Masonic Research Society
the Towner-Sterling Bill Did Not Pass
By Bro. Simeon D. Fess,
Fess was chairman of the Committee on Education of the House of
of the recent Congress, and as such had very much in hand the fortunes
of the Towner-Sterling
Bill which provided for a Department of Education in the Federal
to its vital bearings on the public school system, the great majority
of the two
and one half million Masons in this land felt such an interest in this
they brought pressure on many Grand Lodges to endorse the Bill. A
report of such
Grand Lodge action will be found in this issue on page 143. When the
of a hearing before the House in the recent Congress such regret was
the Craft, and so many brethren inquired to know the reasons for the
Brother Fess was asked to make a statement concerning the matter
through these pages,
a thing he does herewith, and in a manner that has the weight, more or
an official utterance.
who are interested to read farther on the subject are recommended to
Fess' speech on the Status of Federal Legislation on Education as
delivered in the
House of Representatives, June 2, 1922. Also, they will find of great
value a booklet
on The Towner-Sterling Bill issued by The National Education
Association, 1201 Sixteenth
Street, Northwest, Washington, D. C., September, 1922. The August issue
of THE BUILDER,
1922, was wholly devoted to the cause of the public school system, and
an article on the Towner-Sterling Bill by Brother Horace M. Towner,
Representative from Iowa, and sponsor for the Bill in the House.
Fess was born in Ohio, December 11, 1861. He graduated from Ohio
in 1889, to become Professor of American History there in 1889, and
head of the
College of Law in 1896. In 1902 he became a lecturer in the University
after which he was made president of Antioch College, Yellow Springs,
Ohio, a school
established by Horace Mann. He was elected to Congress in 1913 as
and will return to the Sixty-Eighth Congress as Senator. He is the
author of several
books on law, history, and civics, and was at one time editor of
He is a Mason.
article Brother Fess refers to the fact that the Committee on
extended to July, 1924. Brethren interested to secure a copy of the
authorizing this extension of time may obtain it of Congressmen by
asking for S.
J. Res. 282.
IN THE UNITED STATES is primarily a state rather than a federal
function. Each state
has its own system. While there is some uniformity among the states, it
can be said
that we have as many educational systems as there are states.
We have no
such thing as a national system of education although the Federal
strongly favored public education as the basis of popular
Our forefathers called especial attention to the importance of this.
was specific in his recommendations, out of which grew both the Naval
Annapolis and the Military Academy of West Point. One further
made was the establishment of a National University, for which he
willed a specific
sum of money but this latter project was never realized.
of double sovereignty, federal and state, and our peculiar domestic
set these two principles in such antagonism to each other that at last
produced the Civil War. The states strongly maintaining state rights
opposed federal control of education, but insisted in preserving that
a state function.
Civil War period or thereabouts we entered upon Federal aid to higher
in our state institutions teaching agriculture and mechanics. This was
step in Federal aid, but was limited to particular institutions and was
to secondary education.
In the 1870's
an effort was made to extend Federal aid to secondary education in what
as the Blair Educational Bill, which sought to apply Federal aid in a
amount to the states in proportion to their illiteracy. This was
by the State's Rights communities, especially of the South. No further
made until a short time ago when the Agricultural Extension Act was
passed by Congress,
giving Federal aid to extending the Land Grant College activity to
followed by the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917, extending Federal aid to the
vocational training ‒ agriculture, industrial and home economics. It
to the states in proportion to the population engaged in each to the
of the state. When the annual appropriation reaches the maximum, the
will make an annual appropriation of $7,000,000 ‒ $3,000,000 for
for industrial subjects, twenty per cent, of which goes to home
economics, and the
remaining $1,000,000 for training teachers.
World War we enlarged the function of the Federal Vocational Board's
work by the
act for rehabilitation of the disabled soldier. This has now reached
the peak and
will discontinue within the near future. These various acts answer the
objection to federal aid. This aid was extended to cripples in industry
by the Fess
Industrial Aid Bill.
immediately following the World War, a widely concerted movement was
extend federal aid to the public school system, instead of confining it
lines of education as already described. The draft records displayed a
prevalence of physical defects among our youth, which according to best
could have been removed by timely care in school ‒ hence the demand for
aid in physical education in the interest of physically sound bodies.
also disclosed a shocking amount of adult illiteracy in several parts
of the country.
It was found necessary immediately after enlistment to place many
the simplest elemental training before they could function as soldiers,
claim for federal aid to remove adult illiteracy as a matter of
‒ a Federal function. The World War also disclosed a serious lack of
American institutions, and a strong demand for a better Americanization
in the interest
of a higher type of citizenship, hence the demand for legislation on
All these items were subjects of special and separate proposals before
upon which hearings were held.
It was also
noted that teaching as a profession was losing its best talent because
remuneration. Training schools for teachers were abandoned for other
to other professions and activities: Many public schools were either
close or to accept immature or untrained teachers, or at least of a
to that of the best teachers which our welfare demands. Conditions were
acute. A movement was started to create a Department of Education, and
by Federal aid the salaries of the teaching profession. The situation
subject of consideration in both state and nation. The National
Association of Teachers
took a definite stand and after much consultation and research, a bill
and introduced in Senate and House. This bill provided for the creation
of a Department
of Education, and authorized an annual appropriation of $100,000,000
for the items
before mentioned, $.50,000,000 of which was to be applied to the
increase of salaries
of teachers throughout the states.
hearings the bill known as the Smith-Towner was considered and
by the House Committee on Education at the close of the 66th Congress.
of the strong propaganda behind it, some of which came from sources
other than teachers'
organizations, including many and various groups both of men and women'
to secure consideration in either branch of Congress.
At the opening
of the 67th Congress the bill was re-introduced as the Towner-Sterling
referred to the Committee on Education of the House. At the same time
Public Welfare bill was introduced in conformity to the pledge made by
in the campaign of 1920. This bill provided for a Department of Public
Cabinet rank, headed by a Secretary of Public Welfare and four
as follows: first, Assistant Secretary of Education; second, Assistant
of Public Health; third, Assistant Secretary of Social Service, and
Secretary of Veteran Service. At the hearings on this bill opposition
by the teachers' legislative representative located here at Washington
in the record many protests against being "submerged" in a Welfare
authorized the appointment of a Committee on Re-organization of the
as one of the earliest acts of the 67th Congress. This Committee had as
a part of
its function the recommendation of such new departments as it thought
wise. It was
deemed best by the President and by the Steering and Rules Committees
of the House
that while this Re-organization Committee was at work it was illogical
the creation of new departments before the Re-organization Committee
In this the leaders in both Senate and House agreed. The chairman of
on Re-organization laid the plan before the President and in January of
the President referred it to the Committee. Congress by resolution
life of this Committee until July 1st, 1924, by which time the plan
will have been
fully discussed and a decision reached.
Bill was laid aside when it was decided to await the report on
This plan provides for a Department of Education and Public Welfare, a
between the two departments. If it is accepted by Congress, we shall
a long step toward the goal of those interested in advancing
to Federal recognition, and the way will be open for the legislation so
urged on Physical Education, Americanization, Adult Illiteracy, and,
increased salaries of teachers. The strength back of the two proposals
will be sufficient to insure the creation of the new department early
in the next
Congress, or soon after it is laid before the Congress.
be strong opposition to the expansion of Federal influence in
education, but the
importance and necessity of advancement are so apparent, and the
tardiness of states
is so well understood that the argument in favor of the movement will
stronger than that against it, and the new Department of Education and
will doubtless become law. It does not appear that either the plan for
of Education or the plan for a Department of Public Welfare will
and favorable action. They will either be combined or both will lose;
at least so
it now appears when viewed from the angle of legislation.
and Achievements of Freemasonry in Texas
By Bro. George W. Tyler,
P. G. M., Texas
George W. Tyler, Past Grand Master and Past Grand Chaplain, is one of
the most respected
and beloved of the Masons of Texas. For many years he has devoted much
of his best
energies to the Great Cause in that great state, and always he has had
interest in its welfare, a thing that is very evident in the earnest
of the article printed below. It is our hope to publish such an article
state in the nation as time goes on, and to collect them all into book
the series is completed. Masonic History in New Mexico, by Brother Paul
A. F. Walter,
was published as the first of such contributions in THE BUILDER, July
to us that such an attempt as this is one that challenges the attention
of the best
minds in our Fraternity. Few Masons ‒ very few indeed ‒ have an
of the part taken by Freemasonry in building up this nation. Usually
content to say that many of the prominent leaders of the Revolution
and that Masonic lodges were centers of Americanism at a time when
America was being
built: this is true enough but it is so inadequate that to stop short
is to suppose that Masonry folded its hands in 1800 and has since done
an assumption that is wildly wide of the mark. From the time that a
was organized until the last state was admitted to the Union our
a part in the life of every American commonwealth. Would it not be a
to have competent brethren in every state make themselves responsible
before the Craft the complete history of Freemasonry, state by state?
it would be, and here recommend Brother Tyler's article as an example
of what is
possible in that line.
FRONTIER province of Mexico, was under the dominion of Spain until
1821, when Mexico,
under Augustine de Iturbide, threw off the Spanish yoke. In 1836 Texas
from Mexico and established an independent republic. By annexation, in
became a state in the American Union.
the early history of Freemasonry in Texas is not apocryphal. Though
meager in details,
its essential phases are preserved in the printed annals and literature
of the Craft.
and Mexican rule, with Roman Catholicism as the official state
religion, Texas was
not a propitious soil for the propagation of Masonry even had there
been a population
here in those times sufficient to nourish it. There were faint efforts
Scottish Rite Masonry in Mexico from Spain or elsewhere during the last
the Spanish dominion, and likewise to introduce York Rite Masonry
during the first
decade of the Mexican regime, but these two groups developed into rival
parties, utilized by ambitious military chieftains, and both of them
by a national decree in 1830.
Masonic landmark in Texas is a monument (still standing) in a cemetery
erected by Brother William Morton "in memory of Robert Gilespie, a
Scotland, about 40 years of age who, a stranger in this land, travelled
to the mansions
of eternity the 7th day of November, 1825. May he rest in peace." Thus
the crude inscription on a clay tablet, built into a column of brick
some seven or eight feet in height. Tradition tells that Brother
Gilespie, in search
of health, wandered to the wilderness home of Brother William Morton,
and cared for him as a brother Mason till he died and then (in the
winter of 1825-6)
built this memorial over his lonely resting place. It was assaulted by
soldiers who passed that way in 1836, partly demolished and left it
about one foot
out of plumb.
as February 11, 1828, a few Masons met at San Felipe de Austin,
intending to apply
to the York Grand Lodge of Mexico for a charter for the "Lodge of
and chose by ballot Brother Stephen F. Austin for Worshipful Master;
Ingram for Senior Warden; and Brother H.H. League for Junior Warden.
were Brothers Eli Mitchell, Joseph White, G.B. Hall, and Thomas M.
Duke. On account
of long delay in all communications with the City of Mexico, twelve
away, and because of the distracted political conditions fast
developing at the
capital, followed by the anti-Masonic decree already mentioned, this
came to naught. It is of interest to state here that Brother Stephen F.
"the Father of Texas," was a member of Louisiana Lodge No. 109, located
at St. Genevieve, Missouri, and holding a charter from the Grand Lodge
Missouri being unoccupied Masonic territory when that lodge was
Holland Lodge No. 1, is
Organized In 1835
attempt to plant Masonry in Texas was made in troublous times and the
was dimmed and almost obscured by the lowering clouds of war. Six
to each other as Master Masons, assembled quietly in a secluded laurel
the outskirts of Brazoria one morning in March, 1835. They were Brother
John A. Wharton, Asa Brigham, James A. E. Phelps, Alexander Russell,
and J.P. Caldwell.
The relations between the Texas colonists and the Mexican authorities
become strained and tense. The land was full of Mexican spies,
suspicious of an
uprising of the colonists. The priest and his minions, maintained by
government, were an all-pervading power inspired by jealous hatred of
Americans. Leading colonists had been secretly denounced to the
government as traitors
and had been singled out as victims of its despotic vengeance for
daring to resent
openly the petty tyranny put upon the country. Notwithstanding the
of those troublous times, there were brave spirits of the Craft who
to chance the danger of defying those conditions in order to gratify
for the fraternal embrace of Masonry. But it was needful to exercise
circumspection, to avoid the ubiquitous spies and other "cowans and
and this sequestered spot was therefore chosen. There they agreed,
after due consideration,
to establish a lodge, and to that end chose Brother Anson Jones for
Brother Asa Brigham for Senior Warden, and Brother J.P. Caldwell for
A petition was prepared and signed by these brethren, with the addition
Warren D. C. Hall and, perhaps, one or two others, and this, with the
fee, was forwarded to Grand Master John H. Holland, of Louisiana, in
the lodge was named. Communication was slow but after a long time the
came and Holland Lodge No. 36 U.D. was opened in Brazoria on December
John's Day) 1835.
were held, extending into February, 1836, though the armed conflict
and the Texas colonists was becoming daily more acute. At the last
meeting in Brazoria
Col. James W. Fannin attended the lodge and acted as Senior Deacon. He
on his way to his command in the West and one month later (March 27th),
forced to surrender to superior numbers at Goliad, he and his command
of over four
hundred men (with a few exceptions) were, by order of Gen. Santa Anna,
of their prison and murderously shot down in cold blood. The Alamo, at
had fallen on March 6th, after its baptism in the heroic blood of
Crockett, Bonham, and one hundred and seventy-eight other Texans, of
whom not a
Brazoria had been abandoned by its people, the men to join General Sam
little army then retreating before General Santa Anna, the women and
seek safety in the general exodus of all Texas toward the United States
the Sabine. A detachment of the Mexican army, under General Jose Urrea,
the village of Brazoria, and the dispensation, records, jewels and
of Holland Lodge were vengefully committed to the flames.
events the Grand Lodge of Louisiana had, in regular routine, granted a
this lodge and the Grand Secretary had placed it, with a letter of
in the hand of Brother John M. Allen, at New Orleans, for delivery to
Jones, the Worshipful Master. As the latter was marching on the prairie
Houston's army between Groce's Ferry and Harrisburg, Brother Allen
handed him the
charter and letter which Brother Jones placed in his baggage. A few
days later (April
21, 1836) the battle of San Jacinto was fought, in which Brother Jones
gallantly. On that day General Houston surprised, routed and
overwhelmed, the Mexican
army of double his strength, killed several hundred of the enemy and
all the others, including General Santa Anna, then President of Mexico,
of the army of invasion in Texas. The war was thus ended and Texas
became free and
independent. In the march thither and at camp during the eventful
battle the charter
of Holland Lodge silently reposed in the baggage of Brother Anson
Jones. It was
thus christened amid the din and carnage of a sanguinary conflict.
did not reassemble his lodge at Brazoria, as the members were
dispersed, but he
did reopen it, under its charter, at Houston, within its territorial
October, 1837, and there it stands to this day as Holland Lodge No. 1
on the roster
of the Grand Lodge of Texas.
revolution the Grand Lodge of Louisiana chartered two other lodges in
were Milam No. 40, at Nacogdoches and McFarland, No. 41, at Sani
Augustine. On the
call of Holland Lodge delegates from the three lodges assembled in a
Convention at Houston, then the capital Texas, on December 20, 1837.
met at 3 P. M., in the Senate Chamber. By election General Sam Houston,
of the Republic of Texas, presided and Brother Anson Jones was
Grand Lodge of the Republic of Texas" was then and there organized in
way, over which Brother Anson Jones, later President of the Republic
as the first Grand Master with a full corps of officers. When
annexation came the
name was changed to "The Grand Lodge of Texas." It now comprises nearly
one thousand lodges and about one hundred and twenty-five thousand
Texas is a Masonic State
Star of Texas, the state emblem, is the five pointed star familiar to
Masons throughout the world, and it could be shown, did space permit,
in its best form and in its highest ideals has been a paramount force
and developing the social, moral and civic affairs of the state. Two
out of three
of the Presidents of the Republic of Texas, twenty-one of the
of Texas, and a very large majority of the United States Senators and
from Texas, as well as of state officers, legislators and local
been Masons. Yet Masonry was not even remotely considered in the
selection of these
of corner-stones laid by the Craft are those of the first and second
buildings, at Austin, and nearly all of the court houses throughout the
fraternal recognition of our Grand Lodge came from the Grand Lodges of
Maryland, Mississippi and Hamburg (Germany) in 1840: England followed
in 1842, and
Maine in 1844. In due time all English speaking jurisdictions and some
In May, 1841,
the Grand Master of Texas issued to nine Master Masons a dispensation
for a Lodge
at Santa Fe, in the present State of New Mexico, which became Santa Fe
15 on our roll. The dispensation was extended by the ensuing Grand
Lodge but was
revoked in January, 1844. It will be remembered that until the boundary
with the United States was made in the early fifties, the State of
all the territory east of the Rio Grande river to the forty-second
parallel of north
latitude, including the old city of Santa Fe, and thus our Grand Lodge,
up a lodge there in 1841, was clearly within its rights. It is beyond
Texas planted the first Masonry in the State of New Mexico.
