Masonic Research Society
Table of Contents
Constitutions Of 1723
Bro. Lionel Vibert
Past Master Quator
Coronati Lodge No. 2076, England
of Marline, Lansdowne, Bath, England, is author of Freemasonry Before
of Grand Lodges and The Story of the Craft and is editor of Miscellanea
He has contributed papers to the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, notably one
French Compagnonnage," a critical and exhaustive treatise that is bound
replace Gould's famous chapter among the sources available to the rank
of students of that important theme. After having devoted his attention
years to pre-Grand Lodge Masonry, Bro. Vibert is now specializing on
the Grand Lodge
era the records of which are still so confused or incomplete that, in
spite of the
great amount of work accomplished by scholars in the past, a work
the Twelve Labours of Hercules" remains yet to be done. The paper below
one of the author's first published studies of the Grand Lodge era. To
Masons, who live under forty-nine Grand Jurisdictions and to whom
is an almost necessary preoccupation, any new light on that formative
period, and especially on Dr. Anderson who’s Constitutions is the
our laws, is not only interesting but useful.
GRAND LODGE THAT
WAS brought into existence in 1717 did not find it necessary to possess
of its own for some years. Exactly what went on between 1717 and 1721
we do not
know; almost our only authority being the account given by Anderson in
is unreliable in many particulars. Indeed it cannot be stated with
there were any more than the original Four Old Lodges until 1721; it
from the Lists and other records we possess that the first lodge to
join them did
not do so till July of that year; the statements as to the number of
in each year given by Anderson are not capable of verification. It was
also in the
year 1721 that the Duke of Montagu was made Grand Master on 24th June,
joined the Craft just previously. The effect of his becoming Grand
Master, a fact
advertised in the daily press of the period, was that the Craft leapt
its numbers increased, and new lodges were rapidly constituted. Even
now it was
not anticipated that the Grand Lodge would extend the scope of its
London and Westminster, but Grand Master Payne, possibly anticipating
that would be provided by the accession to the Craft of the Duke, had
a set of General Regulations, and these were read over on the occasion
of his installation.
Unfortunately we do not possess the original text of them but have only
as revised and expanded by Anderson. But we can understand that in a
time it would be found necessary for these regulations to be printed
to the Craft. Their publication was undertaken by Anderson, who took
to write a history of the Craft as an introduction, and to prepare a
set of Charges;
his intention clearly being to give the new body a work which would in
replace the Old Manuscript Constitutions. The work consists of a
by Desaguliers and addressed to Montagu as late Grand Master; a
a set of six Charges; Payne's Regulations revised; the manner of
new lodge; and songs for the Master, Wardens, Fellow Craft and Entered
of which the last is well known in this country (England) and is still
in many lodges. There is also an elaborate frontispiece. The work was
by J. Senex and J. Hooke, on 28th February, 1722-3, that is to say 1722
to the official or civil reckoning, but 1723 by the so-called New
Style, the popular
way of reckoning. (It did not become the official style till the reform
of the calendar
in 1752.) The title page bears the date 1723 simply.
Anderson was born
in Aberdeen, and was a Master of Arts of the Marischal College in that
was in London in 1710 and was minister of a Presbyterian Chapel in
Piccadilly, till 1734. He was also chaplain to the Earl of Buchan, and
as the Earl
was a representative peer for Scotland from 1714-1734, it was probably
years that he maintained a London establishment. We do not know that
the Earl was
a Mason, although his sons were. When Anderson was initiated we do not
but it may have been in the Aberdeen Lodge. There is a remarkable
his entry in the Constitutions of his name as "Master of a Lodge and
of this Book," and in entry in the Aberdeen Mark Book, of "James
Glazier and Mason and Writer of this Book." This was in 1670 and this
Anderson is no doubt another person. It just happens most unfortunately
minutes for the precise period during which we might expect to find our
missing. In any case he was familiar with the Scottish terminology
which he no doubt
had some share in introducing into English Freemasonry.
can it be stated
with confidence when he joined the Craft in London. He was Master of a
1722, a lodge not as yet identified, but there is no record of his
having had anything
to do with Grand Lodge prior to the Grand Mastership of the Duke of
was not even present at the Duke's installation; at all events Stukeley
name him as being there. He himself, in his version of the minutes,
own name for the first time at the next meeting.
He Came to Write the Work
own account of the
work, as given in 1738, is that he was ordered to digest the Old Gothic
in a new and better method by Montagu on 29th September, 1721, that on
Montagu appointed fourteen learned brothers to examine the MS., and
that after they
had approved it was ordered to be printed on 25th March, 1722. He goes
on to say
that it was produced in print for the approval of Grand Lodge on 17th
when Grand Master Wharton's manner of constituting a lodge was added.
In the book
itself are printed a formal Approbation by Grand Lodge and the Masters
of twenty lodges (with the exception of two Masters), which is undated,
a copy of a resolution of the Quarterly Communication of 17th January,
the publication and recommending it to the Craft.
regard to the committee
of fourteen learned brethren and the three occasions on which the book
to have been considered in Grand Lodge, the Approbation itself states
that the author
first submitted his text for the perusal of the late and present Deputy
and of other learned brethren and also the Masters of lodges, and then
it to Grand Master Montagu, who by the advice of several brethren
ordered the same
to be handsomely printed, This is not quite the same thing.
it is to be noted
that in 1735 Anderson appeared before Grand Lodge to protest against
of one Smith who had pirated the Constitutions which were his sole
account of this incident in the 1738 edition suppresses this
Further it is very clear from the Grand Lodge minutes that the
appearance of the
book caused a good deal of dissension in Grand Lodge itself, and it
Craft into ridicule from outside; in particular Anderson's re-writing
Regulations was taken exception to. Anderson himself did not appear
again in Grand
Lodge for nearly eight years.
true state of the
case appears to be that Anderson undertook to write the work as a
of his own and that this was sanctioned, since it was desirable that
at least published, without any very careful examination of his text,
or of so much
of it as was ready, and that when it was published it was discovered,
but too late,
that he had taken what were felt by many to be unwarrantable liberties
with the traditional Charges but also with Payne's Regulations.
Book Is Analyzed
using the term Constitutions
he was following the phraseology of several of the versions of the Old
and in fact the word occurs (in Latin) in the Regius [Lib 1390], though Anderson never saw that. It was
traditional in the Craft. The contents of the work itself indicate that
portions were put together at different dates and Anderson tells us it
was not all
in print during Montagu's term of office.
first, this is signed by officers of twenty lodges; the Master and both
have all signed in all but two. In those, numbers eight and ten, the
place for the
Master's signature is blank. Mr. Mathew Birkhead is shown as Master of
and he died on the 30th December, 1722. Accordingly the Approbation
must be of an
earlier date and of the twenty lodges we know that number nineteen was
on 25th November, 1722, and number twenty if, as is probable, it is of
will have been constituted possibly on the same day but more probably a
later. Thus we can date the Approbation within narrow limits. In his
Anderson gives a series of the numbers of lodges on the roll of Grand
Lodge at different
dates which cannot be checked from any independent source, and he
on 25th March, 1722, there were already at least twenty-four lodges in
because he asserts that representatives of twenty-four paid their
homage to the
Grand Master on that date; and that those of twenty-five did so on 17th
1722-3. Because of Anderson's assertion as to twenty-four lodges some
speculated as to the lodges the officers of which omitted to sign or
ignored by the author. But the truth probably is that these lodges ‒ if
at all ‒ were simply not represented at the meeting.
Approbation is signed
by Wharton as Grand Master, Desaguliers as Deputy, and Timson and
Hawkins as Grand
Wardens. According to the story as told by Anderson in 1738 Wharton got
elected Grand Master irregularly on 24th June, 1722, when he appointed
as his Wardens but omitted to appoint a Deputy. On 17th January,
1722-3, the Duke
of Montagu, "to heal the breach," had Wharton proclaimed Grand Master
and he then appointed Desaguliers as his Deputy and Timson and
Anderson, (not Hawkins,)
Wardens and Anderson adds that his appointment was made for Hawkins
always out of town. If this story could be accepted the Approbation was
three officers who were never in office simultaneously, since when
in Hawkins had already demitted. This by itself would throw no small
doubt on Anderson's
later narrative, but in fact we know that his whole story as to Wharton
is a tissue
of fabrication. The daily papers of the period prove that the Duke of
in fact installed on 25th June, and he then appointed Desaguliers as
and Timson and Hawkins as his Wardens. It is unfortunate that Anderson
that his very date, 24th June, was impossible as it was a Sunday, a day
prohibited by Payne's Regulations for meetings of Grand Lodge. There
of some disagreement; apparently some brethren wished Montagu to
continue, but in
fact Wharton went in the regular course; the list of Grand Lodge
officers in the
minute book of Grand Lodge shows him as Grand Master in 1722. And that
is merely Anderson's allegation. In this same list he appears as Grand
Anderson himself has written the words (which he is careful to
reproduce in 1738):
"Who demitted and James Anderson A.M. was chosen in his place;" vide
photographic reproduction of the entry at page 196 of Quatuor,
Vol. X; while in the very first recorded minute of Grand Lodge, that of
1723, the entry as to Grand Wardens originally stood: Joshua Timson and
Mr. James Anderson who officiated for Mr. William Hawkins. But these
last six words
have been carefully erased, vide the photo reproduction at page 48
Antigrapha VOL X, which brings them to light again. Hawkins then was
still the Grand
Warden in June 1723, and on that occasion Anderson officiated for him
at the January
meeting. The explanation of the whole business appears to be that
Anderson in 1738
was not anxious to emphasize his associated with Wharton, who after his
office as Grand Master proved a renegade and Jacobite and an enemy to
He had died in Spain in 1731. For the Book of Constitutions of 1738
there is a new
we have not yet
done with this Approbation for the further question arises, at what
meeting of Grand
Lodge was it drawn up? The license to publish refers to a meeting of
1722-23, and that there was such a meeting is implied by the reference
to this document
in the official minutes of June, when the accuracy of this part of it
is not impugned.
But this Approbation was as we have seen drawn up between the end of
the end of December, 1722, and between these limits an earlier date, is
than a later. No such meeting is mentioned by Anderson himself in 1738.
explanation of this no doubt is that he now has his tale of the
Wharton at that meeting on 17th January, and any references to a
meeting of a month
or so earlier presided over by that nobleman would stultify the
narrative. It is
probable that a meeting was in fact held, and that its occurrence was
by Anderson when he came to publish his narrative of the doings of
Grand Lodge fifteen
years later. The alternative would be that the whole document was
but so impudent an imposture could never have escaped contemporary
the ways of the deceiver are hard.
Frontispiece Is Described
the Constitutions of 1723 [Lib 1723], which was used over again without alteration in
1738, represents a classical
arcade in the foreground of which stand two noble personages, each
attended by three
others of whom one of those on the spectator's left carries cloaks and
gloves. The principal personages can hardly be intended for any others
and Wharton; and Montagu is wearing the robes of the Garter, and is
successor a roll of the Constitutions, not a book. This may be intended
as yet unprinted manuscript, or, more likely it indicates that a
version of the
Old Constitutions was regarded at the time as part of the Grand
which would be a survival of Operative practice. Behind each Grand
their officers, Beal, Villeneau, and Morris on one side, and on the
Timson, and Hawkins, Desaguliers as a clergyman and the other two in
and evidently an attempt has been made in each case to give actual
is unnecessary to suppose, as we would have to if we accepted
that this plate was designed, drawn, and printed in the short interval
January and 28th February. It might obviously have been prepared at any
June 25, 1722. By it Anderson is once more contradicted, because here
‒ or at all events someone in ordinary clothes ‒ as Grand Warden, and
not the Reverend
James Anderson, as should be the case if Wharton was not Grand Master
and then replaced the absent Hawkins by the Doctor. The only other
plate in the
book is an elaborate illustration of the arms of the Duke of Montagu
at the head of the first page of the dedication.
can date the historical
portion of the work from the circumstance that it ends with the words:
present worthy Grand Master, the Most Noble Prince John, Duke of
We can be fairly certain that Anderson's emendations of Payne's
in part made after the incidents of Wharton's election because they
provisions for the possible continuance of the Grand Master and the
election of his successor and in the charges again, there is a
reference to the
Regulations hereunto annexed. But beyond this internal evidence, (and
that of the
Approbation and sanction to publish already referred to), the only
guide we have
to the dates of printing the various sections of the work is the manner
the printers' catch words occur. The absence of a catch word is not
proof that the
sections were printed at different times because it might be omitted
if, e. g.,
it would spoil the appearance of a tail-piece; but the occurrence of a
is a very strong indication that the sections it links were printed
in the Constitution of 1723 they occur as follows: from the dedication
to the history,
none; from the history to the Charges, catch word; from the Charges to
'put in here to fill a page', catch word; from this to the Regulations,
the Regulations to the method of constituting a New Lodge, catch word;
to the Approbation, none; from the Approbation to the final section,
none; and none from here to the license to publish on the last page.
we may now
date the several portions of the work with some degree of certainty.
The times are
plate; at any time
after June 25th, 1722.
but probably written immediately before publication.
prior to 25th June, 1722.
with the preceding section, but drafted conjointly with the Regulations.
after Wharton's installation
method of constituting
a new Lodge; printed with the preceding section.
25th November and end of December, 1722.
songs and sanction
to publish; after January 17th, 1722-3, and probably at the last moment.
these sections the
plate and Approbation have already been dealt with. The dedication
calls for no
special notice; it is an extravagant eulogy of the accuracy and
diligence of the
author. The songs are of little interest except the familiar
and this is now described as by our late Brother Matthew Birkhead.
requires a somewhat
extended notice. The legendary history, as it is perhaps not necessary
my readers, brought Masonry or Geometry from the children of Lamech to
then jumped to France and Charles Martel; and then by St. Alban,
Athelstan and Edwin,
this worthy Craft was established in England. In the Spencer family of
MSS. an attempt
has been made to fill in the obvious gaps in this narrative by
introducing the second
and third temples, those of Zerubbabel and Herod, and Auviragus king of
as a link with Rome, France and Charles Martel being dropped, while a
monarchs has also been introduced between St. Alban's paynim king and
Anderson's design was wholly different. He was obsessed by the idea of
of the Roman architecture, what he called the Augustan Style, and he
took the attitude
that the then recent introduction of Renaissance architecture into
England as a
return to a model from which Gothic had been merely a barbarous lapse.
the Art from Cain who built a city, and who was instructed in Geometry
Here he is no doubt merely bettering his originals which were content
with the sons
of Lamech. The assertion shows a total want of any sense of humor, but
then so do
all his contributions to history. But it is worthwhile pointing out
that it suggests
more than this; it suggests that he had an entire lack of acquaintance
polite literature of the period. No well-read person of the day would
with the writings of Abraham Cowley, the poet and essayist of the
the opening sentence of his Essay of Agriculture is: "The three first
the world were a gardener, a ploughman and a grazier; and if any man
the second of these was a murderer, I desire he would consider that as
soon as he
was so he quitted our profession, and turned builder." It is difficult
that Anderson would have claimed Cain as the first Mason if he had been
with this passage.
this point he develops
the history in his own fashion, but he incorporates freely and with an
for textual accuracy any passages in the Old Charges that suit him and
he has actually
used the Cooke Text, as also some text closely allied to the William
know the Cooke was available to him; we learn from Stukeley that it had
in Grand Lodge on 24 June, 1721. Anderson, in 1738, omits all reference
incident, but asserts that in 1718 Payne desired the brethren to bring
Lodge any old writings and records, and that several copies of the
(as he calls them) were produced and collated. He also alleges that in
valuable manuscripts concerning the Craft were too hastily burnt by
brethren. The former of these statements we should receive with
caution; for the
very reason that the 1723 Constitutions show no traces of such texts;
may be true and the manuscripts may have been rituals, or they may have
of the Old Charges, but there was nothing secret about those. The
had already printed long extracts from them.
to the narrative
we are told that Noah and his sons were Masons, which is a statement
for which Anderson
found no warrant in his originals; but he seems to have had a peculiar
for Noah. In 1738 he speaks of Masons as true Noachidae, alleging this
to have been
their first name according to some old traditions, and it is
interesting to observe
that the Irish Constitutions of 1858 preserve this fragment of
scholarship and assert
as a fact that Noachidae was the first name of Masons. Anderson also
speaks of the
three great articles of Noah, which are not however further elucidated,
but it is
probable that the reference is to the familiar triad of Brotherly Love,
Truth. He omits Abraham and introduces Euclid in his proper
so that he has corrected the old histories to that extent; but after
the second Temple he goes to Greece, Sicily and Rome, where was
perfected the glorious
Augustan Style. He introduces Charles Martelas King of France! as
to recover the true art after the Saxon invasion, but ignores Athelstan
most of the monarchs after the Conquest and makes a very special
reference to Scotland
and the Stuarts. In the concluding passage he used the phrase "the
resembles a well-built Arch" and it has been suggested, not very
perhaps, that this is an allusion to the Royal Arch Degree.
is an elaborate
account of Zerubbabel's temple which may have some such significance,
and the Tabernacle
of Moses, Aholiab and Bezaleel is also mentioned at some length, Moses
a Grand Master. He also inserts for no apparent reason a long note on
Hiram Abiff, and in this case the suggestion that there is a motive for
so connected with ritual is of more cogency. It is an obvious
suggestion that the
name was of importance to the Craft at this date, that is to say early
and that the correctness of treating Abiff as a surname instead of as
to his "father" was a matter the Craft were taking an interest in.
