Masonic Research Society
Short Sketch of the Life of Confucius
By The Editor
of Chinese words are ideograms; they are a symbolical picture of the
idea for which
they stand. Confucius may be called the ideogram of China. In his own
life he gathered
up into a single focus the history and meaning of his nation so that he
the great teacher can understand the great empire.
Confucius was born China had climbed to a very high level of
development may be said to have culminated in him; just why it should
then we may be able to see as a result of the study of his life. That
it did stop,
there is no question, for the arrest of civilization in China is one of
astounding of the phenomena of history, and utterly destroys the
about necessary progress. "The compass was known," says one authority
on the subject, "some twenty-six hundred years before Christ, but the
never became a maritime nation. Gunpowder has been known in China some
hundred years before Christ, but the Chinese have never become a
Paper was manufactured some two hundred years before Christ and the art
by block types was known two hundred years after Christ, that is,
years before Gutenberg. Despite these advantages probably not over five
of the entire population of China could read and write in 1900, and
has not advanced even to the alphabetic stage."
day China was not yet an empire but occupied only about one-sixth of
area and was divided into some hundred and fifty separate states. Each
ruled by a petty king or duke or marquis who in turn paid tribute to
the more powerful
rulers; in short, the ten or fifteen million of the Chinese were then
a state of society very similar to that of feudal Europe. Just as there
in feudal Europe so in that ancient China art, music, literature and
were highly developed. But in the course of time all the political
jealousies bit down deep into the people's life, and a period of
decadence set in
during which such conditions obtained as are impossible to describe.
appeared it seemed that the breath of the creative spirit was blowing
over the whole
world. The Jews built their second temple and laid the foundations of
religion which remained in full vigor down to Jesus' day; Buddha set
wheel of his law over India; Pythagoras founded his so influential sect
Greeks; and Confucius, own fellow countryman, Lao Tsze, created Taoism,
that numbers more adherents today among the Chinese than any other.
But, as Mencius
said, conditions were bad in ancient China: the central government was
and corrupt; polygamy of a debased type prevailed; murder was common,
it seemed that the ancient order was breaking down.
Birth of Confucius
It was during
the Chow dynasty, third in the history of the people, that Confucius
was born, supposedly
in the year 550 B.C. His real name was Chin K'ung, but this was later
his followers to Pu Tse K'ung, which means "The Master K'ung," a title
that Jesuit missionaries latinized into "Confucius." No Chinaman ever
sprang from a grander lineage than he. His father was a public official
courage and such physical powers that if one were to describe some of
a reader would not believe the tale. His name was Heih and he had nine
and one crippled son by his two wives. Desiring a more robust son he
marry again at seventy. So he sought out a friend in a neighbouring
clan who had
three marriageable daughters and asked for one of them. He was given
a girl of seventeen, and it was from this ill-assorted union that
Heih died when the lad was three years of age, leaving the family in
circumstances so that Confucius himself afterwards explained his
ability to do many
things by saying that he had been obliged to do much work when a boy.
Confucius was seized with a passion for learning, and steeped himself
of the poets and sages who had lived before him. At nineteen he was
married, a son
being born to him in his twentieth year. Of this boy little is known
like Buddha's son, he became an obscure member of his father's sect.
also were born to him and these also sank into oblivion as women almost
in that land which has been so deficient in its appreciation of
At this time
Confucius was appointed keeper of public stores and superintendent of
latter as thankless a job as it is at the present time. His mother died
was twenty-four, and her death almost broke the heart of her son, who
in such a way as makes the one supremely human and likeable event in
For immemorial ages the Chinese had levelled the graves of their dead,
conservative that he was, raised a large mound over his mother's grave
so he said, that whatever happened he would never lose sight of her
For three years he mourned for her, not even playing his flute, to
which he was
devoted, during that whole period.
In his twenty-second
year Confucius became a teacher, not of boys but of young men who
in the conduct of life. There is no question but that he proved to be
one of the
greatest pedagogues that ever lived, and he soon gathered a large
company of students
about him. Two members of a royal house were enrolled in his circle
after a time.
During his visit to the court of these noble students Confucius had an
with Lao Tsze, the founder of Taoism, and one of the greatest men that
lived, a mind so profound, endowed with such a genius for religion,
that his writings,
in many portions, sound as if they might have been written yesterday.
But the pragmatic
mind of Confucius was not equipped to understand a mystic like Lao Tsze
two never drew very close together.
In 517 the
state of Lu, in which Confucius resided, fell into such disorders that
he and his
disciples went elsewhere seeking a home. But, judged according to the
of his time he was so peculiar and he held up so high a standard for
men and monarchs,
that nowhere was he warmly welcomed; so after many wanderings he and
returned to Lu where he remained a private teacher during the next
more and more influential he was finally made chief magistrate of a
city and later
on the minister of crime in a province. According to all accounts he
successful in public office. He was so successful, indeed, that he made
of his state
the best governed in the land. At that a neighboring province or two
and alarmed, fearing that the state of Lu might grow to such strength
as to absorb
their territory. Accordingly the Marquis of Ts'i determined on a
method for weakening the strong state. Instead of declaring war on some
or other as a less crafty ruler would have done, he sent around a troop
dancing women and a number of fine horses to the ruler of Lu. Much to
disgust this potentate fell into the trap and soon forgot all the
in his infatuation with the girls.
chagrined and humiliated Confucius resigned his offices, gathered a
group of disciples
about him, and left the country. It is an open secret that he hoped his
would arouse the Marquis of Lu to send for his return, but that did not
The state soon lapsed into its old corruption.
In Voluntary Exile
was fifty-six years of age when he embarked on this voluntary exile. He
cherishing a Carlyle dream of a fatherly and kingly ruler and went
for such a man. For thirteen years he sought in vain, everywhere
received with respect
but nowhere given a position of power as the counsel of a sovereign,
the post that
he most desired. Many interesting events occurred during that
itinerancy but there
is not here space to tell of them.
wandering he returned to Lu and went again into private life, refusing
offices that were then offered to him by the new Marquis. He contented
teaching his disciples, who now numbered some three thousand.
had died many years before but he had ordered the young men and the
family not to
mourn for her. Confucius' family life evidently had meant little to
him: there is
even a tradition that he divorced his wife but no real proof for this
has been discovered.
He did not even mourn for the death of his son who died shortly after
the last return
to Lu. The death of a favorite disciple at this time, however, shook
died in 478, being then 74 years of age. His passing was not such as to
us either much reverence or admiration. One day he was seen by a
at a door leaning on his walking stick and crooning to himself:
"The great mountains must
The strong beam must break,
The wise man must wither away like a plant."
To a disciple
who overheard this lament he said, "No intelligent ruler arises to take
as his master. My time has come to die." Shortly thereafter he took to
bed in which he lingered for seven days. He made no signs of emotion,
melancholy, embittered and disillusioned with life.
buried him with great pomp just outside the city of Kuihfow where his
tomb may be
seen to this day marked by a tablet on which is inscribed, "The resting
of the great perfection." His disciples built huts in be neighborhood
three years mourning his passing. Some 40,000 or 50,000 of the sage's
still live in the neighboring city.
News of his
death went thru the whole empire, awakening the people, when too late,
to a sense
of their loss. They discovered that a truly great man had been living
in their midst
unappreciated. His sayings and the books that he had edited began to be
everywhere. To this day every applicant for official position in many
parts of China
must pass an examination in the Confucian classics. Confucius living
sought in vain
for recognition from his empire; Confucius dead passed into the spirit
of his people
where he today lives with growing power. Of such an influence as his
one might write
in the words which Emerson used of the memory of Burns:
afraid heaven and earth have taken too good care of it to leave
anything to say.
The west winds are murmuring it. Open the windows behind you, and
hearken to the
incoming tide, what the waves say of it. His teachings axe the property
solace of mankind."
How did Confucius
come to wield so wide an influence? I must confess that I have sought
in vain for
an answer to that question. He is to me the greatest puzzle I have ever
To an Occidental who has sat at the feet of such men as Lincoln and
eastern sage makes almost no appeal at all. They are flame and life; he
is ice and
a dead perfection. He had self control and a quiet kind of courage but
qualities which appeal to the imagination he was almost wholly lacking.
of his life tell how he dressed, and how he sat in all circumstances,
and how he
liked his rice cooked, and his meat cut, and what clothes he wore, and
that he would
not talk after he retired for the night. He was punctilious, was
cautious in his
own meticulous fashion, but of passion, of chivalry, of force and verve
he had almost
nothing. I know of no modern book so much like the story of Confucius
Spencer's Autobiography [Lib 1904; Vol 1, Vol 2] wherein the English sage
whole pages to the shape of salt cellars and the manner of carving a
may have been passion and life behind the exterior; his long and
for his mother and his fondness for music might seem to indicate that;
but if there
was, he reposed it and concealed it.
How he came
to wield such an empire over so great a portion of the human race is
still a mystery
to us; but there is no question that he has been a power in the world,
influence, perhaps, than any other moralist who has ever lived.
When he appeared,
as Mencius said, he found the existing order in danger of dissolution.
How to preserve
it against destruction became his life work. Not being a great original
not having the insight into the roots of things himself, but being,
his own words, "transmitter rather than creator," he naturally turned
to the past. It was there, in the teachings of the ancient sages and in
of the ancient rulers that he found his guidance. He did not write any
but gathered out of the past such matters as he felt would best
conserve his nation,
and he gave these in volumes to his disciples.
But in choosing
from the ancient leaders he ignored all that might be of a religious
preserved only the secular. In religion he was apparently an agnostic,
is said with some reservation inasmuch as Confucianists themselves are
the question. But the very fact that his own followers cannot determine
he believed in God or not shows that for him what we call religion was
of no great importance. To this day Confucianism is not in our sense a
but a code of ethics of such a character that one may remain a
believing in some other religion, as in the case with a multitude of
are Confucianists and Taoists or Buddhists at the same time. His one
to make this life as healthy and happy as possible, improving the
conduct of the
people, and teaching them etiquette. In short, as Wu Ting Fang has put
aim was to show how to go thru life like a courteous gentlemen."
of character he called "The Superior Man." Those who believe in
doctrine of the Superman will do well to ponder this fact. The first
virtue of this
Superior Man is to be loyalty, not loyalty to his own conscience or to
but to the past, for all of Confucius' ideals are but the shadows of
the dead. Of
progress he had no conception. He was undoubtedly the world's greatest
It is this
conservatism that has enabled China to maintain her integrity of race
during all these centuries, for Confucius taught her to conserve her
her vitality, her scholarship, and her more.
the state was a creation of nature no more to be changed than is the
the beehive. A benevolent despot was to rule over an obedient people
that if fatherly and strong rulers could be developed and if the people
loyal to them an ideal political government might sometime be
he seemed to hold a dream of a kind of paternally socialistic state
like that of
Plato or of the old time communists. So important did politics seem to
he gave it almost the value and dignity of a religion, a modern scholar
he would have served the world greatly had he done nothing more than
his ideal of the state on the theory of the family because to him the
lies at the basis of all social life. In this he was wise, far wiser
than many of
the impetuous reformers of our day, and there is no country where the
between brothers and sisters, parents and children, and the husband and
of a more enduring character than in China. There is much lacking in
the finer qualities
of the home, its poetry, its religious element and its spontaneous
love; but in
spite of these defects the Confucian family is enduring.
been made of the fact that Confucius taught the Golden Rule; he did
teach it in
a negative form a world apart from the golden rule taught by Jesus.
Jesus we are TO DO to others what we would that others would do to us;
sage taught that we are simply to refrain from doing evil to others. Of
writer who has long lived in China observes: "The Chinese are really
in a wonderful and commendable way to letting others alone; they are
or officious. But an act of pure chivalry is seldom to be beheld among
hundred millions. Foreigners who have lived among them for tens of
years have never
seen a chivalrous soul dash out to rescue a suffering captive, nor save
who was in peril."
Masonic Education in Idaho
of the National Masonic Research Society in general, and of Study Clubs
will find an excellent statement of the general aims of Masonic
education in the
brief article printed below from the pen of the Chairman of the
of Idaho, and republished here by permission of The Idaho Freemason.
made its appearance in June last under the competent editorial
direction of Brother
Frank G. Burroughs, Masonic Temple Building, Boise, Idaho. It carries a
devoted to Masonic education among its regular departments.
By Charles W. Mack
anything else in the world there is need for education and
of a Masonic Lodge in a community vary with the time in the life of a
which it exists, but at all times it should defend against all enemies
of liberty, justice and truth upon which it is founded. I feel that we
a time when Masonic education will be needed by every Mason, and that
the time for
this education is now.
The one great
aim of every Masonic lodge should be to bring the teachings of our
Order to every
man who joins our organization, and to teach him Masonry as it touches
lives. The ritual is a nucleus, or foundation, upon which to start our
but that is not enough ‒ it must be brought before us in a practical
way, and in
a way that it will reach and every man who enters our portals; it is
we explain and bring out the lessons as given to us, and further, that
in our daily lives, we demonstrate that we understand what we are
taught, and that
the high principles of our Order are doing for us what it is intended
main objects are to make men friends, to refine and exalt their lives.
If the questions
that are troubling us today are to be settled, it must be in an
atmosphere of mutual
recognition and respect. A proper settlement can never be made in an
air of hostility
and mistrust. Our great Order can help furnish this required atmosphere.
will not only explain and bring out the great lessons of our Order to
but it will develop leaders in our organization, and will increase the
in our lodges which will bring out attendance far greater in number and
than has heretofore been thought of.
It is my
wish and hope that every lodge in this State will have its Masonic
every month, following a course as outlined by the Grand Lodge, and
that we shall
have a Grand Lecturer who will be in the field the greater part of the
our lodges in the ritualistic work, as well as carrying out the
is the subjugation of the human that is in man by the divine; the
conquest of the
appetites and passions by the moral sense and the reason; a continued
and warfare of the spiritual against the material and sensual.
Societies of China
By Brother Dudley Wright,
in all probability, as ancient a veridical record of the existence of
secret societies as any nation. The soil for their growth is thoroughly
and, as one writer has expressed it, they "spring into life as weeds on
heap, wherever oppression and tyranny abound, and it has been by
this character that the Chinese people have been able to resist the
and demands of the mandarins." The whole empire is honeycombed with
which include among their members persons in almost every rank of
official and private
life, although many are induced or even compelled to join from fear of
if they refuse or in the hope of securing aid in time of distress,
rather than from
any wish to carry out the designs to which they pledge their
societies, says Kesson, "are entirely suited to the Chinese genius,
to delight in mysteries and enigmas and to confound language and ideas
for the sake
of being able to unravel them again. They are suited to a people in
there is nothing direct, but who seek the simplest ends by a ruse, or
piece of strategy."
notice of an aboriginal secret Chinese League is toward the close of
the Han dynasty
(circa second century B.C.) A secret society, recruited mainly from
litterateurs, was organized by three patriots solely for the purpose of
the throne against "Yellow Cap" rebels. This association was known as
the "Red Eyebrows," because its members marked themselves in that way
before going into battle. The "Yellow Caps," however, were joined by
"Copper Steeds" and the "Iron Shins" and together they fought
for and were successful in securing a change of government. The "Red
maintained their existence, although there is scarcely any farther
trace of the
League until the twelfth century.
In the fourteenth
century a secret society, unquestionably meriting that title, entered
It was a religious and, possibly, of a Buddhist character, seeing that
adopted the title of the "White Lotus." It faded out of sight until the
seventeenth century, when it is found lending its aid to a usurper who
wrest the throne from the Ming dynasty. Their united efforts were
but shortly afterwards the Ming dynasty succumbed to onslaughts of the
Many of the
secret societies of China have originated with purely benevolent and
objects, but, in time, the zeal of the members, sometimes from force of
has degenerated into political fanaticism and frequently the most
changes in the empire have been due to their action.
of the greatest activity of the Chinese secret leagues or societies was
beginning the eighteenth until the close of the nineteenth centuries,
from 1766 to 1795, during the reign of the Emperor Chien Lung, which
the rise of man of these association which the emperor sought vainly to
On 8th January,
1845 the Legislative Council of Hong Kong pass the following decree:
"An Ordinance for the
suppression of the
Triad and other secret societies within the island of Hong Kong and its
"Whereas the Triad Society and
societies prevalent in China exist among the inhabitants of the island
of Hong Kong,
and whereas these associations have objects in view which are
the maintenance of good order and constituted authority and with the
life and property and afford by means of the secret agency increased
for the commission of crime and the escape of offenders: "1. Be it
enacted and ordained by the Governor of Hong Kong with the advice of
Council thereof that from and after the passing of this Ordinance if
or persons being of Chinese origin in the said island or its
be a member or members of the Triad Society or other secret societies
he, she, or they shall in consequence thereof be guilty of felony and
convicted thereof, shall be liable to be imprisoned for any term not
years, with or without hard labour, and at the expiration of such term
that such person shall be marked on the right cheek in the manner used
in the case
of military deserters and be expelled from the said island."
In 1889 a
law was passed in the Straits Settlements for the suppression of
societies, which led to the seeming disappearance of many of these
but there is reason to assume that the disappearance was apparent only
the various units remained almost as active as formerly, but worked
caution and secrecy.