In 1850 Union
Lodge No. 82 opened with a Texas dispensation in the city of Panama,
now the Republic of Panama. The lodge was subsequently chartered in
1852 but ceased
to exist in 1854. It is said that it was a "good Samaritan" to many
brethren who were stranded there and many of whom were stricken with
and death in the great rush to California during the "gold fever" of
and subsequent years.
On June 22,
1922, on proper petition, the Grand Master of Texas issued a
dispensation for Lahneek
Lodge at Coblenz on the Rhine. The petitioners were all soldiers of the
Army of Occupation and its initiates were restricted to men of that
John P. Greibel, Past Master, of Independence, Missouri, under special
of our Grand Master, set this lodge to work on July 4, 1922, in the
Brother John H. Cowles, Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme
Council of the
Southern Jurisdiction, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, and Past
Edward C. Day, of Montana. A charter was duly granted in this lodge on
1922. Their lodge room is within a stone's throw of the ruins of the
Lahneck where the last stand is said to have been made by twelve
of old against the villainous orders of Philip and the Pope, and there
their shields in defending their innocence and their faith. From the
ruins of this
old castle the lodge took its name. Its functions cease, of course,
with the withdrawal
of our Army of Occupation.
How Texas Is Related To
during the era of Mexico's greatest progress under the administration
Porfirio Diaz, a notable step was taken to unify the Masonic interests
of that Republic.
The Grand Symbolic Diet of the United States of Mexico was formed with
Diaz as the (nominal) Grand Master and with Dr. Ermilo G. Canton, a
accomplished Mason, as Grand Secretary and the real executive head.
all preexisting lodges and Grand Lodges, local, state and national, and
of all rites,
were brought together in this general body, whose constitution was
and constructive and whose leaders were the most prominent, enlightened
men, native and foreign, in the Republic. Its clearly expressed purpose
was to unify
and strengthen the Grand Lodges of the several states until they could
at which time the Grand Diet should voluntarily dissolve and retire in
an autonomous state Grand Lodge system like that of the United States.
By the "Treaty
of Monterey," negotiated in 1891, Texas recognized the Grand Diet, and
other jurisdictions did the same.
After a successful
career of ten years the Grand Diet voluntarily dissolved in 1900 and
Mexico was re-committed to the respective state Grand Lodges, but,
most of these lapsed back into the troubled sea of their former
continued in fraternal relations with the Grand Lodges "Valley of
in the Federal District, and "Benito Juarez," in the State of Coahuila.
From the latter we parted company in 1909 because of its attempted
invasion of our
territorial rights. And when the "split" came in the Grand Lodge
of Mexico" in 1910, we adhered to the majority body, composed mostly of
residing in that country, who later changed its name to "York Grand
Mexico" for the purpose of identification, inasmuch as the seceding
had set up a rival body with the old name, "Valley of Mexico."
our status until 1920 when we withdrew our recognition and our then
Brother Andrew L. Randell, at the request of our Grand Lodge, visited
a commission of able associates and in conjunction with representatives
other Grand Lodges bordering on Mexico for the purpose of investigation
possible, of harmonizing their differences. Upon the advice of this
Grand Lodge, in 1921, recognized the Grand Lodge "Valley of Mexico" ‒
the rival of the "York Grand Lodge" ‒ and thus the matter now stands.
The details are too numerous and involved for discussion here.
Various Notes about Texas
Lodge for several years met at the seat of state government; then it
wheels," meeting at different places, but finally settled down in 1860
and there remained until 1903, when it removed to Waco where its
In 1856 a
permanent constitution, prepared by Brother Peter W. Gray, was adopted,
occasional amendments controlled the Craft until 1920, when a new and
one was substituted.
perfected and exemplified by Brother Wm. M. Taylor, P.G.M., in 1858,
but a few minor changes. It is a composite system, drawn from many
but based principally upon the old work of Preston and Webb. For one
week each year
after the close of the Grand Lodge the Committee on Work holds a school
for Masters, Wardens and others, and proficient brethren, after
granted certificates authorizing them to teach the "Work" in their
localities. Nearly forty years of experience with this system has
advantages over the Grand Lecturer and other methods of instruction,
some of which
had been thoroughly tried out here. Uniformity in the work throughout
has been attained as nearly as is humanly possible and it is beyond
Texas has relatively more "bright" ritualists than almost any other
of candidates a belief in a Supreme Being and in the inspiration of
not in the inspiration of any particular canonical books thereof, thus
door to the Jew as well as to the Gentile.
to anything like a General Grand Lodge is unalterable.
is allowed to use the word "Masonic" or other terminology of the
for business purposes, nor to seek business or secular preferment
directly or indirectly
on the faith and credit of Masonry.
adhered strictly and literally to the "perfect man" theory of physical
qualification of candidates ‒ the "finger and toe" rule ‒ but some
ago this was greatly relaxed and Texas is now about as liberal as most
of the Jurisdictions
on that question.
Masonry Has Been the Pioneer
in Education and Civic Development
In the early
days ‒ before the inauguration of the public free schools ‒ nearly
town and community had a Masonic academy institute or college promoted
by the local lodge and often chartered by the state. These were the
of our educational efforts and were later absorbed into the public
Everywhere in city, town, village, hamlet and grove Masonry has been
of our civilization and good men have found in the precincts of their
palladium of all things best calculated to promote good morals, good
and good government. Our people of today can never know how much they
to the sweet but penetrating force and influence of the Fraternity in
of their present progress in the affairs of communities and in the high
of civic virtue and patriotism in the commonwealth.
Texas Freemasonry is Active
Lodge of Texas, after accumulating an endowment fund of one hundred
established and opened at Fort Worth in 1899, the Masonic Home and
School in which
are nicely and comfortably housed, clothed, fed, reared, and educated
of deceased Master Masons not otherwise provided for in life. Here they
a full course of high school education ‒ the same as in the best high
the state ‒ and in addition each boy and girl receives a vocational
fit and prepare him or her for earning a living after graduation. Some
ten to twenty
graduates go out from the school each year and all have thus far made
good in the
business world. The present investment represents something near three
of a million dollars and the attendance is over three hundred. Steps
are being taken
to enlarge the dormitory accommodations in order to provide for a large
pupils now on the waiting list. This Home is a success in every way, is
and unifying our Masonic endeavors and is the pride and glory of the
the Grand Lodge maintains at the Home for Aged Masons some thirty or
of Master Masons and is preparing for the normal increase that may be
for Aged Masons, at Arlington, established some twelve years ago by the
Arch Chapter of Texas, cared for about one hundred and sixteen guests
past year and is now preparing for forty more, who are in waiting.
Barring the companionship
of their own families (and them have none) these old people could not
be more ably
and happily situated. The investment value of this institution is
Rite bodies in Texas, combining the financial resources, have just
opened at Austin a most complete and beautiful dormitory for the
attending the University of Texas. Here they are maintained at actual
cost and under
the supervision of a corps of splendid matrons. This dormitory
represents a cash
investment of nearly one million dollars and provides a home now fully
for over three hundred young ladies during their university course. The
these bodies contemplate similar provision in the near future for the
(Shrine) at Dallas is establishing a fully equipped hospital for
which will be open for the free treatment of afflicted children of
Masons and others.
It is to cost nearly a quarter of a million dollars.
Lodge of Texas participated in the organization of the Masonic Service
of the United States and is giving a hearty support to that splendid
effort to mobilize
the strength and influence of the aggregated Masonic membership of our
service in peace and war.
it is thus seen, is lined up for great things in the splendid work of
for our unfortunate brother, his widow and orphan, and is coming
nearer, year by
year, the realization in practical everyday life of the great lessons
ideals taught by the Operative Mason's symbols the quaint and seemingly
old Ritual of the Craft.
and French Masons Fraternized
By Bro. Charles F. Irwin,
IT IS MY
PURPOSE to discuss the social intercourse enjoyed by the American
Masons with their
French brethren. I do not intend to touch upon the academic questions
or of landmarks.
most Overseas Masons have been interrogated by brothers as to the
and their hospitality. Many of us were very fortunate in forming close
with the French brethren. These happy ties endure. And correspondence
the recollections of days already dissolving into-the borderland of the
At the basis
of the French nation is the spirit of hospitality. This is carried over
Fraternity there, and to a very surprising degree the French Masons
their doors to us.
In the early
days of our stay in France we were a little skeptical as to whether or
concealed interest was prompting these brethren to such a cordial
display of welcome.
Time removed this doubt. We learned the national characteristic. The
really wanted to welcome us, not for any sordid purpose of gain, but
craved our personal friendship.
I was deeply
impressed with their whole-hearted trust in our genuineness. They took
us on our
word as Masons. Many of our American Masons failed to carry any
yet I have to learn of the first one who was challenged by the French
proof. Their trust begot trust. We could not but open our hearts to a
body of brothers
who thus exemplified our great principle of Brotherly Love.
Masons are the intellectual power of France. Having shaken off the dead
ecclesiastical domination, they have produced a trained mentality which
holds France today. When you consider how few are their numbers as
the population this fact is significant.
are regarded as political hot-beds. This is inaccurate. They do admit
meetings the discussion of political measures: but their procedure is
intensely patriotic. Their attitude is not partisan in the American
scrutinize every proposed piece of legislation in the light of its
effect on the
liberty, and happiness, and welfare of their beloved native land. The
spends his days untroubled by the menace that stalks abroad in every
‒ ecclesiastical ambition for control of governments. In France, as
Europe, constant vigilance is needed to check this menace ‒ a menace as
Prussianism ever was.
When we were
in France that country had during the war fallen as a government into
of churchmen. Untrammeled thought in army and government had been
driven into' obscurity
or completely out. Foch had replaced Joffre in the army. Clemenceau had
fight with his back to the wall. Since, he has been driven into private
French government is dominated by the church; and the Fraternity is
depressing effect on French life.
was supposed to have been expelled from France fifteen years ago; yet
in 1918, an
American chaplain, a Jesuit priest of my personal acquaintance, always
with Jesuit priests (French) when away from his post, or on a tour of
he told me a number of times after his return to our post. These French
were evidently residing in France under false colors.
brethren seemed to draw courage, hope, and enthusiasm from our
fellowship. Our bold,
frank acknowledgement of identity with the Craft, and our display of
as rings and fobs, created an atmosphere in which their courage took
new hold on
them. Repeatedly in our intercourse they spoke of what this open
allegiance of American
Masons to the Fraternity meant to the French Craft.
brethren had the same social instinct as Americans, and arranged
and receptions very similar to ours. At these events they prepared
favors of singular
beauty. I treasure the silk tri-color flag, on which clasped hands in
with appropriate wording reveal the warm regard existing between us.
their families to these social gatherings. And here we came in contact
womanhood at its best. The grace and charm of matrons and maids brought
to our brothers
a breath of the very life they so keenly missed away from the home
land. The Frenchmen
rarely had courage to engage our American women in the dances. I
presume the dissimilarity
between American and French methods of dancing would account for this.
and girls speedily adapted themselves to the American style and were as
as our American girls in obtaining partners.
French Masons are Interested
in the United States
Masons were very willing to discuss national movements with American
seemed to hold, almost to a man, the idea that the future of France, of
and of the world rested on the United States. They rapidly comprehended
of our land. Its vast extent constantly amazed them. To be in company
with a Californian,
a Louisianan, a Michigander, and a Bostonian and hear practically an
‒ American ‒ from all four was recognized at its significant worth.
Scarcely a nation
in Europe can bring its peoples from all quarters together with one
French Masons commented on this fact and drew a very shrewd conclusion
that an essential
unity dominates the American people.
that French Masonry is all-pervasive. For example ‒ I found at
Napoleon's tomb and
on the paintings depicting Napoleon with the French people, that
had been incorporated in the ensemble. In cathedral and public building
symbols of the Craft can be noted.
in our French brethren a passion for truth. Boldly, gallantly, they are
sham, and ignorance, and superstition in existing orders, as well as
into the depths of nature. Unimpeded by the bonds of conventionality
they are seeking
"truth" and their labors are blessing their beloved land.
are overwhelmingly religious. This may sound strange to the average
"fed up" on propaganda of another vintage. Yet I found on every hand a
reverence for the things of the Spirit; for the moral law, for the
of Bible writers. They can be deeply moved by the real religious
appeal. In thousands
of their homes the Word of God holds an honored place. Prayer is
recognized at its
true worth: and there is a dependence on the Unseen One.
war with an ecclesiasticism which is and has been France's dark fate,
had bitter experiences which have produced a repugnance for human forms
But flown in the soul of French Masonry is an abiding Faith. Some flay
American Masonry, not enslaved to ritualism find absolute form, will
open up warm,
sympathetic relations with our brethren across the seas. We shall
discover in them
workmen in the quarries faithfully and efficiently producing specimens
skill, such as to entitle them to wages.
Such an attitude
of friendliness will go very far to open the way for an understanding
and America, and a new era in Masonic life will be ushered in.
to Great Men who were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
Josiah Hayden Drummond
HAYDEN DRUMMOND was born in the town of Winslow, County of Kennebec,
20, 1827. He was educated at Vassalboro Academy and Waterville College:
latter he graduated with honor in 1846. He took up law as a profession
despite his youth, won a place among the brainy men of his profession,
and at the
height of his powers was known as one of the leaders in legal circles.
in the legislature of his state for several sessions, both as
as senator. He was Speaker of the House and also Attorney General of
He was so popular with the people of Maine that they were always asking
him to accept
new responsibilities and honors. He had the reputation of not accepting
of immoral or seditious nature. Oftentimes he gave his services
specialized in corporation cases and in life insurance law. Men of
may have lived but I have never met one.
was descended from Revolutionary ancestry, his insignia in the Sons of
Revolution being 6304. His ancestors Micau Blackwell and Thos. Burgess
of Freeman's Massachusetts Regiment. He was an active member of the New
Historical Society and was one of the founders of the Maine society of
of the American Revolution. It was to these patriotic organizations and
that he devoted most of his time and energy from his profession.
condensed account of Brother Drummond's Masonic career is that
contributed by Brother
Robert F. Gould to Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume X, page 167 [Lib 1897], and I can do no better than
quote the entire passage:
"Our Brother was initiated,
raised in Waterville Lodge No. 33, on three successive Wednesday
evenings, the first
ceremony of all occurring on New Year's Day, 1849. 'Whether we made
or not,' he remarks in later years, when criticizing the decision of a
not to shorten the time between the degrees, 'our greatest difficulty
in giving the work has been to avoid giving it as we then learned it.'
In 1856 and
1857 he filled the chair of his Mother Lodge, and has continued a
member of it to
the present day. From 1858 to 1860 he served as Deputy, and from the
to 1863, as Grand Master, of the Grand Lodge of Maine.
"For two years he presided over
Chapter and Grand Commandery, and for one year over the Grand Council,
In 1871, he was elected from the floor to the leading office in the
Chapter, and in 1880 to that of the General Grand Council, of the
Each of these positions he retained for three years. On the
establishment of a Provincial
Grand Lodge of the Royal Order of Scotland, in the U. S. A., he was
under the illustrious Albert Pike, at whose death he succeeded to the
"The degrees of the Ancient and
Scottish Rite were conferred upon him in 1859 and 1862. In the latter
year he received
the Thirty-third Degree, and was elected Lieutenant Grand Commander of
Council (Northern Jurisdiction) of the United States. This compliment
in 1863, and again in 1866. In the following year, on the amalgamation
of the two
Supreme Councils (N. J.), he was elected Grand Commander of the United
reelected in 1870, 1873, and 1876, but declined further service in 1879.
"The services of our
in these spheres of labor were indeed very arduous and protracted, yet
been surpassed by others which he has rendered in the capacity of
Chairman of the
Committees on Masonic Jurisprudence and Foreign Correspondence in the
Bodies of his native State. In his own Grand Lodge (succeeding the late
Pearl) he has performed, since 1865, the duty of reviewing the
Proceedings of other
Grand Lodges, and his report thereon for 1896, embracing all events of
note in the
current history of sixty-six of the Masonic Powers (fifty-six of which
are in North
America), extends to no less than two hundred and seventy-four printed
similar labor has also devolved upon him, continuously from 1866, in
the case of
the Grand Chapter; from 1865 to 1894 in that of the Grand Council; and
for a smaller
period ‒ apparently about nine years ‒ in connection with the Grand
of which Stephen Berry has been the Reporter since 1876. The review of
Masonry presented by Bro. Drummond in 1895, was the one hundredth
report which he
had made to Grand Bodies in Maine.
