Masonic Research Society
I Think About the Shrine
By Bro. James S. McCandless
Potentate A.A.O.N.M.S. For N.A., Hawaiian
AS I HAVE
GONE ABOUT over the country, I have been asked here and there by
prominent and responsible
brethren what is my opinion about solicitation for membership in the
of these brethren appear to feel that it would be better if the
were to prohibit solicitation in all forms. My answer invariably is
that I am not
opposed to the kind of solicitation we permit among Shriners.
that a Mason is not permitted to solicit members for the Blue Lodge. I
wonder if it would not be better if we did permit this. A young man who
Fraternity and who takes the various degrees and becomes experienced in
various Masonic bodies and has worked in close contact with Masons ‒ so
whom are the cream of our American manhood ‒ cannot help but become a
man than he would be otherwise.
Some of my
brother Masons are of the opinion that a certain length of time should
a man's becoming a member of the Knights Templar or the Scottish Rite
and his admittance
into the Shrine. I do not see any point to that argument whatsoever.
What is the
difference to anybody whether a man comes in inside of a month or
inside of a few
days if he is made of the right material to begin with, if he has the
and comes with the right motive? If the Shrine happens to be the most
and most pleasant place for a young man, he will go there. It seems to
me that if
there is to be any friendly rivalry at all among Masonic bodies or
and the Shrine, that instead of finding fault with Shriners for having
meetings, these other bodies ought to try to make their meetings more
Make it worthwhile for a man to attend a Blue Lodge or a Chapter or a
he will attend!
One of the
reasons that I am proud of the Shrine is that it calls the attention of
our young Americans to, Masonry and often, perhaps, induces them to
to our Order. I say that I am glad of this because I think it is a good
I am happy if the Shrine is an inducement to any young man to become a
is not in any sense a detriment to Freemasonry; in my judgment it is
one of the
greatest things which has ever happened to Freemasonry, and I know from
my own personal
experience and observation that the great majority of Shriners are the
type of our American manhood. How could this be otherwise? For
consider! No young
man can come to us until he has become a member of the very highest
type of our
American manhood. How could this be otherwise? For consider! No young
man can come
to us until he has become a member of the Blue Lodge and also of either
Rite or the York Rite Bodies. He has been balloted on in every one of
and in none of them has he been found wanting. He comes to us with a
therefore, if there is anything wrong with a Shriner, it should have
out long before he reached our gates.
We are not
doing anything in any way to hurt Freemasonry. When the Shrine was
fifty years or so ago there was some doubt in the minds of Masons then
not the formation of such an organization would prove a detriment or
the Fraternity. The Shrine was gotten up by a mere handful of men ‒
there were thirteen
of them, as I recall it ‒ in the city of New York, for the purpose of
and having a dinner where good fellows might hold sway; that was the
of it when founded and it was something with which nobody could
quarrel. Now, this
little movement ‒ it was little then ‒ got such a hold on the men who
privileges that they finally established a national organization with a
ritual and this gradually grew into the present great A.A.O.N.M.S. with
Council, and its almost half a million members.
has a creed of its own ‒ Justice, Good Fellowship, Charity, Love of
that which is an attribute of the Holy One Himself, Love of One's
beautiful ideals comprise the teachings of the Shrine.
We have a
ceremonial which lends itself to play. Anyone who belongs to the Shrine
be a boy and have a little of God's sunshine in his soul and a lot of
gladness in his heart has no business belonging with us, because the
Shrine is the
playground of Masons ‒ you will note I say playground OF Masons, not
A Few Cut Up Pranks
we have a few men with us who cut up pranks and do foolish things and
organization has such members in it ‒ the Blue Lodge, the Commandery,
Rite ‒ but that is neither here nor there. Every man cannot be a
if anybody supposes that the Shrine permits a lot of un-Masonic conduct
on the part
of Masons or lest all of its members do just as they please, he is
In an Order as large as ours, you are sure to find a few men who, out
or folly, become guilty of actions of which the rest of us are ashamed
but I do
not believe the entire organization should be held responsible for what
a few of
its members do. Every time you have a great meeting of men where
thousands are present
and all of them are away from home, you are going to have some things
you do not like but I do not see how these things can be avoided.
We in the
Shrine are determined to keep our house in order as perfectly as we
can. We have
a committee on law and order which functions at all of our national
it is there for the sole purpose of looking after just such cases as
and to see that nothing goes on which will bring discredit upon us or
upon the Masonic
Orders from which we emanate. This committee has been in force for two
and will be on duty in Washington, D.C., when we meet next June.
Brother A.L. Cameron
of Memphis, Tenn., is chairman. I wish to pay a tribute to the
in which that committee took care of things in San Francisco. Out there
great city on the coast, there was no rowdyism, no misconduct, not one
case in which
a man was brought before the committee for censure or expulsion. At
D.C., this committee will have its own provost guard and it will work
with the regular authorities of that city. The city authorities and the
together will not permit any rough doings on the streets and will
anything bordering on vulgarity or indecency. The Washington meeting of
is to be the greatest in our history, I believe, and I am confidently
that we shall all be proud of the manner in which the great crowds will
To me one
of the most beautiful things in all of these meetings, in fact in all
meetings, is that we are a common meeting ground for all the various
the Scottish Rite Mason, the York Rite Mason and the Blue Lodge Mason
and learn to be good fellows together in our Temples and meetings.
There are no
jealousies or bickerings or contentions amongst us and the sole purpose
we may together enjoy good fellowship in that manner which has been
Masons ever since Masonry began to be.
In my own
estimation, the greatest work that the Shrine is now undertaking is the
of our hospitals for poor crippled children. It seems to me that this
is the greatest
charity which has ever been undertaken by any fraternal organization in
world. In my heart I know it is the culmination and proof of that which
Lodge Mason is taught ‒ namely, Charity to all. All the way through the
degrees of Masonry from that of Entered Apprentice to that of Knight
Master of the Royal Secret, every Mason is saturated with this great
brotherly love and relief. When Brother W. Freeland Kendrick, who was
1919-1920, brought his proposition for this great work before us, we
were in a proper
mood to receive it because we had the spirit of charity in our souls.
The Great Dream Is Now Being
great dream is now being realized. Our hospitals are functioning and
under the direction of a Board of Trustees and this Board has five
as an Advisory Board. These brethren, with the help of all the rest of
already authorized ten of these hospitals of mercy; five of them are
now under construction
and three of them will have been dedicated before these words are in
print ‒ one
in the Twin Cities on April 14th, one in Shreveport, La., on April 20th
one in San Francisco in May when I am there.
We are now
working in our third year on these hospitals and through assessment of
of the Nobility, we have an annual fund of over one million dollars to,
the project. When these ten hospitals are all finished and in working
will be a credit not only to the Mystic Shrine but to Freemasonry the
and that fact will make us glad because we are MASONS first ‒ then
One of the
most interesting developments in our crippled children's hospital
project that I
know of is the manner in which we are going to handle our hospital
service in Honolulu.
When I was elected Imperial Potentate at San Francisco, I got up an
Honolulu. We had about one thousand of the Nobility on board, including
Imperial Officers except two. We also had three members of our Board of
of the Crippled Children's Hospitals. Some of us Honolulu Shriners had
to know how we might do our share in caring for our crippled children
in the Hawaiian
Islands. Since each of our hospitals costs us from $250,000.00 to
was out of the question for us to build a hospital there. Also it was
for us to try to transport our crippled children to San Francisco
because that would
be too expensive as in many cases the family or part of it would have
the patient. So we worked out the plan of having a Mobile Unit of
to Honolulu for a time. This suggestion was made to the Board of
Trustees and they
arranged for it. Dr. Hatt with a staff of five will be in Honolulu for
of one year. At every operation, he will invite in the Hawaiian Doctors
him (most of our Honolulu physicians are Shriners) and at the end of
the year, these
local physicians will be able to carry on that work in conjunction with
local hospital facilities. This unit can function also in Nevada,
Arizona and in
the great Northwest.
One of my
dreams is that the Knights Templar or the Scottish Rite Bodies or
perhaps both together
may follow our lead and erect homes possibly in conjunction with our
oftentimes when we have cured the poor little cripples who come to us
we find they
have no place in which to live. These children should have a home and
be educated and taught how to grow up and become useful citizens in the
children have to be taken care of by somebody and nobody realizes how
many of them
there are in the country. Just think of it, my brethren! according to
on file with us there are now more than 486,000 of these boys and girls
in the United
States alone who need the kind of treatment we are going to give to a
few of them
in our hospitals! The only limit we set is that these children must not
fourteen years of age. We shall not refuse, however, to take care of
of age if we can accommodate them. When they come to us we pay all
treatment and care in these hospitals is absolutely free.
I like this
idea of extending charity to these poor little crippled tots regardless
creed or nationality, or whether they belong to Masonic families. When
I pass into
the Great Beyond St. Peter will not ask me whether I gave my charity to
of Shriners or to this church or to that or organization; he will ask
me how much
charity I gave, regardless.
What About The Negro Shrine?
I have been
asked many times what we are doing about the so-called Negro "Shrine."
We are working on that problem but I do not believe it is now possible
to say anything
very definite about it. The main point is that we are jealous of our
Shrine." We have no quarrel with any other organization at all but we
to make sure that in North America nobody can make use of our name
Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine," except ourselves. We also
to protect our emblems and insignia and these we have had copyrighted
all the states. I am sorry to say that we cannot copyright the fez
is a headdress which any man may wear if he wishes. However, we carry a
the fez, the famous crescent, as our own emblem and we are getting that
in every state. Also, we are trying to get dealers not to sell fezzes
but Shriners who have their cards; in fact, we are going still further
‒ we are trying to get dealers to sell these shrine fezzes to Temples
dealers helped us in San Francisco to protect our fezzes and emblems
and we trust
that the dealers in Washington, D.C., will do the same.
here and there have asked me if I have considered it wise for Shrine
hold circuses. Now, I am in favor of having a good time but I do not
want to see
anything that looks like gambling going on or anything of that sort. If
we can have
circuses which ladies can attend, I am in favor of them, just as I am
in favor of
anything which makes for clean laughter and a good time.
wear conspicuous costumes and oftentimes they put on parades that
attract a good
deal of attention. These things often cause rumors to get started which
foundation at all. One of the most notorious instances of these utterly
rumors is the story that a year ago somebody was going to charter a
go across the Pacific Ocean in order to have one long spree. There was
this story whatsoever. The Nobility would not go on such a boat.
Let the sun
shine for us all! Let there be gladness! Let all men enjoy life while
it is given
to them to live! Pass happiness around! Work so as to add to the joy of
and to the welfare of man! These are things I believe in. They are
things for which
the Shrine stands.
the Little Red Schoolhouse
By an Oregon Mason
rights in whole or in part strictly reserved.)
of this important contribution was recommended to us by Brother P. S.
Inspector-General in Oregon, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, and it
was he who
suggested that the article appear over a nom de plume. The author is a
professional man whose position has made it possible for him to follow
and at first hand all the developments of the notable struggle to put
on the Oregon
statute books the now famous Public School Law. Brother Malcolm, who
has also (as
one will learn from the article) actively participated in the campaign
and as a
responsible leader, has read and approved the account published
may be accepted as an accurate history of a movement about which there
a deal of discussion and controversy. All correspondence intended for
may be addressed to THE BUILDER. "An Oregon Mason" refers to a group of
Blue Lodge Masons who opposed the Bill. It would be interesting to
learn from them
their ground of opposition. Can't one of them furnish us with the
contra side of
IN A DISPATCH
recently carried from New York on the wires of a news-gathering
serves newspapers in every state of the Union, reference was made to
"anti-parochial school law." It was but one ‒ though rather a notable
one ‒ of a multitude of instances of misrepresentation, through
of the compulsory public school attendance bill passed by the voters of
the election of November 8, 1922.
no "anti-parochial school law," nor any school law whose object or
is "anti" anything. It has a law whose plain, affirmative, certain
is to require attendance by all children of grammar school age in the
of the state.
is completely set forth in the language of the act itself. Its
inspiration and the
impelling motive of its original proponents are most clearly summarized
in one of
a series of advertisements published during the campaign for the bill
by Hon. P.
S. Malcolm, 33d, Inspector-General in Oregon, Ancient and Accepted
"The Scottish Rite Masonic
bodies are promoting
this measure because their members believe that the hope of America is
in its public
schools; that if American institutions are to endure, American children
school age must be taught common ideals ‒ AMERICAN; that they must be
a common language ‒ ENGLISH; that they must be taught to foster and
uphold one set
of principles ‒ those of our American forefathers. They believe that
of our race, our nation and our institutions will be perpetuated if ALL
are so taught, and not otherwise."
nothing in this law which need in the least abridge the right of the
parent to give
the child whatever kind of religious instruction seems to him best. The
conceived as a patriotic measure, as is plainly indicated by the
Scottish Rite declaration
quoted in the foregoing. Its proponents raised no issue of religion nor
raise any. An issue of religion was raised in the campaign, but not by
will be explained herein. And the great mass of voters undeniably voted
law as a measure of patriotism.
inception up to the present the new law has been more misrepresented
more misunderstood in the nation at large than any other measure ever
the state of Oregon. The attempt to defeat the bill by misrepresenting
and its sponsorship failed, but its enemies are still active. They have
that they will attack the law in the courts. They are raising an
enormous fund to
finance their effort. They have announced that if they are defeated in
of first resort they will carry their appeal to the Supreme Court of
States. And one of their principal propagandists has advised his
auditors at a public
meeting, by undeniable implication, to resist the law forcibly,
declaring that "they
can't build jails big enough and often enough to hold you men."
This Law Is Strictly Masonic
article is being written for Masons. To Masons there is a simple,
and final answer in refutation of the charge that the Oregon public
attendance law is a measure of religious repression. This answer is
that the law
was conceived by Masons, drafted by Masons and placed on the ballot
efforts of Masons. Every Mason knows that the Masonic Order stands ever
fullest expression of religious freedom under the fatherhood of God;
knows neither religious creed nor religious cult, either to espouse or
that back through the ages the voice of Masonry has ever been raised
religious oppression and religious repression, and for the freedom of
to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience, and
"we never proselyte."
for the Oregon public school compulsory attendance bill came from the
of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite for the Southern Jurisdiction
of the United
States, which on May 20, 1920, committed itself unreservedly to the
the universal education of children in the public schools, by adoption
of the following
"Resolved, that we recognize
our belief in the free and compulsory education of the children of our
public primary schools supported by public taxation, upon which all
attend and be instructed in the English language only, without regard
to race or
creed, as the only sure foundation for the perpetuation and
preservation of our
free institutions, guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States,
and we pledge
the efforts of the membership of this Order to promote by all lawful
means the organization,
extension and development to the highest degree of such schools, and to
efforts of any and all who seek to limit, curtail, hinder or destroy
school system of our land."
A month after
the adoption of this resolution by the Scottish Rite Supreme Council,
it was endorsed
in principle, though not in text and form, by the Grand Lodge of
Free and Accepted Masons. Also in June of 1920 the Imperial Council,
Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, in session in Portland, endorsed the
Thus by the end of June, 1920, three important major organizations in
from an Oregon standpoint, placed themselves on record for and as
definite movement to translate this plain Masonic declaration of
principle and purpose
into action was taken upon the occasion of a visit to Portland, early
in 1922, by
Hon. J. H. Cowles, 33d, Grand Commander for the Southern Jurisdiction
of the Scottish
Rite. Commander Cowles held a conference while here with
and other prominent Scottish Rite men, and the subject of the
school attendance resolution came up. Based upon information given him,
Cowles expressed the opinion, which was concurred in by the others
conditions in this state appeared favorable for initiatory effort
towards the enactment
of a law to execute here the purpose of the resolution. The general
body of Blue
Lodge Masons was on record through their Grand Lodge resolutions as
being in sympathy
with the public school movement; Oregon was known as a progressive
state in matters
of legislation, and the initiative and referendum system of elections
in its fullest
development was available here. Certain aggressions on the part of
which affected some of the public schools, and which will be
in this article, had started people generally to thinking about the
question. Recent developments in naturalization and other courts which
some rather flagrant cases of non-assimilation of foreign born persons
who had grown
up here but had not attended the public schools, or had attended them
had similarly affected the public thought in regard to the schools.
sentiment, it was considered, was ripe for the effort and it was
decided at this
conference to proceed.
The Oregon K.C.C.H. Took
assigned to the Knights Commander of the Court of Honor of the Scottish
Oregon the work of placing under way an initiative campaign for a
which would carry out the purpose of the movement. Robert E. Smith, of
headed this committee and organized the preliminary work.
John B. Cleland, eminent as a jurist, a citizen and a Mason, (he is a
Master of the Grand Lodge of Oregon) was delegated the task of drafting
His very authorship constituted a guarantee satisfactory to many people
of the legal
soundness of the measure, so that when the cry of unconstitutionality
by its opponents ‒ which happened very early in the ensuing campaign ‒
declined to register dismay or even serious misgiving. In the view of
the bill was sound and the law is sound. Those who opposed the bill on
of alleged unconstitutionality and who are now declaring that the
courts will set
the law aside were its opponents then and are its enemies now.
of legal verbiage and collateral clauses, this is what the law provides:
"Any parent, guardian or other
the state of Oregon, having control or charge or custody of a child
under the age
of sixteen years and of the age of eight years or over, at the
commencement of a
term of public school in the district in which said child resides, who
or neglect or refuse to send such child to a public school for a period
a public school shall be held during the current year in said district,
guilty of a misdemeanor, and each day's failure to send such child to a
shall constitute a separate offense and … (the offender) shall, on
be subject to a fine of not less than $5 or more than $100 or to
the county jail not less than two nor more than 30 days, or by both…"
are provided for children unable to attend school because of physical
for children who have completed the eighth grade, for children living
at a distance
from a school and for children who are being taught by parent or
and who can satisfy the county school superintendent that such
instruction is standard
and sufficient. Under another provision the act is to become effective
will be noted, the measure, in addition to being carefully drawn was
drawn. There is provision for exemption from its terms of all children
on whom it
would work hardship. There is provision for deferred effectiveness in
order to allow
private and denominational schools time in which to readjust their
is the definite single purpose, bluntly stated, that all children shall
to attend the public schools. So far as is consistent with this
the law is drawn in liberal terms.