The Great Hung League
By the laws
of the various societies no Chinaman may belong to two societies at one
and at the
same time; if he is already a member of one and desires to join
another, he must
first sever his connection with the one of which he is already a
member. The largest
and most important organization, however, the Great Hung League,
resignation nor secession, and the member, on initiation, takes an oath
will never leave the society.
are extracts from section 255 of the Penal Code of China:
"All persons who, without being
or connected by intermarriage, shall by brotherhood or association
by the ceremonial of tasting blood and burning incense, be held guilty
of the intent
to commit the crime of rebellion; and the principal or chief leader of
shall accordingly suffer death by strangulation after remaining for the
in confinement. The punishment of the accessories shall be less by one
the brotherhood exceeds twenty persons in number, the principal
offender shall suffer
death by strangulation immediately after conviction; and the
accessories shall suffer
the aggravated banishment into the remotest provinces. If the
brotherhood be formed
without the aforesaid initiatory ceremonies of tasting blood and
and according to the rules of its constitution be subject to the
authority and direction
of the leaders only, but exceed forty persons in number, then the
still suffer death by strangulation, as in the first case, and the
punishment less by one degree.
"If the authority and direction
of the association
is found to be vested in a strong youthful membership, that
circumstance alone shall
be deemed sufficient evidence of its criminality; and the principal
suffer death by strangulation immediately after conviction; the
in the preceding eases, shall undergo aggravated punishment.
"If the association is subject
to the authority
and direction of the elder brethren, and consists of more than twenty
but less than
forty persons, the principals shall be punished with one hundred blows
into perpetual banishment to the distance of three thousand li. If the
under the last mentioned circumstance, consists of any number less than
the principal shall suffer one hundred blows and wear the cangue for
in both cases the punishment of the accessories shall be one degree
than that of the principals."
is a heavy wooden collar, taken off at night only if the sentence is a
for the Lodges are always carefully chosen with a view to concealment
and are situated
for the most part in obscure mountainous and wooded districts. The more
the spot the better suited for the meetings. Professor Schlegel once
the following description of the entrance to a Lodge in the Province of
"A stone road leads to the first pass called the Heaven-Screen Pass.
is the Earth-Net Pass. Next comes the Sun-Moon Pass, at which pass each
is obliged to pay one mace and two candareens (about one shilling).
After this pass
comes a stone bridge over a river, which leads to the Hall of Fidelity
where are the shrines of the Five Ancestors, flanked on the right by a
and on the left by the court; here the Brother must produce his capital
cash) and his diploma. From this goes a long road along the mountain
guarded on the one side by the mountain and on the other by the sea. At
of this road is the outside Moss Pass, called also the Pavilion of the
Thirteen Chinese miles farther on is the Golden Sparrow frontier, so
called on account
of the name of the mountain at whose feet it lies. Past this are four
over the front one are written the words 'To extend the Empire let
flourish.' The second one is called the Palace of Justice, with the
to the left and the military entrance to the right. The Lodge follows
[See bibliography at end.]
Brotherhood of the Mystic
or Brotherhood of the Mystic Cross, claims to have been founded in B.C.
Fohi, and to have been introduced into China in B.C. 975. It has three
viz., 1. Apprentice; 2. Tao Sze, or Doctors of Reason; 3. Grand Master.
wear the Jaina cross worked on a blue ribbon; the Tao Sze, a cross of
the Grand Masters one of gold. The initiate takes five vows: 1. to
worship God daily,
to obey the law, to walk in purity and truth, to assist the Brethren of
and to obey all its rules; 2. to pursue wisdom, to eschew avarice, to
to assist the poor and necessitous, never to take furtively the
property of another,
directly or indirectly; 3. to be pure and chaste, abstinent, and
studious; 4. to
be sincere and never to deceive another, to be free from lying, to
in language, duplicity, and calumny, never to flatter, never to drink
any intoxicating liquor; 5. to keep faithfully all the sacred vows.
or White Water Lily Society, claims to date from the reign of Ling-Ti,
who was emperor
in the second century of the Christian era. He was of a tyrannical
is said to have beheaded several hundred literates, which caused the
existence of this society, which was founded by three brothers named
equipped three powerful armies to overthrow the tyrant emperor.
is of opinion that this the original secret of China and the parent of
societies. The name "Water Lily" is said to have been chosen on account
of the popularity of that plant. Huc says: "The poets have celebrated
their verses, on account of the beauty of its flowers; the doctors of
placed it among the ingredients for the elixir of immortality; and the
have extolled it for its utility." The members of the society assert
was once prophesied that one of their number would be emperor of China,
accounts for the chiefs of the Order regarding themselves as
commissioned by High
Heaven to regenerate the Empire. In the early part of the eighteenth
leaders were Wang-lung and a man named Fan-iu, and they had a following
thousand. The first-named made himself master of the town of
was soon driven thence, when he and many of his followers perished.
was heard of the society until 1777, when the members again rose in
but only again to be defeated. The heads of the leaders, including two
cut off and placed in cages for public inspection. The object of the
its ostensible benevolent activities, was the overthrow of the
and the restoration of the Ming. The presiding Master was always given
of Emperor and Son of Heaven, and he was invested with every imperial
dignity. After a plot to overthrow the dynasty in 1803 the members were
of holding unorthodox opinions, of being possessed of magical powers,
and of meditating
treasonable practices. As a result of the order of suppression issued
the society disappeared, but reappeared for a short time in a more
extensive confederacy, known as the Society of Celestial Reason, but
this was afterwards
merged into the Triad Society. At the time of the kidnapping of Sun Yat
Sen in London,
in 1896, it was stated that he was not only an active member of the
White Lily Society,
but a prominent leader of that revolutionary society. As a matter of
fact he was
a member of the Triad Society or of the Hung League. Sir James Cantlie
and C. Sheridan
Jones in their Life of Sun Yat Sen refer to this matter in the
and widespread body, 'The Triad Society' has existed almost ever since
ascended the throne, but it consisted of men of philosophic ideas
without the capability
or courage to put their ideas into practice. It was not until Sun Yet
Sen came to
the front that the idea was given concrete shape and brought to
the old Triad Society, however, gave little direct help during the
the members being afraid of action for they well knew what failure
meant. In China
the death penalty was ever at hand when reforms were even whispered,
and it was
only when Sun took his life in his hand and boldly declared his
intention that any
one was found courageous enough to denounce the throne openly."
In some of
the rites and ceremonies of the White Lily Society there seem to be
traces of a
Nestorian form of Christianity. The mandarins often confounded
for meetings of this society and punished the members accordingly.
The Black Flags
Flags was another secret society opposed to the Manchu dynasty and
were so successful in their propaganda in certain provinces that they
an imperium in imperio where they reigned virtually supreme and their
fiat was law.
In 1888 a Chinaman in New York of the name of Lee You Du died. It was
the newspapers of the time that he had been a general of the Black Flag
The Gee Hin
Society is believed originally to have been an offshoot of the Black
Brother J. Vopley Moyle in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. vii. [Lib 1894], says that the society had
existed for several centuries and, like many other Chinese secret
founded for the express purpose of overthrowing the Tartar rule and
Ming dynasty on the throne of China. It has branches in Burma and the
It is governed by three principals or headmen, who are elected for
life, and who
are assisted in the government by councillors. The routine business of
is left entirely to the secretary. In 1807 the number of members in
was estimated at 26,000 and the Society had at that time, in addition
to Lodge premises,
property worth over $20,000 invested in houses and lands in the
province of Wellesley.
In 1887 four members of this society were sentenced to twenty years'
for conducting an Agency for the introduction of members. The Straits
Times of 17th
September, 1889, contained a full report of the trial of a number of
were proved to be members of this, or of the Sam Tien secret society at
The six leaders were shot; eleven active members who carried out the
orders of the
leaders and frightened, beat, and, in some cases, murdered non-members,
to receive six dozen strokes with a rattam, to have their heads shaved
and to be
imprisoned during the Rajah's pleasure. The following account of the
ceremony was given by a subpoenaed witness before the Commissioners
the Penang Riots Enquiry Act of 1867:
eleven o'clock we were taken into the Kongsee House (Lodge) two by two,
doors successively after certain questions were asked and answered at
two guards being stationed at each door.
each of the doors we were asked:
do you come from?
A. From the East.
Q. For what
do you come here.
A. We come to meet our Brethren.
Q. If the
Brethren eat rice mixed with sand, will you also eat of it?
A. Yes, we will.
doorkeepers then showed us a broad-bladed sword and asked:
Q. Do you
know what this is?
A. A knife.
Q. What can
this knife do?
A. With it we can fight our enemies or rivals.
Q. Is this
knife stronger than your neck?
A. My neck is stronger.
candidate was told what answer to make and afterwards was allowed to
secretary was standing on a table while another person was standing on
in front of him beside a tub of water. The secretary ordered this
person to prick
the third finger of the left hand of each candidate with a needle and
that trickled from it was allowed to drop into the tub of water. After
candidate was made to pass under another and higher table behind the
upon which there was a Joss (Chinese god) where the candidate received
was told to go to a small charcoal fire at the back and step over it,
the left foot
first. Nearby were three square blocks of granite, on which the
candidate was made
to step with the left and right foot alternately. After passing these
candidate was conducted to a man who kept a kind of shop and took the
that had been given to the candidate, giving him in return some
leaves, and sweetmeats. There the candidate waited until all the
up, when all were led to the front of a Chinese altar with a Joss on
it. All knelt,
rose again, and each drank a little water from the tub in which had
the blood from the fingers of all the candidates. After returning into
a room the
candidates returned to the altar where they saw the Secretary dressed
like a Chinese
priest. All the candidates knelt while the Secretary read in Chinese
folds of red paper. When he had finished reading, a fowl's head was cut
the Secretary then read the papers he had read, telling the candidates
that if they
did not obey the rules of the Society they would meet with the fate of
contained thirty-six articles, with penalties for transgression varying
from death to beating and fines. Members pledged themselves on oath to
and treat the fathers and mothers of other members as their own; to
rise and join
the standard of the "true Lord" of China when he should appear; not to
reveal the secrets of the society, nor to show its diploma or statutes
to relieve a member in distress; not to seduce a member's wife under
death; not to refuse money to enable a member to escape from justice;
not to cheat
or rob a brother member, under the penalty of the loss of one or two
ears. To ridicule
a member on account of poverty entailed a punishment of thirty-six
blows; to reveal
the fact that a member smuggled opium meant the loss of both ears and
Members were forbidden to marry the widows of other members, and a
awaited the member who left the society. The initiation fee in Penang
dollars and in Burma twenty-four rupees. Mr. W. A. Pickering, writing
in 1879, said
that for many years there had been no Grand Master of this society, as
dared come forward to undertake the onerous and responsible duties of
but each branch was under the direction of a General Manager, a Lodge
Van Guard, and a Red Baton or Executioner, with a varying number of
or District Head men, who carried out the orders of the Superior. This
evidently connected with the Triad Society and the Hung League.
(To be concluded)
China [Lib 1882]
Civilization of China [Lib 1882]
and Dragon [Lib 1854]
of Triad Society (Journal R.A.S., vol. 1).
de la Chine [Lib*]
Chinese Triad Society (Journal R.A.S., vol 6)
of Penal Code of China [Lib*]
[Lib 1902; Vol
of China [Lib 1881/2; Vol 1,
Hung League [Lib 1866]
Yet Sen [Lib 1912]
vols. 16 and 18.
Blackwood's Magazine, December, 1896.
Journal of American Folk Lore, vol. 3.
Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.
Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, September, 1852.
International Conference of Supreme Councils
By Brother Perry W. Weidner,
General, the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry,
U. S. A.
International Conference of regular Supreme Councils of the Ancient
Scottish Rite was held at Lausanne, Switzerland May 29 to June 2, 1922.
Supreme Councils participated:
Jurisdiction of the United States of America
Masonic Jurisdiction of the United States
Transactions of its labors the Supreme Councils seem to have done a
work in several matters.
took notice of Spanish violation of territorial rights of Freemasonry
in the United
States. The delegates from the Southern and Northern Supreme Councils
of the United
States declined to participate in the Conference with Spanish delegates
Spain would acknowledge error and make some guarantees that this
offense would be
removed. A special commission was appointed by the Conference
consisting of Ill.’.
Brothers E. C. Day, 33d, and Perry W. Weidner, 33d, of the Southern
of the United States of America; Barton Smith, 33d, and James I.
of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction; and Ill.’. Brothers Auguste
Barcia, 33d, and
Manuel Portela, 33d, of the Spanish Supreme Council. At a conference
held by these
brethren on the subject it appears that the Spanish delegates were very
to meet the views of their American brethren and cordially concurred in
to the Conference the following:
To the International
Conference of Supreme Councils, 33d:
commission of the Conference of Supreme Councils having investigated
presented by the Supreme Councils of the Southern and Northern
the United States about the invasion of their territory by the Supreme
Spain, requests the Conference to invite the Supreme Council of Spain
from their territory.
the Spanish brethren presented to the Conference the following
was signed by all three of the delegates from the Supreme Council of
first of whom was Brother Auguste Barcia, at the present time Grand
Master of the
Grand Orient of Spain.
To the Assembled
Conference of Supreme Councils at Lausanne, Switzerland: Illustrious
delegates of the Supreme Council of Spain to this Conference hereby
at the earliest possible moment after their return to Madrid they will
Supreme Council of Spain to take immediate action to withdraw the
charters of all
Bodies claiming to be Masonic under its obedience within the territory
of the States
of the United States and the District of Columbia. We also solemnly
we will use all influence and power resting in us to secure like action
by the Bodies
in the same territory under the obedience of the Grand Orient of Spain.
promise that we will not encourage or tolerate any action or attitude
the wishes of the brethren of the United States of America relative to
under the obedience of organized Masonic authority in Spain, in the
Island of Porto
Rico, and the Phillippines.
(SIGNED) Auguste Barcia, 33d, G.’.M.’.L.'.
Manuel Portela, 33d
Jose Lescura, 33d
communication was received and accepted by the Conference upon the
motion of Illustrious
Brother Barton Smith, 33d, which was seconded by Illustrious Brother E.
33d, the delegates from the Supreme Council of Spain were seated.
Conference also admitted to seat representatives from the newly
Councils of Czecho-Slovakia and Poland, both of which were organized in
it resolved to hold the Fourth International Conference in the city of
in the Argentina, in 1927, upon dates set by and under the auspices of
Council of Argentina.
did another constructive work and made clear that regular Supreme
Councils do not
countenance irregularities. This is set out in the report of the
to deal with such subjects:
To the International
Conference of Supreme Councils, 33d:
section, having under consideration questions relating to the
any irregular and clandestine organization, submits the following
that in the opinion of this Conference every Supreme Council should be
sovereign and free from the control or direction of any other body or
in the method of selecting its members and officers, the duration of
the term of
office of its officers, the qualifications and regulations of
membership in its
subordinate Bodies, in its powers of legislation, and in the discipline
of its members
and subordinate Bodies throughout its entire Jurisdiction, subject to
of regular Grand Lodges which govern membership in the first three
Degrees of Masonry,
consistent with the landmarks and laws of Ancient Craft Masonry.
that hereafter any Supreme Council granting or withdrawing recognition
other Supreme Council shall immediately notify every other Supreme
Council of such
action and the reasons therefor; and if the withdrawal of recognition
by a majority of the Supreme Councils represented at this Conference,
Council from which recognition is withdrawn shall be debarred from
in future International Conferences until the cause of the withdrawal
has been removed to the satisfaction of a majority of the said Supreme
and of the first Conference after said withdrawal of recognition.
that hereafter any Supreme Council, other than those already
represented at this
Conference and the Conferences of 1907 and 1912, seeking representation
Conferences of Supreme Councils shall satisfy the Conference that it is
and is existing in harmony with the principles laid down in the Grand
and Regulations of 1762 and 1786, as those Constitutions and
Regulations have been
generally promulgated and remain in force.
that in the opinion of the Conference Bodies of Free and Accepted
Masons, or other
persons who confer Degrees, perform Rites, or conduct the business of
Masonry, or the Supreme Council thereof, who are not either mentioned
in the list
of those invited to be present by delegates to this Conference or
or hereafter as regular, by at least a majority of the Bodies in the
list of invited
and admitted or recognized Bodies, are irregular and clandestine, and
Scottish Rite Masons should, under any circumstances, hold any
any such irregular Body, or any member acting under it, or of any of
Bodies. And hereafter no Body shall be considered a Supreme Council in
unless it shall have obtained recognition and established fraternal
every existing regular Supreme Council, within a period of four years
from the date
of its organization.
that regular Supreme Councils recommend to all organizations at their
not to entertain any relation with irregular Bodies in accordance with
paragraph and to this end each Supreme Council will communicate to all
at its obedience the list of all regular Supreme Councils and the
that each Secretary-General, or other proper officer of each Supreme
to each of the other Supreme Councils by this Conference considered
regular, a list
of all Masonic Bodies, whether under the Scottish Rite of, otherwise,
as regular, and also a list, so far as possible, of all Bodies known to
7. We regret
and deplore that many good men who would make good Masons and be a
credit to the
institution of Freemasonry have become members of irregular and
calling themselves Masonic. We advise all such men who are upstanding
and morals to take immediate steps to become members of regular and
recognized Masonic Bodies, and recommend that when any such apply to
that they be given courteous consideration and helpful assistance in
their worthy desire.
