Masonic Research Society
Masonic Education Admits One to the Glory and Greatness of Masonry
By Bro. Joseph Fort Newton,
address was delivered before A great company of Masons in Chicago, on
of March 21, 1917, at a reception accorded the speaker just before he
begin his ministry at the City Temple, in London, Grand Master Wheeler
The Editor of THE BUILDER has unearthed it from somewhere and asks me
to allow him
to publish it. If I hesitate, it is for two reasons: it reads like
today, and it has too much of the personal element in it. Yet perhaps
of losing interest in Masonry, and then regaining it, may be of value
as a warning
to lodges to give young men something more than the Ritual of the Order.
words were uttered the Great War and the Little Peace have swept over
desolation and disillusionment in their wake. They have gone, those
dreadful, and confused; but the ideals of this address still glow and
abide in the
heart of the speaker, and he makes bold once more to commend them to
In a day when the brotherhood of the world is broken, our great and
has an opportunity, the like of which it has never known before, to use
and power to spread that fraternal righteousness without which the
future will be
as dark as the past.
WHEN I was
a little child about seven years of age, I came to know several men who
to visit the home of my mother about once a month. She was a widow, and
had a little
family to look after, and we lived in the South in the midst of the
followed in the wake of the Civil War. At first I did not know the
these men had in mind in visiting our home. But one day I asked my
mother, and she
told me that they were members of the Masonic Order. They had just come
if there was any way in which they might help her in her struggle to
keep her family
together. Happily, aid was not needed, but every month, and sometimes
once a month, those men would come with a quiet and kindly knock to see
if we wanted
As I grew
older, I learned to know these men, and I learned also to know the
story of my father
who had been a member of their lodge ‒ had, I believe, been a Master of
it ‒ and
I learned something in connection with his Masonic experience that
interest you if I recite it very briefly. He was a soldier of the
South, as some
of you, or your fathers, were no doubt soldiers of the North in our
Civil War. He
wore the gray uniform, and you wore the blue. He was captured at one of
in the State of Arkansas, and as a young captain in the army of the
South was brought
up the Mississippi River to Rock Island, where he was detained as a
war for quite a while. The northern climate was very severe on southern
men in prison.
How severe, you may learn by looking into the archives of the War
father fell ill, desperately ill. He made himself known as a Mason to
of the prison at Rock Island. The officer took that young brother Mason
out of the
prison to his home, and nursed him back to life. When the War closed,
and his freedom
had again come, that officer, his brother Mason, put money into his
hand, and a
little pearl-handled pistol in his pocket, that he might find his way
midst unsettled conditions following the war.
the spirit of Masonry in our Civil War, and if the real story of its
softening the horrors and terrors of war, in sweetening to some degree
is ever told, it will be a volume that men will open with trembling
hands, and close
with weeping eyes. Indeed, at a time when churches were rent in twain,
were torn asunder, the only tie that remained unbroken in the hour of
War, was the tie of Masonic Fellowship.
tradition of the beauty and service of Masonry in my own family, is it
that when I grew to be a man I had a desire to be a Mason? And it so
the son of this soldier of the South was initiated into the Order of
not very far from where his father had been a prisoner of war, under
the Grand Jurisdiction
of Illinois, in old Friendship Lodge No. 7. Now, that was a night that
I can never
forget. While I was in college I suffered from a lightness of purse
that was so
painful that I did not belong to any fraternities. I had no time to
waste, no money
to spend on anything but bare necessities of life ‒ and sometimes they
bare, so that I came into this Order to receive my first impression of
fraternity, and it was profound and lasting. Somehow, as I have further
the many beauties in Masonry, all of them benign and exalting, I still
perhaps the most beautiful thing in all Masonry is its First Degree.
degrees followed, and at the close of the Third Degree there was a
as was the custom of that lodge, and the candidate of the evening was
asked to express
his impressions of Masonry. Well, they were so many, so vivid, and so
that I found difficulty
in putting into words
what was in my mind. But I did manage to ask if there was any little
book that would
tell a young man entering the Order the things that he would most like
to know about
Masonry ‒ what is it? whence it came, and what it is trying to do in
No one present that evening knew of any such little book. So I began to
of the Master of the lodge, as to what the meaning of the lodge was, of
was a symbol, what was the meaning of the exercises in the preparation
knocks at the door, the movements about the lodge, and the different
I became aware of when I entered the Light? I asked him why he did
this, why he
did that, and why he did the other? "Well," he said, "we do it because
that is the way Masons have always done things." Which is only saying
we do it because we do it.
Asks For Materials Concerning Albert Pike
"I am preparing a biography of Albert Pike.
as the Pike family has authorized me to undertake this work, and the
Rite authorities have given me most cordial encouragement, I shall cope
in the course
of time to prepare a volume that will be more or less authentic. May I
ask you to
co-operate with me? I should like for you to make the request through
that your readers supply me with any literature, letters, diaries,
books, or any
other matter that may throw any light whatever on the career of our
great and distinguished
brother. I shall take pains to preserve any such material in good
return it promptly."
with such an answer, I asked, "Why? What do you mean by it?" Alas, he
could not tell me. I did not blame him then, and I do not blame him
now; but I was
full of innumerable questions, because I came into old Friendship Lodge
Harvard University, and it seemed to me that a thing so impressive and
must have a long history, must have a deep meaning; and I wanted to
know both. I
had made some study of Egyptology, and I saw about me certain signs and
that brought echoes from a long past. And so, receiving no satisfaction
Master of the lodge in answer to those questions, I ventured to ask a
the Grand Lodge of Illinois. While he told me of the moral suggestions
of the symbolism
of the Order, and gave me very briefly and in vague outline the story
Masonry, from the founding of the Mother Grand Lodge of England down to
back of that he could not go; deeper than that he did not dig.
Why I Lost Interest in the
After a time,
while I enjoyed the ceremonies of the various degrees, I lost some of
in the Order. Years later I went to live in Iowa, and I found there, as
at that time, a remarkable man, as big in body as he is in mind, who
a committee to investigate the literature of the Order. If perchance he
such a little book as I had asked on the night on which I received the
in Masonry. He was looking for such a book in order that he might put
it into the
hands of all young men who were received into the fellowship of Masonry
Unable to find just what he wanted, it fell to my lot, after fourteen
prepare the little book that I felt the need of years before; and that
is the story
of The Builders. If I have done nothing else, I hope I have made it a
for young men entering the Masonic Fraternity, and whose minds are
filled with so
many questions that lead into so many interesting fields of study, to
a little book; and I hope my labor is not in vain.
One of the
first things that impressed me when I entered old Friendship Lodge was
that it contained in its fellowship men of every political party; and,
looking into the history of the Order, and its principles, I learned
of politics that divided men and sometimes estranged and embittered
them, were not
permitted in a Masonic lodge. To me that was a very eloquent fact.
of the bitter partisan spirit in the history of American politics, it
me a wonderful thing that there should be a great, kindly fellowship
such questions, and permitted men of all parties to meet as man to man
in the simple,
fundamental fellowship of humanity without regard to party.
As I looked
further into the history and philosophy of the Order, I learned the
why the ancient Masons prohibited political discussions in their lodge
it seems to me that time has only confirmed the wisdom of our fathers
in that regard,
as in so many other regards. Just now there is a tendency in some parts
of the country,
under one pretext or another, in one form or another, to bring
within the Masonic fellowship. It would be a great blunder; it would
make our Masonry
something different, something dangerously different from the Masonry
of our fathers.
It will cease to be an Order which unites men, and will become only a
in an indistinguishable blur of partisan feuds. So, brethren, let us
use words in
their right meanings, and not try to stretch or twist the word
so as to bring in under any kind of excuse the thing which our fathers
excluded from our lodges.
that impressed me that night in old Friendship Lodge, was the presence
of men of
nearly all the religious persuasions represented in the community.
There is a certain
stage in the growth of a town ‒ a certain gosling stage, as I sometimes
it ‒ when it is neither a town nor a city; when it is divided up into
parties, and when sectarian rivalry is very acute. It was so in that
that time, whatever may be its state of mind now. In that lodge room
men who were supposed to be rivals on the outside of the room, and yet
in a spirit of fraternity and good will. As I passed through the
degrees, I found
that the Order placed emphasis only upon those profound, fundamental
underlie all religions, over-arch all creeds, and that upon that
men, however they might differ in the details of dogma and ceremony,
man to man, brother to brother, in the spirit of fellowship.
Masonry Asks, "What
Is Your Need?”
I studied the story of the Order, and particularly the founding of the
Lodge of England, and looked at the background of sectarian bitterness,
and bickerings, which marked that time, and against that dark
background saw the
men who founded the Mother Grand Lodge, and the fundamental principles
which they enshrined into their constitution, it seemed to me that such
was forever memorable and prophetic.
But I am
letting the hounds get ahead of the hare. As I pondered over my
night, it seemed to me that I had come into an Order which was
prophetic of a time
when men would discover outside the lodge, as they discovered inside,
that the things
that they have in common, the things upon which they do agree, are of
so much greater
importance that they will overshadow the things about which they have
long. It seemed to me that I stood at an altar which was prophetic of a
the estranged religious units of the world would be brought closer
men would ask not, "What is your creed?" but, "What is your need?"
And when they thus arrive, the scene will be presided over by the
of Freemasonry, which has prophesied it for centuries.
I wished to know something of the story of such an altar, and so I went
the past as far as literature and records would take me. Perhaps you
will let me
tell you a few of the things that I discovered. I found that primitive
three great institutions with which we are familiar, and one that we
need to rediscover.
First, it had the home, crude indeed, as all things were in the
beginning of the
world, yet that rude home had in it the prophecy of the home in which
you were born,
with its tenderness, its beauty, and its memories. It had the church,
not then a
church, nor a great temple, but only an altar of unhewn stone, its
its smoke of incense ascending in a cloud of fear. Yet in the darkness
of it all
was a gleam of that light which and never was on land or sea. Third,
there was the
state or tribal form of government ‒ very rude at first, very
imperfect, but the
basis and prophecy of this great republic in which we live.
was another institution, of which I had known nothing at all, and the
of which I had not guessed. It was called the "men's house." It stood
at the center of every village, and was really the center of the life
society. It was the secret house of initiation, in which every man of
when he became of age, was initiated, trained, sworn, and then
entrusted with the
law, legend, history and religion of his people. Here is the origin of
orders, of whatever kind, and this is what our Masonic fathers meant
when they said
that Masonry is as old as the race. Certainly the idea, necessity and
initiation goes back to the beginning. For years I have followed the
of initiation used in different primitive secret societies, and I have
while they differed, each having a certain local color of its own, they
basic things in common; that the purpose was always the same, the
spirit was always
the same, and that nearly always the climax was the same. Nearly always
a degree which represented, in a dramatic form, the death and the
initiations were frightful, brethren. Men were exposed not only to
but to spiritual terrors, in order to test their physical courage,
power, and their moral trustworthiness. When they were so proved, they
into the secret order of primitive society, and given certain words and
grips and signs whereby they could make themselves known everywhere;
and I was much
interested in discovering how universal are the signs and tokens which
we use in
our lodges. If you think about it, they are the natural gestures of
distress or of brotherliness, and because they are so natural they have
the world over. For Masonry has as a part of its genius the wisdom to
use what is
old and wise and human.
my study, I have followed the history of this men's house of primitive
the years until it became associated with the art of building, because
of the importance
of architecture. I traced the Order of Builders out of Egypt into Asia
they built the Temple of King Solomon; then westward into Rome and the
Architects up to the time when the Roman Empire reeled to its ruin.
Then they seem
to have taken refuge on an island in Lake Como, and from there I traced
the great Order of the Cathedral Builders who uplifted those shrines of
prayer which the great war has destroyed. After the cathedrals were
built the Order
began to decline. They were called Freemasons because they were
permitted to go
wherever their work called them; because they were free from taxation;
enjoyed many legal privileges not granted to other bodies; because of
importance as master builders. Free, also ‒ to distinguish them from
‒ because a guild Mason could not go outside the town in which he
Freemasons could journey far and near.
The Accepted Mason Enters
Order began to decline, men who were scholars and thinkers and
students, but not
architects, began to ask to be received in its membership; men like
founded the Museum at Oxford, England. They were accepted, and hence
the name, "Free
and Accepted" Masons. These men sought membership in the Order because
found in it a rich deposit of symbolism which was worth their study,
and in some
lodges the Accepted Masons were in the majority. Such was the feet in
1717 ‒ a date
which will be celebrated in every jurisdiction of the world ‒ the
founding of the
Grand Lodge of England. That date, June 24, 1717, gave a new impetus
and a new emphasis
to Masonry, and it spread rapidly all over the world.
And so Masonry
came to our shores, very early, long before our Republic was founded,
the name “United States" was ever spoken. It was a great day when this
and friendly Order, with its spirit of justice, liberty, tolerance,
courtesy, brotherly love and spiritual refinement, put its foot upon
To tell the story of the connection of Masonry with the history of this
and particularly with the history of our Republic, would be to repeat
It was not an accident that the Tea Party in Boston Bay was planned in
lodge and executed by the members of that lodge. It was not a mere
the first President of this Republic was also a Master Mason, and that
so many of
those who united in forming the organic law of this Republic were
And, because the spirit of Masons had become a part of their thinking
they wrote it into the fundamental law of our land. So it has been all
history. This Republic has never had a better friend than the Ancient
Order of Freemasonry,
and it never will have. In every great hour of national trial in the
past, our Order
has stood true to our Republic, as it will stand true today in the
which we are now passing ‒ perhaps the greatest crisis in all our
history ‒ when
the flag will need the love and loyalty of every true American. Masons
end of the land to the other will insist that the flag shall protect
and that every citizen shall protect the flag.
my study of Masonry increased my zeal for promoting an interest in the
it among my brethren; and hence my association with this movement in
behalf of Masonic
education. What is education? Let me put together two famous
definitions, one by
Huxley and the other by Milton, and they will tell us what it is.
Education is the
training of the intellect in the law of nature, and the fashioning of
and of the will into an earnest loving desire to live in harmony with
that a man may be fitted, justly, skillfully and magnanimously to
office, both private and public, of peace or of war.
If you would
sum it up all in one word, it could not be better described than by the
used by that mighty German genius ‒ the greatest man Germany has known,
‒ Goethe, when he used the word "Reverence." Reverence first, for that
which is below us, for the tiny, teeming, swarming forms of life at our
reverence led a poet to say that he would not count among his friends a
would needlessly put his foot upon a worm, or wantonly and cruelly take
any living creature. Reverence, in the second place, for that which is
on the level
with ourselves, for the human, for all that wears the human shape,
or sin-bespotted, or far fallen; the insight to see behind every face,
or blackened, something noble and divine. And reverence, in the third
that which is above us, which out-tops our knowledge, and upon which we
moment dependent. That one word, so expounded, might be used as a
synonym for education
What do we
mean by a profane? Why do we so describe a man who is not a Mason? What
is the difference
between this lodge room and the street? Answer that question, and it
the difference between a mind that is reverent and one that is
and anybody can go through the street, a cow or a cat or a dog; but not
so in our
lodge room. Here certain thoughts and things are excluded. Just so, a
man who is
profane will allow any kind of thought, no matter hove slimy, to go
squirming through his mind; but if he is a Mason in the true sense, his
a place of reverence, and there are some thoughts that will not be
enter when they knock, no matter how many knocks they give at the door.
will be put out as cowans and eavesdroppers, and not be permitted to
sanctity of his mind and of his heart.
Max Muller's Parable of
description of education is better than a definition, and there is a
from the literature of the Ancient East by Max Muller which is a
of what I have in mind. The gods, so runs this story, having stolen
from man his
divinity, met to decide where they should hide it.
It was a
long, solemn, secret council. One suggested that it be buried in the
the caution was expressed that man might dig there and find that pearl
price. Another suggested that it be taken and dropped into the depths
of the sea,
but the same fear was expressed that man, being a great wanderer, and
insatiable curiosity, might go even to the depths of the sea to find
the lost treasure.
Finally the oldest and wisest of the gods said in a whisper, lest it be
the council chamber, "Let us hide it in man himself, as that is the
he will ever think to look for it." And it was so agreed. Man did dig
the earth, bringing up gold and silver and precious ore, and he did go
sea and down under the sea, seeking high and low, and far and near,
before he thought
to look within himself to find the God whom he sought. Evermore the
Lost Word is
near us, even in our hearts, and happy is the man who finds it. It is
than all the gold in all the tempted hills.
then, in the Masonic sense, as I understand it, is this discovery of
whence we came,
who we are, and where we are going. What is the first question that
you at the door? Is it not just this question? She wishes to know
whence you came,
and what is your purpose here on earth. Without waiting to receive your
for you are not then truly qualified to give an answer, she admits you
Temple, tells you whence you came and why you are here upon earth ‒ the
your life, its excuse for being. She helps you towards that
is the awakening of the soul, the beginning of its advance, morally,
and spiritually. Moreover, in the First Degree she trained you in the
homely, fundamental morality which underlies not only individual
is also the strength and support of society.
In the Second
Degree she asks you who you are, and adds another lesson, another step,
process of self-discovery by teaching you that you are an intellectual
you have intellectual powers that must be developed and put to the
Hence her recommendation that you look into the arts and sciences and
great problems of life, climbing up slowly but surely to wider
where there are longer vistas and lifting skies. For this reason, as in
time, every lodge is a school for the training of the mind in the moral
of God ‒ training us to think truly, clearly, justly, kindly. For as a
in his heart, so is he, and so is the world to him ‒ luminous and
lovely, or dark
in the Third Degree, Masonry asks that most solemn of all questions,
man who thinks asks his own heart again and again: "Whither goest
What is the meaning of all this stream of human beings pouring in upon
passing swiftly across it ‒ some sadly, some gladly ‒ and vanishing
into the beyond?
