Masonic Research Society
Masonic Research Society
Masonic Research Society was founded in 1914 at Anamosa, Iowa, under
the Grand Lodge of Iowa to serve as a national association for the
of Masonic knowledge and for kindred activities. It is strictly
its nature and aims only at the largest possible usefulness to
record thus far fulfills the prophecies of its founders, and justifies
an ever larger
hope for its future.
of every form of Masonic reading, study, research, and authorship.
and preservation of materials of value for Masonic study.
of a journal devoted to the interpretation of the history, nature, and
activities of all the Rites, Order and Degrees of Freemasonry.
and supervision of meetings for Masonic discussion and study.
of Masonic Study Clubs and the publication of courses of study.
and distribution of Masonic books.
of individuals and groups devoted to private Masonic research.
with all possible agencies in the creation of an adequate Masonic
in the development of a competent Masonic leadership.
Lodges and other sovereign Masonic bodies and responsible agencies in
reports, and investigations.
to lodges and other bodies in the formation of Masonic libraries,
book clubs, etc.
years and more the Society has been successfully carrying on the
in the above list, which is typical and not exhaustive. In so doing it
assisted by Masonic officials, leaders, scholars, authors, and students
state in the Union and in every country of the world, all of whom by
have been drawn closer to that which is the dream of every intelligent
Mason - the
Republic of Masonic thought and letters.
is the official monthly journal of the Society which goes to each
member as one
of the privileges of his membership, and is not offered for sale to the
public, nor is it in the competitive commercial field. It is edited in
of sound, constructive policies and aims at creating among Masons a
appreciation of Freemasonry, and at making the spirit and principles of
prevail in the world. Every member of the Society is requested to
the board of editors by contributions and by constructive criticism.
Mason in good standing in any part of the world becomes eligible for
upon signing the Society's application form, a copy of which will be
request. Each member is entitled to THE BUILDER, and to all other
membership, among which are the following:
about Freemasonry are answered, and any kind of Masonic information is
or other groups for Masonic study; or Masonic book clubs, or for
are organized and encouraged.
or materials for addresses are furnished.
New or secondhand
Masonic books are secured, sold, loaned, or purchased.
advice on the erection of Masonic edifices, or on the remodeling,
furnishing of lodge rooms is given.
can be put in touch with any other Mason or group of Masons anywhere in
lists of Masonic books are recommended to individuals or to lodges.
Forms of Membership
no joining fee, and all members receive THE BUILDER free.
Membership dues $2.50 per year.
Membership may begin at any time.
Life members may commute dues
for life by paying $50.00 at one time.
Fellows (engaged in actual
research), $10.00 on notice of election.
Patrons, being Masons who shall
have contributed $1000 or more to the objects
of the Society, and shall be entitled to all its privileges for life.
in the United States, Canada, Cuba, Newfoundland, Mexico, Philippine
Porto Rico, the dues are $2.50 per year; elsewhere $3.00 per year.
Board of Editors
‒ H. L. Haywood
Louis Block, Iowa.
Robert I. Clegg Ohio.
Charles F. Irwin, Ohio.
Joseph Fort Newton, New York.
Alanson B. Skinner, Wisconsin.
Jacob Hugo Tatsch, California.
Dudley Wright, England.
Masonic Research Society,
2920 First Avenue East, Cedar Rapids, Iowa
IN THIS MAGAZINE COPYRIGHTED, 1923,
MASONIC RESEARCH SOCIETY
second-class matter January 2, 1915, at the post office at Anamosa,
the Act of August 21, 1912. Application for transfer to Cedar Rapids,
for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103,
Act of October
3, 1917, authorized on June 29th, 1918.
By The Editor
BY THE time
these words reach the reader we shall have moved into our new
at 2920 First Avenue East, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, where, under ideal
with a complete outlay of the most modern equipment, we shall undertake
tasks to which this Society was dedicated nine years ago, and which it
undertook in January, 1915. Immediately behind the headquarters
an ideally equipped plant in which THE BUILDER will be printed and
In the headquarters building itself we shall have every imaginable
way of offices, staff rooms, library, cafe, radio room, book room,
stock room, mailing
room, vaults, archives and everything else needed for the carrying on
of our work.
Members and their friends hereby are extended an urgent invitation to
the reception room for a visit over the headquarters building, of which
we are sure
they will feel very proud.
will profit in many ways by this removal. It will now be near the
of the country and thereby have ideal mailing convenience. It will be
in a railway
center with easy access to trunk lines. And above all it will have as a
the Iowa Masonic Library, one of the greatest collections of Masonic
in existence, and manned by a staff of librarians always ready to lend
to any enterprise of Masonic reading, study, or information whatsoever.
we are enlarging our own staffs and facilities to care for the rapidly
volume of our activities. Never before was the Society so healthy, its
inspiring, or its friends so ready to co-operate. Unless an accident
‒ which God forfend ‒ one or two more years should bring to complete
the dreams of its founders who, many years ago, foresaw its place and
Of the new
developments within the Society during the past year two stand out as
especial notice. One is the successful outcome of an experiment of a
new type of
research by means of private groups, cooperating through the mails
under the leadership
of a group chairman, all the members of each group being bound together
ability and their interest in some phase or problem of Masonry.
Undertaken as an
experiment two years ago this venture has proved so successful that
three of these
groups are now ready to publish books, and others will be similarly
ready in six
months or another year. The other outstanding development is of a piece
and makes possible its fulfillment. Through the instrumentality of the
of the big publishers of the country are now preparing to issue a very
program of Masonic books, a thing so sadly needed these many years.
This means that
in the course of time the Fraternity will have a literature worthy of
it and adequate
to its needs, and that the leaders of the Craft will have placed at
the guidance and the information they have so long desired.
these lines there has come to ye editor's desk a great sheaf of letters
of the Society written in reply to a circular letter recently mailed
out by Brother
Wildey E. Atchison, who has labored so indefatigably and to such good
past six years as our Assistant Secretary. It is a remarkable fact that
of all these
responses, while many contain constructive criticisms and suggestions,
contains a real "knock": and as for the good will expressed by them all
it has served to give every member of the staff of editors a new
the future. The majority who offer constructive criticisms ask that as
much as possible
all articles be not too long and written in a style not above the head
of the average.
This is good advice, and hereby respectfully passed on to our
It is a matter
worthy of comment that a few of these brethren have written as if they
subscribers to a magazine and not members of a Society. This is their
we are in strict truth a Society and have many things to give to our
addition to THE BUILDER. A reader can learn what all the prerogatives
are by addressing an inquiry to headquarters. It is also worthy of
so many of these correspondents expressed approval of THE BUILDER for
mix in controversies and for never publishing anything out of
bitterness or ill
will. Surely! what is Masonry for if it is not to teach men to subdue
to live in the spirit of toleration, and to speak the truth with
letters also showed that THE BUILDER is being read by women of the
by many who are not in any way connected with the Fraternity. May the
It should continue, and that not only with THE BUILDER but with all
periodicals and with the Fraternity as a whole, because men everywhere
are in need
of Masonry and of what it has to give to a world so sorely struggling.
all these developments those members of the Society who labor at
in a happy mood and cheerful at the beginning of 1923, and wish for
of the National Masonic Research Society family a God speed! for the
of the Plumb Line
By Brother Channing Gordon
Lawrence, New Brunswick
a reading of the lesson of the plumb line that shows spiritual insight.
Lawrence is Grand Chaplain of New Brunswick; Worshipful Master of The
No. 13; member of Royal Arch Chapter and of A. and A. S. R., etc.
Thus he shewed
me: and, behold, the Lord stood upon a wall made by a plumb line, with
a plumb line
in his hand.
And the Lord
said unto me, Amos, what seest thou? And I said, A plumb line. Then
said the Lord,
Behold, I will set a plumb line in the midst of my people Israel: I
will not again
pass by them any more. ‒ Amos VII, 7-8.
one of the Prophets of Israel. We are accustomed to think of a prophet
as one who
predicts the course of events. Among the Hebrews the Prophet did
or foretell, the consequences that might be expected to follow upon
or he foretold at times the help comfort that God would provide for His
people; but the characteristic function of the Prophet was not to
to tell forth. He told forth truths about God. The teaching of the
has been preserved nearly three thousand years while myriads of other
perished because it contains lessons that are of real worth and that
of appropriate application.
successful teachers have taught by means of illustration. They have
used signs and
symbols that were selected to impress upon the mind wise and serious
of Nazareth, whose life and teaching have profoundly influenced the
of civilization, illustrated his lessons by means of parables. The
parable was a
short story drawn from everyday life. To many of the hearers it was no
doubt a well-told
story and nothing more. But in every parable a principle of morality or
truth was exemplified. The story partly concealed the truth from
unworthy or unfriendly
hearers; and it partly revealed it to those who had ears to hear or, in
to those who desired light on heavenly things.
as a means of illustration, was a development of later Hebrew thought.
In the days
of the Prophets teaching was frequently illustrated by means of the
differed from a parable in that it represented the lesson taught as
revealed directly to the prophet by God Himself. Thus when the prophet
of the truth of a sufficiently important lesson and was certain of its
he introduced it with such words as, "I saw the Lord standing beside a
or "I heard the Lord saying unto me," and so forth. We cannot suppose
that wherever in the ancient writings the Prophets use such language
they have been
permitted with natural eyes to look upon God, or that with mortal ears
in audible tones the voice of God: they used these expressions "I saw,"
and "I heard," to make their teaching impressive.
But in this
the prophets were in no sense guilty of deception or of
told the truth just as you do when you often unconsciously follow their
One day a peculiarly profound thought occurs to you, so unlike your
of thought that it seems to have come to you from without; and you say,
have had an inspiration." But what does that mean? Inspiration is
a "breathing in." There has been breathed into your mind an idea, a
a suggestion from the Great Spirit of Wisdom. You heard no audible
voice but yet,
it may be, God spoke to you as truly as He spoke to Amos or Hosea or
He speaks every day to men who keep their minds in harmony with God.
telegraph was perfected in our time but the principle of its operation
in use between earth and heaven since the Creation. Messages have
always been coming
from God to men and we call it inspiration. And messages go back from
man to God
and we call it prayer.
So the vision
of Amos contains a lesson of profound importance which the prophet
wished to communicate
in a striking and impressive way. First we shall consider The Wall.
You see its
successive layers, each stone hewn, and shaped and placed by the hands
of a builder,
each separate stone and each layer of stones all cemented together with
with a trowel. Its angles are right angles, its layers are horizontal,
perpendicular. And how did it come to be so? These are evidences of a
enough to design and to measure and lay out work. And beside the Wisdom
there has been Strength sufficient to divest those blocks of their
and lift them to their proper position. And deeper still we perceive
of manly courage and godlike faith that dared to attempt such an
trusted in the laws of Nature that the effort would not be in Vain.
In our speculative
capacity let us think of that wall as representing the result of human
something that man designs and attempts and finishes, something that he
in imitation of the Creator whose image he bears. While we might with
our great Fraternity, built up by our predecessors in the Craft so that
now it is
known and respected the world over, yet I prefer that we should at this
that wall as representing human character, mine or yours.
is the result of human effort continued from day to day. That which you
in the depths of your inmost heart is the plan by which you govern your
Set your affection on things which are base and dark and unworthy and
becomes a wall of unlovely type. Set your affection on things above, on
values of eternity, on truth and light and justice, and the built-up
wall of your
character will proceed along lines that please the eye of the Master.
which enter into that wall are acts and words and thoughts. As a wise
builder rejects some of the stones that are brought to him as unfit to
have a place
in his building, so you ought often to reject many a thought that is
to refrain from repeating much that is told you and to abstain from
many deeds which
by the thoughtless and profane, are performed to our knowledge every
A wall of
masonry is not just a chance accumulation of stones and mortar. It is a
and carefully planned arrangement executed with attention to every
detail. And just
so, good character in man is not a wild and natural growth but is only
under careful discipline, The standard of righteousness is as unvarying
as the Plumb,
Virtue is as exact as the angle of the Square, and our determination to
be and true
must be as continuous and unbroken as the level line which stretches
the bounds space into the realms of eternity. Let no one suppose that
it does not
matter what he thinks, or how speaks, or what he does, for thoughts,
deeds are the building material of his character.
So much for
the wall. We note next that it was being inspected. "Behold the Lord
beside a wall." Amos reminds us that He who made the worlds is
the work of His creatures. He comes having authority to examine and
work which we present. Those of you who did military service in the
of the Great War, remember how novel a thing to us the inspections of
the army were.
We were inspected in every conceivable way, our bearing and deportment,
our sleeping apartments, our bodies, our food, and our correspondence.
to be nothing that the army did not in some way look into. And he was a
who did not at least dimly guess that somewhere, not far away, is One
looks into and sees the thoughts and intents of the heart.
stands beside every wall and though our thoughts, words and actions may
from the eyes of man yet that All-seeing Eye whom the sun, moon and
pervades the inmost recesses of the human heart. "The fear of the Lord
beginning of wisdom." He who allows himself to think lightly of God,
to pay to T.G.A.O.T. the reverence and the adoration due to His Holy
Name, is lacking
in that wisdom which is needed to plan direct any truly great work.
Look up, my
brothers, into the starry sky, the canopy of heaven, and behold the
myriads of planets
all in motion and yet moving as they have for untold ages without
collision or confusion.
Study the order and the beauty apparent there. Think of the wisdom
planned all their nice exactness. Think you that such a Master will be
with careless, sloth or indifferent service?
as revealed in Nature alone necessitated an awful knowledge of the
of curved lines intersecting, of the laws of moving bodies, of the
ornamentation and of many a science and art that we may not even
imagine. But our
simple building is a matter of the relation of only two straight lines,
and one horizontal: Yet it is a building that He will look into. Take
we build aright!
The Plumb Line
for our consideration the instrument by which the test was made.
stood upon a wall made by a plumb line, with a plumb line in his hand."
given point an incalculable number straight lines may be drawn in any
planes. They may extend east or west or north or south, or up or down,
or they may
lean in a thousand variations of each of these several directions: an
number of lines from that one point and every one of them is straight.
one out of the thousands can be plumb! A great many are nearly plumb,
but one, and
only one, is strictly so. According to that one upright straight line
will our work
When a wall
gets out of the plumb it leans either out or in. And when it leans
seams begin to
show on the opposite side. And the seam is the visible sign to all who
pass by that
the wall is not so well built as it might have been. It may be still a
wall affording support, or shelter, or defense, but because it is not
plumb it is
not so good as it might have been. For a wall ought to stand according
to the plumb.
And the wall that leans ever so little is a reproach to the builder who
have kept it plumb.
In the wall
of our character we are inclined to lean out or in. Inward in the way
personal interest, love of gain and pride. Think too much of self and
begins to lean and the seams open on the outer side. And the tendency
the world, rather than to please God, will draw your character away
from the plumb
in the other direction. One does not like to displease his neighbor and
doing so he leans away from uprightness. Or he finds it trying and
tell the truth when a little concession to popular fancy will bring
a little flattery or praise. But lean ever so little and the seams come
And men say that "So-and-so would be upright but for this or that; he
perfect character only for this one flaw," ‒ and so forth. And alas,
not built Plumb.
A hard, hard
thing it is to keep to that unerring line. We cast our eye down its
length to see
how often our work has varied from the plumb, and with much humility
and many tears
we look up to the Great Master and we trust that He, in His wisdom,
knows that we
desire to please Him. We can say truly that above all other lines we
prefer the plumb.
May God forgive
me if I am wrong in this, but I believe that although our work shows
our walls far from perfect and the seams show on every side, yet the
will know that we have tried to build aright. And may it not be that in
world with choicer stone to quarry and finer tools to work with and
to lead us, may not the Apprentice of this life be advanced to a higher
been times in the history of philosophy as in the history of religion,
have gone to an extreme in emphasizing the seriousness of life. But
few, if any,
are guilty of that fault today. We are rather in the way of becoming a
and superficial people. Our grandfathers read through tremendous
volumes of Shakespeare
and Thackeray and Macaulay with interest and profit. We tire ourselves
short stories of the magazine. They patronized and enjoyed the
and operas of real worth. We troop in thousands afternoon and evening
to the pictures
and are content. We hustle frantically and nervously through the day in
of the highest gear, along roads that are built for speed, leaving
little leisure for study or reflection that there is danger of "the
ear" and "the instructive tongue" becoming only figurative expressions
and memories of the past. But as builders who serve a heavenly Master,
we must not
allow ourselves to be seduced by the ease-loving spirit of the age.
upon every Freemason a great responsibility. We, in our generation,
great traditions of the past: we hold in trust sacred mysteries that we
on unchanged to those who are yet to come. And to keep ourselves worthy
honorable duty we must adhere to the plumb in our several stations
before God and
things in our truly Masonic work we must avoid haste and carelessness,
and in all
our ceremonies and operations prepare ourselves thoroughly, proceed
continue persistently while the Light lasts, carrying out each detail
and giving to each the dignity and honor due to it as part of the plan
of a Great
St. Louis Lodge Travels
to Alexandria, Va., To Confer Master's Degree
In the presence
of a throng of Masons, who filled the lodge room of
No. 22, of Alexandria, Va., the Worshipful Master and officers of
Lodge, No. 9, of St. Louis, conferred the Master Mason's degree upon a
their lodge. Thirty members of George Washington Lodge came to
Alexandria for the
purpose, and were the guests of the Alexandrians for a day, after which
needs sentiment. Living as we do a life of hard, practical reality,
with the daily
chase for the daily meal the outstanding need of us all, we need those
which cherish and preserve sentiment.
is sentiment at its purest and best. When thirty men take a long
journey for the
sake of a revered name; when a lodge in St. Louis will travel to
the name of their lodge is George Washington, and George Washington the
Master of Washington-Alexandria Lodge, they have moved, spiritually, a
distance, than actually, in the flesh. It is a fair example of the
power of the
Masonic Order over men's hearts; it is because Masonry has kept alive
and the beauty of an idea, rather than of a practical reality, that it
and grown and thrived.