Prominent Oregonians Backed
work of the initiative campaign now came many prominent men of Oregon;
not only for their work in Masonry but also for their standing and
in the judicial, official, civic and business life of the state. They
enthusiasm and unity of purpose. They wanted to see Oregon become the
to stand out openly for the universal Little Red Schoolhouse. They knew
fight they were inaugurating would bring down criticism upon them but
they did not
falter. They possessed the courage of their convictions.
among those who engaged in the work of preparing and circulating the
the initiative was Ira B. Sturges, of Baker. His name headed the formal
initiators printed upon the petitions. Others were: Dr. Robert C.
Harold Baldwin, Prineville; W. B. Daggett, Redmond; Lewis H. Irving,
E. Davis, The Dalles; Leslie G. Johnson, Marshfield; C. A. Swope,
W. F. Harris, Roseburg; John R. Penland, Albany; J. R. Jeffery,
Seaside; F. C. Holibaugh,
St. Helens; O. O. Hodson, McMinnville and E. L. Johnson, Hillsboro. All
are Scottish Rite Masons. All of them are prominent in the life of
Oregon. The personnel
of the sponsorship was in itself a guarantee of the sincerity of the
hours after the circulation of the initiative petitions had begun
in every district of Oregon, more than the 28,000 names required to
assure the measure
a place on the ballot had been obtained. A check of the signatures made
in the office
of the Secretary of State at Salem showed some 35,000 valid signatures.
of the response surprised even the friends of the bill and left its
Friends and foes alike of the measure realized that such a response
could mean only
one thing ‒ that there was a demand for the proposed legislation
sufficient to make
the movement formidable.
directed by Inspector-General Malcolm and carried out through an
as the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite School Committee, headed by
Cellars, a Knight Commander of the Court of Honor, was affirmative,
able and forceful.
It was confined strictly to the issue presented in the bill ‒ that of
for enacting a law which would insure the education on standard lines
and on common
ground in the public schools of all children of grammar school age.
There were no
attacks on parochial schools or other denominational or private schools
in the arguments
put forth. There was nothing defensive in anything offered by the
maintained the high ground throughout that the bill, being a thoroughly
one' needed no defense. In newspaper advertisements, in circulars and
by word of
mouth the campaigners put forth everywhere the message of
which has already been quoted in the foregoing, with elaborations and
facts and arguments in support of the bill. Never was the religious
by the Scottish Rite during the campaign. Mr. Malcolm steadfastly
which were made to involve him in religious controversy.
Public Schools Taught By
outside the Scottish Rite which flocked to the support of the bill
after it had
been launched did campaign the religious issue. One of the things done
by some of
these was to set before the public generally the facts already referred
to in this
article, regarding certain Roman Catholic activities affecting the
It was made known that in five public school districts of Oregon every
a Catholic nun. These districts were, like all public school districts,
by general taxation of all their property owners. But majorities of the
of these districts were heavily Catholic. These Catholic majorities
boards of directors and they in turn hired the nuns as teachers.
objected had no recourse. They must, under the law, send their children
and the only schools available were those taught by nuns.
In some districts
this condition had existed for a number of years, and in others it was
origin. A photograph was widely circulated and published in circulars
showing the pupil-body of a school in Washington County grouped in
front of their
school building, with two Catholic sisters, their teachers, among them.
of this photograph had a decided effect.
far as the public school compulsory attendance bill was concerned, was
wholly extraneous because the condition exposed would not be affected
the passage or the defeat of the measure. Yet the campaign on this
feature of the
situation made many votes for the school bill. And there was a further
the first legislative session following the campaign a law was passed
the wearing of any religious garb whatsoever by any teacher in any
It is a peculiar
fact that, with possibly one or two exceptions, no organization
supported the bill
with unanimity throughout its membership. In the Scottish Rite itself
a small minority of dissenters. Blue Lodge Masons were divided. While
many of the
most influential voices in Oregon Masonry were raised in its support, a
influential ones were lifted against it, including that of Hon. George
of Salem, Grand Master for Oregon. Undoubtedly the great majority of
voted for the bill, but there was an opposing minority respectable in
and worthy of respect in its personnel.
Various Churches Opposed
church memberships showed similar division of sentiment regarding the
Lutheran church organization opposed the bill, because it maintains
of its own. Certain supporters of the bill brought out during the
Lutheran schools had existed in Oregon wherein all the teaching was
done in German.
English was never spoken there. It may be conceded that Lutherans quite
if not unanimously, opposed the bill. So, probably, did the Seventh Day
While the Episcopal Church organization opposed the measure strongly,
be no doubt that many members of that church supported it. At
Corvallis, where a
session of the Oregon Presbytery was held while the campaign was in
Presbyterian ministers signed a resolution of opposition to the bill
and this was
heralded forth as an official action, but so many other Presbyterians,
lay and ministerial,
set up a clamor of protest that the only conclusion the public could
reach was that
the Presbyterian church was divided on the subject, as most other
were. The question of support of or opposition to the bill was quite
matter of individual judgment and conscience. And the result showed
more Oregon voters judged and decided in favor of the bill than opposed
official vote was: Ayes, 115,506; Noes, 103,685.
that Oregon is on record as standing for the universal Little Red
enactment of this law, the battle is not over. Interests which opposed
headed by the Knights of Columbus, have announced that they will attack
in the courts. Archbishop Alexander Christie, of Oregon, and Frank J.
head of the Knights of Columbus organization in this state, recently
made a trip
to Washington and New York to help organize this proposed attack.
Backing them are
other denominational and private school interests.
ground of this proposed attack will undoubtedly be an allegation of
of the law its exact line and scope have not been made known.
Undoubtedly its basis
will be the same as that cited. During the campaign by opponents of the
their charges of unconstitutionality which is that of the first
amendment to the
Federal Constitution and second, third and fourth articles of the Bill
of the state of Oregon. The constitutional amendment reads:
"Congress shall make no law
establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or
freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably
and to petition the government for a redress of grievances."
numbered 2, 3 and 4 of the Bill of Rights of the Constitution of
Oregon, read thus:
"Sec. 2. Freedom of Worship ‒
All men shall
be secured in the natural right to worship Almighty God according to
of their own consciences.
"Sec. 3. No law shall in any
control the free exercise and enjoyment of religious opinion or
interfere with the
rights of conscience.
"Sec. 4. No religious test
shall be required
as a qualification for any office of trust or profit."
Cleland drafted the Oregon bill he knew all about the amendment quoted
and the Bill
of Rights as well. He so drafted the bill that, in his opinion and in
of other eminent attorneys with whom he conferred, it did not in the
with any of the prohibitions quoted. Both the affirmation for and the
against the legality of the bill have been backed by attorneys of
standing and reputation
A Michigan Case Is Cited.
of their contention the opponents of the bill cite as a precedent a
of October 1, 1920, wherein the Secretary of State had denied a place
on the ballot
on the ground of alleged unconstitutionality to a compulsory public
hill. A mandamus action was brought and a majority of five judges of
Court granted the mandamus on the ground that the Secretary of State, a
officer, was not the judge of the constitutionality of the act. A
minority of three
judges went outside of this question and handed down a decision,
written by Justice
Fellows, who said:
"While the proposed amendment
is very carefully
worded to attract votes, it takes from the parent the privilege of
children in parochial or private schools; indeed it takes from them the
exercise any control over the education of their own offspring and
gives such right
to the state. It prohibits the conduct of the business of educating
private parties, denominations and corporations, organized for that
our laws, and takes from them without compensation the right to use for
purposes property owned by them and devoted to that use, admitted to be
millions of dollars.
"Some 120,000 children between
of 5 and 16 years are now being educated in the parochial schools of
The instructions cover the usual branches taught in the public schools,
and in addition
there is moral training and the doctrine of the Christian religion is
in these youthful minds. That these schools may be regulated by the
state is admitted
on all hands, but that their existence may be prohibited by state
mandate is an
entirely different proposition. Before the bossiness of educating the
young in the
same course taught by the public schools, before the business of
educating the young
in the Christian religion, before the business of conducting these
can be outlawed and prohibited, their prohibition mast bear some
to the public good, or the public health, or the public morals, or the
or the public welfare. The right to regulate I concede; the right to
decision is to be cited by the opponents of the Oregon law in bringing
is in the minds of the law's opponents to do in case they lose their
case, as friends
of the Oregon law believe they will, had not been generally indicated,
one of the chief Facials of the Knights of Columbus would do is
indicated by his
own words. On a recent visit to Portland, Joseph Scott of Los Angeles,
as "a Knight of St. Gregory in recognition of his world services for
addressed a large gathering of Knights of Columbus and said, in the
course of his
"We expect you men here to
defend your homes
against those who, masquerading as so-called Americans, are none else
hypocrites. We'll expect you not to give any quarter and to adopt a
attitude in dealing with this type of scrub. They are an ignorant,
set of mercenary scoundrels and grafters. Their doctrines are against
the real principles
of Americanism and our conceptions of our duties to state, nation,
church and family
cannot but make us antagonistic to them."
is not given here as purporting to show a general trend of thought
of the school law, Catholic or Protestant. Indeed, this writer will say
that he does not believe such sentiments are held or backed by any
proportion of the membership even of the Knights of Columbus, who are,
great preponderance, law-respecting and law-abiding. But the incident
how one high official of the Knights of Columbus thinks and how he
talks. And the
picture he presents is not pretty.
* * *
good Masons are peaceable subjects to the powers that be, and never
to be concerned in plots and conspiracies against the peace and welfare
of the nation,
to behave undutiful to the lawful authorities, or countenance a brother
in his rebellion,
though he may be pitied as an unhappy man."
Letters on Masonic Education
The Education of the Heart
of Masons in Masonry involves a consideration of fundamentals and the
of Masonic life and experience. There we learn that we are first
to be made Masons in our heart." It was not a physical or a mental
but an emotional one in the truest sense of that word. Then we were
"our hearts might be taught to conceive before our eyes beheld the
of Masonry." Thus the beginning of our Masonic education was in the
as distinguished from the head. "With the heart man believeth unto
so with the heart man commences his education in Masonry.
What is meant
by heart education? Our fathers as Operative Masons worked in the
concrete, and in the material, while we in the present day work as
It is not the power of arriving at certain conclusions and thus
accordingly: it is rather that responsive faculty of our being which
indefinite object which can alone meet its needs and desires and then
as the sum total of life.
considerable time and attention to the education of the other faculties
the will, imagination, and mental and physical powers, but devote only
amount of time to the education of the heart. This results in many men
hearts, devoid of broad and generous impulses. It produces men with
and never with tender affection ‒ hearts as cold as marble and lacking
in love and
of the heart involves two steps. First, fellowship with the principles
This requires a mastery and understanding of the ritual and fellowship
in both public and private life, and in addition the taking part in all
of the work
within the lodge. Second, service to man. Work in this field enlarges
and consecrates life with a new gladness and a different viewpoint. A
noble heart comes through companionship and service, and the best way
Masons is by constant companionship with Masons and their principles
for Masonry and the world.
out this plan, the Grand Lodge of North Dakota has established a
committee on Masonic
Service and Education, consisting of five members. This Committee
selects an Executive
Secretary, whose duties are to oversee the Masonic Education programs
of the state.
He is to visit each lodge sometime during the year, assist the lodges
their programs of Masonic service, and arrange for speakers to deliver
issued by the Masonic Service Association of the United States, and in
to assist each lodge in working out some plan of Masonic service during
to bring about a betterment of community life in general.
Edwin A. Ripley, Grand Master, North Dakota.
* * *
Study Classes and Lectures
Should Be Used
way to educate Masons in Masonry is to hold before the initiated and
Mason seriously the ideals for which the Fraternity stands. This is
by a serious and reverent attitude in the conferring of the degrees.
Then some time
should be set apart to a serious study of the meaning attached to the
of the Craft, and this should be presented to the members of the lodge
by well-informed brethren or study classes where the members shall meet
up in detail one after another the ceremonies and symbols as they are
in the degrees, beginning with their earliest esoteric meaning and
follow them through
the ages up to a consideration of their present significance. If this
can be consistently
carried out and the brethren discouraged from applying for so called
degrees," Masons will become Masons in truth as well as lodge members.
Edward P. Hufferd, Grand Master, Colorado.
Masonry and Its Desirability
By Bro. Oliver Day Street,
WE READ in
our Monitors and in the effusions of Masonic orators of the
Masonry," and how that Masonry “unites men of every country, sect and
We are told that in the great cities, that in the depths of the forests
and South America, that on the vast steppes of Asia, and on the plains
of Arabia, Masons are to be found everywhere, and ready to make
by the familiar words, signs and tokens, and to extend succor and
relief even at
the peril of their own lives. We stare, and our bosoms heave with pride
belong to so beneficent and so universal a brotherhood. It is a
which it is a pity to destroy, but the lamentable fact is there is not
a word of
truth in it.
Many of you
will, therefore, be shocked and disappointed when I tell you that there
is not and
never has been and, if many of our most estimable brethren can have
their way, there
never will be universal Masonry. Many of the greatest regions and
peoples of earth
are utterly destitute of Freemasonry, while the Masonry which exists
others is repudiated and denied by each other and by the Masonry of the
speaking countries. Some Grand Lodges admittedly recognize only those
which speak English; others while not professing this standard, made it
practice. Some draw a line on those which do not quite agree with them
on some religious
dogma or as to just how far Masonry may take part in the political
the day, or on some rule of mere practice or policy on which uniformity
existed among the recognized Masonic bodies. The most trivial and
in either doctrine or practice is seized upon by some Grand Lodge,
it is the conservator of pure and unadulterated Freemasonry, to erect
barriers between the Masonic bodies of the world. Among the most
that the world has ever witnessed are those that have raged over
questions of minor
or no importance. Only the disputes among the religious sects and
can be compared to them.
on the part of many Masons and Masonic bodies towards others claiming
to be Masonic
is so extreme that they frown even on any suggestion of getting
acquainted or of
even conferring together. So illiberal is this attitude of aloofness
all of our American Grand Lodges would draw their Pharisaical robes
and spurn with contempt any suggestion of a World Masonic Conference,
or any other
movement which would bring together with them Masons or bodies which
they have not
already formally recognized as legitimate and regular Freemasonry. In
we will have nothing to do with men or organizations which are not
according to our standards and which consequently already need no help
from us and
from whom of course we ourselves need no help. Self-sufficient in our
we will not admit that we can learn anything of value from the Masons
of other countries
and in our smug complacency we say that they are "impossible" as
It is precisely the same mental attitude of Greek toward barbarian,
toward Gentile, Pharisee toward Samaritan, which we so unsparingly
condemn in others,
but which we, (as-they), cannot see in ourselves.
This Is Not a Desirable
admit that this is not a desirable condition, all are hoping that it
may be changed,
but everyone is demanding and expecting that this change shall be
wrought by everybody
else conforming to his views of what is correct. This ignorant and
will forever prevent the Masons of the world getting together. Until we
that, though we may be right, yet others who differ from us may not be
we concede the possibility that, while in the main right, we may,
be in a measure wrong; till we admit that, while they err in some
respects, in the
main they may be right; till we can realize that there are two sides to
that arises between sincere and honorable men; till we are willing to
with our Masonic neighbors, to learn and attempt to understand their
point of view,
to put ourselves in their places, to meet them for mutual study of each
exercise that truly Masonic virtue of charity, we must dismiss all
hopes of a real
world-wide Masonic fraternity.
If we differ
with them as to the Masonic necessity of a declaration of a belief in
must be prepared to admit that there are two sides to this question,
when we see
such men among us as Louis Block of Iowa, George W. Baird of the
District of Columbia,
William F. Kuhn of Missouri, Sam Henry Goodwin of Utah, and James A.
Bilbro of Alabama,
taking directly opposite positions on the question. We must be willing
to meet and
discuss this question with them, and maybe we shall find we are not so
If we see
that differences of view as to the nature of the Deity are keeping us
must first be prepared to admit that there are not only two but many
sides to this
question, since we see scarcely any two of our ablest Masonic scholars
on it. Indeed we see the greatest theologians and philosophers
differing upon it
as they have always differed. Perhaps we should find by approaching
in an open frame of mind that Masonry does not prescribe what one's
be as to the attributes of Deity.
If we find
that opinions as to the presence of the Bible on the altar are
separating us, we
might remember that the Bible was not a part of the paraphernalia of
the lodge for
nearly a half century after the founding of the Grand Lodge of England,
even today it is not on the altar of the British lodges but on the
and that the Grand Lodge of England, admits that the Koran [Lib 2004], or the Vedas [Lib 2002], or the Zend Avesta [Lib 1880] may be used in place of the
as to the office of the Bible in lodge separate us, if some insist that
believe all its teachings, while others claim it is displayed as a
symbol of divine
truth, we must be prepared to admit that there is room for difference
we continue to admit as Masons men who do not accept any part of the
Bible and many
others who reject at least one-half of it.
