Masonic Research Society
By Bro. Robert I. Clegg.
BORN AT Charleston,
South Carolina, on March 12, 1807, this scholarly brother lived to the
age of 74
years, dying at the Hygeia Hotel at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, June 21,
was buried by his bereaved family and sorrowing brethren at Washington,
Sunday, June 26, with all the solemnity of the several ceremonies of
Rites wherein he had so long been active in leadership.
with honors at the Charleston Medical College in 1834, Dr. Mackey
the busy practice of his profession which chiefly occupied his time
until 1854 when
his literary and Masonic labors engrossed his efforts. During the Civil
Mackey was a Union adherent, and President Johnson appointed him
Collector of the
Port. Some active interest was taken by him in politics and in a
contest for senatorial
honors he was defeated by Senator Sawyer in the canvass. Following this
Dr. Mackey removed to Washington, D. C., in 1870.
In St. Andrews
lodge, No. 10, at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1841, Dr. Mackey was
passed and raised. Soon thereafter he affiliated with Solomon's Lodge
No. 1, of
the same city, becoming Worshipful Master in December, 1842. He became
that year and held this office until 1867, for many years preparing the
of the Foreign Correspondence Committee of the Grand Lodge. He was one
of the founder
members in the formation of Landmark Lodge, No. 76, in the year 1851.
and exalted in Capitular Freemasonry during the winter of 1841-1842, he
High Priest in December, 1844; was also elected Deputy Grand High
Priest in 1848
and successively re-elected in that position until 1855. In this year
year thereafter to 1867 he was elected as Grand High Priest of his
General Grand High Priest in 1859, he continued in that office until
created a Knight Templar in South Carolina Commandery No. 1, in 1842,
he was elected
Eminent Commander in 1844, later being honored as a Past Grand Warden
of the Grand
Encampment of the United States.
Sovereign Grand Inspector General of the Thirty-third and last Degree
in 1844, he
was for many years Secretary-General of the Supreme Council, Southern
of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
he conducted for many years the Southern and Western Masonic
Miscellany. For two
years he was editor-in-chief of the Masonic Quarterly Review. In 1859
became editor of the Department of Masonic Miscellany in the American
and for three years, beginning in 1872, he published Mackey's National
a contributor to the Voice of Masonry in 1875, Dr. Mackey continued
writings in that publication until 1878 when his failing health
his further labors for that periodical.
as an author his books included the History of Freemasonry in seven
Encyclopedia of Freemasonry in two volumes, Symbolism of Freemasonry,
Manual of the Lodge, Book of the Chapter, Principles of Masonic Law,
Freemasonry and the Mystic Tie. [See
Bibliography for listing of Books]
Mackey located at Washington D.C., he affiliated with Lafayette Lodge,
No. 19, Lafayette
Chapter, No. 5, and Washington Commandery, No. 1.
services in Washington on Sunday, June 26, 1881, were begun at All
Unitarian, of which Dr. Mackey was a member, and were conducted by the
followed the ceremonies of a Lodge of Sorrow, Rose Croix Chapter,
Ancient and Accepted
Scottish Rite, Southern Masonic Jurisdiction, and were in charge of the
General Albert Pike and his associate officers.
white flowing hair of the patriarchal Sovereign Grand Commander endowed
a crowned glory as he from the pulpit uttered the solemn words over the
of his old friend. Their intimate fraternal relations quickened in the
multitude of memories and he was deeply affected. Brother Pike's stern
with emotion many times, especially when he descended from the pulpit,
flaming torch in his hand, waved it, and repeatedly summoned with his
words "Brother, we mourn for thee; we call upon thee to answer us. Dost
hear the call?"
Just as Brother
Pike said these words, a ray of sunshine from the window at the west
splendor across the church. His hoary head was thereby aflame with a
of light like unto the vision of some sturdy stately saint of old. The
tang of sorrow
in his tones as he continued sadly with the words of the ritual ‒ "Our
answers not our call" ‒ heightened with the tinge of assurance the
were interred in Glenwood Cemetery with the rites of the Symbolic Lodge
of Most Worshipful Noble D. Larner, Grand Master of the District of
as a lecturer had nationally a deservedly high reputation. He was
always most interesting
and instructive. Possessing a very pleasing address, he could deeply
favorable attention he invariably awakened in an audience. As an
he was declared to be second to none in the United States, his keen
repartee, and remarkable anecdotal powers causing his society to be
sought and solicited
on every possible occasion.
and commanding presence and richly cultured discourse Dr. Mackey was in
charm at once gentle and dignified, acute in his warm practical
sympathies for all
suffering humanity, and deeply dowered with a strong faculty for
as the hills everlasting.
esteem his friends held of Dr. Mackey is well shown by the official
out at his death by the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Southern
of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite. General Albert Pike wrote this
and old age have brought the ending of his days to the Dean of the
its Secretary-General, Brother Albert Gallatin Mackey. Born at
Charleston, in South
Carolina, on the 12th of March, 1807, made a Mason there, it is said,
in the year
1841; he became a member of the Supreme Council and Secretary General
in 1844, and
continued to be both until his death at Fortress Monroe, in Virginia,
on the 20th
of June, 1881.
Mackey had lived all his life among gentlemen, and had the manners and
a gentleman. Tall, erect, of spare but vigorous frame, his somewhat
harsh but striking
features were replete with intelligence and amiability; he conversed
well, and was
liked as a genial and companionable man, of a cheerful, tolerant and
who, if he had quarrels with individuals, had none with the world.
Idolized by his
wife and children, he loved them devotedly, and suffered intensely
when, one after
another, his two intelligent and amiable daughters died. He had many
made enemies, as men of strong will and positive convictions will
do. He plotted no harm against any one, and sought no revenge, even
when he did
not forgive, not being of a forgiving race for he was a McGregor,
with Rob Roy.
will not soon lose as great a man, and she may well put dust upon her
head and wear
sackcloth in her lodges, where, in Masonry, his heart always was.
course, as he grew old, he had his crosses and troubles, and fortune
was not kind
to him. Adversity may be profitable; but the world goes too hardly with
of us; and Sallust truly says:
grief and sorrows, death is a rest from troubles and not a misfortune.'
man hath fallen in Israel; and, in the words of Pushmataha, the Chahta
is like the falling of a huge oak in the woods. The fall will be heard
and the sound be re-echoed from many and far-off lands.
the reading of this letter in the Bodies of our Obedience, the altars
tools will be draped in black and the brethren will wear the proper
badge of mourning
during the space of sixty days. And may our Father which is in Heaven
have you always
in his holy keeping."
At a Special
Communication of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia, the
was presented by a Committee headed by Brother Charles F. Stansbury:
illustrious Brother, Albert Gallatin Mackey, is no more! He died at
Va., on the 20th day of June, 1881, at the venerable age of 74, and was
Washington on Sunday, June 26th, 1881, with the highest honours of the
Rites and Orders of Masonry uniting in the last sad services over his
announcement of his death has carried a genuine sentiment of sorrow
is known. His ripe scholarship, his profound knowledge of Masonic law
his broad views of Masonic philosophy, his ceaseless and invaluable
in the service of the Order, his noble ideal of its character and
mission, as well
as his genial personal qualities and his lofty character, had united to
personally known and widely respected and beloved by the Masonic world.
this Grand Lodge shares in the common sorrow of the Craft everywhere at
loss, she can properly lay claim to a more intimate and peculiar sense
inasmuch as our illustrious brother had been for many years an active
this body, Chairman of the Committee on Jurisprudence, and an advisor
to assist our deliberations with his knowledge and counsel.
testimony of our affectionate respect for his memory the Grand Lodge
insignia will be appropriately draped, and its members wear the usual
badge of mourning
for thirty days. A memorial page of our proceedings will also be
dedicated to the
honour of his name.
extend to his family [a widow and three sons survived Dr. Mackey] the
of our sincere and respectful sympathy, and direct that an attested
copy of this
minute be transmitted to them."
Conviction of American Masonic Federation Leaders
By Bro. Charles C. Hunt,
Deputy Grand Secretary, Iowa
article concludes Brother Hunt's account of the false claims, the
and conviction of The American Masonic Federation, with headquarters at
City, of which Mathew McBlain Thomson was president. Brother Hunt's
the first of which appeared in THE BUILDER for September, comprise a
of all the important points in the case.
I HAVE already
described the false claims made by the American Masonic Federation to
and other Masonic prerogatives in preceding accounts of the trial and
of Mathew McBlain Thomson, president of that organization of spurious
The reader is requested to consult THE BUILDER for September, October,
In the present instance I shall give an account of the trial held at
Salt Lake City,
Utah, early in May of this year.
Scotch Masons agreed to accept a subpoena and testify for the
Government: they were
Brothers David Reid, Joseph Inglis, and John A. Forrest. David Reid is
of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. Joseph Inglis is Provincial Grand
Master of Kincardineshire;
also Past Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge; Past Master of both
the Rose Croix
Chapter and Consistory; and Past Grand Prior of the Knights Templar,
and a Thirty-Second
degree Mason. John A. Forrest is Grand Secretary of the Royal Order of
Past "Provincial Grand Master of Midlothian; Past Master of his Rose
Chapter and Consistory, and a Thirty-Second degree Mason.
testified that Mother Kilwinning Lodge never granted a charter to work
the Craft degrees, and that none of the so-called higher degrees
originated in Scotland.
David Reid testified that he was a member of Mother Kilwinning Lodge,
and that she
had never granted to any of her daughter lodges power to charter other
in fact Kilwinning was the only Scotch lodge that ever had chartering
Inglis and Reid both testified that Mother Kilwinning Lodge kept a copy
charter issued by her and that she had never granted one to a lodge in
Thomson claimed she had done.
asked to show "a history, any place" which supplies the link of
a charter from Mother Kilwinning Lodge to the Mother Lodge of St. John,
France, but he could not do so.
Reid and Inglis also testified that the Grand Council of Rites was a
body with no reputation, Masonically, in Scotland. Brother Inglis first
it in 1880 and Brother Reid in 1911. In 1912 it was practically
by the Grand lodge of Scotland, and her members forbidden to affiliate
Thereupon, Peter Spence, who had signed Thomson's Patent, withdrew from
In 1914 Thomson
and Robert Jamieson were expelled from Masonry by the Grand Lodge of
the charge of conferring clandestine Masonic degrees.
Thomson was asked to name a Scotch history that anywhere mentioned the
of Rites, and he could not do so. He was also compelled to acknowledge
leading Scotch historian, D. Murray Lyon, did not mention this
so-called Grand Council.
to have been made a Mason in a lodge which had been chartered by
Melrese St. Johns
Lodge, but David Reid testified that this lodge never chartered
and that the lodge from which Thomson claimed a charter, if it ever
clandestine; that Thomson did not become a Mason until after he was
healed in 1889,
in St. James Lodge No. 125.
In this connection
the following extracts from the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of
Scotland are interesting:
of meeting of April 29, 1880:
"Memorial anent the clandestine
of Mathew Thomson into Lodge operative, Ayr, No. 138, and the issuing
of a diploma
in his favour.
"The Committee having
considered the whole
case, Find that Mathew Thomson is not a Freemason, and that he could
be affiliated to the Lodge Operative, Ayr: Find that certain of the
of that lodge knew that Mr. Thomson was not a member of the Order when
to affiliate him: Find that the return made by the lodge to Grand Lodge
June 12, 1876, certifying that Mr. Thomson was Entered, Passed and
Raised in that
lodge, was false and fraudulent: Find that lodge has produced no
and that such as have been produced are in many places written in
pencil and grossly
irregular, and contain no evidence of Mr. Thomson's pretended
recommend Grand Lodge to instruct the name of the said Mathew Thomson
to be deleted
from the Register of Intrants, and ordain him to deliver up the Diploma
issued on 12th June 1876; and further recommend that Grand Lodge
suspend the Lodge
Operative, Ayr, No. 138, and debar it from meeting for Masonic purposes
is the pleasure of the Grand Lodge to withdraw its suspension. Further,
the Grand Secretary to call for delivery of the charter and minute and
of the lodge, if any such exist, and retain the same in his possession."
of Meeting of June 24, 1880:
"Grand Secretary produced the
had been issued to Mr. Mathew Thomson, under a false return in name of
Operative, Ayr, No. 138, in June 1876, and tabled a letter from the
Lodge St. James,
Ayr, No. 125, anent the admission of the said Mathew Thomson by
affiliation or otherwise,
as Grand Committee may direct. Remitted to the Petitions and Complaints
to consider and report."
of Meeting of July 29, 1880:
"On the recommendation of the
on Petitions and Complaints, Grand Secretary was instructed to direct
St. James, Newton-on-Ayr, No. 125, as to the admission of Mr. Mathew
to in the minute of Grand Committee of date 24th June last, ‒ and on
that the conditions on which the applicant's admission is authorized
have been complied
with, to issue a new diploma to the said Mathew Thomson."
Thus it is
seen that this is not the first time that Thomson has been concerned
Masonry. In March 1911 Thomson published the following account of a
visit paid by
him to David Reid, Grand Secretary of Scotland:
"From London we went to
we visited the Grand Secretary in the temporary offices of the Grand
Lodge in Charlotte
Square, the Grand Lodge Hall being closed for repairs and enlargement.
We sent in
our card as President of the A.M.F. and were received as such and had a
pleasant talk with him, in the course of which we informed him of
conditions which made necessary the formation of the A.M.F., explained
to him the
source from which we derived our authority, showed him our charters and
to him our aims and objects; showed him from our publications that we
made no claim
whatever to have authority from or connection with the Grand Lodge of
that we did claim Scottish ancestry, but from a source more ancient
than the Grand
Lodge, namely from the Mother Lodge Kilwinning, through her son, the
through whom the degrees went to the Scottish Mother Lodge of
Marseilles, from thence
through the Lodge Polar Star, established in New Orleans in 1794, to
Council of Louisiana; from it to the Grand Lodge Inter-Montana, which
is the foundation
of the A.M.F. "Brother Reid informed us (as we had been informed
the only object that the Grand Lodge of Scotland had in the matter was
made to her that an officer of Grand Lodge (Brother Peter Spence) was
Lodge charters to parties in America; and that the A.M.F. claimed to
work by authority
from the Grand Lodge of Scotland; the first charge had been disproved
Spence, and what I said now had disposed of the latter."
Scored as a Falsehood
testified that the only true part of this account was the fact of the
interview was very short, about two minutes only. He had remained
The only other person present was Brother Joseph Inglis. Thomson had
not shown any
charters or made any explanation of his aims or objects, neither had he
publications or made any explanations of his claims. Brother Inglis
the conversation was very formal; that Mr. Reid never sat down and
him out. He was asked if the meeting was a courteous or discourteous
one. He replied:
"It was cold, but courteous."
Thomson was asked in regard to this interview, and admitted that the
lasted about ten minutes, that he had shown no charters, but had shown
by handing Mr. Reid a copy of his magazine, which explained his
authority, but he
could not tell which copy it was or what article he referred to as
giving the authority.
On being recalled, Brothers Reid and Inglis testified that Thomson had
left no magazine
or documents of any kind whatever.
one of the defendants, testified that in 1913 he went to Europe to
himself to find out what he could about the organization, and how it
there. He visited the Grand Council of Rites, the meeting of which was
one month so that he could be there. At this meeting there were
present, and the meeting lasted about three or four hours in the
He went to
Ayr and visited St. James Lodge there. The members of the lodge had not
of his coming but the Master called a meeting after his arrival. In
answer to the
question: "How did he call the members together?" Bergera replied:
"They were called by telephone,
saw several other brothers, and they gave me an introduction. They told
me it was
the Master of St. James 125, and they said ‒ I said, I desire to visit
and they said 'very well' they were going to have their regular meeting
and also they were working the Craft degrees on one of the candidates."
the meeting was held in the afternoon, instead of at night, to
visitors who wished to return home that night.
in Scotland ten days and visited two lodges. The second lodge was the
lodge in Kilmarnock,
which met in a building with the name "Kilmarnock Lodge" over the door.
Brothers Reid and Inglis testified that there were four lodges in
none of them with that name; that there was no building there with the
Lodge" above the door, and that the building in which the lodges met
the inscription "Masonic Hall."
that he had not visited, nor attempted to visit, the Grand Lodge of
spent five days in London, and visited one lodge there, but he did not
attempt to visit the Grand Lodge of England. He spent nine or ten days
and visited one lodge, but had not visited nor attempted to visit the
or Grand Lodge of France. Thus, although he testified that his sole
purpose in going
to Europe was to investigate the standing of his organization, and he
days in each place, he visited only two lodges in Scotland, one in
London and one
in Paris, and did not attempt to go anywhere where authoritative
considerable space in his magazine to the Proceedings of the National
in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1920, supposed to be composed of the
of the Masonic powers of the world, and of which he was elected
President. On cross-examination
he could name but eight people who were present at that Congress, and
testified that none of the powers there represented was considered
regular by the
Grand Lodge of Scotland.