Order is not eleemosynary in character, though it practices charity; it
is no mutual
benefit organization, although it is mutually beneficial to its
members; it is not
a life assurance organization; it offers little if any material,
to its membership. That it is of the greatest use to its members, and a
for good in all communities where Freemasons are (a fact which cannot
well be disputed),
comes from its hold upon the hearts and minds of men; as in this
instance of its
power to make men take a long journey, in reverence and love for the
which cluster about the First President of the Union.
Capital News Service.
you, who Masonry despise,
This counsel I bestow;
Don't ridicule, if you are wise,
A secret you don't know;
Yourselves you banter, but not it;
You show your spleen but not your wit.
Sir Charles Warren, P.G.D.
Past District Grand Master,
By Bro. Dudley Wright, England
was written for THE BUILDER at our own request, in order that our
be made acquainted with one of the most illustrious names in modern
Bro. Warren's career, along with his unabated zeal for the Craft,
furnishes us with
one of the secrets of the great power of Freemasonry in Britain, where
it is rightly
considered an enterprise entitled to the guidance and support of the
Charles Warren, F.R.S., the first Master of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge,
was born at Bangor, Wales, on 7th February, 1840, the son of
Major-General Sir Charles
Warren; and was educated at Bridgnorth, Cheltenham College, Sandhurst,
He entered the Royal Engineers as a Lieutenant when he was seventeen
years of age,
being gazetted as a Captain in 1869. He conducted the explorations in
from 1867 to 1870, and in Our Work in Palestine, published in 1875, by
Exploration Society, the following tribute is paid to him:
"Let us finally bear witness to
perseverance, courage, and ability of Captain Warren. Those of us who
the nature of the difficulties he had to work against can tell with
and patience they were met and overcome. Physical suffering and long
heat, cold, and danger were as nothing. So long as the interest in the
modern Jerusalem remains, so long as people are concerned to know how
have been found out, so long will the name of Captain Warren survive."
had more or less a free hand for his important work in the Holy Land,
being merely to keep as nearly as possible to the sacred area of the
but not within, where he was permitted by a vizierial letter, to dig.
discoveries which he made was that of the underground passage
connecting the palace
at Jerusalem with the Haram area, while he also made explorations in
valley among the remains of Solomon's bridge, by which the monarch
crossed the valley
from his palace on Zion to the temple on Moriah. In 1876 Brother Warren
his work on Underground Jerusalem, followed four years later by The
Temple or The
Tomb, and, in 1884, in conjunction with Captain Conder, he published
In 1876, Brother Warren was appointed Special Commissioner to settle
line of the Orange Free State and, in 1877, to perform the like service
to Griqualand West, for which he was thanked by the Government for his
and awarded the C.M.C. The following year, 1878, saw him engaged in the
war, when he was wounded, awarded a medal, thanked by the Imperial
the Provincial Legislature, and made a Major and Lieutenant-General. He
was in charge
of the Diamond Field Force and afterwards of the Field Force in
the Zulu War he organized a volunteer force for the assistance of the
and Natal, acting in the capacity of Commander-in-Chief, becoming, in
of Griqualand West. In 1880, he returned to England, and, in 1881, was
Instructor of Surveying at Chatham. In 1882 he returned to Egypt, when
under Arabi, and was engaged in the special duty of restoring in the
authority of the Khedive, and in bringing to justice the murderers of
Palmer and his companions, whose bodies he recovered in 1882. For this
entered the Arabian deserts without escort, accompanied by Lieutenants
Haynes. In the same year he was appointed to a Colonelcy, being also
awarded a medal
and Medjidie third class. In 1883 he was made K.C.M.G., and, in 1884,
he again proceeded
to South Africa in command of the Bechuanaland expedition, and, for his
there, he was, in the following year, created G.C.M.G. On his return,
in 1886, he
was placed in command of the forces at Suakim, but was recalled in the
to reorganize the London police force as Chief Commissioner, from which
he retired in 1888, being awarded the K. C. B. for his services. From
1889 to 1894
he commanded the troops in the Straits Settlements and, from 1895 to
1898, he was
in command of the troops in the Thames district. His last appointment
was in 1899
and 1900, when he was Lieutenant-General in command of the South
African Field Force,
when he was mentioned in despatches.
Charles Warren was initiated into Freemasonry in the Royal Lodge of
No. 278, Gibraltar, and was already a Past Master and Past First
Principal of a
Royal Arch Chapter when he undertook the Palestine Exploration. He was
also a Past
Master of the Charles Warren Lodge, No. 1832, Kimberley, South Africa,
but he is
best known to English speaking Freemasons as the first Master of the
Lodge, No. 2076. The warrant for this lodge was granted on 28th
but after the application for the charter had been sent in, Brother
his command to repair to Bechuanaland. He asked his cofounders to make
from among their number, but they did him the signal honor of
preferring to await
his return to England, with the result that the lodge was not
12th January, 1886. He was appointed to the rank of Past Grand Deacon
in 1887 and from 1891 to 1894 he was District Grand Master of the
By Brother George Lanzarotti,
an article of greater interest than most. Would we had more like it!
the contribution it makes to our knowledge of Freemasonry in South
America it is
a reminder, gentle but firm, of the fact that one should carefully
source of whatever he reads about Freemasonry in Central and South
Lanzarotti will be very glad to communicate with any Mason desiring
on the subject. Address him care THE BUILDER.
Masons I have met have such mistaken ideas concerning Freemasonry in
I have been moved to write these lines to correct, if possible, these
American brethren the opinion is prevalent that the Grand Lodge of
Chile is based
on the same principles as that of the Grand Orient of France. This
some foundation due to the fact that up to the year 1852 the native
in this country were under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of
since 1852, when the Grand Lodge of Chile was established, we have had
connection with French Masonry than of being on friendly relations, the
maintained with all the duly recognized Masonic powers of the world.
also believe that we have removed the Holy Bible from our altar, and
that our organization
is composed mostly, if not wholly, of atheists. This is far from the
truth. We maintain
the Holy Bible on the altar, and every candidate has to accept the
the S.G.A.O.T.U. before being accepted as a brother. There are many
among the members of the Chilean lodges who no doubt would have retired
had found in our meetings or rituals any inclination towards atheism.
All the sessions
in our lodges are opened and closed to the Glory of the S.G.A.O.T.U.
against our Institution is that it is believed to mix in politics; to
I will reply that our Constitution strictly prohibits our Fraternity
in either political or religious matters! but as the majority of the
are also Chilean citizens, it is not to be wondered at that they will
back up, as
good citizens, the political parties that are more in harmony with
what has been performed by the Masons here, towards the uplift of the
physical condition of the Chilean people, it would be necessary to
analyze the last
six decades of the history of this country: one would then discover
that the promoters
of many enterprises that had the welfare of the nation in view were
members of the
the spirit which prevails among the members, let me give you the
There is a lodge located in an isolated village; all its members are
the country; the lodge meets twice a month; some of the members live as
far as forty
miles away from the Temple and have no other means to reach it than on
and yet the attendance is never below eighty-five per cent of its total
Lodge of Chile has jurisdiction over fifty-eight lodges; fifty-five of
in Chilean territory and the other three on Bolivian soil. There are
also ten Triangles,
or Lodges of Instruction, which are expected to become duly constituted
a short time. The principal work carried on by these bodies is the
universal education, and although the obstacles to overcome are great,
due to superstition
and fanaticism on the part of the bulk of the people, this work is
forward, and the first ode of the Hymn of Victory will not be sung
has disappeared in this young republic.
So I pray
you not to be the echo of our eternal enemy, but please believe that
at this end of the world is doing its best and as much, if not more,
than in some
Masonry! to thee we raise
The song of triumph, and of praise.
The Sun which shines supreme on high,
The Stars that glisten in the sky,
The Moon that yields her silver light,
And vivifies the lonely night,
Must by the course of Nature fade away,
And all the Earth alike in time decay;
But while they last shall Masonry endure,
Built on such Pillars solid and secure;
And at the last triumphantly shall rise
In Brotherly affection to the skies.
By Brother H.L. Haywood,
IN THE French
town of Caudebec, which stands on the Seine River, is the grave of one
Letellier, master mason of the church, who had the conduct of the works
years and more, and erected the choir and chapels." On the grave stone
long forgotten Masonic brother who was once a master builder is an
the plan of a building. It was the custom of builders in those days to
tools engraved on their grave stones, just as knights and lords made
use their heraldic
devices. Brother Letellier chose to be remembered as one who made
designs for buildings
and therefore selected a building plan for his own during remembrances.
We do not
need to be told how important in the work of Operative Masons was the
a plan for a building. "What has the Master on his trestle board?" was
a question often asked with keenest interest by the workman. And
because of this
importance the trestle board, which represented the whole labor of
came to be used as a symbol, just as we found Brother Letellier using
it as a symbol
his own life's work. When Masons ceased to be Operative Masons, and
attention to the building of men in fraternal life, they retained the
as a symbol.
board in Speculative Masonry is a symbol of that which we call an
ideal. One should
not be frightened by the use of this word. It does not refer to
or far away, or, as our slang expression has it, "highbrow." Quite the
go on a journey we plan our travels, our railway connections, our
our destination. Before we undertake to erect a building we are so
careful to have
a plan that often we pay an expert to make one for us. It would be
if each of us were to have a plan similarly for his own life. A plan
for one's life
is what we mean by an ideal. It is a plan for doing things.
ideal is a plan for improving actual conditions. If our lodge room were
or badly ventilated, or inadequately lighted, or the members quarrel
we might feel very unhappy because of such conditions: and some of us
our heads together in an effort to better conditions. We would say,
do this, and that, and the other thing, so that we can be happier in
our lodge work."
Such a plan for bettering unsatisfactory conditions would be an ideal.
It is something
that we would draw, to speak figuratively, on the trestle board of our
an effort to better actual conditions would not be "highbrow"; on the
contrary it would recommend itself to men of sense and sagacity.
believe that condition could be improved in our human world. We are too
dream impossible dreams about mankind: we are too practical to wish to
and energy on unattainable aims. We do not try the fantastical. But we
are some things to be improved by plain common sense efforts, and we
together and solemnly sworn to assist in such endeavors. This program
conditions among men is what we mean by the Masonic ideal; it is what
has drawn upon its trestle board.
we Masons believe that much of the unhappiness in the world is due to
and we believe that if all men were well educated they would be happier
are. We Masons, therefore, wish to do all we can to uphold and improve
public school system, and to try to make it possible for all the
children of all
the people to have all the enlightenment that is possible under the
Brethren, let us each one as individual Masons put that down on our own
Those of us who are acquainted with any community know that men and
women very seldom
live as happily with each other as well as might be. We are all bound
We are compelled to live in neighborhoods. We must live together
whether we choose
it or not. Is it not wise, then, for us to learn how to live happily
effort to bring men and women into harmony with each other is the great
aim of Brotherhood,
and this practical, common sense, hard-headed effort to organize human
into human happiness, that is one of the great purposes of our
Fraternity. It is
on our trestle board.
A final example.
Nations, like individuals and families, are also compelled to live
is no escape from that! But unfortunately, nations have not as yet
learned how to
live happily together. Every so often they go to war, and then men and
the most terrible unhappiness known to our race. How can we eliminate
war and do
away with national antagonisms is a difficult problem; the ways and
be discussed here. But we men, we Masons, know that it can be done, and
we are dedicated
to the effort to do it. How to bring nations to live happily together,
is on our trestle board.
None of these
things are impossible dreams. The more experience and wisdom and common
man has, the more hard-headed he is, the more will he wish these things
to be. They,
and the other plans we have for improving conditions, will give us more
more money, more health, and more happiness. It is to such an ideal
is dedicated. Brethren, let us ourselves become dedicated also. Let us
an ideal the symbol of our lives, just as did the good Master Mason,
Johnson A Freemason?
By Brother Arthur Heiron,
Some Phases of His Life
Johnson, the most picturesque figure in the history of English
literature, and the
hero of the world's greatest, biography, found the craft of writing
in the gutter, a profession for scamps like rag picking, and by his own
and ability lifted it to the dignity and power of a national art. His
sound pompous and unreal to us now but in their own day were a marvel
and they wrought
miracles in English, so that after these two hundred years one cannot
him without coming under his spell. His place in history is ample
warrant for the
exhaustive and patient thoroughness with which Brother Heiron has
ascertain if he could have been a member of the Fraternity. As one
reads this remarkable
essay he finds Dr. Johnson growing very real and very human.
same time, and as a matter of even greater interest to the readers of
Brother Heiron's study brings out into vivid colour a picture of the
Craft as it
was in the London of the early eighteenth century, at which period
was as yet in its swaddling clothes. Brother Heiron is the author of
Freemasonry, and Old Dundee Lodge No. 18, 1722 ‒ 1920," a review of
contributed by ye editor to page 243 of THE BUILDER for Sep. 1921.
query has often exercised the minds of thoughtful students, for there
are so many
ponderous phrases and involved sentences in our ritual more especially
in the Masonic
lectures) that bear the impress of the Johnsonian School, that even
though we may
not be able definitely to decide this question, it does seem fairly
at some time or other ‒ Dr. Johnson (1709-1784) was a member of the
Craft, it being
quite clear now that several of his most intimate friends and
associates were themselves
on various occasions brethren in England and the United States have
he was a Craftsman, yet up to now no lodge has definitely claimed him
as a member,
but the records of the "Old Dundee" Lodge, No. 18 (English
‒ which was No. 9 in 1755 and therefore one of the oldest lodges in the
1722-23 ‒ prove that in 1767, a candidate named "Samuel Johnson" was
a Mason" and afterwards "Raised a Master" in their lodge room situate
on the first floor of a building in Red Lion Street, Wapping, London,
E., the freehold
of which our ancient brethren had purchased in 1763.
Now, as it
was not customary until 1784 for the addresses or descriptions of
be written in the minute books or other records of the lodge, there is
proof at present as to who this man was, but the circumstances
surrounding Dr. Johnson's
life and habits at this period of 1767 are so strange and complex that
believe the identity of this candidate with the author of the
the English language" to admit of but little doubt, and unless and
satisfactory and complete "alibi" can be proved to the contrary, the
seems in favor of this suggestion.
story is told in detail in Chapter XIV of a History of Freemasonry in
the 18th Century,
published by Kenning & Son, London, in 1921 entitled "Ancient
and the Old Dundee Lodge No. 18 ‒ 1722 ‒ 1920" [Lib*] to which further
may be made.
to appreciate this story one must try and understand the real man
himself; it will
therefore now be necessary to recall to memory various incidents in the
Dr. Johnson that make manifest his bohemian disposition and the lighter
his life that are not often investigated or discussed, for when he is
these present days the motive seems chiefly an attempt to impress the
some witty or apposite saying of the learned sage. But there is
side of his character and disposition that deserves attention and this
very apparent in the Story of his life written by his devoted friend ‒
almost say "slave" ‒ , to wit, "James Boswell." [Lib 1807, Vol
3] It will
also be very essential to refer to his "constitutional melancholy"
Johnson said was the "curse of his life" and accounts for much of the
irregular conduct so often alluded to by his biographer. A Freemason of
repute and standing stated recently that he could not believe that a
man of Dr.
Johnson's steady character and deep religious principles would have so
as to frequent a rough neighborhood as Wapping undoubtedly was in 1767;
however that he had not studied the details of Johnson's life and that
was merely confined to his literary work. To contradict this erroneous
article has been written, in order partly to demonstrate that one who
was so humorous
and full of fun, so fond of club life, such a frequenter of taverns as
is singled out just the type of man who could have loved to join a
for in those far-off days a lodge much resembled a social Masonic club.
responsibility for the discussion of this subject however really rests
Johnson himself, for if he had not told the world in 1783 (through
Johnson ‒ was intimately acquainted with Wapping (then the Port of
story would never have seen the light of day; it certainly would not
from the musings of an innocent and unknown writer. It is desired
however at the
outset most emphatically to state that in reproducing some of these
Johnson's life, there is not the slightest desire to say anything that
the feelings of those who hold his memory in reverence nor any
intention to derogate
from the high position he holds in the general estimation as a teacher
truth and virtue. Great allowance has also to be made for the
atmosphere in which
Dr. Johnson lived: it was a coarse and rough age indeed and things
that would seem incredible in the London of 1922.
one time felt doubtful as to publishing all he knew, and in 1768 he
Johnson if he objected to his letters being published after his death.
was, "Nay, Sir, when I am dead, do as you will." Boswell further says:
"When I delineate him without reserve, I do what he (Johnson) himself
both by his precept and example." Dr. Johnson himself said in 1777: "If
a man professes to write a life, he must represent it really as it
further, "that a man's intimate friend should mention his faults, if he
dedicating his immortal work to Sir Joshua Reynolds says in 1791: "I
in this Work been more reserved, and though I tell nothing but the
truth, I have
still kept in my mind that the whole truth is not always to be
lastly on this point "Bozzy" wrote: "I will not make my tiger a cat
to please anybody."
And now for
the information of those who have had no opportunity to study the
career of Johnson,
a short sketch of his early history is now given; this may save some
effort to the
reader, for Boswell's "Life of Johnson" [Lib 1807; Vol
3] is a lengthy
work, the popular edition two volumes containing nearly 1,300 pages of
A Few Details of Johnson's
was born at Lichfield in Staffordshire in 1709, his father, Michael
bookseller in that city.
possessed robust body and active mind but unfortunately also inherited
to scrofula, which affected his eye sight, and still worse "a
which had much to do with his physical mental and sufferings so often
by Boswell; we are also told that when an infant only about two years
old, he was
taken to London and "touched by Queen Anne for the evil"; it is said
this was perhaps the last instance of the exercise of such Royal
education was received at two grammar schools; then in his nineteenth
year he entered
Pembroke College, Oxford, but after a residence of about three years
left the University
without taking a degree. His father dying in very poor circumstances in
remarked, "I must now make my own fortune," and then commenced a hard
struggle for existence.