What if Political Differences
If we draw
the line on those who, we think, engage in polities let us imagine, if
we can, what
the Masonic Fraternity of the United States would do if some party were
in this country which openly declared against free speech, freedom of
freedom of thought, freedom of conscience, and in favor of domination
of the State
by the Church. If Masonry did not fight such propositions it would
perish, yet these
are precisely the propositions which confront Masonry in France,
Italy, and in all South and Central American nations, not to mention
numerous other countries. There are certain great fundamental political
which Masonry always and everywhere has professed and for which, if it
is not willing
to fight, it is not worthy to exist. A little serious investigation
might show that
the political activities of the Masonry which we condemn in other
countries is no
more than precisely what we should and would do under the same
Correspondent I have frequent occasions to observe the extreme
manifested on this question. Let me illustrate with one example:
very able Reviewer in an English speaking country was horrified and
the Grand Orient of Italy invited the Grand Lodges of the world to
it in the celebration of the victory of Italy in 1870 over the Pope of
the consequent downfall of the papacy as a temporal power in Italy.
brother thought that for such "meddling in polities" the Grand Orient
should be cast into outer darkness and utterly excluded from the
I think any
philanthropic, charitable or fraternal organization anywhere in the
world may with
the greatest propriety join in the celebration of so distinct a step in
taken by humanity. Should any Grand Lodge of the United States of
dares to celebrate the Fourth of July be excluded from the Masonic
pale? Would there
be any impropriety in the Grand Lodge of England, or any other Grand
Lodge or Grand
Orient, celebrating the signing of Magna Charta, or the granting of the
Bill of Rights, or the disestablishment of the Church anywhere as a
governmental agency? Could Masons not with propriety observe the
birthday of Martin
Luther, or of John Knox, or of John Wycliffe? Why may they not
celebrate the victories
of Oliver Cromwell, or the burning of Savonarola, or Joan of Arc, or
of Roger Williams, or of the Pilgrim Fathers, or of the French
Huguenots from religious
persecution? We as Masons make much of George Washington in this
country and even
in England. Is anyone so simple as to believe this is not chiefly
because he was
a great and successful warrior and a wise statesman ‒ politician, if
Why may not Masons as such take public pride in the successful attempt
of the politicians
of any people anywhere to separate Church and State? Or to shake off
which either Church or State has attempted to fasten upon freedom of
of speech, freedom of conscience, or freedom of action? If Masons may
not do these
things what may they do besides confer degrees and bestow alms?
What about the Doctrine
of Exclusive Territorial Jurisdiction?
If a refusal
to admit the doctrine of exclusive territorial jurisdiction in our eyes
a Grand Lodge anathema, we should remember that at the beginning this
nowhere recognized and that today it is not recognized at all in many
and recognized only as a wise and sound policy in others. In several
or more systems exist in perfect harmony alongside each other. Should
facts give us pause and suggest that in this question is involved
nothing of principle
that ought to keep Masons apart? It is possible that by frank
discussion we might
be able, to show our brethren of other countries the wisdom and
advantages of this
of so-called Ancient Craft origin often refuse to recognize those of
origin because no one has ever been able to give a convincing account
of the regularity
of origin of Scottish Rite Masonry. But it should be remembered that,
can carry the history of Ancient Craft Masonry nearly a hundred years
than we can that of the Scottish Rite, yet the regularity of the origin
Ancient Craft Masonry can no more be shown than can that of the
Scottish Rite. There
are at least plausible grounds for belief that the Scottish Rite is but
from the Ancient Craft. Possibly by getting together and talking it
over the Scottish
Rite Supreme Councils and Scottish Rite Masons generally might be
convinced of the
wisdom of adopting the plan so successfully adopted in the United
and some other countries of not interfering with the first three or
but leaving them to the exclusive jurisdiction of Grand Lodges.
One may ask,
"Is Masonic Universality desirable, will it be productive of any
advantages?" To ask this question is to challenge the value of
altogether, to question whether it is worthwhile at all, for if it is
good for one
man it is good for all men, and if it is not good for all it is
worthless for any.
It also denies the truism that "in union is strength." I believe no
Mason can be found who will deny the desirability of a world-wide
and practicing the doctrines we profess.
One may then
ask, "How are the conditions above pointed out to be corrected?" Our
is, not by the methods we have been employing, not by refusing to have
with each other, not by standing aloof and denouncing each other, not
as contaminating or unclean Masons and Masonic bodies merely because
upon some one
or all of these questions they differ from us.
Some Solutions Are Suggested
would suggest that the International Masonic Association, at Geneva,
be supported and developed until it becomes as it was planned to be, a
from which can be secured Prompt and reliable information concerning
movements and activities on the continent of Europe especially.
we already have in the National Masonic Research Society, of Iowa, an
that might be made to perform a like service in this country. Or if
is not well adapted or well located for the purpose one could be easily
The principal thing would be to provide the financial support and the
to the task and tell them to go to work in their own way to get the
our Committees on Foreign Correspondence should endeavor to get facts
and lay them
before their respective Grand Lodges rather than revamping half-baked
on fragmentary or false information. Preconceived opinions, or opinions
of a past
generation, should be laid aside and the whole question examined anew.
intelligent Masons visiting foreign countries should be encouraged to
lodges there and get first-hand information, instead of being forbidden
to do so
as is now the rule. Occasionally, carefully selected delegations night
be sent for
this purpose. The information procured by these means should be given
All this would cost some money, it is true, but not more than could be
Fifthly, a World Congress of Freemasons should be held periodically,
say every five
years, without any legislative powers but authorized only to discuss
opinions on Masonic questions.
of such congresses should be held in England as the oldest Masonic
country, or in
the United States as the one having the greatest number of Masons. The
list of Grand
Bodies invited should, while being carefully selected, not be too
should be distinctly understood that invitation to and participation in
was not the equivalent of recognition. It should not be lost sight of
that the main
purposes of the congress were to get acquainted with each other, to
for discussion and exchange of ideas, and the securing and imparting of
I am well
aware that some brothers will raise their hands in horror and say that
I am suggesting
a Universal Grand Lodge. That cry has killed every movement for Masonic
that has ever been suggested, but this scarecrow has long enough
among Masons. I am as much opposed to a General, or Supreme, or
Lodge as are these brethren, but I can see the difference between such
a body and
one convened merely for conference and discussion.
we must rid ourselves of the self-righteous idea that by having any
or association with Masons or Masonic bodies not already recognized as
we render ourselves unclean. We shall not be hurt Masonically,
socially, or morally,
by meeting and discussing Masonry with men whom we may never
If the dream
of Universal Masonry is ever to be realized a beginning must be made.
Masonic bodies must be found of sufficient vision to take the lead and
perseverance and courage to keep the movement moving. We believe that a
of effort along the lines we have indicated would result in a much
among the Masonic bodies of the world.
Patron of Many Arts
By Bro. James Murray, New
is easily the greatest figure of this continent prior to the
and since then none but Washington and Lincoln have arisen to dispute
eminence. After the fashion of some unexpected development in Nature,
among the Colonists like a visitor from another star, the first
humanist of America,
and the first humorist, a great towering soul who believed in life and
let the light shine. The author of this essay has caught something of
spirit of his subject, for the which we may each one be grateful,
seeing that in
these days of world desolation and regret, Franklin's indomitable and
is not the least of the many treasurers we have need of from the past.
AT THE BICENTENNIAL
celebration of the birth of Benjamin Franklin more than seventy wreaths
on his statue in Printing House Square, Park Row, New York, by
industries, including the Grand Lodge of New York, to which Franklin
had made unique
contributions. How wonderful is the man whom no less than seventy
claim as their own! To each he had given something so vital and so
on his two hundredth birthday anniversary they delighted to do him
honor! What a
heritage with which to endow posterity! Surely, such a life is well
worth the attention
that his celebration has created.
(Bigelow), Lib 1906 (Franklin)], which so inimitably tells
of his earlier years, ranks, in the charm, vividness and simplicity of
style, among the few masterpieces of English prose. The author catalogs
frankness the mistakes of his youth, not with any pleasure in the
them, but in the hope of saving others from similar slips. The pages of
are still the best source from which to refresh one's knowledge of this
Franklin's career. The modern writer had best go forward as speedily as
to the point where his public services began.
At the tender
age of ten he was taken from school to assist his father in the
business of a tallow
chandler and soap boiler, a trade that he greatly disliked. At the age
he was apprenticed to his brother, a printer. Although this work was
much more congenial,
he met with such discouragement, abuse and disappointment that he ran
away and we
next find him seeking independent employment at his trade, first in
and later in London. The boy printer, the runaway apprentice, the young
friendless, penniless and far from home in these distant cities, are
have been made familiar to many generations of American readers.
to Philadelphia, Franklin bought the Pennsylvania Gazette and by
was able to discharge, by installments, his indebtedness. As he
he suggested and carried forward scheme after scheme of civic
public spirited activities secured for him the attention and influence
success in practical affairs and caused him shortly to be regarded as
one of the
foremost citizens of his adopted city. To further his schemes he was
fond of organizing
men into associations and developed a singular aptitude for creating,
and perpetuating such bodies. Among others, the Junto, a select club,
a power in local affairs, was the child of his brain. It was a paper
which he read
before this body on the lack of organization in Philadelphia for
that led to the formation of the Union Fire Company. Years later,
with pride that the "city had never lost by fire more than one or two
at a time," and that "the flames have often been extinguished before
house in which they began had been half consumed."
of Franklin, like that of Lincoln, will ever be an inspiration to the
He deliberately trained himself in English composition and the ability
he thus acquired gave him not only his entrance into polities but much
of his success
as a philosopher and statesman. Poor Richard's Almanac became a pulpit
Franklin preached to a multitude. The epigrams of Poor Richard are as
any collection in English literature. His political and social satires
with those of the greatest satirists. In a word, Franklin, from his
was a born teacher of men and ranks among the world's most
But, though an earnest preacher of morality, he was never identified
with any religious
organization. The fact that he was a Freemason relieves him of the
charge of having
been an atheist. He possessed the rarest kind of tolerance and
easily to the customs of his associates but, in the end, and after much
he formulated a creed of his own.
public office came to him in 1736 when he was chosen clerk of the
This post he continued to occupy for fourteen years when he was elected
In 1737, he was appointed postmaster of Philadelphia, an office which
as he says, "of great advantage, for though the salary was small it
the correspondence that improved my newspaper." The postmaster general
Colonies recognized Franklin's practical ability by employing him as
in regulating the several offices and bringing the officers to account"
when, in 1753, the postmaster general died, Franklin became his
crowding occupations of these busy years Franklin found time for the
research toward which his heart always yearned. Besides entrapping the
from the clouds with his kite, he performed countless other experiments
treatises upon them which, collected into a volume, "made no small stir
France and were taken much notice of in England."
In his Autobiography,
he records with just pride that he received the degree of Master of
Arts first from
Yale College and afterwards from Harvard. "Thus without studying in any
he says, "I came to partake of their honors. They were conferred in
of my improvements and discoveries in the electric branch of natural
The Universities of St. Andrew, Edinburgh and Oxford, in succession,
upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws in recognition of his diplomatic
in Great Britain.
head was never turned by the many honors that he received and he did
when opportunity offered to make a joke at his own expense. One of his
experiments was an attempt to kill a turkey by shock. He himself
received the full
effect of the electrical discharge and he was rendered unconscious.
his first remark was, "Well, I meant to kill a turkey and instead I
killed a goose."
In 1764 the
Pennsylvania Assembly selected him for an important mission to Great
the Colony also appointed him their agent. Such was his industry and
year by year Pennsylvania reappointed him. Later Massachusetts, New
Jersey and Georgia
in succession voted him their agent. Thus for some years he represented
than four of the American Colonies. His life in London as Colonial
him into contact with England's leading men and with many distinguished
from continental Europe with results the importance of which can
scarcely be magnified.
His new duties not only trained him in diplomacy but immeasurably
horizon. In his Autobiography Franklin remarks that his father used
often to quote
the proverb, "A man who is diligent in business shall stand before
He adds with pardonable pride that he had "stood before four kings and
with three of them." When the Stamp Act was introduced in the English
and the shadow of the Revolutionary War began to fall over the
Colonies, the figure
of Franklin stood sole and unique among the Colonists as a master of
international affairs. As a statesman he sought to find means whereby
between the Mother Country and the Colonies could be maintained. He
to prevent a breach. But his opposition to the policy of the British
with their earliest attempts to tax the Colonies. To a friend he wrote:
on it, my good neighbor, I took every step in my power to prevent the
the Stamp Act. Nobody could be more concerned than I to oppose it
heartily." But he was not yet ready to part with old lamps for new
wrote: "At heart I am no revolutionist. I believe in purifying, not in
down. I would to God that I could have convinced the British of their
days of agitation, he was still the philosopher and sage and his views
in advance of his times. "All wars are follies," he maintained, "very
expensive and very mischievous ones." "When will mankind," he asked,
"be convinced of this and agree to settle their differences by
marked an era in the relations of Great Britain and her American
colonies. All hope
of agreement, all possibility of reconciliation upon one side, or of
the other, was absolutely over when Franklin shook from his feet the
dust of the
Mother Country. That he gave up in despair of maintaining peace meant
that war was
certain and imminent.
in Philadelphia, May 5, 1775, and, two months later, formulated the
first plan for
the confederation of the Colonies to be presented to Congress. Then for
months he toiled in the domestic service of his country. Useful as were
at home, however, his presence as a trained negotiator, schooled by
of the most difficult kind of diplomatic service, was indispensable
in September, 1776, he was elected envoy to France. The wisdom of this
the estimate set by Europe upon his abilities were indicated by the
was created by his arrival at the French capitol. During his residence
he exercised an influence with the French minister which can hardly be
Throughout the War for long and weary months communication between the
was extremely slow. The only news to reach Paris was colored by passing
Great Britain, and France was most guarded in her attitude and
reluctant to take
an open stand upon the side of the Colonies. Thus in the dread year of
travelled across the Channel that Washington was drawing off the
remnant of his
forces in a demoralized retreat and that Philadelphia had fallen before
however, refused to despair for his country. When told that Howe had
he laughingly replied: "No, sir, Philadelphia has taken Howe."
fell upon Franklin from first to last to keep the Colonies from
just as Washington alone stood between his country and military
disaster. Yet to
many, Franklin's task would have been far more difficult than that of
He alone at Paris could tap the rock and make the waters flow. So
upon him to discharge all foreign bills and indebtedness and poured
upon him an
endless flood of drafts. After much personal discouragement and
discomfort, he obtained
from the King a promise of a free gift of 6,000,000 livres in addition
furnished for interest drafts and eventually by his personal influence
he brought about the decisive French alliance.
his career Franklin commanded men's confidence. To the exclusion of his
he enjoyed a monopoly of the respect and personal regard of the French
And even the English, when they made advances for conciliation,
addressed to him
their communications. Erasmus Darwin wrote in a letter to him: "Whilst
writing to the philosopher and friend, I can scarcely forget that I am
to the greatest statesman of the present, and perhaps of any century,
who has spread
the happy contagion of liberty among his countrymen and, like the
greatest man of
all antiquity, the leader of the Jews, has delivered them from the
house of bondage
and the scourge of oppression." Jefferson when he succeeded Franklin as
at the French court wrote: "No one can replace him, I am only his
was made a Mason in the Tun Tavern Lodge in 1732 or thereabouts, and
from his printing
press in Philadelphia two years later was sent the first book on
published in America ‒ a reprint of Anderson's The Constitutions of the
The first Masonic lodges organized in Philadelphia held annual
festivals and elected
Grand Masters without written authority from the ruling Grand Lodge of
or any of its dependencies, by virtue of the immemorial right of
Masons, and in
due course Franklin became "Grand Master of Pennsylvania."
and his son were treated with marked distinction by the Masonic
Fraternity in London.
In Paris, he was elected member of the famous French Lodge of the Nine
which many distinguished Frenchmen were members.
Americans, Franklin stands preeminent. The study of his character, his
his career are of perennial interest. One becomes attached to him, bids
with regret and feels that for such as he the longest span of life is
far too short.
The faults and defects of character and conduct that are urged against
trivial when compared with the affection and admiration he inspired in
mass of mankind both in the generations contemporary with him and in
know him only as one of the great figures of history.
had instinctively the noblest of all ambitions, that of being of
practical use to
his fellow men. To promote the welfare of mankind was the chief motive
of his life.
Every moment he could snatch from enforced occupations was devoted to
or suggesting something advantageous to the human race. As a patriot,
him. Intellectually few men of any age or nation are his peers. He
covered well, vast ground. He was one of the most distinguished of all
He was a profound thinker and preacher in morals and the conduct of
only the founders of great religions, it would be difficult to name any
has exerted greater influence upon the ideas, motives and habits of
died in Philadelphia April 17, 1790, in his eighty-fifth year. More
thousand persons attended his funeral. He was not buried with Masonic
the "Modern" lodges of which he had been "Grand Master" had
become extinct during his long sojourn abroad and had been succeeded by
His memory, however, has never grown dim among Masons. They cherish him
as one of
their forebears who, through wise counsel, patriotism, untiring zeal
loyalty helped to lay the corner stone of a great Nation.
demand endless descriptive adjectives ‒ all of which seem weak and
describing a man whose talents were so versatile that he excelled in
embraced ‒ whether science, art, industry, diplomacy, commerce, or
What a pity
that this age of specialization uncompromisingly demands that, if a man
be a scientist,
he shall not be a philosopher: if he be an industrial man, he must not
be a poet!
The jack-of-all-trades today is despised. Twentieth century philosophy
one thing but know it well! And there like a shining beacon light
patron saint of more than three score arts and industries, who was all
in each. A man who in his life lived many lives and lived them all
fully and fruitfully!
of the Legend of the Third Degree
By Bro. R. J. Meekren, Canada
of this paper is in charge of a group of members of the National
Society who are making a special study of the Legend of the Third
brethren cooperate with each other through the mail. Their findings
will in due
course appear in THE BUILDER and ultimately, it is hoped, in book form.
as may wish to join in this fascinating study may send their names to
or, better still, may communicate directly with Brother R. J. Meeckren,
Quebec, Canada. The Society is already indebted to Brother Meekren for
the keen insight revealed in the following paper shows how well
qualified he is
to conduct special researches, and leads one to prophesy that we shall
be very much
more indebted to him in the future.