Thomson Made a Fortune
been made that considerable money was collected by this organization,
and that Thomson
could not, or would not, tell what had become of it. According to the
the following fees were charged:
Lodge Charter Election
fee for Craft Degrees
which the lodge received $5.00
fee for higher degrees
which $25.00 was for paraphernalia
degrees were sometimes given in an hour's time; frequently all of them
in one evening.
many other facts brought out in the trial but I have here mentioned
only the leading
ones. From this it will be seen that the Government clearly proved that
obtained his members by misrepresenting the facts, both as to his
regularity, also as to the recognition that his members would receive
abroad, and that in the promotion of his scheme the United States mails
brought in a verdict of guilty against each of the defendants on every
in the indictment. In this connection it is well to remember that
neither the Judge
nor any member of the jury were members of the Masonic fraternity. The
of the Utah District of the United States District Court is a Mason; to
charge of prejudice an outside judge, Judge Wade of Iowa, was assigned
to try the
case. In giving his instructions to the jury, among other things, he
"Therefore, gentlemen, as I
said in the
beginning, this involves no case here before this jury as to which of
of the Masonic order is legitimate, except in so far as that question
the simple questions in this case, which is not a question of
of these great branches, or minor branches, is right or wrong, but the
here is, did these men on trial conspire to commit a fraud on their
on their fellow men? That I will go into more fully. Keep that in mind.
"It is a historic matter of
that there is an organization known as Free Masons or Free and Accepted
or Masons, known for many generations. Whether that organization is
right or wrong,
whether it had conducted its business in the right way, whether its
spirit is right
or wrong, speaking generally, we have nothing to do with it…"
"Sometime back, the people of
acting through their agents, enacted a statute through Congress which
a man who should conceive and organize a conspiracy with others to
and then use the mails to carry out that scheme, that man should be
that is all the Grand Jury in this Court did when last year it brought
in this indictment.
And bear in mind, gentlemen, as I tried to impress upon you before,
that the action
of the Grand Jury must not in any manner enter into your consideration
the question of guilt…"
"So this indictment was brought
these three defendants with having done three specific things;
or maintained a conspiracy, with the intent to defraud, and used the
mails for carrying
out that fraud. That is all. The Grand Jury didn't indict anybody here
with some other organization of Masonry, had nothing to do with those
whatsoever, neither do we.
"They charged that they
conceived a plan
to defraud and used the mails to carry it out, and that they did that
together, making an arrangement to carry it out."
A Case of Fraud
He then quoted
from the indictment, and said:
"You will observe now from this
or these recitals, that this is not a mere case of a dispute of title.
That is involved
in it, but that is not all that is involved in it. It is not a mere
case of the
question as to whether or not they got power under this endorsement on
from Louisiana Council. Nor is it solely the question as to the
standing or authority
of the Council of Rites of Scotland. These questions are involved, but
many other questions involved.
"Of course now, any change in
which is not proven by the evidence must not be considered. I am
reading it to try
to get to your minds what we are trying to settle in this matter. The
charges in this indictment that these things were in the minds and
hearts of these
people; that they were false, all of them were false, though of course
it is not
essential for the Government to prove that all of them were false in
order to convict;
it is only necessary that they shall prove beyond a reasonable doubt
that the fraud
which they claim they had in mind consisted of some one or more of the
they had conceived, sufficient to constitute a fraud.
"To illustrate, if somebody
sold you a piece
of land ‒ or to make it more practical, if someone sold you a certain
to you that he was an expert in the genealogy of this horse and that
was of a certain strain on back two or three generations, which made it
horse, and he also represented to you that the horse had a record upon
track of 2:05 as a trotter, and the man who was buying him relied upon
and had no opportunity of testing them out to see whether they were
true, and later
he found that he did have this family tree which was valuable, but he
out that he never made that record at all, that was a lie, that would
be a fraud
by which he induced him to part with his money, although only the
question of his
record was involved in the fraud, the other representation being true.
"So that, even if it were
a given case where the question of the family tree, so to speak, of
the Odd Fellows, Masons, Knights of Columbus, Elks, whatever it might
be, was a
certain thing, if that was the only thing alleged, and it was not
proven that was
false, of course there would be no fraud, but if in connection with
were made other representations with relation to the quality of the
or character of the organization, the benefits of the organization, the
man was getting for his money, aside from the question of the family
tree; if false
representations were made which induced him to part with his money,
that is to say,
representations which were wilfully false, then of course there would
be fraud and
the plan to represent these things which were wilfully and
would constitute the ground for a conviction, if they were within the
in the indictment …
"A false representation may be
by word of
mouth, it may be by acts, it may be silence; it may be by all combined.
what effect the particular thing, the particular act would naturally
have on the
mind of the other fellow. To determine what the natural effect would be
mind of the other fellow we have got to sort of look at it from the
standpoint, and consider the question with relation, for instance, to
in this organization. What did the other fellow want the membership
for? What did
he think he was getting? What did he in fact get? Did he get what he
not, was his failure to get what he bought and paid for the result of
either by word or conduct or act, in writing or orally, by the
defendants or any
of them or any of their authorized agents, authorized to do the things
did? That is this case.
"As I recall there was evidence
representation made to parties, witnesses upon the stand here, that
these organizations opened the doors of the lodge rooms of Europe, and
generally speaking, or words to that effect, to the member that was
sought to join.
I am not stating words exactly, and I am only using this as
illustrating the principles
involved. You are the final judges of what the acts are. But if a man
to enter an organization of any kind upon a representation that
membership in that
organization would grant him affiliation and brotherhood relations with
established, organized, permanent organization in South America or
Canada or any
other country, if that were not true, and the man that made the
it was not true, and he made the representation with the intention of
money, that would be a fraud, even though the organization had the
"So, gentlemen, we have an
here now, composed of a number of individuals with organizers employed
out, and memberships taken and memberships paid for. In any big
will find some organizer or some agent who at times will not do the
But a wrongful act upon the part of an agent or organizer, except
insofar as the
same was induced or authorized or approved by the defendants in this
case ‒ if it was outside of his regular and authorized work, of course
not be binding upon these defendants, ‒ but insofar as you can find
from the evidence
the scope and power given by these defendants knowingly and
intentionally to organizers,
of course the acts of such organizers would be the same as the acts of
"So, gentlemen, you see it is a
as to whether or not the Government has proven ‒ they have got to prove
things were false, the defendants do not have to prove that they are
true, the burden
is on the Government all the way through. Has the Government proven any
charges of intended misrepresentation or fraud which they set out in
If so, was that of such a nature or character that it would have
carried out ‒ constituted
a fraud on the person who was induced to join as a member? Now, what
is and what these specific things are, you are to determine.
"I have repeatedly said that a
not a mistake. The law is practical common sense. No man was ever
convicted of a
fraud when he was acting in good faith. A man might sue to recover
money or land
on the ground of mutual mistake but as to a criminal offense, a man to
of a fraud must have knowledge, must have the wrongful intent and
his partners in crime were found guilty. In passing sentence Judge Wade
after the following manner:
"Nobody can hear this evidence
in this case
without being convinced, absolutely convinced, that this thing has been
scheme from the beginning. I can see where an ignorant person might
find some possible
excuse for the methods employed in this case. For intelligent people
people to try to convince the Court that this organization and this
plan and this
work that had been going on is on the square ‒ it can't be done.
"Of course now we are living in
a time when
some of the brightest minds in the country are devoting themselves to
by short cuts, by taking advantage of the gullible for their
enterprises. In fact
that is one of the dominant crimes of the present time. I know of one
state in which
in the last two years, within two, there has been sold over twenty-nine
dollars worth of stock in packing houses which were never built, and
every dollar of the money lost, just by shrewd practices, by trying to
get the other
fellow's money in some way without working for it.
American Masonic Federation
"Now, of course, after all that
in this case from the beginning and all through I confess that I was
I heard Mr. Thomson testify that there was no pretense, that there was
anywhere of a charter to Marseilles Lodge, on the existence of which
lay the right
and practically the foundation of all claims of legitimacy on that
branch of the
case and to have him admit that such a lodge existed only in tradition
that some things can be proven by tradition, but tradition cannot exist
man, tradition must have, before it has any force as proof ‒ such
among men in that particular occupation or relation that it forces
itself upon the
mind as a truth the record of which has been lost) and it was conceded
on the witness
stand that so far as this particular thing was concerned there was no
and no one who was skilled in the history of Masonry had ever met any
such a tradition
so far as the record in this case is concerned, in any history or book
or anything else outside of this organization.
"So was I surprised when I
found that the
Council of Rites of Scotland which had been one of the chief points
urged by these
gentlemen, had no record behind it but a few years and it was
represented ‒ entirely
aside from the question of the origin and history of this organization
that preceded it ‒ it was represented time and time again without
dispute to these
poor devils that were led largely by these attractions to an ancient
and to the rites and rituals of the organization, it was represented to
and it has not been denied that by virtue of their association with
the doors of Masonry the world over were open to them outside of the
which is of course an absurd claim under the evidence in this case.
"Then the trip that Bergera
made to Europe
on the investigation, in view of what transpired according to his own
has all the appearance of being a scheme or plan that he might come
back here and
state to those whose membership was sought his capacity to enter the
lodges of Europe
to support their claim, that the members immediately on getting across
would have the doors wide open to them.
"And then after making a trip
to one or two lodges or three under peculiar circumstances, in fact
to the Grand Lodge of Scotland, and that was included in the
that is to say, all Europe was included, never going to the Grand Lodge
the Grand Lodge of England and never going to the Grand Lodge of
it is called, and coming back here no doubt to back up the
representation that membership
in this organization was opening the doors of all Masonic Orders, all
of the regular
Masonic Orders in Europe ‒ it was a pretense, gentlemen, you can't come
to any other
conclusion. If Bergera went over there for the purpose of confirming
organizers were representing and which is not denied here, he certainly
gone to the Grand Lodge of Scotland or England or France or Germany or
to find out whether the doors would be open to these fellows that were
"But it is not necessary to
recite the details.
One cannot listen to this evidence without being forced to the
conclusion that so
far as the representation as to the standing and the brotherhood and
of people with which they would become immediately affiliated was
aside entirely from the genealogy of the lodge, nobody can claim that
any truth in what was said except insofar as they had access to certain
which Mr. Thomson through his relation had some affiliation.
"The spectacle of Mr. Thomson
going to Switzerland
to this great conference, and parading afterwards through the journal a
where eight men from the entire world were present ‒ that in itself is
to condemn the whole thing and the manner in which this business had
been done is
sufficient in itself. No pretense here on the part of the defendants
that this money
was kept in any businesslike way for the benefit of this organization.
of it I don't know but there was more than a million dollars taken in
here, of that
there can be no question in view of the prices charged for little
of paper in the form of diplomas and certificates and things of that
aside from the membership fee. What became of that money is not
The head of this organization testified before the Court that he didn't
in fact had some difficulty in recalling whether there was ever an
account of the
organization in a bank anywhere in the world.
"As far as the Secretary is
is no suggestion of a report indicating that this business was
conducted as an honest
organization, not a word.
"So that, gentlemen, there is
only one thing
for the Court to do. If it were not for the age of Mr. Thomson at this
would be a long prison sentence, because I think he is the chief actor.
he is more responsible than anyone else. As far as Bergera is
concerned, of course,
I cannot understand at all how a man would presume to parade himself as
of the organization of ten thousand members which had received from
them in the
neighborhood of a million or more dollars and never handle a cent of
I cannot understand it at all, that is all, that any honest man would
name to be used in that connection under such condition and the
concealment of the
methods of doing business and where this money went even up to the
I cannot comprehend the whole thing.
"There is only one thing that
men a long prison term. I don't feel justified in sending any of these
men to prison
any longer than I do Mr. Thomson. As I say, when it comes to this point
in a trial
of the case, the charity of the law asserts itself. Old age and
sickness, of course,
have a strong appeal to the Court, when it comes to the question of a
and I think that the District Attorney has been very generous in his
This Court hasn't really any power to impose a penalty here which would
punishment for this thing that has been going on when we stop to think
of the honest
fellows who parted with their fifty or seventy-five or a hundred and
for membership in this organization. So far as the evidence in this
case is concerned,
not one dollar of it was ever used for any of the business of the
to carry on this work of getting members. Not a word of charity or
or anything of that kind before this Court.
"I am very much inclined to be
all things. I am inclined to look in a charitable way upon the mistakes
but this thing has in it that deliberateness and continuous conduct
which sort of
overcomes my tendency.
"Stand up, gentlemen.
"The judgment of this Court is
one of you serve a period of two years in Fort Leavenworth Prison and
each one of
you pay a fine of five thousand dollars and costs."
The Point of the Trial
case went to trial it was not known just what matters the Court would
Government to prove. Thomson's claim as to the regularity of the
institutions before mentioned in the first part of this paper, the
prepared to disprove, had the Court so ruled. However, the ruling of
the Court was
that the regularity of the established Masonic lodges did not enter
into this case,
and the following named witnesses who had been summoned by the
Government were not
called upon to testify, although they were instructed to be on hand in
were needed, and especially to listen to the testimony offered by the
witnesses: Frederick W. Hamilton, Grand Secretary, Grand Lodge of
William L. Boyden, Librarian of the Supreme Council, Washington, D.C.;
Conover, General Grand Secretary, General Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of the
Robert A. Shirrefs, Grand Secretary General, Northern Supreme Council;
Historian, Grand Lodge of New York, and Charles C. Hunt, Deputy Grand
Grand Lodge of Iowa.
‒ A Mason of the Frontier
By Bro. F.T. Cheetham, New
often been observed that 1809 was, of all the years of its century,
in giving to the world great men, for it was during that twelve-month
Darwin, Gladstone, Tennyson, Holmes, Poe, Edward Fitzgerald, etc., etc,
After reading the following appreciations of Kit Carson ye editor
many readers will feel inclined to add to the list of illustrious men
born in 1809
that of this pioneer who, despite the crudity of his environment and
of his work, was a gentleman and a hero. It is high time that Kit
Carson was rescued
from dime novels and schoolboy romances and delivered back to serious
biography where mature men may learn what a towering man he was.
made his researches expressly at the request of THE BUILDER and thereby
of our heartiest thanks, which are hereby rendered in full measure.
WRITER first set out to write a sketch of this worthy brother he was
by a dearth of reliable information as to Kit Carson's Masonic record
the task discouraging. When the question was asked of those few
in the Craft who knew him they would invariably shrug their shoulders
custom of the country and say, "I don't know." It was not until after
a trip was made by the writer to Santa Fe and an extended search was
the records of the old Montezuma Lodge which worked under a Missouri
in the archives of Montezuma Lodge No. 1 of New Mexico, that any
was obtained as to the time and place of the initiation, passing, and
the late Brother Carson. It is true that the Grand Lodge of New Mexico
a stone, the third of such memorials, over his grave in Taos, also an
around the grave; and it was generally known and asserted that he was
in fact a
Freemason, but that does not satisfy the student of history.
was born in Madison County, Kentucky, December 24th, 1809. While very
young he migrated
with his parents to Howard County, Missouri, where he obtained what
he ever received, except in the school of the great out-of-doors. When
he joined a party en route for Santa Fe and soon after his arrival at
he proceeded to Fernando de Taos, or Taos as it is called for short,
became "home" to him during the remainder of his days.
time on he led a very active life, having been consecutively engaged in
of trapper, hunter, trader, scout, guide, soldier and Indian agent. The
his activities extended from Chihuahua on the south to the Canadian
the north; from the city of Washington, whither he went a number of
times on official
business, on the east, to the limpid waters of the Pacific, on the
west. In fact
we have obtained a photograph of him, taken in Boston. He made at least
possibly seven, to California and when we consider that all his travels
Westport were accomplished on horseback, we must admit that his was a
life of activity.
He was chief scout and guide of the first three of the Fremont
expeditions all of
which were successful; and while he did not accompany the General on
ill-fated expedition, yet it fell his lot to shelter that great man
from the storm.
The General in writing home to his wife about the disastrous
expedition, from Taos,
on January 27, 1849, said in part:-
you from the house of our good friend Carson. This morning a cup of
brought me, while yet in bed. To an overworn, overworked, much fatigued
traveler, these little luxuries of the world offer an interest which in
home it is not possible for you to conceive. While in the enjoyment of
then, I pleased myself in imagining how gratified you would be in
picturing me here
in Kit's care, whom you will fancy constantly occupied and constantly
endeavoring to make me comfortable. How little could you have dreamed
of this while
he was enjoying the pleasant hospitality of your father's house! The
then from your mind was that he would ever repay me here." (1)
be no doubt that Brother Carson was prepared to become a Mason in his
some time before he presented himself for initiation. His early
Governor Bent, Colonel St. Vrain, both of whom were Masons, and with
who no doubt was also a member, predisposed him to a favorable opinion
of the Fraternity.