In 1735 (when
only twenty-six years old) he married Mrs. Elizabeth Porter, the widow
of a Birmingham
mercer: she was nearly forty-seven (twenty years older than Johnson)
but as he was
almost penniless and she brought him a dowry of 800 pounds, this may
influenced his mind, for his lifelong friend, David Garrick, described
lady as "very fat with a bosom of more than ordinary protuberance with
cheeks of a florid red, produced by thick painting and increased by the
use of cordials ‒ flaming and fantastic in her dress and affected both
and general behavior." There were no children born of this ill-assorted
but on the whole the quaint pair seemed to have been fairly happy for
when she died
in 1752, Johnson was much distress and on the anniversaries of her
death it was
his custom to remember her in prayer.
assistance of his wife's dowry he started a small school, for in the
Magazine" for 1736 there appeared the following advertisement: "At
near Lichfield in Staffordshire, young gentlemen are boarded and taught
and Greek languages by Samuel Johnson."
to Boswell, he only had about three pupils, the chief one being the
Garrick" (1716-1779). His scholars were not very dutiful, for we are
young rogues used to listen at the door of his bedchamber and peep
through the keyhole
that they might turn into ridicule his tumultuous and awkward fondness
Johnson," whom he used to call "Tetty" a pet name for Elizabeth.
soon proved a failure and in 1737 Johnson (aged twenty-eight) started
out for London
accompanied by his pupil, David Garrick, both impecunious, each to try
in the great metropolis. Garrick became the world famed actor, whilst
raised himself by industry and ability to the foremost rank of authors
to Boswell, (wherever the English language is spoken) his name will now
Later in life Johnson referred to their mutual poverty at this period
words: "when I came to London (in 1737) with two pence half-penny in my
and thou, Davy, with three-half pence in thine." The above was
only serious love affair in Johnson's life. Left a widower in 1752
(when only forty-three
years old) he never essayed matrimony again but seemed content to live
life of a single man, so that when our story from Wapping commences in
1767 he had
been a widower for fifteen years. Johnson's views as regards the
advantages or the
reverse of married life were rather mixed; once he said of another: "He
done a very foolish thing, Sir, he has married a widow, when he might
have had a
maid"; and yet, he had married a widow himself! Boswell tells us that,
gentleman who had been very unhappy in marriage, married immediately
after his wife
died. Johnson remarked 'it was the triumph of hope over experience!'"
Johnson and Savage
twenty-nine) now commences life in London but unfortunately before long
with one "Richard Savage," a dissipated and profligate man, well
with the lower life of London, and who doubtless introduced Johnson to
of Wapping. They were both poor and Boswell says, "they (Savage and
were sometimes in such extreme indigence that they could not pay for a
so that they have wandered together whole nights in the streets."
dates are here given:-
Johnson born at Lichfield.
1755. "Dictionary of the English Language," by Samuel Johnson, A. M.
1756. Johnson arrested for debt.
1762. An annual pension of 300 pounds granted to Johnson by the Tory
under Lord Bute.
1763. Boswell (aged 23) first introduced to Johnson (aged 54), a
forerunner of about
270 subsequent meetings.
1784. Dr. Johnsons death and burial in Westminster Abbey.
1791. Boswell's "Life of Johnson" published.
We now come
to the story that hails from Wapping.
from Boswell's "Life of Johnson."
Advice to Boswell (1783).
12. Saturday. "I (James Boswell) visited him in company with Mr.
Norfolk. He (Dr. Johnson) talked today a good deal of the wonderful
extent and variety
of London, and observed that men of curious inquiry might see in it
such modes of
life as very few could even imagine. He in particular recommended us to
Wapping,' which we resolved to do, and certainly shall."
Boswell and Windham Visit
first edition of Boswell was published in 1791 and contains the above
words "and certainly shall," but in the second edition of 1793 these
words are omitted, and instead we have the following addendum, viz: A
Boswell states: "We accordingly carried our Scheme into execution in
1792, but whether from that uniformity which has in modern times to a
spread throughout every part of the Metropolis or from our want of
we were disappointed."
astonishment of Boswell. Evidently the learned Doctor had never before
previous conversations referred to Wapping; it was clearly some private
that Johnson had carefully kept to himself and now leaked out by
accident for the
first time. (It is obvious that he did not tell all his secrets to
years his junior. Why should he?) Now Johnson died the next year (1784)
was so much impressed that he could not forget those words, and so in
years after this strange advise and eight years after Dr. Johnson's
to investigate the matter for himself. He therefore made a special
journey to Wapping
with his friend Windham ‒ doubtless in the day time ‒ but without
Now at this
period Wapping, situate not far below London Bridge, was the Port of
sailing vessels of from two to four hundred tons burthen laying at
in the "Pool" in the River Thames. There were also about forty taverns
in the neighborhood ready to supply refreshment and amusements
dog fights, cock-fighting, female pugilists, etc., etc.) for the large
British and foreign sailors who were often detained in the Port for
waiting for a return cargo to distant shores. It is however more than
if Boswell had penetrated at night ‒ in charge of a suitable guide ‒
into the purlieus
of the place, he would have fully realized what Dr. Johnson referred to
advised his two friends to "Explore Wapping" and also said, "that
men of curious inquiry might see in it (Wapping) such modes of life as
could even imagine." In more modern days Ratcliffe Highway, which
Wapping, also had a very dangerous and unsavory reputation.
"Windham" above referred to was the Rt. Hon. William Windham, D.C.L.
distinguished statesman and scholar and in 1782 was elected M.P. for
in 1794 under Mr. Pitt was appointed Secretary at War. He was an
intimate and valued
friend of Dr. Johnson, and was in close attendance on him during his
us: "Mr. Windham having placed a pillow conveniently to support him, he
thanked him for his kindness and said, 'That will do, ‒ all that a
pillow can do.'"
Windham was also present at the funeral of Dr. Johnson in Westminster
as one of the pallbearers.
James Boswell, who thus accompanied Windham on their visit of
exploration to Wapping
in 1792, was a Mason of high degree, having attained the rank of Deputy
of Scotland in 1776 and 1777.]
A "Saml. Johnson"
Made In 1767 ‒ Extracts from Minute Books of "Old Dundee"
14. "Lodge Night. Bro. Dormer proposed Mr. Samuel Johnson ... to be
Mason in this Lodge next Lodge Night, 2nd. and deposited 10s. 6d.
was an old Past Master, I. 1746, and a pipemaker.]
May 28. "Lodge
Night. Mr. Samuel Johnson was Accepted."
"Lodge Night. Agreeable to the proposal of Bro. Dormer, Mr. Saml.
Made a Mason for which Honor he paid Two pounds two." "Likewise Bro.
proposed Bro. Johnson to be Raised a Master Mason next Lodge Night,
2nd. and Deposited
July 9. "Lodge
Night. Agreeable to proposal of last Lodge Night, Bro. Johnson was
Raised a Master,
for which Honor he paid Five Shillings." [Note. Mr. Saml. Johnson is
Master Mason and a member of the "Dundee Lodge," No. 9 (now No. 18)
at their own freehold in Red Lion Street, Wapping: it was not customary
for the addresses or description of candidates to be inserted in the
and it is very doubtful if they were even mentioned in open lodge, the
of an old Past Master being quite sufficient. If the candidate was
were glad to have him, the extra fees meant that the supply of liquid
would be increased, a dominant factor in those days.]
Bro. Saml. Johnson Attended
to the Secretary's entries in the minute book, Bro. Samuel Johnson
(whoever he was)
made twenty-one attendances at the "Dundee Lodge" at Wapping, and was
a member for three-and-a-half years; he paid his "Dues" and then ceased
his membership Christmas 1770.
recorded visits were on the following dates, viz:
11, June 25, July 9, December 2 (Feast Day).
1768. June 23, July 14, August 11, August 25 October 27, December 8,
1769. January 26, February 10, March 23, April 13, April 17, April 27,
1770. September 13, November 8, December 13.
dates have been careful checked as far as possible with the recorded
Dr. Johnson, and it seems clear to the writer that he could have been
Wapping on the days referred to if it had been his desire so to do. On
in 1768 and 1769 when Dr. Johnson was undoubtedly at Oxford or at
(Brighton) his presence at Wapping is not recorded in the lodge books;
only be negative evidence but rather leads one to think that our
Johnson," was really identical with the learned Doctor himself. Of all
(To be continued)
Government to Assist in
Shrine Meet In June
D.C. ‒ The Imperial Council Session of the Ancient Arabic Order Nobles
of the Mystic
Shrine of North America, which will occur in Washington in June, 1923,
to bring to the Capital City the largest crowd of sightseers which has
it. It is predicted, from requests for parking space for railroad ears,
made in hotels, that more than three hundred thousand visitors will
during Shrine week.
for the comfort and safety is made in a joint resolution introduced in
by Chairman Ball, of the Senate District Committee. This resolution
$25,000 or so much of that sum as may be necessary for the maintenance
order, the safety of the public, etc., during the annual session of the
Council of the Mystic Shrine.
will be held from June 3 to June 7, inclusive, but the appropriation
period from May 25 to June 10.
also appropriates funds for the erection of temporary public
information booths, etc. The commissioners are to be authorized to make
police regulations for the occasion, to fix passenger fares, and
the public utilities that would be called into service.
Capital News Service.
A Builder -- [A Poem]
his hand the tiered marble grew;
By day he wrought and night;
He reared the glistening white
In many-columned grandeur, strong and true,
To meet glad heaven's down-bending arch of blue.
But just when with delight
The craft began with might
To shape his dreams, he turned to structures new
The thronging, anxious workmen sought in vain
Their master everywhere;
His trestle-board was bare
Of all the high designs of heart and brain.
In dust, Time that unfinished labor rolls
Not stones, alas, but souls.
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. G. W. Baird. P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
who was a member of Amanda Lodge, of Annapolis, Md., was born in that
city in 1774.
His parents were English and Loyalists but the boy, like so many other
similar circumstances, became staunchly patriot.
the study of law in the office of Samuel Chase in 1786, began his own
Harford County two years later, and became in time a remarkably able
orator of the old school. He was elected to be representative in the
of Delegates, and at the same period was made a state delegate to
revise the Constitutions
of the United States.
Miss Rodgers, at Havre-de-Grace, the sister of the famous Common core
of the Navy. A large family was born of this union, and their
descendants are much
in evidence in the state of Maryland today. In person Mr. Pinkney was a
man, with "complexion fair, and light brown hair," and it is said that
he had a pleasant voice, so pleasant that it materially assisted him in
his hearers to his side.
While a member
of the Maryland House of Delegates he attracted much attention through
advocacy of the right of slave owners to manumit their own slaves.
Until 1795 he
served as a member of the Maryland Executive Council. Later he went as
from Arundel County to the state legislature.
appointed Mr. Pinkney in 1796 a commissioner to England in accordance
with the seventh
article of Jay's treaty in order to settle with the British Government
by merchants of the United States for damages occurring through
or illegal captures or condemnations"; and during this same period
in establishing in the British courts the claim of the State of
Maryland to own
certain stock in the Bank of England.
these official labors in London a number of important questions came up
international law, such as the practices of prize courts, the laws of
domicile, blockade, etc.; on these questions Mr. Pinkney submitted
which are to this day accepted as models of powerful argument and
his return to the United States in 1804 he removed his residence from
to Baltimore, and in 1805 was appointed Attorney General of the state.
In 1806 he
was made commissioner with James Monroe, then minister to England, to
the British Government concerning the capture of neutral ships in time
of war; these
negotiations were partly responsible for the War of 1812. Mr. Pinkney
successful in his share of the conduct of these negotiations and did
home until 1811, when he was recalled at his own solicitation.
return he was elected to the senate of Maryland, but in the following
appointed Attorney General of the United States. He took a prominent
part in the
demonstrations growing out of the War of 1812 and himself commanded a
which he raised for the defense of Baltimore. He was wounded severely
in the Battle
In 1816 he
served in the United States Congress as Representative and in 1816 ‒
1818 was made
minister plenipotentiary to Russia and a special minister to Naples, at
place he undertook to secure indemnity for American merchants who had
but in this mission he met with no success. Upon his return to the
he was elected to the Senate and held that place until he died at
1822, at the comparatively early age of fifty-eight.
He was buried
in Congressional Cemetery at Washington, which was the property of
(Episcopal). In this it was the custom at the time to erect little
of stone whenever a member of Congress died. On one of these little
stones we may
memory of the Honorable William Pinkney, Senator of Maryland in the
the United States. Died February 25th, 1822."
so nearly obliterated the letters that this inscription is now very
read. The writer would invite the attention of the Fraternity and of
to the fading of these precious records, the very existence of which
may soon be
disputed by treasonous hyphenated foreigners who are already trying to
American history in their own interests.
would also call attention to another point made clear in these memoirs.
In the early
days of the Republic, and in spite of constant friction with Great
envoys met with less friction and obstruction in England than in any
By Brother Aubrey O. Bray,
A. O. Bray, the author of the present article, has presented to us an
account of the formation of one of our Overseas Masonic Clubs. His
so vividly the obstacles that presented themselves to so many of our
what he says for the Amex Club will stand with minor modifications for
many of the
others. The Amex Club was one of our most vigorous and helpful clubs
to scores of the Craftsmen.
166 of THE BUILDER for last June I made an announcement concerning an
made by the National Masonic Research Society to secure and collate all
data concerning Freemasonry in the World War. This work, the direction
has been entrusted to me, is progressing rapidly. Every brother who
information as that contained in the splendid article below should send
Bray is now an attorney in Tucson, Arizona. His affiliations are
El. Felts Lodge No. 29, Norwood, Georgia; Hubert Chapter No. 120
Georgia; Plantagenet Commandery No. 12, Milledgeville, Gal; Al-Sihah
Gal; Square and Compass Club, College of Law, University of Southern
Phi Alpha Mu (Masonic) Fraternity, University of Southern California;
Member, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, London. For further reference to the
Amex Club see
THE BUILDER, January 1922, page 5; April 1922, page 159.
Charles F. Irwin, Associate Editor.
my return to the States and discharge from the army there came to me
the idea of
writing up some of my experiences in which Masonry had a part while I
was in the
army. The ones of most interest to the Craft in general would, of
course, be those
which occurred in connection with the Amex-Masonic Club, at Camp De
which it was my good fortune to assist in organizing. On account of
and nearly four months in the hospitals, my memory was somewhat dulled
and I was
unable to call to mind the names of many brothers who took an active
part in both
the formation of the club and its work. Also I had not heard anything
from the club
since the date of leaving Camp De Souge for the front. I immediately
to secure the records of the club so as to refresh my memory and get
activities in which it engaged. But unfortunately it has proved
difficult to dig
up the facts. I followed up every clew without any success. Brother
William G. Prime
of New York, a member of the Masonic Overseas Mission, was also
consulted, as he
had visited the club while in France. So far I have been unable to
who is laboring so hard in this field, has been insisting that I go
ahead and write
up what I remember, leaving the rest, and subsequent events, to be
written up when
the records are discovered. If any brother who had an active part in
the work of
the Club during the time of which I write is not mentioned by name, he
understand that it is not an intentional slight, but a failure of
middle of July, 1918, I was taken with an attack of "flu," then just
its start in our army, and sent to the camp hospital at De Souge. I
that the man in the bed next to me was Scottish Rite Mason, Corporal
Battery A, 342 F. A. As our beds almost touched we began to hold
before either of us was able to sit up. As soon as we were able to get
out of bed
and walk around, we found several other Masons in the same ward. Just
time the wounded men from the front began to arrive at our hospital. We
who had not been paid for some time, and consequently were absolutely
Also many of them had not had an opportunity to converse with brethren
Some were very downhearted as a result of the hardships which they had
and the inadequate medical attention they had received. It was a great
them to again have an opportunity to talk with brethren.
It was while
convalescent in this hospital, and as a result of seeing these men,
that there came
to me the idea of some kind of Masonic organization at the camp to get
together, and to relieve some of the sufferings and hardships incident
to the service,
and especially of those in the hospital.
my regiment, I found that the same idea had already been discussed
among the brethren
there. Sometime during the first week in August several of the
brethren, among whom
were Sergeant Rhinehold, Supply Sergeant of Battery C, 340 F. A.,
Schuster, Battery C, Jay N. Christman of the Medical detachment, and
in the supply room of Battery C one afternoon after retreat, discussing
of an organization. We decided that the organization should embrace the
We set an afternoon for the formal organization and resolved to pass
the word around
to all the brethren with whom we came into contact in the meantime,
to pass it along likewise.
was to be held in the same room, Battery C supply room, and long before
set the room was crowded to overflowing. Just across the parade ground
was a large
pit from which gravel for making roads through the camp was taken. We
emulate the custom of our ancient brothers of meeting on the highest
hills and in
the lowest vales, and consequently adjourned to the gravel pit.
The sun was
just disappearing in one of those beautiful red sunsets in a cloudless
defies all description, when we reached the rendezvous. In the twilight
is much longer in that latitude than hero between sunset and dark a
was formed. Brother Warren D. Vincent, affectionately known as "Dad,"
of Hoisington Lodge No. 331, Hoisington, Kansas, Supply Sergeant of the
Train, was elected president. The writer was elected secretary and
accepted upon the condition that brother Montgomery of the Ammunition
Train be appointed
assistant, which was done. Brother Max A. Payne, Zion Lodge No. 1,
elected corresponding secretary. There were other officers elected but
recall them. I will pause here long enough to say that brother
Montgomery kept the
books for the secretary-treasurer, and to extend my appreciation to him
efficiency with which he kept them, and the work he relieved me of.
Hetherington, Nebraska Lodge No. 1, Omaha, Neb., also rendered
in preparing the minutes from my notes, as he wrote a legible hand,
which I did
not, and had more time. Brother Montgomery was also appointed chairman
of the hospital
Meet in a "Y"
It was decided
to hold the next meeting one week later at the Y.M.C.A. building
area. Permission for the use of a room was secured, notices posted in
all the Y.M.C.A.
buildings in camp, and all brethren asked to pass the word at every
We thought that the room at the "Y" would be large enough to
all who would wish to attend, but soon it was too crowded to carry on
and a large crowd gathered outside. Again we were forced to resort to
of our ancient brethren, and adjourned to the top of a small sand hill
of the "Y" building. To use the words of "Dad" Vincent, "we
adjourned to the top of Mount Moriah."