OF PERENNIAL interest to Masonic students is the origin of the Legend
of the Third
Degree. The margin of disagreement is constantly shrinking, for whereas
not so very
long ago opinions varied all the way from a literal acceptance of the
tale as veritable
history to the assertion that it was invented by Anderson or
Desaguliers or someone
else in or about 1723, it is now, one would judge, very generally
agreed that we
are not dealing with history, nor yet with fiction in the literary
sense, but with
an allegorical drama of the nature of the Mystery or Miracle plays of
Ages, of the type of Everyman, of the more elaborate Passion Play of
and further, that the plot is archaic, ancient, and traditional. The
now lies within these limits: "Was this plot once public property, and
when and under what circumstances did it become an integral part of the
Williamson, in his article in THE BUILDER for May, 1922, page 144,
would seem to
be of the opinion that it was once public property and came into the
the Craft somewhere between 1535 and 1546 through the medium of
Tyndale's or Coverdale's
versions of the Bible. The facts are important. Previous versions
(which were in
manuscript, by the way) were translations from the Latin of the
was a translation from the Hebrew in which the title "Abi" or "Abif"
was rendered as part of the name, whereas in the Septuagint, the
ancient Greek version,
and in the Latin versions which were taken from it, the word was
father." The coincidence is too remarkable to be fortuitous, and we are
to conclude that this short-lived version of the Bible had something to
our Legend, as it is told today. But does this necessarily imply that
it was at
this time that the story was invented? The archaic character of the
this scarcely even possible. Was it at this time that it was adapted to
of Masonic Ritual? Many considerations tend to incline us to a negative
And not the least of these is the argument very forcefully put by
Ward in his Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods, [see THE BUILDER, May,
151] to the effect that the Fraternity is, and has always been so far
as any indication
goes, a secret society, or a society holding secrets. To this one may
add that it
is also, and always has been, intensely conservative.
In What Sense the Third
Degree Is Myth
"more light" upon the subject it may not be unprofitable to turn a
further afield. The bringing in of ancient religious mysteries and such
to explain Masonic usages is rather discredited now-a-days, but the
fault lies perhaps
with the mode of employment rather than with the facts themselves. It
may help us
not a little to realize that what we are dealing with in the Third
Degree is myth,
and this equally whether the Legend has always been part of the
tradition of the
Craft, or an eighteenth or sixteenth century importation. Like other
myths it has
grown; and also it is the expression of the feeling of a social group.
too, it has been first interpreted as history, and then as conscious
and now it is ready for scientific treatment.
it as a myth, in the technical sense, we are enabled to use in its
conclusions of anthropologists and students of the history and
evolution of mythology
and religion. Within the brief space of an article it is not possible
to do more
than barely state some of the more important of these conclusions, but
even so it
may be worth our while.
as stated above, myth is the expression of the feelings and ideals of a
That this is preeminently so in the present case hardly needs to be
Secondly, it is normally the explanation of custom. Tylor's Primitive
work to be found in most public libraries of any size, will satisfy any
on this point. From this it would follow that our Ritual preceded the
course this rule is not absolute, for, in modern imitations of our
Order, as well
as in the "higher" degree, the process has been reversed. But these are
cases of conscious and deliberate invention, and not of growth and
survival to which
alone the above principle properly applies. And in comparing such
the genuine myth the difference at once strikes the discerning eye.
Even in these
cases it is curious to trace the influence of the "Work" upon the
A staking example is the Mark Degree, where the original story has been
modified to fit a matured and simplified ritual. This agrees with the
of Brother Race, in a paper published in the Transactions of the Lodge
Leicester, for a knowledge of which the present writer is indebted to
of the Editor of THE BUILDER. In this paper the internal difficulties
of the story,
its inconsistencies and improbabilities, are shown to be explicable by
it as the plot of a play in which the incidents are made to fit the
Myth and Ritual Go Together
again, is the invariable accompaniment of ritual and it would appear as
normally develop together from the simplest beginnings. This would
we must reduce the story to its lowest factors before we begin to look
for its origin.
custom and myth are extremely tenacious of life, but not of form. The
but its reference and details may be completely changed. The incident
the motive is entirely new. Even apparently insignificant details may
with an entirely new explanation for their presence foisted into the
work, mentioned above, is the classical authority on this point. Indeed
the technical term "survival" to designate this constantly recurring
In our own case, therefore, we may confidently look for customs and
are ancient, of unknown antiquity, but that have developed and grown,
out of all knowledge of their originals, unless one is able to produce
Then we may
apply the comparative method that has proved so fruitful in similar
in other fields. This brings us to a set of facts that have hardly even
to by most writers on this subject ‒ the wide variations in the Legend
Race, for instance, in the paper above referred to, has critically
version current in British Freemasonry; Brother Williamson deals with
to American Masons. The difficulties of the one do not exist in the
other, and criticism
applied to the other might be entirely irrelevant to the former. And
there are again
other variations even yet of authority in Europe, while there are many
yet others in the disjecta membra of "sources," especially in the mass
of references, allusions, documents and illicit publications dating
from the eighteenth
century. A comparison of these would seem to point to some extremely
and important conclusions.
One may note
some of the more salient of these. It would appear for instance that
story, as it emerged into the historical period, that is, the Grand
Lodge era, knew
nothing of any pursuit or punishment of criminals. In fact a whole
class of degrees
were invented from 1750 on, (the "Ecossais" and "Kadosh" degrees)
to supply this lack. Another is that the motive for the crime was very
Jealousy on the part of K.S. over Baltis, Queen of Sheba, appears in
one wild account
where the wise king is made to play a part like that of his father's
Uriah the Hittite. In others, professional jealousy appears as the
in certain early French work it is said that the Hebrew name of God was
WORD, but that it was feared that it might have become known, and so
maîtres," not K.S., on discovering the body, "crurent opportun de le
et substituèrent a Jehova le mot …"
When we get
through this process of cancelling out the variations and taking what
all versions we have left a very simple and indefinite, but highly
story which might thus be told. Someone was killed by someone else, who
by two others; fifteen people had something to do with the affair; the
hidden; and a green branch was connected with its discovery. Neither
nor occasion is certain, any more than the motive and identity of the
which may be added the special Masonic element, that this occurred
during the erection
of some vast and important building. Other minor details are constant.
a hill top, and a reference to the Cardinal Points for example. This
of a plot is obviously connected with such stories as that of the
at Rosslyn, and the Apprentice's Window at Lincoln, no less than with
from Germany and the remarkable and complex tale that is half told in
Livre du Compagnonage [Lib 1841 (French)] of the death of Maître
Jacques at the hands
of the disciples of Maître Soubise ‒ and it is at the same time
with the myths of "mystery" ritual literally the world over. Such plots
are not first public and then by some lapse of memory covered by the
veil of secrecy,
but whenever found to be public property can generally be shown to have
secret. These are several normal ways in which a mystery becomes
public, but none
(excepting of course deliberate invention) by which what is public
becomes a mystery.
Our Legend's Connection
with Miracle Plays
our legend to have such close analogies with the Miracle Plays? The
Mystery is always
dramatic, indeed it is not too rash to suppose that the origin of all
of dancing, is to be found in primitive mystery ritual. The origin of
theatre has not, so far as the present writer is aware, yet been
that of the Greeks has, and it is practically certain that it had its
in the Mysteries of Dionysus. A comparison of the Greek tragedies
under all the variety and "humanity" of the general aspect an
coincidence in the essentials of the plots. In all of them can be found
a Pathos, a Messenger, a Threnos, an Anagnorisis, a Peripeteia, and a
In some of the plays one or other of these elements may be reduced to
minimum yet a distinct trace will persist; the order may vary but the
Now translate these terms into ordinary English and apply them to our
is an Agon or struggle; a Pathos, or suffering; a Messenger; a Threnos,
an Anagnorisis, or discover, and finally a Peripeteia, or reversal of
change from darkness to light, from sorrow to joy, and even a sort of
of a Theophany, or revelation of the Divinity. What happened in Athens
a Mystery became public, and we have the Greek plays as a result. But
hundreds of other mysteries of which we do not even definitely know the
and which were never public. But to go further into this would lead us
too far afield.
Brother Williamson's lament as to the difficulty of gaining access to
of information. I have been unable so far to do more than barely touch
of inquiry. But I feel convinced that here lies a possibility of
means of the laws of the normal development of religious and
and institutions, the things that are so puzzling in our ancient
any case it was too much to believe that such at Legend, coupled with
such a Ritual,
so closely paralleling those of mystery rites everywhere and in every
have been devised by eighteenth century scholars, or even evolved by
* * *
E. W. Williamson, Reno, Nevada, who has been at work this past year
upon a book
concerning the Third Degree, had opportunity to read Bro. Meekren's
above and as a result of his interest in the same wrote YE EDITOR a
in which occurred a paragraph good to read as a codicil to Bro.
paper. If this communication is printed here instead of in the
it is in order to render it all the more useful to those who are
interested in the
subject, and not in any sense as a supplement to the above article.
Meekren has followed the line of reasoning that I find in the Revised
the 'Origin of the Third Degree.' The chapter in the History is from
the pen of
Bro. Clegg, himself, I imagine, because it carries a vein of thought
that he has
touched upon in several letters to me. But Bro. Meekren adds much from
a deep store
of classic reading and reaches several conclusions under his various
are distinctively original and suggestive. As to "ab" and its construct
forms of "abi" and "abiv" he is quite right, I think, in his
view, but a clincher would be to have the original of Josephus looked
up to see
what Josephus really wrote at the point translated by Whiston:
Zeuxis His Father." [Lib 1870 (see pp 247)] Zeuxis was the commanding
general of his forces
and not his father in fact. My Bagger's Septuagint is not the last word
of course, but according to it "Chiram ton patera mou" would be
"Hiram, who belonged to my father," which I believe is the consensus of
scholars on this point. In a footnote, the editor (not named) says that
to the Alexandrine MS. it might mean "Chiram, my son" or even "Chiram,
my servant." But every city Arabian vagabond and huckster in Cairo,
to Col. Green and many fugitive writings, has the expression "abuya" in
his mouth all day long, addressed to anybody whom he seeks to induce to
wares. And "abuya" means "my father" and nothing else.
I shall have to unload all these "abi" facts upon you in a page or so
one of these days, if you think anybody would care to read them. You
see I'm skeptical
about the Craft being interested in such matters as derivation and
of words and feel that you have made THE BUILDER interesting and
eliminating the dead wood. Except to those whose tastes lie in a
derivations are certainly "dead wood" and besides they require such
accuracy to be anything more than mere guesses."
David E. W. Williamson, Nevada.
Aspiration -- [A Poem]
By Bro. C. Gordon Lawrence,
sat one day beside the flowing river
And watched it as it glided on its way,
So smooth and placid in its onward motion
Avoiding all delay.
Within its bosom was a moving purpose,
A longing wish to reach the mighty sea,
And all its strength it gave to that one purpose
But yet how noiselessly.
And I have learned that somewhere in the distance
Beyond the mountain and the spreading lea,
Still moving in that calm majestic sweetness,
The river found the sea.
an able man in any profession, there are three things necessary ‒
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
Winfield Scott Schley
WINFIELD SCOTT SCHLEY, U. S. N., "the hero of Santiago," was the only
man ever made a Mason at sight in the District of Columbia. After
becoming a member
of Benjamin B. French Lodge in 18953, he found himself so fascinated
that he took all of his degrees one after another as rapidly as he
could. I think
that Freemasonry had a great deal to do with his thought and feelings
time until his death, and I am anxious to have it known that one who
made such a
place for himself in our national annals found so much worth in our
the last years of his life.
Scott Schley was born in Maryland in 1849 and received his early
education in Frederick
of that state. He was appointed a cadet midshipman in our navy in 1856
and was graduated
a midshipman in 1860.
He was ordered
to the Steam Frigate Niagara of the East India squadron and soon was
off on a cruise,
during which time he was promoted to past midshipman.
was ordered home very hurriedly at the time of the Civil War but its
men were in ignorance of the extent of the calamity which had befallen
until the vessel reached Cape Town, at which time the commanding
that civil war was actually under way.
home was made partly under sail and partly under steam as the ship did
coal enough for the entire distance. It was thought that each and every
go with his state but it was not known how many states had seceded
until the Niagara
reached Boston when an officer came on board at which time the crew was
and the statement made that every officer must take an additional oath
Those who refused or asked time to consider were placed under arrest
with the exception
of Schley himself who was allowed forty-eight hours in which to
his people. Before that time had expired he learned that Maryland had
upon which he promptly took the oath.
He was shortly
afterward promoted to the rank of Master and ordered to the old sailing
Potomac stationed at Ship Island in Mississippi Sound. This duty was
and irksome, and officers and men tried to escape from it, but Schley
did not have
long to wait before receiving his first command. He was put in charge
of one of
the famous ninety day "gunboats" called the Winona.
Farragut arrived to assemble his fleet at the bar of the Mississippi
River, he found
it necessary to jettison part of the cargo of the Colorado and of the
in an effort to get them through the shallow water. He succeeded in
Pensacola over but not the Colorado. Schley's own little ship was
in these maneuvers. Several Confederate gunboats (the Ivy, the
Manassas, etc.) not
infrequently came within range while reconnoitering but never lingered
after a shot was fired.
On one occasion
Farragut sent Schley up to the head of the passes for observation and
heard heavy firing. He signaled Schley to cease firing and return but
did not heed his orders. The signal was repeated again and again but
did not heed it. After the firing had ceased and the Winona returned,
up a signal, "Commanding Officer, come aboard." Schley remarked
in telling the story that he confidently expected a court-martial.
met him on the quarterdeck of the Hartford and administered a severe
which time Schley kept glancing nervously at the yardarm because he was
might be hanged there. He said he never felt so mean or ashamed in-his
When Farragut had finished his reprimand, he exclaimed, "Now, young
into the cabin with me, I have something more to say!"
him into the cabin. As soon as the door was closed, Farragut produced a
sherry and two glasses, held up a glass of wine, and exclaimed: "Young
if I commanded a gunboat and got into a mix-up with the enemy, and was
better of him, I'll be d‒d if I'd see a signal either."
in charge of the Winona at the Port Huron, Louisiana, engagement, and
in most of
the engagements which took place about Port Hudson, Grand Gulf, Baton
the Chalmette Batteries: he helped run the Mississippi River forts, and
he was at
the fall of New Orleans.
Civil War was ended Commander Schley served at the Naval Academy as
Spanish, in which language he was very proficient. Leaving there he
made a cruise
in the Pacific in the famous Wateree, a vessel that was afterward
carried up by
a tidal wave and left stranded on the sands of Africa three-quarters of
a mile from
returned to the Naval Academy and then once again made another Pacific
time in the sloop of war Benicia. Later he commanded the Essex. Then he
inspector and later was chief of the Bureau of Equipment of the
Department of the
he became commander of the Cruiser Baltimore. The members of his crew
got into a
fight with the crew of a Chilean cruiser and became thereby forced into
differences with the officials of that republic. In the give and take
of this diplomatic
quarrel, he acquitted himself well. Later he became commander of the
New York, and later still assumed chairmanship of the lighthouse board.
Spanish American War broke out, he was placed in command of the flying
his flagship being the Brooklyn. The West Indies squadron was commanded
by an estimable
officer who had broken down in health and who was succeeded temporarily
by a captain
who was a grade in rank below Schley (now a commodore) and to whom for
the Navy Department had given the temporary rank of rear admiral.
the Spanish squadron under Cervera as enroute to the United States and
it was known
that there were guns in that Spanish fleet capable of very long range.
the Atlantic Coast frightened cities very much so that many feared that
might be planning to destroy them. Commodore Schley assembled his
at the mouth of the Chesapeake, which was central and there stayed in
for an attack the moment the Spanish Fleet might be reported. That
fleet was discovered
in the region of Martinique in waters controlled by the West Indies
sailing for those waters, Commodore Schley found himself, when in
under an officer above whom he himself ranked. Neither that officer nor
or uttered any complaints but the general public became much agitated
and to this
day men argue as to whom the honors of that naval encounter should go.
was a very temperate man and always careful of his health. He avoided
largely on nature to relieve his ailments, enjoyed life and was seldom
came suddenly as he had always wished and was due to a cerebral
walking along the streets of New York City. Bystanders who lifted the
and slender form from the sidewalk were astonished to discover it to be
of the famous Winfield Scott Schley. He was buried with military and
in the National Cemetery at Arlington. Over his grave was erected the
granite memorial shown in the accompanying illustration.
of Masonic History
By Bro. H.L. Haywood
Part IV ‒ Freemasonry and
the Roman Collegia
OF MODERN Freemasonry has been traced by means of documents and other
records to guilds of builders in the Middle Ages. These guilds in turn
from yet earlier forms of organized endeavor (as has already been noted
in the chapter
on the Cathedral Builders) therefore Masonic historians have found it
to try to push their way back behind them in an attempt to learn how
they came into
existence. Nearly all these historians have fastened their attention on
collegia (plural form of collegium) as furnishing the most probable
the guilds from which Freemasonry sprang, therefore it is necessary for
student to know something about those societies of ancient Rome.
was an association of persons, never less than three, for some chosen
of a trade, social, or religious character, organized according to law.
It had its
own regulations and usually its own meeting place. In the majority of
collegia were dealt with by law as having what is known in lawyer
parlance as "a
legal personality," that is to say, they could own property and they
be held accountable through their officials for their acts. The
reached their perfection and became most popular in Rome, therefore
they are generally
known as Roman collegia, but they were also popular in many other
countries as well.