We know that
while he was with Fremont in California a movement headed by Eugerilo
a Catholic priest, was set on foot to drive out or exterminate all
objects thereof being stated in a memorial addressed to the Mexican
"I propose, with the aid and
of your excellency, to place in Upper California a colony of Irish
have a triple object in making this proposition. I wish, in the first
advance the cause of Catholicism. In the second, to contribute to the
of my countrymen. Thirdly, I desire to put an obstacle in the way of
on the part of an irreligious and anti-Catholic nation." (2)
of the prompt action of General Fremont in saving the American
inhabitants of Upper
or Northern California from massacre by prosecuting what was known
locally as the
"Bear Flag War"; and that by his promptness, energy and skill he
the northern half of the Territory, in all of which Carson was a
knew that when Admiral Sir George Seymore, with the priest MacNamara on
at Monterey to raise the British flag, the Stars and Stripes were
over the city, nailed to the masthead and there to stay.
As a testimonial
to Kit's fame at that time, we have Lieutenant Walpole, an officer in
Admiral's fleet, who in writing home to London said in part, in
"He has one or two with him who
high reputation in the prairies. Kit Carson is as well-known there as a
Carson returned to New Mexico, he found that his brother-in-law,
Charles Bent, who
was the first American Civil Governor of New Mexico and a Freemason,
others of his closest and most intimate friends, had been assassinated
in a most
cruel and inhuman manner; and that religious fanaticism had sought to
by the firebrand and dagger what the soldier had not dared to attempt
with the sword.
And so in
our pilgrimage to Santa Fe we learned that Christopher Carson was duly
an Entered Apprentice March 29, 1854, was passed June 17 and raised
of the same year. He was living at the time at Rayado in what is now
To attend lodge he was obliged to travel approximately 150 miles and in
he probably made the trip on horseback. But to a man who had time and
himself ever ready and willing to go on foot and out of his way to
relieve any person
in distress that was nothing.
Carson practiced true Masonic charity is evidenced by the following
to my knowledge has never been published and which was obtained by the
his niece, who, after the assassination of her father, Governor Bent,
by Carson, and living in the household at the time of its happening. It
is in substance
learned that the Comanches had a slave, a white boy about twelve years
of age. He
there-upon fitted out a pack-outfit or train, hired a couple of natives
them with trinkets and other articles to trade and barter with the
whom they were on friendly terms at the time. They went out and located
and purchased the boy and brought him back. When he was brought in he
distinguishable from an Indian. Carson had him cleaned up and provided
clothes. He then tried to converse with him in English, Spanish and
to no avail. He then called in a gentleman who spoke German. When the
his mother tongue, for he proved to be German, he began crying. He was
understand that he was among friends. He then gave his name, his
father's name and
the place in Texas from whence he had been stolen. Carson then fitted
outfit and sent him home and restored him to his parents, bearing the
himself, the boy's people having been in poor circumstances.
time, two women, who had been captured in Mexico by the Comanches and
as slaves, upon learning that Carson with a party was at the time in
of the tribe, made their escape to him and he sent them back to their
Mexico, at his own expense.
hitherto unpublished, and one that reveals his patriotism, was related
to me by
the late Captain Smith H. Simpson, who knew Carson for fifteen years
prior to the
latter's death. The Captain said that in the Spring of 1868, just after
returned from one of his official trips (he was Indian Agent at the
time) they were
walking up the west side of the plaza in Taos. Carson said to Simpson,
you see that flag up there?" pointing to the American flag floating
plaza. Simpson replied, "Yes." Carson then said, "Well I have kept
that up since 'Forty Seven. I am not going to be here much longer. I
want you to
see that flag stays up." He "passed over the great divide" about
two months later, aged 58 years.
comment on his life and character, we look to the first issue of The
"DEATH OF KIT CARSON. The
reaches us that General Kit Carson is no more. He died at his residence
on the Las
Animas on the 24th inst, of disease of the heart. General Carson was a
by birth, removed early in life to the State of Missouri, and while yet
a mere boy
became a wanderer on the vast plains of the then known regions of the
about the age of seventeen years until fifty he lived the life of a
and trapper. He early explored and became familiar with the mountains
from the Missouri to the Pacific Ocean. During all these years of his
he was constantly exposed to every hardship and danger; sometimes
making his home
with some tribe of the Indians and assisting them in their wars against
sometimes employed as a trapper by some mountain trader; sometimes
trading on his
own account between New Mexico and California. His home was always the
and danger was his constant companion. Unaided by the advantages of
patronage, by the forces of indomitable, energy and will, by chivalrous
by tireless labor and self-denial, he rose step by step, until his name
as familiar to the American People as a household word. He stood
the pathfinders and founders of empire in the Great West, and his long
by hardship and danger, is unsullied by a record of littleness or
meanness. He was
nature's model of a gentleman. Kindly of heart, tolerant to all men,
good in virtues
of disposition, rather than great in qualities of mind, he has passed
away ‒ dying
as through his life he had lived ‒ in peace and charity with all men,
behind him a name and memory to be cherished by his countrymen so long
valor, unobtrusive worth, charity and true chivalry survive among men.
Of his precise
age we are not advised, but judge he was very near sixty years of age.
children of tender age to mourn his loss."
had many fights with the Indians while on hunting and trapping
expeditions. Of his
many deeds of valor we mention but one or two. One occurred while with
when Carson was leading a party of six scouts as an advanced guard in
The Klamath Indians had been giving trouble, even to making a night
attack and killing
some of Fremont's men. The latter decided to chastise the Indians. He
sent Carson on ahead to locate them. Carson and his men came suddenly
upon a Klamath
village. Sending a runner back for the main party, his party and the
attacked simultaneously. When Fremont arrived on the scene the village
was in flames
and such Indians as survived were in full flight.
mention another instance. When General Kearney was surrounded by the
in Southern California, Carson and Lieutenant Beale of the Navy
made their way through the Mexican lines, reached the sea coast and
and munitions for the relief of Kearney.
chief scout and guide of the Saguache campaign against the Utes, under
Fontleroy and St. Vrain, in which the Indians got a whipping that they
Carson was made Colonel of the First New Mexico Cavalry, and one of his
operations was against the Kiowas and Comanches, culminating in a
battle near the
old adobe fort, formerly erected by Bent and St. Vrain on the Canadian
Texas. These Indians had made a great deal of trouble for years, but
they were cured
in the fight at the "Adobe Walls," as the fight was called.
greatest military achievement was his Navaho campaign. The writer has
men who were on the ground during that campaign; and in his humble
achievement alone lifted General Carson to the front rank of American
The Spaniards had waged a war against the Navahos for two hundred
had continued that war, likewise the United States. But the Navahos
and unsubdued. When the troops would concentrate they would scatter,
and when the
troops scattered they would concentrate, and with their system of
signals and knowledge
of the country they were invincible. Of that campaign we would prefer
to stand aside
and let a contemporary speak. Colonel Jas. F. Meline in "Two Thousand
on Horseback," [Lib 1867] in writing of the declaration
of war by General
Carleton upon the Navahos, said:
"True to his promise, the war
the very day set by General Carleton, July 20, 1863. A regiment of New
with more than a century of accumulated wrong and oppression to avenge,
once placed under the command of a man who understood his Indian well ‒
These troops knew neither summer rest nor winter quarters but pursued
foe relentlessly month after month, night and day, over mesas and
deserts and rivers,
under broiling suns and in rough winter snows, killing and capturing
them in their
most chosen retreats, until finally, broken and dispirited under a
the like of which they never had dreamed of, small bands began to come
then larger ones, and finally groups of fifties and hundreds, nearly
the strength of the tribe. The prisoners, as fast as received, were
the Bosque Redondo, and those who remained sent out white flags in
1864, 1865 and the present year, the war went on under these
conditions, and the
result is that some eight thousand Navahos, including a few Apaches,
are now living
peaceably at the Bosque, engaged in agriculture and manufactures, four
from their old homes, and ninety miles east of Rio Grande Settlement."
the Navahos and they have been "good Indians" ever since. Throughout
career Carson never failed to teach the Indians not only to fear but to
He was their friend in their hour of need and he spoke five Indian
Spanish and French. His last official act, so far as the writer has
been able to
ascertain, was the making of a treaty with the Utes which was
transmitted to Congress
March 18, 1868. A fitting ending for a man, who by his conduct had set
a plumb line
in the wilderness, and set a level in the desert and applied the square
to all his
dealings with his fellow men, who had given his life to win the West
for the country
he loved. He was beloved of all who knew him and in enclosing this
sketch we wish
again to quote from Colonel Meline:
"The pleasantest episode of my
has been the society of Kit Carson, with whom I passed three days, I
say delightfully. He is one of the few men I ever met who can talk long
you of what he has seen, and yet say very little about himself. He has
to be drawn
out. I had many questions to ask, and his answers were all marked by
of memory, simplicity, candor, and a desire to make someone else,
rather than himself,
the hero of his story."
the manner of the man.
"Life of Fremont," [Lib 1856] p. 279.
(2) Idem p. 230.
Testimonial to Albert G. Mackey
By The Editor
troublesome times of the Civil War Albert G. Mackey was confined to his
of Charleston, S. C., where for four years he gave his time, his
energies and his
substance to the succor of his brethren, little heeding whether they
North or to South, though he himself was a Union man. Immediately after
the "cradle of the rebellion," had passed once again into Federal
Dr. Mackey's brethren of New York City "moved by a common impulse of
for the man, of ardent sympathy for the unyielding patriot, of
fraternal love for
the zealous Mason, determined to invite him to visit them once more,
and to receive
at their hands a substantial evidence of their sympathy." (I am quoting
a very rare account of the Dr. Mackey Testimonial printed in 1865 by
Macoy and Sickels.
This copy was signed by Mackey himself and inscribed to the then Grand
New York, Clinton F. Paige.)
A call was
issued to the Masons of New York City. They met on the evening of March
and at that time adopted, among others, this resolution, that,
it has further come to our knowledge that by the vicissitudes of war,
our R.'. W.'.
Brother has lost his property, and in his declining years been reduced
to the sharp
necessity of beginning again the battle of life; therefore,
That as an earnest of our good will we solicit his acceptance of the
of the brethren........."
"Welcome and Testimonial" was held in the Academy of Music on Saturday
evening, May 20, 1865, M.'. W.'. Clinton F. Paige presiding. A number
artists," along with "Grafulla's Seventh Regiment Full Band," made
the occasion memorable.
of interest on the occasion was the gracious kindly gentleman from the
whose honour so large a throng was assembled. After the music had
ceased, and the
Grand Master had pronounced a beautiful welcoming address, Dr. Mackey
the speech, a part of which succeeds this brief narrative.
however impressive as it was then ‒ and still is ‒ did not so deeply
stir the auditors
as the incident that followed, the account of which I transcribe from
as Mme. Salvotti had breathed the last intonation of her song, and
before the sounds
of her voice had died away, R.'. W.'. Robert Macoy stepped forward and
Brother Mackey with a beautiful gold snuffbox, of which the following
"It was stated that this box
been presented to Brother Mackey by the Masonic fraternity, as a token
for the many years of faithful servitude he had rendered them. Shortly
commencement of the war, however, Brother Mackey was compelled to part
with it in
order to procure bread for his family. The box then passed into the
hands of a person
who took it to Easton, Pa., and gave it to a jeweller to have the
This fact becoming known to Brother J. M. Porter, Jr., Past Master of
No. 152, he, with other members of the lodge, having by correspondence
York become acquainted with its history, purchased it, and sent it to
New York to
Brother Macoy, with the request that it should in their name be
returned to Brother
Mackey, with a handsome little present enclosed. The box has since been
without the knowledge of Brother Mackey, until it was presented to him
In making the presentation, Brother Macoy briefly explained the above
closed by saying that the box, though beautiful on the outside, had,
also, a peculiar
inside lining; he would not say exactly what it was, but it looked
is needless to say that Brother Mackey was taken by surprise at the
of his precious gift, the snuffbox. He expressed himself much gratified
again the possessor of it, and retired amid the applause of the
that Dr. Mackey had literally bankrupted himself in order to give
his brethren, even to the extent of his personal belongings. A
who was present at the Academy of Music tells me that those who were in
left with the feeling that in this Testimonial it was already evident
would take the lead in healing over the breach between the two
sections, and that
in his own attitude and spirit Dr. Mackey revealed that which so
Lincoln, ‒ "Malice toward none, charity for all."
is the science of life, taught in a society of men by signs, symbols
having as its basis a system of morality, and for its purposes and aim,
and happiness of the individual and the race.
George F. Moore
in the Civil War
By Brother Dr. Albert G.
in the preceding article, a public Testimonial was given to Brother
of Mackey's Encyclopedia, Mackey's History of Freemasonry, etc., on the
May 20th, 1865. Space does not permit the reproduction of the whole or
speech delivered by him at that time, but it is believed that many
be delighted to read that part which contains his stirring account of
during the soul-racking days of the Civil War.
AS A MASON,
holding a not altogether obscure position in the Order, I have, in the
my life written and said much about its excellence and beauty. I know
that it teaches
fraternal love. I know that it inculcates kindness to the destitute,
for the sorrowing. I know its pretensions to be a science of morality
and a development
in one direction of the religious sentiment. But until this war came
upon us, in
all its horror of want and suffering, of demoniac hate and inhuman
passion, I did
not know how successfully theory and practice could be mingled in the
of the Order and the actions of the disciples. I did not know how
surely and steadfastly
its rays of light could dispel the gloom of this dark night of our
first struggles of the infant rebellion began to threaten the gigantic
ruin and desolation, which it subsequently too successfully achieved,
all the other
social, moral and religious societies of the country preserved a
No voice of warning, no voice of entreaty, no prayer or suggestion for
came from any section of the land, already upheaving with the throes of
conflict. The Church where peace on earth and good will toward men
should have been
at all times, but then more especially, the constant theme, was dumb as
The dark funeral pall of war was closing around the land, and there was
raise its gathering clouds and let in one solitary ray of peace, or
hope, or love.
mindful of its divine mission on earth, spoke out with persuasive
tongue of exhortation,
that men and brethren should abstain from this cruel conflict. That it
is a noble incident of its history. And although its voice was then
shall henceforth, forever, rob it of the glory of the attempt.
sixty days had elapsed after the first shot had been fired at Fort
from the National Capitol, the true-hearted Grand Master of the
Templars of the
United States issued a memorable address to the knights of his command,
scattered over both sections of our discordant country, in which he
each one, after humbly seeking strength and aid from on High, to exert
at his command to avert the dread calamity and prevent the shedding of
Not a month
had passed ere the officers of the Grand Lodge of Tenessee made a
for peace; and in the tones of entreaty that ought to have been heard,
Masons, as members of a common brotherhood, as brethren bound together
ties not to be broken save by the hand of death," they appealed for a
of the unnatural strife.
And a few
weeks later, the Grand Masters of Kentucky, of Ohio, and of Indiana,
united in a
similar work of attempted reconciliation; and crying out from the very
their hearts, "Is there no balm for the bleeding wounds of our nation?
no hand to hold out the olive branch? No savior to still the troubled
‒ they concluded their earnest appeal by inviting a Masonic convention,
recommend some plan to heal the wounds of the country. Had the acerbity
strife, and the cunning of political corruption which were then
deluded people with their pressure, permitted the holding of such a
who can tell what blessed results might have been brought forth from
of men who had been taught the duty of mutual kindness and mutual
the same sacred altar and in the same mystic language?
came with like counsels the gentle voice of Cyril Pearl from his
far-off home on
the very borders of our land. He lived to see the culmination of the
war which he
deprecated. Before its decline he was called from his earthly labours
of love. Masonry
can ill spare such noble-hearted men.
at last the clouds of war had not only gathered all over the land, but
forth in a storm of carnage; when there was no more hope of peace until
passions of men should be diluted with the flow of blood, the Grand
Master of South
Carolina, whose heart, strongly beating with Union sympathies, has long
quelled in death, addressed an encyclical letter to his brethren, in
which he charged
them in the name of our Supreme and Universal Master, "to suffer not
and broils of men to impair the harmony which has existed and will
the fraternity." "Let us not," he said, in his own emphatic language,
"let us not hear among us that there is war; that strife and dissension
As Masons, it concerns us not."
And I rejoice
in my heart that these teachings were not unheeded. If there was war
was always peace within our lodges.
bear with me while I say of my native jurisdiction, where I think I
have some Masonic
influence, that in South Carolina, reproached as I fear she justly is,
the benignant principles of Freemasonry were never for a moment
forgotten. In its
capital city, the only place, I fear, on the whole continent where the
of love was enacted, prisoners of war, who were Masons, were relieved
on their parole
by the officer of their guard, himself a Mason, and carried from the
prison to the
lodge room, to relieve the weariness of their captivity by witnessing
in the secret services of the Order.
And I can
solemnly aver that I never approached a Mason or lodge in Charleston,
with a petition
for the relief of a destitute, suffering prisoner of war, without
kindest response and the most liberal donation.
the length and breadth of our land, at the North and the South, the
East, and the
West, wherever there was the sin of strife, there, too, was the atoning
Masonry. It went into the prison, and gave comfort to the captive. It
the hospital, and gave balm to the wounded. It went into the
battlefield, and gave
rescue of life to the conquered.
henceforth speak of its unknown mysteries, or contempt for its
Let its adversaries be silent before the magnitude of its achievements;
the history of this unnatural war is written, while all honor is
bestowed upon the
hero and the patriot, let it not be forgotten, but let it rather be
characters of living light, that when war was beginning to whet its
beak ‒ while
other associations were indifferent and dumb ‒ while the churches
no sign of Christian life, Masonry done sought to avert the impending
when the full tide of conflict had rolled in upon our shores, and blood
into the ground, Masonry again came forth, a ministering angel, to
clothe in some
measure the stain of our nation's fratricidal contest with a ray of
and to give to the black cloud of war a silver lining.