Charges, of which
there are six, are alleged to be extracted from ancient records of
Sea, and of those in England, Scotland and Ireland. In the Approbation
is that he has examined several copies from Italy and Scotland and
of England. Were it not that he now omits Ireland altogether we might
disposed to attach some importance to the former statement. As yet no
of the Old Charges has come to light but it is barely possible that
there were records
of Irish Freemasonry at the time which have since passed out of sight,
no doubt derived originally from England. But the discrepancy is fatal;
conclude that the worthy doctor never saw any Irish record. And we can
his lodges in Italy or beyond Sea as equally mythical.
the six Charges themselves
the first caused trouble immediately on its appearance. It replaced the
of the Trinity and whatever else there may have been of statements of
and Christian belief in the practice of the lodges by a vague statement
are only to be obliged to that religion in which all men agree.
tolerance has in fact become the rule of our Craft, but the Grand Lodge
was not ready for so sudden a change and it caused much ill feeling and
many secessions. It was the basis of a series of attacks on the new
a New Lodge
manner of constituting
a New Lodge is noteworthy for its reference to the "Charges of a
and the question, familiar to us today: Do you submit to these charges
have done in all ages? It does not appear that these are the six
of a previous section; they were something quite distinct. But not
until 1777 are
any Charges of the Master known to have been printed. It is also worthy
that the officers to be appointed Wardens of the new lodge are Fellow
is also a reference to the Charges to the Wardens which are to be given
by a Grand
Warden. This section appeared in the Constitutions of the United Grand
late as 1873.
in 1738 alleges
that he was directed to add this section to the work at the meeting of
and he then speaks of it as the ancient manner of constituting a lodge.
also the title of the corresponding section in the 1738 Constitutions,
only this enlarged. But its title in 1723 is: Here follows the Manner
a NEW LODGE, as practised by His Grace the Duke of Wharton, the present
Grand Master, according to the ancient Usages of Masons. We once more
suppressing references to the Duke of Wharton where he can in 1738, and
to assert that the section was added after January 17th in order to be
in his story. It is not in the least likely that this is what was done.
It was to
all appearance printed at one and the same time with the Regulations,
which he himself
tells us were in print on 17th January, and since Wharton constituted
if not more in 1722 he will not have waited six months to settle his
may be pretty certain that this section was in print before the
Approbation to which
it is not linked by a catch-word.
I have already mentioned, have come down to us only as rewritten by
official minutes of Grand Lodge throw considerable light on the matter.
of all relates to the appointment of the Secretary, and the very next
one is as
Order of the 17th
January 1722-3 printed at the end of the Constitutions page 91 for the
the said Constitutions as read purporting, that they had been before
Manuscript by the Grand Lodge and were then (viz) 17th January
in print and approved by the Society.
the Question was
moved, that the said General Regulations be confirmed, so far as they
with the Ancient Rules of Masonry. The previous question was moved and
the words "so far as they are consistent with the Ancient Rules of
be part of the Question. Resolved in the affirmative, but the main
the Question was
moved that it is not in the Power of any person, or Body of men, to
make any alteration,
or Innovation in the Body of Masonry without the consent first obtained
of the Annual
Grand Lodge. And the Question being put accordingly Resolved in the
would record these
proceedings today in somewhat different form, perhaps as follows:
was proposed (and
seconded) that the said General Regulations be confirmed so far as they
with the Ancient Rules of Masonry. An amendment to omit the words "so
Masonry" was negatived. But in place of the original proposition the
resolution was adopted by a majority: That it is not, etc.
effect of this is
that it indicates pretty clearly that there was a strong feeling in
that Anderson's version of the Regulations had never been confirmed;
was a difference of opinion as to now confirming them, even partially;
in fact this was not done, but a resolution was adopted instead
made without the consent of Grand Lodge at its annual meeting first
should perhaps say that the word "purporting" does not here have the
we would today attach to it; it has no sense of misrepresentation.
present at this meeting, but naturally not a word of all this appears
in the account
he gives of it in 1738.
one sentence in it rather, "Apprentices must be admitted Masters and
Craft only here, (i.e. in Grand Lodge) unless by a Dispensation," was
time the battle ground of the Two Degree versus Three Degree schools;
but it is
generally admitted now, I believe, that only two degrees are referred
the admission and the Master's Part. The order of the words is
significant. In the
Regulation they read "Masters and Fellow Craft." In the resolution of
27 November, 1725 by which the rule was annulled, the wording is
in the official minutes, which is a strong indication that the original
only referred to one degree. In 1738 Anderson deliberately alters what
is set out
as the original wording and makes it read "Fellow Crafts and Masters,"
while in the new Regulation printed alongside of it the alteration of
1725, is quoted as "Masters and Fellows" both being inaccurate; and he
even gives the date wrongly.
enacts that the Master of a particular lodge has the right of
congregating the members
of his lodge into a chapter upon any emergency as well as to appoint
the time and
place of their usual forming. But it would be quite unsafe to assume
that this is
another reference to the Royal Arch; it appears to deal with what we
would now call
an emergent meeting.
or rather Anderson's,
Regulations were the foundation on which the law of the Craft was
based, it being
developed by a continual process of emendation and addition, and their
can still be traced in our English Constitutions today.
reprinted this work in 1734 apparently verbatim. In 1738 Anderson
brought out a
second addition which was intended to replace the earlier one
altogether, but it
was a slovenly performance and the Regulations were printed in so
confused a manner,
being all mixed up with notes and amendments (many inaccurately
stated), that it
was difficult to make head or tail of them and to ascertain what was
the law of
the Craft. He also re-wrote the history entirely and greatly expanded
so many absurdities that Gould has suggested that he was deliberately
Grand Lodge, or in the alternative that he was himself in his dotage.
He died very
shortly after. But this same ridiculous history has done duty in all
till comparatively recent years, being brought up to date by Preston
who were apparently quite unconscious of its true value. Unfortunately
of the history which professed to give an account of the proceedings of
and for which the official minutes were at Anderson's disposal is full
of what one
must consider wilful inaccuracies and misstatements.
the next edition
of the Constitutions, 1754, the Regulations were rewritten by Entick,
but the history
was preserved. Entick also reverted to the Charges as drawn up in 1723
especially the first, Anderson had introduced various modifications in
those Charges are the basis of the Ancient Charges to be found today in
of the United Grand Lodge of England, the only differences, except as
first Charge, not amounting to more than verbal modifications.
Debt to Anderson
as students we
are bound to receive any statement that Anderson makes with the utmost
it can be tested from other sources, we must not be too ready to abuse
Doctor on that account. Our standards of historical and literary
accuracy are higher
than those of 1723, and his object was to glorify Montagu and the Craft
new style of architecture introduced by Inigo Jones and others of his
this he did wholeheartedly, and if in the process he twisted a text or
two or supplied
suitable events to fill gaps in his narrative for which mere history as
failed to record facts, no one at the time would think any the worse of
that. It was a far more serious matter that he was instrumental in
the literature of the Craft all definite religious allusions; but as we
the Craft in fact owes its universality today to its wide
in this respect he builded better than he knew. The Constitutions of
one of our most important texts and only awaits publication in full
suitable notes and introduction at the hands of some Society with the
Is Freemasonry A Religion?
Bro. H.L. Haywood
that Freemasonry is a religion? If it is, can a Mason belong
consistently to his
lodge and to a church? If it is not, why does it have so much in its
the Bible, and why do some of the organized churches oppose it as
though it were
a dangerous rival?"
do not recur with more certain regularity, than comes this inquiry to
desk, nor is there any one subject that receives more universal
discussion in the
Masonic press. And neither, one may continue, is there any other
inquiry that remains
so unsatisfactorily answered, if one may judge from the reactions of
the rank and
file of Masons. There is a difference of opinion on the subject as
it appears to be lasting, and it may well be that Freemasonry will go
on until the
last candidate is raised in the last lodge without the question ever
a plain and final answer.
reason for this
lies very close at hand. Religion itself is the subject about which men
most, both in theory and practice, and this confusion in the general
makes its way into every discussion of the relation of Freemasonry to
Until men at large become agreed as to what religion is, or what it
should be, or
how it is to be used and practised, we must expect a wide difference of
as to what may be the religion or lack of religion of our Craft.
by a religion a man
has in mind an organized church, with its official priesthood, its
and its sacraments, then Freemasonry is not a religion, for it has none
things; but if religion is made to mean any form of teaching concerning
and its adventure through this life, and concerning God, then it may
well be that
Freemasonry is a religion, because it most plainly has something to say
matters. But if, further, the word religion is not to be given either
one of these
definitions, but is made to stand for something special to an
then that individual must make up his mind about Freemasonry to suit
his own theories.
to the view
of the present writer Freemasonry may be described as religious but not
as a religion.
The religiousness which lies in it is not something that is to be set
apart as a
thing by itself to function as the rival of some organized church but
is to be interpreted
as that groundwork of faith which lies at the root of all the creeds
as a man must be a human being before he can become a citizen of the
so must a man have certain religious principles in his soul before he
a Mason; and just as a citizen of the United States is free to live in
in the Union, or even to live abroad, so may a Mason unite himself with
he pleases. The religion that is in Freemasonry is not something that
can be made
the rival of any religion but rather is what lies at the bottom of all
whatever (except of the savage variety) so that one finds Masons
to the Greek Orthodox Church, or to a Mohammedan communion, or an
or a Methodist, or to Christian Science, or what not. The teachings of
are not such as can come into conflict with the doctrines peculiar to
any one of
these faiths but are such as all their communicants share in common.
When the framers
of the good old paragraph in Anderson's Constitutions said that the
Freemasonry is that in which all good men agree, they probably came as
a final statement of the subject as we shall ever have.
Camp Roosevelt: A Boy
Bro. F. L. T., Illinois
is a beautiful
account of how a Mason, Bro. F.L. Beals, Major, U.S.A., of Chicago,
to apply his Masonry in a practical and constructive way. Like a true
has his eye to the future. He has taken to heart the great admonition
left by George
"Keep the young generations in hail;
Bequeath to them no tumbled house."
sharing alike one's joys and woes, means "feeling" for our brother man.
Not in the detached sense which enables one man to say, "Oh, I'm
when he hears of the misfortune of a neighbor, and then goes on his way
to his party
or dance, forgetting all about the misery in the heart of the man next
that genuine sorrow which makes him give of himself, which makes a man
go out of
his way to help his neighbor, which makes him dig in and help that is
the true fraternalism
of man and man. The man who, when his brother advances in business,
when high honors
are bestowed upon him, can rejoice with him and let no mean thoughts of
or envy fill his mind, has the truly fraternal spirit. But, while we
speak of it
on all sides, while we use the word, do we use the meaning of the word
do we act?
is but another name for "good citizenship," that term which has sprung
up in recent years, and clamors more and more loudly to be heard, until
now it is
on the lips of every public-spirited man and woman, and every educator.
for good citizenship is apparent. It is one of the crying needs of the
day, in line
with modern advancement and progress. But, educators contend, good
be a part of the man who has been untrained in good citizenship, any
more than can
a man who has never learned the French language speak it. It must be
the training of the boy and girl, so that when they are grown to young
young womanhood, they know whereof they speak when the subject comes up.
so, while they deliberate
about it, while they make plans for making "citizenship training" a
of the school program, the Chicago Board of Education, more
progressive, has evolved
a system of its own for introducing the subject in a manner which the
years' trial has proven to be highly successful. To revise the regular
to change it about and cut it so as to include this big subject, would
work havoc on the present system of education. And so in order not to
existing plan, and. also, in order to utilize to better advantage the
months which so often afford opportunity for boys to learn obnoxious
system of citizenship building evolved by the Chicago public school
system is tried
out during the summer vacation months.
the shores of Silver
Lake, Indiana, near LaPorte, sixty-five miles from Chicago on the New
Lines, is the site of what was once a private boarding school for boys.
buildings of log and frame construction afford splendid facilities for
and joyful out-door living for the hundreds of boys from all parts of
who gather here each summer to derive the benefits of their stay at
for so the camp is named. The War Department of the U. S. Government,
eager to aid
in this movement, lends complete camping equipment, and assigns
officers and non-commissioned
officers for purposes of instruction. The American Red Cross, the
the Chicago Dental Society send their representatives and maintain
their units at
the camp. Here, under expert guidance in the great outdoors, boys from
ten to eighteen
years of age grow bronzed, robust, pleasing to the eye and agreeable to
strong boys are made out of weak ones, democratic boys out of juvenile
studious, attentive boys of harum scarum scatterbrains.
best promote such
a program, the camp is divided into three sections: the summer schools
which includes seventh and eighth grade and complete high school
subjects, and whose
credits are recognized on the same basis as those of other Chicago
credits; the R.O.T.C. or military division, which is primarily physical
setting-up exercises for the older lads, from 14 and up; and the Junior
the younger lads. Each program, while distinct, blends in harmoniously
other, and Very afternoon program of athletics and recreation combines
divisions. The evening entertainments are provided by the "Y." and
a maximum of clean, wholesome fun for all in camp.
"man on the
job," the Commanding Officer, is Major F. L. Beals, U. S. A.,
Physical Education in the Chicago public high schools, who founded the
Idea. Major Beals is a man who has devoted the best years of his life
and working with boys. He has started hundreds of boys on the road to
manhood. To his forethought, his unselfish devotion to the development
of Camp Roosevelt,
is due the measure of success which it has attained. Major Beals has
himself with a large group of experts in boy training, who have aided
committee of influential
Chicago business and professional men, under the Chairmanship of Mr.
Angus S. Hibbard,
have formed the Camp Roosevelt Association, for the purpose of securing
each year to carry on the camping program. Thus Camp Roosevelt is
a public institution, not a profit making enterprise, but with its
assured. Boys from all parts of the country who attend the camp are
pay but a fraction of the usual cost for attendance at camps which
a small part of the program so extensively carried on at Camp Roosevelt.
this reason, the
introduction of this, the first public "citizenship builder" in the
may well be accounted a success, and its plan could with profit be
emulated by public
school systems throughout the country. Those of our readers who are
to the future of their growing sons would do well to study thoroughly
the Camp Roosevelt
Plan, and, if possible, give to their boys the opportunity of a period
under such splendid supervision.
Some Notes on the Meaning
of the Word "Freemason"
Bro. H. L. Haywood
ORIGIN OF THE WORD
"MASON" has supplied amateur etymologists with endless opportunity for
pursuing their favorite pastime of word catching, and with what results
learn in the article on the question published in Mackey's Encyclopedia
Volume II, page 471 [Lib 1914],
where the most ingenious accounts are recorded of how the word came
existence, and what it meant when it did come into existence. Some of
as fanciful as a piece of embroidery, and about as substantial.