Whither do they go? What is the destiny of this endless procession?
in her Third Degree) to make you realize, my brother, that you are an
hereto now, upon the earth. It initiates us, symbolically, into the
in Time. If we are immortal at all, we are as immortal now as we ever
can be, and
to know that fact, and to govern ourselves accordingly, is the supreme
It takes away the fear of death. It makes you a Master of life and
time. For surely
there is no tyranny like the tyranny of time. Give a man one day in
which to live,
and how cramped he is. The tick of a watch sounds like a gong. Give him
a week and
you have liberated him, insofar, and he can breathe more easily. Give
him a year,
and he can move with more leisure and more amplitude. But let him know
that he is
divine; that above him there hovers and waits an infinite time; let him
he is an immortal being and he is free! He can spread his wings and
think as far
and as fast as his mind can go. He can lay out great plans, and labor
fulfilling; he can dream great dreams. It adds to the dignity, worth
and glory of
life. And this is the great insight, prophecy and experience which
awaken in our hearts ‒ the master truth of the Master’s Degree. And so,
us how to live, Masonry would fortify us against the Shadow that waits
man ‒ teaching us, as Dante said, "how to make our lives eternal."
Masonry Asks A Young Man
it is that an Ancient Order, coming down to us from the earliest time,
elect young men to its fellowship, and ask them such great questions.
And as they
bow at its altar, upon the Bible which their mothers read, it exacts
from them high
and solemn vows of chastity, of charity, of brotherly love, relief and
is it that makes a man great? It is a great faith and a great idea.
Ideas rule the
world. Above the battle lines in Europe, if you have eyes to see, you
two wars now raging, as long ago Homer saw two battles above the city
of Troy ‒
one between the Greeks and Trojans, and one in the viewless air between
goddesses. Just so, above the long battle lines you can now see a
battle of ideas.
Ideas migrate like birds. They hide in crooked lines on a printed page.
us into the arena to fight for them. Ideas rule the world. Get a right
idea into the mind of a young man, and you have done more for him than
him any treasure of silver or precious stones. When Masonry brings a
young man to
an altar of prayer, in an atmosphere of reverence, and before the open
is the moral manual of civilization, and plants in his mind great,
and valid ideas of what it is to be a man, and what life means, it has
to him the highest service that any institution can render to a man.
This is what
I mean, brethren, by Masonic education, not some dry digging into dusty
which have no practical relation to the human life of today. I mean
that we should
study the story of this Order, its origin and growth, its uses, its
and their expression in ritual; but still more the expression of those
in character and their application to everyday life. Truth is for life,
and we know
as much as we do. I believe that this is worthwhile for the future of
its increased efficiency, and for a deepening of interest in it.
Numbers do not
count. Size does not signify. It is quality of manhood, quality of
feeling that counts in the long result of time. And Masonry, by
bringing men together
and teaching them to be friends, without regard to creed, or sect, or
training them in the service of great ideals, in loyalty to the great
doing more for the safety and sanctity of this great Republic than both
and its navy.
the cedars of Lebanon glow at our door,
And the quarry is sunk at our gate;
And the ships out of Ophir, with golden ore,
For our summoning mandate wait;
And the word of a Master Mason
May the house of our soul create!
While the day hath light let the light be used,
For no man shall the night control!
Or ever the silver cord be loosed,
Or broken the golden bowl,
May we build King Solomon's Temple
In the true Masonic Soul!"
of the Founding of the Harvard Lodge
By Bro. Guy H. Holliday.
University, there was instituted, on May 18, 1922, a lodge to be known
Harvard Lodge." This is a lodge of a new type in the United States, a
lodge; a lodge with great possibilities for future usefulness to
Harvard and to
with its many graduate schools brings together student brethren from
in the Union, and, in fact, from nearly every part of the world. These
little opportunity to enjoy the fellowship of their home lodges during
period of their academic and professional courses, and they hesitate to
any extent the local lodges in Cambridge and Boston, so that at the
very time when
they should enjoy the pleasant association with their brethren the
most, and improve
themselves in Masonry, they are to all intents and purposes masonically
such men, and from the moment they enter the University, The Harvard
furnish a common meeting place; it will furnish for them, through its
a place to turn to for advice and help in all matters relating to the
life and work
of the University. More important still, they will learn at once that
friends by the score in their new surroundings.
It is expected
that the men who have known Harvard Masonry, those who have taken their
in, or who have affiliated with the new lodge, and those who have known
only as welcome guests, will eventually spread over the country, and
may find their lot cast take up Masonic work with renewed interest and
of a lodge at Harvard has been the subject of discussion for some
years, but until
now no steps have been taken to accomplish it. In March of last year,
amendment to the Massachusetts Grand Constitutions was unanimously
for "college" lodges, which should be relieved of the burden of
releases, as other lodges are required to do, on candidates residing
limits of the city or town where the lodge is situated, but on the
other hand limiting
their held for candidates to the college itself. This amendment was to
relating to local or territorial jurisdiction of lodges, and reads as
however, the jurisdiction named in the charter shall be a college,
other institution of like character and standing, such jurisdiction
shall be limited
to and include only, the following; viz., concurrent jurisdiction with
or lodges having regular territorial jurisdiction over any candidate
who, at the
time of application is an officer, instructor, student, or employee in,
in addition to having a Masonic residence in Massachusetts, shall have
been on the
rolls of such college, university, or institution for six months
the date of his application. The special jurisdiction conferred by this
shall not be subject to waiver on the part of the lodge enjoying it."
this action by the Grand Lodge, the Harvard Masonic Club, an
association of Masons
in the University numbering some 120 members, took up the question of a
lodge at its Annual Meeting in April. As a result, and with the advice
assistance of Rt. Wor. George B. Colesworthy, (A. B. 1901) District
Master for the Second Masonic District, a petition for a dispensation
a lodge was prepared and presented to the Grand Master, who in May
the lodge be instituted.
was headed by the District Deputy, and there followed the names of his
predecessors in office, both Harvard graduates; those of Professor
Dean of the Law School, Past Deputy Grand Master in Massachusetts, of
Kirsopp Lake of the Divinity School, of a Presiding Master, and of
Masters and other officers of the Cambridge lodges. The petitioners
were in all
one hundred and twenty in number, of whom thirty were graduates, sixty
twelve from the Faculty members and instructors, and eight officers or
of the University.
named as their Master Rt. Wor. Guy H. Holliday (A. B., '89, LL. B.,
'92), Past District
Deputy Grand Master of the Second, or Cambridge, Masonic District, and
member of the Harvard Masonic Club; as Senior Warden, Milo G. Roberts,
in the College; and as Junior Warden, Jess H. Jackson, an Instructor in
appointed later were: Treasurer, Assistant Professor Edwin A. Shaw, of
School of Education; Secretary, James E. Bagley, a special student in
Senior Deacon of Euclid Lodge of Boston; Chaplain, Professor Kirsopp
Lake, of the
Divinity School; Marshall, W. Arnold Hosmer, Instructor of the Graduate
Business Administration; Senior Deacon, Dr. Donald V. Baker, '08;
Dr. Frank A. Hamilton, Instructor in the Medical School; Senior
Steward, E. Stanton
Russell, '19; Junior Steward, Albert A. Schaefer, '06; Inside Sentinel,
Wainhouse, '24; Organist, Charles A. Young; Tyler, Arthur E. Conant,
of officers is in accord with the democratic character of the new
lodge, which includes
not only men coming from widely separated places, but also represents
and variety of academic rating.
of The Harvard Lodge by the other Cambridge Lodges has been most
cordial. It has
been received into the family of lodges occupying the beautiful
and is at present using regalia loaned by Charity Lodge. The youngest
of these lodges,
"Richard C. McLaurin" ("The Tech. Lodge") instituted in 1920
and by an amendment of its charter in June, also a "college" lodge, has
presented the new lodge with a gavel; and the oldest, "Amicable,"
from 1805, has given the Great Lights.
It has been
well said that a University is a place of opportunities: Harvard
University is peculiarly
a place of opportunities for this newly added School of Friendship and
The Harvard Lodge.
Humans What Humans Are is the Highest Duty of Homes and Schools
By Dr. Cassius J. Keyser
of Mathematics, Columbia University, New York
rights reserved by author.)
from winning a place as the dean of American mathematicians, loved and
his ability in teaching teachers a most difficult science, Dr. Keyser
has long been
a pioneer in that region where mathematics merges into logic or into
His great work, Mathematical Philosophy: A Study of Fate and Freedom,
[Lib 1922] was reviewed by Ye Editor on
page 319 of THE BUILDER for October last.
A similar review of Korzybski's Manhood of Humanity, referred to in the
paper, was published on page 256 of THE BUILDER for August. Dr.
does not have an immediate reference to Freemasonry as such, but it
throws so much
light on some problems that arise out of our Masonic thinking and
it has been published here as offering much help to Craftsmen who take
seriously, and desire to see it win its way in the world.
IN OUR education
there is much that is good and much that is bad. What is good in it is
due to human
nature ‒ to what man is. Much of what is bad in it is primarily due to
and teaching that man is what man is not, and to our not knowing and
what man is.
boys and girls to understand and to feel what they as humans really
are, is the
highest duty of the home and the school. But the home and the school
have not kept
that obligation. Why not? Because parents and teachers have themselves
taught to understand and to feel what they as humans really are.
In a recent
bulletin of the Cora L. Williams Institute for Creative Education, Miss
has said that "time-binding should be made the basis of all
and that Alfred Korzybski's book, The Manhood of Humanity, should be a
in every college throughout the world. These fine brave words are just.
that book, which all fathers and mothers and all other teachers should
and digest, tells us for the first time in the history of the world
what that is
in virtue of which we humans are human.
What is that
thing? The answer is that humans are human because they are by nature
But what does Korzybski mean by "time-binding?" Nothing can be more
than to get the meaning of that mighty term into the heads of men and
when it gets into their heads it will get into their hearts also; and
once it begins
to work in the heads and hearts of men and women everywhere, there will
be at hand
a great new epoch, not only in education, but in all the cardinal
concerns of our
Let me try
to make the meaning of the term clear, for, strange to say, some of
those who have
read the book (or think they have) have missed the term's meaning and
yet that meaning
is the book's very lifeblood and core. Please be Food enough to
meditate upon the
following considerations. They are simple and obvious, but very
A Beaver and a Man
a beaver and a man. The beaver makes a dam; the man makes a bridge.
Both the dam
and the bridge embody three factors ‒ raw material, toil and time. I
attention to the factor, time, because it has never been duly
considered in the
study of civilization, nor in the philosophy of human education and
for by fathers, mothers, and other teachers of the young or the old. We
the dam and the bridge to outlast their makers, so that the dam is
present to the
next generation of beavers, and the bridge to the next generation of
men. That means
that a new beaver is confronted by an old time factor (embodied in the
that a new man is similarly confronted by an old-time factor (embodied
in the bridge).
What happens? What are the effects, upon the new beaver and the new
man, of the
old-time factors? The importance of the question cannot be exaggerated,
answer discloses an infinite chasm between beaver "mind" and man "mind"
‒ an infinite difference, not in degree merely, but in kind. And what
is the answer?
The reader knows what it is. It is that the new beaver makes a dam, but
it is no
better than the old one, while the new man makes a bridge that is
better than the
old one, or he perhaps invents a ship or a flying machine. That is a
fact. Do not
fail to think about it again and again.
it teach us? It teaches us the vast difference between the relation of
to time and the relation of human mind to time. It teaches us, if we
will but open
our eyes to the lesson, (1) that the "mind" of animals is such that the
presence of old-time factors in the surviving achievements of the dead
enable the living to make improvement, and (2) that the human mind is
the presence of old-time factors in the achievements of bygone
enable the living to surpass the deeds of the dead. Does this ability
the dead mean that the living have more native ability than the dead
No. It means that human beings have the power to add to their native
absorbing the intelligence embodied in past achievements and so to do
than they could do if their native ability were not thus reinforced.
for thus making the past live and work in the present, the capacity for
intelligence and talent and genius of the dead cooperate with the
living so that
humanity can go forward as if each generation had native ability equal
to the combined
native abilities of all past generations ‒ it is that strange familiar
which Korzybski calls time-binding capacity.
I am writing
this article for such readers and only such as are both able and
willing to pause
and reflect. Those who reflect upon what "time-binding" means will see
more and more clearly that they are here in the presence of an idea
that is truly
momentous. No idea in the literature of science or philosophy is or can
momentous, for the time-binding capacity of man is the most precious
thing in the
world. It is the power that has created civilization and goes on
creating it more
and more rapidly. And that power belongs to man and man only; animals
do not have
it. That is why Korzybski has defined "Humanity" as "the time-binding
class of life," and it is also why he denies that humans are animals.
Above I spoke
of an infinite chasm between human mind and animal "mind". It is the
between having time-binding power and not having it; it is the chasm
between endless progressibility in humans and the utter lack of it in
is the immeasurable difference between a human world clad in a great
civilization and a non-human world where there is, rightly speaking, no
at all; for what I said respecting the making of a better bridge
to all the elements and forms of both material and spiritual wealth.
see art or science or invention or philosophy or wisdom or ethics or
of justice or education or religion, we behold something that owes, not
existence, but the possibility of improving it, to the time-binding
our human kind.
Man is not an Animal
A few weeks
ago I discussed this matter with a biologist. He agreed that humans are
He agreed that time-binding power is the power that makes civilization
it progress. But, said he, humans are animals, time-binding animals.
tell me," I said, "why you say that humans are animals." Notice his
answer, for he said: "I call humans animals because humans have certain
organs and certain animal propensities." "You know," I replied, "that
animals have certain organs and properties that plants have ‒ they take
example, and grow and die. Why, then," I asked, "do you not say that
are plants or that plants are animals? And a cube," I said, "has
and some surface properties, but you do not say that a cube is a
surface. Why not?"
The questions are questions of logic. My friend, the zoologist, had not
them, and I am still waiting for his answer.
an eminent one, came to me and said that Korzybski's conception of man
"What," I asked, "is his conception of man?" "I don't know,"
he replied impatiently, "and I don't believe Korzybski knows."
I replied, "knows precisely what he means; so do I, and I can make the
perfectly clear to any intelligent inquirer." But that eminent
not wish to understand the idea; he wished to call it crazy. From which
will rightly infer that even an eminent biologist may be a bigot.
all biologists are so contemptuous of ideas that did not happen to
them. For example, in his presidential address (Science, December 30,
1922) at the
last annual meeting (Toronto) of the American Association for the
Science, Dr. L. O. Howard, eminent entomologist, said: "Count
his recent remarkable book, The Manhood of Humanity, gives a new
definition of man,
departing from the purely biological concept on the one hand and from
idea on the other, and concludes that humanity is set apart from other
exist on this globe by its time-binding faculty or power or capacity."
Howard adds that "it is indeed this time-binding capacity which is the
asset of humanity."
pray, is the "principal asset" of animals? It is their ability to move
about in space. For this ability, (which plants have not) to run or
crawl or creep
or fly, enables the animals to gather the natural fruits of the earth
in many different
localities. That is why Korzybski defines animals to be "the
class of life." Like humans, animals can bind space but, unlike humans,
cannot bind time (in the sense explained). To teach that humans are
animals is just
as stupid as to teach that animals are humans. And it is not merely
stupid; it is
very harmful, harmful to ethics, and everyone knows that to teach bad
the worst possible kind of education. For bad ethics means bad
economics, bad politics,
bad industrial management, bad government, bad individual life, and bad
have said that ethics cannot be taught. They are mistaken. Ethics is
we cannot avoid teaching. All persons and especially fathers, mothers
are teachers of ethics. And the kind of ethics they teach depends upon
of humanity, upon their philosophy of human nature. Every home and
in which humans are regarded as animals is, consciously or
unconsciously, a nursery
of animalistic ethics, space-binding ethics, the ethics of tooth and
claw, of combat,
violence, and war. It is the brutal ethics of survival of the fittest
means strongest, not best. This is zoological ethics. There is another
is Just as bad. I mean mythological ethics, the selfish and insolent
ethics of Gott mit uns. So long as
individuals or states
are fashioned and controlled by zoological ethics or by mythological
ethics or by
the two combined, we may expect individuals and states to leap upon
like infuriated beasts.
This Is a Momentous Idea
Let us glance
at the other side of the shield. I wish to ask the reader a very
Suppose that everywhere throughout the world the home, the school and
were to unite in teaching boys and girls and men and women to
understand and to
feel that they are neither animals nor mysterious hybrids of animals
but that they are by nature humans and that the proper life of humans
is the life
of civilizers, not the animalistic life of mere space-binders, but
life ‒ Life-in-Time. The question I wish to ask the reader is, "What
be the effect of such world-wide instruction?" It is one of the
have dealt with in my new book of lectures for educated laymen,
E. P. Dutton and Co.), but a full answer cannot be given in a word. For
must be given in terms of a new ethics ‒ the ethics of time-binding,
of civilization-building ‒ And the effect of such human ethics upon the
of our humankind. Some competent person ought to write a book upon this
for the use of fathers, mothers, and teachers. A little reflection
enables one to
see pretty clearly some of the things which such a book of ethics would
teach that human history (the life-history of our race) has depended
upon three fundamental factors: (1) what we call environment; (2) human
man is); (3) knowledge or ignorance of human nature (what humans have
now think man is). It would teach that nothing can be more important
than to make
our conception of human nature agree with what human nature is; it
would teach that
the class of humanity is infinitely separated from the class of animals
by the capacity
which humans have for binding time, for thus creating and-more and more
civilization; it would teach that the zoological conception of man as a
animal tends to foster the brutal ethics of lust and might; it would
the conception of man as a hybrid of angel and beast tends to promote
ethics of magic and myth. It would teach that a sound human ethics must
be a natural
ethics based upon human nature ‒ upon the laws, that is, of those
of man that produce civilization; it would teach that it is a sovereign
discover those laws and to disseminate a knowledge of them throughout
for conduct that conforms to them is ethically good and that which does
not is bad.