"In these reports, each of
which makes a
volume of fair size, octave, and an addition of four must now be made
to the century
accomplished in 1895, questions extending over the whole range of
Masonic law, usage,
and polity are examined and discussed. The work performed by Past Grand
in this field of labor has brought him a world-wide reputation. As a
upon the Jurisprudence of the Craft, he has no rival. His annual
Reports are extensively
quoted, and generally accepted as decisive on points of Masonic Law,
the American Continent. Yet, as the writer somewhat plaintively puts on
and doubtless the description given of one of these reviews would
to the remainder, 'It,' (the Report of 1869) 'has been written after
of the day of the most exacting of professions have been ended. As it
has come from
the pen, so it has gone to the printer. It was impossible to rewrite or
last appearance in Washington, D. C., was in 1891, when he unveiled a
Albert Pike. He said the event was one of great joy to him and that he
his life had been spared to take part in the dedication of the monument
great and good Mason.
was celebrated-by many eulogies after his death, which occurred October
It was said of him that the most beautiful thing in his life was his
his family and that it was his practice on various family anniversaries
the entire day at home during which time he denied himself to callers
and to business
Grand Commander said of him, after death:
"We may say to the world that
lived a true, just, affectionate, self-faithful life, from the motive
of a good
man. As a citizen, a statesman, a Christian, a Freemason, and a lover
of his country,
he faithfully and conscientiously performed every duty incumbent upon
him, and this
solely because it was a duty. By his life he honored his state, his
his Fraternity. By it he completed for himself a monument more lasting
more sublime than the regal elevation of the Pyramids, which neither
shower, the unavailing north winds and the flight of seasons shall be
able to demolish."
Eagle and Whence it Came
By Bro. Arthur C. Parker,
the type of article that makes glad the heart of an editor. With its
lack of guesswork
and with its wide-sweeping learning, it may well serve as a model and
to budding students. Brother Parker has recently completed an eight
work on archaeology; when it is published we shall hope to review it in
For some strange reason the two-headed eagle, for all its symbolical
seldom attracted the attention of Masonic scholars. The most able
treatment of it
thus far has been the chapter in The Migration of Symbols [Lib 1894] by Count Goblet d'Alviella of
Belgium; Brother Parker's own article loses
nothing by comparison with that chapter. Indeed, it carries the
symbolism back to
a far earlier time, and embodies more recent information. A student who
to launch out upon researches of his own will find, along with the
that the references in the Encyclopedia Britannica, are valuable;
consult the index
volume under Double-headed Eagle; also see the articles on Heraldry and
For a reliable but rapid survey of what is known of the Hittites see
on the subject in Exploration in Bible Lands, [Lib 1903] by Hilprecht (1903). See also
Encyclopedia, Vol. I., page 225 [Lib 1914]; and Ars Quatuor Coronatorum,
III, page 104. [Lib 1890]
SCARCELY a symbol in any of the philosophical or chivalric degrees of
Rite so striking in design and import as that of the double-headed
The tau cross
and serpent of the Twenty-fifth Degree, the sun of the Twenty-eighth
the cross of St. Andrew in the Twenty-ninth Degree are indeed fraught
meaning, both historic and esoteric, but none can claim a more romantic
history than that of the Thirtieth Degree, that of the Grand Elect
or Knight of the Black and White Eagle. As an emblem this eagle is the
religious and symbolic history, and to trace the winding flight of the
bird is to survey the whole course of civilization, from its grey dawn
the Persian Gulf to this modern World. Its flight from the plains of
the rise and fall of the great mother religions of the world, and it
was well on
its journey, by some fifteen hundred years, when Moses found a name for
ancient brethren, the holy Crusaders, passed through Byzantium on their
way to the
tomb of the Savior, the double-headed eagle which they saw embroidered
in gold on
heavy banners of silk, borne aloft by the Seljuk Turks, had been four
on its way. To these same Crusaders this emblem was an honored one, and
enemy displayed it, yet they would fight to death for its possession
and in triumph
bear it, dripping with blood, to their encampments on the Levantine
shore. It was
from this Eastern Empire that the knights took this banner to adorn the
Charlemagne, and as a sacred relic hung it in the great cathedrals,
and masons had so often been honored by this Emperor of the West.
came this two-headed eagle, and how came it to be associated with
Masonry? The last part of this question is easier to answer than the
there is direct testimony that Frederick of Prussia supplied this crest
formative stages of the Rite, but neither Frederick nor indeed Prussia
the exclusive right the use or to bestow it. It is the imperial emblem
Austria, Serbia and other portions of the disrupted Holy Roman Empire,
adopted the emblem long after it had flown over Byzantium as the royal
arms of the
"Emperors of the East and West."
soon spread throughout all Europe, an inheritance from the knight
England we find it used upon knightly arms. Robert George Gentleman
upon his shield, with the motto, "Truth, Honor and Courtesy." In France
we find it used by Count de Montamajeur, and associated with the motto,
shall hold myself erect and not blink." We find it upon the arms of the
of Modena, (1628) with the legend, "No age can destroy it." It appears
upon the shield of Swabia in 1551, in Russia in 1505, and as the crest
of the city
of Vienna in 1461.
It Had Many Ancient Uses
Let us venture
still further back into antiquity and view the double-headed eagle upon
arms of King Sigismund of the Roman-German empire, in 1335, upon the
Malek el Salah in 1217, and upon a Moorish drachma under the, Orthogide
Edm Mahmud, of the same date. Indeed the Turkiman princes used it all
twelfth century, but it proudly floated upon Byzantine banners as early
as the year
1100 and we know not how long before.
we find the double-headed eagle used as the seal of the Count of
Wurzburg in 1202;
it was the coat of arms of Henricus de Rode in 1276; while Philip of
it upon his shield in 1278. It was also the seal of the Bishop of
Cologne, who no
doubt adopted it from the city arms.
As the arms
of towns and cities in England, this emblem appears upon the official
seals of Salisbury,
Perth, (Perthshire), Airedale and Lamark. In Holland and France there
are also numerous
instances of its use.
As the badge
of royal orders we find the two-headed bird upon the emblems of the
of the Iron Crown; in Russia upon the emblems of the Order of St.
by Peter the Great in 1689; in Poland upon the emblem of the Order of
(founded May 24, 1792). As late as 1883, the King of Serbia adopted it
as the emblem
of the Order of the Double-Headed Eagle, commemorative of the
restoration of the
Order of St. Andrew uses the breast of the eagle upon which to display
the X cross
with St Andrew, crucified upon it. Each eagle head is crowned and
rest upon the crowns with a larger crown above them. The Polish Order
Merit has a white eagle displayed upon a Maltese cross which rests upon
of a double-headed eagle, each of whose heads is crowned.
But the double-headed
eagle is not European in origin for its use depends upon the contact of
Asia Minor, and indeed with trade or warfare with the Turks.
name for this conspicuous emblem is HAMCA, and by this name they call
it when they
see it carved upon the walls of ancient castles, upon time worn coins
upon frayed silken banners in ancient palaces.
in Asia Minor, indeed, are surprised by the frequency of the
sculptures upon the castles of the Seljukian Turks, and upon the more
of the Hittites, whose civilization was at its height when the Hebrews
tribesmen upon the Arabian plains. Among the Hittite ruins in
Cappadocia there are
several of these notable ruins, an example being described by Perrot
"Sculpture, whereby the
permit Pterian monuments to be classed in one distinct group, yields
to the student. Many are the characteristic details which distinguish
it; but none,
we venture to say, can vie with the double-headed eagle at Iasill Kaia,
a type which
we feel justified in ranging among those proper to Cappadocia, since it
to Assyria, Egypt or Phoenicia. Its position is always a conspicuous
one, ‒ about
a great sanctuary, the principal doorway of a palace, a castle wall,
the suggestion that the Pterians used the symbol as a coat of arms
not certain. It has been further urged that the city was symbolized by
the palace called by the Greeks Pteris (Pteron, wing) was the literal
it bore with the Aborigines, that in a comprehensive sense it came to
the whole district, the country of wings, i. e., numerous eagles,
eagles with wings outstretched."
city of Pteria, as Herodotus calls this unique dwelling place, was
Croesus. The ruins and walls of this city, now known as Boghaz Keui,
Village or Village in the Pass) have been examined with particular
interest by archaeologists,
but principally by Perrot and Guillaume. At the entrance of a palace
found numerous rock sculptures, mostly picturing the processions of
or priestly personages. Egyptian and Assyrian art motives predominate,
Hittite art is shown in the sculpture of the double headed eagle, upon
wings two priestly figures stand.
a similar eagle with two heads facing opposite directions clutches a
with either foot. J. Garstang in his notable work, The Land of the
mentions there bicephalous eagles and gives two plates illustrating the
upon which they appear.
The Remarkable Sculptures
of Boghaz Keui
In his description
of the Sculptures of Boghaz Keui, Garstang gives an analysis of the
priests, kings and gods shown on the rock carving alluded to above.
This great bas-relief
is upon the sanctuary passage way of the temple of Iasily Kaya.
images Garstang writes: "The significance of the double headed eagle is
But that there was a local worship associated with the eagle is
indicated by the
discovery at Boghaz Keui of a sculptured head of this bird in black
than natural size, and by a newly deciphered cuneiform fragment from
the same site,
on which mention is made … of the house or temple of the eagle. That
the cult was
general within the circuit of the Halys is suggested by the great
now lies prone … near Yamoola. At Eyuk, also, there is a conspicuous
defaced representation of a priest of the Double-Eagle on a sphinx-jam
of a palace
gateway, a symbolism that we read to imply that the occupant of the
palace was a
chief priest of the cult… Hence, we conclude that following the images
of the national
deities … there came the images of the local cult of this part of
the twin goddesses of the Double Eagle."
the ancient Kingdom of the Hittites, there was an actual temple devoted
to the ceremonies
of a priesthood dedicated to the cult of the two-headed eagle. While we
may be sure
that nothing in Scottish Rite Masonry is touched by direct Hittite
this emblem of the Thirty-second Degree must trace its history back to
and beliefs of the Cappadocian eagle cult. We may with good reason
this strange bird painted or embroidered on banners was carried in many
rite and honored in the sanctum sanctorum of the Temple itself.
us go still further back into the ages of Asia Minor. Let us view the
Tello, the mound covering the site of the ancient Babylonian city of
flourished three thousand years B. C. Here M. de Sarzec, according to
Assyriologist, M. Thureau Dangin, found the ruins of a temple and among
in the rubbish he discovered two cylindrical seals. One of these has
upon it the
recitation of a King, who says:
"The waters of the Tigris fell
low and the
store of provender ran short in this my city." He goes on to tell that
was a visitation of the gods. He, therefore, submitted his case to the
of the land. He dreamed, as a result, a holy dream in which there came
to him a
divine man whose stature towered, (as that of a mighty god in Babylonia
from earth to heaven and whose head was crowned with the coronet of a
by the Storm Bird, "that extended its wings over Lagash and the land
is this "storm bird," this mysterious symbol that bedecks the brow of
a god, and, what does it betoken?
inquiry is to ascertain who was the patron deity of Lagash. It is
that it was Ningersu, who with his wife, Bau, presided over the
destinies of the
city, and particularly that part known as Gersu. The divine man who
world from the flood is this same Ningersu, the solar deity, who is
always at odds
with, yet always in full harmony with, the storm god Enlil, who was the
of Nippur. Now the emblem always associated with Ningersu was an eagle,
lion headed, called Imgig. Imgig seems always given the difficult task
two beasts of a kind, one in either talon. In one instance these are
lions, in another
long-tailed oryxes, and still in another two serpents.
the inscriptions depicting the image of Imgig looking perplexed, yet
he holds fast to the beasts beneath him. A beautiful silver vase,
designed as a
votive offering by Entemena, Patesi of Lagash, has etched upon it a
of four lion-headed eagles, of which two seize a lion in each talon, a
third a couple
of deer and a fourth a couple of ibexes. This vase with its pictured
back to the year 2850 B.C. It rests in the Louvre today as a prized
Babylonian art. Jastrow figures it in his work on Religious Beliefs in
despite his peculiarities, might escape special notice were it not for
that in one or two instances he appears with two heads. It is in this
the bird appears in an old Babylonian cylinder seal once belonging to a
Ningersu. Upon this seal a priest or priestess presents a naked
candidate or novitiate
before an altar before which sits the goddess Bau, the Ishtar of
the goddess is an inscription supported upon the two heads of a
which, of course is none other than the symbol of Ningersu and his
This is the oldest known representation of the double-headed eagle.
The Symbol as Found Among
in his Discouvertes en Chaldee [Lib*] page 261, says: 'It may, I think,
that the double-headed eagle, and the lion-headed eagle, and also the
two heads, have the same significance when figured in front view with
on each side. Unlike the griffon dragon, it is a beneficent emblem
a protecting power. We find it in the earlier Chaldean period, but in
and latter part it quite disappears, although it is retained in the art
of the Hittites
to the region north and east of Assyria."
his Cylinder Seals of Western Asia, tells us that from this eagle in
attitude necessitated by, its attack on the two animals, was derived
eagle, in the effort to complete the bilateral symmetry of the bird
with an eagle head, turned to one side like the double face of human
examination of the lion-headed eagle facing front shows characteristics
easily suggest two eagle heads, but this is a matter of design, rather
custom of merging gods together have some bearing on this design. The
bird may represent Ningersu and Enlil, the union of the Sun god and the
or it may represent the union of Ningersu and Bau.
As an emblem
of Ningersu and of Enlil (the god to whom the Tower of Babel was
erected) the eagle
represents the union of the two greatest gods of Mesopotamia. Indeed,
in the later
years of Babylonia, either of these gods might be called by the name of
to worship one was to pay equal tribute the other.
centuries, when the Hebrews had been under more or less Babylonian
the characteristics of Enlil and indeed, Ningersu, were ascribed to a
new and rising
deity whose home was reputed to be in the land of the Kennites and upon
smoking peak of Horeb-Sinai. He manifested himself exactly as Ningersu
did, by earthquakes,
fiery clouds and mighty hurricanes, as for example, is described in the
This god had his seat on mountain top, from whence he blessed the
and the vegetation of the Kennites. It was this God that Moses found
by his father-in-law, the Midianite. Like Enlil, this god had a consort
to have been Yerahme'el. His other co-equals we cannot easily
the scribes have only written or allowed to remain what they desired
theological education in Babylon during the captivity. Nevertheless,
many a tell-tale clue to remain, and in the original Hebrew we may
still read, "And
the Gods (Els or Al-him) said, 'Behold the man is become as one of us,
to know good
before Moses found Yahwe and declared him the God of Isra-El (the God
and before this god absorbed all his predecessors and forbade their
a similar duad had arisen among the Hittites, whose storm god Teshup
two gods, and whose symbol was a double-headed eagle. Thereafter no
or palace was complete without a conspicuous carving of the doubly
The Aborigines of the Nile
It was no
doubt through the prevalence of this double-headed eagle among the
that the Turks found a reiterated motif for their own banners,
emblazoning the magical
Hamea, this bird of double power, upon them.
before the Hittite kingdom was founded, and centuries before the rise
and Assyria, and five full millenniums before the rise of the Hebrew
tribes as a
nation, the double-headed bird was known. Before any of the pharaohs
ruled the valley
of the Nile and before the pyramids had been erected, the pre-dynastic
of the Nileland had carved upon trowel-like pieces of stone, a
These double-headed birds were prized enough to be buried with the
dead, in whose
tombs the archaeologist of to-day finds them as mysterious emblems of a
past. So old are these tombs containing the trowel blade with the
upon its shoulders, that competent Egyptologists estimate an age of no
7,000 years before Christ.
also is the fact that in America the double-headed eagle is found on a
the native priesthood. The Hida Indians today have a double-headed
eagle which is
displayed as a mysterious and honoured emblem, and just as this bird
among the Hittites,
the Babylonians and the temple worshippers of Lagash was a storm bird,
to the Hida Indians of our North West coast the double-headed eagle is
In our Christian
architecture the two-headed bird has sometimes been employed,
particularly as a
window ornament. For example, we find it upon a church window in
an eagle with two heads perched upon the shoulder of Elijah symbolizes
portion of grace with which the prophet was endowed.
Albert Grundwell of Berlin, who led an archaeological expedition into
found these double-headed eagles in ancient caves. In Vol. XXIII of The
[Lib*] is some mention of his discoveries. He there states that to the
bird is known as Garuda and that the particular specimen that he
found on the ceiling of a cave near Qzyl, near the city of Kutcha. Its
age he cannot
guess, but he intimates that the painting is very old. Like Babylonian
eagles of this class, the Garuda grasps identical animals, in this case
eagle, thus appears to be Asiatic and to have been originated in the
the greatest temples have been erected, and where religious cults have
This bird appears in Lygash under the name of Imgig, and apparently is
of the union of Enlil and Ningersu; it appears among the Hittites as
appears among the Hindoos as Garuda; it is called Hamca by the Seliuk
among the Hida Indians of America it appears as the Thunder Bird or
the Zuni Indians in another form it appears as a highly
but still as a double-headed thunder bird, the Sikyatki.
eagle was adopted by the Turks, and by the Arabians it was known as the
the Turks it passed into use by the Crusaders, was employed as an
by the Holy Roman Empire, adopted by the Russians, Poles, Serbians,
and Saxons. It was used as a private seal and as arms in Germany,
Netherlands, England, and Russia.
the eagle with one body, one heart and two heads, flown afar from its
We may only conjecture the varied uses to which it was put, the names
by which it
was called and, the things or principles it typified. Of these things
has been reasonable assurance of certainty we have written. We are
the emblem is one of the oldest in the world, and from its nature we
in believing that it symbolizes a duality of power, a blending of two
functions and two dominions in one body. As Enlil or as Ningersu, it
stood for a
union of solar and celestial forces; as a royal crest it has stood for
dominion, and as a religious seal it stands for truth and justice.