At this meeting
the constitution prepared by the constitutional committee was adopted,
and the prior
election of officers was confirmed. The name of "Amex-Masonic Club" was
adopted for the organization. This meeting lasted for some time after
had been about forty brethren at the meeting in the gravel pit, but
there were over
two hundred at this meeting. That will give you some idea of how the
and of the work of the secretary-treasurer at this meeting. Some of the
produced a couple of candles for the secretary's use when it grew dark,
of the writer's most vivid recollections is of lying sprawled out in
the sand upon
his stomach while he collected the five-franc registration fee and
the names and lodges of the new members by the light of these candles.
of the club were to bring the brethren in the various organizations in
communication and thereby promote Masonic fellowship; to further the
of Masonic principles to the daily lives of the brethren; and to
relieve in every
way possible the hardships incident to the service, especially of the
the camp hospital.
the necessary funds a registration fee of five francs, about eighty
cents at that
time, was charged. As all the organizations at camp, except the regular
were there just temporarily for training before going to the front, it
that the brethren in the incoming organizations would about equal in
brethren in the outgoing organizations. As there was a brigade leaving
and one entering
camp almost every day, our membership would be kept at about the same
a sufficient income would be produced from the registration fees of the
These surmises proved correct. After reaching a membership of about 350
at the third
meeting, it remained around that figure as long as I was at camp, with
income from new registrations. The club prospered financially as will
be shown later
It is easy
to be seen from the foregoing that the problem of an adequate place to
a very pressing one at this time. There was only one building large
enough for our
needs in our brigade area: that was the mess hall of the 314th
"Dad," the president, secured permission from the commanding officer of
the Train to use this hall for our meetings. The problem of lighting
us. There were no lights in any of the barracks or mess halls in our
area. On account
of the "daylight saving" craze which was then at its height, breakfast
was the only meal at which lights were needed. The Government seemed to
we could eat breakfast in the dark, and that we should be in bed by
By the time the Ammunition Train finished the evening mess it was too
dark in the
hall to carry on business. Brother Vance, Sergeant in the Camp
Engineers, used a
pull with the camp electrician and got the hall wired and furnished
We were now
in position to hold some real meetings. The first meeting in the mess
was the third held by the club, almost filled the hall to capacity.
a notation made in my field memorandum book, Lieutenant Weatherwax, of
Lodge No. 141, Charles City, Iowa, was registered as a member at this
was the first commissioned officer to enter the club. Other officers
soon came in,
Captain W. H. Mick, of Nebraska Lodge No. 1, Omaha, Nebraska, finally
of the club. While I am speaking of officers, I will relate this
incident. At one
of our meetings in the mess hall a major made a talk in which he said
that he had
known many Masons in the army, from the highest officers to the "buck"
private, in all branches of the service, and that he had never seen one
duty in the least.
Foraging For Refreshments
In the interim
between the meeting on the sand hill and the first meeting in the mess
executive committee decided that we should have some refreshments at
This policy was approved. The club and became a fixed custom. One of
the first decisions
in regard to refreshments was that we would not have anything to drink,
as we felt
that the boys were getting enough of that on the outside. It was very
to get anything suitable in sufficient quantities for such a large
number on account
of the food situation in France at that time. Of course, anything which
cooking was out of the question, as such refreshments were impossible
conditions. There seemed to be a good supply of grapes Old nuts at the
set up along the roads leading into the camp and just outside the camp
could get tobacco and cigarettes from the quartermaster, and
occasionally a box
of cigars. It proved harder to get sufficient quantities of grapes and
it first seemed. I went out among the French stands "well heeled" with
club funds, but the French would not sell any large quantities, even at
than they were charging (and they were charging enough). I even offered
to buy the
entire stock but they all turned me down. Returning into camp greatly
I met Mess Sergeant Charlie Murphy, of Battery E, 340th F.A. a devout
and Knight of Columbus, just going out on a ration expedition himself.
I knew that
Murphy was the best rustler of rations in the army, as I was in Battery
E for the
first ten months I was in the service. Also, I knew Murphy well
personally. We lived
in the same little Arizona town, and went to camp together at the first
knew that if anybody could get what we wanted, Murphy could. I told him
in full. A bargain was immediately made, whereby a Knight of Columbus
agent for a Masonic club. Nobody could have filled the bill better. As
long as Murphy
and myself remained at camp we were well supplied. It was a matter of
sorrow to me to learn that after the armistice, Murphy died of
pneumonia in Germany.
While I am
on the subject of the refreshments I shall tell a little incident on
our president, which was the cause of many good natured jokes at his
was going up to Bordeaux on a quartermaster truck one day and suggested
buy up a supply of refreshments for the next meeting while he was in
have them brought back on the truck. This met with hearty approval, as
we were sure
he could get up a fine layout in the big city. Dad returned in a
touring car with
an officer and the truck came on later, but without Dad's purchases!
Dad had bought
a lot of stuff and had it all collected in one French store for the
truck to call
and bring to camp. The truck never succeeded in getting it. Whether
Dad, a stranger
in Bordeaux was unable to give the truck driver correct directions;
truck driver was unable to follow Dad's directions; whether the shrewd
saw a chance to grab the stuff; or whether the truck driver got it and
of it to his own profit, we were unable to learn.
committee under Brother Montgomery did great work among the brethren in
After every meeting of the club there were always some smokes, grapes,
left over. These were turned over to the hospital committee for
the sick and wounded in addition to the regular hospital appropriation.
One of the
men on duty in the receiving ward of the hospital was a brother, and
locating sick and wounded brothers in the wards. Several times a week
and his committee went through the hospital distributing fruits,
smokes, etc., to
the wounded brethren. Messages from and to the sick brothers in the
carried by the committee to and from friends and brothers on the
outside. Many of
the men in the hospital were in low spirits, and it was a source of
to them to see and talk with the committee, and to know that the Great
to which they belonged had not forgotten them, even though our
Government, or perhaps
I should say the Secretary of War, apparently discriminated against it
not allow it to engage in any organized effort on behalf of the
soldiers in our
armies. * Each brother felt himself a committee of one, representing
and Masonry in general, charged with the duty of assisting the
charity and relief to all his fellow men, and exemplifying Masonic
traditions in his daily relations with his fellow men. Of the work done
Masons in combating Bolsheviki ideas among the troops after the
armistice, I may
speak in a later article. It was worth all of our efforts in behalf of
brethren to see the changes in their faces, and observe the new tenor
of their conversation
after a few minutes of talk with the committee. Brother Montgomery
man in the hospital who had been elected to take his degrees in a
but before having an opportunity to take them, had been sent overseas.
In the fighting
at Chateau-Thierry he had a leg shot off. The Club instructed the
committee to treat
him as a brother. I have often wondered if he ever got his degrees.
To The Front
first of September there came a rumor that orders had been issued for
to move toward the front. Consequently at the next meeting an election
to replace the club officers who were in our Brigade. Brother Vance,
name and lodge I do not remember, of the Camp Engineers, was elected
and a Corporal in the Camp Quartermaster Corps was elected secretary.
other changes, but being unable to recollect them and having no records
I am unable
to give them.
I will ask
the reader to pardon me while I relate a personal incident which
of the fortunes of war. The day before we left camp, about September
10, 1918, our
regiment was paid, which was the last pay day I had until I reached
Va., December 30th, 1918. Everybody knew that we were leaving
immediately for somewhere
on the front, and that it would in all probability be the last pay day
have in many months, if indeed we were ever to get another one before
to the States. Although having unlimited funds in France, the
was completely "bogged down." I had in my purse about a thousand francs
which belonged to the club, and about four hundred francs of my own,
up while I was sick and unable to spend it. After every meeting of the
Club I would
bring the money I received from the registration fees, mostly
to the barracks and trade in the small notes among the men for large
ones so as
to reduce the bulk of the roll. Knowing that everybody in the barracks
me with this unusual roll of money, I always slept in my shirt with my
up in my shirt pocket. Getting a few minutes off from the work of
departure, I went over to the quarters of Sergeant Vance, the
took all the books, with the treasurer's book balanced, and settled
with him in
full, paying him about a thousand francs. In my hurry to get back,
with him, I put my purse in my blouse pocket instead of my shirt
through the barracks on my way to work, I removed my blouse and threw
it on my bunk,
forgetting that my purse was in it. When I returned somebody had stolen
They made a pretty good haul as it was, but I have an idea that they
in not getting the club funds also. Had they been ten minutes sooner,
have put me in a very embarrassing position with the brethren as I
would not have
been able to replace the money at that time. No doubt my explanation
been accepted without question, but I would never have felt right about
it. In this
instance "Lady Luck" was both with me and against me.
card and all my identification papers were in the purse. I soon
realized that to
locate the thief was impossible, I posted notices that if my lodge card
were placed where I would find them, I would forget about the money and
ask no questions,
but they were never returned.
I was now
about to begin the journey to the front, facing the possibility of not
pay day, and getting wounded, with months in the hospitals without a
actually happened), or of being captured and having no funds with which
my condition. The brethren in my company, among whom were brothers Will
Nebraska Lodge No. 1, Omaha, Jesse Sollenberger, Pelton, Geil, and
names I do not remember, each contributed a loan of five francs. This
came in very
handy, and I made it go as far as possible during the three months I
was in the
hospitals after getting gassed at Thiancourt on October 4th.
The Club Prospers
It will be
seen that the club was in a growing condition, and prosperous
financially when I
left. It must have continued to prosper, for I have a letter from Dr.
Captain) W. H. Mick, Nebraska Lodge No. 1, Omaha, saying that upon his
the States in January 1919, he deposited with the Grand Master of New
York one thousand
francs, the property of the club, and that he later received
acknowledgment of receipt
from brother Boaz, the subsequent president of the club. Brother Mick
of the club when ordered to the States, and did not have time to
account with his
successor in office.
C. Prime, of New York, in his report to the Masonic Service
visiting this club in April 1919. ** It must have been active up until
the camp was finally abandoned. The information I have at present
Brother Boas was the last president of the club, but I have been unable
his lodge or his address. Both Captain Hick and myself have exhausted
we could get, but without success. If any brother reading this can
assist in locating
him, please communicate with me at once.
having information of the activities of the club subsequent to
September 10th, 1918,
or of anything previous to that time not mentioned herein, will do a
by communicating with me. I consider this just the beginning of the
history of the
club, which I hope to revise and complete at a later date when time and
search reveal the records.
* On this
subject see THE BUILDER, Vol. V, 1919, pages 59, 87, 115.
** See THE BUILDER, December, 1920, page 324.
We Build! -- [A Poem]
George Sanford Holmes
It matters not the stuff or stock we use,
The hours of labor or the tools we choose,
If out each soaring plan be drawn aright,
If but our course be ever toward the light;
Nor need we haggle o'er the day's reward,
Whose toil is honest in the eyes of God.
It matters not the how, the when, the where,
If men can see that all our works are fair:
No greater he who wields the captain's sway
Than he who learns to serve and to obey:
Whate’er the fabric we would fain erect,
Some must bear burdens and some must direct.
It matters not the end we have in view
If but each workman to himself be true:
He builds on sand, tho he may win acclaim,
Who builds not character to buttress fame;
The Golden Rule must shape the builder's will,
The temple, lacking soul, is empty still.
It matters not if impious hands would drag
Thru license, lust and lawlessness, that flag
Which stands for consecrated blood, far spilt
To save those sacred things our fathers built:
We shall defend them, too, and failing ‒ then
We'll vow by God, to build them up again!
the best his circumstance allows, does well, acts nobly; anger could do
Response to the Challenge of Fort Bayard
By Brother Francis E. Lester,
P.G.M., New Mexico
IN THE January,
1922, issue of THE BUILDER there was published a statement under my
forth the conditions at Fort Bayard, New Mexico, the largest Government
Hospital in the country, where something over 1100 tubercular war
veterans are patients.
In that statement I explained the challenge to Masonry that existed by
the fact that the two hundred or more Masons in that Government
Hospital were receiving
from Masonry few or no measures of relief.
referred to produced remarkable results. Supplemented by an appeal to
Grand Lodges of the United States, it led many of them to send in
none less than $500, for the needed relief. The Grand Lodge of New
Mexico at its
February communication definitely endorsed, and pledged itself to this
and although it represents less than 6,000 Freemasons, a contribution
of $1000 for
the building fund and $100 per month for relief purposes was made in
liberal contributions from the constituent Blue Lodges, the Scottish
Rite and the
Shrine of New Mexico. A Freemason of San Antonio, Texas, Brother Robert
became so impressed with the merits of the Fort Bayard situation that
conference he brought it to the attention of Brother Leon M. Abbott,
of the Northern Scottish Rite Jurisdiction, with the ultimate result
that that Body
has contributed the sum of $25,000 which it is estimated will cover the
a building to be erected for relief purposes at Fort Bayard for the
known as the Sojourners' Club, and the plans for the building are now
and its construction is about to be undertaken. There remains the
question of properly
financing the maintenance and relief fund for this work.
Lodges throughout our country and individual Masons in various parts of
have responded to the appeal appearing in the January BUILDER. Among
these is the
case of a Freemason in a far eastern state who, reading this appeal,
gave up an
anticipated trip to his home lodge in a nearby town for the purpose of
the installation of his lodge officers, and remitted the cost of that
trip to the
Fort Bayard relief fund. The amount was small, but the spirit of
sacrifice was large.
That same Brother Mason on numerous occasions has secured from one
source or another
a considerable number of contributions, and has remitted them for this
already available have resulted in a complete change in Masonic
conditions at Fort
Bayard. These changed conditions have renewed the energies of the
of the Sojourners' Club, and have inspired and cheered our afflicted
many of them helpless, at Fort Bayard. Whereas it was previously a
there that if a man was a Mason, "nobody cared," it is now recognized
that a Mason has behind him an organization whose conception of relief
more than a subject for ritualistic lip-service.
funds of the Sojourners' Club at Fort Bayard are carefully administered
in a business-like
manner. Its Treasurer is under bond and detailed monthly reports are
remittances should be sent to R. W. Brother A. A. Keen, Grand
is made in the belief that it will cheer the hearts of Masons
everywhere to know
that something definite and worthy is being accomplished at Fort Bayard
in the name
of Masonry, and that the big work just started there promises large
foregoing had been set in type a letter was received from Brother
welfare worker in the Sojourners' Club at Fort Bayard, who forwarded a
from the El Paso Times, of issue September 2, 1922. This newspaper
account is of
such interest that, with Brother Lester's consent, it is here added to
his own account
of one of the most genuinely Masonic undertakings ever attempted.
N.M., Sept. 2. ‒ The first social service building ever put into a
hospital by a
fraternal organization, other than the K. C. huts of the Knights of
time activities' branch, will be the handsome building of the
which will be built at Fort Bayard by the Masonic Order. Bids had been
and ground will be broken for the foundations by October 1. Plans for
were drawn by Forrester & McCullough, architects, of
Washington. Scottish Rite
Masons of the Northern Jurisdiction have raised the $20,000 to $30,000
it is estimated
the building will cost.
Club is an organization of all Masons at Fort Bayard, including
and patients. They announce as their ideal the service of all mankind,
of whether he belongs to their Order, and especially to interest
themselves in relieving
the condition of gassed and sick soldiers unable to secure compensation
government, due to their inability to trace their disability to
was organized in January, 1919. It was discontinued from June to
due to loss of members caused by departure of personnel at the time the
was transferred from the army to the public health service. It now has
the club building provide for a two-story building of either stucco or
lumber. On the first floor will be an auditorium with a seating
capacity of 500
and a modern stage, also a billiard room, ladies' rest room, a kitchen
and a lounging
room. The second floor will contain the club rooms, a secretary's
office, and several
guest rooms. There will be handsome porches for both floors 50 feet
long and 10
formerly an employee in the registrar's office, has been employed by
the club as
welfare worker and assumed his duties Friday.
of the medical staff states that Fort Bayard is the foremost experiment
of the evolution of hospitalization. The conception of a hospital as a
the patient may be nursed back to health with full mental power as well
physical power, and without living in the discomfort of usual hospital
entertained by all at Fort Bayard. It is due to this conception of
that the Sojourners' Club is building its handsome new club. The
is also following out this general idea, and as an experiment, has
placed a salaried
liaison officer here. This is the first hospital in which either the
Legion or Masonry
has tried this experiment.
The Study Club
The Teachings of Masonry
By Bro. H. L. Haywood
paper is one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or
Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and
in lodges and study clubs. From the questions following each section of
the study club leader should select such as he may desire to use in
particular points for discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on
question presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge or
may be able to devote to the study club meeting.
the study club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the
to the text of the paper and not permit the members to speak too long
at one time
or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident that the
is turning from the original subject the leader should request the
members to make
notes of the particular points or phases of the matter they may wish to
or inquire into and bring them up after the last section of the paper
should be closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as
may have come up during the meeting and laid over until this time
should be entered
into and discussed Should any questions arise that cannot be answered
by the study
club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be
submitted to us
and we will endeavor to answer them for you In time for your next
references on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at the
end of the
Part XVII ‒ Brotherly Aid
IT IS ONE
of the principal uses of history that it enables us better to
understand the present.
We are ourselves so intimately related to our world as it now is, and
is so complicated, that often it is quite impossible for us to form a
of it. But after a few decades have passed, and our own period detaches
becomes a unity, so that it can be viewed as a whole and as a thing by
becomes greatly simplified; multitudes of bewildering details drop
away, and it
stands forth in its essentials, so that the historian can grasp it in
its true proportions
and relations. In this wise it often happens that in a certain true
sense no age
is understood until it has taken its place in history. This fact itself
can be brought about to enable one to view his own period as if it were
past, for it often happens that we discover some earlier period to be
so like our
own that to learn to understand that past period is to enable one's
self to understand
one's own. All this, which seems so remote from the theme of this
paper, is written
to explain why I shall begin the study of Brotherly Aid by a rapid
sketch of a condition
that developed itself among the Roman people many centuries ago. That
I believe, was the same in essentials as the condition in which we now
that by viewing it as a whole we can the better understand the social
world in which
we find ourselves.