It would teach us that the civilization which we (of a given
generation) have was
not created by us but is the product of the time and toil of the dead;
that it is,
therefore, just as natural a resource as land or sea or sun or sky of
air, and that for us to quarrel and fight for possession of its goods
is to descend
from the proper estate of humans to the level of beasts fighting for
nuts of a tree. A sound human ethics would teach us that by studying
the works we
have inherited from the past we can understand them; that by
we absorb the intelligence and genius embodied in them; and that we are
to produce things in the form of wisdom or material wealth which we
could not produce
by our own merely native ability even if that ability were multiplied a
fold. It would thus teach us that even what we call our own
achievements is in the
main not our own but is mainly the work of intelligence which we have
the achievements of the dead and which still lives in us literally and
us. Human ethics would teach us that we are not only heritors of the
produced by the past generations, that we are not only organs for
enabling the creative
intelligence of the past still to live and work, but that we are the
the great and growing inheritance for future man. The supreme law of
is the law of co-operation, for the time-binding ethics of our human
race is, not
the ethics of brutal combat, but the ethics of cooperation of the dead
and the living
for all the living and the yet unborn.
If, by home
and school, boys and girls were everywhere bred in ethics thus based
upon the time-binding
laws of our human nature, what would be the effect of it upon conduct
and upon the
ways and institutions of human society? I submit the question for the
How to Educate
Masons in Masonry
By Seven Grand Masters
that this Society might be the better enabled to keep in touch with
activities and needs throughout this nation, we recently addressed to
all the Grand
Masters the following question: "What in your opinion is the best way
to educate Masons in Masonry?" Nearly all the replies made thereto were
to a degree and some were of great value, so that if there were room it
a pleasure to publish them all in these pages: but the limitations of
such that we have instead selected seven typical replies as
sections of the land and varying shades of opinion. It is worthy of
note that it
has come to be taken for granted in every Grand Jurisdiction that some
form of Masonic
education is a practical necessity. It is respectfully suggested to
members of new Grand Lodge educational committees that it might be wise
a leaf from the experiences of committees long in the field. This
Society will give
all interested in such matters cordial and immediate cooperation.
Applied Masonry Is Needed
In This New Day
for light and more light has ever been the Freemason's chief aim. The
Masters were students and teachers, as well as architects and builders.
guild of Freemasons conserved, developed, and transmitted from ancient
times the higher mathematics and the technique of the building arts.
lodge is a vocational school, as well as a school of morals, a
a trades-union and a social brotherhood. When the Operative lodges,
after the Reformation,
broke away from the medieval church, amalgamated with the local guilds
Masons, and began freely to "accept" non-operative members, they
conserved, and have since transmitted in large measure to modern times
and teachings of the ancient Anglo-Saxon guilds.
group of philosophers who organized the British Royal Society
interpreted the Masonic
quest for light terms of that free spirit of inquiry, with which the
names of Roger
Bacon and Francis Bacon are associated and which has given rise to
Desaguliers and his associates organized the British Royal Society as a
group. They revived the Masonic lodge as an agency for the
dissemination of the
results of research among the people. From this viewpoint also Preston,
a self-made man and a private student, developed his celebrated
as modified and embellished by Webb, Cross, and others, are the basis
of our present
lodge, in other words, while consistently maintaining through the ages
for truth, has modified both the subject matter it has taught and its
presentation to conform to the progress of knowledge and to the
conditions of every
War has shaken to its foundations the entire structure of civilization.
thrusts and tensions have been brought about to which every human
readjust itself. The Craft in New York believes that the time is
opportune to expand
the content of its teachings to embrace the full circle of knowledge,
the discoveries of modern science, in application to the needs of
on Educational Service has made the following declaration:
"The period of Operative
Masonry has passed.
The period of purely Speculative Masonry is passing. May we not hope
that the Fraternity
is about to enter a new period which shall combine the past teachings
of both Operative
and Speculative Masonry in what may be called APPLIED MASONRY, when
shall be assigned by the Master to some definite task and all, in their
shall cooperate in helpful, stimulating, constructive service for the
To this end,
we are endeavoring (without in anywise modifying our regular
ritualistic work or
infringing the ancient landmarks) gradually to convert our entire lodge
a great, modern, popular university wherein brethren of expert
knowledge in all
fields of learning and activity will lecture on their respective
applied to the needs of individual, family, community, state and nation.
We are now
using, and intend further to develop, the use of all kinds of
including slides, films and opaque projectors, for visual education.
We are promoting
the formation of Masonic libraries and book, periodical, and study
hope to revive the ancient relationship of Master and Apprentice. We
intend to place
in the hands of the Entered Apprentice a list of recommended readings
and put him
in the relation of an apprentice to some Master Mason of expert
knowledge and practical
experience, whose obligation shall be to supervise and assist him in
Master Workman in his chosen field.
to returns from my questionnaire, some twenty-seven hundred addresses
in New York lodges last year on a variety of subjects. Among these were
one hundred illustrated lectures on the part played by our Masonic
the formative days of the Republic. Our lodges have also celebrated
patriotic exercises the Masonic birthday of George Washington and Flag
Day and interested
themselves actively in the support of the public schools.
to which we look forward is the installation in every lodge of a
library of Masonic
and other appropriate books; a full equipment in each lodge of
for visual education; regular lectures in lodges interpreting the
problems of modern
life in terms of Masonic truth; the formation of book, periodical, and
and the enrolment of every apprentice in a course of vocational reading
under the guidance of one or more of his elder brethren.
the day has come when our young men may and should see visions and our
old men dream
dreams. We have in mind, moreover the classic aphorism of Thoreau. "If
have been building castles in the air, your work need not be lost. That
they should be. Now build the foundations under them." These are the
upon our Trestle Board and the work of laying the foundations is well
Arthur S. Tompkins, Grand Master, New York.
* * *
The Subordinate Lodge Should
Take the Initiative
To my mind
the education of the Craftsman in Masonic principles can come only from
The Fraternity is primarily the Masonic subordinate lodge. It is in the
lodge that the Mason learns of his duties to God, his country, his
fellow man and
himself. Every Grand Jurisdiction is only as strong as its subordinate
Therefore the problem of education rests with its constituent lodges. A
can make its plans for education, but the inspiration for and the
knowledge can come and must come from its lodge leaders.
lodges shall learn that a ritual is only for interpretation, that
symbols are merely
for explanation, and that true Masonry lies solely in the proper
the emblems, then shall the pregnant possibilities of learning be put
ritual and ceremonies are employed for the above purposes, and
discarded as simply
a dramatic performance, we shall approach the full opportunity that
we are endeavoring to get away from the grinding out of candidates and
of degrees. At our 1922 annual communication in October last, our
Committee brought in a resolution, which was adopted, creating a
Committee on Masonic
Education. This committee is headed by our Past Grand Master, N.H.
Ballard, a prominent
Masonic student and superintendent of the Georgia State Department of
will arrange a series of study courses for the various lodges. It will
plan that will endeavor to make Masons as contrawise to the recent
desire on the
part of lodges to make members. In our Jurisdiction we have annual
districts and counties. The state is divided into districts, and each
are the district and county conventions. It has been a custom to
confine these conventions
mostly to the "rendition of the work." Our Committee on Masonic
will also prepare educational programs for these conventions, so that
may learn of the hidden truths and principles of the Fraternity, that
he may become
more than a mere poll-parrot to recite the ritual "letter perfect."
words, our Masonic Educational Committee, better knowing the needs of
Craftsmen, will endeavor to provide for Georgia Masons what the Masonic
Association of the United States is doing through its program.
is young with us, but Georgia Masons are determined to make Masonry a
the development of its members along the best and broadest lines of
My idea is,
if I may take the liberty of quoting, summed up in a paragraph of the
to the review of Georgia's Foreign Correspondence report of 1920, as
"Out of all the chaos,
confusion, there is being awakened in American Masonry the ideal of a
and better education. We cannot say it is the birth of a new ideal; it
is more of
a resurrection of the old principles of our forefathers as written in
of Principles of our nation. It is the re-application of Masonic tenets
and political creeds (not through organization as a Fraternity, but by
preparedness); it is the education of the Craftsman to the highest
plane of citizenship
through his Masonic ideals. This new education, thank God, has no
reference to the
worn-out bromidic platitude of a 'more beautifully rendered
The education that is to be urged is an American Masonic education,
having for its
three-fold purpose the conservation of the Republic, the cooperation of
and the Americanization of the people…"
Joe P. Bowdoin, Grand Master, Georgia.
* * *
The Wisdom of Freemasonry
Is In Its Ritual
has demanded the attention of a great many of our thoughtful and
for years and their conclusions are so satisfactory, pleasing and
I deem it a privilege to pass on the result of their labors with the
hope and prayer
that they may find a place in the lives of our brethren everywhere.
the Masonic situation of today and yesterday, our future is assured
continue God-fearing, intelligent, reputable and law-abiding and
to the teachings of the Masonic Ritual.
Ritual is a wonderfully comprehensive ceremonial and includes all the
bestowed by lodges upon candidates and brethren.
is the wisdom of the Masonic Ritual when at work in the world, a
vital force for good. Masonic ceremonies were never intended as mere
nor as furnishing materials only for sages or philosophers to dilate
upon, but as
educational agencies which, when acquired and applied, become potent
daily usefulness in the lives of the brethren. The function of any
within the lodge is to enable the assimilation of "those useful rules
inculcated in the ceremonies.
welcome has always been held out to any and all trustworthy information
of a genuinely
Masonic character. Our Ohio Code of Jurisprudence provides that the
lodges shall be enjoined to introduce as often as it is feasible in
lectures and essays upon Masonic polity, our permanent system of Craft
government, and the arts and sciences connected therewith.
section of our Code recommends that lodges should be supplied with
useful and practical books. Much tactful persuasion must be used with
to persuade them to read and study these books. The great advantage of
ownership and use of reliable text-books must be made apparent to all.
Lodge not only recognizes and adopts "The Charges of a Freemason" as
the fundamental laws of Freemasonry, but also declares that they should
read and perused by Masters and other Craftsmen, as well within the
lodges as without, to the end that none may be ignorant of the
and precepts which they inculcate.
of our Masonic Code in Ohio prompts a rendition of the Masonic Ritual
with all possible
accuracy of head and all attainable warmth of heart, that the
principles of our
Institution may be deeply and indelibly impressed upon all who come
is conveniently divided into districts and each lodge is visited at
least once a
year and examined in no perfunctory way. Our District Lecturers also
meetings of several lodges at a time, particularly of the officers.
means that the progress of the Institution and the repute of our
require is employed that we may thereby sustain and promote the common
prosperity, unity and happiness of the Craftsmen in all their
It is unnecessary
to dwell upon the splendid Masonic Home that is maintained or treat of
past or present activity of ours for the Fraternity. Prompt has always
response to any call for service in behalf of a brother either in or
out of the
of education should be conservatively directed at the individual.
Singly we initiate
and singly we propose, and our initiates should be competent to do
duties among their fellow men. An initiate shall be held to no
allegiance for any
particular creed of party or church, but we do seek to educationally
Masonic principles upon him, that no worthy work shall lack his earnest
nor shall the distressed lose his loving care.
are many and associations of men are increasingly manifold, and world
are rapidly multiplying, there is the greater need of all practicable
on Masonic instruction that the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood
of Man may
be our individually personal pursuits; that the symbolic reminders by
and ages-old precepts be not forgotten by any one of us; and that there
be lacking among us the sage counsel of competent and faithful Masters
‒ these are
some of the legitimate educational labors of our Craft in Freemasonry
and to these
high and exalted ideals with great sincerity of prayer and purpose the
Ohio pledge their untiring zeal and constant and utmost endeavors.
Harry S. Johnson, Grand Master, Ohio.
* * *
Freemasonry is in itself
Masonic membership too easily and cheaply acquired. In "cheaply" I do
not allude to the amount of the fee charged, for aside from the
necessity of having
funds for our work, I regard Masonry as God-given, open for all
men even if they have not the price of the fee. I hold that no man
should be advanced,
even from an Entered Apprentice, until he has made suitable
proficiency, and that
proficiency should consist not wholly and solely in memorizing a
formula, but that
he should live and act as a good man and true, performing real service
in his community,
loved and respected by all. Rather than a quiz in open lodge on a
formula, his quiz
should be on his understanding of Masonry, its history, its symbolism,
at lodge, his ready response the call of duty, his interest in civic
of selfish gain, would be a more suitable evidence of his worthiness to
and have the rights, lights and benefits of advancement, until when he
a Master Mason, he would be truly such ‒ a Master -one who knows, one
who has attained.
education, an education covering every phase of life's activity. The
in their higher aspect, are included in this understanding, philosophy,
and art, and yet how many Master Masons have studied the seven liberal
your question and I believe your publication can do an invaluable
service to the
Craft in an educational campaign with pointed suggestions for the
brethren, as I
am fully convinced that the great majority of Masons are really and
for the Light.
that where possible, lecturers of the right kind should be in the
field, not only
preaching but teaching. These should be men who are not seeking to
build a following
or subtly playing polities for some crafty one who wears a Masonic pin;
talk love and by example stimulate others to love; practical men, not
Men who would encourage the lodges visited, to devote half the time in
discussion of the real teachings of Masonry and make it worthwhile for
to attend lodge.
What a wonderful
world this would be if the Masonic Fraternity were living and
"dwelling together in unity" ‒ then would the Turk sheath his sword,
the light of the ages would have been placed on a hill, and Intolerance
would slink back into the pit.
G.G. Brown, Grand Master, Oregon.
* * *
We Need Teachings That Are
must be taught that Masonry cannot drift from its clearly defined
moorings. In these
days when insidious propaganda is attempting to undermine the very
our Government as laid by our Colonial forefathers, many of whom were
member of the Fraternity owes the duty to practice in his daily life
inculcated by Masonic precepts and instilled into each of us in our
I fear, Masons lose sight of the beacons that clearly mark the Masonic
wander afield, only to find that a will-o'-the-wisp is leading them
more and more
into remote regions that are far removed from the Masonic highway to
can be no return except in retracing the steps to the point where these
glamour must make us forget our duties as Masons. Public opinion is of
character. Masonic teachings, besides being wise, are centuries old,
and are fundamental
in their truths and texts. Masons who have permitted their visions to
and have in their anxiety "to do things," followed prophets whose
are not strictly Masonic, must rend asunder the obscuring mist and
renew their allegiance
to Masonry in its purest and noblest conception.
In our Jurisdiction
there is a Grand Lodge standing Committee on Masonic Education. This
of recent origin and little opportunity has been had to disseminate
as is implied by its name. It is fully expected that the Committee will
successfully without undue delay, and that this will result in the true
of Masonry not only being better understood by the brethren, but that
set by each Mason because of his clearer conception of his duty to God,
his neighbor, and himself, will be reflected in the entire Jurisdiction
it will redound to the benefit of all of the people of our state, and
our Institution, through the public activities of our brethren, as
better understood and more highly honored.
Charles A. Bamberger, Grand Master, Delaware.
* * *
We Must Teach All to Love
and Practice Masonry
of Masons in Masonry is one of the greatest problems confronting the
There is no limit to education in any sphere, and Masonry embraces such
field that we almost despair of trying to comprehend it.
consider themselves educated if they can repeat the lectures, confer a
read the signs and symbols, and believe they graduated when they
received the Master
Mason's Degree, proudly pointing to their apron as their diploma and
and compasses that they wear as their class pin.
But the real
Mason, the man who was made a Mason in his heart, the intelligent man,
student, realizes that this is only the beginning of a course of study
end only when the word Finis is written on the pages of his life. He
it means research, study, work, an everyday effort to make better men,
better morals, better government and higher ideals. He realizes that it
himself and his associates to be not only better husbands, better
friends, not only to be hardworking, upright and God-fearing, but that
a duty to perform to themselves, their neighbors, their families, their
we are in honor bound to strive earnestly to bring nearer the day when
and Honor shall prevail in both our private and public life.
hope to maintain our high standard of Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth,
the respect and deference the world now gives us if we do not retain
pride in our
citizenship and strive day by day to improve ourselves. Today the world
and its teachings more than ever.
of the profane are upon us, on those who are in authority, and those
high in the
councils of the nation ‒ as well as those of us in the humbler walks of
it becomes us therefore "To walk worthily of the vocation wherein we
and realize that it is not all of Masonry to wear a Masonic pin, or
know some letters,
signs and symbols, better than we know the Ten Commandments.
The day has
come when we must teach, not only our Craft, but the people, something.
age demands it. Take the thinking man of today and confer the degrees
upon him as
some lodges do, in the old time way and he is often not only
disappointed but disgusted
with Masonry. He expected something out of the ordinary; he paid his
money and he
is entitled to all that Masonry professes to teach.
We need Masters
who can teach, Masters who read, who study, who dig, and delve in
and Masonic lore: Masters who know, understand, love, and practice
"For heart to heart, can only
That which unto them was taught."
That is my
conception of educating Masons in Masonry; it is a stupendous task, a
problem, but it can be done and will be done. For as a pebble dropped
in a pool
of water causes the ripples to expand and expand until they reach the
will the teachings of Masonry continue to expand the souls of men until
the shores of Eternity.