8. The petition
for recognition of the Grand Orient of Denmark is covered by the rules
the Conference and we therefore recommend that no action be taken by
regarding such petition.
treated the subject of Italian Masonry by unanimous agreement in the
To the International
Conference of Supreme Councils, 33d:
of the second begs to submit the following report:
read the communications concerning the Supreme Council of Italy
received from the
Supreme Council of Egypt and from Mr. Camera, relating to certain
claims for recognition,
and considering that the Supreme Council headed by M.’.P.’.Bro.’. Raoul
is the only regular Supreme Council in Italy and is in such capacity
by all the Supreme Councils represented at this Conference, the
to the Conference or Supreme Councils that no action be taken on the
communications of the Supreme Council of Egypt and of Giovanni Camera,
the following resolution which was presented by Ill.’. Bro.’. Leon M.
M.’.P.’. Gr.’. Comm.’. of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction:
That the delegates to the International Conference pledge themselves to
lawful and legitimate effort and influence within their power to
and permanent peace among nations. That we heartily approve the efforts
been and are Being made by the representatives of the various National
to bring about greater harmony and a better understanding and
the peoples of the world. The Ancient Constitutions of our Rite define
of our Society to be these: "the harmony, the happiness, the progress
well-being of the human race taken as a whole, and of every individual
man in particular."
Our Rituals teach that these ends can be reached only through a
of the rule of brotherly love. We would, therefore, constantly remind
each of the
members of the Rite, wherever dispersed, of his duty and obligation to
use his personal
influence in his daily intercourse with all men to establish the
That we pledge
ourselves to renew and make more effective our efforts to overcome
hatred and bitterness,
to destroy ignorance and superstition, and, through the light of
education, to bring
joy and peace into the hearts and lives of men of every tongue and race
seem from all the foregoing that the Supreme Councils are resolved to
a close communion with all regular Masonic Bodies, discountenancing
form of so-called Masonry.
Masonic Association, of a rather unreserved membership, and which
claims to be devoted
to universal Freemasonry, held its last conference at Geneva during
[See note.] It may be well to note the list of the Masonic Bodies that
Lodge of New York, U. S. A.
Grand Lodge of Vienna.
Grand Orient of Belgium.
Grand Lodge of Bulgaria.
Grand Lodge of Spain.
Grand Orient of France.
Grand Lodge of France.
Grand Orient of Italy.
Grand Orient of Netherlands.
Grand Orient of Lusitania Unite of Portugal.
Grand Lodge of Switzerland Alpina.
Grand Orient of Turkey.
the above list it will be observed that few of the above Bodies are in
relations with the Grand Lodges of the United States of America and
some of them
are notoriously irregular and yet the Grand Lodge of New York, the
of Belgium, and the Grand Lodge of Switzerland sat in conference with
brethren and agreed to the following:
Art. 1. The
object of the Association is: ‒
and develop existing relations between Masonic Grand Jurisdictions.
Art. 2. The
Association and each Grand Jurisdiction forbids itself all interference
in the domestic
affairs of other Jurisdictions.
Jurisdiction is invited to exchange with associated Grand Jurisdictions
of work and to promote opportunities of contact with a view to
harmonizing and co-ordinating
efforts held in common. Nevertheless the fact of membership in the
not imply an obligation to entertain direct relationship with other
which are members.
Art. 3. All
Grand Jurisdictions belonging to the Association must be composed of
and it is reported that, notwithstanding the last mentioned subject,
one of the
Bodies that sat in this conference has recognized so-called
Co-Freemasonry and agreed
to exchange guarantors of amity, although it limited visitation to
"strictly masculine," which seems at least rather odd. This action was
done by the Grand Orient of France.
It does seem
odd to many who follow closely the work of the Masonic Fraternity in
States than an American Grand Lodge, knowing full well the effort that
made on all sides in this country to keep Freemasonry clean and free
with any irregular institutions, should participate in such a
of the Grand Lodge of New York at its last communication was watched
and it appears that that great Body of Freemasons did not ratify the
Masonic Conference, nor did it even agree to a temporary membership. It
the Grand Lodge believed it had a monetary obligation, since it had
at the conference, which it felt constrained to meet as the following
Conference (such payments not, however, to be construed as acceptance
in such Association nor to prejudice or forestall such future action in
thereto as the Grand Lodge may deem ovine and proper) $1,000.
Masonic Bodies would welcome a conference of all regular Symbolic
Lodges of the
world and it is believed that they themselves would be glad of the
having better understanding and of knowing each other better; but it is
that Grand Lodges keeping uppermost in their work the protection of the
rites and its landmarks, would neither favor nor countenance the
any Masonic Bodies concerning which there is question as to their
being a part of an association or conference which "does not imply an
to entertain direct relation with other Grand Jurisdictions which are
‒ in other words an association without regard to regularity.
NOTE. ‒ A
full account of the meeting/of The International Masonic Association by
Scudder of New York was published in THE BUILDER, April 1922, page 99.
The 1922 Bound Volume of
is finally caught up with back orders for the 1922 bound volume, and
from now on
the books will be shipped upon the day orders are received. Handsomely
golden rod buckram, the volume is an excellent addition to any library;
those who prefer a leather binding, we have prepared a limited number
copies of THE BUILDER should not be confused with ordinary files of
month a part of the regular issue is especially prepared for binding,
and at the
end of the year assembled with a comprehensive index of fourteen pages.
of crisp, clean and neatly trimmed pages is thereby produced.
orders for complete sets of bound volumes clearly indicate that THE
BUILDER is recognized
as an excellent reference work. The articles appearing from month to
more than an immediate interest: they are a contribution to the
of the Craft. A complete set of THE BUILDER is an encyclopedia of
a work which is augmented annually by a fresh volume.
of any year may be had at $3.75 for buckram binding and at $4.75 for
morocco, carriage charges prepaid.
subscribers may send in their complete files of any year in exchange
for a bound
volume of the same annual issue, an allowance of one dollar being made
loose copies. Under this plan bound volumes in buckram cost only $2.75,
Johnson A Freemason?
By Brother Arthur Heiron,
Of His Life
Continued From January Number
Johnson," A Rare Name
IT IS STRANGE
to note how parents, whose surname is "Johnson" scarcely ever christen
their sons by the title of "Samuel."
through the official Directories reveals the fact that in the year 1922
no Barrister-at-law, Solicitor, Chartered Accountant, Medical
Practitioner or Dental
Surgeon bearing the name of "Samuel Johnson" practising in London,
or Wales; neither is there any clergyman of that name.
Telephone Directory for April 1922 also proves that there are only two
Johnson" out of the long list of about 200,000 subscribers!
Office Guide for 1920 discloses no such name; so it is a reasonable
make that there must have been very few by the name of "Samuel Johnson"
in London in 1767; and still fewer those who admitted that they knew
as Dr. Johnson did in 1783.
Dr. Johnson's Melancholy"
he was afflicted with a species of melancholia causing him at times
depression; his personal friend, Rev. George Strahan, Vicar of
in 1785, described it as a "morbid melancholy," which Johnson often
was the infirmity of his life. In 1770 Dr. Johnson in a Prayer
beseeches the Almighty
to "Mitigate, if it shall be best unto Thee, the disease of my body and
the disorders of my mind."
He was once
found by Mrs. Thrale on his knees with a clergyman beseeching Divine
help that his
reason might be spared. There is no doubt that this "Melancholy"
for much of Johnson's irregular life and conduct and every allowance
must be made
for one so afflicted.
Extracts From "Boswell"
54). "He mentioned to me (Boswell) now for the first time, 'That he had
distresst with Melancholy, and for that reason had been obliged to fly
and meditation to the dissipating variety of life.'"
55). "About this time, he (Dr. Johnson) was afflicted with a very
of the hypochondriae disorder which was ever lurking about him." Dr.
said, "I found him in a deplorable state, sighing, groaning, talking to
and restlessly walking from room to room." Dr. Johnson himself said, "I
would consent to have a limb amputated to recover my spirits."
Dr. Johnson said "Since last Easter I have reformed no evil habit; my
has been unprofitably spent.... My memory grows confused and I know not
days pass over me. Good Lord, deliver me!"
Johnson (aged 72) wrote, "My health has been from my 20th year such as
seldom afforded me a single day of ease."
Dr. Johnson's Ill-Health
2. "I have been disturbed and unsettled for a long time and have been
Resolution to apply to Study or Business, being hindered by sudden
17. "By abstinence from wine and suppers, I obtained sudden and great
and had freedom of mind restored to me, which I have wanted for all
this year, without
being able to find any means of obtaining it."
"I received no letter from Johnson this year." (1767.)
Diary affords no light as to his employment at this time."
"Samuel Johnson" was "Made a Mason!" in the "Dundee Lodge"
No. 9 at Wapping on 11th June, 1767; was he not identical with Dr.
of dictionary fame?)
18. Townmalling in Kent (at night), "I have now begun the 60th year of
How the last year (i. a, 1767) has past, I am unwilling to terrify
myself with thinking."
day it came into my mind to write the history of my Melancholy; on this
to deliberate, I know not whether it may not too much disturb me."
Now the above
statements (or rather confessions) made by Dr. Johnson himself on Aug.
2nd and Aug.
17th, 1767, and on Sept. 18th, 1768, point clearly to the fact that he
was at that
period unfit to perform any study or business owing to a severe attack
and it is suggested that in order to create a diversion to his
disordered mind and
body, he set out to "Explore Wapping" and whilst so engaged met some of
our members and in that way was induced to join the Lodge, not so much
that he had
any keen desire to become a Mason, but because of his great love of
tavern and club
life, for a Mason's Lodge was renowned in those days for its good
The Dundee Lodge Room
In 1767 the
Lodge Room of the Dundee Lodge No. 9, at Wapping, would display the
at tables (covered with green cloth) set out on trestles in the middle
of the room,
on which were placed bowls of steaming punch, bottles of wine, rum,
sugar, lemons, nutmegs and glasses, and for the smokers
screws of tobacco (called "papers"), and pipe lights were also
all for the delectation of members and visitors, for drinking and
smoking in open
Lodge and also in Grand Lodge too were then quite in order; full
details of purchases
of the above items and their cost appear in the Treasurer's books of
Songs and toasts (especially when the Lodge was "called off from labour
refreshment") were then the vogue; the Book of Constitutions of 1756
prints nine Masonic songs (including those belonging to the "Master,"
"Wardens," "Fellow Craft," and "Enter'd Prentice"),
whilst in preunion days there was a list of over 100 Masonic Toasts to
(Note: Our Lodge still possesses its copy of this book of 1756 and the
and wine-stains plainly visible on the pages thereof, give ocular proof
Master and Wardens actually sang these songs from same in the "Dundee
No. 9, at Wapping, in 1767.) These customs would surely interest a man
bohemian tastes especially when suffering from an attack of his
and thus help to divert his thoughts from his mental sufferings.
Bye-Law No. 30
(passed and added to the Rules of the "Dundee Lodge" in 1764) states
"Any Brother who is a Member of this Lodge who shall Behave Anyways
on a Lodge Night, shall pay a Fine of Two Shillings for the Use of this
shall Make Good All Damage that he may Do or Cause to be Done to any of
renowned as a great talker, very argumentative and his forcible
comments might easily
have led to a breach of this regulation, but as he was a powerful
fellow, his physical
strength would enable him easily to take good care of himself if a
in such an emergency! Boswell informs us that "Johnson one night was
in the street by four men but kept them all at bay till the watch came
both him and them to the round-house." Garrick also tells us that "In
the play-house at Lichfield, Johnson having for a moment quitted his
took possession of it, and when Johnson on his return civilly demanded
rudely refused to give it up; upon which Johnson laid hold of it, and
and the chair into the pit."
and Meditations" (Published 1875)
shortly before his death in 1784 destroyed by fire a large number of
papers, but saved the manuscript of his "Devotional Records." [Lib 1785] He handed the original to his
friend and spiritual adviser, Rev. George Strahan, the Vicar of
Islington with full
authority and instructions to publish same and accordingly they were
1785 and are generally known as Johnson's "Prayers and Meditations."
actual manuscript of same is still in the possession of Pembroke
where Johnson studied from 1728 to 1731.
a very human document, full confessions and regrets, also full of
repentance pointing out to all of us how much easier it is to preach
than to practice.
Johnson tried hard to conquer his weaknesses (which were to a great
by his "Constitutional Melancholy") but often failed, and the fact that
he deliberately saved these sacred memoirs from destruction and wished
them to be
published, is vastly to his credit and can only mean one thing, namely,
desired that this record of his constant failings, yet yearnings for a
nobler life, should be used as Boswell says, "in the hopes of doing
and as a warning and an inspiration for those who should come after
him. These "Prayers
and Meditations" must be carefully read to be fully understood and
April 20, 1778.
year, the 28th of March passed away without memorial. Poor Tetty,
our faults and failings, we loved each other. I did not forget thee
thou have lived! I am now, with the help of God, to begin a new life."
elderly wife, called "Tetty," died on 28th March, 1752; evidently he
her restraining influence.)
Johnson's Great Love of
Johnson was much attached to London and preferred it to the Country. He
streets at all hours; at 12 noon he was frequently found in bed; he
to go with Boswell to a Tavern, and often visited Ranelagh which he
deemed a place
of innocent recreation.
Extracts From "Boswell"
68). "No, Sir, when a man is tired of London, he is tired of life, for
is in London all that life can afford."
75). "The town is my element, there are my friends... there are my
Taverns and Club Life
very partial to Tavern-life; his own home was so unattractive, it is no
he was glad to dine out. His wife died in 1752, when he was only 43
years old and
he had no children. His praise of Taverns is proverbial; he told
Boswell once: "No,
Sir, there is nothing which has yet been contrived by man, by which so
is produced as by a good tavern or inn." Dr. Johnson was also
in forming about five clubs, the most important being the far-famed
Club," which, with the assistance of Sir Joshua Reynolds he founded in
this club first met at the "Turk's Head," Gerrard Street, Soho.
favourite taverns were the "Mitre" in Fleet Street, and the "Crown
and Anchor" Tavern in the Strand; at all these inns Masonic Lodges used
meet; it is therefore certain that Johnson and Boswell when visiting
same must often
have met members of the Craft attending to their Masonic duties, and
mingling with them when a Lodge "called off" from "Labour to
Tavern almost faced the entrance to Fetter Lane in Fleet Street and
of the site now occupied by "Hoares Bank." The "Crown and Anchor"
was on the south side of the Strand, opposite the Church of St. Clement
Dr. Johnson was wont to worship; and his favorite seat in the gallery
the pulpit) is still pointed out to interested visitors. The "Crown and
was a very popular tavern in the 18th Century, possessing a large and
on the first floor and the Grand Lodges of both the "Moderns" and
frequently met there, sometimes holding in this Inn their "Quarterly
An interesting fact to note is that these two Taverns, the "Mitre" and
"Crown and Anchor" were also favourite inns frequented by William
the "Masonic Lecturer," and it is therefore almost certain that he and
Dr. Johnson must often have met there.
Johnson's Kindness to Children
"Johnson's love of little children which he discovered upon all
calling them 'pretty dears' and giving them sweetmeats, was an
undoubted proof of
the real humanity and gentleness of his disposition;" he also displayed
kindness to his servants," and though poor himself, sometimes on his
late at night would put pennies into the hands of children sleeping on
in the Strand.
If Dr. Johnson
were indeed a Freemason, he seems to have hidden his tracks rather
yet certain items peep out here and there which lead one to suspect
that after all
he was pretty well acquainted with the ceremonies of the Craft, but for
best known to himself observed a discreet silence on the matter.
Delivers a "Charge"
Boswell was elected a member of the famous "Literary Club," and on
introduced for the first time makes the following statement:
my entrance, Johnson placed himself behind a chair ... and gave me a
out the conduct expected from me as a good member of the Club." Now,
Dr. Johnson select this unusual word that has such a special
signification to the
Craft; surely he could have given an address or exhortation? Boswell
received a "Charge" some years earlier, when he was "Made a Mason"
in "Canongate Kilwinning" Lodge, No. 2, at Edinburgh. (See later on for
(2) In 1774,
Johnson writing to Boswell said, "I am now writing and you when you
are reading under the 'Eye of Omnipresence.' Had Johnson ever listened
to a ceremony
of Holy Royal Arch?
(3) In 1777
the Rev. Dr. Dodd, Chaplain to Grand Lodge had been sentenced to be
hanged for forgery;
and although a stranger to Johnson begged his assistance. After some
he [Johnson] agreed to help and wrote the draft of a letter that Dr.
Dodd (a Freemason
and an officer of Grand Lodge) was to address to His Majesty beseeching
or at any rate a reprieve; but it is strange to note that Dr. Johnson
his valued help used these words to Dr. Dodd: 'I most seriously enjoin
you not to
let it be at all known that I have written this letter. Tell nobody."
Johnson be thus ashamed to admit to a kind act; did he fear that his
with the Craft at Wapping might thereby be revealed?
spite of Johnson's eloquence Dr. Dodd was hanged on 27th June, 1777.)
(4) In 1778,
Boswell said to Johnson, "But you would not have me to bind myself by a
obligation?" Johnson (much agitated) replied: "What a vow ‒ O, no, sir,
a vow is a horrible thing, it is a snare for sin."