As a Masonic
symbol this device is time honoured and appropriate. It is no less the
the Grand Inspector and Sublime Prince than that of the Grand Elect
Knight. As the
symbol of the Inspector it suggests an equal contemplation of both
sides of a question-and
thus, judicial balance. It is seen as the fitting emblem of an elect
knight in ancient
religious engravings, and to the exclusion of the cross itself, it
the banners of the knight and prince who behold the apparition of the
child of the rosary. And, as in ancient Mesopotamia, the double eagle
is here associated
with the sun symbol in the form of the Chaldean Elu, which the knight
wear, evidently with the same ancient meaning: "The light toward which
the double-headed eagle stand today for that which it stood in ancient
two heads, facing the Ultimate Sun, reminding men and Masons that there
is yet even
"more light" for the pilgrim who travels East, and in whose heart is
MEA IN DEO EST."
Proceedings of Grand Lodges
and Other Grand Bodies Now Available
increasing appreciation of the general value of Grand Lodge Proceedings
manifested by Masonic libraries and individual collectors. Publications
of the various
Grand Bodies reflect the Masonic thought and activities of the periods
cover, and are valuable sources of information for the Masonic student
of tracing movements that have engaged the attention of the Craft.
jurisprudence; evolution of the ritual; Masonry and public education ‒
but a few of the engaging subjects which the Masonic student will find
him in the files of Proceedings.
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While rarely containing subject matter of political interest ‒ the one
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force of the
Anti-Masonic excitement of 1826-1840 ‒ collectors of Americana seek for
the organization and the activities of the various bodies during the
of their existence. These contain information of much value to
historians and biographers,
who do not necessarily interpret the Proceedings from a Masonic
but discern facts from other angles which have a vital bearing upon the
they are making. It is not an uncommon thing to find old Masonic
as valuable items in the collections of county or state historical
are silent reminders of the romance permeating the story of this
Department of the National Masonic Research Society has recently
hundred volumes of Proceedings for redistribution to interested
parties. The issues
range in date from 1820 up to the current year, and represent Grand
Chapters, Grand Councils and Grand Commanderies of American, Canadian
jurisdictions. Many volumes of the General Grand Chapter, General Grand
and General Grand Commandery are also available, as well the
Proceedings and Bulletins
of Scottish Rite Supreme Councils.
are offered at reasonable prices, and are sold by way of service rather
pecuniary gain. The Society is incorporated on a non-commercial basis:
it pays no
dividends and returns any profits accruing from the Book Department to
for further Masonic work.
and collectors are requested to submit their want lists. Prices will be
volumes now available through the Society. A record will be kept of any
for the moment, as we are in correspondence with other institutions
missing numbers may be obtained. We shall also be glad to hear from
have old Proceedings which they wish to dispose of through us.
on this subject should be addressed to the Book Department, National
Society, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
Lodges View Towner-Sterling Bill
Reported By Grand Secretaries
in the winter we sent a letter to all Grand Secretaries with the
request that they
inform us what action their Grand Lodges had taken with regard to the
Bill. A compend of the replies received is given herewith in order that
may see how the matter stands so far as the Fraternity is concerned
This report should be read in conjunction with the article by Brother
D. Fess, published elsewhere in this issue. Except in a few negligible
replies have been left in the language of the Grand Secretaries, to
whom we extend
our thanks for furnishing information of such worth.
Endorsed by Grand Lodge, Grand Chapter, and Grand Council.
No action taken.
No action taken.
No mention made of Towner-Sterling Bill at last session of Grand Lodge.
add that personally such resolutions impress me as being puerile and
that a Grand Lodge had better not waste its time in considering such
meritorious they may be. Resolutions of this kind certainly cannot bind
brother and, passed as they are by a small delegation of a Grand
consider them by no means authoritative.
I am happy
to state that I do not remember of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut
passing any such
resolutions except on one occasion years ago, when it endorsed the work
of a state
tuberculosis commission. While it may be said that such action did no
harm it was,
as I say, entirely futile. I believe in leaving the religious and
to the individual Masons who on an average never fail to come out on
the right side.
No action taken.
Endorsed and recommended by the Grand Lodge F. & A. M. of
Florida, and also
by the Grand Commandery of Knights Templar.
Did not commit itself.
Has never had this bill before it for consideration.
Has never taken any action directly in regard to this bill.
of our Grand Bodies except the Grand Lodge took any action in regard to
bill, and it was endorsed by our Grand Lodge last February.
however, to add a word so that you and any others interested may
true condition. The proposition of endorsing this bill was not
presented to the
Grand Lodge until more than seventy-five per cent of the members had
left and Grand
Lodge was about to close. None of the brethren had any information on
which to discuss
the matter and it was one of those things that went through in a hurry
consideration, and it has caused a great deal of feeling among many of
and I fear that the question will again come up before our Grand Lodge
However, the answer to your question is that none of our Grand Bodies,
Grand Lodge, has endorsed this bill.
Resolution adopted at February, 1922, session of Grand Lodge: "Be it
That the Grand Lodge proclaims its support to the cause of education in
and to our free public schools in particular, and in the name of 29,506
this state that the Senators and Representatives from Louisiana to our
Congress be requested to vote and work for the Towner-Sterling Bill H.
R. 7 and
S. 1252, Sixty-seventh Congress.
it further resolved, That copies of this resolution be sent to the
the United States, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the
House, the Chairman
of Committees on Education of the House and Senate, the members of the
Committee, [see page 132 in Fess article] and the Senators and
Congress from Louisiana.”
Lodge of Maine has taken no action on Towner-Sterling Bill and it is
a resolution endorsing it would receive a passage.
No action taken.
I take this occasion to say that the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts
it is un-Masonic and improper for Masonic Grand Bodies or subordinate
take official action with regard to any pending legislation.
No action taken whatsoever.
This Grand Lodge has taken no action in the matter.
The Grand Lodge of Mississippi, F. & A. M, indorsed the
at its annual communication in 1921.
Commandery of Mississippi, Knights Templar, passed a resolution at its
in May, 1922, favoring this bill.
In answer to your question as to the various Grand Lodges which have
in favor of the Towner-Sterling Bill, I will say that resolutions have
by the Grand Lodge of Missouri, the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, the
Bodies for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States and I am
Scottish Rite Bodies for the Northern Jurisdiction will be asked to
pass such resolutions
at their earliest meeting. Further than this, I cannot answer, as we
have no way
of finding out this information.
Matter has never come before the Grand Body.
Orator and Grand Secretary commended it in address and report and
speakers to lodges
have urged that brethren write congressmen and senators favoring
None of our Masonic Grand Bodies in New Hampshire have taken any action
on the Towner-Sterling
The following resolution was presented by Worshipful Brother John Milne
at the 1922
Grand Lodge Proceedings: "Be it Resolved, That our Senators and
in the Congress of the United States, be reminded that the Masons of
urge the speedy passage of the Towner-Sterling Bill providing for a
At its annual session the Grand Lodge of North Carolina adopted the
"That the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, A. F. & A. M.,
approves the purpose
of this legislation to become active and diligent supporters of every
improve the mental standards of our people through the improvement of
No action with reference to the matter taken. No resolution on the
subject has been
presented or suggested. The Grand Master, however, in his annual
message to the
Lodge in May, 1922, made a very clear-cut statement in favor of the
High Priest issued a somewhat similar appeal calling for the
cooperation of the
of lodges passed resolutions commendatory of the bill although that was
or desired by the Grand Master, and numerous petitions were circulated
by the members
of the lodges in their private capacity as citizens, a plan with which
Master was, I think, in thorough sympathy.
Replying to your inquiry of August 28, 1922, with reference to the
attitude of the
Grand Lodge of North Dakota on the Towner-Sterling Bill, I beg to say
that the Grand
Lodge of North Dakota has been on record for some time with reference
to this measure.
I am enclosing herewith a copy of our Program of Masonic Service which
last year and which includes endorsement of the Towner-Sterling Bill. I
also a copy of our report on Patriotic Service for this year, which
goes a step
further. [Copies furnished on request. Ed.]
I beg to
say that the Grand Commandery of Knights Templar of this Jurisdiction
has also endorsed
the Towner-Sterling Bill. I do not believe that the matter has ever
to our Grand Council or our Grand Chapter. If it had been they would
it without reservation. We are going to put on in this Jurisdiction a
campaign to create sentiment for this and other measures of a similar
Grand Master expects to -proclaim a "Public School Week," and we intend
to make every Masonic lodge in this jurisdiction a center from which
a wholesome influence in favor of public education. We do not, as you
note, favor the extreme measures recommended by the Supreme Council.
of any elementary school except the public school we do not believe to
At its Annual Communication in 1922 Grand Lodge re-affirmed its
endorsement of the
Towner-Sterling Bill made at the Annual Communication of the Grand
Lodge at Oklahoma
City in 1921.
upon the members of Congress from Oklahoma that they give their cordial
to this bill, and especially that they use their influence to have same
out of the committee so that it may be considered and voted upon in
adopted at the 1921 Session of the Grand Lodge of Oregon: "Therefore,
Further Resolved, That this Grand Lodge endorses the efforts of those
who seek to
create a National Department of Education with a Secretary of Education
in the President's
Cabinet as its head, along lines set forth in the Towner-Sterling Bill,
states to have absolute and exclusive organization, supervision and
by the legally constituted state and local educational authorities."
The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania does not itself discuss, or permit its
lodges to discuss or advocate, any political questions which come
States Congress, State Legislature or City Council. Freemasonry is not
purposes. Did you ever hear of the anti-Masonic period, what caused it,
Thaddeus S. Stevens, the man (physically disqualified in Pennsylvania)
club foot did? He was also the strong advocate of free schools and won.
The following resolution was adopted by the South Carolina Grand Lodge:
approve and assert our belief in the free and compulsory education of
of our nation in public primary schools, supported by public taxation,
all children shall attend and be instructed in the English language
regard to race or creed, and we pledge the efforts of the membership of
Lodge to promote by all lawful means the organization, extension and
to the highest degree of such schools, and to continually oppose the
any and all who seek to limit, curtail, hinder or destroy the public
of our land."
course, is not exactly an endorsement of the Towner-Sterling Bill but
is an open
wedge for same. Some of our leading Past Grand Masters are opposed to
of this bill but the matter was not brought to an issue.
At the last
Convocation of our Grand Chapter the Grand High Priest favorably
Smith-Towner Bill [predecessor to Towner ‒ Sterling Bill] and it was
made a Special
Order, but we got into a very spirited argument over the Ritual
question and the
bill was lost in the shuffle.
The following resolution we: adopted by the Grand Lodge Jun' 14, 1922:
That since the training of the youth of the land to be loyal and
is the most important business of our national life, and since more
money is spent
for education than for all other uplift activities combined, there
should be a Department
of our Government devoted to education and to directing the public
system, and we
favor and urge the passage of the Towner-Sterling Bill now before
The following was introduced and adopted at the 1921 Grand Lodge
That the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, recommend that the Masters and
its jurisdiction immediately urge upon their Representatives in
Congress the immediate
passage of the Smith-Towner, Bill, a purely educational bill."
adoption touching this particular measure made. However, at the Annual
of the Grand Lodge held January 18-19, 1921, Grand Lodge did adopt,
without change, the paragraph relating to compulsory education adopted
by the Supreme
Council, A. & A. S. Rite at its Special Meeting held in May
1920, at Colorado
Springs Colorado. I might add that the Scottish Rite Bodies through
Committee have sent out to every member of the symbolic lodges in this
an analysis of the Towner-Sterling Bill together with a letter
suggesting that each
Mason should endeavor to place his candidate for Congress on record
to this particular bill."
No action taken.
The Grand Lodge of West Virginia has taken no action whatever, by
otherwise, on the Towner-Sterling Bill. I am of the opinion that
No. 1, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, at
Virginia, has adopted resolutions of some kind favoring the
The Grand Lodge took no action as same did not come before the meeting.
Wyoming passed a resolution endorsing this bill.
of Masonic History
By Bro. H. L. Haywood
Editor The Builder
Part III ‒ Mithraism: Freemasonry
and the Ancient Mysteries
that modern Freemasonry is in some sense a direct descendant from the
has held a peculiar attraction for Masonic writers this long time, and
the end is
not yet, for the world is rife with men who argue about the matter up
and down endless
pages of print. It is a most difficult subject to write about, so that
one learns about it the less he is inclined to ventilate any opinions
of his own.
The subject covers so much ground and in such tangled jungles that
almost any grand
generalization is pretty sure to be either wrong or useless. Even
Gould, who is
usually one of the soundest and carefullest of generalizers, gets
pretty badly mixed
up on the subject.
purposes it has seemed to me wise to turn my attention to one only of
letting it stand as a type of the rest, and I have chosen for that
one of the greatest and one of most interesting, as well as one
possessing as many
parallelisms with Freemasonry as any of the others.
I ‒ How Mithra Came To Be
A First-Class God
in the beginning of things, so we may learn from the Avesta, Mithra was
god of the sky lights that appeared just before sunrise and lingered
after the sun
had set. To him was attributed patronship of the virtues of truth,
and youthful strength and joy. Such qualities attracted many
worshippers in whose
eyes Mithra grew from more to more until finally he became a great god
in his own
right and almost equal to the sun god himself. "Youth will be served,"
even a youthful god; and Zoroastrianism, which began by giving Mithra a
place, came at last to exalt him to the right hand of the awful Ormuzd,
rolled up within himself all the attributes of all gods whatsoever.
Persians conquered the Babylonians, who worshipped the stars in a most
manner, Mithra got himself placed at the very center of star
and won such strength for himself that when the Persian Empire went to
everything fell into the melting pot with it, Mithra was able to hold
his own identity,
and emerged from the struggle at the head of a religion of his own. He
was a young
god full of vigour and overflowing with spirits, capable of teaching
the arts of victory, and such things appealed mightily to the bellicose
tribesmen who never ceased to worship him in one form or another until
so soundly converted to Mohammedanism centuries afterwards. Even then
they did not
abandon him altogether but after the inevitable manner of converts
rebuilt him into
Allah and into Mohammed, so that even today one will find pieces of
about here and there in what the Mohammedans call their theology.
collapse of the Persian Empire, Phrygia, where so many religions were
at one time or another, took Mithra up and built a cult about him. They
his Phrygian cap which one always sees on his statues, and they
his rites the use of the dreadful "taurobolium," which was a baptism in
the blood of a healthy young bull. In the course of time this gory
the very center and climax of the Mithraic ritual, and made a profound
on the hordes of poor slaves and ignorant men who flocked into the
mithrea, as the
Mithraic houses of worship were called.
never able to make his way into Greece (the same thing could be said of
the competition among religions was very severe) but it happened that
something from Greek art. Some unknown Greek sculptor, one of the
of his nation, made a statue of Mithra that served ever afterwards as
likeness of the god, who was depicted as a youth of overflowing
vitality, his mantle
thrown back, a Phrygian cap on his head, and slaying a bull. For
hundreds of years
this statue was to all devout Mithraists what the crucifix now is to
This likeness did much to open Mithra's path toward the west, for until
images had been hideous in the distorted and repellant manner so
of Oriental religious sculpture. The Oriental people, among whom Mithra
were always capable of gloomy grandeur and of religious terror, but of
had scarcely a touch; it remained for the Greeks to recommend Mithra to
men of good
Macedonian conquests, so it is believed, the cult of Mithra became
it got its orthodox theology, its church system, its philosophy, its
rites, its picture of the universe and of the grand cataclysmic end of
in a terrific day of judgment. Many things had been built into it.
There were exciting
ceremonies for the multitudes; much mysticism for the devout; a great
of salvation for the timid; a program of militant activity for men of
a lofty ethic for the superior classes. Mithraism had a history,
books, and a vast momentum from the worship of millions and millions
and scattered tribes. Thus accoutered and equipped, the young god and
were prepared to enter the more complex and sophisticated world known
as the Roman
II ‒ How Mithra Found His
Way to Rome
Eupator ‒ he who hated the Romans with a virulence like that of
Hannibal, and who
waged war on them three or four times ‒ was utterly destroyed in 66
B.C. and his
kingdom of Pontus was given over to the dogs, the scattered fragments
of his armies
took refuge among the outlaws and pirates of Cilicia and carried with
the rites and doctrines of Mithraism. Afterwards the soldiers of the
Tarsus, which these outlaws organized, went pillaging and fighting all
Mediterranean, and carried the cult with them everywhere. It was in
manner that Mithra made his entrance into the Roman world. The most
ancient of all
inscriptions is one made by a freedman of the Flavians at about this
In the course
of time Mithra won to his service a very different and much more
of missionaries. Syrian merchants went back and forth across the Roman
shuttles in a loom, and carried the new cult with them wherever they
and freedmen became addicts and loyal supporters. Government officials,
those belonging to the lowlier ranks, set up altars at every
opportunity. But the
greatest of all the propagandists were the soldiers of the various
Mithra, who was believed to love the sight of glittering swords and
appealed irresistibly to soldiers, and they in turn were as loyal to
him as to any
commander on the field. The time came when almost every Roman camp
down next to the ground but the time came when he gathered behind him
ones of the earth. Antoninus Pius, father-in-law of Marcus Aurelius,
erected a Mithraic
temple at Ostia, seaport of the city of Rome. With the exception of
and possibly one or two others all the pagan emperors after Antaninus
of the god, especially Julian, who was more or less addle-pated and
willing to take
up with anything to stave off the growing power of Christianity. The
Fathers nicknamed Julian "The Apostate"; the slur was not altogether
because the young man had never been a Christian under his skin.