Murray's New English
Dictionary, which is published by the English Philological Society, the
last appeal on the etymology of English words, sets us all a good
example by refusing
to commit itself to any derivation. "The ulterior etymology is
it says, "possibly the word is from the root of Latin 'maceria' (a
The same authority gives the everyday modern use of the word "mason" as
follows: "A builder and worker in stone; a workman who dresses and lays
in building." A quotation I given of the date of 1205. It is doubtful
this country, and at the present time, very many persons think of a
mason as a "builder
in stone": most of them think of him as one who cuts stone to shape and
fits it into place with mortar, or who does the same thing with brick:
of a mason being a builder has about gone out of the popular mind. The
architect is spoken of as the "builder."
there was a time,
it would appear from what meager records we possess, when a "mason" was
all this and very much more beside; he was (or might be) one who could
structure, superintend its erection, organize the workmen and manage
them in their
labors, and also carve, engrave, etc., etc. In short, he was a
the very best possible definition of the word "mason," from our own
of view. "Of the term 'architect,'" says Gould in his Concise History
(Revised) page 71 [Lib 1951],
"there was apparently no use (in the Middle Ages) and it seems to
have been only introduced into English books about the end of the reign
must be understood here in its most literal sense. In the Middle Ages
were doubtless organized into a fraternity, and had their secrets,
and their symbology, but all that was more or less secondary, and the
thing was that churches, cathedrals, and similar structures should be
the symbolical, speculative, spiritualizing uses of the term came
may be German or Latin," writes Lionel Vibert in his Freemasonry
Before the Existence of Grand Lodge [Lib 2010], page 12, "but the ulterior etymology
is obscure. At all events, when we first find it, it is purely and
simply a trade
name, and has no esoteric meaning of a brother or son of anything, or
an obscurity may
be said to hang about the meaning of the word "mason" what shall we say
of the cloud-banks that conceal the origins of the word freemason"! Of
term Gould writes, in his Essays on Freemasonry [Lib 1913],
page 180: "The earliest use of the English
word 'freemason' (at present known to us) is associated with the
freedom of a London
Company (1376), and it is from a similar, (or in part identical) class
and not from the persons who worked free stone, that I imagine the
freemason to have been inherited." Findel, in his famous Geschichte der
gives the word as used in 1212. Steinbrenner,
in his origin, and Early History of Masonry, page 110, says the word
the first time in a statute passed in 1350, which was in the
twenty-fifth year of
the reign of Edward I. Leader Scott (see her Cathedral Builders [Lib 1899]) applies the term to the Magistri Comacini,
but I haven't noted where she makes them ever use the word itself. It
is not safe
to make any definite assertions, as writers sometimes mistakenly do,
about the earliest
uses of the word: for one thing, because at any time somebody may
discover a new
manuscript or record; for another, because, as one follows back the
stream of etymological
change toward the sources of the language, he can't tell whether or not
long dead words may or may not have meant "freemason," and there is no
telling when new light may be thrown on the matter. Also, it is wise to
careful about the "authorities" one makes use of; a number of Masonic
writers have made assertions about the word born of nothing but a
the meaning, or
meanings, which may be more or less justly attached to this word there
a vast deal of controversy and discussion. It is difficult to find more
or three writers to agree at any one time. I shall give a list, in
of some five or six of the interpretations which have proved more or
A List of Meanings is Given
1. The Freemason was a superior kind of Mason.
meet with the word," writes Vibert in his Freemasonry Before the
of Grand Lodges, page 13, "it clearly means a superior workman: and he
higher pay." On page 12 of the same work Vibert quotes Speth as
is abundant evidence that in the course of time the Freemasons came to
upon as a special class of men endowed with superior skill, executing a
class of work, and that this class of work became known as
don't know of any of the first-class writers who have accepted this as
account of the matter. The possible exception would be Conder, the
author of The
Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masonry [Lib*], one of the source-books of
modern Masonic literature, and a work that gives a complete history of
Company of London. To this work he added a brief chapter to show that
came to be called "free" because the most skilled among them worked
plans: they were so adept in their art that they could dispense with
aids, a "free-hand" artist does not need a set of tools as the ordinary
2. Freemasons were Masons who had been made "free"
in the ordinary medieval sense of that word.
was little liberty
in the Middle Ages the individual or for corporations: most of them
were bound in
some fashion or other to a lord or master, or a community, or to the
who were relieved from such obligations were "free." Stieglitz's
of Architecture [Lib*] is authority for the statement that the
of about the seventh century formed themselves into guilds and that on
having received from the popes bulls giving them the privileges of
to their own laws and ordinances they were called "free." Of the
Comacini, Leader Scott writes: "They were Freemasons because they were
of a privileged class absolved from; taxes and servitude, and free to
in times of feudal bondage." For this view Gould believes there is no
"In Germany, as in England, a tradition prevailed from early times that
Masons were granted very exceptional privileges by the Popes; but
whether in either
instance it rested on any foundation of fact, must be left undecided."
is from page 36 of the 1903 edition of his Concise History.
3. A worker in "free stone."
stone was stone
that had been brought from the quarry and made ready for the skilled
to the theory here given Freemasons came to be thus called because they
workmen who worked in free stone, in contradistinction to the "rough
(in Scotland they were called "cowans") who worked in the quarry. The
statute of Edward I mentioned above, seems to bear out this definition.
It was once
in almost universal acceptance. Dr Begemann, one of the most erudite of
scholars, seems, unless I mistake his meaning, to accept this
learned scholar, Chetwode Crawley [Lib 1726], says that, "The word 'Free' which we first meet
with, [was] employed
to designate worker in freestone." He adds, however, that the term
assumes the significance of "free of the guild." These references are
to the fifteenth century.
4. Free in the sense of being free OF the guild.
workman still under
his indentures was not to go and come as he pleased: he was compelled
to and work
under the closest restrictions, and do what was laid before him, and
when, and where
he was told. After becoming a master, however, he became free of the
guild in the
sense that he enjoyed in it all its privileges. This definition accords
the fact that among other groups of workmen were those called "free";
in a fifteenth century document certain tailors in Exeter are spoken of
tailors"; in a reference of 1666, carpenters are similarly designated;
there are many other records to the same effect in the histories of
Also, this definition fits in with the original meaning of the word
A member of the guild had to be made free by formal action of the
company; he who
refused to recognize the authority of the guild, and who set himself up
as he chose, was called a cowan, and bitter was the feeling of the
toward such a "scab."
5. The Emancipated Workman Called "Free"
New English Dictionary
seems to lend its authority to the theory that "free" in freemason came
into use to describe those workmen who were emancipated and given
liberty to go
and come as they pleased, anywhere and at any time. When skilled
workmen were scarce,
and there was not a man in the town who could do a certain bit of work,
it was necessary
to import one from an adjacent city. In the course of time more and
workmen were thus passed about until at last the custom arose of giving
their "freedom" that they might work wherever opportunity offered. This
ingenious theory has plausibility in its favour but no facts, and it is
thing that all our Masonic scholars, after years of research, have
never given countenance
to such a notion: it goes to prove what Gould was always asserting,
on things Masonic by men outside the craft are almost always worthless,
scholars or not. Here is the definition as given in the Dictionary:
the best hypothesis is that the term refers to the medieval practice of
skilled artisans in order that they might be able to travel and render
wherever any great building was in process of construction."
6. Perhaps the most brilliant hypothesis of all
is that presented by William Speth in his now famous essay which was
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Volume X, page 10. [Lib 1897]
contends that in
medieval England there were two kinds of masons' guilds stationary and
The former were circumscribed by the limits of the city in which they
they could do any kind of architectural work inside those bounds, but
They were not free to go about, as a true trade union in our day would
be free to
do. But alongside these were guilds of masons who made a speciality of
and similar building: owing to the difficulties of such work, to the
and experience demanded by it, these guilds differed in very many ways
ordinary town guilds: their members were more expert, they had
traditions and customs
of their own, and they were free to move about from town to town as
might require. It was owing to the last named circumstance, so Speth
they were called "free," and he argues that modern Freemasonry descends
from these itinerant guilds rather than from the better known and more
stationary, or town guilds. Speth offered this as "a tentative inquiry"
and to date it remains as such, but many incline toward it and believe
that it perhaps
comes nearer than most hypotheses to solving the mystery. The reader
who may care
to go mole thoroughly into the matter may be referred to Gould's
published in his Collected Essays on Freemasonry, page 171. The
conclusion to which
he arrived is clearly indicated by the last sentence of his essay: "To
of my fellow students, therefore, who are interested in the problem of
'Freemason,' let me conclude by saying in the words of the Genius to
of Bassora 'If you wish for the solution, be patient, and wait.'"
Article Is Given
those who have not
access to Mackey's Encyclopedia [Lib 1914] it may be a service to reprint the article on the
as contained on page 471, Volume II: ‒
the etymology or derivation of the word Mason has given rise to
some of them ingenious, but many of them very absurd. Thus, a writer in
Magazine for February, 1792, who signs his name as 'George Drake,'
marines, attempts to trace the Masons to the Druids, and derives Mason
on,' 'May's' being in reference to May-day, the great festival of the
'on' meaning men, as in the French 'on dit,' for 'Homme dit.' According
'May's on' therefore means the 'Men of May.' This idea is not original
since the same derivation was urged in 1766 by Cleland, in his essay on
to Things in Words, and on The Real Secret of Freemasons:
his search for a derivation, seems to have been perplexed with the
variety of roots
that presented themselves, and, being inclined to believe that the name
'has its derivation from a language in which it implies some strong
distinction of the nature of the society, and that it has no relation
looks for the root in the Greek tongue. Thus he thinks that Mason may
'Mao Soon,' 'I seek salvation,' or from 'Mystes,' 'an omotoate'; and
is only a corruption of 'Mesouraneo,' 'I am in the midst of heaven'; or
a constellation mentioned by Job, or from 'Mysterion,' 'a mystery.'
in his Ernst and Falk, that 'Masa' in the Anglo-Saxon, signifies a
table, and that
Masonry, consequently, is a 'society of the table.'
he finds the root in the Low Latin word of the Middle Ages 'Massonya,'
which signifies an exclusive society or club, such as that of the round
later times, we find Bro. C.W. Moore, in his Boston Magazine, of May,
Mason from 'Lithotomos,' 'a Stone-cutter.' But although fully aware of
of etymological rules, it surpasses our ingenuity to get Mason
Yates sought for the derivation of Mason in the Greek word 'Mazones,' a
of Dionysus, and he thought that this was another proof of the lineal
the Masonic order from the Dionysian Artificers.
S. Rockwell, who was accustomed to find all his Masonry in the Egyptian
and who was a thorough student of the Egyptian hieroglyphic system,
word Mason from a combination of the two phonetic signs, the one being
MAI and signifying
'to love', and the other being SON, which means 'a brother.' Hence, he
combination, MAISON, expresses exactly in sound our word MASON, and
loving brother, that is, philadelphus, brother of an association, and
also in sense:
all of these
fanciful etymologies, which would have terrified Bopp, Grimm, or
Muller, or any
other student of linguistic relations, forcibly remind us of the French
who admitted that alphina came from equas, but that, in so coming, it
had very considerably
changed its route.
the true derivation of the word Mason? Let us see what the orthoepists,
no Masonic theories, have said upon the subject.
that in Spanish 'Masa' means 'mortar,' is inclined to derive Mason, as
one that works in mortar from the root of "mass,' which of course gave
to the Spanish word.
Low or Medieval
Latin, Mason was 'machio' or 'macio,' and this Du Cangee derives from
maceria,' 'a long wall.' Others find a derivation in 'machines,'
because the builders
stood upon machines to raise their walls. But Richardson takes a
of the subject. He says, It appears to be obviously the same word as
maison, a house
or mansion, applied to the person who builds, instead of the thing
built. The French
'Maisoner' is to build houses; 'Masonrier,' to build of stone. The word
applied by usage to a builder in stone, and Masonry to work in stone.'
'Massom,' used in 1225, for a building of stone and 'Massonus,' used in
a Mason; and the Benedictine editors of Du Cange define 'Massoneria' 'a
the French Maconnene, and Massonerius,' as 'Latomus' or a Mason, both
words in manuscripts
question, we are compelled to reject all those fanciful derivations
the Masons etymologically and historically with the Greeks, the
Egyptians, or the
Druids, and to take to word Mason in its ordinary signification of a
worker in stone,
and thus indicate the origin of the order from a society or association
and operative builders. We need no better root than the Medieval Latin
to build, or 'Maconetus,' 'a builder."'
Gives a Very Fanciful Definition
all this may be added
a paragraph from Stellar Theology, by Robert Brown: "Masonic tradition
one of the numerous ancient allegories of the yearly passage of the
sun among the twelve constellations of the zodiac, being founded on a
astronomical symbols and emblems, employed to teach the great truths of
God and immortality." The writer goes on to explain that the names of
degrees and officers all refer to the sun or moon.
offers the following in his Sun Lore of All Ages [Lib 1914], an interesting but uncritical book, where,
on page 304, we may read: "The word 'Masonry is said to be derived from
word which signifies 'I am in the midst of heaven,' alluding to the
derive it from the ancient Egyptian 'Phre,' the sun, and 'Mas,' a
i.e., children of the sun, or sons of light. From this we get our word
of Fraternities [Lib 1899],
compiled and edited
by Albert C. Stevens, prefers to define the term by means of a
description, a wise
method. Freemasonry, so we read, "is a secret fraternity, founded upon
religious aspirations, which, by forms, ceremonies, and elaborate
to create a universal brotherhood, to relieve suffering, cultivate the
and join in the endless search for truth." (Page 17.)
is manifest that
we can never agree on a definition of "freemason" until we have agreed
on some theory as to the origin of the Craft, and it is this fact that
so much importance to the word itself, and lifts the search for an
above levels of a mere learned pedantry. In the article on Freemasonry
in the opening pages of the Cyclopedia quoted above we find this
"Among various theories as to the origin of modern
following have had many advocates: (1) That which carries it back
through the medieval
stone masons to the Ancient Mysteries, or to King Solomon's Temple; (2)
with the foregoing, that which traces it to Noah, to Enoch, and to
Adam; (3) the
theory that the cradle of Freemasonry is to be found in the Roman
Colleges or Artificers
of the earlier centuries of the Christian era; (4) that it was brought
by the returning Crusaders; (5) that it was an emanation from the
the suppression of the Order in 1312; (6) that it formed a virtual
of the Rosicrucians; (7) that it grew out of the secret society
creations of the
partisans of the Stuarts in their efforts to regain the throne of
England; (8) that
it was derived from the Essenes, and (9) from the Culdees."
and alack! when
the doctors so disagree what are we poor laymen to do! Speaking for
myself I may
say that I am not a partisan of any one of these theories because I do
that we now know, and I am in doubt if we can ever know, the real facts
origin of "freemasonry": know them, that is, with such certainty and
as will enable us to be sure of a definition of the word. As things now
am more inclined towards Speth's theory than any other, but I feel that
it is very
possible that some two or three of the theories (among those that I
may be true at the same time.
The Story of Philippine
Bro. G.J. Mariano, Philippine Islands
for all its directness and simplicity, moves before a background of
of suffering, and passion. Our Filipino brethren were always confronted
by two great
difficulties in their endeavors to establish Masonry in the earlier
days; the opposition
of the authorities, and their unfamiliarity with a Craft that had its
in, and derived its form from, English speaking people. One is grateful
Mariano for so straight-forward a narrative.