(5) In 1780,
Dr. Johnson went to see a Freemason's funeral procession when he was at
actual words were used by Dr. Johnson in an essay he wrote on the "Life
the King of Prussia," first published in the "Literary Magazine"
for 1756. The extract is as follows:
of Prussia, Frederick III) "then declared his resolution to grant a
toleration of religion and among other liberalities of concession,
allowed the profession
This is the
only recorded occasion (known to the writer) when Dr. Johnson actually
Freemasonry; his "Dictionary of the English Language" published in 1755
is silent on the subject.
Dr. Johnson's "Bohemianism"
when middle aged, at times lived a very irregular life, especially when
from the "morbid melancholy" that seemed to take all the poetry out of
his existence, so that when a severe attack came on he had to throw
aside his literary
work and seek relaxations and relief in dissipation and amusements of
hence his fondness for taverns and clubs, his great love of London and
his constant attendance at Ranelagh and its gaieties. It will be noted
Johnson is quite honest with himself, does not excuse his own frailties
to exonerate his conduct except perhaps when he places the chief blame
for his lapses
on his "vile melancholy."
Extracts from Boswell
43). One night Beauclerk and Langton, two of his friends, having supped
at a Tavern
in London and sat till about three in the morning, called up Johnson,
at the door of his chambers in the Temple, till at last he appeared in
with his little black wig on the top of his head instead of a nightcap,
a poker in his hand. He agreed to join them, saying: "What is it, you
I'll have a frisk with you." They went to a neighbouring Tavern, made a
of "Bishop" (Johnson's favourite beverage), then walked down to the
took a boat, and rowed to Billingsgate (adjacent to Wapping). Beauclerk
were so well pleased with their amusement that they resolved to
persevere in dissipation
for the rest of the day. (Dr. Johnson often took a boat on the river
and rowed past
Wapping on his way to Greenwich.)
54). Boswell says, "It must be own that Dr. Johnson was not a temperate
either in eating or drinking."
At this period
he told Boswell "that he generally went abroad about four in the
and seldom came home till two in the morning; he owned it was bad
further states, "That Johnson after he came to London and had
Savage and others was not so strictly virtuous in one respect, as when
he was a
younger man. It was well known that his amorous inclinations were
and impetuous." Johnson once remarked "Why, Sir, I am a man of the
I live in the world, and I take in some degree the color of the world
as it moves
"Meditations and Prayers" Boswell says he thus accuses himself:
Friday (aged 55): "I have made no reformation; I have lived totally
more sensual in thought and more addicted to wine and meat ... my
predominated over my reason." He then solemnly says, "This is not the
life to which Heaven is promised," and he earnestly resolves an
Johnson and the "Thrales"
In 1765 he
was introduced to Mr. and Mrs. Thral of Streatham. The husband was the
a large brewery at Southwark, London. They showed Dr. Johnson great
and kindness, provided him with a separate apartment at each of their
and for about sixteen years the learned sage was their constant guest;
the privilege of enjoying his conversation and company an ample
died in 1781 leaving Dr. Johnson one of his executors; the business was
for 135,000 pounds Robert Barclay (a Quaker) the originator of "Barclay
Perkins," now one of the most important breweries in London, who still
the head of "Dr. Johnson" on the labels of their bottles of beer. It
"when the sale of Thrale's brewery was going forward, that Johnson
(in his character of an executor) bustling about, with an ink-horn and
pen in his
button-hole like an exciseman; and on being asked what he really
considered to be
the value of the property which was to be disposed of, answered, "We
here to sell parcel of boilers and vats, but the potentiality of
growing rich beyond
the dreams of avarice." The widow Mrs. Thrale, thus became wealthy at
death but she soon tired of the company of the learned Doctor (who was
a confirmed invalid) and without consulting him, allied herself in
Signor Piozzi, an Italian music-master, much to Johnson's chagrin and
is even said that he had himself cherished hopes of leading the rich
widow to the
undoubtedly owed much to the generosity of the brewer and his wife, and
influence of their quiet home life at Streatham, he certainly lost some
of his rough
ways and brusque manners; the Thrales also took him as their guest to
Paris and Brightelmstone (Brighton).
As an illustration
that Dr. Johnson at times could unbend and enjoy some innocent fun, the
further extract from Boswell is given:
61). "Two young women from Staffordshire visited him when I (Boswell)
to consult him on the subject of Methodism, to which they were
(said he), 'you pretty fools, dine with Maxwell and me at the Mitre,
and we will
talk over that subject,' which they did, and after dinner he took one
of them upon
his knee, and fondled her for half an hour together."
from Boswell's "Tour to the Hebrides"
in the Isle of Skye)
27. Monday. "This evening one of our married ladies, a lively pretty
woman, good humouredly sat down upon Dr. Johnson's knees and being
some of the company, put her hands round his neck and kissed him. 'Do
said he 'and let us see who will tire first: He kept her on his knees
while he and she drank tea. He was now like a 'buck' indeed.'..........
me Boswell it was highly comick, to see the grave philosopher ...
toying with a
Highland beauty!" (Johnson at this date was 64 years old.)
story was recently told to the write by a Scotsman (not, however, a
"About 1910, on a holiday tour in the Isle of Skye, his attention was
to an old ruined building (near Corrichatachin), and he was informed
that was the
old farmhouse in which Dr. Johnson and Boswell stayed in 1773, and that
after the punch bowl had been circulating freely, Johnson beckoned two
of the serving
maids to approach him and then placing one on each of his knees, put
his arms round
them and said, 'Now, let us have a dance together.' The learned sage
in a kind of jig on the farm-house floor with these two servant girls;
you can imagine
how eagerly they subsequently told their mothers of the honor thus
them, viz., that they had danced with the great Dr. Johnson!
story is still current in the local village." (It will be noted that
Boswell writing in 1785, describes Dr. Johnson as a "buck;" in 1922 he
would perhaps he better designated as "a good old sport.")
(To be concluded)
of the Religious Struggles of the Early American Colonies
By Brother Benjamin Wellington
is so often asked for information concerning the part played by various
in the development of early American colonies that Bro. Bryant was
to prepare an article on the subject. He gives a rapid and restrained
which inquiring brethren may find an answer to many of their questions.
Bryant has on hand an accumulation of facts concerning early American
other instalments of which, so it is hoped, may appear in THE BUILDER
and ultimately in book form.
IT IS universally
recognized that the struggle for religious liberty played a most
in the early settlement of our country and in the creation of our
The details of the struggle are not so well known, and unfortunately
to be an effort on the part of some to obscure many of the most
as well as to belittle the heroism and cast doubts upon the sincerity
of the faith
of the founders of our nation.
Many of our
popular histories have been tainted in this way, and, sad to relate,
for use in our public schools have been so far denatured that it is
to gain from them a clear conception of fundamental, causes in American
The works of John Bach McMaster, and for the more recent historical
period of James
Ford Rhodes, are notable exceptions. These, and the works of some of
who wrote in an age when it was not considered necessary to appease the
flatter the conceit of any particular party or sect, are veritable
mines of information
for the student of unbiased history. There are a few of the special
the Colonial period which may be consulted with real profit, and on
a careful reading of some articles in the Catholic Encyclopedia will
and the ideal of religious liberty are so mutually dependent, and
because both our
institution and this ideal are so closely interwoven with our national
it seems incumbent upon Masons to familiarize themselves with this
phase of our
history. Hence a review of some of the less familiar phases of the
subject in the
columns of THE BUILDER may not be amiss.
The Period of Bitter Religious
been written of that ferment of intrigue and sudden death out of which
finally emerged. That struggle continued during the first two centuries
the discovery of America. The Spanish sent us their missionaries,
backed by fire
and sword, to Central and South America, the West Indies, and even to
boundaries of what is now the United States. Whatever measure of
culture and civilization
existed among the native inhabitants of the central and southern parts
of the continent,
(and there are numerous indications that it was far from negligible)
went down in
such a sea of blood as has seldom disgraced the name of the white race.
France, settlements were made at an early date in the northern part of
and the results of the alliance between the Jesuit priest and the
were scarcely more credible.
the separation from the Roman communion was a terrific blow to the
papal hopes for
world domination; the thunders of the Vatican had echoed without
that island until the destruction of the Armada rendered null the bull
V that had been designed to depose Elizabeth; while the hanging of the
Garnet and Oldecorn, discouraged further Gunpowder Plots and gave the
temporary respite. Religious persecution and suspicion pervaded every
in the words of Eggleston, "every one was sure that divine authority
his side, and that human authority ought to be." (1) However, it was
a century of bitter, and often bloody, contest that in 1701 the Act of
vested the title to the English crown in the Electress of Hanover and
the reformed English Church had suffered a new reformation within its
‒ the reforming of religious organizations had become fashionable ‒ and
group, finding that both parties were ready to make common cause to the
of their own devoted heads, fled first to Holland, and later to
America, to seek
asylum for their faith.
them a maelstrom of religious bigotry, these early colonists brought
with them fresh
and bitter memories of the lengths to which man's inhumanity to man
might be carried
in the name of religion. With the English Church alone they might in a
of peace; indeed they were not entirely sure that they were
from it; but with the Roman Church they knew that there was no truce.
is not strange that they took steps to prevent that organization from
foothold in their new home.
from Church and State was an undreamed of condition in that day, and
made their religious edifice to be an integral part of their body
considering the time, they made a most radical advance in the direction
of thought. The farewell sermon of Pastor John Robinson to the Pilgrims
were leaving Leyden, Holland, should not be forgotten, for it is one of
beacons of progress and throws a flood of light on mental attitude of
colonists. According to the paraphrase of Winslow, which is the only
word of that
used these expressions, or to the same purpose; We are now ere long to
and the Lord knoweth whether he should live to see our faces again: but
the Lord has appointed it or not, he charged us before God and His
to follow him no further than he followed Christ. And if God should
to us by any other instrument of His, to be as ready to receive it, as
ever we were
to receive any truth by his Ministery: For he was very confident the
Lord had more
truth and light yet to breake forth out of His holy Word."
the horrors of Old World conditions, the Colonists found here a
from the Catholic colonies of France to the North, and of Spain to the
and bitterly they felt the edge of that menace, as the authorities of
inspired perhaps by their Jesuit spiritual leaders, incited the Indians
against the Protestant Colonies. And, as if this were not enough, they
saw the Jesuit
explorers pushing down the Mississippi, thus hemming them in.
Only by the
miscarriage of the scheme of La Salle for the colonization of Louisiana
establishment of a string of French forts and trading posts from the
to the Gulf, was prevented the planting of an almost insuperable
barrier to the
westward expansion of the English Protestant colonies. In the
circumstances it is
not strange that the colonists wrote into their political code some
Religious Liberty in Massachusetts
the laws of 1631 excluded all except Puritans from the freedom of the
and that lovable trouble maker, Roger Williams, even compromised the
the Colony somewhat by persuading the Governor to cut the cross from
the flag as
a "Popish emblem." (3) In 1647 the laws of the colony were amended to
exclude priests ‒ some say the Jesuits were specifically named, but I
unable to verify this. If any priest returned to the Colony after being
he was to be put to death. The charter of William and Mary in 1696
liberty of conscience to all except papists. Laws had been passed in
French Roman Catholics settling in the colony.
at Faneuil Hall in 1746 adopted resolutions demanding that Catholics be
to prove, as well as affirm their loyalty to the Colony, and in 1770
the act of
1647 was reaffirmed. (4) The odor of papal incense was far too strong
reigning Stuarts to please these Puritan Colonists, and when the
and Whatley appeared in their midst, these were permitted to go freely
streets of Boston and Cambridge, and to attend devotional services.
When news arrived
of the passage of the Indemnity Act, these men fled to Rhode Island
where they remained
for nearly two years. Later they were protected by the colonists in New
for a time, and finally returned to Massachusetts where they remained
On the whole,
and notwithstanding all that has been said of their intolerance, the
that the Massachusetts colonists represented a great advance toward
They were sincerely Protestant, and possessed no illusions as to the
their real enemies, or the price they must pay if those enemies should
gain a foothold
in their midst. Their so-called bigotry was a product of conditions,
not of inherent
cruelty. Goldwin Smith says of them: "At the worst they were never
forcible conversion, nor did they rack the conscience, like the
established by Roger Williams, who was the cause of so much discord in
Massachusetts, was the first commonwealth where full liberty of
conscience was written
into the law.
person within sayd colonys, at any tyme hereafter, shall bee anywise
disquieted, or called in question for any difference in opinione in
matters of religion,
and [he] doe not actually disturbe the civill peace of our sayd colony:
all and everye person and persons may, from tyme to tyme.... freelye
have and enjoy his and their own judgments and consciences in matters
concernments; they behaving themselves peaceablie and quietlie, and not
to lycentiousnesse and profanenesse, nor to the civill injurys or
of others; any laws, statute, or clause therein contayned, or to be
or custome of this realme, to the contrary hereof, in anywise,
been said of Rhode Island toleration, but there do not appear to have
Catholics in the colony at any time to put that commonwealth's
toleration to the
supreme test. The few who did settle there were at times denied the
Religious Toleration in
under the Dutch, was officially Protestant, but inclined toward
Sidney Fisher remarks that "the Dutch looked askance at papists, having
most bitter experience with them when the Spanish Inquisition
slaughtered the people
of the Netherlands by thousands." Comparing anti-Catholic outbreaks in
York with the Salem witch-craft craze, he says further that "to the
a papist seemed far more dangerous than a witch who rode a broom." (9)
English confirmed the property rights of the Dutch Reformed Church and
toleration to other forms of the Protestant faith. The General Assembly
granted religious liberty to all Christians and the Colony had a
for a time, in the person of Thomas Dongan. A Jesuit priest, Father
quietly held Catholic services. (10) But with the Revolution of 1688-89
came a change in this policy and all Catholic priests and teachers were
to keep away from New York under severe penalties.
Rebellion of 1689-90 seems to have borne a distinctly anti-Catholic
other motives have often been attributed to its leader. In 1700 a law
which provided that every Roman Catholic who voluntarily came into the
to be hanged. This was designed to prevent the settlement of Jesuit
the Indians, and was the most severe statute enacted against them in
any of the
colonies. In the disturbances and panic incident to the "Negro Plot" of
1741 in New York and New Jersey, Catholics were accused of complicity
John Ury was convicted and hanged for the crime of being a "Popish
Assembly of New Jersey in 1668, excluded a Catholic because of his
government of the Colony was intrusted to Lord Cornbury by Queen Anne
in 1701, with
instructions to grant full liberty of conscience to all except papists.
had passed laws of similar tenor in 1698. (12)
seems to have kept to the ideal of toleration in her colonial laws, and
were permitted to exist and to hold services, provided they were not
about it. Toleration was extended to them with a sort of tacit
they should be as inconspicuous as possible. William Penn wrote from
London to James
Logan in Philadelphia in 1708: "With these is a complaint against your
that you suffer public mass in a scandalous manner. Pray send the
matter of fact,
for ill use is made of it against us here." (13) The province was never
from a religious test imposed upon office holders. When Penn's rights
were suspended in 1693-94, and Governor Fletcher of New York was
directed to assume
control of Pennsylvania affairs, the latter was required by his
commission to administer
to all who should be chosen members of the General Assembly the oaths
required by the Toleration Act of William and Mary. These oaths and
tests were directed
against the claims of the Pope to temporal supremacy; and against the
mass and other
doctrines peculiar to the Catholic faith. Fletcher's zeal resulted in
of these tests, or their equivalent, on all officials, thus absolutely
Catholics in Pennsylvania. (14) During the French War hostility to
France is said
to have provoked an attack on the Catholics in the Colony. The Quakers
made it clear at an early date that Romanists were not wanted in that
reception accorded Lord Baltimore when he landed there after the
failure of his
Avalon venture in Newfoundland was, to put it mildly, lacking in
House of Burgesses passed laws requiring strict conformity to the rites
of the English
Church, and in 1641 enacted a statute that prohibited Catholics from
office. The second charter, granted to the colony by James I,
prohibited the admission
of Catholics to the Colony.
which Oglethorpe obtained from George II for Georgia in 1732 provided
conscience to all except papists. According to the laws of North
Carolina in 1697,
minors might not be committed to papists for instruction. South
Carolina in 1697
granted liberty of conscience and worship to all except papists.
An Extended Account of Maryland
requires more extended notice, being the only one of the thirteen
was established under Catholic auspices. The first settlement was
a charter from James I by Lord Baltimore, a converted Catholic who
seems to have
stood high in the favor of the king. Goldwin Smith says that he
colony with toleration for the 'spiritual benefit' of a church which,
dominant and persecuting, was depressed and persecuted in England."
according to Sidney Fisher, "the religious liberty which prevailed in
under the Roman Catholics was forced upon them by circumstances which
not avoid.... The grandiloquent phrases in which the first settlement
of the Maryland
Catholics at St. Mary's on the Potomac is described as the home of
and its only home in the wide world, can deceive only the ignorant....
colonists dared not establish their religion to the exclusion of all
was a question in the minds of most Englishmen whether these people who
in the authority of a foreign power to depose English kings and foment
against them, and who were continually plotting the overthrow of the
should be allowed to exist at all." (16)
It is true
that Calvert brought over both Catholics and Protestants in the first
there is no reliable data to indicate the proportion of each faith.