Why did all
these great fellows, along with the philosophers and literary men who
followed suit, take up the worship of a foreign god, imported from
amidst the much
hated Syrians, when there were so many other gods of home manufacture
so close at
hand? Why did they take to a religion that had been made fashionable by
cutthroats? The answer is easy to discover. Mithra was peculiarly fond
and of the mighty of the earth. His priests declared that the god
at the right hand of emperors both on and off the throne. It was these
invented the good old doctrine of the divine right of kings. The more
worshipped by the masses, the more complete was the imperial control of
and therefore it was good business policy for the emperors to give
Mithra all the
assistance they could. There came a time when every Emperor was
pictured by the
artists with a halo about his head; that halo had originally belonged
It represented the outstanding splendor of the young and vigorous sun.
Roman emperors passed away the popes and bishops of the Roman Catholic
up the custom; they are still in the habit of showing their saints
spread up and down the world with amazing rapidity. All along the coast
Africa and even in the recesses of the Sahara; through the Pillars of
England and up into Scotland; across the channel into Germany and the
and down into the great lands along the Danube, he everywhere made his
was at one time a great center of his worship. The greatest number of
built in Germany. Ernest Renan once said that if ever Christianity had
by a fatal malady Mithraism might very easily: have become the
established and official
religion of the whole Western World. Men might now be saying prayers to
and have their children baptized in bull's blood.
not here space to describe in what manner the cult became modified, by
spread across the Roman Empire. It was modified, of course, and in many
and it in turn modified everything with which it came into contact.
Here is a
brief epitome of the evolution of this Mystery. It began at a remote
primitive Iranian tribesmen. It picked up a body of doctrine from the
star worshippers, who created that strange thing known as astrology. It
mystery, equipped with powerful rites, in the Asia Minor countries. It
a decent outward appearance at the hand of Greek artists and
philosophers; and it
finally became a world religion among the Romans. Mithraism reached its
the second century; it went the way of all flesh in the fourth century;
out entirely in the fifth century, except that bits of its wreckage
and used by a few new cults, such as those of the various forms of
III ‒ The Mithraic Theory
its hated rival, the early Christian Church so completely destroyed
to do with Mithraism that there have remained behind but few fragments
to bear witness
to a once victorious religion. What little is accurately known will be
duly set down and correctly interpreted in the works of the learned Dr.
whose books on the subject so aroused the ire of the present Roman
that they placed them on the Index, and warned the faithful away from
of history. Today, as in Mithra's time, superstitions and empty
doctrines have a
sorry time when confronted with known facts.
Mithraist believed that back of the stupendous scheme of things was a
unknowable deity, Ozmiuzd by name, and that Mithra was his son. A soul
for its prison house of flesh left the presence of Ormuzd, descended by
of Cancer, passed through the spheres of the seven planets and in each
picked up some function or faculty for use on the earth. After its term
soul was prepared by sacraments and discipline for its re-ascent after
its return journey it underwent a great ordeal of judgment before
something behind it in each of the planetary spheres it finally passed
the gates of Capricorn to ecstatic union with the great Source of all.
was an eternal hell, and those who had proved unfaithful to Mithra were
Countless deons, devils and other invisible monsters raged about
the earth tempting souls, and presided over the tortures in the pit.
all the planets continued to exercise good or evil influence over the
according as his fates might chance to fall out on high, a thing
imbedded in the
cult from its old Babylonian days.
of a Mithraist was understood as a long battle in which, with Mithra's
did war against the principles and powers of evil. In the beginning of
of faith he was purified by baptism, and through all his days received
through sacraments and sacred meals. Sunday was set aside as a holy
day, and the
twenty-fifth of December began a season of jubilant celebration.
were organized in orders, and were deemed to have supernatural power to
It was believed
that Mithra had once come to earth in order to organize the faithful
into the army
of Ormuzd. He did battle with the Spirit of all Evil in a cave, the
the form of a bull. Mithra overcame his adversary and then returned to
on high as the leader of the forces of righteousness, and the judge of
all the dead.
All Mithraic ceremonies centered about the bull slaying episode.
Church Fathers saw so many points of resemblance between this cult and
that many of them accepted the theory that Mithraism was a counterfeit
devised by Satan to lead souls astray. Time has proved them to be wrong
because at bottom Mithraism was as different from Christianity as night
IV ‒ In What Way Mithraism
Was Like Freemasonry
have often professed to see many points of resemblance between
Mithraism and Freemasonry.
Albert Pike once declared that Freemasonry is the modern heir of the
It is a dictum with which I have never been able to agree. There are
between our Fraternity and the old Mystery Cults, but most of them are
of a superficial
character, and have to do with externals of rite or, organization, and
inward content. When Sir Samuel Dill described Mithraism as "a sacred
he used that name in a very loose sense.
the resemblances are often startling. Men only were admitted to
membership in the
cult. "Among the hundreds of inscriptions that have come down to us,
mentions either a priestess, a woman initiate, or even a donatress." In
the mithrea differed from the collegia, which latter, though they
almost never admitted
women as members, never hesitated to accept help or money from them.
in Mithraism was as democratic as it is with us, perhaps more so;
slaves were freely
admitted and often held positions of trust, as also did the freedmen of
were such multitudes in the latter centuries of the empire.
was usually divided into seven grades, each of which had its own
ceremonies. Initiation was the crowning experience of every worshipper.
He was attired
symbolically, took vows, passed through many baptisms, and in the
ate sacred meals with his fellows. The great event of the initiate's
was the taurobolium, already described. It was deemed very efficacious,
supposed to unite the worshipper with Mithra himself. A dramatic
of a dying and a rising again was at the head of all these ceremonies.
showing in bas relief Mithra's killing of the bull stood at the end of
as the meeting place, or lodge, was called, was usually cavern shaped,
the cave in which the god had his struggle. There were benches or
the side, and on these side lines the members sat. Each mithreum had
its own officers,
its president, trustees, standing committees, treasurer, and so forth,
were higher degrees granting special privileges to the few. Charity and
universally practised and one Mithraist hailed another as "brother."
Mithraic "lodge" was kept small, and new lodges were developed as a
of "swarming off" when membership grew too large.
as I have already said, sprang from the ashes of Mithraism, and St.
did so much to give shape to the Roman Catholic church and theology was
years an ardent Manichee, and through him many traces of the old
Persian creed found
their way into Christianity. Out of Manicheeism, or out of what was
of it, came Paulicianism, and out of Paulicianism came many strong
‒ the Patari, the Waldenses, the Hugenots, and countless other such
Through these various channels echoes of the old Mithraism persisted
and it may very well be, as has often been alleged, that there are
of the ancient cult to be found here and there in our own ceremonies or
Such theories are necessarily vague and hard to prove, and anyway the
thing is not
of sufficient importance to argue about. If we have three or four
symbols that originated
in the worship of Mithra, so much the better for Mithra!
is said and done the Ancient Mysteries were among the finest things
the Roman world. They stood for equality in a savagely aristocratic and
society; they offered centers of refuge to the poor and the despised
among a people
little given to charity and who didn't believe a man should love his
in a large historical way they left behind them methods of human
and principles and hopes which yet remain in the world for our use and
a man wishes to do so, he may say that what Freemasonry is among us,
Mysteries were to the people of the Roman world, but it would be a
for any man to establish the fact that Freemasonry has directly
descended from those
who has never wearied of handling themes concerned with Freemasonry,
of Mithraism. See in especial his Puck of Pook's Hill, page 173 of the
for the stirring Song to Mithras. [Lib 1906]
* * *
Works Consulted In Preparing
The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry, Vol. II,
Waite. [Lib 1911; Vol
1, Vol 2]
Book of Acts, Expositor's Bible.
Mystery Religions and the New Testament,
Sheldon. [Lib 1918]
Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius,
Sir Samuel Dill. [Lib 1904]
Works of Franz Cumont. [Lib 1903]
Culte de Mithra, Gasquet. [Lib 1899 (French)]
Isis and Osiris, Plutarch. [Lib 1850]
of Pompey, Plutarch. [Lib 1860; Vol 3 pp 350]
Annals, Tacitus. [Lib 1832; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3]
Inscriptionum Latinarum, Harrod.
Mythrasliturgie, Dielitch. [Lib*]
Corona, Tertullion. [Lib*]
History of France, Vol. V, Vol. VI, Vol.
VII, Duruy. [Found only a 2 volume Edition 1870; Vol 1, Vol 2]
Neoplatonism, Bigg. [Lib 1895]
Society in the Last Century of the
Western Empire, Sir Samuel Dill. [Lib 1910]
Menippus, Lucian [Lib*].
Thebaid, Statius. See bibliography in Hasting's
Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. VIII, p. 752. [Lib 1908]
Quatuor Coronatorum, Vol. III, p. 109
Vol. IV, p. 32 [Lib 1891]; Vol. XIII, p. 90 [Lib 1900].
History of Freemasonry, Vol. I, Gould.
Encyclopedia-(Revised Edition): [Lib 1914]
Egyptian Mysteries, 232-233.
Initiations of the, 234.
Mithras, Mysteries of, 485-487.
Mysteries, Ancient, 497-500.
Mythical History, 501.
Colleges of Artificers, 630-634.
Vol. 1, 1915.
Symbolism, The Hiramic Legend, and the
Master's Word, p. 285;
Symbolism in Mythology, p. 296.
Masonry and the Mysteries, p. 19;
Mysteries of Mithra, p. 94;
Dionysiacs, p. 220;
Mithra Again, p. 254;
Ritual of Ancient Egypt, p. 285;
Dionysiaes, p. 287.
Secret Key, p. 158;
Mithraism, p. 252; Vol. IV, 1918.
Ancient Mysteries, p. 223. Vol. V,
Ancient Mysteries Again, p. 25;
Eleusinian Mysteries and Rites, pp.
Mystery of Masonry, p. 189;
Eleusinian Mysteries and Rites, pp.
Bird's-Eye View of Masonic History, p.
Came Freemasonry, p. 90;
on the Mysteries of Isis, Mithras
and Eleusis, p. 205. Vol. VIII, 1922.
Mediating Theory, p. 318;
Christianity and the Mystery Religions,
"What Came Ye Here
recently took up the cause of one of the modern healing cults, and was
before the United States Public Health Service to prove that the
is opposed to vaccination. This departure from the ancient landmarks by
esteemed contemporary is not as singular as it may appear. Another
is almost completely given over to fighting Roman Catholicism. A third
the Ku Klux Klan. A fourth preaches a sectarian religion. A fifth
unionism. And so forth and so on.
a very few instances all Masonic periodicals are privately owned and
so that they express no opinions other than such as their owners or
privately hold. A Grand Body alone has power to give official
expression to Masonic
opinion, and then only for such subordinate bodies as may come within
and on such questions as its landmarks or constitution may prescribe:
expression of opinion or policy is wholly private, and carries only
as the influence of the individuals concerned may contribute to it. All
in the world together could not render Freemasonry’s verdict on any
in a rough and unofficial way. They might advocate free trade, or war
Britain, or Zionism, or prohibition, or Socialism, or any other of ten
things with an absolutely unanimous voice but that would not commit the
institution to any of these things. It would everywhere clear the air
of most of
misunderstandings if this fact were better understood.
is an institution capable of wielding an immeasurable influence in the
is natural that many brethren should covet the use of that influence
for their own
favorite reforms. In their zeal for the betterment of the world it
appears to them
that the Fraternity is standing still or merely marking time: they
demand that Freemasonry
give an account of itself in the arena of reform.
with these brethren in their eagerness to see conditions improved. But
task of straightening out the world is endless. There are countless
things to be
done, and there are countless; worthy reformers trying to do them. If
is to lend its aid to one, why not to all? If not to all who will
select the few'?
If we admit the right of one brother to harness Freemasonry to his own
why not grant the same right to every other brother who demands it?
For us Masons
the question comes back to the familiar "What came ye here to do?" To
answer that question is not as difficult as might at first appear. The
work of Masonry
in the world is already defined for it by its own history, its ritual,
its constitutions, and its landmarks. It cannot cease to be itself in
order to become
Will it not
be disastrous to introduce controversies into the life of our lodges,
if they are of a political or religious nature? Long ago our Masonic
learned a bitter lesson in that connection. What need is there to learn
over again? If bigotry, passion and prejudice are turned loose, who can
what direction they will take? It sometimes happens that a man who sets
his neighbor's fields has his own burned over before the file dies down.
* * *
Brightening Up the Second
Degree does not receive anything like the attention accorded to the
First or to
the Third, especially the latter. It is a fact that challenges
candidate himself does not often seem so much impressed by it, the side
seldom so well filled, and the brethren in the chairs do not always
appear to put
into its exemplification the earnestness which they devote to the
reasons for this. One of several that might be named is the fact that
are properly equipped to render the Second Degree as it deserves,
far as symbolical paraphernalia is concerned, which is sometimes of a
kind as causes
one to blush, it is so dilapidated. This is in itself all the more
view of the fact that the equipment required is so very simple that a
to purchase the same readymade might very easily have the items
Also it is
to be confessed that in many jurisdictions the Second Degree is not the
its sister Degrees for flair and dramatic color. The Middle Chamber
often long and tedious, and such other parts as should most stir the
mind are mutilated
or misinterpreted and made unintelligible. THE BUILDER is conservative
the Ritual, and it looks with suspicion upon most attempts to tamper
with it, but
it frankly agrees with those who believe that certain portions of the
might very well be reconstructed, especially those that deal with
the five senses.
all, and over and above this, the largest cause of the slack working of
is the general misunderstanding of its meaning and purpose. As Brother
pointed out in a lecture on Preston published in one of the first
issues of this
journal, the Fellow Craft portion of the work is very largely the
William Preston, whose plan was to make the lodge a kind of school.
There were no
public schools in the England of his period so that the Craft suffered,
as did other
public institutions, from the illiteracy of its members, and Preston
remedy this unfortunate condition by composing lectures that would
offer the candidate
the essentials of a liberal education. The Second Degree is the
embodiment of this
purpose. It is the rite of education. That character lies all over it.
reason the Degree deserves an amount of attention and of loving care
that it has
never received. If there is anything that Freemasonry stands for it is
it has any mission it is to see that all of the children in the land
receive a schooling.
If it has any enemies it is such forces as, for one cause or another,
or hamper or prevent the public sources of enlightenment. If only all
see that this is the message of the Second Degree and if the brethren
the chairs could discover in it the symbolical representation of all
this, any possible
indifference, half-heartedness or carelessness would instantly vanish.
* * *
"In Which All Good
once expressed the fervent hope that in the life that is to come death
from us all masks, differences, and illusions so that we men might find
of one religion, and live in one faith. It may be that the universe
does not have
on its trestle board any consummation so devoutly to be wished; for
to us it may be better that we travel several paths. Be that as it may,
a sense in which it can be said that Penn's hope is already realized.
There is a
religion that embraces all the creeds and spans all the churches. It is
in which all good men agree. It is not something they have devised or
but something they have found out, as scientists discover a natural
it would be better to say that it has found them out.
the Golden Rule. It is the most precious thing within the entire orbit
morality; it is the high water mark of human ethics. "All things
ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them." If all men
could live by such a rule, if the spirit of it could suffuse their
would be no more quarrels or war or bitterness between peoples; the sun
down upon a happy race.
Is it an
illusion? Is it as unsubstantial as a rainbow in the clouds? Not so. It
is a law
of human life. and as inviolable as any law of physics. The great and
wise in almost
every land have at some time or another come upon it, and found it as
it is true. The Buddhists have a saying like this: "One should seek for
the happiness one desires for himself." Is not that beautifully put? It
be matched by a saying current among the Roman Stoics: "The law
the hearts of all men is to love the members of society as themselves."
before the Stoics the wise men of Greece had discerned the truth: "Do
to a neighbor which you would take ill from him." The Chinese sages
in another fashion, but it means the same thing: "What you would not
to yourself, do not unto others."
have had it in a more laconic form: "Do as you would be done by." And
here is a Hindu saying: "The true rule of life is to guard and do the
of others as one would do to his own."
Masonry Is a Part of "The
MYSTERY, [Lib 1915] by Allen Upward, published by
and Company, 16 East 40th Street, New York.
sprang into fame with his The New Word [Lib 1914], a volume that won the Nobel
and much admiration beside, for it was a rare combination of erudition
Upward traced the word "ideal" through several languages, and through
the arts, sciences, philosophies, and theologies until at last he ran
it to cover
in a brand new philosophy of his own which was so refreshing that
scores of readers
found it as delightful as it was impossible.