In the early
days of the Republic Roman life was a very stable thing, and Roman
almost stationary. A man grew up in the house in which he was born;
when he married
he brought his wife to live with him under the paternal roof; and when
he died he
left his own sons abiding in the same place. Neighboring families were
stable, and all these groups, owing to this perpetual neighborliness
and to intermarriage,
became so interwoven with each other that in a community there would be
stranger. A man's life took root in such a community like a tree and
permanently. The individual was not left to his own private resources:
he was surrounded
by others who were ever at hand to aid him in misfortune, nurse him in
and mourn him in death. He was strong with the strength of his family
and of his
neighborhood, and this no doubt accounts for the sturdy manhood and
the early Romans.
- What are the principal uses of
- Why is it difficult for us to
understand our own time?
- How does history help to learn
the present by means of the past?
- Describe conditions under which
the early Romans lived.
- In what way did this make for a
- How did these conditions
protect a man from physical and moral bankruptcy?
- How does the history of
Freemasonry help you to understand Freemasonry as
it now is?
you live in childhood under conditions similar to those described?
came a time when the long enduring stability of Roman life was broken
up. By gradual
degrees the Romans conquered adjoining territory. A great military
system was organized.
Whole nations were brought into the Roman system. Alien peoples flocked
and new religions established their headquarters in Rome. The Republic
to the Empire, and the Senate succumbed to the Emperor. Great cities
was made possible; and a feverish restlessness took the place of the
The old calm neighborhood life was destroyed and in its place there
grew up a fermenting
life in town and city. A man no longer lived and died in the place of
but moved about from community to community, so that men became human
evermore shifting about from place to place as the windy currents of
carry them. It came to pass that a man lived a stranger in his own
so that he scarce knew the other persons living under the same roof. He
back on his own unaided individual resources in misfortune and in
death. In the
unequal struggle he often became morally bankrupt and the constant
his health. It was for such causes that Rome ultimately fell.
In this situation
men set out about the creating of a bond that would take the place of
the lost neighborhood
ties. They organized themselves into Collegia. These groups were formed
of men engaged
in the same trade and they usually, in the early days of their history,
devoted to securing for a man a becoming burial service, the lack of
which so filled
a Roman with dread. But in the course of time these organizations ‒ we
call them lodges ‒ assumed more and more functions until at last a man
them charities, social life, business aid, religious influences,
such other features of general protection as caused him to call his own
Mother Collegium." To live a stranger in a city was no longer a thing
to a man who could find in such a fellowship the same friendship and
his forefather had secured in the old-time neighborhood.
- What broke up the stability of
ancient Roman life?
- Did the Romans come to have
cities, factories, tenements, etc?
- What was Rome's "immigration
- Was it like ours?
- What cause led to the breakdown
of Roman character?
- What were Collegia?
were they organized and what purposes did they serve?
be easy to compare with the rise and development of the Collegia the
rise and development
of the Church in the Middle Ages, for the latter came into existence to
purposes; but there is no need of this, because the idea has already
been made sufficiently
clear. So is it also clear, I trust, that we men of today are living
such conditions as brought the Collegia into existence, which is the
one point of
this historical excursion. The great majority of us are living in towns
and almost all of us are subject to the unsettling conditions that
shuttle us about
from place to place, and from condition to condition, so that life has
firmness and security. We live in streets where our next door neighbor
is a stranger
to us; or in an apartment house or tenement where with dwellers on the
we have no ties at all. Our industrial system is such that vast numbers
of us are
ever moving about from one job to another, which fact is true also even
of the farmers,
the majority of whom are tenants, and therefore migratory. In the midst
conditions the individual is often thrown wholly upon his own resources
such an unnatural thing that many break under it. The restlessness and
of modern life are undoubtedly due in large measure to these facts.
But it is
here that the lodge comes in, for the lodge, from this present point of
nothing other than a substitute for the old-fashioned small community
neighbor was so tied to neighbor that there was no need of associated
social centers, or employment bureaus. In a lodge a man need no longer
be a stranger:
he finds there other men who, like himself, are eager to establish
engage in social intercourse, and pool the resources of all in behalf
of the needs
of each. The fraternal tie redeems a man from loneliness and from his
sense of helplessness, and atones for a hundred other ills of city
his fraternal circle is the warmth and security which a man needs if he
is not to
succumb to the pressure of modern life. Little wonder is it that men so
secretly of their lodge as "my mother" and cherish for it until death
a deep regard that no profane can ever comprehend!
- What purposes were served by
the Church in the Middle Ages?
- Have you experienced the
loneliness of city life?
- Does moving about make for
- Why are so many families
- What are the effects on health,
- What function is performed by
the lodge in modern life?
you found the lodge to be a circle of friendship? If not, why not?
In the ample
framework of these facts one can see at a glance what Brotherly Aid
really is. It
is the substitution of the friend for the stranger. It is a spirit
round a man the comforts and securities of love. When "a worthy brother
distress" is helped it is not as a pauper, as in the necessarily cold
of public charity, but the kindly help which one neighbor is always so
glad to lend
to another. Masonic charity is strong, kindly, beautiful and tender,
and not charity
at all in the narrow grudging sense of the word. Nay, it does not wait
until a brother
is in distress but throws about him in his strength and prosperity the
arm of friendship without which life is cold and harsh. Friendship,
fellowship ‒ this is the soul of Freemasonry of which charity is but
with a thousand meanings.
- What is meant by, "Brotherly
- How does Your lodge assist a
"worthy brother in distress?
- Could you improve on the
Masonic methods of charity?
- What is the difference between
Masonic charity and public charity?
is the Bible's teaching concerning "charity"? (See I Cor.
Vol. I (1915)
Masonry at Work, p. 64;
Problems in Masonic Charity, p. 88 Vol
History and Charity, p. 31;
Washington, the Man and Mason, p. 43;
Charity Never Faileth, p. 154;
Masonic Homes ‒ I, p. 75;
Masonic Homes ‒ II, p. 116;
Masonic Social Service, p. 99;
Iowa Plan, p. 126;
Masonic Social Service ‒ A Hospital for
Crippled Children, p. 263;
Lodge a School, p. 308;
the Least of These," p.
Fame of the Craft, p. 384
What an Entered Apprentice Ought to Know, April
C.C.B., p. 7;
Masonic Relief Association, p. 270;
Physical Qualifications of a Candidate,
Fraternal Forum, p. 195;
Rule Lodge, p. 220.
Vol IV (1918)
Louisiana Relief Lodge No. 1, p. 243;
Work in World War, p. 201;
Look, Listen, p. 305;
Masonic War Work in England, p. 315;
is Masonry Doing in This War
as a Fraternity?" p. 89;
Masonry a Duty in the War? p. 330.
Vol V (1919)
Masonic Relief Association of the United States
and Canada, p. 217.
Vol VI (1920)
Active Charity, p. 97;
Vital Parts of the Breast, April C.C.B,
Vol VII (1921)
Masonic Charities in the British Isles, p. 88;
Practical Brotherhood, p. 102;
Everlasting Necessity for Brotherhood,
Fraternal Side of Old Guilds, p. 174.
Charity, p. 143;
Collegia Artificum, p. 158;
Freemason, p. 282;
Freemasonry, p. 283;
Ages, p. 483;
Colleges of Artificers, pp. 630 ‒
Stonemasons of the Middle Ages, pp. 718-722;
Travelling Masons, pp. 792-795.
* * *
Our Study Club Plan
Study Club Course, of which the foregoing paper by Brother Haywood is a
begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to the beginning of the
on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings of Masonry," as
we have titled it, were published some forty-three papers covering in
Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under the following several
"The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge and the Candidate," "First
Steps," "Second Steps," and "Third Steps." A complete set
of these papers up to January 1st, 1922, are obtainable in the bound
THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920 and 1921.
is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study
by Brother Haywood:
The Masonic Conception of Human
The Idea of Truth in Freemasonry.
The Masonic Conception of
Ritualism and Symbolism.
Initiation and Secrecy.
Masonry and Industry.
The Brotherhood of Man.
Freemasonry and Religion.
The Fatherhood of God.
of Masonic Philosophy.This systematic
course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in monthly
meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the United States and
Canada, and in
several instances in lodges overseas.
of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia.
How to Organize and Conduct
Study Club Meetings
may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of
In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably of
members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The study
should be held at least once a month (excepting during July and August,
study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER), either at a special
of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular communication at
which no business
(except the lodge routine) should be transacted, all possible time to
to study club purposes.
lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master
the lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The
be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the
members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned
prepared with their material, and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study of it.
Program for Study Club Meetings
Reading of any supplemental
papers on the subject for the evening which may
have been prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of
Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper.
Discussion of this section,
using the questions following this section to
bring out points for discussion.
The subsequent sections of the
paper should then be taken up and disposed
of in the same manner.
Question Box. Invite questions
on any subject in Masonry, from any and all
brethren present. Let the brethren understand that these meetings are
particular benefit and enlightenment and get them into the habit of
asking all the
questions they may be able to think of. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, send them in to us and we will endeavor to
to them in time for your next study club meeting.
information should enable study club committees to conduct their
difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such committees, or
member of lodges and study clubs at any time such brethren are invited
to feel free
to communicate with us.
The Larger Meaning of the
BY THIS time
readers of THE BUILDER have had opportunity to read Brother C. C.
of the trial of The American Masonic Federation of which the now
McBlain Thomson was head; and they have learned that this case is one
and significance for Freemasons the world over. The manner in which the
City brethren and their associates managed their end of the trial is
great praise, especially so in the scholarly way in which they prepared
the credit for which largely belongs to Brother Isaac Blair Evans, one
of Salt Lake
City's brilliant lawyers. Brother Evans has published a volume [Lib*]
on the case
that should have a circulation wherever men are interested in the
history, the structure,
and the working of the Masonic institution, and it is hoped in many
quarters ‒ in
these quarters especially ‒ that Brother Evans and his associates will
find a way
to place the volume on the general market.
is not a thing of the past. It is probable that it will be very much of
in the future because as the Fraternity grows in power and in prestige
rascals as Thomson and his confederates will be more and more tempted
to find ways
and means of exploiting it. It is a matter for Masters and Grand
Masters, for Secretaries
and Grand Secretaries, and for Jurisprudence Committees to think about,
about. It is doubtful if one could find a more perfect specimen of
or a clearer revelation of the ins and outs of clandestine methods,
than this American
Federation: it is like a laboratory case that possesses all the typical
of the Federation presents a feature of peculiar interest to thorough
Masonry. On the surface the case hung upon the question whether or not
misused the mails, but in preparing their prosecution Brother Evans and
found it necessary to go to the roots of Masonic history,
jurisprudence, and philosophy.
To solve the immediate and practical problem they were compelled to go
solve the problems of history. Freemasonry is so organized that it is
thus. What we do today is, by virtue of the very nature of the Craft,
linked to what was done yesterday, and new departures must always be
tested by the
ancient landmarks. Masonic history, Masonic study and Masonic research
are not dry
as dust pursuits for a pedant in a corner, but practical everyday
which the most modern and urgent activities will go astray.
* * *
Masons and Schools
It has been
most interesting, and illuminating withal, to observe the reactions to
School number published last August, especially in the pages of some
not always friendly to Freemasonry. In one of these latter an editor
issue of THE BUILDER "as proof of the fact that Masonry, under cover of
friendship for the public schools, is trying to destroy all private and
schools." Nothing could be farther from the truth so far as THE BUILDER
concerned, and, unless the present scribe is wildly astray in his
of the Masonic mind of the country, the statement is wide of the mark
in its larger
applications. The rank and file of Masons are not out to destroy
they know that educational needs are altogether too various to be
satisfied by one
system and that business, music, theological, technical,
and many other types of private schools will be a long time with us.
believe – at least a majority of them do ‒ that the educational
standard of private
schools should be maintained on a par with public schools in order that
the former be not handicapped in the race of life. Also, they believe
is by its nature a thing that should function in the interests of the
whole of society
and not for the sake of private interests. It is the business of a
school to turn
out well trained citizens, not to manufacture children into members of
a sect or
* * *
Illegal Wearing of Lodge
Bill No. 530, By Messrs. Clark & Hilzim 2-9-22. Judiciary 'B'.
An Act to forbid
the wearing of emblems by persons not authorized so to do:
it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Mississippi, That whoever
a member of the Confederate Veterans, of the Daughters of the
Confederacy, of the
Sons of Confederate Veterans, of the Sons of the American Revolution,
of the Daughters
of the American Revolution, of the Colonial Dames, of the Grand Army of
of the Sons of Veterans, of the Women's Relief Corps, of the military
Order of the
Foreign Wars of the United States, of the American Legion, of the
Auxiliary, of the Masons, of the Woodmen of the World, of the Knights
or of any other patriotic or fraternal organization, shall wilfully
wear the insignia,
distinctive ribbons or membership rosette or button or any imitation
be punished by a fine of not more than $20.00 or by imprisonment for
not more than
thirty days, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
this act shall be in force and effect from and after the date of its
bill was presented to the Mississippi State Legislature some time back.
Mississippi brother tell us if it passed? It is to be hoped that it
did, for such
a law should be on the books of every State. While the solons are at
it, they should
include in their proscriptions all fraternity members not in good
standing: an expelled
member, or one dropped for N.P.D., has no more just right to wear an
an uninitiated profane.
A Unique Book on Freemasonry
Gospel of Freemasonry," by "Uncle Silas." [Lib*] Published by the
Clarke Publishing Company, Madison, Wisconsin. Copies obtainable
through the National
Masonic Research Society, 2920 First Avenue East, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
per copy, postpaid.
TO GET the
right perspective upon this work it is desirable to know something
about the author.
"B. B.," as he is affectionately known among his friends, is not only
a typical American in his citizenship, but is a man who practices in
relations the virtues that such citizenship suggests. He started out in
circumstances that might well have discouraged him, for he was left an
an early age, and was soon thrown upon his own resources. This is
key to his broad understanding of his fellow men. His is not an
of temptation, human frailties and of the inspiration in the "noble and
triumphs, which no eye sees, which no renown rewards, which no flourish
salutes." He is the publisher of one of the greatest papers in the
devoted to farmers and farming, but despite his business
responsibilities and activities,
he has taken time to devote himself to the needs of the destitute and
of the suffering
with keen and compassionate understanding. His charity is of the kind
in which the
personal equation enters ‒ not the cold and casual giving to
in a maze of red tape. He gives and works personally, as a follower of
It is typical
of Bascom B. Clarke that the profits from the sale of "The Gospel of
have been set aside for charity; and this is in itself so novel a thing
materialistic age that it holds the attention, and leads the reader to
other novel thing such a man may do or say. And his book is quite in
filled as it is with a homely and quaintly expressed philosophy and
incidents of his Masonic experiences. Of course he tells us a great
deal that we
have long known; but he tells it in a way to bring truisms home to us
Ezra, consists of more than signs and passwords and mystery," he
doesn't advertise its business on bulletin boards along the railway
track and in
elevated stations excepting as the acts of its votaries tell of its
as the foundation of his conclusions, Uncle Silas not only awakens
the minds of his readers, but entertains them with telling comment
frequent recourse to scripture (which few laymen have read more
incidentally giving an interesting account of how he first became
Freemasonry. "In grandmother's God," he replied, when asked the
"In whom do you put your trust?" His grandmother was a Methodist. Uncle
Silas says: "The gospel of Freemasonry, Ezra, consists in being ready
to strain a point, if necessary, to help those in distress. It beats
all how much
you can do after you think you've done all you can do. Just enter into
before going to bed, or if you are too tired to pray in a musty closet,
lie down in bed ‒ it doesn't make much difference to the Grand
you pray like a Presbyterian, standing up, or shouting like a Methodist
thought the Lord was deaf, or whether you pray like the Arab, lying on
just so as to pray and mean it, old chap ‒ and before you begin to saw
the night, sorter make a digest of the day's work and ask God to
forgive you for
the crooked paths and to help you plow straighter furrows next day."
How can one
read this sort of passage without saying, as I did, "Dear, old,
George C. Nuesse.
* * *
Concerning "Ancient Free Masonry and the Old Dundee Lodge,
No. 18 – 1722-1920."
Freemasonry, and the Old Dundee Lodge No. 18 – 1722-1920," [Lib*] by
Heiron. Published by Kenning Son, 16 Great Queen St., London, England.
through the National Masonic Research Society, 2920 First Avenue East,
Iowa. Price $5.00, postpaid.
In its issue
of September, 1921, THE BUILDER published an article in review of
Freemasonry and the Old Dundee Lodge, No. 18" by Brother Arthur Heiron,
England, in which it heartily recommended to Masons everywhere this
work. Since that time the book has been received with such favor that
are now arranging to issue a new edition. Meanwhile the author has
circulation among such brethren as may be interested a circular
containing a descriptive
synopsis of the work, along with a number of appraisals that have been
competent Masonic critics. Also, and this is of greater importance, he
an index which is to be incorporated in the second edition but which
may now be
procured, in booklet form, by those who possess or will purchase copies
of the first
edition. THE BUILDER will furnish either of these to brethren who
By reading the circular and the index a brother can gain a clear
knowledge of the
book itself, and will not risk spending his money "sight unseen."
* * *
Two New Books on Freemasonry
and Citizenship" [Lib*]; “The Master Mason; Speculative Masonry"
both written by Rev. Frederick J. Lanier, of Fredericksburg, Virginia,
by the author at that address, to whom orders should be sent. One
dollar each, net.
Down in the
Old Dominion Masons are hearing more and more about Brother The Rev.
Lanier, long an active member of George Washington's old lodge at
Va., and Rector of St. George's Church in that place. Brother Lanier
informed THE BUILDER that he has resigned his rectorship in order to
whole time to Freemasonry, which is good news indeed, for he will most
find a warm welcome and a wide place in his new field.