I. ‒ Collegia Were Organized
Among Greeks, Egyptians, etc.
majority of Greek Collegia were organized about the worship of some god
Religion was a public activity controlled by the state and consequently
in its character; many men and women, feeling the need for something
organized themselves into cults for the private worship of their
and these organizations were often collegiate in form. It is believed
that the famous
Orphic mysteries, so often described by Masonic writers, were begun in
Collegia of worshippers of Bacchus existed in the second century; there
is a record
of such a collegium dated 186 B.C. These and other Greek collegia were
various names, thiassoi, hetairai, etc.
activity among the Greeks sometimes assumed the collegiate form,
the lower classes and among colonies of resident aliens, the latter of
settled at or near some seaport. There were political collegia at
Athens in the
time of Pericles, and they caused much trouble. In 413 B.C. a group of
to overthrow the democratic government. Such Greek associations,
however, were not
very numerous or powerful, and never reached anything like the state of
as that attained in Rome.
became more or less common in Egypt in the first century B.C.,
the worshippers of Isis. Apuleius mentions one such organization under
date of 79
B.C., and there is reason to believe that they had existed much
earlier. In many
cases they took the form of burial clubs, about which more anon.
Records of the
existence of such associations in the famous region of the Fayum have
bearing date of 67 B.C. In Asia Minor, also, traces of collegia have
and it is believed that Thyatira had a larger number than any other
city in Asia;
its college of smiths became known throughout the world.
II ‒ Collegia Became Very
Common in the Roman Empire
Romans collegiate associations were so old that legend attributed their
to Numa, the second of the traditional Roman kings, and there is a
mention of collegia
in the Twelve Tables. These organizations flourished unhampered until
beginning of the first century B.C., during which time some opposition
develop among Roman law makers. In 64 B.C. they were forbidden for a
the exception of a few of a religious character, but in 58 a Claudian
law once again
permitted them. This law was set aside only two years afterwards.
in his turn forbade them all, except Jewish associations of worship, on
that they dabbled too much in politics. When Augustus became emperor he
the cause of the collegia and caused to be adopted an imperial statute
to stand as the foundation of all jurisprudence having to do with them
similar organizations. The Emperor Marcus Aurelius was the greatest
friend the collegia
these general statutes the collegia were left very much to themselves
became emperor, when he caused to be adopted a series of regulations
the associations in Italian towns. These regulations were extended to
towns by Trajan, and from his regime until the end one emperor after
such increasing control of the collegia that there came a time when
they were merely
cogs in the great machinery of state. Membership was made hereditary;
a man from one collegium to another was forbidden; and freedom to work
or not to
work was everywhere denied. Industry became in effect a state
and workmen were as restricted as soldiers in an army. The imperial
system in its
last centuries was supported by the power it extorted from the
collegia, so that
the organizations of trades, the organizations of politics, and the
of military forces became three great pillars underneath the empire.
of the great mass of regulations and restrictive laws, and of the
hedging them all about, a great many collegia came into existence under
and for purposes that violated the statutes. These were known as
and gave the officials just such trouble as bootleggers give nowadays.
Some of these
unlawful associations were of a religious character, others were
for political intrigues. When apprehended they were severely dealt with
the person of their president, who was compelled to pay a heavy fine or
It is amazing
to discover how many collegia there were. More than twenty-five hundred
are in existence, and these have emanated from some four hundred and
towns and villages of the empire. In the city of Rome itself more than
trades were organized, and it is believed that if the memorials were
the number would be considerably increased. It is a great misfortune
that we are
so dependent on inscriptions and similar records, because time has not
with such things, but this is the case and because the classic writers
scorned to speak of them owing to their plebeian character. Like our
historians the old Latin writers loved to tell about lords and ladies
notables, their fortunes, their intrigues, and their wars: the
of common folk lay outside their range of vision. An attempt to
discover what the
historians of the Roman Empire have had to say about the collegia will
home to a man; in all the histories that I was able to consult I did
not find any
reference worth reading except in one or two of the thick volumes of
Frenchman. Gibbon raises his eyebrows; Ferrers has nothing to say;
all about it, though in 1870 he published a tome in Latin on the
so far as one may discover, has never been translated into English; and
so it goes.
One is driven back on the archaeologists.
A great many
collegia were organized solely for the purpose of guaranteeing a member
sepulture; they were known as teuinorum collegia, or burial clubs. Each
this kind built or leased a hall, and held regular meetings upon which
poems were read about the deceased, or a feast was held to commemorate
on his birthday anniversary. Each of these pathetic little societies
owned, or had
access to, a columbarium. A columbarium, God save the mark, was a kind
and meant literally dovecote, which was a name suggested by the fact
that it so
much resembled the little buildings in which aristocrats housed their
a dark room, half underground, were galleries of niches, each large
enough to contain
an urn; every member of the collegium was entitled to his niche and his
there were provisions for a vase of flowers, perhaps, or even an
a thing of horror to the Roman, especially if he had the misfortune to
because his creeds taught him that a man ill buried would turn out an
or even would wander unhoused about the winds, a forlorn and shivering
an agony of loneliness. Accordingly, every man strained his resources
to see to
it that his own soul was protected against such a fate. The rich could
own monuments ‒ every Roman highway of any importance was lined by such
but the slaves and the poor were hard put to stave off neglect after
resorted to the expedient of pooling their resources, and the burial
club was the
It is impossible
for us moderns to realize how much such a thing meant to a Roman with
no means. The public custom of disposing of the uncared for dead was
description. Great pits were kept half open near the centers of
population and into
these, without any ceremony, the corpses of the poor were dumped. To
a horror a man was willing to make almost any sacrifice.
this feeling about burial the Romans were always patient with any
attempt at securing
decorous funeral rites, therefore the collegia having such matters in
dealt with patiently and often with lenience. It is supposed by such
as Sir William Ramsey that many of the early Christian churches were
as burial clubs in order to escape the wrath of the officials,
especially when all
private religious associations were under the ban, as happened several
is believed by some that the early church was often persecuted, not
because of the
theological doctrines it taught, but because officialdom deemed
private persons a menace to the state.
majority of collegia came into existence for more mundane purposes.
profession, art, and trade had its own organization made in due form,
to imperial statute. Sometimes the division of function among these
crafts was carried
to an extreme as when the garbage collectors had their own collegium,
makers theirs, the vendors of fish theirs, the wig makers theirs, etc.
known inscription refers to a collegium of cooks, 200 B.C. It has been
many Masonic writers that collegia of masons, or builders and
a distinctive place and enjoyed special honors and privileges. It is
true that Cicero
remarks of the honorableness of architecture, and that a few other of
mention that calling as having a peculiar usefulness, but other than
this I have
never been able to discover any grounds for the assertions so freely
made by our
own historians, though I have searched with loving care, seeing that I
to find such evidence.
no collegia in Roman Africa, and there were not many in the Eastern
elsewhere they were thickly scattered through Roman civilization. Every
of soldiers carried with it its own collegia of engineers, carpenters,
craftsmen, and, as Coote remarks, "it was as easy to imagine a Roman
a city as to conceive his existence without collegia."
III ‒ How the Collegia Were
aspired to control or own a hall or meeting place, which it called
schola, or in
some cases, curia. For officials it had a kind of president called by
names, magistri, curitarious, quinquennales, perfecti praesides, and so
were a kind of warden, and there were factors or quaestors to manage
affairs. Each society had its own laws, called lex college, and its
or by-laws, and these regulations were based, as already explained, on
statutes. Fees and dues went into a common chest, called the arca. It
has been alleged
by some writers that the funds thus accumulated were used for
but the best informed archaeologists dissent from this opinion, and say
income was employed to defray necessary expenses for the upkeep of
and for memorial banquets. Oftentimes some well-to-do member or friend
a legacy, usually with the direction that it be used for memorial
sometimes for the benefits of the membership as a whole. Most collegia
the graces of a patron, often a woman, who, in return for signal
defray the expenses of the little group. It is supposed by a few
these patrons, who often belonged to the upper classes, were more or
in controlling the activities of the collegia in the interests of the
system of Rome, with its semi-caste form, was reflected inside the
the differences of rank were anxiously observed, and the member from
house always received special honors. Slaves were often admitted, if
they came with
the consent of their masters, and there were many freedmen, who were in
wealthy men. For the most part, the technical organization of the body,
officials, its ranks, and its parish outlines, was modelled on the
lay-out of the
typical Roman city which was to a Roman the ne plus ultra of political
IV. ‒ The Collegia and Freemasonry
To the student
of the evolution of Freemasonry from its first crude traces until its
of affluence and power, the story of the collegia is of considerable
The enthusiastic notion that those ancient associations were Masonic
lodges in the
literal sense, and that through them our Fraternity as it now exists
can trace its
history back to 1000 B.C. or beyond, must be abandoned except in a
sense so broad
as almost to rob the idea of any meaning at all. Nevertheless the
may justly be considered as one item in a long chain of general as
the last link of which is our modern Fraternity.
three or four theories which hold that one may trace a certain tenuous
between the Roman collegia and modern Freemasonry.
One of these
is the Dionysiac Artificers theory. This hypothesis was given the shape
we are now familiar by Hyppolito Joseph Da Costa in his Sketch for the
the Dionysian Artificers [Lib 1820] (published complete in
instalment form in The
Montana Mason beginning with November, 1921), and he was followed, and
repeated, by The History of Freemasonry [Lib 1804], drawn from authentic source
information; with an account of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, from its
in 1736 to the present time, compiled from the Records; and an Appendix
Papers, a famous old volume long attributed to Alexander Lawrie but now
believed to have been written by Sir David Brewster. The essence of
is that these Artificers were employed ‒ lodges of them, that is ‒ in
of King Solomon's Temple, and that they preserved the secrets of
at last they transmitted them to such of the Roman collegia as
practiced that art.
At this juncture
the equally well known Comacine theory comes in. According to this
reading of the
matter, as we may learn from Cathedral Builders [Lib 1899], by "Leader Scott," and
from Brother Ravenscroft's codicils to the same in his Comacines ‒
and Their Successors [Lib 1910], a few of the Roman builders'
fabrorum) took refuge from the Barbarian invasions on or near Lake Como
Italy and there kept alive a knowledge of building until such time as
had stabilized themselves and Europe had become ready for another
When the barbarian peoples began to build their own cities and to lay
highways these Comacini, so the theory has it, went here and there to
people the arts of building. They established schools, and acted as
in general throughout the various countries of Europe, England
included, all of
which will be described in more adequate manner in a chapter to come.
of the theories that would connect the collegia with early Masonic
guilds is that
which Gould elaborates at some length in the first volume of his
History [Lib 1884],
but without committing himself one way or the other. According to this
entered Britain with the Roman army of conquest and were responsible
for the cities,
highways, dikes and churches, some remains of which are still in
the Angles, Saxons and Danes made an end of the Roman civilization in
the collegia continued to exist among them in a somewhat changed form,
guilds. Among these guilds were those devoted to building and its
allied arts, and
out of these guilds there emerged in time those organizations of Masons
us Freemasonry. Some of the greatest historians in the world deny all
this in toto
‒ Freeman among them ‒ while others accept it. A layman must make up
his mind to
theory is that which connects the medieval guilds of Europe with the
lingered late in and about Constantinople, or, as it was called,
Byzantium. It is
supposed that as these organizations of Byzantine builders came more
and more into
demand they moved gradually across Italy and on up into central Europe
served as the seed out of which came the Teutonic guilds. According to
it was from these Teutonic guilds that the Masonic guilds of England
came, and it
was out of the English guilds that Freemasonry emerged.
time as more evidence is forthcoming these, and other theories that
could be described
if space permitted, will all hang more or less in the air. For my own
part I do
not accept any of them as proved. None of them have a sufficient bottom
facts. It appears to me that we should hold judgment in suspense.
and in spite of this uncertainty, the collegia will ever continue to be
to us Masons because they give us one of the best examples in the world
of how and
why it is that such a thing as Freemasonry grows up out of human
nature. In the
days of the Roman Empire life became hard and it grew complex, so that
found himself helpless to battle the world alone. He discovered that if
combine his own puny individual forces with the resources of his
neighbors and friends
that what he alone could not do he might do through cooperation.
their money, their knowledge, their influence, and their good will the
of common people learned to hold their own in a great hard world.
It is so
today. The lodge is a means whereby the solitary individual may escape
helplessness by linking his own life onto the lives of his fellows. In
essence that is what Freemasonry does. It goes down into the depths of
a man's nature
until it finds what is most permanent and universal in him and links
that onto the
inmost nature of many others. Held together by such a Mystic Tie
brethren work and
live together and they who might in our large centers lead lonely lives
or even as enemies are able to rescue from the welter of modern life
the sweet amenities
of friendship, brotherly love, relief, mutual tolerance, and
kindliness. What the
collegium was to the men of ancient Rome, the Masonic lodge is to men
* * *
Works Consulted In Preparing
Livy, Metamorphosis, XI, 30. [Lib*]
Kennedy, St. Paul and the Mystery Religions,
72, etc. [Lib 1913]
Poland, History of the Greeks. [Lib*]
Waltzing, Historical Studies of the Professional
Corporations of the Romans. [Lib 1895-99; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3 (French)]
Realencyclopadie, article by Kornemann
on Collegium. [Lib*]
Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible, vol.
V, 132. [Lib 1911; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4] [Lib 1909 (single volume)]
‒ A Companion to Latin Studies
see. 202. [Lib*]
complete Latin bibliography in sec.
Hasting, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics,
vol. VI, 218. [Lib 1914]
The Organization of Early Christian
Churches. [Lib 1888]
Encyclopedia Britannica, eleventh edition,
vol VI, 564. [Lib*]
Mommsen, De Collegiis et Sodalitiis Romanorum
Kiliae, 1870. [Lib 1843 (Latin)]
History of Greece, vol. V, [Lib
Greenidge, Handbook of Greek Constitutional
History, 208 ff. [Lib 1914]
The Influence of Wealth in Imperial
Rome, section on Gilds. [Lib 1910]
Epistle X, 97, 98. [Lib*]
Abbott, The Common People of Ancient Rome,
205. [Lib 1911]
Inscriptionum Latinarum, XI, 5047;
V, 7906; Ill, 953; VIII, 14683; III, 3583; XIV, 2112; XIV, 326. [Lib*]
Friedlander, Roman Life and Manners, I,
146. [Lib 1908; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4]
Fowler, The Religious Experience of the
Roman People, ch. beginning p. 270. [Lib 1911]
Barnes, Early Church in the Light of the
Monuments, 53. [Lib
Rossi, Roma Soterranea, 58. [Lib 1864-1877;
(Italian); 1869 (English)]
Bulletino di Arch. Crist.
Ramsey, The Church in the Roman Empire,
213. [Lib 1893]
Bampton Lectures, 152 [Lib 1888]. Le Blant, Actes, 282. [Lib*]
Roman Life From Nero to Marcus Aurelius.
Plutarch, Numa. [Lib 1860; Vol 1 pp 117]
History of Rome, several chapters;
consult index. [Lib 1883; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4, Vol 5, Vol 6, Vol 7, Vol 8]
Cobern, The New Archaeological Discoveries
and the New Testament. [Lib 1917]
Pelham, Essays on Roman History, 701 ff.
Quatuor Coronatorum, XI, 170. [Lib*]
The Cathedral Builders, book II,
eh. 3. [Lib 1899]
Mackey's History of Freemasonry,
ch. 46 ff. [Lib 1906; Vol
1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4, Vol 5, Vol 6, Vol 7]
The History of Freemasonry, vol.
I, 36. See bibliographical notes in entire chapter. [Lib 1884; Vol
1, Vol 2, Vol
3, Vol 4]
The Romans of Britain. [Lib 1878]
Early History and Antiquities of
Masonry. [Lib 1881]
Historical Essay on Architecture.
[Lib 1835; Vol 1, Vol 2]
Newton, The Builders, part I, ch 5. [Lib
Armitage, A Short Masonic History, vol
I ch 7. [Lib 1909/11; Vol
The Concise History of Freemasonry,
(Crowe's Revision), 10. [Lib 1951]
Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods,
part 1, ch. 17. [Lib*]
Spence, Encyclopedia of Occultism, article
on Freemasonry. [Lib 1920]
Juris Civilis, Dig. XLVII, 22. [Lib*]
From Schola to Cathedral. [Lib 1886]
Encyclopedia ‒ (Revised Edition): [Lib 1914]
Ancient Mysteries, 497;
Comacine Masters, 161;
Egyptian Mysteries, 232;
Freemasons of the Church, 150;
Initiations of the Egyptian Priests, 234;
Mysteries of Osiris, 540;
of the Gild, 524;
Osiris, 540; Roman Colleges of Artificers,
Stone-Masons of the Middle Ages, 718.
Masonic History ‒ Suggestions for Research,
Cathedral Builders, p. 380.
Comacines, p. 63.
Bird's-Eye View of Masonic History, 236
Came Freemasonry, p. 90.
Mediating Theory, p. 318.
* * *
to our usual custom Study Club articles will be discontinued for July
during which season nearly all Study Clubs discontinue their meetings.
will be resumed in THE BUILDER for September with an article on "The
Masters," and that will be followed by others in due order until a more
less complete history of the Craft will have been published.
The Shrine and its Problems
Masonic scribe has recently published an article under the caption, "Do
Want the Shrine?" The burden of his argument is that the Shrine is a
novel experiment in which lurks a deal of danger for Freemasonry and it
time Craftsmen were looking into the matter. The unfortunate thing
about this writer,
so far as the present subject is concerned, is that he is some fifty
years too late.
is not an experiment, blushing with timidity, but a veteran among
a half century of achievement behind it. It built its first temple in
New York City
in 1872, which is fifty-one years ago. It elected Pro. Walter M.