We have divided
our state into five districts and have a Board of Custodians,
consisting of five
members ‒ one for each district. This Board has authority to appoint as
Deputy Lecturers as may be necessary to supervise the work in the
These Deputies must pass an examination before the Board of Custodians
be well versed not only in ritualistic work but in lodge procedure.
from time to time arrange for district meetings or conventions, which
by all lodges 'nearby, at which time matters of civil, patriotic, and
are discussed, as well as providing for a social hour.
has been devoted to a consideration of our Public School System and our
We find these
conventions well attended and great interest taken and we feel that we
We are also
working in harmony with, and along the lines suggested by, the Masonic
At our Grand
Lodge meetings we have had speakers of note address the Grand Lodge and
one was unusually interesting and instructive.
year will see a still greater effort along these lines, as we find the
are waking up to the necessity of doing something more than conferring
and having a social session.
Theorus R. Stoner, Grand Master, South Dakota.
* * *
Real Masons, Not Members,
in the large centers of population had less diversified interests it
would be easier
to educate Masons in Masonry. Many never get into the real spirit of
so that their duties and obligations rest lightly upon them.
Connecticut has undertaken
this year to make use of two of the Masonic Service Association's
"The Fatherhood of God" and "The Brotherhood of Man" in connection
with its educational work, and has tried to impress upon the membership
is Masons, not members, that is required. The activity of Masons in all
of our country's history has also been featured.
Frank L. Wilder, Grand Master Connecticut
They Took Him, And Slew Him At The Passages Of The Jordan!"
By Bro. Walter Booth Adams,
M.A., M.D., Syria
Adams is Professor of Pharmacology and Dermatology in American
Syria, and a member of Amos Beecher Lodge No. 121, of Hartford, Conn.
He wrote the
article which follows at our express request, and its freshness and
such that we have asked him for others like it, and are glad to
announce his consent.
Readers of THE BUILDER will be interested to know that it was through
that Brother Joseph Fort Newton's The Builders is now being translated
It is doubtful if any book on Freemasonry has ever enjoyed that
the reader chance to know of such a thing? Freemasonry is active in
Syria. A Masonic
periodical is published at Damascus.
WHO IS NOT
familiar with the story in the twelfth chapter of Judges and the
meted out on the unbrotherly Ephraimites by the men of Gilead at the
fords of the
Jordan? Having been myself at the very place perhaps adds interest to
for me: but I wish to record a most interesting double repetition of
It will be
recalled that Jephtha, the strong man in Israel in his day, was the
we would say in these days in Arabic. Jephtha won a notable victory
over the people
of Ammon, who lived to the south of his tribe. When he was threatened,
would not come to the help of their brother tribe, the Gileadites: but
battle was won and there was spoil to be gathered in and divided, the
were right there for the division and threatened Jephtha with burning
over his head for not summoning them to share in it. This was a bit too
and Jephtha took up the challenge and a civil war or battle took place
and the bullies
and boasters "got their come-uppance," as the old New England phrase so
graphically puts it.
were the Ephraimites "scattered and peeled," but Jephtha stationed a
at the fords of the Jordan to intercept the Ephraimites fleeing west to
"And the Gileadites took the passages of the Jordan before the
and it was so, that when those Ephraimites which escaped said, Let me
go over; that
the men of Gilead said unto him, Art thou an Ephraimite? If he said
Nay; Then said
they unto him, Say now Shibboleth (which signifieth a, stream): and he
for, he could not frame to pronounce it right. Then they took him, and
at the passages of the Jordan: and there fell at that time of the
and two thousand." A truly terrible punishment for unfraternal acts and
This is reckoned by chronologists to have taken place about 1140 years
Three thousand years is a long stretch!
In the year
1840 Muhammad Ali, the Viceroy of Egypt and the founder of the royal
now reigns in the Valley of the Nile ‒ first as Khedive, then Sultan,
and now as
King ‒ rebelled against the Turkish government and made his able son,
his commander-in-chief. He swept through Palestine and Syria, driving
forces before him, and impressing into his army, the Syrians. The
resented this forced drafting into the Egyptian army as much as they
did their best to evade the Turkish draft in the Great War, but the
was very thorough and the more hated on that account.
drove the Turks well into Asia Minor and was threatening
Constantinople; and indeed,
the Turks were unable to stop him. But it was contrary to the policy of
powers to have the Turks conquered by the Egyptians, and the allied
British with some French and a few Russian ships, bombarded Beirut ‒ we
of the solid shot cannon balls in the museum of the American University
as a memento of it. They captured the city, drew their ships up on the
St. George's Bay, cut down some of the best remaining of the Cedars of
but not all of them, to make tar, and then proceeded to calk the seams
wooden ships. Holding Beirut, they threatened Ibrahim Pasha's line of
with Egypt. He turned about and retreated, coming down through Aleppo
and crossing the Jordan at the same fords that the Ephraimites had
met with such disaster in mispronouncing a word. Now, in all retreating
are stragglers, and many of them. As I have intimated, the Syrians
hated the Egyptians,
and when the soldiers, the stragglers, came to the ford the Syrians
would ask them:
"Are you a Shami (Syrian)?" "Yes, indeed," the Egyptian would
say to gain favor and perhaps food. "Then say Jamel (camel)." "Gamel,"
the Egyptian would inadvertently say. Now there is no "J" sound in the
Egyptian dialect of Arabic. The letter that is written the same is in
dialect sounded like a soft "J," really like the French "J,"
whereas the Egyptians always pronounce it like a hard "G," and
said "Gamel." In fact, the English language got its name for, that ugly
brute, the pet of the "Shriners," from the Egyptian dialect, but we
substituted a "C" and for the "G." So the Syrian soldiers said
"Jamel," they said, "Pass on, my brother"; but when the Egyptians
said "Gamel," they said, "Iktul 'ameru," (cut off his life!)
and they killed them just as the Gileadites slew the Ephraimites, three
years before at the same place.
is not all. The Turks in the Great War drafted the Syrians into their
army and most
of them were very unwilling soldiers. They were not in sympathy with
aims and plans. When Allenby made that wonderfully complete crumpling
up of the
Ottoman army in Palestine and across the Jordan in September, 1918,
many who did
not get caught in the net at first tried to escape by crossing from the
the Jordan to the west side by these same fords of the famous river.
met many Syrians, some soldiers and some civilians, and each fleeing
asked whether he were Syrian or a Turk. If he said he was a Syrian,
they said to
him: "Say Buzszle" (onion); and if he were a Turk he would say
for the Turkish language makes no difference in pronouncing the "Sod"
and the "Seen," both varieties of the letter "S." The "Sod"
is a heavy "S" sounded with the tip of the tongue down below the roots
of the front teeth and the Turks pronounce it just like an ordinary
The Syrian ear is very discriminating to these sounds; and when they
heard the word
for onion come hissing out instead of lisping out like a tongue-tied
said "Iktul 'ameru" (cut off his life), and they slew many Turks at the
fords of the Jordan.
Johnson A Freemason? Some Phases of His Life
By Bro. Arthur Heiron, England
From March Number
instalment Brother Arthur Heiron concludes his examination of the
famous Dr. Johnson's
possible connections with Freemasonry, and brings to end as interesting
as one has read in many a day, especially in the sidelights it throws
on the doings
of Freemasons in eighteenth century England. The pages now following
have a peculiar
interest in that they set forth evidence to show that David Garrick,
and Sir William Forbes were Masons. It is clearly proved that Boswell
made a member before 1770, which is a fact that excites our curiosity,
for his essay. May he find it possible to publish the lodges of those
Brother Heiron has our thinking that he was of a type which we seldom
with same in book form!
certainly now been said (perhaps too much) to demonstrate that whatever
qualities the learned doctor possessed, he was indeed a lover of fun
at times a real "Bohemian," a frequenter of taverns, very partial to
life, and just the type of man who could appreciate the jovial good
was to be found in a leading and important Masonic lodge. The "Dundee
No. 9, undoubtedly was such a lodge, and met in its own freehold at
1763 to 1820, a unique experience for a lodge in those days.
Even if the
critical student does not accept the evidence as sufficient to make the
clear, surely it is most reasonable to believe that Dr. Johnson did
the Craft at some period or other, even if we may never know the actual
his lodge; if he did do this, he would only be following the example of
of his most intimate acquaintances. And now let us turn our thought for
a few moments
to his biographer and close personal friend "James Boswell."
Boswell's Mysterious Silence
now at the strangest feature of this little story namely, that while
of Johnson" [Lib 1807; Vol
1, Vol 2, Vol 3] contains about 1300 pages,
important and very interesting subject of Freemasonry is never even
Johnson and Boswell were both inveterate gossips and this book is full
of nearly every subject under the sun, both grave and gay, including
as "Religion"; "Life and Immortality"; "Marriage and Divorce";
"Polities"; "Ghosts"; "Various methods of shaving";
"Hours of sleep needed for health"; etc., etc., etc. Boswell once asked
his hero; "If, Sir, you were shut up in a castle and a new-born child
you, what would you do?" "Why, Sir, I should not much like my company,"
was Dr. Johnson's sage reply.
one might believe that Boswell's strange silence on the subject of the
because he was not himself a Freemason, but this proves erroneous, for
Boswell" had been "Made a Mason" before 1770 in Edinburgh, in
Kilwinning" Lodge (No. 2), of which he became the Master; was elected
Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1773, and was afterwards
to the Dais as Depute Grand Master" (of Scotland) in 1776-77.
of Johnson's most intimate friends were also Freemasons; viz., (1) Sir
of Pitsligo, who was actually Grand Master of Scotland in 1776 and
1777. He was
a well-known and respected banker, often in London and at one time
"Coutts," also an author. (2) David Garrick, the famous actor, who had
actually been a pupil at Dr. Johnson's school in 1737; and, (3) Edmund
renowned orator and statesman. There may be a slight doubt as to the
last two names,
but none as regards Boswell and Forbes.
Now all these
friends of Johnson were also members of his famous "Literary Club" and
they often met together for friendly discussion. Dr. Johnson was
perhaps the greatest
talker the world has ever known; Mrs. Thrale says "that conversation
that Johnson required to make him happy"; even Burke, England's
was content to say but little when Dr. Johnson was present, stating,
enough for me to have rung the bell to him." Surely Boswell, the
and loquacious Boswell," vain and loving praise, would have informed
of the great honor conferred upon him (Boswell) when the Grand Master
appointed him his Deputy in 1776, and it is almost certain that
have taken place between these two on the merits or demerits of an
Order that had
existed certainly back to medieval times, when the Operative Craft
Guilds were in
full sway; and which in 1769 was described in a history by Wellins
Calcott, a Past
Master, as "the most Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted
of which book Boswell himself was one of the original subscribers.
in those days constantly made charitable gifts to deserving objects
the Craft; as an instance, the "Dundee Lodge" No. 9, (not a wealthy
in 1766 subscribed thirty pounds sterling for the "Unhappy Sufferers by
Great Fire at Barbadoes," which was far distant from our brethren at
reason possibly be that Dr. Johnson (not desiring any enquiry being
made as to his
wanderings and researches at Wapping in 1767), personally requested
to allude to the subject of the Craft when writing his Life? It will be
that Johnson never referred to "Wapping" till 1783, the year before his
death, and how surprised Boswell was when his hero's acquaintance with
was for the first time thus revealed. The reader must however decide
the true motive for Boswell's strange silence on a subject that
discussion much more than many of the trifling themes he and Johnson
used to argue
Johnson's Friends as Masons
Bro. Sir William Forbes (1739-1806)
Bro. Edmund (?) Burke
as to these friends of Dr. Johnson being members of the Craft is as
regards Boswell and Forbes, an extract taken from the History of the
Lodge of Edinburgh
(Mary's Chapel) No. 1, by David Murray Lyon, second edition, 1900,
states on page
Boswell of Auchinleck, son and heir of the Scottish Judge, Lord
himself the well-known author of 'Corsica,' [Lib 1769] and the biographer of Dr.
was made a member by honorary affiliation in February, 1777. Previous
to this he
had been elected Senior Grand Warden in the Grand Lodge of Scotland and
raised to the dais as Depute Grand Master, which post he held during
the years 1776-77
and 1777-78. Canongate Kilwinning was his mother lodge, of which he
His uncle, John Boswell, M. D., Censor of the Royal College of
Physicians in Edinburgh,
was Senior Grand Warden in 1753-54. James' son, Alexander (afterwards
Boswell, was also a member of the Craft, and at the time of his death
by the hand
of a duelist, was Master of Lodge Kilwinning and an ex-officio
Master of Ayrshire."
extract on page 361 states:
"1776, December 10: Sir William
Pitsligo, Baronet. The Grand Master, who was accompanied by his Depute,
the biographer of Johnson, was made 'an honorary brother of the Lodge,
as a mark
of the sense the Brethren had of his high and distinguished merit in
of life.' Sir William Forbes was initiated in Canongate Kilwinning in
1759. He held
the post of Junior Grand Warden from 1765 to 1769 and, as 31st Grand
in the Grand Orient during the two years ending November, 1778..... He
was a member
with Johnson, Burke, Garrick, Reynolds and other notables of the
Club of London."
the same accounts can be found on pages 53 and 328-330 of the original
Lyon's History, printed in 1873.)
William Forbes, born in 1739, died in 1806; he was a friend of Sir
who dedicated to his memory the fourth canto of "Marmion."]
reference is to be found in Gould's "History of Freemasonry," Volume V,
Chapter XXIII, p. 63:
"Sir William Forbes .... the
latter ‒ whose
Depute was James Boswell of Auchinleck ‒ laid the foundation stone of
the High School
of Edinburgh, June 24th, 1777."
reference is to be found in A Candid Disquisition of the Principles and
of the most Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons,
[Lib 1769] by Wellins Calcott, P.M.,
in London, 1769, where on page IV the list of subscribers to that
includes: "James Boswell Esq; Author of the History of Corsica";
having visited Corsica and in 1768 written a history of that country.
And a final
reference appears in The History of Free Masonry and the Grand Lodge of
by W. A. Laurie, Secretary to the Grand Lodge of Scotland: printed in
1859. An extract
from the Table of Grand Office-bearers in Grand Lodge of Scotland from
1736 to 1858,
gives "Boswell, James, (the biographer of Johnson)" as S.G.W. in 1773,
and D.G.M. in 1776-1777.
writer is personally indebted to Bro. J.E. Shum Tuckett, M.A.
(Cantab.), P.Pr.G.R., Wilts., P.M. "Quatuor Coronati Lodge" No. 2076,
a well-known, keen and ardent Masonic student, for this interesting
thus clearly proving James Boswell and Sir William Forbes to be
Bro. David Garrick's Snuff-Box
as to David Garrick (1716-79) being a Mason is not so strong but still
for one of the old lodges in London, known as "St. Paul's Lodge" No.
constituted in 1790, preserves as one of its cherished relies a silver
and engraved on the inside of the lid is a statement that the box is a
of one that originally belonged to "Bro. David Garrick"; this souvenir
has been in the possession of this lodge for so many years that the
can assign no date as to when it was first acquired.
Bro. Burke (Edmund?) (1730-1797)
writer and statesman was a member of "Jerusalem Lodge," No. 44,
3. "Burke's Lodge"; when the members went to the King's Bench Prison
made John Wilkes a Mason. (see Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Volume III,
page 61. [Lib
writer is indebted for this item to Bro. W. Wonnacott, A.G. Supt. Wks.,
Librarian to the Grand Lodge of England.) Here seems reasonable
evidence that Edmund
Burke, England's greatest orator, was a Freemason; his impassioned
speech of three
days duration delivered on the "Impeachment of Warren Hastings" was
his greatest effort.
In the "Old
Charges" approved by Grand Lodge in 1722, the brethren are enjoined to
Brotherly Love, the Foundation and Cape-stone, the Cement and Glory of
Fraternity"; surely such lofty and unselfish sentiments should have
to both Johnson and Boswell who were so constantly talking of their
yet it almost appears as if Boswell by his contemptuous silence (and
his indifference) was willing to cast a kind of slur upon our noble
Craft as though
the subject was not even worthy of discussion by a man of his eminence;
acting in defense of our Order, the following observations were added:
Description and Character
evidently did not hold a very high opinion of the biographer of Dr.
writing in September 1831, in the Edinburgh Review, he said: "Boswell
of the smallest men that ever lived, and yet, he has beaten them all."
"a man of the meanest and feeblest intellect," servile and impertinent,
shallow and pedantic, a bigot and a sot, bloated with family pride, …
be a tale bearer, an eavesdropper." "That such a man should have
one of the best books in the world is strange enough." "If he had not
been a great fool he would never have been a great writer." "He was a
dunce, a parasite, and a coxcomb," "but his book has made him
"His fame is great; and it will, we have no doubt, be lasting," and
"While edition after edition of his book (viz., Boswell's "Life of
was coming forth, his son (Sir Alexander Boswell), as Mr. Croker tells
us was ashamed
of it, and hated to hear it mentioned."
Carlyle on "Boswell"
Let us now
read a few statements from an essay by Thomas Carlyle, the sage of
writing in Fraser's Magazine of 1832, said: "Boswell was a person whose
or bad qualities lay open to the general eye, visible, palpable to the
That he was a wine-bibber and good liver, … is undeniable enough. That
he was vain,
heedless, a babbler, had much of the sycophant, alternating with the
curiously spiced too with an all-pervading dash of the coxcomb, … that
at the Shakespeare Jubilee with a riband imprinted 'Corsica Boswell'
round his hat
… is evident as the sun at noon. The very look of Boswell seems to have
so much. In that cocked nose, cocked partly in triumph over his weaker
partly to snuff up the smell of coming pleasure and scent it from afar,
big cheeks, hanging like half-filled wine-skins, still able to contain
the coarsely-protruded shelf mouth, that fat dew-lapped chin; in all
this who sees
not sensuality, pretension, boisterous imbecility enough? The underpart
face is of a low almost brutish character." These are the comments made
one Scotsman on a brother Scot!
thus made by Macaulay and Carlyle on Boswell seem to us in 1922 rather
but as they wrote their remarks only about thirty-seven years after
they doubtless received some of their information from various people
who knew him
personally and were well able to judge. It will be noted also that
Boswell in his
own private letters, written by him to his intimate friend Rev. W.J.
for the first time in 1857), does not spare himself but practically
rather severe verdict above recorded.