Filipinos were under the Spanish rule for more than three hundred years
that Spain was once and is still one of the most Catholic nations and
supporter of the Inquisition during its life, the most natural and
would be that Freemasonry, in the Philippines could not flourish very
this is not the case. In spite of the difficulties and sufferings
Filipino masons in spreading, the light of truth, these
went ahead with the strongest determination towards the road of
and secretly at first, then openly and vigorously afterwards.
the Spanish liberals
who were sent to these Islands were Admiral Malcampo and, later,
who showed their valor in fighting and stopping the Moro piracy; they
were the organizers
of the first lodge in the Philippines, established in Cavite in 1856
the "Primera Luz Filipino," under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge
of Portugal. This lodge, however, was composed of Spaniards only. Later
foreigners in the Islands other than Spaniards organized another lodge
Filipinos were admitted. The Spanish Masons soon discovered this and
lodge under the jurisdiction of the Grande Oriente Espaņol to which
admitted in order to win their confidence and help. This may be called
participation in Freemasonry in the Philippines.
leading Filipinos, among whom were Dr. Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. del
Lopez Jaena, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce, Dominador, Juan Luna and
initiated in the Order.
first lodge which
was composed wholly of Filipinos was organized in Madrid and called
Lodge No. 53" under the jurisdiction of the Grande Oriente Espaņol. To
Rizal and del Pilar belong the honor of conceiving the idea of
Freemasonry. Through the efforts of del Pilar the necessary authority
from the then Grand Master, Dr. Miguel Morayta, of the Grande Oriente
organize lodges in the Philippines. Antonio Luna and Pedron Serrano
to come to the Philippines to organize Philippine Freemasonry. However,
Luna was unable to come to the Philippines with Pedron Serrano.
First Filipino Lodge Is Organized
was in January 16,
1891, that the first Filipino Lodge was organized in the Philippines
and was called
Nilad Lodge No. 144, under the jurisdiction of the Grande Oriente
Espaņol, but it
was not constituted until March 12, 1892. Soon after the constitution
of the Nilad
Lodge No. 144 applicants poured to her doors incessantly and the
initiates in the
Order were rapidly increasing in numbers. It was deemed advisable to
take the necessary
precautions in order that its existence might not be discovered by the
the Craft, namely, the Roman Catholic Church supported by the Spanish
The State and the Church were united and went hand in hand in running
of the Islands. The Church was considered as the safest foundation of
Government in the Islands.
growth of the Craft
was rapidly spreading to the four corners of the Philippines. The soil
fertile but circumstances were against the open organization and labor
of the ideals and principles of the Craft, much less its rapid growth.
It must be
remembered that to be a Mason in those days in the Philippines meant to
be a traitor
to his country, bad Christian, heretic, and was punished with
deportation to the
distant parts of the Islands or the facing of a firing squad. Torn from
and dearest to him, such was his punishment for daring to aspire to see
to perform the duties he owed God, his country, his neighbor and
himself, in accordance
with the dictates of his own conscience! To be caught at a meeting
held meant a term of imprisonment, physical or mental torture, and in
to extort from him, by force or otherwise, the most excellent tenets of
brotherly love, relief and truth.
is Made a Mason
the most trying
and bloody last seven years of Spanish rule in the Islands, when
very active, its discovery caused nearly all its members to be executed
and very few escaped the wild methods of Spanish repression of the then
Philippine Revolution. The lodges were all temporarily shattered and
persecuted like outlaws. At this critical period of the Philippine
history the Filipino
patriots and heroes of the Philippine Revolution, viz., Andras
Jacinto, Emilio Aguinaldo, Apolinario Mabini, General Vicente Lukban,
one of the
two last generals to surrender to the Americans, and others, were
initiated in the
mysteries of the Craft.
the transfer of
sovereignty circumstances also changed and a new era opened in
because its work has been made open and protected, where before it was
and was persecuted.
and others, soon after the downfall of the Spanish rule, immediately
movement of reorganizing the lodges shattered by the destructive blows
The first lodge to be organized was the Modestia Lodge No. 119; it was
by the Dalisay Lodge No. 117; Sinukuan Lodge to. 272; Nilad Lodge No.
Lodge No. 158; and Lusong Lodge No. 185. These lodges were under the
of the Grande Oriente Espaņol
Gran Logia Regional
was organized and installed on September 14, 1907, as the local supreme
body over the lodges installed under the jurisdiction of the Grande
until February 13, 1917, when she automatically ceased to exist as the
lodges under her went to the Union of Freemasonry in the Philippines.
first American lodge
in the Islands began its work on August 21, 1898, and was authorized by
of dispensation issued by Brother Robert M. Carother, Grand Master of
Lodge of North Dakota. However, this military lodge existed only for a
on the following year when the North Dakota Regiment of Volunteers left
for the United States the lodge with its letter of dispensation was
taken by them.
The Manila Lodge No. 1 (formerly No. 342) is the first American
in the Islands and was organized in November 14, 1901, in the house of
E. Stafford, who later on became the first Grand Master of the Grand
Lodge of the
Lodge of Philippine Islands is
December 18-19, 1912) the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands was
duly and properly
established. The Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands was composed
then by the
Manila Lodge No. 342, Cavite Lodge No. 350 and Corregidor Lodge No.
386, under the
Jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of California.
of the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands two grand Masonic Bodies
established: the Gran Logia Regional de Filipinas, under the Grande
made up by the Filipino lodges, with supreme authority over its
and the other was the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands, made up by
first American lodges, also with supreme authority over the above
lodges. Each Grand Lodge worked for its own progress and prosperity in
the existence of the other in the same territory.
Logia Regional de Filipinas truly represented Philippine Freemasonry as
it was composed
wholly by Filipino lodges, was older in the Philippines and its origin
may be traced
back to the glorious days of Rizal and del Pilar in their fights in
Spain for liberal
reforms; and to the days of Bonifacio, Jacinto, Aguinaldo, Mabini,
Luna, and the
heroes and martyr victims of Spanish tyranny, in their fights for the
Filipinos. But the only thing lacking her and which she was working
very hard for
when the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands was constituted, was
and exclusive territorial Jurisdiction in the Philippine Islands.
under the jurisdiction
of other Supreme Councils were organized and installed in the
Philippines but they
all disappeared by Joining the Gran Logia Regional, except the La Perla
Lodge No. 1034, S.C., which is still working.
Masonry Is Unified
event during the American administration was the UNIFICATION OF
FREEMASONRY IN THE
PHILIPPINES on February 14, 1917.
was reported by Brother Charles S. Lobingier, Deputy of the Supreme
the Sovereign Grand Commander and the Supreme Council, in part as
the past year a divided house has been joined together. Where there was
there is now unity; where there was weakness there is potential
strength. In short,
it is my privilege, to announce the unification of our rite in the
Not that there has ever been dissension among the bodies of our
but, as you will note from previous reports of mine, Scottish Rite
allegiance to other Supreme Councils, have continued to exist there
own. The reasons for this were mainly historical and call for brief
review. In the
Philippines, Masonry considerably antedates American occupation. As
long ago as
1856 the Spanish Admiral Malcampo, later Governor-General, organized a
Cavite, under the Grand Oriente of Portugal."
Teodoro M. Kalaw,
the last Grand Master of the Gran Regional Lodge, at the inauguration
of the Salomon
Temple, Manila, ten days after the unification, in the course of his
on the event in this wise: "It is well to say it here that we, the
of the Old Grande Oriente Espaņol, did not go to the union without
titles nor name.
We brought to it our heroic and historic past. We had our own glories,
our own traditions,
and a beautiful and magnificent history full of heroism and blood. That
is the richness
we brought … We went to the union for this sole consideration, only and
because we do not wish to see Freemasonry divided in the Philippines …
We went decidedly
to the union to save the most principle: the UNITY OF FREEMASONRY."
the present writing
there are seventy-seven chartered Lodges and one under dispensation in
Islands under the jurisdiction of the Grand lodge of the Philippine
& A. M. and several are on the way of formation. These lodges
are located all
over the Islands. In the farthest north province of Cagayan there is
Mabini Lodge No. 39 named in honour of Brother Apolinario Mabini
and brain of the Philippine Revolution in the farthest south province
there is located the Sarangani Lodge No. 50 named after a mountain in
of Mindanao; in the east there is located in the Province of Leyte the
Lodge No. 47, named after the morning star or "makabug-was" in Visayan
can be safely affirmed,
without fear of contradiction, that any brethren can go to any province
in the Islands
and surely meet other brethren. At present there are approximately six
Master Masons in the Islands.
Masonry Flourishes in Manila
are two concrete
and one semi-permanent Masonic buildings in Manila, viz., the Masonic
in the Escolta, the business center in the Philippines; the Plaridel
after the symbolic name of Brother Marcelo H. del Pilar, is located at
Marcelino; and the Salomon Temple located at Calle Bilbao, Tondo, its
facing the Manila Bay, one of the biggest and finest in the Orient and
part of its
foundations is being kissed by the rolling waves of the Manila Bay
where the Spanish
fleet, representing the sceptre and power of Spanish oppression, was
the American fleet under Admiral Dewey, representing democracy and the
of America by helping the Filipinos to establish their own free and
government. In Cebu, the second largest city in the Philippines, there
concrete Masonic building. Most of the Philippine Lodges own
first book published
about Freemasonry in the Philippines was printed in 1920 and written by
Teodoro M. Kalaw and this is the first attempt that real Freemasonry
to light and exposed to the Filipino public. I said real because the
known to the majority of the people was the Freemasonry described and
to the people by the friars to suit their purposes. The mere initiation
to the mysteries
of the Order involved the greatest personal sacrifice and therefore it
risky to expose, explain and fight openly for the highest ideals and
of the Craft. It meant as if between fire and powder, or having and the
All possible and imaginable means were exerted by the enemies of the
Craft to discover
the members in order to deport or to destroy the lodges, and by these
means the enemies of the Craft believed themselves to have succeeded in
from its roots, at least in the Philippine Island, the triple and
of men, Liberty, Fraternity, and Equality: Liberty to do right within
of the law under which the rights of the individual and minority is
well as those of the majority; Fraternity, in the sober sense which
men are children of a common Father; and Equality in the eyes of the
law, in political
rights and in the rights of conscience.
are three Masonic
publications now in the Philippines, viz., "Hojas Sueltas," a monthly
publication; and the "Far Eastern Freemason," a monthly publication;
the "Acacia," published fortnightly, besides these, there are many
issued by the various lodges.
Filipino Masons Active Patriots
the fights of the
Filipinos for their liberties the Filipino Freemasons have taken a
leading and active
Jose Rizal, called
the father of the Philippines, attorney Marcelo H. del Pilar, 33
degree, the founder
and the first leader of Philippine Freemasonry, Graciano Lopez Jaena,
founder of the "La Solidaridad," a fortnightly publication, were the
of the Filipino people in their fights for liberal reforms during the
Andres Bonifacio, the Father of the Katipunan, Emilio Jacinto, the
brain of the
Katipunan; Emilio Aguinaldo, 32 degree, President of the erstwhile
Apolinario Mabini, the brain of the Philippine Revolution; Antonio
of the army of the Philippine Republic, were the leaders in the fight
against Spain and afterwards against America. During the present but
for the final redemption of the Islands there stands, conspicuous, Hon.
Quezon, 32 degree, Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the
President of the Senate, and Ex-resident Filipino Commissioner in
the Filipino who has done more than any of his countrymen for the
passage in the
American Congress of the Jones Law, the preamble of which in part, is
"WHEREAS it is, as it has always been, the purpose
of the people of
the United States to withdraw their sovereignty over the Philippine
to recognize their independence as soon as a stable government can be
Rafael Palma, 32
degree, Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands,
and Ex-Secretary of the Interior; Hon. Teodoro M. Kalaw, 32 degree,
of the Regional Grand Lodge, Past Master of the Nilad Lodge No. 12 and
of the Interior; Hon. Isauro Gabaldon, 32 degree, Filipino Resident
Hon. Teodoro P,. Yangoo, 32 degree, Ex-resident Commissioner; Hon.
32 degree, Ex-resident Commissioner, and many other leading Filipinos,
an active part in Philippine affairs.
Masons fraternal confidence, sympathy and love. Masons are taught to
each other. And in this world, where there is so much cold suspicion
and distrust, is it not cheering to feel that there are faithful hearts
we can pour our sorrows and griefs and wrongs, and be assured that they
met by no sneering repulse, by no frigid exhortation to take care of
to manage your own affairs better; but rather by a warm brotherly
is at once interested for you, ready to soothe and counsel and aid.”
The Green Dragon Tavern,
Or Freemasons' Arms
Bro. Charles W. Moore, Massachusetts
the Goose and
Gridiron Tavern is in the ancient annals of London Freemasonry, The
Tavern is to the memories of the Free-mason, of Boston and New England.
In it and
about it revolved many of the most exciting activities of the Boston
times, not the least of which were the patriotic caucuses and plottings
of the brethren
who in those days held their lodge in that historic building. But there
is no need
here to expatiate upon that subject: the whole story is told at length
and in colourful
detail in the article printed below, which is an extract beginning on
page 155 of
"The Lodge of St. Andrew, and the Massachusetts Grand Lodge," printed
in Boston, 1870, "by vote of the Lodge of St. Andrew."
call to mind associations with the early history of a nation, always
possess a peculiar
interest to all lovers of their country, and the story belonging to
them is awakening,
as well as instructive. Among the famous places of Boston, in past
days, was a widely
known and celebrated building called The Green Dragon Tavern, situated
on the border
of a mill pond, in what is now Union Street, and near the corner of
"in its day," it was the best hostelry, of the town. The celebrity of
the "Green Dragon" however, is not now due to any remembered excellence
of hospitable entertainment, but for the social and political public
gatherings of the people, with other interesting local incident, for
of a century, antecedent to the American Revolution; and above all, for
patriotic, no less than timely consequential measures determined under
by the historic men of '76, who brought to pass that memorable Epoch.
It was indeed
the cradle of "Rebellion"; the chosen asylum, where the Revolutionary
master spirits, ‒ who organized successful resistance to British
aggression on the
liberties of the colonies, took grave counsel together.
the Masonic Fraternity
of Massachusetts, the old "Green Dragon," which, a century ago, began
to be called also "Freemasons' Arms," presents associations of especial
significance. It was here within its walls, that the Freemasonry of
was preserved in Grand Lodge jurisdiction, bright and vigorous; where
its hospitalities, and its good tidings were kept up between the years
1792, a period which witnessed the disruption, by reason of the war for
of important branches of the Order in Massachusetts. Still further,
this was the
scene of Warren's most intimate political and Masonic associations,
with the patriots
and Masons of his time.
the members of the
Lodge of St. Andrew, this estate, their own magnificent possession for
a hundred years, is endeared by ties which run over a still longer
picture of the Green
Dragon Tavern of any description, is known to be in existence save the
one now presented
in this "Memorial." This was engraved recently for the Lodge of St.
from a model which the Hon. N.B. Shurtleff prepared some years since,
with his usual
accurate and thorough knowledge of ancient noted Boston houses. From
in wood, with much painstaking on the part of the "Lodge," in the way
of exhibiting it for criticism to old inhabitants who were familiar
with the look
and details of this ancient structure which was removed forty-two years
present picture has been made. It is believed to be a faithful
it may also be affirmed that it is unanimously recognized as such by
is competent to judge.
the Records of the Lodge
a Quarterly Communication,
March 24, 1864 the Worshipful Master, Edward Stearns, called the
attention of the
Lodge to the fact that the Green Dragon Tavern was purchased by this
31, 1764, and that Thursday next, the 31st instant, would complete a
period of one
hundred years from the date of the deed of that estate. Whereupon, on
Brother Wellington, it was
That a committee
of five be appointed, with full power to make arrangements for
celebrating the Centennial
Anniversary of the purchase of the Green Dragon Tavern.
were appointed: A. A. Wellington, Charles W. Moore, J.R. Bradford,
Samuel P. Oliver,
and Isaac Cary.
motion of Brother
Palmer, it was
That the above
committee be increased to eight, that being the number of the original
appointed January 12, 1764, "to purchase a house for the benefit of the
of St. Andrew."
Brother Wm. F. Davis, Senior Warden, and Brother John P. Ober, were
to the committee.