Fleming its first
Imperial Potentate in New York in June, 1876, and on the same date held
meeting of its Imperial Council, subsequent to which time the Council
has been in
session some forty-seven times. Since Mecca Temple was organized (1872)
has chartered more than one hundred and fifty temples, many of which
of their own that are as imposing as they are unique. Its membership
now runs close
to five hundred thousand and every one of these is either a Knight
Templar or a
Scottish Rite Mason. It is too late to ask if we want the Shrine. About
of the total Masonic membership of this country have voted to make it a
It is this
fact of the Masonic character of its personnel that raises the problems
above mentioned writer has discussed, because the profane world,
knowing of the
intimacy between the Shrine and Masonic bodies, accept the Shrine as
a Masonic organization and therefore hold Freemasonry responsible for
all its doings.
With this opinion that the Shrine is an integral part of the Masonic
family of rites
and bodies a great many Masons appear to agree, for they accept it into
on the same terms as organizations known as strictly Masonic. They
to it in Masonic periodicals; they incorporate its story in their
histories of the
Order; and they invite it to house itself in their own buildings, as
great new temple now building in Detroit where the Shrine is to have
facilities on a par with Blue Lodges, Chapters, the Consistory, etc.,
is still more important, Shrine representatives are frequently
permitted to solicit
their membership directly from among Masons, and often while Masonic
at work, as at Scottish Rite reunions. Some may be quite willing to
accept the Shrine
frankly as being as much a Masonic body as a lodge or a chapter; others
to admit that it is more than an auxiliary; in either case the fact
the Shrine and Masonic bodies strictly so called are living and working
of closest intimacy, so that, whatever be the formal status of the
Shrine, its welfare
and the general welfare of the Craft must necessarily, and to a certain
go hand in hand.
Some of the
problems that have arisen from this intimacy have been pretty generally
often with anxious care, and sometimes in Grand Lodge. The habit of
so frankly referred to by Brother McCandless in his article in this
on the sensibility of many Blue Lodge Masons who look upon solicitation
in any form
as unmasonic. These same brethren dislike very much to see men seek
a Blue Lodge merely as a step looking toward membership in the Shrine.
have been shocked on two or three occasions by what one Grand Lodge
as "mad doings." Furthermore, many of these same brethren feel that in
Masonry there is an almost solemn dignity, like that which one finds in
religion, and that this dignity does not appear to them to comport well
with a parade
of Masons going down a city street in red fezzes and flowing pantaloons.
no attempt to raise such questions here, which are cited merely by way
least of all is there any attempt to answer them. But there is one
may be mentioned which, if it were always adhered to, would
of almost all such difficulties. In all Masonic activities whatsoever
Masonic work of every Masonic body must have always the right of way;
and auxiliary activities must always take a second place. This applies
to the Shrine but to all the other playgrounds of Masonry. It is a
great evil when
a Blue Lodge initiation is crowded into the early afternoon in order to
lodge room for a dinner dance, or when it is hurriedly got out of the
road in order
that an amateur orchestra may entertain the crowd. Such doings ARE
should be everywhere frowned on.
and his colleagues are in the vanguard of those who frown on them. All
are brother Masons, and some of the wisest heads of the Craft are
members of the
Imperial Council. They are fully awake to all their problems, and it is
to predict that they will meet them in a spirit that looks only to the
of Masonry. One thing is certain. No good will ever come from attempts
to set one
group of Masons into opposition with other groups. We are all members
of one great
family, and our welfare must ever consist in the application of the
to all our problems.
as may now confront the Shrine are incidental to all great
organizations, and there
is no need to fear lest the wisdom of Masonry fail in solving them as
from time to time. Meanwhile every Mason can cordially echo the
by Brother McCandless in his last paragraph. It is a good thing for
enjoy good fellowship; to let God's sunshine into every heart; to
increase the joy
of life; to add to the gaiety of nations.
* * *
"The Charm of Fine
A rare old
Spanish Dictionary of the eighteenth century described etiquette as "a
of ceremonies hid in the king's palace." The words are fragrant as an
are they not, and suggest, after the manner of poetry, many more things
tell. In the Old French, from which etiquette is derived, the term was
used of the
tickets given out at court to enable each member of the king's suite to
place in line properly suited to his rank. This association of
courtliness, of kingly
mien, and elegant deportment, hangs like an aroma about the word still,
to us a hint of what sort of thing it is. Good manners accepted and
used, and consequently
transformed into a ceremonial, such a thing is etiquette, and only a
make light of it. It is to good manners what the written score is to
quite as necessary, lest the harmony of social intercourse evaporate
exclaimed that if manners were lost out of the world, some gentleman
them, because they are necessary to the social life of civilized
people. The Sage
of Concord was little given to forms; indeed, he did more than any
other man of
his generation to dissolve them, but for all that he saw clearly how
are. "The charm of fine manners is music and sculpture and picture," he
remarked on another occasion. A saying similar to this is attributed to
an old sage
of ancient Europe: "Men make laws, women make manners." It is to say
men contribute strength; women, beauty; and that charm, address, and
as important as armies and gunpowder.
in England long ago learned how good and beautiful a thing it is for
Masons to work
together in lodge under the inspiration of etiquette. They employ a
Master of Ceremonies,
and ask of each member that he observe the due forms of lodge behavior,
know that "good manners and soft words have brought many a difficult
to pass." Brother Campbell-Everden wrote a very excellent book on the
and Its Etiquette. [Lib*]
Masons of the old days have often been described as rude men of
and rough behavior. One may doubt this. The Old Charges have a great
deal to say
about the Points of Fellowship, and Anderson's Constitutions, which is
an excellent witness, devotes one of its six sections and a very large
space to a Mason's behavior in and out of lodge. The book is a
reflection, and to
a certain extent a preservation, of customs grown ancient by 1723, and
for many generations the brethren had been anxious to subdue their
improve themselves in Masonry, and to enjoy the privileges of happy
It is sometimes
hinted that in our own lodges we are not so observant of these graces.
be something to this charge. Our national culture is not as rich, as
as firmly established as that of the Old World. Our traditions and
have always tended to make light of etiquette. The Puritans and
Pilgrims who gave
us the key of so much of our social behavior retained a stiff knee and
hats on. Walt Whitman loved to voice this uncouthness in his poems. "I
dainty, dolce, affetuoso," he cried, "but rough, bearded, and to be
It may be
that something of this spirit lingers in our lodges. We may not make a
addressing the chair in strict decorum because we feel that it betokens
It may be that we sometimes carry on conversations during initiation
and enter and leave a lodge room without observing the forms, because
we enjoy living
in a free and easy atmosphere.
It is more
probable that other causes lie behind these lapses. The great majority
men are gentlemen by instinct, and the observation applies especially
who have been elected out of the total citizenship because of their
Our lodges are often very large. The official group changes rapidly.
can't attend lodge regularly, and accordingly grow rusty. Also there is
deal of travelling about, not only from town to town but among the
so that an individual is often hard put to remember his cues.
represent conditions, not excuses, and offer a challenge to the
governors of the
Craft. Etiquette is necessary. It belongs to the lex
non scripts of Freemasonry, laws that are not written but
the same. It is minor jurisprudence and quite as necessary as that
required by the
constitutions or enjoined by statutes and by-laws. To see a lodge
decorum, so that all its activities carry forward like the strains of
a delight and a privilege. It is, in a sense, the work of Freemasonry,
evermore building temples in the minds and hearts of men, and which
there should be "a book of ceremonies hidden away in the king's palace."
The Infancy and Youth of
OF MAGIC AND EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCE DURING THE FIRST THIRTEEN CENTURIES
OF OUR ERA
[Lib 1923, Vol 1, Vol 2], by Lynn Thorndike, Ph. D.,
of History in Western Reserve University. Two volumes, 5 3/4 X 8 1/2,
vi-1036 pages respectively, published by the Macmillan Company, New
York, N. Y.
Price $10.00. Orders can be placed through the Book Department,
SO COMMONLY THOUGHT of as trickery, and science as fact, that to many
the very title
of this work may seem self-contradictory. If the reader will cast aside
such a prejudice
he can the better do justice to this truly monumental work.
agree or disagree with the conclusions of Professor Thorndike there can
be no question
about his prodigious industry and his transparent sincerity. He has
afield to peruse at first hand the original manuscripts in their dusty
in the Old and New Worlds. Not only does he freely interpret the books
that he has unearthed in various countries but he is frank when listing
to tell how little he is acquainted with their contents whenever such
may be the
case. It is well for him to do this, for his book (if it had no other
a remarkable work of reference, containing as it does quotations and
information stored hitherto in rare publications in several languages,
away where distance, war, and other difficulties have barred the
Such a production
as this by Professor Thorndike has very much of value to us. Ceremonies
rituals and formulas of words and phrases, are all within the scope of
such an inquiry
We must admit
that from first to last there is no direct discussion of our ancient
Craft. In fact,
only in one place do we find an allusion to the Fraternity, and that,
in Vol. I,
page 183, is by no means important. The author there tells us that the
as described by Vitruvius, at the beginning of the Roman Empire under
Augustus Caesar, went about his work without magical procedure. We are
"perhaps permanent building is an honest downright open constructive
error is at once apparent and superstition finds little hold. If so,
how there came to be so much mystery about Freemasonry."
But we may
venture to suggest that the Professor does not seem to be acquainted
with what has
appeared in such works as Dr. Mackey's Encyclopedia, and his History;
W. Speth's Builders' Rites' and Ceremonies [Lib*]: H. Clay Trumbull's
work on the
primitive rite of the Blood Covenant [Lib 1885]; the same author's Threshold
the essays on animal symbolism in William Andrews' Church Treasury [Lib
1898], and other treatises of this
Perhaps he purposely excluded such funds of information though the
of religious congregations and of trade organizations would not appear
to be foreign
in any way to his general inquiry.
Thorndike's field of study is broad and his labors are of twenty years'
He deems magic to include all occult arts and sciences, superstitions
and that magicians were probably the first to experiment
scientifically. There are
numerous references to our ancient friend and brother, the great
the latter's esteem for the magical qualities of numbers there is much
The Bible, the Apocrypha, and magic have each a chapter of compelling
followed by equally noteworthy comments upon the literature relating to
and the early Fathers of the Church.
One is tempted
to cite freely. There is, for example, the exposure by Hippolytus of
of magicians; the early explanation of the high priest's breastplate;
the use of
phrases to ward off injury or to do harm ‒ an ancient idea not unknown
as a supposed
novelty even in these so-called up-to-date times; such mathematical
attempts to square the circle in the year 1010; the lament by Abelard
in 1107 on
the national morals, that "princes were violent, prelates winebibbers,
mercenary, patrons inconstant, the common men flatterers, promise
friends envious, and everyone in general ambitious," a regret on things
to the dogs that reads as familiarly as many letters to the modern
the curious argument recorded that necromancy was once advocated to
take the place
of rhetoric among the seven liberal arts and sciences. Then there is
of the mechanical arts, that, omitting theatrical performances and
analogy of the seven liberal arts, was planned in the years 1272-1279
to be earth
culture, food science, medicine, costuming, armor making, architecture,
courses. We read the claim in the first century by Pliny and several
that boiling drinking water makes it more wholesome, a wise suggestion
as recently as 1856 rejected, though present day practice favors the
the Roman author. There is the Latin writer, Neckam, who tells us that
in the days
of antiquity the liberal arts were the monopoly of free men, the
mechanical or adulterine
arts being others. We note the prayer for promoting the virtues of
or amulets. An enjoyably intimate description of people in the year
the belief that humanity is singularly the same as ever, at least in
There is the philosopher of the thirteenth century who divides science
or speculative and practical or operative, a choice of some note to us.
is not convinced that every medieval scientist was persecuted by the
he does devote a chapter to Cecco d'Ascoli, an astrologer of some
was put to death by the Inquisition.
Thorndike's closing chapter is so instructive upon the heritage of
of science, and shows so clearly that the tendencies of our times are
them and colored by the reflection of their thought, that it might well
an illuminating beacon for further voyages in these deep waters of
world's first steps in science.
Robert I. Clegg.
* * *
A Jewish Rabbi's Interpretation
of the Three Degrees
OF FREE-MASONRY FROM ANCIENT HEBREW RECORDS IN THREE LECTURES ON THE
[Lib*], by Rabbi Brother J.H.M. Chumaceiro. Sixth Edition. The Bloch
Company, 26 East 22nd Street, New York City. Forty-eight pages, bound
thirty-five cents. Obtainable through the Book Department, National
book possesses an interest of its own aside from its intrinsic merit as
of Freemasonry, for it was written by a Jewish Rabbi whose interest in
was almost equal to his passion for Hebrew lore. His Introduction gives
of Masonic "history" that is very reminiscent of Dr. Oliver, quaint and
interesting now, and, after a generation of Masonic research,
valueless. The greater
part of the book is divided among three lectures on the Craft Degrees
author was wont to deliver to tiled audiences.
In the lecture
on the E. A. Degree he devotes himself to Boaz and to Jacob's Ladder,
to the interpretation
of which he brings a deal of rabbinic tradition. He believes that the
named Boaz to honor the name of that man famous in Hebrew history as
one of the
ancestors of David and Solomon.
in his lecture on the F. C. portion, he interprets Jachin as having
been so named
to memorialize a hero. In this chapter there is much matter about
the Number Seven.
lecture gives an interpretation of Tubal Cain, and also a long
disquisition on Hiram
Abiff, which name is interpreted as meaning "noblest chief." In
with these paragraphs is printed a remarkable dirge, composed in the
manner, supposed to have been pronounced by Solomon at the death of H.
is an interpretation of The Lost Word, and there are several paragraphs
on the Emblems
of the Third Degree.
In this entire
volume there are few things that would not now be challenged by
historians and symbolists but for all that there is a winning
it that will bring its message home to a reader, whether he be a
Hebraist or not.
* * *
The Part Played by Jews
in the History of American Masonry
AND MASONRY IN THE UNITED STATES BEFORE 1810 [Lib 1910], by Samuel Oppenheim; being a
from the Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, No.
and sold by The Black Publishing Company, 26 East 22nd Street, New York
thirty-five cents; also by the Book Department. National Masonic
was submitted to The American Jewish Historical Society "as a slight
to the history of the Jews in this country and as a basis for further
It is well to read it in connection with articles on cognate themes in
Encyclopedia, in which learned work it should have a place, for it is
full of such
information as an encyclopedia is designed to supply.
many instructive pages in this book of ninety-four pages is a rapid but
sketch of Moses M. Hays, the greatest, perhaps, of all Jewish Masons in
whose "connection with Masonry probably commenced about 1768 when he
Deputy Inspector General of Scottish Rite Masonry for North America by
Francken, who had been commissioned by Stephen Morin, of Paris, acting
authority of Frederick II of Prussia, the Grand Master of Scottish Rite
Europe and holding jurisdiction over America." (Page 7.) Mr. Oppenheim
a remark: "Why such extraordinary powers were granted to Hays, a Jew,
question remaining to be answered."
or supposed story, of the manuscript purported to have been found by
H. Gould, of Newport, R. I., in which it is said that in 1656 or 1658
were given "the degrees of Maconerie" is a famous crux of Masonic
It is well ventilated on page 9 ff., and the Masonic student will do
well to have
the account by him for the sake of the data it contains. The author
appears to be
earliest Presidential Masonic correspondence that exists on record" is
written by King David's Lodge of Newport, R. I., to George Washington
by Moses Seixas, as Master, and by Henry Sherburne. The lodge's letter,
gracious reply are both given in full. A great deal is said about Moses
who was Grand Master of Rhode Island, 1802-1809, and a very famous
Mason in his
illustrious in the annals of Jewish Masonry is Emanuel De La Motta, of
S. C., who was instrumental in establishing a Supreme Council for the
in New York in 1813, and who became its head. Isaac Da Costa was
Jewish Mason in those days, "A Sublime Lodge of Perfection was
him in Charleston in February, 1783, he being then Deputy Inspector
General of Masonry
under appointment from Moses M. Hays." (Page 76.) This is NOT the Da
who wrote the famous work on The Dionysian Artificers.
Supreme Council of the 33d Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish
Rite of Freemasonry,
said to be the first Supreme Council known, and superseding all
organizations, being, it is also said, a transformation of the former
Rite of Perfection
or Ancient Accepted Rite, was organized at Charleston, on May 30, 1801,
Mitchell, Frederick Dalcho, Emanuel De La Motte, Abraham Alexander,
Major T. B.
Bowen, and Israel Delichen. A list exists of the officers composing
in 1802, and also of the officers and members of the different sections
of the degrees of the Scottish Rite in that year." Of this list
known to have been Jews. "Others in the list, Dr. Frederick Dalcho, Dr.
Auld, and John Mitchell, who were claimed to have been Jews, are known
not to have
been of that race.”
Dalcho, it may be added here, was born in London of a father who had
in the army of Frederick the Great. Dalcho became a physician in the
stationed at Charleston but later retired to private practice, and
later still (1814)
became a rector in the Episcopalian church. He became very active in
of Masonry, was made Grand Secretary of the A. & A. S. R., and
later Grand Commander.