It may now
we think fairly be said that the following points have been
It may be
remarked and truthfully that after all, the above statements seeking to
Dr. Johnson was a Freemason are merely based on "circumstantial
this is admitted, although the chain of evidence is fairly strong, but
criminal trials of modern days depend on testimony. The Hon. Mr.
a lawyer of repute and wide experience, in summing up the facts in a
trial for murder, (where the prisoner was convicted of poisoning his
wife by arsenic)
remarked, "It has been said that the evidence in this case is only
well, in my opinion circumstantial evidence is the best evidence you
can get provided
there is plenty of it."
- Dr. Samuel
Johnson's admitted acquaintance with Wapping.
- A "Samuel Johnson" "Made a
Mason" at Wapping in 1767.
- Rarity and scarcity of this
- Dr. Johnson's great love of
London, fondness for club life, a frequenter
- His partiality for dancing:
most probably he attended the "Wapping Assembly"
- Masonic references. Dr. Johnson
gives a Charge to Boswell.
- "James Boswell" and "David
Garrick," both Freemasons.
"James Boswell," Depute Grand Master of Scotland (1776 ‒ 1777).
- His strange silence as to the
- Macaulay and Carlyle on Boswell.
- William Preston.
"pros" and "Cons."
It is now
humbly suggested that the "circumstantial evidence" concerning Dr.
alleged connection with the Craft (even if the name of his lodge be not
is sufficiently strong to deserve acceptance, but the responsibility
for the final
verdict is left to each individual reader, who by this time is fully
decide for himself. And now having in a very halting and inefficient
these few facts to the notice of the Craft, the writer wishes his
and retires into, his former obscurity.
Life of Johnson, 1791. [Lib 1807; Vol
1, Vol 2, Vol 3]
Hawkins’ Life of Johnson, 1787. [Lib 1787]
Macaulay’s Life of Johnson 1908. [Lib 1908]
Dr. Johnson's Prayers and Meditations, 1785. [Lib 1785]
Macaulay's Essay in the Edinburgh Review, 1831.
Carlyle's Essay in Fraser's Magazine, 1832.
Diary of Madame D'Arblade (Fanny Burney), 142. [Lib 1910; Vol 1, Vol 2]
Heiron's Ancient Freemasonry and the Old Dundee Lodge No. 18,
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.
G. M., District of Columbia
Robert E. Peary
PEARY, arctic explorer and discoverer of the North Pole, was a member
of Kane Lodge
of New York City. Shortly after his birth in Pennsylvania in 1854 his
to Maine, and there it was that Robert spent his boyhood. He was
the Van Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy, New York, with the
degree of Civil
Engineer. In 1881 he entered the United States Naval Service as a civil
with the rank of lieutenant, and served his corps with faithfulness and
much of the work under his charge, as in the docking improvements at
Key West, he
almost always managed to keep his work at a cost underneath the
estimates and appropriations,
a thing that is somewhat rare. He was always exacting and particular in
and usually managed to have his own way, which was always very much to
of the Service.
acquaintance with Peary was about 1885, at which time he was
constructing a patent
sled for the purpose of using it on the ice-cap of Greenland, which is
north of any land. He believed that Greenland might extend to the Pole
by going across its ice-cap he would be enabled to make that much
His purpose was to use a sail to help the dogs pull the load. This was
time that an explorer had planned to use Greenland as a highway to the
no argument to enable me to see and appreciate his methods. Snow falls
on high places
in the arctic regions as it does in the tropics, but the winds pile it
up on the
lower levels so that after the lapse of thousands of centuries this
of unthawed snow approaches a general level. The weight of the snow
(snow is really
a very heavy material when packed) at last transforms it into solid
ice, which at
the edge of the land falls over into the sea as icebergs. The depth of
as they lie in the cold water, is an indication of the depth of the
snow and ice
in Greenland, and its bulk is sometimes mountainous.
Peary's ability to reach the top of the Greenland ice-cap, but he said
find a way or make it, an expression that he frequently used. I doubted
his ability to get from the Navy Department a leave of absence to make
and I was even more skeptical of his ability to secure an outfit or an
for the same, because neither Congress nor the Navy Department had
shown much liberality
in such matters for several years. Dr. Kane's expedition to the arctic,
as I have
already explained in these pages, was financed by Mr. Grinnell.
was confident and he at last succeeded. His excursion over the ice-cap
was much as he expected and he made wonderful speed over that rolling
"The best laid plans of mice
Gang aft agley."
last came to a ravine as deep and wide as the Grand Canyon of the
more jagged and frozen, in the bottom of which moved a great mass of
and ice. It was impossible to cross this but it proved that Greenland
was an island,
which was a great discovery in geography and alone entitles Peary to an
crown of fame.
plan ‒ like a good engineer he learned from experience and did not
‒ was entirely different. He conceived the idea of establishing food
the trail, a day's travel apart, in order that the party making the
final dash might
travel with lighter load and thus stand a better chance. It was by this
he succeeded in realizing what had been the fond dream of arctic
explorers for a
hundred years. Peary's method of establishing food denote at intervals
by Captain Roald Amundsen, the famous Norwegian who discovered the
South Pole. Captain
Scott of the Royal Navy, who died during his attempt to reach the South
used the same method.
grit, daring and endless perseverance. On one voyage he broke his leg,
to turn back. He had his leg put in splints and he recovered. Neither
did he falter
when three of his toes were so badly frozen that they had to be
amputated. It was
while he had to lie by with his broken leg in winter quarters that his
him, and their daughter, famous as the "snow baby," was born at that
that Peary, the discoverer of the North Pole, and Amundsen, the
discoverer of the
South Pole, were entertained together at a dinner given in Washington,
D. C., by
the National Geographic Society. A gold medal was given to each of
these great men
by the President of the United States. One of the speakers of the
occasion was Sir
James Bryce, the then Ambassador from Great Britain, who, in a very
said: "Something has happened here tonight which never happened before
which can never happen again. There meet with us the discoverer of the
and the discoverer of the South Pole."
memorial shown in the illustration is a granite sphere resting on four
upon a rectangular base, also of granite. The outline of the continent
on the sphere and at the extreme north of it is a five pointed star.
know that this star is a Masonic emblem, the pentalpha, which is
emblematic of the
five points of fellowship, as beautifully explained in the lecture of
section of the Third Degree.
was planned by the widow of Peary, but the National Geographic Society
only the privilege of assuming the cost, but also of having charge of
The dedication took place on the sixth day of April, 1922, at the
of Arlington, Virginia, near the capital of the nation. It was
that the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia should perform the
a large deputation from Kane Lodge came from New York to assist, but
for some reason
unknown to me the Masonic service was omitted. The famous Marine Band
the music. The Secretary of the Navy, the Assistant Secretary of the
Navy, and the
President of the National Geographic Society made eloquent addresses.
which held the Union Jack over the memorial were broken by Peary's
Stafford. As the flag slid down from the sides of the memorial, the
rendered the national air. President and Mrs. Harding, the Chief
Justice of the
United States, the Secretary of State, and many senators and members of
Corps and officers of the Army and Navy were among the guests. Congress
that Peary should be promoted to the rank of Rear Admiral in
recognition of his
services and he was retired with that rank in 1909. He was much broken
but he never referred to that and concealed his misfortunes, and gamely
a happy air. We have always thought that it was the devoted attention
that he received
from his brave little wife that kept him alive so long. He died in
By Bro. H.L. Haywood
Freemasonry and the Men's
I ‒ Anthropologists Discover
the Men's House
Heinrich Schurtz published his Altersklassen und Männerbünde in 1902
[Lib 1902 (German)], anthropologists have become
and more interested in the part played by secret societies among
Herr Schurtz discovered that secret societies were not by any means a
of little interest and less consequence, as former anthropologists had
them to be, but that they were of equal importance in primitive life
social institutions. He found that "in intimate connection with the
and more particularly with the dominant role played by the organized
there develops the men's house. It is characteristic as a structure in
adult but single men cook their meals, work, play and sleep, while the
dwell apart with their families. Women and children are usually barred
premises, while the mature young girls may freely consort with the
Webster, of the University of Nebraska, working independently and
of the findings of Schurtz, arrived at the same conclusion, and wrote a
on the subject that has proved of the utmost importance to students of
This was published in 1908 under the title of Primitive Secret
Societies: A Study
in Early Politics and Religion. [Lib 1908] The central conception of
is that of the men's house. Prof. Webster describes this at some length
on the first
page of this book as follows:
separation of the sexes which exists in civilized societies is the
outcome, in part,
of natural distinctions of sex and economic function; in part it finds
in those feelings of sexual solidarity to which we owe the existence of
and unions. Sexual solidarity itself is only another expression for the
of that universal law of human sympathy, or in more modern phrase, of
of kind, which lies at the foundation of all social relations. But in
societies, to these forces bringing about sexual separation, there is
added a force
even more potent, which originates in widespread beliefs as to the
of sexual characteristics from one individual to another. Out of these
arisen many curious and interesting taboos designed to prevent the real
dangers incident to the contact of the sexes. Sexual separation is
and perpetuated by the institution known as the men's house, of which
to be found among primitive peoples throughout the world.
men's house is usually the largest building in a tribal settlement. It
common to the villagers; it serves as council-chamber and town hall, as
for strangers, and as the sleeping resort of the men. Frequently, seats
in the house
are assigned to elders and other leading individuals according to their
and importance. Here the precious belongings of the community, such as
taken in war or in the chase, and religious emblems of various sorts
Within its precincts, women and children, and men not fully initiated
the tribe, seldom or never enter. When marriage and the exclusive
a woman do not follow immediately upon initiation into the tribe, the
of the men's house becomes an effective restraint upon the sexual
the unmarried youth. It then serves as a clubhouse for the bachelors
within it may be regarded as a perpetuation of that formal seclusion of
from the women, which it is the purpose of the initiation ceremonies in
place to accomplish. Such communal living on the part of the young men
is a visible
token of their separation from the narrow circle of the family, and of
to the duties and responsibilities of tribal life. The existence of
such an institution
emphasizes the fact that a settled family life with a private abode is
of the older men, who alone have marital rights over the women of the
promiscuity, either before or after marriage, is the exception among
who attempt not only to regulate by complicated and rigorous marriage
sexual desires of those who are competent to marry, but actually to
intercourse at all of those who are not fully initiated members of the
institution so firmly established and so widely spread may be expected
by devotion to other uses, as the earlier ideas which led to its
away. As guard posts where the young men are confined on military duty
and are exercised
in the arts of war, these houses often become a serviceable means of
religious worship of the community frequently centers in them. Often
they form the
theatre of dramatic representations. In rare instances these
institutions seem to
have lost their original purpose and to have facilitated sexual
than sexual separation. Among some tribes men's house is used as the
center of the
puberty initiation ceremonies. With the development of secret
the earlier tribal puberty institutions, the mens’ house frequently
seat of these organizations and forms the secret 'lodge.' The presence
then in a
primitive community of the men's house in any form of its numerous
strongly to the existence, now, or in the past, of secret initiation
(Primitive Secret Societies, pages 1, 2, 3)
One may doubt
the accuracy of Prof. Webster when he says that "examples are to be
primitive people throughout the world." There are not many examples to
in Asia and it may very well be that in certain parts of that continent
secret society has never been known: some authorities are of that
for example, who was not able to discover traces of men's secret
large portions of the continent. In his chapter on "Diffusion of
Webster has himself furnished no Asiatic examples but has confined
himself to Australia,
Tasmania, Melanesia, Polynesia, South America, Central America and
It is impossible
in the present limitations of space to set down very many examples of
secret cult: a few specimens will suffice. Among the Andaman Islanders
three kinds of huts, for bachelors, spinsters and married couples,
In their eleventh year boys and girls are subjected to various ordeals
and in every
case must participate in elaborate ceremonies upon passing from one age
another. Women participate in these mysteries as well as men. Most
have initiation ceremonies at or near the time of puberty. In most
cases these ceremonies
are very severe; men only are admitted; and the rite appears usually to
be a form
of preparation for matrimony. The Masai divide their male members into
of boys, warriors, and elders; their ceremony is accompanied by
the Banks Islanders the males constitute a kind of triple secret
society but this
group is entered not by initiation but by paying a fee. Men live in the
club house, which is a lounging place and eating place by day and
dormitory by night:
they are divided into grades with power and prestige accordingly, and
only men of
wealth can reach the higher positions. This same people have "Ghost
which are very secret in their nature and have headquarters in the most
places. Among the Pueblo Indians the Zunis had a "Mask Dancer" society,
in which there were degrees, initiations, and much primitive mummery:
had its own lodge building in which were apartments representing the
of the compass, the zenith, and the nadir. The Hopi Indians had similar
and so also the Crows, who had a "Tobacco Society" with initiation
degrees, etc. The Hidatsas had many social clubs, entrance to which was
purchase: their women had similar organizations. On the other hand the
of the Great Basin have apparently never had anything that may be
as a secret society. These cases are but typical of the countless
instances in which
primitive people ‒ or savages as we call them ‒ have made use of secret
II ‒ Tribal Initiation is
a Severe Ordeal
In most cases
the initiation ceremonies are in the nature of ordeals and many times
are so severe
that death or permanent crippling is not unknown. "The diversity of the
is most interesting. Thus, depilation, head biting, evulsion of teeth,
with human blood, emersion in dust or filth, heavy flogging,
and burning, circumcision and subincision, are some of the forms in
which the ordeals
appear, among the Australians alone… Of all these ordeals circumcision
has the greatest
prominence… Almost universally initiation rites include a mimic
the death and resurrection of the novice. The new life to which he
awakes from initiation
is one utterly forgetful of the old; a new name, a new language, and
are its natural accompaniment… A new language is closely associated
with the new
name. The possession of an esoteric speech known only to initiated
members is highly
useful as lending an additional mystery to the proceedings… The various
which take place on the arrival of girls at puberty are distinctly less
than those of the boys. As a rule there is no admittance at a formal
possessing tribal aspects and secret rites… No doubt various beliefs
many different sources have united to establish the necessity of
and girls at puberty.
from the things of flesh and sense has been a device not infrequently
people of advanced culture for the furtherance of spiritual life, and
we need not
be surprised to find uncivilized man resorting to similar devices for
purposes. The long fasts, the deprivation of sleep, the constant
excitement of the
new and unexpected, the nervous reaction under long-continued torments,
a condition of extreme sensitiveness ‒ hyper-aesthesia ‒ which is
to the reception of impressions that will be indelible. The lessons
learned in such
a tribal school as the puberty institution constitutes, abide through
obvious motive dictating a period of seclusion is found in the wisdom
separating the youth at puberty from the women until lessons of sexual
have been learned. New Guinea natives, for instance, say that 'when
boys reach the
age of puberty, they ought not to be exposed to the rays of the sun,
lest they suffer
thereby; they must not do heavy manual work, or their physical
be stopped, all possibility of mixing with females must be avoided,
lest they become
immoral, or illegitimacy become common in the tribe.' Where the men's
house is found
in a tribal community, this institution frequently serves to prolong
of the younger initiated men for many years after puberty is reached."