There is an
interesting story of the efforts of the party to slip away from England
taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, but it is not necessary
it here. The followers of each faith were permitted to bring with them
of their own denomination, but the Protestants seem to have brought
none, nor did
they apparently make any efforts to secure one until some years later.
As late as
1642 it appears that there were none in the Colony.
attended to the matter for the Catholics and secured the detail of two
from the General of the Order at Rome. It is said that the Provincial
privately furnished Baltimore with arguments in defense of the policy
before the party sailed. (17)
In 1639 an
Act for Church Liberties was passed which was a typical example of the
of the party in power. It was enacted that "Holy Church within this
shall have all her rights, liberties immunities, safe, whole and
inviolate in all
things." The phrase, "Holy Church" is supposedly a substitution "the
Church of England" in a similar passage of Magna Charta, and, to quote
‒ "was worthy of Bunyan's Mr. Facing-both-ways. Interpreted by judges
office at the will of a Catholic proprietary, it could have but one
the outside world it might bear another sense. It did all that could be
the circumstances for the Roman Catholic religion and for Catholic
(18) As to toleration, any denial of the divinity of Christ was a
of Cromwell over Charles I incited the Protestants to strike for power,
party of the Pope and the proprietary were defeated in a miniature
at Providence. The government of the Baltimores returned with the
Charles Calvert, the third of that line, appears in some manner to have
the religious quarrels of the Colonists for a time. The period of quiet
lived, however, for the Revolution in England brought another uprising
Catholic brand of toleration and the Church of England was established
as the official
faith of the Colony. Thus, in 1689, the Catholics were deprived of
liberty to practice
their rites in their own colony.
time the Baltimores themselves had learned from experience that the
Jesuit was far
from being an unmixed blessing. It seems that these priests had
among the Indians of the Putuxent and Pascataway tribes, who received
and readily became converts. They bestowed upon the Jesuit fathers
of land ‒ out of "gratitude" William Hand Browne is careful to state.
(19) These tracts became the property of the Jesuit Order. Browne says:
priests, moreover, dwelling in the wilderness and no longer under the
praemunire were disposed to claim the immunities and exemptions of the
bull In Coena
Domini and to hold themselves free from the common law, and answerable
to the canon
law only, and to ecclesiastical tribunals. Baltimore was a Romanist in
he was an Englishman with all the instincts of his race. He at once
on the ground that all his Colonists, cleric or lay, were equal before
and that there should be no land held in mortmain in the province ...
that this was likely to bring him into conflict with the Jesuit Order,
took a decisive step. He appealed to Rome to have the Jesuits removed
from the missions,
and a prefect and secular priests appointed in their stead, and an
order to this
effect was issued by the Propaganda." (20)
was finally patched up when the Jesuits surrendered their lands. The
Father More, in the extremity, deciding that the conditions of
not in conflict with the bull in question, executed a release of all
from the Indians. The order for the removal of the Jesuits was then
was a complete victory for Baltimore.
Maryland Becomes Protestant
emerged from the turmoil incident to the accession of William and Mary
with a royal
governor, and with the Protestants outnumbering the Catholics in the
Colony in the
ratio of twelve to one. In 1715 the fifth Lord Baltimore renounced the
faith and the proprietary control of the Colony was restored to the
family. In 1718
even more stringent laws deprived papists of the franchise and barred
public office. So passed Romanism from its first and only stronghold in
with it must have passed in great measure the fear, hitherto ever
present in the
Protestant mind as long as the Stuarts reigned or there was a
possibility of their
return to the throne, that England might become a Roman Catholic
dependency of France.
The fresh courage growing out of the presence on the throne of William
and later of Queen Anne, injected new life into England and her
It was a
period of great portent. Events of tremendous importance to the cause
of human liberty
were shaping themselves. With 1701 came the Act of Succession and the
at last securely in Protestant hands. The contest that had raged for
more than two
centuries was decided and the British nation was definitely and finally
out of the
control of Rome.
only the fall of Quebec and Montreal which occurred in 1759-60, was
needed to finally
banish forever the possibility of a great Catholic empire on this
to establish that principle of freedom of conscience and worship which
is a corner-stone
of Protestantism. Catholic France was driven from Canada, and that
country was securely
under a Protestant power. Catholic Spain had already passed the
meridian of her
advancement in this hemisphere.
clock of eternity had ticked off another round of the waning night and
to strike the hour that would mark the dawning of that "New order of
which is proclaimed on the yet uncut reverse of the Great Seal of the
Beginners of a Nation, New York, 1899, p.
113. [Lib 1897]
(2) Dexter, The England and Holland of the Pilgrims, p. 587. [Lib 1905]
(3) Goldwin Smith, The United States, New York, 1907, p. 12. [Lib 1901]
(4) Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. X, pp. 28 and 787. [Lib 1907]
(5) Jameson, Dictionary of United States History, Boston 1897 p. 548.
(6) Goldwin Smith, The United States, p. 12. [Lib 1901]
(7) Osgood, The American Colonies in the 17th Century, New York, 1904.
Vol. 1, p.
370; [Lib 1904/7; Vol 1, Vol
2, Vol 3]
also Preston, Documents Illustrative of American History, New York
1686, pp. 110
et seq. [Lib 1886]
(8) Sparks, Men Who Made the Nation, New York, 1901, p. 4. [Lib 1904]
(9) Fisher, Men, Women and Manners in Colonial Times, Vol. II, pp.
85-86. [Lib 1898;
Vol 1, Vol
(10) Osgood, The American Colonies in the 17th Century, Vol. III, p.
444. [Lib 1904/7;
Vol 1, Vol
2, Vol 3]
(11) Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. X, p. 35. [Lib 1907]
(12) Ibid., p. 792.
Philadelphia, The Place and the People, New York,
1904, p. 39. [Lib 1912]
(14) Osgood, The American Colonies in the 17th Century, Vol. II, p.345.
Vol 1, Vol
2, Vol 3]
(15) Goldwin Smith, The United States, p. 48. [Lib 1901]
(16) Fisher, Men, Women and Manners in Colonial Times, Vol II, pp. 150
et seq. [Lib
1898; Vol 1, Vol
(17) Eggleston, The Beginners of a Nation, p. 242. [Lib 1897]
(18) Ibid, p. 251.
(19) Browne, Maryland, p. 55.
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Brother G.W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
was a great merchant, a great philanthropist and a great Mason. He was
accurate in all his dealings, and as a business man was very exacting,
was born near Bordeaux, France, in 1750, and died in Philadelphia in
1831. He was
the son of a sea captain and himself began to go to sea at an early
one voyage to the West Indies when he was only fourteen years of age.
It was through
his voyages to the West Indies that he came to know something about the
At that time French possessions in the West Indies were very extensive,
and it was
our misfortune in agreeing to protect these possessions that led to our
became master of a ship, then part owner, and later owner. He settled
in 1776, married the beautiful Mary Lum (she afterwards became insane),
a grocer, wine dealer, and in time a merchant on a large scale. When
the war of
1812 had ended he took advantage of conditions and opened up a
with the West Indies. He was a farseeing man, able to make profitable
the midst of the hazards of war: he drove close bargains, but he always
obligations promptly, and he had the confidence of the people.
historic epidemic of yellow fever which so decimated the population of
in 1793 he volunteered to serve as manager of the hospital at Bush
the second epidemic of 1797 he again took the lead in relieving the
did not hesitate to use his own hands, his own time, and his own money
the most loathsome cases, after many citizens had fled.
In 1810 Girard
helped to bolster up the economic security of the United States by
million dollars of stock in the Bank of the United States, at a time
when that institution
was almost defunct. Later on he established the Bank of Stephen Girard.
Government in 1814 tried to float a loan of $5,000,000 and only $20,000
of it had
been taken, Girard came to the rescue by advancing the Government
those days a vast sum.
He was active
in procuring the charter of the second Bank of the United States and
made a director. During all this while he contributed to upbuild, to
to adorn the city of Philadelphia. He was frugal in his private habits
the point of parsimoniousness, but he was not avaricious.
a strictly self-made man, and unpretentious in every way, especially in
The story is told that a young man upon arriving at a hotel mistook
Girard for a
porter, and offered him a quarter to take his bag to his room. Girard
bag up and accepted the quarter, which, however was a Spanish coin I
twenty-two cents. The young mans handed him his card and asked him to
take it to
Mr. Girard, upon which he astonished the youth by saying, "I am Mr.
The young man was profuse in his apologies and asked of Mr. Girard the
had come for, but Girard replied, "I will not do this, because you do
fair; you promised me a quarter but you gave me less. I cannot do
story is told of him. A drayman's horse was accidentally killed. A
to pity the poor drayman for his loss. Girard raised a coin above his
head and said,
"I pity the drayman five dollars, let us all chip in and buy him a new
about $9,000,000 worth of property, the largest fortune ever
accumulated in this
country up to that time. His relatives received but little of it. To
Hospital he left $30,000. The Deaf and Dumb Hospital received $20,000;
to the public schools; and $20,000 was put in a fund for Masonic
Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania accounts for the Masonic fund in its annual
and the Masons in the Keystone State delight to be informed year after
year of the
good still being done by Girard's famous bequest.
a radical and a freethinker as was shown by his naming his ships such
names as "Rousseau,"
"Voltaire," "Helvetius," and "Montesquieux." Because
of this he was sometimes accused of atheism, which accusation, as is
case, was a calumny.
famous of all of Girard's bequests was that which provided for what is
Girard College. He laid down in his will some specifications that
caused a great
stir at the time, as witness this clause: "I enjoin and require that no
missionary or minister of any sect whatsoever, shall ever hold or
exercise any duty
whatsoever in the said college; nor shall any such person ever be
admitted for any
purpose, or as a visitor, within the premises appropriated to the
purposes of the
said college.... I desire to keep the tender minds of orphans … free
from the excitements
which clashing doctrines and sectarian controversy are so apt to
On the strength
of this obnoxious clause Girard's heirs-at-law contested the will in
1836 and had
Daniel Webster argue the case before the Supreme Court of the United
In 1851 the
remains of Girard were removed from Trinity Church to Girard College
and there placed
in a handsome sarcophagus in one of the college buildings which has
as "the most perfect Greek Temple in existence." His remains were
by a procession of Freemasons and they had charge of the ceremonies.
a photograph of which is herewith given, is a fitting one: it is a
of the modest man who had done so much for the city and country of his
and who saw to it that his fortune continued to work after his death,
as it had
done during his life, for the welfare of his fellow beings.
I have the information that Girard was made a Mason in 1788. "His
dated 28th January, 1788,* gave his membership in Union Blue Lodge No.
the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Ancient York Masons of
of South Carolina."
to another records Girard was initiated in Lodge No. 3 (Pennsylvania),
7, 1778. Both records seem authentic. It has been suggested that Girard
able to prove himself to a Mason in 1788 and was initiated a second
time, an irregular
proceeding not impossible in that formative period of the Craft.
By Bro. H.L. Haywood
A new series
of Study Club Articles by Brother H. L. Haywood will begin next month
to be called
"Chapters of Masonic History." His first series, which covered
and Symbolical Masonry, is now in press preparatory to being issued in
It will be followed immediately by the publication in book form of the
"The Teachings of Masonry," the eighteenth and concluding chapter of
appears in this issue. The new series will differ in every way from the
series except that it will continue to be arranged in form suitable for
use by Study
are too long or too technical for popular use; others are too short or
in his new Study Club series Brother Haywood has sought to find a
golden mean. Guided
by his extensive knowledge of the wants of the average reader he will
connected form such information as is essential without long
digressions or technical
arguments, but at the same time he will try to base his narrative on
of the best Masonic scholarship. Unlike most of the chronicles of the
published, "Chapters of Masonic History" will do full justice to the
story of American Masonry, from the early eighteenth century, through
period, down to the present time.
Part XVIII ‒ Schools of
on the Philosophy of Freemasonry" [Lib 1915] by Roscoe Pound, of the Law
of Harvard University, is the book wherewith to begin a study of the
of Masonry in a technical and systematic manner. The book is not bulky,
language is simple, so that a novice need have no difficulties in
reading it. I
value this little manual so highly that I shall bring this series of
the Great Teachings of Freemasonry to conclusion by giving a rapid
review of its
contents, the same to be followed by reference to two or three schools
by Brother Pound, and by a suggestion of my own concerning Masonic
century in England was a period of comparative quiet, despite the
blow-up that came
at the end of it, and men ceased very generally to quarrel over
It was a period of formalism when more attention was paid to manner
than to matter.
Also, and this is most important, it was everywhere believed that
Knowledge is the
greatest thing in the world and must therefore be the one aim of all
was a true child of his century in these things, and he gave to
Freemasonry a typical
eighteenth century interpretation. This is especially seen in our
most of which came from his hands, or at least took shape under his
in that ceremony knowledge is made the great object of Masonic
endeavor. The lectures
consist of a series of courses in instruction in the arts and sciences
fashion of school-room discourses. "For what does Masonry exist? What
end and purpose of the order? Preston would answer: To diffuse light,
that is, to
spread knowledge among men." In criticizing this position Brother Pound
the following provocative words to say: "Preston of course was wrong
is not the sole end of Masonry. But in another way Preston was right.
is one end ‒ at least one proximate end ‒ and it is not the least of
those by which
human perfection shall be attained. Preston's mistakes were the
mistakes of his
century ‒ the mistake of faith in the finality of what was known to
that era, and
the mistake of regarding correct formal presentation as the one sound
instruction. But what shall be said of the greater mistake we make
today, when we
go on reciting his lectures ‒ shorn and abridged till they mean nothing
to the hearer
‒ and gravely presenting them as a system of Masonic knowledge? ... I
hate to think
that all initiative is gone from our Order and that no new Preston will
take up his conception of knowledge as an end of the Fraternity and
present to the
Masons of today the knowledge which they ought to possess."
* * *
- Have you ever read "Philosophy
of Freemasonry" by Brother Roscoe
- What can you tell about the
eighteenth century in England?
- Tell what you know about
- What was his idea of the
purpose of Freemasonry?
- In what way was he wrong?
what way was he right?
Of a very
different cast, both as to intellectual equipment and moral nature, was
Friedrich Krause, born near Leipzig in 1781, the founder of the great
Masonic thought of which Ahrens afterwards became so powerful an
exponent. In the
period in which Krause grew up conceptions of the human race and of
human life underwent
a profound change: thinkers abandoned their allegiance to the Roman
leaders of the Middle Ages with their dependence on supernatural ideas
the principal idea of the classical Greek and Roman scientists and
was that man must be known for what he is actually found to be and
dealt with accordingly.
The goal of all endeavors, according to this modern way of thinking, is
of human life in the interest of men and women themselves ‒ a vastly
from that of the Middle Ages, which was that human life must be twisted
to fit a scheme of things lying outside of human life. Krause believed
exists in order to help perfect the human race. Our Fraternity should
work in cooperation
with the other institutions, such as Government, School, Church, etc.,
all of which
exist for the same purpose. According to what principles should Masonry
in seeking to attain this end? "Krause answers: Masonry has to deal
internal conditions of life governed by reason. Hence its fundamental
are measurement and restraint ‒ measurement by reason and restraint by
and it teaches these as a means of achieving perfection."
with Krause, but of a type strikingly different, was the Rev. George
teachings so universally influenced English and American Masonic
thought a half
century ago. Romanticism (understood as the technical name of a school
was the center of his thinking, as religion was the center of his
heart. Like Sam'l
Taylor Coleridge, the most eloquent interpreter of Oliver's own period,
against the dry intellectualism of the eighteenth century in behalf of
and imagination; he insisted that reason make way for intuition and
faith; he attached
a very high value to tradition: and he was very eager to reconcile
then are Oliver's answers to the three fundamental questions of Masonic
What is the end of Masonry, for
what does the institution exist? Oliver would
answer, it is one in its end with religion and with science. Each of
these are means
through which we are brought into relation with the absolute. They are
through which we know God and his works.
How does Masonry seek to
achieve its end? Oliver would answer by preserving,
handing down and interpreting a tradition of immemorial antiquity, a
from the childhood of the race.
What are the fundamental
principles by which Masonry is governed in achieving
its task? Oliver would say, the fundamental principles of Masonry are
the principles of religion as the basic principles of the moral world.
But in Masonry
they appear in a traditional form. Thus, for example, toleration in
Masonry is a
form of what in religion we call charity; universality in Masonry is a
form of what in religion we call love of one's neighbor."
was, during a large part of his life contemporaneous with Oliver and
consequently grew up in the same thought world, but for all that he
worked out an
interpretation of Masonry radically different from others. In spite of
all his studies
in antiquity and in forgotten philosophies and religions Pike, at the
his mind, attacked the problems of Masonic thought as though no other
him had ever heard of it. He was impatient of traditions, often
scornful of other
opinions, and as for the dogmas and shibboleths of the schools he would
of them. What is genuinely real? that was the great question of his
accordingly his interpretation of Freemasonry took the form of a
was more interested in nature than in function.
What is the end of Masonry?
What is the purpose for which it exists? Pike
would answer: The immediate end is the pursuit of light. But light
means here attainment
of the fundamental principle of the universe and bringing of ourselves
the ultimate unity which alone is real. Hence the ultimate end is to
lead us to
the Absolute ‒ interpreted by our individual creed if we like but
the final unity into which all things merge and with which in the end
must accord. You will see here at once a purely philosophical version
of what, with
Oliver, was purely religious.