Mystery, published by Houghton Mifflin and Company in 1915, is not so
surprises, nor does it move in so untrammeled a field, but it is a
and it is one that Freemasons will find peculiarly interesting, not
it has something to say about the Craft itself, but also because it
deals with matters
that lie closely adjacent to our mysteries, and in many cases are
Those who are initiated in such matters will immediately recognize the
and position by the very fetching sub-title: "A Reading of the History
Down to the Time of Christ."
attempting a catalog of the volume's contents, I shall serve the reader
three longish extracts. They can stand as samples of the whole, and
will at the
same time suggest new ideas to the Masonic student.
It is interesting
to observe that Mr. Upward's hint as to the origin of the Legend of the
is not altogether unknown to Masonic scholars. George William Speth
held to a like
theory and very ably propounded the same in a little volume called
Rites. Also, a Mason will be interested to know that Brother Dudley
Mr. Upward in various and sundry manners by his erudition, his
knowledge of the
publishing business, and his never failing good natured kindliness.
old the assurance of everlasting life was imparted to men in Mysteries,
the things unseen were set forth in parable, or drama, under types and
So the Christian Fathers interpreted the sacred history of Israel as a
played out by the Creator upon the stage of the Holy Land, and intended
mankind for a fuller revelation to come.
“To the thoughtful
mind all history is sacred, and the whole world is a holy land in which
as in a garden planted by the hand of his Creator. Mystery encompasses
on every side; a divine voice breathes in the rustling of the trees at
and in the songs of birds at sunrise; he reads the nightly scripture of
and his heart accompanies the solemn chorus of the sea. There is a
him as without; the network of his frame is a battle ground wherein
unseen and uncalculated
forces meet end struggle for the mastery; his very thoughts are not his
the reincarnations of ancestral spirits, or else the angels of heavenly
powers. So, moving from deep unto deep, he plays his part in some
degree like a
somnambulist plays in a miracle play of which he feels himself to be
the hero, yet
cannot altogether seize the plot, nor tell what are the true
surroundings of his
little stage, nor guess what may await him when he shall pass behind
….. (Page 14.)
is but a name for the first groping efforts of man to learn the nature
of the world
in which he lived, and turn his knowledge into power. To the first
the wild all science was occult, all art miraculous, and every craft a
The first flint arrowhead was chipped to music; the shaft was winged
The spear-handle of the Pacific islander is carved with magic symbols;
of the Black Moor is still hung with sacred shells. With what
did the half-naked Prometheus of the foreworld guard the gift of fire;
vigils did the first vestal virgins keep about the sacred coals! The
out of sight to forge his runic sword; the masons taught the secrets of
with oaths and hidden rites. Every new art gave birth to a new
religion. The sword
was worshipped by the Scythian tribes of old; and in the twentieth
century, in a
land where steel was never yet made, beside the river of the Blacks, I
witnesses in my Court upon a bayonet ….. (Page 34.)
from idolatry is the consecration of a building by means of a human
first temple was a tomb, and in architecture as in other arts religion
led the way.
The virtue of the ghost extended from the grave stone to pervade the
and in imitation a single victim buried under the foundation gave
to a whole building or to the whole circuit of a city wall. The custom
be said to have died out yet among the savages and there are many
traces of it in
our midst. The most remarkable is the ceremony of admission to the
Degree of Master
Mason. The original meaning of their Ritual has been lost by modern
the liturgy now used by them being a medieval allegory, but an
hardly fail to see that the candidate who goes through a pantomime of
and resurrection, is personating the ancient foundation victim. We may
in the extreme jealousy with which uneducated members of the Society
Mystery a souvenir of days when the practice of human sacrifice had
discredit, and the craft which still kept it up has some reason to be
trace a Mystery to its barbaric seed is not to discredit the spiritual
that have since been found in it: on the contrary, I hope this whole
work will convince
the reader that it is to refresh them. Of old the chosen victim of the
often his own child as in the ease of him who laid the foundation of
Abiram his first-born, and set up the gates thereof in his youngest,
Segub. In the
masonic Mystery we seem to catch a hint of a time when the Architect
down his life to guard the building he had reared. The Masons of the
spirit do so
still when, separating themselves for the sake of their art from
friends and family
and the common joys of mankind, they breathe their life into their
die that it may live. The Freemasons teach well if they teach us that
well built that is not built with Life" ….. (Page 56.)
* * *
Appears In Book Form
by H.L. Haywood [Lib*], Editor of THE BUILDER; in art form, paper
covers, and envelope
for mailing. Fifty cents. Order from National Masonic Research Society.
1922, Ye Editor put his bashfulness into his pocket and caused to be
THE BUILDER a series of poems under the title of The Visitant. Brother
of Boston, an idealist, philanthropist, and publisher, asked and
to issue the collection in book form. The outcome was a rare little gem
of the printer's
art which is offered to those who may care for such things, and in such
to pay nobody any profits. The poems themselves have been by some
likened to The Gitanjali of Tagore, but that is to do injustice to the
for these pieces were composed without any reference whatever to his
The Visitant poems are an expression in vers libre form of a mood of
wonder in the language of religion.
* * *
The Classic of Old Testament
OF JOB [Lib 1920], by Morris Jastrow, Jr.,
Ph.D., LL.D. Published
by J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, Pa.
to the suffrages of a large majority of competent Biblical critics the
Book of Job
is, from a literary point of view, the classic of the Old Testament. In
of its language, in the sublimity of its range of thought, and in the
of its appeal it has ever held with ease a secure place among world
books such as
Homer's Iliad, Dante's Divine Comedy, and Shakespeare. But unlike most
its class Job has been an exceedingly difficult book to read, even for
and that because of its antiquity, its involved structure and the
its text. No other great work more cries out for intelligent
thorough translation. The Book of Job, by Morris Jastrow, is an
attempt, and a very
successful attempt, to make Job available to those of us who cannot
boast of much
Jastrow made his mark first of all in the field of Babylonian and
as those will recall who have read his very learned but quite
fascinating work called
The Civilization of Babylonia and Assyria [Lib 1915]. His first essay in the field
Hebrew research was a study, most learned and complete, of the book
known as Ecclesiastes,
in a work entitled The Gentle Cynic [Lib 1919]. Because of its wise and
spirit, and its power to throw so much light on obscure pages, that
essay has made
its way everywhere. The Book of Job is a well-qualified successor, and
it is promised
that Professor Jastrow will soon issue a further study in the same vein
the same lines on the Song of Songs, which, because of its very
may well be described as the mystery book of the Bible.
In The Book
of Job Professor Jastrow has brought within the compass of 369 pages
that anybody needs to know about the great poem. Part I consists of a
forty chapters in which is told the history of the book itself, which
structure and assembles various theories of interpretation. PART II
a new and quite original translation accompanied by foot-notes after
of the familiar Biblical commentaries. In this translation Professor
aimed at a literal rendering of the text so as to make the meaning
clear to a modern
reader; those who care more for literary style are referred to the
than which nothing can ever be more beautiful.
conception of authorship was unknown to antiquity; indeed, in our sense
of the word,
there were no authors then. A great theme came into existence as a
passed to its literary form through countless repetitions at the hands
tellers. The work was no man's possession, therefore anybody felt at
manipulate it for himself and in fashion with the spirit of his own
time and place,
so that nearly all books (this applies especially to the ancient
Hebrews) were the
products of many anonymous minds working through long periods of time.
In this wise
it often happened that many inconsistencies crept into a work, and in
the whole work was recast in order to meet the requirements of orthodox
of Job came into existence in that manner. At the center of it lay the
nucleus, which was a very bold religious idea: about this nucleus
as by some process of natural growth, a mass of relevant material: the
Liven its final form by a group of redactors who reshaped it to teach
the same lessons
as their official religious doctrines. Professor Jastrow has laid bare
evolution and editing, and made accessible to us the original plan of
nothing in Job of peculiar interest to Freemasons, nevertheless it is a
one of the Great Lights, and is consequently a living portion of the
traditions. It is not for that reason only that a Freemason will care
to read Professor
Jastrow's work: he will find that so thorough a study in Hebrew
antiquity will throw
a flood of light on the people who built Solomon's Temple, and who
traditions that mean so much to us.
* * *
The Little Books of the
and sapient Andrew Lang of fragrant memory, author of learned books and
member in good standing of the Oman Khayyam Club of America, once
uttered the prayer
that he might have for his own "a house full of books and a garden of
This wise and pious wish was in keeping with the eternal fitness of
books in the house and a garden of flowers ‒ these are what all rich
long for. Flowers and books go together, or ought; there should be
in a flower, there should be something shy and scented in a book.
I don't know
why I have written down these indisputable sentiments in this place,
unless it be
that they were suggested by the sight and feel of the little books
Charles D. Burrage, a Past Grand High Priest of Massachusetts, sent to
the series of which have been named, appropriately enough, Rosemary
Burrage's son Robert set up a little printing press of his own, and set
a good example, which is what a wise son will always do. The "Rosemary
[Lib*] was the outcome, and some fifteen or so brochures have been
Of the various
titles one is of peculiar interest to members of the Craft. Masonic
Id Records is a compilation of interesting bits of Masonic lore,
dedicated to Edwin
Sanford Crandon, consecrated to the memory of Edward Palmer Hatch, and
the use of the members of the Capitular Rite of Massachusetts. Among
the deeds and
tales recorded in celebration of the Masonic Spirit is a little gem of
which may here serve by way of example. It is a paragraph from a speech
Brother Alex. W. Dockerty, when Grand Master of Missouri, in honor of
is that imperial Institution which carries lessons of true manhood,
women, loyalty to truth into every hamlet within our borders; She is
Institution whose example has actually called into being almost every
order which exists today; She is that imperishable Institution which
takes by the
hand the Brother who has fallen in the battle of life, that kindly
raises him to
his feet again, that gently brushes from his brow the dust of defeat,
him to go forth again to the conflict with renewed strength and a
to accomplish something in life; that noble Institution, which, in the
unobserved carries joy and gladness to the lonely and desolate of
earth; that immovable
Institution, which, by her tenets and cordial virtues, draws, unbidden,
to her sanctum
sanctorum the high, the low, the rich, the poor, numbers them all
alike, her own
plighted sons and workmen; that imperious Institution, which, by her
unswerving faith and noble deeds, challenges the admiration of all men."
of high and low degree, well read in the golden writings of Saint Omar
and who know to speak the secret name of Allah, will want to have in
their own "house
full of books" the Rosemary Brochures. Let them write their wishes to
Charles Dana Burrage, 85 Ames Building, Boston! Mass.
* * *
A Dairy Religion
by W.H.R. Rivers. Published by MacMillan & Co., New York, 1906.
Here is a
book to please the soul of an ethnologist. Its 750 pages comprise a
account of a quaint and unknown people, whose customs and rites show us
simplest forms the beginnings of societies and religions. There are
in the volume: seventy-six illustrations; glossaries; indexes;
and every other kind of formulated information a student may wish for.
be an excellent volume to study along with Lowie's Primitive Society,
in this department. Other books have been written about the Todas: An
the Primitive Tribes and Monuments of the Nilagiris [Lib*], by W. J.
Breeks; A Phrenologist
Among the Todas [Lib*], by W. E. Marshall; and A Description of a
Race, by H. Harkness [Lib*]; but this is the most complete and the best.
are a people of about 700 souls living among the Nilgiri hills on a
plateau in Southern
India: they are an exclusively pastoral people and live in a very
simple but rigidly
organized society. They depend almost entirely upon the milk, flesh and
buffaloes, hence the all-important role played by that animal in their
The people as a whole are organized into two main divisions, and these
in turn are
sub-divided into clans, and other still smaller groups. They live in
scattered among the hills, and their poor little huts and dairies look
bee-hives laid on their sides. A few buffaloes, a dairy, a buffalo-pen,
and a handful
of brown people ‒ such is a village.
worship an indefinite number of gods, spirits, etc., among which two
a supreme place. Of these On is a male deity and presides over the
world of the
dead and is believed to have created the people: the other is a female
who once ‒ so it is taught ‒ lived among the Todas, at which time she
the rites and ceremonies they now practice.
is at the center of the Toda world; about it has grown up an
religion, with a ritual, priesthood, and all else that belongs to such.
has given a condensed account of this strange faith in an article he
to Hasting's Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Volume XII, just
ritual of the Toda religion is concerned almost exclusively with the
the treatment of their milk. The dairies are the temples; the dairymen
are the priests;
and various incidents in the lives of the buffaloes, such as their
one grazing ground to another, the first milking, and the giving of
salt, have become
the occasion of ceremonial which has a religious character. This ritual
a definite relation to the gods, for these things are mentioned in the
of the dairy ritual, the general character of which indicates that they
regarded as prayers. The names used for the deities in these prayers
those in ordinary speech, and form part of a series of expressions
in which special names of deities, buffaloes, dairy utensils, and other
are uttered, preceded by the word idith, said to mean 'for the sake
of.' The dairies
and the buffalo-herds form a somewhat complicated organization,
the Tartharol. Every village has a number of buffaloes devoid of any
sanctity, and their milk is churned in a lairy, also devoid of
sanctity, with no
special ritual. Most of the buffaloes, however, belong to herds with
with varying degrees of sanctity, and in correspondence with these
there are great
differences in the elaborateness of the ritual with which the milk is
in the ceremonial regulations of the lives of the dairy-priests."
use sacrifices and offerings; they practice divination and sorcery; and
many taboos, sacred days, and sacred numbers. Mr. Rivers has an
to say about the sacred numbers:
numbers are very prominent in the ritual, three and seven being the
Many ritual acts are performed three times, a threefold rite being
in this dairy ceremonial with tile utterance of the sacred syllable On;
not Om). This number is also prominent in the funeral rites, especially
with the ceremonial throwing of earth and the swinging of the body over
before it is burned. The sevenfold performance of ceremonial acts only
the dairy ritual and is especially prominent in the ordination
of the most ancient lamps of the dairy are said to have had seven
cavities or seven
the history and customs of these far off folk one can see religion,
ethics and ritual
in the making down about the roots of human experience; and he can
that ritual and symbolism grow up inevitably out of the very stub of
which man is
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
over his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
Study Club course. The Society is now receiving from fifty to one
each week: it is manifestly impossible to publish many of them in this
Why Massachusetts Lodges
Are Not Numbered
tour about the country last year, during which I visited many lodges, I
that every state except our own numbers its lodges. This arouses my
do we not have the same system as others?
M. L. K. Massachusetts.
may be answered by quoting an explanation made by Brother Melvin
his term of office as Grand Master of Massachusetts:
there were two Grand Lodges in Massachusetts. One of them, known as
Grand Lodge, was the one founded as a Provincial Grand Lodge by Henry
Price on July
30, 1733 The other, known as Massachusetts Grand Lodge, was founded by
on December 27, 1769, under a Commission from the Right Honorable and
George, Earl of Dalhousie, Grand Master of Masons in Scotland, bearing
30, 1769. Each of these Grand Lodges had its roll of particular lodges
The two Grand Lodges united on March 19, 1792, but no lodge at the time
to give up its number. For several years, there was consequently great
because of the duplication of numbers. It came to a head on December
12, 1803, when
Tyrian Lodge of Gloucester asked the Grand Lodge to determine its grade
in the lodges,
and accordingly a committee of five was then appointed, to take up the
the numbers and grade of lodges of the jurisdiction. The committee
reported on March
12, 1804, but the Fraternity desired further time for consideration of
and referred the report to the next meeting of the Grand Lodge. On June
the report of the Committee was called up, read, and debated, with the
two of the most prominent brethren of the Fraternity were added to the
and the report referred to the next Quarterly Communication. On
September 10, 1804,
the committee reported in part as follows:
they have ascertained the dates of the charters of all the lodges and
of opinion, that justice and equity require that they take rank in
Grand Lodge agreeably
to the seniority of the dates of their charters, in conformity to the
accompanies this report.....
whereas great inconveniences have arisen on account of the numerical
of some lodges, your committee are further of opinion, that all
numbers, now existing
in the designation of lodges, shall be abolished.'
has never restored the system of numbering lodges which was abolished
with this action taken on September 10, 1804.
report was considered with care, discussed and finally these
unanimously adopted by the Grand Lodge."
* * *
Use the District Deputy System
Is it possible
for you to furnish me a list of states using the district deputy
It is a subject in which I am deeply interested.
F. O. G., Michigan.
of existing Grand Lodge Codes reveals twenty-six states as using the
Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine,
Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North
Dakota, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas,
Washington, West Virginia. To these may be added Canada, British
* * *
The Morgan Affair
I have been
asked to give a little talk about the supposed murder of William
Morgan. Can you
tell me, or give me, a brief account of the matter? I do not have time
to read a
Morgan was born in Culpepper County, Virginia, in 1774 ‒ some say in
1775. A stonemason
by trade, he was a wandering, dissolute fellow who was liked well
enough when not
in his cups; but he couldn't be depended upon. When about forty-four
years of age
(1819) he married a girl of sixteen. They moved to Canada, where for a
Morgan engaged in the brewery business. That failing through a fire, he
Rochester, New York, (1823) and thence to Batavia, in Genesee County.
that he was a Mason ‒ though nobody has ever been able to verify his
‒ and as such he enjoyed the freedom of the Genesee lodge. He was not,
the kind of man the brethren desired to have in their midst, and when a
went in for a Royal Arch charter his name was deliberately omitted.