Catholic Editor Opposes Roman Catholic Secret Societies
Catholics should be so opposed to Freemasonry because it is a secret
their own church fosters, and has in times past fostered, some of the
secret societies that have ever existed has long been a standing puzzle
who believe that what is sauce for the goose should also be sauce for
But Masons are not the only ones to observe this curious inconsistency.
a letter from a Roman Catholic editor that was published in The
September 1st, 1922, page 327. It is sufficiently explicit and stands
in no need
of interpretation. The Fortnightly Review is a Roman Catholic journal,
on the 1st and 16th of every month, 5851 Etzel Avenue, St. Louis, Mo.
It is edited
by Arthur Preuss, author of a well-known "book" on Freemasonry. [Lib 1908]
finished reading your fine article 'Combating Secret Societies' (F.R.,
No. 16, p.
301 sq.). While reading it, and fully agreeing with Bishop Wehrle, I
should be said about the secret societies within the Church or 'in the
years ago, as a printer, I became interested in secret societies, Every
a while some mysterious stuff came along As printers handled the cuts
emblems, turned out stationery, letters, etc., and began to study the
This will explain why I am able today to tell at first glance to what
lodge a man
belongs if he wears an emblem. When I went into business for myself, I
of the many advantages of secret orders, and I joined one. My interest
grew, I became
very active and was elected to various offices, excepting the 'paid'
I have had my fill of 'honor.' Once I discussed the question of life
fraternal orders with a Lutheran pastor, whom I respected for the stand
against all the mummery, tomfoolery and rot. This pastor was well read
on the subject
and gave me a ritual of a certain secret society. Reading it I found
that it was
similar, yes, in some parts and respects identical with the ritual
which 'we' used.
After that I read various exposes, and I have reasons to believe that
are correct. Later I read your book on Freemasonry. My interest grew,
and I obtained
some 'real rituals.' I am in a position now to state that all secret
fashioned alike. 'We' met in an I.O.O.F. Hall at one time for a monster
and let me assure you that it was not necessary to shift much scenery
to adapt the
hall for our 'ceremonies.' 'We' even left the altar where it stood, but
the 'Center Pedestal.'
have the 'stations,' the 'wicket,' the 'pass-word,' the 'grip,' the
sign and salute,
the 'gown and cap,' the 'mysteries,' all the awe-inspiring things and
all the tommyrot
of the lodge room with a few religious features to make it a little
course, 'we' go to communion in a body to remain in good standing.
long as 'we' act thus and indulge in the mummery and humbug which is
by our bishops here and there, results cannot be expected. What we
need, and need
badly, is a house-cleaning that begins right at home.
not writing this for publication, and cannot permit my name to be
printed in connection
with it. I am simply stating facts which cannot be overlooked, or
disputed for that
matter. It has gone too far, and, I believe that it is beyond remedy.
When it is
borne in mind that the Wisconsin Staatsverband (D.R.K.C.V.) recently
filled a long-felt
want by adopting an 'Einführungs-Modus' with a very strong leaning to
becomes plain that the garden is full of weeds.
of all: If the Church tolerates secret societies within and 'in her
naturally must conclude that they are not so bad after all. Swimming
stream, as both of us do, we have the sensation of being living fish,
but it is
folly to think that we are making any headway.
give you a 'lot of dope,' but what's the use? Constant dripping may
hollow a stone,
but you and I will be dead and buried a long time before the stone will
A Catholic Fellow Editor.
Gothic Cathedrals Used As
cathedrals were almost as much civic buildings as they were churches,
and in the
sense that they embodied the pride, the ambition, and the rivalries of
this was eminently the case. But they were also actually used for town
for public festivals, and for theatrical exhibitions ‒ the "miracle
and "passion plays," which have survived in one famous instance at
In the Middle Ages the church and the cathedral were always open, like
Catholic churches of our own day. Here the poor man was the equal of
the rich. The
beggar and his lord met on terms of equality in the liberty of using
and in the theory of its religious teachings. There were no pews for
The cathedral was the palace of the poor, and its entire space outside
was open to their daily visits and sojourn at will, without disturbance.
was the museum of art; a museum made, not to display the ostentation of
or the luxury of his life, but to teach by pictures and reliefs the
history of the
world as then known and comprehended by the traditions of the church,
and the lessons
of faith and of sacrifice. Here were, moreover, the actual memorials
of past ages; for here was the treasury not only of the art of the
present but also
of the art of the past. Finally, the cathedral was the sanctuary of the
illustrious dead. Their tombs were its decoration and its pride. ‒ W.H.
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
General Joseph Warren
was Grand Master of Massachusetts. There is a handsome memorial to him
of that state, where he was buried.
was born in Roxbury in 1741, and he was killed at the Battle of Bunker
Hill in 1775.
Like so many of our early patriots he was a physician before he became
He was graduated from Harvard University and practiced medicine in
and fiery patriotism is revealed by the fact that when Mr. Samuel Adams
to deliver the address on the second anniversary of the "Boston
March 5, 1772, Dr. Warren himself delivered it, though he knew the act
with great danger to himself.
was a delegate to the convention at Suffolk, which took measures to
Gage from fortifying the south entrance to Boston. He was a delegate to
Congress in 1774, and was elected president of that body. It is said
his energy was in great measure due the successful result of the battle
In 1775 he received his commission as Major General and took part
in the Battle of Bunker Hill, with which his name will ever be
connected in the
loving annals of this nation.
a story told of him to the effect that he was warned by Elbridge Gerry
in exposing his person, to which General Warren exclaimed: "I know that
fall, but where is the man who does not think it glorious and
delightful to die
for his country!" Another story relates that a British officer called
by name to warn him of his risks and even ordered his men to cease
firing. Dr. Warren
was shot in the head and died instantly. If it be true that the British
did call to him in this manner we should feel remiss were we to pass so
an act without praise.
devoted years to the Craft and occupies a conspicuous place in the
history of the
early Masonry of the United States. He was a Mason in deed as well as
in word, and
such men always become the idol of the brethren. Lodges have been named
Warren in almost every state in the Union. The Grand Secretary of New
Kenworthy, has made the excellent suggestion that the Craft establish
of naming new lodges after these great patriots.
can do no more thorough justice to the story of the Masonic career of
than by incorporating here an account of him published in the Grand
of Massachusetts, June 14, 1916, wherein we may read:
Warren was born in Roxbury, Mass., June 11, 1741. He graduated at
in 1759. During 1760 he was employed as a teacher in a public school in
and in the following year commenced the study of medicine under Doctor
eminent physician of that day. He began practice in 1763 and is said to
himself at once. In 1764 the smallpox prevailed extensively in Boston
and he was
very successful in treating it. About this time he began to take an
in political affairs, and his letters to public men and his newspaper
attracted the attention even of the government. They were remarkable
of thought, terseness of statement, and cogency of argument. In 1774 he
to represent the town of Boston in the Provincial Congress and in the
year was elected President of that body. Here he manifested
of mind and a peculiar fitness for the guidance and government of men
in times of
difficulty and danger.
Congress was then sitting at Watertown and upon its daily adjournment
to the military camp there to participate with the common soldiers in
and drills and to encourage and animate them by exhortation and
example. The Provincial
Congress offered him the appointment of Surgeon General, but he
declined it and
accepted a Commission as Major General, dated only three days before
of Bunker Hill.
the night of the 16th of June, 1775, he presided at the meeting of the
Congress which continued in session a great part of the night in
in the morning of June 17th he visited a patient in Dedham and left her
he must go to Charlestown to get a shot at the British and would return
to her in
season for her confinement which was almost hourly expected. He arrived
Hill only a few moments before the first attack of the British troops.
refused to take command when offered it by Putnam and Prescott, seized
and fought as a private. His reluctance to obey the order to retreat
his death as he was only a few rods from the redoubt when the British
possession and he; was instantly killed by a bullet in the head. He was
a shallow grave on the field.
after the evacuation of Boston his Masonic brethren determined to go in
the body. They repaired to the spot indicated by an eye-witness of his
was at the brow of a hill, and near the head of the grave was an acacia
the removal of the earth which appeared to have been recently disturbed
the body of their Grand Master. This was on the 6th of April, 1776.
conveyed the body to the State House in Boston, and on the 8th of the
an oration was delivered over his remains by Perez Morton who was at
the time Grand
Marshal of the Grand Lodge. After the funeral ceremonies the remains
in a tomb in the Granary Burying Ground where they remained for nearly
In 1825 his remains were found, identified, deposited in a box of
by a silver plate, and placed in the Warren Tomb under St. Paul's
A number of years later they were again removed and found their final
in Forest Hills Cemetery.
Solomon's Lodge (then of Charlestown, now of Somerville), in December,
and dedicated a monument to his memory in the shape of a Tuscan pillar
feet high, resting upon a platform eight feet in height, eight feet
fenced about to Protect it from injury. On the top of the pillar was
placed a gilt
urn with the initials and age of General Warren enclosed within the
square and compasses.
The dedicatory services and procession were elaborate. The lodge kept
in repair until March 8, 1825, when they voted to present the land and
to the Bunker Hill Monument Association upon condition that there
should be placed
within the walls of the monument the Association was about to erect a
of the ancient pillar in order to perpetuate that early patriotic act
of the Masonic
Fraternity. In fulfillment of that condition King Solomon's Lodge on
June 24, 1845,
placed within Bunker Hill Monument an exact model in marble of the
The public ceremonies were conducted by the Grand Lodge, including many
brethren from other jurisdictions. An interesting feature of the
occasion was the
presentation of the working tools to the Grand Master, Augustus
Peabody, by Past
Grand Mast John Soley, who had himself fifty years before dedicated the
The corner stone of the present monument was laid with Mason ceremonies
on the fiftieth
anniversary of the battle under the direction of Grand Master John
by our illustrious Brother Lafayette. The completion of the monument
on the seventeenth of June, 1843, the Masonic portion of the procession
the direction of King Solomon's Lodge.
that occasion Past Grand Master Benjamin Russell, a soldier of the
the Masonic Apron of General Warren. On June 17, 1857, Most Worshipful
John T. Heard,
Grand Master, assisted by the Grand Officers and two thousand brethren,
a statue of General Warren in the presence of about five thousand
Warren was initiated in St. Andrew's Lodge of Boston on September 30,
1761. He was
passed on November 2d, but there is no record as to the date of his
November 14, 1765, the lodge voted unanimously that Doctor Joseph
Warren be re-admitted
a member of the lodge. He was elected Master in 1769. In December of
that year he
received from the Earl of Dalhousie, Grand Master of Masons in
Scotland, a Commission
bearing date May 30, 1769, appointing him Grand Master of Masons in
Boston and within
one hundred miles of the same. In 1773 he received another Commission
3, 1772, issued by the Earl of Dumfries, then Grand Master of Scotland,
his jurisdiction over the Continent of America. He was installed under
each of these
Commissions on the 27th of December of the respective years. Grand
presided over all the forty meetings of the Grand Lodge held previous
to his death,
save four. On one of the occasions when he was absent, namely, June 3,
record recites that the Grand Lodge adjourned by reason of the few
present, they being engaged on consequential public business. He was
at the adjourned meeting on the 7th of that month.
Warren, the first man of distinction to lay down his life in the cause
liberty, was not only young and handsome, but also able, energetic,
and brave. Notwithstanding his youth he had the responsibilities and
care of a young
family, the anxieties and labors of the large practice of a popular
the demands of an extensive correspondence both at home and abroad,
well as political. With all this he was a constant attendant upon the
the Committee of Correspondence, the Committee of Safety, the meetings
of the town,
of the Sons of Liberty, and other caucuses. He was a prolific writer.
He was assiduous
in the exercise of his Masonic duties to such an extent that Masonry
even in those
troublous days flourished and prospered under his administration."
Webster delivered his masterly address at the dedication of Bunker Hill
he made no mention of the monument it displaced, which seems to have
forgotten. I am indebted to Brother C.F. Willard of San Diego,
California, for the
reference, and to the Grand Secretary of Massachusetts (Brother
Frederick W. Hamilton)
for the picture herewith produced. It tells the whole story, and any
add to its grandeur would be like an effort to paint the lily. But how
and important an illustration could be buried so long it is hard to
The name of King Solomon's Lodge should be emblazoned in letters of
gold for this
grand act; and, be it remembered, that it must have been erected at no
in that day when money was so scarce.
monument was removed to make place for a larger one, at public expense,
this evidence that the great Warren was a Mason, though his memorial at
shows that he was.
with a poem that gives excellent expression to the spirit of Warren. My
signed by the name "Pierpont": can some reader tell us something about
this Revolutionary bard? was he the John Pierpont who was born in 1785
in 1866, and who divided his attention equally between themes patriotic
Warren's Address at Bunker Hill -- [A Poem]
the ground's your own, my braves!
Will ye give it up to slaves?
Will ye look for greener graves?
Hope ye mercy still?
What's the mercy despots feel?
Hear it in that battle peal!
Hear it on yon bristling steel!
Ask it ‒ ye who will.
Fear ye foes who kill for hire?
Will ye to your homes retire?
Look behind you! they're afire!
And, before you, see ‒
Who have done it! ‒ from the vale
On they come! ‒ and will ye quail? ‒
Leaden rain and iron hail
Let their welcome be!
In the God of battles trust!
Die we may, ‒ and die we must; ‒
But, oh! where can dust to dust
Be consigned so well,
As where heaven its dews shall shed
On the martyred patriot's bed,
And the rocks shall raise their head,
Of his deeds to tell!
* * *
Bunker Hill Monument
A. D. MDCCXCIV., by King Solomon's Lodge of Freemasons, constituted at
1783, in memory of Major General Joseph Warren and his Associates, who
on this memorable spot, June 17, 1775.
they who set a just value upon the blessings of Liberty are worthy to
In vain we toiled: in vain we fought: we bled in vain, if you, our
valor to repel the assaults of her invaders!”
Settled 1628: Burnt 1775; Rebuilt 1776. The closed land given by Hon.
is an exact model of the first monument erected on Bunker Hill, which,
land on which it stood, was given A.D. 1825 by King Solomon's Lodge, of
to the Bunker Hill Monument Association, that they might erect upon its
site a more
imposing structure. The Association, in fulfilment of a pledge at that
have allowed, in their imperishable obelisk, this model to be inserted,
ceremonies, by King Solomon's Lodge, June 24th, A. D. 1845."
The Awful Fetish of Feeding
Latomorum, Vol. VII, No. 3, page 47, prints a communication that is not
point on this side of the water. Says the editor, Brother Lionel
advisedly print the following outpourings without any indications of
but I can assure my readers that they come from an eminent source." The
is as follows:
"I was very pleased to see your
on page 135 of volume VI. Royal Cumberland is very much to be
this is the class of lodge that it is a pleasure to belong to. This
of feeding that now exists is depressing. On the last two occasions I
to Chapters (Royal Arch, not in London) my whole evening was spoilt by
the ceremony to get to dinner. In one case I was in the second chair
and a Provincial
Grand Lodge Officer sitting behind who was paying an official visit
asked me to
get the Z to cut out the lectures and then to take the ballot for the
one lot. The other occasion was an installation ‒ only two of the
fully installed as the third was already an H. A ceremony of exaltation
was to follow
but it was actually cut out because they were afraid the soup would be
two Chapters were in different Provinces, but such cases are by no
Masonry of this sort is useless. The last time I was in a Mark lodge
same sort of thing was done, the Master made very neat little addresses
to his new
officers, and afterwards a visiting Provincial Grand Lodge Officer
it because it made us late for dinner. This sort of thing is a very bad
to the younger brethren.
"There is another habit which
wants stopping, and that is making a Masonic sign when toasting a
the table; it seems to be getting much more common than it was and is
when there are so many outside waiters about."
To Albert G. Mackey -- [A Poem]
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
Mason, gentle, kindly,
How securely has thy name,
How serenely has thy fame
Braved the years that else so blindly
Have undone so much we prize!
Still thy spirit hovers near us,
Now to guide and now to cheer us,
Never harsh and always wise.
In what Lodge, beyond our ken
Hast thou found a Master's place?
Dost thou now behold the Face
Of the Master of all men?
May He grant to thee the wage
Of a Craftsman and a Sage.