What is the relation of Masonry
to other human institutions and particularly
to the state and to religion? He would answer it seeks to interpret
them to us,
to make them more vital for us, to make them more efficacious for their
by showing the ultimate reality of which they are manifestations. It
that there is but one Absolute and that everything short of that
Absolute is relative;
is but a manifestation, so that creeds and dogmas, political or
religious, are but
interpretations. It teaches us to make our own interpretation for
teaches us to save ourselves by finding for ourselves the ultimate
which we shall come to the real. In other words, it is the universal
of which other spiritual, moral and social institutions are local and
How does Masonry seek to reach
these ends? He would say by a system of allegories
and of symbols handed down from antiquity which we are to study and
upon which we
are to reflect until they reveal the light to each of us individually.
these symbols and acts out these allegories for us. But the
responsibility of reaching
the real through them is upon each of us. Each of us has the duty of
wonderful heritage from antiquity for himself. Masonry in Pike's view
does not offer
us predigested food. It offers us a wholesome fare which we must digest
But what a feast! It is nothing less than the whole history of human
reality. And through it he conceives, through mastery of it, we shall
* * *
- Tell what you know of Krause.
- What was Krause's conception of
the purpose of Freemasonry?
- Do you agree with him?
- Tell what you know of Rev.
- What was his philosophy?
- What did he believe to be the
purpose of Freemasonry?
- How would you criticize
- What was Albert Pike's general
- What is the end and goal of
Masonry according to his theories?
you agree with Pike's philosophy of Masonry?
it seems to me, might well have included in his survey two other well
one of which, it is probable, is destined to out-do all its
predecessors in influence.
I refer to the Historical School, and to the Mystical School, neither
of which thus
far has developed a leader worthy of conferring his own name on his
it may be said that Robert Freke Gould and Arthur Edward Waite are
tenet of the historical school is that Freemasonry interprets itself
own history. This history is not broken into separate fragments but is
and progressive throughout so that the unfolding story of Masonry is a
of the nature of Masonry. Would you know what Masonry actually is,
apart from what
in the theory of men it appears to be? read its history. Would you know
the future of Masonry? trace out the tracks of its past development,
and from them
you can plot the curves of its future developments. Would you discover
the ideals and possibilities of the Fraternity? study to learn what it
trying to do in the past and is now trying to do.
makes a profound appeal to men in this day when science, with its
interest in history,
development and evolution, rules in the fields of thought, and I have
no doubt that
more and more it will be found necessary for the leaders of
to master the history of past Masonry, especially because Masonry, more
institutions, derives from and is dependent on its own past.
Nevertheless, in Masonry
as in all other fields, philosophy cannot be made identical with
history for the
reason that such a method does not provide for new developments. What
if some mighty
leader ‒ another Albert Pike, for example ‒ were to arise now and give
of Masonic evolution an entirely new twist, what could the historians
do about it?
Nothing. They would have no precedents to go by. An adequate philosophy
the nature of Masonry by insight and intuition as well as by history.
must not shut itself away from the creative genius of new leaders, else
itself into immobile sterility, and condemn itself to the mere
repetition of its
own past. A great public institution must ever-more work in the midst
of the world
and constantly learn to apply itself to its own new tasks as they arise
in the world;
otherwise it becomes no institution at all, but the plaything of a
Of the school
of Masonic Mysticism it is more difficult to speak, and this partly for
that mysticism itself, by virtue of its own inner nature, cannot become
articulate but must utter itself darkly by hints and symbols. On the
one side mysticism
is ever tending to become occultism; on the other side it has close
theology. All three words ‒ mysticism, occultism, and theology ‒ are
used interchangeably in such wise as to cause great confusion of
to this shuffling of use and meaning of its own ideas and terms the
school of Masonic
mysticism has thus far not been able to wrest itself free from
in order to stand independently on its own feet as an authentic
interpreter of the
Great Teachings of the Craft. But in spite of all these handicaps a few
of our scholars
have been able to give us a tolerably consistent and, in some cases, a
account of Freemasonry in the terms of mysticism. Notable among these
is Bro. A.E.
Waite, whose volume, "Studies in Mysticism," [Lib*] is not as widely
as it should be.
Waite ‒ unless I have sadly misread him, a thing not at all impossible,
for he is
not always easy to follow ‒ the inner and living stuff of all religion
of mysticism; and mysticism is a first-hand experience of things
Divine, the classic
examples of which are the great mystics among whom Plotinus, St.
Francis, St. Theresa,
Ruysbroeck, and St. Rose of Lima may be named as typical. According to
the spiritual experience of these geniuses in religion gives us an
of the Unseen and is as much to be relied on as any flesh-and-blood
report of the
Seen; but unfortunately the realities of the Unseen are ineffable,
they cannot be described to the ordinary non-mystical person at all
except in the
language of ritual and symbolism. It is at this point that Freemasonry
According to the mystical theory our Order is an instituted form of
the ceremonies and symbols of which men may find, if they care to
follow them, the
roads that lead to a direct and first-hand experience of God.
* * *
- What two schools of Masonic
philosophy were omitted by Brother Pound?
- What is the principle theory of
the historical school?
- Name some representatives of
the historical school.
- What are some of the
shortcomings of the historical philosophy of Freemasonry?
- What is meant by mysticism?
- How would you define Masonic
- What is Brother Waite's theory
you agree or disagree with him?
If I may
come at last to speak for myself I believe that there is now shaping in
and will someday come to the front, a Masonic philosophy that will not
these great schools but will at the same time replace them by a larger
complete synthesis. I have no idea what this school will be called. It
will be human,
social, and pragmatic, and it will exist for use rather than show. It
will not strive
to carry the Masonic institution to some goal beyond and outside of
will see in Freemasonry a wise and well-equipped means of enriching
human life as
it now is and in this present familiar world. We men do not exist to
angels or to realize some superhuman scheme remote from us. Human life
is an end
in itself, and it is the first duty of men to live happily, freely,
is God's own purpose for us, and, unless all modern religious thinking
hopelessly astray, God's life and ours are so bound up together that
and His will coincide with our own great human aims. When man is
God's will then be done.
now are we men and women have not yet learned how to live happily with
and there is a great rarity of human charity under the sun. Why can't
we learn to
know ourselves and each other and our world in such wise as to organize
together into a human family living happily together? That, it seems to
be the great object of Freemasonry.
- What do you think of Brother
Haywood's own suggestion concerning a Masonic
- What would such a philosophy be
- What would be a good name for
according to his theory, is the purpose of Freemasonry?
* * *
Freemason, pages 282-283.
Freemasonry, pages 283-284.
Revival, pages 622-623.
Preston, William, page 579.
Krause, Karl Christian Friedrich, pages
Oliver, George, pages 527-529.
Albert, pages 563-564.
Robert Freke, page 304.
Mysteries, Ancient, pages 497-500.
Mystical, page 500.
Mysticism, pages 500-501.
‒ G. O.
D, page 301
Vol I (1915)
Krause, p. 31;
Oliver, p. 54;
Preston, p. 7;
Philosophy of Masonry: 20th Century, P.
History of the Ritual, p. 291.
Vol. II (1916)
Reflections on the Philosophy of Albert
Pike, p. 9;
Masonry; Its philosophy and Influence in
War Times, p. 181;
Scottish Rite Philosophy, p. 382;
Pike, pp. 69, 77, 137, 141, 182,
207, 268, 310, 153, 313, 93;
Webb Ritual in the United States, p.
Masonic Jurisprudence, p. 105;
Religion and Philosophy, p. 234.
Vol. IV (1918)
Internationalism and Freemasonry p. 43.
Vol. V (1919)
Catholic Treatise on Masonry, p. 180;
Preface to Masonic Symbolism, p. 99.
Vol. VI (1920)
Masonry and the Problems of Men, p. 338;
Symbolism of Freemasonry, p. 226;
to Humanum Genus, p. 35;
the Good of the Fraternity, p. 194;
Speculative Masonry p. 130;
of Masonry in the Community p. 95.
Teachings of Freemasonry, pp. 136, 166,
261, 292, 326, 355;
Preston Conception of the Lodge, p.
Preston and the Second Degree, p. 293.
Story of Albert Pike, p. 58;
Pike a Prophet of Masonic Protestantism,
Preston Lectures and the Saints John, p.
Teachings of Masonry, pp. 17, 50, 80,
114, 146, 178, 277, 313, 345, 375;
Masonry and the World's Work, p. 131.
The Lost Word -- [A Poem]
Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
young Augustine held by sleep or trance
Heard cry a lordly voice, "Take up and read,"
The words he found were such a mighty screed
As changed his life with all its circumstance.
Such words are like strong men with sword and lance
That trample down at will a lesser breed!
They move with such a power from deed to deed
That gods and men are chaff where they advance.
Such Word it was and rich beyond all cost
The Craftsmen used upon Moriah's height
Until through ruffian malice it was lost.
Remaining lost we find ourselves in plight
So dour and drear that till we learn its powers
There can't be life or health for this dead world of ours.
account of words heard by Augustine see "Confessions of St. Augustine.”
Edition. Book VIII, Section 29.
The Chinese Sages
WHY IS IT
that such a mighty master of the art of life as Confucius has never
due mead of recognition and appreciation among us? Of the Jewish
leaders we know
very much. Mohammed has had a profound influence on our culture, Buddha
thousands of Occidentals to a reverent study of his life and teaching,
but of Confucius,
and also, it may be added, of Mencius, who in a sense was to Confucius
Paul was to Jesus, the majority of men living in the western world care
Why is this?
The great gaps in race and in time have had much to do with it; so has
dissimilarity of language; and so has religious prejudice; but even so,
bridged wider gaps in order to become acquainted with lesser men, then
why not in
this case? One may imagine that this is so because Confucius was a sage
a seer or a prophet, and that men do not discover in such leaders the
they feel in a Buddha, an Isaiah, a Plotinus, or a King Asoka. There is
to fascinate one in a man who lives in the cold gray light of reason'
the mystic, with his ventures into the Unseen, most men find a great
Hypatia [Lib 1899] of the Kingsley romance found
by the terrible crisis of her career she attired herself in symbolical
went into seclusion, and then induced the trance of the Hellenic
mystic. She let
herself sink down into the abyss of abstraction until every sense of
world fell away so that she felt herself falling from nothingness to
stripped of every human attribute and became, according to her own
belief, a mere
impressionable wax for the words and visions of the Divine. There is
in such gymnosophy: it is appealing and romantic, and draws people like
tale. To get away from the workaday world in this wise, to live in a
trance or ecstasy,
toward this goal many of the prophets, seers, and mystics have tried to
way; they have been enamored of the unknown, the unseen, and have
clutched at the
mysterious forces which play behind the scenes. To all the great
Chinese sages this
kind of thing appeared useless, and often dangerous. Gods, First and
Heavens, Hells, Satans, Eternities, Trances, Abysms and all that, they
or else pushed to the circumference of their minds; and they taught
it is safer to walk in the cool light of day.
Life is a
thing of such vast mysteriousness ‒ so one may venture to paraphrase
‒ that it scorns our imagination; nevertheless one should not let
obsessed by the Unknown. The only life we possess and really know is
life, and this same everyday life is therefore the thing of chiefest
value. In a
million years from now what other life can one possess than this which
"to-day’s?" Always, if a man exists at all, his life must necessarily
be this same commonplace familiar every-day life. Consequently since
life is our one sure and supreme possession, so these sages taught, a
man is wise
to make it as serene and beautiful as he can. To that end men must
learn the art
of manners, of deportment, and of behavior; the most tedious or humdrum
be shaped to the uses of beauty, just as the builder will carve a fine
for some unnoticed angle of a roof. To bring all one's wisdom, one's
genius to bear upon one's daily life, that is the authentic message of
and whatever be their language or their accent, one will discover it as
in the teachings of them all, from Confucius, and Socrates, and the
makers, down to Francis bacon and Benjamin Franklin.
Such a philosophy
no means complete nor can it satisfy all the needs of human life,
is a high and eternal lesson. And it is a lesson that Freemasons are
in because they use as one of their Working Tools an emblem that
same truth. The Twenty-four Inch Gauge is in itself a small thing but
the idea for
which it stands has within it all the dignity of Confucius' Gospel.
life, the wise adjustment of means to ends, nothing over-much, the
the expenditure of time and energy in proportion to the aims sought ‒
have not the intriguing interest of Hypatia's trance, but they are of
to a wise man.
Our Book List
Being a non-commercial
incorporation it is impossible for this Society to develop a Masonic
after the fashion of those concerns which devote themselves exclusively
as a money making enterprise. We began by selling to our members a few
our own publishing. In the course of time, and as a result of a desire
readers in search of Masonic literature, we continued to add to our
now our list, as printed anew in the inside back cover of the January
issue of THE
BUILDER, comprises nearly all the worth-while titles at present on the
rapidly as new titles are available, or old titles reissued, they are
our hope is ultimately to keep on hand every Masonic book (in English)
be had, and is worth having.
our members can continue to assist us in the future, as in the past, by
our attention to titles overlooked, or to new books not otherwise
brought to our
notice. If they understand that all profits are returned to the
treasury of the
Society in order to enlarge the scope of its services to the Craft,
they can lend
a hand with all the more grace and readiness. Those who desire to
purchase or sell
second hand books on Masonry are entitled to free notice of the same in
providing their notices are kept within reasonable bounds as to length
gentle reader, are a necessity to Freemasonry. It is to our shame by
is meant Masonry in "largest commonalty spread" ‒ that up to now so
has been done by our rulers and leaders to develop a literature
adequate to our
needs. ("Needs" is used in a very literal and strict sense.) One may be
an intelligent man who does not read Masonic literature but he cannot
be an intelligent
Mason. More and more, as Masonry develops in numbers and power, it will
that a Masonry without a literature is a Masonry without a mind. The
at Salt Lake City who prepared themselves to prosecute the American
Federation, discovered how impossible it is to advance one step in a
of Masonry without the use of Masonic books. One of the lawyers (a
who worked most actively in preparing the brief for that trial remarked
to the present
writer, "I used to wonder why any Mason should bother himself about
Masonry: now I know." Knowledge of Masonry in the large sense is
to the guidance and the governance of Masonry, and such knowledge can
no more be
snatched out of the air than any other knowledge.
It is in
point also to say here that an increasing number of Masons are
awakening to this
fact, and their awakening means that an ever larger number of Masons in
will learn to read Masonic books. The man who can study and write about
now has a great opportunity before him. And so with publishers. It will
be a golden
day for the Craft when the largest and best publishers discover what is
for an adequate literature, and make use of their great experience and
for the production of such a literature. The National Masonic Research
been at work for some months to persuade some of them of this
opportunity, and thus
far not without success.
still, the need (the word should be printed in red) for a Masonic
be brought to the attention of those affluent Masons who desire to
place their means
at the disposal of the Fraternity. Why shouldn't these brethren lend a
aid to Freemasonry by making it possible for some of our most gifted
publish such Masonic books as are most badly needed? It would be easy
just here a list of fifty subjects on which nothing is obtainable, but
of greatest importance to the practical success of the Masonic
enterprise. To endow
new temples is a noble thing; why not endow a few Masonic authors?
that a wealthy Mason could do would more powerfully assist to build up
of light within the Order, or more certainly accouter it to wage its
A Book on Chinese Masonry
IN CHINA, [Lib*] by Herbert Allen Giles, W. M. Ionic, No. 1781, E C.,
Grand Senior Warden, Hongkong. Privately printed, Shanghai, 1890. Small
38 pp. and addenda. Originally published forty-two years ago. (First
China, 1880, 34 pp.)
presents facts which are of vital interest to the Craft today. It
of the claims that there is a Chinese Freemasonry almost identical with
we practice today in America or the British Empire. Brother Giles was
asked, "Have you a Freemasonry in China?" In answering the questions he
responds, "What do we mean when we ask if Freemasonry exists in China?
confine ourselves to the comparatively modern system in vogue at the
among western nations, with its ritual of doubtful date, its signs, its
and its Book of Constitution? If so, then I would affirm that our noble
does not exist now among the Chinese, and has never existed in China at
the author does show the antiquity of some of our present day Masonic
herein lies the value of his book. The familiar emblem of square and
which term in Chinese is usually expressed "compasses and square," is
traced back through the centuries to Confucius and to Mencius. Brother
three quotations from the writings of Mencius (who lived about two
hundred and eighty
years before the Christian era) which are of sufficient interest to be
compasses and the square are the embodiment of the rectangular and of
just as the prophets of old were the embodiment of the due
man and man."