Following Is the Lodge Record of
special meeting of
the Lodge of St. Andrew was held in the new building on the "Green
estate, Union Street, on Thursday evening, March 31, 1864, at 6 1/2
the purpose of celebrating the Centennial Anniversary of the purchase
of the Green
apartment in the
building was suitably decorated for the festival, and a bountiful
presided, and in a dignified, appropriate address, invoked the
attention of the
brethren to the ceremonies of the evening, and to the remarks of
members whom he
should call upon to speak upon the pleasant Masonic memories suggested
by the spot
whereon the Lodge was then assembled, and to the historical incidents
with the "ancient Inn." After a proper allusion to the distinguished
who had held Masonic intercourse together in times past in the hall of
Dragon," the Worshipful Master called up M.W. Brother Wm. Parkman:
stated that on the
12th day of January, 1764, the Lodge resolved by vote to purchase a
Thomas Milliken, Samuel Barrett, Edward Foster, Caleb Hopkins, Moses
Haskins, Joseph Webb, and John Jenkins were chosen a committee for that
On the succeeding 31st of March, Catherine Kerr, by her deed of that
in fee the premises known as the Green Dragon Tavern, unto the above
The estate was managed by committees of the Lodge until 1832, when the
conveyed to Brothers Benjamin Smith, Henry Purkett, Zephaniah Sampson,
Thomas W. Phillips, John Suter, and Ezekiel Bates, to be held by them
for the use and benefit of the Lodge of St. Andrew. In January 1852,
Purkett, and Suter being deceased, a new board of trustees, consisting
David Parker, E. Bates, T. W. Phillips, Z. Sampson, J.P. Ober, Thomas
and Wm. Parkman were chosen, to whom the premises were conveyed for the
benefit of the Lodge. Brother David Parker was chosen chairman, Brother
T. W. Phillips,
treasurer, and Brother Wm. Parkman, secretary. In 1855 Brother Parker
from the city, resigned as chairman, and Brother John P. Ober was
elected to fill
the vacancy. In 1859 Brother Phillips died, and Brother Resteaux was
Winslow Lewis then addressed the lodge, and said that:
By the dispensation of the Supreme Grand "Master, a
affliction has deprived us all of the presence of Brother Charles W.
whom we should have received the fullest information of those memorials
of the past,
which are so hallowed to the memories of every member of the Lodge of
who are now assembled to commemorate, on this spot, the associations
a locality dear to every Masonic heart, to every patriot's breast! But,
Master, our Brother Moore, though absent, and stricken by bereavement,
was not willing
to let this Centennial occasion pass by, without communicating such
facts relating to the Green Dragon Tavern as he had from time to time
And I therefore shall, with your permission sir, read a communication
on this subject,
which my Brother Moore has handed me, to be presented to the Lodge at
of the Green Dragon Tavern
perhaps the single
exception of Faneuil Hall, there was no public building in Boston at
the close of
the last century, which had acquired a more extensive notoriety or
filled a larger
place in the local history of the town, than the old "Green Dragon
I need not trouble you with any particular description of it, for that
will be given
by one who is pre-eminently distinguished for his extensive and
of all the interesting historical localities of the city.
have no record or
other authentic evidence of the fact, but there can be little doubt
that St. Andrew's
Lodge, which was, in its incipiency, composed largely of North-End men,
and was informally organized in the "Long Room," so-called, in the
end of this Tavern, in the year 1752. It is nevertheless proper to say,
inference is predicated on the known fact, that it was in this Hall
that in 1756
it was re-organized and commenced work under a Charter from the Grand
Lodge of Scotland,
a circumstance that would not have probably occurred, had not the Hall
occupied by it, and was then in a condition suited to its purposes. And
is strengthened by the additional fact, that it continued to hold its
meetings here until the year 1818, when it was removed to the Exchange
was in this "Long
Room," also, where so much of our Revolutionary history was made, that
Massachusetts Grand Lodge an offshoot of St. Andrew's Lodge with Joseph
its Grand Master, was organized on the 27th of December, 1769, and
hold its meetings until its union with the St. John's Grand lodge in
1697 the tavern was
kept by John Cary, and was at that early day, and perhaps earlier,
known as the
Green Dragon Tavern.
1764 the property
was purchased by St. Andrew's Lodge, when it took the name of
Arms," the new proprietors having placed a large Square and Compass on
front of the building. It however soon after dropped this title, and
was more popularly
known as "Masons' Hall"; by which name it continued to be Masonically
designated until the removal of the Lodge, when it resumed its ancient
"Green Dragon Tavern."
the 24th of June,
1772, the festival of St. John the Baptist, was celebrated by the
Grand Lodge, by a public procession, formed at Concert Hall, the
in full regalia to Christ Church in Salem street, where "a very
pertinent discourse was preached by the Rev. Samuel Fayerweather, of
after which they returned to Masons' Hall, and "dined together in the
under a long Tent erected for that purpose; and the remainder of the
day was dedicated
to mirth and social festivity."
garden here spoken
of, was in the rear of the house, and extended northerly to the water,
the ground now occupied by Mr. Riddle as a salesroom. Our late Brother
said to me that he was accustomed in his boyhood days, to fish for
the lower end of this garden; which, in early times, extended to what
was then known
as the "Mill Pond." -a large basin of salt water, cut off from Charles
River by dykes, and used for mill and other purposes. It was here that
in the winter-time
the "North-End Boys" and the "West Enders" used to fight their
mimic, and not always bloodless, sectional battles, until, after the
of several serious mishaps, they were interfered with and their sports
by the Selectmen of the town. It is hardly necessary to say that the
occupied by this pond is now an extensive business section of the city.
were present at
the above celebration, M.W. Joseph Warren, Grand Master; R. W. Joseph
Paul Revere, S.G.W., pro tem.; Thomas Crafts, J.G.W. pro tem.; Samuel
Treasurer; Wm. Palfrey, G. Secretary; and the Masters, Wardens, and
St. Andrew's Tyrian, Massachusetts, and St. Peter's Lodges, together
with a sufficient
number of visitors to make a company of ninety-seven brethren, which at
day was a very large and full attendance.
were at this time of rare occurrence. One of the earliest of which we
have any record,
took place on St. John's Day, Dec. 27, 1749, and was the occasion of
and interest in the community. It called forth from a learned wit a
in which the circumstance is treated with much satirical humor and
author of this poem was Joseph Green, a merchant of town, and
undoubtedly an Anti-Mason,
though it would be difficult to tell from what motive, unless it was
that he had
failed to obtain admission into "the Lodge." But whatever the motive
have been, the poem is so well done and so keen in its satire, that I
do not hesitate
to quote a few passages for your amusement. The marching of the
Procession is thus
"See! Buck before the apron'd throng,
Marches with sword and book along;
The stately ram, with courage bold,
So stalks before the fleecy fold,
And so the gander, on the brink
Of river, leads his geese to drink."
keeper of the Royal
Exchange Tavern, where Masonic meetings were at one time held, is taken
in this wise:
"Where's honest Luke? that cook from London;
For without Luke the Lodge is undone.
'Twas he who oft dispell'd their sadness,
And filled the Brethren's heart with gladness
Luke in return is made a Brother,
As good and true as any other,
And still, though broke with age and wine,
Preserves the token and the sign."
another place Luke
comes in with less credit
"The high, the low, the great and small,
James Perkins short, and Aston tall;
Johnson as bulky as a house,
And Wethered smaller than a louse.
We all agree, both wet and dry,
From drunken Luke to sober I."
Lewis Turner as "Pump Turner," probably from his occupation. Dr. Thomas
Aston figures as "Aston tall." Francis Johonnet is called "laughing
Frank," and is thus nicely introduced:
"But still I see a numerous train:
Shall they, alas! unsung remain?
Sage Hallowell, of public soul,
And laughing Frank, friend to the bowl;
Meek Rea, half smother'd in the crowd,
And Rowe, who sings at church so loud."
was an apothecary
and grocer; Hallow here referred to, was probably Captain Benjamin
active and influential Mason; John Rea was a ship-chandler, and kept in
Row; John Rowe afterwards Grand Master, was a distinguished merchant
and lived in Essex street, and the owner of Rowe's pasture, through
which Rowe street
now runs; Buck, probably means Buckley member of the First Lodge, as
were also Henry
Whethered and Henry Johnson.
brethren, in these
early days of the Institution in the colonies, were more particular in
of the winter and summer festivals of the Order (Dec. 27th and June
24th) than their
successors have been. These celebrations, however were not always
public. On the
contrary, I believe that of the 24th of June, 1772, was an exceptional
case in the
history of the Massachusetts Grand Lodge; and, consequently, in that of
Lodge; for the two bodies, on all occasions, moved as a unit, and held
together at the Green Dragon. I will not occupy your time by referring
to them in
the order in which they took place, but that of 1773, being the last
General Warren's name is connected as being present, I deem it worthy
notice in this connection; and this cannot be done more satisfactory
than in the
words of the record. The annual communication of the Grand Lodge was
held this year,
on the 3d of December, and after the ordinary business had been
disposed of, the
Grand Master (Warren) then desired the opinion of the Grand Officers
respect to Celebrating the Feast of St. John the Evangelist, 27th
The Feast be Celebrated the 27th Instant, at Masons' Hall (at the Green
of the Grand Lodge of St. Andrew's, and the Massachusetts Lodges, agree
provide the dinner, and that three Brethren be desired to joyn the
Bruce, Proctor [and] Love.
be advertised in the Public Prints."
accordingly find in
the "Boston Evening Post," of December 20, 1773, the following
"THE Brethren of the Honourable Society of Free and
are hereby notified, That the Most Worshipful JOSEPH WARREN, Esq.,
of the Continent of America; intends to Celebrate the Feast of St. JOHN
on Monday the 27th of December Inst. at Free Masons' Hall (at the Green
Boston, where the Brethren are requested to attend the Festival.
By Order of the Most Worshipful Grand Master. Wm.
Hoskiss, G. Sec'y.
"N.B. Tickets may be had of Mess. Nathaniel Coffin,
junr., William Mollineaux,
junr., and Mr. Daniel Bell.
"The Table will be furnished at Two o'clock."
was held in the Long Room of the Green Dragon on the 27th, and the
as being present, "M.W. Joseph Warren, Esq., Grand Master; Hon. Wm.
Esq.; Rev. Dr. Samuel Mather; Worshipful Joseph Webb, Esq.; and
including the Grand Officers."
had formerly been
some degree of coldness between the two Grand Lodges in the Province;
as was natural
enough in view of the causes which led to the organization of the
It is therefore the more gratifying to find on the record such
of the fraternal feeling existing between them at this time, as the
Grand Master was pleased to direct three Brethren, viz: Jona. Williams,
and H. Hatell, to wait upon The Most Worshipful John Rowe, Esq., Gd.
Grand Officers and Brethren at Their Feast, at Col. Ingersoll (Bunch of
to acquaint them, the Healths would be drank at half after 4 o'clock.
returned for answer, that Grand Master Rowe and the Brethren concerned
the Compliment at that period."
give the following
summary of the "Reckoning on this occasion as a matter of curious
dinners a 3 s
dbtle. Bowles Punch
Bottles Port a 3 s
do. Madeira, a 4 s
‒ 40 Tickets at 6 s
"Punch" was a favorite Beverage in the days which we are speaking, and
very large "double Punch Bowles" were a fashionable, if not a necessary
appendage to the dinner table on all public occasions; nor we they
until a much later date.
late Brother John
J. Loring was initiated in Masonry at the Green Dragon, and used to
quiet humor, the appearance of Brother Eben'r Oliver, one of the
mechanics, and the Closet Steward of the Lodge, while in the discharge
of what the
brethren then doubtless held be one of the most important of his
He was a large portly man, and without exaggeration, might exclaim with
"I am in the waist two yards about."
He was ............."fat, Sleek-headed, and such as sleep o'nights…
"In fair, round belly, with good capon lined."
withal a most excellent,
amiable, and faithful brother.
Lodge having reached
a convenient resting place in its "work," the brethren were called from
labor to refreshment, and refreshments in those days was what the word
in its common
acceptation implies. At this interesting period of the proceedings,
never failed promptly to present himself at the door, in his best, "bib
tucker," bearing a huge Punch Bowl! one half resting on his
huge abdominal protuberance, the other supported his brawny arms. Thus
for the encounter, the brethren being seated "in order," with their
in hand, he, with dignified solemnity, and fully impressed with the
the business before him slowly commenced his tour of duty, paying his
to the Master in the "East," and then passing regularly around the
until the members were all supplied, or in the technical language of
the day, "all
charged," and waiting the order of the Master. He then slowly retired,
the benedictions of his brethren, and a consciousness of having
his share in the "work" of the evening!
a scene would not
commend itself to favor at the present time; but it was one of a class
in the Lodges, but with modifications, in the social, civil, literary
societies of that early day, when …
The funeral baked meats
Did coldly furnish forth the marriage tables."
was in the "Long
Room" of the Green Dragon that on the 28th of August, 1769, the present
Andrew's Chapter was organized as a Royal Arch Lodge, under the
authority of the
Charter of St. Andrew's Lodge. This degree was anciently given in
which arrangement was subsequently changed, and it was conferred in
Royal Arch Lodges,
attached to and working under the authority of the Charters of Craft
present Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of Ireland still retain a
provision in the following words: "Every Warrant to hold Councils or
shall be granted to some warranted or acknowledged Lodge to which a
Royal Arch Chapter
is attached; and shall not only bear the same number, but shall be held
in the same
place in which the Lodge and Chapter usually hold their meetings."
Warren was a
member of this Lodge, and being present in 1770, the year after its
the record says he "gave his opinion in favor of holding (continuing)
Arch Lodge until he should receive instructions from Scotland. If then
he will grant them a Charter therefor." There is no evidence that such
was required or issued, and the Lodge continued to hold its meetings at
place, and under its original authority, until the 25th of November,
1790, at which
date we find in the records the following vote:
Matthew Groves be a committee to return the thanks of this Lodge to St.
Lodge for their politeness in granting us the use of their Charter.
Warren, as before
stated, was a member of the Royal Arch Lodge, as were also Col. Joseph
Paul Revere, and other prominent members of St. Andrew's Lodge. Indeed,
of the twenty-one
members who composed the Royal Arch Lodge in 1769, fourteen of them
of St. Andrew's Lodge. In 1794 this Lodge assumed the name of a "Royal
Chapter," and in 1798 it united with King Cyrus Chapter of Newburyport,
at Masons' Hall, in the "Green Dragon Tavern," organized the Grand
Arch Chapter of Massachusetts.
the 17th of May,
1770, the petitioners for "the Massachusetts Lodge," which was a scion
of St. Andrew's Lodge, met at "Masons' Arms," in the "Green Dragon
Tavern," and organized that body. It held its second meeting at the
on the following 4th of June, and was then removed to "Concert Hall."
And on the 10th of November, 1795, Columbian Lodge also held a meeting
at the "Green
Dragon." These were the only occasions when the "Long Room" was ever
occupied by any other private Masonic Lodge than our own. Columbian
Lodge was at
this date located at Concert Hall, and its occupancy of the room on the
referred to, was probably a matter of accommodation to the proprietors
of that establishment,
which was then the popular resort for dancing parties and other social
it is perhaps to
the political associations which cluster around its name, that the
Tavern is more particularly indebted for its historic celebrity. It was
many of the most important and eventful of the political transactions
the Revolution were, if not positively inaugurated, discussed, matured
and put into
execution. That this was so, is undoubtedly in some measure to be
by the fact, that the Hall in the building was the only room in the
of the town, excepting Deblois's Hall, on the corner of Queen and
which at that time was adapted to popular assemblies; and by the
perhaps more significant fact, that the principal leaders of the
Revolution in Boston,
were members of the Masonic Fraternity, and many of them of the Lodge
its communications there, a circumstance which would very naturally
in the selection of the place for their private consultations. It is
to be inferred from this, that they either met as Masons or used
Masonry as a cover
to their purposes; for others than Masons were associated with them.