Secret Societies, pages 36, 37, 38, 41, 45, 47.)
institutions for the initiation of young men into manhood are among the
and characteristic features of primitive life. They are found among
the lowest of mankind: among Andamanese, Hottentots, Fuegians, and
and they exist in various stages of development among peoples emerging
to barbarism. Their foundation goes back to an unknown antiquity; their
jealously guarded from the eye of all save the initiated, preserve the
and morality of the tribe. Though varying endlessly in detail, their
reproduce themselves with substantial uniformity among many different
in widely separated areas of the world. The initiation by the tribal
elders of the
young men of the tribe, their rigid seclusion, sometimes for a lengthy
the women and children; their subjection to certain ordeals and to
to change their entire natures; the utilization of this period of
convey to the novices a knowledge of the tribal traditions and customs,
the inculcation by most practical methods of habits of respect and
the older men ‒ all these features are well described in the quaint and
account by an old writer of the ceremonies once practiced by the
of North Carolina." (Ibid, page 32.)
differ strikingly among themselves, nevertheless they one and all have
features in common. In one paragraph of a brilliant treatise on
Initiation, in Hasting's
Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (Vol. VII, p. 317 [Lib 1908]), Count Goblet d'Alviella,
so high among European Masonic scholars, furnishes a list of these
"The formalities of initiation,
its dominant function is magical or religious, present striking
Lang notes the following general characteristics: (a) mystic dances;
(b) the use
of the turndun, or bull-roarer; (c) daubing with clay and washing this
performance with serpents and other 'mad doings.' To these we might
add: (e) a simulation
of death and resurrection; (f) the granting of a new name to the
the use of masks or other disguises. In any case, we may say that
include: (1) a series of formalities which loosen the ties binding the
to his former environment; (2) another series of formalities admitting
him to the
superhuman world; (3) an exhibition of sacred objects and instruction
relating to them; (4) re-entry or reintegration rites, facilitating the
the neophyte into the ordinary world. These rites, especially those of
three divisions, are found fulfilling a more or less important function
in all initiation
ceremonies, both savages and among the civilized."
these secret clubs? Did they all originate from one center? N.W.
in Volume XI of Hasting's Encyclopedia, page 297 [Lib 1908], offers a reply with which
authorities would agree:
"We may perhaps sum up the
position by saying
that to trace all secret societies to a single origin, is probably as
to trace all forms of religion to a single source or to seek to unlock
all the mythologies
by a single key. It seems clear that age grades, burial clubs,
religious confraternities, occupation groups, and magical societies
have all contributed
to the mass of diverse elements grouped under secret societies; it
cannot be definitely
laid down that any one of these took an earlier type as a model; as we
in their rudimentary stages in various parts of Africa, we must, unless
that these rudiments are derived from the fully developed societies of
suppose that they are the seed from which, in other areas, secret
been evolved and that all are equally primitive, though not necessarily
III ‒ Did Freemasonry Evolve
From the Men's House?
societies appear among barbarian and half civilized peoples they retain
the fundamental features described in the above pages, but at the same
strikingly different and often are used for entirely different
purposes. All readers
of Masonic literature are familiar with the story of the Druids, the
Culdees, the Assassins, etc. etc.: also the numberless secret societies
which, it appears in the majority of cases, are political in character
moral or religious. These barbarian, or semi-civilized organizations,
grades, signs, secrets, pass-words and initiation ceremonies, as have
all the others,
and there is no need in this connection that we particularize among
them or pay
them any further attention.
will already have noted a certain similarity between some of these
and our own. In some cases these similarities are so striking that they
to identity, as when one of our Masonic signs is found in the
possession of some
savage cult. Tales of how Masons have saved their lives or gained other
among savage peoples through use of one of the Masonic signs, have been
stock stories of our literature for many years.
use of these facts has been recently made by Brother J.S.M. Ward in his
and the Ancient Gods [Lib*], published in 1921. Brother Ward boldly
takes the position
that the primitive secret societies such as those described above are
to be considered
an integral part of Freemasonry, or vice versa. He makes this position
the following words: "Boldly this is my contention, that our present
is derived originally from the primitive initiatory rites of our
I base this contention on the fact that many of our most venerated
signs and symbols,
grips and tokens, are used today by savage races with precisely the
as with us. I cannot agree with those who would contend that it is
either a matter
of coincidence or else that they are purely natural signs which express
sentiments." This statement appears on page 119 of his book. On 123 he
it in other words: "My contention, then, is that Freemasonry derives
from those primitive rites which first taught a boy whence he came,
him to be a useful member of society, and finally taught him how to die
death did not end all. On these primitive rites, I consider, man built
up the mysteries
and the various religious faiths of the ancient world some of which
to the present day, while others have developed into other religions,
included." The thesis is developed in still other words on page viii of
Preface where he says: "Briefly, the theory I venture to propound is
originated in the primitive initiatory rites of prehistoric man, and
rites have been built up all the ancient mysteries, and thence all the
systems. It is for this reason that men of all religious beliefs can
and, further, the reason we admit no women is that these rites were
rites of men; the women had their own. These, for sociological reasons
while those of the men survived, and developed into the mysteries."
Ward could make good his thesis, he would bring about a complete
revolution in anthropology.
A secret society that has existed in all parts of the world through all
centuries of history, would be the most stupendous facts known to
would necessitate a complete revision of our social theories. The thing
is too stupendous
to have happened. In order to make out that Freemasonry as we now know
it is in
solidarity with all these other secret fraternities, it is necessary to
the facts at almost every point; to fill in the gaps with guesses and
and to read into the ceremonies of the primitive tribes many meanings
that they have never been capable of entertaining.
It was made
abundantly plain in the quotations given above from various authorities
secret societies have a culture in common and in the nature of the case
make use of signs, symbols, ceremonies, degrees, lodges, initiations,
etc., so that
if a new secret society comes into existence, created ab initio by its
it will necessarily have many features in common with other similar
so that always a little imagination will make it easy for men to
believe that what
has been recently created has existed elsewhere for many centuries.
Nothing is easier
than to create traditions and ancient history for a secret cult; and
it is furnished with the many usages that other secret cults have
employed in past
times. Freemasonry is no exception to this rule. Almost everything in
it can be
paralleled in the possessions of similar societies that existed
hundreds of years
ago and always there is the temptation to borrow the authority and
prestige of antiquity.
Oftentimes one finds attributed to a very ancient day symbols that were
according to our positive knowledge in recent times. "The
Virgin Weeping Over A Broken" Column is a case in point here.
It was devised by an American Mason about one hundred years ago, but
I read a learned article which sought to show that this symbol had been
by Freemasonry from the Ancient Mysteries.
tries to prove that the Higher Grades are as ancient as the Craft
Degrees. To an
American reader, familiar with the history of the Scottish Rite, his
case is not
fortunate. We know that Albert Pike himself, alone and unaided created
a great deal
of the lofty and beautiful structure of the Scottish Rite ritual, so
that it has
been said of him that he found the Scottish Rite a log cabin and left
it a marble
palace. But there are many things in the Scottish Rite ceremonies older
someone may argue. Truly enough, but we know how they came there:
Albert Pike took
them from his own great learning of the ancient books. Much of the
material is very
old but the structure into which it is built and the use to which it is
from the labors of Albert Pike, or else from his immediate predecessors.
crux in all this discussion may be thrown into the form of the
question, How old
is Masonry? This question never loses its vitality and seems to hold an
fascination for Masons. The answer depends upon the meaning we
attribute to the
word Masonry. If by Masonry we mean any kind of secret organization,
then it is
as old as the world. If it is used of any secret society that employs
some of our
signs or symbols, then it may be traced here and there into many lands
many centuries. If it is used in the strictest sense to indicate a man
been initiated into a regular lodge of symbolical Freemasonry working
authority of a regular Grand Lodge, then Freemasonry is only two
hundred years old.
If it is to be used of organizations with which this modern speculative
can trace an undeniable historical continuity, then it may be dated
from the twelfth
or thirteenth centuries. Of one thing we can be sure, the men's house,
a lodge in
which brethren meet behind tiled doors, is not a modern, artificial
thing but springs
out of human nature itself, to satisfy the needs that have been felt
man began to be.
* * *
Ancient Evidences, p. 18;
Golden Bough, p.22;
Men's House, p. 308.
Vol. 11 (1916)
Masonic Tradition, p. 189;
Masonry, p. 190;
Meaning of Initiation, p. 205;
Masonic Signs, p. 253;
Freemasonry, p. 371.
Central African Mystery, p. 15;
Origin of Druidism, p. 22;
Initiatory Rites of Druidism, p. 35;
Masonry Among Primitive Peoples, p. 38;
Societies of Islam, p. 84;
Aboriginal Races and Freemasonry, p. 96;
Chinese Signs, p. 156;
House, p. 209.
Vol. IV (1918)
Definitions of Masonry, p. 125;
Voice of the Sign, October, C.C.B.,
Divine Mystery, p. 334;
Mysteries of the Art of the Caverns
and Early Builders, p. 366.
Vol. V (1919)
Legendary Origin of Freemasonry, p. 297,
Vol. VI (1920)
Bird's-Eye View of Masonic History, p.
Purposes of Legends and Myths, p. 258;
Freemasonry Among the American Indians,
Came Freemasonry, p. 90;
Wolf Joins the Metawin, p. 281.
American Indians and Freemasonry, P. 71;
Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods, pp. 88,
151, 152, 153;
Masonry Among the Chippewa Indians, p.
Mediating Theory, p. 318;
of Masonry Among Indians and Worth
Americans, p. 354.
Encyclopedia ‒ (Revised Edition):
Pike, p. 563;
Assassins, p. 82;
Chinese Secret Societies, p. 148;
Civilization and Freemasonry, p.153;
Culdees, p. 191;
Degrees, p. 203;
Druidical Mysteries, p. 220;
Druses, p. 221; Initiation, p. 353;
p. 461; Primitive Freemasonry, p.
Scottish Rite, p. 671; Secret Societies,
Books Consulted In Preparing
Lowie, Primitive Society. [Lib 1920]
Ward, Freemasonry and the Ancient
Webster, Primitive Secret Societies. Lib
Frazer, Golden Bough. [Lib 1922]
Hasting's Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics, Vol. VII, p. 314 [Lib 1908]; XI, p. 287 [Lib 1908].
Religion of the Semites. [Lib 1923]
Heckethorn, Secret Societies. [Lib 1875;
1, Vol 2]
Myth, Ritual, and Religion. [Lib
1, Vol 2]
Thomas, Source Book For Social Origins.
Rivers, The Todas. [Lib 1906]
Primitive Culture. [Lib 1920; Vol 1, Vol 2]
Wallace, The Malay Archipelago. [Lib 1869;
1, Vol 2]
‒ Coote, The Western Pacific.
Upward, The Divine Mystery. [Lib 1915]
Capart, Primitive Art. [Lib 1905]
Tree and Pillar Cult. [Lib 1901]
Harrison, Ancient Art and Ritual. [Lib
Maspero, Dawn of Civilization. [Lib 1910]
Wright, Indian Masonry. [Lib 1907]
Freemasonry in China. [Lib*]
Lack of Trained Leaders
is a Danger to Masonry
ARE familiar with the pages of the V. S. L. will recall how difficult a
was for the old Jewish tribes to lay aside their differences, their
and their deeply rooted feuds in order to unite under one leader. But
became necessary and it was accordingly done. The Canaanites who
in the great central valleys and who ‒ with justice, as we would now
think ‒ believed
themselves the rightful owners of the land, determined to gather all
together in order to deal one last and fatal blow against the loosely
of the immigrant invaders. It was then that the Jewish tribesmen
helpless they would be against such a foe as Sisera and his well
and how necessary it would be for them to choose leaders and to learn
to obey. Deborah
saw all this very clearly, and she brought Barak to see it also, along
other less popular and less powerful chiefs. Had the Jews not thus
function and necessity of leadership, and had they not learned the
wisdom to follow
their leaders, they would have been swept out of existence by Sisera,
and the subsequent
history of the world would have been a very different tale.
So much for
the episode, which is here offered as a parable wherefrom to draw a
evermore needs to be learned anew. Our own nation is supposed to be a
and we are supposed to be democrats ‒ the reader is requested to
word from its partisan connections ‒ but our democracy appears to be in
and we democrats are becoming perturbed lest it be not able to surmount
The thought I wish to apply to the problem is that we must learn anew
Deborah learned long ago; we must rediscover the lost philosophy of
and learn how to select, to develop, and to follow leaders.
* * *
The Builder Is One Hundred
Society was organized some nine years ago in order to serve in behalf
education and kindred interests, a few brethren ‒ influential in the
Craft and themselves
very much in favor of the project ‒ expressed fears lest the
undertaking fail for
lack of support. The Fraternity, so they thought, was not sufficiently
in such matters, which was only another way of saying that it was not
in itself, for Masonic education is nothing other than an attempt to
into more complete possession of their Masonry. Time has happily proved
unduly pessimistic. This Society has never been so flourishing as now,
and as for
Masonic education, it is everywhere and without exception completely in
issue THE BUILDER has come to its one hundredth month. It is an event
by a new dedication to the old cause, by a larger determination to
in the future, and by a sincere prayer that T.S.G.A.O.T.U. may continue
bless our beloved Craft in all its undertakings. This CENTURY NUMBER is
to that end, and as an earnest of still better things to come.
* * *
more it has become the custom among; speakers and publicists to
in such a wise as to ignore altogether the whole principle of
leadership as though
it were something entirely foreign to, or even antagonistic to,
is an easy one to fall into. The word "democracy" means, so it may be
asserted, that the masses of the people rule themselves: if they must
then they need no rulers; if they need no rulers in government then
they need none,
in business, or in industry, or anywhere else. Therefore ‒ thus runs
of reasoning ‒ we should have "direct democracy"; which is only another
way of saying that the people as a whole should decide on all large
everything of a public character; the people should not have
leaders; they should be left "free" to run themselves ‒ and to manage
their own affairs.
of logic, which should be easily riddled by every high school sophomore
school sophomores were taught to think at all, is: being used with much
by demagogues the country over. Those who do not wish entirely to
in the present system, but who desire to see the people own and manage
own public utilities, and direct and control by their own mass action
affairs, such as the declaration of war, the making of treaties and all
all this as "direct democracy," which may be defined as mass action by
the people without the intermediary action of representatives. Those
who do not
care a straw about our present system of civilization, and who would
see it utterly demolished, with the Constitution abandoned and Congress
would have every detail of public affairs immediately managed by the
of the whole population. They are the Communists strictly so-called
and, like their
fellow theorists in Russia, would, if they were to be consistent, cast
only all leaders but even those classes who supply most of our leaders,
groups who have what is called a higher education.
I think the
reply to these theorists should be that democracy in itself is a
form of civilization, and that by its very nature it implies leadership
as one of
its necessary and most important functionings. It is wrong to suppose
that a democracy
can function without leaders. It is equally wrong to suppose that
leaders are in
any wise a contradiction of democracy. Democracy implies leaders and
of leaders; so is it now, and so will it ever be, for that is the way
* * *
To Follow a Leader is not
At the back
of all this anti-leadership reasoning is the half formulated feeling
or other it is a kind of disgrace to fall in behind a leader. It
appears to betoken
inferiority on the part of those who suffer themselves to be led. Those
or unwittingly, harbor this feeling should look more carefully into the
if they do, they will discover how groundless is their objection. To
rightful leader is an act of intelligence and usually reveals good
sense and superiority,
rather than the opposite.
When the brainiest men in the world get together in order to perfect a
plan of mass
action what do they do? They organize themselves, they elect officers,
constitutions and regulations, and then the rank and file of them fall
and keep step with the procession. The scientists who make up the Royal
or the literati who comprise the membership of the French Academy do
any mental inferiority merely because they all have leaders, and
those leaders as such. When the biggest business men of the nation set
out to accomplish
a thing, they choose their guides and their organizers and the mass of
themselves to be led. Leadership is a fact as well as a factor in every
movement ever undertaken even though that movement be communism itself,
for it should
be recalled (as seldom it is) that Lenine and Trotsky are leaders of
exactly the same sense that Harding and Coolidge are political leaders
does not imply leaderlessness; it implies leadership. It should be
the forefathers who laid so wisely the foundations of this United
full well that there can be no such thing as an automatic action of the
No, and per contra! for they revealed their very genius in the plan
whereby the masses of us can select and control our leaders. It was in
than in what Brooks Adams miscalls "the democratic dogma" of direct
that these forefathers showed their sagacity as politicians and their
When we come
to decide questions of national policy, what other course can be
followed save that
of selecting representatives or delegates and empowering them with the
of action? Consider the posture of affairs at this present moment. This
trying to decide as a matter of policy what course to follow on the
of war debts; it is trying to decide what policy to pursue with regard
to the reorganization
of agriculture; it is undertaking to deal with a dozen major problems
arisen as aftermath of the Great War; it must somehow learn anew how to
railways so as not to destroy their efficiency and prosperity; these
and many other
questions of policy are before this nation, and these questions must
settled. But who is there among the rank and file of us that is capable
all these matters? Would we not as a people bungle these matters up
were we to decide them all by direct vote? Under such circumstances but
is possible: we must select representative men of good character and
and set them to solving these problems for us.
But the deciding
of matters of policy is less than half the battle. After the policy has
upon it becomes necessary to set up the machinery of administration
policy is to be made effective. If, for example, Congress should decide
entirely new policy regarding immigration we could not all, as a mass
take our stations at Ellis Island in order to see that the machinery of
is operative; the mere thought is ridiculous. But the same thing is
true of every
other matter of similar import. We must have leaders capable of
threshing out pubic
problems; able to decide them wisely; and we must also have leaders,
and by an equal
necessity, capable of putting policies into effective operation.
of other ways in which leadership is necessary could easily be given
need, which there is not, because the subject needs but to be faced in
Freemasonry Must Have Trained
I think it
would be well to apply all this to our Fraternity which is organized on
ground plan as our government. It is a democracy that exists in a
which carries on its activities by means of leaders constitutionally
to law, and therefore the very fabric of its organization implies not a
by the mass of the membership but an indirect action through properly
and leaders. Just as there are leaders in Grand Lodge politics (I use
here in its accurate sense) so must there be leaders of Masonic
thought, and leaders
in the ventilation and settlement of Masonic policies. For us to make
light of our
leaders, or refuse our leaders support, or to spread among our
membership a cynicism
that would call the whole system of leadership into question, that
would be folly
of a suicidal kind.
there are plenty of false leaders in our midst. Crooks and blockheads
way into every organization once it grows to a respectable size and
begins to wield
influence; and they make trouble.
organization there are men who pull wires in order to have themselves
positions for which they are not fitted, merely in order to bask in the
beats upon a throne. Others, and often they have not a shred of right
to such places,
get to the top by dint of scheming and philandering merely to satisfy
of place; for fame, as we say! And others there are who sometimes rise
of leadership, in spite of profound ignorance as to what Masonry itself
is and what
the Fraternity as an organization is trying to do in the world.
these and other types of false or unfit leaders in our midst, but what
of it? Not
for such a reason can we leap to the conclusion that leadership itself
is an evil.
The cure for false leadership lies in a Masonic education that will
into the whole rank and file of the membership, from the top down, so
members will know what Freemasonry is and what it is doing, and what it
to do, and how it is to be done. To the extent that such a thing is
done our members
will know whom to select for their leaders; when to approve the action
leaders; how to remove false leaders; and whom to train to become
MYSTERY AND ALCHEMY [Lib 1918] by M. A. Atwood. A suggestive
Hermetic Philosophy and Alchemy, published by William Tait, Belfast,
OF Hermes, the Egyptian, comprises at once a religion, a philosophy and
That doctrine, and those of the Sephiroth, the Ain Soph, and the Kabala
identical – that from nothing there came the Great Monad, Deity, by
whom and from
whom everything was created and in everything is He. This is the
base of the doctrine. Pythagoras, who sojourned many years in the East,
the same doctrine. Hermes made no claim to being the author but on the
maintained that it was ancient. By philosophizing on this point and
Hermes realized that man was of an entirely different character to all
else on earth
in that he possessed reasoning power, that he was endowed with an
he was created in the image of God, and that he must have been created
for a divine
purpose, that man is divine in that he has a dual personality, and that
body died not with the physical. This dual personality was not realized
by the vast
majority of mankind, and this latent personality was capable of great
"Know thyself," says he. The development of the latent powers of man
not be accomplished by simple faith but by absolute conviction.