Mason, in teaching his apprentices, makes use of the compasses and the
who are engaged in the pursuit of wisdom must also make use of the
or a carriage builder may give a man the compasses and the square, but
necessarily make him a skillful workman."
only one of the Chinese philosophers who used Masonic terms in a
familiar way. A
book known as the "Great Learning," written between three hundred and
five hundred years before Christ, gives us the Golden Rule, followed by
that "this is called the principle of acting on the square."
mention of other Chinese writers of note, and coming down to
times, we learn of an edict issued about two hundred years ago in which
says: "The wisdom of our sons may ripen day by day, and they may walk
the limits prescribed by the compasses and the square." Three other
of the same imperial document use the word "compasses" in a
brother also effectively disposes of the myth that the ancient Emperors
wore a jewel identical with our square, which was transmitted at death
occupant of the throne to his successor as a badge of imperial sway.
points out that the "jewel" referred to was merely a musical stone,
at an obtuse angle, and, never having had any operative Masonic
be entirely out of place as a speculative Masonic symbol.
to the Masonic apron, an emblem which has been seized upon by amateur
in many fields to support claims for Masonic antiquity otherwise
we quote Brother Giles again: "Let us now take the apron, that
badge of a Freemason. Masonically speaking, it is considered as
dividing the body
into two halves, the upper and nobler half containing the brain and the
are thus separated from the merely corporeal and baser half below. Now
have for centuries recognized this division of the body, and in their
of several thousand years ago an apron of some kind undoubtedly played
a part. Such
an article of dress is in fact mentioned in the 'Discourses of
Confucius', and is
depicted in the old illustrated dictionary of the classics as
ornamented with a
plant, seven stars, an axe and the character a or ya. The plant or
shrub will of
course commend itself to the notice of every master mason, while I may
the Chinese symbol for an axe placed inside of the symbol for square,
is the identical
character by which the term 'master mason' is expressed in the written
of China." Other instances of the use of an apron are then cited,
that Freemasonry has never had a monopoly of this emblem.
too brief work closes with some comments on present day Chinese secret
and illustrates points of similarity between their ceremonies and those
Startling as these similarities are in some respects, it can be seen
how a superficial observer would be convinced that native Freemasonry
China. There is no doubt in our minds that persistent claims of this
sort are based
upon unwarranted conclusions, and that a methodical study of the
subject would soon
dispel these beliefs.
* * *
In our consideration
of Freemasonry in China, a book by Hosea Ballou Morse entitled The
Gilds of China
should not be overlooked. (Longmans, Green and Company, 1909.) While
in the sense in which we use the term, the work is of value in a study
of the various
fraternities of the Orient. The book is a contribution to the story of
development, and concisely relates the history of the religious
gilds, merchant gilds, political societies and organizations existing
purposes. There are frequent comparisons throughout the volume with the
medieval Europe, especially England. Masons interested in the gild
origin of Masonic
ceremonies and practices will find this book of much value. An
and a comprehensive index are included in the ninety-two pages of
Jacob Hugo Tatsch.
* * *
of Brother Stephen Girard's Fraternal Connections with the R.W. Grand
Lodge of Pennsylvania,
[Lib*] by Norris S. Barratt, P. M., and Julius F. Sachse, P. M.,
Curator and Librarian
of Grand Lodge, Philadelphia, 1919.
no tale that savors more of romance than that of the diminutive
sea captain who settled in Philadelphia at the eve of the American
who, before his death in 1831, had built up a fortune second to none in
at the time. Stephen Girard was one of those lonely souls who inspire
in their fellow
men no desire for the more intimate relations of friendship and
often, in consequence, judged as harsh and bitter. Yet when half of the
fled from the dread scourge of yellow fever; when thousands were sick
without care; when the dead lay rotting in the streets, in homes and in
Girard was one of the few who feared not to remain and to perform the
loathsome, and dangerous offices for the victims, even going with his
to gather them up.
country's finances were in a serious condition during the War of 1812
it was Girard
who came to the rescue while citizens of native birth and ample means
At his death it was found that he had bequeathed the bulk of his estate
foundation of an institution pre-eminently American, ‒ a college for
education. Furthermore, he had hedged his gift about with such
safeguards as should
insure its perpetuation on the same broad and Masonic lines.
was made a Mason at Charleston, S. C., in Union Blue Lodge No. 8, in
1778, and never
severed his connection with that jurisdiction. His philanthropic
were all devoted to the benefit of the city, the state, and the Masonic
where his fortune was gained. He was buried from the German Holy
Trinity Roman Catholic
Church of his home city, December 31, 1831. Various civic, fraternal,
organizations, in which he had been interested, were invited to attend
The Grand Lodge attended in part regalia, having dispensed with their
avoid friction, for it was in the midst of the anti-Masonic craze.
the brethren entered the church, the clergy immediately left it, and it
that no services were held over the remains until some twenty years
later when the
body was re-interred in the sarcophagus at Girard College, where it now
that time the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania officiated with appropriate
By one of the provisions of Girard's will, the Grand Lodge was made the
of a considerable sum to be devoted to Masonic charity. That fund has
until it now amounts to upwards of $100,000.
of Brother Girard's Masonic connections has previously been published
in the third
volume of "Freemasonry in Pennsylvania," but the matter contained in
large work is now made available to a wider circle of readers by a
reprint in a
neatly arranged pamphlet of fifty-two pages, which is in itself a
worthy token of
the esteem which our Pennsylvania brethren still cherish for the memory
worthy and patriotic Mason.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
Study Club course. When requested, questions will be answered promptly
by mail before
publication in this department.
Uniform Work a Comparatively
May I ask
you a question that came up in our Study Club? A brother posed the
query to me ‒
I am leader of the Club ‒ "When did uniformity in work become
we always had it?" I passed the question up. Please give me light.
J. C. D., Connecticut.
of work in this country came into demand some half century or so ago.
Prior to that
time subordinate lodges were left pretty much to their own devices,
were some "workings” more popular than others and therefore of greater
as is now the case in England where lodges are granted a freedom in the
ritual that would appear strange to us. The movement for uniformity of
work in the
American jurisdictions made its way slowly, and in the face of much
as a quotation will illustrate. During its seventeenth annual
Grand Lodge of Iowa debated at great length, and with much acerbity,
to adopt some one working to the exclusion of all others. Commenting on
of this debate the well-informed Masonic editor, Brother J. F. Brennan,
himself in a paragraph that leaves nobody in doubt as to his opinion:
of work seems to have exercised this Grand Lodge more than any other in
It is possible they may secure this ignis fatuus, but not probable; nor
can we agree
with those who strenuously desire it, that its possession would be of
value. If the spirit of Masonry remains intact, its letter may well be
to the good sense of those who have it in their keeping. That there are
in the language, and departures from historical facts in the statements
the real old original Barney work, and every other work that exists
of the York Rite, as given in the lodges of America, is evident to
of history and lover of common sense who has ever heard them. That
Masonry has suffered
in its body or spirit from such inaccuracies, however, we do not
believe. Men are
more willing to be satisfied to continue in a beaten track than blaze
a new one; and it must be evident to all, that neither Webb nor Barney,
nor Gleason could have received the language of the lectures of Masonry
or more correctly than those who succeeded them. Granted that Webb got
from Preston, which is not true, it cannot be contended that he did not
to suit himself; for it is well known that the Webb work is not the
nor is it important it should be. Neither is the work practiced in the
Great Britain at the present day. And yet the Mason taught here can
of all the advantages conferred upon him by Masonry in any part of that
* * *
When the Stars and Stripes
Were Made Official
In the last
meeting of our Study Circle we got into a discussion about the flag.
Some of the
brethren claimed we use it only by custom; I held that it is by law,
but I can't
find the law. Can you give me some information through the Question Box?
E. A. S., Texas.
in the right. A Congressional committee reported in a bill on January
2, 1817. It
occasioned a long debate. The bill was passed in 1818, and approved
April 4, 1818.
It is simple and brief, and can be given full:
Act to Establish the Flag of the United States.
1. Be it enacted, etc., That from and after the fourth day of July
next, the Flag
of the United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that
have twenty stars, white in a blue field.
2. And be it further enacted, That on the admission of every new State
Union, one star be added to the union of the Flag; and that such
take effect on the fourth of July next succeeding such admission."
we are at it we may as well give the dates on which new stars were
Dec. 3, 1818; Alabama, Dec. 14 1819; Maine, March 15, 1820; Missouri,
1821; Arkansas, June 15, 1836; Michigan, January 26, 1837; Florida,
March 3, 1845;
Texas, December 29, 1845; Iowa, Dec. 28, 1846; Wisconsin, May 29, 1848;
September 9, 1850; Minnesota, May 11, 1858; Oregon, February 14, 1859,
29, 1861; West Virginia, June 19, 1863; Nevada, October 31, 1864;
1, 1867; Colorado, August 1, 1876; North Dakota, November 3, 1889;
November 3, 1889; Montana, November 8, 1889; Washington, Nov. 11, 1889;
3, 1890; Wyoming, July 10, 1890; Utah, January 4, 1896; Oklahoma,
November 16, 1907;
New Mexico, January 6, 1912; Arizona, February 14, 1912.
* * *
Ravages of the Anti-Masonic
Did the Anti-Masonic
movement prove as disastrous to Masonic lodges as we are often told it
did? or do
our Masonic orators sometimes exaggerate a little in telling about it?
J. L., Ohio.
Anti-Masonic Movement" by Brother Emery B. Gibbs, in THE BUILDER,
1918, page 341. Meanwhile you will care to read of the experience of
one state in
that devastating time. The Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of New York
for 1860 contain
a paragraph that speaks for itself: the "tornado" referred to was the
the commencement of the present century there were 91 lodges, with a
of about 5000, in a population of 588,603. This was the era of
Hoffman, Astor, Jay and Van Wyck. In 1810 the lodges had increased to
a membership of 8600, in a population of 961,888. In 1820 there were
(numbered to 128), and a membership of 15,000 in a population of
decade witnessed the tornado which swept over the States, so that in
1830 the number
of lodges, which in 1825 had run up to 480, with a membership of over
but 82, and a reliable membership was scarcely exceeding 3000, in a
1,918,131. In 1840 the institution began to exhibit symptoms of
brethren awakened from the blight and persecution of the ten preceding
from a terrible dream. The number of lodges then was 79, ‒ 22 in New
York, and 27
in 14 counties west of the Hudson River, with but about 5000 members,
in a population
of 2,428,921. The increase was slow, but steady, to the year 1850, when
172 lodges in the three Grand Lodges then existing, with about 12,000
the population of the State then was 3,097,304. At the present time
are 432 working lodges (numbered to 477), and a membership of over
30,000 and the
population is computed at about 4,000,000. It will thus be seen that
the ratio was
in 1800 one to every 117 inhabitants; in 1810 one to 111; in 1820 one
to 91; 1825,
one to 80; 1830, one to 637; 1840, one to 485; 1850, one to 258; and in
to 133; and it should be borne in mind that there are computed to be in
5000 unaffiliated Masons, who are recognized as such, making the ratio
now to be
one to every 114 inhabitants ‒ a state of prosperity fully equaling
that of the
best days of the Fraternity."
* * *
Masonic Funeral Customs
funerals and elsewhere there is a custom of crossing or folding the
arms over the
breast. Where did this custom originate and is there any special reason
left hand or arm being over the right?
L. E. L., Nebraska.
the last point in your query it may well be that the left hand or arm
is held uppermost
for the reason that in all the more general systems of symbolism the
left hand is
held to be unlucky, or weak, or the sign of surrender, or the
indication of death.
In Latin the word "sinister," which means extreme bad luck, originally
meant "left hand." In placing the left hand over the right it may be
the triumph of weakness and death over life and strength is thus
only attempt at an interpretation of this symbolical act as a whole
known to us
is that given in an essay on "The Funeral Rites and Service of Masons"
by the Hon. Charles Scott, which was published in The Freemasons'
Magazine for April
1860, and which we hope someday to republish in THE BUILDER:
funeral grand honors are given in the following manner: 'Both arms are
the breast, the left uppermost, and the open palms of the hands sharply
the shoulders; they are then raised above the head, the palms striking
and then made to fall smartly upon the thighs. This is repeated three
as there are three blows given, each time, namely, on the breast, on
the palms of
the hand, and on the thighs, making nine concussions in all, the grand
technically said to be given 'by three times three.' On the occasion of
each one of these honors is accompanied with the word 'Alas,' audibly
by the brethren. It will be observed, that in the arms folded on the
palms of the hands resting on the shoulders, there are formed two
and two sides of a third, or lower triangle, whose base has been
removed, or cut
off. The reference is striking or sublime.
next motion, or sign, is the outstretched arms, and then the palms of
brought together over the head. The hour has come ‒ death has taken
place ‒ the
ghost is given up. Each arm falls perpendicularly to its own side,
pointing to the
dust, and the world of departed spirits."
Rabbi Ben Leon's Model of
wording of a communication in the October number of THE BUILDER under
(page 323) implies that my reply in the April issue of THE BUILDER to
Ontario, was inaccurate, permit me to say that the letter from Bro.
of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, quoted by N.W.J.H., is not an answer to
query that was submitted to me. My Ontario brother asked, as I
recollect it, whether
a model of the Temple had been exhibited in the time of Charles II or
Grand Lodge era, and whether there was any evidence that it had
influenced our ritual.
To which I replied that the story was absurd and that there was no such
I judge that
N.W.J.H., like myself, is a student who is trying to ascertain the
period when the
Hiramic legend entered the "work." As the subject is of deep interest
and as Bro. Vibert refers to the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum of 1899,
Volume XII, [Lib*]
let me quote from the article of which he speaks, which was written by
Mason, the distinguished Bro. W. J. Chetwode Crawley, whose work from
to end threw so much light upon the history of the Craft. This is the
is not a little remarkable that the two cardinal epochs in English
associated with the appearance in London of Models of the Temple of
the first epoch, that of the Revival of Freemasonry, the Model ascribed
Schott had arrived in London, and was on exhibition in 1723 and 1730.
At the second
epoch, when the organization of the Antients was struggling into
Model of Rabbi Jacob Jehudah Leon was on view in 1759-60. The formed
seems to have won its way to popular favor and cannot have been without
the rank and file of Freemasons at the very time when our legends were
and harmonized. Much of the outside interest in the affairs of the
Craft was doubtless
due to the object-lessons presented by these popular Models of the
Building to which,
it was understood, Freemasons referred their origin."
II died in 1685 and as these models were exhibited in London in 1723,
1730 and 1759-60,
it is quite obvious that either Bro. Vibert or I misunderstood the
by N. W. J. H. Despite Bro. Crawley's attainments as a historian and a
the interest of outsiders to which he refers shows that, when the
models were exhibited,
it was generally known that Freemasons "referred their origin" to the
Temple. Hence it is obvious enough that the exhibition of the models
be said to have influenced a fraternity that already was built, so to
in his letter to Bro. N.W.J.H., himself says that "the idea that there
therefore, some contemporary change made in the Craft ritual is one for
is no evidence." To quote Bro. Vibert again, "The Temple is clearly
to in the legend long before Charles II," and he refers to the Cooke
is that very reference in the Cooke text which convinces me of the
the legend and will you permit me to quote just this part of it, though
be familiar to all readers of THE BUILDER:
"And the kyugis sone of Tyry
was his master
mason, And [in] other cronyclos hit is seyd and in olde bokys of
masonry that Salomon
confirmed the charges that David his fadir had geve to masons. And
taught hem [them] here [their] manors [customs] but lityll difl!erans
fro the manors
that now teen usyd."
copied from Vol. I, page 161, Clegg's Revised Mackey's History.)
It just happens
that the last number received from the publisher of Ars Quatuor
XXXIV, 1921, page 59 [Lib 1921) has a very valuable article
by Bro. Eustace
B. Beesley on the Colne manuscripts of the Old Charges, illustrated
In the first of these "the kyugis sone of Tyry" of the Cooke MS. has
"Hiram of Tickus" and in the later MS. he is "Hiram Ticku."
The senior MS. says: "And shear was one Hiram of Tickus A mason's sonne
was Master of Geomitry and that was the chiefest of all his Masons and
of all the
gravings and Carvings and of all other maner of Masonry that belonged
to the Temple
the wittnes in the Bible," etc. The date of the elder of the Colne MSS.
given in the table in Gould’s "Collected Essays" (page 9) as the
century and of the younger as eighteenth century.
In Bro. Vibert's
letter to Bro. N.W.J.H. he speaks of the Robert Race paper on the Third
"showing very convincingly that the degree was originally a private
Bro. Race's essay has certainly added great weight to the belief of
nearly all Masonic
students on this point, but that play has not yet been found, nor has
trace of it been discovered. With all the Masonic students of the
bending their energies toward the search, success may be achieved.
D.E.W. Williamson, Nevada.
* * *
How Lodge Attendance was
received a letter requesting suggestions for the improvement of THE
BUILDER. I do
not know what could be done to improve that publication as in my
judgment it answers
every requirement. I am the present Master of the Lodge of the Temple
No. 110 F.
& A. M., this city, and throughout this year I have quietly
endeavored to conduct
a campaign of education. Ten different Masonic speakers have addressed
on various phases of Masonry. I have delivered short speeches on the
In the Entered Apprentice Degree, "The Lambskin Apron" and "The Masonic
Lights"; in the Fellowcraft Degree, "Boaz and Jachin, A Message in
"The Legend of the Winding Stairway" and "The Middle Chamber";
and in the Master Mason Degree, "The Hiramic Legend."
I have had
a Past Masters' Night, A Treasurer's Night, a Secretary's Night, a
Night, a World War Veterans' Night and a Schoolmen's Night and will
hold a George
Washington Night on November 2nd. Our Lodge has given a reception to my
in office and the class raised by him, and also held one Open Masonic
I have given to every Mason raised by me either a copy of Newton's
or Street's "Symbolism of the Three Degrees." I have mailed to every
of my lodge a copy of Haywood's "Vest Pocket History of Freemasonry."