Owing to strife and dissension he resigned from all Masonic activity in
It is not
as well-known as it should be that the famous Governor Oglethorpe of
a Mason ‒ made in England it is believed ‒ and one of the founders of
Lodge, No. 1, of Savannah, which was organized in 1785. More than once
he gave official
recognition and honors to the Craft. Mr. Oppenheim believes that
very friendly reception of the Jews in 1733, was due to the fact that
he and they
as these, and many more like them, are to be found in this scholarly
work. All Masonic
students, especially those who specialize in Masonic Americana, should
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
over his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
Study Club course. The Society is now receiving from fifty to one
each week; it is manifestly impossible to publish many of them in this
The Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church pronounced against Freemasonry after the fashion
of the Roman
Catholic Church? This inquiry, which comes to hand with singular
proved (for some reason or other) strangely difficult to answer. If the
to be able to supply any information, or to suggest any possible
sources of information,
his assistance will be appreciated. The query was sent to Atlantis
of New York. Its manager, L. L. Lontos, submitted an interesting reply,
far as we know the Greek Orthodox Church is not in favor of secret
as a whole, but has never made any formal pronouncement with reference
We understand that many prominent men of affairs in Greece are
Freemasons, one of
them being the former Premier, Gounaris, one of the ablest men of that
who has been recently executed by the Revolutionary Government, now in
* * *
Does Kentucky Have Uniform
among lodges in Kentucky I have found the work to be somewhat different
there. Doesn't the Grand Lodge of Kentucky demand Uniform Work?
was referred to Bro. W. H. McDonald, of Louisville, Kentucky, whose
in his rich and friendly vein and with a touch of humor between the
lines, is here
given in full. Brother McDonald is Editor and General Manager of the
Journal published semi-monthly at Louisville for the Craft in Kentucky;
it is a
journal unique in make-up and appeal and always full of the warmth of
only information that I can give you is that in Kentucky we do not have
would call uniform work. We all do the same work, but in some instances
in a different
manner to that which our neighbor does it. Some of our lodges put the
work on in
elaborate style, fine paraphernalia, fine regalia, clockwork degree
teams with a
lot of feathers and fuss, and maybe at the same time there is another
lodge in the
State that is doing the work, giving the obligations, raising
candidates with nothing
except an apron which glistens with the homemade starch that has been
by the hand of some Mason's wife or daughter, under the glow of a
or a few candles scattered hither and thither. Yet, with all, the last
gets the idea of proving himself worthy of the confidence of his
brethren but not
in as entertaining a manner as the first mentioned. For one hundred and
years we have been going the gait this way.
membership of Kentucky is not permitted to use a cipher ritual, and, as
of course, it is not permitted to be printed in long primer in any
state, or any
other face type, but as a rule any well posted Mason can go into any
lodge and work
in any degree. Why they can thus perform is next to a miracle. I
believe that the
work should be uniform throughout the state, or as nearly so as could
be, yet it
costs a deal of money to pay the expenses of a lecturer, and as a
matter of course,
there are few men who would accept this place and go out at their own
that too without salary.
matter has been brought to the attention of the Grand Lodge on several
and at one time they attempted to have all the work uniformly done in
but in this they made a flat failure and it has rested there ever
since. I do not
know of any way that the Grand Lodge of Kentucky could be shown the
light of this
matter nor do I know of one who could give you further light on this
* * *
Mozart as a Mason
I have a
request from up state for information bearing upon Mozart. The brother
says in his
letter that he would like to know more about the work of this great
G. A. P., South Dakota.
find a complete account of Mozart as a Mason in Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum, Vol. XXVI,
page 241 ff., [Lib*] under the caption "Bro. Mozart and some of his
Friends." Beginning on page 245 is a valuable account of his Masonic
arrived at Vienna in 1781, and joined the Craft in 1784. His
biographer, Otto Jahn,
[Lib 1891, Vol
1, Vol 2, Vol 3] says: (Vol 2, p. 400
ff – rhm)
in which the Order was held at Vienna when Mozart settled himself there
that it is not surprising to find him with those who were the most
clever and best
educated men, and the best society of the time. He felt a want of that
which reaches the heart and feelings, and joined the lodge…
of a form of liberty based upon intellectual and moral education, which
felt at Vienna at this time, was supplied chiefly by Freemasonry, and
that it would be useful to him to be introduced into a circle of men
great problems. The mysticism and symbolism of the Craft had its own
his impressionable nature.'
he joined the Craft, Freemasonry occupied a very important position in
life. Six months after his own initiation he induced his father to
become a Mason,
and shortly before his father's death he wrote to him as follows:
(Mozart had at
this time been a Mason for about two years.)
death is the true end and object of life, I have so accustomed myself
to this true
best friend of man, that its image not only has no terrors for me but
and comforts me. And here I thank God that he has given me the
opportunity of knowing
it as the key of all beatitude.'
nothing more clearly shows how seriously Mozart regarded Masonry than
for the lodge. Himself the greatest musician that has ever been a
member of the
Craft, no Masonic music that has ever been written compares with his.
principal Masonic pieces are:
Die Gesellenreise, op. 468, a
Masonic song, composed March 26, 1785.
& 3. The Opening and
Closing of the Lodge. Op. 483 and 484. These were
probably composed for the first meeting of the Lodge Zur Neu Gekrönten
A short cantata, Maurerfreude,
op. 471, for tenor and chorus, dated April
20, 1785, performed on the 24th of the same month, in honor of Von
Born, at a special
lodge held on that day to celebrate his discovery of the method of
by amalgamation. The success of this discovery was celebrated by the
Lodge Zur Wahren
Eintracht by a banquet, at which the cantata was performed.
A short Masonic cantata, said
to have been written by Schikaneder, for two
tenors and a bass, with orchestral accompaniment, op. 623. This was
the consecration of a Masonic temple, on the 15th November, 1791. It
was the last
finished composition of which Mozart conducted the performance.
The cantate Die Ihr Des
Unermesslichen Weltalls Schöpfer
Ehrt, op. 619.
Maurerische Trauermusik, an
orchestral piece, an elegy on the death of Duke
Georg August of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and Prince Franz Esterhazy, op.
The Magic Flute.
the British Museum there is a manuscript collection of sixty-six
Masonic songs in
German, some of which are ascribed to Mozart.
is stated to have been initiated in the Lodge Zur Wohltätigkeit in the
1784. Other authorities state that he was initiated in the Lodge Zur
the Lodge Zur Gekrönten Hoffnung. As a matter of fact all these
statements are in
a measure true."
* * *
Sir Robert Baden-Powell
Not A Mason
One of the
Craft Lodges in this city desires to know if Sir Robert Baden-Powell is
‒ C. B.
addressed to P. Colville Smith, Grand Secretary, United Grand Lodge of
elicited the reply "so far as I am aware, Sir Robert Baden-Powell is
Masonic Bodies Named For
As a member
of Kane Council No. 2, Royal and Select Masters of Newark, N. J., may I
add a word
to M. W. Bro. G. W. Baird's autobiography of Dr. Elisha Kent Kane as it
in the March, 1923, issue of THE BUILDER?
states that Dr. Kane's name is perpetuated in Masonry by Kane Lodge No.
& A. M., of New York, and he apparently gives that body all the
credit for initiating
the movement for the Kane Memorial in Cuba.
to Kane Lodge of New York we have here in New Jersey Kane Council No.
2, R. &
S. M., and also Kane Lodge No. 55, F. & A. M. in Newark, both
of which bodies
are named for Dr. Kane: also an Eastern Star Chapter of that name in
William E. Somers mentioned in the article is a member of Kane Council
and a zealous
student of all matters relating to the life of Dr. Kane. It was due to
efforts that the whole matter of the memorial tablet was brought about
and the expense
was borne mainly by the three Kane bodies I have mentioned.
of Kane Council are very proud of our illustrious namesake and I feel
that the Masonic
world should know that we did our share in perpetuating his memory.
C. N. Millington, New Jersey.
has also received a letter from Brother Antonio Urbina, Secretary,
that a "Kane Lodge," composed principally of Americans, was formed at
Preston, Oriente, Cuba, last June under the jurisdiction of the Grand
Lodge of the
Island of Cuba.
* * *
Six Brothers Raised In One
evening, March 26th, 1923, Star of Hope, No. 430, F. & A. M.,
of the State of
New York, conferred the Third Degree on six sons of Wm. C. Lutz, Sr.,
of that lodge,
by special dispensation from Grand Master Arthur S. Tompkins. It is
this is the first time in Masonic history when six blood brothers were
the Sublime Degree of Master Mason the same evening.
Team of the New York Post Office Square Club who are famous for the
of their drama, The Temple Tragedy, officiated on this auspicious
hundred brethren crowded the Brooklyn Masonic Temple to witness the
Richard S. Power, New York.
* * *
Professor Kirsopp Lake Writes
I have read
with much interest Bro. Haywood's article on Mithraism in THE BUILDER
for May, and
liked it very much. The only thing which I feel inclined to add is that
you might bring out a little more plainly the fact that in Mithraism,
as in all
the Mystery religions, there seems to have been the underlying belief
in the attainment
of immortal life through death. The whole point of most of these
Mysteries is the
belief that the Lord of the Cult was a supernatural being who either
had been a
god who became man or was a man endowed with some supernatural power
him to win his way through all kinds of difficulties, usually including
death, to the goal of immortal and divine happiness. The initiate, who
symbolically the experience of the Lord, really shared in the
privileges which the
Lord had obtained. Immortality through death by repeating the
experience of the
Lord is, I think, the formula which most nearly covers all Mystery
as it would perhaps be better to call them, sacramental religions. For,
as you know,
the word mystery is the usual Greek word for sacrament and sacramentum
usual Latin word for mystery.
K. Lake, Massachusetts.
will be interested to know that Bro. Kirsopp Lake, of the Divinity
School of Harvard
University, is Chaplain of The Harvard Lodge, as described by Bro. Guy
in THE BUILDER for April. Bro. Lake is a man of incredible learning who
in the field covered by Mithraism and other Ancient Mysteries. Ye
Editor has long
lived in hope of enticing Professor Lake into the ranks of Masonic
his shining gifts and extraordinary attainments would prove of
to the Craft.
* * *
Wise Words about Masonic
many letters received in response to the editorial, "Expert Wanted! A
Consulting Architect," printed in THE BUILDER, March, 1923, page 84,
one of peculiar interest. Brother Osgood is one of the two members of
the firm of
Osgood and Osgood of Grand Rapids, Michigan, consulting architects for
Washington National Memorial, now in process of erection at Alexandria,
subject of Masonic temple design is as basic and scientific as is the
of any other specific type of building, and yet I think it is a fair
say that as a group there are more existing failures in Masonic temples
today than in any other special class of buildings, such as schools,
churches, theatres, etc. The question that interests us is why is it
that this condition
exists There are many reasons but, for fear of overloading this letter,
I will give
the one big explanation which can be summed up in a few words, namely
of architects who have had no experience on such work professionally,
or from the
standpoint of a Masonic executive and worker in various bodies.
committees would generally only use the same sound business judgment in
an architect that they do in matters pertaining to their own individual
success, this situation would be different. But they generally employ
not because of his qualifications in, or knowledge of the subject, but
just happens to be an architect and lives in the town where the
building is contemplated,
is a member of the Craft, is 'one of the boys'; and all this, added to
that the money is to be raised locally, makes it difficult to tell this
that the committee is more responsible to their brother constituents in
a one hundred per cent efficient Masonic working building, than they
are in advancing
his ambitions or desires. Mr. Architect feels hurt if his fellows for
even suggest his inability to handle the problem, for is he not an
he not belong to the Fraternity? is he not a citizen and a supporter of
Of course he is but, as a matter of fact, this Mr. Architect all during
career has been designing residences, or factories, or banks, or
anything else than
Masonic temples. This home job is his first and in most cases his last
but he wants it and moves heaven and earth to stop it from going
outside, just to
save his professional status. He has very little knowledge to start
with and when
through, he has done what the committee has told him to do, and thus
has acted in
the capacity of a draftsman and not as an advisor.
I am quite sure if these same committees were to have a hospital
problem on their
hands, they would say to themselves 'the thing to do first is to find
or firm of architects who from training and experience are specialists
construction, for we shall be held responsible for the success of our
those advancing the money have a right to demand the last word in
operation and upkeep.' There is as much logic in thinking that the
or worse yet, industrial engineer, can give these results on any
of building, as it is to consider the employment of a veterinarian to
remove a human
appendix. They all can make a stab at it, but either the public or the
the chances. The question of responsibility is with those who do the
to me that responsibility is far greater to the constituents
represented than to
an individual or small group. A man who has never designed a Masonic
to start from the beginning and build up his knowledge and doesn't know
ought to cost or worse still what it will cost.
building of a Masonic temple is a man's job and the right results can
provided the same good business principles are used that would make any
me the first architect who is big enough, and is interested enough in
Fraternity (if he has had no experience in this kind of work) to say,
Why I guess
I know as much about the requirements of the problem as any other
architect in town,
but I don't think any of us can give the results that you should have.
I will be
pleased to do this work but I advise the employment of a consulting
aid me, a man who knows this game, and together we will give the
results that you
have a right to expect! Show me such a man, and you have found an
of a place in his profession and of membership in our Fraternity.
S. Eugene Osgood, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
* * *
Wanted: Information about
I am compiling
a list of important buildings here and abroad of which the corner
stones have been
laid by Masons. Brethren who can furnish me with any information of
this kind will
please send direct to me.
C. E. Krause,
338 West Main St.,
* * *
Masonic Lodges of the Cherokee
Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons in the present state of Oklahoma is
No. 10, originally 21. It was flourishing in 1852 under the
jurisdiction of the
Grand Lodge of Arkansas. The Cherokee Nation of Indians gave to this
lodge and to
the Sons of Temperance two lots in the town of Talequah, the capital of
Nation. In 1868 this lodge was discontinued on the rolls of the Grand
Lodge of Arkansas
but with other Indian lodges it continued to work until 1877 when it
new charter under the Grand Lodge of Indian Territory.
are Fort Gibson Lodge No. 36, chartered by Arkansas, November 5, 1850,
Arkansas 1868, chartered by the Grand Lodge of Indian Territory, 1878,
Lodge, No. 12; and Flint Lodge, No. 74, chartered under Arkansas, 1853,
1867, and again chartered as Flint Lodge, No. 11, under Indian
and other Indians participated in the inauguration of the Grand Lodge
Territory in 1874. Of the Cherokee Indians the following have been Most
Grand Masters of the Grand Lodge of Indian Territory: Harvey Lindsey,
Nash, 1885, 1886, 1887; Leo E. Bennett, 1889 to 1892; and Wilson O.
Burton in 1904.
Under the jurisdiction of Oklahoma, after the absorption of the
Conner was Grand Master in 1919. Leo E. Bennett was Grand Treasurer
from 1899 to
are gleaned from the History of the Cherokee Indians, by Emmet Starr,
Co., Oklahoma City, 1921).
Arthur C. Parker, New York.
* * *
Freemasonry in Mexico
October 1, 1922, the writer preached in the Masonic Temple at Tampico,
at 6 P. M. on Monday, October 2, constituted Tampico Commandery No. 1
and installed its officers, acting under a Dispensation from the Grand
the Grand Encampment of the United States. At 8 P. M. the hall was
opened to Freemasons
and their friends who listened for an hour to an address on
Freemasonry. The Tampico
Masonic Temple is valued at $125,000, and the Lodge, Chapter, and
I went to Mexico City where I gave an hour's address to Auahuac Lodge
evening October 6. Saturday October 7, I met with Toltec Lodge and took
a part in
the work of the Third Degree; giving the Lectures and the Charges.
was chartered by the Grand Lodge of Missouri forty years ago. The two
the city and the one at Tampico are subordinate to the York Grand
Lodge, which is
composed of eighteen lodges with some nine hundred members. This Grand
recognized by the Grand Lodge of Missouri and there is no good reason
why any American
Grand Lodge should hesitate to recognize it, as it holds to the
Freemasonry according to our standards. There is another Grand Lodge
in the City of Mexico which we ought not to recognize, as it does not
we regard as essential.
‒ C. H. Briggs, P. G. M., Missouri.
* * *
Commission Asks For Suggestions
its beginnings among the men who were builders of things material ‒ the
and cathedrals of the old world. Masonry developed into an organization
of men striving
to build things spiritual, to reconstruct the hearts, minds and lives
of men, to
change their ideals just as the Craft had changed from Operative to
Masonry. The time has now come for Masonry to give some thought to the
of things physical, to the reconstruction of the broken bodies of men.
man who goes on year after year without an inventory is now considered
a poor manager.
Yet Masonry has never made an inventory of its building material ‒ its
How many of us die each year of some preventable disease? How many are
insane asylums, without hope? How many of us are out of employment? How
us are about to fail in business? These and many other questions should
in our "stock taking," not from idle curiosity, but to get facts that
may enable the Craft to go to work intelligently, and thereby put into
some of its great and beautiful teachings.
It has been
estimated by the National Tuberculosis Association that there are
in the United States suffering from tuberculosis at all times, and that
them die every year from this disease. Up to the present time, little
has been done
for the relief of these brethren. No matter how wealthy a man may be
claims him he can spend all of his fortune seeking health. How about
man whose income stops when he is compelled to stop work? Unless the
hand of fraternal
assistance is extended he will die in poverty and leave a heritage of
debt and pauperism
to his family.
Help is freely
given when a local lodge finds one of the brethren in distress. But the
lodge cannot carry a brother for a year or more and spend one or two
upon each case. Hospitals for such cases are limited and expensive.
While the charity
of the Fraternity is an inexhaustible mine of purest gold, yet it is
worked and through the lack of organization very little has been
the care and cure of consumptive brethren.
has been appointed by the Grand Lodges of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona
this subject and to make some recommendations for the establishment of
for sick brethren. Many hundreds of such cases come to the Southwest
seeking health and many become a charge upon the Blue Lodges of this
problem has become so serious that united action is necessary.
of the Commission will welcome suggestions from readers of THE BUILDER
for financing the construction and operation of a National Masonic
Sanatorium. Send your communications to me.
R. J. Newton, 2130 River Ave., San Antonio, Texas.
Do you recall
the cut of "The Cycle of Cathay" that appeared on page 37 of the
issue? It is interesting to know that the Northern Pacific Railroad
exceedingly interesting little booklet on that ancient design called
of the Monad." [Lib 1923] I have a few copies at hand
to give away.