Brother Lanier has published two little books, named above. The former
of the two
is a compilation of brief chapters drawn from such various sources as
in the list here given along with three chapters original with the
Chapter I is a brief speech by President Harding; II is an "Address to
Made Mason," compiled from various sources; III and IV are drawn from
Builders" by Bro. Dr. Joseph Fort Newton; V is "What Makes a Man a
from Maurice Penfield Fikes and others; VII, "Masonry and Citizenship,"
by Roosevelt; VIII, "Applied Masonry," by Eminent Sir W. D. Carter; IX,
"The Blacksmith," taken from Rabbinical sources; X, "Masonry and
the American Federation of Labor," by Brother Samuel Gompers; XI,
To-Day," by Judge Elbert Gary, (is Judge Gary a Mason?); XII, "The
of America," by Harding and others; XIII and XIV, by the author, are on
Duty of Masons in the Present Crisis," and "How Prayer Makes the World
What It Is."
Master Mason," published also during last year (1921) is, though not
so large in bulk, the more ambitious of the two in that it is comprised
of the author's own writings. According to the preface the book "does
who have been initiated, passed, and raised to the sublime degree of a
what 'Morals and Dogma' does for Scottish Rite Masonry. It supplements
that are given in the several degrees, and will be of great assistance
this little volume with "Morals and Dogma" is loading it down with a
handicap. It is unlike Pike's magnum opus in every respect. But for all
is interesting to read, and helpful, too, to a Mason who enjoys
one is to find fault at all with Brother Lanier it is that he has
resorted too much
to his own inner consciousness in interpreting Masonic principles and
too little to the interpretations already furnished us by the Craft
itself, in its
ritual, its history, and its jurisprudence.
of the Masonic Apron is an example of the evils of this subjective
method of symbological
interpretation. On page 9 the author gives "the form of the apron" as
an equilateral triangle, a square, and a circle combined. The circle is
to be the string, and this is explained as being a "symbol of spirit";
the triangle represents the flap, and is described as teaching the
personal revelation of God"; the square is made to represent the
The Apron is also explained as teaching the threefold nature of man,
who is said
to be body, soul and spirit.
Apron is none of these things. It is not a circle, plus a square, plus
it is an apron. It is a piece of lambskin or of cloth of no official
shape or size,
attached to the human body by a string of like material, and having a
Operative Masons it was in use for the obvious and very necessary
purpose of protecting
the clothing. Custom made of it an emblem representing labor, and the
To interpret the meaning of the Masonic Apron one must stick to the
history of it,
and to the interpretation already given, times without number, by the
itself. To go far afield, and to treat it as though it were a
is not to treat it as a Masonic emblem at all.
is one of the most difficult of all undertakings in the Masonic field,
and its difficulties
are increased over and over when it is made subjective and personal,
from history. To resolve our embeds and symbols into geometrical
diagrams, and then
to fill them in with theories of our own, is no proper way to precede:
but, as Robert
Freke Gould said so well once and for all, "the study of our history
our symbolism must be proceeded with conjointly." Only then can we keep
solid ground under our feet, and avoid the vagaries of our own private
This is not
to say that "The Master Mason" is full of vagaries and private fancies;
far from it! Brother Lanier is a well-read man who has thought much,
and who has
discovered the unsearchable riches of the Masonic ritual. Once he has
himself a firm groundwork by thoroughly mastering the classics of
and history he will give US some valuable books.
Livre Du Maître"
"Le Livre Du Maître," [Lib*] published in France,
and in the French
language, 221 pages, paper covers. Orders should be sent to the Librairie du
Symbolisme, Square Rapp 4, Paris
A plan of
education for making Freemasonry clear to the brethren was worked out
in Paris as
long ago as 1888 within a Masonic group studying initiation. The
(Livre de l'Apprenti [Lib*]) was at once begun but did not appear in
1892 under the auspices of the Lodge Travail et Vrais Amis Fidèles, and
individual signature. A like work for the benefit of the Fellow Craft
Compagnon [Lib*]) was published in 1911 and was edited in a much larger
under the personal responsibility of Past Master Oswald Wirth. This
brother has now brought out the Master Mason's Book (Livre du Maître)
for the use
of brethren of the Third Degree. He says in his preface to this work:
is no doubt that for the recovery of the lost Word I must have recourse
to the light
of most instructive brethren. These are such as Joseph Silbermann and
Hubert, manager of the Chaine d' Union, who have verbally stimulated my
also Ragon, Eliphaz Levi, Albert Pike, and, above all, Goethe, have
by their writings.
it suffices not in these matters that one digests the thought of
others. To tie
together the broken threads of neglected traditions it is necessary to
past by an intense and preserving personal effort. One must himself
anew in ancient times, self-absorbed in the study of significant
we today have forsaken. Ruins, superstitions, discredited philosophical
alien religions, all merit examination with care; but nothing is known
than poems and myths.
whose imagination is enlightened are in Initiation more instructive
than cool reasoners.
The Chaldean epic poem of the heroic Gilgamesh and the compositions of
a high initiatory
bearing, carry us back more than five thousand years.
of the death of Osiris and many other fables form by images and symbols
of the most profound wisdom. The Bible itself is precious for him who
meaning. The seduction of Eve by the serpent makes pertinent allusion
principles of initiation, the same as with an abundance of more recent
transmit to one another fantasms frivolous in appearance though the
not to scorn them. Such are these glowing on the panes of that window
of the West
which the Initiate, setting out in the morn from the East, approaches
after having at noon examined all things in the full light of day.
daybreak his reason awakes watchful near the East window for the first
rays of light
summoned to penetrate the soul. That illumination too suddenly received
and render him presumptuous. Full of ardor the intelligence thus
itself strong against all error: it sees only everywhere prejudices to
phantoms to put to flight. That is the age of hasty judgments, holding
of any received authority and carrying condemnation without reserve on
accords not with the independent opinion too hurriedly acquired.
childish exuberance calms down about middle life. It is then that
falls nearly vertically through the window of noon. Objects then
project a minimum
of shadow and reveal themselves in all their reality. This is the time
for a critical observation of things and permits one to investigate
them under all
aspects. Judgment ought then to be circumspect and to remain poised
suspense. An accurate understanding refuses to condemn because with
the circumstances may be explained when all the factors involved are
light leads to tolerance which characterizes the Wisdom of Initiates.
necessary to arrive where all is judged with serenity in order to
obtain the right
of opening the western window of the Sanctuary of Thought. The Sun is
the turmoil of the day calms and the peace of night spreads gradually
o'er the land.
Details become erased in the deepening shadows setting forth the glory
of the Evening
Star before which all others pale. That Star is not the proud Lucifer,
of boasting and mutiny: it is the hearth of serene splendor yielding a
the intellectual. Henceforth the night may be veiled in gloom yet
prevails not over the light within. When the living are silent, the
dead are disposed
to speak. The hour comes then to draw forth from those retainers the
by them within the tomb. They are the True Masters from whom we are
able to bring
back understanding when we conform to the prescribed rites.
ascribe not to ceremonies only a sacramental value. Hiram is not
because we have outwardly played that part. Nothing counts as
what is inwardly accomplished.
ye then, Symbolic Masters, to transform symbol into reality. Nominal
diplomas and wearers of insignia transform yourselves into Thinkers
in an imperishable Thought.
the Book of the Master guide you in the accomplishment of this great
is divided into chapters on "Historical Notes relative to the Master's
"Ritualism of the Master's Degree"; "Philosophic Conceptions pertaining
to the Master's Degree"; "Duties of a Master Mason"; "Interpretative
Catechism of the Master's Degree"; "Notes on the Philosophy of
relative to the Master's Degree"; "Prerogatives of Mastership"; and
"Bibliography for the Use of Master Masons."
chapters are divided again into sections: for example, the chapter on
deals in turn with "Religion" the first two books recommended to Master
Masons on that subject being, by the way, editions of the Bible,
"Hermeticism, Alchemy and Occultism," and "Freemasonry," all
the books in the lists being, of course, in the French language.
on an "Interpretative Catechism" has a Dumber of replies of much
to us. Among them we find the following questions and answers relative
to the story
of the fate of Hiram:
is a symbolic fiction, profoundly true because of the education gained
is that teaching?
pure Masonic tradition, personified by the architect of Solomon's
Temple and who
is constantly in peril through the ignorance, fanaticism and ambition
who know not Freemasonry nor devote themselves to this sublime work."
signifies this verdant branch [acacia]"
the survival of energies that the "rare cannot destroy."
is further aspect why he receives the acacia, and he replies:
accepting the acacia l bind myself to all which survives of the Masonic
I thus promise to study Freemasonry with fervor in all that remains of
in its rites, its customs, and its practices, without allowing my" self
be turned backward by an archaism contrary to the spirit of the times."
were you received as Master Mason?"
passing from the Square to the Compass"
Compass is then more especially reserved for Master Masons?"
for only they understand the handling of this instrument with profit."
use do they make of the Compass?"
measure all things in taking account of their ret rations to each
other. Their reason,
fixed as the head of the Compass, reports on objects according to the
span of the
Compass points which bind them. The judgment of an Initiate inspires
him not according
to the rigid graduations of the Rule but by the farsight based on a
of logic to reality:'
the insignia of Master Masons?"
Square united with the Compass."
the reunion of these instruments"" "The Square controls the work
of the Master Mason who ought to act in everything with rectitude and
all with the most scrupulous equity. The Compass directs that activity
to the end that it finds an application the more judicious and
“If a Master
Mason was lost, where would you find him?"
the Square and the Compass."
do you interpret that reply?"
Master Mason seeks to be distinguished by the morality of his actions
and by the
just practice of his reasoning. It is from this point of view that he
between the Square and the Compass."
Master Masons seek?"
of the Masonic secret, or in other words, the comprehension of that
unintelligible to the profane and to the imperfectly initiated."
do Master Masons travel?"
East to West, and from North to South, on all the surface of the earth."
the diffusion of light and to rather that which is scattered. In other
learn that they may know and understand that of which they are
ignorant, and to
contribute moreover in bringing about the reign of harmony and
what do Master Masons work?"
they then lay out the plans that others shall execute?"
Masons prepare for the future which they forsee by building on the
do Master Masons make of the Trowel?"
binds them to cover up the imperfections in the work of Apprentices and
what is it the emblem?"
sentiments of kindliness which animate the man enlightened in regard to
weaknesses of which he discerns the cause."
from that time the object of Mastership?"
search for that Master Mason which in us is the state of an inanimate
bring that death to life, to the end that we bestir ourselves
But the temptation
to quote from this handy and suggestive philosophical manual of French
extends these comments unduly and we must bring these random free
of 221 – 4 3/4, x 7 3/8 inch pages, paper covers, is sold by the
Librairie du Symbolism,
Square Rapp 4, Paris 7e, France.
R. I. Clegg.
* * *
A Sociological Study of
the Negro, With a Note on "Negro Masonry"
History of the American Negro, Being a History of the Negro Problem in
States, Including a History and Study of the Republic of Liberia," [Lib
1921] by Benjamin Brawley;
1921, by The Macmillan Company, Near York, and Chicago (to whom orders
This is the
most complete sociological study of the Negro by a Negro, probably,
that has yet
been published, and deserves a careful examination; but for our
purposes here it
will be sufficient to quote a passage that deals with "Negro Masonry";
it will be found on page 70 ff.:
"After the church the strongest
among Negroes has undoubtedly been that of secret societies commonly
known as lodges.
The benefit societies were not necessarily secret and call for separate
On March 6, 1775, an army attached to one of the regiments stationed
Gage in or near Boston initiated Prince Hall and fourteen other colored
the mysteries of Freemasonry. These fifteen men on March 2, 1784,
applied to the
Grand Lodge of England for a warrant. This was issued to African Lodge,
with Prince Hall as Master, September 29, 1784. Various delays and
befell the warrant, however, so that it was not actually received
before April 29th,
1787. The lodge was then duly organized May 6th. From this beginning
idea of Masonry among the Negroes of America. As early as 1792 Hall was
styled Grand Master, and in 1797 he issued a license to thirteen Negro
and work as a lodge in Philadelphia; and there was also at this time a
Providence. Thus developed in 1808 the African Grand Lodge of Boston,
known as Prince Hall Lodge of Massachusetts; the second Grand Lodge,
First Independent African Grand Lodge of North America in and for the
of Pennsylvania, organized in 1815; and the Hiram Grand Lodge of
* * *
The Period of the Wars of
Under the Yorkists, 1460-1485, Illustrated from Contemporary Sources,"
by Isobel D. Thornley: No. 2 in the University of London Intermediate
of History. Published by Longmans, Green and Co., Fourth Avenue and
30th St., New
York, N. Y., to whom orders should be sent. Price $3.25.
covered by this volume was full of life, color, and dramatic surprises
and on the Continent. In 1460 Nicholas of Cusa took the decisive step
that ushered in the Renaissance and signalized the passing of the
Middle Ages. In
1479 Castile and Aragon were united under Ferdinand and Isabella,
except for which
they would not have been prepared to sponsor Columbus in 1492. The most
began to add its splash of crimson to the picture of the times in 1840.
Corvinus took Vienna in 1485. The Russians overthrew the Mongols, and
Empire made war on Vienna, much to the interest of the popes of the
of the Borgia or Medici variety, were as good at gold getting and
any of their compeers. Colorful days they were indeed! Old Piero set up
of the Medici in Florence and Lorenzo followed him in such wise as to
earn his title,
"The Magnificent." Florence was made over into "Europe's Athens"
‒ at least such was the attempt ‒ and Ficinio was set up in the Academy
the blooded youth how to make charms out of frog's liver. At the same
time the precocious
Pico della Mirandola, famous as the discoverer and friend of
Savonarola, went about
like a shining comet, spouting thirteen languages; while Leonardo da
to build flying machines.
in terrible straits. It is true that trade flourished in the towns and
reached unparalleled heights ‒ "the golden age of English labor," it
to be described ‒ ; it is true that Caxton set up his printing press in
the times made possible the pretty commercial romance of Sir Richard
who had the distinction of becoming a hero in Mother Goose, a thing
that will probably
never happen again; but in spite of a modicum of industrial advance in
England rocked and shook, and burned and bled, and groaned through such
a sea of
anarchy for a generation as Sovietism itself almost pales beside. The
falls inside the terrible Wars of the Roses.
of the Roses began with the Battle of St. Albans in 1455: it did not
out until that unscrupulous fiend, Richard III, dramatized in
was killed in the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485. During those thirty
pitched battles were fought and the hatred among the factions was so
almost all of the English nobility were slain, a national disaster in
The Wars were named after the Roses because of the general custom of
dependents wearing distinctive badges: the badge of the Lancastrians
was the Red
Rose, that of the Yorkists the White. The trouble began when Henry VI
French possessions: it did not end until all parties were exhausted,
and the Tudors
had stepped to the front.
Masonic history have a peculiar interest in Henry VI, the last of the
Kings. Some of our writers, Preston I think was one of them, gave
currency to a
story that this monarch was himself a Mason, and there is a fragment of
an old catechism
extant to that effect, still accepted as gospel by the unwary. Henry VI
and helpless. But he was very pious and it was long reported that
at his tomb. An attempt was made to have him canonized a saint but the
too big a price. There isn't the slightest evidence that he was ever a
that he so much as knew of the existence of the Craft.
In his history
of this troubled time Hume complains of the paucity of available
records, and explains
the lack by the holocausts of destruction which rolled like crimson
the land. Since Hume much new data has been unearthed. It so happens
that one of
the English savants to whom much of this new knowledge is due is an
English Mason, Brother E. H. Dring, who was elected Worshipful Master
of the Lodge
Quatuor Coronati in 1912, and who has contributed to the Transactions
of that learned
body a mass of valuable erudition. He had the good fortune to discover
Chronicle of London, a document quoted by John Stow, but afterwards
lost: it is
now regarded as "the most important MS. yet published relating to the
of the City." In her introductory treatise the author expresses her
to Brother Dring and to his MS.
Under the Yorkists" is not a narrative in itself but comprises a
of original sources. Book I is composed of contemporary accounts of the
the York faction and its attainment to the crown; Book II gives one a
upon the legal, criminal, and political customs; Book III has to do
with the Church;
and Book IV, the portion of greatest value to us, furnishes much
material on trade,
industry, education, laboring conditions, etc. On page 218 is an
extract from regulations
made by the Craft of Brewers in London and approved by the Mayor and
is followed by examples showing the manner in which guilds controlled
There is an "Ordinance concerning the Passion Play at Leicester"; "The
Foundation of a Guild," by Richard III; and there is an account of a
school, and other such matters.
On page 245
is an extract from "The Babees Book" [Lib 1908] which was a standard of good
for servants in great households, beginners in which service were
to learn it by rote. A stanza of it will be quoted here as showing how
like it is
to our own Regius MS., which seems like doggerel to us, but was not at
all in its
own time, when chronicles (history proper did not begin until Thomas
More had written
his "History of Richard III" [Lib 1883]) and other learned works were
composed in rhyme, as had been a universal custom in olden times.
"Now must I telle in shorts,
for I muste
Youre observaunce that ye shalle done at none;
Whenne that ye se youre lorde to mete shalle goo,
Be redy to feeche him water sone,
Summe belle [clear] water; summe horde to he hathe done
To clothe to him, and from him yee net pace
Whils he be sette, and have herde sayde the grace."
It is becoming
more and more the custom in colleges and universities to study original
rather than the elaborated accounts of the literary historians who
up much rhetoric with the facts. It would be a good custom to establish
of Masonic history. At any rate, every Masonic student should have all
Masonic sources on his shelves. "England Under the Yorkists" is one of
the volumes to be included in such a list.