Our average attendance has increased more than 100% and I attribute it
to the educational campaign. I wish that every member of the Lodge was
to THE BUILDER. It has been a wonderful help to me in the preparation
of the Masonic
talks I have given. There is no greater need in the Fraternity today
than that of
Masonic education and I cannot too much commend THE BUILDER for its
Master of a Masonic Lodge catches a clear conception of the dignity and
of the office he occupies and the mental, moral and spiritual grandeur
it makes him very humble in the throne room of his own conscience.
Howard R. Cruse, New Jersey.
* * *
Concerning Brother Gabriel
I have just
read Brother Regennitter's letter on page 356 of THE BUILDER for
November, in which
he makes inquiries concerning Brother Gabriel McGuire, pastor of
Baptist Church of Boston. You might be interested to know that Brother
well known among Masons and among members of many other organizations
in and near
Boston. He is at present the pastor of a large church in Vancouver, B.
gone there after a long pastorale at Ruggles Street, Boston. He is one
not be forgotten by any who has had the privilege of his acquaintance.
Lincoln K. Drake, Massachusetts.
* * *
Acknowledgment to Professor
May I refer
back to my article entitled "Further Notes on the Eleusinian Mysteries"
which appeared on page 133 of THE BUILDER for May? In preparing that
article I wrote
to the Museum at Athens to ask for photographs of sculptures suitable
for this particular
article. The Curator believed that none of the photographs or picture
in stock for public sale would be suitable for my purposes, therefore
he went to
the trouble to have some original photographs made. I believe that this
may be of
interest to your readers. Also, I should like to make this public
‒ all the more sincere for the delay occasioned ‒ of the kindness of
Philadelpheus, Curator of the Archaeological Institute of Athens.
N.W.J. Haydon, Ontario.
* * *
Two More Research Societies
in the November issue of THE BUILDER, pp. 353-4, lacks two very
research organizations, viz.:
Association for Masonic Research: Secretary, Chas. P. Noar, 50 Murray
Broughton, Manchester, England.
Past Masters Lodge No. 130 Christchurch: Secretary, S. Clifton Bingham,
P. O. Box
235, Christchurch, New Zealand.
D. D. Berolzheimer, New York.
* * *
A Worshipful Master at Twenty-Three
In the October
issue of THE BUILDER you published an item under the heading of "Young
Master." I believe I can mention the youngest in the country. On July
1922, Brother Chas. H. Owens was installed Worshipful Master of
No. 346, Hurtsboro, Ala. Bro. Owens was twenty-three years old at that
Perry L. Borom, Georgia.
Ye Editor's Corner
We are all
at work in our new quarters, full sails set, ready to travel fast and
in for a visit when coming this way.
* * *
is lithographed by the stone method. Changing a stone takes time. This
for the fact that the January cover continued to locate us Anamosa. Auf
* * *
It is impossible
for me to reply personally to all the letters that have come in about
Visitant." Many thanks, kind friends. The poems are now being published
* * *
be one hundred months old in April next. The event will be signalized
by a special
number ‒ very special.
* * *
Hugo Tatsch has a penchant for Masonic book plates and is now preparing
on the same. If you possess such a thing please send him copies, care
stating the name of the designer, date and any other facts of interest.
* * *
of Masonic History" begins in The Study Club Department next month. We
have a lot of fun with this series.
* * *
Wm. Powell, an old-time Middlesex man, but now a resident of Willmot,
has called attention to two errors in the November issue.
is misspelled at top of page 354. On page 356 it is said that "Mrs.
Eggleston was chosen in 1810," etc.: this is a manifest error. Will
John Kyllingsted of Mississippi correct this for us? Thanks, Brother
have a sharp eye.
* * *
wish I was a rock
A-sittin' on a hill,
Not a-doint nothin'
But just a-sittin' still.
I wouldn't eat, I wouldn't sleep,
I wouldn't even wash.
I'd just sit there 10,000 years
And rest myself, b'gosh.
written by some inspired soul who felt as we did after moving.
* * *
Publications Wanted, for
Sale and Exchange
We are constantly
receiving inquiries from readers as to where they may obtain
publications on Freemasonry
and kindred subjects which are not offered in our Book List printed on
cover of THE BUILDER.
cannot be readily procured through our American and European
connections will be
printed in this column, thus enabling readers having copies to dispose
of them if
they so desire. Inquirers are requested to state what prices they are
pay, for we are frequently able to obtain books at reasonable prices
be sold out if we were first obliged to have the price approved by the
purchaser. Such figures will be considered confidential and will not be
It is also
hoped ‒ and expected ‒ that readers possessing very old or rare Masonic
communicate the fact to THE BUILDER for the benefit of Masonic students.
addresses are here given in order that those buying and selling may
directly with each other. Brethren are asked to cancel notices as soon
wants are supplied.
In no ease
does THE BUILDER assume any responsibility whatsoever for publications
sold, exchanged or borrowed.
By Bro. Silas
H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin:
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," volumes 1 to 11, inclusive;
"One Hundred Years of Aurora Grata," C. A. Brockway;
"Cryptic Masonry," Mackey; "Cryptic Rite" and
"History of F.M. in Canada," J. Ross Robertson;
"Migration of Symbols," Goblet d'Alviella;
"Ante Room Talks," A. F. Bloomer;
"Stellar Astronomy and Masonic Astronomy," Robt. H. Brown;
Freemason's Manual," Jeremiah How;
"English Guilds," Toulmin Smith.
By Bro. George
A. Lanzarotti, Casilla 126, Rancagua, Chile:
All Kinds of Masonic literature in Spanish. Write first quoting prices.
By Bro. N.W.J.
Haydon, 564 Pape Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada:
"The Beautiful Necessity," and
"Architecture and Democracy," by Claude Bragdon.
By Bro. Frank
R. Johnson, 306 East 10th Street, Kansas City, Ho.:
"The Year Book," published by the Masonic Constellations, containing
history of the Grand Council, R. & S. M., of Missouri.
By the National
Masonic Research Society, 2920 First Avenue East, Cedar Rapids, Iowa:
"Discourses upon Architecture," by Dallaway, published in 1833;
any or all volumes of "The American Freemasons' Magazine," published by
J. F. Brennan, about 1860.
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," volumes 1 to 5;
"Quatuor Coronati Antigrapha," volumes 1, 2, and 8;
"Caementaria Hibernica," 3 parts, also part 2 separately W. J. Chetwode
any books by Hughan, Gould, Sadler and early American Masonic writers.
By Bro. D.
D. Berolzheimer, 334 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y.:
Any Proceedings or Books of Constitution prior to 1840 of the Grand
Lodge F. &
A. M. of New York;
also any miscellaneous publications St. John's Grand Lodge and Phillips
By the National
Masonic Research Society, 2920 First Avenue East, Cedar Rapids, Iowa:
See back cover
of this issue for special announcements; January, 1923, issue contains
list on inside
* * *
Application for Membership
The National Masonic Research
Cedar Rapids, Iowa
The Aim of
this Society is to uphold the principles of Freemasonry, first, by
encouraging original investigation into the history, philosophy arid
the Craft, and secondly, by assisting to diffuse a better understanding
principles among Masons everywhere. It exists to promote Masonic
encourage Masonic study and to make the lore of the Craft available to
Its Journal, "THE BUILDER," offering a forum for frank, free and
discussion of every possible aspect of Masonry, is a prerogative of
and subscription for one year is included in the annual dues, which are
a Master Mason in good standing in.............................Lodge
............................ (State) under the Jurisdiction of the
of ............................ desires to be recognized as a member of
Society, such membership to include subscription to THE BUILDER
with the issue for …………. (Month) 192…… (Year)
U. S. and Possessions, Canada, Cuba and Mexico, $2.50; Foreign, $3.00.
St. and No.
or P. O. Box ............................
* * *
Carefully Selected Books
and distribution of Masonic books is one of the manifold activities of
Masonic Research Society. The books herein described are part of an
to be issued during the coming months.
BY ROSCOE POUND, LL.D.
of Jurisprudence, Harvard University
Grand Master of Masons
OF MASONRY [Lib 1915]
and eminently practical book consists of five lectures on Preston,
Pike and "A Twentieth Century Masonic Philosophy: The Relation of
Civilization." These lectures were delivered before the Harvard Chapter
the Acacia Fraternity, and reprinted from THE BUILDER in response to
for them in compact form. Readers who wish to pursue the subject
further will be
aided by the bibliography appended to each lecture. (See Study Club
article on page
55, this issue.) Printed on heavy paper, substantially bound in blue
pages and index $1.25, postpaid.
ON MASONIC JURISPRUDENCE [Lib*]
skillfully discussed in this book is one that often perplexes and
Masonic Jurisprudence differs in many respects from civil law and
Pound treats the subject in five chapters under "Data of Masonic
the "Landmarks;" "Masonic Common Law" and "Masonic Law
Making." This is a book which especially should in the hands of Lodge
and those who are interested in the peculiar customs of the Craft. A
index adds to the value of the work. Heavy paper, buckram, 112 pages
A VEST POCKET
HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY
H.L. Haywood. (Special prices on lot orders for 25 or more copies for
purposes.) Single copies $.25
S. H. Goodwin, Grand Secretary of Utah. Printed for the Society by the
of Utah. A fascinating story of a little known chapter in the history
Masonry. Paper binding, 38 pages $.25
WHAT AN ENTERED
APPRENTICE OUGHT TO KNOW
Hal Riviere. (Special prices on lot orders for 25 or more copies for
purposes.) Single copies $.15
THEIR PREDECESSORS AND THEIR SUCCESSORS. and FURTHER NOTES ON THE
W. Ravenscroft. The two works in one binding, paper covers, illustrated
OF OLD GLORY, THE OLDEST FLAG
J.W. Barry, P. G. M., Iowa, paper covers, illustrated. A story of the
Flag and Masonry.
OF MASONIC SYMBOLISM
Arthur Edward Waite, with introduction by Joseph Fort Newton. A
treatise on the
esoteric interpretation of Masonic lore and ceremonies. $.15
‒ A STORY AND STUDY OF MASONRY
By Joseph Fort Newton, former Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER, is now
selling Masonic book in the world. It is being translated into several
(Special price in lots of twelve or more copies.) Bound in substantial
beautifully printed. Single copies $1.75
MASONIC RESEARCH SOCIETY
CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA
list of books obtainable through the Society appears on the inside back
the January issue.
An Autobiography Vol 1
Spe04AA1 / auth. Spencer Herbert. - London : Williams and Norgate,
1904. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 571. - 25.5 MB.
An Autobiography Vol 2
Spe04AA2 / auth. Spencer Herbert. - London : Williams and Norgate,
1904. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 550. - 21.2 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 007 - 1894
Ars94 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. - 83.6 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 034 - 1921
Ars21 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Songhurst W. J.. - London :
AQC, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 272. - 16.4 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 01
HerCE01 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 1 : 16 : p. 2163. - 12.6 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 02
HerCE02 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 2 : 16 : p. 2096. - 12.3 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 03
HerCE03 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 3 : 16 : p. 2048. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 04
HerCE04 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 4 : 16 : p. 2115. - 12.6 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 05
Diocese-Fathers of Mercy
HerCE05 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 5 : 16 : p. 2051. - 12.6 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 06
Fathers of the Church-Gregory XI
HerCE06 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 6 : 16 : p. 2046. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 07
HerCE07 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 7 : 16 : p. 2052. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 08
HerCE08 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 8 : 16 : p. 2065. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 09
HerCE09 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 9 : 16 : p. 2067. - 12.3 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 10
HerCE10 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 10 : 16 : p. 2061. - 12.3 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 11
HerCE11 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 11 : 16 : p. 2099. - 12.5 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 12
HerCE12 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 12 : 16 : p. 2060. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 13
HerCE13 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 13 : 16 : p. 2064. - 12.1 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 14
HerCE14 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 14 : 16 : p. 2071. - 12.1 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 15
HerCE15 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 15 : 16 : p. 2020. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 16
HerCE16 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 16 : of 16 : p. 235. - 1.7 MB.
China Vol 1
Bri02CH1 / auth. Brinkley Frank. - Boston : J B Millet Company, 1902. -
Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 453. - Illustrated - 25.9 MB.
China Vol 2
Bri02CH2 / auth. Brinkley Frank. - Boston : J B Millet Company, 1902. -
Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 298. - Illustrated - 17.9 MB.
China Vol 3
Bri02CH3 / auth. Brinkley Frank. - Boston : J B Millet Company, 1902. -
Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 310. - Illustrated - 19.7 MB.
China Vol 4
Bri02CH4 / auth. Brinkley Frank. - Boston : J B Millet Company, 1902. -
Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 312. - Illustrated - 18.7 MB.
Dictionary of United States
Jam94 / auth. Jameson J Franklin. - Boston : Puritan Publishing Co,
1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 763. - 29.4 MB.
Documents of American History
Pre86 / auth. Preston Howard W. - New York : G P Putnam's Sons, 1886. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 330. - 12.3 MB.
Gil82 / auth. Giles Herbert.
- London : Thos. de la Rue & Co, 1882. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 428. -
History of China Vol 1
Bou81HC1 / auth. Boulger Demetrius C. - London : W H Allen and Co.,
1881. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 621. - 33.2 MB.
History of China Vol 2
Bou82HC2 / auth. Boulger Demetrius C. - London : W H Allen and Co,
1882. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 571. - 21.2 MB.
Men, Women and Manners Vol 1
Fis98MW1 / auth. Fisher Sydney G. - Philadelphia : J B Lippincot
Company, 1898. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 395. - 9.7 MB.
Men, Women and Manners Vol 2
Fis98MW2 / auth. Fisher Sydney G. - Philadelphia : J B Lippincott
Company, 1898. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 396. - 9.9 MB.
Rep12 / auth. Repplier Agnes. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1912.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 424. - 20.5 MB.
Prayers and Meditations
Joh851 / auth. Johnson Samuel. - London : H R Allenson, Limited, 1785.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 176. - 5.0 MB.
Prayers and Meditations
Joh85 / auth. Johnson Samuel. - London : H R Allenson, Limited, 1785. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 176. - 5.0 MB.
Sun Yat Sen and the Awakening
Can12 / auth. Cantlie James and Jones C Sheridan. - New York : Fleming
H Revell Company, 1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 271. - 11.3 MB - Illustrated.
The American Colonies in the
17th Century Vol 1
Osg04AC1 / auth. Osgood Herbert L. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1904. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 611. - 34.8 MB.
The American Colonies in the
17th Century Vol 2
Osg04AC2 / auth. Osgood Herbert L. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1904. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 511. - 20.2 MB.
The American Colonies in the
17th Century Vol 3
Osg07AC3 / auth. Osgood Herbert L. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1907. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 572. - 29.4 MB.
The Beginners of a Nation
Egg97 / auth. Eggleston Edward. - New York : D Appleton and Company,
1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 397. - 16.1 MB.
The Civilization of China
Gil821 / auth. Giles Herbert. - New York : Henry Holt and Company,
1882. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 258. - 6.6 MB.
The Cross and the Dragon
Kes54 / auth. Kesson John. - London : Smith, Elder and Co, 1854. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 314. - 6.1 MB.
The England and Holland of the
Dex05 / auth. Dexter Henry M. - Boston : Houghton, Mifflin and Company,
1905. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 688. - 19.8 MB.
The Gilds of China
Mor09 / auth. Morse Hosea B. - London : Longman, Green & Co,
1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 106. - 6.3 MB.
Sch66 / auth. Schlegel Gustave. - Batavia : Lange & Co, 1866. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. - 12.5 MB.
The Men Who Made the Nation
Spa04 / auth. Sparks Edwin E. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1904.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 428. - 20.6 MB.
The Philosophy of Masonry
Pou15 / auth. Pound Roscoe. - [s.l.] : The Builder Magazine, 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 53. - 0.3 MB.
The United States
Smi01 / auth. Smith Goldwin. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1901.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 322. - 26.2 MB.
The Works Vol 1 - Hereward the
Kin99KW1 / auth. Kingsley Charles. - Philadelphia : John D Morris
& Company, 1899. - Vol. 1 : 7 : p. 679. - 21.3 MB.
The Works Vol 2 - Alton Locke
Kin99KW2 / auth. Kingsley Charles. - New York : The Chesterfield
Society, 1899. - Vol. 2 : 7 : p. 697. - 16.2 MB.
The Works Vol 3 - Westward Ho!
Kin99KW3 / auth. Kingsley Charles. - New York : The Chesterfield
Society, 1899. - Vol. 3 : 7 : p. 935. - 29.1 MB.
The Works Vol 4 - Yeast - Poems
Kin99KW4 / auth. Kingsley Charles. - Philadelphia : John D Morris
& Company, 1899. - Vol. 4 : 7 : p. 777. - 21.6 MB.
The Works Vol 5 - Two Years Ago
Kin99KW5 / auth. Kingsley Charles. - Philadelphia : John D Morris
&Company, 1899. - Vol. 5 : 7 : p. 831. - 28.7 MB.
The Works Vol 6 - Hypatia
Kin99KW6 / auth. Kingsley Charles. - New York : The Chesterfield
Society, 1899. - Vol. 6 : 7 : p. 644. - 19.7 MB.
The Works Vol 7 - Letters and
Kin99KW7 / auth. Kingsley Charles. - Philadelphia : John D Morris
& Company, 1899. - Vol. 7 : 7 : p. 826. - 27.3 MB.