* * *
wrote to chastise us for adopting the practice of carrying over
the-tail ends of
articles to the rear pages. The thing was a temporary expedient adopted
as a part
of a plan for transforming the make-up of the magazine. About that more
* * *
a Masonic burial ground in your community? If so please send us its
name and location,
along with the address of the official in charge. Ever and anon some
to make some inquiry about such things.
* * *
good days for hiking ‒ it is my favorite sport but any kind of weather
is good for
the kind of jaunt described in
"Who'll Walk With Me?" --
Henry Van Dyke
who will walk a mile with me
Along life's weary way?
A friend whose heart has eyes to see
The stars shine out o'er the darkening sea,
And the quiet rest at the end of the day ‒
A friend who knows and dares to say
The brave, sweet words that cheer the way
When he walks a mile with me.
With such a comrade, such a friend,
I fain would walk till journey's end,
Through summer sunshine, winter rain,
And then, Farewell! We shall meet again.
A Companion to Latin Studies
San10 / auth. Sandys John E. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press,
1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 928. - Illustrated - 68.3 MB.
A Concise History of
Gou51 / auth. Gould Robert F / ed. Crowe Frederick J. W.. - London :
Gale & Polden Limited, 1951. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 401. - 10.3 MB.
A History of Magic Vol 1
Tho23HM1 / auth. Thorndike Lynn. - New York : Columbia University
Press, 1923. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 875. - 35.1 MB.
A History of Magic Vol 2
Tho23HM2 / auth. Thorndike Lynn. - New York : Columbia University
Press, 1923. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 1044. - 43.4 MB.
A Short Masonic History Vol 1
Arm09 / auth. Armitage Frederick. - London : H. Weare & Co,
1909. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 195. - 3.8 MB.
A Short Masonic History Vol 2
Arm11 / auth. Armitage Frederick. - London : H. Weare & Co,
1911. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 190. - 3.9 MB.
A Sketch of the Dyonisian
DaC20 / auth. DaCosta Hyppolito J. - London : Messrs. Sherwood, Neely,
and Jones, 1820. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 44. - 0.4 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
An Historical Essay on
Architecture Vol 1
Hop35HE1 / auth. Hope Thomas. - London : John Murray, 1835. - Vol. 1 :
2 : p. 581. - 39.1 MB.
An Historical Essay on
Architecture Vol 2 - Illustrations
Hop35HE2 / auth. Hope Thomas. - London : John Murray, 1835. - Vol. 2 :
2 : p. 108. - 12.6 MB.
And98 / auth. Andrews William. - London : William Andrews & Co,
1898. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 313. - Illustrated - 14.7 MB.
Collegiis et Sodaliciis
Mom43 / auth. Mommsen Theodor. - Schwerin : In Libraria Schwesiana,
1843. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 139. - Latin - 9.0 MB.
Jos70 / auth. Josephus Flavius / trans. Whiston William. - London :
London Printing and Publishing Co.; Ltd., 1870. - p. 917. - 95.2 MB.
Dictionary of the Bible
Has09 / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 1033. - 60.6 MB.
Dictionary of the Bible Vol 1 -
A to Feasts
Has11DB1 / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charkes Scribner's Sons,
1911. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 881. - Illustrated - 85.9 MB.
Dictionary of the Bible Vol 2 -
Feign to Kinsman
Has11DB2 / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1911. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 884. - Illustrated - 84.3 MB.
Dictionary of the Bible Vol 3 -
Kir to Pleiades
Has11DB3 / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1911. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 915. - Illustrated - 87.2 MB.
Dictionary of the Bible Vol 4 -
Pleroma to Zuzim
Has11DB4 / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1911. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 1007. - Illustrated - 104.7 MB.
Encyclopedia of Occultism
Spe20 / auth. Spence Lewis. - New York : Dodd, Mead & Company,
1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 504. - 83.2 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 01
HasER01 - A to Art / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 13 : p. 925. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 02
HasER02 - Arthur to Bunyan / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 2 : 13 : p. 927. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 03
HasER03 - Burial to Confessions / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 3 : 13 : p. 922. - 86.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 04
HasER04 - Confirmation to Drama / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 4 : 13 : p. 929. - 93.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 05
HasER05 - Dravidians to Fichte / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912. - Vol. 5 : 13 : p. 925. - 90.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 06
HasER06 - Fiction to Hyskos / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1914. - Vol. 6 : 13 : p. 910. - 275.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 07
HasER07 - Hymns to Liberty / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 7 : 13 : p. 935. - 93.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 08
HasER08 - Life and Death to Mulla / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 8 : 13 : p. 934. - 92.6 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 09
HasER09 - Mundas to Phrygians / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1917. - Vol. 9 : 13 : p. 934. - 119.2 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 10
HasER10 - Picts - Sacraments / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 10 : 13 : p. 938. - 86.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 11
HasER11 - Sacrifice to Sudra / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 11 : 13 : p. 940. - 94.7 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 12
HasER12 - Suffering to Zwingli / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 12 : 13 : p. 885. - 90.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 13
HasER13 - Index / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1908. - Vol. 13 : 13 : p. 767. - 64.8 MB.
Essays on Roman History
Pel11 / auth. Pelham Henry F. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1911. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 354. - 21.7 MB.
Etude Historique sur les
Corporations Professionnelles chez les Romains Vol 1
Wal95CP1 / auth. Waltzing J P. - Louvain : Charles Peeters, 1895. -
Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 529. - French - 28.2 MB.
Etude Historique sur les
Corporations Professionnelles chez les Romains Vol 2
Wal96CP2 / auth. Waltzing J P. - Leuven : Charles Peeters, 1896. - Vol.
2 : 3 : p. 557. - French - 27.6 MB.
Etude Historique sur les
Corporations Professionnelles chez les Romains Vol 3
Wal99CP3 / auth. Waltzing
J P. - Leuven : Charles Peeters, 1899. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 712. - French
- 32.2 MB.
From Schola to Cathedral
Bro86 / auth. Brown G Baldwin. - Edinburgh : David Douglas, 1886. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 276. - 15.1 MB.
Greek Constitutional History
Gre14 / auth. Greenidge A H. - London : Macmillan & Co, Ltd,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 294. - 27.3 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 1
Mac06 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 7 : p. 316. - 13.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 2
Mac061 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 2 : 7 : p. 341. - 10.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 3
Mac062 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 3 : 7 : p. 328. - 12.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 4
Mac063 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 4 : 7 : p. 324. - 13.1 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 5
Mac064 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 5 : 7 : p. 318. - 13.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 6
Mac065 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 6 : 7 : p. 328. - 13.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 7
Mac066 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 7 : 7 : p. 398. - 18.7 MB.
History of Greece Vol 01
Gro80HG01 / auth. Grote George. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishers, 1880. - Vol. 1 : 12 : p. 519. - 24.1 MB.
History of Greece Vol 02
Gro77HG02 / auth. Grote George. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishers, 1877. - Vol. 2 : 12 : p. 483. - 22.1 MB.
History of Greece Vol 03
Gro75HG03 / auth. Grote George. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishers, 1875. - Vol. 3 : 12 : p. 434. - 20.6 MB.
History of Greece Vol 04
Gro75HG04 / auth. Grote George. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishers, 1880. - Vol. 4 : 12 : p. 435. - 20.0 MB.
History of Greece Vol 05
Gro57HG05 / auth. Grote George. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishers, 1857. - Vol. 5 : 12 : p. 428. - 20.0 MB.
History of Greece Vol 06
Gro79HG06 / auth. Grote George. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishers, 1879. - Vol. 6 : 12 : p. 514. - 23.0 MB.
History of Greece Vol 07
Gro57HG07 / auth. Grote George. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishers, 1857. - Vol. 7 : 12 : p. 419. - 20.0 MB.
History of Greece Vol 08
Gro79HG08 / auth. Grote George. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishers, 1979. - Vol. 7 : 12 : p. 516. - 23.1 MB.
History of Greece Vol 09
Gro80HG09 / auth. Grote George. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishers, 1880. - Vol. 9 : 12 : p. 408. - 18.1 MB.
History of Greece Vol 10
Gro57HG10 / auth. Grote George. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishers, 1857. - Vol. 10 : 12 : p. 534. - 24.3 MB.
History of Greece Vol 11
Gro80HG11 / auth. Grote George. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishers, 1880. - Vol. 11 : 12 : p. 547. - 24.7 MB.
History of Greece Vol 12
Gro57HG12 / auth. Grote George. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishers, 1857. - Vol. 12 : 12 : p. 621. - 32.6 MB.
History of Rome Vol 1
Dur83HR1 / auth. Duruy Victor / ed. Mahaffy J P / trans. Clarke M M
Ripley and W F. - Boston : C F Jewett, 1883. - Vol. 1 : 8 : p. 728. -
Illustrated - 50.7 MB.
History of Rome Vol 2
Dur83HR2 / auth. Duruy Victor / ed. Mahaffy J P / trans. Clarke M M
Ripley and W F. - Boston : C F Jewett, 1883. - Vol. 2 : 8 : p. 741. -
Illustrated - 53.3 MB.
History of Rome Vol 3
Dur83HR3 / auth. Duruy Victor / ed. Mahaffy J P / trans. Clarke M M
Ripley and W F. - Boston : C F Jewett, 1883. - Vol. 3 : 8 : p. 785. -
Illustrated - 58.2 MB.
History of Rome Vol 4
Dur83HR4 / auth. Duruy Victor / ed. Mahaffy J P / trans. Clarke M M
Ripley and W F. - Boston : C F Jewett, 1883. - Vol. 4 : 8 : p. 621. -
Illustrated - 54.0 MB.
History of Rome Vol 5
Dur83HR5 / auth. Duruy Victor / ed. Mahaffy J P / trans. Clarke M M
Ripley and W F. - Boston : C F Jewett, 1883. - Vol. 5 : 8 : p. 621. -
Illustrated - 39.5 MB.
History of Rome Vol 6
Dur83HR6 / auth. Duruy Victor / ed. Mahaffy J P / trans. Clarke M M
Ripley and W F. - Boston : C F Jewett, 1883. - Vol. 6 : 8 : p. 625. -
Illustrated - 40.5 MB.
History of Rome Vol 7
Dur83HR7 / auth. Duruy Victor / ed. Mahaffy J P / trans. Clarke M M
Ripley and W F. - Boston : C F Jewett, 1883. - Vol. 7 : 8 : p. 631. -
Illustrated - 42.9 MB.
History of Rome Vol 8
Dur83HR8 / auth. Duruy Victor / ed. Mahaffy J P / trans. Clarke M M
Ripley and W F. - Boston : C F Jewett, 1883. - Vol. 8 : 8 : p. 648. -
Illustrated - 43.7 MB.
La Roma Sotterranea Cristiana Vol 1
DeR64RS1 / auth. De Rossi Giovanni B. - Rome : Cromo-Litografia
Pontifica, 1864. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 442. - Italian - 35.0 MB.
La Roma Sotterranea Cristiana Vol 2
DeR67RS2 / auth. De Rossi Giovanni B. - Rome : Cromo-Litografia
Pontifica, 1867. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 581. - Italian - 43.3 MB.
La Roma Sotterranea Cristiana Vol 3
DeR77RS3 / auth. De
Rossi Giovanni B. - Rome : Coi Tipi del Salviacci, 1877. - Vol. 3 : 3 :
p. 772. - Italian - 55.6 MB.
Le Livre du Compagnonage Vol 1
Per41 / auth. Perdiguier
Agricol. - Paris : Pawuerre Editeurs, 1841. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 458. -
French - 20.9 MB.
New Archeological Discoveries
Cob17 / auth. Cobern Camden M. - New York : Funk & Wagnalls
Company, 1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 765. - 22.5 MB.
Plutarch's Lives Vol 1
Plu60PL01 / auth. Plutarch / ed. Clough A. H.. - Philadelphia : John D.
Morris & Company, 1860. - 'Dryden Edition' : Vol. 1 : 5 : p.
460. - 20.7 MB.
Plutarch's Lives Vol 2
Plu60PL02 / auth. Plutarch / ed. Clough A. H.. - Philadelphia : John D.
Morris & Company, 1860. - 'Dryden Edition' : Vol. 2 : 5 : p.
440. - 20.6 MB.
Plutarch's Lives Vol 3
Plu60PL03 / auth. Plutarch / ed. Clough A. H.. - Philadelphia : John D.
Morris & Company, 1860. - 'Dryden Edition' : Vol. 3 : 5 : p.
464. - 23.9 MB.
Plutarch's Lives Vol 4
Plu60PL04 / auth. Plutarch / ed. Clough A. H.. - Philadelphia : John D.
Morris & Company, 1860. - 'Dryden Edition' : Vol. 4 : 5 : p.
465. - 17.4 MB.
Plutarch's Lives Vol 5
Plu60PL05 / auth. Plutarch / ed. Clough A. H.. - Philadelphia : John D.
Morris & Company, 1860. - 'Dryden Edition' : Vol. 5 : 5 : p.
404. - 20.0 MB.
Muh04 / auth. Muhammad / trans. Rodwell J. M.. - University Park : Penn State
University, 2004. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 591. - 1.4 MB.
Religious Experience of the
Roman People from the Earliest Times to the Age of Augustus
Fow11 / auth. Fowler W. Warde. - London : Macmillan & Co. Ltd,
1911. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 527. - 22.0 MB.
Roman Life and Manners Vol 1
Fri08RL1 / auth. Friedlaender Ludwig. - New York : F P Dutton, 1908. -
Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 454. - 10.6 MB.
Roman Life and Manners Vol 2
Fri08RL2 / auth. Friedlaender Ludwig. - New York : F P Dutton, 1908. -
Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 385. - 9.0 MB.
Roman Life and Manners Vol 3
Fri08RL3 / auth. Friedlaender Ludwig. - New York : F P Dutton, 1908. -
Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 336. - 7.8 MB.
Roman Life and Manners Vol 4
Fri13RL4 / auth. Friedlaender Ludwig. - New York : F P Dutton, 1913. -
Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 727.
Roman Society from Nero to
Dil04 / auth. Dill Sir Samuel. - London : Macmillan and Co, Ltd, 1904.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 659. - 28.8 MB.
St Paul and the Mystery
Ken13 / auth. Kennedy Harry A A. - New York : Hodder &
Stoughton, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 329. - 13.6 MB.
The Autobiography of Benjamin
Big68 / auth. Bigelow John. - Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincot &
Co, 1868. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 409. - 11.7 MB.
The Autobiography of Benjamin
Fra06 / auth. Franklin Benjamin. - Boston : Houghton Mifflin &
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 236. - 10.7 MB.
The Blood Covenant
Tru85 / auth. Trumbull Henry C. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1885. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 357. - 11.6 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Cathedral Builders
Sco99 / auth. Scott Leader. - London : Sampson Low, Marston &
Co., 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 520. - 16.1 MB.
The Church in the Roman Empire
Ram93 / auth. Ramsay William M. - London : Hodder and Stroughton, 1893.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 516. - 13.1 MB.
The Comacines Their
Predecessors & Their Successors
Rav10 / auth. Ravenscroft W.. - London : Elliot Stock, 1910. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 94. - 3.4 MB.
The Common People of Ancient
Abb11 / auth. Abbott Frank F. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1911. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 301. - 5.1 MB.
The Early Church in Light of
Bar13 / auth. Barnes Arthur S. - London : Longmans, Green and Co, 1913.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 297. - 14.2 MB.
The Early History and
Antiquities of Freemasonry
For81 / auth. Fort George F.. - Philadelphia : Bradley & Co.,
1881. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 514. - 21.2 MB.
The History of Free Masonry
Bre04 / auth. Brewster Sir David. - Edinburgh : Alex Lawrie, 1804. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 363. - 13.7 MB.
The Jews and Masonry in the
United States Before 1810
Opp10 / auth. Oppenheim Samuel. - New York : The Jewish Historical
Society, 1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 104. - 2.9 MB.
The Life of Mozart Vol 1
Jah91LM1 / auth. Jahn Otto / trans. Townsend Pauline D. - London :
Novello, Ewer & Co, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 470. - 28.4 MB.
The Life of Mozart Vol 2
Jah91LM2 / auth. Jahn Otto / trans. Townsend Pauline D. - London :
Novello, Ewer & Co, 1891. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 487. - 29.3 MB.
The Life of Mozart Vol 3
Jah91LM3 / auth. Jahn Otto / trans. Townsend Pauline D. - London :
Novello, Ewer & Co, 1891. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 461. - 20.1 MB.
The Organization of Early
Hat88 / auth. Hatch Edwin. - London : Rivingtons, 1888. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 252. - 8.0 MB.
The Roman Catacombs
DeR69 / auth. De Rossi Giovanni B. - London : Longmans, Green, Reader,
and Dyer, 1869. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 466. - 28.6 MB.
The Romans of Britain
Coo78 / auth. Coote Henry C. - London : Frederic Norgate, 1878. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 504. - 13.4 MB.
The Story of the Monad
Nor23 / auth. Northern Pacific Railroad. - [s.l.] : Northern Pacific
Railroad, 1923. - p. 11. - 2.0 MB.
The Threshold Covenant
Tru96 / auth. Trumbull Henry C.. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1896. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 340. - 13.6 MB.
Unk02 / auth. Unknown. - [s.l.] : Dharmic Scriptures Team, 2002. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 1109. - 14.5 MB.
Wealth in Imperial Rome
Dav10 / auth. Davis William S. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 356. - 21.9 MB.
Zend Avesta Pt. 1 Vendidad
Zor80 / auth. Zoroaster / trans. Darmesteter James. - Oxford : Oxford
Univesity Press, 1880. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 720. - 2.7 MB.