The Teachings of Masonry
By Bro. H.L. Haywood
paper is one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or
Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and
in lodges and study clubs. From the questions following each section of
the study club leader should select such as he may desire to use in
particular points for discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on
question presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge or
may be able to devote to the study club meeting.
the study club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the
to the text of the paper and not permit the members to speak too long
at one time
or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident that the
is turning from the original subject the leader should request the
members to make
notes of the particular points or phases of the matter they may wish to
or inquire into and bring them up after the last section of the paper
should be closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as
may have come up during the meeting and laid over until this time
should be entered
into and discussed. Should any questions arise that cannot be answered
by the study
club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be
submitted to us
and we will endeavor to answer them for you in time for your next
references on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at the
end of the
* * *
‒ Endless Life
"Tis true; 'tis certain; man
Part of himself; the immortal mind remains."
written by Homer 3,000 years ago, remind us how that ages before the
modem thought and all the crusades of our modern religions, men
believed in immortality
as we do now. If one were to push himself behind Homer into an age long
to his, and as ancient to him as his is to us, one would and men
same hope. Imhotep, the father of architecture in stone, builder to the
King Zoser, lived 5,000 years ago, but for all that he believed in
did Homer. And so with those to whom Imhotep looked back as to those
to him; and also with them in their turn; and so on to the beginning of
the first half-wild hunter paused long enough in his search of meat to
across lovely valleys, where floating gossamers reminded him how frail
and how fleeting
is human life.
It is useless
to try to prove by logic or by demonstration the immortality of man. We
it, there is an end of it! And we do not believe it because we have
proved it, but
we try to prove it because we already believe it. It is a hope, a kind
certainty which finds its support not in this fact or in that, but in
the cast and
color of life as a whole. It rises up into our minds like an exaltation
our thoughts, all our experiences, all our dreams, as the odor that
a summer field distills from numberless unnoted plants. We are never so
as when we are challenged to give a reasoned proof of this hope: and we
so unreasonable as when we cease to believe it. Men everywhere and
always have believed
it not because priests have taught them or because scientists have
found out the
secret of it, but because life itself has taught them, and it is
the universe itself is always whispering to them. The priests and the
not created the belief: it is the belief that has made the priests and
and no amount of ignorance, baseness, or superstition appears able to
blot out that
great hope. The cannibals cling to it, and we ourselves though we sleep
in a gutter,
hear it announced within that whispering gallery which we call the soul.
"Though inland far we be,
Our souls have sight of that immortal sea
Which brought us hither."
- How long have men believed in
- Who was Homer? Imhotep?
- Why do you believe in
- How would you set about to
- How do we know that men have
always believed it?
It is impossible
to form any mental picture of the future life. No two religions
describe it in the
same way, and some of them, ancient Buddhism, for example, have refused
it at all. Our modern spiritists who follow in the train of Sir Oliver
Doyle, Camile Flammarion and their school, believe themselves to have
news from the Beyond but unfortunately they have never been able to
agree as to
the nature of things in that unknown realm. It appears that such
are given through the mediums, Ouija boards and such other occult means
usually conform in a general way to the preconceptions of the
The Eskimo spiritist is told that heaven is a beautiful place full of
polar bears; the American Indian learns that it is a happy hunting
ground; the Chinese
spiritist ‒ spiritism has been developed in China to a degree of
and perfection never attained elsewhere ‒ is informed that heaven is a
organized strictly in accord with the principles of ancestor worship.
All this would
indicate that if bona fide communications ever do penetrate the veil
are such as to preclude the transmission of accurate or definite
that spiritists themselves are in like case with the rest of us who
find that eye
hath not seen nor ear heard nor hath it entered into the mind of man to
what the future life is like.
it is difficult to cherish even the thinnest hope of a continued life
to fashion some sort of conception of it, because the mind cannot
the idea at all. Because we hold immortality as a belief we are
compelled to think
it as a thought, and it is this psychological necessity, perhaps, that
has led men
in every country and in all ages to make for themselves some picture of
One should not try to quarrel with this, because one cannot do so
man is so made that he must behave in this manner, and that is an end
But it is
for this reason, I believe, that we should be all the more careful that
about the future life be strictly reasonable. If our nature compels us
out some conception of immortality, that same nature similarly compels
us to fashion
a conception that won't insult the intelligence or fly in the face of
It is necessary to be reasonable while we reason about Eternal Life. It
me ‒ and I speak here only for myself ‒ that this principle in itself
is one of
the teachings of Freemasonry concerning this subject. Our Fraternity
leaves it to
each individual to fashion his own conceptions of the Beyond but at the
and by all the arts at its command, persuades its votaries ever to
remain in the
Light, to seek more Light, and to fear to walk farther than the Light
can lead them:
and this Light itself is, of course, nothing other than reason, and
right thinking. When the subject passes beyond into the darkness of the
it is better to cease pursuing it further, lest we fall into
superstition. It is
better to remain agnostic about what the future life is like than to
hold fast to
How do you
picture the future life in your own mind? What is spiritism? Name a few
spiritists now living. Do spiritists agree among themselves as to the
Give an example of some conception of the future life that is
contradicted by facts
as we know them, and that is unreasonable. Why should we try to make
of the future life as reasonable as possible?
It is both
safe and wise to hold fast to the principle that all reality is bound
into a great unity ‒ for the which reason we call it a Universe ‒ and
that one part
of this system does not contradict or give the lie to any other part.
There is no
good reason to suppose that death makes any profound change in the
scheme of things.
Death is a part of the Universe and always has been and, it may
always will be. It is reasonable to suppose that the Universe will be
the same after
we are dead as it was before, and that therefore the "future life," as
we call it (it is no longer "future" to those now living it) will in
essentials be of a piece with this present life. Why should we expect
and impossibilities there when such things are not found here? What
right have we
to suppose that the experience of death will change our world out of
and transform ourselves into beings utterly different from what we are?
is human is immortal," said Bulwer-Lytton. Why is not the reverse also
"What is immortal is human." We are here in closest relation to an
out of the surface of which we labor to wrest our bread each and every
one of us
is the member of one race ‒ the human ‒ and of some one grand division
in consequence of which we differ greatly in color, language,
appearance, and a
hundred other things. The race as a whole is equally divided between
the members of which are so unlike each other in many important
respects as to cause
one to believe that sexual differences extend into the inmost recesses
nature, and are not to be put on or off by any possible change. We are
organized in a physical body, and it is ceaselessly necessary for us to
strive, to endure, to eat and sleep, and to suffer. It may be that all
will be carried over into whatever life, or lives, may be waiting for
They are neither superficial nor accidental and are so woven into the
of things that it is difficult to understand how human life could know
death with all such things omitted.
of one's self such a discussion leads into theology, the most
irritating of all
subjects, and the least appropriate to these pages. In a field where no
are marked out for us we are necessarily forced to fall back on private
a thing I have done throughout this paper, and with the most cordial
to the reader to disagree if he is so disposed. I have no interest as a
theological beliefs concerning the future life save to secure for
ourselves a principle
that will guarantee for us the full protection of the present life and
all its values.
It may be said that what a man believes about the future is his own
and should be respected as such. This is very true as long as the man's
about the life to come do not seriously interfere with the life that
now is, a thing
that often happens. If my beliefs cause me to be illiberal or harsh, or
or if they are such as to destroy my happiness, then my beliefs become
concern to my fellows, and they have a right to challenge me thereon.
It is true,
as I remarked above, that Freemasonry leaves the fashioning of this
to the individual, nevertheless the Fraternity's spirit and teachings
opposed to beliefs that lead a man into unbrotherly behavior or
What Masonry has to teach concerning immortality is necessarily of a
its other teachings. If democracy, equality, charity, brotherly love,
and honorable labor are good things now they cannot cease to be good
things in the
life to come. If such things are of God in this life it is hardly
they will cease to be divine in the next life.
If a man
were to ask me point-blank, "what, in so many words, does Freemasonry
about the endless life?" I should be hard put to make a reply
does not teach anything about it after the manner of an old-fashioned
but all its rites and ceremonies, its spirit and its laws are filled
as the sky is suffused with light. Immortality is the motif of the
one word to be said in addition. In the great drama of the Third Degree
things done and said that give one a new and enlarged conception of
life. The initiate has it brought home to him that if there are some
abide for ever, so that they are undestroyed by all the deaths that
are, it is possible
to search out such things now, and to mold his life about them, and
give them the
place of control at the center of the heart, so that one can live the
in the midst of time. This is not easily gained, as many a man has
learned to his
cost: there are ruffians at the gates, lions in the path, and often it
to one who seeks this Royal Secret that his days are become a
succession of deaths.
"He who flagged not in the
From strength to strength advancing ‒ only he
His soul well-knit, and all his battles won,
Mounts, and that hardly, to eternal life."
- What do we mean by saying that
we live in a universe?
- What is your theory about the
part death plays in the life of man?
- What are the things in human
nature least liable to change after death?
- What is meant by theology?
- What kind of beliefs about the
future life cause men to be harsh and unkind?
- What has Masonry to teach
- What is the meaning of the
drama of the Third Degree?
- In what way does the Third
Degree teach eternal life?
Vol. I (1915)
Immortality ‒ The Circle, p. 133;
Death Shall We Live Again? P. 300;
Realization of the Truth, p. 211.
Vol. II (1916)
Reflections on the Philosophy of Albert
Pike, p. 9;
Spirit of Man, P. 187;
Three Grips, P. 30;
Third Degree, p. 126;
Toleration, p. 265.
Landmarks, p. 211;
Feet of Time, p.25; Life After Death,
Vol. IV (1918)
the Rainbow Never Fades, p. 162;
Ancient Mysteries p. 223;
Symbolism of the Three Degrees, p. 291.
Vol. V (1919)
Studies in Blue Lodge Symbolism, p. 136;
Eleusinian Mysteries, p 240;
Plan of Freemasonry p. 266;
Immortality, p. 145.
Vol. VI (1920)
Psychical Research, p. 918;
Eternal Life, October C.C.B. p. 3;
Freemasonry Among the American Indians,
Immortality of the Soul, p. 50.
the Liberator, p. 11;
Future Life, p. 126.
Buddhism, p. 122.
See also related topics under
Aranyaka, p. 74;
Aryan, p. 80;
Mahabharata, Mahadeva, Mahakasyapa, p.
Pitaka, p. 569;
Puranas, p. 601,
Ramayana, p. 607;
Sakti, p. 661,
Sastra and Sat B'hai, p. 664;
Shaster, p. 685;
Shesha, p. 686;
Sruti, p. 710;
Upadevas, Upanishad, p. 818;
Vedanga, Vedas, p. 824;
Zenana, Zennaar, p. 878.
Egyptian Hieroglyphs, p. 231;
Egyptian Mysteries, pp. 232-234;
Immortality of the Soul, p. 347;
Mason or Third Degree, p. 474;
Religion of Masonry, pp. 617-619;
Speculative Masonry, p. 704;
Spiritualizing, p. 706;
Spiritual Lodge, p. 706; Sublime, p. 732.
* * *
Our Study Club Plan
Study Club Course, of which the foregoing paper by Brother Haywood is a
begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to the beginning of the
on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings of Masonry," as
we have titled it, were published some forty-three papers covering in
Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under the following several
"The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge and the Candidate," "First
Steps," "Second Steps," and "Third Steps." A complete set
of these papers up to January 1st, 1922, are obtainable in the bound
THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920 and 1921.
is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study
by Brother Haywood:
The Teachings of Masonry
- General Introduction.
- The Masonic Conception of Human
- The Idea of Truth in
- The Masonic Conception of
- Ritualism and Symbolism.
- Initiation and Secrecy.
- Masonic Ethics.
- Masonry and Industry.
- The Brotherhood of Man.
- Freemasonry and Religion.
- The Fatherhood of God.
- Endless Life.
- Brotherly Aid.
- Schools of Masonic Philosophy.
course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in monthly
meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the United States and
Canada, and in
several instances in lodges overseas.
of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia.
* * *
How to Organize and Conduct
Study Club Meetings
may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of
In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably of
members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The study
should be held at least once a month (excepting during July and August,
study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER), either at a special
of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular communication at
which no business
(except the lodge routine) should be transacted, all possible time to
to study club purposes.
lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master
the lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The
be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the
members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned
prepared with their material, and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study of it.
Program for Study Club Meetings
- Reading of any supplemental
papers on the subject for the evening which may
have been prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of
- Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper.
- Discussion of this section,
using the questions following this section to
bring out points for discussion.
- The subsequent sections of the
paper should then be taken up and disposed
of in the same manner.
- Question Box. Invite questions
on any subject in Masonry, from any and all
brethren present. Let the brethren understand that these meetings are
particular benefit and enlightenment and get them into the habit of
asking all the
questions they may be able to think of. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, send them in to us and we will endeavor to
to them in time for your next study club meeting.
information should enable study club committees to conduct their
difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such committees, or
member of lodges and study clubs at any time such brethren are invited
to feel free
to communicate with us.
The Blue Lodge Has First
Lien on a Mason
ONCE A MAN
has begun to take an active part in the activities of the Higher
Degrees (as they
have come to be called) it is natural for him to become engrossed in
them at the
expense of his Blue Lodge duties, and that because those degrees offer
so much greater
variety. Instead of three degrees these other bodies, along with their
offer a half hundred or so, and instead of one group of men there are
of which makes for sustained interest as against the comparative
monotony of Blue
brethren who succumb to this appeal are not to be too roughly scolded
but follow the lead of nature. Nevertheless, and even so, they should
look, and listen. Not one "higher" grade can ever rise above the level
of the Craft lodge, which is fons et origina for the whole Masonic
system. As the
Blue Lodge goes so goes Masonry. If the Blue Lodge sinks into control
by the least
competent groups how much better off will the other bodies be in the
course of time?
The whole York Rite and Scottish Rite systems are so utterly dependent
on the health
and strength of Craft Masonry that no man can be a friend to them who
is not loyal
to his Blue Lodge, so that the more zealous a man is for the prosperity
of any of
the additional grades the more active should he be in the work of the
The Blue Lodge has in the nature of things first lien on a Mason's
It is of
interest in this connection to read a word written in the field and
with no thought
of a literary public. In a report to his Grand Master, Brother H.E.
Austin, a Deputy
District Grand Master of North Carolina, gave expression to some
sterling good sense:
"Our Masons who have the capacity, the initiative, the personality, are
attending the Blue Lodge. They are not occupying the stations, they are
leadership in that branch of Masonry that is fundamental and where good
is so essential. Our new members are not brought into contact with that
Mason who can give them the vision of a true conception of what Masonry
are not receiving the inspiration, not getting the social contacts that
and have a right to expect.
stronger Masons must come to a realizing sense that they are doing
Masonry a real
harm and putting Masonry into jeopardy, when they segregate themselves
to the Commandery,
the Chapter, the Scottish Rite, etc., leaving the novice and the poorly
to conduct the affairs of the local Blue Lodge.
believe the members of the higher orders have realized this situation."
* * *
The Doors Wide Open
One of our
best admired contemporaries, a Masonic monthly edited with discretion
with taste, carries on its cover a symbolic representation of the doors
into the Masonic Temple. Significantly enough, these portals, which
as all portals of initiation necessarily do, are wide open, and it is
they are intended to remain so.
Is not this
a misinterpretation of the actual facts? Is it not true that the
portals of Freemasonry
are closed to all without, save when they are opened to them from
within? In a sense,
yes, but not in the sense interpreted by this symbolic representation.
For the real
door that opens into the Temple of Freemasonry is not that of wood
upon its iron hinges, but the will, the purpose, and the
and moral, which exist in a Due man. To all such who are thus properly
the doors of Freemasonry are ever open. Yea, in a real sense, as hinted
by one of
the old texts of the V.S.L., it is the true and upright man who is
himself the door
to the Fraternity; for when all is said and done, Freemasonry is not a
stones, wood, doors, buildings, and external trappings, but rather is
it a circle
of open minds and true hearts to which any man is welcome if he be
worthy of such
is everlastingly true that we can enter into nothing for which we are
prepared. What is music to a man who has no music in his ear? Of what
use are vast
libraries of books to him who cannot or will not read? what avail ten
to one who prefers darkness to light? of what value are all the just
laws of a noble
land to the citizen who has no conscience in his breast? All the great
things in life, the things which are life itself, if life is to be
than mere existence, are for them only who are truly prepared for them.
are ever open day and night. All the millions of Freemasons cannot keep
out of Freemasonry who is already a Freemason in his soul.