* * *
Publications Wanted, For
Sale, And Exchange
We are constantly
receiving inquiries from readers as to where they may obtain
publications on Freemasonry
and kindred subjects which are not offered in our Monthly Book List
printed on the
inside back cover of THE BUILDER.
cannot be readily procured through our American and European
connections will be
printed in this column, thus enabling readers having copies to dispose
of them if
they so desire. Inquirers are requested to state what prices they are
pay, for we are frequently able to obtain books at reasonable prices
be sold out if we were first obliged to have the price approved by the
purchaser. Such figures will be considered confidential and will not be
It is also
hoped ‒ and expected ‒ that readers possessing very old or rare Masonic
communicate the fact to THE BUILDER for the benefit of Masonic students.
addresses are here given in order that those buying and selling may
directly with each other. Brethren are asked to cancel notices as soon
wants are supplied.
In no case
does THE BUILDER assume any responsibility whatsoever for publications
sold, exchanged or borrowed.
By Bro. D.
D. Berolzheimer, 334 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y.:
of the Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons," E. Conder, 1894;
Bibliography," E. T. Carson, 1876; "Masonic Review" (of Cincinnati),
volumes 43, 44, 45, 1873-4; Kenning's "Masonic Cyclopedia," 1878; St.
John's Card, A.Q.C., 1892; any Proceedings or Books of Constitutions
prior to 1840;
any miscellaneous publications, St. Johns Grand Lodge, New York; any
publications, Phillips Grand Lodge, New York; Lodge of Research No.
England, Transactions, volumes 1 to 10, inclusive, 1892-1902.
By Bro. G.
Alfred Lawrence, 142 West 86th Street, New York, N. Y.:
Proceedings of the Scottish Rite Body founded by Joseph Cerneau in New
in 1808, of which De Witt Clinton was the first Grand Commander, and
became united, in 1867, with the Supreme Council of the Northern
A. & A. S. R.
Also Proceedings of the Supreme Council founded in New York by De La
Motta, in 1813,
by authority of the Southern Supreme Council, of which he was Grand
these Proceedings from 1813 to 1860.
By Bro. George
A. Lanzarotti, Casilla 126, Rancagua, Chile:
All Kinds of Masonic literature in Spanish. Write first quoting prices.
By Bro. Silas
H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin:
"Catalogue of the Masonic Library of Samuel Lawrence";
Second edition of Preston's "Illustrations of Masonry";
"The Source of Measures," by J. Ralston Skinner, 1876, or second
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," volumes 1 to 11, inclusive.
By Bro. Ernest
E. Ford, 305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California:
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," volumes 3 and 7, with St. John's Cards; St.
John's Cards for volumes 4 and 5, A.Q.C.;
"Masonic Review," volumes 1, 2, 7, 31, 32, and 43 to 60, inclusive;
"Voice of Masonry," volumes 2 to 12, inclusive, and volume 15;
Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction, for the years 1882
Original Proceedings of the General Grand Encampment Knights Templar
for the years
1826 and 1835.
By Bro. Frank
R. Johnson, 306 East 10th Street, Kansas City, Mo.:
"The Year Book," published by the Masonic Constellations, containing
history of the Grand Council, R. & S. M., of Missouri.
By Bro. L.
Rask, 14 Alvey St., Schenectady, N. Y.:
"Remarks upon Alchemy and the Alchemists," by E. A. Hitchcock,
N. Y., about 1865;
"The Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries," by C. W. Heckethorn;
"Lost Language of Symbolism," by Harold Bayley, published by Lippincott;
"Sacred Hermeneutics," by Davidson, Edinburgh, 1843;
"Solar System of the Ancients Discovered," by J. Wilson, published by
Longmans Co., London, 1856;
"The Alphabet," by Isaac Taylor, Began, Paul, Trench & Co.,
or the edition of 1899, published by Scribners, New York;
"Anacalypsis," by Godfrey Higgins, 1836, published by Longmans, Green
& Co., London;
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," any volume or volumes.
By Bro. N.
W. J. Haydon, 564 Pape Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada:
"The Beautiful Necessity," and
"Architecture and Democracy," by Claude Bragdon.
By the National
Masonic Research Society, 2920 First Avenue East, Cedar Rapids, Iowa:
"Discourses upon Architecture," by Dallaway, published in 1833;
Any or all volumes of "The American Freemasons' Magazine," published by
J. F. Brennan, about 1860.
By Bro. A.
A. Burnand, 690 South Bronson Ave., Los Angeles, California:
"Thomas Dunckerley," by Sadler;
"History of Freemasonry," by Robert Freke Gould, 4 volumes, full
binding, very fine condition;
"History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders," Hughan and Stillson.
By the National
Masonic Research Society, 2920 First Avenue East, Cedar Rapids, Iowa:
See itemized list on inside back cover.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
Study Club course. When requested, questions will be answered promptly
by mail before
publication in this department.
John Adams Not A Mason
Can you please
tell me when and where President John Adams was made a Mason ‒ While
you are at
it you might tell me whether John Quincy Adams was a Mason.
L.T.D., New Hampshire.
your questions are fully covered in a note on the subject by Brother
Hamilton, Grand Secretary of Massachusetts, and published in the
for 1921, page 193. It would appear to ye editor that this definitely
question. Dr. Hamilton's note is here given in full:
question is frequently raised as to whether or not John Adams and John
were members of the Masonic Fraternity, and the statement that one or
of them was a Mason is not infrequently made. It seems worthwhile that
should be made on this point, which shall, if possible, definitely
settle the matter.
case of John Quincy Adams was dealt with in a manner which appears to
in a statement which may be found on page 298 of the Massachusetts
1918. [He was not a Mason.]
have made a very careful investigation of the case of John Adams, and I
may regard it as definitely settled that he was not a member of the
On page 134 of the second volume of Massachusetts reprints will be
found a letter
from President Adams which ought to be conclusive. Shortly after Mr.
to the Presidency, a loyal address was sent him by the Grand Lodge of
The letter just referred to is a very courteous reply to that
communication in which
President Adams acknowledges the loyalty of the Fraternity, expresses
of it, and refers to the fact that President Washington and many of the
friends were members of it, but makes the statement that he himself is
not a member
of it. Apparently in order to avoid any possible misunderstanding, the
makes this statement in two forms. He says that he is not a member of
and elsewhere in the letter says that he was never initiated.
ought to be conclusive, but the natural desire to associate President
the Fraternity with which so many of his distinguished colleagues were
coupled with the fact that the name John Adams appears in a
of places in the records of our Grand Lodge and of particular lodges,
have led to
the tradition that John Adams was a member of the Craft.
have carefully examined our index cards, records of our local lodges,
of the Grand Lodge, and have endeavored to analyze evidence obtained
with the following results:
lodge records show that there were three men by the name of John Adams
members of Boston lodges.
John Adams took his degrees in the First Lodge in Boston, now St.
in 1750, and died in 1795. The dates prove that this was not the
John Adams took his degrees in St. Andrew's Lodge in 1778. This could
not have been
the President as he was in France during the whole of that year.
John Adams took his degrees in Columbian Lodge in 1800, in February,
This could not have been the President as the dates were in the middle
of his Presidential
term when he was busy in Washington and neither the records nor the
history of the
lodge claim him as President. The President was at this time 65 years
records of the Grand Lodge show that a John Adams was present at the
Feast of St.
John on January 31, 1757. This was a very distinguished gathering, and
give the names of all of those present, ninety-five in number,
including the Earl
of Loudon and the Governor of Halifax. This was probably John Adams of
Lodge in Boston. The President was at this time a young law student in
Captain Adams is reported as being present at the Feast of St. John,
1778, and again September 21, 1779. This could not have been the
President as he
held no military rank, and at least on one of those occasions was in
Brother Adams, Christian name omitted, is reported as being present at
of St. John the Evangelist, June 24, 1782. This could not have been the
as it is hardly probable that so distinguished a man as a future
President had already
become could have been recorded in the official minutes of the Grand
Lodge as simply
think it may be said with as much certainty as is possible in any
that John Adams was not a Freemason."
to the above consult THE BUILDER, Vol. II, page 351; Vol. V, pages 166,
reference on John Adams. On John Quincy Adams see Vol. II, page 351; Vol.
III, page 62, 256; Vol. IV, page 347; Vol. V, page 209, 336.
* * *
The Comenius Society
I have received
a letter from a brother of mine in Germany ‒ he also is a Mason ‒
asking me to contribute
a bit toward what he calls The Comenius Society. Before sending him any
cast I want
to know what I am helping. Can you tell me anything about this Comenius
L. D. von K. L., New York.
Society was organized in 1891. It was named for Johan Amos Comenius
in the form Eomensky) the last Bishop of the Moravians, and a famous
in Moravia in 1592. Two hundred and forty-six men signed the call for
among them being Kuno Fischer, Eucken, Deussen, and Paulsen. The
purpose of the
Society was to foster idealistic education, especially among the
masses, and it
has organized a number of schools, university extension courses, and
that sort of
thing; and it has lent its influence to reform movements designed to
check the abusive
use of alcoholic liquors, tobacco, and slushy literature. It publishes
which before the war was called "Monatschefte": since the war the name
has been changed to "Geisteskultur und Volksbildung," or, "Mindculture
and Popular Education." The Society claims at present to number in its
some three hundred Masonic lodges and these lodges are now helping it
a drive for financial support, a thing made necessary by the
devastations of the
Great War. Your brother, no doubt, is helping on with this drive. As to
the Society is worthy of financial support THE BUILDER cannot say;
it know how reliable are the claims the Society makes for itself. We
information from any quarter.
* * *
Wants Truth about Templars
Can I accept
with any degree of truth the writings of that classic authority on
is accepted and quoted the world over from his writings upon that
subject ‒ Albert
G. Mackey, M. D., author of "Lexicon of Freemasonry" in which he
"Notwithstanding the efforts of King and Pope the Order of Templars was
entirely extinguished. In France it still exists and ranks among its
of the most influential Noblemen of the Kingdom. In England the
Encampment of Baldwin
which was established at Bristol by the Templars who returned with
Richard I from
Palestine still (1852) continues to hold its regular meetings and is
have preserved the ancient costume and ceremonies of the order. This
with another one at Bath and a third at York constituted the three
in England. From these have emanated the existing encampments in the
and United States so that the order as it now exists in Britain and
America is a
lineal descendant of the ancient order." Albert G. Mackey, M. D., also
"Lexicon of Freemasonry" gives a completed list of Grand Masters of the
Templar Order from French sources, from Hugh de Payens 1118 down
with date of year each one served unto that of. Sir Sidney Smith 1838.
writings of the author are wrong and incorrect like the productions of
many of our
extemporaneous writers and speakers and officers who do sometimes admit
are not speaking from the results of research, why does the Fraternity
as a whole
officially not ask that whichever one is erroneous be expunged from our
C. D. P., New York.
Brother Proper, is in all strictness a challenge to the literati of the
we prefer to let it stand as such. Ye editor is now organizing a group
researches for the purpose of ventilating the whole vexed question of
* * *
Why Does "The Builder"
Copyright Its Articles?
Would I be
considered impertinent if I were to inquire why THE BUILDER copyrights
all its articles?
It would seem to me a better plan to let the whole Fraternity have the
use of them.
A. M. K., Ohio.
is not impertinent and your point is well taken. The National Masonic
copyrights all articles published in THE BUILDER in order that it can
serial form forthcoming books. It is obvious that an author cannot
publish a book
in serial form unless he is so protected. Other Masonic journals can
from THE BUILDER by making the usual request.
* * *
How to Order Books from
a little town without a book store or even a library I am at a loss to
to get books I need. Isn't there some agency, or something of that kind
that I can
use to get books for me.
M. D. S., Idaho.
bet is to order direct from the publisher. If you do not have the name
of the publisher
of the book you want, or have his name but not his address, write to
of the State Library Board of your state: if you have no such secretary
the librarian of the nearest public library. Once you have the
and address direct your letter accordingly and be sure to give correct
and full name of author. The publisher will then give you the postpaid
of the book, you can remit by money order, and the book will be
to you. In case a publisher cannot sell a book direct he will always
give you, at
your request, the name of the nearest dealer. Buying books is not more
or mysterious than buying bread, or coal, or a Ford automobile. If you
try it a
few times you will quickly get the hang of it. It is a good thing to
try. A house
without books is like a man without a head.
* * *
Old Age and Freemasonry
I have been
requested to deliver the address when our lodge presents a medal to one
of its charter
members. Will you give me some suggestions in that line? I know that
may be somewhat out of the ordinary, but I do not know where elsewhere
W. E. M., Florida.
an address you will very naturally have much to say concerning old age.
a number of books on that subject, among which may be mentioned
Old Along With Me," [Lib*] and "Over the Tea Cups," [Lib 1894] by O. W. Holmes. There are
numberless essays and chapters. See especially
"The Patriarchs" [Lib*] by Bro. J. F. Newton, published in THE BUILDER
for March 1916, page 67. See article "On Growing Old" in The Atlantic
Monthly, for June 1915; Montaigne's essay "Of Age"; Bacon's essay "Of
Youth and Age"; Emerson's chapter "Old Age" in his "Society
and Solitude" [Lib 1922]; Stevenson's "Crabbed Age and
Youth" in his "Virginibus Puerisque" [Lib 1909]; Lamb's essay "The
Superannuated Man" in his "Last Essays
of Elia" [Lib 1885]; and see Benson's "From a
Window," [Lib 1913] page 28. A very excellent
appropriate for your use, was published in THE BUILDER, April 1916,
page 101: it
is entitled "When Old Age Comes" and was written by Burges Johnson. If
you have access to it you would enjoy to read Cicero's "De Senectute,"
[Lib 1887] the most famous book,
written on the theme. As to long service in Freemasonry what could be
this, a sentence from one of the pages of Albert Pike: "There is
will so well remunerate a man, when the days of his life are shortening
to the winter
solstice, as faithful service in the true interest of Masonry."
* * *
Articles in "The Builder"
on King Solomon's Temple
In any of
the volumes of the magazine prior to 1918 can there be found any
discussion or papers
relating to the plan of King Solomon's Temple, and how to reconcile the
found in the various descriptions of the same recorded in the Old
N. L. T., Colorado.
BUILDER for March, 1916, Brother George W. Warvelle discusses the
of King Solomon" and touches briefly upon the comparative historicity
Biblical accounts. In the number for April, 1916, Brother Asahel W.
the accounts from Kings and Chronicles alongside each other for
On page 64 of the issue for February of the same year you will find an
letter from Jos. W. Eggleston who tries to solve one of the problems
the Temple. Through the issues for April, May, and June of 1917 the
Wm. A. Paine contributed an exceptionally able series of articles on
King Solomon's Temple in which you will find a number of items
concerning your own
particular problems. But the articles that may throw the most light on
will doubtless be the series on "The Pillars of the Porch" by the late
Brother John W. Barry, which began in THE BUILDER for June 1917.
If you desire to go into the matter at length
look up the volumes on Kings and Chronicles
in The International Critical Commentary of the Bible. [Lib 1875]
* * *
Origin of "Shibboleth"
One of the
things that seem very curious to me is the word "shibboleth" and the
that is given to it. What is the origin of the word? I am not where I
can get hold
of books very easily so I am asking you to help me out a little bit,
J. J. B., Montana.
has come to be the synonym for a password through the narrative found
in the Bible,
Judges 12:1-6. Because the tribesmen of Ephraim refused to assist him
at a critical
juncture in his quarrel with the Ammonites, Jephtha, after he had
defeated the latter,
turned on the Ephraimites to punish them for what he deemed their
was chieftain of the tribesmen of Gilead. "And the Gileadites took the
of the Jordan against the Ephraimites. And it was so, that, when any of
of Ephraim said, Let me go over, the men of Gilead said unto him, Art
thou an Ephraimite?"
The two tribes were closely related in appearance so that it was
difficult to distinguish
between them, just as one cannot always tell whether a man be an
Englishman or a
Scotchman, but, as in the latter case, there were certain differences
that no artifice could conceal. "If he said, Nay; then said they unto
Say now Shibboleth; and he said Shibboleth; for he could not frame to
it right; then they laid hold an him and slew him at the fords of the
It is curious to note that this is not the only instance in history
where such a
thing has occurred. During the awful days of the Sicilian Vespers a
similarly tried. The name of dried peas among the Sicilians was
if the man pronounced the "c" with a "chee" sound he was allowed
to pass as being a Sicilian; but if he gave it an "s" sound, he was
as being a Frenchman. During a battle between the Danes and Saxons on
Day in 1002, if tradition is to be trusted, the words "Chichester
were employed as a like test.
* * *
The Masonic Connections
of President James Buchanan
As a member
of the Society, I write to ask for some information. Was President
a Mason? I have heard that he was and again that he wasn't.
J. T. M., North Carolina.
J. Fred Fisher, Secretary of Lodge No. 43, F. & A. M.,
has given us the following information:
James Buchanan was made a Mason in Lodge No. 43, Lancaster, Pa. on
1816. He was entered by W. M. Bro. John Reynolds, and was passed and
raised by W.
M. Bro. George Whitaken on January 24, 1817. He was elected Junior
13, 1820, and Worshipful Master December 23, 1822. At the expiration of
of office, he was appointed the first District Deputy Grand Master of
He was elected an honorary member of the lodge March 10, 1868.
was also a member of Royal Arch Chapter, No. 43."
* * *
Anent Negro Masonry
did Negro Masonry arise?
H.A.S., Washington, D. C.
Hall and thirteen other Negroes were made Masons at Boston, March 6,
1776, in a
military lodge, and when this army lodge was discontinued these men
applied to the
Grand Lodge of England (the so-called "Modern") for a charter. The
was issued September 20th, 1784, but, owing to we know not what delays,
received by Prince Hall and his fellows until 1787, at which time they
organized themselves into a lodge registered on the rolls of the Grand
England as "African Lodge, No. 429." After a variety of vicissitudes,
about which there is still a deal of controversy, this lodge became
erased from the Grand Lodge roll, and then, after a few years, was
time as an independent body. From this lodge grew the "Prince Hall
and from that Grand Lodge the great bulk of so-called Negro Masonry has
The subject has been the occasion for ceaseless debate, much of it
acrimonious, and there is no need here to enter into all the questions
as to legality,
and all that. If you care to go into the matter thoroughly write to the
of the Grand Lodge of Washington for a copy of Grand Lodge Proceedings
their famous Negro Masonry report. This was written by Brother W. H.