It was for
the development of spirituality that the Mysteries were practiced. The
many authorities in regard to just what the Mysteries consisted of. The
were open to almost all and taught certain truths and the necessity of
a moral life
as the prerequisite for reformation, regeneration and the perfection of
as we Masons do. The Greater Mysteries were only for the very few, and
a long period
– many years – elapsed after being initiated in the Lesser Mysteries.
had to cast aside all worldly desires in the cultivation of the
spiritual and psychic.
"The doctrine of the Greater Mysteries," says Clemens Alexandrinus,
to the whole universe; here all instruction ended; nature and all
things she contains
were unveiled." Nor were the visions of gods attending on those
images, nor mere symbols, nor impotent, nor idle, nor invisible, though
That the aspirant was put under the influence of what is termed
Mesmerism is evident
but in the Hermetic Greater Mysteries the evidence points to his
acquiring the power
temporarily to disassociate his spiritual body from the physical and to
"foreign countries," where he beheld something of the life hereafter.
Was not this the power held by Emanuel Swedenborg in the eighteenth
has it not been in the power of certain persons from time to time that
bring spiritual matters before the multitude? The disciples of Hermes,
mode of life, by their mentality, by their convictions, by their
the power of healing by the laying on of hands. It is this side ‒ the
the philosophic ‒ of the Hermetic doctrine, which, however much some
may so declare
it, is not contrary to Christianity, and should most appeal to us.
part of the book, which comprises 600 pages, is given up to an
in the Hermetic art of producing the "philosopher's stone" that
the baser metals into the purest gold; and the "elixir of life" that
prolong human life. Being an enquiry and not just an essay, there are
from old books showing what a searching enquiry had been made, and it
is these quotations
that rather break the thread and irritate one trying to obtain an
on this very abstruse subject.
must admit that there is a fascination about the idea of the
transmutation of the
baser metals into gold and it was doubtless due to this that the first
which was published in 1918, was soon exhausted and the present edition
work was written some seventy years before by a young woman barely
of age who delved exhaustively into the subject with her father. The
book was actually
printed and a few copies sold when the father, moved by a change of
bought in the whole issue, because he deemed that he had divulged
was sacred. The fear that anyone by this book alone could discover the
art was certainly
groundless, for the whole doctrine as quoted from the various authors
veiled in language not understandable by moderns unless specially
in expounding their doctrine used the technics of their art as
allegories and it
is difficult at times to distinguish when they were expatiating on
their art, and
when propounding doctrine.
that few would care to wade through it as I-had to do in order to
review it. That
the assembly of-all the authorities as has been done in the book was
while will be admitted. The philosophy – should be studied; it is not a
casual reading. Masons of the Scottish Rite, who are well versed in the
(unfortunately they are few) will have certain of the degrees recalled
to them as
they read, particularly the seventh, eighteenth, and thirty-second:
while our English
brethren, working the Emulation ritual, will find that the Hermetic
quoted- in the third degree.
Ernest E. Murray.
* * *
An Important Work on the
ITS DOCTRINES, DEVELOPMENT, AND LITERATURE [Lib 1920], by Christian D. Ginsburg;
Publishing Company, 26 East Arid Street, New York City. For sale by
Research Society, Cedar Rapids, Iowa: $2.35, postpaid.
In his admirable
treatise on the subject in Hasting's Encyclopaedia of Religion and
Ethics, Mr. H.
Loewe gives his readers a list of "the chief Kabbalists" which
no fewer than twenty names. The first is that of Aaron teen Samuel, a
Jew of Italy
who lived in the ninth century: the last is that of Baer of Meseritz: a
born in 1710. Mr. Loewe also gives a list of the Kabbalistic works, the
which he dates in the sixth century. One glance at the great scope of
as thus indicated is sufficient to set one on his guard against any
cheap or rapid
generalizations on the subject, either as to its history or its
to occultism developed among the Jews long before the beginning of our
this became the source of many bizarre forms of religion, some of which
to the Kabbalah, the most famous literary expression of which is known
as the "Zohar."
For a long time it was the custom to attribute to the Kabbalah a great
but this has been now abandoned by almost all competent scholars,
the appearance of Graetz's History of the Jews, in which famous work
writer dealt literalistic believers in the Kabbalah a savage blow. The
is to hold that the Kabbalah had its rise among Spanish Jews in the
who, of a mystical turn of mind, reacted against the “philosophical”
by Maimonides, the great savant and thinker that tried to drain all
out of the Holy Scriptures in order to give a "naturalistic" account of
Jewish history. There was much fakery and chicanery among the early
the Zohar itself is described by Graetz as a pious fraud ‒ but for all
created a powerful movement, and one that has not yet by any means
It is doubtful
if the Kabbalah would ever have made itself felt outside a limited
circle of Jewish
enthusiasts had not a condition developed in Germany of great moment.
In the face
of an attempt made by the Jesuits to drive the Jews out of North German
Reuchlin, who ranked with Luther as a great religious leader,
astonished the world
by stoutly championing the cause of the Jews, and that in the face of
opposition, especially from Rome. Through Reuchlin's advocacy ‒ he
to have discovered a secret movement toward Christianity in Kabbalistic
‒ the Kabbalah became a kind of fashion. Pico Mirandola, the prodigy of
also defended it; and it is said that Pope Sixtus embraced it. In the
time its literature found its way to the study table of every important
Protestant as well as Catholic.
the atmosphere" Kabbalism took many forms and poured its influence into
unexpected channels. As an example of this last, it very doubtless had
much to do
with the secret teachings and symbolism of early Speculative
are the best of reasons for believing that such all-important features
of our esoteric
work as the Temple of Solomon and the Lost Word ultimately were derived
source. This may be so or it may not; in either case the subject is one
be ignored by any Masonic reader.
book is not new. It was first pub dished in London in 1865 along with
an essay on
The Essenes. Subsequent historical discoveries have robbed the latter
essay of much
of its value, but the treatise on The Kabbalah continues to be the best
widely used brief work in our language. George Routledge & Sons
of London, have
made photostatic plates of the Kabbalistic portion of the original
edition and thus
guaranteed that the new edition (handled in this country by the Bloch
Company) is like the former down to the least detail. The volume has
to THE BUILDER'S Book List. It is absolutely essential to every Masonic
* * *
Speech Making Made Easy
THEIR PREPARATION AND DELIVERY, [Lib 1922] by Alexander Burton.
Edward J. Clode, 156 Fifth Avenue, New York City.
the same difference between the speech maker and the orator that there
the mother who croons a child to sleep and the prima donna who thrills
a great audience
at the Metropolitan Opera. Oratory is a fine art, for which few are
making of speeches is a more humdrum achievement. Any man of normal
and an average intellect can learn the trick. All he needs is a little
and a little coaching.
Their Preparation and Delivery is a book that can do the coaching. It
is not a heavy
text for use in college classes but a fresh readable bit of counsel by
speaker, who knows what he is talking about and how to say it. Officers
address a lodge, and other brethren who are called on at lodge social
will find this volume well worth owning.
devotes most of his attention to after dinner speeches, for which the
exceeds the supply. He tells the tyro how to make his speech simple, so
as to avoid
flowery rhetoric; how to deliver it with geniality and with wit and
humor so as
to please an audience in gastronomic mood; and how to relate a humorous
poems, quotations and such other speech supplies are furnished as
themselves in need of. The book is composed of 251 pages and is well
bound in red
cloth. It may be whispered under the breath that a number of good Ample
What Is Freemasonry?
is a science which is engaged in the search after divine truth, and
symbolism as its means of instruction.
Albert G. Mackey.
every clime, from age to age,
Masons performed their mystic rite;
Craftsmen, scholar, poet, sage,
Met, and beheld Masonic light
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
over his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
Study Club course. The Society is now receiving from fifty to one
each week: it is manifestly impossible to publish many of them in this
Concerning Scottish Rite
such a thing as a Scottish Rite Blue Lodge in this country? Is there
such a thing
in other countries? How do they differ from York Rite Blue Lodges, and
do they learn
the same lectures as we do? Are they recognized by our Grand Lodges?
H. E. Y., Arizona.
there such a thing in this or any country?
are no Symbolic lodges in the United States which confer the first
of Masonry, and which derive their authority from either the Northern
or the Southern
Jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite. There is an exception in California
where a lodge
composed of French speaking brethren confers the First Degree of the
under special dispensation of the Grand Lodge of California. There is a
case in Louisiana, but I cannot now supply details.
there such a thing in other countries?
Yes. The first three degrees of
Rite are used in all countries where Masonry exists except in the
Canada, Mexico, England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland.
do they differ from York Rite Blue Lodges, and do they learn the same
It would be impossible to tell
you on paper the
differences. While complete data is lacking, it is safe to say that you
recognize the lectures they use. They differ entirely from what you
Your lectures would be of little value to you if you were attempting to
way in to visit. The signs differ somewhat, but your words and grips
you a Mason. Even here, you would probably find a word in the First and
you had never heard of before. Each Supreme Council, though, has the
right to fix
its own ritual.
they recognized by our Grand Lodges?
Some are by some Grand Lodges
and others are
not. It all depends on whether our Grand Lodges have adopted the policy
Lodges, to be entitled to recognition, must trace their origin back to
Lodge of England. That is, Symbolic lodges will not be recognized which
authority from Supreme Councils. Each Grand Lodge in this country has
its own ideas
and policies when it comes to recognition. There is much absurdity
this question of recognition.
with the ritual used where the Scottish Rite Symbolic degrees are
the evidence at hand, it is the writer’s opinion that the Scottish Rite
the First, Second, and Third Degrees, has largely been adapted from the
in The French Rite.
* * *
Brother Kress Wants Information
about Thomas Smith Webb
like to ask every reader of THE BUILDER to furnish me whatever
information he may
have, based on contemporary sources, relative to the life and activates
Smith Webb. Also I should like to be placed in touch with any of Webb's
A. L. Kress,
830 Center Street, Williamsport, Pa.
* * *
Quatuor Coronati Lodge No.
2076, Of London
Can you please
explain to me how I may become able to affiliate with the
of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 2076, London, so often referred to
in THE BUILDER?
H. J. M., Ohio.
received from an American representative of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge
to publish the printed application blank now in use: it fully explains
all the things
about which you inquire. If desired, applications for membership will
be sent through
the National Masonic Research Society.
CORONATI LODGE NO. 2076, OF LONDON
granted on the 28th November, 1884).
To provide a center and bond of
union for Masonic Students.
To attract intelligent Masons
to its Meetings, in order to imbue them with
a love for Masonic research.
To submit the discoveries or
conclusions of students to the judgment and
criticism of their fellows by means of papers read in Lodge.
To submit these communications
and the discussions arising thereon to the
general body of the Craft by publishing, at proper intervals, the
the Lodge in their entirety.
To tabulate concisely, in the
printed Transactions of the Lodge, the progress
of the Craft throughout the World.
To make the English-speaking
Craft acquainted with the progress of Masonic
study abroad, by translations (in whole or part) of foreign works.
To reprint scarce and valuable
works on Freemasonry, and to publish Manuscripts,
To form a Masonic Library and
To acquire permanent London
premises, and open a reading-room for the members.
of our Correspondence Circle of whom there are now nearly 3500) are
placed on the
following footing: ‒
convoking the MEETINGS are posted to them regularly. They are entitled
all the meetings of the Lodge whenever convenient to themselves. When
are entitled to take part in the discussions on the papers read before
and to introduce their personal friends. They are not visitors at our
but rather associates of the Lodge. The stated meetings are the first
January, March, May, and October, St. John’s Day (in Harvest), and the
(Feast of the Quatuor Coronati). At every meeting an original paper is
is followed by a discussion. The funds are wholly devoted to Lodge and
purposes, and no portion is spent in refreshment. The members of the
Lodge and Correspondence
Circle usually dine together after the meetings, but at their own
Visitors, who are cordially welcome, enjoy the option of partaking ‒ on
terms ‒ of a meal at the common table.
the privilege of using the READING ROOM and Library of the Lodge at 27,
Street, London, W. C. 2.
TRANSACTIONS of the Lodge and the St. John's Card (with list of
members) are posted
to them as issued. Three parts of the Transactions are published each
contain a summary of the business of the Lodge, the full text of the
in Lodge together with the discussions, many essays communicated by the
biographies, historical notes, reviews of Masonic publications, notes
obituary, and other matter. They are profusely illustrated and
from Correspondence Members are gratefully accepted, and as far as
in the Transactions.
for Membership in the Correspondence Circle is subject to no
artistic, or scientific. His election takes place at the Lodge-meeting
the receipt of his application.
FEE is 21s., which includes one year's subscription to the following
SUBSCRIPTION is only 10s. 6d., and is renewable each December for the
following. Brethren joining us late in the year suffer no disadvantage,
receive all the Transactions previously issued in the same year. By the
in one sum of Twelve years' Subscription in advance, i. e., Six
Brethren may qualify as LIFE MEMBERS of the Correspondence Circle.
be seen that the members of the Correspondence Circle enjoy all the
the full members except the right of voting in Lodge matters and
Master Mason in good standing throughout the Universe, and all regular
Chapters, and Libraries or other corporate bodies are eligible as
Members of the
W. J. Songhurst, P. G. D., Secretary.
* * *
How to Deal With an Atheist
Member of a Lodge
As a member
of the National Masonic Research Society, I would like to be informed
how to handle
such a case as the following:
In the place
of business where I am employed, there is an employee who is a member
of a lodge
in another jurisdiction. This man was conversing with another employee
who is a
strict Catholic. I overheard this man express himself that there is no
as a "Supreme Being." He also remarked that the Bible is a collection
of foolish stories. I told him that I would never sit in a lodge room
with a man
of his type and that I would never recognize him as a "Mason." Since
day this man has tried his utmost to undermine my position.
I would like
to be informed, through the columns of the "Question Box," how this
could be brought before a Masonic tribunal, so that he may receive the
S. S., New Jersey.
matter up with your Worshipful Master. Have him ascertain this
brother's views on
the question. If he finds that the brother frankly confesses himself an
he can then be brought to trial. There is no other way of handling such
If the brother is in strict truth an atheist he has no place in such a
as ours, and he should too much scorn to play the part of a hypocrite
in it. However, it is necessary to use caution because there is a great
in men's conception of God, and it may well happen that what would be
faith in God
in one case would be deemed atheism by others who hold a different
* * *
Can Eastern Star Chapter
Refuse Any Applicant?
I am in search
of information to settle a recent argument that has been brought before
during the past month. One brother contends that a chapter of the
refuse to admit to membership any brother who is in good standing in
his Blue Lodge.
Another argues that any chapter of the O.E.S. has a right to reject or
any brother it they choose to do so.
A. J. N., Colorado.
Evans Keyes, Right Worthy Grand Secretary O. E. S., International
Washington, D.C., has replied to your query. She quotes Landmark 11,
page 4, of
the Ritual of the O.E.S.:
right of every Chapter to decide, from among eligible candidates, who
shall be admitted
proves that a chapter has a perfect right to reject any candidate
though he be in good standing in his lodge.
An Inquiry Concerning Dr.
Robert Talifferro Lively
legend in my family that about 1865 or 1866 my grandfather, Dr. Robert
Lively, of Pilot Grove, Grayson County, Texas, was invited to address
an open meeting
of Masons in New Orleans, and that he killed his sheep, prepared the
wrote his address thereon, and that he rode from Pilot Grove (about 16
miles S 30
E from the present site of Sherman, Texas,) to New Orleans on
his address and then rode home. The story, as I understand it, is that
it was his
wish that this Masonic Parchment should go to his youngest son, and so
on down each
time to the youngest, in the event the youngest was not a Mason to the
et cetera. My father, Robert Morris Lively, of Whitewright, Grayson
being the youngest, fell heir to this parchment (as my grandfather died
or 1867 from the best accounts that I can get), he being a Master Mason
at Whitewright, Texas. My father died in 1906, at which time I was
old. After the death of my father, my mother used to show me a roll of
she said was my grandfather's address and that it should become my
I was made a Master Mason, to be kept by me until my younger brother,
should become a Master Mason. In the event that he was never a Master
Mason it would
then become my permanent possession. This parchment was preserved and
kept for me,
but, in 1910 we moved from Whitewright, Texas, to Durant, Oklahoma, and
parchment was lost at that time and in some manner during the move. My
in February, 1922, and she always told me that she was forever looking
paper that by rights belonged to me at the present; but it was never
to her death, and as our home in Durant has been broken up, and with
father both dead, and with my grandfather having died years before I
was born, I
don't suppose that I shall ever be able to see this treasured Masonic
further I only know of two (very old) men who are alive today who knew
and they were very young men at the time of his death and were in all
not Master Masons at that time.
For the reasons
stated above I am asking you to publish this letter with the hopes that
brother in New Orleans, or who was at the meeting mentioned above, may
this circumstance and will write me the particulars and possibly give
me a summary
of what my grandfather's address consisted of. And I am also in hopes
secretary who now has the records of the old lodges in New Orleans will
record of this address and will be able to advise me, and possibly to
send me a
certified copy of the same.
Morris U. Lively, Texas.