* * *
Guilds and Mason's Marks
in the Orient
Among the men of this nation who are now
doing most to rescue the rest of us from foggy
thinking and foolish creeds Professor John Dewey holds a privileged
that he is a teacher of teachers, and a writer whose books are revered
men and women in all the continents. I do not know whether he is a
Mason or not:
if he is not he should be, and could be too, for his great work on
and Democracy" [Lib 1930] proves him worthy and well
he can write as well as think, and is full of the human qualities of
humor, and friendliness, is proved by his "Letters from China and
a volume of letters which he and his wife wrote back to their children
year in the Orient.
is not a book review. Ye scribe calls attention to the fact that
China and Japan" [Lib 1920] contains two items of some
interest to Masonic
students. In a letter written from Peking (page 261) Professor Dewey
writing of a visit to the Higher Normal School of that city, that "the
of the industrial department, who acted as our guide and host, has been
the 'national industry' activity in connection with the student's
is now, among other things, trying to organize apprentice schools under
To those who have supposed craft guilds a thing long extinct this
should prove a
clue worth following. On page 72 is another item of similar import, and
natural and how inevitable, and in all countries, has been the
employment of "mason's
marks." While describing a reception tendered him in the Arsenal
Tokyo he writes a paragraph which shows that Japanese carpenters
in the old times, just as Masons did in England and on the Continent.
side the Imperial Government is theocratic, and this is the most
so that historical criticism or analysis of old documents is not
indulged in, the
Ancestors being Gods or the Gods being Ancestors. One bureaucratic
sure that the divine ancestors must have left traces of their own
so he investigated the old shrines, and sure enough he found on some of
characters different from Chinese or Japanese. These he copied and
showed for the
original language ‒ till some carpenters saw them and explained that
they were the
regular guild marks."
and Japan are rich, historically and contemporaneously, in matters of
to Freemasons. The unfortunate thing is that much of the literature ‒
should write it "literature" ‒ purporting to deal with secret
guilds, etc., in the Orient has been produced by cotton-headed
devoid of accurate knowledge. The men and women of the Orient are human
not magicians, sages, and miracle workers: their history is real
history to be studied
like any other history; and they live in a real world among cold facts
where 2 plus
2 equals 4, as among us. Books about the Orient should be written in
spirit, which is to say, in the spirit that pervades the letters of
who is for the present the high priest of pragmatism in this country.
* * *
When Is A Man A "Higher
is a man who believes that the power of God is behind and beneath him,
ground under his feet, and that the love of God is over him like the
sky: who believes
in the endlessness of human life; who believes that it is the nature of
man to be
friendly; and who allies himself with the Honorable Society of Ancient
Accepted Masons, in order to join with like-minded men in the
furtherance of such
ideals. When such a Mason has by his intelligent faithfulness surpassed
and file of his fellows so that he understands and practices
Freemasonry more than
they do, he becomes entitled to enroll among the members of the "higher
Unless his membership in those honorable ranks is thus honestly won,
all his badges
and distinctions and the long train of his titles are no more than the
an empty wagon on the street.
Invitation -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Gerald Nancarrow,
shall not gild thy house, my son,"
Breathed God upon His plan.
"I have laid the chisel by thy side,
Come, carve thyself a man."
"For even so near to me are Thou
That were I less than I,
I jealous were of mine own work
And would not let thee try."
"Come build thee strong and true and high
With these bright tools ye see,
A kingly mansion, O my Son!
And thou shalt rule with Me!"
links compose a sacred chain
Of holy brightness and unmeasured length;
The world, with selfish rust and reckless stain,
May mar its beauty but not touch its strength.
The Unsearchable Riches
Revised History of Freemasonry, Robert I. Clegg. Seven volumes, [Lib* (1922 edition
found; 1906 edition in Bibliography)] De Luxe fabrikoid binding. Published by the
Masonic History Company, 225
North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, III. For sale by The National Masonic
Anamosa, Iowa. Price $56.00.
of reading and research are complete in themselves, so that a man never
them or grows weary but finds his interest new every morning and his
by what it feeds upon. Subjects less rich in resources are exhausted at
pall upon one, but these larger subjects are inexhaustible so that
nobody ever comes
to the end of them, and he who has given his life to them feels at the
Sir Isaac Newton who had merely snatched a handful of sand from the
of the ocean. All the major sciences, the fine arts, the larger
forms of business, and a few other fields more difficult to classify,
such as theology
and philosophy, are of such a character. They constitute in themselves
system of culture, so that a man who makes himself at home with them
himself an education which, though it may always be enriched by
additions from other
sources, is nevertheless complete and satisfying in and of itself. To
servant of any one of these major arts and sciences is to be put into
of those truths and uses of the mind whereby one becomes a matured man,
in labors and worthy of dignity and honor. He is like one that has won
at last to
a mountain top ‒ his position puts him into possession of the whole
so far as that is concerned, it matters little what mountain he has
his own, if only it be one that gives him a commanding position.
is such a subject. It is not as public as some, or as popular as
others, and its
nature and extent may not always be known to its own sons, but for all
that it is,
like one of the sciences, or professions, or an art, a world within the
life inside life, a complete circle of interest inside of which any man
a rich culture. It infinitives itself in all directions, one of its
to another and that to a third and so on in an endless chain, until one
that he who ascends the mount of Masonic learning is master of one of
peaks, and in possession of a vast country. "I have been studying
thirty years," once remarked our veteran colleague and brother, J.T.
"and don't know much about it now," the contrast being not to the
of the rewards of such long study, but to the inexhaustibleness of the
The life-long pursuit of Masonic knowledge is one of the most richly
in which any man can engage. For, as Albert Pike wrote when himself
grown old, "There
is nothing which will so well remunerate a man, when the days of his
life are shortening
to the winter solstice, as faithful service in the true interest of
The Craft is as large as the world itself, and somewhere or other
every vital human interest on the periphery of life.
"A Mason's ways are
A type of Existence;
And his persistence
Is as the days are
Of men in this world."
reasons I refuse to think of Freemasonry as being merely a lodge, or
even as being
nothing more than a Fraternity. Neither do I like to think of it as one
secret societies, which have a curious but not an urgent interest.
one of the great public institutions like the home, government, the
church, and the public school. It has played its own great part in
has for itself its own long chapter in the troubled annals of our race.
and societies are little sanctuaries by the way, kindly and cheerful
places of refreshment.
Freemasonry is a great home at the end of the road in which men may
find work, food
and peace all their days. To grow old in its service, to learn all its
be a faithful son to it, is to live such a life as that described in
the First Psalm
where a good man is described as a tree planted by living waters.
of Freemasonry do not lie on the surface. There are many obstacles to
be met and
many difficulties to be overcome by the man who would possess himself
of it, especially
if he seeks to appropriate it intellectually. The ritual is to the
sealed and hidden and written in a dead language. The symbols are as
mute as the
hieroglyphics of Egypt to one who has not the key. The philosophy of
the Craft is
not a fool's paradise of easy ideas for children to play with. Above
all ‒ and it
is to this that I call special attention ‒ the history of the Order has
been made safe or available to Masons, especially to those without time
for laborious research. There is no virtue in these facts: quite the
ritual should be unsealed to every Mason, the symbols interpreted, the
be made plain, and the story of the Craft straightforwardly told in
There are many mysteries, and necessarily so, in Freemasonry, but there
To my own
mind the great value of the newly revised edition of Mackey's History
lies in the fact that it now presents to each man a key to these
of Masonry. In the language of one of the old mystics, "It puts a man
in the house." The Fraternity's own past, which is one of its greatest
and which, more than anything else, is fit to inspire a Mason with
love for it, is brought out into the open, into the sunlight, and made
to the common man who can't read Hebrew, Greek, or Medieval English.
To read through
these seven volumes is like going on a journey through many lands, with
in great cities, and side trips among ancient ruins. One begins with
Masonry. He reads the story of the various Legends of the Craft, and
the Old Manuscripts, with digressions into the quaint stories of
the Tower of Babel, the Legends of Nimrod, and the Legend of Euclid.
of the Fraternity are admittedly a mystery but certain of our great men
hypotheses about it, and these are reviewed in chapters on Anderson,
and Oliver. The author then undertakes an account of his own and
begins, where it
is necessary to begin, with the Temple of Solomon: thereafter come the
Artificers, the Ancient Mysteries, the Druids, the Crusades ‒ a
‒ the Scottish Templars, the Story of the House of Stuart, of the
Jesuits, and of
the intriguing tale of Oliver Cromwell and his supposed connection with
This is but
one-seventh of the journey. In Volume II there is a much needed chapter
on The Royal
Society. Then come the occult groups, the tale of which has been
times but never exhausted; the Astrologers, the Rosicrucians, the
the Gnostics, and the Essenes. Then follows an excellent critical
account of the
Hiram Abif Legend, and the first main portion of the work, Prehistoric
of Freemasonry in the eyes of the author, and strictly so-called,
begins on page
481, of Volume II, with the Roman Collegia. It is a great world in
itself and there
is not space here to follow the itinerary further, or even to sketch in
of the main heads, which are very many. If any Mason is desirous of
of the "unsearchable riches" of Masonry he can do so in these seven
To read them is an education, and a discipline that every Mason owes to
plan of this magnum opus was laid out, and great stores of data
Albert G. Mackey, to whose enduring and gentle fame this issue of THE
dedicated. It was Dr. Mackey's hope to make this the crown of his
life's labor but
unhappily death cut him off before he had completed it. Brother William
took his place and brought the manuscript to shape for publication and
gave it to
the world in a shape now long familiar. It is probable that more men
have been given
an adequate sense of the vast scope of Freemasonry by this History than
by any other
work, with possibly the exception of the Encyclopedia. But it happens
laid down his pen at the very time when a new era of Masonic
scholarship was reaching
its meridian: Lyon, Crawley, Gould, Speth, Hughan and many others of
had organized a new school of Masonic scholarship, and there is no
will yet be the outcome of their labors, seeing that every year finds
some new bit
of the hitherto unknown discovered, explored and claimed for Masonic
Owing to this new uncovering of rich deposits of lore it became
necessary at last
to revise the History. This difficult and responsible task was
entrusted to the
general editorship of Brother Robert I. Clegg, than whom there is not
in all the
land a better known or more beloved Masonic student and writer, and
whose name is
thrice familiar to these pages. It is to him, and to the equally
of Brother Walter C. Burrell, President of The Masonic History
that we are indebted for the new edition of the old familiar work.
As to the
caliber of the scholarship revealed by Brother Clegg's work of revision
do better than to quote a paragraph from a letter from my friend David
E. W. Williamson,
to whose learning this Society has been often indebted:
“I have just
completed the seven volumes and am much impressed with it, as I wrote
Clegg. His own work is in evidence everywhere and the immense erudition
makes the book a real Masonic library. The old history has been
improved at so many
points as to make the Revised History virtually a new work. Dr. Gasho,
who is much interested in all these things, has the edition to which
with the final chapter by Hughan, and it is only necessary to compare
volume to realize that here Bro. Clegg and his associates have brought
down to date."
new volumes are a delight to see especially as regards the binding and
The index is very complete, and there are many footnotes. Take it up
one side and
down the other it would be difficult anywhere to find a set of books
that will more
easily enable a man of modest equipment and of little leisure to make
his own all
"the height and depth, and length and breadth, and the unsearchable
* * *
A New Edition Of Mackey's
Symbolism of Freemasonry," [Lib 1921] revised by Robert I. Clegg;
by Masonic History Company Chicago. De Luxe fabrikoid binding. For sale
Masonic Research Society. Price $3.65 postpaid.
Mackey! as one turns over the aging pages of the old books he seems as
as alive as ever. He is always quiet, always gentle, and he never
resorts to the
tricks of the writers' trade to capture attention, but for all that
there is a certain
virility about him that age cannot wither or custom stale. Of all the
the older school he is the most contemporaneous, and far and away the
More copies of his works are being sold today than of any recent writer
is no doubt but that this will long continue. Mackey is a great and
influence with whom every student and reader of Masonry must acquaint
at his best in writing on the symbolism of Freemasonry. It was a task
the bent of his mind and the nature of his learning peculiarly fitted
writers, many of them, have been more scientific, and any number have
clever, but few have possessed that peculiar quality of mind that set
as a symbologist of the first order.
is a subject which, by virtue of its own nature, does not very rapidly
Mackey issued the first edition of his "Symbolism of Freemasonry" in
Since that date the whole field of Masonic scholarship has been
top to bottom; the school of Preston and Oliver has vanished and time
most of what they wrote; but, owing to the nature of the subject, there
little of the "Symbolism" that must be altogether discarded. The famous
"nineteen propositions" of the first chapter which "contain a brief
but succinct view of the progress of Freemasonry," and the arguments
"The Noachidae" and "Primitive" and "Spurious" "Freemasonry
of Antiquity," are now of very little value, and so with a few other
here and there. Compared with the total bulk of the work this is almost
I. Clegg, editor of the new edition of the book, has added two
paragraphs to Mackey's
original Preface and has included a valuable chapter of his own by way
Introduction to Symbolism," but elsewhere has made few changes.
to this point," writes Brother Clegg in his addition to the Preface,
have used the preface written by the great student and need now but
work of revision. Brother Mackey's examination of Masonic symbols is
today as of
yore admirable and stimulating. No Freemason at all worthy of the name
it without pleasure and profit. All that was necessary for us to do was
corrections of errors that crept into the book, and add here and there
as seemed to us to be most helpful to the reader in the light of our
knowledge of the institution.
chapter on an Introduction to Symbolism is new and prepared by the
reviser for this
edition. Here as elsewhere the purpose has been to do as Brother Mackey
doubt have wished the work to be done; to correct the text with every
the lofty purpose of the original author, and to add such amendments as
the same way better facilitate the reader's progress."
Clegg writes in his Introduction: "Brother Mackey put into his study of
the ripened researches of many years. No other book of his more clearly
depth of his reading and reflection. His was the wisdom that never
of simplest worth to make it known and understood. None so clearly as
he could fit
lucid language to the exposition of what he knew of Freemasonry. And
into his sentences more meaty food for reflection."
of the thirty-two chapters will furnish a reader with a more adequate
of the contents of the book than a great deal of description could do.
An Introduction to Symbolism; Preliminary, Origin and Progress of
Primitive Freemasonry of Antiquity; Spurious Freemasonry of Antiquity;
Dionysiac Artificers; Union of Speculative and Operative Freemasonry at
of Solomon; Traveling Freemasons of the Middle Ages; Disseverance of
Element; System of Symbolic Instruction; Speculative Science and the
Symbolism of Solomon's Temple; Form of the Lodge; Officers of a Lodge;
a Circle; Covering of the Lodge; Ritualistic Symbolism; Rite of
of Investiture; Symbolism of the Gloves; Rite of Circumambulation; Rite
and Symbolism of Light; Symbolism of the Corner Stone; Ineffable Name;
Freemasonry; Legend of the Winding Stairs; Legend of the Third Degree;
Acacia; Symbolism of Labor; Stone of Foundation; Lost Word; and
The new edition
is bound in De Luxe fahrikoid binding in color and design to match the
of Mackey's History of Freemasonry reviewed otherwhere in this issue.
* * *
The Bound Volume of The
Builder For 1922
Volume of THE BUILDER for 1922 [Lib*], bound in goldenrod buckram,
title in gilt,
published by The National Masonic Research Society, Anamosa, Iowa.
This is to
announce the advent of the Bound Volume of THE BUILDER for 1922, copies
may now be had. Readers should investigate this bound volume: many of
be surprised to discover how much it adds to the sightliness and
twelve issues of this journal. When each monthly issue is printed a
of copies are especially prepared for binding. At the end of each year
especially printed copies are placed together with a complete
of fourteen pages and securely bound in goldenrod buckram, with title
label in gold.
No covers are bound in. Every page is absolutely unused, and the whole
is so numbered
as to form a complete book of about 375 pages of the same size as THE
the index is furnished a guide to each and every item that has appeared
year, along with cuts, authors, books, etc., by means of which one can
at a moment's notice. The volume is beautiful in appearance, in
illustrations, arrangement and size. It is an ideal Christmas gift for
This is the
eighth of such volumes thus far issued by The National Masonic Research
Taken together these eight books constitute the most comprehensive and
Masonic library in existence. They contain more than 400 complete
on important Masonic topics; hundreds of replies to questions about
editorials, letters, poems and book reviews on nearly every matter of
connected with Freemasonry. Such a set of books is an ideal foundation
for a private
of merely local or temporary interest. Everything is designed for
for universality. THE BUILDER does not reflect sectional views; it does
any party or clique or rite; it is not published for commercial
purposes. For these
reasons a set of the Bound Volumes is not a file of old magazines, the
of which must necessarily fade with the passage of time, but a set of
first page of which is as interesting as the last; an encyclopedia of
value of which increases with the addition of each new Bound Volume.
within this set of books is a number of Masonic books published in
He who owns the set possesses Pound's "Philosophy of Freemasonry";
"Lectures on Masonic Jurisprudence"; Ravenscroft's "The Comacines";
Haywood's "Symbolical Masonry"; Haywood's "The Teachings of Masonry";
Wright's "Woman and Freemasonry"; Wright's "Roman Catholicism and
Freemasonry"; Pike's "Humanum Genus"; Lawrence's "Military Lodges";
Barry's "The Story of Old Glory"; Street's "Symbolism of the Three
Degrees"; Goodwin's "Mormonism and Masonry," etc.
* * *
A Vest Pocket Book on Freemasonry
is Masonry," [Lib*] by Francis E. Lester, P.G.M., New Mexico. Published
the author, Mesilla Park, New Mexico.