Upton, P. G.
M. of Washington, was published in book form, and remains the locus
the subject. [Lib 1899]
An Old Masonic Pitcher
photographs were contributed by Brother A. E. Harris, B. D. No. 1, Box
Oregon, who is in possession of the pitcher. In a letter he has given
tradition as to this relic which will be not without interest to our
to family tradition the pitcher was made with five others about five
ago. It is said to have been brought to this country from Scotland by
His birth is not known. He was married to Freelove Bucklin of
Cumberland, R. I.,
March 6, 1732. He was made a freeman (citizen entitled to vote) May 6,
died November 14, 1744, at Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. Then comes
in the tradition. One story is that he died while there on Masonic
duty, which is
very possible for there were Masons there at that time. The other is
that he was
one of the first of the Rhode Island volunteers who went to the siege
His wife and family resided at Johnstone, R. I., at that time. The
estate was settled
April 16, 1747. (Book 4, pages 179 and 208, Providence, R. I., Records
to tradition the pitcher became the possession of the oldest son who
became a Mason.
After the Revolutionary War the sons went west and the pitcher became
of Sarah McDonald when she began housekeeping in 1812. She was my great
"There are no stamps or marks on the bottom of the pitcher or elsewhere
the maker is not known. On pp. 111-13 of 'The Old China Book' by N.
there are pictures and descriptions of jugs something like ours."
on one side of the pitcher is the second stanza of the famous old
Song" which was written (so it is supposed) by the actor, Matthew
and first published by him in Read's "Weekly Journal," December 1,
It was later published in the 1723 edition of Anderson's Constitutions.
makes it impossible for the jug to have been made earlier than 1722.
Governor Wise of Virginia
In the September
issue of THE BUILDER, page 292, a correspondent invites the writer to
statement in relation to the Wises of Virginia. He is correct in all
save the name
of one political party. Henry A. Wise was Governor of the State when
the Civil war
broke out. He did advise "fighting it out in the Union," and opposed
The legislature twice defeated the ordinance of secession, but when it
that unless the State did secede it would be obliged to fight against
the rest of
the South, the State seceded. The writer's mother had three cousins in
at the time, who voted against secession. There were exactly as many
societies south of the Mason and Dixon line as north of it, and men
liberating their slaves in their wills. Washington himself did so. The
war was to
settle a point in the Constitution as to whether or not a State had the
secede, and the negro was but an incident. Henry A. Wise was elected
the Democratic ticket. There never was a "Know Nothing" party: it was
the American Party, and was nicknamed "Know Nothing" by its enemies.
John S. Wise
was elected to Congress in 1882 on the Republican ticket. He was
defeated two years
before, on the Democratic ticket I believe. He afterwards practiced law
in New York
City and very successfully. He served in the Confederate Army.
G. W. Baird, District of Columbia.
* * *
An Anti-Masonic Research
Masonic Research Society, under direction of J. H. Tatsch, associate
BUILDER, is engaged in special research work on the subject of
interested in this fascinating field of Masonic history are requested
with Brother Tatsch, indicating in which one or more of the following
they wish to participate:
Anti-Masonry in Great Britain
prior to 1717.
Anti-Masonry in Great Britain
Anti-Masonry in America prior to
The Morgan Excitement and the
Anti-Masonic Party, 1826-1840.
Anti-Masonry in America 1840 to
Anti-Masonry in America since
Anti-Masonry in Continental
Europe prior to 1788.
Anti-Masonry elsewhere than
America and Europe.
Exposes of the 18th Century (any
Exposes of the 19th Century.
and illustrations applicable to any of the foregoing sub-divisions.All communications
on this subject should be addressed to J. H. Tatsch, 2920 First Avenue
Ye Editor's Corner
Can you write
short stories or novels? Publishers are offering a big opportunity in
* * *
I have been
traveling about over the country during the past two months, and have
Fraternity in a flourishing condition everywhere. The usual complaint
is, ‒ We are
growing too fast.
* * *
any second-hand Masonic books to sell? Let us know if you have. Perhaps
we can help
you dispose of them.
* * *
F. Newton's "The Builders" is outselling any other Masonic book. It has
appeared in an English edition: also it has been translated into Dutch,
be translated into French and German. A brother in Damascus, Syria, is
to translate it into Persian.
* * *
January Book List
Religion of Freemasonry” [Lib*], by, Henry Josiah Whymper, with an
by William James Hughan. Edited by George William Speth. We have
purchased the only
remaining copies of this classic. (See THE BUILDER for September, 1922,
Slightly shopworn but unused. Paper covers, 260 pages. When the few
copies in stock
become exhausted the work will be entirely out of print. $2.15
Builders ‒ A Story and Study of Masonry," [Lib 1914] by Brother Joseph Fort
Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER, is now the fastest selling Masonic book
in the world.
It is being translated into several languages. (Special price in lots
or more copies.) Bound in substantial blue cloth: beautifully printed.
on The Builders." Compiled by the Cincinnati Masonic Study Club to be
in connection with "The Builders," by Joseph Fort Newton. Paper, 13
closely printed $ .15
Story of the Craft," [Lib*] Lionel Vibert. One of the best of brief
of Masonry. Cloth binding; 86 pages. (Reviewed in THE BUILDER, April
Before the Existence of Grand Lodges'" [Lib 1910] Lionel Vibert. Embodies
of Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research on Masonic history prior to 1717.
Cloth binding, 164 pages. (Reviewed in THE BUILDER, October 1917, page
History of Freemasonry:' [Lib 1951] Robert Freke Gould. Revised
by Fred J. W. Crowe.
Absolutely indispensable. Cloth binding. 349 pages. (See THE BUILDER,
page 23: June 1922, page 183.) $5.00
Freemasonry and the Old Dundee Lodge No. 18 – 1722-1920," [Lib*] Arthur
Very readable. In one year it has established itself as a standard
work. Index supplied.
Description on request. Cloth binding, 303 pages. (Reviewed in THE
1921, page 243.) $5.00
as Makers of America," [Lib 1921] Madison C. Peters. Gives
of all prominent Revolutionary heroes who were Masons. Has gone through
editions. Cloth binding, 60 pages $1.00
and the Ancient Gods," [Lib*] J.S.M. Ward. Opens up a new field. Full
information. Cloth binding. 360 pages. (Reviewed four times in THE
1922, page 89; May 1922, page 151.) $7.50
Essays on Freemasonry," [Lib 1913] Robert Freke Gould. Important
by the master Masonic historian. Large size, beautifully printed. Cloth
300 pages. (Reviewed in THE BUILDER, March 1918, page 93.) $7.00
of Freemasonry," [Lib 1921] Albert G. Mackey. New edition
of a Masonic
classic, revised by Robert I. Clegg. De Lure fabrikoid binding, 311
edition reviewed in THE BUILDER, August 1920, page 226. New edition
the December 1922 issue.) $3.65
Jurisprudence," [Lib 1872] Albert G. Mackey.
Indispensable to Masters,
Wardens and lodge workers. Cloth binding, 570 pages $3.15
Lodges," [Lib 1899] Robert Freke Gould. Concludes
with a chapter
on Masonic beginnings in America. Cloth binding, 232 pages $2.15
on Laurence Dermott and His Work," [Lib*] W.M. Bywater. Necessary to an
of history of English Grand Lodges. Cloth binding, 54 pages.$.75
Architecture," [Lib 1909; Vol 1, Vol 2] Arthur Kingsley Porter,
University. Two volumes of 500 pages each. Full of information of great
students of the history of Freemasonry. Recommended by the editor of
Abundantly illustrated. Complete indexes and bibliographies. $13.00
Meaning of Freemasonry," [Lib 1922] W.L. Wilmshurst. Lectures
in English lodges on the symbolism and philosophy of Freemasonry;
accounts of ancient
systems of mysteries, initiations, etc. New. Cloth binding, 216 pages
Arcane Schools," [Lib 1909] John Yarker. A famous book.
to students of the occult. Cloth binding, 535 pages $5.00
Kabbalah, Its Doctrines, Development and Literature," [Lib 1920] Christian D. Ginsburg. For
years the standard. A new reprint. Cloth binding, 232 pages $2.35
and Masonry," S.H. Goodwin, Grand Secretary of Utah. Printed for the
by the Grand Lodge of Utah. A fascinating story of a little known
chapter in the
history of American Masonry. Paper binding, 38 pages $.25 (Visit Phoenix
Atholl Lodges ‒ Their Authentic History. Being a Memorial of the Grand
England 'According to the Old Constitutions' Compiled from Official
[Lib 1879] by Robert Freke Gould. Cloth
binding, 192 pages.
a Freemason Should Know," [Lib*] by Fred J. W. Crowe. Eight chapters of
information about English Freemasonry. Cloth binding, 86 pages. $1.25
Gospel of Freemasonry," [Lib*] by "Uncle Silas" A very rapidly selling
book written in a new vein. Third edition. Cloth binding, 60 pages $1.00
Evolution of Freemasonry ‒ An Authentic Story of Freemasonry. Profusely
with Portraits of Distinguished Freemasons and Views of Memorable
Relics and Places
of Singular Masonic Interest " [Lib*] by Delmar Duane Darrah. Very
bound in green buckram. Calendered paper 422 pages $5.00
Constitutions" [Lib 1723] (reproduced by Photographic
plates from an
original copy in the archives of the Iowa Masonic Library. Cedar
of Freemasonry," [Lib 1915] Roscoe Pound $1.26
on Masonic Jurisprudence," [Lib*] Roscoe Pound $1.50.
Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag,” [Lib*] Bro. I.W. Barry, P.G.M.,
covers, illustrated. A story of the Flag and Masonry $.50
Comacines, Their Predecessors and Their Successors," [Lib 1910] and "Further Notes on the
Masters," [Lib*] W. Ravenscroft. The two works in one binding, paper
Notes on the Comacine Masters," [Lib*] by W. Ravenscroft, paper covers,
of the First Degree," [Lib*] Gage, pamphlet $.15
of the Third Degree," [Lib*] Ball, pamphlet $.15
Aspects of Masonic Symbolism," [Lib*] Waite, pamphlet $.15
of the Masonic Overseas Mission." [Lib*] A special Number of THE
the full Report of the Masonic Overseas Mission on Their Efforts to
Permission to Engage in Independent War Relief Work Abroad. $.35
Lodges," [Lib*] G. Alfred Lawrence. Paper covers $.35
in America Prior to 1750," [Lib*] Melvin M. Johnson, P.G.M.,
Pocket History of Freemasonry," [Lib*] by Brother H.L. Haywood (Special
on lot orders for 25 or more copies for presentation purposes.) Single
an Entered Apprentice Ought to Know," [Lib*] Hal Riviere. (Special
lot orders for 25 or more copies for presentation purposes.) Pamphlet,
Single copies $.15
Books By Dudley Wright
Burns and Freemasonry." [Lib 1921] Contains chapter by Dr.
Newton. Cloth binding, 113 pages. (Reviewed in THE BUILDER, August
1921, page 235.)
Legends and Traditions." Cloth binding 152 pages. (Reviewed in THE
February 1922, page 57. Review by A. E. Waite reprinted in THE BUILDER,
page 221.) $1.50
Eleusinian Mysteries and Rites." [Lib 1917] One of the best accounts of
of the most influential of the Ancient Mysteries. Cloth binding, 108
and Freemasonry." [Lib*] Especially valuable for students of the Order
Eastern Star. Cloth binding, 184 pages $1.90
The Foundations of a Masonic
"Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry," [Lib 1914] latest revised edition. Two
volumes with total of 943 pages. Second volume includes a large
of Masonic books, also a long glossary to explain Masonic words and
Luxe fabrikoid binding. $16.00
"Revised History of Freemasonry," by Robert I. Clegg. Seven large
with total of 2376 pages. Complete index covering all volumes.
Illustrated. De Luxe
fabrikoid binding $56.00 (Revised edition
by Clegg not found – see 7 Volume 1909 edition in Bibliography - rhm)
volume of THE BUILDER, 312 pages $3.75
1916 bound volume of THE BUILDER, 384 pages $3.75
1917 bound volume of THE BUILDER, 384 pages $3.75
1918 bound volume of THE BUILDER, 366 pages $3.75
1919 bound volume of THE BUILDER, 336 pages $3.75
1920 bound volume of THE BUILDER. 344 pages $3.75
1921 bound volume of THE BUILDER, 368 pages $3.75
1922 bound volume of THE BUILDER, 388 pages $3.76
volumes bound in Goldenrod buckram.
A very limited
number of bound volumes for each of the above years, in three-quarter
bound volumes of THE BUILDER, (two years in one cover), Goldenrod
696 pages. $6.00
volumes may be purchased separately or as a set. They comprise the most
and complete Masonic reference library in existence.
Five Year Index to THE BUILDER (for the years 1915 to 1919, inclusive),
* * *
these books in stock solely for the accommodation of our members.
Profits are returned
to the treasury of the Society, to be used to enlarge its services.
embraces the standard works on Masonry and allied subjects that we are
able to keep
in stock. It is being augmented as rapidly as possible. Many of the
best known and
older books are out of print and Impossible to obtain: of new titles
only the better
class are selected.
is urged to order from the Book List published In the current issue of
because the supply of many titles is very limited.
are constantly revising their prices to us the above prices are subject
without notice. The prices shown include postage.
MASONIC RESEARCH SOCIETY, 2920 First Avenue East.
CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA.
A Concise History of
Gou51 / auth. Gould Robert F / ed. Crowe Frederick J. W.. - London :
Gale & Polden Limited, 1951. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 401. - 10.3 MB.
A Textbook of Masonic
Mac721 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : Clark, Maynard,
Publishers, 1872. - 7th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 571. - 28.1 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
Yar09 / auth. Yarker John. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
382. - 1.8 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And23 / auth. Anderson James. - London : William Hunter, 1723. -
Fac-Simile by Jno. W. Leonard & Co., New York, 1855 : Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 119. - 6.0 MB.
Collected Essays &
Papers Related to Freemasonry
Gou131 / auth. Gould Robert F. - Belfast : William Tait, 1913. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 313. - 14.3 MB.
Commentary on Book of Kings
Kei75 / auth. Keil
Karl F. - Edinburgh : T & T Clark, 1875. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 945.
- 32.6 MB.
England under the Yorkists
Tho211 / auth. Thornley Isobel D. - London : Longmans, Green &
Co, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 305. - 16.1 MB.
Freemasonry Before the
Existence of Grand Lodges
Vib10 / auth. Vibert Lionel. - London : Spencer & Co., 2010. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 163. - 0.5 MB.
From a College Window
Ben13 / auth. Benson Arthur C. - London : Smith, Elder & Co,
1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 333. - 15.1 MB.
King Richard III
Mor83 / auth. More Sir Thomas. - Cambridge : Cambridge University
Press, 1883. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 233. - 7.3 MB.
Life of Johnson Vol 1
Bos07 / auth. Boswell John. - Boston : W. Andrews and L. Blake, 1807. -
1st American Edition : Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 503. - 23.7 MB.
Life of Johnson Vol 2
Bos071 / auth. Boswell John. - Boston : W. Andrews and L. Blake, 1807.
- 1st American Edition : Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 516. - 24.3 MB.
Life of Johnson Vol 3
Bos072 / auth. Boswell John. - Boston : W. Andrews and L. Blake, 1807.
- 1st American Edition : Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 549. - 26.0 MB.
Light on a Dark Subject
Upt99 / auth. Upton William H. - Seattle : The Pacific Mason Publisher,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 141. - 10.0 MB.
Masons as Makers of America
Pet21 / auth. Peters Madison C. - New York : Trowel Publications, 1921.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 65. - 1.8 MB.
Medieval Architecture Vol 1
Por09MA1 / auth. Porter Arthur K. - New York : The Baker and Taylor
Group, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 606. - 19.8 MB.
Medieval Architecture Vol 2
Por09MA2 / auth. Porter Arthur K. - New York : The Baker and Taylor
Group, 1909. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 620. - 23.2 MB.
Military Lodges. The Apron and
Gou99 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Gale & Polden, Ltd.,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 280. - 13.7 MB.
Over the Teacups
Hol94 / auth. Holmes Oliver W.. - New York : Houghton, Mifflin and Co.,
1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 326. - 6.9 MB.
Robert Burns and Freemasonry
Wri21 / auth. Wright Dudley. - London : Paisley, Alexander Gardner,
1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 133. - Illustrated - 3.0 MB.
Social History of the American
Bra21 / auth. Brawley Benjamin. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 442. - 18.3 MB.
Society and Solitude
Eme22 / auth. Emerson Ralph W. - London : J M Dent & Sons Ltd,
1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 318. - 11.9 MB.
The Atholl Lodges
Gou791 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Spencer's Masonic Depot,
1879. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 113. - 2.0 MB.
The Babees' Book
Fur08 / auth. Furnivall Frederick J. - New York : Duffield &
Co, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 242. - 4.6 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Comacines Their
Predecessors & Their Successors
Rav10 / auth. Ravenscroft W.. - London : Elliot Stock, 1910. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 94. - 3.4 MB.
The Eleusian Mysteries
Wri17 / auth. Wright Dudley. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
House, 1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 110. - 4.3 MB.
Gin20 / auth. Ginsburg Christian D. - London : Georg Routledge
& Sons Limited, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 159. - 4.2 MB.
The Last Essays of Elia
Lam85 / auth. Lamb Charles. - New York : John B Alden, 1885. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 191. - 7.0 MB.
The Meaning of Masonry
Wil22 / auth. Wilmshurst W L. - London : William Rider & Son,
1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 254. - 1.2 MB.
The Philosophy of Masonry
Pou15 / auth. Pound Roscoe. - [s.l.] : The Builder Magazine, 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 53. - 0.3 MB.
The Symbolism of Freemasonry
Mac21 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - Chicaco Ill. : The Masonic History
Company, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 386. - Revised by Robert I. Clegg.
Ste09 / auth. Stevenson Robert L. - New York : Current Literature
Publishing Co, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 266. - 7.7 MB.