbourne, Ltd, 1913. -
Vol. 15 : 22 : p. 355. - 16.8 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 16
Aqu14ST16 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : R & T Washbourne, Ltd, 1914. -
Vol. 16 : 22 : p. 475. - 22.7 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 17
Aqu14ST17 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : R & T Washbourne, Ltd, 1914. -
Vol. 17 : 22 : p. 476. - 22.8 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 18
Aqu17ST18 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : R & T Washbourne, Ltd, 1917. -
Vol. 18 : 22 : p. 380. - 17.2 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 19
Aqu22ST19 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : Burns Oates & Washbourne, Ltd,
1922. - Vol. 19 : 22 : p. 384. - 18.3 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 20
Aqu21ST20 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : W E Blake & Son, Ltd, 1921. -
Vol. 20 : 22 : p. 270. - 13.7 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 21
Aqu22ST21 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - Toronto : W E Blake & Son, Ltd, 1922. -
Vol. 21 : 22 : p. 247. - 12.4 MB.
Summa Theologica Vol 22
Aqu25ST22 / auth. Aquinas Thomas / trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province. - London : Burns Oates & Washbourne, Ltd,
1925. - Vol. 22 : 22 : p. 305. - 13.4 MB.
The Conflict between Religion
Dra92 / auth. Draper John W. - New York : D Appleton and Company, 1892.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 407. - 22.3 MB.
The Divine Comedy
Dan67 / auth. Dante Alighieri / trans. Longfellow Henry W. - Boston :
Houghton Mifflin and Company, 1867. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 772. - 34.0 MB.
The Early History and
Antiquities of Freemasonry
For81 / auth. Fort George F.. - Philadelphia : Bradley & Co.,
1881. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 514. - 21.2 MB.
The Eastern Roman Empire
Bur121 / auth. Bury John B. - London : Macmillan and Co, Ltd, 1912. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 548. - 25.4 MB.
The Golden Bough
Fra221 / auth. Frazer James G. - [s.l.] : Project Gutenberg, 1922. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 664. - Formatted and Indexed from Project Gutenberg
File by rhm - 2.6 MB.
The History of Freedom
Act07 / auth. Acton
Baron John E E / ed. Figgis
John N.. - London : Macmillan and Co., Limited, 1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
678. - 22.9 MB.
The Later Roman Empire Vol 1
Bur231 / auth. Bury John B. - New York : Dover Publishers, Inc, 1923. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 523. - 29.3 MB.
The Later Roman Empire Vol 2
Bur232 / auth. Bury John B. - London : Macmillan and Co, 1923. - Vol. 2
: 2 : p. 605. - 26.1 MB.
The Myths of the New World
Bri962 / auth. Brinton Daniel G. - Philadelphia : David McKay,
Publisher, 1896. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 362. - 16.6 MB.
The Natural History of
Plo86 / auth. Plot Robert. - Oxford : At the Theater, 1686. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 532. - 56.6 MB.
The Spirit of Rationalism in
Europe Vol 1
Lec70 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D. Appleton, 1870. - Vol.
1 : 2 : p. 408. - 14.9 MB.
The Spirit of Rationalism in
Europe Vol 2
Lec73 / auth. Lecky William E H. - London : Longman, Green and Co.,
1873. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 446. - 16.9 MB.
The Symbolism of Churches and
Dur93 / auth. Durandus William. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1893. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 344. - 14.0 MB.
Traditions of Freemasonry
Pie70 / auth. Pierson Arthur P. - New York : Masonic Publishing
Company, 1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 383. - 36.6 MB.
Warfare of Science with
Theology Vol 1
Whi10ST1 / auth. White Andrew D. - New York : D Appleton and Company,
1910. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 442. - 20.9 MB.
Warfare of Science with Theology Vol 2
Whi10ST2 / auth. White Andrew D. - New York : D Appleton and Company,
1910. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 497. - 22.1 MB.