This is a
vest pocket volume on a big subject. Brother Lester tells us in his
page that at the time he was raised he was unable to learn much about
of which he had become a member, or of the ceremonies in which he had
"The one thing that was missing was the kindly explanation by a brother
what relation Masonry, with its teaching and ritual, bore to the duties
of daily life." This booklet of thirty pages, bound in blue paper, is a
explanation" of many of the things about which a newly raised Mason is
anxious to learn, and to all such it is to be recommended. On the last
is a list of some twenty or so books "suggested for supplementary
it is an excellent brief bibliography. Copies may be secured from the
* * *
Publications Wanted, For
Sale, And Exchange
We are constantly
receiving inquiries from readers as to where they may obtain
publications on Freemasonry
and kindred subjects not offered in our Monthly Book List. Most of the
sought are out of print, but it may happen that other readers, owning
be willing to dispose of the same. Therefore this column is set aside
for such a service. And it is also hoped ‒ and expected ‒ that readers
very old or rare Masonic works will communicate the fact to THE BUILDER
of general information.
addresses are here given in order that those buying and selling may
directly with each other. Brethren are asked to cancel notices as soon
wants are supplied.
In no case
does THE BUILDER assume any responsibility whatsoever for publications
sold, exchanged or borrowed.
By Bro. G.
Alfred Lawrence, 142 West 86th St., New York, N. Y.:
Proceedings of the Scottish Rite Body founded by Joseph Cerneau in New
in 1808, of which De Witt Clinton was the first Grand Commander, and
became united, in 1867, with the Supreme Council of the Northern
A. & A. S. R.
Also Proceedings of the Supreme Council founded in New York by De La
Motta, in 1813,
by authority of the Southern Supreme Council, of which he was Grand
these Proceedings from 1813 to 1860.
By Bro. Frank
R. Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.:
"The Year Book," published by the Masonic Constellations, containing
History of the Grand Council, R. & S. M., of Missouri.
Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin:
"Catalogue of the Masonic Library of Samuel Lawrence";
"Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations of Masonry";
"The Source of Measures," by J. Ralston Skinner 1875, or second edition
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," volumes I to XI inclusive.
By Bro. Ernest
E. Ford, 305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California:
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," volumes 3 and 7, with St. John's Cards, also
St. John's Cards for volumes 4 and 6;
"Masonic Review," volumes 1, 2, 7, 31, 32 and 43 to 60, inclusive;
"Voice of Masonry," volumes 2 to 12 inclusive, and volume 16;
Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction for the years 1882
Original Proceedings of The General Grand Encampment Knights Templar
for the years
1826 and 1836.
By Bro. George
A. Lanzarotti, Casilla 126, Rancagua, Chile:
All kinds of Masonic literature in Spanish. Write first quoting prices.
L. Rask, 14 Alvey St., Schenectady, N. Y.:
"Remarks upon Alchemy and the Alchemists," by E. A. Hitchcock,
N. Y., about 1866;
"The Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries," by C. W. Heckethorn;
"Lost Language of Symbolism," by Harold Bayley, published by Lippincott;
"Sacred Hermeneutics," by Davidson, Edinburgh, 1843;
"Solar System of the Ancients Discovered," by J. Wilson, published by
Longmans Co., London, 1856;
"The Alphabet," by Isaac Taylor, Kegan, Paul, Trench & Co.,
or the edition of 1899 published by Scribners, New York;
"Anacalypsis," by Godfrey Higgins, 1836, published by Longmans, Green
& Co., London;
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," any volume or volumes.
N. W. J. Haydon, 664 Pape Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada:
"The Beautiful Necessity," and "Architecture and Democracy,"
by Claude Bragdon.
By the National
Masonic Research Society, Anamosa, Iowa:
"Discourses upon Architecture," by Dallaway, published in 1833;
any or all volumes of "The American Freemasons' Magazine," published by
J. F. Brennan, about 1860.
E. A. Marsh, 820 Broad Ave. N. W., Canton, Ohio:
"Numbers: Their Occult Power and Mystic Virtue," by William Wynn
published 1902 by the Theosophical Publishing Society.
By Bro. D.
D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.:
"Realities of Masonry," Blake, 1879;
"Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons," Condor, 1894;
"Masonic Bibliography," Carson, 1873;
"Origin of Freemasonry," Paine, 1811.
A. A. Burnand, 690 South Bronson Ave., Los Angeles, California:
Various Masonic publications including such as a complete set of "Ars
"History of Freemasonry in Scotland," by D. Murray Lyon, (original
Thomas Dunckerley, Laurence Dermott, etc.
Frank R. Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.:
"History of Freemasonry," Mitchell, 2 volumes, sheep;
"History of Freemasonry," Robert Freke Gould, 4 volumes, cloth in good
"History of Freemasonry," Albert G. Mackey, 7 volumes, linen cloth,
"Knights Templar," Macoy, 1 volume, cloth;
"Museum of Antiquity," Yaggy, 1 volume, morocco;
"History and Cyclopedia of Freemasonry," Macoy and Oliver, new, full
Also miscellaneous books.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
Study Club course. When requested, questions will be answered promptly
by mail before
publication in this department.
Information about the Public
for August interested me more than any copy I have ever seen. My copy
is worn out
with lending. Can you tell me where I can find some more literature
of Social and Educational Service of the Grand Lodge of New York issued
Bulletin No. 3, for March 2, 1922, a twenty-four page booklet on "The
School Crisis," in which was incorporated a valuable list of up-to-date
and booklets on the subject, written from every possible angle. The
list could not
City Bureau, 154 Nassau Street, New York. Ask for "Know and Help Your
Third Report of National Committee for Chamber of Commerce Cooperation
Public Schools. George D. Strayer, Chairman.
Council of Education, Washington, D. C. Ask for reprint from School and
Vol. 13, No. 321, article by Samuel P. Capen.
Legion Weekly, 627 West 43d Street, New York. Ask for issue of Dec. 2,
"The American's Part in Americanism," by Warren G. Harding. Also Report
of Conference of Board of Directors of National Education Association
of the American Legion, June 3, 1921, at Des Moines, Iowa.
Physical Education Review, 93 Westford Avenue, Springfield, Mass. Ask
of Committee of Society of Directors of Physical Education in
"The Aims and Scope of Physical Education."
H. Bacon, 210 E. 61st Street, New York City, Chairman, Plan and Program
Women's Clubs of Greater New York. Ask for "Report to Board of
School Building Conditions in New York City."
League of Women Voters, 553 Little Building, Boston, Mass. Ask for "How
United States Spends Its Income," Leaflet, by E. B. Bosa.
of the Census, Washington, D. C. Ask for circular, "Composition and
of the Population." Also "Men and Women of Voting Age." Also
of the Foreign Born."
States Bureau of Education, Washington, D.C. Ask for "Report of the
for the year ended June 30, 1921." Also "Education for the
of Democracy," Address by P. P. Claxton, late Commissioner of
"Cost of Education in the United States," Circular by P. P. Claxton.
"Expenditures for Public Education in New York," Circular by P. P.
of Naturalization, Washington, D. C. Ask for "Annual Report of the
of Commerce of the United States, Washington, D. C. Ask for "Schools,
and Business," Civic Development Publication No. 4.
on Education, House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. Ask for
on Illiteracy under H R 15402."
Catholic Weekly, 225 West 39th Street, New York. Ask for "The Case
the Smith-Towner Bill; Shall the Federal Government Control Our
by Paul H. Blakely, Ph.D.
Education Association, 1201 16th Street N. W., Washington, D. C. Ask
Education Week," December 4-10, 1921," Bulletin No. 16. Also "A
Program for Education," Pamphlet. Also "Education and the Federal
Pamphlet, by Hugh S. Magill. Also "The Smith-Towner Bill; A Discussion
Fundamental Principles and Brief History of Movement for a Department
Pamphlet, by Hugh S. Magill.
M. Towner, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. H R 7. Ask for
copy of "Towner-Sterling
Education Association, 8 West 40th Street, New York. Ask for "A Primer
School Progress." Also Bulletins Nos. 4, 25, 104, 105, 106, 109, 110,
112, 113, 114, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120.
Sage Foundation, Lexington Avenue and 22d Street, New York. Ask for
of School Costs," by Warren Randolph Burgess. $1.00.
and Society, 11 Liberty Street, Utica, N. Y. Ask for Inaugural Address
Pierrepont Graves, as Commissioner of Education for the State of New
State and Its Edcation," Vol. 14, No. 357.
of the State of New York, Albany, N. Y. Ask for "Americanization in
by Caroline A. Whipple. Also "Community Organization and Program for
Work," by William C. Smith. Also "Education Law as Amended to July 1,
1920," Bulletin 707. Also "Financial Independence of Boards of
Pamphlet by Frank B. Gilbert. Also "Immigrant Education," by William C.
Smith. Also "Organization and Administration of Part-Time Schools,"
No. 697. Also "School Health Service and Medical Inspection Law."
* * *
Scottish Rite Presidents
Of The United States
Can we tell
me how many of our Presidents have been members of the Scottish Rite?
M. K. L., Indiana.
was referred to Brother William L. Boyden, Librarian of the Supreme
Jurisdiction, who kindly gave us information as follows:
A. Garfield was a member of the 14th degree of the Rite and made so in
of Perfection, Washington, D. C., January 2, 1872.
Johnson received the degrees from the 4th to the 32nd by communication,
1867, at the White House.
G. Harding received the 32nd degree in Scioto Consistory, Columbus,
5, 1921, and has been elected for the 33rd in the Northern Masonic
* * *
I am in search
of a poem based on the letters on the keystone and beginning with "H."
The first lines are:
the man whose thoughts will bear
The rigid test of the compasses and square."
brother help me out?
F. H. C., Wisconsin.
reader please give us this poem?
* * *
Starry Decked Heaven
me what is meant by a phrase in the monitor about the "clouded canopy
decked heaven." It is the word "decked" that puzzles me.
B. M. T., Idaho.
is of medieval origin and appears to have been common to Teutonic
peoples. In old
English it appears as "deccan" and means "to thatch over or cover
a house," by which it is seen to belong to the same group of words ‒ so
as our ideas are concerned ‒ as our "tiler." From this use it came in
time to signify generally any covering or clothing, and more especially
as when we now say of a woman that she is "decked out in finery." Hence
also the word "bedecked." The old Coverdale Bible of 1535 used the word
in at least two instances: "She coloured her face, and decked her
Kings, ix, 30. "Thou deckest thyself with light as it were with a
Psalms, ciii, 2.
clear the meaning of the phrase about which you inquire. "The starry
heaven" is the night sky covered, or clothed, with stars. It is real
worthy of Shakespeare.
* * *
The Cedars of the Forests
Can you kindly
furnish me with some information about the Cedars of Lebanon? I am
looking through a number of Masonic articles on this subject we
the article in the Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 5, page 594, contains
information as well as much beside: accordingly we are reprinting here
Cedrus Libani, the far-famed
Cedar of Lebanon,
is a tree which, on account of its beauty, stateliness and strength,
been a favorite with poets and painters, and which, in the figurative
prophecy, is frequently employed in the Scriptures as a symbol of
and longevity. It grows to a vertical height of from 50 to 80 ft. ‒
above all trees of the field" ‒ and at an elevation of about 6000 ft
sea-level. In the young tree, the bole is straight and upright and one
or two leading
branches rise above the rest. As the tree increases in size, however,
branches become mingled together, and the tree is then clump-headed.
ramifying branches spread out from the main trunk in a horizontal
upon tier, covering a compass of ground the diameter of which is often
the height of the tree. William Gilpin, in his Forest Scenery,
describes a cedar
which, at an age of about 118 years, had attained to a height of 53 ft.
a horizontal expanse of 96 ft. The branchlets of the cedar take the
as the branches, and the foliage is very dense. The tree, as with the
rest of the
fir-tribe, except the larch, is evergreen; new leaves are developed
but their fall is gradual. In shape the leaves are straight, tapering,
and pointed; they are about 1 in. long wad of a dark green color, and
grow in alternate
tufts of about thirty in number. The male and female flowers grow on
the same tree,
but are separate. The cones, which are on the upper side of the
branches, are flattened
at the ends and are 4 to 5 in. in length and 2 in. wide; they take two
come to perfection and while growing exude much resin. The scales are
to one another and are reddish in color. The seeds are provided with a
wing. The root of the tree is very strong and ramifying. The cedar
on sandy, loamy soils. It still grows on Lebanon, though for several
was believed to be restricted to a small grove in the Kadisha valley at
elevation, about 15 mi. from Beirut. The number of trees in this grove
gradually diminishing, and as no young trees or seedlings occur, the
probably become extinct in course of time. Cedars are now known to
occur in great
numbers on Mt. Lebanon, chiefly on the western slopes, not forming a
forest but in groves, some of which contain several thousands of trees.
also large forests on the higher slopes of the Taurus and Anti-Taurus
Lamartine tells us that the Arabs regard the trees as endowed with the
of continual existence, and with reasoning and prescient powers, which
to prepare for the changes of the seasons.
The wood of the cedar of
Lebanon is fragrant,
though not so strongly scented as that of the juniper or red-cedar of
wood is generally reddish-brown, light and of a coarse grain and spongy
easy to work, but liable to shrink and warp. Mountain-grown wood is
less liable to warp and more durable.
The cedar of Lebanon is
cultivated in Europe
for ornament only. It can be grown in parks and gardens, and thrives
well; but the
young plants are unable to bear great variations of temperature. The
cedar is not
mentioned in Evelyn's Silva (1664), but it must have been introduced
The famous Enfield cedar was planted by Dr. Robert Uvedale (1642-1722),
schoolmaster and horticulturist, between 1662-1670, and an old cedar at
in Derbyshire is known to have been planted in 1676. Some very old
also at Syon House, Woburn Abbey, Warwick Castle and elsewhere, which
date from the 17th century. The first cedars in Scotland were planted
House in 1740; and the first one said to have been introduced into
France was brought
from England by Bernard de Jussieu in 1734, and placed in the Jardin
Cedar-wood is earliest noticed in Leviticus xiv, 4, 6, where it is
the materials to be used for the cleansing of leprosy; but the wood
of was probably that of the juniper. The term Eres (cedar) of Scripture
apply strictly to one kind of plant, but was used indefinitely in
as is the word cedar at present. The term arz is applied by the Arabs
to the cedar
of Lebanon, to the common pine-tree, and to the juniper; and certainly
for masts, mentioned in Ezek xxvii. 5, must have been pine-trees. It
probable that the fourscore thousand hewers employed by Solomon for
did not confine their operations simply to what would now be termed
cedars and fir-trees.
Dr. John Lindley considered that some of the cedar-trees sent by Hiram,
Tyre, to Jerusalem might have been procured from Mount Atlas, and have
quadrivalvis, or arar-tree, the wood of which is hard and durable, and
in request in former times for the building of temples. The timber-work
of the roof
of Cordova cathedral, built eleven centuries ago, is composed of it. In
of Vitravius "cedars" were growing in Crete, Africa and Syria. Pliny
that their wood was everlasting, and therefore images of the gods were
made of it;
he makes mention also of the oil of cedar, or cedrium, distilled from
and used by the ancients for preserving their books from moths and
anointed or rubbed with cedrium were on this account called ced ati
of cedar or chips of the wood are now employed to protect furs and
from injury by moths. Cedar-wood, however, is said to be injurious to
objects, and to instruments placed in cabinets made of it, as the
of the wood becomes deposited upon them. Cedria, or cedar resin, is a
similar to mastic, that flows from incisions in the tree; and cedar
manna is a sweet
exudation from its branches.
* * *
Duffy's "Original Thoughts"
Can you tell
me anything about a book called "Original Thoughts," [Lib*] by Duffy?
I imagine that it may be out of print now.
L.D.S., South Carolina.
Thoughts" was written by Brother Frank M. Duffy and published in 1868.
author himself no memorials are at hand (unless perchance some reader
of these pages
may have a record filed away), save that he was a member of Union Lodge
Hartsville, Tennessee. He must have been a man of noble character and
else his book misrepresents him, for it is one of the most beautiful
essays on Freemasonry
that ye scribe has ever read. It was composed in a day when Freemasonry
with Geometry, and Geometry itself was, after the ancient fashion of
a revelation of the Eternal mind: therefrom arose a blend of scientific
and religious mysticism very seldom met with now. "Original Thoughts"
does not call into question any of those views of Masonic history given
by Dr. Oliver and his school and is to that extent out of date, but the
which the little book was conceived will never fall from date unless it
out ‒ which may God prevent ‒ that men will cease to feel reverence,
worship in the depths of their nature. One of the few copies now known
is in the possession of Brother J. E. Gwin, Hartsville, Tennessee.
* * *
An Authentic Book on Solomon's
Can you tell
me where I might purchase an authentic book on King Solomon's Temple,
the well-nigh numberless books on the subject that might be mentioned
two or three
will doubtless serve your purposes: "Solomon's Temple: Its History and
Structure," [Lib*] by the Rev. W. Shaw Caldecott. Preface by A. H.
Union Press, 1816 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. "The Tabernacle: Its
and Structure," by same author and publisher. "The Temple, Its Ministry
and Services as they were at the Time of Jesus Christ," [Lib 1904] by Dr. Alfred Edersheim;
Hodder and Stoughton, New York. Captain Jerome
B. Frisbee, Lindsay, California, has published a book on the Temple
in diagrams and illustrations and unique in its interpretations.