But be this
as it may, it will not be irrelevant nor perhaps wholly uninteresting
to the members
of the lodge, to refer briefly to some of the more popular purposes to
Hall, in the early days of its history, was appropriated.
of the largest,
and perhaps one of the most efficient of the political clubs which
sprung into existence
during the troublous times of 1768, and onward, was that known as "The
Caucus." This body was composed almost exclusively of North-End
distinguished for their daring and activity, and held its meetings in
the Hall of
the "Green Dragon Tavern." Warren who, Frothingham says, was idolized
by the North-Enders," was an influential member of it, as were Revere
of his personal friends.
Hall was also used
as a central and safe place for the meetings of private committees and
clubs, with which Warren, as chairman of the "Committee of Safety," was
in frequent consultation, and directed their movements. Barry, in his
Massachusetts, says: "The town (Boston) was full of clubs and caucuses,
were used with effect to secure unity of action; and the hardy
mechanics who had
done so much to promote the industrial prosperity of the metropolis,
and who now
acted as patrols, were the steady supporters of the patriot cause. In
the artifices of loyalists employed to seduce them to compliance with
of his excellency; and when their services were required at the
barracks, 'all the
carpenters of the town and country' left off work; and British gold was
to tempt them, though 'hundreds were ruined, and thousands were half
they went further, and obstructed the works of the governor. His
supplies of straw
were set on fire; his boats conveying bricks were sunk; and his wagons
timbers were overturned."
character and services
of these important Clubs are well illustrated by our Brother Paul
Revere, in his
narrative of the events of 1775, when he says, about thirty persons,
mechanics, had agreed to watch the movements of the British soldiers
and the Tories,
in anticipation of their descent on Concord. These patriots met at the
Tavern. "We were so careful," he says, "that our meetings should
be kept secret, that every time we met, every person swore upon the
Bible that they
(he) would not discover any of our transactions, but to Messrs.
Hancock, Drs. Warren
and Church, and one or two more leaders. They took turns to watch the
two by two, by patrolling the streets all night."
reference to this
club, Elliott, in his history of New England, has the following: "Among
most active of the Sons of Liberty was Paul Revere. In the Fall and
Winter of 1774-5,
some of the best Boston mechanics formed themselves into a club, to
watch the doings
of the British soldiers. They were 'High Sons of Liberty,' and men of
met at the Green Dragon Tavern; and every man swore on the Bible that
be revealed except to Samuel Adams, John Hancock, Dr. Warren, and Dr.
(the latter a traitor). Revere was a leading man in this club, and was
sent by Warren
on the night of the 18th of April to notify Hancock and Adams of the
the British troops on Lexington and Concord, at the former of which
two patriots were concealed.
of these Clubs
which held their meetings at the Green Dragon Tavern, was the
Publico," of which Warren was the leading spirit, and in which, says
"the plans of the Sons of Liberty were matured."
is to be regretted
that no authentic record of the names of the persons who composed the
Party in 1774, has come down to us. "But," says Frothingham, "as
Warren was presented to the Privy Council as one of the prominent
actors in these
proceedings, and was held up by his political opponents at home, as one
of the Mohawks,"
and as "he was not one to shrink from any post of duty, it is not more
that he was one of the band who threw the tea overboard, than that his
Hancock (captain of the Cadets) should have been one of the guard to
tradition of the
Lodge is, that all the preliminary measures in this affair were matured
at the Green
Dragon, and that the execution of them was committed mainly to the
members of the
North-End Caucus, that stalwart and fearless band of North-End
directing genius was Warren, having the cooperation of the more daring
of the "Sons
of Liberty." That Warren was present as a leader in the affair, does
of any serious doubt; nor is there any question that his personal
Adams, John Hancock, Joseph Webb, Paul Revere, Thomas Melville, Adam
Purkett (who used modestly to say he was present only as a spectator,
and in disobedience
to the orders of his Master, who was actively present), and other
patriots of the
day, were cognizant of it, and some of whom at least are known to have
in its final consummation. It was the first act in the great drama, the
of which was the independence of the country.
referred to above, with whom our late Brother Purkett served his
was Samuel Peck, a cooper by trade, and one of the leading and
of the "North-End Caucus." He was also an active member of St. Andrew's
Lodge, a connection which strengthens the tradition of the Lodge, that
for the famous Tea Party was first spread in its "Long Room." Among the
members of the Lodge, who are known to have taken an active part in the
were Adam Collson, Thomas Chase, Samuel Gore, Daniel Ingollson, Samuel
Proctor, Henry Purkitt, and Thomas Urann.
have looked in vain
for a copy of an old revolutionary song said to have been written and
sung as a
"rallying song" by the "tea party" at the Green Dragon. The
following fragment, though probably not in all respects an exact
transcript of the
original, will indicate its general character:
Rally, Mohawks! bring out your axes!
And tell King George we'll pay no taxes
On his Foreign tea!
His threats are vain and vain to think
To force our girls and wives to drink
His 'vile Bohea!
Then rally boys, and hasten on
To meet our Chiefs at the Green Dragon.
Our Warren's there, and bold Revere,
With hands to do and words to cheer
For Liberty and Laws!
Our country's "Braves" and firm defenders,
Shall ne'er be left by true North-Enders,
Fighting Freedom's cause!
Then rally boys, and hasten on
To meet our Chiefs at the Green Dragon.
regret not being able
to give the balance of this song, but perhaps some curious antiquary
discover it, if it ever appeared in print. I am inclined to think,
it was a doggerel made for the occasion, and passed away when it ceased
to be of
use, or appropriate. The two stanzas I have reproduced, are given as
nearly as my
memory serves, as they were often recited more than a third of a
century ago, by
the late Brother Benjamin Gleason, who, born near the time, was curious
up interesting reminiscences of the revolutionary period of our history.
January 1788, a meeting
of the mechanics and artisans of Boston was held at the Green Dragon
there passed a series of resolutions urging the importance of adopting
Constitution, then pending before a Convention of delegates from
of the State. Hon. Daniel Webster, in a speech delivered by him at
Andover, in the
autumn of 1843, referring to this meeting and these resolutions, holds
was a particular
set of resolutions, founded on this very idea of favoring home
of energy and decision, passed by the mechanics of Boston. And where
did the mechanics
of Boston meet to pass them? Full of the influence of these feelings,
at the Head-Quarters of the Revolution. I see, waving among the banners
that of the old Green Dragon. It was there, in Union Street, that John
Revere," (both members of the Lodge,) "and others of their class, met
for consultation. There, with earnestness and enthusiasm, they passed
A committee carried them to the Boston delegation in the Convention,"
Revere, whom Mr.
Webster in a previous address, delivered on another occasion, says,
man of sense and character, and of high public spirit, whom the
mechanics of Boston
ought never to forget," was chairman of this committee. He placed them
hands of Samuel Adams.
said Mr. Adams, "were at the Green Dragon when these resolutions were
"More, sir," was the reply, "than the Green Dragon could hold."
"And where were the rest, Mr. Revere?" "In the streets, sir."
"And how many were in the streets?" "More, sir, than there are stars
in the sky."
late Hon. Edward
Everett, in an address on the Battle of Lexington, delivered at
Lexington on the
19th of April, 1835, speaking of the patriot Samuel Adams, says:
"He was among the earliest and ablest writers on
the patriotic side.
He caught the plain, downright style of the Commonwealth in Great
than most of his associates, he understood the efficacy of personal
with the people. It was Samuel Adams, more than any other individual,
the question home to their bosoms and firesides, not by profound
elaborate reports, though these in their place were not spared, but in
the club rooms, at the Green Dragon, in the ship-yards, in actual
to man and heart to heart."
Old South Church
was, in these stirring times, called by the patriots, the Sanctuary of
while, on the other hand, the Green Dragon Tavern was denounced by the
a Nest of Traitors! The distinction in these appellations is more
obvious than the
difference! The enemies of the tyrannical and oppressive measures of
were all either patriots or traitors, according to the standard by
which they were
give these anecdotes
as striking and forcible illustrations of the popular character of the
and of the important part which the mechanics of the North-End played
affairs, at that day. It is not however, to be inferred that the
in other sections of the town were inactive. That the former appear
than other of their class, is probably owing to the circumstance that
was then the business part of the town, and where most of the
were carried on.
can, I think, be
safely assumed, that from the year 1767, when the Townshend Revenue
Acts were passed,
imposing a Tax on Tea, creating a Board of Customs, and legalizing
Writs of Assistance,
to the close of the War of Independence, there was not an other public
the whole country, and assuredly not in Massachusetts, where so much of
history" of the Revolutionary period was made, as at the old Green
and it is to be deeply regretted that the subject was not attended to
history could have been intelligently and reliably written. It is now
The patriotic men who alone could have furnished the material have
and they have taken their "secret" with them.
Mr. Webster, who
was perhaps better read in the early local history and events of the
period than any other public man of his time, described the Green
as the "Head-Quarters of the Revolution," he wrote the title page, and
opened a volume, which, if written as he alone could have written it,
been an addition to the early political annals of the Commonwealth of
interest and importance.
the article on "An
Early Masonic Document of South Carolina," by Samuel Oppenheim, in our
number, our attention has been called by the author to a misreading in
of some of the names in the facsimile petition and in giving the names
of the signers
on behalf of the various lodges. The name in the petition printed as E.
should, according to Mackey's History of Freemasonry In South Carolina,
Weyman, and that printed as G. McArthur, Jr. Grand Warden should be
Junr. Grand Warden. In the list of lodge signers, Sam Campbell, of
Lodge No. 4,
should read Law. Campbell; Lodge No. 5, Alex. Roff should be Alex.
Ross; Lodge No.
8, T. Reid should be S. Reid; Lodge No. 10, E. W. Weyman again should
be Cav: Weyman;
Lodge No. 11, Samuel Pilbury should be Samuel Pilsbury; Lodge No. 16,
should be Jabez Borten; Lodge No. 17, J. N. Mitchell should be Jno.
the account of the
signers the reference to E. W. Weyman, Lodge No. 10 should be Cav:
Weyman; and the
reference to Simon Magwood should read: Simon Magwood, of Lodge No. 14,
Master in 1802. In 1828 he wrote to the Grand Lodge asking to be
excused from further
attendance because of age, saying he had attended meetings for forty
years. He then
presented his apron to the Grand Lodge, of which he was thereupon made
of a Mason should be, as his duty is, to trust in God. This thought
leads the true
Mason to desire His aid and guidance. From this comes Faith: and then
inciting to action. Trust and Hope inspire confidence in government and
‒ H.G. Reynolds.
A German Masonic Bibliography
BIBLIOGRAPHIE DER FREIMAURERISCHEN LITERATUR; by
August Wolfstieg. Published
1911-13 by the Verein Deutscher Freimaurer,
Germany. Vol. I, 1990 pp. [Lib 1911 (German,
large volume)]; Vol. II, 1041
Vol. III (Register), 536 pp. Octavo, paper covers, weight twelve
reprint, Leipzig, 1923. Price $18.00, carriage extra. Obtainable
through the National
Masonic Research Society, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
MAKING MANY BOOKS
THERE IS NO END; and much study is a weariness to the flesh." The
who thus admonished his readers may not have been a member of our
ancient and Honorable
Fraternity. I seriously doubt it, yet his words are decidedly
applicable to the
voluminous literature of the Craft. One little suspects how many books
written about Freemasonry until he turns the pages of the three large
Wolfstieg's masterpiece named above. His name is familiar to Masonic
with the German language, for he ranks among the foremost Continental
the present day; but for all his other writings his fame will be
preserved to Masonic
posterity through this stupendous bibliography of Craft literature.
bibliography known is the four page list included in the Almanach des
for 1757. Other compilations were made in later years, of which
der Freimaurerei by Karl Christoph Stiller, published in 1830, was by
far the most
pretentious. It described 1052 Masonic publications.
was not the first European of his period to consider the publication of
Masonic bibliography. His efforts were preceded by those of Friedrich
and Johann Christian Gaedicke (1763-?) who had each compiled lists, but
never published in book form. Mossdorf, however, did publish (1826) his
der Mysterien and Geheime Verbindungen, which was part of the proposed
but unfortunately, never printed.
German Masonic literature
of the first half of the last century clearly indicates an active
interest in the
Fraternity. Only sixteen years elapsed after the publication of
when the foremost volume of its kind for that century appeared, the
der Freimaurerei, by Dr. Georg Klosz, published in Frankfort in 1844.
a list of over 5400 titles, and added greatly to the value of his book
of explanatory notes. This volume completely overshadowed all previous
which are of value now only as curiosities of Masonic literature.
contribution to Masonic bibliography was the supplement to Klosz’s
by Reinhold Taute, Maurerische Buecherkunde: Ein Wegweiser durch die
Freimaurerei, published in 1886. Early books not known to Klosz were
the list is especially complete in hooks published between 1844 and
1885. It has
copious notes, and is an improvement on Klosz inasmuch as a more
of subjects is made.
of the Masonic Fraternity in the years following 1886 made it very
prepare a new bibliography of Masonic books. As early as 1903 the
Freimaurer considered the subject, and after careful deliberation, a
was appointed to devise ways and means of undertaking the colossal
task. Prof. Dr.
August Wolfstieg was appointed chairman of the committee which was
to carry cut the assignment, an appropriation of approximately $6500
was made, and
under Wolfstieg's leadership, five ladies, experienced in library work,
months in visiting Continental libraries and gathering necessary data.
of material was begun in October 1910, and in the following year the
of Wolfstieg's Bibliographie der Freimaurerischen Literatur appeared.
was published in 1912, and the Register (index) followed in 1913.
is essential to examine
the books carefully in order to fully appreciate the value. They are
designed for reading or study for such close application to the volumes
"a weariness to the flesh." Yet to the critical student of Masonry, and
to librarians especially, the work is a positive necessity.
43,000 titles which
the first two volumes contain are divided into two large
and historical. The first of these is subdivided into nineteen general
which the following are a few: bibliography, catalogs, journals,
collections and serial works, anthologies and songs, addresses and
essays, etc. One hundred and eighty-seven pages, comprising 3771 items,
to this first division.
treats of Masonic history under fifty-four heads. The first nine
include books and
articles on introduction to Masonic history, secret societies and their
the history of Freemasonry in general, early history, the mysteries and
art of ancient times, medieval period, the Renaissance and the
classical period, and the general history of Freemasonry after the
of the Grand Lodge of England. Thirty-four heads treat of Masonic
history in various
parts of the world by geographical classification. The remaining
books on military lodges, biographies, catalogues of Masonic
medals, seals, heraldry, hieroglyphics, topography and chronology.
original plan was
to include only German publications, but after the work was begun, it
decided not to entirely omit foreign language publications. A list of
consulted clearly indicates, with the exception of one American, three
two French and three Dutch lists, that very little attention was given
but German indexes. It is to be regretted that the many existing
English and American
catalogs were not consulted, among them those of the Iowa Masonic
Rapids, Iowa; the Supreme council, A. & A. S. R., Washington,
D. C.; Library
of Enoch T. Carson, valuable because of comprehensive and illuminating
Masonic Library of General Samuel C. Lawrence, now in the possession of
Lodges of Massachusetts; Library of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania;
which might be mentioned. These could have been obtained without
it is possible that
the absence of many English and American publications in this
bibliography par excellence
may stimulate an energetic American Masonic association or an
to prepare a bibliography of Masonic books and noteworthy magazine
have appeared in the English language. Such an enterprise would, of
a labor of love; but to anyone familiar with the literature of the
Craft, the assignment
would not be a difficult task. I confess that I should like to
undertake it myself.
‒ J. H. Tatsch.