* * *
Robert Morris as the Father
of Uniform Work
I write to
add some notes to your reply to J.C.D. on page of THE BUILDER for
As far back
as 1822 there was a Masonic Convention held at Washington, D.C.,
primarily to consider
the formation of a General Grand Lodge, but which expressed the opinion
of Work was a most desirable attainment.
followed the anti-Masonic excitement, from which the Craft did not
to recover until about 1840. One consequence of it was that the
knowledge of the
ritual and the work became sadly deficient and all sorts of additions
was that many members of the Craft felt it advisable to meet together
what the old work was. So, on the initiative of the Lodge of Alabama, a
was called at Washington in 1842, which later recommended another
was held at Baltimore in 1843. The primary purpose of this latter was
to agree upon
a Uniform Work for national adoption. There were fifteen jurisdictions
represented at this last convention. They met and adopted a Uniform
Work, then termed
"the Baltimore Work."
work" in those days had a different meaning from what it has today.
only implied a general uniformity in essentials. Grand Lodges did not
have the mechanism
or the desire to know whether uniformity of work actually existed
within their own
jurisdiction or not. It was by no means unusual for each new Grand
Master to promulgate
the version he knew as the "official work" for that year. Such a course
could only result in confusion in the Temple.
is point to the comments of Bro. J. F. Brennan which you quoted, and it
is the spirit
and not the letter which counts, still Masonry is an organized
institution and the
methods of organization which might meet the requirements of a small
would hardly answer for a large one. Then too, it is an unfortunate
of men to want to leave their personal mark on things by "improving"
So it simply evolved, this necessity for one definite standard within a
We may well
term Rob Morris the father of "uniform work," using the term as we do
to-day implying strict verbal accuracy. He was the first to set forth
and to preach it, through his "Conservators" Association of Symbolic
Here is his own language:
harmony shall consist in the most perfect uniformity amongst ourselves
and our pupils,
and the Craft at large, so far as we can honorably influence them. It
to the strictest minutiae ‒ to words, syllables, and letters ‒ to
‒ to times and seasons ‒ to modes of inculcation. To this end the
resign every preconceived habit or notion that conflicts with the
standard of Preston
and Webb and must sacrifice every variation of word, syllable and
letter upon the
common altar of National Uniformity."
was written in 1860 and it is not too much to attribute all that has
along the line of uniformity of work to Rob Morris, the Conservators,
and the above
policy laid down by him in 1860.
In many states
at present uniformity of work probably exists in theory only. Then too,
exceptions made in the cases of some old lodge which has preserved its
perhaps one hundred years. There is such an exception in J.C.D.'s own
state of Connecticut.
A. L. Kress, Pennsylvania.
* * *
Some Lutherans Are Not Opposed
To Public Schools or To Masonry
over THE BUILDER of last August I have come upon a statement on page
238 that needs
replying to. It was made by Bro. Lewis E. Smith, writing as Grand
Master of Nebraska,
and stated the following:
our state the Lutherans and the Roman Catholic churches have joined
fighting each other for four hundred years, and are carrying a case to
Court of the United Yes in an endeavor to invalidate our language law.”
does not say which Lutherans he refers to. I am Lutheran, but the
church I belong
to is not opposed to public schools, but endorses them. The Lutherans
on that question. If I am not mistaken, the Missouri Synod members are
ones in favor of the language law. Our church teaches Sunday School in
of the land.
Julius Hoga, Nebraska,
Smith has welcomed your correction, Bro. Hoga, as do we. You might have
there are many Lutheran churches that are not opposed to Freemasonry,
have in our files letters from Missouri Masons who are members of the
There is no reason under the blue skies why any great church should
which is the friend and aider of all who would live the spiritual life.
* * *
The Italian National Grand
In No. 9,
Vol. VI, (Sept. 1920) of your beautiful magazine, THE BUILDER, you
Report presented by the Committee on Foreign Lodges to the Grand Lodge
of the State
By the resolution
adopted at that time by the above mentioned Grand Lodge, there was
a regular Masonic Body the Grand Orient of Italy: and our National
Grand Lodge of
A. F. & A. Masons of Italy was declared an irregular one.
you the copy of a new Report presented by the President of the
Committee on Foreign
Lodges to the Grand Lodge of the State of Alabama which approved the
on the Assembly held in Montgomery on the 7th of December, 1921.
I hope you
will publish in your magazine the new report and that you will call the
of your readers not only to the new resolutions of the Grand Lodge of
also to the fact that our National Grand Lodge is now recognized by the
of the regular Grand Lodges of U.S.A.
thanks and best regards, I am
Sincerely and fraternally yours,
Raoul V. Palermi, Grand Master,
Italian National Grand Lodge.
referred to in the above is here given in full, and thanks to the
courtesy of Oliver
D. Street, of the Grand Lodge of Alabama:
TO THE M.
W. GRAND LODGE A.F. & A.M. OF ALABAMA:
At the 1919
Communication of this Grand Lodge recognition of the National Grand
Lodge of Italy
was refused because no showing was made by it in response to repeated
to the circumstances and purpose of its formation. We have been
furnished with this
information. From it we learn that in March, 1919, the lodges then
adhering to one
of the Supreme Councils of the Scottish Rite of Italy, completely
relations with their mother Supreme Council, with the full consent and
of the latter body; that these lodges by this action became entirely
of any control by the Scottish Rite bodies.
thereupon proceeded to hold an assembly or convention with the result
formed themselves into the National Grand Lodge of Italy. This Grand
Lodge is completely
independent of any superior governing power and conforms to those
practices which are recognized and practiced by all American Grand
in Deity is exacted of its initiates and the Bible is displayed upon
the altar of
the lodge. Only the first three degrees are practiced or controlled by
for the formation of said Grand Lodge was that there was not then (and
is not now)
in Italy any other independent Grand Lodge of Masons. The motive was to
or Symbolic Masonry in Italy on that basis which has proved so
successful and satisfactory
in our own and other countries. This step has already proved its
wisdom: the National
Grand Lodge now has 560 lodges and more than 60,000 Masons and is still
rapidly in numbers.
At the same
time, in 1919, that the above action was taken with regard to the
Lodge of Italy, the Grand Lodge of Alabama recognized the Grand Lodge
of Italy as
an independent Supreme governing body of Symbolic Masonry. In this we
now find that
we were mistaken. We have favored with a copy of some of the laws and
of the Grand Orient. From them we learn, among other things, that the
cannot issue a charter for a lodge without the approval of the
Sovereign Grand Commander
of another Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite which exists in Italy,
or in certain
cases, the approval of the President of the Council of the Italian
Rite. The Masters
and officers of the subordinate lodges also take oath "to obey with
precision and zeal the supreme authority of our Ritual Hierarchy"; i.
the Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite, or of the Grand Council of
Rite, as the case may be. The General Assembly is the legislative body
for the lodge;
it also elects the Grand Master. Its members include not only the
the lodges, but ten delegates from the Scottish Rite Supreme Council,
ten from the
Grand Council of the Italian Rite, the presidents of the chapters and
Kadosh of the Scottish Rite and the presidents of the District Councils
of the Italian
It is perfectly
manifest that the Grand Orient is not an independent sovereign body but
under the domination and control of the Scottish Rite Supreme Council
and of the
Grand Council of the Italian Rite.
recommend the adoption of the following resolutions:
That the Grand Lodge A. F. & A. M. of Alabama recognize the
National Grand Lodge
of Italy as an independent sovereign governing body of Symbolic Masonry
Grand Master is hereby requested to arrange an exchange of
FURTHER, That the Grand Lodge of Alabama does not recognize the Grand
Italy as an independent governing body of Symbolic Masonry, but finds
that it is
under the control of the governing bodies and authorities of the
Scottish and Italian
Oliver D. Street, Chairman.
* * *
Lodge Presents Bible to
I wish to
call your attention to what seems to be an entirely new idea in the
Masonic Lodges, and that is the presentation of a copy of The Great
Light to the
Public Schools. This is described in our Lodge Bulletin, in which there
is a photo-engraving
of the Bible which was presented to a new High School in Hempstead, L.
date of May 8th. It has been stated on several occasions that this is
time that this has ever been done in this Jurisdiction. I am wondering
can cite any other occasions when this was done by a Masonic Lodge?
I might add
that the occasion of this presentation was a wonderful success. About
Masons accompanied the Lodge while it went from "Labor to Refreshment,"
escorted by two hundred Knights Templar in full uniform and the Kismet
of Brooklyn, N. Y. Masons came from far and near to assist us in this
and the enthusiasm which was shown was simply wonderful. The Bible was
the Masonic Temple to the School House by four High School boys, sons
of Past Masters,
and for a town of only about ten thousand inhabitants, you can imagine
that it created
quite a stir.
I am writing
you as I am with the idea in mind that other lodges throughout the
feeling that they would like to take a strong stand on the question of
Public School, would be delighted to have this thought brought to their
as it really is an activity which Masons can enter into and I believe
great enthusiasm everywhere among the members of any lodge.
A. H. Phillips, New York.
* * *
Poem on Letters of the Keystone
I saw an
inquiry in the Question Box in the December number on page 385 asking
for a poem
based on the letters on the Keystone and beginning with “H.”
is copyrighted by Bro. Henry L. Brown, who is my uncle.
I with pleasure
forward the same to you for the benefit of the Craft.
Happy the man whose every act
The rigid test of the
Who, while times level
Stands firm before his
fellow and his
Seeking by deeds of
charity and love
To gain admittance to
that Lodge above,
Knowing the stone among
the rubbish cast
Shall be, regained, the
William L. Cooper, Past High Priest of Franklin
Chapter No 2, New Haven, Conn.
a score brethren replied to F.H.C.'s inquiry. The variations noted
among all the
versions submitted shows that the poem has been preserved by memory in
majority of cases. The above version was selected for publication in
order to record
the possible authorship. To show the nature and extent of variation
Happy is the man whose thoughts
The rigid test of the
Who through this world
toward his Maker and
Seeking by acts of
charity and love
To gain admission to
that lodge above.
Knowing the stone in the
Shall crown our Master's
work at last.
A darky asked
for an afternoon off on the ground that he was an officer in a lodge.
office do you hold," inquired his employer. "I is the Supreme Sovereign
Judicious Omnipotent Omnipresent Exalted Grand Ruler," meekly explained
supplicant for a half holiday. "Well! Well! You must be at the head of
"No, boss, there is eight above me."
* * *
Grand Lodge have a library of its own? If not, why not start one? This
now installing one very large Masonic library in a new temple. Our
service is at
your command, and we are not in it for money.
* * *
If you don't
receive a prompt reply to a letter addressed to us write again. Many
relayed to associates in different parts of the country, and hitches
may very well
* * *
A large publishing
house is looking for a man to prepare a book of designs and suggestions
buildings. A good chance for the right man.
* * *
a library in your lodge room or Masonic club room? If so, let us know.
We are compiling
a list of Masonic libraries.
* * *
and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Richmond, Virginia, have
booklet entitled Virginia Schools, Their Progress and Their Needs that
is a model
of its kind, and richly worth reading by others than Virginians. Copies
may be secured
from P. O. Box 1523, Richmond, Va.
* * *
No. 524, Evanston, Illinois, has this for THE MASONIC CREED: "BELIEVE
Infinite Benevolence, Wisdom and Justice: HOPE for the final triumph of
Evil, and for Perfect Harmony as the final result of all the concords
of the Universe: and be CHARITABLE as God is, toward the unfaith, the
follies, and the faults of men: for all make one great brotherhood."
* * *
A dozen or
so have written to ask if Brother Baird won't bring out his “Memorials”
book form. So mote it be. Brother Baird, it is up to you.
Altersklassen und Männerbünde
Sch02 / auth. Schurtz Heinrich. - Berlin : Georg Reimer, 1902. - Vol. 1
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Ancient Art and Ritual
Har13 / auth. Harrison Jane E. - New York : Henry Holt and Company,
1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 261. - 8.3 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 003 - 1890
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1890. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 277. - 23.5 MB.
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Diary of Frances Burney Vol 1
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1910. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 500. - 11.7 MB.
Diary of Frances Burney Vol 2
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1910. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 558. - 12.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 01
HasER01 - A to Art / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 13 : p. 925. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 02
HasER02 - Arthur to Bunyan / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 2 : 13 : p. 927. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 03
HasER03 - Burial to Confessions / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 3 : 13 : p. 922. - 86.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 04
HasER04 - Confirmation to Drama / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 4 : 13 : p. 929. - 93.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 05
HasER05 - Dravidians to Fichte / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912. - Vol. 5 : 13 : p. 925. - 90.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 06
HasER06 - Fiction to Hyskos / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1914. - Vol. 6 : 13 : p. 910. - 275.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 07
HasER07 - Hymns to Liberty / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 7 : 13 : p. 935. - 93.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 08
HasER08 - Life and Death to Mulla / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 8 : 13 : p. 934. - 92.6 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 09
HasER09 - Mundas to Phrygians / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1917. - Vol. 9 : 13 : p. 934. - 119.2 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 10
HasER10 - Picts - Sacraments / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 10 : 13 : p. 938. - 86.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 11
HasER11 - Sacrifice to Sudra / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 11 : 13 : p. 940. - 94.7 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 12
HasER12 - Suffering to Zwingli / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 12 : 13 : p. 885. - 90.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 13
HasER13 - Index / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1908. - Vol. 13 : 13 : p. 767. - 64.8 MB.
Wri07 / auth. Wright Robert C. - Ann Arbour : Tyler Publishing Co.,
1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 143. - 7.9 MB.
Life of Johnson Vol 1
Bos07 / auth. Boswell John. - Boston : W. Andrews and L. Blake, 1807. -
1st American Edition : Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 503. - 23.7 MB.
Life of Johnson Vol 2
Bos071 / auth. Boswell John. - Boston : W. Andrews and L. Blake, 1807.
- 1st American Edition : Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 516. - 24.3 MB.
Life of Johnson Vol 3
Bos072 / auth. Boswell John. - Boston : W. Andrews and L. Blake, 1807.
- 1st American Edition : Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 549. - 26.0 MB.
Macaulay's Life of Samuel
Mac08 / auth. Macaulay Thomas B. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1908. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 256. - 7.6 MB.
Key22 / auth. Keyser Cassius J. - New York : E P Dutton &
Company, 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 482. - 9.5 MB.
Mycenean Tree and Pillar Cult
Eva01 / auth. Evans Arthur J. - London : Macmillan and Co, Ltd, 1901. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 111. - 6.3 MB.
Myth, Ritual, and Religion Vol 1
Lan01 / auth. Lang Andrew. - London : Longmans, Green, and Company,
1901. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 380. - 15.3 MB.
Myth, Ritual, and Religion Vol 2
Lan011 / auth. Lang Andrew. - London : Longmans, Green, and Company,
1901. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 392. - 17.1 MB.
Prayers and Meditations
Joh85 / auth. Johnson Samuel. - London : H R Allenson, Limited, 1785. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 176. - 5.0 MB.
Primitive Art in Egypt
Cap05 / auth. Capart Jean. - London : H Grevel & Co, 1905. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 329. - 141.6 MB - Illustrated.
Primitive Culture Vol 1
Tyl20PC1 / auth. Tylor Edward B. - London : John Murray, 1920. - Vol. 1
: 2 : p. 517. - 24.1 MB.
Primitive Culture Vol 2
Tyl20PC2 / auth. Tylor Edward B. - London : John Murray, 1920. - Vol. 2
: 2 : p. 481. - 16.2 MB.
Primitive Secret Societies
Web08 / auth. Webster Hutton. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1908.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 241. - 7.0 MB.
Low20 / auth. Lowie Herbert H. - New York : Horace Liveright, 1920. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 472. - 10.4 MB.
Secret Societies in all Ages
Hec75 / auth. Heckethorn Charles W. - London : Richard Bentley and Son,
1875. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 404. - 9.4 MB.
Secret Societies in all Ages
Hec751 / auth. Heckethorn Charles W. - London : Richard Bentley and
Son, 1875. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 334. - 13.0 MB.
Source Book for Social Origins
Tho09 / auth. Thomas William I. - Chicago : University of Chicago
Press, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 929. - 49.9 MB.
Bur22 / auth. Burton Alexander. - New York : Edward J Clode, 1922. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 251. - 10.4 MB.
The Dawn of Civilization -
Egypt and Chaldea
Mas101 / auth. Maspero
Gaston C C / ed. Sayce
A H / trans. McClure M L. - London : The Society for Promoting
Christian Knowledge, 1910. - 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 830. - 80.9 MB.
The Divine Mystery
Upw15 / auth. Upward Allen. - Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co., 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 324. - 16.6 MB.
The Golden Bough
Fra221 / auth. Frazer James G. - [s.l.] : Project Gutenberg, 1922. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 664. - Formatted and Indexed from Project Gutenberg
File by rhm - 2.6 MB.
The Hermetic Mystery
Atw18 / auth. Atwood Mary A / ed. Wilmshurst Leslie. - Belfast :
William Tait, 1918. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 688. - 38.7 MB.
Gin20 / auth. Ginsburg Christian D. - London : Georg Routledge
& Sons Limited, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 159. - 4.2 MB.
The Life of Samuel Johnson
Haw87 / auth. Hawkins John. - London : J Rivington and Sons, 1787. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 615. - 29.8 MB.
The Malay Archipelago Vol 1
Wal69 / auth. Wallace Alfred R. - London : Macmillan and Co., 1869. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 561. - 18.3 MB.
The Malay Archipelago Vol 2
Wal691 / auth. Wallace Alfred R. - London : Macmillan and Co., 1869. -
Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 529. - 17.3 MB.
The Religion of the Semites
Smi23 / auth. Smith W Robertson. - London : A & C Black Ltd,
1923. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 523. - 22.7 MB.
Riv06 / auth. Rivers William H. - London : Macmillan and Co, 1906. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 773. - Illustrated - 20.8 MB.
The Western Pacific
Coo83 / auth. Coote Walter. - London : Sampson Low, Marston, Searle,
and Rivington, 1883. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 210. - 6.7 MB.