This so incensed
him that he determined to have revenge by publishing to the world the
was living in Batavia one David C. Miller, a printer of the same ilk as
who took readily enough to the latter's scheme of running the so-called
instalments in Miller's paper. When word leaked out of what was
were stirred to action as well as Masons: it was seen that such a
bring disgrace upon the town.
of forty or fifty men undertook one night to secure Morgan's
manuscript, but could
not find it in Miller's place of business. Two or three nights later
was fired, but was not destroyed.
was arrested in Batavia, New York, on the morning of September 11,
1826, on a charge
of petit larceny, and taken to the jail at Canandaigua. Released after
the Batavia charge he was immediately re-arrested on another. The story
goes ‒ all
is confusion from this point onward ‒ that, at a time when the jailer
the amount of execution was paid to the jailer's wife, who released
latter was taken in hand by a group of men who put him into a carriage
him to Fort Niagara, on Niagara River, at which point all trace of the
man was permanently
went around like wildfire that Morgan had been abducted by the Masons
Public meetings were held, rewards were posted, and many men were
of them receiving heavy sentences. But nothing of a definite character
learned. It was not known even that Morgan was dead; many believed that
had jumped at a good opportunity to abandon his family and fly from his
he had been as lose about the latter as he had been indifferent to the
7, 1827, a body was discovered forty miles east of Fort Niagara. (This,
note, was one year after Morgan had disappeared.) Somebody started the
it was Morgan's. His wife and a number of his old-time neighbors were
taken to view
the remains ‒ the Jury's inquest had declared the man unknown ‒ and
though the corpse
was so badly decomposed that scarcely a feature was distinguishable and
contents of the coat pockets were clearly not Morgan's and other signs
same way, a second jury declared the corpse to be the remains of
state the body was carried back to Batavia where an immense public
funeral was held.
One Cochran, a dissolute individual, who preached now and then, and
as a kind of assistant to David C. Miller, delivered an oration, in
which he painted
the Masonic Fraternity as a secret cabal of thieves and murderers. The
chanced that one Timothy Monro was drowned in Lake Ontario, September
26th of that
same year, and a couple of weeks before the discovery of the so-called
of the general description of the Morgan corpse, the widow and family
seeing the remains, and these accordingly were disinterred. They
it as Monro. It was so declared by another jury.
trials were held altogether in connection with the Morgan affair. The
of these was that of one Hill, who confessed to having murdered Morgan.
Hill was declared insane, and that ruined the value of his "confession."
of Morgan nobody knows unto this day. It is a mystery, in all
will never be solved. Major Benjamin Perly Poore testified that he saw
in 1839, and so did others. Others were equally certain that Morgan was
is usually supposed that the Anti-Masonic Party had its rise from this
but that is hardly the case, because Anti-Masonry was already in the
field and waxing
stronger every year. The period between 1820 and 1840 was one of
fanaticism; multitudes were carried away by all manner of strange new
some of them, such as the Millerite movement, taking captive many whole
The sparsely settled country was alive with revivals which were usually
by revivalists who were so ignorant that they declared education to be
a sin. Similar
revivals, though under better auspices, swept through the city
churches, and these
carried with them a vast amount of fanaticism. At bottom the whole
sound and sane, but on the surface and about the edges was a great mass
taken was to make war upon "secret" societies. Among these the most
of course, was Freemasonry. In 1821, five years before the Morgan
affair, the Presbyterian
Church denounced Masonry. The Congregationalists of England followed
suit. In 1826
the Methodist Episcopal Church joined in, and forbade any of its clergy
in Order. The Quakers, Lutherans, the members of the Red Church, and
scores of others
took the infection and began to make war on Masonry, which was
described as a rival
religion of Christianity, a counterfeit faith, a device of the devil
and what not.
Morgan affair this thing first broke into flame. The hundreds of
thousands who were
already taught to hold Masonry in suspicion, at once believed in the
of the murder and considered that it was a clear proof of the
culpability of the
to Masonry was immediately organized in Genesee County from which it
spread to adjoining
counties and then over the entire state. An Anti-Masonic Party was
a strictly political basis. In 1828 this party polled 33,345 votes in
of New York: by 1832 this number grew to 156,672. In 1830 it became
Christian Party in Politics," and displaced the old National Republican
in that state. The same thing occurred in Vermont and Pennsylvania, and
occurred in Ohio, Massachusetts, and a number of other states. In 1831
held a national nominating convention (the first in our history) and
placed on the
presidential ticket the name of William Wirt of Maryland and, for
Amos Ellmaker of Pennsylvania. Thirteen states were represented.
By a sarcastic
turn of affairs the National Republicans placed in nomination Henry
Clay, a nominal
Mason, and the democrats nominated, and later elected, Andrew Jackson,
who was an
active Mason. The Anti-Masonic party did not last long. In 1836 its
career came to an end. But it had made a show of strength. At one time
it had as
many as one hundred and forty periodicals in the field, and sustained a
corps of itinerant lecturers who went over the land telling the public
of iniquity the Masons were.
a period of unrest and change. Cities were for the first time beginning
control of public affairs, and this alarmed the country population. The
were decadent, or passing through profound metamorphoses. The wild
ran through the religion of the period induced many to believe
greatest factor in the whole situation was Thurlow Weed, New York's
boss: he, with William H. Seward, nominally of the National Republican
believed that party to be doomed, and, to save their own political
immediately laid hold of the opportunity furnished by the Morgan
affair. The political
genius of these men, in conjunction with the posture of affairs,
accounts for the
rise of Anti-Masonry.
was shaken by this tempest of attack. In some of the New England states
entirely discontinued. Vermont, in 1834, had but seven lodges in
Grand Lodge of Maine did not meet at all for several years. New Jersey
reduced two-thirds. In the state of New York, which was Masonry's
1825, the Order was so depleted that the number of lodges represented
in Grand Lodge
fell from four hundred and eighty in 1826 to seventy-five in 1835. By
had fallen to a still lower figure. In that period of fiery trial it
was, in many
communities, worth a man's reputation to be known as a Mason, but in
instances brethren stood firm at any cost. One might fill a book with
how, through social and religious ostracism, men remained at their
to the Fraternity. It was so then: it would be so now: it will be so in
The best history of this whole movement is The
Anti-Masonic Party: A Study of Political Anti-Masonry
in the United States, 1827-1840 [Lib 1902], by Charles McCarthy: this
work will be found in the Annual Report of the American Historical
1902, Volume I, page 865. Consult also: Autobiography by Thurlow Weed
2]: Autobiography by William H.
[Lib 1877]; Stanwood's History of the
[Lib 1916]; The Jacksonian Democracy[Lib
1906], by MacDonald; Hammond's
Political History of New York, Volume II [Lib
2]; Diary by John Quincy Adams
Harvey's History of Lodge No. 61, of Wilkesbarre, Pa. [Lib 1897]; Letters on the, Masonic
Institution, by John Quincy Adams [Lib 1847]; Letters on Masonry and
Anti-Masonry [Lib 1832] by William L. Stone; Mackey's
of Masonry [Lib 1914]; and Stevens' Cyclopaedia of
[Lib 1899]. In December, 1918, THE
published a comprehensive study of "The Anti-Masonic Movement" by E.B.
* * *
Information about Plural
In our state
there are a number of us interested in the project of permitting a man
to more than one lodge at once. Will you please tell me where I can
on this subject?
F. L. Michigan.
two excerpts from Grand Lodge Proceedings that will give you your
The first passage is taken from page 593, Proceedings of Grand Lodge of
(it has permitted dual membership for several years), for 1916.
are often asked regarding dual, or more correctly, plural membership in
I have had the matter investigated so far as the Grand Lodges in North
concerned, with the following result:
and Massachusetts permit plural membership. No other Grand
Jurisdictions in the
United States permit plural membership with the following exceptions:
Wyoming and Tennessee permit members of their lodges to be members of
outside of the jurisdiction, but do not permit plural membership within
North Dakota does not permit plural membership within the jurisdiction
but is undecided
in its position with regard to membership both in and out of the
forbids plural membership except that a life member of a lodge outside
may join a Texas lodge.
practice in Canada is much more varied. Plural membership both within
the jurisdiction is permitted in British Columbia, Canada (Ontario),
Alberta, Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Saskatchewan forbid plural membership
jurisdiction but allow simultaneous membership within and without the
Price Edward Island and New Brunswick forbid plural membership either
without the jurisdiction.
practical conclusion so far as our lodges are concerned is that without
any conflict of jurisdiction they may affiliate brethren who hold
Virginia, Delaware, Wyoming, Tennessee, and any of the Canadian Grand
Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick."
information is found in the following, here reprinted from Grand Lodge
of Washington, Vol. XXII, 1922, Correspondence Report, p. 12.
question of permitting a brother to hold membership in more than one
lodge has been
raised in one or two jurisdictions. English and other foreign
long permitted this, but American lodges have almost invariably held
The Correspondence writer of Alabama says:
Grand Lodges allow this and the only practical difficulty or objection
we have ever
seen to it is that it renders statistics as to membership inaccurate.
But that is
certainly of minor importance, and some way might be devised to get
over that difficulty.'
Grand Master of New Hampshire said:
desire to call your attention to the consideration of dual membership,
will find has been recommended by me. The time is at hand when we
should do all
in our power to promote the interests of Freemasonry.
am convinced that dual membership is a step in the right direction, and
to understand where there can be serious bad results from adopting the
same. I am
aware that the best versed Mason in New Hampshire is not in accord with
upon the subject; I refer to M. W. Brother Cheney, [Grand Secretary,]
but he has
not been able to convince me that it is not a desirable amendment to
Brothers from our state go abroad in the world. Brothers from other
come to use. They settle in our state and desire to take part in our
Their home lodge is dear to them with its associations, and they will
not give up
their affiliation therein. They do desire to be helpful in the
community where they
reside Masonically, but not being members of the lodge, hesitate to be
they might were they members of a particular lodge. They are an aid
and financially, and I am sincere in my belief that general dual
all lodges would be of great Masonic advantage. The reverse situation
our Brethren taking up their residence in other states. I do not
believe in the
dual idea by members within the state, that is, permitting a member to
more than one lodge within our state.'
Lodge went far enough to appoint a committee to consider the matter for
a year and
report, when, we opine, they will agree with Bro. Cheney. Any of those
desire, as the Grand Master said, to 'be helpful in the community where
Masonically,' will do so. In our experience it is the new lodge which
to them, a matter of from two to four dollars a year, and they 'will
not give up
their affiliations' on that account. In the city of Seattle, in our
are not less than a thousand Masons today, who, if confronted with the
of dual membership and the sharing of the work of the lodges here,
cease their Masonic relations. They do not want to share the
are willing to contribute small annual dues to a distant lodge to
but the real workers either affiliate or take hold and contribute
Grand Master, if he has any argument in favor of dual membership,
should favor it
among his own lodges. If a brother of character and energy should feel
to devote of his time, energy, and money to several lodges, which he
attend and to which he may be able to add much of help and personality,
be the place it seems to us for dual membership to come in play. The
of Virginia ruled:
as North Carolina does not allow dual membership, a member of a North
be elected a member of a Virginia lodge, without first withdrawing his
from the North Carolina lodge. Massachusetts, Wisconsin and Virginia
are the only
Grand Jurisdictions allowing multiple membership.'"
* * *
Concerning the Religion
of the Grand Orient of France
Can you tell
me if it is true that no French Mason can become a member of the
Council of the
Grand Orient until after he has affirmed in writing that neither he nor
will practice the ceremonies of any religion?
‒ L. T. B. Ontario, Canada.
was transmitted direct to the Secretary General of the Grand Orient,
is here given in full:
to reply to your favor asking us on the part of a Brother of Canada if
it is true
that since 1903 no Mason can be elected member of the Council of the
he binds himself in writing that neither himself nor his children will
any religious ceremony.
is completely inexact, and it is sufficient in order to convince
himself of it,
to read the first article of the Constitution of the Grand Orient of
is as follows:
"Freemasonry, an institution
philanthropic, philosophical and progressive, has for its object the
Truth, the study of morality and the practice of Solidarity; it works
for the material
and moral amelioration and for the intellectual and social
perfectioning of Humanity.
"It has for its principles,
the respect of others and of one's self, and absolute liberty of
being in the exclusive domain of the individual appreciation of its
refuses [to commit] itself to any dogmatic affirmation.
"It has for its device,
condition demanded by Article 28 of our Constitution in order to be
the Council of the Order are to take part in the General Assembly and
the degree of Master for at least seven years.
plain from all the evidence that an engagement like that indicated by
would go against the doctrine of Toleration which is the basis of
and against the principle of absolute liberty of conscience, inscribed
in the Constitution
of the Grand Orient of France.
enough to accept,
Very Dear Brother,
the assurance of my best fraternal sentiments.
THE SECRETARY GENERAL.
* * *
Why Do Masons Compute Time
At what time
and by whom was the custom adopted of adding 4000 years to the
Christian era by
Master Masons, and why 4000 years when the "year of light" is shown by
Egyptian records to have been long before that?
J. H. L., California.
lodges have followed Dr. James Anderson in this. The title page of his
of 1723 is dated in this fashion:
year of Masonry ‒ 5723
of this is furnished in a footnote in the 1738 edition of his
2, here literally reproduced:
"The first Christians computed
as the Nations did among whom They lived till A. D. 532, when Dionysius
a Roman Abbot, taught them first to compute from the Birth of Christ;
but He lost
4 Years or began the Christian Era 4 Years later than just. Therefore,
to the Hebrew Chronology of the old Testament and other good vouchers,
truly born in some Month of the Year of the World or A. M. 4000. yet
these 4 Years
added make 4004 Not before the Birth of Christ, but before the
Christian Era, viz.
1737 For the true Anno Domini or Year after Christ's birth is 1740 But
being used to compute by the Vulgar Anno Domini or Christian Era 1737
to it not 4004, as it ought, but the strict Years before Christ's
birth, viz., 4000
They usually call this the Year of Masonry 5737 Instead of the accurate
and we must keep to the Vulgar Computation.
A. M. or Anno Mundi is the same followed by Usher and Prideaux, etc.,
and so these
letters A. M. signify Anno Mundi or Year of the World: and here B. C.
is not Before
Christ but Before the Christian Era."
* * *
A Masonic College of the
Civil War Period
about Freemasonry in the public schools in your number for last August
me that I once read about a college in Tennessee called Jackson
College, which was
owned by Masonic lodges. It might be interesting to learn something
more about that
M. K. T., Georgia.
was located in Columbia, Tennessee, and was one of many such schools
supported by Masons. Two brethren now residing in that community have
to us such history of the college as they have been able to unearth:
belonged to Columbia Lodge Number 31, and some of the stock was owned
by one or
two other lodges in the county, though Columbia Lodge owned by far the
of the stock, and it was under the control of the Board of Five
annually except that for the last three or four years no trustees have
the old ones holding over; W. B. Greenlaw, attorney of this town is
one, W. W. Dyer
is another, and the rest I do not know, but the minutes of the lodge
Civil War Jackson College was burned by Federal soldiers and was never
and the property was subdivided and is now owned entirely by various
from the lodge. A claim was filed many years ago in Washington seeking
from the Government for the damage done by the destruction of this
some proof was taken, but investigation which I made some time back,
the proof was improperly taken and left the impression with the claim
that the building was burned by some irresponsible soldier and not by
of any officer, and, therefore, Government has refused to consider the
I think that it will never be paid, though it ought to be. I know that
Mitchell and Bennett were two of the teachers of the institution, but
that is all
that I do know about that part of it.
W. S. Fleming,
* * *
was an incorporated institution of learning Unmanaged and controlled by
elected by the various Masonic Bodies of Maury County, Tennessee,
Chapter No. 4, R. A. M., Columbia Lodge No. 31, St. James lodge No.
Lodge No. 111, Spring Hill Lodge No. 124, Pleasant Grove Lodge No. 138,
Lodge No. 195 and Mt. Pleasant Lodge No. 610. We know that it was an
institution in 1835 and that it was burned by the Federal troops in
1862 and that
all the records of said Jackson College, including the minute books and
of the trustees, the library and all the chemical laboratory and
were destroyed in this fire. The building stood in a large grove and
was made of
brick with stone trimmings and was three stories in height. The library
to have been one of the best in the South and previous to the Civil War
stood very high and had a large attendance, not only local hut
throughout the South.
bodies of Maury County have a claim pending in the United States Courts
value of this property, but it seems that on account of the lapse of
time we cannot
show conclusively that an officer ordered it burned.
that during the Civil War both sides used this building as a hospital
with the consent
of the Masonic bodies or the board of trustees and when the Federal
this town and retreated toward Franklin and Nashville, Tennessee, a
was issued by the Federal general to destroy all property that might be
of use to
the Confederate forces and Jackson College was burned the night the
left town and before the Confederate forces took possession.
W. C. Whitthorne.
Grand Master of Nevada Writes
About Masonic Education
Peterson's letter arrived too late to be included in Grand Masters'
the April issue.)
"How best to teach Masonry in Masonic Lodges" is a big one that many or
possibly all Grand Lodges are trying to find an answer for.
years ago, in my own Carson Lodge No. 1, we organized a Study Club,
naming it "The
Eighteenth Century Lodge" after Brother Morcombe's play of that name. A
two Wardens, a Secretary, and a Boxmaster were the officers and we met
once a month.