Theophrastus Bombastus Von
Hohenheim, Otherwise Called Paracelsus
AND INFLUENCE AS PHYSICIAN, CHEMIST AND REFORMER [Lib 1920], by John Maxson Stillman, Professor of Chemistry
Emeritus, Stanford University, Published by The Open Court Publishing
Order from National Masonic Research Society, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
Cloth, 184 pages,
bibliography, illustrated. Price $2.10.
had smashed up Roman civilization there ensued a period of restlessness
tribes and nations ran about like grasshoppers in a field; governments
went like smoke; and the chief business of man was to rant about over
making war. In the course of time this vast and bloody confusion
settled down, and
the Barbarians themselves learned how to behave as civilized people:
built; highways were laid; morals were adopted; and the tribes came
under the steady
influence of civil law. Slowly there uprose upon this foundation a
system of thought
which culminated after several centuries in what we call Scholasticism.
System (it may be so called) rested ("rested" is an accurate word here,
because the system had a rigidity about it like crystals) upon two vast
the ultimate authority of the Pope in morals and religion; and the
Aristotle in science. Men did not begin by asking, What are the facts?
say the authorities? The naturalist said. What did Pliny write? The
more anxious to learn the text of Galen, or Avicenna, than to know the
temperature. If the dicta of the authorities did not coincide with
facts, so much
the worse for facts! Such was the spirit of the time.
our eyes this Great
System was a house of cloud hanging suspended in the heaven, having in
it no substance
of fact, and under it no solid foundation: but to the men of the time
it was anything
but cloud like, for it was built solidly into the human scheme of
things; the force
of armies was behind it; laws upheld it; superstition confirmed it; and
countless vested interests to protect it. The individual who set
himself up in opposition
dashed his head against a wall of brass.
break-up of the
Great System was one of the most exciting periods in all of human
history; at any
rate, the story of it is exciting to read, for it was a season of
alarms and excursions,
a huge confusion, a tremendous anarchy. A world broke into pieces, and
divided into before and after. Nature, reason, and the logic of facts
made war upon
authority, and great was the battle, like some dim struggle in the
Gog and Magog. The principal leaders in the warfare were almost all
who went about with blood running down their faces, striving mightily.
Few of them
stand out of the scene with any distinctness, for they labored in smoke
and darkness, and what glimpses we can get of them are like vivid
in lightning flashes. Luther, Erasmus, Leonardo, Copernicus, Columbus,
Machiavelli, Vesalius, Lorenzo, and the phoenix-like Savonarola, these
companions in the struggle, where is there a one about whom we have
clear and adequate
knowledge? They are one and all children of storm, and the objects of
is a sense in
which the most typical of all these protagonists is Theophrastus
Bombastus von Hohenheim,
better known by his own invented cognomen of Paracelsus, which name
itself is a
symbol of the man. For it was chosen for controversial purposes. This
born two years before Columbus arrived on these western shores, was a
kind of monstrosity,
half giant and half dwarf, with medieval superstition rampant in one
of his brain, and modern thought bursting in the other. He fought, bled
made war on the Pope and on Luther, set up one school of medicine and
another, engaged in countless controversies, and spent years rushing
in search of knowledge like a man in a fever. His whole career is a
kind of tortured
hieroglyph of his period, which every man should be familiar with.
a strange life
he led! His grandfather was a Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. His
a physician, and his mother a nurse, so that he came by his
predilection for medicine
quite naturally. Early in his life he turned away in disgust from the
useless "knowledge" then taught in the "schools" and started
out to learn about things at first hand. Instead of wearing his eyes
out on the
old manuscripts he sought knowledge where it can alone be found, in
nature, in facts,
through direct observation of things as they are. While his chums were
by rote the impossible theories of Pliny and Galen, he went into the
mines and there
learned chemistry and physics, insofar as that was then possible. For a
served as town physician of Basel but soon the wise old owls scented
and drove him out. For years he travelled about experimenting,
prying for facts. He died in 1541 in poor circumstances.
achievement was to ally medicine with chemistry, a thing which, though
it is a commonplace
with us, appeared to be a wild innovation to his contemporaries. But
and most enduring achievement was that he helped so mightily to knock
from under the old authoritativeness of the schools in order to
and scientists to go direct to nature for their knowledge. To learn by
and experiment, that was his battle cry, and with it he made his
impression on his
age, and helped to bring in the modern world.
‒ H. L. H.
* * *
HOW TO KNOW
HIM [Lib 1915],
by William Lyon
Phelps; published by the Bobbs-Merrill Company, at $1.25.
is a happy day
for those scribblers who like to write "How to" books "How to"
plant your own garden; "How to" take care of your own automobile; "How
to" learn French in twenty lessons; and all that, ad infinitum. Most of
books are wearisome to the flesh, the mind, and the spirit, as is
lacks originality, verve, imagination, and that puts you in the
attitude of a school
boy conning his a b c's. The present volume is one of a series of "How
books, namely, "How to Know Authors"; and the series is edited by Will
D. Howe; and published by Bobbs-Merrill who know "how to" run a
business at Indianapolis, which is a city where James Whitcomb Riley
undertook to read
this series by way of the How to Know Dante, by Alfred M. Brooks; and,
sincere apologies to Mr. Brooks, found the volume as dull as a time
table. It was
the kind of a book that a machine might write. But with Robert
Browning, How to
Know Him I had better luck, as one might expect in a volume done by so
and clever a litterateur as William Lyon Phelps, who is, for those that
know it, Lampson Professor of English Literature at Yale University. No
of the book could be written than that furnished us by the author
himself in his
wee bit of a Preface:
"In this volume I have attempted to give an account
of Browning's life
and an estimation of his character: to set forth, with sufficient
his poems, his theory of poetry, his aim and method: to make clear some
of the leading
ideas of his work: to show his fondness for paradox: to exhibit the
nature and basis
of his optimism. I have given in complete form over fifty of his poems,
preceded by my interpretation of its meaning and significance."
promises are one
and all carried out to a "T", and with flash, too, and not at all like
things done by most professors of literature when they try their own
hands at the
is terra incognita
to many, especially to men, who ask for poetry that is not only simple
as Milton ordained that it should be, but also rapid, and dramatic, as
Kipling showed them how it could be made. Browning is not simple, he is
and he is not to be understood save by a certain amount of work, which
is a thing
that men disdain to devote to poetry, as a usual thing. This is a
shame, and to
these same men a great loss, for Browning is pre-eminently a man's
poet, and was
a real man in his own proper person, and has something worthwhile for
men, far more
worthwhile than the sentimental tin panning that many more easy and
give a man in return for his time.
volume Browning is no longer a prickly cactus, full of metaphysical
for the interpretative functionings of a Browning Society, but is a
Burbanked, thoroughly introduced, made acquainted, and easily
more need be said
about the book than this, for, being on a non-Masonic theme, it is not
a fit subject for the Library Department of a strictly Masonic journal;
but I shall
quote a rather extensive page from Professor Phelps' book, and that for
a sly reason
of my own, which a Mason may understand. This quotation has to do with
known as "The Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister." Read it with care and
of the Spanish Cloister' differs from most of the Dramatic Monologues
in not being
addressed to a listener; but the difference is more apparent than real;
other person is in plain view all the time, and the Soliloquy would
have no point
were it not for the peaceful activities of Friar Lawrence. This poem,
while it deals
ostensibly with the lives of only two monks, gives us a glimpse into
the whole monastic
system. When a number of men retired into a monastery and shut out the
certain sins and ambitions were annihilated, while others were
All outside interests vanished; but sin remained, for it circulates in
heart as naturally as blood in the body. The cloister was simply a
with the nobleness and meanness of human nature exceedingly
conspicuous. When the
men were once enclosed in the cloister walls, they knew that they must
live in that
circumscribed spot till the separation of death. Naturally therefore
affections, envies, jealousies, would be writ large; human nature would
itself in a manner most interesting to a student, if only he could live
a detached way. This is just what Browning tries to do; he tries to
with the monks, and to practice his profession as the Chronicler of
only way to
realize what the monastic life really meant would be to image a small
situated in the country, and the passage of a decree that not a single
leave the college grounds until his body was committed to the tomb. The
interests of the world would quickly grow dim and eventually vanish;
would be concentrated within the community. I suppose that the passions
hatred, and jealousy would be prodigiously magnified. There must have
among the monks of the middle ages compared to which our boasted
are thin and pale; and there must have been frightful hatreds and
all communities there are certain persons that get on the nerves of
the only way to avoid this acute suffering is to avoid meeting the
person who causes
it. But imagine a cloister where dwells a man you simply cannot endure:
he says, every motion he makes, every single mannerism of walk and
speech is intolerable.
Now you must live with this man until one of you dies: you must sit
him at meals, you cannot escape constant contact. Your only resource is
soliloquies: but if you have a sufficiently ugly disposition, you can
upon him in a thousand secret ways.
unconsciously and innocently fans the flames of hatred in our speaker's
because he does not dream of the effect he produces. Every time he
talks at table
about the weather, the cork crop, Latin names, and other trivialities,
the man sitting
opposite to him would like to dash his plate in his face: every time
potters around among his roses, the other looking down from his window,
with a face
distorted with hate, would like to kill him with a glance. Poor
our soliloquist mad with his deliberate table manners, with his
of speech, with his care about his own goblet and spoon. And all the
believes this enemy loves him!
of view, this poem resembles 'My Last Duchess' in that it is a
revelation of the
speaker's heart. We know nothing about Friar Lawrence except what his
tells us; but it is quite clear that Lawrence is a dear old man,
innocent as a child;
while the speaker, simply in giving his testimony against him, reveals
a heart jealous,
malicious, lustful; he is like a thoroughly bad boy at school, with a
book carefully concealed. Just at the moment when his rage and hatred
reach a climax,
the vesper bell sounds, and the speaker, who is an intensely strict
ritualist, presents to us an amusing spectacle; for out of the same
blessing and cursing."
Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister -- [A Poem]
Gr-r-r there go,
my heart's abhorrence!
Water your damned flower-pots, do!
If hate killed men, Brother Lawrence,
God's blood, would not mine kill you!
What? your myrtle-bush wants trimming?
Oh that rose has prior claims
Needs its leaden vase filled brimming?
Hell dry you up its flames!
At the meal we
Salve tibi! I must hear
Wise talk of the kind of weather,
Sort of season, time of year:
Not a plenteous cork-crop: scarcely
Dare we hope oak-galls, I doubt:
What's the Latin name for "parseley"?
What's the Greek name for Swine's Snout?
Whew! We'll have
our platter burnished,
Laid with care on our own shelf!
With a fire-new spoon we're furnished,
And a goblet for ourself,
Rinsed like something sacrificial
Ere 'tis fit to touch our chaps
Marked with L. for our initial!
(He-he! There his lily snaps!)
While brown Dolores
Squats outside the Convent bank
With Sanchicha, telling stories,
Steeping tresses in the tank,
Blue-black, lustrous, thick like horsehairs,
Can't I see his dead eye glow,
Bright as 'twere a Barbary corsair's?
(That is, if he'd let it show!)
When he finishes
Knife and fork he never lays
Cross-wise, to my recollection,
As do I, in Jesu's praise.
I the Trinity illustrate,
Drinking watered orange-pulp
In three sips the Arian frustrate;
While he drains his at one gulp.
Oh, those melons?
If he's able
We're to have a feast! so nice!
One goes to the Abbot's table,
All of us get each a slice.
How go on your flowers? None double
Not one fruit-sort can you spy?
Strange!And I, too, at such trouble,
Keep them close-nipped on the sly!
There's a great
text in Galatians,
Once you trip on it, entails
Twenty-nine distinct damnations,
One sure, if another fails:
If I trip him just a-dying,
Sure of heaven as sure can be,
Spin him round and send him flying
Off to hell, a Manichee?
Or, my scrofulous
On grey paper with blunt type!
Simply glance at it, you grovel
Hand and foot in Belial's gripe:
If I double down its pages
At the woeful sixteenth print,
When he gathers his greengages,
Ope a sieve and slip it in's?
Satan! one might venture
Pledge one's soul to him, yet leave
Such a flaw in the indenture
As he'd miss till, past retrieve,
Blasted lay that rose-acacia
We’re so proud of! Hy, Zy, Hine….
‘St, there’s Vespers! Plena gratia
Ave, Virgo! Gr-r-r you swine!
The Question Box
Builder's Attitude Toward Occultism,
have been a steady
reader of THE BUILDER since its second year, and never fail to go
through it every
month, every page. It often seems to me that THE BUILDER is opposed to
It doesn't publish many articles from that angle. Don't you believe
that there is
occultism in Masonry, in view of Albert Pike's Morals and Dogma, and
official books? I should like to know what you think about this subject.
‒ M.T.B., California.
BUILDER has never
been opposed to occultism; on the contrary, it has published a number
from that point of view; like-wise from the point of view of mysticism,
many points of contact with it. Ye Editor himself is not an occultist,
is neither here nor there, because THE BUILDER does not exist to
views of any individual. We are quite happy to publish studies of the
of Masonry providing (please note the providing) they are otherwise up
to par, a
thing that doesn't often happen, because, for some reason or other,
are very often impossible in form or sadly lacking in scholarship. This
is in no
sense set down here as a reflection on occultism itself but as a report
of the facts,
so far as we are concerned. Some of the most effective interpretations
thus far granted to us Masons have been from the occult point of view,
Wilmshurst's The Meaning of Masonry [Lib 1922], which is a wise and beautiful book, published
not long since. Pike's Morals and Dogma [Lib 1871] may possibly be a case in point, but there
are many to disagree with you on that, because they conceive Pike's
be grounded in metaphysics rather than in occultism, and that is a
a difference, very much of a difference.
all that as it
may, the great difficulty in discussing this subject springs from the
of various writers to agree on what occultism really means. Some time
ago Ye Editor
wrote to a number of representative Masonic occultists to ask them to
him, freely and in confidence, what they might understand occultism to
brother, representing the extreme position at one end of the scale,
it with astrology, alchemy, magic and all such interests; from the
of the scale another brother defined it as belief in any reality such
as the soul,
God, or a future life not susceptible of tangible proof; and between
the two were
six or seven others to offer other explanations almost equally diverse.
as there is so little agreement among those who use the word it is
going to be difficult
for any of the others of us to know whether we are occultists or not.
appears that the
word originally derived from the Latin occultus, which was compounded
from ob, meaning
"over," or "before," and calere, meaning "to hide,"
or "to conceal." The word "hell," which formerly had the meaning
of "a hidden place," has sometimes been similarly traced, but on that
there is no agreement among etymologists. The Century Dictionary
as, (1) "Not apparent upon mere inspection, nor deducible from what is
but discoverable only by experimentation; opposed to manifest. (2)
beyond the bounds of natural knowledge." Philosophers of the Middle
were first responsible for the general use of the term, meant by it any
based on observed proof, or experimentation, and had in mind that such
bring to the surface qualities that had hitherto remained concealed.
time the work has turned a complete somersault and now stands not for
that are revealed but for the things that are concealed, or at any rate
to all except to a select few.
view of the general
inability to agree on the precise meaning of occultism, at any rate in
it seems wise not to be in haste to tag any given book or essay as
occult, and thus
to praise or to condemn it, but to adjudge it on its own merits, and
leave it to
men to label it whatever they choose.
Meaning Of The Word "Mystery"
you tell me what
is the meaning of the word "mystery"? In reading THE BUILDER I get
about it. I see it used with regard to the Ancient "Mysteries," and
in the work Masonry itself is spoken of as a "Mystery."