A Record as Secretary
I saw in
the March number of THE BUILDER (page 96) an account of Brother Arelius
who had served as Secretary of Vincennes Lodge No. 1 of Vincennes,
1876 to the present time excepting one year when he was elected Master,
years of service as Secretary, which is a record hard to beat.
Now I am
somewhat of an antique secretary myself I was elected secretary of
Lodge No 32, F. & A. M., of Centerdale, Rhode Island, March 4,
1876, and have
served continuously to the present time June 10, 1922, and am still at
it and am
on my 47th year of continuous service, which is the record for Rhode
Island. I congratulate
Vincennes Lodge for having so interested and faithful a brother for
and hope he may live many years to enjoy the honor and pleasures of a
Frank C. Angell, Rhode Island.
* * *
Perfect Craftsman Degree
to stimulate interest in its work as a degree team, the Fellowcraft
connected with St. John's Lodge No. 3 A.F. & A.M. of
has perfected an initiatory form, which is used to initiate its new
the Association, and teach them some of the duties connected with the
organized for thirteen years, it was found by experience that the
members of the
Association, like the old saying "A new broom sweeps clean," came in
front door, so to speak, and after a few years work gradually passed
out the back
door, and new recruits took their places on the teams.
to make the work more interesting and attractive, the idea of having a
degree was hit upon, and as a novelty used to "razz" some of the
members, worked successfully for a while. It hit the nail on the head
work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." Then the War came along, and
of the boys were called to service, and scattered to the furthermost
parts of the
earth. When they returned they still remembered the joys of the
before their departure, and the ball was started rolling for something
better. Accordingly, a committee was appointed for the purpose of
revising the ritual
used. That committee did their work so well that the degree at once
came to be known
as the "Perfected Craftsman's Degree" from which the present name of
Craftsman Degree" came.
Craftsman Degree is based on Masonic history and traditions, and
in form from Blue Lodge work. The degree impresses on the mind of the
the importance of his Masonic ties and obligations, and presents them
to him in
a manner that makes an indelible impression upon his mind. The degree
and amuses at the same time. In order to be sure that there was nothing
the work that would, in any way, conflict with Masonic Law and
Practices the ritual
was submitted to the present Grand Master of Masons in Connecticut,
L. Wilder, who referred the matter to a committee for examination and
the result being that the degree work was found to be all right and was
uses a vocabulary of its own; a local Association is known as a quarry,
as a stone, etc. Since the new ritual was used for the first time last
nine new quarries have been organized, and four more are about to be
fact is that the movement, which has many aims along social development
grown so rapidly that the original Degree Committee has had to
reorganize into what
is known as the "Activity Committee of Perfect Craftsman Quarries of
The said committee is organized solely for the purpose of developing
side of Masonry. Plans are being formulated for the arrangement of a
fraternal visits for the balance of the present season, and the winter
and for a monster Field Day for all Blue Lodge Masons residing within
of Connecticut, to be held at some central point during the summer at
a gathering, which will be a credit to the Masonic institution, will be
started is one of great importance to the Fraternity. It means that the
in the Order is beginning to circulate, and it spells life and action
for the future.
The motto of the movement is "Service, Sociability, and Cooperation":
service to the Master of the Blue Lodge that the Quarry is organized to
among the various quarries, and thereby closer cooperative work on
to the welfare and advancement of our art.
of the Blue Lodge that the individual quarries are organized in, is the
the quarry, and is known as the "Master of Light." At a recent meeting
of the Perfect Craftsmen held in Fair Haven, the lodge room was
the spirit that prevailed among the members was wonderful. During the
of the meeting, all of the Masters present spoke in favor of the
movement; all testified
to the great amount of good it had done their work already by the true
stimulating interest it has brought about without any advertising
effort or cost.
W. Gorham, 36 Harmony Street, Bridgeport, Conn., is acting as the
Chairman of the
Activity Committee referred to, and stands ready to give any "Service
information requested in regard to the movement, on behalf of the
quarries in Connecticut,
to sister jurisdictions.
of special design have been made up and serve to identify the workers
on the various
teams in the Blue Lodge.
of a local quarry are numerous. The degree work gives the incoming
master of the
Blue Lodge an opportunity to select men of talent and service when
making his appointments
to the various stations of trust and work.
It is said
that in every lodge where a Quarry has been established there is a
revival of interest
and a great outpouring of members to the meetings, and all activities
of the Blue
Lodge. It is the inexorable law of the Craft to press forward and never
until their work is completed ‒ "Service to Masonry" is the slogan.
Ray V. Denslow, Missouri.
* * *
More Information about General
Arthur Saint Clair
I was very
much pleased with Admiral Baird's article on General Saint Clair in the
BUILDER," as I always am with anything he writes.
one feature he overlooked and which I trust he will pardon me for
it is a matter which should never be forgotten when speaking of General
Clair. That is, he was a member of the well-known Saint Clair or
whose head, William Sinclair of Roslyn, was the hereditary Grand Master
Grand Lodge of Scotland was formed. In this Sinclair family the Grand
had been handed down for over 200 years, according to the Scottish
Encyclopedia Britannica tells of Thurso castle, near the town of
Thurso, which is
367 miles north of Edinburgh and which town is noted for its stone
quarries to this
Saint Clair was born at Thurso castle in 1734 and hence was only two
than Washington. The Grand Lodge of Scotland was formed in 1736, two
his birth, and the head of the elder branch was still the Grand Master
when he was
born. He came to America in 1758 as an ensign in the Royal American
as the 60th foot, of which Colonel John Young, who had been for thirty
Deputy Grand Master of Scotland, was the colonel. The man who succeeded
Young was Colonel Augustine Prevost who was created a Grand
the Scottish Rite by Stephen Morin in 1762, the same year in which
Clair resigned his commission in the British army, married in Boston,
an American. There is no doubt but that he was a Master Mason at that
time, as there
was a military lodge in his regiment of which Colonel Young was the
Arthur Saint Clair was an officer.
in the Ligonier Valley in Pennsylvania, near Bedford, and lived there
years. When the Revolutionary War broke out he joined forces with the
to whom his military knowledge was of value, he being created a colonel
in 1775. His being a Scottish Mason, or Mason of the Scottish Rite,
in close connection with Washington whose lodge at Fredericksburg was
also a Scottish
lodge with a charter from the Grand Lodge of Scotland as were the
majority of the
lodges in America which favored the cause of the patriots. Such were
St. Andrews' lodge of Boston, and the Provincial Grand Lodge of which
Warren was the Grand Master which organized lodges in all the New
and likewise in Virginia, North Carolina and others of the colonies.
of the English lodges chartered under the Grand Lodge of England were
to a man, while the Scotch lodges were nearly all revolutionists. I
called the attention
of readers of THE BUILDER to the fact that we American Masons owe but
English Masonry, as most of the Revolutionary Fathers were Scottish
Masons and took
their degrees in lodges which were chartered by the Grand Lodge of
these reasons, it is well to bring out the connection of General Arthur
with the Sinclairs of Rosslyn.
I was much
interested in the account of the visit in Scotland of Grand Commander
the Scottish Rite which was published in the July number of the "New
Brother Cowles has been the Grand Master of Kentucky and in his article
attention to the similarity of the Scotch work with that of Kentucky
while the English
work was much different. We owe our Masonry in America to Scotland, our
Scottish and not English, and this is as it should be. California work
a Scotch lodge of Connecticut under P.G.M. Warren, Provincial Grand
Cyrus Field Willard, California.
* * *
A Sketch of Giles Fonda
by an item concerning Giles Fonda Yates that appeared in THE BUILDER,
page 125, brethren of the Valley of Schenectady, New York, sent to us a
their beautifully printed "Memorial of the Presentation of Charters"
contained a condensed biographical account of Yates, all of which, as
valuable data concerning one of the most illustrious of Masonic
careers, is here
YATES, AND THE DELTA LODGE OF PERFECTION, NO. 1, OF THE CITY OF
from an article by Isaac H. Vrooman, Jr., 32d, printed in the
of Deliberation, State of New York, A.A.S.R., 1914, to whom due
Yates was born in Schenectady, November 8, 1798, the son of John and
Yates. His great-great-grandfather, Joseph Yates, emigrated from
England and settled
in Albany, in 1664, and his great-grandfather, Robert Yates, came to
in 1711. He was graduated from Union College in the Class of 1816, with
Kappa rank, and later received the degree of Master of Arts. He was by
a counsellor-at-law and held the office of Surrogate of Schenectady
1821 to 1840. For many years he edited the Schenectady Democrat and
contributed to that paper an extensive and interesting series of
articles on the
early history of Schenectady, which have formed the basis of most of
history of that city.
He was initiated
an Entered Apprentice in Morton Lodge, No. 87, of Schenectady, on
October 23, 1820,
and received the degrees of Fellow Craft and Master Mason on October
27, 1820. On
December 15, 1820, he was elected Senior Deacon of Morton Lodge and the
year Senior Warden; to which office he was reselected in 1822, but was
in 1823. On December 7, 1824, he affiliated with St. George's Lodge,
No. 6, but
did not sign the by-laws until June 24, 1825. W.’. Bro.’. Yates served
of St. George's Lodge in 1826 and 1827, and again in 1844 and 1845, and
of the survivors of the Morgan trouble who helped to keep Masonry alive
He was also a Royal Arch Mason and Knight Templar.
It is not
known when he received the Scottish Rite degrees but it must have been
for in the minutes of Ineffable Lodge of Perfection, Albany, under date
31, 1822, he is recorded as Senior Grand Warden. For many years Ill.’.
was connected with the affairs of Ineffable Lodge of Perfection of
In the fall
of 1820, with the consent of its surviving members, the Lodge of
had become dormant, was re-established under the appellation of Delta
Lodge of Perfection,
and placed under the jurisdiction of a Grand Council of Princes of
had been opened previously in the City of Schenectady. The minutes of
of Perfection, Schenectady, are to be found copied in the Minute Book
Lodge, commencing October 5, 1821, and preceded by the stubs of two
have been removed. These stubs bear evidence of meetings having been
held in 1820.
of Perfection continued to meet at Schenectady until 1825, when it was,
by the consent
of its members, removed to Albany. Ill.’. Bro.’. Yates was Grand Master
Lodge during the five years of its existence at Schenectady.
printed reference to Delta Lodge of Perfection is found in the
Proceedings of the
Grand Chapter, R.A.M., of New York, under date of October 8, 1823, at
Convocation," called for the purpose of celebrating the passage of the
boat from the Grand Erie Canal into the Hudson River at Albany." "Delta
Grand Lodge of Perfection, No. 1, of the City of Schenectady," attended
joined in the procession.
Yates received the 33d on October 24, 1825, from Ill.’. Bro.’. John
Deputy of the Supreme Council of Charleston, S. C.
when the two Grand Councils, Northern and Southern, agreed to a
division of territory,
Brother Yates was, on July 6 of that year, "acknowledged and admitted"
a member of the Northern Supreme Council and Representative near it of
Supreme Council. Brother Yates' Patent of July 5, 1828, is in
possession of St.
He was appointed
M.’.Ill.’.Ins.’.Lieut.’.Gr.’.Com.’. on June 15, 1844, and M.’.
Commander August 25, 1851, which office he at once resigned in favor of
A. Raymond. The latter, appreciating Brother Yates' great services to
Council, appointed him Ill.’. Grand Chancellor H.’.E.’. which office,
Deputy of New York, he retained until his death.
years of his life were spent in New York City, where he took an active
in the local bodies of the Rite, and was appointed the first "Sovereign
Sovereigns" of Cosmopolitan Consistory of New York City, at its
He died December
13, 1859, in New York and his remains were brought to Schenectady for
was buried in the "Old Dutch Burial Ground" between Green and Front
and when, in 1879, the plot was sold by the Dutch Reformed Church, his
removed to Vale Cemetery, where they now rest in what is known as the
plot. Brother Yates was never married.
He was the
author of a work entitled History of the Manners and Ceremonies of the
He was also engaged, for twenty years, in the compilation of a valuable
of Masonry, which was left unfinished at the time of his death, and
to his family, was stolen from his lodgings in New York after his
death. But most
of his Masonic writings appeared in contemporary journals. Moore's
and Mackey's Masonic Quarterly Review contain valuable communications
from his pen
on subjects of Masonic archaeology, in which science he has no
Encyclopedia of Freemasonry contains many articles by him, especially
on the higher
degrees. He was also a poet of no mean pretension, and an artist.
is best summed up in his own words. "I would fain have you believe, my
brethren," said he, "that, as a member of the Masonic Institution, if
I have had any ambition, it has been to study its science, and to
discharge my duties
as a faithful Mason, rather than to obtain its official honors or
of any kind. Self-aggrandizement has never formed any part of my
and all who know me can bear witness that it never has of my practice."
* * *
Differences among Scottish
friend of mine who has been in Japan for some time told me of a case of
Jewish members of the lodge under the English Constitutions, in Kobe,
who were desirous
of taking the Royal Arch, but it appears that a rule exists that no
take this degree until he has been a Master Mason for a certain number
These brethren proceeded to some place or other in the East where
and chapters were established and took, not only the Royal Arch but
in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite coming back bestarred and
with any amount of degrees including, of course, the eighteenth, or
These, my friend told me, cost in the neighborhood of $500 and were
after another in a few days. What I thought you might help me in is
this: How on
earth can a brother other than a professing Christian possibly take the
or eighteenth degree? Does the American system differ in any way from
and Scottish? I am a member of the Alpha Chapter under the English
(eighteenth degree Rose Croix), and it seems to me that any one unable
to the essential Christian doctrines could not possibly take the degree
turning it into a blasphemous farce. Can you give me any information on
William Moister, Editor Masonic Journal of South
Rite degrees as practiced in England, Scotland, Ireland, and South
Africa are very
different from the same degrees as practiced here; and in no degree is
more marked than in the Rose Croix. With you, Brother Moister, it is
confesses Christ as Son of God and Lord of Glory: here it is
interpreted so as to
be available to Jews, Free Thinkers, etc. The Jews referred to in your
not at all hypocritical. It is hardly probable that they paid five
for initiation. Can any reader inform us if such high fees have ever
Ye Editor's Corner
Such a flood of contributions has been pouring in this past year that
ye poor editor
is swamped ‒ or should one say drowned? This means that many
manuscripts wait a
long time before seeing the light of day. Several brethren have kindly
to having their articles passed on to other Masonic periodicals.
* * *
C. Parker, who has written for THE BUILDER some interesting items on
and four important manuscripts not yet published, has written a book on
Archeological History of New York." It is an important work.
* * *
will begin a new series of Study Club articles next March on "Chapters
History." He is attempting to write an authentic history of Masonry in
language. Many erudite brethren, here and abroad, have been lending him
* * *
and his associates have formed a conspiracy to make the January BUILDER
number yet published. It will be the ninety-seventh issue. We are
* * *
We are available
for a few lectures ‒ very few. For information address The Editor, THE
2920 First Avenue East. Cedar Ranids. Iowa.
A Study in American Freemasonry
Pre08 / auth. Preuss Arthur. - St. Louis : B Herder, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 453. - 8.9 MB.
A Textbook of Masonic
Mac721 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : Clark, Maynard,
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An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
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Democracy and Education
Dew30 / auth. Dewey John. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1930. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 446. - 13.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 1
Mac06 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 7 : p. 316. - 13.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 2
Mac061 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
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History of Freemasonry Vol 3
Mac062 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
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History of Freemasonry Vol 4
Mac063 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
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History of Freemasonry Vol 5
Mac064 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
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History of Freemasonry Vol 6
Mac065 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 6 : 7 : p. 328. - 13.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 7
Mac066 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 7 : 7 : p. 398. - 18.7 MB.
Letters from China and Japan
Dew20 / auth. Dewey John. - New York : E P Dutton & Company,
1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 320. - 5.4 MB.
Lexicon of Freemasonry
Mac69 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - Philadelphia : Moss & Co.,
1869. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 522. - 24.7 MB.
Life of Fremont
Uph56 / auth. Upham Charles W. - Boston : Ticknor and Fields, 1856. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 381. - 16.9 MB.
Manual of the Lodge
Mac91 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : Effingham Maynard &
Co, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 261. - 14.1 MB.
Principles of Masonic Law
Mac56 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : Jno W Leonard & Co,
1856. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 175. - 2.4 MB.
The Book of the Chapter
Mac70 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : Clark & Maynard,
Publishers, 1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 257. - 31.7 MB.
The Symbolism of Freemasonry
Mac21 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - Chicaco Ill. : The Masonic History
Company, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 386. - Revised by Robert I. Clegg.
The Temple, Its Ministry and
Service, as they were at the Time of Jesus Christ
Ede04 / auth. Edersheim Alfred. - Boston : Bradley & Woodruff,
1904. - New & Revised : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 384. - 31.3 MB.
Two Thousand Miles on Horseback
Mel67 / auth. Meline James F. - New York : Hurst and Houghton, 1867. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 330. - 12.0 MB.