In September a program for the year was arranged and subjects assigned
to be given at a certain meeting. The club flourished for several years
war activities claimed our time. Since then we have not been able to
again, but I hope to get it started before long.
for an evening would be a paper on some Masonic subject, followed by an
discussion. We then would take up Masonic Law and devote perhaps half
an hour to
it. After that came refreshments. In this manner the Masons who
something on two important subjects. All Master Masons were welcome and
always had a good attendance.
I shall recommend
this plan to the lodges when I make my visitations. It is the best that
I know of.
We are at
present having the Masonic Service Association bulletins read at our
and they take well.
I hope that
this plan may be of some use to you. At any rate it worked while it
I am sorry that it is not still working.
E. C. Peterson, Nevada.
* * *
Was John Jay A Mason?
in reading the Life of John Jay [Lib 1899] by George Pellew, I came
the following letter written by Jay to Washington April 21, 1779.
the letter is not given in its entirety and I do not have access to any
of Jay. I do not know whether the letter is generally known but in any
case I believe
it worth preserving in the files of THE BUILDER. The letter follows:
"Calm repose and the sweets of
retirement appear more distant than a peace with Britain. It gives me
however, to reflect that the period is approaching when we shall be
a better ordered state, and the spending of a few troublesome years of
in doing good to this and future generations is not to be avoided or
Things will come right and these States will be great and flourishing.
of our government threw us into a political chaos. Time, wisdom and
will reduce it into form ….. In this work you are, in the style of one
of your professions,
a master-builder, and God grant that you may ever continue a free and
to any brother a careful reading of any biography of John Jay. I should
send you several more extracts from his letters, thoughts which are
applicable to conditions confronting the nation to-day, but I know
space in THE
BUILDER is at a premium.
Can you tell
us whether John Jay was a Mason?
A. L. Kress, Pennsylvania.
* * *
When and Where Canadian
Masonry Was Founded
about Canadian Masonry on page 94 of your March issue has led me to ask
you to publish
two excerpts from Robertson's History of Freemasonry in Canada, Vol. I.
it may prove interesting to such of our members as, like myself, had
the good fortune
to be raised in a Canadian lodge.
Carlos B. Whitely, Indiana.
cannot venture with absolute exactness to give the day and date of the
the first Craft warrant in Canada. Yet it is well that in the endeavor
early organizations we should briefly refer to those of which we have
prior to the year 1800, for after that period, crude as many records
exist minutes and memoranda that make, as far as genealogical sequence
the task less intricate than it otherwise might have been… "Canadian
was first founded in Nova Scotia between the years 1737 and 1749. There
is no documentary
evidence in existence which affords the slightest proof of the exercise
authority in that province prior to 1749. Much discussion has arisen in
with the antiquity of the Craft in Nova Scotia, when it was 'Acadia,'
but all records
have disappeared and surmise has to fill the part which should be taken
documents. The well-known name of Ensign Erasmus James Phillips has
with the Craft in Nova Scotia from the earliest days.
question more pertinent to this history is as to the institution of
in Canada, or rather in what is now the Dominion of Canada.
is reasonable evidence that a lodge of Freemasons was instituted under
warrant at Annapolis Royal in Acadia, now Nova Scotia, and that this
extant in 1749, followed by the organization of a lodge in 1749 at
Halifax or rather
Chebucto ‒ for Halifax was not named until 1750 and that this lodge was
one, which with others eventually formed the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia.
founded by the French in 1604, is the oldest settlement in that part of
known as Nova Scotia. It was occupied by the British in the reign of
and was called Annapolis or 'The City of Anne.' It was the seat of
to 1749. In 1726, thirteen years after the signing of the Treaty of
find in the garrison of Annapolis the founder of Masonry in Nova
James Phillips, an officer in the British Army.
is claimed, and it can be readily believed that he received a warrant
Grand Master of Acadia in 1740 from Henry Price, Provincial Grand
Master, of New
England. There is, however, no record of this being granted in the
books of the
Grand Lodge at London, but there is an entry of such action in the
books of St.
John's Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, under date 24th December, 1740,
"'Omitted in place That Our Rt.
Grand Master Mr. Price Granted a Deputation at ye Petition of sundry
Annapolis, in Nova Scotia, to hold a Lodge there, and Appointed Maj'r
Phillips, D. G. M., who has since, at ye Request of sundry Brethren at
Granted a Constitution to hold a Lodge there, and appointed The Rt.
Excellency Edw'd Corwallis, Esqr., their First Master."'
* * *
Defines Masonic Secrecy
One of the
most interesting things that I have ever studied is Ragon's "Rituel" of
the French Rite. The last answer to the M.M. catechism is worth
"Can you tell me the secret of
"The secret of Masonry is, from
nature, inviolable, for the Mason who knows it can only himself have
it. He has discovered it through frequenting well informed lodges,
comparing, judging. Once arriving at this discovery he will unfailingly
it for himself and he will not even communicate it to those brethren in
has the utmost confidence; for since they were incapable of discovering
it for themselves,
they are likewise incapable of making use of the secret should they
receive it orally."
is rough but it delivers the sense, I think, and that is of interest.
in Europe who shiver whenever they hear mentioned "the secrets of the
should ponder the question and its reply. Ragon says that these words
by Casanova, who was initiated in 1757. The French Rite makes very much
of an appeal
to the intellect. In the E.A. ceremony are such questions as, What is
Honor? Virtue? Morality? Natural Law? Prejudice? I believe it is good
for men to
study these things.
A. L. Kress, Pennsylvania.
* * *
Can You Give Us This
four inquiries that we pass on to you. Can you answer them? Send your
this Society. The questions are typical of a grist being received
they show how various are the interests and needs of Masons.
What Do These
section of the lectures in the Third Degree states that Solomon's
Temple was supported
by 1453 columns and 2906 pilasters. There is no authority for this
I can find anywhere, but that is immaterial. The more I study Masonry,
that feature of it which relates to numbers, the more I have been
the thought that these two numbers have some important symbolical
meaning. I have
endeavored to work something out of it by the Kabbalah but have failed
to find any
solution, though I have tried several combinations. The digits of 1453,
a prime number, add up to 13, and that stands for "man." The "1"
might signify God, or unity. The "4," "5," and "3"
are the sides of the familiar Forty-Seventh Proposition, one of the
of Masonry. The "2906" is double the "1453"; if the "14"
of this is divided by 2 we have 7, and that, with the other numbers,
gives us the
“7,” “5,” and “3” of the Second Degree, but all this seems to me to be
and means nothing. Can anybody throw light on this?
E. A. Russell, Minnesota.
* * *
About Booth, Guitenu, and
Wilkes Booth, Charles J. Guiteau, or Leon Czolgosz profess any
religion, or belong
to any orders or secret societies?
Giles McKinney, Indiana.
* * *
Information Wanted About
Masonry among Greeks
the advent into this country of thousands of Greeks, the question has
as to what is the official attitude of the Greek church toward Masonry.
information to me in care of THE BUILDER.
E. Coblentz, Ohio.
* * *
Do You Belong To A Masonic
have written at various times to inquire about Masonic Country Clubs,
in order to
learn where they are organized and how they are conducted. If you
chance to belong
to one, or to know about one, kindly send the information to THE
Be sure to
read the inside front cover! ! !
* * *
how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in
beautiful words were never written or uttered. Let's learn to Coue-ize
* * *
H. L. Mencken's
American Language [Lib 1919] is a book well worth owning.
Its great heaps
of learning are lighted up by a chapter which gives us the Declaration
done into the "American Vulgate." What is this "Vulgate"? I
give an example, done on the spot: "I don't know how it is where you
here in Iowa its darned cold, do you get me?" Can you English brethren
that into English?
* * *
E. Whelan has sent us a beautiful little booklet, The Essential Truth
Also, we have on hand a supply of a booklet, The Scottish Rite
of Texas, sent by Brother Sam P. Cochran. If you wish a copy of each
send me your
* * *
Master, have you been making things hum in your lodge? Tell us what you
doing by way of work, programs, and all that.
* * *
Can you give
us information about dual (or plural) membership? We are needing
something on that
* * *
Why not give
your boy a membership in this Society when he is raised? Or the son of
* * *
We can now
supply you Masonic music books if you need them.
* * *
allegiance to my flag and to the Republic for which it stands; one
with Liberty and Justice for all."
* * *
If you chance
to bump into any old Masonic book let us hear about it. A few of such
of great value.
* * *
For a time,
and owing to peculiar circumstances, we were obliged to use a single
for THE BUILDER, and some copies suffered in going through the mails.
If you will
send your mutilated copy to us we shall exchange for a good one.
A Gentle Cynic
Jas19 / auth. Jastrow Morris. - Philadelphia : J B Lippincott Company,
1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 252. - 17.3 MB.
A History of Lodge No. 61
Har97 / auth. Harvey Oscar J. - Wilkesbarre : [s.n.], 1897. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 696. - 28.7 MB.
A History of the Presidency
Sta16 / auth. Stanwood Edward. - New York : Houghton Mifflin Company,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 593. - 28.6 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
Annals Vol 1
Tac32TA1 / auth. Tacitus Cornelius. - Philadelphia : L Johnson, 1832. -
Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 201. - 7.9 MB.
Annals Vol 2
Tac32TA2 / auth. Tacitus Cornelius. - Philadelphia : L Johnson, 1832. -
Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 232. - 8.6 MB.
Annals Vol 3
Tac32TA3 / auth. Tacitus Cornelius. - Philadelphia : L Johnson, 1832. -
Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 247. - 9.1 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 003 - 1890
Ars90 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1890. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 277. - 23.5 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 004 - 1891
Ars91 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1891. - Vol. 4 : p. 305. - 80.7 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 010 - 1897
Ars97 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 306. - 63.8 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 013 - 1900
Ars00 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1900. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - 18.4 MB.
Sew77 / auth. Seward William H. - New York : D Appleton and Company,
1877. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 842. - 39.5 MB.
Collection Vol 23 - Puck of
Kip06KC23 / auth. Kipling Rudyard. - New York : Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1906. - Vol. 23 : 36 : p. 297. - 5.3 MB.
Cyclopedia of Fraternities
Ste99 / auth. Stevens Albert C.. - New York : Hamilton Printing and
Publishing Co., 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 474. - 41.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 01
HasER01 - A to Art / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 13 : p. 925. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 02
HasER02 - Arthur to Bunyan / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 2 : 13 : p. 927. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 03
HasER03 - Burial to Confessions / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 3 : 13 : p. 922. - 86.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 04
HasER04 - Confirmation to Drama / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 4 : 13 : p. 929. - 93.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 05
HasER05 - Dravidians to Fichte / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912. - Vol. 5 : 13 : p. 925. - 90.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 06
HasER06 - Fiction to Hyskos / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1914. - Vol. 6 : 13 : p. 910. - 275.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 07
HasER07 - Hymns to Liberty / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 7 : 13 : p. 935. - 93.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 08
HasER08 - Life and Death to Mulla / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 8 : 13 : p. 934. - 92.6 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 09
HasER09 - Mundas to Phrygians / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1917. - Vol. 9 : 13 : p. 934. - 119.2 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 10
HasER10 - Picts - Sacraments / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 10 : 13 : p. 938. - 86.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 11
HasER11 - Sacrifice to Sudra / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 11 : 13 : p. 940. - 94.7 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 12
HasER12 - Suffering to Zwingli / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 12 : 13 : p. 885. - 90.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 13
HasER13 - Index / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1908. - Vol. 13 : 13 : p. 767. - 64.8 MB.
Explorations in Bible Lands
Hil03 / auth. Hilprecht Hermann V. - Philadelphia : A J Holman, 1903. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 894. - 56.9 MB.
Histoire de France Vol 1
Dur70HF1 / auth. Duruy Victor. - Paris : Librairie Hachette et Cie,
1870. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 772. - French - Illustrated - 55.6 MB.
Histoire de France Vol 2
Dur70HF2 / auth. Duruy Victor. - Paris : Librairie Hachette et Cie,
1870. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 748. - Illustrated - French - 44.1 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
Isis and Osiris
Plu50 / auth. Plutarch
/ ed. Parthay Gustav. - Berlin : Nicolaische Buchhandlung, 1850. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 325. - German - 24.5 MB.
Mac067 / auth. MacDonald William. - New York : Harper and Brothers
Publishing, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 364. - 9.7 MB.
Pel99 / auth. Pellew George. - Boston : Houghton Mifflin and Company,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 373. - 7.0 MB.
Latin Terms of Endearment
Har06 / auth. Harrod Samuel G. - Princeton : The Falcon Press, 1906. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 104. - 3.6 MB.
Les Mysteres de Mithra
Gas99 / auth. Gasquet Amedee. - Paris : Armand Colin et Cie, 1899. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 150. - French - 3.9 MB.
Letters on Masonry and
Sto32 / auth. Stone WIlliam L. - New York : O Halsted, 1832. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 584. - 40.9 MB.
Letters on the Masonic
Ada47 / auth. Adams John Q.. - Boston : Press of T. R. Marvin, 1847. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 321. - 7.6 MB.
Life Including his
Autobiography Vol 1
Wee83LA1 / auth. Weed Thurlow. - Boston : Houghton, Mifflin and
Company, 1883. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 691. - 33.7 MB.
Life Including his
Autobiography Vol 2
Wee83LA2 / auth. Weed Thurlow. - Boston : Houghton, Mifflin and
Company, 1883. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 642. - 28.0 MB.
Plutarch's Lives Vol 1
Plu60PL01 / auth. Plutarch / ed. Clough A. H.. - Philadelphia : John D.
Morris & Company, 1860. - 'Dryden Edition' : Vol. 1 : 5 : p.
460. - 20.7 MB.
Plutarch's Lives Vol 2
Plu60PL02 / auth. Plutarch / ed. Clough A. H.. - Philadelphia : John D.
Morris & Company, 1860. - 'Dryden Edition' : Vol. 2 : 5 : p.
440. - 20.6 MB.
Plutarch's Lives Vol 3
Plu60PL03 / auth. Plutarch / ed. Clough A. H.. - Philadelphia : John D.
Morris & Company, 1860. - 'Dryden Edition' : Vol. 3 : 5 : p.
464. - 23.9 MB.
Plutarch's Lives Vol 4
Plu60PL04 / auth. Plutarch / ed. Clough A. H.. - Philadelphia : John D.
Morris & Company, 1860. - 'Dryden Edition' : Vol. 4 : 5 : p.
465. - 17.4 MB.
Plutarch's Lives Vol 5
Plu60PL05 / auth. Plutarch / ed. Clough A. H.. - Philadelphia : John D.
Morris & Company, 1860. - 'Dryden Edition' : Vol. 5 : 5 : p.
404. - 20.0 MB.
Political History of New York
Ham47NY1 / auth. Hammond Jabez D. - Cooperstown : H & E
Phinney, 1847. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 606. - 22.4 MB.
Political History of New York
Ham47NY2 / auth. Hammond Jabez D. - Cooperstown : H & E
Phinney, 1847. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 567. - 22.2 MB.
Roman Society from Nero to
Dil04 / auth. Dill Sir Samuel. - London : Macmillan and Co, Ltd, 1904.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 659. - 28.8 MB.
Roman Society in the Last
Century of the Western Empire
Dil10 / auth. Dill Sir Samuel. - London : Macmillan & Co. Ltd.,
1910. - 1st : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 488. - 25.4 MB.
The American Language
Men19 / auth. Mencken Henry L. - New York : Alfred A Knopf, 1919. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 385. - 16.6 MB.
The Anti-Masonic Party
McC02 / auth. McCarthy Charles. - 1902. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 211. - 14.7
The Book of Job
Jas20 / auth. Jastrow Morris. - Philadelphia : J B Lippincott Company,
1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 371. - 28.2 MB.
The Civilization of Babylonia
Jas15 / auth. Jastrow Morris. - Philadelphia : J B Lippincott Company,
1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 617. - 40.7 MB.
The Divine Mystery
Upw15 / auth. Upward Allen. - Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co., 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 324. - 16.6 MB.
The Land of the Hittites
Gar10 / auth. Garstang John. - London : Constable & Comany Ltd,
1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 529. - 38.4 MB.
The Migration of Symbols
dAl94 / auth. d'Alviella Goblet. - Westminster : Archibald Constable
and Co., 1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 315. - 8.8 MB.
The Mysteries of Mithra
Cum03 / auth. Cumont Franz / trans. McCormack Thomas J. - Chicago : The
Open Court Publishing Company, 1903. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 270. - 5.3 MB.
The Mystery Religions
She18 / auth. Sheldon Henry C. - New York : The Abingdon Press, 1918. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 153. - 3.8 MB.
The New Word
Upw14 / auth. Upward Allen. - New York : Mitchell Kennerley, 1914. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 318. - 7.0 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 1
Wai11 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
1 : 2 : p. 474. - 19.1 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 2
Wai111 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p. 478. - 19.6 MB.
Riv06 / auth. Rivers William H. - London : Macmillan and Co, 1906. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 773. - Illustrated - 20.8 MB.