‒ L. G. P., Florida.
has been a
deal of controversy among scholars as to the accurate meaning of
when used of the so-called "Ancient Mysteries": for this reason I shall
let an expert speak in the person of Miss Jane Harrison. On page 153 of
work, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion [Lib 1903], (it is a book worth going twenty miles to
read) she says:
it is clear, was an essential feature of the mysteries, and this brings
us to the
consideration of the meaning of the word 'mystery.' The usual
derivation of the
word is from 'muo,' I close the apertures whether of eyes or mouth. The
it is supposed, is the person vowed to secrecy who has not seen and
will not speak
of the things revealed. As such he is distinguished from the 'epoptes'
who has seen,
but equally may not speak; the two words indicate successive grades of
It will later be seen [that is, in her book] that in the Orphic
Mysteries [of which
she makes a very profound and detailed examination] the word 'mystes'
without any reference to seeing or not seeing, to a person who has
rite of eating the raw flesh of a bull. It will be seen that in Crete,
probably the home of the mysteries, the mysteries were open to all,
they were not
mysterious. The derivation of mystery from 'moo,' though possible, is
I would suggest another and a simple origin.
themselves were not quite comfortable about the connection with 'muo.'
and felt that 'mystery,' secrecy, was not the main gist of 'a mystery':
of it all was purification in order that you might eat and handle
[that is, roughly speaking, sacred things: tokens]. There was no
secret to be kept, only a mysterious 'taboo' to be prepared for and
It might be a 'taboo' on eating first-fruits, it might be a taboo on
'sacra.' In the Thesmophoria [an ancient rite practiced by women] the
before they touch the 'sacra'; in the Eleusinian mysteries you
sacrifice a pig before
you offer and partake of the first-fruits. The gist of it all is
[one of the first of the great Fathers of early Christianity] says
'Not unreasonably among the Greeks in their mysteries do ceremonies of
hold the initial place, as with barbarians the bath.' Merely as an
Clement in his irresponsible abusive fashion throws out what I believe
to be the
real origin of the word 'mystery.' 'I think,' he says, 'that these
orgies and mysteries
of yours may be derived, the one from the wrath of Demeter against
Zeus, the other
from the pollution relating to Dionysus.' Of course Clement is formally
but he hits on what seems a possible origin of the word 'mystery,' that
it is the
doing of what relates to a 'muses,' a pollution, it is primarily a rite
Lydus makes the same suggestion. 'Mysteries,' he says, 'are from the
away of a pollution ('muses') as equivalent to Sanctification."' (Page
appears to be re-enforced and, in a way illuminated, in the early books
Republic [Lib 1888]. This masterpiece
of the Athenian philosopher should be carefully studied by those who
seek to learn
something about the Ancient Mysteries; it records for us what
impression they made
on keen and clear minded men living at the time.
was used in the sense as above described long into the Middle Ages, and
with certain modifications, is still used, as by Masons when referring
own rites which, whether the word mean either "secrecy" or
are in truth a mystery.
there is quite
a different use of the word which, strangely enough, has come into the
Masonic phraseology, and therefore has been the cause of much
confusion. When the
Normans conquered England they brought with them their word 'metier,'
which is the
root of words meaning "to minister, to work for, to help, to assist,"
etc. Oftentimes workmen, in the early fourteenth century, were called
The work which such a man did was his "ministry." Through long usage by
quite illiterate and very ignorant men this word gradually became
A New English Dictionary on this) into "mystery."
old Craft Guilds were often called "mysteries," that is, "ministries."
Freemasonry also in that sense; it is a craft, a cleft of workmen,
doing a certain
a third use
has had influence on Masonic phraseology. In the Middle Ages plays were
in theatres but on movable vans or wagons, each scene on a wagon; these
a "procession" from one street corner to another; and these plays were
always produced by the "mysteries" or guilds. Now it happens that many
of these plays were called "mystery plays." It used to be supposed,
by such authorities as Skeat, that they were called "mystery" plays
they were played by the "mysteries"; later investigations have proved,
however, that the word comes from quite a different source when applied
to the plays.
But that is too large a matter to be entered into here.
we use it "mystery"
never means "that which is mysterious," but rather that which is
from the profane; or a rite of purification; or a work done by those
skilled and organized therefor.
the Mark Master Degree
would like very much
to get some information with reference to the origin and history of the
Degree, and it has occurred to me that you could supply me with this
Can you give me the date of the organization of the first Mark Masters
England and the date of the organization of the Grand Lodge of Mark
Masters in England?
In this Grand Lodge of Mark Masters still in existence? When was the
Degree included in the Chapter Degrees? Were the other three degrees in
ever conferred without the Mark Master Degree? Was there ever a Mark
in the United States? When and where were the Chapter Degrees first
the United States and by whom? When and where was the General Grand
you will do me the
kindness to me this information same will be most highly appreciated.
‒ Frank O. Miller, P.G.H.P.,
far as I know
the Mark Master Degree as distinct bodies were not organized until the
of the Grand Lodge of Mark Masters in England in 1856. Prior to that
time the Mark
Master Degree was given in a Craft lodge as an extra or side degree. In
the Mark Master Degree is not worked in a Royal Arch chapter but in a
lodge chartered by the Grand Lodge of Mark Masters. This Grand lodge is
Mark Master Degree
has never been included in the Chapter Degrees in England. In the
it was included at the time the General Grand Chapter was organized in
1797 or thereabouts.
In Scotland this took place, about 1800 when the Grand Lodge of
Scotland cut it
off from the Craft lodges.
there have been
several Mark Lodges in the United States. Some of them derived
authority from Craft
lodges, others from chapters. The General Grand Chapter at one time
to hold Mark Master lodges apart from the chapter, but this practice
in 1856. I do not know when and where the chapter degrees were first
into the United States. It has been claimed that the Most Excellent
was invented by Webb. It is not practiced outside of the United States.
Master Degree grew out of the rule that the Royal Arch Degree could
only be conferred
on Past Masters. This rule is no longer in force for the Royal Arch
Degree in England.
In Pennsylvania the Past Master Degree is only conferred in a Craft
lodge and the
applicant for the degree, if he be not an actual Past Master, must pay
the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for a dispensation to permit his lodge
the degree upon him, and he cannot petition a chapter for the Royal
until his lodge has made him a Past Master, either by election to the
Master or by dispensation from the Grand Lodge.
of the conferring of the Royal Arch Degree, strange as it may seem, is
in this country
although we have reason to believe that the degree was first worked in
However, the first record is in the minutes of Fredericksburg Lodge No.
4, of Virginia,
the lodge in which George Washington received his Masonic degrees.
Under date of
December 22, 1753, this degree was conferred in Fredericksburg Lodge.
Chapter of the United States was organized October 24, 1797, at Boston,
rather, the convention out of which it grew met at that time and place.
adjourned to meet at Hartford the following January, and at that time
the General Grand Chapter was organized under the name of the Grand
Chapter of North
America. The following January the name was changed to the General
Royal Arch Masons of the Northern States of America, and on January 9,
name was changed to the present title "The General Grand Chapter of
Masons of the United States of America."
‒ C.C. HUNT, P.G.H.P., Iowa.
Easy Way to Get Masonic Books
live in a little village
"a thousand miles from nowhere," no library, public or private, and not
a Masonic book in sight so far as I know. Can you suggest how two or
and myself might get hold of some Masonic books to read?
‒ K. M., North Dakota.
not start a book
club? Get five other brethren to join with you, each to pledge himself
one book and then to be willing to lend it to each of the others of the
turn. In this way each of you can have the use of six books at the
price of one.
Count on it costing you about two dollars each. If you purchase
standard works you
can sell the six volumes at second hand for about one-half price and
thus have a
start toward another lot. One of you could act as purchasing agent and
general. Books have a way of getting misplaced or forgotten if somebody
make himself responsible. Eternal vigilance is the price of a library.
Grand Lodge of
North Dakota has, at Fargo, one of the best Masonic libraries in the
is not a mere collection of books, gathering dust, but is an
institution alive in
every sense of the term. The librarian in charge is Miss Clara
Richards, to whom
unstinted praise is due for her capable work in diffusing the light of
and for her efforts in placing literature in communities where no
Write to Miss Richards, asking about the "traveling libraries" she has
Mathematics of The Bible
came to us through the kindness of Bro. N. W. J. Hayden, Toronto, who
it would be interesting to read in THE BUILDER.
one of his plays, makes one of his characters propound a problem which
stagers another character and we find it amounts to no more than a sum
long division, we know at once that the play must have been written
some time before
the seventeenth century, seeing the introduction of the rule for long
due to Briggs (1561-1631). The authorship of the works attributed to
may be a disputed point, but this fact alone precludes our placing the
date in the
nineteenth century. Such a higher critic would be laughed out at court.
when Dante says: "As cloth the expert geometer appear who seeks to
circle," we do not say that at once places him and his work in the
century, for the quadrature of the circle is a problem only now given
up; the attempts
were made thousands of years B. C.
us apply the same
tests to the Bible after having a few salient facts firmly fixed in our
what a person knows and does not know in mathematics is very sharp. The
musician often leaves far in the rear the theorist with the greatest
There are no Schuberts amongst the mathematicians whose work ends with
Few books supply
us with so much data as the Bible.
let us note the outstanding
facts in the
History of Mathematics.
in order were geometry, arithmetic and algebra. If, however, we take
science of arithmetic, that subject comes last, a most important point
Up to 60 B. C. things
were at a dead level, so to speak.
the fall of Alexandria,
A. D. 641, to the fall of Constantinople, A. D. 1453, is another period
period of greatest
advance lies between the foundation of the Ionian School by Thales,
circa 600 B.
C., and Hero the Elder, circa 120 B. C. During this period no two
alike. Any mathematical allusions to actual facts would hear the
even if but two centuries intervened.
the light of these
facts, judging the Bible by its OWI' context, where would a
the date of the Pentateuch, before or after the Ionian School?
let us consider
the state of learning.
subject the world ever knew was geometry and it had its source in
Egypt, not Babylon,
nor even Greece, but the country where the Hebrews were oppressed for
From the Egyptians, consequently, they picked up their scanty knowledge
Moreover, Joseph moved in the best society, knew intimately the leading
(or geometricians, rather), and married a priest's daughter. So did
is important, for the priests of Egypt had all the learning. Now for
the name of
another Egyptian priest, just as celebrated though it does not appear
in the Holy
Writ, Ahmes, the mathematician. People may dispute about the age of the
but no one will deny the great antiquity of the hieratic papyrus which
of the Rhind collection in the British Museum, and which is the work of
date is given as about 2000 B. C. (Authorities, Eisenlor, Cantor,
etc.). He and
Joseph might easily have been on friendly terms.
it is believed
by the same authorities to be a copy of a work one thousand years
as to its contents (I restrict myself to the geometrical portion):
gives us rules for finding the contents of barns, and the expression is
into B into (C plus C by 2)." These were just the kind of barns into
Joseph gathered the corn, and probably he and Ahmes, by putting their
managed to calculate the amount stored up. Next he tries to find the
area of a circle
whose diameter is D, and gives it as the square of D diminished by
he does not say eight-ninths. This is important. Thus the value at "pi"
is given as almost 22 by 7, as in our modern books on mensuration.
Lastly, he uses
a little trigonometry for measuring the Pyramids.
the ordinary Egyptians
only knew a few principles of mensuration, and that a triangle whose
sides are in
the ratio of 3:4:5 is right angled. These numbers, or their multiple,
appear in Egyptian geometry. Now compare the Bible: Dimensions of the
Ark: two cubits
and a half, a cubit and a half, a cubit and a half, or the ratio 5:3:3
Mercy Seat, two and a half a cubit and a half, or ratio 5:3 (height not
verse 17); table, two, one, one and a half, or 4:2:3 (v. 23); Altar,
Court, 100:50:5, or 20:10:1 (v. 18), etc. Special instructions were
given that Altar
was to be four-square that is, containing right angles. Was this beyond
No, they knew how to draw a perpendicular, as would form a right angle
he or any other Jew had seen the fact of any Babylonian. Turn to Ex.
God specially called Bezaleel, whom He graciously filled "with the
God" that is, endowed him with geometrical skill. Note how God never
to do the impossible, yet expects him to do his best. Had the work been
the Babylonian period, probably conies and cycloids would have been
the books been written then, the authors would have used more advanced
at the passage
of the Jordan. Why did not the Israelites at least try and find the
width of the
river? God would have told them to do so had it been possible, for He
us allow our brains to run to waste. Why was it impossible? Because the
to measure the distance of an object without going up to it was Thales,
Euclid made use of in Book K., proposition 26. Dates for comparison:
C. 1700; Ahmes, B. C. 2000; Moses, 1400; Thales (I. 5), 640; Captivity,
(I. 47), 500; Ezra, 450; Plato, 429. Compare carefully these dates, and
in the light
of the geometry of the Bible as compared with that of Ahmes, Thales,
or Plato see where is the most reasonable date for the Pentateuch. If
I should like to write upon the arithmetic and algebra of the Bible.
‒ Alfred W. Hinton.
have heard of
a poem called "When Pa Joined the Lodge." Can you furnish me with a
or inform me where I can procure it?"
‒ H. F. M., Mississippi.
Dog days are upon
was ill and in bed
about six weeks a little while ago, and therefore fell woefully behind
with my correspondence.
Brethren who may still be awaiting my belated reply are asked to
continue to have
patience. The many kindly letters received made me realize more than
ever how much
like a family we all are.
the best Chinese
poems there is a lovely sorrowfulness that comes through, even in
this poem as translated by L. Cranmer-Byng (author of Odes of Confucius
and A Lute
A King of Tang -- [A Poem]
By Wang Po
There looms a
lordly pleasure-tower o'er yon
Raised by some King of Tang.
Jade pendants at his girdle clashed, and golden bells
Around his chariot rang.
Strange guests through sounding halls at dawn go trailing by
Gray mists and mocking winds;
And sullen brooding twilights break in rain on rain
To lash the ragged blinds.
The slow sun-dappled clouds lean down o'er waters blue,
Clear mirrored one by one.
Then drift as all the world shall drift. The very stars
Their timeless courses run.
How many autumn moons have steeped those palace walls!
And paled the shattered beams!
What is their royal builder now! A lord of dust?
An emperor of dreams?
A Concise History of Freemasonry Revised
Gou51 / auth. Gould Robert F / ed. Crowe Frederick J. W.. - London :
Gale & Polden Limited, 1951. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 401. - 10.3 MB.
A Poem of Moral Duties
Reg90 / auth. Regius Manuscript. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1390. - p. 70. -
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry and its Kindred
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
Bibliographie der Freimaurerischen
Literatur Vol 1
Wol11 / auth. Wolfstieg August. - Unknown : Selbstverlag des Vereins
Deutscher Freimaurer, 1911. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 999. - 203.5 MB - German
- not searchable.
Book of Constitutions
And23 / auth. Anderson James. - London : William Hunter, 1723. -
Fac-Simile by Jno. W. Leonard & Co., New York, 1855 : Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 119. - 6.0 MB.
Cra26 / auth. Crawley Chetwode. - 1726. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 20. - 2.0 MB.
Collected Essays & Papers Related to
Gou131 / auth. Gould Robert F. - Belfast : William Tait, 1913. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 313. - 14.3 MB.
Cyclopedia of Fraternities
Ste99 / auth. Stevens Albert C.. - New York : Hamilton Printing and
Publishing Co., 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 474. - 41.3 MB.
Freemasonry Before the Existence of Grand Lodges
Vib10 / auth. Vibert Lionel. - London : Spencer & Co., 2010. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 163. - 0.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
Fin66 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - London : Asher & Co., 1866. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 742. - Translated from the German - 17.8 MB.
Morals and Dogma
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston : Supreme Council AASR, 1871. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 895. - Formatted & Indexed by rhm - 7.6 MB.
Sti20 / auth. Stillman John M. - Chicago : The Open Court Publishing
Co, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 194. - 7.5 MB.
Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion
Har03 / auth. Harrison Jane E. - London : C. J. Clay and Sons, 1903. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 700. - 78.3 MB.
Robert Browning, How to Know Him
Phe15 / auth. Phelps William L. - Indianapolis : The Robbs-Merrill
Company, 1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 393. - 9.8 MB.
Sun Lore of all Ages
Olc14 / auth. Olcott William T. - New York : G P Putnam's Sons, 1914. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 360. - Illustrated - 11.8 MB.
The Cathedral Builders
Sco99 / auth. Scott Leader. - London : Sampson Low, Marston &
Co., 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 520. - 16.1 MB.
The Meaning of Masonry
Wil22 / auth. Wilmshurst W L. - London : William Rider & Son,
1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 254. - 1.2 MB.
Republic of Plato
Jow88 / auth. Jowett Benjamin. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1888. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 619. - 37.3 MB.